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Full text of "The cook book"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 




THE COOK BOOK BY "OSCAR" 
OF THE WALDORF 



OSCAR TSCHIRKY 
\s 

MAITRE D' HOTEL, THE WALDORF 




CHICAGO NEW YORK 

THE WERNER COMPANY 



COPYRIGHT 

I8g6 
BY OSCAR TSCHIRKY 




TX7I 
T27J 

AGRIC. 
LIBRARY 



Preface. 

In placing this work before my friends at The Waldorf and the 
public in general, it is with the feeling that I am giving them a book 
illustrative of the best methods of preparing food at the present day. 

The collection of recipes embodies many which have been rendered 
easy of comprehension and arranged in such a manner as to meet the 
wants of all the caterer to large dinners or receptions, as well as the 
more modest entertainment furnished at the hearthside. There has been 
more particular attention devoted to the requirements of the latter than 
to those of the former, as, in the writer's opinion, the giver of a small 
reception has been, it might be said, rather neglected in such works as 
have come before the notice of the undersigned, relative to cookery. 

The title selected for the book is: THE COOK BOOK BY "OSCAR" 
OF THE WALDORF, and it is with great honor dedicated to the patrons 
of The Waldorf, with the hope that they will receive it as a token of 
my high esteem and sincere appreciation of their kindness as shown to 
me at all times. 

In conclusion, let me state that I enter the arena as an author 
with the hope that my experience may prove entertaining to my 
friends, as well as enable them to prepare a Waldorf Dinner at their 
own homes. 

With the hope that my friends and the public will appreciate the 
work here presented to them, I am 

Very respectfully, 

OSCAR TSCHIRKY, 

Maitre d' Hotel, The Waldorf. 



M362152 



A few Suggestions with Regard to the 

Kitchen. 

In the construction of a kitchen range that is, one that is intended for cook- 
ing it is necessary to consider whether it is advisable or not to erect a stove for 
each particular purpose or process, or whether a stove can be so constructed as it 
will enable all processes to be carried on with it at one time, or independently. The 
old-fashioned open stove, with boiler and oven attached, permitted the carrying out 
of more processes at once than any other, such as roasting, baking, boiling, stewing, 
frying, and, at the same time, keeping up a supply of hot water for any purpose for 
which it might be required. But for the perfection of modern cooking something 
further is required in the way of a hot plate, upon which the contents of saucepans 
and other vessels can be kept simmering or boiling fast at the cook's discretion; and 
this demand is not met with in the close-fire range. The evils of the open range 
may be described as very great; the vessels used being exposed to the open fire be- 
come dirty with soot, there is great loss of heat, the kitchen itself receiving more 
than its fair share. Then, again, it is difficult on an open range to modify the heat 
according to certain requirements, and the chimney requires sweeping frequently. 
As rapidly as improvements are made in this country in stoves and ranges, there 
would be some foundation for hoping that sooner or later this would be the most 
expert of cooking countries, for in no other part of the world have such vast strides 
been made, or have such clever inventions been placed before the public as in the United 
States during the past quarter of a century. The excellence of style and perfection 
of use have created for them a demand in all civilized portions of the globe. In 
France, which may be considered the queen of cooking countries, American and 
British stoves are preferred to all others, not only on account of their superior manu- 
facture and metal, but also because they do their work best. 

A very important piece of furniture is the kitchen table. There are many dresser 
boards, shelves and flaps, but they are useless to the cook as compared with a good 
kitchen table. It should be made of stout deal, as large as the size of the kitchen 
will permit, fitted with a convenient drawer for holding knives, forks, spoons, clean 
kitchen cloths, and other necessaries. Not only should the table be the most prominent 
of the furniture in the kitchen, to which all other fittings must play a supplementary 
part, but it should be kept at all times ready for immediate use, uncovered and scru- 
pulously clean. The practice of using the table for a chopping-board, trimming- 



ii SUGGESTIONS. 

board, pot-board, or for making paste, cannot be too carefully avoided. In such 
cases the surface soon becomes scratched and unsightly. 

A well-ventilated kitchen is a pleasure to the cook and conducive to the health of 
all concerned in or about it. Open windows are the best form of ventilators. When 
the windows are opened, they should be pulled down from the top; but as some 
kitchen windows open from pantries or entries or passages, some form of independent 
ventilation should be adopted. 

A very practical writer on kitchen management observes : " I would mention 
the extreme importance of including among the list of household requisites a pair of 
scales and a set of weights. There is no check so effectual against short weights as 
the practice of weighing. With the butcher's meats this is particularly important, 
joints often being unaccountably changed, from one being so like another, except in 
weight. Aside from this, it is almost impossible to cook meat accurately unless it is 
previously weighed and timed. A pair of scales and a set of weights, large enough 
for all domestic purposes, can be bought for three or four dollars, and I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that they will defray their cost in less than a year's use." 

There should be no such thing as waste in a well-ordered kitchen. The term is 
often misapplied to the refuse that results from the preparation of vegetables and 
other things for cooking. But the term " kitchen waste " is also oftentimes more 
correctly applied than intended by the cook who uses it; that is, if the legitimate 
meaning is to be accepted, of anything spoiled, destroyed or thrown away. Waste is 
the outcome of extravagance, hence it is advisable for those in authority carefully to 
calculate the return from the foods supplied for kitchen use. Kitchen cloths are often 
objects of indiscriminate use. Dresser cloths, tea cloths and dusters, pudding-cloths 
and window rags are frequently misappropriated, thus leading to waste. Remnants 
of food and drippings are invariably wasted by an untidy servant. Scraps of meat, 
bones and shanks can be put into the stockpot, which should be found in every 
kitchen. Something may be added to the stockpot daily and this prevents, by using 
up, accumulations that otherwise would be troublesome and offensive. Small quan- 
tities of cold vegetables potatoes, carrots, turnips, cauliflower, spinach, etc. are 
used for thickening and flavoring plain soups, and cold cabbage and potatoes can be 
fried for the kitchen dinner. Dripping, melted down and put into jars, keeps well, 
and is very useful. The fat skimmed off cold broth is good for adding to vegetables 
when mashed, and for other purposes. Strong paper and wooden skewers are handy 
at any time; but it must not be forgotten that heaps of grocers' and other papers are 
often the cause of cockroaches swarming in the kitchen. When there is no use at 
home for so-called "kitchen waste," it should be carefully sorted, and either sold or 
given away. 

As it would be impossible to organize a system of keeping kitchen accounts that 
would be found perfect enough to meet all purposes, something must be left to the 
cook and the master, each of whom will prove his ability to deal with the subject by 



SUGGESTIONS. Hi 

formulating a system to meet his own requirements, based upon a few suggestions we are 
able to make for general guidance. We here have to deal with accounts, and not 
with losses from indiscreet marketing or bad cooking; these matters have to be treated 
on their own merits. 

Every cook should have an order book, with counterfoils, upon which an exact 
copy of the order issued should be taken. With each parcel of goods, care should 
be taken to receive an invoice, and no goods should be received without one. The 
invoice should coincide with the counterfoils of the order book, and be marked with 
the weight and measure and price of each article. After the weights and measures 
have been corroborated by actual weighing and measuring, which is so often neglected, 
and the price is ascertained to be correct, according to the markets, the invoice is 
to be filed for future reference, or, where a kitchen clerk is kept, it may be entered 
up fully in the invoice book kept for the purpose. This is your check upon the trades- 
man, whose petty defalcations are not in all cases a fable. When once it is under- 
stood that the goods are weighed and measured when received, the necessity for 
it will disappear; but the system should not be relaxed, for all that. Instead of an 
order form, books are sometimes used, in which the order is written and signed and 
filled up with prices and quantities by the tradesmen, and returned with the goods. 
This system saves much writing, but it is open to this objection, the book mjght be 
lost, and then the cook would have no existing check upon the account of the trades- 
man. 

The cook should also keep a journal or diary that is to say, a book in which 
can be jotted down at any moment circumstances worthy of note, especially such as 
cash paid out or received for kitchen purposes, orders received and executed, memo- 
randa for a future day, and notes of new ideas. Besides this there should be an ac- 
count or cash book in which tradesmen's bills, wages and cash transactions generally 
are entered; a petty cash book in which small sums under a certain amount can be 
quickly entered without reference to the account book, and a slate hung up in a 
convenient spot. 

Cooks in large kitchens have a style of bookkeeping convenient to themselves, 
as also have proprietors and managers of hotels ; but the small householder is often the 
victim of the fraudulent tradesman, because the cook is not expected to keep accounts, 
and the mistress is too indolent or careless to do so. If the amount of money 
wasted yearly could be calculated, it is certain that the total would be astonishing. 

Every good housekeeper will have a room in which stores can be kept under 
lock and key. Groceries should always, if possible, be bought in quantity, and it 
is well to remember that at certain times of the year, some goods are cheaper than 
at others; all these details should be carefully noted, and a book kept to enter dates 
of purchase, quantities and prices paid. 

A dry room should be chosen for keeping stores, and this should be amply 
fitted with drawers, shelves and nails or hooks. There should be earthenware jars 



iv SUGGESTIONS. 

for sugar, tins for tea, coffee, biscuits and loaf-sugar, and a net for lemons. Jams, 
pickles, and preserves should be kept in the coolest part of the room. Soap should 
be cut up and stood with spaces between the pieces, being turned at regular intervals 
of time. Starch must be kept very dry. Rice, tapioca and sago must be kept in 
covered vessels or insects will get into them. Flour is usually kept in the pantry in 
a flour box Onions, shallots, leaks, etc., should not be kept in a storeroom for ob- 
vious reasons. Dried herbs in separate bags may be conveniently suspended from 
the ceiling or walls. Apples must be stored in a near-by room, etc. 



Menus, or Bills of Fare. 

Menus are prepared for breakfasts, luncheons, dinners and suppers, but the 
dinner menu is of the greatest importance. The menus or bills of fare are generally 
selected a few days in advance, in order that the necessary provisions may be pur- 
chased, and that there may be ample time to prepare everything necessary, thereby 
avoiding much confusion. 

The menu should be strictly followed in every case. If the dinner is to include 
ladies, it should be of light, fancy dishes; but, on the contrary, if intended for gentle- 
men alone, it should be more substantial and at the same time shorter. 

The color of the various meats and sauces should be as different from each other 
as possible, from one course to another, offering all the foods in their respective sea- 
sons, and have the early products of the finest quality (See Table of Supplies, Page 
xv), and only use preserved articles when it is impossible to obtain others 

Oysters, as a rule, are always served at the beginning of a dinner, though they are 
used only in such months of the year in which the letter "r" occurs, such as January, 
February, March, April, September, October, November and December, and little 
neck clams are used in their stead. 

After the oysters, come the soups. If two soups are to be served, select one 
clear and one thick; but if one is to be used, give the preference to the clear 
soup. 

Hot hors d'ceuvre generally consist of timbales, croustades, palmettes, mousse- 
lines, bouchees, etc. Cold side dishes are served with the same course, such as olives, 
radishes, canapes, caviar, anchovies, etc. 

The fish, if it is boiled or fried, should have potatoes served with it; if broiled or 
cooked in any fancy manner, serve cucumber salad with it. 

If two entrees are chosen in a dinner, the first entree should be made the light- 
est of the two, and they should be made in a fancy way, so as to avoid any carving. 
Terrapin, oysters, crabs, lobsters, shrimps and frogs are allowable as entrees, especially 
during Lent. 

The roasts or solid joints are composed of saddles of either veal, mutton, lamb, 
venison or antelope, or beef tenderloins. Also, turkey, goose, duck, capon, etc,, may 
be served, accompanied by one or two vegetables. 

After the roasts and vegetables, and before the game, a punch or sherbet is 
always served, but should not be given an extra heading on the menu, simply placing 
them on a line by themselves. 

Games are served immediately following the sherbet ; a roast usually being pre- 



vi MENUS. 

ferred for dinner, but poultry may be served instead, such as turkey, capon, duck, 
squabs, etc. 

Cold dishes are served after the game, with a salad. If no cold dishes are served 
with the dinner, the salad should be served with the game. 

Hot and cold sweet dishes are served after the game, and consist of puddings, 
crusts, fritters, pancakes, omelets and soufflees, the cold and hot sweet dishes forming 
a separate course by themselves. The cold dishes are composed usually of jellies, 
bavarois, creams, blancmanges, macedoines, charlottes, etc. 

After the sweet dishes, comes the dessert, consisting of cheese, fresh fruits, pre- 
served fruits, jams, dried fruits, candied fruits, bonbons, mottoes, frozen puddings, 
plombieres, ices, ice-cream and fancy cakes. 

Coffee. Turkish or French coffee is usually served, and is the last article upon 
the menu. 

The Serving of Wines and Cordials: 

With Oysters: (Sauterne) Chateau Rieussec, 1878. 
With the Soup: (Sherry) Amontillado Passado. 
With Fish: (Rhine Wine) Schloss Vollradser, 1892. 
With Entrees: (Claret) Chateau Marbuzet, 1881. 
With Roasts: Champagne. 

Iced Punches and Sherbets. 

With Game: (Burgundy) Romance Conti, 1892. 

With Cold Dishes: Champagne. 

With Hot and Cold Sweet Dishes: Champagne. 

With Dessert or Cheese: (Port Wine) Duque, Very Old 

With Coffee: Liquors. 



Seasons. 



Almost every kind of food has its particular season that is, a period of the 
year when it is in its prime. Produced out of season they may bring higher prices, 
but, however grateful they may be to the gourmet, there are few foods that do not 
lose flavor by being forced. A large variety of foods are in season the year round, 
but this does not apply to the majority. The following list may be found of some 
use to the cook, although the best guide as to what is in season is to visit the 
markets, remembering always that when foods are cheapest and most plentiful they 
are most frequently prime; when expensive they are generally out of season. It may 
be taken for granted then, that when dear they are scarce, or when cheap they are 
plentiful, but their high price does not necessarily improve their quality. 



Angel, 

Bass Black, i 

Sea, 

Striped, . 

Lake, 
Blackfish, 
Bluefish, 
Bonito, . 
Butterfish, 
Carp Common, 

German, 
Codfish, . 
Eels, . . 

Flounders, 
Frost Fish, . 
Grouper, 
Haddock, 
Halibut, 
Herring, 
Kingfish, 
Lafayette, 
Lamprey, 
Mackerel Fresh, 

Spanish, 
Mullet, 
Muscallonge, 
Perch, 



Fish. 



July 1st to September ist. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

June ist to January 1st. 

April ist to November ist. 

May ist to November ist. 

June ist to November ist. 

October ist to May ist. 

July 1 5th to November 1st. 

October ist to May ist. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

October i$th to April ist. 

November I5th to April ist. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

October ist to May ist. 

May ist to November ist. 

August 1 5th to November I5th. 

April ist to June ist. 

April ist to October ist. 

April 1 5th to October I5th. 

June ist to November ist. 

June ist to January ist. 

September ist to June ist. 



vn 



Vlll 



SEASONS. 



Pike Perch, 
Pike or Pickerel, 

Pompano, 

Porgies, , 
Red Snapper, 
Salmon Kennebec, 

Oregon, 
Salmon Trout, 
Shad and Roe, . 
Sheepshead, 
Skate, 
Smelts, 
Sole, English, 
Spot Fish, 
Sturgeon, . : 

Trout Brook, 

Wild, , 
Turbot American, 

English, 
Weakfish, 
Whitebait, 
Whitefish, . 



September ist to May ist. 
June ist to January ist. 

SMay ist to August ist, and 
November I5th to January ist. 
June 1 5th to October i5th. 
October ist to April ist. 
June ist to October ist. 
October ist to June ist. 
October ist to April ist. 
January ist to June ist. 
June 1 5th to November I5t 
September ist to July ist. 
August 1 5th to April I5th. 
November ist to May ist. 
August ist to June ist. 
June ist to October I5tn. 
April ist to September ist. 
April ist to September ist. 
January ist to July I5th. 
January ist to April ist. 
May 1 5th to October I 5th. 
May ist to April ist. 
November 1st to March ist. 



Shell Fish. 



Clams Hard, 
Soft, 

Crabs Hard, 
Soft, 

Crawfish, 

Lobsters, 

Mussels, 

Oysters, 

Scallops, 

Shrimps, 



All the year. 
May ist to October I 5th. 
All the year. 

May ist to October I5th. 
September ist to May ist. 
All the year. 
May ist to October ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September I5th to April ist. 
j March I5th to June ist, and 
I September 1 5th to October 1 5th. 



Miscellaneous. 



Codfish Tongues, 

Crabs, Oyster, 

Frogs, 

Milts, 

Terrapin, 

Turtle Green, 

Prawns, . 



October ist to June ist. 

October ist to June ist. 

All the year, but June ist to November ist. 

All the year. 

November ist to June ist. 

All the year. 

June ist to November ist. 



SEASONS. ix 



Salt Fish. 

Anchovies, , . . . All the year. 

Codfish, dried, . . . .All the year. 

Herring, . . . All the year 

Herring Pickled, . . . All the year. 

Mackerel, . .All the year. 

Prawns, . . . September 1st to April ist. 

Salmon, , . . . All the year. 



Smoked Fish. 

Haddock Smokedor ) October Ist to A n Ist 

Finnan Haddie } 

Halibut Smoked, . . . October ist to April ist. 

Herring Smoked, . . . All the year. 

Bloaters, . . October ist to May ist. 

Kippered, . . . October ist to May 1st. 

Mackerel, . . , . October ist to May ist. 

Salmon, ..... All the year. 

Shad, . . . . October ist to May ist. 

Sturgeon, .'. . . . October ist to May ist. 

Whitefish, . . . . October 1st to May ist. 



Poultry. 

Capon. ..... December ist to August ist. 

Chicken to Broil, I ^ lb., . . All the year. 

Saute. 2 y Ibs. . . . All the year. 

Roast, 3 Ibs., . . All the year. 

Winter, 4 Ibs., . . . All the year. 

Duck Mongrel, . . . September 1st to May 1st. 

Tame, .... May ist to December ist. 

Duckling, .... May ist to December ist. 

Fowl, ..... All the year. 

Geese, * . . . All the year. 

Guinea Fowl, . . . . All the year 

Peacock, .... All the year. 

Pigeon, ..... All the year. 

Pigeon, stall fed, . ,., , . All the year. 

Pullet, . . . . .All the year. 

Squab, . . . . All the year. 

Turkey, > .. . . . All the year. 

E. R. I., , . . All the year; best in September to March. 

Spring, . . . All the year; best September I to Dec. I. 

Suckling Pig, ... All the year. 



SEASONS. 



Game. 



Antelope and Venison, . 

Bear, 

Doe Birds, . . 

Doe Lark, 

Doe Rail Chopper, or Sora, 

Doe Reed Birds, 

Doe Rice Birds, 

Doe Small Birds, 

Buffalo, 

Duck, all kinds, 

Black Head, 

Ruddy Duck, 

Canvas Back. 

Mallard, 

Red Head, 

Teal, Blue Wing, 

Green, 

Widgeon, 

Wood, 
Geese Brant, 

Wild, 
Grouse, or Prairie Hen, 

Spruce, 
Hare American, 

English, 
Partridge, 
Pheasants, 

Pigeons, . f . 

Plovers Grass, 
Golden, 

Yellow Legs, . 
Ptarmigans, . 
Quail, . . l$jpd 

Rabbits, 
Robins, . 
Snipe Curlew, 

English, 

Jersey, 

Sand, 

Squabs, wild, 
Squirrel, . . 

Turkey, wild, 
Woodcock, 



August 1 5th to November I5th. 
November ist to February ist. 
May ist to September ist. 
October ist to January ist. 
September 1st. 

September ist to January ist. 
September ist to April 1st. 
September 1st to April 1st. 
November ist to February ist. 
September 1st to May ist. 
September 1st to May 1st. 
September ist to May ist. 
September ist lo May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September 1st to May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September 1st to May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
September ist to May ist. 
August i 5th to February ist. 
September ist to January 1st. 
November ist to January ist. 
September ist to March ist. 
August i 5th to February 1st. 
October ist to February 1st. 
j March ist to July ist, and 
\ September ist to December ist. 
September ist to January ist. 
September ist to January ist. 
September 1st to January ist. 
February ist to May ist. 
November ist to February ist. 
November ist to January 1st. 
(Law against selling.) 
September ist to January ist. 
September ist to January 1st. 
September ist to January ist. 
September ist to January ist. 
September ist to January ist. 
August ist to February 1st. 
November ist to May ist. 
August 1 5th to February ist. 



SEASONS. 



XI 



Meat. 



Beef, 

Kid, 

Lamb Spring, 

Yearling, 
Mutton, 

Pig, 
Veal, 



All the year; best Nov. 1st to March ist. 

March ist to September ist. 

January ist to July ist. 

All the year; best Aug. ist to Nov. ist. 

All the year; best Nov. ist to April ist. 

All the year; best Oct. 1st to April ist. 

All the year; best Nov. ist to July ist. 



Vegetables. 



Artichoke, 

Jerusalem, '. 

Asparagus Hot House, 
Outdoor, 
Green, 
Tips, 
White, 
Beans Broad, 

Lima, 

String, . , 

Wax and Butter, 
Beets, . . , 

Brussels Sprouts, 
Cabbage Green Kale, 
Red, 
Savoy, 

% White, 

Cardon, . . . 

Carrots, . 
Cauliflower, . 
Celery Knobs Celeriac, 

Soup, 

Corn, . . . ' 

Cranberries, . 
Cucumbers, 

Hot House, 
Small Pickles, 
Egg Plant, . 
Garlic Dry, 
Herbs Basil, 

Bay Leaves, dry, 
Burnet, . - 
Chervil, 

Hot House. 
Chives, 

Hot House, 



All the year. (From Europe). 

October ist to May ist. 

January ist to February I5th. 

February I 5th to July ist. 

February I 5th to July ist. 

February I5th to July ist. 

February I 5th to July 1st. 

August ist to October I5th. 

August ist to November ist. 

All the year. 

February ist to November I5th. 

All the year; new in April. 

November ist to March 1 5th. 

January ist to May ist. 

August 1 5th to May ist. 

August i 5th to May ist. 

All the year; new in February. 

January 1st to March ist. 

All the year; new in April. 

All the year. 

July 1 5th to May ist. 

All the year. 

June 1 5th to September 1st. 

October ist to May ist. 

All the year. 

October 1st to July ist. 

August 1 5th to October I5th. 

All the year. 

All the year; new in July. 

August ist to November ist. 

All the year. 

June ist to October 1st. 

All the year. 

October ist to June ist. 

All the year. 

October ist to June 1st. 



Xll 



SEASONS. 



Herbs Fennel, 

Marjoram, 

Mint, 

Hot House, 

Parsley, 

Rosemary, 

Savory, 

Tarragon, 

Hot House, 

Thyme, 
Hops, 
Kohl Rabi, 
Leeks, 
Mushrooms Cultivated, 

Field, . 

Girolles, . 
Morils, 

Okra or Gombo, 

Onions, . . .'. 

Bermuda, . 

Small, . , 

Oyster Plant. . , 

Parsnips, . . 

Peas South, . . i ' 

Long Island, . 
Peppers, . , 

From the South, 
Potatoes, . 

From South, 

Long Island, 

Bermuda, 

Sweet, . , 

Pumpkins, . .. ', 

Radishes Black, 

Horse, 

Red, 

White or Gray, , 

Rhubarb, 
Salad Monk's Beard, 

Celery, 

Chicory, 

Fetticus, . 

Dandelion, 

Escarolle, 

Lettuce, 

Romaine, 

Watercress, 
Shallots, 



August ist to November 1st. 

August ist to November ist. 

All the year. 

October ist to June ist. 

All the year. 

August ist to November ist. 

August ist to November ist. 

All the year. 

October ist to June ist. 

August ist to November ist. 

May i 5th to June I5th. 

July ist to December 1st. 

All the year. 

All the year. 

j April ist to July ist, and from 

| September ist to December ist. 

September ist to November I5th. 

September 1st to November I5th. 

{All the year from South; December 
ist to July ist. 
All the year. 
January I 5th to July 1 5th. 
July ist to June ist. 
August ist to June ist. 
August ist to June ist. 
January ist to July ist. 
July ist to November ist. 
All the year. 
January ist to June ist. 
All the year. 
April. 

July ist to August 1 5th. 
January I5th to July ist. 
August ist to May 1st. 
September ist to February 1 5th. 
April ist to January ist. 
All the year, 
All the year. 

April 1 5th to November i5th. 
February ist to July ist. 
December ist to April ist. 
August ist to April ist. 
July ist to April ist. 
February ist to May ist. 
December ist to June ist. 
August ist to April ist. 
All the year. 
May ist to December ist. 
All the year. 
All the year; new in July. 



SEASONS. 



xni 



Sorrel, 

Hot House, 
Spinach, 

Squash Summer White, 
Yellow, 

Winter Hubbard, 

Marron, 
Tomatoes, . . 

From South, 

Hot House, . 

Turnip -Rutabaga, 

Teltow, . . 

White, 



All the year. 

November 1st to June ist. 

All the year. 

July ist to October I 5th. 

July ist to October I5th. 

September ist to March I5th. 

September ist to March I5th. 

All the year. 

March 1st to August 1st. 

November ist to March ist. 

June ist to May ist. 

October ist to January ist. 

All the year; new in June, July, August, 
and September. 



Fruit. 



Alligator Pears, 

Apples, . ' . 

Apricots, . . 

Bananas, -'' .'- 

Barberries, 

Blackberries, 

Cherries, 

Chestnuts, 

Cocoanuts, , 

Currants (Black and Red), 

Figs, 

Ginger, 

Gooseberries, 

Grapes Brighton, 

Concord, 

Delaware, 

Hauteford, 

Hot House, 

Ives, 

lona, 

Malaga, 

Muscatel, 

Niagara, . 

Pokington, 

Rebecca, 

Tokay, 

Grape Fruit, or Shaddock, 
Green Gages, 
Huckleberries, 
Lemons, 
Limes, . r' 



July ist to October ist. 

All the year. 

July 1 5th to August I5th. 

All the year. 

October ist to November I i;th 

July ist to August 1 5th. 

May ist to July I5th. 

November ist to March ist. 

All the year. 

July ist to August 1 5th. 

October I5th. 

July 1 5th to January ist. 

July ist. 

July ist to December ist. 

July 1 5th to November 1 5th. 

July ist to October I5th. 

July ist to December ist. 

February ist to December I5th 

July ist to December ist. 

July ist to December ist. 

September ist to April ist. 

July ist to December ist. 

July ist to December ist. 

July ist to December ist. 

July 1 5th to November I5th. 

July 1 5th to December ist. 

October ist to July ist. 

August ist to September I5th. 

June 1 5th to September ist. 

All the year. 

All the year. 



xiv SEASONS. 

Mangoes, .... July 1st to October 1st. 

Melon Canteloup, . . . July 1 5th to October 1 5th, 

Musk, . . . July 1 5th to October 1 5th. 

Spanish, .... November ist. 

Water, . . . July ist to October ist. 

Nectarines, .... July ist to September ist. 

Oranges Florida, . . . November 1st to March ist. 

Mandarines, . . . December 1st to March ist. 

Spanish, . . . All the year. 

Peaches, . . . <i July ist to October 1 5th. 

Hot House, . . . May 1st to July 1st. 

Pears, . . . . . July I5th to March ist. 

Pineapples, .... All the year. 

Plums, . . . . . July ist to October 1st. 

Persimmons, . . . October ist to November I5th. 

Pomegranates, .... December 1st to February ist. 

Quinces, .... September 1st to December 1st 

Raspberries, . June ist to September ist. 

Strawberries, . . March ist to July ist. 

Hot House, . . . January ist to March ist. 

Tamarinds, . . . ;. . July 1st to October 1st. 

Tangerines, .... November 1st to February ist. 

Wintergrecn, . . . July ist to January ist. 



Market List. 



ON HAND. 



Beef. 

Snort Loin, 

Hips, 

Shoulders, . 

Top Ends, 

Chucks, 

Ribs, 

Butts, .... 

Fresh Rump, . , 

Fresh Briskets, . . 

Shins, . . . 

Kidneys, . .,_.,. 

Tongues, 

Tails, .... 

Marrow Bones, 

Ox Palates, 

Tenderloin, 

Livers, 

Suet, 

Smoked Beef. 

Corned Beef Rump, 
Corned Beef Plate, . 
Corned Beef Brisket, . 
Spiced Corned Beef, 
Smoked Beef Tongues, 
Salted Beef Tongues, 



WANTED. 



XV! 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

Veal. 

Side, . 

Backs, \ 

Hind Quarter, 

Legs, 

Shoulder, 

Breast, . . . / 

Loins, 

Knuckles, 

Head, 

Liver, , 

Feet 

Kidneys 

Brains, 

Sweetbreads for broiling, 

Sweetbreads for Croquettes, 

Palates. 



WANTED. 



Mutton. 

Backs, 

Saddle (English Cut) 

Saddle, Hind, 

Legs, . / ? , 

Shoulder, 

Breast, 

Kidneys, .'.;. 

Sheep's Trotters, 

Necks, 

Suet. 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

Lamb. 

Lamb, 

Backs, 

Legs, 

Saddle, 

Breast, 

Shoulder, 

Feet, . . . 

Fries, . . 

Kidneys, . 

Spring Lamb, whole, 

Backs, Spring Lamb, 

Legs, Spring Lamb, 

Saddle, Spring Lamb, 

Breast, Spring Lamb, . 

Shoulder, Spring Lamb, 

Provisions. 

Smoked Hams, 

Fresh Hams, . 

Virginia Hams, 

Westphalia, 

Corned, , ; 

Bacon No. i, . 

Bacon No. 2, : .,. r 

Fresh Loin of Pork, 

Country Loin of Pork, . 

Pork Tenderloin, 

Larding Pork, 

Salt Pork, 

Pickled Lamb Tongues, 



xvu 



WANTED. 



XV111 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

PROVISIONS Continued. 

Country Sausage, 

Deerfoot Sausage, 

Helps Sausage, . . . 

Blood pudding, 

Audinillette, 

Sausage Meat, 

Lyons Sausage, . ... 

Bologna, 

Smoked Shoulders, 

Fresh Shoulders, . . 

Honeycombed Tripe, . 

Tripe No. 2, 

Pigs' Feet Pickled, 

Pigs' Feet Parboiled, 

Pigs' Jowls, 

Suckling Pigs, 

Crepinette, r ,.. ; . 

Head Chucks, 

Snails, . 

Goose Breasts (smoked) . 

Lard. .... 

Poultry, 

Roasting Chicken, ' . 
Broiling Chicken, large, . 
Broiling Chicken, small, 
Squab Chicken, 
Capon, . . ! " '.' 

Fowl, .... 
Roasting Turkey No. i, 
Roasting Turkey No. 2, . 



WANTED 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

POULTRY Continued. 

Broiling spring, . 

Boiling, .... 

Boston geese, 

Mongol geese, 

Ducks, 

Spring Ducklings, 

Spring Ducklings, celery fed, 

Pigeons, . ... , . 

Squabs, . ; .. [ - .; , 

Guinea Hens, . '-' *. "i : 

Game. 

Canvasback Ducks, 

Red Head, j r-- tgi' 1 ] . . 

Mallard, . . . . 

Blackhead, . ^ , ,- ' 

Wood, r . .', ..- . 

Brandt, . . ;* "- 

Widgeons, . . . .. 

Ruddy, . ..' . 

Teal, . 

Partridges, American, . 

Partridges, English, . 

Chicken grouse, . , : 

Grouse, . . . 

Woodcocks, . 

Ptarmigan, . 

English Snipe, 

Yellow Leg Snipe, 

Sand Snipe, 

Plover, . . 



xix 



WANTED. 



XX 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

GAME Continued. 
Plover, Golden, , 
Quail, . . 

Doe Birds, . . 
Rail Birds, . 
Reed Birds, 
Wild Turkeys, 
English Pheasant, 
Rabbits, 
Venison Leg, . 
Venison Saddle, . 
Venison Hind Quarter, 
Bear, .... 

Fish Fresh. 

Angelfish 

Bass, Black, 

Bass, Sea, 

Bass Striped, 

Blackfish, 

Bluefish, 

Butterfish, 

Carp, . 

Codfish, live, . . . 

Codfish steak, 

Codfish tongues, 

Eels, .... 

Frogs' Legs, . 

Frostfish, 

Haddock, . . . 

Halibut, . 

Halibut chicken, 



WANTED 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

FISH Continued. 
Herrings, 

Kingfish, .'." 
Mackerel Spanish, 
Mackerel Fresh, 
Muscallonge, . 

Perch '\ 

Pickerel, .... 

Pike '. 

Pompano, . , . 

Porgies, . . . ..,. ... 

Red Snapper, . . 

Salmon, . . . 

Shad, . . ' ''.' . 

Shad Roe, . . . -. 

Sheepshead, 

Skatefish, * . . 

Smelts, 

Trout, Brook, . 

Trout, Canadian, . 

Trout, Salmon, . . ; 

Turbot, . . 

Weakfish, . . . . 

Whitefish, 

Whitebait, . 

Smoked and Salted 
Fish. 

Smoked Herring, 
Smoked Finnan Haddie, 
Smoked Salmon, 
Smoked Whitefish, 
Salted Mackerel, 
Dry Codfish, 



xxi 



WANTED. 



XX11 



ON HAND. 



MARKET LIST. 

Shellfish, Etc. 

Crayfish, 

Crabs, Hard, 

Crabs, Oyster, 

Crabs, Soft, . . . 

Crabs, Meat, . : . 

Lobsters, . . . 

Prawn, . . . . ; 

Scallops, 

Shrimp, . 

Terrapin Counts, . 

Terrapin Shorts, 

Turtle, . . . ':> 

Oysters, Clams, Etc. 

Bluepoints, 
Rockaway, . 
Shinnecocks, . 
Lynnhaven, . 
Shrewsburys, . 
Cape Cods, .... 
Box Oysters, . . , . 
Clams, Little Necks, 
Clamsf Chowder, 
Clams, Medium, . 
Clams, Large, . . ' 
Clams, Soft, . i .' * 



WANTED. 



Soups. 



Kettner writes about Soup: "There has been a good deal of needless contro- 
versy about Soup, some people finding in it a dinner in itself, and some refusing it 
as a weak wash, fit only for babies and invalids. Grimod de la Reyniere said that 
Soup is to a dinner what a portico is to a palace, or an overture is to an opera. It is 
not only the commencement of the feast, but should give an idea of what is to 
follow." Another epicure, no less than Marquis de Cussy, dubs Soup a sort of 
preface to the dinner, and expresses his opinion that a good work can do without a 
preface. Undoubtedly the majority of opinions would be against the Marquis, for 
with the Soup not only does the feast begin, but the stomach receives a little encour- 
aging stimulation which prepares it for the more elaborate task about to follow. 
Admitting this, however, Kettner, continues, " It is quite true, however, that to serve 
a purpose (stomach stimulating), we do not require much weight of matter, and the 
plain rule to follow is: for a great dinner the Soups should be as light as possible, 
just enough to give a fillip; for a little dinner, with only one or two dishes, they may 
be as rich and satisfying as you please. De Cussy is quite in accord here with 
Thomas Walker, who maintained that if he gave turtle Soup to his guests they would 
want but little else 'whitebait and a grouse.' ' 

Soup should always be sent to the table in a metal or earthenware tureen, tightly 
covered. A metal ladle is best for serving and it should be separate from the tureen. 
Tureens with holes cut in the lids for the ladle handle, let out the heat and steam. 
The following directions may be of value to the soup maker: 

Bring the cold water in the stockpot with the meat and bones to the boil slowly, 
and let it simmer for hours, never boiling, and never ceasing to simmer. Skim off 
every bit of scum and fat, for which purpose it is as well to .use a stockpot with a 
faucet at the bottom. Beware of using too much salt ; a little is advisable, as it 
causes the scum to rise, but as the liquid boils down, the proportion of salt is 
increased in consequence, because the water flies off in steam, but the salt remains. 
Soft water is the best for making Soup. 

Beef Tea. 

Procure some lean rump of beef, remove every particle of fat, cut into small 
pieces and place in a champagne bottle, cork and tie down tightly. Place the bottle 
in a deep saucepan of cold water, reaching two-thirds of the way to the top of the 
bottle, place the pan on a slow fire, and allow it to come slowly to a boil. After 
boiling for fifteen minutes, take out the bottle, pour out the liquor, and use as 
required. 



io SOUPS. 



Beef Jelly. 



Prepare some beef tea with very little if any salt, and without adding water. 
Place an eighth of an ounce of gelatine in a saucepan with a little cold water and 
soak it; let it stay there until sufficiently swollen, then place on the fire and boil 
until dissolved. Take the beef-tea extract when nearly cold, add the gelatine, stir 
well and allow it to become well set. 

Bisque of Clams. 

Place a good knuckle of veal, weighing about a pound and a half, into a soup 
kettle, with a quart of water, one small onion, a sprig of parsley, a bay leaf, and the 
liquor drained from the clams, and simmer gradually for an hour and a half, skim- 
ming from time to time. Then strain the soup and again place it in the kettle; rub 
a couple of tablespoonfuls of butter with an equal amount of flour together and add 
it to the soup when it is boiling, stirring the while until again boiling. Chop up 
twenty-five clams very fine and place them in the soup, season, and boil for about 
five minutes, then add a pint of milk or cream, and remove from the fire immediately, 
and serve. 

Bisque of Crabs. 

Place a dozen live crabs in some cold water with a little salt, and let them soak 
there for one hour, then hash up a couple of ounces of carrot with an equal quantity 
of onion, and fry them together with a little butter in a saucepan large enough to 
hold the crabs, add a little parsley in sprigs, thyme and bay leaf, seasoning with salt, 
a quarter of a bottle of white wine and a little white stock, then cover with the lid 
and cook for fifteen minutes, after which remove the crabs, strain the broth, and place 
it one side for twenty minutes, when the top should be poured off. Next, remove 
the shells from the crabs, taking out the lungs from both sides, and wash each one 
at a time in some slightly warmed water, removing the small legs, then drain them 
and pound to a paste, with about half their quantity of cooked rice, add a little of the 
juice in which they have been cooked, drain first through a sieve and then through a 
tammy-cloth, and mix in half a pint of bechamel sauce. Add a little salt and red 
pepper, and place over the fire just previous to serving, but do not allow it to come 
to a boil, adding an eighth of a pound of fine butter, and mix with a spoon until 
entirely melted, and serve with bread crusts fried in butter. 



Bisque of Crayfish. 



Procure five or six dozen fresh water crayfish, and boil them without any vinegar 
in the water. Select two dozen and a half of the finest tails that remain whole, and 
pound the rest with all the fleshy parts and meat in a mortar, with the flesh from the 
breasts of two roasted chickens or fowls. Boil the crumb of a couple of French rolls 



SOUPS. ii 

in some rich broth ; place this in a mortar with a few yolks of hard boiled eggs, and 
pound well together, then mix thoroughly with the crayfish and chicken ; put the 
shells of the fish to boil in a little water or broth, and rub through a fine sieve. Boil 
a pint and a half of cream, stirring continually so that no scum will arise ; pour this 
into the soup, seasoning with salt and pepper. Have in readiness two spawn of a 
lobster well pounded, dilute it with some of the ,broth, and mix in with the soup, 
which must be kept hot but without boiling. Soak a few rounds of bread and lay 
them at the bottom of a tureen, pour the bisque over them, place the tails which 
have been placed one side, over the soup, and serve very hot. 

Bisque of Lobster. 

Remove the meat of a lobster from the shell, and cut the tender pieces into 
quarter inch dice ; put the ends of the claw-meat and any tough portions in a sauce- 
pan with the bones of the body and a little cold water, and boil for twenty minutes, 
adding a little water from time to time as may be necessary. Put the coral to dry in 
a moderate oven, and mix a little flour with some cold milk, and stir into the milk, 
which should be boiling, stirring over the fire for ten minutes ; then strain the water 
from the bones and other parts, mix it with the milk, add a little butter, salt, pepper 
and cayenne to taste, and rub the dry coral through a fine hair sieve, putting enough 
into the soup to make it a bright pink color. Place the green fat and lobster dice in 
a soup tureen, strain the boiling soup over them and serve at once. 

Bisque of Oysters. 

Place about thirty medium sized oysters in a saucepan together with their own 
juice, and poach them over a hot fire, after which drain them well. Then fry a 
shallot colorless in some butter together with an onion, sprinkle over them a little 
curry and add some of the oyster juice, seasoning with salt and red pepper ; pound 
the oysters to a good firm paste, moistening them with a little of their juice, and 
strain through a fine tammy-cloth ; warm them over the fire, but do not let them boil; 
add a small quantity of thickening of potato flour mixed with a little water, (about a 
tablespoonful for each quart of the mixture), and when about to serve, incorporate 
some cream and fine butter, garnishing with some chopped oysters and mushrooms, 
mixed with bread crumbs and herbs ; add a little seasoning of salt, pepper and nut- 
meg, some raw egg yolks and roll this mixture into ball-shaped pieces, place them on 
a well buttered baking sheet in a slack oven and poach them, then serve. 

Tomato Bisque. 

Stew half a can of tomatoes until they become quite soft and will strain readily, 
then boil a quart of milk in a double boiler. Cook together a tablespoonful of corn- 
starch and an equal quantity of butter in a small saucepan, adding enough hot milk 



12 SOUPS. 

to make it pour readily, then stir it carefully into the boiling milk, and let it boil for 
about ten minutes ; then add a third of a cup of butter in small lumps, and stir it 
until it has become well incorporated, add some salt and pepper and the strained 
tomatoes, and if the tomatoes are very acid, half a saltspoonful of soda may be 
added. Serve while hot. 

Broth. 



Barley 



Put a trimmed sheep's head or two pounds of fleshy shin of beef into half a 
gallon of water, adding a teacupful of well- washed and strained barley (Pearl), two 
sliced onions and a few sprigs of parsley, together with half a dozen peeled and 
sliced potatoes and a little thyme ; season with pepper and salt, and simmer for 
three or four hours, stirring frequently to prevent the meat and vegetables settling at 
the bottom and burning. Serve very hot. 

Beef Broth with Vermicelli. 

Cut some lean beef into small squares and chop it, put in a stew pan, with an 
egg broken and poured over ; skim the fat off of two quarts of cold bouillon, and 
pour it over the whole, add a piece of leek, a piece of celery, and a little minced 
carrot, stirring occasionally. When it bubbles, move it to one side, and simmer 
gently for fifteen or twenty minutes. Drain into a good-sized bowl through a wet 
cloth, and skim off all the fat, and put it on to boil for five minutes longer, then add 
a few ounces of blanched vermicelli. Serve with toast, in a tureen. 

Chicken Broth. 

Chop a chicken into pieces and put them into an earthenware pot with two table- 
spoonfuls of pearl barley, one tea spoonful of coriander seed, pour in two quarts of 
water and boil for three hours, skimming frequently ; then add a handful or so of 
lettuce leaves, cover over the pot, remove it from the fire, let it stand for twenty 
minutes, strain through a cloth or fine sieve, and serve. 

Clam-Juice Broth. 

After washing the clams in their shells in cold water, place them on a stove in a 
very thick saucepan, and as they become hot, their shells will open ; then carefully 
pour out the broth, strain it through a closely woven cloth, season to suit the taste, 
and serve. 

Jelly Broth, Palestine Style. 

Make one quart of jelly broth, strain, and keep it hot by the side of the fire. 
With a vegetable scoop, cut some balls from Jerusalem artichokes, blanch them and 
put them in a saucepan with a little broth, and boil until they are tender, and the 
broth is reduced to a glaze. Boil one teacupful of well-washed rice in broth till soft. 



SOUPS. 13 

place the artichokes and rice into a soup tureen, mix one-half teaspoonful of sugar 
with the broth, pour it over the vegetables, and serve with croutons of fried bread, 
or sippets of toast. 

Jelly Broth with Macaroni. 

Boil in salted water six or eight ounces of macaroni ; when tender, drain, and cut 
it across into pieces about one and one-half inch in length. Have ready some boil- 
ing jelly broth and put it in the macaroni. In about ten minutes time turn the broth 
into a soup tureen, and serve with a plateful of grated Parmesan cheese. 

Mutton Broth. 

Wash two pounds of the scrag end of a neck of mutton, wipe it with a cloth, 
cut off the fat and skin, scrape the meat from the bones and chop it into 
small squares. Put the meat in a saucepan with three pints of water and 
the bones in another pan with one pint of water. Place the pan containing the 
bones by the side of the fire and let it simmer until wanted. Set the pan with the 
meat over a quick fire, boil it, skimming frequently, and when the scum comes up 
quite white put in one pint of pearl barley and skim again. Cut a carrot, a turnip 
and an equal quantity of celery into small pieces and fry them in one tablespoonful 
of butter for five minutes, add them to the meat and cook slowly for about four hours. 
Put one tablespoonful each of flour and butter into a saucepan over the fire, and when 
the flour is smooth add the strained broth from the bones, and pour it into the meat 
broth. Add one tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, two of salt, and one salt- 
spoonful of pepper. Simmer gently for ten minutes longer and serve without strain- 
ing. In most cases the meat is preferred strained from the broth, but if the skin and 
fat are removed the strong and disagreeable flavor will be prevented. A larger 
quantity of vegetables may be used if desired, or rice may be used instead of barley, 
or the meat may be cut into dice and fried a few minutes in butter. If the carrots 
are grated they will give the broth a fine color. 

Plain Broth. 

Place the desired amount of beef into a stockpot, with a knuckle of veal and half 
a fowl, covering with plenty of water. Boil this slowly, letting the scum come to the 
surface and removing same until it has become quite clear; then while still boiling 
put in a head of celery, three or four small carrots, three leeks, three turnips and a 
couple of onions, stick into one of the onions a few cloves, say four or five; move the 
stockpot to one side and simmer for several hours; skim off all the fat, put in a lump 
of salt and it is ready for serving. 

Tapioca Broth. 

Place a chicken and a knuckle of veal in a saucepan or double boiler, with a few 
vegetables previously cooked in white broth, and pour over one gallon of cold water, 



I 4 SOUPS. 

set the saucepan on the fire and boil gently until the meat is done. Strain the broth 
through a cloth into another saucepan, remove the fat, and boil up once more; then 
add as much tapioca as may be required, letting it fall into the soup like rain. 
Remove the saucepan to the side of the fire, and cook gently for twenty minutes or 
so. If desired it can be thickened with yolks of eggs. Turn the soup into the 
tureen, and serve it very hot. 

Broth Thickened with Eggs. 

Take enough good game or fowl consomme, and to each half pint add the yolk 
of one egg, and beat in and thicken it with a little flour. 

Veal Broth. 

Place four or five pounds of knuckle of veal in a saucepan with three quarts of 
water, two blades of mace, one onion, a little parsley, and a head of celery cut into 
pieces, seasoning with salt and pepper. When boiling, move the saucepan a trifle to 
the side, and keep the water simmering until it is reduced one-third. Strain the 
broth, stir in with it a little well boiled rice or vermicelli, and serve. 

Vegetable Broth. 

Boil two sliced potatoes, a carrot, turnip and onion for an hour in a quart of 
water, taking care to keep the full amount of water in, by adding a little now and 
then, as required ; flavor with salt and sweet herbs and strain. Add a little mush- 
room catsup and serve. 

Catfish Chowder. 

Wash the fish in warm water, then place it on the fire in just enough water to 
cover it, and boil until tender, or until the bones will slip out. Take out the largest 
bones, chop up the fish, put it into a stewpan with about a pint of water, a large piece 
of butter, one breakfast cupful of cream, a small quantity of pepper and salt, one 
small onion, one teaspoonful of mustard, and one-half teacupful of walnut catsup, 
and stew the mixture until quite thick. Garnish with sliced lemons, and serve hot. 

Clam Chowder. 

Fry six slices of crisp, fat pork, after which chop them to pieces, and sprinkle 
them in the bottom of a pot ; lay over a layer of clams, adding a little cayenne 
or black pepper and salt, and sprinkle on a few small lumps of butter, then place a 
layer of chopped onions, and another of small crackers, split and moistened with 
some warm milk. Over this preparation pour a little of the fat left in the pan in 
which the pork has been fried ; then repeat the layers of pork, clams, and onions, 
until the pot is filled, or nearly so, then cover with water and stew slowly, keeping 



SOUPS. 15 

the pot closely covered the while, for three-quarters of an hour, then drain off all the 
liquor that will come off readily, turn the chowder into a tureen, and return the 
gravy to the pot. Thicken the gravy with some flour or pounded crackers, add a 
glass of wine, some catsup and a little spiced sauce, let it boil up and pour it over the 
contents in the tureen. Either walnut or butternut pickles may be served with it. 

Corn Chowder. 

Scrape about one quart of raw sweet Indian corn from the cob, and place it in a 
saucepan with enough water to cover, boiling it for twenty minutes. Skim out the 
corn as it floats on the top ; pare some potatoes, so that when cut into slices they will 
fill a pint measure, soak and put them into hot water to scald. Fry an onion to- 
gether with a piece of salt pork of about two inches cube, and strain the fat into a 
saucepan with the corn water. Put in the potatoes, corn, one teaspoonful of salt, one 
of pepper, place the pan on the fire and let the liquor simmer for a quarter of an 
hour or until the corn and potatoes are tender. Put in one tablespoonful of butter 
one pint of potatoes, one pint of milk, and boil up again. It must be served hot with 
crisp crackers. 

Consomme Stock. 

Cut finely a shin of beef, put it in a stockpot with two scraped carrots, two 
peeled onions, three washed leeks, a few sticks of celery, and a small bunch of par- 
sley roots, all finely minced ; add six cloves, one teaspoonful of peppercorns, a bay 
leaf, and the whites and shells of six eggs. Moisten this with two gallons of broth 
and one quart of water, stir for a few minutes, place on the range, add a few pieces of 
chicken or bones if handy. Simmer for four hours, skim off the grease and strain 
through a wet cloth. 

Chicken Consomme. 

Remove the fillets from two chickens and put the carcases with six pounds of 
fillet of veal into a stockpot with five quarts of good stock, season with half an 
ounce of salt, place the pot on the fire and boil ; skim it well, add two onions stuck 
with two cloves each, a head of celery and four leeks. Let the pot simmer on the 
side of the fire for about three hours, skim off the fat, strain the broth and clarify 
with the fillets of chicken previously removed ; then strain once more through a cloth 
into a basin. This consomme should be colorless. 

Duchess Consomme. 

Butter a baking sheet, cover with four ounces of chou-paste, cook in the oven 
for six minutes, then cover the paste with forcemeat in small lumps laid at a little 
distance apart. Cut the paste into twelve equal sized pieces, each piece holding a 
lump of the forcemeat, pour one quart of boiling consomme over and serve. 



16 SOUPS. 

Fish Consomme. 

Put into a two gallon stewpan three quarters of a pound of butter, four sliced 
onions, three heads of celery cut up small, five carrots cut in slices, four unpicked 
shallots, two bay leaves, one sprig of thyme, three cloves, one clove of unpicked 
garlic and twelve sprigs of parsley, and fry to a reddish brown color. When they are 
well done, pour in five quarts of water and one bottle Chablis or Sauterne. Put the 
stewpan on the fire and boil, skim and add a little mignonette pepper, an ounce and 
a half of salt, six pounds of any kind of fish cut in pieces, and the heads and bones 
of six large whiting, cod or eels, but keeping their fillets to clarify. Place the pan 
on the side of the fire, simmer for two hours, then strain the contents through a nap- 
kin. Pound the fillets with the whites of two eggs, stir them in the liquor, replace 
the pan on the fire, and boil for a few minutes longer. After straining again it is 
ready to serve. 

Consomme Printanier. 

Cut two carrots and one turnip into shapes with a vegetable scoop, simmer for 
twenty minutes in salted water, drain and throw into one quart of consomme, with two 
tablespoonfuls of cooked French beans, cut into small pieces. Add a handful of 
chiffonade, cook five minutes more and serve. 



Royal 



Consomme. 



Beat two eggs and mix with them half a teacupful of milk and one pinch of 
salt. Pour the beaten eggs and milk in a basin, stand the basin in a larger one con- 
taining hot water, put them in the oven and bake until the contents of the small 
basin are firm, then take the basins out and put the small one away to cool; when set 
cut the mixture into small well shaped pieces, and pour over them one quart of 
boiling consomme, and serve. 

Consomme with Green Peas. 

Cut into pieces half a breast of a cooked chicken, put in a tureen, add two table- 
spoonfuls of boiled rice, two tablespoonfuls of cooked green peas, and one truffle cut 
into dice. Pour one quart of boiling consomme over all. 

Consomme with Pearl Barley. 

Wash three tablespoonfuls of pearl barley, put in a saucepan with three pints of 
consomme, and let boil for forty minutes. Add two tablespoonfuls of cooked breast 
of chicken cut in dice, two tablespoonfuls of cooked green peas, and serve in a hot 
tureen. 



SOUPS. 17 

Consomme with Quenelles. 

Prepare some small quenelles in a buttered stew pan, pour salted water over 
them, and poach for two minutes. Drain on a sieve, put in a tureen with one quart 
of boiling consomme over them, and serve. 

Consomme with Rice and Cream. 

Remove the fat from half a gallon of consomme, put in a stewpan and when at 
the point of boiling add four tablespoonfuls of ground rice, previously moistened 
with a little stock. Boil for ten minutes, and add one teaspoonful each of sugar and 
salt, boil again and when the rice is quite done, pour in half a pint of boiling cream. 

Barley Cream Soup. 

Mix in a saucepan in the following proportions : Some barley (one teacupful) 
an onion, a small piece of cinnamon, half a blade of mace, and three pints of chicken 
broth. When it comes to a boiling point, remove to one side of the fire, and let it 
simmer slowly for five hours. Then pass it through a fine hair sieve, returning it to 
the saucepan. Mix with it two tablespoonfuls of butter and half a pint of boiling 
milk, or if cream is used in place of milk, the butter may be omitted ; season to taste 
with pepper and salt. Beat the yolks of four eggs in a teacupful of milk ; mix this 
in the soup, and stir by the side of a fire for a few minutes, but do not allow it to boil 
after the eggs are added. Turn the soup into a tureen and serve with a plate of 
sippets of roast or croutons of fried bread. 

Cauliflower Cream Soup. 

The clear, white broth which has had an old fowl boiled tender in it is the best 
for such soup as this, and any pieces of bones from the breakfast or dinner meats may 
be put into the stockpot with it to make it richer. Take about a quart of stock, a 
pint of good rich milk, one pint of cauliflower sprays, one tablespoonful each of 
butter, salt and white pepper, one tablespoonful of minced parsley, half a blade of 
mace and a small quantity of any vegetables at hand cauliflower being the prin- 
cipal one. If cooked for the purpose, pick the cauliflower into little branches, and 
boil it separately for half an hour in salted water. Strain off one quart of the stock, 
clear and free from grease, into a saucepan, and boil it with one tablespoonful of 
minced onion ; then mash one breakfast cupful of cooked cauliflower and throw it in ; 
boil one pint of rich milk and add that ; season with a little salt and white pepper, 
if not sufficiently blended, thicken, till it looks like a thin cream, with flour and 
water ; then add one tablespoonful of butter, and the other breakfast cupful of 
cooked cauliflower branches, and sprinkle on a tablespoonful of minced parsley. It 
is then ready to be served. 



i8 SOUPS. 



Cream of Celery. 



Boil a trimmed head of celery in one pint of water for thirty or forty minutes; 
boil a piece of mace and a large slice of onion in one pint of milk; mix one table- 
spoonful of flour with two tablespoonfuls of cold milk, add this to the boiling milk, 
and cook for ten minutes. Mash celery in the water in which it has been cooked, 
mix it into the boiling milk, add one tablespoonful of butter and season with pepper 
and salt to taste. Strain and serve immediately. The flavor may be improved by 
adding one teacupful of whipped cream when the soup is in the tureen. 

Cream of Game. 

Take about two pounds of any boiled game, remove the skin and chop, pound it 
to a paste in a mortar and then put it in a stewpan with one breakfast cupful of well 
washed rice, a bunch of sweet herbs> a dozen pepper corns, three or four cloves, a 
dessertspoonful of salt and three pints of broth. Boil for half an hour, and then strain 
through a fine hair sieve and mix one teacupful of cream with it. Serve in a tureen 
with about two tablespoonfuls of cooked game cut into small pieces. 

Cream of Lentils. 

Soak one pint of lentils in cold water for four hours, then place them in a sauce- 
pan and boil with two quarts of water, one carrot, one onion, two ounces of salt pork, 
six whole peppers, a garnished bunch of parsley, one-half tablespoonful of salt and 
bones of one partridge. Cook for forty-five minutes, and then rub through a sieve; 
cut half the breast of a partridge in slices, place them in the soup tureen with one 
ounce of butter, pour over the puree, and serve with a handful of fried sippets of 
bread, suppressing the parsley. 

Cream of Lettuce. 

Wash well three good-sized heads of lettuce, drain, chop, place them in a sauce- 
pan with about one-fourth pound of butter and cook for five minutes, stirring 
lightly. Moisten with two quarts of broth, and season with one tablespoonful of 
salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, and one-half teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, add a 
garnished bunch of parsley and four or five ounces of well cleaned raw rice ; cover 
the saucepan and cook for forty-five minutes ; then remove the parsley, and strain 
through a fine sieve. Clean the saucepan well, pour the soup into it again, and let 
it come nearly to the boil, stirring "meanwhile with a spatula. Pour in one pint of 
sweet cream, stir it a little more, and turn it into a hot tureen. Serve with sippets of 
toast or croutons of fried bread. 



SOUPS. 19 

Cream of Lima Beans. 

Put a lump of butter in a saucepan with half a pint of mirepoix, a little flour and 
the Lima beans, seasoned with salt. Moisten them with some white broth, and cook 
for thirty minutes. Strain them through a sieve, and serve with some cream and 
small croutons souffles. 

Cream of Mushrooms. 

Wash and peel one quart of fresh mushrooms, put them into a quart of boiling 
water, and boil until tender enough to rub through a sieve ; stir them in two quarts of 
cream soup, as follows : take two tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour, and mix 
until they bubble, then stir in one quart of hot milk and boiling water, a teacupful at 
a time. When all the water and milk have been used season with salt and pepper. 

Potato Cream Soup. 

Boil some veal bones in three quarts of water until it is reduced to two quarts, 
first placing in with the veal bones, a knuckle of ham or a slice of pickled pork and a 
bunch of vegetables. Then chop an onion very fine and put it in the soup ; peel and 
boil two large potatoes, and when thoroughly cooked, drain and mash them, mixing 
in a little at a time, a breakfast cupful of cream or milk. Mix in the potato cream 
with the soup, and strain it through a colander into a soup tureen, seasoning it with 
salt, pepper and a tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley and serve. 

Cream of Rice. 

Cut about one and one-half pounds of loin of veal into small pieces, put them 
into a stewpan with two quarts of milk, and nearly a breakfast cupful of well-washed 
rice ; add a small onion, and season to taste with pepper and salt. Let the whole 
simmer at the side of the fire until the meat is very tender and the rice reduced to a 
pulp. Strain the soup through a fine hair sieve, then return it to the saucepan ; when 
boiling, move it to the side of the fire and stir in the yolks of two eggs that have 
been beaten up with the juice of a lemon and strained. Turn the soup into a tureen 
and serve it while very hot, accompanied, if desired, with a plate of sippets of toast 
or small croutons of bread that have been fried to a delicate brown in butter. 

Cream of Sorrel. 

Steam three or four handfuls of well-washed sorrel with one ounce of butter. 
After cooking for ten minutes, rub through a sieve into a saucepan, add one pint of 
bechamel sauce, and one quart of white broth, season with one-half tablespoonful of 
salt, and one teaspoonful of pepper, and let it boil for, fifteen minutes. Thicken the 
soup with one teacupful of cream and the yolks of two raw eggs well-beaten together 
and serve with slices of bread or toast. 



20 SOUPS. 



Cream of Tapioca. 



Put a large slice of ham into a saucepan with one-fourth pound of butter, dust 
in one breakfastcupful of flour, and let the whole simmer for a few minutes; then 
pour in a little thick soup and stir it until the liquor is quite thick. Pour three quarts 
each of milk and good rich stock into a saucepan, strain the thickening into it, and 
add a blade of mace, one breakfast cupful of finely chopped onion, half that quantity 
each of carrots and turnips, also finely chopped, and finally a trifle more than one 
teacupful of tapioca. Boil very gently until the grains of tapioca are quite trans- 
parent, add one teaspoonful of minced parsley, salt and pepper to taste, pour the 
soup into a tureen, and serve. 



Tomato Cream Soup. 



Peel and slice one quart of fresh, ripe tomatoes, pick carefully over one-half 
breakfast cupful of rice, and wash it well in cold water; rub two tablespoonfuls of 
butter to a smooth paste with one tablespoonful of flour; put the tomatoes over the 
fire in a soup kettle, with one quart of cold water, and let them heat gradually. 
When they are thoroughly heated add one more quart of cold water, and when this 
boils, put in the rice, one saltspoonful of pepper, and two teaspoonfuls of salt, and 
continue the boiling until the rice is tender, but not broken; then stir in the paste of 
flour and butter, one saltspoonful of bicarbonate of soda, and one pint of milk, or 
sufficient to make the soup as thick as cream. Allow the soup to boil for a few 
minutes to thoroughly cook the flour, and then serve without delay in a tureen. 



Puree of Asparagus. 



Pick out the tender parts of the asparagus, wash thoroughly, and heat in boiling 
water with some salt to make them green. When beginning to get tender, drain and 
place them in cold water. When cold, drain on a clean towel, and when dry, put in 
a saucepan previously prepared with a small piece of fresh butter, some sprigs of 
green parsley, and a few green onions; fry them as quickly as possible, to preserve 
the green color, adding a lump of sugar, a little salt, and a small quantity of fine 
flour, and moisten with a good broth. Cool quickly and rub through a tammy sieve, 
adding a little spinach green to color it. 



Red Bean Puree Soup. 



Put on the fire in a saucepan enough red beans previously soaked in cold water 
for four hours and moisten with some white broth ; cook till soft and rub through a 
sieve, adding a couple of ounces of salt pork blanched, some onion, carrot and a 
garnished bouquet, together with a little pepper. Cook thoroughly for one hour, 
and strain, adding half a glass of claret, and serve with small croutons of fried bread. 



SOUPS. 21 

Puree of Cardoons. 

Remove the prickles from some white and sound cardoons, blanch them in water 
for fifteen or twenty minutes, rub off the skins, cut them in three-inch lengths, and 
put them on a wire drainer in an oval stewpan ; lay on the top some thin slices of 
bacon (fat) and cover them with a white dressing made of flour, stock and clarified 
fat ; add one onion, stuck with two cloves, some slices of peeled and seeded lemon, 
and a little salt and pepper. Allow these to simmer until the cardoons are done, 
then pour in an equal quantity of bechamel sauce, reduce and press the mixture 
through a tammy-cloth. Before serving add butter and raw cream to the puree. 

Carrot Puree. 

Chop very finely all the red portions of some carrots ; fry them in butter, and 
finish cooking by adding a little broth ; when done, reduce the broth to a glaze, stir 
in six tablespoonfuls of bechamel sauce, and strain through a sieve. Mix with this 
puree five or six pints of white broth, then pass it all through a sieve into a sauce- 
pan, place it on the fire, and stir until it begins to bubble ; then move it on one side 
of the stove and leave for an hour to settle. Skim off all the fat from the broth, and 
thicken it with a mixture of four egg yolks, diluted with cream and poured through 
a sieve ; and then place the soup over the fire again, stirring in a few tablespoonfuls 
of blanched noodles and a lump of butter. When the soup is hot, pour it into a 
soup tureen, and serve. 

Celery Puree. 

Prepare half a dozen heads of celery as for celery with gravy, wipe and drain, 
cutting them into small pieces. Put these into a glazing-pan with an equal quantity 
of bechamel sauce, reduce well and then pass all through a sieve by rubbing with the 
back of a spoon. Add one ounce of butter and one teacupful of rich cream to the 
mixture, and salt and pepper to suit the taste. 

Puree of Herbs with Vegetables. 

Wash a savoy cabbage, slice it and place it in a stewpan with two sliced leeks 
and a little butter; let them fry for an hour, put with them four sliced heads of cab- 
bage lettuce, one small sized beet root, one handful each of borage leaves, and sor- 
rel, and one pinch of chervil. When the herbs are done, sprinkle over one table- 
spoonful of flour, pour in two quarts of broth, and stir over the fire till it begins to 
boil. Beat six eggs and one-fourth pint of cream and stir it in the broth. Cut a 
fourth pound of butter into little bits and add it to the soup. 



22 SOUPS. 

Vegetable Puree. 

Wash well a couple of bunches of young carrots, scrape them thoroughly and 
rasp off the red parts into a saucepan, add a small quantity of butter and a slice of 
lean ham, also a few leeks and sticks of celery tied up in a bundle, and stir well over 
the fire until the vegetables are slightly colored, then pour in the required quantity 
of fowl or other consomme, and boil slowly for two hours. Take out the roots and 
ham and strain the soup into another saucepan, rub the carrots through a sieve and 
add them to the soup, and bring it once more to the boil. Remove the saucepan to 
the side of the fire, skim the soup carefully, add a small pinch of sugar, pour it into a 
tureen and serve. 

American Soup. 

Put one pound of the neck of mutton into a saucepan with three-fourths of a 
pound of split peas that have been previously soaked and five pints of water, and 
place it over a clear fire ; when boiling, put into a saucepan one large chopped onion 
half a turnip, half a carrot and a stick of celery cut into small pieces, also one-half 
teaspoonful of sugar, and boil all gently for two or three hours. Cut one pound of 
tomatoes into small pieces, put them into the soup, and boil it for thirty minutes 
longer. Strain the soup through a fine hair sieve, pour it back into the saucepan 
again, season it with pepper and salt, and boil up once more. Turn it into a soup 
tureen, and serve with it a plate of sippets of toast, or croutons of fried bread. 

Andalusian Soup. 

Simmer gently by the side of the fire three quarts of stock, prepared as for thick 
soup with clarified fish broth. Mix with one breakfast cupful of soubise puree the 
yolks of four eggs. Mix half a dozen tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce with one break- 
fast cupful of pike quenelle forcemeat, and season it with a little mild Spanish pepper. 
Shape it into quenelles and poach them. Add the soubise preparation with the soup, 
and stir it well ; then skim off all the fat from the soup. Put the quenelles into a 
soup tureen, strain the soup over them, and serve with a dish of poached eggs. 

Asparagus Soup. 

The desired number of asparagus heads should be picked, scraped and thor- 
oughly washed, the tops being broken off as far down the stalks as possible. Cook 
in boiling salt water for about twenty minutes. Put the stalks into some good veal 
stock and boil for twenty minutes. Then cut an onion into thin slices, and fry in 
three tablespoonfuls of butter for ten minutes, being careful not to allow it to burn, 
and add a portion of the asparagus tips. Cook for a few minutes, stirring gently ; 
add a little flour, and continue the cooking for a few minutes longer. Remove 
the stalks from the stock, pour in the contents of the frying pan and boil all together 



SOUPS. 23 

for twenty minutes. Then rub through a sieve. Have ready boiling a pint of milk 
and a pint of cream, and add to the stock. Season well with salt and pepper and 
serve. 

Barley Soup. 

Make with some mutton a good soup, then wash a teacupful or so of pearl barley 
in two or three waters, and boil in plenty of fresh water for two hours. Strain the 
liquor from it, rinse in cold water and set one side. Cut two slices of turnip, and half 
that quantity of carrot and onion into small dice-shaped pieces all of one size and boil 
them in a soup-stock until tender, say three-quarters of an hour. Cut up about as 
small size as much meat as there was turnips and add to the soup. Follow by adding 
the cooked barley and chopped parsley, seasoning slightly. 



Black Bean Soup. 



The night before the soup is desired, soak the beans in some water, and on the 
following morning drain off the beans and place in a saucepan with some fresh water. 
When boiling, remove to one side of the fire and let them simmer for six hours. Put 
in with the beans a bunch of sweet herb, one large onion, a slice of carrot and turnip 
and a stalk or two of celery, all of which have been finely chopped and fried in butter. 
Add a little whole allspice, cloves, mace and cinnamon, and pour in some of the 
stock. Put a lump of butter and an equal quantity of flour on a saucepan and stir 
over the fire till brown, then stir it into the soup and keep it simmering for an hour. 
Place some sliced lemon in a soup-tureen, pour in the soup through a fine hair sieve 
and serve with a dish of egg-balls. 



White Bean Soup. 



Use three quarts of soup stock to each breakfast cupful of vegetables, such as 
onions, carrots and turnips, cut up into small pieces, having more of the onions than 
of the rest of the vegetables, and three breakfast cupfuls of white beans. Boil for an 
hour, then add a very little flour moistened, and salt and pepper to taste, sprinkling 
in a little parsley. Turn the soup into a tureen and serve. 

Bonne Femme Soup. 

Wash and chop four heads of lettuce finely, and put them into a saucepan with 
one finely chopped cucumber, one teacupful of chopped chervil leaves, and a small 
lump of butter, with grated nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste. Place the lid on the 
saucepan, and allow the contents to cool quickly for ten minutes or so; then stir in 
one tablespoonful of flour; pour in gradually three to four pints of veal stock, and 
stir it over the fire until boiling. Move the saucepan to the side of the fire, and let 
the soup simmer gently for half an hour. Beat the yolks of six eggs with one-half 



24 SOUPS. 

pint of cream and two teaspoonfuls of sugar, and stir it by degrees into the soup. 
Pour the soup into a tureen, and serve with either sippets of toast or croutons of 
fried bread. 

Brunoise Soup. 

Put into a saucepan an equal quantity of sliced carrots, onions, leeks, turnips and 
celery, with a good sized lump of butter, and fry the vegetables until brown; then 
pour in a small quantity of stock and boil it quickly until reduced to a glaze. Pour 
in the desired quantity of clear soup and boil. Prepare some Italian paste, boil it 
separately, then mix it with the soup. Turn the soup into a tureen and serve it with 
croutons of fried bread or toast. If desired, boiled rice can be substituted for the 
Italian paste, and rings of turnips fried in butter. 



Cabbage Soup. 



Take a good white heart cabbage, wash and trim off the outer leaves, chop it 
into fine shreds, and put it in a stewpan with a quart of water, boiling until quite 
tender. Put the cabbage and the water into a quart of mutton broth, adding salt and 
pepper to taste, and boil once more. When ready to be served, stir in a teaspoonful 
of fresh butter and two or three small lumps of sugar. The soup should be quite 
thick. 



Carrot Soup. 



After scraping six or eight large carrots, cut off the red parts, and place them 
in a stewpan, slice two onions, cut up one head of celery and a quarter of a pound or 
so of raw ham, and put them into the stewpan with the carrots, then add one heap- 
ing tablespoonful of butter, cover and let simmer over the fire for ten minutes ; then 
add one quart of stock and allow all to simmer until the vegetables are tender. 
Drain the vegetables well, pound them in a mortar, put them in with the stock in 
which they were cooked, and add another pint. Strain this through a fine hair sieve, 
put it into a stewpan, and stir gently over a slow fire until it boils ; then remove the 
stewpan to one side, skim off all the fat, and let it simmer slowly for half an hour. 
When ready to be served add a gill of cream, a little sugar, pepper and sa-lt. 



Celery Soup. 



Wash thoroughly and trim three or four heads of celery, and boil them in about 
two quarts of white broth. When tender, take them out of the broth, and pass 
through a sieve. Mix one dessertspoonful of flour, and one of corn starch with 
one pint of fresh milk, stir it into the broth, add a lump of sugar and season with one 
pinch of salt. Place the celery in again, and stir it until it' is quite thick, over a 
moderate fire, and then put in two tablespoonfuls of butter. After it is melted and 
properly blended, pour the soup into a tureen and serve hot. 



SOUPS. 25 

Celery and Onion Soup. 

Cut four or five heads of celery into pieces four or five inches long ; wash them 
free from grit, and boil them for about ten minutes. Remove, drain and put them 
into another saucepan with one half pound of onions cut in slices, and add a little 
each of chervil and tarragon, one pinch of salt, a little sugar, and the necessary 
quantity of rich stock. Put the saucepan over the fire, and boil gently until the 
celery is quite done ; then pour the soup into a tureen and serve very hot. 

Cheese Soup. 

Take one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of flour, one pint of rich cream, four- 
tablespoonfuls each of butter and grated Parmesan cheese, a sprinkling of cayenne, 
two eggs, and three quarts of clear soup stock. Stir the flour, cream, butter, 
cheese, and pepper together in a basin, place this into another of hot water and 
mix until the whole forms a firm smooth paste. Break into it two eggs, mix 
quickly and thoroughly, and allow it to cook two minutes longer ; then set it away 
to cool. When cold, roll into balls about the size of a walnut. When the balls are 
all formed drop them into boiling water and cook gently for about five minutes. Put 
them in a soup tureen, pour over the boiling stock and serve with a dish of finely- 
grated Parmesan cheese. 

Chicken Soup. 

Select an old fowl, pluck, singe and draw. Stuff it with a large lump of fat 
bacon, sew up the neck and vent, truss, flour it well, tie it up in a cloth and put it into 
a saucepan with sufficient warm water to almost cover ; add one carrot cut in slices 
and two onions and a couple of cloves. Cover the pan over securely ; allow the 
water to come slowly to a boil and then simmer for three hours or so according to 
the size and age of the bird. Take it out, remove the cloth, put the chicken into a 
bowl, cover it completely with any desired sauce and let it remain for a day. Break 
the fowl up in pieces, put back in the saucepan with the liquor ; add one breakfast 
cupful of well-washed rice, a small turnip cut into pieces and a blade of mace and boil 
slowly for a couple of hours : rub as much as possible through a sieve, season to taste 
with salt and pepper. 

Chicken Soup, Creole Style. 

Prepare the same as for Chicken Soup, Holland style, adding half a chopped 
green pepper, one ounce of lean raw ham cut in small pieces and adding a sliced 
tomato to the soup five minutes before serving. 

Chicken Soup, Holland Style. 

Cut about a quarter of a chicken in small pieces and slice half an onion ; brown 
these well together for ten minutes in a saucepan with one ounce of butter and 



26 SOUPS. 

moisten with three pints of consomme ; add three tablespoonsfuls of raw rice, half a 
tablespoonful of salt, a very little red pepper and a garnished bunch of parsley. 
After boiling thoroughly for twenty minutes, remove the parsley and serve. 

Chicken Soup, Portuguese Style. 

Prepare as for Chicken Soup, Holland Style, adding half a pint of finely 
chopped cooked vegetables five minutes before serving. 

Chicken Soup, Queen Style. 

Take two fowls and a knuckle of veal and prepare a soup ; strain it and put it 
back into the saucepan to boil. Cut off the fillets from two fowls in the meantime, 
and put them into a stewpan with a little butter and cook. Cut them up in small 
pieces and pound in a mortar, adding one ounce of rice boiled in broth, four ounces 
of breadcrumbs and a little salt. Put the whole into a saucepan with two table- 
spoonfuls of bechamel sauce and half a pint of fowl broth and stir over the fire with a 
wooden spoon until done, taking care that the liquor does not boil. Rub the whole 
through a fine sieve, warm it without boiling, and serve in a tureen with small pieces 
of toasted bread. 

Chicken Soup with Leeks. 

Cut about a quarter of a chicken into slices ; brown for ten minutes in a sauce- 
pan with an ounce of butter and half a chopped onion ; moisten with three pints of 
consomme, and add three leeks cut in pieces, a garnished bunch of parsley, half a 
tablespoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of pepper. Serve after boiling thirty minute, 
and removing the parsley. 

Chiffonnade Soup. 

Wash, drain, and chop very fine one quart of sorrel, with the green leaves of a 
lettuce-head. Brown in a saucepan, with two ounces of butter and a sliced onions 
seasoning with salt and pepper. Moisten with three pints of white broth, a handful 
of peas, string beans, and asparagus tops, and boil for three-quarters of an hour with 
one ounce of butter. Serve with slices of toasted bread. 

Clam Soup. 

Prepare the clams same as for steamed clams. Take one quart of the clam 
liquor, after it has settled, place it in a saucepan, boil, and remove the scum ; then 
add one pint of boiling water, and season with parsley, salt, pepper, cayenne and 
onion. Put in the hard part of the clams, which have been previously removed, and 
let it simmer for fifteen or twenty minutes longer, then strain and boil once more, and 
while it is boiling thicken it with two tablespoonfuls of flour, cooked in one table- 



SOUPS. 27 

spoonful of butter. Pour one pint of hot cream or milk, and the soft part of the 
clams, and when they are all done place them on a dish, and serve with crackers and 
pickles. 

Clear Soup. 

Skim off the fat from two quarts of stock, pour it into a saucepan, and put in an 
equal quantity of prepared carrots, turnips, celery, leeks, a bunch of sweet herbs and 
parsley, one-fourth pound of scraped beef, a few peppercorns, a lump of salt, and the 
whites and shells of two eggs. Stand the saucepan over the fire, whip the contents 
till boiling, then stop whipping, and let simmer for fifteen minutes over a moderate 
fire. Strain the soup first through a fine hair sieve, then two or three times through 
a jelly bag, till it is quite clear. If desired, wine may be added to the soup before 
serving. 

Clear Soup with Nudels. 

Prepare the desired quantity of clear broth from beef, and skim it well. Peel 
and slice some carrots, onions and green leeks, put them into a stewpan with a good 
sized lump of butter and one young cabbage cut into thin shreds, cover with the lid, 
and put them over a very slow fire, where they may stew gently until quite tender, 
shaking the pan now and then. When the vegetables are cooked put them into the 
soup, and boil the whole gently for thirty minutes or so. Make the nudels as fol- 
lows: Slightly warm one-fourth pound of butter and beat it until creamy, then work 
in with it slowly and smoothly three heaping tablespoonfuls of flour and three well 
beaten eggs. Strain the soup and return it to the saucepan; when it boils up again 
put in small quantities of the paste, moulding them into round balls with the hands, 
which should be constantly dipped in water, and let it simmer for an hour or so 
longer. When ready pour the soup into a tureen and serve. 

Colbert Soup. 

Cut the hearts from four or five heads of celery, blanch them well, put them in 
a saucepan with a lump of butter, and fry; then pour in some clear soup and boil it. 
Beat the yolks of three eggs with one teacupful of cream, move the saucepan to the 
side of the fire, and stir in the eggs and the cream quickly. Poach some eggs, put 
them into a soup tureen, pour the sauce over them, and serve. 

Corn and Tomato Soup. 

Cut two pounds of beef into small pieces, put it into a saucepan with three 
quarts of water, and boil gently at one side of the fire for two hours. Skim the 
liquor, put in several large tomatoes, and boil them for an hour. When cooked, 
drain and pass the tomatoes through a fine sieve, and return them to the soup. Boil 
a few ears of corn in salted water ; when cooked, free the corn from the cob and put 



28 SOUPS. 

it in the soup ; also put in a small lump of butter and season to taste with salt and 
pepper. Boil the soup again, pour it into a soup tureen, and serve with a plate of 
sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Crab Soup. 

Open some small uncooked crabs, and remove the deadman's ringers and sand- 
bags. Cut the crabs in two, parboil and extract the meat from the claws, and remove 
the fat from the back of the shells. Place some ripe tomatoes in a basin, scald and 
skin them, and squeeze the pulp through a colander, keeping back the seeds. Pour 
boiling water over the seeds and juice of the tomatoes and strain. Put in a saucepan 
one clove of garlic, one onion, one tablespoonful of butter, and two tablespoonfuls of 
lard, and the pulp of the tomatoes and let it stew a short time. Put the meat from 
the claws of the crab, and lastly the fat into the soup, season with sweet marjoram, 
parsley, lemon, salt, and black and red pepper. Pour in the water in which the seeds 
were scalded, simmer for one hour and thicken with breadcrumbs. 

Croute-Au-Pot. 

Cut two carrots and one turnip into round slices and add to these a few short 
pieces of celery stalks and a little white cabbage. Stew these for a few minutes in a 
covered stewpan and add one heaping tablespoonful of butter. As soon as the veg- 
etables are beginning to take color pour over them three pints of broth, half a table- 
spoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of pepper. Boil this slowly for one-half hour or 
more, and then pour into a hot tureen in which a few pieces of toasted bread or rolls 
have been previously placed. Serve very hot. 



Duchess Soup. 



Put two large, sliced onions into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, 
and fry them for eight minutes. Sift in two tablespoonfuls of flour, and fry it for 
three minutes, stirring well to prevent its burning ; then pour in slowly one quart of 
boiling milk, season to taste with pepper and salt, and stir over the fire for fifteen 
minutes. Strain the above mixture, put it back into the saucepan, add two table- 
spoonfuls of grated cheese, and place it over the fire. Beat three eggs, with a little 
salt and pepper, then pour them through a strainer into the soup. Move the sauce- 
pan to the side of the fire, and stir the contents for a few minutes. Turn the soup 
into a tureen, and serve it with a plate of sippets of toast. 



Ducks' Giblet Soup. 



Take three or four lots of duck's giblets, scald, clean, cut them into pieces, and 
put in a stewpan ; add three quarts of water, a pound and a half of gravy beef, two 



SOUPS. 29 

onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, and the rind of half a lemon, and simmer until the 
gizzards are soft. Strain the broth, add some slices of onion fried brown in butter, 
mix in sufficient flour to thicken the soup, and stir over the fire a few minutes until 
it boils. Strain, skim and pour the soup into a tureen, put back the piece of lemon 
peel, and add two teaspoonfuls of catsup and two wineglassfuls of Madeira wine, 
and serve with toasted bread cut into dice. 

Farmer's Soup. 

Thoroughly clean a bullock's head, break the bones and cut the meat into small 
pieces. Put them in a large pan with some bacon fat, and fry them until lightly 
browned. Chop finely two carrots, a root of celery, one turnip, two lettuces, half a 
cabbage and a few French beans ; put them in with the onions and leek, and cook 
them over a slow fire until the moisture has evaporated. Blanch one pound of raw 
ham, then put it in with the vegetables, and pour over some broth. When boiling, 
move the pan to the side of the fire, and let the broth simmer for thirty minutes or 
so. Then put in one breakfast cupful of minced potatoes, and boil them gently until 
nearly cooked, and then put in two shredded lettuces, a handful of shredded sorrel, and 
one pinch of chopped chervil. Finish cooking the soup, then remove the ham. Put 
some slices of toasted bread into the soup tureen, pour in the soup and serve. 

Fish Soup. 

Melt in a stewpan on the fire two ounces of butter, put in a couple of sliced car- 
rots and a sliced onion, and fry them brown, then add one quart of water, a sprig of 
thyme, two or three laurel leaves, three or four cloves, a dessertspoonful of sugar 
and half a pint of shrimps: boil until the carrots are quite soft, then add any cold fish, 
with the bones, and boil for twenty minutes. Toast some small pieces of bread and 
put them in the tureen; add half a glass of white wine to the soup, strain it over them 
and serve. 

Flemish Soup. 

Put an equal quantity of carrots, onions and turnips cut into small pieces in a 
saucepan, with a head of lettuce, two leeks, a head of endive, a little chervil and a 
lump of butter, one-half pint of either mutton or beef broth; boil all gently till tender, 
stirring now and then, then pour in two quarts of boiling broth, season it with pepper, 
salt and sugar and let it simmer for two hours. Beat the yolks of three eggs with 
one-half pint of cream, stir it in with the soup, turn into a tureen and serve. 

Game Soup. 

Put the carcasses and remains of any cold cooked game into a stewpan with two 
or three peeled carrots and turnips, a bunch of sweet herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 
and a moderate quantity of spices. Cover the whole with plenty of stock and 



30 SOUPS. 

simmer gently for three or four hours. When sufficiently boiled strain the liquor into 
a basin, pick off all the meat that can be got from the bones and pound it in a mor- 
tar, soak half its bulk of breadcrumbs in a little of the liquor, and when soft mix 
them with the meat. Pass the mixture through a fine hair sieve, put in a saucepan 
with the strained liquor, add more seasoning if necessary and boil. Beat the yolks of 
two eggs and a wineglassful of sherry, strain and stir in with the soup, first moving 
the saucepan to the side of the fire. Turn the soup into a tureen and serve it with a 
plate of sippets of toast or croutons of bread fried in butter. 

Gourmet's Soup. 

Put a large knuckle of veal into a saucepan or stockpot, together with two 
roasted fowls and any beef bones that may be at hand, pour in ten pints of beef stock 
and boil for ten minutes; carefully skim off all the scum, prepare and add the desired 
quantities of any vegetables that may be in season and a little pepper, and boil for 
five hours, by which time the liquor should be reduced to about four quarts; then 
skim off the fat, remove the meat and bones, clarify with the white of beaten egg, 
which has been beaten with a small quantity of beef stock, and boil for twenty 
minutes longer. Strain through a cloth into another saucepan, and add the red part 
of a carrot and a turnip, cut with a vegetable cutter into columns and afterward into 
slices about one-eighth of an inch in thickness, also two heads of celery and two leeks 
cut into slices, all these having been previously blanched; add also a small quantity 
each of sorrel and chervil, and two lettuces cut up into pieces, and boil all for another 
hour; then put in a little sugar, and finally about three tablespoonfuls of blanched 
asparagus. Place some small croutons of fried bread or pieces of toast at the bottom 
of a soup tureen, pour over the boiling soup and serve. 

Green Pea Soup. 

Put four quarts of freshly shelled green peas into a stewpan with a little salt, a 
small onion, a few sprigs of mint and parsley tied together, and water to cover. Boil 
the peas until tender, then strain, remove the onion, mint and parsley, and rub the 
peas through a fine hair sieve into a basin. Have ready boiling as much clear stock 
as will make the required quantity of soup, from which all the fat has been removed, 
put in the peas, with about one ounce of butter and one or two teaspoonfuls of 
spinach green to give it a brighter color, and boil up again, then turn it into a soup 
tureen and serve with sippets of toast. 

Herb Soup with Parmesan Cheese. 

Wash in plenty of water a head of young celery, one handful each of sorrel, 
chervil and chives, a few sprigs of parsley, and a small quantity of tarragon; drain 
the herbs thoroughly and cut them into pieces. Put them in a saucepan with three 



SOUPS. 31 

pints of clear broth, and boil gently till tender. Cut some slices of French rolls into 
pieces about the size of a quarter of a dollar, dip them in hot butter, and roll in finely 
grated Parmesan cheese, giving them a good coating. Spread a sheet of white paper 
over a baking tin, arrange the pieces of bread on top, and bake until lightly browned; 
then add them to the soup when in the tureen. 

Hunter's Soup. 

Peel and cut into thin slices an equal quantity of carrots and onions, put them 
into a saucepan with a head of celery that has been washed and cut into small pieces, 
about two ounces of rather lean ham or bacon, a bunch of parsley and a small lump 
of butter. Fry all these until lightly browned, then dredge in a liberal quantity of 
flour and fry that also until browned. Stir in one pint of red wine and two quarts of 
broth, leave it over the fire until boiling, then move it to the side and let simmer. 
Clean and lay three partridges on a roasting pan and roast them in a brisk oven, 
basting well with butter. When the partridges are cooked, cut the flesh off the bones 
into nice equal-sized pieces. Break the bones into small pieces, put them into the 
soup, boil quickly for twenty minutes, then strain it through a fine hair sieve. Season 
the soup with salt and pepper, then return it to the saucepan with the pieces of par- 
tridge meat, and allow it to get thoroughly hot at the side of the fire, but do not let 
it boil again ; then turn it into a soup tureen and serve it with a plate of sippets of 
toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Italian Soup. 

After a cow-heel has been used for making jelly, cut the flesh off into small 
pieces. Put one-half teacupful of sage into a stewpan with sufficient water to 
cook it, and boil until dissolved. Take a sufficient quantity of clear stock to make the 
soup, and place it in a saucepan over the fire until boiling. Warm the pieces of meat 
in the soup, put the sago at the bottom of a soup-tureen with one ounce of grated 
Parmesan cheese, pour the hot soup over them and serve with a plate of sippets of 
toast, or small croutons of bread that have been fried to a delicate brown in butter. 



Julienne Soup. 



Peel some carrots, onions, leeks and turnips and cut them into thin strips of an 
equal size and length, either straight or scalloped. Cut some heads of celery into 
pieces the same size. Put two ounces of butter into a stewpan, place in the prepared 
vegetables and toss over a slow fire for a few minutes. Other vegetables may be 
added, such as cauliflower, peas or asparagus when in season. Pour in over the vege- 
tables as much clear chicken broth as may be desired for the soup, and put in any 
nice pieces of cold roast chicken that may be available. When boiling, move the 
soup to the side of the fire and let it simmer until the vegetables are tender. Put 



32 SOUPS. 

some thin sippets of toast, or croutons of fried bread into a soup tureen, pour the 
soup over it and serve. 

Lamb Soup. 

Cut a shoulder of lamb into moderately large pieces, place them in a stewpan 
with an onion and a piece of butter ; fry until nicely browned then dredge in a table- 
spoonful each of flour and curry powder, stir it all over the fire for two minutes, then 
pour in three quarts of broth, some trimmings of raw ham and a bunch of parsley. 
When the liquor boils, remove the stewpan to the side of the fire and let it simmer 
until the meat is cooked. When done, take the pieces of lamb out, pass the cook- 
ing liquor through a fine hair sieve, place in with it half a pound of boiled rice, 
and again boil gently for ten minutes. Bone the meat and put it in a soup 
tureen, thicken the soup with the yolks of three eggs beaten together with a little 
cream, then strain it through a fine colander over the meat, and serve while hot 
with sippets of toast or small dice of fried bread in a separate vessel such as a 
dish or plate. 

Lark Soup. 

Boil ten ounces of washed rice in broth till reduced to a puree, adding now and 
then a little more broth to keep it thin. Singe, draw and clean two dozen larks, 
fry them in a stewpan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, allow them to cool, then remove 
their fillets, and trim neatly. With the bones and trimmings of the larks prepare a 
little stock. When made, pass it through a fine hair sieve into the rice puree. Place 
the fillets in the soup, warm them up again, and then pour all into a hot dish. Add 
one pinch of chopped green mint, and the juice of two oranges and serve. 

Leek Soup. 

Mix two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal with a small quantity of cold water, put it in 
a saucepan, stir in about one quart of boiling mutton broth, adding it by degrees, 
then throw in as many leeks as are required, and boil until tender and the liquor is of 
the consistency of cream. Remove the pan from the fire, stir in the yolks of two 
eggs beaten up in a little of the broth, turn the whole into a tureen and serve. 

Lettuce Soup. 

Cool and press out all the water from about two dozen blanched lettuces, cut 
them down the centres without entirely separating, dust over salt and pepper, and 
place them in a saucepan with half a pint of veal broth, and the same of rich fowl con- 
somme, add a small bunch of parsley, a clove, one onion, one carrot, and a little 
thyme and bay leaf. Cover with a sheet of buttered paper, place the lid on the pan, 
and boil the lettuce gently for two hours. Take them out, drain on a cloth, cut them 
into halves, place them in a soup tureen, pour in the strained stock in which they 



SOUPS. 



33 



were cooked, together with three pints more of boiling broth, and serve with pieces of 
toast floating on the top. 

Macaroni Soup. 

Put one-fourth pound of macaroni into a saucepan with one ounce of butter and 
an onion stuck with five or six cloves, and boil until the macaroni is quite tender ; 
remove it, drain, place it in a saucepan and pour over two quarts of good broth. 
Place the pan at the side of the fire and simmer the macaroni gently for about ten 
minutes, taking care that it does not break or become pulpy. Add a little grated 
Parmesan cheese, pour all into a tureen and serve. 

Macedoine Soup. 

Line the bottom of a saucepan with some thin slices of ham, then put in an 
equal quantity of turnips, potatoes and onions, about three of each, and cut up very 
small ; pour in some stock, season with pepper and salt, and let simmer gently until 
cooked to a pulp. Pass the soup and vegetables through a fine hair sieve, return it to 
the saucepan, pour in one pint of cream, and stir it by the fire for a few minutes. 
When ready to be served, pour the soup into a tureen. 

Milanese Soup. 

Put into a stewpan a piece of raw ham with one-half pound of chopped bacon 
and about one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of haricot beans. Wash a savoy cab- 
bage and cut it into fine shreds and put it in with the above ingredients ; then pour 
in three quarts or more of broth and place the stewpan over the fire. Cut up enough 
celery roots into small pieces to fill a breakfast cup, and after the broth has boiled 
for ten minutes, put them in with it. Then put in the stewpan one breakfast cupful 
of beans, an equal amount of green peas and asparagus heads, three-fourths of a pound 
of unwashed and unbroken rice, two smoked sausages, and one chopped tomato. 
Move the stewpan to the side of the fire, and allow the contents to simmer until the 
rice is done. When soft, mix in with the soup a fair quantity of grated Parmesan 
cheese. Take out the ham and sausage, cut the sausages into small pieces, put them 
into a soup tureen, pour the soup and vegetables over them and serve, send to the 
table at the same time a plateful of sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Mullagatawny Soup. 

Put one-fourth pound of butter into a saucepan, add three or four sliced onions 
and fry them until done. Cut two rabbits into nice sized pieces, put them in with 
the onions and fry for a few minutes ; then pour in three or four pints of clear broth 
and let it boil gently for an hour. Take the rabbit out of the saucepan, pass the 
onions and liquor through a fine hair sieve, return them to the stewpan, pour in one 
quart of broth and boil for an hour longer. Put two tablespoonfuls of flour into 



34 



SOUPS. 



frying panwith a little butter and fry it until nicely browned. Stir in gradually suf- 
ficient broth or water to make a good paste. Stir the curry into the soup ; add a 
little lemon-pickle and let it simmer gently for half an hour, stirring frequently to 
prevent the flour from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan. Turn the soup into 
a tureen and serve with it a dish of plain boiled rice. 

Mussel Soup. 

Clean thoroughly one-half gallon of mussels, and toss them in a saucepan over a 
fire until the shells open. Take them out, remove the weeds, etc., put them into a 
saucepan with one ounce each of butter and flour, and add a little chopped parsley 
and sweet herbs ; put the pan on the fire, pour in three pints of rich gravy, boil up, 
remove the pan to the side of the fire, and let the contents simmer until the liquor is 
reduced to half its original quantity. Pour it out into a dish garnished with pieces of 
fried bread. Serve very hot. 

Pickled Mussels. 

Take any quantity of cooked mussels, pick them out of their shells, remove the 
beards, put them into jars or wide-mouthed bottles, and sprinkle over with salt and 
pepper. Strain some of their liquor (that is, what comes from them when being 
cooked) and add to it an equal quantity of vinegar ; fill up the bottles with the 
liquor, tie them down, let them remain for a day or so, when the mussels will be 
ready for use. They may be eaten hot by pouring a little of the liquor into a sauce- 
pan, with some minced parsley, pepper and salt to taste, and thickening with a 
little butter, well rolled in flour. Add the mussels, allow them to remain in it until 
thoroughly warmed through, and serve. 



Neapolitan Soup. 



Cut into rather small pieces, one-fourth of a raw chicken, put them into a sauce- 
pan with one ounce of butter, one ounce of lean raw ham, half a green pepper, half of 
a sliced onion and one sliced carrot, and stew gently for ten minutes ; then moisten 
with three pints of white broth, season with one-half tablespoonful of salt, one tea- 
spoonful of pepper and add one tablespoonful of raw rice. Let it simmer for fifteen 
minutes, or until about half-cooked, then put in one ounce of macaroni in small 
pieces, and half of a tomato. Boil again for ten minutes, and serve with two table- 
spoonfuls of grated cheese separately. 



Noodle Soup. 



Beat well the yolks of four eggs in two tablespoonfuls of water and one salt- 
spoonful of salt, whip the white of one egg separately, add it to the rest and sift in 
gradually, stirring at the same time, a sufficient quantity of finely sifted flour to make 



SOUPS. 35 

a stiff paste. When quite smooth lay the paste on a floured board and roll out very 
thinly. Cut the paste into diamond-shaped pieces, put them on a cloth and keep 
them in a warm place until dry. Prepare some nicely flavored clear soup and when 
it is boiling very fast throw in the pieces of paste and boil for ten to fifteen minutes. 
Pour the soup in a soup tureen and serve while very hot, with a plate of Parmesan 
cheese. 

Okra Soup. 

Cut in slices a quarter of a pound of pork, put it in a fryingpan, fry gently for 
a few minutes and add a sliced onion and one quart of green okra pods cut into small 
pieces. Put the lid on and fry the okras for thirty minutes. In the meantime cut 
the meat from a cold roast fowl, place the bones in a saucepan with a quart of water 
and boil. Squeeze out all the pork fat from the okras and onions and place these in 
the saucepan with the bones. Put three tablespoonfuls of flour in the pan with the 
pork fat, and when it is a rich brown add it to the bones in the saucepan; cover over 
the pot and simmer gently for three hours. Strain through a fine sieve into another 
saucepan, pour in two quarts of stock and add the fowl meat cut in pieces and salt 
and pepper to taste. Simmer gently for twenty minutes, turn the whole into a tureen 
and serve very hot. 

Onion Soup. 

Mix one or two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal in cold water until it is quite smooth, 
then pour in gradually three pints of liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, 
turn all into a stewpan with several peeled and chopped onions, and cook until of the 
consistency of cream, or leave out the oatmeal, substitute wheat flour, and stir it into 
the soup while boiling; a few minutes before serving add the yolks of two or three 
eggs, removing the pan from the fire before putting them in. 

Spanish Onion Soup. 

Peel three large Spanish onions, cut and separate them into rings, and fry in a 
little butter until they are of a light brown color and quite tender. Remove and 
drain on a fine sieve, and put them into a saucepan with two quarts of water. Put 
the pan on the fire, boil for an hour, stirring frequently, add salt and pepper to taste, 
add the finely sifted crumb of a roll, and mix thoroughly. Boil for one hour longer, 
and just before serving add the yolks of two eggs, beaten into two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar and a small quantity of the soup. Mix this in, stirring one way, pour into a 
tureen and serve. Soup prepared in this way will keep four or five days. 

Ox-Tail Soup. 

Cut the tails into joints, wash the pieces, and fry them in a small quantity of 
butter, next drain the pieces of tail and put them in a stewpan with a ham bone, two or 
three carrots and onions peeled and sliced, a head of celery, washed and cut in convenient 



36 SOUPS. 

sized pieces, a bunch of sweet herbs, a blade of mace and a few cloves and pepper- 
corns. Cover the contents of the stewpan with water, place it over the fire, and boil 
and skim until the scum ceases to rise ; then cover and boil slowly until the tail is 
quite tender. When ready, cut the meat into small pieces ; strain and skim the 
soup, return it to the stewpan, thicken with flour, and add a wineglassful of sherry 
wine, and two tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup. Put in the pieces of meat 
again and let the soup simmer at the side of the fire for a few minutes longer. Turn 
the soup into a soup tureen, and serve with sippets of toast, or croutons of fried 
bread. 

Oyster Soup. 

Blanch two or three dozen oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and cut them 
into small pieces. Put two ounces of butter in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of flour 
and mix well over the fire, then stir in as much fish stock as will make the required 
quantity of soup. Continue stirring until it boils, then put in the oysters and their 
liquor, previously strained, add a moderate quantity of minced parsley, salt and 
pepper to taste and a little grated nutmeg. Beat the yolks of two eggs in with the 
juice of half a lemon and strain them ; move the soup off the fire and stir in the 
beaten eggs. Pour it in a soup tureen, and serve with a plate of sippets of toast or 
croutons of fried bread. 

Parisian Soup. 

Cut four leeks into strips, fry them in a little butter at the bottom of a stewpan, 
pour over one quart of well-seasoned mutton stock, add six or seven boiled potatoes 
cut into slices, and season with pepper and salt to taste. Boil all together until the 
leeks are thoroughly done. Fry a few crusts of bread, put them in the tureen and 
pour the soup over. 

Parmesan Cheese Quenelle Soup. 

Put two ounces of butter in a saucepan on the fire, melt it and add sufficient 
flour to form a roux. Cook this for a few minutes, add more flour to form a soft 
paste and let it dry for a few minutes longer over the fire, then add the yolk of six 
eggs, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a small quantity of chicken glaze, salt, 
pepper and grated nutmeg to taste, and lastly a slight coloring of essence of spinach. 
Poach a small portion of this quenelle mixture to determine its firmness; should it be 
too thick add a little broth, but if too thin add a little more yolk of egg. Form it 
into quenelles, put these into a buttered saute pan, pour over some boiling stock and 
poach them about fifteen minutes. 

Pea Soup. 

Put over the fire in four quarts of water or broth a ham bone, bones of roasted 
beef or mutton, two heads of celery washed and trimmed, four onions peeled and one 
and one-half pounds of split peas. Let it boil till the peas are quite soft, take out 



SOUPS. 37 

the bones and rub peas and vegetables through a sieve, return them to the soup, add 
salt and pepper to taste and boil it for an hour, skimming it when required. Spinach 
or green peas added when the bones are taken out improves the soup very much. 

Peasant Soup. 

Cut into square-shaped pieces two carrots, an eighth of a cabbage, half a turnip, 
half an onion, one potato, and two or three leaves of celery. Steam them for ten 
minutes with two ounces of butter in a stewpan, then moisten with three pints of 
white broth, and season with one-half tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of 
pepper. Cook for thirty minutes, and when ready to serve add six thin slices of 
bread. 

Pomeranian Soup. 

Put one quart of red haricot /beans in a saucepan of water with a lump of salt, 
and boil them until soft. Drain the beans, put half of them on a wire sieve, and rub 
them through with the back of a wooden spoon. Put the mashed beans into a sauce- 
pan, and stir in gradually sufficient broth to make the soup, which will be three or 
four pints. A head of celery cut small and previously boiled in soup will greatly 
improve the flavor. Put in a small bunch of parsley, and sweet herbs and the whole 
beans, season to taste with pepper and salt, and boil all for fifteen minutes or a little 
longer. Remove the bunch of herbs from the soup, pour it into a tureen, and serve 
it with sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Potato Soup. 

Boil in their skins about a dozen medium-sized potatoes, and when done, peel 
and pass them through a fine sieve. Put a lump of butter about the size of an egg in 
a saucepan, let it melt, and add a tablespoonful of arrowroot, and stir over the fire 
until well browned; then add the potatoes with as much well flavored stock as will 
be required for the soup; boil all together. When done, pour the soup into a soup 
tureen, and serve while hot with a plate of sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Beef Pot-au-feu. 

About six pounds of any cut of beef will do for this ; tie the meat up with a string, 
and put it, with the bone, in a very large saucepan filled with sufficient water to cover 
the meat, then place on fire and boil. As the scum rises skim- off with a skimmer. 
Do not allow the water to quite boil ; this may be regulated by adding a very small 
quantity of cold water from time to time, which prevents bubbling and allows the 
scum to rise, then salt to taste, adding a whole pepper, allspice and an onion stuck 
with cloves, another onion toasted almost black, a leek and three carrots of average 
size cut in lengths, two turnips cut in four, and a bunch of herbs, such as bay leaves, 
thyme and marjoram, a clove of garlic and a small handful of parsley, all tied to- 



38 SOUPS. 

gether into a bundle. The vegetables should be added gradually so as not to check 
the gentle simmering, which it is needful to keep uninterrupted. Skim again, and 
leave on stove to simmer for four hours. Strain and skim before serving ; add a 
little sugar, and more salt to taste, make very hot and pour into a soup-tureen over 
small slices of toasted bread without crusts. Vegetables may be added or not, 
according to taste. 

French Pot-au-Feu. 

Melt in a large saucepan a good-sized lump of butter, and place in some pieces 
of meat (almost any kind of trimmings from joints will do), which have been well 
washed or an old fowl or rabbit. Place the lid on the pan and shake the contents 
over a fire for a few minutes, then move it to one side and pour in some boiling 
water, judging the quantity by that of the meat, and simmer gently at the edge of the 
fire for three or four hours, when some vegetables may be added, such as carrots, 
turnip, leeks, onions, celery, etc., all nicely pared ; season well, letting the whole 
stew until the vegetables have become quite tender, a bunch of sweet herbs tied in a 
bag should be added. When done, take out the vegetables and place them in a 
soup tureen, straining the liquor through a fine sieve over them, and serve with a 
plate of sippets of toast. 

Princess Soup. 

Separate the meat from the bones of a cold roasted fowl, chop the meat, place it 
in a mortar, and pound it well. Put the bones and trimmings of the fowl into a 
saucepan with one pint of boiling veal stock, and boil for half an hour. Peel and 
cut into slices four large cucumbers ; put one-fourth pound of butter in a stewpan to 
melt ; then put in two or three sliced onions, one-half pound of lean ham, one or 
two sprigs of basil, two bay leaves and the sliced cucumbers. Fry them over a brisk 
fire for a few minutes, then pour in one pint of broth, and let it simmer for half an 
hour ; add the pounded fowl, four tablespoonfuls of sago, and four tablespoonfuls of 
flour, and stir until well mixed ; pour in the broth from the chicken bones, and boil 
the whole gently for twenty minutes. Pass the soup through a fine hair sieve into 
another stewpan, and stir it over the fire until boiling; pour in one quart of boiling 
milk, skim it, and season with salt and one teaspoonful of sugar. Put the slices of 
cucumbers into a soup tureen with one-half pint of boiled green peas and one teacup- 
ful of thick cream, pour in the soup, stir until well mixed, and then serve it. Should 
the soup be too thick, add a little more milk of broth before turning it into the tureen. 

Quenelle Soup. 

Pour one teacupful of water into a saucepan, set it over the fire, add a small lump 
of butter and a pinch of salt, stir well until it boils, add sufficient flour to form a fairly 
thick paste, turn it out on to a dish, and stand it on a cool place until cold. Cut one- 
half pound of lean veal into small pieces and pound them thoroughly in a mortar, 



SOUPS. 39 

adding by degrees two ounces of the above paste, and three or four ounces of butter ; 
beat well together, then add the yolks of two eggs and the white of one, and season 
to taste with grated nutmeg, pepper and salt. Rub the whole through a fine hair 
sieve, adding a little cream, and with the aid of two teaspoons form the mass into 
quenelles. Place them side by side in a saucepan, pour in carefully sufficient boiling 
stock to cover them, and cook gently for a few minutes. Pour the necessary quantity 
of well flavored stock or broth into a tureen, add the quenelles and serve hot. The 
stock in which they were cooked may also be poured in if desired. 

Rice-and-Pea Soup. 

Wash thoroughly one teacupful of rice, put it into a saucepan with one pint of 
white stock, and allow it to boil gently until it is very tender. Put one-half pint of 
young green peas into another saucepan with one pint of white stock and stew them 
until tender. When both the above vegetables are cooked, stir them together and 
add as much more stock as will make the required quantity of soup; when boiling 
move the pan to the side of the fire, and stir in quickly the yolk of an egg that has 
been beaten up with one pint of cream. Season to the taste with salt and pepper, 
pour the soup into a soup tureen, and serve it with a plateful of sippets of toast or 
croutons of bread fried in butter to a delicate brown. 

Rice-and-Tomato Soup. 

Put one-half pound of well washed rice into a saucepan with two quarts of vege- 
table stock, and boil the whole until tender. When the rice is cooked, move the 
saucepan to the side of the fire, and mix in the contents of a can of tomatoes and one 
ounce of butter. Pour the soup into a tureen, and serve it with sippets of toast or 
croutons of bread that have been fried in butter. 

Russian Julienne Soup. 

Cut into strips one celery root, one carrot, one turnip, one leek, two onions and 
a small cabbage, and have ready; also cut up a quantity of mushrooms equal in bulk 
to all the other vegetables. Put the leek and onions into a saucepan with a small 
lump of butter, and fry them; do not, however, let them take a color. Then put in 
the other vegetables, together with the mushrooms, and cook gently until the moisture 
of the latter is reduced; pour over sufficient rich broth to moisten, reduce this to a 
glaze, pour over three or four quarts of boiling broth, remove the saucepan to the 
side of the fire, and allow the contents to simmer gently for an hour and a half. Mix 
well, stir in a little finely chopped fennel, and strain in enough sour cream to thicken; 
turn the soup into a tureen, and serve with rissoles, croquettes or meat patties. This 
latter is strictly the Russian way of serving this soup. 



40 SOUPS. 

Sago Soup. 

Wash one-fourth pound of sago, and boil it for one hour in plenty of water, ad- 
ding a small piece of stick cinnamon, the rind of one lemon, and a pinch of salt. At 
the end of that time mix with the sago three or four slices of lemon, sufficient red 
wine to make. the required quantity of soup, and sugar to taste. Stir the soup over 
the fire until boiling, then remove the lemon-peel and cinnamon. Sprinkle some 
powdered sugar and cinnamon in with the soup and serve it. 

Sanitary Soup. 

Trim off the exterior leaves of three large lettuces, wash the remainder and cut 
them into fine shreds. Wash and shred a small quantity of beetroot leaves, one 
handful each of chervil and celery leaves, and about two handfuls of sorrel leaves. 
Put two leeks and one sliced onion into a saucepan with a little butter and toss them 
over the fire until the butter has melted and commenced to boil ; then throw in the 
beetroot, celery and lettuce leaves and fry them for ten minutes ; add the sorrel and 
chervil, pour in two quarts of broth, boil it for fifteen minutes, then move the sauce- 
pan to the side of the fire and skim off all the fat. Put some thin slices of bread 
into a soup tureen, soak them with a little of the soup for a few minutes, then pour 
in the remainder and serve. 

Solferino Soup. 

Put into a saucepan with some clear stock an equal quantity each of new pota- 
toes, string and haricot beans, young carrots and green peas ; add a little chopped 
celery, parsley and chives. Let the soup simmer by the side of the fire till the veg- 
etables are cooked, then put in a little tomato puree and season to taste with pepper 
and salt. Put some croutons of fried or toasted bread in a soup tureen, pour the soup 
over them and serve. 

Sorrel Soup. 

Wash well one-fourth pound of fresh sorrel and cut it into small pieces. Put 
two ounces of butter into a saucepan and make it hot ; then put in the sorrel and 
toss it over the fire for a few minutes. Pour one pint of bechamel sauce over the 
sorrel, and stew it gently for fifteen or twenty minutes, seasoning to taste with salt 
and pepper and any kind of herbs desired. Cut some slices of bread, toast or fry 
them in butter till lightly browned, and cut them into small squares ; then put them 
in a soup tureen, pour the soup over them and serve. 

Soubise Soup. 

Put into a saucepan two thinly sliced onions, four thin slices of bread, one-half 
pint of milk and two pints of water. When boiling, mix with the above ingredients 



SOUPS. 41 

two ounces of butter, and salt and pepper to taste. Stew them slowly by the side of 
the fire until the onions will mash to a pulp. Pass the soup through a fine hair sieve, 
return it to the saucepan, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, and stir it by the side 
of the fire until thick. Pour the soup into a tureen, and serve with sippets of toast. 

Spanish Soup, Parisian Style. 

Chop up four large onions and fry them in a little butter. Add a small quantity 
of sugar, and when the onions are of a light golden color put them into a saucepan 
with two quarts of warmed broth, a little parsley, and a bay leaf, and boil for eight 
minutes. Place some thin slices of toast in a tureen, arranging them in layers, 
sprinkle with pepper, pour the soup over them and serve. 

Tapioca Soup with Tomatoes. 

Put six ounces of tapioca into a saucepan, pour over one-half gallon of rich 
strained broth, boil for a couple of minutes, and move the pan to the side of the fire 
and simmer gently. Remove the seeds from four or five large tomatoes, put them in 
a saucepan with a small onion, a small sprig of parsley and a bay leaf tied up with 
it, also a few peppercorns and salt to taste. Put the saucepan over the fire, reduce 
the moisture of the tomatoes, rub the whole through a fine hair sieve into the soup, 
and serve when the tapioca is thoroughly done and dissolved. 

Terrapin Soup. 

Put the shells, heads and trimmings of three terrapins into a saucepan with plenty 
of water and boil them gently for two or three hours, skimming it well the first time 
it bubbles. When all the good has been extracted from the shells, etc., strain the 
liquor into a clean saucepan, put in the pieces of terrapin meat and boil them for an 
hour; the fat should be added after the meat has boiled for a short time. At the end 
of an hour take out the pieces of terrapin and put them on a dish to cool, strain their 
liquor into a bowl; put the bones that have been separated from the meat into two 
quarts of water until all the gelatine has dissolved, then add the strained liquor, a bunch 
of thyme and parsley, one teaspoonful of bruised peppercorns, two cloves, one teaspoon- 
ful of chopped onion and half a blade of mace, and let it boil for about thirty min- 
utes longer. Cut the cold meat of the terrapin into small square pieces, strain the 
soup into a clean saucepan, put in the meat and boil it up. Boil up one quart of 
cream in another saucepan, put one tablespoonful of flour, a lump of butter the size 
of a hen's egg into a saucepan, stir it over the fire until mixed, then pour in the boil- 
ing cream; strain this through a strainer into the soup. The soup should be served 
as soon as the cream is mixed with it. 



42 SOUPS. 



Mock Terrapin Soup. 



Chop into small pieces two pounds of roasted or boiled beef, put into a 
saucepan, pour in one breakfast cupful each of milk and wine, and add two ounces 
of butter rolled in flour, two or three tablespoonfuls of made mustard, and a little 
grated nutmeg. Place the saucepan on the fire, boil for about fifteen or twenty 
minutes, turn into a tureen and serve. 

Tomato Soup. 

Put one quart of tomatoes into a saucepan with one pint of hot water, and bring 
it to the boil. Rub together two heaping tablespoonfuls of flour and one table- 
spoonful of butter ; stir this into the boiling mixture, and season. Boil for fifteen 
minutes in all, and pass it through a fine sieve. Cut off some thin slices of bread, 
without their crusts, butter them, cut them into dice and plac hem in a pan with 
their buttered sides up, and brown them in a quick oven. Serve the bread and soup 
separately. 

Turnip and Rice Soup. 

Peel and wash some turnips, and put them in a saucepan with some washed rice, 
using more turnip than rice. Put in a lump of butter and sufficient water to cook 
them and allow them to simmer gently until tender. Pass the mixture through a 
fine hair sieve, return it to the saucepan, mix in some milk, and season it with salt 
and pepper ; stir the mixture over the fire with a wooden spoon, and let it simmer 
for fifteen or twenty minutes ; then stir in a lump of butter and one-half pint of 
cream. Turn the soup into a soup tureen, and serve with a plateful of croutons of 
fried bread or sippets of toast. 

Turtle Soup from Dried Turtle. 

Cut into small pieces two pounds of shin of beef, two ounces of lean raw ham, 
and two pounds of knuckle of veal, and put them into a saucepan or stockpot. Put 
four ounces of dried turtle into a bowl of cold water, and allow it to soak for forty- 
eight hours, changing the water three or four times; then put it into a saucepan of 
water and simmer very gently for about twenty-four hours. Place the turtle in the 
saucepan with the other meat, pour in the liquor in which it simmered; this should be 
sufficient to make the soup; bring it gently to the boil, skim as required, add two or 
three onions, one carrot, half a head of celery, one turnip, all cut up into pieces, a 
sprig each of thyme and marjoram, one teacupful each of basil and peppercorns, a 
blade of mace, six or eight cloves, and cayenne pepper and salt to taste. Boil or 
simmer gently for eight hours, take out the pieces of turtle, pass the liquor through 
a fine sieve into another saucepan, allow it to get cold, skim off all the fat, add the 
whites and shells of three eggs beaten slightly, to clarify, boil up once more, remove 



SOUPS. 43 

the pan to the side of the fire and allow it to stand there for thirty minutes, by which 
time it should be quite clear. Skim well, strain the liquor through a napkin or very 
fine sieve into another saucepan, add the turtle, which should have been pressed and 
cut into convenient-sized pieces, squeeze in the juice of half a lemon, salt to taste, 
boil up once more, turn the whole into a soup tureen and serve. A little caramel 
may be added should the soup not be dark enough. A wineglassful of Madeira is 
considered a great improvement. 

Mock Turtle, French Style. . 

Select a fine fresh calf's head with the skin on, wash it well in warm water, and 
when well cleared of blood boil it for two hours; then take it up and allow it to get 
cold. Then cut off in one inch square pieces the fat parts of the head which adhere 
to the skin, and wash them well in several waters. Pour two quarts of good beef 
stock slightly seasoned with salt, cayenne and truffles and mushrooms, into the soup 
pot, add five of six onions, five carrots and five turnips, all cut into slices, a head of 
celery cut small, two or three shallots, a bunch of sweet herbs, a bunch of parsley, 
three bay leaves, half a dozen cloves, half a dozen allspice, three blades of mace, two 
slices of lean ham chopped small, three or four tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, 
and one tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce; let the whole simmer for two hours 
and then strain through a fine sieve. Put in it the pieces of calf's head, boil it up, 
and pour it into the tureen together with a little strained lemon juice, two tablespoon- 
fuls of white wine, and one tablespoonful of brandy. Serve cayenne and thin slices 
of lemon with it. 

Preserved Green Turtle Soup. 

Choose a medium-sized turtle, cut off the head and allow it to bleed for twelve 
or fourteen hours. Remove the bones by opening the sides, cut the carcass into 
pieces, and blanch them for three minutes in boiling water. Lift off the top shell and 
place it in a saucepan, covering it with white broth, a handful of whole peppers, a 
dozen or so of cloves, half a bunch of thyme, and six bay leaves (all the above spices 
and herbs being tied up in a piece of cloth). Add a handful of salt, and cook for 
about an hour. Drain, remove the bones, and cut the flesh in dice. Allow the broth 
to be reduced to three-fourths its quantity, then put in the white lean meat, allowing 
it to cook for ten minutes, and then add the green part of the turtle. Fill some 
medium-sized vessels with this, and when cold pour hot lard over the tops. A wine- 
glassful or so of Madeira wine may be added to the broth if desired. '"\ y 



Turtle Soup Stock. 



Prepare and cut up a turtle. Put the pieces of shell in a saucepan over the fire 
with sufficient boiling water to cover them, and boil for two or three hours, or until 
the outer edges of the shell are soft. As the water boils away add more, always 



44 SOUPS. 

keeping the shells entirely covered. Cut the soft parts of the shells into pieces about 
one-half inch square, place them in an earthenware bowl, cover over with a wet 
napkin, and keep in a cool place until wanted. Place the hard parts, of the shells 
again into water in which it was boiled, put in also one-eighth of the first weight of 
the turtle of beef bones, and one-sixteenth of the weight of veal bones, or of calf's 
feet and head as directed for soup, skinning the calf's head. On the top of these in- 
gredients lay the neck and fins of the turtle, and the cushions or rounded muscles at 
top of the turtle fins, unless part of the latter is to be reserved raw for broiling as 
steaks ; add enough water to cover all, together with two tablespoonfuls of salt, and 
allow all to boil gently for two hours or more, or until the bones of the fins separate 
easily from the flesh. Remove any scum which may rise, and keep the soup kettle 
closely covered. When the fins and cushions are tender, take them out of the stock, 
separate the flesh from the bones, keeping it in good sized pieces, and put it aside, in 
a cool place until wanted, in an earthenware vessel covered with a wet cloth. Return 
the bones to the stock, add to it the proportions usually employed for soup stock, of 
carrots, turnips, onions, parsley, sweet herbs, whole cloves, mace and peppercorns, 
and boil gently for five or six hours, keeping the pan closely covered. After the 
liver, legs, fat and intestines have been soaked in cold water boil them in the stock, 
the intestines being turned outward like the reversed finger of a glove, and well 
washed and scraped. When the stock is boiled it should be strained through a 
folded towel, laid in a colander placed over a large earthenware bowl, until clear. 
All those parts of the turtle which have been cooked and covered with wet cloths 
or napkins should now be placed in the bowls and covered with the strained turtle 
stock ; all the stock remaining should be saved for soup. Most turtle cooks advise 
leaving out the intestines, chiefly because they are more trouble to prepare than they 
are worth. 



Vegetable Soup. 



Chop finely sufficient onion, carrot and celery in equal proportions to fill five 
breakfast cups, also one teacupful each of turnip, cabbage and parsnip. The cabbage, 
parsnip and onion should have been partially boiled for five minutes and then well 
drained. Put all the vegetables into a saucepan, pour in one quart of stock and one 
quart of boiling water and boil gently until tender ; then put in with them one break- 
"ast cupful of tomatoes, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one teaspoonful each 
of salt and sugar and one-half teaspoonful of pepper. Turn the soup into a tureen 
and serve. 



Vermicelli Soup. 



Put from three to four pounds of knuckle of veal, one and one-half pounds of 
scrag of mutton and one-half pound of ham, all cut up into small pieces, into 
a saucepan with one-fourth pound of butter, and an onion stuck with one or two 
cloves, and fry them over the fire for ten minutes. Put in with the meat a bunch of 



SOUPS. 45 

sweet herbs, one anchovy, two carrots, three or four blades of mace and four heads 
of celery. Place the lid on the saucepan and stand it over the fire until all the gravy 
has been extracted from the meat. Drain the gravy into a basin, pour four quarts of 
water over the meat and boil slowly until reduced to three pints. Strain the soup into 
another saucepan, add one-fourth pound of vermicelli, a head of celery cut into small 
pieces and a small quantity of cayenne pepper and salt. Put a French roll into a soup 
tureen, pour a small quantity of the soup on it, let it soak for a few minutes, then 
pour in the remainder of the soup and serve. 

Vermicelli, -Queen Style. 

Blanch the vermicelli in boiling water, them drain it ; put it into a saucepan 
with rich broth, season to taste and let it boil gently until cooked. Beat well the 
yolks of eight eggs and mix a small quantity of cream with them ; pour them into the 
soup and stir them by the side of the fire for a few minutes, but do not allow them to 
boil. Turn the vermicelli into a tureen and serve it with a plate of sippets of toast. 

Vermicelli Soup with Tomato Puree. 

Prepare three quarts of fish stock, as for thick soup ; when boiling move it to 
the side of the fire and let it simmer for half an hour. Make one and one-half pints 
of fresh tomato puree. Skim the fat off the soup, put in a bunch of parsley and 
sweet herbs and the tomato puree, then allow it to simmer for twenty minutes 
longer. Boil gently in salted water one-half pound of vermicelli. Strain the soup, 
put in the vermicelli, skim off all the fat and boil up again. Turn the soup into a 
tureen, and serve. 

White Soup. 

Put six pounds of lean gravy beef into a saucepan with one-half gallon of water 
and stew it gently until all the goodness is extracted, then take the beef out. Put 
into the saucepan with the liquor six pounds of knuckle of veal, one-fourth pound of 
ham, four onions and four heads of celery, all cut into pieces, a few peppercorns 
and a bunch of sweet herbs. Stew all these gently for seven or eight hours, skim- 
ming off all the fat as it rises to the top. Mix with the crumb of two French rolls 
two ounces of blanched and pounded sweet almonds, put them into a saucepan with 
one pint of cream and a little stock, boil for ten minutes, then pass them through a 
silk sieve, using a wooden spoon in the process. Mix the cream and almonds with 
the soup, then turn it into a tureen and serve. 

Windsor Soup. 

Boil three calf's feet for one hour in two quarts of broth and one quart of 
water ; when done and cold, cut them into pieces, moisten with three or four pints of 
their own broth, adding a garnished bunch of parsley, one-half wineglassful of 



46 SOUPS. 

Madeira wine, one-half tablespoonful of salt, and a little cayenne pepper. Boil again 
for ten minutes, then strain through a fine sieve ; darken the soup with a little caramel 
browning, and when serving add twelve crayfish quenelles. 

Wine Soup. 

Put the yolks of twelve eggs and the whites of six into an enameled saucepan 
and beat them thoroughly, pour in one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of water, add 
six ounces of loaf sugar, the grated yellow rind and strained juice of a large lemon, 
and one and one-half pints of white wine. Whisk the soup over a gentle fire till 
frothed and on the point of boiling, then move it off immediately, turn it into a soup 
tureen and serve with a plate of small sponge cakes or fancy biscuits. The soup may 
be served as soon as ready, as the froth will soon go down. 

Soup with Noques. 

Put four ounces of butter into a stewpan to melt, add four or five ounces of flour 
and stir it over the fire until nicely browned. Pour in gradually with the flour three 
quarts of rich broth, continue stirring over the fire until the broth boils, then move 
the stewpan slightly to the side of the fire. Warm one-half pound of butter in a basin 
and work it with a spoon until creamy, then mix with it, one at a time, the yolks of 
five eggs and the whites of two. Beat the butter and eggs until light and frothy, 
then sift in slowly six ounces of flour, work the whole to a smooth paste, season it 
with nutmeg and salt and add the whipped whites of two more eggs. Try the consis- 
tency of the above mixture by poaching a small quantity of it in boiling water, stir in a 
little flour, if too light, and if too thick then stir in a little butter. Divide the mixture 
into small equal portions and shape them into round balls. Drop the noques into a 
saucepan of boiling salted water, give them one boil up, then move the pan to the side 
of the fire and boil again until firm. Beat the yolks of four eggs with a little cream, 
skim the, fat off the soup, put in the beaten eggs and stir them by the fire till thick. 
The soup should not boil after the eggs are added. Drain the noques, put them into a 
soup tureen, strain the soup over them through a fine hair sieve and serve at once. 



Soup Without Meat. 



Cut four large onions into slices, put them in a saucepan with one-half pound of 
butter and toss over the fire for a few minutes. Put in with the onions some celery 
cut into small pieces, a bunch of chopped parsley and some finely-shredded cabbage 
lettuces; stir these ingredients over the fire for fifteen minutes, then put in one break- 
fast cupful of crushed dry biscuits and two quarts of boiling milk and water mixed in 
equal quantities. Season the soup to taste with salt and pepper and let it simmer by 
the side of the fire for an hour. Beat two eggs well and stir them in the soup when 
taken from the fire. Serve with a plateful of sippets of toast. 



Fish. 



Anchovies. 

These delicious little seafish come principally from the Mediterranean ; those 
esteemed most highly come from Gorgona. These fish are also found in small shoals 
along the coast of Great Britain, but there are no specific fisheries for them. They 
are caught at night by nets, the fish being attracted by lights attached to the boats. 

To preserve them for exportation, the heads are cut off and the bodies cleaned. 
They are then placed in brine, packed in barrels and afterwards put up in bottles for 
the market. Dutch anchovies may be known by their having the scales removed ; 
and the French anchovies by their larger size ; and both by the pale tint of their 
flesh. This peculiar coloring is sometimes counterfeited by artificial means in sprats 
or sardines. It would be well to note that the color of the pickle of the best fish 
on being filtered, is of a clear pink, without sediment ; whereas the inferior sorts are 
generally turbid and red only when stirred, with also a heavy red sediment. 

To Serve Anchovies. 

They must be thoroughly cleaned, boned and trimmed. To open, they should 
be soaked in cold water for a couple of hours, taken out and dried on a cloth, and the 
backs divided by the points of the two thumbs, rather than with a knife, which should 
never touch them unless it is electro-plated or of silver. Lay the halves neatly on a 
dish, and garnish with finely chopped white of egg and parsley ; pour salad oil over all. 

Stuffed Anchovies. 

Split open some anchovies, wash them well in white wine and bone them. Mince 
a little cooked fish of any kind, place in a basin with very fine breadcrumbs, and 
make it into a paste by adding yolk of eggs. Stuff the anchovies with this mixture, 
dip into frying batter, plunge into a fryingpan of boiling fat and fry to a light color. 
Take out when done, drain and arrange on the dish, and serve with a garnish of fried 
parsley. 

Anchovies with Olives. 

Thoroughly wash and cut off the fillets of some anchovies, and chop them up 
very fine with a little parsley and onion ; put the whole into a mortar and pound it 
well, adding a little cayenne for seasoning. Cut a number of Spanish olives in halves, 
take out the stones, and fill them with the pounded anchovy mixture. In the mean- 

47 



48 . FISH. 

time cut some small rounds of bread about an inch in thickness and an inch and a 
half in diameter, scrape out a little from the center of each, put them into a frying- 
pan with butter, and fry to a nice light golden color ; then take out and drain, and 
arrange on a napkin spread over a dish ; put an olive in each, serve with a little 
mayonnaise sauce poured over and around the foot of the croutons of fried bread. 

Baked Bass, Plain. 

Scale, wash and thoroughly clean a bass, leaving the head intact, if to be sent 
to table whole ; then make a stuffing of two cupfuls of breadcrumbs, one teacupful 
of butter, the rind of a quarter of a lemon minced fine, and two or three sprigs of 
parsley, green thyme and marjoram. Season this mixture with pepper and salt. 
Beat up a couple of eggs, a very little water, and mix the stuffing with it. Fill into 
the fish and sew up when stuffed. Score both sides with a sharp knife by cutting 
down to the bone, and put a slice of salt pork, cut thin, into each incision ; then bake 
in a pan and baste with stock and seasoning. Place a little tomato puree or tomato 
sauce into the pan with the gravy, after removing the fish, and allow it to come to 
a boil ; then skim and strain and serve in a tureen with the fish. Care should be 
taken not to break the fish when transferring it from the pan to the dish. Some con- 
sider a glass of white wine added to each half pint of sauce an improvement. 

Boiled Bass. 

Dress a bass, wash well and drain it, and place in a saucepan of warm water, 
salted, and set over the fire. When the water boils remove to one side, and simmer 
gently for twenty minutes, by which time the fish should be quite done. Let it re- 
main in the liquor until wanted, then take out, drain and place on a napkin spread 
over a dish, garnish with boiled potatoes and sprigs of parsley and serve. 

Broiled Bass. 

Clean a bass, split it lengthwise in halves, cutting each half again into two or 
three pieces ; sprinkle over with flour and place on a gridiron over a slow fire, broil- 
ing them very gently, brush over continually with butter to prevent burning. When 
of a light brown color, place the pieces of fish on a napkin spread over a dish and 
serve. 

Fried Bass with Bacon. 

Wash, scale and carefully clean the bass, season well with pepper and salt, roll 
them in flour and let them lie in it until ready to be co.oked, then drop into a pan of 
very hot lard and fry until nicely browned. Then fry in a separate pan four slices of 
streaky bacon ; one piece for each piece of the fish and lay the slices of bacon one 
on each piece of fish. Garnish with parsley and serve with mashed potatoes. 



FISH. 49 

Fried Black Bass. 

Scale and clean the requisite number of black bass, roll well in flour, put in a fry- 
ingpan with hot fat to about half their height and fry until done. Place on a dish, 
garnish with potatoes, slices of lemon, parsley, and serve. 

Broiled Bloaters. 

Scrape and clean enough bloaters and wipe dry on a towel ; split down the belly 
from head to tail and lay them flat upon a buttered gridiron, over a clear fire, broiling 
for about six minutes, turning so as to cook both sides. When they are done, place 
them on a dish with a little butter over them and serve. 

Baked Bluefish, Italian Style. 

Score and scale the requisite amount of bluefish and place it in a buttered pan 
with half a wineglassful of white wine, three tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor, and 
a little very finely chopped onion, six chopped mushrooms, and season with salt and 
pepper ; cover the dish with buttered paper and cook in a moderate oven for fifteen 
minutes, then remove and lay on a dish. Place the liquor in a stewpan, add a gill of 
Spanish sauce, with one wineglassful of white wine, and reduce for two minutes. Pour 
the sauce over the fish, with a little finely chopped parsley, and serve, with fancy 
croutons of bread. 

Bouillabaisse. 

Place a sufficient quantity of mixed fish, such as soles, whiting, gurnet and flound- 
ers into a saucepan, having cut them into pieces, and add some sliced onions, one or 
two sliced carrots, three shallots, two unpicked cloves of garlic, a bunch of thyme and 
parsley, five or six cloves, two bay-leaves, half a teaspoonful of capsicum, a little olive 
oil, and salt and pepper to taste. Pour into the above mixture a couple of quarts of 
water and boil gently for half an hour, the lid being placed on the pan. When suffi- 
ciently cooked drain the fish and arrange on a hot dish. Then mix a teaspoonful of 
saffron with the soup and pass through a pointed strainer into a soup-tureen. Serve 
the soup with the fish and a plate of croutons of fried bread or sippets of toast. 

Baked Carp. 

Clean a carp and place it in a bowl of salted cold water and vinegar to let it dis- 
gorge. Remove, drain and dry it, stuff with well-seasoned forcemeat, sew up the belly, 
brush it with egg, dredge breadcrumbs over and put on a few small lumps of butter 
here and there. Place the fish in a deep earthenware dish with two onions cut in 
slices and a few sweet herbs, pour over one breakfast cupful each of sweet wine and 
stock, mixing it with one teaspoonful of anchovy sauce or essence, put the dish in a 



50 FISH. 

moderate oven and bake for an hour. Dress the carp carefully on a dish and keep 
it hot, then strain the liquor into a saucepan, add a lump of butter rolled in flour to 
thicken and stir continually over the fire until it is done ; then mix in half a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, the juice of a lemon and a seasoning of salt and pepper. Pour this into 
a sauceboat and serve. 



Baked Carp, -Mariniere. 



Take a carp weighing from ten to twelve pounds, scale, draw it, and cut a little 
off the fins and fill the inside with forcemeat. Remove a little of the skin from the 
back, leaving the flesh exposed, and lard this with fat bacon ; then truss the head ; 
place the fish on a drainer in a long fishkettle, season it and fill the kettle to about 
half the height of the fish with court bouillon and white wine in the proportion of one 
quart of the former to one-half pint of the latter. Place the kettle on the fire and let 
the liquid boil for five minutes; then remove the carp and put it in a moderate oven 
to bake for about an hour and a half, basting it often. When done, take it out, 
drain, and pour its stock through a sieve, putting the fish back into the kettle again 
to keep hot. Prepare a little brown sauce with the stock, and when clarified and 
strained, put it into a flat stewpan with a handful of mushroom trimmings ; pour in a 
wineglassful of white wine and reduce ; then pass it through a sieve, adding a quarter 
of a pound of good butter. Place the carp on an oval dish and garnish it on both 
sides with a bunch of quenelles of whitings, one of mushrooms and one of blanched 
olives ; glaze the larding with a paste-brush and pour a little sauce over the other 
parts of the fish and a little at the bottom of the dish. Put the soft roes into the 
balance of the sauce and serve in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Carp. 

Clean and wash one or two carp, place them in a saucepan, pour over sufficient 
rich beef gravy to cover, and add a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, four cloves, and 
salt to the taste. Place the saucepan on a moderate fire and cook gently for an hour 
or until the fish is done. Pour into a saucepan a pint of strong beef gravy, with two 
wineglassfuls of white wine; allow this to get hot, and add the strained juice of half 
a lemon. Place the carp on a dish, pour over the hot lemon-flavored liquor and serve 
promptly. 

Pickled Carp. 

After cleaning a carp make as small an opening as possible, tie up the head, put 
the fish in a fish kettle, pour over boiling vinegar, and after a few minutes add a tum- 
blerful of red wine, and a seasoning of two carrots and three onions cut into slices, 
and a small quantity each of sage, thyme, laurel leaves, parsley, cloves and garlic, and 
then set the kettle on the fire and allow it to simmer gently for an hour. Let the fish 
remain in this until it is quite cold, when it will be ready to serve. 



FISH. 51 

Stewed Carp. 

Take a large carp, cut out the gills, but do not remove the tongue; then make 
as small an opening in the under edge as possible in order to open it, and wash it out 
thoroughly. Boil one-half pint of vinegar, and when it is boiling pour it over the fish 
that the scales may drop off easily. Wrap the carp in a cloth and stew it in a court 
bouillon. When done drain it and serve with capers and anchovy sauce, or without 
sauce after soup. 

Catfish Stewed with Tomatoes. 

Slice the fish, each weighing about two ounces, and fry these with a very little 
butter or dripping. When they are partly browned and about half cooked, add one 
breakfast cupful of water, one or two minced green onions, and a pod of red pepper. 
Strain a can of tomatoes over a colander on to the fish, and cook together for half an 
hour, Serve with pieces of dry toast. 

Baked Codfish. 

Take a fresh cod and prepare it by tying up the head with string and filling the 
inside with maitre d'hotel butter, put the fish belly downward on a buttered drainer 
in a fish kettle, and pour over it a mixture made as follows: Melt two pounds of 
butter in a saucepan, add three quarts of chopped mushrooms, two blanched and 
chopped shallots, four tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, the juice of two lemons, a 
crushed clove of garlic, and season to taste ; all of these being partly cooked before 
used. Pour over the fish a pint and a half of white wine, and bring it quickly to a 
boil, then let cook gently for an hour and a half, basting the fish every ten minutes 
with the liquor. When the flesh is firm put the fish on a dish and pour over it half 
the fish stock, putting the rest in a sauce-boat. Any fish sauce may accompany it. 

Baked Codfish with Cream. 

Take the tail of a cod, clean it, and boil in salted water with a little parsley. 
When it is done wipe and open down the back, remove the bones and break the meat 
into pieces. Place these pieces in layers, and between each one a little bechamel 
sauce slightly reduced with cream, also a piece of butter and nutmeg. Sprinkle a 
few breadcrumbs on top and brown it. 

Codfish Balls. 

Take the bone from a piece of fish, make it weigh six ounces, soak in cold 
water, put in a saucepan and boil for half an hour. Pound it to a pulp, being careful 
that all the bones are removed. Boil a half pound of potatoes and when done mash 
them up with the fish, adding a tablespoonful of melted butter and one egg. Make 
this into balls and fry to a light brown. 



52 FISH. 

Boiled Codfish with Cream Sauce. 

Take out the inside of a cod by the white skin of the belly, taking care to remove 
all blood. Place the fish in a kettle with salted cold water and boil fast at first and 
then slowly. When done take out and skin. Pour over it sauce made as follows: 
A quarter pound of butter put in a stew pan with one tablespoonful of flour, moisten 
with a pint of cream, add a little salt and pepper and a teaspoonful of essence of 
anchovies; place the pan on the fire, let thicken but not boil. 

Boiled Codfish with Hollandaise Sauce. 

Take the gills from a cod, also the entrails where the gills form a hole, chop off 
the fins and sprinkle over the fish a little salt, also putting some inside, then place in 
a cold place and let it remain for a few hours. Take it up, wash off the salt, tie the 
head with string, put it in a bowl of water and milk and let it disgorge for about 
three-quarters of an hour. Take it out and drain, put belly downward on a drainer 
in a fish kettle with enough cold salted water to cover it, add three cupfuls of milk 
and boil slowly until the cut begins to open. 

Cleaning Codfish. 

It is usual first to remove the gills by cutting their connection with the rest of 
the head and shoulders and pulling them out. Lay the fish on his back, open the 
belly by cutting down the center, remove the inside, carefully preserving the liver and 
roe, and leaving the sounds uninjured. If the fish is to be cooked whole it should be 
" scored " to the bone transversely at intervals of two inches ; but if it is to be cooked 
in pieces, cut it in slices three inches thick and soak the fish in water for a quarter of 
an hour. Cod is crimped by being cut up and notched with a knife while partly alive; 
but some cooks object to this. The following recipes for cooking cod are carefully 
selected as likely to give sufficient variety to suit all tastes and to all purposes. The 
fish is usually divided, by the fishmonger, into " head and shoulders," " middle " and 
"tail;" but although preference may be given to the middle cut, the tail is quite as 
good, although not so fleshy, and the head yields in quantity the gelatine that makes 
excellent soup. Codlings are for the most part amenable to the same treatment. 

Fillets of Codfish, Hollandaise. 

Take any number of fillets of cod, put in a buttered stewpan, add one gill of 
stock, season, sprinkle a little fine parsley over, and set in the oven, or on the stove, 
with a buttered paper over. When done put them upon a dish, bordered with mashed 
potatoes. 

Fried Cod. 

Cut a cod in slices, dust with pepper and salt and let remain for two hours. 
Wipe the slices dry, dip in yolk of egg and then in breadcrumbs, mix with flour, season 



FISH. 53 

and put in pan with plenty of fat and fry quickly. The tail is best for frying, and 
after removing the skin and bones, cut in slices and press with a cutlet bat. 

Fried Codfish, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Trim a few fillets of cod and dip them in flour. Rub some breadcrumbs through 
a wire sieve, whisk two whole eggs, season, and dip the fillets in the eggs, roll in the 
breadcrumbs and fry to a light brown. Serve with maitre d'hotel sauce in a boat. 

Hashed Codfish. 

Take a cupful of cooked cod, pick in pieces and soak in cold water for twelve 
hours. Boil some potatoes and add them to the finely chopped fish, a little at a time, 
put in a pan and stir. Heat some butter, put the hash in it and let it cook gently. 

Matelote of Codfish. 

Remove the head and bones of a fish, fill the insides with stuffings made from 
half a pint of oysters, one pint of breadcrumbs, a little pepper, a little salt, two table- 
spoonfuls of butter, one egg, half an onion and half a tablespoonful of chopped 
parsley. Take six slices of bacon, put three on the bottom and three on the top of 
the fish and bake for an hour, basting with butter and gravy made from the bones 
boiled in water. 

Stewed Codfish. 

Take a piece of boiled fish, remove the skin and bones, and pick into flakes ; 
put these into a stew pan with a little butter, pepper, salt, minced parsley, cayenne, 
and the juice of a lemon. Put on the fire, and when the contents of the pan are 
quite hot the fish is quite ready to serve. 

Baked Cod's Head. 

Trim and wash well the head of a cod, fill the gills with veal stuffing, put the 
head in a baking dish, season with pepper and salt, also add a little parsley ; moisten 
with a pint of sherry and a little catsup, put a buttered paper over and set in the 
oven to bake. The fish must be well basted while baking, and a pint of stock may 
be added to keep it moist. When the head is nearly done sprinkle it over with fine 
raspings of bread, and when it is quite done put it upon a dish. Add two gills of 
brown sauce to the liquor in the baking pan, strain in a stewpan, and put in a little 
essence of anchovy, two ounces of butter and a little lemon juice ; boil the sauce for 
a few minutes, pour on the cod and serve. 



54 FISH. 



Salted Cod, Biscayan Style. 



Bone two pounds of cod and soak in cold water for a day, place in a saucepan 
with fresh water and simmer till boiling, then add fresh water and let boil again ; 
take out and scale. Fry two chopped onions and one green pepper in a gill of oil 
for five minutes, add a sliced tomato, one clove of bruised garlic and one chili pep- 
per. Moisten these with three pints of broth, add a small bunch of parsley, three 
tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce and one pint of peeled potatoes, and cook for forty 
minutes ; then add the cod and boil again for five minutes. 

Boiled Salted Cod. 

Steep two pounds of salted cod and put in tepid water for six hours; then take it 
out and place it for the same length of time in cold water, changing about every half 
hour. Put the fish in a gallon saucepan filled with water, and when it boils put on the 
side and let simmer for five minutes. 

Boiled Salted Cod with Egg Sauce. 

Chop fine one pound of freshly-salted cod that has been soaked, boiled, and 
allowed to get cold. Mix one teaspoonful of corn meal with one cupful of milk, and 
stir on the fire till it thickens, then add half a pound of mashed potatoes rubbed 
through a sieve, two ounces of butter, one dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, two 
beaten eggs and pepper to taste. 

(2.) Boil two eggs for ten minutes, cut them into large dice, and put in one 
pint of melted butter sauce. When the fish is done pour this over it and serve. 

Salted Cod with Brown Butter. 

Soak the fish in cold water for two days, then scrape off the scales, clean and 
wash thoroughly, and place over a slow fire until boiling. Move the kettle to the 
side of the fire, skim off the scum that may have risen to the top, and boil gently for 
ten minutes. Put a little butter in a fryingpan and place over the fire, when it is 
hot put in a few sprigs of parsley and fry until brown. Pour the butter and parsley 
over the fish and serve hot. 

Boiled Cod's Tongues with Egg Sauce. 

Place the tongues in warm water and leave for a day and a half, changing the 
water once. Put a pan of water on the fire, and when it boils put in the tongues and 
boil them for ten minutes. Place a piece of toast on a dish, brush the tongues over 
with egg sauce, put them on the toast and serve. 



FISH. 55 

. i 

Fried Cod's Tongues. 

Wash eighteen to twenty tongues, dip in cold milk, and roll one by one in flour. 
Put one teacupful of clarified butter in a fryingpan, lay in the tongues, keeping them 
separate and cook for three minutes; then turn on the other side and cook for three 
minutes longer. Serve with one gill of tomato sauce in a sauceboat. 

Cod Tongues, Poulette Style. 

Put eighteen tongues, blanched, in a saucepan, add a pint of Dutch sauce, half a 
gill of the stock in which they were blanched, and one teaspoonful of chopped pars- 
ley, and beat for five minutes without boiling. Put in a deep dish, sprinkle with pars- 
ley and serve. 

Cod's Tongues with Black Butter Sauce. 

Blanch eighteen cod's tongues, and put in a saucepan with half a gill of the 
liquor that they were blanched in, heat, but do not boil. Drain, dress on a hot dish 
and pour over one pint of black butter sauce. 

Braised Eel, Royal Style. 

After skinning and cleaning, cut an eel into two-inch pieces, sprinkle with salt 
and let them remain for an hour or so. Plunge into a bowl of cold water for ten 
minutes, dry them, put in a well-buttered saucepan and season with grated nutmeg, 
salt and pepper, and over them place slices of lemons and shallots, also a little 
scraped parsley root and a few whole white peppers. Set the saucepan over a slow 
fire with hot ashes on the lid and braise until the fish is done. Place the pieces of 
eel on a dish; add to the saucepan one breakfast cupful of stock and boil for a few 
minutes and thicken with a white roux; let this reduce slightly; remove the pan from 
the fire, add a liaison of the yolks of three eggs, boil up once more, strain into a 
saucepan containing double its quantity of German sauce, boil up again, pour around 
the eel, and serve. 

Brochettes of Eels. 

Cut two or three eels in slices about one inch in thickness, after skinning and 
cleaning; lay them in a dish, dust over with salt, pepper and a little finely chopped 
parsley and sweet herbs and let them stand for two or three hours. Have in readi- 
ness some truffles parboiled in white wine and cut into slices; put the pieces of eels 
on attelettes or skewers with pieces of truffle between; brush the whole over with 
yolk of egg, dip into sifted breadcrumbs, put them into a fryingpan of boiling fat 
and fry for about twenty minutes. When done put them on a dish without remov- 
ing the skewers and serve. 



56 FISH. 

Broiled Eels. 

Skin and clean a good-sized eel; remove the backbone and cut the eel into four 
or five pieces. Dip each piece first into egg and then into breadcrumbs mixed with 
grated rind of lemon, nutmeg, parsley, sweet herbs, pepper and salt. Put the pieces 
of fish on a greased gridiron with the skin side of the fish downward, over a clear 
fire, and broil them, turning over when done on one side. Put on a hot dish, garnish 
with parsley and horseradish set alternately, and serve with tartar or anchovy sauce 
in a sauceboat. 

Fricassee of Eel. 

Skin and clean some eels and cut off their heads ; chop them up into small pieces 
and put into a fryingpan with sufficient white wine and water in equal parts to cover ; 
season with mace, pepper, nutmeg, cloves, sweet herbs, allspice and salt according to 
taste. Set the pan over a good fire and boil until the eels are quite tender, then put 
them on a dish. Pound in a mortar two anchovies and add them to the liquor with a 
little butter and yolks of eggs to thicken. Pour this over the fish, and serve. 

Fried Eels. 

Cut a large eel into thick slices, after skinning and cleaning ; put the pieces into 
a basin with vinegar, the peel from two or three lemons, and a little each of salt and 
pepper, and let them soak for a day or so ; take them out, drain, dip into batter, 
plunge into a fryingpan of boiling fat and fry. When done, drain, place on a napkin 
on a dish, and serve with a sauceboatful of reduced stock mixed with a little lemon 
juice and a pounded, boned anchovy. 

Matelote of Eels. 

Skin two large eels, cut them into pieces, without opening the belly, thrust a 
knife blade into each piece, and twist it around to remove the inside. Wash them 
well ; put into a saucepan with one breakfast cupful of stock and half a pint of claret, 
adding a clove of garlic, a whole pepper, a sliced onion, a bay leaf, thyme, cloves, 
parsley and a little salt, and boil gently until done. Take out the pieces of fish, 
strain the liquor and add a liquorglassful of brandy to it. Put a piece of butter into 
a saucepan, stir in one tablespoonful of flour to thicken, add it to the sauce and boil. 
Place croutons of fried bread in a circle on a dish ; arrange the fish in the center, pour 
the sauce over and serve. 

Matelote of Eels, Normandy Style. 

Cut a pound and a half of eels into pieces, put them in a saucepan with a table- 
spoonful of butter and fry for two minutes, add a wineglassful of white wine, three 



FISH. 57 

tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup, season well with salt, pepper and nutmeg and 
cook for ten minutes longer; add half a pint of veloute sauce, six mushrooms, twelve 
blanched oysters, six fish quenelles, and six small cooked crayfish tails and continue 
cooking for five minutes. Beat in the yolks of three eggs when ready to serve, then 
remove the pan from the fire and serve with a garnish of croutons of fried bread. 

Stewed Eels, American Style. 

Take three pounds of cleaned, skinned eels, having all the fat removed from the 
insides, cut them into pieces about two inches long, shake a little pepper and salt 
over and place in a jar with a quarter of a pound of butter. Chop an onion and scat- 
ter over the eels, and one dessertspoonful of chopped parsley. Cover the jar closely, 
stand it over the fire in a saucepan of cold water, allow it slowly to come to a boil 
and cook until tender. This will take about an hour and a half from the time the 
water boils. Serve in a deep dish. 

Stewed Eels, Bordelaise Style. 

Skin and clean an eel, split it open and put in a stewpan with a slice of onion, 
two or three sprigs of parsley and a pinch of salt and pepper. Cover with Madeira 
wine and simmer until the eel is done. Take it out and press between two plates 
until cold, strain and reduce the liquor, add a little fish glaze and strain it through a 
conical strainer into a bain-marie pan, cut the eel into fillets, put these with a little of 
the sauce into a stewpan over a moderate fire and heat the eel. Arrange them in a 
circle on a dish and garnish the center with glazed and blanched small onions. Mix 
a little anchovy butter and a pinch of cayenne with matelote sauce. Pour over the 
eels and serve. 

Stewed Eels, Poulette Style. 

Cut some cleaned eel in two-inch pieces and stew them in a marinade or stock. 
Make a little white roux, and mix a little broth with it; add a few green onions, a 
bunch of parsley, one small white onion, five or six mushrooms, and a little glaze, 
seasoning with pepper and salt, and boil for twenty minutes, stirring continually. 
Take out the parsley and onions, and add a little finely chopped parsley and the juice 
of one lemon. Remove the eels, drain, dish, pour over the sauce, and serve. 

Attelettes of Fish. 

Cut a slice of any fish to a little more than half an inch thick, remove the skin, 
and divide the slice in two, having removed the bone. Cut the slices into very thin 
strips, forming the attelettes, salt, dip them in oil, roll in Hour, and plunge them into 
hot fat to fry. As soon as the flesh is firm, take them out with a skimmer, drain, 
season them with salt, and dish up with a little fried parsley. 

Note that this process is simply one of frying strips of flesh, and may therefore 



58 FISH. 

be applied equally well to almost any kind of fish flesh which may be convenient. 
The hot fat must be hotter than boiling water, and a thick batter may be used instead 
of oil and flour. Anchovy sauce goes well with these fish attelettes. 

For this kind of dish it is well to have small silver skewers, about four inches 
long and of the thickness of a packing needle, with a ring or fancy design on the top, 
the persons eating what is served on them, taking the head of the skewer with the 
thumb and fingers of the left hand and picking it off with a fork. 

Curried Fish. 

Peel and cut two medium-sized onions into thin slices and put in a stewpan with 
a small lump of butter and fry until lightly browned. Pour over them some white 
stock, judging the quantity by that of the fish ; add one ounce of butter and a suf- 
ficient quantity of curry powder ; season with salt, lemon juice, a little sugar and a 
small quantity of cayenne. Boil the stock for fifteen or twenty minutes, then strain 
it into a clean stewpan, skim and put in the fish, having carefully prepared it, and 
boil gently, but without breaking it. Wash and boil about half a pound of rice in 
water ; when cooked it should be dry and have the grains unbroken. Turn the 
curry out on to a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread or sippets of toast, 
and serve very hot, with the rice separate. 

Fish Cutlets. 

Season one pint of any kind of cold cooked fish with salt, pepper and cayenne, 
and make it into paste with a little thick cream sauce, made quite hot. Put the paste 
on a dish to about half an inch in thickness, and when it is cold form it into the 
shapes of cutlets. Put them first into bread or cracker crumbs, then into egg and 
again into crumbs. Fry in a fryingpan of hot fat until brown. If lobster is used, 
insert a small claw at the end of each cutlet, and for other kinds of fish use a small 
piece of thick bone. Drain off the fat and serve. 

Fish Fritters. 

Pick free from all bones a quantity of any kind of cold cooked fish and pound it 
in a mortar; take a small onion, peel and pound it with the fish; season to taste with 
salt and pepper, and add an equal bulk of mashed potatoes, mix well together and 
make all into a paste with beaten egg. Spread the paste out on a board, cut it into 
small pieces about three inches across and fry them in boiling lard to a light brown. 
Fold a napkin over a hot dish and pile the fritters on it. Garnish with fried parsley 
and serve with any kind of fish sauce. 

Fish, Normandy Style. 

Melt in a bakingdish five ounces of butter on the stove or in an oven; sift into 
it one dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, a very little grated nutmeg, a small quan- 



FISH. 59 

tity of salt and black pepper, a very little red pepper, and one tablespoonful of mush- 
room catsup; add five pounds of any kind of fish without skin or bone and cut in 
pieces about four inches long and an inch and a half wide. Pour in three tablespoon- 
fuls of brandy and four tablespoonfuls of white wine, fit the cover on the dish, put a 
flour and water dough round the edge to keep the steam in and bake in a moderate 
oven. Serve very hot. 

Pickled Fish. 

Cut into slices the required quantity of any kind of fish, dust over well with flour 
and put them into a fryingpan with oil to fry. Have in a mortar two or three sprigs 
of mint, one fresh capsicum and salt to taste, and pound well together; pour in slowly 
two breakfast cupfuls of vinegar, turn the whole into a saucepan and boil for five or 
six minutes. Take out the fish and drain it, pour over the hot vinegar. Serve when 
quite cold. 

Baked Flounders. 

Take two flounders, clean and split, and take out all the small bones. Lay the 
fish in a buttered dish and strew over some chopped mushrooms, parsley, green onions 
and rasped breadcrumbs ; season with salt, pepper and a small quantity of grated nut- 
meg. Put a few pieces of butter on the top, and bake. Make a sufficient quantity 
of caper sauce, flavoring it with essence of anchovy and the juice of half a lemon. 
When cooked, drain the butter from the fish, pour over the sauce, and serve. 

Baked Flounders, Italian Style. 

Clean and prepare the fish as for boiling ; put it into an oval-shaped bakingpan 
with one ounce of soft butter spread over it ; pour over half a pint of white wine, and 
season with salt and pepper ; then add three quarters of a pint of Italian sauce and 
sprinkle the top thickly with bread raspings. Place the pan on top of the fire for 
about five minutes to start the boiling, then put it in a moderate oven for a quarter 
of an hour. Serve it in the pan in which it was cooked. 

Boiled Flounders. 

Clean and wash a flounder, make a sharp cut nearly to the bone down the back, 
put it into a fishkettle with sufficient water to cover, add half an ounce of saltpetre 
and four ounces of salt to every gallon of water and simmer gently on the side of the 
fire for six minutes or longer, according to the size of the fish, taking care that it does 
not break. Take it out carefully, spread on a napkin and serve with a sauceboatful 
of melted butter. 

Fricassee of Flounders. 

Take one or two flounders, clean and wash thoroughly; remove the fillets care- 
fully and dust them over with salt and flour, plunge them into boiling fat and fry. 



60 FISH. 

Chop finely one dozen oysters, put them with their liquor into a saucepan, pour in a 
tumblerful of white wine, add three boned anchovies, and salt, pepper and grated 
nutmeg to taste. Let them cook gently for two or three minutes, then put in the 
fillets, give the pan a shake, warm all up together, turn the whole out on to a hot dish 
and serve with slices of lemon for garnish. 

Fried Flounders. 

Clean and prepare as for boiling some small fish, score them over the back and 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip them into milk and cover well with flour; or dip 
them in egg and breadcrumbs, put them into a fryingpan of hot fat and fry for four 
minutes, then bring the fat to the boil and fry for three minutes longer. Take them 
out, drain and dust over with a little salt; garnish with halves of lemon and fried 
parsley and serve on a hot dish. 

Baked Haddock. 

Clean a haddock, remove the eyes, trim it and pass its tail through the cavity of 
the eyes, or the tail may be tied to its mouth. Chop finely two ounces of fat bacon 
and a little green parsley, mix these with two ounces of breadcrumbs, a little salt and 
pepper, a few drops of essence of anchovy, and an egg to make it into a stiff paste. 
Stuff the fish with the mixture and sew it up. Put one tablespoonful of flour in a 
basin, work into it one tablespoonful of cold water, pour on one breakfast cupful of 
boiling water, and mix in one ounce of butter and two tablespoonfuls of essence of 
anchovy. Pour this into a baking tin, put the fish on it, place the pan in a moderate 
oven and bake for an hour, basting frequently, or until done, without its taking color. 
It may be served in the baking tin placed in the dish or taken out and placed on a 
dish; but the fish needs to be handled very carefully or it will break to pieces when 
moved, thus spoiling its appearance. The sauce can be poured round it. A few 
skinned shrimps added to the sauce when it is about half cooked are a great improve- 
ment, and the dish may be garnished with crayfish tails. 

Boiled Haddock with Lobster Sauce. 

Wash the fish, then place it in a fishkettle with boiling water to cover, add one 
tablespoonful of salt, and boil gently for about half an hour. Pick out the flesh of a 
small lobster and cut it into little pieces; put the coral in a mortar with one ounce of 
butter, and pound it. Place three ounces of butter in a small saucepan, with two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, and mix together over the fire until well incorporated; then 
put in the pounded coral, and season with two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and a 
small quantity of cayenne. Pour in gradually one pint of boiling water, and stir it 
over the fire for ten minutes. Strain the sauce, return it to the saucepan, put in the 
pieces of lobster, and boil it up once. When cooked drain the fish, being careful not 



FISH. 61 

to break it; place it on a hot dish, baste with a little of the sauce, and serve the 
balance in a sauceboat. 

Broiled Haddock. 

Clean and wash a fresh haddock, dry it on a cloth, rub it with vinegar, and 
sprinkle it with flour; place a well greased gridiron over a clear fire, and broil for 
about fifteen minutes, turning frequently. When done place it on a dish, and serve 
with shrimp or anchovy sauce. 

Fried Fillets of Haddock. 

Skin and clean a haddock, cut the flesh into fillets, trimming them into pieces 
about six inches long, dip them into well beaten egg and then into sifted bread- 
crumbs. Be sure that they are well covered, plunge them into a fryingpan of boiling 
fat, and fry to a rich color, turning them over, in order to cook both sides. Take 
them out, drain, put them on a cloth spread over a dish, and serve with a sauceboat- 
ful of Dutch sauce. 

Haddock, Maitre d'Hotel. 

Clean a haddock and cut it open at the back on each side of the bone, dust 
with salt and pepper, dip it in flour, place on a gridiron over a clear fire and cook for 
about twenty minutes, turning carefully. Put two ounces of maitre d'hotel butter 
on the back of the fish, place it in the oven to melt the butter, then put the fish on a 
dish, pour around two more ounces of butter mixed with six tablespoonfuls of ordi- 
nary butter melted in a saucepan over the fire and made quite hot. 

Baked Smoked Haddock. 

Put the haddock into a pan, pour some boiling water over, take it out, put it 
into another pan, mask with a little butter, pepper liberally, and bake in a hot oven 
for ten minutes. It must be served while it is quite hot. 

Broiled Smoked Haddock. 

Brush a fish over with warmed butter, dust with pepper, place it on a gridiron 
over the fire and broil until done, or it can be cooked in front of the fire. Serve 
while hot. 

Fried Smoked Haddock. 

Soak a haddock in olive oil for a number of hours, then put it in a fryingpan 
with oil and fry until it is done. Pepper well and serve at once. 

Baked Halibut. 

Take three or four pounds of the fish and remove the dark skin by dipping the 
part covered by it into boiling water and scraping. Rub the flesh over with salt and 



62 FISH. 

pepper, place it in a bakingpan and pour over milk to the depth of about one inch 
in the pan. Put the pan in the oven and bake for an hour or more, basting frequently 
with the milk. Take out the fish, remove the bone and skin, put it on a dish in its 
original shape and serve with egg sauce, cream sauce or plain drawn butter. The dish 
may be garnished with slices of hard-boiled eggs, or it may be served with bread- 
crumbs sprinkled over and tomato sauce in a tureen. 

Boiled Halibut. 

Put about two pounds of halibut into a saucepan and cover it with fresh water, 
add one sliced onion, half a sliced carrot and a garnished bouquet, season with one 
handful of salt and pour over two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Place the lid on and 
cook gently for about five minutes after coming to the boiling point, then remove the 
fish, drain well, dress it on a hot dish and serve with anchovy butter spread all over. 

Broiled Halibut. 

Cut some slices from a halibut, dust over salt and pepper, place them in a dish, 
cover with warm butter and leave for half an hour. Roll them in flour and broil over a 
very clear fire for twelve or fifteen minutes. Place them on a dish with a garnish of 
parsley and slices of lemon and serve. The slices of halibut should be about one 
inch thick, and three tablespoonfuls of butter may be used for every pound weight of 
fish. 

Fried Halibut Steaks. 

Cut some steaks from a halibut, place them in a fryingpan with a small quantity 
of butter and fry until done. Put them on a dish and serve with Robert sauce poured 
round, but not on, the fish. 

Broiled Fresh Herrings, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Slice the herring down the stomach and take out the insides and the bones; pour 
over a little olive oil and sprinkle with chopped parsley, and let remain for an hour. 
Put them on a gridiron over the fire and broil until done. Put them on a dish with a 
few lumps of cold maitre d'hotel butter and serve. 

Broiled Fresh Herring with Mustard Sauce. 

Take the required number of herring with soft roes, cut off the heads and clean, 
but do not open them; dip them well in salad oil, season with pepper and salt and 
leave them for an hour. Arrange the fish on a gridiron and let them stand over a 
clear, slow fire and broil for fifteen minutes, turning until they are done. Mix one 
teaspoonful of flour and one tablespoonful of mustard with cold water; when smooth 
pour in one breakfast cupful of white stock; turn this in a saucepan and stir over the 



FISH. 63 

fire until thick and it boils, then put in one ounce of butter, one teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley and pepper and salt to taste. Put the herrings on a hot dish, and 
when the butter is dissolved pour it over the fish and serve. 

Matelote of Fresh Herring. 

Take some herring, half of which have soft and half hard roes ; gut them through 
the gill opening. Cut off the heads and tails and divide each herring lengthwise into 
two fillets, removing the bones. Put a small quantity of butter in a fryingpan, and 
enough flour to nearly absorb it, then add a little chopped parsley and shallots ; lay 
the herrings in the pan, sprinkle over them three wineglassfuls of red wine and cook 
over a hot fire. Put them on a hot dish and lay over some small onions and fried 
mushrooms, garnish the dish with fried breadcrumbs and serve hot. 

Stewed Fresh Herring. 

Take some fresh herring, cut off their heads and clean them, put them in layers 
in an earthen pot, sprinkle salt and pepper over each layer. Mince some onions and 
carrots and fry them in butter, with some peppercorns, a bunch of parsley and a 
clove of garlic, pour over the vegetables as much white wine as will cover the fish. 
When the liquor boils remove the pan to the side of the fire and simmer for half an 
hour. Strain the liquid over the herrings and let them stew over a slow fire ; they 
should not be touched while cooking, 

Smoked Herrings. 

Clean the herrings well and let them lie for one night in salt, with a small 
quantity of saltpetre mixed with it. The next day run a stick through the eyes, 
and in this way thread them all. Have ready a cask of sawdust with a red hot 
heater in the center of it ; fix the stick over this so that the herrings hang in a row in 
the middle of it, and smoke them for twenty-four hours. 

Boiled Kingfish. 

Clean the fish, and place it in a fishkettle with enough clear fish broth to cover, 
and boil slowly. When cooked, strain the fish carefully, slip it on to a folded nap- 
kin, on a hot dish, garnish with parsley, and serve with a sauceboatful of either brown 
or white sauce. 

Baked Mackerel. 

Clean some mackerel, wash in plenty of water, split them open down the back, 
cut them across, making four pieces of each fish, and lay them in a pie dish in layers, 
placing between each layer a few bay leaves, cloves, peppercorns, and a few sliced 
shallots. Mix this with half a pint of stock free from fat, and a wineglassful each of 



64 FISH. 

white wine and vinegar, half a wineglassful each of anchovy and Harvey sauce and 
mushroom catsup, and a third of a tablespoonful each of Worcestershire sauce and 
soy. Pour this mixture over the fish, put in a flat dish and bake in a moderate oven. 
When it is cooked lay the fish on a hot dish, strain the sauce through a fine sieve 
over them, and leave until quite cold. When they are ready to serve arrange a few 
sprigs of parsley around the dish. 

% 

Boiled Mackerel. 

Prepare and clean some mackerel, put them in salted water, and boil until they 
are done. When they are cooked, drain the mackerel and put them on a hot dish. 
Blanch some fennel in salted water, and when it is soft drain and chop it finely ; put 
one tablespoonful in half a pint of butter sauce, and serve in a sauceboat with the fish. 

Boiled Marinaded Mackerel. 

Put enough weak broth in a fishkettle fitted with a drainer to cover a dozen 
mackerel, add three small onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, half a teacupful of vinegar, 
eight cloves with pepper and salt to taste, boil all together for one hour ; then put 
them in the fish and cook. When it is done take the fish out carefully on the drainer, 
being careful not to break them and put one by one on a hot dish. Strain the liquor 
in which they were cooked, put in some parsley and hard boiled eggs to thicken it, 
mix in some white gravy sauce, turn it into a sauceboat and serve with the fish. 

Broiled Mackerel. 

Draw and wash the mackerel, cut off their heads, rub over with salt and leave 
for an hour. Rub a gridiron with olive oil, lay the mackerel on it and broil over a 
charcoal fire. Place some chopped parsley and onions on a hot dish, and when the 
fish is cooked, squeeze over lemon juice and serve it while it is hot. 

Broiled Mackerel, Normandy Sauce. 

Clean and marinade some mackerel in oil, a slice of onion and a few sprigs of 
parsley. The roes must not be take out. Fill them up with as much maitre d'hotel 
butter as they will hold, wrap them around with sheets of oiled paper, securing the 
ends with thread, place them on a gridiron over a clear fire which must be a 
slow one, broil for forty minutes. When they are done remove the paper, place the 
fish on a dish, mask them with Normandy sauce and serve with fried bread for garnish. 

Broiled Mackerel with Black Butter. 

Take some mackerel, open and remove the bones, spread a little butter and 
sprinkle some pepper and salt over them. Place the fish on a gridiron and broil over 



FISH. 65 

a clear fire. Put a pat of butter in a saucepan and stir it over the fire until it is richly 
browned, then squeeze in some lemon juice. Place the fish on a hot dish, arrange 
some sprigs of parsley around, pour over the butter and serve while it is very hot. 

Broiled Spanish Mackerel. 

Cut a fish down the middle to take out all the bones and then cut again in 
halves ; dry the pieces on a cloth, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place two 
yolks of eggs in a basin and mix them with an equal bulk of olive oil, dip the pieces 
of fish into this and then into breadcrumbs and broil over a clear fire. 

Boiled Perch. 

Clean and scale the fish, leaving the roe and liver inside. Pour a small quantity 
of water in a fishkettle with a bunch of parsley, a little salt and pepper, and boil 
till the parsley is soft ; then put in the fish with a lump of butter and boil slowly for 
ten or twelve minutes. When cooked, remove carefully, lay it on a hot dish, strain 
the cooking liquor over, and serve with a Dutch sauce. 

Broiled Perch. 

Choose perch of a moderate size, fresh from the water ; scale and clean them, 
and dry them in a napkin. Melt a good quantity of butter with some salt, let it be 
thick when it has cooled a little ; dip the perch in it, and roll it about till the butter 
sticks well to every part of it ; then set a gridiron over a very clear fire, but let it 
stand some distance from the fire, for the perch must be well cooked before it is 
browned. Serve on a bed of fried parsley, garnish with quarters of lemon. 

Fried Perch. 

Scale, clean and wash the perch, dry them thoroughly and flour them. Put some 
dripping in a fryingpan and when boiling put the fish in, fry till nicely browned on 
both sides. Place them on a folded napkin or ornamental dish paper on a hot dish, 
garnish with fried parsley, and serve with a sauceboatful of butter sauce. 

Perch, German Style. 

Scale and clean two moderately large perch and put them in a stewpan. Finely 
mince the red part of two carrots, some roots of parsley and celery, put them in the 
stewpan with the fish, with a bunch of parsley, one onion and a little salt, cover the 
perch with white wine and let them boil over a moderate fire for twenty minutes. 
Take the fish out when cooked, drain and place them on a hot dish. Take the bunch 
of parsley and onions out of the stewpan, then put in with the vegetables some finely 
minced raw mushrooms, and cook them for five minutes ; then stir in a piece of 



66 FISH. 

butter kneaded with flour to thicken it ; take the stewpan off the fire, put in some 
more butter, cut in small pieces, but not kneaded, add the strained juice of two 
lemons, pour it over the fish and serve. 

Perch, Normandy Style. 

Scale and clean the perch, put some chopped onions at the bottom of a flat stew- 
pan and put in the perch, with a bunch of parsley, some trimmings of fresh mush- 
rooms, a little salt and white wine to cover. When the liquid is boiling move the 
stewpan to the side of the fire and keep the contents simmering for fifteen minutes. 
Prepare a garnish with some quenelles, mushrooms, oysters, and mussels, reserving 
the liquor of the oysters and mushrooms. Drain the liquor off the fish through a fine 
hair sieve into a sautepan and boil it till reduced to half; then take the pan off the 
fire, thicken the sauce with kneaded butter, divided into small pieces, stirring all the 
time, then add a liaison of the yolks of three eggs. Put the perch on a hot dish, pour 
the sauce over it, put the prepared garnish round, glaze it under a salamander and 
serve. 

Perch, Silesian Style. 

Draw and clean two or three fine perch, but do not scale them. Put some water 
in a saucepan with a bunch of parsley, a little vinegar and salt and boil it; then plunge 
the perch into it and boil for twenty minutes. Make the following sauce: Put in a 
stewpan two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, a few sprigs of parsley, a little tarragon, two 
chopped shallots, a bay leaf, and four or five peppercorns. Boil the liquid till reduced 
to half its original quantity. Leave it till cool, then mix with it a teacupful of melted 
glaze, the beaten yolks of six eggs, four ounces of butter and a little salt, stir the 
sauce over a very slow fire to thicken without letting it boil. Place the same in a 
bain-marie and whisk it, adding gradually some small pieces of butter. When frothy 
put in a teacupful of brown sauce and about two tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish. 
Remove the perch carefully with a skimmer, scrape the scales off, dip the fish in the 
cooking liquor, then wipe them in a cloth; put them in a hot dish, pour the prepared 
sauce over them, first mixing with it a little chopped parsley and a few capers and 
serve. Care must be taken to remove the scales quite cleanly or they will spoil the 
dish. 

Baked Pike. 

Scale and clean a pike, cut it into slices and place itin a bakingdish; put in some 
slices of onion, two bay leaves, a piece of butter, some pepper and salt, and one-half 
pint of sour cream. Bake it for twenty-five minutes in a brisk oven, basting often 
with the cream. Strew some breadcrumbs and grated Parmesan cheese over the fish, 
and brown it under a salamander. Place the slices of fish on a hot dish, pour some 
broth in the baking dish, add some lemon juice, salt and pepper, stir it for a minute 
or two on the fire, then pour it over the fish and serve. 



FISH. 67 

Boiled Pike, Dubois. 

Select a gold-coated pike weighing six or seven pounds, scale and draw it, truss 
the head and wash it well. Make incisions across the back as deep as the spine bone, 
place the fish on its belly in the fishkettle, cover with white wine and water mixed in 
equal quantities, add a few minced vegetables, a bunch of sweet herbs and parsley, 
four or five peppercorns and a little salt, bring to a boil and simmer over a slow fire 
for an hour. Prepare a good sauce with one pint of fish sauce strained and cooled, 
thicken it with flour and butter kneaded together, add two tablespoonfuls of soy and five 
tablespoonfuls of butter broken into small pieces. Drain the fish, place it on a folded 
napkin on a hot dish, or an ornamental dish-paper, garnish with nice little sprigs of 
fresh parsley and serve with the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Pike with Caper Sauce. 

A pike will improve by being kept for two days; clean it, cut off the fins and bind 
its head round with a string. Put the fish in a fishkettle, cover with court bouillon, 
and let it simmer for forty minutes, then leave it to soak in the court bouillon for 
twenty-four hours. Before warming the pike again take it and the liquor out and 
clean the kettle, then put it back again and warm it for twenty minutes. Place the 
fish on a folded napkin or ornamental dish-paper on a hot dish, garnish round with 
fried parsley and serve with a sauceboatful of caper sauce. 

Fried Fillets of Pike. 

Cut the fillets carefully off a pike, wash and dry them well, then dip them in 
beaten egg and breadcrumbs and fry in plenty of oil. When nicely browned drain 
the fillets, arrange them in a circle on a hot dish, fill the center with matelote sauce 
and serve. 

Pike Financiere. 

Clean and skin a pike, wrap it in buttered paper and boil in mirepoix and French 
wine mixed in equal quantities. Make a garnishing of pike forcemeat quenelles, 
mushrooms, crayfish tails and truffles mixed in financiere sauce, prepared as for fish. 
Put a rice socle on a hot dish, drain and glaze the pike and put it in the socle, pile 
the garnishing round it in such a way that it hides the socle, garnish round with truf- 
fles, mushrooms and crayfish. Trim four silver skewers with crayfish, mushrooms 
and fried smelts, stick them in the fish and serve with a sauceboatful of the same 
sauce. 

Fried Pike. 

Select small pike, draw and wash them; put a lump of butter in a stewpan and 
when blue smoke arises put in the fish, seeing that they are perfectly dry, and fry till 



68 FISH. 

nicely browned and crisp. Afterward drain the butter off them and put in with them 
two or three anchovies, a slice of ginger, a little grated nutmeg, salt to taste, and a 
sufficient quantity of claret to cover them. Boil the fish until tender, when the liquor 
should be reduced to half its original quantity; then add the juice of an orange and a 
small lump of butter. Lay the fish on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, garnish with 
slices of oranges, and serve. 

Pickled Pike. 

Scale and empty a pike, wash it thoroughly, bind its head up, put it in a fish 
kettle and cover with a fish stock, made with red wine; add two or three bay leaves 
and boil slowly till tender. Leave the pike in the sauce till the following day. When 
ready to serve drain the fish, put it on a folded napkin or ornamental dish-paper, 
garnish with fresh parsley and serve with oil and vinegar. 

Broiled Pompano. 

Thoroughly scrape and clean a Pompano, and if it is a large one, divide it down 
the back and through the head; but if it be a small fish, weighing only about a pound, 
it may be cooked whole; sprinkle over salt and pepper, and place it on a gridiron 
over a clear fire, with the skin side downward, and after warming a little, brush it 
over with butter, adding a little more salt and pepper if desired, and return it to the 
gridiron to broil on both sides until done, when it may be placed on a dish, a little 
lemon juice squeezed over it, and served with tartar sauce, either poured over or 
served separately in a sauceboat. 

Baked Salmon with Cream Sauce. 

Take a middle cut of salmon; butter a large sheet of white paper and wrap the 
salmon in it, pinning the ends firmly together. Melt four ounces of butter by mixing 
with it three tablespoonfuls of boiling water. Lay the fish, wrapped in paper, in a 
bakingpan and pour over the butter and water. Cover and place it in a moderate 
oven for an hour, lifting up the cover now and then to see that the paper is not 
burning. Boil one-half pint of cream, thickened with one heaping tablespoonful of 
corn starch; add to this one ounce of butter, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, 
and a small quantity each of pepper and salt. When the salmon is taken out of the 
paper and dished, pour half of the sauce over it and serve the balance in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Salmon. 

Take a piece of the tail of a fresh salmon, put it into a fishkettle with some salt, 
fennel and spices in moderate quantities, one-half teacupful of vinegar, and sufficient 
boiling water to cover. Boil the fish until tender. Prepare a sauce with one pint 
of the cooking liquor of the fish, one wineglassful of white wine, two finely minced 



FISH. 69 

anchovies, and boil it until somewhat reduced; then mix with the sauce one ounce of 
the butter broken up into small pieces. Lay the salmon on a hot dish that has been 
covered with a folded napkin or napkins, garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve 
with the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Salmon with Oyster Sauce. 

Put two pounds of very fresh salmon in a fishkettle, completely cover it with 
cold water, season with a handful of salt, add one medium-sized onion, one-half wine- 
glassful of white wine vinegar, eight or ten whole peppers, two cloves and two parsley 
roots. Place the kettle over a brisk fire, and five minutes after coming to the boil 
the salmon will be sufficiently cooked. Remove the fish from the kettle, drain it 
well, dress it on a hot dish with a folded napkin, decorate with sprigs of parsley all 
round the salmon, and serve with one pint of hot oyster sauce in a sauce-boat. The 
necessary time to cook the above perfectly, from beginning to end, will be about 
thirty-five minutes. Colbert sauce and cold boiled potatoes, cut into quarters, may 
be substituted for the oyster sauce and parsley, 

Boiled Slices of Salmon with Piquant Sauce. 

Cut five slices of salmon, each three-fourths of an inch thick, from the middle 
of the fish, wash and dry them well, and put them in a saucepan of hot fish broth 
mixed up with a small quantity of wine. When boiling move the pan to the side of 
the fire, place the lid on, and let the contents simmer gently for ten or twelve 
minutes. When cooked, remove the slices of salmon carefully, wipe them on a cloth, 
and arrange them in an upright position on a folded napkin on a hot dish ; place a 
group of boiled potatoes at each side, a bunch of parsley at each end, and serve with 
a sauceboatful of piquant sauce. 

Salmon Bouchees. 

Prepare some bouchee cases, and fill them with a paste made of pounded cold 
salmon, seasoned and moistened with lobster sauce. 

Boudins of Salmon. 

Remove the skin and bone from one pound of salmon, reduce it to a pulp, and 
pass it through a fine hair sieve. Mix with the puree ten ounces each of bread panada 
and crayfish butter, season the mixture with pepper and salt, and bind it with two 
well beaten eggs and a little reduced lean sauce that has been thickened with egg. 
Mix an onion that has been fried white and cut into small pieces with the forcemeat. 
Cut some strips of paper four inches long by two and one-half inches wide, and 
butter them. Place a piece of forcemeat three and one-half inches wide by one and 
three-fourths inches long and one and three-fourths inches thick on each strip of 



70 FISH. 

paper. Make a hollow in the center of each piece of forcemeat about three-fourths 
of an inch deep, and three-fourths of an inch wide. Fill the hollows with a salpicon 
of cooked salmon and truffles mixed in stiffly reduced allemande sauce, cover them 
with a little of the forcemeat, and wrap the paper round. Put the boudins in a saute- 
pan with a small quantity of stock, and let them simmer gently for fifteen minutes. 
Drain the boudins, arrange them in a circle on a hot dish, pour over them some alle- 
mande sauce thickened with crayfish butter, and serve. 

Broiled Salmon. 

Cut some slices of salmon from the tail, place them in a deep dish, cover with 
chopped parsley, laurel leaves and mixed herbs, season with salt and pepper, pour 
over some olive oil, and leave to soak for an hour. Broil the slices of fish on a 
gridiron, basting them occasionally with some of the marinade. When nicely browned 
and cooked, place the salmon on a hot dish, pour some white caper sauce over and 
serve. 

Salmon Croquettes. 

Finely chop one pound of salmon ; mix two tablespoonfuls of flour and one 
tablespoonful of butter together ; boil one-half pint of cream ; mix the butter, flour 
and salmon in with it, and stir all over the fire for a minute. Work in a well-beaten 
egg with the above ingredients, remove them from the fire, and leave them until they 
are cold. Shape the mixture into croquettes, dip them in beaten egg then in bread- 
crumbs, and fry them in boiling fat. When cooked, drain the croquettes, place them 
on an ornamental dish paper or a folded napkin spread on a hot dish, garnish with 
slices of lemon and serve. 

Curried Salmon. 

Put a sliced Spanish onion in a stewpan with a piece of butter, fry it, then stir in 
one teaspoonful of curry powder, and one teaspoonful of curry paste ; stir it over the 
fire for a few minutes, then pour in gradually one pint of broth, and add two pounds 
of salmon cut in small pieces. Let the curry simmer gently at the edge of the fire 
for an hour, skimming it now and then. Prepare a border of rice, turn it on to a hot 
dish, put the curry in the center and serve. 

Salmon Cutlets. 

Pick all the meat from a piece of cold salmon, and cut it into small pieces 
pound some lobster coral in a mortar with one-half ounce of butter, then rub it through 
a hair sieve. Put over the fire in a small saucepan one-fourth pint of milk and stir 
into it one ounce of flour, well rubbed into one ounce of butter ; continue to stir it 
until it is so thick that it comes away from the sides of the pan. Add the coral 
butter, the salmon, a seasoning of cayenne pepper, salt and lemon juice ; take it from 



FISH. 71 

the fire, let it cool. When sufficiently cold, make it into thick rolls, brush them 
over with beaten egg, roll them in a paper of breadcrumbs, and fry in boiling fat or 
lard. The cutlets should be served hot and garnished with fried parsley. 

Salmon Cutlets, English Style. 

Cut off some slices of salmon and divide them into the shape of cutlets ; sprinkle 
some pepper and salt over, put them into a saucepan with a small quantity of butter, 
and toss them over a good fire. Take out the cutlets when cooked, drain off the 
butter, place them on a dish and serve with ravigote sauce, or a sauce made as follows : 
Put three tablespoonfuls of veloute sauce into a saucepan, reduce it and add one egg, 
four ounces of butter, a little salt, cayenne, some finely-minced parsley, and half the 
juice of a lemon. Mix it together well, and it is ready for use. 

Fried Salmon Cutlets. 

Take a quantity of cold boiled salmon, pick out all the bones and skin, pound it 
in a mortar, and to every six ounces of salmon allow two ounces of finely mashed 
potatoebj add to the potatoes pepper, salt, cayenne and mace to taste. When the 
seasoning is well stirred in add the pounded fish and mix all thoroughly. Flatten the 
mixture out, shape it into small cutlets. Brush them over with beaten egg, sprinkle 
them with fine breadcrumbs and fry to a light brown. Serve a quantity of anchovy 
sauce with them. 

Salmon Cutlet in Papers. 

Cut a slice about one inch thick from the middle of a salmon, wrap it round in 
oiled paper and fry it in boiling fat. When done take it out, drain, and serve with 
the paper still on. 

Salmon Cutlets with Caper Sauce. 

Put some slices of salmon in oil with a little chopped parsley and chives and let 
them steep for one or two hours. Dip some pieces of paper in the oil that the salmon 
has marinaded in and wrap a piece around each slice. Place them on a well-greased 
gridiron and broil over a clear slow fire for from forty-five to fifty minutes, according 
to the thickness of the slices, turning them occasionally. Remove the paper from 
the cutlets, place them on a folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper on a hot dish 
and serve with a sauceboatful of white caper sauce. 

Salmon Cutlets with Milanese Sauce. 

Cut a piece of salmon into slices, and cut each slice into halves ; trim away the 
skin and bone. Dip each piece in a small quantity of white wine, wrap them in 
sheets of buttered writing paper, and fasten them securely at the edges. Put a lump 



72 FISH. 

of butter in a fryingpan, and when boiling fry the salmon in it. When cooked, re- 
move the papers from the salmon, place it in a folded napkin or an ornamental dish- 
paper on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with a sauceboatful of 
Milanese sauce. 

Salmon Cutlets with Oyster Sauce. 

Cut three large slices from the middle of a salmon, and boil them in salted 
water. Put one teaspoonful of chopped onions in a saucepan with a small quantity 
of oil and toss them over the fire for a few minutes, but do not color. Cut four 
dozen oysters into small pieces, put them in with the onions, and stir them over the 
fire until well warmed through ; then mix in two tablespoonfuls of flour, one-half tea- 
cupful of oyster liquor, two teaspoonfuls of sugar, a little essence of anchovies, and 
one pinch of salt and cayenne pepper ; stir the above ingredients over the fire, let 
them boil for a few minutes, stir in quickly the beaten yolks of four eggs, and keep 
it on the fire for a minute or two longer. Pour the sauce on a dish and leave it until 
cold. Put the slices of salmon on the sauce, brush them over with beaten egg, and 
sprinkle breadcrumbs over them ; brown them in a hot oven, garnish round with 
oysters, pour some lobster sauce over the fish and serve. 

Fillets of Salmon, Parisian Style. 

Cut some slices of salmon into small fillets, place them in a buttered sautepan ; 
sprinkle a small quantity of pepper and salt over, baste them with clarified butter, 
and cover with a round of buttered paper ; saute them over a clear fire. Fix a 
croustade on a hot dish, fill it with oysters and picked shrimps that have been mixed 
in Hollandaise sauce, with the addition of some chopped parsley ; arrange the fillets 
around the croustade, garnish with parsley, pour some of the sauce over and serve. 

Fillets of Salmon with Ravigote Sauce. 

Cut some fillets of salmon into small, equal-sized pieces, put them into a sauce- 
pan with the juice of half a lemon, a small quantity of chopped parsley, clarified 
butter, pepper and salt. Fry them over a slow fire, turning them when done on one 
side and cook the other. Drain the fillets, arrange them in a circle on a hot dish, 
pour some ravigote sauce in the center, and serve without delay. 

Fried Salmon. 

Cut some thin slices of salmon, sprinkle them over with salt, and leave for fifteen 
or twenty minutes. Dredge flour over the slices of salmon, brush over with the 
beaten yolk of egg, and fry in boiling salad oil. When cooked, drain the slices of 
salmon well, and place them on an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin on a 
hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. 



FISH. 



73 



Broiled Kippered Salmon. 



Cut the salmon into strips, and wrap each one separately in buttered paper; 
make a gridiron hot and grease it well, lay the pieces of fish on it, and broil them 
over a clear fire, turning them now and then. When broiled, remove the paper, place 
the pieces of fish on a very hot dish, and serve at once. 



Fried Kippered Salmon. 



Put the slices of kippered salmon in a deep dish, cover them with salad oil, and 
let them macerate for several hours. Drain the oil off the salmon into a fryingpan, 
and when boiling put the pieces of salmon in and fry them quickly for four or five 
minutes. Drain the salmon, put it on an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin, 
on a hot dish, garnish the dish with slices of lemon and serve at once. 

Salmon en Matelote. 

Wash and truss a small salmon in the shape of the letter S, and boil it in salted 
water. When cooked, drain it, put it on a hot dish, bend some legs of lobster at the 
joints, and stick the ends in the back of the salmon from head to tail. Have pre- 
pared the following sauce : Put six tablespoonfuls of butter in one and one-half 
breakfast cupfuls of butter sauce, stir it over the fire until it is hot, then stir in 
quickly two eggs that have been beaten with a small quantity of lemon juice, and 
pepper and salt to taste. Pour the sauce over the fish, garnish it with small strips of 
fillets of sole that have been dipped in beaten egg and breadcrumbs and fried, and 
serve. 

Salmon, Maitre d'Hotel. 

Squeeze a small quantity of lemon juice over some slices of salmon, and leave 
them for a short time. When ready cover each slice with chopped fennel and parsley, 
put the fish in a saucepan, cover it with broth that has been thickened with flour and 
water, and let it simmer gently until cooked. Place the salmon on a hot dish, and 

serve it with maitre d'hotel sauce. 

( 

Salmon Patties. 

Skin and bone a nice piece of salmon, chop the flesh well and season it highly 
with grated nutmeg, cayenne pepper, salt and pepper ; rub in a small quantity 
of fresh butter and bind it with the beaten yolk of an egg. Butter some tartlet tins, 
line them with puff paste and fill them with the salmon mixture ; cover each with a 
flat of paste, trim round the edges, moisten and press them together and bake the 
patties. These may be eaten either hot or cold. 



74 FISH. 

Vol-Au-Vent of Salmon. 

Prepare a puff paste, giving it four turns, then gather it up and leave it in a cold 
place or ice-box for half an hour. Roll the paste into a ten-inch square, put it on a 
plate about nine and one-half inches in diameter, and with a sharp knife trim round 
the edges ; put another plate about seven inches in diameter in the center, dip a sharp 
pointed knife in hot water and cut round the smaller plate, allowing it to go two- 
thirds of the way through the paste. Put the paste on a flat baking-tin and bake it 
for three-quarters of an hour, taking care not to allow it to burn. When the vol-au- 
vent is taken from the oven, lift out the center piece and scoop out the inside with a 
spoon. Fill it with one and one-half pounds of cooked salmon that has been heated 
in a thick cream sauce. Place the cover on again and serve immediately. 

Baked Salmon Trout. 

Clean and wash a salmon trout, salt it well both inside and out and let it stand for 
an hour ; wash off all the salt, dry -it, stuff it with fish forcemeat, tie up the head to 
keep it in shape, put the fish upon a well-buttered drainer in a fishkettle, pour over 
eight ounces of butter sauce, add two quarts of mushrooms, two tablespoonfuls of 
chopped parsley, a blanched shallot, also chopped, a small quantity each of salt, 
pepper, grated nutmeg and ground spices. Pour in one quart of white wine, bring the 
liquor quickly to the boil, place the kettle in the oven and cook slowly and gently for 
an hour. Take out the fish and skin it ; untie the head, cover it with rasped bread, 
pour over a little warmed butter, place the fish in the oven for about five minutes, 
dress it on a dish and serve with one-half its strained stock poured over and the re- 
mainder in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Salmon Trout. 

Clean a salmon trout, rub it well with salt, and let it remain for an hour Wash 
it thoroughly and wipe it dry ; stuff it with fish forcemeat, tie up the head, place 
it on a buttered drainer in a fishkettle, pour over a strained mirepoix, and add 
two pints of white wine and an equal quantity of fish stock or broth. Bring the 
liquor to the boil, remove it to a slow fire and simmer it gently for an hour and 
a half. Take out the fish, drain it, remove the skin, glaze over, place it on a dish, 
garnish with cooked truffles and serve with mirepoix sauce in a sauceboat. 

Salmon Trout, Modern Style. 

Clean and salt a salmon trout as for plain boiling, stuff it with fish forcemeat, 
tie the head up carefully, place the fish on a drainer in a fish kettle, sprinkle it over 
with grated nutmeg, salt and pepper, put in a bunch of sweet herbs, a clove of 
garlic and one pound of butter, pour in one quart of champagne and set it to boil. 
Remove it to the side of the fire, where it will simmer gently, but constantly for 



FISH. 75 

two hours, basting it frequently with its own liquor. Take out the fish, remove the 
skin carefully, glaze the surface, place it on a dish in the oven, glaze it once more, 
allow it to remain for about ten minutes, then take it out, untie, put it on a serving- 
dish, garnish with parsley or any other garnish that may be desired, and serve with 
the strained liquor from the fish in a sauceboat. 

Baked Sardines. 

Skin a dozen sardines, put them on a dish in the oven, and heat them through. 
Put the oil from the sardines into a small saucepan, and when it boils mix in one 
breakfast cupful of water ; stir it over the fire until thick, then add one teaspoonful 
of Worcestershire sauce, and season with salt and cayenne pepper ; move the sauce- 
pan from the fire, and add the yolk of an egg that has been beaten together with 
one teaspoonful each of vinegar and mustard. Take the dish of sardines out of the 
oven, pour the sauce over them and serve while hot. 

Broiled Sardines. 

Select a dozen good-sized, firm sardines, place them in a double broiler and broil 
for two minutes on each side over a very brisk fire. Place six pieces of toast on a 
hot dish, lay the sardines on, being careful not to break them, pour over one-half gill 
of maitre d'hotel butter, garnish with half a dozen quarters of lemon and serve. 

Curried Sardines. 

Mix together one teaspoonful each of sugar and curry powder, one teacupful of 
cream and a few drops of lemon juice; stir it in a saucepan over the fire until hot, 
then put in six or eight sardines. When they are thoroughly heated lay them on a 
hot dish with some fried slices of apple and onion, pour the sauce over, place an edg- 
ing of boiled rice all round, garnish the tops with capsicums and serve while hot. 

Deviled Sardines. 

Scrape the skin off some sardines, split them lengthwise, lift the bones out care- 
fully, trim them neatly, and spread a small quantity of made mustard over them; sea- 
son with moderate quantities of salt and pepper and a few drops of lemon juice. In 
about an hour's time lay the sardines on a gridiron and broil them over a clear fire. 
When delicately browned lay them on a hot dish over which has been spread an or- 
namental dish-paper or a folded napkin and serve. Garnish with fried parsley. 



Sardines in Papers. 



Drain the oil from some sardines, then scrape and bone them ; fill them with a 
mixture of chopped mushrooms, fine herbs, and cold brown sauce. Wrap them care- 



76 FISH. 

fully in paper, fastening it securely at the ends, and warm them in the oven. Place 
the sardines on a hot dish and serve. 

Sardines, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Skin a number of sardines, cut off their tails, arrange them on hot buttered toast 
on a dish, and heat them in the oven. Put one teacupful of white sauce in a sauce- 
pan, mix with it one tablespoonful of finely chopped onion and a small quantity of 
chopped parsley, boil it for a few minutes, then add one tablespoonful of chili vine- 
gar and one pinch of cayenne pepper. Remove the dish of sardines from the oven, 
pour the sauce over them, and serve without delay. 

Sardines, Piedmontese. 

Scrape some sardines and place them in the oven to heat. Put in a saucepan 
four well beaten yolks of eggs, one teaspoonful each of tarragon vinegar, malt vinegar 
and made mustard, a small quantity of salt, and one-half tablespoonful of butter. 
Stir the sauce over the fire until it is quite thick, but do not allow it to boil. Cut 
some slices of bread, Remove the crusts, and fry them in boiling lard or butter until 
lightly browned. Drain the pieces of bread, arrange them on a hot dish, pile the 
sardines on them, pour the sauce over and serve. 

Baked Shad. 

Pare and scale a small shad, place it on a well buttered deep baking-dish and 
season with one pinch of salt and one, half pinch of pepper, adding two finely-chopped 
shallots and one-half wineglassful of white wine. Cover the whole with a piece of 
buttered paper and cook in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes. When done, 
pour the liquor into a saucepan, add one-half pint of German sauce, a pinch of finely- 
chopped chervil and a small quantity of spinach : cook for three minutes longer, pour 
a little of it through a strainer over the fish and serve the balance in a sauceboat. 

Baked Shad, American Style. 

Clean a shad by drawing the entrails through the gills and wash and dry it. Pre- 
pare a stuffing with breadcrumbs, salt, pepper and butter, moisten with egg to bind 
and stuff the fish with it ; place it in a baking-dish over slices of uncooked potatoes, 
pour in sufficient fish broth to moisten, cover with buttered paper and bake. Serve with 
a quantity of rich sauce or thickened stock in a sauceboat. 

Broiled Shad. 

Remove the scales from a large shad, clean it well, cut off the fins and score it 
on both sides. Place the fish in a deep dish with some chopped shallots, parsley, oil 



FISH. 77 

and salt and let it macerate for one hour. Grease a gridiron well, warm it, and lay 
on the fish ; broil it over a clear fire, turning it occasionally and basting it with oil. 
The shad will require from thirty to forty-five minutes to cook, according to its size. 
When ready, place the fish on a folded napkin on a hot dish garnished with parsley 
and serve with a sauceboatful of maitre d'hotel sauce. 

Broiled Shad with Sorrel. 

Scale and draw a shad which has a soft roe, cut off the fins, wipe it, and make 
incisions on both sides. Place the shad in a deep dish, baste it with oil, season to 
taste with salt and pepper, and let it macerate for one hour. Broil the fish over a 
clear fire, turning and basting it frequently with the oil in which it is soaked. Boil a 
quantity of sorrel as for garnish, make a border of it on a hot dish, place the shad in 
the center, pour over a little parsley sauce and serve, accompanied by a sauceboatful 
of the sauce. 

Fried Shad. 

After the shad is cleaned and washed split it down the back, cut out the back- 
bone, divide the fish into pieces about three or four inches square, and lay them on a 
clean dry cloth. Have in readiness a drippingpan, or a large fryingpan containing 
hot fat one-half inch deep, roll the fish in flour seasoned with salt and pepper, put it 
into the fat when smoking hot and fry it brown on both sides; use a broad spatula or 
cake turner to turn over the pieces in order to preserve them entire. As quickly as 
the pieces brown lift them out of the pan, lay them on brown paper fora moment to 
free them from fat, and then turn them on to a hot dish. Serve with lemons, 
pickles or cucumbers. 

Planked Shad. 

Procure a hardwood board about an inch and a half thick, and split the shad as for 
broiling, put it on the board with the skin side down and fasten it with some tacks, 
and put the board over the fire, roasting until done, and rub it every once in a while 
with a little butter. The plank should be well seasoned and be heated before placing 
the shad upon it or it will flavor the fish with the wood. When done turn it on to a 
hot dish, dredge over it some salt and pepper, and cover it with small bits of butter 
and serve with lemon cut in quarters. 

Broiled Shad's Roe. 

Wash a shad's roe in cold water, wipe it dry on a clean towel, place it between 
the bars of a double wire gridiron, thickly buttered, and broil until brown on both 
sides. When cooked serve it with butter, lemon juice and parsley, pepper and salt. 
A garnish of sliced cucumbers may be served with the broiled roe. A dish of mashed 
potatoes should also accompany it. 



78 FISH. 

Broiled Shad's Roe with Bacon. 

Wash thoroughly six pieces of shad's roe, wipe weh with a towel, lay them on a 
dish and season with one good pinch of salt and two tablespoonfuls of sweet oil. Roll 
them gently to avoid breaking, arrange them on a broiler and broil for six minutes 
on each side. Remove from the fire, lay them on a hot dish and pour over one gill 
of maitre d'hotel butter. Garnish with six slices of broiled bacon and six quarters of 
lemon and serve. 

Shad's Roe Croquettes. 

Broil the roe for fifteen minutes in salted water, then drain and mash it. Boil 
one pint of cream; mix four tablespoonfuls of corn starch with one-fourth pound of 
butter and stir it into the boiling cream; add the strained juice of two lemons, a little 
salt, cayenne pepper and grated nutmeg and the roe. Boil all together, then take 
the saucepan off the fire and leave the contents until cool. Shape the mixture into 
croquettes, dip them in beaten eggs and breadcrumbs, repeating the operation twice. 
Put the croquettes in a frying basket, plunge theni into boiling fat and brown them 
quickly. When cooked drain the croquettes, place them on a hot dish, garnish with 
parsley and serve. 

Fried Shad's Roe. 

Steep the roe in cold water. (Care should be taken in removing it from the 
fish not to break it.) Wipe the roe dry, place it in a fryingpan with a small 
quantity of lard, and fry until nicely done. When cooked place the roe on a folded 
napkin laid on a hot dish, garnish with parsley, and serve 

Boiled Sheepshead. 

Wash and clean the fish well, rub it over with dry salt, and soak it in cold water 
for an hour. Remove it from the water, wipe dry, score it several times across both 
sides, and rub it with a lemon cut into halves. Lay the fish on a drainer over a fish 
kettle, cover it with cold water and milk equally mixed, add one tablespoonful of salt, 
let it gradually boil, and then gently simmer for half an hour. In dishing the fish be 
careful to transfer it from the kettle to the dish without breaking it. Pour a little of 
the cooking liquor round and serve the balance in a sauceboat. 

Fried Fillets of Sheepshead. 

Remove the fillets and dip them in salted milk, and roll them in flour and then 
in egg and fresh breadcrumbs, and fry them in hot fat. Arrange them on a napkin 
on a hot dish, overlapping one another, and serve them with Bearnaise, Mayonnaise 
or Tartare sauce. 



FISH. 



79 



Boiled Skate with Black Butter. 



Boil the skate till tender with small quantities of onion, thyme, parsley, bay 
leaves, pepper, salt and vinegar in the water. Put some fried parsley in the center 
of a hot dish, and place some black butter around it. Divide the skate into kite- 
shaped pieces, put them on the butter and serve. 

Baked Fillets of Skate. 

Skin the fish, divide it into fillets, and dry them on a cloth. Put the fillets into 
a saucepan with a lump of butter about the size of a walnut, two slices of lemon and 
a bunch of herbs. Dredge over them a small quantity of flour, then pour in one 
pint of milk. Add a lump of salt. When three-fourths cooked, drain the fillets, 
put them on a baking dish, and bake them in a slow oven until nicely browned. 
Place the fillets on a folded napkin, garnish with fried parsley and serve with a 
sauce boatful of mixed herb sauce. 

Skate, Italian Style. 

Put a skate into a saucepan with a clove of garlic, one bay leaf, one or two 
sprigs of thyme, a small lump of butter, two cloves, and salt and pepper ; dredge in 
a little flour, and cover the fish with milk. Boil gently until the skate is cooked, 
then remove and drain it. Put in with the cooking stock a few boiled button onions, 
and boil quickly for a few minutes. Sprinkle some grated cheese at the bottom of a 
deep dish, put the skate on it, place the onions and some fried sippets of bread round 
it, and strain the sauce over; cover the top with grated cheese, and bake it for fifteen 
minutes in a brisk oven. When ready, serve the skate in the same dish. 

Stewed Skate with Caper Sauce. 

Wash and clean a skate, place it in a saucepan with one sliced onion, a bunch of 
green onions, two bay leaves, and a small bunch of parsley and thyme; cover the fish 
with water, add a small quantity of vinegar, season with pepper and salt, and stew it 
gently until tender. When cooked drain the fish, place it on a hot dish, cover it with 
caper sauce and serve. 

Baked Smelts. 

Clean eighteen or twenty smelts, wipe them very dry, and put them on a baking 
dish with two tablespoonfuls of cooked fine herbs, one-half wineglassful of white 
wine, one-half pinch of salt, one-half pinch of pepper, and cover with six whole mush- 
rooms and one-half pint of Spanish sauce. Sprinkle lightly with breadcrumbs and 
a little warmed butter, place the dish in a hot oven for ten minutes, and serve with 
the juice of half a lemon, and sprinkle over one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. The 
smelts can be boned if desired. 



8o FISH. 

Smelts, Bearnaise. 

Split twelve large or eighteen medium-sized smelts down the backs, remove the 
backbones, rub them with one tablespoonful of oil and season with one-half pinch of 
salt and one-third of a pinch of pepper. Broil them in a double broiler for two min- 
utes on each side, pour a little over one gill of Bearnaise sauce on a dish, arrange the 
smelts carefully on top, garnishing with a very little demi-glaze sauce round the dish 
and serve. 

Smelts, Boulangere. 

Clean and dry the fish on a cloth, dip them into very thick cream and then 
dredge them thickly over with flour forming a paste round them. Put some lard in a 
fryingpan and when very hot put the fish in and fry them till of a light golden brown. 
Arrange the smelts on a dish paper or a folded napkin placed on a hot dish, garnish 
with fried parsley and serve. 

Fried Smelts. 

Clean and dry the fish, roll them in beaten egg and then in finely grated bread- 
crumbs ; dredging a little flour and salt over them. Put a good-sized lump of butter 
into a fryingpan, and when hot put in the smelts and fry them quickly. Drain the 
fish when richly browned, place them on an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin 
on a hot dish garnished with fried parsley and serve. 

Smelts in Matelote. 

Put a chopped onion, a sprig of parsley, two or three mushrooms and a small piece 
of garlic into a saucepan ; pour over them a small quantity of oil and season with salt 
and pepper. Clean the smelts, put them into a stewpan, pour over one teacupful of 
champagne and let them simmer gently until cooked. Place the smelts on a hot 
dish, squeeze a little lemon juice over and serve. 

Smelts Sauted in Brown Butter. 

Remove the gills, clean and wash the smelts, and when well dried roll them in 
flour. Place a lump of butter in a fryingpan, and when it is hot put in the smelts 
and brown them, turning when done on one side. Arrange some slices of hot but- 
tered toast on a dish, put the fish on them and serve at once. 

Stuffed Smelts. 

Cut off the fins of eighteen or twenty fresh medium-sized Long Island smelts 
and wash and dry them well; remove the insides without splitting the stomachs open, 
then stuff them with a fish forcemeat, using a paper cornet for the purpose. Place 
the smelts on a well-buttered baking dish (silver if possible), and cover them with 



FISH. 81 

one pint of Italian sauce. Place them in a hot oven and bake for eight or ten min- 
utes; remove, squeeze over the juice of a lemon and serve in the same dish. 

Smelts, Toulouse. 

Take twelve or fourteen good-sized smelts, remove the bones and then close 
them up again. Put them in a stewpan with one-half wineglassful of white wine and 
three tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor; season with one-half pinch of salt and one- 
third pinch of pepper and cook over a moderate fire for six or eight minutes. Arrange 
the smelts on a dish; add to the sauce a dozen button mushrooms, two sliced truffles, 
six fish quenelles, and moisten with one-half pint of allemande sauce. Thicken with 
one tablespoonful of butter and pour the sauce over the smelts. Neatly dress the 
garnishing round the dish and serve with sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread. 

Baked Sole with Wine Sauce. 

Clean, trim off the gills and dark skin, and scrape the white side of a large sole ; 
make a deep cut on each side of the backbone, and cut off the fins. Butter well the 
inside of a grating pan and put in the sole ; season with a little pepper and salt, and pour 
in one pint of French white wine, and bake in the oven for twenty minutes. Put 
about one ounce of butter into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of flour and stir 
over the fire until well mixed, then add one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of water 
and a little pepper and salt ; stir the sauce over the fire until boiling. When cooked 
strain the liquor off the sole into the sauce, boil the whole together, and then move 
the pan to the side of the fire ; put in one ounce of butter and one tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, and stir it until the butter has melted. Put the sole on a hot dish, 
pour the sauce over it, and serve. 

Broiled Sole. 

Clean and skin a sole, sprinkle both sides with pepper and salt, and squeeze a 
small quantity of lemon juice over it ; dip the sole in warmed butter, cover it well 
with finely grated breadcrumbs, place it on a gridiron, and broil it over a clear fire, 
turning it when brown on one side and browning the other. Bone an anchovy, put 
the flesh into a mortar with a small lump of butter, and pound it, then place it in a 
small saucepan with one wineglassful of white wine, and the strained juice of half a 
lemon, and stir it over the fire for a few minutes. When cooked, place the sole on a 
hot dish, pour the sauce over it and serve. 

Soles, Colbert Style. 

Skin and trim the soles and boil them. Blanch the hearts of four heads of 
endive, put them in a saucepan with a lump of butter, and stir over the fire until hot ; 
then pour over one pint of stock that has been thickened with the yolk of egg beaten 



82 FISH. 

with a little cream, and add three or four poached eggs. Place the soles on a hot 
dish, pour the sauce over them, and serve. 

Fried Fillets of Sole. 

Place a sole in a deep dish, season it with chopped sweet herbs, salt and pepper, 
cover it with white wine, and leave it to soak for half an hour. A few minutes 
before serving fillet the sole, dip the fillets in milk, dredge them well with flour, and 
fry them in lard. When nicely browned, place the fillets on a folded napkin laid on 
a hot dish and serve. 

Fillets of Soles in Cases. 

Put one teacupful of finely minced mushrooms into a frying pan with two table- 
spoonfuls of chopped shallots and one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, add a lump 
of butter and season with pepper and salt. Toss the above ingredients over the fire 
until cooked, then put them by until cold. Fillet the soles, mask one side of them 
with the above mixture, roll them up, secure them with a piece of thread, place them 
between two buttered plates and bake them. Prepare some white sauce. Put each 
fillet into a small paper case, place a small mushroom on the top of each, fill up the 
cases with the hot sauce, and serve them at once. 

Fillets of Soles, Joinville. 

Procure the fillets of three soles, fold and lay them in the shape of a crown, in 
a well-buttered and flat stewpan, adding half a glassful of white wine and three 
tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor, seasoning with half a pinch of salt and pepper 
and cook for six minutes over a moderate fire ; then arrange the fillets on a dish, 
place at the side of the stove, reduce the gravy to one-half, adding one cooked 
lobster claw, one truffle and three mushrooms, all of which have been cut julienne- 
shaped, add to this half a pint of Allemande sauce, stir it thoroughly and pour it 
over the soles previous to serving, sticking a piece of truffle and a mushroom button 
into each fillet, also in each one stick a pickled shrimp with head erect, and serve. 

Fillets of Sole, Orly. 

Remove the fillets from the soles, place them in a dish with pepper, salt and pour 
plenty of lemon juice over them, and allow them to soak for thirty or forty minutes. 
Put the trimmings of the fish into a saucepan with a bunch of sweet herbs and 
one-half pint of white wine, season with salt and pepper, and boil the sauce 
till it is partly reduced. Rub some flour over the fillets and fry them in boiling fat. 
When cooked, drain the fillets, lay them on a folded napkin on a hot dish, garnish 
with fried parsley, and serve with the sauce in a sauceboat. 



FISH. 83 

Fillets of Soles, Parisian Style. 

Place the fillets of a pair of soles in a saucepan with a finely-chopped onion 
and one tablespoonful of chopped parsley ; cover them with butter that has been 
melted, seasoning with salt and pepper. Toss the soles about over a moderate fire 
till cooked, taking care not to allow them to burn. When done arrange the fillets 
on a hot dish, pour over some Italian sauce and garnish with lemon and parsley. 

Fillets of Soles, Provincial Style. 

Fillet two soles and place them in a stewpan with a teacupful of white wine and 
a small quantity of olive oil; add a little chopped parsley, garlic, nutmeg, salt and 
pepper, and let them simmer gently by the side of the fire for half an hour. When 
cooked arrange the fillets on a hot dish, squeeze some lemon juice over, garnish round 
with some slices of fried onions, and serve. 

Fillets of Soles, Rouennese. 

Skin a pair of soles and separate the fillets from the bones, spread them with 
lobster butter and double them over. Butter a baking sheet, put the fillets on it, 
squeeze a little lemon juice over, cover with a sheet of buttered paper, and bake in a 
slow oven. It will require about ten minutes to cook them. Put three-fourths of an 
ounce of butter into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir it over the 
fire until mixed; then pour in gradually a teacupful of fish stock and continue stirring 
it over the fire until boiling. Mix with the sauce one-half teacupful of cream, some 
lemon juice, cayenne pepper, salt, and two tablespoonfuls of chopped truffles. 
Arrange the soles on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Fillets of Sole with Anchovies. 

Fry the fillets of a sole in a little salad oil, season them with salt and pepper,, 
and press them between two dishes until cold. Bone and clean four anchovies, and 
divide each one into four fillets. Cut the fillets of sole into pieces about the same 
size as the anchovy fillets, mix them together and pile them on a dish. Mix with a 
teacupful of salad oil, one tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, and one chopped 
capsicum. Pour the dressing over the fish, and serve it. 

Fillets of Soles with Oysters. 

Separate the fillets from the bones of some soles, trim them and fry them in a 
little butter. Fix a bread croustade on a hot dish, and fill it with oysters mixed with 
allemande sauce. When cooked arrange the fillets round the croustade, pour a little 
allemande sauce over and serve with a sauceboatful of the same. 



84 FISH. 

Fillets of Soles with Ravigote Sauce. 

Place some fillets of soles in a saucepan with a lump of butter, the juice of half 
a lemon and a little pepper and salt, cook over a slow fire, but do not brown them. 
Pour two and one-half teacupfuls of white sauce into a saucepan, with one and one- 
half teacupfuls of white broth, and boil for three or four minutes, keeping it well 
stirred. Mix a little chopped chervil, parsley and tarragon with two ounces of fresh 
butter and stir it into the sauce, with two teaspoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, seasoning with 
salt and pepper and stirring it over the fire for a minute longer. Place the fillets on 
a hot dish, pour the sauce over and serve. 

Soles, Marechal. 

Skin, clean and marinade a pair of soles and fry them plain, having previously 
dipped them in egg and breadcrumbs. Let them get cold, trim them, brush over 
with warmed butter mixed with beaten yolks of eggs and salt, cover them with fine 
breadcrumbs mixed with grated Parmesan cheese; pour a little more warmed butter 
over, lay them on an oiled gridiron, over a slow, clear fire, and broil for about twenty 
minutes, turning them over so as to color both sides equally. When done place them 
on a dish, pour round some more maitre d'hotel sauce and serve. 

Sole, Normandy Style. 

Lay a thick-skinned sole in the bottom of a stewpan, having previously buttered 
the latter, and put in with it about a dozen mussels that have been blanched in boiling 
water, eighteen or twenty oysters, a chopped onion, a bunch of thyme and parsley, some 
trimmings of truffles, and a few pieces of butter. Pour in one teacupful each of 
chablis and broth, season with salt and pepper, place the lid on the stewpan and let 
the contents simmer until nearly done. Put into a stewpan some trimmings of veal 
and bacon with some chopped vegetables, pour in one-half pint of broth, mix in a 
lump of butter that has been worked with a small quantity of flour and boil the sauce 
for twenty minutes. When three-fourths done put the sole in a dish that will stand 
the heat of an oven, mix its cooking liquor with the sauce and strain them both in a 
clean stewpan; then add the beaten yolks of two eggs and stir it by the side of the 
fire until done and thick. Pour the sauce over the sole, put the mussels, oysters and 
some sauted mushrooms on the top, and garnish round the sides with heart-shaped 
croutons of fried bread. Cover the dish with a sheet of buttered paper, and finish 
cooking the contents in the oven. When cooked serve the fish in the same dish 
placed on a large flat dish covered by a folded napkin. 

Paupiettes of Soles. 

Skin the soles, then lift the fillets carefully from the bones and trim them. 
Prepare some whiting forcemeat, spread a layer of it on each fillet, roll them, and 



FISH. 85 

wrap each one in a separate sheet of buttered paper, keeping them in shape by tying 
a string around them. Bake the paupiettes in the oven. When cooked remove the 
paper, place them on a hot dish, with a turned mushroom on each, pour over some 
Allemande sauce and serve. 

Stewed Soles with Oyster Sauce. 

Scrape a pair of thick soles, leaving on the skins, and steep them for a couple 
of hours in a little vinegar, with a dust of pepper and salt over them. Place the 
soles in a fishkettle with the vinegar and one pint of boiling fish stock, and let them 
simmer gently for twenty minutes. When cooked, place them on a hot dish, pour 
over some oyster sauce, and serve. 

Baked Trout. 

Scrape and clean about six pounds of trout, draw them through the gills, wash 
well, and wipe them inwardly. Stuff them with forcemeat, put them into a baking- 
pan over a quarter of a pound of melted butter ; cover over with a little mushroom 
liquor or a few mushrooms chopped, also with slices of pork, and sprinkle over three 
or four tablespoonfuls of chopped onions, a can of mushrooms without any liquor, 
and one tablespoonful of minced parsley ; also salt and pepper to taste. Pour over 
about one-half pint of stock, place the pan in the oven and bake for half an hour, 
basting frequently with the liquor in the pan. When done, take the trout out, place 
them on a dish, and serve with a garnish of potatoes. 

Trout, Beyrout. 

Clean a large trout, dry it on a cloth, dredge it over with flour, place it on a 
gridiron over a clear fire and broil it. When done take it off, remove the skin, place 
it on a dish, pour over beyrout sauce or fish sauce and serve. 

Boiled Trout. 

Scale and clean three or four large trout, place them in a saucepan, pour over 
two breakfast cupfuls of boiling vinegar, which will have the effect of turning them 
blue, and an equal quantity of white wine, and pour over sufficient water to cover 
them. Add one onion, stuck with cloves, one carrot, half a bunch of celery, four or 
five bay leaves, a small bunch of parsley, one teaspoonful of pepper corns and salt to 
suit the taste ; set the saucepan over the fire and boil for about fifteen minutes, with 
the cover on. When done, remove the fish, drain them, place them on a folded 
napkin spread on a dish, garnish with parsley, and serve with oil and vinegar, or any 
fish sauce, in a sauceboat. 



86 PISH. 

Broiled Trout. 

Clean a trout, wipe it carefully, tie it up into shape, cover it over with one table- 
spoonful of salt, mixed with four or five ounces of butter, and let it remain for three 
minutes. Then place it on a gridiron, over a clear fire, and broil it gently for fifteen 
minutes or so. Chop up a well-washed and boned anchovy, stir it up with a little 
melted butter in a saucepan, add one tablespoonful of capers, one dessertspoonful 
of vinegar, and a little salt, pepper and nutmeg. When done, put the trout on a dish ; 
boil the sauce for two or three minutes, pour it over the fish and serve at once. 

Broiled Trout with Bacon. 

Wash and clean a trout well, slit it down the belly and remove the backbone. 
Put a strip of bacon in place of the bone, tie the fish into its original shape, place it 
on a gridiron over a clear fire and broil it. When done place it on a dish, garnish 
with fried parsley and serve. 

Brook Trout. 

All trout should be clean and cooked as quickly as possible after catching, as in 
consequence of the extreme delicacy of the flesh it soon deteriorates after death. 
The recipes following this one may be equally applied to all kinds of trout. 



Croquettes of Trout. 



Cut off the fillets from two cold boiled trout, divide them into squares, cover 
them over with chopped onions and chervil, squeeze over a small quantity of lemon 
juice and roll them up into croquettes, dip them into villeroi sauce, then into egg and 
breadcrumbs twice so as to have them well covered, plunge them into a fryingpan 
of boiling fat and fry them to a good brown color. When done take them out, drain, 
and place them on a napkin spread on a dish and serve with parsley for garnish. 

Fillets of Trout, Aurora. 

Cut the fillets from three trout, form them into any desired shape, place them in 
a sautepan with a little warmed butter, sprinkle over with salt and pepper, and cook 
them quickly over the fire until they are done, turning them often so as to have them 
well done on both sides. Place them on a dish, pour over a quantity of aurora sauce, 
or sauce made red with lobster spawn, and serve without delay. 

Fillets of Trout, Sauted. 

Separate the bones from the fillets, cut each fillet into halves, put them in a buttered 
sautepan, season with salt and pepper and fry them over a brisk fire. Put one-half 
pound of lobster butter into a saucepan, with the yolks of four or five eggs, the juice 



FISH. 87 

of a lemon, and a little salt and pepper, and stir all together over a clear fire till well 
mixed; then pour in one half-pint of melted butter and two teaspoonfuls of essence of 
anchovy. Stir the sauce till thick and on the point of boiling, then move it off the 
fire. When cooked place the fillets on a hot dish, strain the sauce through a fine 
sieve over them and serve. 

Fried Trout. 

Choose small trout, wash and clean them well, and cut off their fins. Season one 
or two tablespoonfuls of flour with salt and pepper, and roll the fish well in it. Put a 
large piece of lard or clarified fat in a stewpan, and place it over the fire; when the 
blue smoke rises put in the fish and fry them until nicely browned. When cooked 
drain them on a sheet of kitchen paper in front of a clear fire, then place them on a hot 
dish over which has been spread an ornamental dish-paper, or a folded napkin, garnish 
with fried parsley and serve. 

Trout, Hussar Style. 

Scale and clean a trout, draw it by the gills, and stuff it with butter mixed up 
with finely-chopped sweet herbs. In stuffing great care must be exercised to see that 
the skin is not broken. Rub the fish well with warmed butter or oil, sprinkle it over 
well with pepper and salt, put it on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil it ; or it 
may be put in a dish in the oven and baked. Place it on a dish when done and 
serve with poivrade sauce, in a sauceboat. 

Trout in Papers. 

Take half a dozen trout of one-fourth pound each in weight, and stuff them with 
fish forcemeat. Oil as many pieces of paper as there are fish, place a slice of salt 
pork on either end of each piece, lay a trout on top, sprinkle over a little salt and 
pepper, fold the paper and tie it securely with a string. Cook in a baking-dish in a 
moderate oven for twenty minutes or so, and serve them in their envelopes, after 
removing the strings, with any sauce desired in a sauceboat. 

Trout, Venetian Style. 

Scale and clean a large trout, wash and dry it well, score it across the back and 
insert in the openings some butter highly seasoned with minced basil, lemon thyme, 
chives, and parsley. Put the trout in a dish, pour over salad oil to cover it, and let 
it remain for half an hour; then remove it, sprinkle over sifted breadcrumbs stirred 
in with a small quantity of chopped herbs, place it on a gridiron over a clear fire, 
and broil it for fifteen minutes or so, or until it is done. Place it on a dish and serve 
with orange sauce in a sauceboat. 



88 FISH. 

Trout with Remoulade. 

Select some medium-sized trout and fry them in butter; when cooked place them 
for a minute on a sheet of kitchen paper, in order to drain off as much of the fat as 
possible. Chop in moderate quantities some chives, capers, parsley, chervil, water- 
cress and a small quantity of shallots; then pound these in a mortar and mix in one 
teaspoonful of French mustard, the beaten yolks of two eggs and one teacupful of 
salad oil. The oil must be mixed in drop by drop, so that it may incorporate thor- 
oughly with the other ingredients. When the sauce is perfectly smooth mix in a 
small quantity of chili vinegar. Spread an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin 
over a dish, lay the trout on it, garnish round with parsley and serve with the sauce 
in a sauceboat. 

Baked Turbot. 

Clean and wash a small turbot, place it on a dish, pour over a small quantity of 
hot butter, sprinkle with a little finely-chopped parsley, powdered mace, salt and pep- 
per, and allow it to remain for an hour. Lift the fish up carefully and place it in a 
baking dish. Brush it over with egg, then cover with sifted breadcrumbs, set it in 
the oven and bake. When done remove, put it on a dish and serve with any desired 
fish sauce. 

Boiled Turbot with Lobster Sauce. 

Place a turbot in a fish kettle with a bunch of parsley, a lump of salt, plenty of 
cold water and the juice of two large lemons. When the water begins to boil move 
the kettle to the side of the fire and let it simmer until the fish is tender. Have pre- 
pared the following sauce: Pick the meat from a hen lobster and cut it into moder- 
ate-sized pieces; place the shell and spawn in a mortar with a lump of butter and 
pound it until smooth, then pass it through a fine hair sieve. Make three-fourths of 
a pint of butter sauce, put the pieces of lobster in it, and season it with a very small 
quantity of cayenne pepper. When the sauce boils stir in the pounded mixture and 
one teacupful of cream, and move the pan to the edge of the fire. When the turbot 
is cooked drain it well, lay it on a hot dish over which has been spread a folded nap- 
kin, place a border of fresh green parsley round the dish and then a circle of quarters 
of lemon. Serve the fish while hot with the sauce in a sauceboat. The fish does not 
require much boiling. 

Broiled Trout. 

Clean and wipe the fish quite dry, split it down the back and let it soak for 
nearly an hour in warm butter with chopped sweet herbs, salt, pepper and parsley ; 
then cover it with sifted breadcrumbs and broil it over a clear fire. Serve with 
lemon juice or orange juice squeezed over. 



FISH 89 

Fillets of Turbot with Cream Sauce. 

Separate the fillets from the bones of some cooked turbot, skin them, leave till 
cold, then cut them into collops. Put one tablespoonful of flour into a stewpan with 
four ounces of butter and one-half teacupful of cream, a pinch of cayenne pepper 
and a small quantity of glaze ; season to taste with salt, stir the sauce over the fire 
until it is thick, then remove it to the side and put in the fillets of turbot. Turn the 
turbot and sauce on to a hot dish and serve. If preferred, the mixture can be served 
in a vol-au-vent. 

Turbot with Black Butter. 

Remove the skin and bones from some cold cooked turbot and cut the fish into 
nice sized pieces. Put a large piece of butter into a stewpan and boil it until it 
comes to be of a dark color ; then put in a moderate quantity of finely-chopped 
parsley and one wineglassful of tarragon vinegar. Season to taste with pepper and 
salt. Put the fish into the sauce and keep it at the side of the fire until heated 
through and through. Turn the fish with the butter on to a hot dish and serve. 

Vol-au-Vent of Fish, Normandy. 

Prepare a puff paste with one pound each of flour and butter and one ounce of 
salt. Roll the paste out to a thickness of about three-fourths of an inch, and cut it 
round to the size of the dish on which it is to be served. Place the flat of paste on 
a baking sheet, brush it over with beaten egg, and cut a circle through the middle 
about one-fourth of an inch deep, leaving an edge about one inch wide all round. 
Bake the paste in a moderate oven, and when cooked lift up the center piece which 
will have risen ; scoop out the uncooked paste, brush the inside with beaten egg, and 
place it in an oven for five minutes longer. Prepare a filling of scalloped fillets of 
soles, mussels, oysters and sliced mushrooms. Mix the cooking liquor of the mussels 
with some lean veloute sauce, boil it until somewhat reduced, then thicken it with 
the beaten yolks of two eggs. Mix the sauce with the garnishing, place the cover of 
paste on, stand it on the dish it was made to fit, and serve. 

Deviled Whitebait. 

Wash the fish, drain well on a sieve, dry them in a soft cloth and then drop them on 
a well-floured cloth, carefully rolling each little fish over in it, so that they shall all be 
nicely and evenly floured. Put them immediately into a frying-basket, and dip them 
into extremely hot boiling lard ; hold it there for a very short time, lift the basket 
out of the lard, and dust the fish over with black pepper and a small quantity of salt ; 
some cooks dip them again into the boiling lard for a second, remove them, sprinkle 
with cayenne pepper, and serve. 



9 o FISH. 

Fried Whitebait. 

Wash the fish, drain well on a wire sieve, dry them in a soft cloth, and then drop 
them, when quite dry, on to a well-floured cloth, rolling each fish carefully in it. 
Put them immediately into a frying basket, dip them into extremely hot lard, hold 
it there until the fish is crisp, which will be before it browns, take it out while still 
white, and serve as quickly as possible on a napkin laid on a hot dish, and garnish 
with fried parsley, and quarters of lemon. Serve with them cayenne, grated lemo i 
peel and thin slices of brown bread and butter. 

Baked Fillets of Whitefish. 

Scale some large whitefish, split them, remove the backbone, season the fille* > 
with salt and pepper, and dip them in beaten egg, then in breadcrumbs, and again in 
beaten egg, then in breadcrumbs, and again in beaten egg. Put a lump of fresh 
lard in a baking dish, heat it, and then put in the fillets. Bake the fish in the oven 
for twenty minutes, until they are lightly colored. When cooked, drain the grease 
off the fillets, place them on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with 
potatoes and a sauceboatful of parsley sauce. 



Shell-Fish. 

Clam Fritters. 

Place some fresh clams into one pan, and the liquor from them into another. 
Prepare a mixture of broken crackers and flour in equal quantities, and dip the 
clams first into their own liquor and then into this, repeating this operation three 
times ; finally dipping them into milk, and then again into the flour mixture. Have 
prepared some boiling lard, drop in a few clams at a time, let them fry for about five 
minutes ; then remove them with a skimmer, place them on a strainer, drain away the 
fat, and they are ready to be served. The pan containing the lard should be so deep 
that the clams will be covered when put in. 

Scalloped Clams. 

Wash thoroughly six or eight good sized clam shells, fill them with clam force- 
meat, flatten them with the hand, spread over sifted breadcrumbs, smooth with the 
blade of a knife, and moisten with a little clarified butter. Arrange them on a baking 
pan and bake until they are well browned, or for about six minutes. Place them on 
a hot dish, and serve at once, with sprigs of parsley for garnish. 

Steamed Clams. 

Scrub the shells of some clams well in water ; then place them in a saucepan 
without any water, place them over the fire, and cook until the shells open. Remove 
the clams with a skimmer, pour the liquor into a jar and let it settle. 'There will be 
no use in straining the liquor through the finest strainer, but a piece of linen may be 
used, or if allowed to settle, and care be taken not to move the sediment, the water 
can be poured off. Remove the clams from their shells, pulling off the thin skin 
round the edge, and cutting off the whole of the black end with a pair of scissors. 
Plunge each clam into a small quantity of the liquor, and if at all tough cut that part 
through. When the water has settled pour it into a saucepan, add the clams and 
make it hot, though do not allow it to boil. Take out the clams and serve with brown 
bread and butter, toasted crackers, or on pieces of buttered toast. 

Stewed Clams. 

Remove about three dozen small clams from their shells, place them with two 
ounces of fresh butter into a stewpan, one pinch of chives and one pinch of finely 



92 SHELL-FISH. 

chopped chervil, adding one-half breakfast cupful of water, so that it may not be too 
salt; also a small pinch of pepper and two tablespoonfuls of sifted breadcrumbs, and 
boil for two minutes. Turn all out on to a dish and serve with the juice of half a 
lemon squeezed over. 

Little-Neck Clams Served Raw. 

Wash a number of these clams in water, scrubbing them with a brush, wipe them 
dry on a cloth, open and cut them clear from their shells. Place five on a plate on 
the half shells, placing half a lemon in the center of the plate, and serve with crack- 
ers and a small dish of finely chopped cold cabbage. 



Soft Clams, Ancient Style. 



Take a dozen nice, large, soft clams, wash them well and open them, keeping 
only one part of the shell with the clam. Put a piece of butter on each clam and 
plenty of Paprika pepper and a little strip of raw bacon. Put the clams on a roast- 
ing pan, which place in a hot oven for about ten minutes and serve it on the pan 
in which the clams have been cooked. 

Fried Soft Clams. 

Thoroughly wash one bunch or one pint of soft clams taken out of their shells 
in cold water to free them from sand and lay them separately on a towel to dry ; 
have ready a frying kettle about half full of fat and place this over the fire. While 
the fat is heating, prepare a dish of beaten raw eggs and a platter full of bread- 
crumbs or cracker dust; roll the clams in the crumbs, then dip them in the beaten 
eggs ; roll thern once more in crumbs, and when the fat is smoking hot, place them 
in it and fry to a golden brown. Take them out with a skimmer, lay them on brown 
paper to drain off the fat and serve hot. They may be sent to the table with a gar- 
nish of lemon cut in quarters or a dish of sliced fresh or pickled cabbage. 



Soft Clams, Newburg. 



Thoroughly clean and remove all sand from about forty to forty-five soft fresh 
clams, place them in a stewpan with one ounce of butter, half a pinch of white 
pepper, a wineglassful of Madeira wine and a couple of well-hashed truffles, place on 
the lid and cook gently for about eight minutes ; then break three egg yolks into a 
bowl, add a pint of sweet cream and beat thoroughly for about three minutes, then 
pour it over the clams, stir gently the clams for three minutes longer and pour them 
into a hot tureen, sending to table at once. 



SHELL-FISH. 93 

Stewed Soft Clams. 

Thoroughly wash about three and a half dozen of fresh soft clams so that no sand 
remains on them after they are opened, lay them carefully on the palm of the left 
hand, and with the right hand remove the body with care, but nothing more, being 
cautious not to break it and throwing away all the other parts. When all are pre- 
pared place them in a stewpan with one ounce of butter, a small pinch of white pepper, 
one wineglassful of Madeira wine and two finely-hashed medium sized truffles ; place 
the cover on the pan and cook gently for seven or eight minutes. Break the yolks of 
three eggs into a bowl, add one pint of sweet cream and beat well for three minutes. 
Pour this over the clams and toss the saucepan for about three minutes more very 
gently to thoroughly mix the clams with -the cream but not letting the liquor boil 
again. Neither fork nor spoon should ever be used in mixing them. Pour the whole 
into a hot dish and serve at once. 

Crabs. 

Crabs are in season from April to September, and in May they lose entirely the 
dryness of flesh for which they are noted during the winter months. The richest 
flavored crabs are those of medium size, say from six to ten inches in their broadest 
diameter. They should be boiled alive, being plunged into cold water, and, as the 
water warms, a handful or so of salt should be thrown in upon them, and when the 
water has been boiling for twenty minutes or half an hour, according to the size of 
the crabs, they may be considered sufficiently cooked. If placed in hot water at 
first, they are apt to throw off their claws by a violent jerk, and then the water would 
soak into the flesh and make it sloppy. After the salt is thrown in, the scum which 
rises to the top of the water should be carefully skimmed off. The claws of large 
crabs should be tied to prevent their opening and pinching or injuring each other. 
Crabs are usually sold ready boiled, which is, of course, a great convenience to the 
cook, whose next care is that of selection. The best crabs are always heavy, accord- 
ing to size ; the claws and legs should be all on. They should be firm and stiff, and 
the eyes bright rather than dull. The male crab has larger claws than the female, 
but less body in proportion, therefore selection should depend upon whether the pref- 
erence leans to white meat or to the more mellow liver and creamy fat which sur- 
rounds it. The female also has a much broader tail than the male. 

Buttered Crab. 

Remove the meat from a large boiled crab, cut it up small and mix with bread- 
crumbs and chopped parsley, having about a third of the bulk of the crab meat. 
Season and put a few pieces of butter over it ; pack it back in the shell, pour over a 
little lemon juice, cover with a layer of sifted breadcrumbs, place a few more lumps 
of butter on the top, set in a slow oven and cook until done. 



94 SHELL-FISH. 

Crab Croquettes. > 

Remove the meat from the shells of two medium-sized crabs, and chop it fairly 
fine. Melt in a saucepan three ounces of butter, and stir into this three ounces of 
flour. Add gradually one-half pint of milk, stir until it boils, and then allow it to 
cook for ten minutes; remove the saucepan from the stove, and to the hot milk, flour 
and butter add the chopped meat of the crabs, one saltspoonful of pepper, one tea- 
spoonful of salt, a small quantity of cayenne (not more than would lie on the end of 
a small knife blade), mix thoroughly together, turn the whole out on to a plate and 
let it cool; when it is fairly cold make it into little rolls nearly three inches long, and 
egg and breadcrumb these by brushing them all over with beaten egg and then rolling 
in breadcrumbs. Fry them in hot lard or clarified fat for two minutes, or until they 
are a nice golden brown, allow them to drain on a sheet of paper for an instant and 
serve on a folded napkin with a little fried parsley for garnish. 

Deviled Crabs. 

Put one-half pound of butter into a saucepan with one tablespoonful of flour, and 
cook together, stirring it continually to prevent its burning; add to it one large tumbler- 
ful of rich cream, one boiled soft onion mashed to a paste or pulp, a little grated nut- 
meg, and season with salt and cayenne pepper. Then put in the crab meat, enough 
to fill eight crab shells and a raw egg or two, stir all together well and cook until it 
begins to thicken, which will only take a few minutes; then pour it all on a flat dish 
and allow it to stand until cold. Now fill the back crab shells with the mixture, egg 
them over with a brush and cover with grated breadcrumbs or cracker dust. Place 
them in a bakingpan, put a small lump of butter on top of each, and bake in a slow 
oven to a light brown color, or fry them in plenty of hot lard. 

Crabs in Shells. 

Boil a few crabs, pick out the meat and place the coral on one side. Chop up 
the meat, add to it one onion, ground ginger, lemon juice, mushroom catsup, salt and 
pepper ; put the mixture into a fryingpan with butter and cook until the butter is 
absorbed. Pour in a little stock, boil until nearly evaporated, then remove the pan 
from the fire. Butter five of the crab shells and fill them with the mixture. Grind 
the coral, mingle it with some breadcrumbs, sprinkle this over the mixture, put a few 
small lumps of butter on the tops, place the shells in the oven, and bake for a few 
minutes. 

Minced Crabs. 

Place the finely chopped meat of three crabs into a saucepan, pour over one wine- 
glassful of white wine and one of vinegar, and season to taste with salt, pepper, and 
cayenne pepper. Cook over a moderate fire for about ten minutes, and add two 



SHELL-FISH. 95 

ounces of warmed butter, mixed with one boned anchovy, and stir in the well beaten 
yolks of two eggs. Sprinkle in sufficient breadcrumbs to thicken properly, turn the 
whole out on to a dish, and serve with parsley for a garnish. 



Crabs, Queen Style. 



Pick about a dozen hard-shell boiled crabs into as large pieces as possible ; 
mix them in a salad bowl, with one-half breakfast cupful of sliced celery or shredded 
lettuce, one-half pinch of pepper, one pinch of salt, one tablespoonful of olive oil, and 
one and one-half tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Refill six well cleaned shells with the 
salad, and on each one lay one tablespoonful of mayonnaise sauce ; and sprinkle over 
with chopped hard boiled egg, the yolk separated from the white, some crab or lob- 
ster coral, and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, every article to be used sepa- 
rately in order that each color may be distinct. Serve on a dish with a folded 
napkin, or ornamental dish-paper. 

Crab Ravigote. 

Boil some large hard-shell crabs, after which put them aside to become cold. 
Then turn them over on the hard shell side and with a sharp knife cut the breast 
away. Pick the meat off, clean it nicely, being careful not to leave any pieces of 
shell in it, and season lightly with salt and pepper. Mix with thick remoulade sauce 
and fill up one of the shells, which has previously been washed clean, with the mix- 
ture. The meat of two good-sized crabs so treated will be sufficient to fill the inside 
of one shell. Cover the meat with mayonnaise and decorate with fillet of anchovy 
and sliced pickles. Serve on a folded napkin with branches of parsley and quartered 
lemon. 

Stewed Crabs. 

Take eight live crabs and steam for twenty minutes; pick out the meats, put it 
in a saucepan with one-half pint of milk or cream and stew for fifteen or twenty min- 
utes. Season with cayenne pepper and salt. 

Broiled Soft-Shell Crabs. 

Dip some soft-shell crabs into melted butter and season with pepper and salt. 
Then put them on the fire and broil them until the shells are slightly brown. As 
soon as they are done serve them hot with melted butter or lemon juice or with a 
lemon cut into quarters. Slices of hot dry toast may be laid under them 

Fried Soft-Shell Crabs. 

Have a dish of cracker dust mixed with a little pepper and on the stove a pan 
half full of smoking hot fat; beat two eggs, roll the crabs in the crumbs and dip them 



96 SHELL-FISH. 

in the eggs, then roll them again in the crumbs and put in the hot fat to fry. Take 
them out with a skimmer, lay on brown paper to free them from grease and serve 
them while hot. 

Stewed Soft-Shell Crabs with Okras. 

Brown in a saucepan with one-half ounce or so of butter a chopped onion, an 
ounce or more of raw ham cut into dice, half of a green pepper pod, also cut into 
dice, one-half tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of pepper. Moisten with 
about one quart of white broth or consomme, add a tablespoonful of uncooked rice, 
six sliced okras, also a sliced tomato. Allow all these to cook thoroughly for about 
twenty minutes, and five minutes before serving add the meat of three well-washed, 
minced, soft-shell crabs. 

Fried Oyster Crabs. 

Wash and dry about one and one-half pints of oyster crabs, dip them first in 
flour, and then in cold milk, and finally in cracker dust or well sifted breadcrumbs. 
Shake them up well in a colander, and fry in hot fat for two or three minutes. Serve 
in croustades made of short paste, garnish with parsley, and sprinkle a little salt over 
before serving. 

Stewed Oyster Crabs, Poulette Style. 

Remove all the meat from a pint and a half of oyster crabs, put it into a sauce- 
pan, pouring on a little of their liquor, and add to this one ounce of butter, pepper 
and salt ; parboil for three or four minutes, add carefully one breakfast cupful of 
Hollandaise sauce, stew for two or three minutes longer, but do not boil, add the 
juice of half a lemon and one teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley ; stir gently, and 
it will then be ready for use. 

Crayfish Boiled in Court Bouillon. 

Put some butter in a stewpan, and add a little celery root, onion and leek, all 
finely minced, place the pan on a moderate fire and fry them. Then add a little 
white wine, salt, a small bunch of parsley, and a few peppercorns. Boil for seven or 
eight minutes, and then throw in twenty-five live crayfish; cover over the pan and 
boil for eight minutes longer. Toss them in the pan a little, remove, place on a 
strainer to drain, and then on a dish. Strain the liquid, reduce it by boiling to half 
its original quantity, add a small piece of butter, and pour it over. 

Crayfish, Bordelaise Style. 

Place two dozen selected crayfish in a pan with water and a little milk mixed, 
and allow them to soak for two or three hours; then remove them and place on a 
strainer to drain. In the meantime make a good mirepoix of vegetables with Bor- 



SHELL-FISH. 97 

deaux wine, and add to the liquor a bunch of parsley, a slice of raw ham, one small 
wineglassful of cognac, two or three tablespoonfuls of Madeira and a little salt. Put 
the lid on the stewpan, place it on the fire, and let boil five or seven minutes; when it. 
is boiling hot throw in the crayfish, and leave for ten minutes, after which pour the 
liquor through a sieve; reduce it to half, adding slowly one pint of veloute sauce. 
When sufficiently reduced strain it through a cloth into another pan, and stir in one- 
fourth pound of good butter, a small piece of crayfish butter, and one tablespoonful 
of finely chopped parsley. Remove the small claws, put them in a group in the center 
of the dish, and arrange the bodies round, garnishing all with a few sprigs of parsley. 
The sauce must be served separately. 

Crayfish Mariniere. 

Remove the small claws from a dozen or two of crayfish, place them in a stew- 
pan, and boil with wine until done. Drain off the liquor, allow it to settle, and then 
pass it through a fine sieve to clarify it. Take an onion, chop it up finely, and fry 
gently so that it does not color at all. Pour on a little of the crayfish liquor and also 
a little wine, and boil for three minutes. Next put in a lump of butter worked into 
some breadcrumbs and finely-chopped parsley to thicken it, and finally add a little 
cayenne and the juice of a lemon. Place the crayfish on a dish and pour the sauce 
over. 

Crayfish Patties. 

Place two dozen crayfish into a stewpan with a little salt, a few peppercorns, 
some finely chopped vegetables, a bunch of parsley and a little vinegar or white wine ; 
cover over the pan, place it on a good fire and when the fish have cooled a little re- 
move the meat from the tails and claws and cut it up into small pieces, placing them 
in a small stewpan and thickening with a little white sauce. When wanted for serving 
fill a dozen or so of (bouchees) patties with the preparation and garnish with lobster 
coral and parsley. 

Timbale of Crayfish. 

In order to have this dish sufficient for a large party a great number of crayfish 
are required for it. Having picked out the tails of something like one hundred and 
fifty crayfish, brush each "one over with some warmed crayfish butter. Have ready 
some very c'vear savoury jelly and a large timbale mould ; warm the jelly to the liquid 
state, pick up each tail with a larding needle and dip into the jelly ; then arrange them 
neatly around the mould ; the jelly will cause them to adhere. When the top is 
reached (remember the mound will be upside down and should be packed in ice) 
leave the jelly fixing the tails to set. Pick out all the meat from the claws and bodies 
and chop up very finely ; mix this mince with enough warm jelly to fill the timbale 
and leave that also to set. When the jelly is firm, dip the mould for an instant in tepid 



9 8 SHELL-FISH. 

water, wipe it and then turn the timbale out on to a dish. Garnish with croutons of 
jelly and an attelette decorated with truffles. 

Edible Snails. 

Snails are cleaned by placing them in boiling water with some wood ashes and 
leaving them until they have thrown their cover wide open which will take about a quar- 
ter of an hour ; they should then be removed and picked carefully out of their shells 
with a fork. Put them in a basin of tepid water and leave for two or three hours. 
Afterwards rub them well in the hands and wash them in several changes of cold 
water, The shells are put in warm water, scrubbed with a brush and then wiped dry. 

Baked Edible Snails. 

Work one tablespoonful of chopped parsley into two ounces of butter, and season 
with one saltspoonful of salt, one-half saltspoonful of pepper, and a small quantity 
of grated nutmeg. Put a piece of the prepared butter into each of the shells (there 
should be about twenty-five shells for the above quantity of butter), then put a snail 
into each of the shells, and another piece of butter on top. Lay the snails close 
together in a cast iron pan, the mouths of the snails upwards, and not one upon 
another ; cover the pan so as to render it air tight, and put it into a moderate oven. 
When the parsley begins to look dark, the snails will be sufficiently cooked. Arrange 
the snails on a hot dish with a folded napkin, leaving them in their shells, and serve 
as hot as possible. 

Edible Snails, Bourgoyne. 

Take some Bourgoyne edible snails, disgorge them with a little salt for two or 
three days, wash several times in cold water, strain and place them in a stewpan 
covering them with water. Add a bunch of sweet herbs, some cloves and whole 
pepper tied in a cloth, and salt to taste ; cook until the snails fall from their 
shells, empty them, clipping off their tails, and cleaning the shells well. Mix together 
some shallots, parsley and butter, and chervil chopped very fine ; put this into a bowl 
with an equal quantity of sifted breadcrumbs and one wineglassful of white wine, 
season to taste with pepper and salt, and knead well. Partly fill the shells with this 
mixture, replace the snails, and complete the filling with more of the kneaded butter ; 
spread breadcrumbs over, and lay them on a baking dish, the opened part on the top. 
Brown in the oven for four minutes, and serve on a dish with a folded napkin. 

Baked Frogs' Legs. 

Prepare and clean one dozen frogs' legs, put a thick layer of minced mushrooms 
and sifted brown breadcrumbs in a baking dish, lay the pieces of legs on them, season 
with salt and pepper, strew a few sweet herbs over, also more sifted crumbs, put two 
or three small bits of lemon peel on the top, squeeze over the juice of a lemon, and 



SHELL-FISH. 99 

pour in about one breakfast cupful of brown gravy. Cover the whole with a sheet of 
buttered paper and bake for half an hour in a moderate oven. When cooked, brown 
them under a salamander, and serve in the same dish. 

Broiled Frogs' Legs. 

Prepare eighteen frogs as follows: Lay the frogs on their backs. Make a long 
incision from the neck along the side of the belly; make another at right angles across 
the middle of the belly, dissect cut the entrails and cut away the head, leaving only 
the back and legs. Skin the frogs and chop off their feet, wash them thoroughly and 
blanch in scalding salted water. Then lay the hindquarters on a dish and pour over 
two tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, seasoning with salt and pepper and a little lemon 
juice. Roll the frogs around several times in this seasoning, place on a broiler and 
broil for four minutes on each side. Take them off, arrange on a hot dish and serve 
with a gill of maitre d'hotel sauce poured over. 

Fricasseed Frogs' Legs. 

Prepare twelve saddles or hindquarters of frogs as above and put them in a flat- 
bottomed saucepan with a little butter and a very small quantity of finely-minced 
shallot. Place the pan on the fire and cook until the butter begins to brown, then 
pour over a teacupful of sherry, cover the pan and stew for twenty minutes; skim off 
most of the butter and add cayenne and salt to taste. Put the yolks of four eggs and 
two tablespoonfuls of cream in the stock to thicken, mixing the eggs in a little of the 
hot liquor before adding them, and as soon as the contents of the pan show signs of 
boiling remove it from the fire. Place the frogs on a dish with the legs sticking out 
all around and the thick part forming a circle in the center; strain the sauce and pour 
it over them. The wine and eggs are not always used in the cooking. 

Fried Frogs' Legs. 

Prepare eighteen frogs' legs and put them in a bowl with a marinade composed 
of one tablespoonful each of vinegar and sweet oil and salt and pepper to taste. Mix 
well together in the bowl, immerse them in frying batter, plunge them singly into 
very hot fat and fry for five minutes. Drain, arrange on a hot dish with a folded nap- 
kin and garnish with parsley. Any desired sauce may be served with this dish. 

Stewed Frogs' Legs. 

Melt half an ounce of butter in a saucepan on the fire, and in it brown one 
chopped onion, about one ounce of raw ham cut into dice, half a green pepper pod 
cut small, half a tablespoonful of salt, and one teaspoonful of pepper; moisten with 
one quart of white broth or consomme; add a tablespoonful of rice, six sliced gumbos 



ioo SHELL-FISH. 

and one sliced tomato, and cook thoroughly for about twenty minutes. Add a 
quarter of prepared frogs' legs five minutes before serving. Turn out on a dish and 
serve. If desired, one green pepper and two tomatoes may be substituted in place of 
the gumbo. 

Lobster, American Style. 

Procure two good sized freshly boiled lobsters and split them, removing all of 
the meat very carefully, and cut it up into pieces about an inch in length; and have 
in readiness a pan on top of a range half full of good olive oil, and when the oil has 
become very hot add pieces of the lobster. Chop very fine one peeled onion, one 
green pepper, and half a peeled clove, some sound garlic, place it with the lobster 
and cook for five minutes, stirring all the time; season with a pinch of salt and half 
a saltspoonful of red pepper, to which add half a wineglassful of white wine. After 
two minutes' reduction add one gill of tomato sauce and a medium sized peeled 
tomato, cut into small dice. Continue cooking for ten minutes, gently stirring the 
while, then pour the whole into a hot dish or tureen and serve. 

Baked Lobsters. 

Place a live lobster in boiling fish broth; when it is cooked, drain and split it in 
half lengthwise, pick the meat out of the tail and claws, cut it in small pieces, and 
mix in an equal quantity of mushrooms, also cut in dice. Place the coral of the 
lobster in a mortar with a little butter, pound, and pass it through a fine hair sieve. 
Put a few 'tablespoonfuls of bechamel sauce in a stewpan with a little cream and 
melted glaze, stir over the fire until it is well reduced, then mix with it the pieces of 
lobster and mushrooms, sprinkle in a little cayenne, and add the pounded coral. 
Clean the two shells of the lobster, fill them with the preparation, sprinkle bread 
crumbs on the top, pour a little warmed butter over each, and brown in the oven. 
Place a folded napkin on a dish, lay the shells on it, and serve at once. 

Boiled Lobster. 

Place some water on the fire, and when it is boiling fast put the lobster in, head 
first, so that it may be killed at once. Place the lid on and let the lobster boil for 
half an hour. Take it out and leave it until well drained, then wipe off the scum and 
rub it over with a little piece of butter tied in a cloth. 

Lobster Bordelaise. 

Cut some live lobsters into eight pieces, crack the claws without spoiling the 
shape, put them in a saucepan and cover with white wine, a little garlic, two bay 
leaves, a small bunch of parsley and thyme, and a little pepper and salt ; place the 
lid on the saucepan and let the mixture boil for twenty-five minutes, stirring often to 



SHELL-FISH. 101 

prevent burning. When they are cooked take each piece of lobster out, dry in a 
cloth, and replace them in a clean saucepan. Fry a few slices of onions and shallots 
in butter, and when they are browned stir in a little flour, cook it, then pour in some 
of the liquor in which the pieces of lobster were cooked. Stir over the fire for ten 
minutes, then mix in a teacupful of tomato sauce, a pinch of cayenne, the pieces of 
lobster, and warm them again. Arrange the lobster on a hot dish in such a way that 
they will not have the appearance of being cut, put the claws around, pour over the 
sauce and serve. 

Broiled Lobster. 

Take a live lobster, and after it has been boiled split it lengthwise, and pick out 
all the uneatable parts ; open it flat, place two small pieces of butter on it, and dust 
over with pepper ; place the halves of the lobster, just as they were in their shells, 
on a gridiron, and heat slowly over a fire. When done put them with their shells on 
a hot dish, garnish with parsley and serve. 



Broiled Lobster Ravigote. 



Cut three small raw lobsters each into two equal parts, taking out the gravel 
from the head, season with salt and pepper, rub with a little oil and broil the pieces 
for ten minutes. Remove them from the fire, take the meat from the heads of the 
lobsters, put them in a salad bowl with half a pint of ravigote butter and mix them 
well together; take the rest of the meat from the lobster, dip it in the sauce and 
return it to the shell; then replace and warm it again for a few minutes in the oven 
and serve on a folded napkin, garnish the shells with parsley and serve the sauce in 
a boat. 

Buttered Lobster. 

Pick out all the meat of a lobster and mince it finely, mix it with the coral and 
green inside, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, a quarter of a pound of fresh butter and 
one saltspoonful each of cayenne and made mustard; place this in a stewpan with the 
chopped meat over the fire till thoroughly hot. Cut in quarters some lettuce, arrange 
them on a dish, pour in'the hot lobster, put some quarters of hard boiled eggs on the 
top and serve at once. 

Lobster Cream. 

Pick the meat from a boiled lobster and chop it small; place it in a saucepan, 
season to taste with salt and pepper and a small quantity of grated nutmeg; moisten 
with half a tablespoonful of vinegar and one teaspoonful of sherry, stir it over the 
fire until hot, then dredge lightly with flour and add two ounces of butter and a tea- 
cupful of cream. Stir the mixture while it is boiling and let it cook for ten minutes. 
Wash the body shell of the lobster and dry well, then pour the mixture into. it. 
Place the lobster on a fancy dish and serve it while very hot. 



102 SHELL-FISH. 



Lobster Croquettes. 



Carefully pick the meat from a lobster, mince finely, and mix it with one heaped 
teaspoonful of finely grated breadcrumbs, two tablespoonfuls of thick cream, the 
strained juice of one lemon, one teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, a little grated nut- 
meg, pepper and salt, and stir over the fire until it is very hot. Then take it off, 
mix in the beaten yolk of one egg and leave until cold. Shape the lobster prepara- 
tion into little balls, brush over with beaten eggs, plunge them into boiling fat and 
fry. When they are cooked, drain and arrange them on a hot dish, garnish with fried 
parsley and serve. 

Curried Lobster. 

Take the meat from some small lobsters and place it in a saucepan with one tea- 
cupful each of gravy and cream, and half a blade of mace. Mix two teaspoonfuls of 
curry powder with one teaspoonful of flour, and one ounce of butter, put in with the 
lobster and simmer at the side of the fire for an hour. After it is done add some 
lemon juice and a little salt. Turn it on to a hot dish and serve. 

Lobster Cutlets. 

Take out the meat from a large hen lobster or two small ones, place it in a 
mortar with some of its coral, and pound, mixing with it a little powdered mace, 
grated nutmeg, salt, pepper, and cayenne ; beat the yolks of two eggs and the white 
of one together with a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce ; then mix them with the above 
ingredients. Roll out, sprinkle a little flour over, and form it into the cutlets ; dip a 
paste brush in beaten eggs, brush the cutlets over, roll them in breadcrumbs, and fry 
in boiling butter. Put one pint of melted butter in a saucepan with the coral and a 
teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, and make it hot. When the cutlets .are browned, drain, 
arrange them in a circle on a hot dish, pour the sauce in the center and serve. 

Deviled Lobster. 

Put three minced shallots in a stewpan with two ounces of butter and the brown 
meat of the crab; fry until the shallots are lightly browned, then pour in half a pint 
of milk, add half a tablespoonful of chutney, and season with salt, pepper and a small 
quantity of cayenne. Stir the whole over the fire until it- is thick, then put in the 
lobster chopped. Have a metal table shell, fill it with the lobster mixture, strew a 
layer of grated breadcrumbs over the top, baste with three tablespoonfuls of warmed 
butter and brown in the oven. When done place the shell in the middle of the dish 
and garnish with parsley. 

Lobster Fricassee. 

Partially boil some lobsters. Pick the meat out of the claws and tails and cut 
Miem into small pieces, put it into a saucepan with two breakfast cupfuls of bechame. 



SHELL-FISH. 103 

sauce and let the contents stew gently for several minutes. Strain the juice of half 
a lemon into the fricassee, turn it on to a hot dish and serve at once. 

Fried Lobster. 

Take the meat out of the tails and claws of a lobster and sprinkle with salt and 
pepper. Dip a paste-brush in beaten egg, and brush the meat with it, then roll it in 
breadcrumbs, and after they have dried on it repeat the operation. Place it in a fry- 
ing basket, plunge it in boiling fat and fry until it is brown. Drain and place the 
lobster on a hot dish and serve with a sauceboat of tartar sauce. 

Lobster Fritters. 

Chop the meat of a lobster and a few skinned prawns, put them in a stewpan 
with a lump of butter and place on the fire until they are hot. Roll out some good 
paste, cut it into rounds with a cutter, place them in a flat stewpan with boiling lard, 
and fry until they are nicely browned ; drain, pile some of the lobster mixture on 
each, arrange them- on a hot dish, garnish with parsley and serve. 

Lobsters in Casserole. 

Cut the tails of some boiled lobster into scallops, and place them in a circle 
in a silver casserole. Fry some chopped shallots in a little butter for a few minutes, 
then pour in a little sherry wine and finish cooking. When they are done pour over 
the shallots some Spanish sauce and tomato puree, mixed in equal quantity, stir and 
boil for five minutes, and dust in a little cayenne pepper. Cut the meats of the 
lobster claws in small dices, put in the center of the casserole, pour over the sauce, 
stand the casserole in the oven for ten minutes to warm the lobster and serve. 

Lobster in Shells. 

Cut an equal quantity of lobster meat and mushrooms into dice. Boil some 
veloute sauce, together with some essence of mushrooms till properly reduced. Then 
thicken it with fresh butter and lobster butter in equal proportions, and mix in the 
lobster and mushrooms. Fill some table shells with the preparation, sprinkle bread- 
crumbs over the top, pour over a little warmed butter, and bake in a hot oven until 
browned. Place the shells on a hot dish and serve. 



Lobster, Newburg. 



Pick all the meat from the shells of two good sized freshly boiled lobsters, and 
cut it into one-inch pieces, which place in a saucepan over a hot range together with 
one ounce of fresh butter, season with a pinch of salt and half a saltspoonful of red 
pepper, two medium-sized truffles, cut into dice-shaped pieces, after cooking for five 



io 4 SHELL-FISH. 

minutes add a wineglassful of Madeira wine; reduce one-half, say about three to four 
minutes, then have in readiness three egg yolks in a bowl with "half a pint ot sweet 
cream, and beat well together, adding this to the lobster, gently stir for two minutes 
longer until it becomes thick, pour into a hot tureen and serve. 

Lobster on Skewers. 

Take a freshly boiled lobster, cut it into squares, lay them in a bowl to season, 
with salt, a pinch of pepper, half a pinch of nutmeg, and a tablespoonful of Wor- 
cestershire sauce; mix these ingredients well together. Have six skewers and arrange 
on them first a piece of lobster, then a mushroom, another piece of lobster, then 
another piece of mushroom, and so on. Lay them on the broiler and broil for eight 
minutes. Take them off, dress on a hot dish on six slices of broiled bacon, pour 
over a gill of maitre d'hotel butter, and serve while they are very hot. 

Lobster Patties. 

Take the flesh from the shell of a boiled lobster, cut it into small pieces, and 
put them into a saucepan with some lobster sauce. Prepare some puff paste, give it 
six turns, then roll it out flat on a floured table. With a fluted cutter cut out some 
rounds, place them on a baking dish, lay them on ice for ten minutes, then brush 
them over with a paste brush dipped in beaten egg. With a plain tin cutter cut 
through a third of the thickness of the paste, dipping the cutter in warm water every 
time; this will form the cover when baked. Place the patties in a quick oven and 
bake them. When they are cooked lift off the inner circle of the patties, scoop out 
a little of the soft paste inside, and smooth over the surface. Have the lobster 
warmed, turn it into the patties, and put on the covers. Arrange them on a fancy 
dish, and serve while they are very hot. 

Lobster Rissoles. 

Make a batter of flour, eggs and milk, allow to each egg one teaspoonful of 
flour and two tablespoonfuls of milk. Pound the coral of a boiled lobster with the 
yolks of two hard boiled eggs until smooth ; chop the meat of the lobster up fine, 
season with pepper, a little pounded mace and salt, and mix with it the pounded coral 
and egg. When the batter is well beaten and smooth, mix the lobster into it until 
stiff enough to make into rolls. Fry them in salad-oil and serve either hot or cold 
on a folded napkin. If served cold, garnish with fresh parsley, if hot, with fried 
parsley. 

Scalloped Lobster. 

Select a nice fresh hen lobster and pick out all the flesh ; place the spawn in a 
mortar with two ounces of butter and pound until smooth, then pass it through a fine 
hair sieve. Mince the flesh of the lobster, and season with pepper, salt and a mod- 



SHELL-FISH. 105 

erate quantity of spice and a little cayenne pepper. Put the mince into a stewpan 
with one-half tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, the strained juice of a lemon, 
a small lump of butter and two or three tablespoonfuls of thick cream. Stir the 
mixture with a wooden spoon over the fire until very hot, then stir in the pounded 
spawn. Fill some scallop shells with the mixture, levelling it smoothly over the top, 
sprinkle over plenty of grated breadcrumbs and put a few small pieces of butter on 
them. Place the scalloped lobster in the oven and bake until nicely browned. Serve 
on a folded napkin. 

Stewed Lobsters. 

Remove the claws from four or five freshly boiled lobsters and split them in two 
lengthwise ; pick the meat from the tails to trim it and arrange the pieces in a circle 
on a hot dish, placing the claws in the center. Put one-fourth pint of melted meat 
glaze in a small saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of sherry wine ; boil, and then 
move the saucepan to the side of the fire. Mix three tablespoonfuls of bread- 
crumbs with six tablespoonfuls of butter, a little chopped parsley and a little cayenne. 
Add this gradually to the meat glaze mixture so as to thicken it ; mix with this the 
creamy part that is taken from the body of the lobster, pounded, passed through a 
sieve and worked up with two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Pour this sauce over the lob- 
ster and serve at once. 

Stewed Lobster Bordelaise. 

Add to one wineglassful of red wine in a stewpan one chopped shallot and half 
of a small carrot, cut into exceedingly small pieces. Boil for five minutes, put in the 
meat from two boiled lobsters, cut into pieces, which should weigh about one and 
one-half pounds, one pinch of salt, one-third pinch of pepper, and a very little nut- 
meg, and finally one-half pint of veloute sauce. Stew well together for five minutes 
and serve very hot. 

Lobster Vol-au-Vent. 

Rub together four tablespoonfuls of butter and one and one-half tablespoonfuls 
of flour. Pour on this by degrees one pint of boiling white stock, boil up, and add 
the juice of half a lemon, a little salt, a few grains of cayenne, the yolks of two eggs 
beaten in a little cold water, and the meat of two small lobsters cut into dice. Stir 
over the fire for one minute, fill a vol-au-vent case, place the cover on and serve. 

Fried Mussels. 

Pick some mussels out of their" shells : remove their beards, dip them in milk, 
cover with breadcrumbs well seasoned with salt and pepper, and fry in a fryingpan 
until they are of a light brown color, place them on a dish in a warm place, pour a 
little of their liquor in a pan, add a little pepper and salt, if required, and sprinkle in 
a few breadcrumbs, and then add a little butter. When it is quite hot pour it over 



io6 SHELL-FISH. 

the mussels and serve at once. The mussels may be previously pickled, but it is not 
necessary. 

Mussels in Shells. 

Procure some small mussels, they being the most delicate, scrape the shells and 
wash them in several waters, to remove all the grit. Put the mussels in a stewpan 
with one sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, and one pint of French white wine ; 
season with pepper and salt, stand the pan over the fire till the shells open, when the 
mussels will be done. Take them cut of their shells, clean thoroughly, and cut them 
into halves ; strain the cooking liquor of the mussels into another saucepan, mix with 
it an equal quantity of veloute sauce, and boil until reduced to about half of its 
original quantity. Thicken the sauce with a lump of butter or a liaison of two yolks 
of eggs, stirring by the side of the fire and not allowing it to boil after the eggs are 
added ; put the mussels in the sauce with one tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Fill 
some silver shells with the above mixture, cover with finely grated breadcrumbs, put 
a small bit of butter on the top of each, and brown in the oven ; when cooked, arrange 
the shells on an ornamental dish paper or a folded napkin that has been placed on a 
hot dish, garnish with neat sprigs of fried parsley, arranging it here and there between 
the shells, and serve. 

Mussels, Matelote. 

Wash and clean some mussels, put them into a saucepan over a clear fire, and 
toss or hustle them until the shells open. Turn the mussels into a colander placed 
over a pan, so as to save all their liquor, and remove the half shells, beards, etc. ; 
put two tablespoonfuls of chopped shallots and a clove of garlic into a saucepan with 
a little butter, and fry without letting them take color ; put in the mussels, pour over 
one wineglassful of wine and the mussel liquor, place the pan over the fire, boil for a 
few minutes, thicken with a piece of butter kneaded with finely minced breadcrumbs, 
parsley and a little cayenne, and toss the pan for a little while longer until all the 
butter is melted. Put them in a metal dish, pour over the liquor, stand in another 
dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot. 



Mussels, Poulette Style. 



Take some mussels that have been hustled or plainly cooked, remove the half 
shell that does not contain the fish, take off the beard and weed, remove any young 
crabs there may be, and put them on a dish either piled up or packed closely together. 
In the meantime prepare a little melted butter, made with the mussel liquor instead 
of water and a good quantity of butter, and sprinkle over a little pepper and sufficient 
vinegar to give it a sharp taste ; make this mixture hot, pour it over the mussels and 
serve at once. Nutmeg, mace, or chopped parsley and chives may be added to the 
sauce if desired to heighten the flavor. 



SHELL-FISH. 107 

Scalloped Mussels. 

Put some mussels into a saucepan and toss them over a quick fire for a few 
minutes until the meat will come away easily from the shells. Take out the beards, 
weeds, etc., remove the fish from their shells, squeeze all the liquor out of them, 
and add to it that which came from them while being cooked : strain it into a sauce- 
pan, put in the mussels and warm them up, adding a little flour, butter, grated nut- 
meg and pepper ; care must be taken not to let them boil and not to use any salt, as 
they generally contain sufficient. Clean some scallop shells, cover them with bread- 
crumbs, put a layer of the mussels over it, then another layer of breadcrumbs and 
another of mussels ; moisten them with a few tablespoonfuls of the liquor, put a 
layer of crumbs on top, place on it a few pieces of butter, scatter over a little dried 
parsley, and put them in an oven to cook until they are a bright brown. They may 
be browned in a salamander instead of the oven, if desired, and must be served hot. 

Stewed Mussels, Mariniere. 

Steam three dozen mussels in a saucepan for about ten minutes, without any 
water. Take them out, remove half of their shells, put them into a saucepan with 
two ounces of fresh butter, a small quantity of chives and finely-chopped chervil, a 
very little pepper and a teacupful of finely-sifted breadcrumbs ; pour over one-half 
breakfast cupful of water and boil for two minutes longer. Turn the whole into a 
dish, squeeze over the juice of one-half of a lemon, and serve. The mussels should 
be arranged in the dish with the half shells downwards. Garnish with parsley and 
quarters of lemons. 

Mussels, Villeroy. 

Wash and thoroughly cleanse some mussels, changing the water five or six times, 
if necessary, and remove the sinewy strings that are to be found inside, put them 
into a saucepan, pour over a wineglassful of white wine, toss them over a fire until 
the shells open, then turn them into a colander over a pan and let them drain. 
Pull them out of their shells, and when they are cool dip them into a little villeroy 
sauce ; arrange on a baking sheet, and when the sauce has cooled sprinkle them 
over with breadcrumbs, repeating it to have them thoroughly covered. Plunge 
them into a fryingpan of boiling fat, fry to a light brown color, then take them out, 
drain, put them on a napkin on a dish, and serve with a garnish of fried parsley. 

Oysters. 

Oysters are in season eight months in the year, .he four " close " months being 
May, June, July, and August; the other months having the letter " r " in their spell- 
ing, accounts for the saying that oysters are in season when there is an " r " in the 
month. The oyster (ostrea edulis) is found on almost every coast, being especially 



io8 SHELL-FISH. 

cultivated in certain localities, and yielding enormous crops, as it is estimated that 
one oyster alone produces in one year from three to four thousand young. The 
system of cultivation has been brought to great perfection, and the superior kinds of 
oysters are carefully preserved from contamination with inferior sorts. Of the 
numerous kinds of oysters sold in our markets, it is only necessary to state that those 
possessing the smallest, smoothest and cleanest looking shells, from the high class 
native, down to the lowest types, are the best flavored. For serving plain, no oyster 
excels the blue points, but for cooking a coarser and cheaper kind may be used with 
almost as good results. Oysters must be kept alive, and as they are liable to fret and 
waste in substance while in captivity, they require frequent change of water, and 
occasional feeding or fattening as it is called. The following is the system usually 
adopted: Take some fresh oysters, put them in a tub of water, wash or scrub them 
with a birch or heather broom until they are quite clean, then lay them in an earthen- 
ware pan with the flat shell upwards; sprinkle them with flour or oatmeal, and cover 
with salted water (quite as salt as sea- water), bay salt being the best for this purpose. 
Change the salt water every day and sprinkle the oysters with oatmeal or flour, and 
they will fatten. Sometimes it is necessary to preserve oysters for culinary use, 
especially in localities where they are scarce or the supplies insufficient. When this 
is the case, the following will be found an excellent method of preparing them so that 
they will keep good, although not fresh, and be always ready for use. 

Clean the oysters thoroughly, put them in a large saucepan with some sea-water, 
the juice of half a lemon, and some grated nutmeg. When the water is on the point 
of boiling move the saucepan off the fire, and leave the oysters in the liquor till the 
following day. Put them into stone or earthenware jars, pour over some clarified 
butter, and when cold, cover and tie the jars down; keep them in a cool place. 
Oysters should be kept in a very cold place, and should be thoroughly washed before 
they are opened; they should, according to the French custom, be opened on the 
deep shell so as to preserve their liquor; it is then advisable, if possible, to lay them 
on a bed of finely chopped ice for an hour or so before serving; this improves the 
flavor greatly, but they must not be left on the ice much longer, for after that time 
they will begin to lose flavor, instead of gaining it. 

Oysters, American Style. 

Place in a sauce bowl one heaped teaspoonful of salt, three-fourths teaspoonful 
of very finely ground white pepper, one medium sized fine, sound, well peeled shallot, 
one heaped teaspoonful of chives, and one-half teaspoonful of parsley, all very finely 
chopped. Mix lightly together, and then pour in one teaspoonful of olive oil, six 
drops of Tobasco sauce, one saltspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, and lastly one gill 
(or five and one-half tablespoonfuls) of good vinegar. Mix it thoroughly with a 
spoon, and it is ready for use. A teaspoonful should be poured over each oyster just 
before eating. 



SHELL-FISH 109 

Baked Oysters. 

Put in a small lined stewpan a quarter of a pound of butter and one teacupful of 
cream, stirring them well over a fire until thoroughly mingled. Add one wineglassful 
of wine, one tablespoonful of anchovy sauce and a small quantity each of cayenne 
pepper and grated lemon peel, and continue stirring over the fire until hot. Pour 
half of this mixture into a dish and lay the oysters on it. Strew Parmesan cheese 
and breadcrumbs over, with a little salt and pepper, pouring on the remainder of the 
cream and butter, with another thin layer of crumbs and cheese on top. Bake until 
nicely browned in a brisk oven and serve while hot. 

Baked Oysters in their Shells. 

Open some oysters, remove the beards and dip them first in beaten egg and then 
in finely grated breadcrumbs that have been seasoned with pepper, salt and grated 
nutmeg. Place the oysters in their lower shells, put a small piece of butter on each, 
and bake for a few minutes in a brisk oven. When ready, place the shells with the 
oysters on a dish, squeeze a small quantity of lemon juice over each, and serve. 

Baked Oysters on Toast. 

Beard two dozen fine oysters, put their beards and liquor into a stewpan, and let 
them simmer for a few minutes. Butter some toasts thickly on one side, lay them 
buttered side downwards on a dish that will stand the heat of the fire and put the oys- 
ters on top. Strain the oyster liquor and mix with it one ounce of butter in small 
bits, season to taste with salt and a small quantity of cayenne pepper and pour it over 
the oysters. Place the dish in a brisk oven for a few minutes, then take it out and 
serve the oysters very hot with a plate of cut lemon. 



Oyster Bouchees. 



Blanch two dozen oysters and turn ten mushrooms, cut both into small pieces, 
put them into a saucepan with some white sauce and stir over the fire till hot. Pre- 
pare some puff paste, giving it six turns, roll it out to about one-fourth inch in thick- 
ness, and with a fluted tin cutter, about two inches in diameter, cut eighteen rounds 
out of the paste. Arrange the pieces of paste on a baking sheet, let them rest on ice 
for ten minutes, then brush over with beaten egg, and with a plain tin cutter one and 
one-fourth inches in diameter cut through the center of each bouchee to about one- 
third of the thickness of the paste. Bake the bouchees in a quick oven, and when 
cooked lift off the inner circle of the paste and hollow them out inside. Fill the 
bouchees with the salpicon of oysters and mushrooms and replace the covers. Place 
a folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper on a hot dish, arrange the bouchees on 
it, garnish with fried parsley and serve. 



no SHELL-FISH. 

Broiled Oysters. 

Take some fine large-sized oysters, lay them on a soft cloth to dry, pepper over, 
and then place them on a well buttered gridiron over a clear fire and leave till thor- 
oughly hot. Lay them then on slices of well buttered toast cut rather thin and serve 
while hot. 

Broiled Oysters, Breaded. 

Take freshly opened oysters and an equal quantity of bread and cracker crumbs, 
flatten them on a well greased broiler and broil for two minutes on each side. Salt 
slightly and arrange on the toast, then lightly glaze them over with maitre d'hotel 
sauce and serve. 

Broiled Oysters, in the Shell. 

Put a couple of dozen large oysters on a gridiron over a moderate fire, with the 
flat shell uppermost; when done they will open. Keep the liquor in the shells and 
serve hot. 



Oyster Cocktail. 



Open half a dozen small oysters and drop them with the juice into a wine glass; 
add a little lemon juice, three drops of Tobasco sauce, a teaspoonful of Worcester- 
shire sauce and one dessertspoonful of tomato catsup, stir well and serve. Horse- 
radish may be served on the side. 



Oyster Cromeskies. 



Scald the required number of oysters in their own liquor and put them between 
slices of bacon cut very thin. Two oysters are quite sufficient for one slice of bacon. 
Roll the bacon over and fasten the oysters in with a small skewer. Fry them to a 
nice brown, place them on a dish and serve hot. 

Oyster Croquettes. 

Blanch six dozen oysters, trim and chop the meat into small pieces, put these 
into a saucepan with one-third the bulk of mushrooms cooked and cut into small 
pieces. Set one pint of bechamel sauce in a saucepan over a clear fire, reduce it, 
stirring frequently, add a few tablespoonfuls of the oyster liquor and a little cream. 
When it is well reduced and begins to froth, add a liaison made of the yolks of three 
eggs to thicken it, and lastly add a small quantity of butter. Stir in the oyster mix- 
ture, turn it out into a basin, and let it get quite cold, placing the basin if necessary 
on ice. Take out small quantities, about the size of an egg, roll them on a board 
sprinkled with breadcrumbs, make them round with spoons, and dip them first into 
well beaten egg and then into breadcrumbs. Have ready a fryingpan of boiling fat, 



SHELL-FISH. in 

plunge them in a few. at a time, and when they are done and of a good color take them 
out, drain, arrange them on a napkin spread over a dish, and serve with a garnish of 
fried parsley. 

Oyster Croustade. 

Beard and cut some oysters into halves and put in a stewpan with their strained 
liquor, one wineglassful of white wine, and a moderate quantity of gravy; season to 
taste with salt, pepper, and a small quantity each of grated lemon peel and pounded 
mace. Stew them gently, and when done place in them about one ounce of butter in 
small lumps. Cut off the tops of some small French rolls, scooping out the crumb, 
and put them into a stewpan of boiling butter, and fry until crisp and brown. Rub 
the crumbs of the rolls up finely and fry them also. Drain the rolls and fill them 
with the oyster mixture, placing on a hot dish with the crumbs around it, and serve. 



Curried Oysters. 



Peel and cut into thin slices a moderate sized Spanish onion; put a lump of 
butter into a stewpan, place it over the fire, and when the butter boils put in the onion 
and fry it until nicely browned. Next stir in three tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 
add more butter if necessary, and mix well over the fire. Pour in gradually a 
sufficient quantity of broth, put the lid on the pan and let the whole boil up. Grate 
a cocoanut and peel and chop a very sour apple, or, instead of the apple, a few 
tamarinds would be best if they could be obtained; put them into the stewpan with 
the other ingredients, and boil the whole slowly until the cocoanut is tender. Mix 
two tablespoonfuls of flour smooth with a little water, and stir it into the above 
mixture; season to taste with salt, stir and boil for five minutes. Put two or three 
tomatoes, freed from their seeds, into a stewpan with a hundred oysters and their 
liquor, also the milk of the cocoanut. Stir them occasionally, and stew slowly for a 
few minutes. Add this to the former mixture. Squeeze in the juice of half a lemon, 
turn the curry on to a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, or sippets of 
toast, and serve with a separate dish of rice. 

Oyster Fricassee. 

Open and beard some oysters, put them into a stewpan with their own liquor, 
one ounce of butter and the strained juice of half a lemon; season them with a small 
quantity each of cayenne pepper and grated nutmeg and let them simmer gently by 
the side of the fire for a few minutes. Do not cook them too much or they will 
shrivel up. Beat the yolks of three eggs together with three tablespoonfuls of sherry, 
strain and pour in with the oysters. Toss the whole over the fire for a minute, then 
turn them on to a dish and serve. 



u 2 SHELL-FISH. 

Fried Oysters. 

Select large oysters and drain them; mix one tablespoonful of flour smoothly 
with one-half teacupful of milk, grate some stale breadcrumbs on a sheet of paper 
and season with salt and pepper; roll the oysters first in the paste and then in the 
breadcrumbs, covering well but touching them as little as possible. Lay them on a 
plate and leave them for several minutes. Beat one or two eggs thoroughly, roll the 
oysters in it one at a time, then roll them again in the seasoned breadcrumbs. Put 
a large lump of lard in a frying pan over the fire and when blue smoke arises put in 
the oysters and fry them until nicely browned. Take each oyster as it is cooked out 
of the fat and lay it on a sheet of paper in front of the fire to drain. Spread a folded 
napkin or an ornamental dish-paper over a hot dish, pile the oysters upon it, garnish 
with fried parsley and serve. 

Fried Oysters and Bacon. 

Open and remove the beards from one dozen oysters, cut as many thin slices of 
bacon as there are oysters, trim neatly and lay an oyster on each, rolling them up and 
fasten with a skewer. Fry each roll carefully and nicely. Cut as many rounds of 
bread about a third of an inch thick and two inches in diameter as there are rolls of 
bacon, toast them evenly on both sides and butter them. Spread a folded napkin or 
fancy edged dish-paper on a hot dish, place the pieces of toast upon it with a roll on 
each, garnish with fried parsley and serve. 

Fried Deviled Oysters. 

Take one pint of oysters or sufficient to make a good dish, wipe them dry and 
lay them on a flat dish ; cover with butter well-warmed and mixed with cayenne 
pepper and lemon juice, turn them over and over in this mixture for ten minutes, then 
roll them in a paper of rolled crackers or sifted breadcrumbs ; dip them into beaten 
egg and again roll them in the crumbs, fry them in boiling lard and butter mixed and 
serve as hot as possible. 

Fried Oyster Patties. 

Make some good puff paste, roll it out rather thin and cut it into round pieces. 
Chop some oysters, mix them with some chopped hard boiled egg, a little chopped 
parsley and a little grated lemon peel ; add a seasoning of pepper, salt and a little 
pounded mace, moisten the mixture with cream and a little oyster liquor, then put a 
good spoonful on each piece of paste, fold it over, moisten the edges with a little 
cream and press them together. Brush the patties over with the yolk of an egg and 
fry them for fifteen minutes. 



SHELL-FISH. 

Fried Truffled Oysters. 

Chop six ounces of the cooked breast of a fowl and three ounces of raw fat salt 
pork, put this into a mortar with a little pepper and pound it. Chop a few truffles 
the size of peas and mix in. Put four dozen oysters on a cloth and with a sharp knife 
inserted at the edge of one of them make an opening up and down inside, but not to 
make the hole too large and fill them with the mixture. Put them when all done into 
a basin of flour, coat them well over, dip them into well-beaten egg, plunge them into 
a fryingpan of boiling fat and fry to a light golden color. Remove, drain on a cloth 
in a slow oven, sprinkle over with salt, arrange them on pieces of toast on a dish and 
serve. 

Oyster Fritters. 

Separate the yolk and white of an egg, beating the yolk well and mixing with it 
two tablespoonfuls each of ground rice and salad oil, three-fourths of a tablespoonful 
of vinegar, and a small quantity of cold water. Mix smoothly and allow the batter 
to stand for half an hour. Open and beard the oysters, whisk the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff snow, and mix them in lightly with the batter. Then place a large lump 
of clarified fat in a flat stewpan over a fire until it boils. Take the oysters, one at 
a time, in a tablespoon and fill it with the batter, pouring it into the boiling fat. 
Fry until nicely browned, then drain well, spreading on a folded napkin or orna- 
mental dish-paper over a hot dish, pile the fritters in the center, garnish with cut 
lemons, and serve with a plate of thin slices of brown bread and butter. 

Oysters in Cases. 

Open and blanch a couple of dozen medium-sized oysters in a saucepan with one 
wineglassful of white wine and half an ounce of butter, and season with a pinch of 
pepper and a little nutmeg. Cook for five minutes, and add one pint of well reduced 
veloute sauce ; cooking for another five minutes, and adding half an ounce of cray- 
fish butter and stirring occasionally. Fill the cases with four oysters each and the 
garnishing equally divided. Sprinkle over a little fresh breadcrumbs, and arrange 
them on a toasting pan. Spread a little butter over each patty, and place in a mod- 
erate oven for five minutes. Have a hot dish at hand with a folded napkin spread 
over it ; place the patties on it and serve. 



Oysters, Indian Style. 



Put one-half tablespoonful each of curry powder and flour in a small saucepan ; 
mix in gradually a teacupful of cream, one tablespoonful of finely chopped onion and 
a small quantity of finely chopped apple, season to taste with salt and pepper, and 
stew the whole gently for twenty minutes, stirring occasionally. Put a teacupful of 
well washed rice in a saucepan of water and boil until tender. The rice should be 



u 4 SHELL-FISH. 

quite dry when cooked. Put a dozen oysters in the sauce, add a little lemon juice, 
and leave until hot. Make a wall of the rice on a hot dish, and pour the oysters in 
the center. Serve while very hot. 

Oysters in the Shell. 

Put a dozen or so of large oysters on a gridiron over a moderate fire with the 
flat shell uppermost ; when done they will open. Preserve the liquor in the shells 
with the oysters and serve them hot. 

Oyster Patties. 

Turn a couple of dozen oysters into a basin with their liquor. Put one ounce 
of butter into a saucepan and work it together with a tablespoonful of flour into a 
smooth paste ; when warm add a little mace, cayenne, and salt, and pour in gradually 
three tablespoonfuls of cream. Boil for a few minutes and pour in the strained 
liquor from the oysters, add the oysters last, and boil for a couple of minutes 
longer. Line some small patty pans with some thin puff paste, put a quantity of 
rice in each to keep them in shape, cover the top with more of the paste and 
bake in a brisk oven. Take them out, remove the top, empty out the rice, fill them 
with the oysters and a little of the liquor, cover and serve. 

Oyster Pie. 

Line a pie dish with puff paste, and fill it with slices of stale bread ; butter the 
paste that covers the edge of the dish, lay a cover of puff paste over the pie, press 
the edges very lightly together, trim them, and bake quickly in a hot oven. Mean- 
while drain the liquor from one quart of oysters and chop them fine with a sharp, thin 
bladed knife. Blend a teaspoonful of corn starch in a very little cold milk, pour over 
it one-half pint of boiling milk or cream, put it over the fire in a saucepan, stir till it 
thickens, and then add one ounce of butter ; when the butter has been well mixed 
in, season the chopped oysters with salt and pepper, stir them into the thickened 
milk, let simmer (stirring all the time), for five minutes, and then take from off the fire. 
When the bread pie is baked remove from the oven, and while still hot carefully take 
off the upper crust ; remove the bread, and fill the dish with the thickened cream or 
milk and chopped oysters, replace the top crust, put the pie again in the oven till it 
is thoroughly hot and then serve. 

Oyster Poulette. 

Place thirty-six freshly-opened oysters in a saucepan with a little of their own 
liquor, one ounce of butter, half a pinch of salt and pepper and parboil for three min- 
utes, adding half a pint of hollandaise sauce; stew well together for two minutes 
longer, but without letting the liquor boil, add one teaspoonful of chopped parsley 
and the juice of half a lemon, stir slightly and serve very hot. 



SHELL-FISH. 115 



Scalloped Oysters. 



Strain the oyster liquor, rinse the oysters in it, then plump and beard them. 
Measure the liquor and add to it an equal quantity of rich white sauce; if this does 
not thicken it sufficiently add one teaspoonful of flour, rubbed into a small piece of 
butter, stir over the fire until pretty hot, stir until it boils and boil ten minutes, stir- 
ring occasionally. Put in the oysters and keep them nearly simmering for three min- 
utes, then put them into their shells with a little of the sauce, put a layer of sifted 
breadcrumbs on them, pour over this a little clarified butter and brown them in the 
oven. 



Spiced Oysters. 



Take a hundred fresh oysters, put them into a large earthenware pipkin together 
with their own liquor strained, half a nutmeg grated, eighteen cloves, four blades of 
mace, a teaspoonful of allspice, a very little cayenne pepper, one teaspoonful of salt 
and two tablespoonfuls of strong vinegar, and stir all these together with a wooden 
spoon. Put them in a moderately-heated oven or over a slow fire; take them from 
the fire several times and stir them thoroughly; as soon as they come to a boil pour 
them in a pan and let them stand all night in a cool place. They will be ready for 
eating next day. 

Steamed Oysters. 

Open and drain the required quantity of oysters, lay them in a steamer, which 
place over a saucepan of boiling water, cover them with a plate and cook for ten min- 
utes. When ready place the oysters in a very hot dish, garnish with some croutons 
of brown bread fried in butter and drained and a few drops of lemon or vinegar 
poured over them. Dust lightly with salt and pepper and serve. 



Stewed Oysters. 



Open the shells of one dozen oysters, take them out carefully and wash them in 
their own liquor until perfectly free from grit and pieces of shell, put them in a sauce- 
pan, strain the liquor twice, pour it over, place the pan at the side of the fire and let it 
simmer gently for a few minutes until done. Remove the oysters with a skimmer and 
put them on a dish in a slow oven to keep warm; add to the liquor one teacupful of 
cream and salt and cayenne to taste. Place the pan on the fire and when the liquor 
boils add two ounces of butter worked up with one teaspoonful of flour and continue 
to stir till it is all thoroughly mixed. Put in the oysters to warm up without boiling, 
remove the pan from the fire and stir in a little lemon juice. Have ready some pieces 
of bread fried in butter, arrange them on a dish, put the oysters on them, pour over 
the liquor and serve very hot. 



n6 SHELL-FISH. 

Stewed Oysters, Baltimore Style. 

Open neatly three dozen medium sized fresh oysters, place them in a saucepan 
without their liquor, and add one ounce of good butter; cover the pan, place it over 
the fire and cook for two minutes, then add one wineglassful of good Madeira wine and 
a very little cayenne pepper, cook together for two minutes longer and add one gill 
each of Spanish sauce and half-glaze. Stir thoroughly until boiling, and just before 
serving squeeze in the juice of a lemon, add one-half ounce of butter, a teaspoonful of 
finely chopped parsley, and serve immediately in a hot tureen. 

Stuffed Oysters. 

Put the grated yolks of four hard boiled eggs into a basin and mix in half the 
quantity of minced bacon or salt fat pork, add a little pepper or chopped parsley and 
make them all into a paste by adding the uncooked yolk of another egg. Split open 
four dozen oysters, stuff them with this mixture, put them in large oyster shells, coat 
them over with breadcrumbs, put a little warmed butter on top, place them in an 
oven and bake until done. Put them on a dish, garnish with pieces of fried bread 
and serve. 

Oyster Vol-au-Vent. 

Put the liquor and beards of three dozen oysters into a saucepan, add a little 
pepper (cayenne) and the finely chopped rind and strained juice of half a lemon. Put 
the pan on the fire, boil up the liquor and thicken with three ounces of butter rubbed 
into two tablespoonfuls of flour. Continue to boil till the liquor is reduced to one 
teacupful, strain it into another saucepan, add the oysters, place the pan at the side 
of the fire and simmer gently for five or six minutes, then stir in one teacupful of 
cream and keep the mixture warm. Prepare a paste as follows: Rub twelve ounces 
of butter into an equal quantity of flour and mix in the juice of a lemon added to one 
egg beaten up in one teacupful of cold water. Make this into a paste, handling it as 
little as possible, turn it out on a well-floured board and roll it out to one and one- 
fourth inches in thickness. Cut it with a vol-au-vent tin cutter to take off the rough 
edges, make it the required shape, cut round the top one-half inch from the edge and 
one-fourth inch deep and bake the vol-au-vent in a hot oven for forty-five minutes. 
When done carefully take out the center, remove the soft underdone paste and fill it 
up with the oyster mixture. Arrange the vol-au-vent on a napkin spread over a dish 
and serve with a garnish of fried parsley. 

Oysters with Cream. 

Put a pint of cream in a saucepan with a small piece of onion and a little mace 
tied up in a muslin bag. Boil and stir in a tablespoonful of flour mixed with a little 
milk or cream. Put one quart of oysters in a saucepan with their liquor and boil 



SHELL-FISH. 



117 



them for a few minutes until tender, skimming frequently. Remove the oysters, 
drain, put them in the saucepan with the cream, remove the onion and mace, pour it 
into a dish and serve hot. 

Oysters with Parmesan Cheese. 

Drain the oysters as free as possible from liquor ; spread a dish thickly with 
butter, lay the oysters on it, strew finely-minced parsley over them, season with 
pepper, pour one-half glass of champagne over and cover thickly with grated Par- 
mesan cheese. Put the dish into the oven, and when nicely browned .on top, drain 
the fat carefully off the oysters, and serve, while very hot, in the same dish. 

Boiled Prawns. 

Place a pint of prawns, previously thoroughly washed, into a saucepan with 
enough water to cover them, adding salt in the proportion of one-quarter pound 
to each gallon of water ; set the pan on a quick fire, and boil for eight minutes, 
skimming frequently ; then remove, drain on a sieve, and serve artistically arranged, 
interspersed with parsley. 

Buttered Prawns. 

Remove from their shells three breakfast cupfuls of prawns, and dredge over 
them salt and pepper to taste, place them in a saucepan and pour over them two 
breakfast cupfuls of good rich gravy, and add a small lump of butter, well-kneaded 
with flour, to thicken it. Then place the pan at the side of the fire, and simmer 
gently for five to six minutes, after which, turn the prawns out on to a dish and serve. 

Baked Scallops. 

Take the scallops out of their shells and trim off the beards and all the black 
parts. Wash the deep shells of the scallops, dry them, put in the scallops, and pour 
one-half tablespoonful of vinegar over each. Blanch a bunch of parsley and chop it 
finely ; mix it with the grated breadcrumbs, season to taste with pepper and salt, 
and bind the mixture into a paste with a little milk. Spread some of the paste over 
each shell, strew a few dried breadcrumbs on the top, and put a small piece of 
butter on each. Place them in a brisk oven and bake for twenty minutes. Serve the 
scallops very hot and in their shells, on a folded napkin on a dish. 

Fried Scallops. 

Trim off the beards and black parts, clean the scallops well and drain them. Put 
a lump of lard into a flat stewpan, place it over the fire until blue smoke rises, then 
put in the scallops and fry them until lightly browned. Drain them for a moment on 



n8 SHELL-FISH. 

a sheet of paper, arrange them on a hot dish over which has been spread a folded 
napkin garnished with fried parsley, and serve. 



Stewed Scallops. 



Put some scallops in a stewpan with a half blade of mace, a little sugar and suf- 
ficient water to cover them ; stew gently by the edge of the fire for about thirty min- 
utes or until tender. Put one and one-half ounces of butter in a stewpan with one 
tablespoonful of flour and mix it over the fire, then stir in some of the liquor in which 
the scallops were stewed, three tablespoonfuls of cream and flavor with a little grated 
nutmeg. Arrange the scallops on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them and serve. 



Shrimps and Boiled Rice. 



Make thick white sauce of one heaping tablespoonful of flour, one ounce of 
butter and one-half pint of milk ; flavor it sparingly with mace, cayenne and salt. 
Stir into the sauce one pint of shelled shrimps ; when they are thoroughly hot, pour 
them on to a hot dish, arrange around them a border of boiled rice and serve. 



Buttered Shrimps. 



Shell some shrimps and place them in a fryingpan with a lump of butter, a small 
quantity of salt and pepper, and stir them over the fire until hot. Fry some thin 
slices of bread in butter, drain when a golden brown and place them on a hot dish; 
pile the buttered shrimps on the bread and serve. 



Shrimp Cromeskies. 



Shell some shrimps and cut them into small pieces. Prepare some veloute sauce 
and reduce it to half its original quantity; move the sauce to the side of the fire, stir 
in the beaten yolks of two eggs and one tablespoonful of butter divided into small 
pieces, continue stirring the sauce by the side of the fire, adding, when thick, the 
shrimps. Leave the mixture until cold, then divide it into equal parts and wrap each 
one separately in squares of udder; roll the cromeskies to the shape of a cork, dip 
them in frying batter, then plunge them into boiling fat and fry until crisp and nicely 
browned. When cooked drain the cromeskies, put them on a folded napkin or orna- 
mental dish-paper on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley and serve. 



Shrimps, Normandy Style. 



Skin and remove the heads from one pint of fresh shrimps; put one ounce of 
butter in a stewpan, place it over the fire until melted, then stir in one tablespoonful 
of ground rice; mix in one-half pint of new milk, and continue stirring until it is 



SHELL-FISH. 119 

thickened and boiling. Then put in the shrimps and leave them until quite hot. 
When ready turn them on to a hot dish, garnish with sippets of toast or croutons of 
fried bread and serve. 



Shrimp Patties or Bouchees. 



Remove the shells from three or four pints of fresh shrimps; bone and chop 
finely three anchovies, mix them with the shrimps, and season to taste with pounded 
mace and cloves. Moisten the mixture with about one and one-half wineglassfuls of 
white wine. Prepare some puff paste, roll it to about one-half inch in thickness, cut 
the paste into rounds with a two-inch tin cutter, then with a one-inch cutter cut half 
way through the middle of each round of paste. Brush the rounds over with a paste- 
brush dipped in the beaten yolk of an egg, and bake them in a quick oven. Heat the 
shrimp mixture in a saucepan over the fire, and when the patties are cooked lift off 
the piece marked with the cutter, scoop out the soft inside, fill them with the mixture, 
cover with the small rounds of paste, arrange them on a hot dish over which has been 
spread a folded napkin, garnished with fried parsley, and serve. 

Scalloped Shrimps. 

Prepare one-half pint of tomato sauce, and put in with it one-half pint of picked 
shrimps, and one wineglassful of either red or white wine. Stir the above ingredients 
in a saucepan over the fire until hot, then turn them into a scallop dish; cover the 
top with finely grated breadcrumbs, put three or four lumps of butter over, and bake 
until browned. When well colored, take the dish out of the oven and serve the 
shrimps while hot. 

Stewed Shrimps. 

Pick one quart of shrimps, reserve their tails, and place the remainder in a stew- 
pan with one-half pint of water, and pour in a little vinegar; also put one-half blade 
of mace; let them simmer at the side of the fire for fifteen minutes, stirring occasion- 
ally. Strain the liquor into another saucepan, add the tails, half of a grated nutmeg, 
a small quantity of salt, and two ounces of butter that has been worked with two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir them over the fire for about fifteen minutes. Toast 
a thin slice of bread, cut it into strips, place them at the bottom of a hot dish, pour 
the stew over them, garnish with parsley, and serve. 

The Diamond-Back or Salt-Water Terrapin. 

Three species of the genus Malacoclemmys inhabit the United States. By far 
the most important of these, and the most valuable of all terrapins is the Malacoclem- 
mys Palustris, or the "diamond-back terrapin." 

The other two species, the Geographic Tortoises, M. Geographica and M. 



120 SHELL-FISH. 

Lesueuri are of a comparatively rare occurrence and are not used for food to any 
considerable extent. 

DISTRIBUTION. The "diamond-back," or "salt-water terrapin" is common along 
our entire Atlantic coast, from Nantucket and New Bedford, in Massachusetts, to 
Texas. It also occurs in South America. It was introduced into Italy by the Prince 
of Canino a number of years ago, but of the success of the enterprise I have been un- 
able to learn. Those who enter into commerce however are principally from the 
Chesapeake Bay and the coast of the Carolinas. Some very fine ones also come from 
Egg Harbor, N. J. 

CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITS. The diamond-back lives in salt marshes near 
the coast, and is seldom found far from them. They were formerly very abundant in 
such localities, and could be often seen on warm days sunning themselves on the bars 
and flats. But the increasing demand for them and the wholesale capture of old and 
young have reduced their numbers very materially. The species is a comparatively 
small one, and varies much in external appearance. The females attain a larger size 
than the male and are much more highly prized in the market. The average length 
of the under part of the shell is seven inches, and the weight of the animal four or 
five pounds. Rarely the length reaches ten inches, and the terrapin weighs about ten 
pounds. The fixed standard of length for salable females in most markets is six 
inches, but in some it is as low as five inches. The terrapin having that length are 
known as "counts." The small specimens are separated into "heifers" and "little 
bulls ;" their under shell rarely exceeds five inches in length. As has been already 
said, they are deemed very inferior to the females, and the price of them is therefore 
much lower. 

In regard to the rate of growth, I have seen it stated that the diamond-back 
reaches maturity, or rather lays eggs when four years old, but this is hardly probable. 
It does not accord with the observations of Agassiz and others nor with the peculiari- 
ties of the group generally. Experiments made by a dealer in North Carolina seem 
to show that the species grow about one inch each year, so that "counts" are at least 
six years old. Probably ten years at least elapse before they are fully grown. 

FOOD. What the food of the diamond-back terrapin is does not seem to be exactly 
known. Very probably, however, it consists of such matter, both animal and vegeta- 
ble, as the animal is able to find in the marshes in which it lives. When penned, 
preparatory to sending them to market, they are fed on crabs, oysters and fish. To 
give them the finest flavor, they are said to be fed upon celery for some days previous 
to being served. In the winter the tortoise hibernates and takes no food, remaining 
buried several inches in the mud. Unfortunately for its welfare, a little mound of mud 
is always raised above the spot where it disappears, which at once catches the eye of 
the terrapin fisherman. A large proportion of the terrapins are taken while they are 
in this torpid condition. 

BREEDING HABITS Like all other species of tortoises, the diamond-back deposits 
its eggs on land. When the laying season arrives, the female seeks some sandy bar or 



SHELL-FISH. 121 

bank above water, and having excavated a shallow pit with the hind legs, deposits 
from five to seven eggs. The breeding season occurs in the latter part of June and 
early part of July. It is said that the young show no disposition to seek the water, 
but prefer to remain in the sand. 

ECONOMIC VALUE. The diamond-back is highly prized for food. Philadelphia 
furnished the best market for this species, but it is also sold in large numbers in Balti- 
more, Washington, New York, Boston, Chicago, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis and 
many other cities. The season lasts from the beginning of October to the first or 
middle of June ; the best months are October and November. The specimens from North 
Carolina usually appear in the market last. The "counts" or those over six inches 
long bring from eighteen to thirty-six dollars per dozen in the market ; the smaller 
o/nes are usually sold separately at prices of from fifteen to fifty cents apiece. These 
prices, however, are almost sixty per cent higher than the prices received by the 
catcher, for the terrapins pass through several hands on their way to the market. The 
majority of terrapins are actually caught in the summer months and are penned in yards, 
known as "crawls" until the marketing season arrives, 

To kill the terrapin it is necessary to have ready a large saucepan of boiling 
water, one that will hold a terrapin easily, and to plunge the creature into it head 
first, putting the lid or cover on the pan immediately, and leaving it in the water for 
ten or fifteen minutes. Then remove it and peel off the black skin from the shell, 
and the nails from the claws. Wash the terrapin thoroughly in warm water, and 
remove the under shell by chipping through the thinnest parts, where the black shell 
joins. Cut close to the shell so as not to lose any meat, pour away the water, but 
keep the blood, which will be found in the deep or black shell. Take out the dark green 
gall bladder, which is about the size of a cherry, and will be found near the center at the 
side of the liver, and also the sand bag and entrail, and preserve the eggs, if there be any. 
Loosen the meat from the top shell, cutting through the spine bone, just above the tail, 
where it is attached to the shell, turn the terrapin into a flat pan, and cut off the head. 
This, with the shell, can be used for soup. Separate the two fore and two hind legs, so 
as to have four pieces, trim off the claws, and scrape off the thin outside covering. In 
the female terrapin there will be found rich fat at the shoulders. This should be 
taken off, as it does not require so much cooking as the other parts, and should only 
be added when they are nearly done. It is of a dark green color. All the pieces of 
meat, together with the fat and legs, should be kept in water until wanted for use. 
Only the flesh, eggs and liver of the terrapin are ordinarily used, but sometimes the 
intestines are scalded and scraped, and added to the terrapin. When there are no 
eggs in the terrapin, egg balls are made to accompany it. 

Baked Terrapin. 

Cut off the head of a terrapin, put it in a saucepan or pot with the shell on, and 
let it boil until the under shell can be removed easily. Take it out, pull out all the 



122 SHELL-FISH. 

meat, cleaning the upper shell thoroughly ; pick the meat to pieces, and mix it up 
with a few crackers and chopped onions, a small quantity each of allspice, black 
pepper, chopped parsley and butter, and pour over a small quantity of wine. Put 
this mixture into the top shell, place a few slices of lemon on the top, set it in the 
oven and bake. When done take it out and serve. 

Baked Terrapins, Maryland Style. 

Half fill a baking pan with dry gravel or sand, put it into an oven and make it 
quite hot; wash well three terrapins that have been killed, remove their heads, put 
them with the top shell downward in the sand and bake in the oven for an hour. 
Take them out, remove the under shell, gall bag and entrails and loosen the meat 
without taking it out of the back shell. Pull off the legs, skin them and lay them on 
the top. Put one breakfast cupful of butter in a basin to soften, mix in one teacup- 
ful of flour, one teaspoonful each of salt and black pepper and the juice of a lemon. 
Put a little more than one tablespoonful of this into each terrapin, place them back 
in the oven for a few minutes, take them out and serve on a napkin spread on a dish. 

Fricassee of Terrapin. 

Put the meat of two or three terrapins into a saucepan with a little butter 
and a bunch of parsley and sweet herbs; cook until it is slightly colored, sprinkle 
in salt and pepper to taste and one tablespoonful of flour and pour in gradually 
sufficient cream to cover. Boil for four minutes without stirring, then add one wine- 
glassful of sherry; boil again for ten nr'nutes, take the saucepan from the fire, 
thicken with the beaten yolks of four eggs, remove the bunch of sweet herbs 
and parsley, add five ounces of butter broken up into small pieces, turn the whole 
out on to a dish and serve with minced parsley sprinkled over it. 

Terrapin Steaks. 

Cut the meat of a terrapin into slices or steaks, sprinkle them over with salt 
and pepper, place a few lumps of butter on them and either fry them in a frying- 
pan or broil them on a gridiron. When done place them on a dish and serve very 
hot; or they may be dipped in butter before being salted and peppered, covered 
with melted breadcrumbs and then cooked. 

Stewed Terrapins. 

Cut the flesh off some small terrapins in little pieces, and put them over the fire 
in a stewpan, together with a seasoning of pepper and salt, a little cayenne pepper 
and a small piece of butter. Let them stew in the butter for a short time, add one 
wineglassful of water for each terrapin, and put in at the same time a piece of butter 



SHELL-FISH. 123 

rolled in flour ; stew for ten minutes, then add for each terrapin one wineglassful of 
white wine, and let it stew for another five minutes ; then move the pan to the side of 
the fire, and stir in some beaten yolks of eggs, allowing one yolk to two terrapins. 
Cover the pan tightly and let it stand for five or six minutes. Then pour the ter- 
rapins, sauce and all, into a tureen and serve. 

Stewed Terrapin, Baltimore Style. 

Prepare two medium sized terrapins. Make one pint or so of mirepoix sauce, 
add to it one tablespoonful of flour and bake for fifteen minutes ; moisten with one 
wineglassful of Madeira wine and one breakfast cupful of strong broth. Stir con- 
stantly, season with a small pinch of salt and a very little cayenne pepper, and reduce 
the liquor to half its original quantity. Cut the terrapins into small pieces, throwing 
the ends of the claws away ; place the pieces in a stewpan, straining the sauce over 
them and finish with one ounce of fresh butter, also the juice of a lemon. Then dish 
up and serve. 

Stewed Terrapin, Maryland Style. 

Carefully cut up two terrapins, place them in a saucepan with one wineglassful of 
good Madeira wine, a small pinch of salt, a little cayenne pepper, and an ounce or 
two of good butter. Mix thoroughly one breakfast cupful of sweet cream with the 
yolks of three boiled eggs, and add it to the terrapin, stirring continually while thor- 
oughly heating, but without letting it come to a boil Turn the whole into a tureen, 
and serve it very hot. 

Vol-au-Vent of Terrapin. 

Put one breakfast cupful of terrapin stock into a saucepan with two or three 
cloves and a little mace or parsley, and boil it up ; add one tablespoonful of browned 
flour mixed up with an equal amount of butter to thicken it, pour in one wineglassful 
of sherry wine, and strain the liquor into another saucepan. Add two breakfast 
cupfuls of terrapin meat cut up into small pieces, sprinkle on a little salt and cayenne, 
simmer gently at the side of the fire until the preparation is done. Have in readi- 
ness eight vol-au-vent cases lined with puff paste and baked, fill them with the terra- 
pin mixture, and serve on a folded napkin spread over a dish. 

Turtle Fins Financiere. 

Scald and wash the fins of a turtle, remove the large bones, and insert thin tubes 
in the cavities ; bind the fins tightly in cloths, place them in a saucepan with enough 
water or broth to cover, and boil until tender. When done, take them out and let 
them cool, but without removing the cloths. Have ready a little turtle quenelle mix- 
ture poached in turtle consomme, remove the cloths and tubes from the fins, stuff 
them with the mixture, warm up again and serve. A garnish composed of fancy 



124 SHELL-FISH. 

shapes cut out from the firm red part of a cooked beef tongue, truffles, breast of 
chicken, champignons, and also small quenelles, may also be used. 

Stewed Turtle. 

Clean a small turtle, place it in a saucepan of cold water, and sufficiently boil it 
to enable the meat to be easily removed. Cut out the meat in small pieces, put them 
into a saucepan with a seasoning of salt, cayenne pepper, spices and a little lemon ; 
add a few hard boiled eggs cut up and sufficient white wine to moisten. Boil until 
the meat is quite tender, turn the whole out on to a dish and serve. The meat for 
this should be rather over than underdone. The wine and lemon may be substituted 
by rich stock or by turtle soup, 



Side Dishes. 

Anchovy Tartines. 



Unroll, dry and cut into narrow strips the contents of a bottle of anchovies pre- 
served in oil. Cut some French rolls into round slices, butter them well and arrange 
a few of the strips of anchovy on them so as to form an open or trellis work. In the 
center, or opening, put the yolk and white of an egg and parsley or finely chopped 
gherkins, varying them so as not to let the colors contrast; put them on a dish with a 
napkin spread over it and serve with cheese. 

Deviled Bones. 

Select bones which have not been quite stripped of meat and mix with a little dry 
mustard and salt and make up with a lump of butter. Rub this well into and over 
the bones, and dust lightly with cayenne pepper and broil. Serve with mushrooms 
fried in butter. 

Marrow Bones. 

May be either deviled or boiled, but in either instance the ends should be well 
sealed with a paste made of flour and water. Serve with slices of hot buttered toast, 
without crust, and a marrow spoon for transferring the marrow to the toast. 

Bouchees of Beef Palates. 

Chop up two cold cooked beef palates into very small pieces and put them into 
a saucepan with one-third of their bulk of chopped cooked mushrooms; pour a few 
tablespoonfuls of very good bechamel sauce into another saucepan, reduce it, stirring 
continually, and adding gradually one-half teacupful of melted glaze. Add it to 
the salpicon of palates and mushrooms, and put the saucepan containing them into 
the bain-marie to keep hot. Have ready some bouchees cases, made of puff paste, 
remove the top, put in some of the mixture, cover them over, arrange on a napkin 
spread on a dish and serve. 



Bouchees, Queen Style. 



Roll some good puff paste into a quarter of an inch in thickness, and let it 
remain in a cold place for ten minutes, then cut six rounds out of the paste with a 
three-inch cutter, fluted ; lay these on a buttered tin baking-dish, slightly separated 

125 



i 2 6 SIDE DISHES. 

from each other, and brush them over with beaten egg ; make a mark on the surface 
of each with a paste cutter two inches in diameter, being careful to dip the cutter 
each time in hot water, so that the marked line may remain perfect ; then place in 
a brisk oven for twenty minutes ; lift the centers with a knife, remove the crumb and 
fill with a white salpicon, made of truffles, mushrooms and finely shredded chicken 
and tongue cut up into small dice. Set the centers on again as covers, and serve on 
a hot dish with a folded napkin on it. 

Bouchees of Sardines. 

Pound one or two boned sardines in a mortar, together with a small quantity 
of cheese, and add salt, pepper and chili vinegar until the mixture has the taste 
and appearance of dressed crab. Mix in a few chopped oysters ; put the mixture 
into small cases of bread fried in butter, and garnish with hard boiled yolk of egg 
rubbed through a sieve and mixed with finely-chopped parsley. Arrange these 
bouchees on a napkin on. a dish, and serve. 

Canapes. 

Cut several thin slices of bread, remove the crusts and toast them till they are 
of an even brown. Butter slightly and spread with any kind of potted meat or fish. 
Put two slices together, and cut them in long strips. They afford a tasty dish for 
tea or supper parties. 

Artichoke Bottoms for Canapes. 

Cook the artichokes, spreading over the bottoms some anchovy butter and decorate 
with pickled cucumbers, capers or gherkins, anchovies and the whites and yolks of 
hard-boiled eggs. Pour over them a salad dressing and garnish with water cresses. 

Canapes of Caviar. 

Cut three or four slices of bread about one-fourth inch in thickness, and then 
cut them up into round pieces with a biscuit cutter, of about two inches in diameter. 
Put these into a pan with a small piece of butter, and fry to a light brown color. 
When done, spread on the rounds a layer of caviar, and serve them on a dish covered 
with a napkin or ornamental dish-paper. 

Cheese Canapes. 

Cut a few pieces of bread into slices a quarter of an inch thick, trim off the 
crusts, and then cut them up one inch wide and three inches long; fry these a delicate 
brown in clarified butter; grate a little cheese over them, sprinkle on the tops a little 
cayenne pepper and salt, and put them in the oven until the cheese has melted. 



SIDE DISHES. 127 

Serve while hot. A fillet of anchovy shredded into two laid lengthwise on these 
canapes are an improvement, and they may be eaten cold with salad. They may also 
be garnished with finely chopped parsley. 

Canapes of Crab 

Take six slices of bread, cut off the crusts, and fry the slices to a light brown 
with a pat of butter. Take the lower shell from a few crabs, and pick out the meat 
from the body and claws; place the meat on a plate, season with salt and pepper, and 
mince up well. Put one ounce of butter in a saucepan with a chopped onion, cook 
for a few minutes, but do not let the onion brown. Stir in two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, then one gill of broth, add the crab meat, cook and continue stirring for fifteen 
minutes. Have a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan on a hot stove, mix in one 
tablespoonful of flour, and cook slowly for three minutes; add two ounces of grated 
Parmesan cheese, and the same quantity of grated Gruyere; stir together and turn 
into a basin to cool. Spread a layer of the forcemeat on each slice of toast. Divide 
the cheese into six equal parts, roll each into a ball, range it in the center, over the 
layer of forcemeat. Place them on a flat dish, and bake in the brisk oven for five or 
six minutes. When ready take the dish out of the oven and serve at once. 

Egg Canapes. 

Put into a saucepan of water four eggs and boil for ten minutes, or until quite 
hard; then peel off the shells, cut the eggs in halves, remove the yolks and chop 
them up. Soak two anchovies, dry and remove the bones and chop them up 
with three truffles and six capers; mix in the chopped yolks, add a seasoning of 
salt, pepper and cayenne and one teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar. Fill the halves 
of eggs with this mixture, place each one on a piece of fried bread, heat in the oven 
and serve very hot. 

Eggs and Caviar Canapes. 

Cut a French roll into slices of moderate thickness and butter them; spread over 
each a layer of Russian caviar and squeeze over a little lemon juice. Boil some eggs 
till hard and when cold peel and cut into slices; lay a slice of egg on each slice of 
roll and press them slightly together. Put the canapes on a dish with a folded nap- 
kin or a dish-paper, garnish them with green parsley and serve. A very small quan- 
tity of finely minced parsley strewn over the tops of the eggs will be found an im- 
provement. 

Canapes of Lobster. 

Spread with lobster butter a few thin slices of bread fried in butter; leave for 
two hours some slices of lobster in a marinade of oil, vinegar, salt and pepper. Take 
them out, set them in the middle of the bread and place a group of capers on each 
piece. 



128 SIDE DISHES. 

Canapes Lorenzo. 

Cut six slices of bread the width of an American loaf and one-quarter of an 
inch in thickness, neatly pare off the crust and fry in a sautoire, together with half 
an ounce of fresh butter, so as to make them a light brown color ; then boil eighteen 
hard-shell crabs in salted water for about twelve minutes, after which remove and 
allow them to become cool, when the upper shell should be removed, and with the 
aid of a pointed knife pick out all of the meat, cracking the claws and removing all 
the meat from there also ; place it all on a plate, season with a teaspoonful of salt 
and half a saltspoonful of red pepper ; then place one ounce of butter in a saucepan, 
with a peeled and very finely chopped onion, and cook them together for about two 
minutes over a moderate fire ; add two tablespoonfuls of flour, stir again for two 
minutes, and add one gill of broth, and stir while slowly cooking for five minutes, 
now add the crab meat, and cook for quarter of an hour, stirring once in a while with 
a wooden spoon, then remove into another vessel and let it cool for fifteen minutes. 
Put in a sautoire a tablespoonful of good butter over a stove, and mix in with one 
tablespoonful of flour, and cook for three minutes gently ; add a couple of ounces of 
grated Parmesan cheese and an equal quantity of Swiss cheese, stirring well together; 
place it in a vessel to cool. Put a layer of crab meat on each slice of toast a quarter 
of an inch thick, and divide the prepared cheese in six equal portions, forming them 
into ball shapes about two inches in diameter, and arrange them over the layer of 
crab meat in the center, place them on a dish and bake in a brisk oven for about five 
minutes, then take them out and serve them in the same dish in which they have 
been cooked. 

Canapes Madison. 

Cut six thin slices of bread and trim them all alike, toast to a golden color, and 
place them on a dish. Cover each slice with a very thin slice of lean cooked ham ; 
spread a little mustard over it, then cover with a layer of provincial garnishing. 
Dredge grated Parmesan cheese on the top, and strew a little fresh breadcrumbs over 
all. Place them in a hot oven, and bake for ten minutes ; then take them out, 
arrange on a hot dish, covered by a folded napkin, and serve. 

Olive and Anchovy Canapes. 

Stone and peel some olives, being sure to keep their shape as much as possible ; 
wash an equal number of anchovies and coil an anchovy around each olive. Cut as 
many rounds of bread as there are olives and toast them lightly on both sides ; butter 
them while they are hot and put an olive on each. Spread a dish paper over a hot 
dish, arrange the toast on it, garnish with a border of fresh well-washed water- 
cresses, and serve. This dish is much used for luncheons, 



SIDE DISHES. 129 

Olive and Caper Canapes. 

Cut six slices of bread out of which cut twelve rounds. Melt some butter in a 
stewpan, then put in the slices of bread and fry them. When they are nicely browned 
take them out of the fat and place them on a piece of paper to drain. Skin and bone 
twelve anchovies, put them in a mortar, mash, then rub them through a fine wire 
sieve. Spread the anchovy paste over the pieces of bread, strew finely chopped 
capers and olives on the top, place them on a baking-dish and put in a brisk oven for 
ten minutes. Arrange the toast on a fancy napkin and serve it while it is very hot. 

Oyster Canapes. 

Finely chop a dozen oysters, put them in a saucepan with a teaspoonful of 
cracker dust or finely grated breadcrumb, a lump of butter about the size of a walnut, 
and one-half teacupful of thick cream, and season with salt and pepper. Stir the 
mixture over the fire and let it simmer for a few minutes. Cut some slices of bread 
about one-fourth inch in thickness, butter them, and put them on a hot dish. Pour 
the mixture over the bread and butter and serve it while hot. 



Canapes of Sardines. 



Bone six or eight sardines, put half of them in a mortar with the hard-boiled 
yolks of three eggs and pound them, mixing in by degrees sufficient butter to make 
a firm paste. Season the mixture with a small quantity of finely-chopped parsley, 
chives and tarragon, mustard, pepper and a small quantity of vinegar. Rub all the 
ingredients together until quite smooth. Cut slices of bread into oval-shaped pieces, 
and fry them in butter until well browned, but not too dark a color. When fried 
drain and spread over with the sardine mixture. Arrange the slices on a dish over 
which has been spread an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin. Cut a few more 
sardines into small fillets, lay them on the canapes with very small slices of pickled 
gherkins and a few shelled prawns. This is a very pretty dish and simple in con- 
struction. 

Canapes -of Smoked Salmon. 

Fry in clarified butter some fingers of bread, two and one-half inches long, one 
and one-half inches wide and one-fourth inch thick; when lightly browned drain them 
and leave them until cold. Mask the pieces of bread with anchovy butter, place some 
thin slices of smoked salmon on each, sprinkle over some chopped hard-boiled egg 
and parsley and serve. 

Tricolor Canapes. 

Skin and bone six anchovies, pound them in a mortar and pass them through a 
fine wire sieve. Boil three eggs until they are hard, separate the whites from the 



130 SIDE DISHES. 

yolks and pass them separately through the sieve. Care must be taken in preparing 
these ingredients not to get the colors mixed. Cut four slices of bread, trim off the 
crusts, and cut each slice into two square pieces. Put a strip of the hard-boiled white 
of an egg on a piece of fried bread, next a strip of finely-chopped gherkins or capers, 
and next a strip of the yolk of eggs, thus making three colors on one piece of bread. 
Proceed in like manner with the rest. Spread a fancy dish-paper or a folded napkin 
over a dish, arrange the canapes neatly on it, placing here and there a few sprigs of 
parsley and serve. 

Caviar on Toast. 

Prepare six rounds of toast of white bread. Place in a saucepan two large table- 
spoonfuls of caviar and one tablespoonful of cream, heat for a minute or two at one 
side of the fire, stirring carefully meanwhile. Pour this mixture over the toast and 
serve on a dish with a folded napkin. 

Caviar with Eggs. 

Cut off from stale French rolls some slices about a third of an inch thick; spread 
on them anchovy butter or fry them lightly in butter. Spread over each slice a 
thick layer of caviar, then squeeze over a little lemon juice and add a seasoning of 
salt and pepper. Have prepared some hard boiled eggs, peel them and cut them 
into slices, using a very sharp knife; lay the slices of egg, one on each side of the 
bread, and serve on a dish on which has been laid an ornamental paper. A bit of 
chopped mustard and cress salad spread over the caviar is an improvement. 



Curling Celery. 



Slit the stalks with a penknife closely should the fringe be too fine, taking care 
that the slits all end at an even line. If a large amount of celery is used every day 
set on the tables in celery glasses, a sort of rake is used in place of the penknife, and 
this rake is made by driving a number of the three-edged sacking needles of the very 
smallest size through a soft piece of cigar boxwood. The celery ends are combed 
with this and then put in glasses of ice-water to cool at leisure. 



Frizzled Celery. 



Take one large head of good celery, pare off the green stalks and cut off the 
root, which may be used for salad. Cut the stalk lengthwise into four equal parts, 
wash them well in cold water and cut each one into pieces about three inches long, 
and by doing this all the branches will be separated. With the aid of a small sharp 
knife pare the thin sides a little, making five or six slits in each piece, starting from 
the top downward, leaving from one-half to three-quarters of an inch uncut, and put 
them in cold water with plenty of ice, allowing them to remain for about two hours. 
Then remove them from the ice water, arrange them tastefully on a round glass dish 



SIDE DISHES. 131 

and serve. Celery arranged and served in this way makes a beautiful effect on the 
table, though it requires time and patience to prepare it. 

Serving Celery in a Glass. 

Thoroughly wash two or three heads of fine white celery, pare off the green 
stalks and trim the roots, being careful to save the clear white hearts. Cut every 
head lengthwise into quarters, rinse them again in cold water, and let them remain in 
a dish of clean ice water until required. Arrange them in a celery stand, or glass or 
dress on a china dish, with a few pieces of ice in the center, and serve. 

Olive Custards. 



Stone some olives. Beat two eggs well, put them into a lined stewpan with two 
ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and with a wooden spoon, stir over the fire 
until they are thick, then remove the pan. Cut as much bread as there are olives, 
fry them in boiling butter until they are of a light golden brown and drain ; spread 
them with a layer of the anchovy paste, then with a layer of the cheese mixture and 
put an olive on each. Spread an ornamented napkin on a dish, arrange the rounds 
on it and serve. 

Olives Stuffed with Anchovies. 

Stone a dozen Spanish olives ; wash and bone five anchovies, chop them finely, 
put them in a mortar with a moderate quantity each of chopped onion and parsley, 
pound them smoothly and season with a small quantity of cayenne pepper. Fill the 
hollows of the olives left by the stones with the pounded mixture, Cut a few slices 
of bread and scoop a hollow in the center of each round ; put a large piece of lard 
in a stewpan on the fire, and when it boils put in the rounds of bread and fry them 
until they are brown. Afterwards drain, then leave them until they are cool, and 
place an olive in the middle of each. Arrange them on a dish, pour over a small 
quantity of mayonnaise sauce and serve. 

Olives Stuffed with Chestnuts. 

Take twelve Spanish olives and six Spanish chestnuts, put two ounces of butter 
in a saucepan with two ounces of ham cut in small pieces, a small carrot and onion 
peeled and cut into thin slices and fry until they are brown; then add a bay-leaf, a 
blade of mace, four peppercorns, dredge in one tablespoonful of flour and moisten 
with some of the liquor from the olives. Stir the whole until they are mixed then 
place the pan over the fire and stir occasionally. Boil the chestnuts and when they 
are tender peel and put them in a mortar with one pound of butter, salt and pepper to 
taste, and a small quantity of grated nutmeg, pound until smooth. Peel the olives, 
remove the stones, fill the hollows with the chestnuts, and lay them in a lined stew- 
pan; strain the above sauce over them and let them simmer at the side of the fire 



132 SIDE DISHES. 

until they are hot through. Cut a thick slice of bread, fry it in butter until it is 
nicely browned, then drain and scoop out the center, making a hollow large enough to 
hold the olives. When it is ready put the olives on the bread, place it on a hot dish, 
garnish tastefully round with quarters of hard-boiled eggs, pour the sauce round the 
bread and serve while it is very hot. 

Dressed Raw Onions. 

Peel some onions, chop fine, put in water with a very little salt and let them soak 
for an hour or so. Remove them, drain, place on a dish and pour over a mixture of 
one-half gill of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls each of made mustard, chili vinegar and 
sugar, and one tablespoonful of salt. Put a lump of ice on top and garnish the dish 
with curled parsley. If the parsley is eaten after the onions it is supposed to take 
the smell away. , 

Patties. 

Take a few small patty pans and spread them with short paste, make a savory 
forcemeat of raw calf's liver, fill the pans with it, put over these covers of thin paste 
and place them in a slack oven to bake. Remove when done, and when they are cold 
cut off the covering of paste, take out a little of the inside and put in a little cooked 
goose's fat liver. Replace that which was removed and put it over the goose's liver, 
raising the preparation in a dome above the edges of the paste. Set a small jelly 
crouton on the top. Arrange the patties in a pyramid on a dish and garnish them 
with more aspic, according to taste. 

Beef Marrow Patties. 

Blanch one-fourth pound of sweet almonds and pound them in a mortar, adding 
occasionally a few drops of orange flower water. When quite smooth, mix with them 
two heaped tablespoonfuls of flour, the beaten yolks of three eggs, and sufficient 
warm water to make the whole into a smooth paste. Butter some small shallow 
moulds, line them with the paste, brush them over with paste brush dipped into well- 
beaten yolk of egg, and bake them in a slow oven. Chop and flavor some marrow 
with lemon peel, and mix some sweet cream with it. When the patties are cooked, 
take them out of their moulds, put a small piece of marrow mixture in each, spread 
them over with white of egg that has been whipped to a stiff froth, and dredge lightly 
with powdered sugar. Put them in the oven to set the egg, then place them on a dish 
that has been garnished with a folded napkin, or an ornamental dish-paper and serve 
very hot. 

Patties Dauphine. 

Roll out one and one-half pounds of brioche paste four times, then with a round 
tin cutter two inches in diameter, cut out of this twenty round flats; put in the center 



SIDE DISHES. 



33 



of each one of half of the rounds, a small ball of croquette preparation, then put the 
other rounds on top and moisten and pinch the edges together; cut them again with 
the same tin cutter to make them round. Spread a floured cloth on a baking-sheet, 
arrange the patties on it a short distance from each other, cover with a floured cloth 
and keep them in a warm temperature for thirty-five minutes; then put them a few at 
a time into boiling fat and fry till nicely browned. When cooked, drain the patties 
on a cloth, pile them on a folded napkin on a dish, and serve. 

Dresden Patties. 

Take three ounces of any kind of cold boiled fish, trim off the skin and bone and 
chop the fish fine. Put one ounce of butter into a flat stewpan with a tablespoonful 
of flour, stir over the fire until mixed, then pour in a teacupful of milk, and continue 
stirring. Put the fish into the boiling milk, season to taste with salt and pepper, and 
cook over a slow fire for fifteen minutes. Cut two large rounds of bread about four 
inches in diameter and one and one-half inches in thickness and with a three-inch tin 
cutter cut half way through each. Dip the rounds well in cream, then drain, and dip 
them in well beaten egg. Season a small plate of finely grated breadcrumb with salt 
and pepper, and roll the rounds in them, giving a good coating. Put a large lump of 
clarified fat or lard into a fryingpan, place it over the fire till blue smoke rises, then 
put in the rounds and fry them till lightly browned. Take them out of the fat with a 
slice, and lay them on a sheet of kitchen paper to drain for a few minutes. Lift off 
the inner round of bread with a sharp knife, and scoop out from the center of the 
large round, all the soft bread. Fill the hollows with the fish mixture, and put the 
small rounds on top. Place the patties on a hot dish, over which has been spread a 
folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper, garnish with a few neat sprigs of fried 
parsley, and serve while very hot. 

Patties Financiere. 

Butter twelve fluted deep patty pans, line them with short paste, then with 
paper, fill them with flour and bake in a moderate oven. When done remove the 
paper and flour, coat them inside with a thin layer of forcemeat, and set them at the 
entrance of the oven to keep warm. Roll out some puff paste and cut twelve rounds 
out of it the same size as the inside of the patty ; brush over with beaten egg, mark 
lines across the top with a sharp pointed knife, and bake till lightly browned ; pre- 
pare a mixture of little scallops of fat livers and truffles, some cocks' combs and 
small quenelles ; put it in a saucepan with a little reduced brown sauce and warm 
thoroughly, but do not let it boil. Fill the patties with the mixture, previously turn- 
ing them out of the pan ; put on the covers of puff paste, arrange them on a folded 
napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve hot or cold. 



i 3 4 SIDE DISHES. 

Fontange Patties. 

Stir up with four ounces of flour the yolks of three or four eggs, a little salt, and 
a teacupful of olive oil ; mix with this one and one-half teacupfuls of beer and warm 
water mixed in equal quantities ; put a cloth over the basin, and keep it in a warm 
place for two hours, then pour the batter into a stewpan. Warm in boiling fat, an 
iron mould made for this purpose, of the shape of a little timbale ; when hot, dip it 
nearly, but not quite to the rim, in the batter, take it out again immediately, plunge 
it into the boiling fat and leave it till the batter is cooked ; then remove it from the 
mould and proceed as before until all the batter is cooked. Prepare a salpicon of 
poultry meat, pickled tongues, brains and mushrooms, thicken it with a little sauce, 
fill the batter shells with it, arrange them on a folded napkin on a dish, and serve. 

Lent Patties. 

Make fifteen small puff paste patties, as for Vol-au-Vent Patties, and bake 
them. When done take them off the baking-sheet, empty the pans, and keep the 
patties warm. Beat fifteen eggs and season them with salt and a little grated nutmeg. 
Peel and cut into small dice three small truffles, put them in a saucepan with a small 
lump of butter, and warm them. Pour the beaten eggs in with the truffles, add a 
little more butter broken in small pieces, and stir over a slow fire till thick. Mix a 
teacupful of bechamel sauce with the above ingredients, take it off the fire, fill the 
patties with the mixture, arrange them on a folded napkin, or an ornamental dish-paper 
on a dish, garnish with parsley and serve. 

Vol-au-Vent Patties. 

Roll out a piece of puff paste to about one-fourth inch in thickness, cut out some 
rounds with a tin cutter about two and one-half inches in diameter, then take a 
smaller cutter, about one and one-half inches in diameter, and cut nearly, but 
not quite through, in the center of each one ; put them on a baking-dish and bake 
in a quick oven. The paste rises, and the inside becomes a lid that may be lifted 
out with the point of a knife. Trim off the surplus paste from the inside, fill them 
with whatever has been prepared for them, put the lids on and decorate with a sprig 
of parsley. 

Cheese Salad. 

Put the yolk of a hard-boiled egg into a basin, and rub it smooth with a table- 
spoonful of salad oil ; then add one teaspoonful of salt, one of cayenne and one of 
sugar, and made mustard, mixing each one separately, before another is added, and 
stirring in one-half pound of grated cheese. The cheese used for this purpose should 
be as old as possible without being high. After all are well worked together add 



SIDE DISHES. 135 

one tablespoonful of onion vinegar, put the mixture into scallop shells, and serve 
with shredded lettuce, or other green salad. 

Cucumber Salad. 

Take three medium-sized cucumbers, lay them on ice until thoroughly chilled, 
then pare, taking care to leave no trace of the green skin, a very small bit of which 
would be enough to spoil the salad. Slice the cucumbers very thinly and arrange 
them in a glass dish or shallow bowl; mix together half a teaspoonful of ground white 
pepper and one teaspoonful of salt, and sprinkle this over and among them; then mix. 
one tablespoonful of vinegar with two tablespoonfuls ofjthe best salad oil and pour it 
over. 

Aberdeen Sandwiches. 

Chop one ounce of cold tongue or ham and two ounces of cold chicken, put the 
chopped meat into a saucepan with one-half teacupful of good sauce and about half 
that quantity of curry paste; let it simmer for five minutes, stirring it constantly, then 
put it into a bowl and leave until cool. Cut some thin slices of stale bread, stamp 
them into rounds about the size of half a dollar silver piece, and fry them to a very 
light brown in boiling lard or oil. Lay them on paper to drain. Then put a thick 
layer of the cooled mixture of chopped ham and chicken between two fried rounds 
of bread, arrange them nicely on a dish, bake them in the oven for four or five min- 
utes and serve hot. Garnish with fried parsley. 

Adelaide Sandwiches. 

Take one-fourth pound of cold chicken and two ounces of cold ham and cut them 
into small squares. Mix one teaspoonful of curry paste with one-half teacupful of 
sauce in a saucepan over the fire, and when it boils mix into it the ham and chicken; 
take it from the fire and let cool; cut some thin slices of stale bread, stamp them into 
rounds about the size of a crown piece, and fry them a very light brown in boiling 
lard or clarified butter. Put a layer of the mixture of chopped meat and sauce be- 
tween two pieces of fried bread. Pound some grated Parmesan cheese and butter 
(equal quantities of each) together and roll it into balls about the size of a walnut. 
Place one of these balls on top of each sandwich, lay them on a baking sheet and 
place them in a quick oven for five minutes. Serve them on a napkin. 

Anchovy Sandwiches. 

Empty a bottle of anchovies into a bowl of water, and wash them thoroughly, 
changing the water frequently.. Put them, when drained and boned, into a mortar 
with an equal quantity of butter, and pound well to a very smooth paste. Spread 
this over thin slices of bread, put two of those together to form the sandwich, and 
serve. 



136 SIDE DISHES. 

Beef Tongue Sandwich. 

Chop one-half pound of cold boiled tongue, put it into a mortar with the yolks 
of two hard boiled eggs, one tablespoonful of made mustard, some salt, and a small 
quantity of cayenne pepper, and pound it all to a paste. Dilute the paste with two 
or three tablespoonfuls of cream. Cut some thin slices of bread, butter them, then 
spread them with the mixture, and press them together in pairs. Cut the sandwiches 
in halves, put them on an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin placed on a dish, 
and serve. 

Cheese Sandwich. 

Grate two ounces of Roquefort, or Parmesan, or other cheese, and work it well 
with a pat of butter. Spread this on some thin slices of bread, put another thin slice 
on the top of each, press them gently together, cut the sandwiches into finger lengths, 
and arrange them neatly on a folded napkin, or a fancy dish-paper, garnishing here 
and there with freshly gathered parsley. Serve the sandwiches with salad. 

A second method of preparation is to take the yolks of three hard boiled eggs, 
and with one ounce of butter melted over the fire mix and rub them to a smooth 
paste; grate four ounces of cheese and work it into the paste, and season it to taste 
with salt and pepper. Cut three slices of thin bread, and butter; spread each slice 
with one-third of this paste, and fold the other half of the slice over it. 

Roquefort Cheese Sandwich. 

After grating two ounces of Roquefort cheese, work it into a paste with one 
ounce of butter, using for the purpose a knife, and season with salt and pepper. 
When it is quite smooth, spread the paste on some slices of bread, cover with another 
one, press the two carefully together and cut into fingers. If desired, chopped 
parsley, or chives, or both, may be mixed with the cheese. It may also be spread 
on crackers in place of bread. It is generally served as a course after salad. 

Chicken and Ham Sandwiches. 

Remove the crusts from thin slices of bread and spread over thinly with butter. 
Lay some slices of cold chicken on the buttered sides of the bread, and over these 
very thin slices of ham, adding a little salt and mustard to taste. Lay a slice of 
bread, with the buttered side downwards, over each, press them gently together, trim 
and cut the sandwiches into oblong pieces. Garnish with fresh parsley and serve on 
a napkin spread on a dish. 

Goose Sandwiches. 

These are made of the smoked breasts of geese cut into very fine slices. Cut 
some thin slices of bread and butter, lay the slices of goose on them with a few thin 



SIDE DISHES. 137 

slices of hard-boiled eggs, squeeze over a little lemon juice, season with salt and 
pepper and cover them with slices of bread and butter. Cut the sandwiches into 
ringers, arrange on a folded napkin, and garnish with sprigs of parsley. 

Sandwiches of Goose's Fat Liver. 

Take a square loaf of bread, remove all the crust, cut the crumb into slices 
about an eighth of an inch thick, butter them well and cover half of them with potted 
fat liver ; place the other half on top of them with the butter inside, press slightly 
together and cut them up into fingers two and one-half fingers long by one and one- 
half inches wide. 

Pickle Sandwiches. 

Cut some pickles in very thin slices lengthwise, lay them on slices of bread, then 
put a thin slice of thin roasted veal or pork on the top of that ; season with pepper, 
salt, and mustard, and cover with another slice of bread. Cut the sandwiches into 
finger lengths, arrange them on an ornamental dish-paper or a folded napkin spread 
over a dish, garnish with neat sprigs of parsley, and serve. 

Sardine Sandwiches. 

Drain the oil from five or six sardines, skin and "bone them, and cut off their tails. 
Place them in a mortar with one anchovy that has been skinned and boned, add one 
ounce of butter and a small quantity each of salt, pepper, mace, and cayenne, and 
pound until smooth. Cut some rather thin slices of brown bread and butter, spread 
the mixture on them, and fold them over. Cut the sandwiches into finger lengths or 
quarters, arrange them on a dish over which has been spread a folded napkin or an 
ornamental dish-paper, garnish tastefully with sprigs of well washed parsley, and 
serve. 

Sausage Sandwiches, German. 

Pare some slices of bread about an eighth of an inch thick. Cut some slices of 
German sausage and remove the skin. Butter the bread, cover a slice of bread and 
butter with the slices of sausage, turn another slice buttered side downwards over, and 
press them together. When all the sandwiches are made, pile evenly one on top of 
another as many as can easily be cut through, trim the edges evenly, cutting off the 
crusts, and then cut the sandwiches into pieces of a convenient size. Lay a napkin 
on a dish and pile the sandwiches nicely on it. 



Savory Sandwiches. 



Take some cold cooked ham, or corned beef or tongue, having one-fourth of its 
quantity fat; chop it up very finely, and mix with it one teaspoonful of mustard, one 
saltspoonful of salt, and sufficient cold water to form a stiff paste. Then add one-half 



138 SIDE DISHES. 

teacupful of butter worked to a cream. Take some very thin slices of stale bread, 
spread them over with the paste, put two slices together, having the paste inside, cut 
into shapes or rectangular pieces, and serve. 

Shrimp Sandwiches. 

Pick one-half pint of shrimps, put them into a mortar with two or three ounces 
of butter, season with a little salt and cayenne pepper, and pound them to a paste, 
moisten it with a few drops of tarragon vinegar. Cut some rather thin slices of bread 
and butter, spread half of them with the paste, fold the remaining half over these, and 
press them lightly together. Cut the sandwiches into fingers or quarters, arrange 
them on a folded napkin, or an ornamental dish-paper, garnish with parsley, and 
serve. 

Turkey Sandwich. 

Chop finely the dark meat of a cold roast turkey, place it in a saucepan with 
about two tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped celery, season with salt and pepper to taste, 
and stir over the fire until hot; then add a soft boiled egg and leave it until cold. 
Cut some slices of bread about one-half inch in thickness, toast them on both sides, 
then split them in two and butter them inside. Spread a layer of the turkey mixture 
over one of them, lay the other slice over and press them gently with the blade of a 
knife. Cut the sandwiches into halves or quarters, place them on a folded napkin or a 
fancy dish-paper that has been spread on a dish, and serve. 

Veal Sandwiches. 

Chop some cold roast veal and place in a mortar with salt, pepper and a small 
quantity of tarragon vinegar. Slice some hard-boiled eggs, remove the yolks, being 
careful not to break the rings of white, place them in the mortar with the veal and 
pound well. Spread a small quantity of mixed mustard over some slices of bread, 
then lay the white rings of egg on them, and fill each ring with the pounded mixture, 
cover them with slices of bread and press them lightly together. Cut the sand- 
wiches into halves, and serve them. 

Welsh Rabbit Sandwiches. 

Put one-fourth of a pound of mild American cheese into a mortar with two ounces 
of butter and one teaspoonful of mustard, pound well together, and dilute with a small 
quantity of tarragon vinegar. After spreading the mixture between slices of bread it 
is ready to serve. 

Sardines in Eggs. 

Skin and bone ten or a dozen sardines and place them in a mortar, remove the 
shells from an equal number of hard-boiled eggs, cut them in pieces crosswise, put 



SIDE DISHES. 139 

the yolks in the mortar with the sardines, adding at the same time a little chopped 
parsley, salt, pepper and one-tablespoonful of butter; pound all together, fill the 
whites of the eggs with the above mixture, stick them together like whole eggs, 
arrange them on a dish with watercress between them and serve. 

Beef Marrow on Toast. 

Take some large pieces of marrow and put them in a saucepan of well salted 
boiling water, and let them remain for one minute, then drain off the water through 
a very fine sieve. Take out the marrow, put it on some pieces of toasted bread, place 
them in the oven, and cook for five minutes. Sprinkle over them chopped parsley, 
salt and pepper, and serve very hot. 



Anchovy Toast. 



Thoroughly cleanse and fillet the number of anchovies to be used, chop them 
small, or crush them with a silver knife. Put this into a small stewpan with some 
salad oil, warm slightly, and set it on one side. Cut some slices of bread, nearly half 
an inch thick, and trim to an even oblong shape; toast them on both sides on a grid- 
iron, basting with a brush dipped in oil. Spread the anchovy over, and sprinkle on 
all a little chopped parsley. Push the gridiron with the dressed slices on it into a 
sharp oven for a few minutes, and serve hot. 



Beef Tongue Toast. 



Take the remains of a cold cooked tongue, grate it as finely as possible, add a 
little finely chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste, and form the mixture into a 
thin paste with the yolks of eggs. Make the mixture as hot as possible without 
boiling, turn it out on to slices of thin toast, dust over with breadcrumbs, brown the 
surface with a salamander, or in front of the fire, and serve. 



Egg and Anchovy Toast. 



Remove the shell from four cold hard boiled eggs and chop them; put a sauce- 
pan over the fire with one ounce of butter, one teaspoonful of cornmeal blended 
smooth in a little milk, one teaspoonful each of anchovy sauce and vinegar, a season- 
ing of pepper and salt, and one pint of milk; stir over the fire until boiling, and then 
put in the chopped eggs, stirring them well in. Toast three rounds of bread, butter, 
and spread the mixture over, and serve hot. 



Ham and Egg Toasts. 



Chop finely some cold cooked ham, toast some slices of bread and butter them. 
Spread the ham on the toast, and put them in the oven for three or four minutes. 



i 4 o SIDE DISHES. 

Beat six eggs in a teacupful of milk, and add a little salt and pepper. Put two table- 
spoonfuls of butter in a saucepan, pour in the beaten eggs, and stir over the fire until 
thick, but do not let boil. Arrange the ham on a dish, the toast also, pour the eggs 
over, and serve. 

Lobster Toast. 

Pick all the meat from the shell of a large lobster and chop it fine ; work two 
or three tablespoonfuls of cream into one ounce of butter, then mix with it the 
chopped lobster, adding a boned, washed and chopped anchovy, and salt and 
pepper to taste. Work all together with the blade of a knife, then mix in lightly 
two or three tablespoonfuls of washed and chopped watercress. Cut some slices 
of bread about one-fourth inch in thickness, trim off all the crusts and toast them ; 
cut them into squares, butter over and spread some of the lobster mixture on each 
piece. Strew finely grated breadcrumbs over, and place them in a brisk oven for 
a few minutes. Spread a folded napkin, or an ornamental dish-paper over a hot 
dish, arrange the pieces of toast nicely on it, garnish with a border of well-washed 
watercress, and serve. 

Salmon Toast. 

Cut as many slices of bread as are required, trim off the crusts, and toast them 
to a delicate brown ; butte-r them, and lay on each slice a very thin piece of smoked 
salmon ; sprinkle over with pepper, cover with a sheet of buttered paper, and place 
them in a brisk oven for a few minutes. When very hot, arrange the pieces of toast 
on a hot dish, on which has been spread a folded napkin, garnish with parsley, and 
serve. 

Sardine Toast. 

Scrape the skin off some sardines, split them in halves, lengthwise and remove 
the bones. Lay the sardines on a plate, pour some of their oil over them, cover with 
another plate and place them in a moderate oven until heated all through. Cut the 
required number of slices about three-fourths of an inch thick off a stale square loaf, 
toast them to a delicate brown on both sides and butter them. Cut the toast into 
fingers and lay a sardine on each ; dust them over lightly with salt and a very small 
quantity of cayenne pepper, and squeeze some lemon juice over them. Spread a 
folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper over a hot dish, arrange the fingers of 
toast neatly on it, garnish with a border of nicely picked and washed watercress, and 
serve. The above makes a very tasty breakfast dish and is very quickly prepared. 

Sardines and Anchovy Toast. 

Clean well three anchovies, put them into a mortar with one teaspoonful of an- 
chovy paste, one ounce of butter and a seasoning of cayenne pepper and grated nut- 
meg and pound them to a smooth paste, then pass it through a fine hair sieve. Toast 



SIDE DISHES. 141 

some thin slices of bread and cut them into pieces about the breadth and length of a 
sardine. Wash some sardines in hot water, wipe them dry, divide into fillets by 
splitting them down the back and take the bone out. Spread the pounded anchovy 
on the toast and lay a filleted sardine on top of each piece. Pile the pieces of toast 
on a dish in couples, crossing one another like lattice work and garnish the dish with 
chopped hard-boiled eggs. 

Shrimp Toast. 

Fry some slices of crumb of bread in butter, then cut them into rounds with a 
plain two-inch cutter. When cold, mask the fried rounds with shrimp butter, arrange 
a star of trimmed shrimp's tails on the top of each and sprinkle a little chopped pars- 
ley in the center. Arrange the toasts on a dish over which has been spread a folded 
napkin. 



Beef 

Beef a la Mode. 

Cut off the under part of a round of beef, wipe and trim off the edges, place in 
a deep earthen dish and pour over it spiced vinegar. This spiced vinegar may be 
made as follows : Boil for five minutes a breakfast cupful of vinegar, with an onion 
chopped fine, a little salt, mustard, pepper, cloves, and allspice. Let the meat remain 
in this mixture for several hours, stirring it frequently ; then dress it with ten or 
twelve strips of salt pork cut a third of an inch square, and as long as the meat is 
thick insert these strips with a large larding-needle, or bore a hole in the meat with a 
carving steel ; or, if desired, larger incisions may be made and stuffed with bread- 
crumbs highly seasoned, with salt, pepper, onions, thyme, marjoram, etc., moistened 
with hot water, a little butter and a well beaten egg. Bind the beef into shape with 
a narrow strip of cotton cloth, in such a manner as to retain the stuffing, and dredge 
with flour, then cut up two onions, half a carrot and half a turnip, and fry in fat drip- 
pings until brown, and place in a stewpan. Brown the meat all over in the same fat, 
and place on a trivet in the pan ; half cover with boiling water, adding a little mixed 
herbs tied in a muslin bag ; cover loosely and simmer for four hours or until quite 
tender. Take out carefully and remove the strings, and put on a large dish, Skim 
off the fat from the gravy, add more seasoning, and thicken with wetted flour worked 
smooth, boil for eight or ten minutes and strain over the meat. Decorate with potato 
balls and small onions. 

Boiled Beef. 

Place a brisket or round of beef in a saucepan, with some small pieces of trim- 
mings of beef, veal, lamb or fowl giblets, salt and pepper to taste, and pour over enough 
water to cover, boiling them until nearly done. Then add an onion, carrots cut in 
slices, a bunch of parsley, a teacupful each of browned flour and butter to thicken, 
cover the saucepan and cook for about twenty minutes longer. When the meat is 
done, remove it and place upon a dish ; strain the liquor, adding a wineglassful of 
mushroom catsup or white wine to it, and pour over the meat and serve. 

Braised Beef. 

Place a layer of sliced onions in the bottom of a stewpan, over which arrange a 
layer of thick slices of bacon, and put a piece of round of beef on the bacon, after 
tying up the beef to keep it in shape. Set on the fire for twenty minutes, turning it 
once or twice, then add a tumblerful of wine, some carrots and onions cut in slices, 

142 



BEEF. 143 

a bundle of sweet herbs, pepper and salt to taste, and add a few cloves. Fill the 
pan with sufficient stock to cover the beef, placing the lid on the pan, and braise it 
from four to five hours, with a few hot cinders on the lid, or else in the oven. Strain 
free from all fat, and serve with the meat gravy. 

Braised Beef a la Mode. 

Lard a piece of beef with salt pork, let it marinade for twelve hours with the 
juice of half a lemon, a little salt and pepper, a sprig of thyme, two bay leaves and 
half a dozen parsley roots. Then place the meat in a saucepan with a lump of 
butter, and brown both sides well for ten minutes, then remove and place it on a 
dish. Add to the gravy a little flour, stirring it well and moisten with a quart of 
broth, mixing it slowly while the sauce is boiling ; then replace the beef in the sauce- 
pan with two sliced carrots, and a dozen small onions glazed, and cook for an hour, 
adding a strong garnished bouquet, a wineglassful of claret wine, and a small piece 
of crushed garlic, also salt and pepper to taste. After skimming off the fat and 
straining, serve on a hot dish, arranging the carrots and onions in clusters around the 
dish. 

Braised Beef, Providence Style. 

Braise the beef as indicated for braised beef, and add a quarter of a cooked 
cauliflower, half a breakfast cupful of flageolet beans, and a cupful of carrots, cut 
with a vegetable scoop shortly before serving. Place the vegetables in a pan with 
the skimmed gravy and cook for five minutes. Serve the beef on a hot dish, the 
vegetables arranged in heaps around it, and pour the gravy over the beef. 

Braised Rib of Beef. 

Select a chuck-rib of beef, cut very short, cut off the chine bone, leaving only 
the rib, then tie with a string and place in a stewpan just large enough to contain it. 
Add a couple of pints of broth, a gill of brandy, a little salt, pepper and an onion, a 
clove, some sweet herbs and a carrot. Cover the pan and boil slowly for two hours. 
At the expiration of that time, if tender, place on a dish, and keep it warm while 
preparing the gravy, which is made as follows : Strain the stock in which the meat 
has been cooked, and take off all fat, reduce it one-half over the fire, and pour over 
the meat, garnishing with macaroni, noodles or vegetables, arranged around the dish 
in small heaps. 

Chateaubriand of Beef. 

Cut the desired number of thick slices from a tenderloin of beef, and slit each 
one nearly in halves ; place a teaspoonful of beef marrow seasoned with salt and 
cayenne and a few strips of onion in this cavity, pressing the sides together, and 
brush over with warm butter or oil ; place on a warm gridiron over a clear fire for 



i 4 4 BEEF. 

ten minutes. Remove, dish and squeeze a little lemon juice over them, serving as 
hot as possible. Care should be taken to prevent the marrow from oozing out dui- 
ing the process of cooking. 

Corned Beef, American Style. 

Soak the desired quantity of corned beef, and put on to boil in fresh cold 
water ; skim well and simmer until done and tender. Allow it to become cool in 
the liquor in which it has been cooked, and then before quite cold put in a flat hol- 
low dish and cover with a board, pressing it with a weight. Remove all the fat from 
the meat liquor and save it, but take care that it is not allowed to stand in an iron 
vessel. Have ready boiled two or three beets, small carrots, a small cabbage, some 
turnip and potatoes, and a small squash ; wash them well and scrape the carrots, cut 
the cabbage into quarters, pare the turnips and squash, and cut into slices, and pare 
the potatoes. Place the meat liquor on to boil about two hours before required, and 
when it boils put in the carrots, cabbage and turnips, and half an hour before dinner 
add the squash and potatoes. When tender, take up the vegetables carefully, and 
drain on a colander, slicing the carrots. Place the cold meat in the center of a large 
dish, and serve the carrots, potatoes and turnips around the edge, with the squash, 
cabbage and beets in separate dishes. 

Boiled Corned Beef and Spinach. 

Use sufficient of the rump or brisket of corned beef, place in a saucepan and 
cover with fresh water ; boil briskly for an hour and a half, serving with boiled 
spinach. 

Hashed Corned Beef. 

Slice a couple of onions and brown well on a saucepan with a lump of butter, 
and add some well cooked corned beef chopped fine, and four chopped potatoes. 
Moisten with a teacupful each of Spanish sauce and broth, seasoning with pepper and 
nutmeg. Cook for fifteen minutes, stirring well all the time. Serve in a dish with 
poached eggs laid on top, sprinkling over with chopped fried parsley. 



Beef Croquettes. 



Chop some cold beef, put a pint of poulette sauce in a stewpan, reduce it to one- 
half its amount, and thicken with the yolks of some eggs; put the chopped beef in 
the sauce, adding a little chopped parsley, salt and pepper, mixing well together, and 
spread out on a dish to a thickness of an inch and a half. Let it get firm and cold, 
and divide into sixteen equal parts. Strew a board with breadcrumbs evenly, but 
very thin, and put the sixteen parts of mince on it, leaving a space of two inches 
between each; then cover them with a similar thickness of breadcrumbs, and roll 
each part into the shape of a cork, making them as near an equal size as possible. 



BEEF. 145 

Beat three whites of egg for a minute, so as to mix, but not froth them, and add a 
little pepper and salt, a tablespoonful of oil, and the same quantity of water. Dip 
the croquettes into this mixture, roll them in the breadcrumbs, and set on a plate. 
Twenty minutes before they are to be served have ready some hot fat, arrange 
the croquettes in a fry ing-basket, and put them in to fry, and when nearly done 
move them gently to insure their becoming of an even color, lift them out 
when a light brown color and crisp. Sprinkle with salt, dish, and serve with a 
garnish of parsley. 

Beef Cutlets. 

Trim all fat and skin from some slices of beef and shape them like cutlets, 
then salt and pepper them. Place a small lump of butter in a sautepan, and when 
melted fry the cutlets on both sides till done. Sprinkle over them a little 
chopped parsley, place on a dish, and pour over them a thick brown gravy. 

Fricadelles. 

Mince some cold-cooked beef and add a slice or two of onion finely chopped, 
and if the meat is very lean a slice or two of fat pork maybe added; season with salt, 
pepper, sage, thyme, a little lemon juice and parsley, using a little of each, and add a 
quarter as much breadcrumbs or boiled rice as there is meat; add one beaten egg 
with sufficient water or stock to form a paste. Make this into balls or egg shapes, 
put them into a frying pan with butter or dripping and fry to a brown color, or they 
may be dipped in breadcrumbs, brushed over with egg, then dipped in crumbs again 
and fried in boiling fat. When done drain and serve on a folded napkin spread over 
a dish. 

Fricandeau of Beef. 

Select a good piece of beef, lard it well with bacon seasoned with pepper, pow- 
dered cloves, mace and allspice. Place in a stewpan with a pint of broth or beef- 
gravy, a wineglassful of sherry and a bundle of parsley and sweet herbs, a clove of 
garlic and a shallot or two. When tender cover the meat closely, skim the sauce and 
strain it and boil until reduced to a glaze. Then mask the larded side with the glaze 
and serve with tomato sauce. 

Grenadines of Beef. 

Cut up a sufficient quantity of the undercut of the rump of beef into cutlets a 
third of an inch thick, lard them with thin strips of bacon, and place in a saucepan 
with a small piece of butter, lightly sprinkling the upper side with pepper and salt. 
Cook very slowly for fifteen minutes, without approaching frying, and then turn on 
the other side and pepper and salt the upper, cooking for fifteen minutes longer. 
Have in readiness half a pint of good brown gravy thickened with a little flour, coat 



146 BEEF. 

the grenadines with this, place on the dish for serving, pour the gravy over and gar- 
nish with sprigs of cauliflower, Brussels sprouts. 

Hashed Beef. 

Cold roast beef, preferably sirloin, should be used for this dish and should be 
sliced to half an inch in thickness. Place in a stewpan, cover with stock, adding one 
or two minced onions and a turnip to every pound of meat required. Let it heat 
slowly and simmer for three-quarters of an hour. Thicken with flour stirred in 
smoothly, adding some salt and pepper, and when done place on a dish and serve 
with some red currant jelly. A wineglassful of claret and a little sugar may be added 
to the gravy, if desired; garnish with sippets of toasted bread. 

Bullock's Heart. 

In the opinion of most professional cooks the flesh of the heart is too coarse and 
greasy to be of any value to serve as a separate dish. This would appear to be some- 
what of an error of judgment, for prepared as follows ox-heart is not only tender but 
delicious eating. It should be served at all times on very hot plates hot-water 
plates, if possible, or dinner plates set upon soup plates containing hot water. The 
flesh of a cold bullock's heart is sometimes used either to increase the bulk of jugged 
hare or ae- a substitute for the hare itself. 

Roasted Bullock's Heart. 

Put a heart in a basin of warm water and let it soak for an hour to take out all 
the blood. Take it out, wipe dry with a cloth, stuff it with some highly seasoned 
forcemeat, tie round a piece of well-buttered paper, pass a spit through it and place it 
in front of a clear fire to roast, basting frequently with butter. When done (it will 
take about two hours), remove the paper, put it on a dish, pour over piquant sauce 
or a little rich gravy. 

Stewed Bullock's Heart. 

Put a bullock's heart in a basin of water, wash it well and let it soak to clean out 
the blood. Take it out, dry on a cloth, cut in halves, rub well over with flour, put 
them in a fryingpan with a little butter and fry to a brown color. Put them in a 
saucepan with a sprig of thyme, and four or five onions cut in slices and fried, sprinkle 
over a little salt and pepper and pour in sufficient water to cover. Place the pan on 
the fire and cook slowly for about three hours, then remove, skim the fat from the 
liquor, reduce it, thicken and add one wineglassful of claret and one teaspoonful of 
moist sugar. Place the heart again in the saucepan, heat it up, put it on a dish, pour 
over the gravy and serve. 



BEEF. 147 

Khulash. 

This dish is greatly esteemed in Germany, and is prepared as follows : 
Cut about two pounds of the head and fillet of beef into small squares. Cut up 
an onion into small pieces and fry it in a pan with a little butter, but not long enough 
to allow it to take color ; add the pieces of meat and fry them for ten or fifteen min- 
utes, add a little salt or cayenne and then remove the pan to the side of the fire and 
cover the lid with hot ashes. Let it remain for forty-five minutes when the moisture 
will all have evaporated, pour over a little gravy and continue to cook for an hour 
and a half. Dust over a little more cayenne, pour over two tablespoonfuls of 
brown sauce and cook for another ten minutes or so. Cut some potatoes in small 
dice or squares, blanch in cold water for a few minutes, roll them well in sauce, allow 
them to remain for a few minutes and serve. 

Beef Kidneys. 

The size of these and their somewhat coarse nature, places them quite outside the 
usual culinary preparations prescribed for the smaller kidneys, such as sheep's, lamb's, 
etc., nevertheless modern artistic cooks have found several effective modes of cook- 
ing them. 

Fried Beef Kidneys. 

Cut two kidneys in slices and soak in warm water for two and one-half hours, 
changing the water once or twice so as to cleanse them thoroughly; take the slices 
out, dust them over with flour, salt and pepper, put them in a fryingpan with three 
ounces of butter and fry to a light brown; place them in a circle on a dish, mix one 
tablespoonful of piquant sauce in one-half pint of gravy, add a teaspoonful of moist 
sugar, pour it in the center of the circle, and serve. As a rule beef kidneys are coarse, 
but cooked as above they are tender and luscious. 

Fried Beef Kidneys with Champagne. 

Select some kidneys that are of a good color, remove a little of the fat, mince 
them, mix with a little chopped parsley and shallots, and season with salt and pepper. 
Place this in a fryingpan over a moderate fire, and when done dust over with flour, 
add a wineglassful of champagne and two or three tablespoonfuls of bechamel sauce, 
and serve. 

Beef Kidney Rissoles. 

Cut a beef kidney into even slices and shape them into rounds, also the same 
quantity of bacon or ham cut into smaller rounds. Place the slices of bacon and ham 
over the kidney, then hard boiled eggs in slices over them, and fasten the slices 
together with a little warmed butter and the beaten yolk of an egg. Sprinkle over 



148 BEEF. 

with salt and pepper, cover them well with breadcrumbs, put them in a saucepan with 
a little butter, and fry for half an hour. Serve on a dish with brown gravy. 

Stewed Beef Kidneys. 

Stew some beef kidneys in a little salted water until done, then put them on a 
dish and sprinkle over salt and pepper, add a small quantity of flour to the liquor to 
thicken it and a little burnt sugar to color it, pour it over the kidneys and serve hot. 

Boiled Beef Liver and Rice. 

Soak one and one-half pounds of liver in cold water for half an hour to remove 
the blood, boil it slowly in three pints of water together with one-half pound of rice, 
add an onion, a sprig of parsley, and when the liver and rice are nearly cooked add 
pepper and salt to taste, three tablespoonfuls of vinegar and a slice of bacon cut in 
pieces. Remove the liver, cut it in slices and return them to the stew till all are suf- 
ficiently done. Serve hot. 

Macedoine of Beef. 

The desired quantity of rump steak is cut into slices half an inch in thickness 
and formed into the shape of cutlets, three inches by two inches, flat; trim all to the 
same size and lard thickly on one side with fine lardoons of bacon fat. Lay out, 
larded side uppermost, in a flat pan and nearly cover with richly flavored stock; cover 
the pan with a lid and braise in an oven for an hour. Remove the lid, baste the 
slices with gravy and let them remain uncovered in the oven until the larding has 
taken color; they are then ready to dish. Use equal amounts of sliced carrots, tur- 
nips, cutting into fancy shapes; green peas, string beans, asparagus tops and small 
sprigs of cauliflowers; boil all in salted water until quite tender. Melt in a saucepan 
a lump of butter, add a little flour and stir in enough milk to make a sauce, adding 
pepper, salt and a little grated nutmeg. Put into this sauce all the vegetables, of 
which there should be sufficient quantity to make them adhere together, and toss 
them gently in it until quite hot. Pile in the middle of a dish and place the slices 
around them in a circle. Skin off all fat from the gravy, pour it around the dish but 
not over the slices, and serve. 

Beef Marrow. 

The fatty contents of the long bones of the ox are esteemed a great delicacy. 
At one time it was considered quite the fashion to serve marrow-bones at table as a 
sort of luxurious supper dish; they were then dressed as follows: 

Marrow Bones. 

Take the bones from two legs of beef and saw them into pieces about four inches 
long. Scrape them well to clean them and put them in cold water to soak. Place 



BEEF. 149 

them in a saucepan side by side, not standing up, cover with good stock, boil up 
quickly and then remove to the side of the fire and cook slowly for an hour and a 
half. Take out the bones, drain them, place on a napkin spread over a dish, and serve 
with slices of hot toast. 

Beef Marrow Fritters. 

Put one-half pound of marrow, taken from the largest bones of the animal and 
kept in one piece, into cold water and let it soak. Put it in a saucepan with good 
broth, boil for ten minutes, and then let it cool in its liquor. When quite cold drain 
and cut it into two dozen slices; cover half of them on one side only with some cooked 
fine herbs, and over that again put a layer of cooked truffle and glaze it all over (both 
truffle and marrow) with a paste brush; when the glaze is cold take the pieces of 
marrow singly, dip them into frying batter and fry them; when the batter is dry and 
of good color drain the fritters, put them on a napkin folded on a dish, arrange them 
in a heap, and serve them with a garnish of fried parsley. 

Minced Beef. 

Cut some slices of cold roast beef to a half inch in thickness, and cut these into 
strips of about an equal width, slicing up finely. Place in a stewpan a wineglassful 
of port wine, a shallot chopped fine, the shredded rind of half an orange, and a 
little grated nutmeg ; season with salt and cayenne pepper, and allow it to simmer 
for four or five minutes. Then add a little brown sauce ; mix the beef with this 
preparation, adding a few drops of lemon-juice, and boil the whole again. Place in 
the middle of a dish, place a few raspings of bread over it, place some three-cornered 
pieces of bread fried in butter around it, a poached egg on each, with scallops of 
tongue in between, then serve. 

Minced Beef, Spanish Style. 

Thin slices of cold meat should be cut into strips and then into dice ; place in a 
saucepan, and brown in oil ; add a few finely-chopped shallots, one onion, and a 
green pepper cut into pieces. After becoming well-browned, about five minutes, 
put in a pint of Spanish sauce, a little salt and a like amount of pepper. Cook 
again for fifteen minutes, serving with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley scattered 
over it. 

Beef, Neapolitan Style. 

Procure a fresh piece of silverside, about six or eight pounds in weight, and 
make two or three holes in it with a carving knife, and insert in each a strip of fat 
bacon, rolled in powdered sweet herbs and pepper. Tie up the meat with tape to 
keep it in shape. Then mince some fat bacon, adding a clove of garlic, an onion, 
some parsley, thyme and marjoram ; when well mixed, put in a saucepan with the 



i 5 o BEEF. 

meat and stew, turning the meat frequently until it is well-browned on all sides ; 
then moisten with plenty of tomato sauce diluted with a little stock, and pepper 
and salt to taste. Stew the meat slowly until done, then remove the tape, and serve 
with macaroni around the dish, dressed as follows : Boil it in water, and when soft, 
mix it with some of the meat, strained from all fat, adding plenty of grated Parmesan 
cheese. The macaroni should be mixed in a warmed tureen, but not over the fire. 

Boiled Ox-Tails. 

Put two dozen small onions into a saucepan with three pints of water and boil 
for about twenty minutes. Cut two ox-tails into pieces, put them into a saucepan 
with a large lump of butter and a large onion; brown, then pour in the water from 
the boiled onions, adding more water if necessary to cover them. Add of each two 
or three carrots and turnips cut in small pieces, putting in the carrots about twenty 
minutes before the turnips. Boil slowly, and when the tails and vegetables are done 
take them out and keep hot on a dish. Put an ounce of butter in another pan, melt 
it, and stir in flour enough to make it quite stiff, pour in the strained gravy from the 
tails, adding a little at a time, and stir well till it boils. Place the pieces of tails in 
the center of the dish, arrange the vegetables around them, pour over the sauce, and 
serve with the boiled onions for a garnish. 

Braised Ox-Tails with Chestnut Puree. 

Cut the thickest part of a fresh ox-tail into pieces about three inches long, soak 
them in water for a few hours, then blanch them. Put some layers of fat bacon and 
some sliced carrots and onions into an oblong stewpan, add a bunch of sweet herbs 
and the slices of tail. Add a little salt, cover them with white wine and broth mixed 
in equal quantities and put on the top some slices of fat bacon or some pork rind. 
When boiling move the pan to the side of the fire, put some live embers on the lid 
and braise the contents for five or six hours, adding more broth to keep the quantity. 

Broiled Ox-Tails. 

Wash the tails thoroughly and cut the thick parts into joints, put them in a stew- 
pan with a bunch of sweet herbs, a small quantity of salt and cayenne pepper, and 
cover with common stock. When the liquor comes to a boil move to the side of the 
fire and cook slowly for two and one-half hours. Then remove them and drain well 
on a sieve, brush over with a paste brush dipped in the beaten yolk of egg and cover 
thickly with finely grated breadcrumbs. Place them on a gridiron and broil over a 
brisk fire, turning constantly. When ready lay them on a hot dish, garnish with fried 
parsley and serve with a sauceboatful of tartar sauce. 



BEEF. 151 

Stewed Ox-Tails. 

Divide two ox-tails into natural sections, blanch them for twenty minutes, and 
then put them into a basin of water and let them soak for an hour; then drain and put 
them into a saucepan with five pints of vegetable broth, place it over the fire, when the 
liquor boils skim it and add one-half pound of onions, sliced, and one pound of car- 
rots turned into cork shapes, three or four cloves, salt and pepper. Remove the pan 
to the side of the fire and cook slowly for three or four hours, or until the meat is 
tender. Pour the contents of the saucepan into a colander to drain into another 
saucepan, take out the pieces of tail, wipe them dry on a cloth and put them into a 
one-half gallon saucepan. Take the carrots out of the colander and put them into 
another saucepan, skim off the fat from the liquor, reduce it to half its original quan- 
tity, and pour half of it in the saucepan with the carrots and the other half into the 
saucepan with the pieces of tail. Warm both the carrots and pieces of tail, arrange 
the latter on a dish, garnish with the former and ten or twelve good-sized glazed 
onions, pour the gravy over all, and serve. 

Blanquette of Beef Palates with Truffles. 

Rub some beef palates over with salt, put them in a saucepan with a slice of 
lemon, a small lump of butter, a saltspoonful of salt, and water enough to cover, and 
stew them. Cut some truffles into small pieces, season with salt, put them into a 
fryingpan with a lump of butter, and fry lightly over a brisk fire till cooked. Put 
the truffles into a sauce blanquette, give them one boil up, move the sauce to the side 
of the fire and thicken with a liaison of beaten eggs. Drain the palates, skin them, 
put them in the sauce, then turn the whole into a deep dish, and serve. 

Beef Palate Croquettes. 

Put three palates into a saucepan of water and boil over a moderate fire until 
done. Take them out, scrape and cut them into quarters. Put them into another 
saucepan with two heads of cloves, a clove of garlic, a little thyme and bay-leaves, 
salt and pepper to taste, and sufficient stock to" cover, and cook slowly for half an 
hour; then take out the palates, put a teaspoonful of beef forcemeat on each quarter, 
roll them up, and dip into a thin paste made of flour, one tablespoonful of olive oil and 
one half pint of white wine. Plunge them into a fryingpan of boiling fat, fry until 
done, arrange them on a dish with a garnish of fried parsley, and serve very hot or 
they will be spoiled. 

Curried Beef Palates. 

Prepare two palates as for braising, cutting them up into shapes. Put them into 
a saucepan with sufficient brown stock to cover, and add one or two onions, cut in 
slices, a tablespoonful of curry powder, half the quantity of curry paste, two table- 



152 BEEF. 

spoonfuls of flour mixed in a little stock, and salt to taste ; put the pan on the fire, 
stir frequently, and cook slowly until they are done. Just before serving add two 
tablespoonfuls of cream to the liquor, mix it in, turn the whole out onto a dish and 
serve very hot. 

Fricassee of Beef Palates with Truffles. 

The palates must be boiled till tender in salted water in which has been placed a 
slice of lemon and a lump of butter. Drain and skin the palates, and cut them into 
small pieces. Put two ounces of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour into a sauce- 
pan, and stir over the fire for ten or fifteen minutes, but do not let it take color ; then 
pour on gradually the required quantity of chicken broth, add a few mushrooms, 
small onions and a bunch of parsley, and boil the sauce till well flavored with the 
herbs. Strain the sauce into another stewpan, season with salt and sugar, and boil 
till reduced. Cut some truffles into small pieces, put them in a fryingpan with some 
butter, add a little salt and fry over a brisk fire. Move the sauce to the side of the 
fire, stir in a liaison of beaten yolks of eggs ; put the truffles and palates into the 
sauce, and make them hot again without boiling. Turn the fricassee into a deep dish 
or a casserole of rice, and serve. 

Paupiettes of Beef Palates. 

Cut off five or six fillets from some cooked beef palates ; trim, and cut them into 
halves. Have ready a salpicon of cooked fine herbs, finished with truffles and thick- 
ened with forcemeat, cover the fillets over with it, and roll them round into the shape 
of paupiettes, fastening them with small skewers. Dip them into well beaten egg, 
cover with breadcrumbs, and fry in a fryingpan of boiling fat until they are done. 
Take them out, drain, remove the skewers, place .them on a napkin on a dish, in the 
form of a pyramid, and serve. 

Beef Pot-Pie. 

Cut into pieces of equal size some coarse fat beef, put in a saucepan with cold 
water, and stew for about two hours with the lid on the pan ; add a few slices of fat 
pork or bacon, an onion, salt and pepper to taste, and a thickening of flour and water ; 
turn into a dish, lined with biscuit dough, such as is used for dumplings, cover over 
with more of the dough, and bake in a quick oven until done. Turn out on a dish, 
and serve. 



Beefsteak-Pie with Oysters. 



Cut six or seven thin slices out of a sirloin of beef, beat them and season with 
salt and pepper, flour them, and arrange in a pie-dish, surrounded by two dozen 
blanched oysters. Pour a little cold gravy on the bottom of the dish, and cover the 
pie with a good crust, baking lightly for an hour and a quarter. 



BEEF. 153 

Beefsteak and Kidney Pudding. 

Cut some long rump steaks into pieces about a quarter of an inch thick, sprinkle 
over them some salt, pepper and flour. Chop up a beef kidney into seven or eight 
pieces, and place together with the meat in a buttered basin lined with suet-crust, 
pour over a little water or weak stock, and cover with a flat of paste, fastening it all 
around the edge. Tie a well floured cloth over the basin, put in a saucepan of water 
and boil for two hours, adding more water if necessary. When done, turn the pud- 
ding carefully into a dish, and serve very hot. 

Beef Rissolettes. 

Mince some fresh beef very fine, removing all skin and gristle, mix with it about 
a fourth of its weight in breadcrumbs, adding an onion boiled tender, and a few drops 
of essence of anchovy, pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to make it into a stiff paste. 
Roll into egg-shaped balls, dip each in egg, roll in breadcrumbs, and fry gently. 
Then prepare a little gravy by boiling the trimmings of the meat in the water the 
onion was boiled in, and when they are done, pour the fat from the fryingpan and 
allow the gravy to boil up in it, and thicken with a small quantity of flour and water. 
Stir in the juice of half a lemon, seasoning with pepper and salt, and place the risso- 
lettes around a heap of mashed potatoes on a dish, pour the gravy around but not 
over them, and serve. 

Roast Beef, American Style. 

Lay the meat on some sticks in a dripping-pan, so as not to touch the water 
which it is requisite to have in the bottom; season with salt and pepper and place in 
a roasting-oven for three or four hours. Baste frequently with the water in the 
bottom of the pan. Sift over the meat before serving some powdered and browned 
crackers, and garnish 4 with parsley. 

Roast Beef on the Spit. 

Remove most of the flap from the sirloin and trim neatly; have a clear, brisk fire, 
and place the meat close to it for the first half hour, then move it farther away, bast- 
ing frequently, and when done, sprinkle the joint well with salt. The gravy may be 
prepared by taking the meat from the dripping-pan, which will leave a brown sedi- 
ment; pour in some boiling water and salt, and stir thoroughly, straining over the 
meat. A thickening of flour may be added if necessary. Garnish with horseradish 
and serve with horseradish sauce in a tureen. 

Roast Ribs of Beef. 

Break off the ends of the bones of the desired amount of ribs of beef, take 
out the chine-bone, and place the meat in a baking pan, sprinkle over some salt, put 



154 BEEF. 

small lumps of butter over it, and dust with flour, baking in a moderate oven till done. 
When done, place on a dish, garnish with horseradish, and serve very hot. 

Smoked Beef. 

To each twelve pounds of beef rub in the following mixture : One pint of 
salt, a breakfast cupful of brown sugar, the same amount of molasses, and half a tea- 
spoonful of pounded saltpeter. After rubbing it well into the beef, allow it to lie in 
the mixture, turning it over several times, for ten days, when drain, rub bran over it, 
and hang in the smoke-house to smoke for several days. 

Smoked Beef with Cream. 

Place the finely minced beef in a stewpan with a lump of butter, cooking it for 
two minutes, and moisten slightly with a little cream, and add two tablespoonfuls of 
bechamel sauce, and serve as soon as it boils up. 

Smothered Beef. 

Select the middle of the rump, flank or round of beef, wipe clean with a moist 
cloth, and sear it all over by placing it in a fryingpan and turning it until the surface 
is browned. Place in a kettle with a little water, and keep it to just the boiling 
point ; fit the cover over tightly to keep in the steam, and add a little water now and 
then as it boils away. Cook until quite tender, serving hot or cold, as preferred. 

Spiced Beef. 

Remove the bones from a piece of thin flank of beef and soak for ten days in a 
covered crock containing a pickle composed of the following ingredients: Boil for 
twenty minutes two gallons of water, five pounds of salt, two pounds of coarse sugar 
and four ounces of saltpeter, with two ounces of black pepper and three ounces of 
mixed spice slightly bruised in a mortar and tied up in a muslin bag and a few bay 
leaves. Skim off the scum as it rises and let it stand until cold. 

Fried Steak, American Style. 

Tenderloin or porterhouse steak is to be selected for this, put it on a clean block, 
beat it well, but not hard enough to make it look ragged, sprinkle over pepper and 
salt and dredge with flour on both sides. Place in a hot fryingpan, cover and fry 
until done, turning frequently. Before it gets hard butter well and place on a hot 
dish, pepper again, and if desired pour over a tablespoonful of chili vinegar and a 
tablespoonful of made mustard, and pour the hot gravy over all. Sift powdered 
cracker over, and serve. 



BEEF. 155 



Hamburg Steak. 



Break the fiber of a round steak by beating well, fry two or three onions minced 
fine in butter slightly browned, spread the onions over the meat, fold the ends of the 
meat together and pound again to keep the onions in the middle; broil two or three 
minutes; season with salt and pepper and butter well. 

Fried Hamburg Steak with Russian Sauce. 

Select a piece of the buttock of beef, remove all the fat, and chop very fine, lay 
it in a bowl and add a very finely chopped shallot, two raw eggs, a little salt and pepper 
together with a little grated nutmeg. Mix well together and form the mass into six 
balls the size of fillets ; roll these in breadcrumbs, and fry in a pan with a little 
clarified butter for four or five minutes, turning frequently and keeping them slightly 
underdone. Serve with a Russian sauce. 

Broiled Loin Steaks. 

Two loin steaks of about a pound each are required for this dish ; season them 
with salt and pepper to taste, baste on either side with a little oil, place on a 
broiler over a bright charcoal fire, and broil them for six minutes, each side. Serve 
on a hot dish with Bordeaux sauce over them, and garnished with rounds of marrow. 

Fried Minced Beefsteak. 

Cut from the flank the desired amount of meat with a little fat with it, season 
well with salt and pepper, and pour over a little water. Press this mince into a tin, 
and cut into slices, which place in a fryingpan with butter and fry until quite done 
and well browned ; then place on a dish, pour over rich gravy, and serve. 

Broiled Double Porterhouse Steak. 

Select a porterhouse steak of about three pounds in weight, cut thick, and broil 
over a rather slow fire (a charcoal fire is preferable) for ten minutes on each side, and 
serve garnished with watercress. 

Broiled Rib Steak. 

Cut the steak about half an inch thick from between the two ribs, remove all the 
gristle and fat, trim to a flat pear-shape, and sprinkle both sides with pepper and salt 
and oil to prevent outside hardening; broil twelve minutes over a moderate and even 
fire. Place about four ounces of maitre d'hotel butter on a dish, lay the steak upon it 
and garnish with fried potatoes, serving either piquant, Italian or tomato sauce with 
the steak. 



i 5 6 BEEF. 

Broiled Sirloin Steak. 

Cut the steak to about half an inch in thickness, place on a gridiron over a clea.- 
fire and broil until done. Place on a dish with a little warmed butter poured over it, 
and serve. 

Beefsteak with Anchovy Butter. 

For a medium-sized steak take one large anchovy, well washed and. dried and 
pounded on a board. Mix the anchovy with a little butter, pass through a hair sieve, 
place the mixture on a warm dish, lay the steak on it, and serve. 

Stewed Beef. 

Remove the meat from the bones and place the bones and fat in a stewpan. Cut 
the meat into small pieces, and if not already cooked, dredge with salt, pepper and 
flour, and brown in a fryingpan with salt pork or drippings, then place in the stew- 
pan with the bones. Next cut up two onions, a small turnip and half a carrot into 
dice of about a half inch in size, cook lightly in the drippings in the pan and afterwards 
add them to the stew: pour in boiling water sufficient to cover all, and simmer for 
two or three hours until the meat is quite tender. Pare six or eight small potatoes, 
soak them in cold water, pour boiling water over them and boil for five minutes. 
When the meat is done skim the stock and drain these potatoes, adding them to the 
stew. Season with salt and pepper to taste and remove all the bones before serving. 

Tenderloin of Beef. 

Select a good tenderloin of beef, wipe well, and remove all fat, veins and tough 
portions, trimming into shape. Lard the upper side, and dredge with salt, pepper 
and flour, putting several pieces of pork into the pan, under the meat, and bake in a 
hot oven for twenty to thirty minutes. If preferable, the pork may be omitted and a 
fat piece of the beef used in its stead. Serve the meat with mushroom sauce, or 
brush the tenderloin with beaten egg and sprinkle seasoned breadcrumbs over it, or 
stuff the incisions made by removing the veins and tendons with forcemeat, and 
dredge with salt and flour. 

Braised Larded Tenderloin of Beef. 

Place in a saucepan a larded tenderloin of beef, pour over it a glassful or so of 
white wine, a little brandy, and some rich stock, adding an onion and carrot cut into 
thick slices, a bunch of thyme and parsley, and bay leaf, salting and peppering to 
taste. Place on the fire and boil quickly, skimming it thoroughly, and remove to the 
side and simmer gently until the meat is done. Put the joint on a dish, skim and 
strain the liquor, and reduce it; after which warm the whole at the side of the fire for 
ten minutes, without boiling, and serve, pouring the gravy around the beef. 



BEEF. 157 

Broiled Tenderloin of Beef. 

Cut a slice from the tenderloin about an inch thick, wipe dry, and dust with 
pepper and salt. Grease well a gridiron, and broil the meat over a clear fire, 
turning every ten counts for three to five minutes. Spread with maitre d'hotel butter, 
and serve. 

Broiled Tenderloin, Cheron. 

Broil three tenderloin steaks, and place them on a dish on top of a gill of hot 
Bearnaise sauce, and put on each steak one hot artichoke bottom filled with hot 
Macedoine; then pour over just a small quantity of meat glaze, and serve. 

Tenderloin, Florentin. 

Three tenderloin steaks should be prepared exactly as for broiled tenderloin, 
Cheron, pour a gill of hot Madeira sauce over the steaks and garnish with three hot 
artichokes a la Florentin, and serve. 

Larded Tenderloin of Beef. 

Trim thoroughly a short tenderloin of beef, and dust with salt and pepper, and 
flour well ; fasten it into shape with skewers, and lard it in two rows with strips of 
pork. Place in a bakingpan with any liquor, and bake for half an hour. It should 
first be placed in the coolest part of the oven for ten minutes, and then in the hottest 
for the remainder of the time. When done, dish and serve with Hollandaise or 
tomato sauce, or mushroom catsup. 

Minions of Tenderloin, Lorillard. 

When the six timbales, as below described, have been prepared and taken from 
the oven, have in readiness six fine tenderloin minions and serve them with the fol- 
lowing garnish : Procure six small timbale moulds about an inch and three-quarters in 
diameter by two inches deep, butter the insides and place them in an ice-box to 
become cold ; then take one good sized cooked carrot, oae cooked turnip, and cut 
them with a tube a quarter of an inch in diameter, by one inch in length; a medium 
sized white cabbage, with the outer leaves trimmed neatly, should also be placed in 
readiness. Then place in a stewpan an ounce of salt pork cut into small dice-shaped 
pieces, put in the cabbage and season with half a pinch of pepper, place the pan over 
a rather slow fire, cover it well, and cook gradually for half an hour without taking 
off the lid. While this is cooking decorate the six timbales by laying a slice of 
truffle half an inch in diameter at the bottom of each in the middle, and with a lard- 
ing-needle arrange a row of cooked peas around this, decorate half the interior of the 
timbales with half of the carrots and turnips, and keep them all inclining slightly 



158 BEEF. 

toward the right, and the other half toward the left ; and then fill up the timbales 
with cooked cabbage, pressing it down gently, so as to fill the moulds entirely 
up to the top. Then put them on a roasting pan, fill with hot water to half the 
height of the timbales and put them in a hot oven for from three to four minutes, then 
remove from the oven and put the pan at the side of the stove so that it will keep 
just warm ; cut an oval-shaped slice from an American loaf of bread about an inch 
in thickness, pare the edges neatly, and butter it thinly, and brown lightly in the 
oven, then lay it on a very hot dish, and dress the six minions on top of the bread 
croustade, each lengthwise and overlapping each other a trifle. Then pour over half 
a pint of hot Colbert sauce, to which may be added whatever parings of slices of 
truffle that remain about a minute before it is to be used ; then with a towel remove the 
timbales from the pan one at a time ; turn them upside down, unmould, and decorate 
the dish with them, placing one at either end and two at each side, when the dish 
should be sent to the table at once. 

Minions of Tenderloin, Pompadour. 

Procure two and a half pounds of tender fillet of beef, pare it neatly all around 
and cut it up into six equal sized small fillets ; flatten them slightly and equally and 
put them on a dish, season with a pinch of salt and half a pinch of pepper, then put 
them in a pan on a hot range with half a gill of clarified butter, allowing them to 
cook for four minutes on either side, next prepare a pint of Bearnaise sauce, dress 
three-quarters of it on a hot dish and reserve the other quarter for further use. Next 
lay six round-shaped pieces of bread croutons fried in butter over the Bearnaise sauce 
and dress the six fillets one on top of each crouton and fix six warmed artichoke 
bottoms right in the middle of the fillets ; fill up the artichokes with a tablespoonful 
of hot jardiniere garnishing and evenly divide the remaining pint of hot Bearnaise 
sauce over the jardiniere, and then cut into six evenly shaped slices one good sized 
truffle and put one slice on the top of each in the center of the Bearnaise sauce, and 
serve as hot as possible. 

Minions of Tenderloin, Sauted Bearnaise. 

Cut from the end of a tenderloin of beef some slices about five-eighths of an inch 
in thickness, trim and press them into circles and sprinkle over some salt and pepper, 
saute then in butter and spread some sauce Bearnaise on a hot dish and place the 
minions over, and serve. 

Noisettes of Tenderloin of Beef, Plain. 

After trimming the tenderloin of beef, cut it into slices and lightly flatten them 
to about three-eighths of an inch in thickness and trim them round. After this is 
done each one should weigh about three ounces ; then salt them on both sides ; place 



BEEF. 

them in a saucepan over a hot fire together with a little oil and a similar quantity of 
butter and cook rapidly for five to seven minutes. When cooked put them on a plate, 
glaze and serve on a dish with a little gravy poured around. 

Noisettes of Tenderloin of Beef, Rossini. 

After preparing them exactly as for plain noisettes, glaze and place them upon 
small pieces of toast, about a quarter of an inch in thickness, and the same shape 
and size as the noisettes, and fry them in a little oil. Select some very large chicken 
livers, and cut them into pretty thick slices, and cook them in some butter in a pan; 
place a slice on each noisette, and then a round slice of truffle on this ; cover the 
whole with Madeira sauce with a small quantity of essence of truffle added to it. 

Noisettes of Tenderloin of Beef with Puree of 

Mushrooms. 

Prepare them the same as for plain noisettes, then glaze and lay them on round 
flat croustades made from parings of good puff paste, and decorate with mushroom 
puree. 

Stewed Tenderloin of Beef with Oysters. 

To each pound of tenderloin steak required, use one dozen oysters, as follows : 
Mix a little butter and flour together in a stewpan; peel and chop up a Spanish 
onion, cut up two pickled walnuts and place them in the stewpan, together with two 
tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup and a teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Put 
the steak in on top of these, and stew for an hour, turning every twenty minutes or 
so, but do not let it come to the boiling point. Open the oysters, remove their 
beards, strain the liquor through a sieve, and add them just before serving. 

Tournedos of Beef, New York Style. 

Cut from a cooked tenderloin of beef the requisite number of slices about half 
an inch in thickness and put them in a saucepan with sufficient water to cover 
them, warm on the side of the fire, but without boiling. Cut as many slices of 
bread to the same size and thickness as the meat and place them in a fryingpan 
with some fat skimmed off of stock and fry. Arrange the slices of meat and bread 
alternately around the dish, filling the center with cooked string beans or olives, and 
serve together with a sauceboatful of piquant sauce. 

Tournedos of Tenderloin of Beef, Plain. 

These are prepared the same as noisettes of beef, but are smaller in size, 
weighing about two ounces instead of three as for the noisettes. Salt and pepper 
over and put them in some warm fat in a sautepan and cook over a brisk fire, turn- 



160 BEEF. 

ing them but once during the process of cooking, then drain, wipe and glaze them, 
pour a little clear gravy in the bottom of a dish, lay on the tournedos, and serve. 
They should be cooked from four to six minutes. 

Boiled Tongues. 

Soak the prepared tongues over night in a liberal quantity of cold water to 
freshen them slightly, if they are salted, or blanch them if they are fresh. On the 
following day put them in a saucepan over the fire with fresh cold water for boiling 
tongues, or boiling water for fresh ones, and allow twenty minutes for each tongue 
from the time they begin to boil. A sliced lemon, or one teacupful of vinegar, and 
one teaspoonful each of whole cloves and peppercorns boiled with a large tongue, or 
less for smaller tongues, and so on in proportion, greatly improves the .flavor. When 
the tongues are done take them up, peel off the skins and return them again to the 
hot liquor to keep them warm, or if they are to be used cold let them cool in it. 
When serving them cut them into long slices, beginning near the tip. All the 
fleshy parts and the fat near the roots of the tongues will serve to make excellent 
hash when cold, but are not generally served with the tongue. 

Boiled Beef Tongue with Chestnuts. 

Place a pickled beef tongue in a bowl of water to soak, then put it in a saucepan 
with water to cover and boil for two hours; take it out, drain and remove the skin. 
Cover the bottom of a saucepan with vegetables cut in slices and a few sweet herbs, 
place the tongue on top and pour in enough broth and white wine to moisten to half 
its height. Cover with paper, place over a slow fire and cook until the tongue is ten- 
der, turning it occasionally so as t,o glaze it on both sides. Have ready a pure*e of 
chestnuts, moderately thick, spread it over a dish and place the tongue on it; add a 
little more broth to the liquor in the saucepan, boil well, skim and strain into another 
saucepan, reduce it to half-glaze, pour it over the tongue, and serve. 



Braised Beef Tongue. 



Soak a beef tongue in warm water until all the blood is extracted and the water 
quite cold. Take it out, drain, trim off the superfluous fat and lard the meat with fat 
bacon. Put it in a braising pan with a few cloves, carrots and onions, a little thyme 
and parsley, two slices of fat bacon or pork, sufficient stock to moisten it and salt and 
pepper to taste. Set the pan at the side of the fire, cover it, place hot ashes on the 
top and cook slowly for about four hours. Take out the tongue when done, remove 
the skin, cut it lengthwise into halves, lay them open on a dish, pour some tomato or 
piquant sauce over, and serve. 



BEEF. 161 

Broiled Slices of Beef Tongue in Cases. 

Cut up into thick slices a braised beef tongue, cover them with thin slices of ba- 
con, sprinkle over a few minced sweet herbs and wrap the whole round with pieces of 
greased paper, folding them in such a manner that the liquor cannot run out; place 
them on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil. When done lay them on a dish, and 
serve. 

Beef Tongue Financiere. 

Blanch a couple of fresh beef tongues, put them into a saucepan lined with vege- 
tables cut in slices and a few small pieces of bacon, moisten with a little broth, cover 
the tongues with paper, put the saucepan on the fire with hot ashes on the lid, and 
cook until the tongues are quite tender. Remove and drain them; trim the thick or 
root ends, making them as round as possible, and with a sharp knife cut the tongues 
transversely to half their length and remove the top pieces. Cut these into slices and 
put them back in their places. Put a flat crouton of fried bread in the center of a 
dish, masl^ it with forcemeat poached in the oven, glaze the tongues and put them on 
it, with their root ends meeting in the middle; surround the base with a financiere 
garnishing and garnish with quenelles made with a spoon, and some larger ones 
studded with truffles. Serve with a sauceboatful of brown sauce reduced with wine. 
Should salted tongues be used thev will only require to be boiled with plenty of water 
until they are tender, and then treated as above. 

Beef Tongue, Gourmet Style. 

Boil a beef tongue in plenty of water for three hours. When cooked, drain, peel 
the skin off, and trim it nicely. Lard and braise four sweetbreads. Take the fillets 
of two or three chickens, trim them nicely, put them in a buttered sautepan and saute 
them. Peel sufficient potatoes that will when mashed fill a border mould, boil till 
tender, then drain and mash them with a little butter; press them in a border mould, 
and set them in a bain-marie for a few minutes. When the fillets of chickens are 
cooked, take them out of the pan, and keep them hot. Pour one and one-half pints 
of white sauce, and one-half pint of veal stock into a saucepan, and boil till rather 
thickly reduced, stirring all the time; then mix one teacupful of cream with it, and 
season with a small quantity of moist sugar. Glaze the tongue and sweetbreads. 
Turn the potato border on a hot dish, put the tongue in the center, place two of the 
sweetbreads at each end, the fillets of chicken at each side, pour the sauce over them, 
straining it through a fine hair sieve, and serve at once. 



Minced Beef Tongue. 



Cut any cold cooked beef tongue into oblong-shaped pieces, cut them again 
transversely into slices, and put them into a saucepan with a few slices of uncooked 



162 BEEF. 

truffle. Cut an onion and three small Jerusalem artichokes into slices and again into 
quarters, place them in a fryingpan with a little oil, and sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, and fry over a moderate fire until done. Add one tablespoonful of finely- 
minced parsley, cook for a minute or two, and then add the pieces of tongue and 
truffles. Cook for three or four minutes longer, remove the pan from the fire, and 
pour in the juice of two lemons. Turn the mince out onto a dish, garnish with 
pieces of bread fried in butter, and serve. 



Scalloped Beef Tongue. 



Chop up sufficient cold cooked beef tongue to fill two breakfast cups, and mix 
in one teaspoonful each of capers, chopped parsley and salt, a little pepper, and one 
tablespoonful of onion juice, mixed with a teacupful of stock. Sprinkle sifted 
breadcrumbs over a well-buttered scallop dish, put in the tongue preparation, cover 
with more breadcrumbs, making the total quantity used one breakfast cupful, and 
put some small pieces of butter here and there over the top. Place the dish in the 
oven, bake for twenty minutes, remove and serve at once. 

Stewed Beef Tongue. 

Cut the root off a tongue, but do not take all the fat off. Salt the tongue 
for a week with common salt and a little saltpeter, turning it every day. Then 
boil it till the skin can be easily removed. When skinned, stew it in a little good 
gravy until sufficiently tender, seasoning with mushroom catsup, soy, cayenne, 
pounded cloves and a little salt, if required. Serve with morels, mushrooms or 
truffles. 

Beef Tongue, Terrapin Style. 

Put a salted beel tongue into a saucepan of water, and boil it until quite tender ; 
remove it, drain, and cut in halves lengthwise. Stick a few cloves in, put the pieces 
into another saucepan with sufficient water to cover, add an onion cut in slices, a 
little mace and browned flour, boil for a few minutes, and put in three finely chopped 
hard boiled eggs, remove the pan from the fire, pour in one wineglassful of wine, 
turn the whole out on a dish, and serve very hot with a garnish of hard boiled eggs 
cut in slices. 



Tripe. 



This is usually bought ready prepared, but as instances may occur when the 
cook may have to clean it, the following instructions may be useful : Wash the 
stomach well as soon as it is taken from the bullock, changing the water several 
times ; dust the dark inside coat with quicklime, and scrape it at once. Cut it up into 
four parts, dip them into boiling water, and scrape them until they become perfectly 
white. Put them into a bowl with a weak brine thickened with meal, and allow them 



BEEF. 163 

to remain for a day. Scrape and soak them in this way for seven or eight days, then 
put them into a saucepan with oatmeal gruel to cover, and boil it until tender. The 
tripe should be tied up in a cloth. Turn it out of the cloth, place it in a bowl of 
weak brine, let it remain for a day or so, and it is then ready for use. Or put the 
pieces of the stomach of a fat bullock, one at a time, in a saucepan of water, and 
warm them ; remove, scrape well, put them into a bowl of slightly salted water, wash 
them well, change the water daily, and allow them to soak for five or six days, by 
which time they should be quite white. Place them in a saucepan of water and boil 
them ; if not required for immediate use, keep them in vinegar. 



Tripe a la Mode de Caen. 



Take five or six pounds of double tripe, one cow heel, three calf's feet, all well 
washed and cleaned in fresh water, and cut them into pieces two inches long by one 
inch square. Have handy an earthenware pot or saucepan, place some of the pieces of 
feet at the bottom, cover over with tripe, then a layer of sliced onions and carrots, 
and continue the same until the vessel is full, seasoning each layer. Tie up in a 
cloth a sprig of thyme, a bay leaf, a dozen whole peppers and half a dozen cloves ; 
place this in the middle of the pot, and pour over one pint of cider or white wine 
and a wineglassful of brandy. Cover the top over with some stalks of green leeks, 
parsley roots and cabbage leaves, put the lid on the pan, fastening it down with paste, 
so that the steam cannot escape, and leave it for ten hours in a very slow oven. 
Serve it on a hot dish. 

>e and Onions. 



Tripi 



Putonepoundof tripe into a saucepan with four large onions cut into slices, sprinkle 
over one teaspoonful of salt and a small quantity of pepper, and pour over one pint of 
water, place the saucepan on the fire and boil for about twenty-five minutes, or until 
the tripe is tender. Take out the tripe and onions, skim the fat off the liquor, reduce 
it to half its original quantity, add a thickening of milk and flour, and boil for a minute 
or two; replace the tripe and onions, simmer at the side of the fire for fifteen minutes, 
turn the whole out onto a dish and serve hot. 



Baked Tripe with Potatoes. 



Cut one pound of tripe into one-inch squares, put them into an earthenware 
basin with four chopped onions, and one teaspoonful each of pepper and salt, cover 
with stock or water, place the basin in a slow oven and bake for three hours. 
Strain off the liquor into a saucepan, skim it, add sufficient flour to thicken and boil 
it up once. Arrange the tripe and onions in a pie-dish, pour over the liquor and 
cover the top with mashed potatoes, stand the dish in a hot oven and bake for ten 
minutes, so as to heat the mass thoroughly and brown the surface. Remove it and 
serve the dish without delay. 



1 64 BEEF. 






Bordelaise. 



iripe 

Take one and one-half pounds of tripe and cut it into a dozen lozenge-shaped 
pieces and let them marinade for two hours in one tablespoonful of oil, with a pinch 
of salt, half a pinch of pepper, one bay-leaf, one sprig of thyme, half a dozen whole 
peppers, the juice of a lemon and a crushed clove of garlic. Drain, roll them in flour, 
then in beaten eggs, and lastly in sifted breadcrumbs. Fry them in one ounce of 
clarified butter in a pan for five or six minutes on either side, and serve with one gill 
of maitre d'hotel butter, adding to it one teaspoonful of meat glaze. 

Broiled Tripe. 

Wash well a piece of tripe, place it in a saucepan with sufficient milk and water 
to cover it, and boil it for twenty or twenty-five minutes. Take it out, drain it, cut it 
up into pieces, brush them over with warm butter, sprinkle over salt and pepper to 
taste, place them on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil until well browned. Place 
them on a napkin spread over a dish, and serve. 

Broiled Tripe with Tartar Sauce. 

Put two pounds of tripe cut up into large squares into a basin, sprinkle them 
with salt, pepper, or cayenne, add two tablespoonfuls of minced onion and a small 
quantity of chopped parsley, pour over some oil, and allow the whole to remain for 
an hour. Take them out singly, roll them in oil, cover with breadcrumbs, put them 
on a gridiron over a bright fire, and broil them for twenty minutes or so. When 
done, put them on a dish, and serve with tartar sauce, either poured around or served 
in a sauceboat. 

Tripe, Creole Style. 

Cut one and one-half pounds of tripe into small pieces, fry them in a pan 
with two ounces of butter, one chopped onion, and half of a green pepper, also 
chopped. Brown them slightly for six minutes, then transfer them to a saucepan 
with one chopped tomato and one-half pint of Spanish sauce, and season with one 
pinch of salt and half a pinch of pepper, adding a garnished bouquet, also a crushed 
clove of garlic. Cook for ten minutes, and serve with one teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley sprinkled over. 

Curried Tripe. 

Cut the tripe into small pieces. Slice two or three onions, according to size, 
place them in a stewpan with a lump of butter, and brown them over a quick fire. 
Put the tripe in with the onions, pour in enough broth to cover it, and stew gently 
until tender. Put one teaspoonful of flour in a basin with one tablespoonful of 
curry powder ; then stir in slowly one-half teacupful of cream and one teacupful 



BEEF. 165 

of broth. When quite smooth stir the curry in with the tripe, and boil it for a few 
minutes longer, until thickened, stirring now and then. When cooked, turn the 
tripe onto a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Fricassee of Tripe. 

Cut one pound or so of tripe into two-inch squares, place them in a saucepan 
with a small quantity each of mace and ground ginger, sweet herbs, and chopped 
onion, pour over sufficient white wine to cover, stand the saucepan on the fire and 
cook for fifteen minutes. Remove the herbs, add a little chopped parsley, half of 
an anchovy cut up small, the juice of a lemon, one breakfast cupful of cream, and 
a thickening of yolk of egg and butter. Season the mixture well, stir it over the 
fire for a few minutes, turn the whole out onto a dish, and serve with slices of 
lemon for a garnish. 

Tripe, Lyonnese. 

Wash thoroughly one and one-half pounds of tripe, boil it until tender in water, 
cut it up into pieces about one and one-half inches long and one inch wide, sprinkle 
over them a seasoning of salt, pepper and flour, put them into a fryingpan with boil- 
ing lard, and fry for five or six minutes. Remove them and drain on a sieve. Put 
two or three onions, cut up into slices in a fryingpan with a small quantity of oil, 
butter and a clove of garlic, and cook them until they are well colored ; then add the 
tripe, sprinkle over a little cayenne, toss the pan over the fire until the onions are 
cooked, take out the garlic, add a small quantity of chopped parsley, take the pan 
off the fire, squeeze in the juice of two lemons, turn the whole out onto a dish, and 
serve. 

Tripe, Poulette Style. 

Put a large chopped onion into a saucepan with a little butter and fry to a good 
yellow color; add one pound of tripe cut into squares, season well with salt and pep- 
per and fry it until the moisture of the tripe is reduced, dredge over two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour and add gradually sufficient rich broth to moisten. Stir well until the 
liquor boils, then add a bunch of parsley, boil for two or three minutes, remove the 
saucepan to the side of the fire and simmer gently for twenty-five minutes, Remove 
the pieces of tripe, place them on a dish and keep warm. Reduce the liquor, thicken 
it with yolks of eggs, pour it over the tripe and serve. A small quantity of butter, 
chopped parsley, lemon juice, grated nutmeg, etc., may be mixed with the liquor. 

Stewed Tripe. 

Wash thoroughly one pound of tripe, boil it until tender and then drain it. Put 
two tablespoonfuls of butter into a stewpan with two tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir 
over the fire until well mixed; then pour in by degrees one pint of milk and keep on 



166 BEEF. 

stirring until boiling. Put the tripe in the sauce, season to taste with pepper and salt 
and boil it gently for fifteen minutes or so. Turn the tripe and sauce onto a hot dish, 
garnish with croutons of fried bread or sippets of toast, and serve. 



Beef Vinaigrette. 



Cut a slice of about three inches in thickness from a round of boiled fresh beef, 
put in a saucepan and pour over it a wineglassful of white wine and a little water, add 
a bay leaf, a small bunch of sweet herbs, two or three cloves and salt and pepper to 
taste. Place the saucepan over the fire and cook until the liquor is about half ab- 
sorbed, turning the meat frequently. Place on a dish when cold, and serve with a 
sauceboat of the liquor strained and a little vinegar mixed with it. 

Vol-au-Vent of Beef Tendons. 

Remove the nerves and skin from the beef tendons and place them in a basin 
with enough water to cover them and let them soak until quite white; then place in 
a saucepan of salted water and a little vinegar, and boil for ten minutes. Line a vol- 
au-vent case with good puff paste and bake in an oven; when done take out, and after 
it has become cold, turn it out. Put in the oven for a few minutes to warm and then 
put in the pieces of tendon and pour over sufficient bechamel sauce to cover them, 
and put a couple of dozen boiled button mushrooms on top of this; place the vol-au- 
vent in the oven, and serve very hot. 



Lamb. 

Ballotin of Lamb with Peas. 

Remove the bone from a shoulder of lamb weighing about three pounds, leaving 
the end bone for a handle; season with one-half tablespoonful of salt and the same 
quantity of pepper. Sew it up with string, fasten firmly and boil for about three 
minutes in the stockpot. After allowing it to cool, lard the top with a larding-needle 
as for a fricandeau and place it in a saucepan with a piece of pork skin, an onion and 
a carrot cut into pieces. Brown lightly for six or eight minutes, then moisten with 
one-half pint of Spanish sauce and one-half pint of broth, cook in the oven for three- 
quarters of an hour, remove it and strain the sauce over one pint of hot boiled green 
peas, then cook for two minutes longer. Place the garnishing on a hot dish, remove 
the strings from the ballotin, lay it on top of the garnishing, and serve. 

Blanquette of Lamb. 

Remove the meat from two shoulders of lamb, cut it into moderate-sized squares 
and steep them in water for one hour. Place the meat in a stewpan, cover it with a 
little water or broth and one teacupful of white wine. When the liquid boils strain 
the broth through a sieve into a basin and allow it to remain for a few minutes to 
settle. Put one chopped onion into a stewpan with a little butter and fry till browned; 
then mix the meat with it and fry them together for a few minutes. Sprinkle in a 
little pepper, salt and flour and pour in by degrees enough of the broth to reach the 
top of the meat; add a few cloves and peppercorns, some trimmings of mushrooms 
and a few sprigs of parsley and a bay leaf. Place the stewpan over the fire and let 
the contents boil quickly for ten or twelve minutes in order to reduce the liquor to 
one-fourth; then move the stewpan to the side of the fire and finish cooking the 
meat. When done skim the fat off the sauce, stir in three eggs that have been beaten 
with some milk and continue stirring over the fire until thick, taking care that it does 
not boil; grate in a little nutmeg, remove the meat from the stewpan with a fork, 
arrange it on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, sprinkle a little parsley on the top, and 
serve. 

Braised Breast of Lamb. 

Remove the bones from a breast of lamb with a sharp-pointed knife, season the 
meat well with pepper and salt, then roll it up and tie it securely with twine. Chop 
fine one onion, a slice of carrot and a slice of turnip. Put them in a braising pan 
with a lump of butter and stir over a brisk fire for five minutes; then put in the lamb, 

167 



168 LAMB. 

sprinkling it well with flour. Place the lid on and stand the stewpan where the meat 
will cook slowly for another hour, basting it frequently. When ready remove the 
meat, cut off the string and place it on a hot dish. Skim the fat off the gravy, strain 
the latter over the meat, and serve while very hot with a sauceboatful of either tomato 
or bechamel sauce. 

Braised Breast of Lamb, Milanese Style. 

Trim a breast of lamb, and put it into a saucepan in which there is a layer of 
thin slices of bacon (fat) ; put some slices of lemon on the breast, then cover it with 
more slices of fat bacon. Pour in one-half pint of stock, and pack in an onion cut in 
quarters. Put the lid on the stewpan with a few live ashes on the top, and braise 
slowly by the side of the fire until the breast is done, glazing it when cooked. Place 
some dressed macaroni on a hot dish, lay the joints on it, pour over some rich brown 
gravy, and serve. 

Broiled Breast of Lamb. 

Heat a gridiron over a clear fire, grease it well with a little fat, lay the breast of 
lamb upon it, and when well done on one side turn it and let it cook on the other. 
Warm two ounces of butter, work in a little pepper and salt and spread it over the 
meat. Place the joint on a hot dish, and serve with mint sauce in a boat. 

Stewed Breast of Lamb. 

Cut a breast of lamb into pieces, season properly with pepper and salt, and stew 
until tender in enough gravy to cover the meat. Thicken the sauce, pour in one wine- 
glassful of sherry, and serve on a dish of stewed mushrooms. 

Brochettes of Lamb. 

Take a raw leg of lamb, remove the bone and pare off the skin, then cut it into 
several pieces of equal size. Put them in a bowl with two finely chopped shallots, 
one teaspoonful of chopped chives, and one teaspoonful of parsley, and a crushed 
clove of garlic. Add the juice of half a lemon, a tablespoonful of salt and one tea- 
spoonful of pepper, also half a teaspoonful of nutmeg. Let them steep for two hours, 
turning at times, then take the pieces out, run skewers through the centers inter- 
larding them with pieces of salt pork, dip the brochettes in breadcrumbs and broil for 
four minutes. 

Broiled Lamb Chops. 

Trim the required quantity of chops that have been cut from a loin of lamb, put 
them on a heated gridiron and broil them over the fire. When they are nicely browned 
on both sides, put a mound of mashed potatoes on a hot dish, lean the chops against 
it, and serve. 



LAMB. 169 

Broiled Lamb Chops in Papers. 

Trim the chops neatly, remove the skin and fat, dip them in warm butter, and 
then strew parsley and chives over them. Wrap them in sheets of buttered paper, 
and broil over a clear fire. When cooked pour the chops on a dish, and serve with 
gravy. 

Fried Lamb Chops. 

Pare six lamb chops and split them through the center. Fill the inside with 
some very fine salpicon, season with salt and pepper, close together and dip in beaten 
eggs, then in fresh breadcrumbs; fry for four minutes on each side in two ounces of 
clarified butter, and serve with one gill of hot Montglas sauce, after arranging a 
curled paper at the end of each chop. 

Lamb Chops, Maintenon Style. 

Select six well trimmed and flattened lamb chops, season with a pinch of salt and 
a half a pinch of pepper, place them in a stewpan, with one ounce of butter, and fry 
on one side only for one minute. Cover the cooked side with a chicken forcemeat. 
Sprinkle over them a finely minced truffle, put them on a well-buttered baking dish, and 
place them in a slow oven for four minutes. Place a paper frill on the end of each 
chop, and serve with one-half pint of hot clear veloute-sauce poured on the dish, and 
the chops laid on that. 

Lamb Chops with Brown Sauce. 

Cut a few lamb chops about one-fourth of an inch thick, trim nicely, dip them 
in beaten egg, then roll them in a seasoning of finely minced parsley, a little salt and 
pepper, lemon peel, and a small quantity of grated nutmeg. Heat a large lump of 
butter in a deep fryingpan over the fire, then put in the chops, and fry until well 
browned. Put one tablespoonful of flour and a small lump of butter into a stewpan, 
stir over the fire, then pour in one-half pint of clear veal gravy, and stir until boiling; 
drain the chops, put them on a hot dish, stir in one wineglassful of red wine with the 
sauce, strain it over the chops, and serve. 

Lamb Chops with Champagne Sauce. 

Pare neatly and flatten half a dozen lamb chops, season with one pinch of salt 
and one-half pinch of pepper, fry slightly in a stewpan with one ounce of butter and 
for a space of one minute on each side, then allow them to cool. Cover the surfaces 
with chicken forcemeat, wrap them in a skin taken from the stomach of a pig, then 
dip in beaten egg and fresh bread crumbs ; cook in a stewpan with four ounces of 
butter for four minutes on each side. Arrange a paper frill at the end of each chop, 



ijo LAMB. 

and serve with one-half pint of hot champagne sauce on the dish and the chops 
dressed over. 

Lamb Chops with Perigueux Sauce. 

Pare neatly half a dozen chops, flatten, and season with one-half pinch of pepper 
and one pinch of salt. Make an incision on each chop, and garnish the inside with a 
truffle previously prepared by dipping in hot glaze, then dip the chops in beaten egg, 
roll them in fresh breadcrumbs, and put them in a stewpan with two ounces of but- 
ter, frying them for five minutes on either side. Pour one-half pint of Perigueux 
sauce on the di-sh, arrange the chops over it with curled paper on their ends, and 
serve. 

Lamb Croquettes. 

Chop fine three pounds of raw lamb, peel and mince three onions, mix them 
all well together and season with pepper and salt. Divide the mixture into small 
quantities and roll them into balls, place them in a saucepan of water and boil. Put 
the yolks of four eggs in a saucepan with the strained juice of two lemons and one 
saltspoonful of salt, and beat well Stir over a slow fire with a wooden spoon until it 
thickens, taking care to move it off the fire before the eggs have time to boil, or they 
will spoil by curdling; then mix in by degrees one teacupful of the liquor in which 
the meat balls were boiled, stir the sauce at the side of the fire for ten minutes, 
arrange the croquettes in a group in the center of a dish, pour the sauce round them, 
and serve while very hot. 

Curried Lamb. 

Cut a cooked leg of lamb into middling-sized dice, and remove all the skin and 
gristle. Fry a chopped onion in a stewpan with a little butter until browned, then 
put in two breakfast cupfuls of well washed and dried rice, stir a few minutes over the 
fire, moisten to twice its height with unskimmed broth, and boil the rice on a slow 
fire adding frequently more broth to prevent it from getting too dry. When nearly 
tender mix in two small tablespoonfuls of curry powder diluted with three table- 
spoonfuls of tomato sauce, and stir over the fire for two or three minutes, then take 
it off, put in the chopped meat, place the lid on the saucepan and stand it at the side 
of the fire to heat the lamb thoroughly. Pour the gravy on a hot dish with fried 
bread, and serve. 

Broiled Lamb Cutlets. 

Cut some cutlets of a neck of lamb and trim them as for mutton cutlets, beat the 
yolks of two eggs with a little warmed butter, dip in the cutlets, then in breadcrumbs, 
and then put them on a gridiron over a clear fire; when they are done on one side 
turn them, arrange on a dish, and serve with gravy. 



LAMB. 171 

Lamb Cutlets, Duchess Style. 

Trim neatly some cutlets that have been cut off the neck of a lamb, scraping the 
top of the bone until clean, place them in a fryingpan together with a lump of butter, 
and fry. When cooked drain the cutlets and leave them until cold. Put into a 
saucepan, two or three mushrooms a finely chopped onion, a sprig of parsley and a 
lump of butter; stir them over the fire until hot, then pour in one breakfast cupful of 
white sauce, the juice of a lemon, a liaison of three well beaten yolks of eggs and one 
tablespoonful of powdered sugar. Stir the mixture by the side of the fire until it is 
of the thickness of cream, then dip the cutlets into it, coating them well with the 
sauce and setting them one side to cool. Brush the cutlets over with beaten yolk of 
egg, roll them in breadcrumbs, and fry in butter until well browned. Put a puree of 
green peas in the center of a hot dish, forming the cutlets around it in an upright 
position and slightly overlapping one another, then serve with a sauceboatful of 
white sauce. 

Fried Lamb Cutlets. 

Trim the outer skin of two breasts of lamb, place them in a saucepan, cover 
with veal stock, and boil slowly. Prepare a veal forcemeat, season highly with 
herbs and spices, and bind it with a raw egg. When the breasts of lamb are 
tender bone them and spread the forcemeat over the inside, laying them one on 
top of the other. Place them between two dishes with a heavy weight on top and 
leave them for several hours. Take some small bones from the ribs, trim to the 
shape of cutlet bones and blanch them. Cut the cold breasts into pieces, forming 
them into the shape of cutlets. Beat two whites and three yolks of eggs together 
with two tablespoonfuls of oiled butter, the butter being mixed in a drop at a time; 
brush the cutlets over with a paste brush dipped in the beaten egg mixture, roll 
them in fine white breadcrumbs that have been seasoned with salt, pepper and, 
if desired, a small quantity of cayenne pepper. Leave the cutlets for twenty or 
twenty-five minutes, then egg and breadcrumb them again, proceeding as before; 
leave again for half an hour, then give them a third coating of egg and bread 
crumbs. Place a large lump of butter or clarified fat in a large stewpan, place it 
over the fire until a blue smoke arises, then put in the cutlets and fry to a nice 
brown. When done drain the cutlets on a sheet of kitchen paper for a minute, 
stick one of the whitened bones in each and fasten a small paper frill round them. 
Pile some mashed potatoes in the center of a hot dish, lean the cutlets against 
them, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with demi-glaze sauce. 

Lamb Cutlets in Papers. 

Take the fat and skin from three cutlets, and dust with pepper and salt. Put 
three tablespoonfuls of butter into a fryingpan, and place it on the fire, when it has 



172 



LAMB. 



melted sufficiently put in the cutlets, and fry them for a quarter of an hour; add one 
teaspoonful of lemon juice and one teaspoonful of finely minced parsley, one table- 
spoonful of Worcestershire sauce, dust in one tablespoonful of flour and cook for 
another five minutes. Remove the cutlets and add four tablespoonfuls each of glaze 
and water to the liquor in the pan, stir well until the glaze is melted, and then cool. 
Fold as many sheets of paper as there are cutlets to the size of note paper, and cut 
them so that when they open they will be in the shape of a heart. Place them in 
warm butter, and allow them to stand for a little time. When the sauce is cold spread 
it over the cutlets, and place them one at a time on the side of the papers, with the 
bones turned toward the point of the heart. When all are thus prepared range them 
on a baking-sheet and cook in the oven for ten minutes. Dress them on a dish in a 
circle, and fill up the hollow with fried potatoes. 



Lamb Cutlets, Jardiniere. 



Select a dozen or so of lamb cutlets, trim them to a like shape and size, dust with 
pepper and salt, and place them in the bottom of a flat stewpan; put a small lump of 
butter in with and fry over a clear fire. When done on one side turn over and cook 
the other. After the meat is done strain the butter off the cutlets, put in a little 
melted glaze, and turn them about over the fire for two or three minutes. Mash some 
boiled potatoes, and form them in a border on a hot dish; arrange the cutlets in 
a circle on the border, fill the center with a garnish of new vegetables, and serve with 
a sauceboatful of freshly made gravy well thickened. 

Lamb Cutlets, Villeroy. 

Trim the desired number of lamb cutlets, place them in a stewpan with a lump 
of butter, and fry; when cooked, press them between two plates to cool. Trim the 
cutlets again, dip them in a little villeroy sauce, sprinkle over them some fine herbs, 
place them on a cold baking sheet, and let the sauce set; lay some breadcrumbs over 
the sauce. Put some lard or butter into a fryingpan, and when it is boiling put the 
cutlets in, and fry both sides equally until nicely browned. Place a folded napkin on 
a hot dish, drain the cutlets, put them on it, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. 

Lamb Cutlets with Asparagus. 

Cut into one-half inch lengths the heads of a bundle of asparagus; also cut into 
lengths of the same size as much of the stalks as is eatable, and boil them separately 
in salt and water; when cooked drain, place them in separate fryingpans with a little 
butter, season to taste with pepper and salt, and toss them about over the fire. Trim 
the cutlets,, dip them in beaten egg and breadcrumbs and fry in butter to a pale golden 
brown. When cooked drain the cutlets on a sheet of paper before a clear fire for a 



LAMB. 173 

second, and then form them in a circle on a hot dish, pile the asparagus in the center, 
arranging the heads on top, and serve. 

Lamb Cutlets with Spinach. 

Cut a neck of lamb into cutlets, trim them to a nice shape, brush over with warm 
butter and season with salt and pepper; put them in a double gridiron and broil in 
front of a clear fire. Pick the spinach and wash it in a great many waters, as it will 
be hard to clean without doing so; boil it, and when it is cooked drain it on a hair 
sieve. Put one ounce of butter and one tablespoonful of flour into a saucepan and 
stir over the fire until well mixed; pass the spinach through the sieve into the butter, 
moisten with a small quantity of milk, and stir it over the fire until boiling. Pile the 
spinach in the center of a hot dish, arrange the cutlets around it, and serve. 

Epigrammes of Lamb with Asparagus Tops. 

Braise a small piece of breast of lamb, and when it is cooked take it out of the 
pan and place it between two dishes with a weight on the top and leave until cold. 
Afterwards cut the lamb into equal-sized pieces, trim them to a cutlet shape and fix a 
bone in each like a cutlet. Trim an equal number of lambs cutlets and make them 
into equal pieces, and fry them. Season with salt and pepper and a few drops of 
lemon juice, dip in well-beaten egg and roll in breadcrumbs, giving a good coating. 
Place a piece of butter on the frying pan, and when melted place it on the cutlets, 
and fry until they are a light golden brown on either side, draining well as they are 
cooked. Arrange the cutlets on a hot dish, put some boiled heads of asparagus in 
the center, garnish with parsley, and serve. 

Epigrammes of Lamb with Macedoine. 

Tie two breasts of lamb together and boil them in a stock-pot for forty-five 
minutes. Drain well, then take out the bones, and place a heavy weight on it. When 
quite cold, cut each breast into three heart shaped pieces, dip them in oil or fat, add 
one tablespoonful of pepper, roll in breadcrumbs, and broil over a slow fire for four 
minutes each side. Take six broiled breaded lamb chops, prepare, and cook exactly 
the same, and serve with half pint of hot macedoine or any other garnishing that may 
be liked; arrange the breasts and chops on the garnishing, 

Fricassee of Lamb, 

Cut the breast of a lamb into square pieces, sprinkle salt and flour over, and 
brown in a little butter. Place them in a stewpan with a sliced onion and a little 
water, and simmer until the bones will slip out easily. Take the lamb out, remove 
the bones, strain the liquor, and pour off the fat. Boil the liquor over again, put in 



174 LAMB. 

the meat with a little salt and pepper, and stew for a little while longer; then add 
one quart of peas, and simmer for fifteen minutes. When ready to serve turn the 
meat onto a hot dish. 

Hashed Lamb. 

Fry two chopped onions in a saucepan with about one ounce of butter, add one 
pint of cooked chopped potatoes, and one-half pound of cooked hashed lamb, season 
with one teaspoonful of pepper, one tablespoonful of salt, and one-half teaspoonful 
of nutmeg. Moisten with one-half pint of broth, and cook for ten minutes. Put the 
hash on a hot dish, and arrange half a dozen poached eggs on top. Serve sprinkled 
over with chopped parsley. 

Roasted Haunch of Lamb. 

Trim the shank bone of a haunch of lamb, fold the loan underneath, fasten it 
with skewers, season and roast in a pan in a hot oven, basting often with butter. 
When it is nearly cooked sprinkle some stale breadcrumbs and a little salt over, 
baste with butter and let the joint brown. Put the haunch on a hot dish, tie a ruffle 
around the bone, make a rich gravy, and serve it with the meat, also some mint sauce, 
both being placed in sauceboats. 

Broiled Lambs' Kidneys, Maitre d'Hotel. 

Plunge the kidneys into boiling water for an instant, split down the middle with- 
out cutting them clear through, skin and run a fine skewer through each to keep 
them flat. Season well with pepper and salt, warm a little butter and brush over 
them. Lay them on a well-greased, hot gridiron, the cut side downwards ; when 
that side is done, turn them over and cook the other side. Remove the skewers, lay 
the kidneys, hollow side up, on a hot dish, put a little maitre d'hotel butter on each, 
and serve. 

Broiled Lambs' Kidneys with Colbert Sauce. 

Split open eight or nine kidneys, skin them, place them on a dish and moisten 
them well with sweet oil. Dust over with one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful 
of pepper and one-half teaspoonful of nutmeg. Take eight silver skewers, run each 
skewer through the center of a kidney (which should be split partly open), roll them 
in breadcrumbs and broil them over a moderate fire for about five minutes on either 
side. Place them on a very hot dish on which has been previously poured one-half 
pint of hot Colbert sauce, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 



Deviled Lambs' Kidneys. 



Skin and pare a dozen kidneys, without separating the parts, and run the skewers 
through as for broiled lambs' kidneys with Colbert sauce. Broil them a little for one 



LAMB. 175 

minute on either side, then stir together in a dish one teaspoonful of mustard with 
two tablespoonfuls of Parisian sauce, a little cayenne pepper, one teaspoonful of salt 
and a little mignonette pepper. Roll the kidneys well in this and then in bread- 
crumbs, and finish by broiling them once more for three or four minutes. Pour over 
a gill of maitre d'hotel butter, and serve. 

Fried Lambs' Kidneys with Bread Croutons. 

Skin and trim the fat off the kidneys, cut each one into halves lengthwise, place 
them in a fryingpan with one or two finely-chopped shallots and two ounces of but- 
ter, sprinkle with salt and pepper and fry them. When the shallots are nicely 
browned and the kidneys are cooked remove them from the fire and baste with a few 
tablespoonfuls of melted glaze. Fry in hot fat half a dozen croutons of bread, and 
when brown and crisp brush them over with a paste-brush dipped in melted glaze; 
place the kidneys on a hot dish, sprinkle with chopped parsley, squeeze over them the 
juice of a lemon, garnish with croutons of bread, and serve. 

Stewed Lambs' Kidneys. 

Pare, trim and skim a dozen kidneys, cut them into slices and cook for five min- 
utes in a fryingpan with one ounce of clarified butter, one tablespoonful of salt and 
one teaspoonful of pepper. Brown well and then add one-half pint of Spanish sauce 
and four mushrooms cut into pieces. Warm without boiling, add the juice of half a 
lemon and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and serve. 

Boiled Leg of Lamb. 

Sprinkle a leg of lamb with salt, place it in a bowl with enough soft water to 
cover, add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice, and let the lamb steep for an hour. 
Then dry it, dredge with flour, wrap it in a piece of linen, put it in a saucepan with 
a bunch of sweet herbs and water to cover, and boil it for an hour and a half, more 
or less, according to the size of the joint. When cooked remove the cloth, place the 
lamb on a hot dish, garnish with parsley and thin slices of lemon, and serve with a 
sauceboatful of caper sauce. 

Broiled Lambs' Liver. 

Cut the liver into rather thin slices, and allow them to macerate in oil and 
chopped parsley for half an hour. Drain the slices, sprinkle over salt and pepper, 
roll them in grated breadcrumbs, lay them on a gridiron, and broil over a clear fire. 
Put six ounces of butter into a saucepan to melt, and mix with it the juice of a 
lemon, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and season with salt and pepper. 
When the slices of liver are cooked, lay them on a hot dish, pour the butter over, 
and serve. 



176 LAMB. 

Fried Lambs' Liver. 

Wash thoroughly some lambs' liver, cut it into slices, and rub them well on both 
sides with pepper, salt and flour. Place a large lump of fat in a fryingpan and 
make it hot. Dip the fillets into beaten eggs, plunge them into the fat, and fry them. 
Drain the slices of liver, dust a little salt over, and put them on a hot dish on which 
has been laid a folded napkin, garnish with quarters of lemon, and serve. 

Minced Lamb with Poached Eggs. 

Take some cold roasted lamb, trim and chop it very fine, season with pepper, 
salt and a little finely chopped mint. Make some gravy very hot in a saucepan, 
thicken it with browned flour, stir in the seasoned meat, and let it get hot. Make 
some triangles of buttered toast, lay a poached egg on each, pour the mince into a 
flat dish, and garnish with the toast and poached eggs. 

Pilau of Lamb. 

Cut the meat of a leg of lamb into small pieces, and make a little broth with the 
bones. Cut half a pound of streaky bacon in squares and fry in a stewpan with one 
chopped onion ; put the pieces of lamb in with it, sprinkle a little salt over and fry 
over a brisk fire for ten minutes. Cover the lamb with the broth that has been pre- 
pared from the bones. Skin and chop two ripe tomatoes and after picking out the 
seeds, put them in with the lamb, adding two green peppers, cut up a bunch of fine 
herbs, a sprig or two of parsley and a pinch of saffron ; when the broth has boiled 
for five minutes throw in some rice, put the lid on the stewpan, move it to the side of 
the fire, and let the contents stew for twenty minutes or until the rice is quite tender. 
When ready to serve turn the pilau out onto a hot dish. 

Roasted Forequarter of Lamb. 

Cover a forequarter of lamb with slices of bacon, and wrap it up in a sheet of 
buttered paper. Roast in the oven, and when it is cooked enough, raise the shoulder 
from the neck with a knife, fill the cavity with butter, and serve on a hot dish. 

Roasted Hindquarter of Lamb. 

Select a hindquarter of lamb, trim the bone, fix the lamb in a roastingpan and 
roast it in a hot oven, basting often with butter; when nearly done sprinkle with 
breadcrumbs, baste again to brown, and sprinkle salt over. V/hen the lamb is 
cooked put it on a hot dish, surround with a rich gravy, and serve with mint sauce. 



LAMB. 177 

Roasted Hindquarter of Lamb with Celery. 

Truss the joint, range it in a bakingpan and roast it in a hot oven. Clean and 
trim three fresh heads of celery, cutting off the tops and the outside leaves, put them 
for ten minutes in boiling water, then refresh them with cold water, and tie together 
in bundles. Place them in a saucepan with a small quantity of sliced carrots, an 
onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, three-quarters of a pint of chicken broth, half a pint 
of water and one teacupful of clarified butter ; lay a sheet of paper over the whole, 
put the lid on the saucepan, and keep the contents cooking gently by the side of the 
fire. When the lamb is cooked, remove and place it on a hot dish, put the celery 
around, and serve with a sauceboat of half glaze. 

Roasted Saddle of Lamb. 

The saddle of lamb is simply the two loins cut off before the carcass is split 
open down the back ; it is best when roasted before an open fire, but it may be 
cooked in a very hot oven. If medium size it will cook in an hour and a half, but if 
large it will require two hours. It should first be exposed to intense heat until 
browned, then seasoned with salt and pepper, and every fifteen minutes should be 
basted with the drippings, which fall from it ; about a half hour before the loin is 
done make a sauce for it as follows : Peel two large cucumbers, cut them in slices, 
and place them in salted cold water. Peel and slice one medium-sized onion, place 
it in a saucepan with the cucumbers, with enough gravy to cover, and let them stew 
for fifteen minutes ; season highly with salt and pepper and a tablespoonful of lemon- 
juice or vinegar. When the lamb is cooked dish it on a hot dish, garnish with 
cucumbers, and serve the sauce in a gravy-boat with it. 

Roasted Saddle and Leg of Lamb. 

Wash, salt and flour the meat and put it in a bakingpan in a hot oven to roast, 
basting often until done. Place it on a hot dish and serve it with mint sauce. 

Braised Shoulder of Lamb. 

Remove the bone from a shoulder of lamb and lard it with lightly-seasoned 
strips of bacon fat in the thick part of the shoulder ; roll the joint to a good shape, 
tie it round, put it into a braisingpan with a lump of butter and braise gently over a 
moderate fire till browned all over. Put in about eight small onions, a bundle of 
chopped parsley and one quart of broth, place the saucepan by the side of the fire and 
allow the contents to simmer until the onions are tender. Put the meat onto a hot 
dish, cut off the string and garnish with the onions. Boil the cooking liquor until it 
is reduced to a thick gravy, then pour it over the lamb, and serve. 



178 LAMB. 

Braised Shoulder of Lamb, African Style. 

Season a shoulder of lamb with one pinch each of salt and pepper and tie it up. 
Put it in a saucepan with one sliced onion and carrot and brown for six minutes. 
Moisten with one pint of broth and Spanish sauce and cook for forty-five minutes. 
Skim all the fat from the gravy, remove the meat to a hot dish and untie it. Deco- 
rate the dish with three stuffed egg-plants and half a pint of cooked okra gumbos. 
Pour the gravy over the shoulder of lamb, and serve. 

Braised Shoulder of Lamb, Flemish Style. 

The same as for braised shoulder of lamb, African style, serving for garnishing 
half a oint of cooked carrots, turnips and red cabbage arranged around the dish. 

Braised Shoulder of Lamb, Rouennese Style. 

Braise a shoulder of lamb, cut three medium-sized turnips the shape of a large 
clove of garlic, put them in a stewpan with one ounce of butter and one teaspoonful 
of powdered loaf-sugar on top. Put them in the oven and leave until they become thor- 
oughly brown, moving the pan often to prevent burning. Put the gravy from the 
meat over the turnips, dish up the shoulder, and serve. 

Roasted Shoulder of Lamb and Mint Sauce. 

Wash a shoulder of lamb, dredge both sides with salt and flour, fix it on a ba- 
kingpan, with a little hot water dripping and salt, and then roast in a brick oven, bast- 
ing occasionally until done. Place it on a hot dish, and serve with mint sauce. 

Lamb Stewed with Tomatoes. 

Divide a saddle of lamb into moderate-sized quarters, remove part of the bones, 
and put the meat into a flat stewpan with a clove of unpeeled garlic, one onion and a 
lump of butter; season well and toss over the fire until nicely browned. Cut four to- 
matoes in halves, take out the seeds and cut them into quarters. Place a little oil in 
a fryingpan, when hot put the tomatoes in and fry over a sharp fire until the moisture 
is reduced, then turn them in with the lamb, stir over the fire for ten minutes, take 
the onion and garlic out, place the lamb and tomatoes on a hot dish, and serve. 

Baked Lambs' Sweetbreads. 

Clean the sweetbreads, washing them in plenty of water, then steep them in wa- 
ter for an hour or more. Drain the sweetbreads and blanch them in boiling water un- 
til firm, then boil them slowly for fifteen to twenty minutes; drain and wipe the sweet- 
breads on a cloth; roll them in the beaten yolks of eggs, and then put in plenty of 



LAMB. 179 

grated breadcrumbs, and place them in a quick oven until nicely browned. Boil one 
wineglassful of sherry wine with one-half pint of gravy, arrange the sweetbreads in a 
group on a hot dish, pour the gravy over them, and serve at once. 

Fricassee of Lambs' Sweetbreads. 

Blanch three lambs' sweetbreads, parboil them in broth or stock, and cut into 
slices. Roll them well in flour and if the slices are too thick cut them in halves. Put 
them into a fryingpan with butter and a few bearded oysters and fry to a yellow 
color. Then drain off the butter, pour in two breakfast cupfuls of rich gravy, add a 
few asparagus points, two or three finely chopped chives or shallots, season with pep- 
per, salt and grated nutmeg. Pour in one wineglassful of white wine, and simmer for 
ten minutes or so. Beat the yolks of three eggs in a basin, add a little of the broth 
and then stir it in with the remainder, replace the pan at the side of the fire and stir, 
without boiling, until the gravy is moderately thick. Serve on a hot dish with slices 
of lemon for a garnish. 

Lambs' Sweetbreads in Cases. 

Blanch, pare and clean half a dozen lambs' sweetbreads. Lay them aside to cool, 
then lard them with either fresh fat pork or truffles. Place them in a well buttered 
stewpan, adding one gill of Madeira wine and one gill of chicken broth. Cover 
with a buttered paper, and let them cook to a golden color in the oven for ten min- 
utes, then place them on a dish. Put one-half gill of cooked fine herbs, and one gill 
of reduced Spanish sauce into the pan, allowing it to cook for five minutes. Take 
six small buttered paper cases, pour a little of the gravy at the bottom of each, fill in 
with sweetbreads, and place them on a bakingdish; keep them in an open oven for 
five minutes, then serve on a folded napkin. 

Lambs' Sweetbreads in Shells. 

Boil sixteen lambs' sweetbreads, using care not to overdo them; when cold cut 
them into dice, and mix with them one-third of their quantity of cooked mushrooms, 
keeping them covered. Pour a little bechamel sauce into a saucepan allow it to 
reduce, gradually mixing it with the cooking stock of the lambs' sweetbreads, so as 
to get half a brown sauce. When it thickens and coats the spoon, put the mushrooms 
and sweetbreads in with it and remove it from the fire at once. Secure some large 
table-shells, fill them with the mixture, smoothing it on the top, sprinkle grated 
breadcrumb over, pour one tablespoonful of warmed butter into each, and bake until 
browned in a quick oven. Arrange the shells on a fancy paper over a dish, and serve, 

Stewed Lambs' Sweetbreads. 

Blanch the sweetbreads and steep them in cold water for half an hour, then place 
them in a stewpan with some button onions, boiled asparagus tops, and a small piece 



i8o LAMB. 

of mace ; season with salt and pepper to taste. Beat the yolks of two eggs, together 
with one-half teacupful of cream and one tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley. 
Knead one ounce of flour, put it in with the sweetbreads, and let them simmer at the 
side of the fire for half an hour. Stir in the eggs, cream and parsley with the sweet- 
breads, grate in a small quantity of nutmeg, and stir the sauce at the side of the fire 
for a few minutes, but do not let it boil again or the eggs will curdle. When ready 
place the sweetbreads on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Timbale of Lambs' Sweetbreads. 

Take a timbale mould, line it with short paste, having previously buttered it, 
and put a layer of forcemeat mixed with chives, and a little finely-chopped lean raw 
ham inside. Blanch a score of lambs' sweetbreads, and fry them over a brisk fire in 
bacon fat until well browned ; sprinkle over salt and pepper, take them off the fire, 
and let them cool. Put them in layers in the timbale mould, alternating each layer 
with the forcemeat. Put a layer of forcemeat on the top, cover the mould with a 
round of paste, fixing it carefully to the sides, place it in a moderate oven, and bake 
for about one hour. When cooked turn the timbale out of the mould, make a hole 
in the top, pour in a little thickened gravy, put back the round that has been removed, 
garnish with mushrooms and parsley, and serve at once. 

Lambs' Sweetbreads with Villeroy Sauce. 

Select the desired quantity of sweetbreads, blanch and place them in a stewpan, 
adding broth to half their height, boil till tender and the gravy is reduced. Put the 
sweetbreads between two plates, and leave till cold. Cut each sweetbread in two, 
dip them in villeroy sauce, and place them on a baking sheet. When the sauce has 
cooled on them, take them from the baking sheet with the aid of a knife, roll them 
in breadcrumbs again, and fry in boiling fat ; when nicely browned all over, drain, 
arrange them on a hot dish, and serve. 

Boiled Lambs' Tongues. 

Put half a dozen or so of lambs' tongues into a saucepan with enough cold water 
to cover them, and add the juice of half a lemon. Set the saucepan on the fire and 
boil the tongues until tender, place them on a dish when drained, and serve either hot 
or cold; if the latter, tartar sauce should accompany them. 



Glazed Lambs' Tongues. 



Put two or three glazed lambs' tongues of a good pink color into a saucepan of 
water and boil for two hours, take them out, skin, and cut them lengthwise into 
halves. Place them in a pan with a little meat glaze over, cover well, and brown in 



LAMB. 181 

the oven. Put them on a dish and serve, with spinach and boiled artichokes for a 
garnish. 

Pickled Lambs' Tongues. 

Place six or eight lambs' tongues in a saucepan with enough salted water to 
cover, add the juice of half a lemon, and boil until they are tender, which should take 
about two hours. Remove them, place them in a jar, pour sufficient hot spiced 
vinegar to cover, and allow them to remain for several days, when they will be ready 
for use. 

Stewed Lambs' Tongues. 

Place six lambs' tongues in a saucepan of water and boil for an hour and a half; 
take them out, plunge into cold water, take out again and skin. Place a little more 
than three tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan, with an onion cut in slices, two 
slices of carrot and three of turnip, and cook gently for a quarter of an hour. 
Sprinkle in three tablegpoonfuls of flour, and stir well until it is brown, pour in a quart 
of stock, boil it up, put in the tongue, and sprinkle over a tablespoonful of salt and a 
little pepper, and add a bunch of sweet herbs. Place the saucepan at the side of the 
fire, and let it simmer for two hours. When they are done, put the tongues in the 
center of the dish, garnish with a vegetable, strain the gravy over, and serve. 



Mutton. 

Sheep's Brains, Poulette. 



Cleanse the brains by placing them in boiling water, wash them well in cold 
water and let them drain. Prepare in a stewpan a quantity of sauce with a little stock 
thickened with the white of an egg, a little butter, cream and flour, also two or three 
small onions finely minced, boiled and mashed, a few small mushrooms, a squeeze of 
lemon juice and pepper and salt to taste. Pour one teaspoonful of lemon juice over 
each brain, sprinkle a little marjoram and sage over them, then put the brains into 
the sauce, and allow them to simmer gently for twenty minutes. Remove them 
when done, and place them on a dish. Boil up the sauce, pour it over, and serve. 

Sheep's Brains with Remoulade Sauce. 

Steep four or five sheep's brains in cold water, remove the skin, and place them 
in fresh cold water for an hour. Put some vegetables cut in pieces into a saucepan 
of cold water for an hour, and add a sprig of parsley, one wineglassful of Madeira or 
white wine and a little salt. Boil for a few minutes, then put in the brains, and boil 
again for ten minutes ; take out the brains, drain them, put them on a dish, and mask 
with hot remoulade sauce. 

Baked Breast of Mutton. 

Sew up a breast of mutton in a very thin cloth, put it into a stewpan, pour over 
sufficient water to nearly cover it, and let it stew very slowly, allowing ten minutes 
to each pound, counting from the time the water begins to simmer. Remove it from 
the saucepan, take off the cloth, put it in a baking-dish, rub it over with warm drip- 
ping or butter, sprinkle on some flour, and bake for half an hour, basting often with 
its own broth. Five minutes before removing it from the oven, strew fine dry bread- 
crumbs thickly over it, add small pieces of butter here and there, and let it brown. 
Put it on a hot dish, garnish with slices of beet root, and serve. 

Braised Breast of Mutton. 

Partly boil it the day before needed so as to more easily free it of its superfluous 
fat, cut it into pieces, put them into a saucepan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and lay 
over them three onions cut in slices. Place the pan over a slow fire, and let the meat 

182 



MUTTON. 183 

cook slowly for about three hours, when it should be done ; its own juices and fat 
will be quite sufficient moisture. Place the meat on a dish, and serve. 

Boiled Breast of Mutton with Caper Sauce. 

Cut off the fat from a breast of mutton, and bone the joint. Take three table- 
spoonfuls of sweet herbs and a couple of sprigs of parsley, chop fine, mix them with 
four tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, season with salt and pepper to taste. Put a 
layer of this mixture over the boned meat, and tie around with string. Put it in a 
saucepan of water and boil very slowly over a moderate fire for two hours or until the 
meat is done. Put it on a dish, remove the string, pour over a little caper sauce and 
serve with more of the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Stewed Breast of Mutton. 

Bone and score a breast of mutton, season it well with cayenne, black pepper 
and salt, place in a saucepan with a good supply of gravy that has had the fat 
skimmed off ; boil until tender and place on a dish. Slice a few gherkins and add 
them with one dessertspoonful of mushroom catsup to the gravy ; boil up again and 
pour the gravy over when ready. 

Braised Mutton Chops. 

Cut the chops off a rack of mutton without flattening them, remove a part of 
the flat bone at the end, also a part of their fat. Put them in a stewpan with the 
pieces cut off them, add three sliced onions, a bunch of parsley and a small quantity 
of carrots; season with spice and salt, add four or five tablespoonfuls of broth to 
braise them. When they are well done remove and place on a strainer to drain and 
cool. Pass the liquor through a fine sieve and reduce it to a glaze, place the chops 
in this and dish in a circle, with the onion sauce poured in the center. 

Mutton Chops Breaded and Sauted. 

Flatten eight thick mutton chops, pare nicely and season with one tablespoonful 
of salt and one teaspoonful of pepper. Dip them in beaten egg and roll in sifted 
breadcrumbs, place in a sautepan with an ounce of clarified butter. Cook for four 
minutes on each side, and serve with one-half pint of any sauce or garnishing required. 

Broiled Mutton Chops. 

Cut the chops from the loin or from the rack and remove some of the fat if 
necessary. Sprinkle slightly with pepper, put them on a gridiron over a good clear 
fire, turning two or three times, and cook evenly. When done put them on a hot 



1 84 MUTTON. 

dish, sprinkle lightly with salt, put a small lump of butter on each and serve very 
hot. Garnish with sliced okras and stuffed egg plants. 

Broiled Mutton Chops, Brittany Style. 

Pare six mutton chops, season with one tablespoonful of salt and pepper and pour 
a few drops of oil over each. Broil four minutes on each side, place on a dish and 
serve with one-half pint of puree of white beans mixed with two tablespoonfuls of hot 
meat glaze. 

Broiled Mutton Chops, Provincial Style. 

Flatten and pare nicely six mutton chops and season them with a little salt and 
pepper ; oil slightly with sweet oil and then either boil or cook them in a stewpan 
for two minutes, on one side only, and lay them aside to get cold. Spread over 
them some provincial garnishing to about one-fourth inch in thickness and sprinkle 
with breadcrumbs mixed with a little grated Parmesan cheese. Place the chops 
carefully in a well-buttered pan, pour over them a little clarified butter and place in a 
very hot oven for five minutes or until of a good color. Serve with one-half pint of 
hot veloute sauce in a sauceboat. 

Broiled Mutton Chops, Soyer. 

Take five pounds of saddle of mutton, cut and saw it crosswise into six pieces, 
flatten, pare, and trim them, season with one tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful 
of pepper. Broil them for six minutes on each side, then place them on a hot dish, 
and serve with a garnishing of a pint of fried potatoes placed around the dish, 

Fried Mutton Chops. 

Prepare the same as for broiled mutton chops, put them in a stewpan and cook ; 
when done the hot fat must be poured away and a few tablespoonfuls of good stock, 
or water slightly warmed, and one tablespoonful of catsup or other flavoring added. 
Boil this stock up after removing the chops, and either pour it over them or serve 
separately. 

Fried Mutton Chops, Soubise Sauce. 

Peel two large Spanish onions, two carrots and two small turnips, and cut the 
carrots and turnips into small balls with a vegetable cutter. Boil them separately in 
salted water until tender. Trim off the fat from eight mutton chops, dip them in 
well-beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs that have been seasoned with salt and 
pepper ; put a lump of clarified fat in a fryingpan, place it over the fire till blue 
smoke arises, put in the chops and fry them brown on both sides. Drain the boiled 
vegetables, chop the onions, put them in a saucepan, dredge them with flour and a 
little salt and pepper, pour in gradually one breakfast cupful of milk, stir it over the 



MUTTON. 185 

fire until it boils and thickens, then add two ounces of butter. Drain the cutlets and 
arrange in a circle on a hot dish, put the carrots and turnips in the center, pour the 
onion sauce round, and serve while very hot. 

Mutton Chops, Maintenon Style. 

Cut off some mutton chops of equal thickness, and butter them well. Chop some 
parsley, sweet herbs, and shallots very fine, mix well together and cover the chops 
with this. Put the chops in a pan and fry until three parts done, take them out, 
brush over with egg, sprinkle over breadcrumbs, and some more herbs if there 
is not sufficient adhering to them. Wrap each chop in buttered or oiled paper, put 
them in a pan and broil until quite done. Whole capers, with a little of their vinegar 
seasoned with cayenne, may be served with them, or some of the liquor from the 
chops, skimmed, and an equal quantity of veal gravy added and made hot, and then 
seasoned with a little lemon juice or vinegar, may be served in a sauceboat. 

Mutton Cromeskies. 

Trim off the skin and fat from some cold mutton and mince the lean finely; 
place one ounce of butter in a stewpan with one tablespoonful of flour, stir over the 
fire until well mixed, then pour in gradually a good one-half breakfast cupful of nicely 
flavored stock. Stir it until boiling, then put in the mince with a moderate quantity 
each of chopped thyme and parsley, salt and pepper to taste, and sprinkle on a little 
grated nutmeg. Let it heat slowly at the side of the fire, then stir in the beaten yolk 
of an egg. Cut some slices of mutton fat about two and one-half inches long and 
two inches wide, place a small bit of the mince on each and roll them up tightly, 
tying them round with fine twine. In the course of an hour's time dip each of the 
cromeskies in good frying batter, place them in a stewpan with plenty of boiling fat 
and fry until lightly browned. Drain the cromeskies as free from fat as possible, pile 
them on a hot dish over which has been spread a folded napkin, garnish with a border 
of fried parsley, and serve. 

Curried Mutton.' 

Chop a large onion and fry it in a pan with a tablespoonful of butter. Mix one 
tablespoonful each of curry powder and flour in a basin, add a teaspoonful of salt, 
and when thoroughly mixed add to the onion in the pan and pour in gradually a pint 
of water or broth. Chop two pounds of lean mutton into small pieces, fry in a little 
butter until they are a light brown, add to the curry and simmer till tender. Place 
the meat on a dish with a border of rice around it, and serve hot. 

Curried Mutton Forcemeat Balls. 

Place two pounds of mutton cut from the leg into a mortar and pound it to a 
pulp, then mix in a tablespoonful each of chopped sweet herbs, salt and pepper, two 



i86 MUTTON. 

tablespoonfuls of fine breadcrumbs, a well beaten egg and sufficient gravy made 
from the bones and trimmings of the mutton to form the whole into a mass. 
Shape it into balls about the size of a large walnut and roll them well in breadcrumbs. 
Put four ounces of fat into a fryingpan, make it hot, add one tablespoonful of ground 
onions, one-fourth tablespoonful each of ground turmeric and chillies, one-half tea- 
spoonful each of ground ginger and peppercorns and one-fourth teaspoonful of ground 
garlic. Fry these until they color, sprinkling over about one tablespoonful of water. 
Put in the forcemeat balls, salt to taste and fry until they are brown; pour in one 
breakfast cupful of mutton broth, cover the pan and simmer over a slow fire for about 
two hours. Turn the curry on a dish, and serve with a border of boiled rice. 

Braised Mutton Cutlets. 

Take about three pounds of cutlets, trim and put them into a pan to braise. 
When done, remove, place them on a board with a weight on top to keep them in 
shape while they are getting cold. Trim them again, mask on one side with six 
ounces of quenelle forcemeat, and then dip them into a mixture of finely-minced 
tongues and truffles. Place them in a saucepan with three gills of brown sauce, 
cover with buttered paper and cook very slowly for fifteen minutes. Place a border 
of mashed potatoes on a dish, lay the cutlets on it, garnish the center with strips of 
tongue and gherkin mixed with the white of an egg, pour the sauce around, and serve. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets. 

Season some cutlets, first dip them into melted butter, then roll them in bread- 
crumbs. Broil them over the fire for about eight minutes, and place them on a dish 
around a heap of potato balls piled up in the center. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets with Carrots, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Select some rather thick cutlets from a rack of mutton, trim to a nice shape, 
removing nearly all the fat. Peel some new carrots and cut them into, halves, unless 
they are very small ; boil them in salted water until tender, drain and put them into 
a stewpan with some finely-minced parsley and a large piece of butter ; sprinkle 
lightly with pepper, and a small quantity of powdered sugar, and squeeze in the 
juice of half a lemon ; toss them over the fire until nicely glazed, then move to one 
side and keep them warm. Broil the cutlets over a clear fire, turning them when 
done on one side. When the cutlets are finished dredge them over with salt, arrange 
them in a circle on a hot dish, each cutlet overlapping the other, place the carrots 
in the center, and serve. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets with Macedoine of Vegetables. 

Take twelve cutlets of equal size, trim off some of the fat, sprinkle them slightly 
with salt and pepper and dip them into warm butter. Broil them over a moderate 



MUTTON. 187 

fire, turning frequently, and when they are done put some paper frills on the bones; 
prepare a macedoine of vegetables of different kinds and shades, thicken with 
bechamel sauce and reduce with a little glaze, pile it in the center of a large dish 
and arrange the cutlets around. Serve with a boatful of half-glaze separately. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets with Mushroom Sauce. 

Select the cutlets from the best end of a neck of mutton, the rack, saw the bones 
off short, trim them in a nice shape, remove the gristle and fat, and beat them flat 
with a cutlet bat. Take some finely chopped parsley, thyme and marjoram, add some 
grated breadcrumbs, mix with the beaten yolk of an egg and season with salt and 
pepper and a little grated nutmeg. Cover the cutlets with the mixture and wrap each 
one separately in a sheet of buttered paper, trim off the stalks from one-half pint of 
mushrooms, wash and drain them, place in a dish with one-half pint of nicely flavored 
gravy and boil until tender; put one ounce of butter and one tablespoonful of flour 
into a saucepan, stir it over the fire until brown, then strain in the gravy from the 
mushrooms, stirring till it boils. Broil the cutlets on a gridiron over a clear fire, 
turning when done on one side. When done remove the paper and arrange the cut- 
lets in a circle on a hot dish, put the mushrooms in the center, pour the sauce around 
them, and serve. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets with String Beans. 

Take the best end of a neck of mutton and cut it into slices one-third of an inch 
thick; cut off most of the fat, trim to a nice shape and beat lightly with a cutlet bat, 
string a sufficient quantity of string beans, put them whole into a saucepan with 
plenty of boiling water, salt and boil until tender. When done drain off the water, 
put in a large piece of butter, a moderate quantity of finely minced parsley, the juice 
of half a lemon, a little pepper, and let them remain at the side of the fire until the 
cutlets are ready. Broil the cutlets on a gridiron over a clear brisk fire, turning 
them when done on one side. Pile the beans on the center of a hot dish and arrange 
the cutlets around them. 

Broiled Mutton Cutlets with Tomato Sauce. 

Trim the cutlets to a nice shape and roll them in butter that has been slightly 
warmed, sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper on both sides, place them on a gridiron 
and broil over a clear fire, turning them when done on one side. When broiled ar- 
range them in a circle on a hot dish, pour some thick tomato sauce in the center, and 
serve. 

Mutton Cutlets, Financiere Style. 

Trim some cutlets and lard them with strips of bacon. Line a stewpan with the 
trimmings of bacon and a few slices of vegetables, put in the cutlets together with a 



i88 MUTTON. 

bunch of sweet herbs, cover them with two or three slices of bacon and moisten with 
a small quantity of stock. Stand them over a moderate fire, put hot ashes on the lid 
of the stewpan and braise them slowly. Put two ounces of chopped raw ham into a 
saucepan with some trimmings of truffles and mushrooms, a few peppercorns and a 
bunch of sweet herbs. Pour in one-half pint of white wine and one-half pint of stock 
and reduce by boiling to half its original quantity. Stir one ounce of butter and one 
tablespoonful of flour in a saucepan over the fire until browned and then mix in by 
degrees one teacupful of stock and stir it until boiling and thickened. Strain the 
reduced liquor through a fine hair sieve, mix with it the thickened stock and boil up 
again. When cooked, drain the cutlets and arrange on a hot dish. Pour the sauce 
over, and serve while very hot. 

Fried Mutton Cutlets, Soubise Style. 

Saw off the upper rib-bone from a rack of mutton, leaving the cutlet bones about 
three inches long. Saw off the spine bone, cut off the cutlets, trim them and with a 
knife remove the meat from the end of the bone by scraping it, leaving about one- 
half inch of bone showing. Place the cutlets in a saucepan, season with salt and 
pepper, put in one ounce of butter and fry to a good brown color on each side. 
Place the cutlets in a circle on a dish, pour some Soubise sauce in the center, and 
serve. 

Mutton Cutlets, Indian Style. 

Procure the chops cut from the rack of mutton, trim off most of the fat, scrape the 
bones as clean as possible, and sprinkle over both sides a little salt and pepper. 
Mash smoothly some cold boiled potatoes, moisten them very slightly with milk, 
place a layer of them over both sides of the cutlet, smoothing them carefully with 
the flat part of the blade of a knife, completely covering the meat, and brush over 
with a paste-brush dipped in the beaten yolk of an egg. Put a fair-sized lump of 
butter into a stewpan on the fire, and when blue smoke rises put in the cutlets and 
fry them till delicately browned on both sides. Drain them as they are cooked on a 
sheet of paper, arrange them in a circle leaning against a fried bread crouton on a 
hot dish over which has been laid a folded napkin, put a group of fried parsley in the 
center, and serve. 

Mutton Cutlets, Jardiniere. 

Peel three or four young turnips and carrots, anJ cut them into small balls with 
a vegetable cutter ; boil these as well as a few button mushrooms, French beans and 
green peas separately in stock. Put one ounce of butter into a stewpan with one 
good tablespoonful of flour, and stir it over the fire until browned, then pour in grad- 
ually one pint of stock and continue stirring until boiling. Drain the vegetables 
when three parts cooked, put them into the thickened stock, and simmer gently until 
quite tender. Boil a firm white head of cauliflower in clear water, with a small lump 



MUTTON. 189 

of salt in it, trim the cutlets neatly, beat them slightly with a cutlet bat, and season 
with salt and pepper. Put two ounces of butter into a fryingpan on the fire, and 
when hot lay on the cutlets and fry them until nicely browned, turning when done on 
one side. When cooked, drain the cutlets and place them in a circle on a hot dish, 
place the cauliflower in the center, garnish around with the vegetables, and serve. 

Mutton Cutlets, Maitre d'Hotel. 

Prepare the cutlets from a rack of mutton by trimming them neatly, cutting the 
bones off fairly short and removing most of the fat ; then beat them with a cutlet 
bat, season on both sides with salt and pepper, and keep them in a cool place for an 
hour or two. Work together with the blade of a knife, one-half tablespoonful of 
finely chopped parsley, one and one-half ounces of butter and a squeeze of lemon 
juice. Melt a lump of butter in a fryingpan, put in the cutlets and fry them until 
well browned on both sides. When cooked, place the cutlets on a hot dish, put 
small pieces of the parsley butter over each, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very 
hot. 

Mutton Cutlets, Marshal Style. 

Chop three ounces of raw veal fine and pound it in a mortar together with 
one dessertspoonful of chopped parsley; add to it half a teaspoonful of pepper and 
salt and one saltspoonful of nutmeg, mix, and then stir in one tablespoonful of cream. 
Select eight mutton cutlets, trim them neatly leaving on a portion of the fat; beat 
two eggs, dip them in, and roll them in a mixture of three tablespoonfuls of bread- 
crumbs and rather more than one-half saltspoonful each of salt and pepper. Put 
some clarified fat in a fryingpan, and when quite hot fry the cutlets in it for eight 
minutes, turning them once. When fried remove them from the pan, divide the veal 
mixture in the mortar into eight equal quantities, and spread one on each cutlet; 
sprinkle some mushrooms chopped fine over the veal mixture, and bake in a fairly 
hot oven for ten minutes. Serve on a hot dish garnished with fried parsley. 

Mutton Cutlets, Rachel Style. 

Chop three or four slices of fat bacon, fry them for two or three minutes, then 
put into the pan one-half pound of chopped calf's liver and fry until the liver is 
cooked. Season to taste, pound all to a smooth paste in a mortar, then pass it 
through a fine wire sieve. Trim neatly some mutton cutlets that have been cut off 
the rack, and fry them. When cooked drain the cutlets as free from fat as possible, 
place them between two plates with a weight on the top, and leave them until cold. 
When ready trim the cutlets again, and spread a layer of the pounded mixture on 
one side of each of them. Wrap them in a piece of caul, and put them in the oven 
until hot. Brush them over with a paste brush dipped in melted glaze, arrange in a 



i 9 o MUTTON. 

circle on a hot dish with a border of mashed potatoes round them, and serve very 
hot, with a sauceboat of half glaze. 

Mutton Cutlets, Venetian Style. 

Select the cutlets from a rack of mutton, trim them neatly, scraping clean about 
one inch of the top of each bone, and braise them. When cooked place them 
between two plates till 'cold; prepare a sufficient quantity of quenelle forcemeat to 
spread over one side of each cutlet, and mix with it a small quantity of chopped 
truffles and tongue. Trim the cutlets again, lay in a stewpan, and spread the force- 
meat over them. Pour about one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of brown sauce 
around, cover them with a sheet of buttered paper, and cook slowly over a slow fire 
for fifteen minutes. Cut some cooked tongue and gherkins into strips, arrange the 
cutlets in a circle around the dish, put the strips of tongue and gherkin in the center, 
pour the sauce around, and serve. 

Deviled Mutton. 

Cut some cold mutton into thick slices trimming off most of the fat, gash it 
across in several places with a sharp knife; mix a coffeespoonful of cayenne pepper 
with one tablespoonful of black pepper and rub the mixture well over the slices of 
mutton; lay them on a gridiron and broil over a clear fire, turning when done on one 
side. Put one-half teacupful of roast-meat gravy into a small saucepan with an equal 
quantity of sherry wine, one-half tablespoonful each of Worcestershire and anchovy 
sauce, or the strained juice of half a lemon and a small quantity of finely-shredded 
lemon peel. Place the sauce over the fire until it boils, arrange the pieces of broiled 
meat on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. It will 
be found an improvement if the gravy can be slightly flavored with onion. 

Fried Fillets of Mutton. 

Cut two pounds of cutlets from the middle of a loin of mutton, remove the fat 
and skin and cut into slices about one-half inch thick; flatten them with a cutlet bat 
and dip them into beaten egg, and then into sifted breadcrumbs. Sprinkle lightly 
with pepper and salt and let them remain for about one hour. Put some butter in a 
fryingpan, and when it is hot put in the fillets and fry on both sides until they are 
quite done and of a nice brown color. Place them on a dish, garnish with asparagus, 
seakale or cauliflower, and serve. 

Fillets of Mutton, Minute Style. 

Put some good strong stock into a saucepan, reduce it quickly to a glaze, add a 
slice of fat bacon and as many fillets of mutton as required. Cover over with a piece 
of well-buttered paper and simmer gently over a slow fire for ten or twelve minutes, 



MUTTON. 191 

when they will be done and well glazed, but care must be taken to prevent' the bacon 
from burning. Place the meat on a dish, add a little stock to the liquor in the pan to 
heat, pour it over the fillets, and serve hot. 

Roasted Fillet of Mutton. 

Cut off the chump end of a loin of mutton, season with salt and pepper, cover 
with paper, and put it in front of a clear fire to roast, let it remain for two hours, 
taking care that it does not brown in the slightest, and glaze it, put some well drained 
boiled string beans, in the gravy, warm them up, turn them out on a dish, place the 
meat on the top, and serve. 

Roasted Fore Quarter of Mutton. 

Select a young fore quarter of mutton, wrap it up in sheets of well buttered 
paper, and put it on the spit in front of a clear fire to roast; when done place it on a 
dish over a puree of white beans, and serve very hot. 

Fricasseed Mutton. 

Cut two pounds of the breast of mutton into large squares, sprinkle over with 
flour and salt, put them into a fryingpan, with a little fat or butter, and fry until 
brown. Place them in a saucepan, add an onion cut in slices, cover with water, and 
cook slowly until the bones can be removed easily. Strain the liquor and skim off the 
fat, put it back in the saucepan, and when it boils, put in the boned meat, and season 
with salt and pepper to taste, add one pint of green peas, cook slowly for fifteen min- 
utes or long enough to cook the peas, turn on a dish, and serve. Macaroni cut in 
half-inch pieces, or the tops of asparagus may be used instead of the peas. 

Fricasseed Mutton with Egg-Plant. 

Cut the required quantity of mutton into small pieces, place in a stewpan, and 
sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper; shake the pan over the fire until it makes a 
slight hissing noise; add one-fourth pound of butter and fry until the meat is nicely 
browned. Trim and slice four egg-plants, rub them with salt and leave them for 
a short time to extract the bitter taste; take the pieces of meat out of the fryingpan, 
keep them hot, drain the egg-plant and fry it in the remaining fat till well browned. 
Place the pieces of meat on a hot dish, put the fried slices of egg-plant in a circle 
around, and serve while very hot. 

Haggis. 

Clean a sheep's paunch or stomach, washing it thoroughly in several waters. 
Soak it in salted water and let it remain for several hours. Turn it inside out and 
scald it in a basin of boiling water. Scrape it well, taking care not to cut it or make 



I 9 2 MUTTON. 

any thin sfices in it, as they might burst in cooking, and place it in cold water until 
wanted for use. Clean a sheep's pluck, and let the blood ooze out of the liver and 
heart by pricking them all over with a large needle. Put the liver and lights into a 
saucepan of water, and boil for fifteen minutes, change the water and boil for fifty 
minutes longer, add the balance of the pluck, and boil for another half-hour, making 
about an hour and a half in all. Remove any part of the skin that may be discolored, 
take out the liver, cut it in halves, grate one-half of it, and mince the other half with 
the remainder of the pluck. Mince one pound of beef suet and two onions and mix 
them in with one tablespoonful of salt, one breakfast cupful of well dried oatmeal, 
one-half tablespoonful of pepper, a little grated nutmeg and some cayenne, also a 
little lemon juice and one breakfast cupful of gravy. When they are thoroughly 
incorporated put the mixture into the paunch, sew it up, leave room for swelling 
in cooking, plunge it into a saucepan of boiling water, boil up, place it at the side of 
the fire and let it simmer gently for about three hours, pricking it a little when first 
cooking to let the air escape and thus preventing its bursting. As soon as it 
is taken out of the saucepan it must be placed on a dish and served. Sufficient gravy 
will be found inside as soon as it is cut without adding any more to it. A little beef 
may also be used in the mixture, though it is not considered an improvement. If a 
lamb's paunch is used, as is sometimes the case, great care must be taken to see that 
all the thin places are well sewed up. A calf's paunch may also be used, but the 
sheep's is best 

Imitation Haggis. 

(i). Mix mashed potatoes with an equal quantity of cold cooked beef, cut 
up small, place this in a baking dish with a little butter on the top, sprinkle over 
pepper and salt and bake in a brisk oven until done. 

(2). Mince any beef or mutton, being sure to have plenty of fat, and then 
mix with it half the quantity of coarse oatmeal well browned before a clear fire; add 
a few minced onions and a small quantity of pepper and salt, put the mixture into a 
pie dish, place it in the oven, bake half an hour, and serve. 

Mutton Haricot. 

Remove the fat from the chops of a loin of mutton, put them into a fryingpan 
with two onions cut in slices, and fry until the meat is a light brown, put a little flour 
into a breakfast cupful of gravy to thicken it, pour it over the meat and cook slowly 
for about forty-five minutes. In the meantime put two carrots, two turnips, and a small 
head of celery into a saucepan of water and partly boil them; cut the vegetables in 
slices, add them to the pan with the meat and stew gently for twenty minutes longer; 
add two tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup and one wineglassful of sherry wine, boil 
up quickly, pour it on to a dish, and serve. 



MUTTON. 193 

Hashed Mutton. 4 

Chop an onion and put it into a stewpan with a lump of butter and fry till nicely 
browned, then mix in a heaped tablespoonful of flour and stir in about one-half pint 
of clear stock, a tablespoonful. of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, and a small quan- 
tity of mixed spices. Stir the sauce over the fire until boiling, then strain it through 
a gravy strainer and leave until cold. Cut some cold mutton into thin slices, trim off 
the skin, and most of the fat; put them into a stewpan with a few slices of pickled 
gherkins, pour in the sauce and heat gradually over a slow fire. When ready turn 
the hash on to a hot dish, garnish it with sippets of toast or croutons of bread fried a 
golden brown in butter, and serve with a dish of mashed potatoes. 

Hashed Mutton and Fried Eggs. 

Cut some cold mutton into nicely-shaped pieces, removing the fat and brown skin ; 
put them in a stewpan with some well-seasoned gravy and warm. When very hot 
stir some canned or freshly-peeled tomatoes in with them, place the hash on a hot dish, 
garnish around with fried eggs and small croutons of bread that have been fried in 
butter, and serve. 

Hashed Mutton, Zingara Style. 

Chop up two onions and fry them in a saucepan with an ounce of butter for 
three minutes ; add one and one-half pounds of hashed mutton, and one-fourth the 
quantity of hashed cooked potatoes. Season with salt and pepper to taste, adding 
a little nutmeg if desired ; put in also two raw tomatoes cut up, one tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley and a crushed clove of garlic ; also a gill each of Spanish sauce and 
broth. Mix all together and cook for twenty minutes, then serve with a little chopped 
parsley sprinkled over the whole. 

Roasted Haunch of Mutton. 

Select a haunch of mutton that has been hanging for about two weeks, remove 
all the skin that covers the fat, take out the shank bone, cover it with well buttered 
paper, and put it in a hot oven to roast. Baste frequently, and when it has been 
cooking for about two hours, take off the paper to allow the meat to brown ; dust it 
over with salt, a little flour, and baste with butter. When quite done place it on a 
dish, put a paper frill on the shank bone, pour over one wineglassful of sherry wine 
mixed with some gravy, and serve with red currant jelly sauce. 



Stewed Sheep's Hearts. 



Wash and dry the desired quantity of hearts, make a stuffing with sifted bread- 
crumbs, two-thirds the quantity of beef suet, a tablespoonful of flour, a small quantity 



I 9 4 MUTTON. 

of chopped parsley and sweet herbs, grated lemon peel and nutmeg, and a sprinkling of 
salt and pepper. Stuff the hearts with this mixture, dip them in milk, roll them in 
flour, place them in a saucepan broad end downward with a piece of butter and fry 
until brown all over ; then pour in one pint of stock, and simmer until the hearts are 
tender, which will take about one hour and a half. Remove the hearts, drain, and 
place them on a dish, keeping them hot while the gravy is being prepared. Skim 
the fat off the gravy, thicken it with a small quantity of flour, mix with it one wine- 
glassful of claret and one tablespoonful of powdered sugar, pour it over the hearts, 
and serve them with currant jelly. 

Irish Stew. 

The best description of this would be a neck of mutton, onions and potatoes, 
stewed, the potatoes being the only Irish ingredient in the stew ; for Irish stew is not 
a national Irish dish in spite of its name. A good recipe for it is as follows : Cut 
two and one-half pounds of loin of mutton into fairly thick chops, and cut off the 
square ends of the bones. Peel a large quantity of potatoes and cut them into slices, 
also peel about one pound of onions. Put the chops and vegetables in layers, moisten 
to their height in cold water, set the saucepan on the fire until the liquor commences 
to boil, then move it to the side and keep it simmering gently for two hours or so. 
When the meat is tender, take it out and pile the potatoes, which should be thick, in 
the center, arrange the chops around the pile, garnish the dish with whole boiled 
potatoes and a few button mushrooms, and serve hot. 

Kidney Bacon Rolls. 

Peel and chop a small onion fine, and mix it with one teacupful of grated 
bread crumb, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, the grated rind of half a lemon, 
and a small quantity of pepper and grated nutmeg. Moisten the mixture slightly 
with beaten egg, spread it over some thin slices of bacon, and place a small kidney 
on each. Roll the bacon round the kidney and tranfix it with skewers. Put the rolls 
in a baking dish and bake them in a hot oven for twenty minutes. When done put 
the rolls on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. Or they may be left 
until cold, and then served on a dish over which has been spread a folded napkin, or 
an ornamental dish-paper. 

Broiled Mutton Kidneys, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Place some kidneys in boiling water to soak for a few minutes, remove them, 
dry, skin, and cut them down the center. Fasten them open with skewers, sprinkle 
over salt and pepper, dip into warmed butter, place them on a gridiron with the 
opened side downwards, and broil thoroughly. Dress them on a dish with a mixture 
of minced parsley, lemon-juice, salt and pepper and maitre d'hotel butter in the 
center and serve very hot. 



MUTTON. 195 

Curried Mutton Kidneys. 

Pour one wineglassful of rich gravy or brown sauce into a saucepan with one 
tablespoonful of butter well-kneaded with curry powder, and boil until it is fairly 
thick. Meanwhile cut two or three onions in rings, fry them over a moderate fire to 
color slightly, sprinkle over a little salt, and drain them. Put in a dozen mutton 
kidneys, skinned and minced very finely in a fryingpan with a little butter, and fry them 
until done. Place them on a strainer to remove all the fat, arrange them on a dish, 
pour the sauce over them and decorate with the rings of fried onions and potato 
croquettes. 

Deviled Kidneys. 

Remove the skin from as many kidneys as may be required, parboil them in a 
small quantity of water, cut down the center and dip in warmed butter. Dust over 
with salt and pepper and a little cayenne if desired, broil over a clear fire, and serve on 
a dish with some butter worked in with minced parsley, pepper and salt. 

Mutton Kidneys, French Style. 

Skin the kidneys, cut them into quarters, put them into a fryingpan with a lump 
of butter, and fry them, dredging lightly over with flour. When the kidneys are 
nearly cooked, put in a few chopped mushrooms, some chopped shallots and parsley, 
and a small wineglassful of sherry or white wine, seasoning to taste with salt and 
pepper, and finish frying them, stirring constantly at the same time. When cooked, 
turn the kidneys on to a hot dish, garnish with slices of lemons, and serve. 

Fried Kidneys. 

Cut some kidneys in halves down the center without severing, remove all the 
skin and fat, and sprinkle with cayenne and salt. Place them in a heated fryingpan, 
pour on a little clarified butter, fry quickly, and serve upon sippets of toast. Add a 
little catsup or sauce to the gravy, and pour it over before serving. 

Fried Mutton Kidneys with Curry Sauce. 

Trim four kidneys, cut them across in fine pieces, fry them in butter till nicely 
cooked, season with salt and pepper. Put one ounce of butter into a stewpan with 
one-half tablespoonful each of curry powder and flour, a little salt, and stir over the 
fire until mixed; then pour in gradually two-thirds of a breakfast cupful of clear broth, 
and continue stirring until it boils. A small quantity of finely-chopped onions may 
be used to flavor the sauce, or the stewpan may be first rubbed over with garlic. 
When ready, put the kidneys on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them, garnish with 
sippets of toast, or small croutons of bread that have been lightly fried in butter, and 
serve. 



196 MUTTON. 

Mutton Kidneys in Border. 

Mould a border of chicken forcemeat or potato and turn it on to a hot broad 
round dish. Fill the center with sliced mutton kidneys prepared by stewing in 
Madeira and then masking half of the slices with Spanish sauce and the remaining 
half with veloute. This gives a very pretty and artistic effect, the slices of kidney 
partaking of two colors, brown and white. Great care is required in arranging the 
slices to give them the appearance of being loosely tossed together. Prepare a sauce 
from the wine stock by thickening it with roux, season with pepper and salt, and 
serve separately in a sauceboat. 

Kidneys on Skewers. 

Remove the skin from a few kidneys and cut them nearly through, keeping them 
spread out by the use of skewers. Dip in a little warmed butter, put them on a but- 
tered gridiron and cook for eight minutes, turning often. Place them on a dish, add 
a little chopped parsley, lemon juice, pepper and salt to the butter, pour over it, and 
serve. 

Mutton Kidneys in Terrine. 

Put some mutton kidneys into a fryingpan with a little butter and fry them 
slightly; they should not be cut open for this. Place them in an earthenware ter- 
rine with a few slices of onions also browned in butter, and add a slice of lean bacon, 
two potatoes and two carrots also cut in slices; pour over one pint of stock or water, 
put on the lid, set the terrine in the oven, and cook gently for about three hours. 
When done take them out, put the terrine on a dish covered with a folded napkin, 
and serve. 

Stewed Kidneys. 

Skin, wash and dry some kidneys, cut them into round slices and dust with salt 
and pepper. Put one tablespoonful of butter and half that quantity of flour into a 
fryingpan, and when it is hot put in the kidneys, stir for two or three minutes, add 
one gill of water or stock and boil it up, stirring in one teaspoonful of lemon juice. 
Pile four tablespoonfuls of mashed potatoes on a plate, arrange the slices of kidney 
around the potatoes and then pour over and around the potatoes the gravy, which 
should be very thick, then garnish the dish with small pieces of toast. 

Boiled Leg of Mutton with Caper Sauce. 

Cut off the shank bone from a leg of mutton, trim and make an incision at the 
first joint; put it on to boil in a stockpot filled with cold water and salt slightly, add 
a bunch of parsley and one carrot cut up. Boil for an hour or more, and, according 
to size, serve with a pint of hot caper sauce made by putting a pint of hot Hollandaise 



MUTTON. 197 

sauce into a saucepan and heating thoroughly without boiling for five minutes, and 
then adding a heaping tablespoonful of capers, or else an ordinary caper sauce may 
be used instead. 

Boiled Leg of Mutton with Oyster Stuffing. 

Take a dozen or more large oysters, remove the beards and uneatable parts, par- 
boil them, chop them up with boiled parsley, onion and sweet herbs, adding the yolks 
of two or three hard-boiled eggs. Make five or six incisions in the fleshy part of a 
leg of mutton, put in the stuffing, tie it up in a cloth and boil in a saucepan with plenty 
of water for from two to two and one-half hours, according to size. When done re- 
move the cloth, place on a dish, and serve at once. 

Braised Leg of Mutton. 

Put a leg of mutton in a braising pan with some slices of fat bacon on top and 
underneath it; put in also four carrots, two onions, a few meat bones, a bay leaf, a 
bunch of sweet herbs, and three gills of gravy. Put the pan over a fire with hot 
ashes on the cover, and cook the contents slowly until done. Remove the leg of mut- 
ton, place it on a dish, and glaze; take off the fat from the gravy to strain, pour it 
over, and serve. 

Braised Boned Leg of Mutton, Milanese Style. 

The following recipe is a favorite dish of the Milanese, but the Italians of Rome 
and Naples are not so fond of it, as they think it has a woolly flavor. Remove the bone 
from a leg of mutton, and bone it as follows from the thick end down to the first 
joint; chop it off at the first joint, push in a knife near the joint to loosen the flesh, 
leaving the tendons and gristle on the bone; then commence at the small or tail end 
and scrape away the fat from the backbone and follow the bone up until the joint is 
reached, continuing in this way until all the bone is out. The cavity may be stuffed 
and sewed up at the thin end. Then bring the edges together at the upper end, push- 
ing all the flesh inside and sew the skin tightly together, which will give a rectangular 
form of solid meat and stuffing. To cut it straight down to the bone or to take it 
out would spoil it and much of the juice would escape, and if sewed up it would be very 
unsightly, but by this way the juice is preserved, and when the meat is cold it does not 
become dry and hard. Fill the cavity with breadcrumbs soaked in broth and 
squeezed quite dry, adding a mixture of garlic, eggs, mushrooms, bacon, ham and 
pepper. Sew up the place where it was cut so that the stuffing will not fall out, and 
put it in an earthenware stewpan, with some small pieces of melted fat bacon. Put the 
pan over the fire and fry gently until it is a light color, turning often. Sprinkle over 
salt and pepper, add a few vegetables cut in slices, and pour in a wineglassful each of 
white wine and broth. Cover with a round of paper, put some hot ashes on the lid, 



198 MUTTON. 

and braise for about four hours, adding a little more broth occasionally, and when 
done put it on a dish and keep hot. Add a little gravy or broth to the liquor 
in which it was cooked, bring to a boil, strain it, remove all the fat, and reduce quickly 
to half glaze, thickening it with a few tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, keeping it quite 
light. Pour a little of the sauce over the leg, put the remainder in a sauceboat, gar- 
nish with potato croquettes and Brussels sprouts in piles, and serve hot. 

Leg of Mutton, Provincial Style. 

Take two or three each of cloves of garlic and anchovies cut into fillets, and 
lard a leg of mutton with them. Roast the mutton in a quick oven, keeping it well 
basted. Boil one or two more cloves of garlic, changing the water often, and when 
nearly done, drain and refresh them with cold water. Drain again, put into a stew- 
pan with one breakfast cupful each of stock and gravy, and boil until reduced to a 
thick creamy consistency. When cooked place the mutton on a hot dish, pour the 
sauce around it, garnish with vegetables, and serve. 

Roasted Leg of Mutton. 

Take a leg of mutton, wipe it dry, sprinkle it over with pepper and flour, chop 
off the knuckle bone, remove the thick skin, and trim the flank. Place in a roasting 
dish, add a little water and salt, put in the oven, and baste frequently. Allow about 
fifteen minutes for every pound if the oven is very quick, and twenty minutes if the 
oven is slow. When done, put it on a dish, pour the gravy round, and serve with 
some currant jelly on a separate dish. If the leg is too large for roasting, it can be 
divided, and the knuckle end either boiled, or the cut end covered witli paste made 
of water and flour, and boiled. 

Roasted Boned and Stuffed Leg of Mutton. 

The principal difficulty in accomplishing this dish is the boning. This must be 
done with a very sharp knife. Commence on the under side of the joint, passing the 
knife under the skin until exactly over the bone; then cut down to it, pass the knife 
around close to the bone right up to the socket, remove the large bone of the thickest 
end of the leg, seeing the meat is clear of the bone, draw out the remaining bones, 
which will come away easily, and stuff the cavity with highly seasoned forcemeat. 
Fasten the knuckle end tightly over, replace the bone at the base of the joint and 
sew it in. Place in front of a clear fire, baste well until done, and seive with gravy. 

Roasted Leg of Mutton, Portuguese Style. 

Take a medium-sized leg of mutton take out the shank bone, trim well and make 
an incision at the first joint. Season with a little salt and pepper, rub one-half ounce 



MUTTON. 



199 



of butter over and roast for one hour in a pan, basting occasionally with the gravy 
and turning it once in a while. Remove from the oven, place on a hot dish and serve 
with three stuffed tomatoes and three timbales of cooked rice, straining the gravy 
over it or it may be garnished with red or white beans cooked in gravy. 

Loin of Mutton in Papers. 

Saw the chine bone off the neck end of a loin of mutton, trim to a nioe shape, re- 
moving all the gristle and superfluous fat ; lay it in a deep dish with plenty of finely- 
sliced carrots and onions, some peppercorns, cloves, sweet herbs and two or three 
bay leaves ; season with salt and chopped parsley, moisten well with the best olive oil 
and leave the meat in the marinade for one day. Afterwards spread the marinading 
vegetables and oil over a large sheet of paper, lay the meat on them, binding it in 
position with tape. Roast it in a slow oven and when nearly done remove the paper 
and vegetables and brown the meat. Peel some potatoes and cut them into slices, 
and fry in a stewpan with butter, adding some finely chopped parsley until lightly 
and equally browned. When done, place the mutton on a hot dish, and serve it with 
the potatoes. 

Roasted Rolled Loin of Mutton. 

Take a loin of mutton weighing about three pounds, remove all the bones, take out 
the fillet and mince it very fine. Add to the mince an equal quantity of bread- 
crumbs, one minced shallot, a little chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste and 
sufficient egg to make it into a stiff paste. Put this on the mutton, tie it over tightly 
with a string, rub it well with flour, sprinkle some salt and pepper over it and place it 
in a slow oven to roast. Put a few onions into a fryingpan with the bones, fry them 
until they are brown, pour in a little stock and thicken with flour. Place the 
meat when done on a dish, pour the gravy round, and serve with a garnish of glazed 
onions. 

Roast Stuffed Loin of Mutton. 

Bone a loin of mutton and then beat it with a rolling pin to flatten it as much as 
possible. Mix together one-half ounce of sweet almonds blanched, boiled for ten 
minutes, and pounded to a paste, one-fourth pound of mutton suet, chopped fine, one 
ounce of sifted breadcrumbs, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one-half teaspoonful 
of mixed herbs, powdered or chopped fine, a seasoning of pepper and salt, a very little 
cayenne, a little grated nutmeg and grated lemon peel, the yolks of two eggs and the 
white of one. When this stuffing is thoroughly mixed, spread it evenly over the 
inner side of the mutton, roll it neatly, skewer, tie and then roast it in a warm oven, 
keeping it well basted ; put the bones in a pan over the fire, with half a head of 
celery, half a carrot, an onion, a shallot and a very small piece of garlic ; pour over 
them about one pint of water and let them stew for three hours. Strain the liquor 
and add to it a little salt, one teaspoonful of soy, one dessertspoonful of mushroom 



200 MUTTON. 

catsup, and one tablespoonful of flour, blended smooth with a little of the liquor, 
before mixing it with the whole quantity. Stir it till it boils and boil for ten minutes, 
stirring occasionally, then mix in one glass of sherry wine. When the mutton is 
dished pour the gravy over it, and serve very hot. 

Minced Mutton. 

Remove all the fat, skin and gristle from some cold cooked mutton, chop it up 
very fine, and pour over Italian sauce in the proportion of one pint of sauce to every 
pound of meat. Warm up thoroughly, without boiling in a saucepan, over a clear 
fire. Turn it out onto a dish and garnish with poached eggs or pieces of fried bread, 
and serve very hot. 

Neck of Mutton, Brittany Style. 

Chop off the chine bones and scrags of two necks of mutton, trim them to a nice 
shape, and roast in a hot oven, keeping them well basted. Put one pint of white 
beans to soak in water over night, drain and put in a saucepan with fresh water, one 
ounce of butter and a lump of salt ; boil until tender. As the beans will require much 
longer cooking than the mutton, they should be put over the fire some length of time 
before. Peel and thinly slice three large onions, put them in a stewpan with a lump 
of butter or clarified fat, and fry until nicely browned, dredge a small quantity of 
flour over, and pour in two breakfast cupfuls of clear gravy. Stir the sauce over the 
fire until it boils, put in the beans with a piece of glaze the size of a walnut, season 
to taste with salt and pepper, and stir until the glaze has dissolved. Place the 
mutton on a hot dish, pour the sauce around, and serve. 

Stewed Neck of Mutton, Duchess Style. 

Select a whole neck of mutton with the scrag end attached, weighing about three 
pounds, wash it well, sprinkle with flour and fry in a frying-pan until well browned. 
Put it in a saucepan with sufficient stock to cover, and add a carrot, two turnips and 
six small onions. Cover closely and cook slowly until the vegetables are thoroughly 
done; remove the vegetables, place them on a dish and keep warm. Continue to cook 
the mutton until done, which will take about four to five hours altogether. When 
done remove to a dish and keep hot. Let the gravy in the pan cool, remove the fat, 
and then reduce it quickly to about one pint; thicken with one tablespoonful of flour 
mixed smooth with two tablespoonfuls of stock. Put in the meat again and cook 
slowly for thirty minutes. Chop up the vegetables, put them into a saucepan with a 
little butter, toss over the fire until they are quite hot, and arrange on a dish in small 
piles around the mutton. Other cooked vegetables may be used as a garnish if desired. 



MUTTON. 201 

Mutton on Skewers. 

Cut a leg or loin of mutton into small, equal-sized pieces, rub them over with 
finely-chopped onion, salt and pepper, lay them on a plate, place another on top, and 
leave them for a few hours. Cut a pound of tomatoes into halves, put them in a 
mortar and press them to extract the juice, which pass through a fine hair sieve. 
Place the pieces of meat on skewers, put them over a brisk fire and turn them often 
so as to brown evenly, basting them with the tomato juice. When they are cooked 
lay them on a hot dish, and serve very hot. If fresh tomatoes are not in season take 
about one teacupful of the liquor of canned ones, strain it through a fine hair sieve to 
free it of all pips, and mix it with one breakfast cupful of water. 

Minced Mutton Patties. 

Line some buttered patty pans with thin paste, fill them up with flour or rice, 
place in a moderate oven and bake. Take out when done, remove the flour or rice, 
turn them out of the pans and fill with minced cooked lean mutton; moisten with a 
little gravy, warm them up in the oven, and when hot place a napkin on a dish, lay 
them on it, and serve with a garnish of parsley. 

Mutton Pies. 

Make one and one-half pound of paste, divide it into eight pieces, each of which 
roll out as thin as possible. Partially boil four or five onions, then drain and chop 
them very fine. Chop a small quantity of mushrooms, and put them, together with 
the onions and a lump of butter, into a fryingpan and fry until brown. Mince finely 
a piece of mutton, fry it in butter for a few minutes and add it to the above. Place 
four of the flats of paste over each other, moistening between them with one spoonful 
of warmed butter, then put the mince mixture over in small quantities, a short dis- 
tance from each other. Moisten the paste round the mincemeat with a paste-brush 
dipped in water, then cover with the remaining pieces of paste ; press over each lot of 
mincemeat with a teacup, and cut round. Butter a bakingtin, lay the pieces on it, 
baste them with warmed butter, and bake in a moderate oven. When cooked and 
well colored, arrange on a dish and serve. 



Mutton Pilau, Sultana Style. 



Wash one pound of rice, put in a cloth and tie up, leaving room for the rice to 
swell. Cut one-fourth pound of the best part of mutton in small pieces, put them in 
a saucepan with one quart of water, and place over the fire until it boils. Then skim 
the liquor, and move to the side of the fire and simmer for half an hour. Strain the 
liquor off the meat into a basin, put four ounces of butter in with the meat and fry 
till nicely browned. Return the liquor to the saucepan, with two tablespoonfuls of 



202 MUTTON. 

skinned pistachios and one tablespoonful of washed currants, add a small quantity of 
mixed spices. Mince two ounces of mutton and fry it in butter till browned, then 
add it to the other ingredients. When the liquor boils put in the rice, move to the 
side of the fire, and simmer until soft. When done, arrange the pilau tastefully on 
a hot dish, and serve immediately. 

Mutton Rissoles. 

Mince some raw mutton quite fine, and season it with salt and pepper ; then 
divide it into small equal-sized quantities and roll them into balls ; put two ounces of 
butter in a fryingpan to heat, put in the balls and fry till nicely browned. Drain 
them out and put in the remainder of the butter, three thinly sliced onions, and two 
tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley to fry for a few minutes ; place the onions and 
parsley at the bottom of a stewpan, lay the balls on them side by side, pour in three 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar and sufficient clear broth to cover, and boil slowly for half 
an hour. When done, place the balls on a hot dish, pour their cooking liquor around 
them, and serve. 

Braised Saddle of Mutton. 

Remove the kidneys from a saddle of mutton, cut off the skin covering the fat 
of both fillets and cut off the flaps or skirts and roll them up underneath. Place 
some slices of fat bacon in a braising pan, tie the meat around with twine, lay it in 
the pan and add an onion and a carrot cut in slices; season with salt, pour in a pint 
of broth and reduce over a clear fire; then pour in water to half its height and braise 
slowly. When nearly done remove and drain out the meat, pass the liquor through 
a conical sieve, skim off the fat and add a little white wine. Put the fat with the 
mutton into a saucepan and finish the cooking in a slow oven, basting frequently and 
letting it get a good brown. When done place it on a dish and garnish with mashed 
vegetables, and serve with the strained liquor in a sauceboat. 

Saddle of Mutton in Surprise. 

Scoop out the meat from a cold saddle of mutton, cutting it close to the bone 
and leaving an outside thickness of about one and one-half inches wide. Mince the 
meat fine with a little of the fat and mix with it two tablespoonfuls of chopped 
onions fried in a little butter, sprinkle over one tablespoonful of flour and one salt- 
spoonful each of salt and pepper, add one bay leaf and a little cayenne. Pour a 
breakfast cupful of broth into a saucepan, stir in the meat mixture, cook gently for 
ten minutes and add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Work two pounds of boiled 
potatoes into a stiff paste in a basin, roll out and form into an edging round the saddle 
of mutton, filling the cavity scooped out of the joint with the meat mixture. Brush 
all over with egg, cover with breadcrumbs and brown in a quick oven on a baking 



MUTTON. 203 

sheet for a few minutes. Take it out, and serve on a dish with Spanish sauce poured 
round. 

Roast Saddle of Mutton. 

Remove all the fat and skin from a saddle of mutton, chop off the ends of the 
ribs and take out the cords and veins along the back. Wipe dry with a cloth and 
rub well inside with salt. Roll the flank under on each side, tie it three or four times 
across the middle, sprinkle well with flour, salt and pepper and put it in a baking 
dish with the inside upward so that the fat will be thoroughly cooked. Cover over 
it a piece of paper well buttered and cook until the fat is brown and crisp and the 
meat well done. Place on a dish, and serve. 

Roasted Saddle of Mutton with Chestnut Puree. 

Trim both fillets of a saddle of mutton, lard, fix in a roastingpan and cook in a 
hot oven, basting constantly, roast for about three-quarters of an hour, remove, sprin- 
kle some salt over and cut the fillets in slices in a slanting direction, letting them ad- 
here to a small part of the fat. Cut off the sides of the saddle, place them on a re- 
moving dish, forming with them a kind of support on which arrange the carved fillets 
of the saddle. Serve it with a separate dish of chestnut puree and a sauceboatful of 
melted half glaze. 

Boned Shoulder of Mutton, Prince of Wales Style. 

Bone a shoulder of mutton and lay it on a deep dish, sprinkle over one teaspoon- 
ful each of bruised cloves, cardamoms, allspice, coriander seeds and long peppers; baste 
it with a breakfast cupful of common claret and one-half breakfast cupful of white 
wine vinegar, and two or three tablespoonfuls of salad oil. Leave the shoulder in the 
pickle for twenty-four hours. Put the bone and trimmings in a saucepan with two 
quarts of white stock and stew gently over a slow fire for several hours until all the 
goodness is extracted. Reduce the stock to about half its former quantity, strain into 
a basin, and when cold skim off all the fat. When sufficiently pickled drain the meat, 
roll, fasten with a skewer, put it in a saucepan with a few pieces of carrot, turnip and 
leek and four or five dried mushrooms, pour the stock of the bones over the meat and 
cook slowly until tender. When done drain the meat, place it on a hot dish, strain 
its cooking liquor into a small saucepan, soak one-fourth ounce of gelatine in red 
wine, stir it into the meat and boil until reduced to a half glaze. Cut some boiled 
carrots and turnips into rings, fry them in butter, sprinkle over some chopped parsley, 
arrange in alternate order round the meat, pour the glaze over the shoulder, and serve. 

Braised Boned Shoulder of Mutton. 

Take out the bone from a shoulder of mutton (see boning), letting the stump re- 
main for a handle. Lard it with strips of fat bacon and sprinkle chopped herbs, salt 



204 MUTTON. 

and pepper over it. Roll it up and sew together with a trussing needle. Place a few 
slices of bacon at the bottom of a braising pan, put in the shoulder of mutton, add the 
shoulder bone and a small quantity each of carrots, onions, thyme and laurel leaves, 
two heads of celery and a little stock. Cover with slices of bacon and then with pa- 
per, place over a slow fire and simmer gently until done. Place on a dish, remove 
the string, and serve with a garnish of glazed onions. 

Spiced Shoulder of Mutton. 

Bone a shoulder of mutton, and rub it well with a mixture of two ounces of 
sugar, one teaspoonful each of ground mace and pepper, and one saltspoonful of 
powdered cloves. Continue to do this for a week, letting it remain in the pickle ; 
then roll it up, tie it round with a string, place in a stewpan with some good beef 
broth and cook slowly until done. Lay it on a dish, add a little piquant sauce to the 
broth, and serve. 

Stewed Shoulder of Mutton. 

Put a boned shoulder of mutton into a saucepan with a little broth, parsley, 
cloves, bay leaf, a small clove of garlic, a few carrots, turnips and onions, and salt 
and pepper to taste, and stew gently until thoroughly cooked. Remove, drain well, 
place it on a baking dish, pour over a little thick gravy, sprinkle with breadcrumbs. 
Mix the yolks of three eggs in a basin with a little oiled butter, spread it over the 
mutton, and cover again with breadcrumbs. Place it in a hot oven to brown, basting 
frequently with hot butter. Remove to a dish and serve with a little of the gravy 
strained and reduced. 

Mutton Steak, Florentine Style. 

Cut the meat off a leg of mutton in thick slices, rub each slice over with salt, 
pepper and grated nutmeg on both sides. Season some breadcrumbs with thyme, 
savory, cloves, mace, salt and pepper, and bind them with beaten yolks of eggs, then 
divide and mould the mixture into small balls ; butter the edges of a pie-dish, line 
them with paste, and put in the slices of mutton, together with the balls, four 
chopped shallots, a little powdered sweet herbs, and two or three anchovies. Moisten 
with one-half pint each of claret and water, and put on top one-half pound of butter, 
broken in small pieces. Cover with puff paste, and trim around the edges, moisten- 
ing and pressing them together. Bake in a hot oven, and serve while hot. 

Stewed Mutton. 

Remove the bone from a leg of mutton, cut the meat in large squares, put them 
in a basin, sprinkle with salt and pepper, add a bunch of sweet herbs, pour in one 
wineglassful of vinegar, and let them remain for a few hours to soak. Take out, 
drain, put them into a stockpot with ten ounces of fat bacon chopped small and 



MUTTON. 205 

melted, cook slowly for twenty minutes, pour over the marinade liquor, add two 
bay leaves, and a few cloves of garlic. Let it cook for five minutes longer, then draw 
the pot to the side of the fire, cover it with a piece of paper, lay a plate on top, and 
stew slowly until the meat is done. When ready take out the meat, place on a dish, 
skim off the fat from the liquor, add two or three tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, 
boil it up once, pour it through a fine sieve over the meat, and serve it with a dish 
of rice. 

Stewed Mutton, Farmer's Style. 

Put into a saucepan three pounds of breast or shoulder of mutton cut in small 
squares, with one ounce of butter, and six small onions. Cook for ten minutes or till 
of a good golden color. Add three tablespoonfuls of flour, mix well together, and 
moisten with three pints of light broth or water, stirring continually while boiling. 
Season with one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, and one-half tea- 
spoonful of nutmeg, adding two carrots and two turnips cut into small pieces, a bunch 
of sweet herbs and one crushed clove of garlic. Boil over a moderate fire for thirty 
minutes ; put in one-half pint of Lima or white beans, and let the whole cook again 
for fifteen minutes Skim off the fat well, remove the parsley, and serve. 

Mutton Stew, Turkish. 

Cut some leg of mutton into small pieces, wash, put in a saucepan with sufficient 
water to cover, season with salt and pepper, and boil till tender. Scald one breakfast 
cupful of chick peas, put them in with the meat, skimming the liquor, and boil until 
tender. Slice three onions, fry them until brown, then add them to the stew. Place 
some slices of toast in the bottom of a hot dish, pour the stew over, and serve. 

Timbale of Mutton. 

Put some macaroni into a stewpan with a small lump of butter and milk 
and water to cover, boil for a few minutes, then strain off the liquid. Pour over the 
macaroni a small quantity of clear stock, and cook slowly until tender. Chop some 
cold mutton, also one or two slices of bacon, put them in a stewpan with the macaroni, 
add the grated peel of half a lemon, and season highly. Grate in one ounce of cheese 
and toss the whole over the fire until hot, then turn onto a plate and let it cool. 
Butter a mould, strew grated breadcrumbs in and line it with puff paste. When the 
mixture is quite cold, put it in the mould, cover it with paste, trimming off neatly 
round the edges, press them together, and bake the timbale in a rather slow oven. 
When cooked turn it out of the mould onto a dish, cut off the top and glaze 
the timbale. Arrange in the opening left by the removal of the top some freshly 
prepared and chopped salad; garnish round the dish with parsley, slices of cucumber 
and red radishes, and serve very cold. 



206 MUTTON. 

Braised Sheep's Tongues with Lettuce. 

Steep the tongues in warm water with a little flour in it until the blood has 
soaked out of them, and blanch them, then put the tongues in a stewpan with a good 
braise, and then let them cook slowly. Wash and blanch as many cabbage lettuces 
as there are tongues, drain them as free as possible of water, open and cut out 
the stalks, dust them with salt and pepper, and tie them in their original form. Line 
a stewpan with slices of fat bacon, put them in the lettuces, moisten to their height 
with broth, and stew them until tender. When cooked, peel the tongues, drain the 
lettuces, and squeeze them in a cloth to extract the grease. Arrange the tongues 
and lettuces on a hot dish alternately, pour a Spanish sauce over them, and serve. 

Grilled Sheep's Tongues. 

Boil the required number of sheep's tongues, skin them, and cut them into slices; 
spread over each a mixture of pepper, salt and curry powder, roll them up, fasten 
them with skewers, wrap them in paper, place them on a gridiron and grill them. 
Serve hot. 

Sheep's Tongues in Papers. 

Wash the tongues and blanch them until the skins can be easily removed, and 
then peel them off. Place them in a stewpan, cover with nicely flavored stock and 
boil until tender. Butter as many sheets of paper as there are tongues, and over 
each spread a mixture of finely-chopped mushrooms and sweet herbs that have been 
worked up in a lump of butter and seasoned with pepper and salt. Drain the tongues, 
lay them on pieces of paper and wrap them up well so that none of the seasoning can 
escape. Place them on a gridiron and broil over a clear fire, turning them when done 
on one side. Spread a folded napkin on a hot dish, lay the tongues in the papers on 
it, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. 

Stewed Sheep's Tongues. 

Put two or three sheep's tongues into a saucepan with water and boil them until 
the skin can easily be removed, which will take about two hours. Skin, cut them 
lengthwise into halves and put them in a saucepan with a little parsley, chopped shal- 
lot, mushrooms, butter, pepper and salt, and pour over sufficient gravy to moisten. 
Place the saucepan on the fire and cook gently until the tongues are tender. Put 
them on a dish, strain the gravy over them, and serve. 

Casserole of Sheep's Trotters with Rice. 

Blanch a number of small sheep's trotters, remove the long bone and split each 
foot in two lengthwise. Put two chopped onions, a carrot, a turnip, three bay leaves, 



MUTTON, 207 

a small bunch of thyme, and a few cloves into a stewpan with a little dripping or 
chopped suet, and fry them over a slow fire for about ten minutes, then sift in two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, mix it well, pour in by degrees two quarts of white stock, add 
the feet with a small lump of salt, and allow the whole to simmer by the side of the 
fire until quite tender, then drain them on a cloth. Pour one quart of white sauce and 
one pint of the strained cooking liquor of the feet into a saucepan and boil it quickly 
until reduced to a thick cream, then put in the feet with about twenty button mush- 
rooms and two or three tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, season with pepper and 
salt and let them simmer for a few minutes. Beat the yolks of two eggs with one 
teacupful of cream, stir them in with the above mixture, not allowing them to boil 
after the eggs are added; squeeze the juice of half a lemon into this, turn it into a 
casserole, and serve. 



Sheep's Trotters, Poulette. 



Put about a dozen sheep's trotters into water the day before they are required. 
Split the hoof in two, take out the woolly tuft, trim them neatly, tie them together in 
fours, scald and put them into a saucepan with two or three carrots, turnips and 
onions, peeled but left whole, and season with cloves, peppercorns and a bunch of 
parsley and sweet herbs. Mix one tablespoonful of flour with a little water, pour it 
into the saucepan, cover the feet with cold water, stand the saucepan over a moderate 
fire and let the water boil for six hours. Take out the feet, drain them, remove the 
shank bone, place the feet in an empty saucepan and leave them with the cover on. 
Fry a large chopped onion in butter with one-half teacupful of flour until nicely 
browned. Put one quart of broth into another saucepan and drop in a bunch of 
parsley and a few mushroom trimmings; stir in the flour and onions and continue 
stirring over the fire until the broth boils; then move it to the side and let it simmer 
for fifteen or twenty minutes. Skim it clear of fat and pass it through a conical- 
shaped strainer into the saucepan containing the feet; then add two ounces of button 
mushrooms, peeled and trimmed, and a pinch of pepper. Beat the yolks of three 
eggs with a little milk and in twenty minutes' time stir them into the broth, with five 
or six small lumps of butter, a little lemon juice and one teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley. When cooked sufficiently arrange the feet upon a dish, garnish with crou- 
tons of fried bread ; they are then ready to be served. 

Sheep's Trotters, Vinaigrette. 

Trim a dozen sheep's trotters, split their hoofs and remove the tuft which is 
found between the toes; tie them together in fours, place them in a saucepan with 
cold water and set it over the fire until the water boils; then remove the feet, rinse 
them in a little cold water, put them in the saucepan with fresh water, add two or 
three carrots and turnips, one large onion stuck with four cloves, a bunch of sweet 
herbs, a few sprigs of parsley and some peppercorns and salt, and let them simmer by 



208 MUTTON. 

the side of the fire for about five hours. When done remove the feet, untie them, 
take out the shank bones carefully so as not to tear the flesh, lay the flesh on a plate, 
sprinkle over some chopped parsley, pepper and salt and let them cool. Beat the 
yolks of three eggs with two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, dip the feet into it, roll 
them in finely-grated breadcrumbs and broil them in front of a clear fire, turning till 
browned on both sides. Baste with a little butter, and serve with either tartar or 
mayonnaise sauce. 



. Pork. 

Bacon and Eggs. 

The rashers of bacon, cut from the back, must be trimmed of all bone, rind and 
smoked part, and put into a hot fryingpan very clean. Cook until nicely browned, 
but without burning, taking care that the fat does not "catch." When the bacon is 
laid on a dish, the shells of the eggs must be carefully broken so as not to break the 
yolks, each being broken separately and kept from one another. As each egg is 
added to the fryingpan, the white should be allowed to set before adding another. 
Baste them with hot fat, trim and put one on each piece of bacon. Mashed potatoes 
may be served around the sides of the dish if desired. 

Bacon and Spinach. 

Line a pudding-dish with thin slices of raw bacon trimmed to one size and 
arranged symmetrically. Take boiled spinach ready chopped for the table, and 
season with butter, salt and pepper, also some boiled carrots, turnips and boiled 
onions. Whip up the yolk of an egg, with pepper and salt, and mix the carrots and 
turnips with the egg and seasoning. Arrange the squares of vegetables alternately 
amongst the slices of bacon, and place in a saucepan partially filled with boiling 
water, but not deep enough to boil over, and steam for an hour. Turn out on a flat 
dish and serve with a rich brown gravy. 

Boiled Bacon and Cabbage. 

This dish may also be prepared with broad beans, in lieu of the cabbage ; in 
either case the process is the same, and is as follows : Cut a good cabbage into 
quarters and remove some of the thick part of them, as much as can be done without 
disturbing the leaves. Soak in a pan of cold water until it is wanted. Put the cab- 
bage into a large saucepan containing some water boiling, with a teaspoonful of salt 
and a pinch of bicarbonate of soda, and cook for half an hour. Take some good 
bacon, cleaning off the smoky parts, place in cold water and then boil for half an 
hour separately. Drain both the cabbage and the bacon and put them together in 
one pot, covering them with boiling water which has not been used before, and let 
them cook slowly for another half-hour. Remove the cabbage as whole as possible, 
drain on a colander, and, after slicing the bacon, serve it on the cabbage in a dish with 
a drainer. 

209 



210 PORK. 

Broiled Bacon. 

Broil in a double gridiron in front of a clear fire some slices of streaky bacon 
nicely trimmed, turning frequently till done. Or the slices cut to one size may be 
rolled up and stuck on skewers when they may either be broiled or baked in an oven. 
Remove from the skewer before serving. 

Broiled Liver and Bacon. 

As broiling in most cases is wasteful, the liver and bacon are generally fried 
together, but the dish is somewhat spoiled by this method. The best plan is to fry 
the well-trimmed slices of bacon, and after having washed and sliced the liver not too 
thick, say a third of an inch, dry it thoroughly on a cloth, flour it and dip into the 
bacon fat in the fryingpan and broil over a clear fire, adding pepper and salt while 
cooking. When done, lay each slice on a dish with a piece of bacon on each piece 
of liver. 

Fried Bacon. 

Select a piece of streaky or back and trim off the rind, bone and smoky portions 
before slicing. Cook in a fryingpan until the fat is transparent and the lean lightly 
browned on both sides and crisp. Drain on paper, and serve. 

Preparing Bacon for Breakfast. 

The bacon must be fresh and in fine condition. It is cut with a keen knife, the 
under bones being cut off, and both edges pared neatly, also the end opposite from 
the string for hanging it up. Then cut up the requisite number of slices for im- 
mediate use, and no more. Thin slices are always preferable, so that the bacon, 
whether boiled or fried, will be crisp and tasty. When cutting the slices, be careful 
not to detach the skin; also cut crosswise, but never lengthwise. Arrange on the 
broiler, and broil over a moderate fire for two minutes on each side. Dress on a hot 
dish, serving at once. Four minutes is plenty of time for the frying. 

Bacon Salted, Dried and Smoked. 

The previous description applies precisely with regard to the salting and drying. 
The next step is the smoking. The smoke is generally that of burning wood or 
straw, hickory chips or corncobs. Woods containing resins, such as pine, are not 
advisable, as they would give an unpleasant flavor to the bacon. They are usually 
dried slowly over the smoke made by burning sawdust, oak or beach, the fire being 
kept night and day by smothering with dry sawdust. The flitches should be hung up 
high until quite dry, but not so hard that the rind begins to peel off. Sometimes the 
rubbing over the flitch with bran is advocated, although not especially recommended, 



PORK. 211 

as it encourages flies to settle on it. This may be prevented by wrapping in bags 
before they are suspended. 

Bacon with Macaroni. 

Place a couple of ounces of macaroni with a little well seasoned stock in 
a saucepan, and simmer gently on the side of the fire until quite tender, which will 
take about an hour, but care should be taken that it is not allowed to become over- 
done or pulpy. Add a little streaky bacon boiled and cut into squares, and a small 
lump of butter. Toss the pan over the fire for a few moments, seasoning with salt 
and pepper, then turn onto a dish, and serve very hot. 

Baked Pork. 

The skin, if left on, should be well scraped with a dull knife, and afterwards wiped 
thoroughly with a wet cloth and scored into little squares. If, however, the skin has 
been removed trim off some of the loose fat, cut out the chine or backbone, disjoint- 
ing it from the ends of the ribs so that it may facilitate the carving of the meat. Place 
in a drippingpan a few slices of carrot, turnip and onion, together with a dozen cloves, 
whole, a teaspoonful of peppercorns and a few leaves of parsley or celery; lay the 
pork upon the vegetables, place the pan in a moderate oven and cook to a brown, 
when it may be seasoned with salt, pepper and pounded sage, and finish the cooking, 
allowing about fifteen minutes to each pound of the meat. One hour before the pork 
is done prepare the garnish as follows: Procure a dozen peeled white onions, break 
the layers apart and put them in a pan, with a teaspoonful each of sugar and butter, 
with a little salt and pepper, set the pan in the oven, occasionally shaking it, in order 
to move the onions about and insure their browning with uniformity; after the onions 
have been prepared wash four sour apples, quarter them, and remove the cores, put 
them into a pan with barely enough water in to cover, and a tablespoonful of butter 
on each and bake them until they are tender, but do not allow them to become broken, 
and keep both the onions and apples hot, serving them with the pork. When the 
meat is done place it on a hot dish and arrange the onions and apples in little groups 
around it, and serve with a dish of plain-boiled potatoes with brown gravy. The gravy 
may be prepared by pouring out nearly all of the drippings trom the pan in which the 
pork was cooked, leaving in the scraps of vegetables, set the pan over, the fire and stir 
in a heaped tablespoonful of flour, cook it until brown and then add a pint of boiling 
water, gradually a little at a time, season the gravy with salt and pepper and again 
boil for a moment or two, strain and it is ready for serving with the pork. 

Broiled Pork with Chili Sauce. 

Prepare the chili sauce before cooking the meat, and in a goodly quantity, as it 
will keep for a considerable length of time. The cutlets are to be about half an inch 
in thickness and cut from a leg of fresh pork. Place them between the bars of a double 



212 PORK. 

gridiron over a moderate fire and cook them for about twenty minutes. When done, 
place them on a hot dish, sprinkle over a little salt and pepper, put a little butter over 
them, and serve with a sauceboatful of chili sauce. 



Broiled Pork Chops. 



Cut from a loin of pork the required quantity of chops, trim them neatly from 
all fat and place them in a fryingpan and fry for a few minutes. Remove and put 
them on a gridiron or grill over a clear fire and broil them until done. Pour into a 
frymgpan with the fat from the chops, a breakfast cupful of milk and add a little salt 
and pepper, thickening with a small lump of butter rolled in flour. Pour the sauce 
onto a dish through a fine sieve, arrange the chops in it, and serve. 

Curried Pork. 

Remove the skin and most of the fat from two and a half pounds of pork and 
chop it into small thin slices, which place in a saucepan with a little butter, frying 
them for a few minutes, then add four onions cut up into small pieces and fried, 
a tablespoonful each of curry-powder and paste, and add a little salt and pepper to 
taste. When thoroughly mixed, pour in two breakfast cupfuls of water or stock, 
place the pan over the fire, and, as soon as it boils, remove to one side and let it cook 
gently for from three quarters of an hour to an hour, then take out the pieces of 
meat, place them on a dish and reduce the liquor to half its original quantity, after 
which pour it over the meat, and serve garnished with a border of well boiled rice, 
or, if preferable, the rice may be served separately. 

Pork Cutlets and Anchovy Sauce. 

Broil on a well-greased gridiron over the fire seven nicely cut and trimmed 
cutlets of pork ; place some anchovy sauce warmed on a very hot dish; put frills on 
the bones of the pork cutlets, and lay them around the dish, overlapping each other, 
and serve very hot, garnished with fried parsley. 

Fried Pork Cutlets. 

Cut off all the skin and most of the fat from a loin of pork, and chop it up into 
cutlets, which place in a fryingpan with a lump of butter, and fry to a good golden 
brown color. In the meanwhile, put the bones, skin and any trimmings of bacon or 
ham, into a saucepan with a couple of onions cut into slices, and when they become 
well browned, pour over them sufficient water to nearly cover, and boil for two hours, 
then strain and skim off all fat ; pour into another saucepan with a little isinglass to 
thicken it, and mix in a little browning to color. Brush the cutlets over with this 
glaze, put them on a dish and pour over a little tomato sauce, serving quickly. 



PORK. 



213 



Pig' 



S 



Ears. 



These are esteemed as food principally on account of their crisp, cartilaginous 
character. 

Baked Pig's Ears. 

Singe off all the hair from half a dozen or so pig's ears, and scrape and blanch 
them. Let them get cold, put them into warmed butter, rub them over with bread 
crumbs, covering them completely, then dip them into well-beaten yplk of egg, and 
breadcrumb them again. Put them in a baking dish in a moderate oven, and bake 
until done and lightly browned. Take them out, place on a dish, pour over some 
remoulade sauce and serve. 

Braised Pig's Ears. 

Thoroughly clean the required quantity of pig's ears, singe off all the hair, and. 
scrape them. Put a layer of slices of fat bacon at the bottom of a braising pan, place 
the ears on it, sprinkle over with salt and pepper, add a few slices of carrots and 
onions and a bunch of sweet herbs. Pour in sufficient stock to moisten, set the pan 
on the fire with hot ashes on the lid, and let them cook till they are done. Strain 
the liquor through a fine sieve, skim off the fat, arrange the ears on a dish, pour the 
liquor over, and serve very hot. 

Pig's Ears, Lyonese. 

Singe off all the hair from some pig's ears, scrape, wash them well, and cut 
lengthwise into strips. Put them into a saucepan with a little stock, add a small 
quantity of flour, a few slices of onions fried, and salt and pepper to taste. Place the 
pan over a slow fire, and simmer the liquor until the ears are thoroughly cooked. 
Arrange them on a dish, add a little lemon juice to the liquor, pour it with the onions 
over the ears, and serve with a garnish of slices of fried bread. 



Boiled Pig's Feet. 



Wash some pig's feet well, put them over the fire in a stewpan, with just water 
enough to cover, and as soon as the water boils remove the pan from the fire, strain 
off the water, and plunge them in a bowl of cold water. Clean the pan and put the 
feet into it again, with two quarts of water, one tablespoon each of salt and vinegar, 
and one ounce of flour blended smoothly in a little cold water. Put the pan over the 
fire and stir the contents till they boil, then place over a slow fire and simmer for four 
hours. Place the feet on a hot dish, pour over some good white sauce, and serve hot. 

Broiled- Pig's Feet. 

Thoroughly clean as many pig's feet as are required, split them lengthwise in 
halves, tie them round with broad tape so that they will not open, or shrink in cook- 



214 PORK. 

ing, put them in a saucepan with a seasoning of parsley, thyme, bay leaf, allspice, 
carrots and onions, with sufficient water to cover, and boil slowly till tender, then let 
them cool in the liquor. Dip them in beaten yolks of eggs and warmed butter; 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and cover with breadcrumbs, seasoned with very finely 
chopped shallot and parsley. Put them on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil 
until well and evenly browned. Unbind and arrange them on a dish and garnish 
with fried parsley, or they can be served with Robert sauce. 



Crepinettes of Pig's Feet. 



Put the four feet of a pig in a saucepan of water, and boil them till they are 
quite tender ; take them out, drain, and cut them in slices about one-half inch in 
thickness. Put some pig's caul in a basin of water to steep, take it out, drain 
and wipe it dry on a cloth. Prepare some forcemeat with knuckle of veal and fat 
bacon in equal quantities and mixed with a little spiced salt ; spread a layer of this 
over the caul about one-fourth inch thick, three inches long, and one and one-half 
inches wide. Have ready some truffles, cooked in Madeira and cut in slices, arrange 
a few of them on some forcemeat and then a few pieces of the pigs' feet. Cover 
over the whole with another layer of the forcemeat, and then roll over the caul so as 
to form an oval, three inches in length and two inches in width. When the required 
number of crepinettes are made, dip them in warmed butter, then roll them in bread 
crumbs, place them on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil slowly for fifteen 
minutes, or until they are a light brown color. Put them on a dish, and serve with a 
little perigueux sauce in a sauceboat. 

Fricasseed Pig's Feet and Ears. 

Clean and wash the feet and ears of a pig, cut them up in small pieces, put them 
in a saucepan with one pint of milk, and boil for an hour. Strain off the liquor, and 
put the pieces of meat in another saucepan, add a breakfast cupful of veal broth, a 
small onion, the peel of half a lemon, and a little powdered mace. Simmer over a 
slow fire until well done, then mix in one gill of cream, one ounce of butter well 
rolled in flour, and one saltspoonful of salt, warm up again, turn all on to a dish, and 
serve very hot. 

Stewed Pig's Feet. 

Place a couple of thin slices of bacon at the bottom of a stewpan, put in the feet 
with a blade of mace, a few peppercorns, two or three sprigs of thyme, and enough 
good gravy to moisten them to height, and boil slowly. When quite tender, split each 
foot lengthwise into halves, and lay them open on a hot dish; strain their cooking 
liquor into a small saucepan, mix with it a small lump of butter that has been kneaded 
with flour, and the bacon from the stewpan, first cutting it up into small pieces. Let 
the sauce simmer at the edge of the fire for two or three minutes, then pour it over 



PORK. 215 

the feet, garnish them with small croutons of bread that have been nicely browned in 
butter, and serve. 

Stuffed Pig's Feet, Perigueux. 

To one and one-half pounds of boned turkey forcemeat, add two minced truffles 
and one-half wineglass of Madeira wine, and mix well together in a bowl. Shred 
six pieces of crepinette (a skin found in the stomach of the pig) the size of the hand 
on a table, lay on each one a piece of forcemeat the size of an egg, spread it well, 
and lay one-half of a boned pig's foot on top. Cover with another light layer of 
forcemeat, and finish each with three thin slices of truffles. Cover the crepinettes so 
that they get the form of envelopes, fold them up and dip them one after the other 
in beaten egg, then in breadcrumbs, and cook in a sautepan with two ounces of 
clarified butter. Place a heavy weight on top of the feet, cook on a slow fire 
for twelve minutes on each side, and serve with one-half pint of hot perigueux sauce 
on the dish, and the pig's feet on the top; or they may be served with hot Madeira 
sauce. 

Broiled Fillets or Tenderloins of Pork. 

Prepare, trimming well, a dozen fillets of pork, and dip them in warmed butter, 
then breadcrumb them all over, and put them on a gridiron over a clear fire, and broil 
them until done, then arrange them on a dish, and serve with a little poivrade sauce 
in a sauceboat and any desired vegetables which may be in season. 

Fillet of Pork, Hunter's Style. 

Remove the meat from a leg of pork weighing about five pounds and stuff the 
cavity where the bone has been taken out with well-seasoned pork stuffing, score the 
skin and lard the upper or thick surface with thick lardoons of pork; place a few 
slices of bacon fat, carrots, onions and a bunch of sweet herbs in a braising pan and 
put the meat on top, brown the latter a little and add a little brown stock and vinegar 
to moisten, cooking until the meat is thoroughly done; then remove the meat and 
place it on a hot dish to keep it warm; drain the liquor, thicken it with a little dis- 
solved gelatine, adding coloring if required, and reduce the liquor by boiling and 
afterward pour it over the meat, and serve very hot. 

Hams. 

With a sharp knife cut round the knuckle and lengthwise along and right down 
to the edge of the bone until the aitch bone is reached; then make a straight cross- 
cut right around, and the bone can be removed. Keep the ham hung up in a dry 
place and when any slices are required as for frying or boiling they are easily obtained 
and the skin trimmed off. 



2 i6 PORK. 

Baked Ham. 

Put about a ten-pound ham into a bowl with a good supply of water and let it 
soak for twelve or fourteen hours. Remove it, trim off all the uneatable parts from 
the underneath side and spread it over thickly with a paste of water and flour. Place 
it in a baking dish and set the dish in a well-heated oven and bake for about four 
hours. When done remove, take off the flour and water crust, skin, brush over with 
glaze or grate a little crust of bread over it, place a paper frill on the knuckles, and 
serve with a garnish of vegetables cooked and cut up into various shapes. By cook- 
ing a ham in this wa^ '* is stewed in its own juice and is very full of flavor. 

Baked Stuffed Ham. 

Boil the ham until it can easily be skinned, remove the skin, and gash the ham 
to the bone ; fill up the cuts with a forcemeat of sifted breadcrumbs, a very little 
thyme, finely chopped parsley, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and enough butter to 
mix these ingredients to a paste. Brush over the ham with the well-beaten yolks of 
eggs, dust it with sifted breadcrumbs, and bake slowly until quite done. Or if a 
hot boiled ham be served up, and only a small portion of it used, the spaces where 
the slices have been taken from may be filled with forcemeat, brushed over with 
beaten egg, sprinkled with breadcrumbs, and put into an oven until browned, the 
ham being already sufficiently cooked. 

Braised Ham. 

Choose a lean ham, partly bone it, without going to the first joint of the first end, 
saw the shank bone, trim the meat, and soak the ham in water for twelve or thirteen 
hours. Tie it in a cloth, place it in a large saucepan, cover with water and boil for 
four hours with a few cloves, peppercorns and sweet herbs, excepting bay leaves. 
When cooked remove the ham, drain it, peel off the rind, put it in a narrow braising- 
pan, pour a bottle of Madeira wine over, place the cover on, and boil until reduced, 
being careful to baste frequently. Drain, place on a hot dish, mix a little brown 
sauce with the cooking stock, reduce it, and then add two tablespoonfuls of red cur- 
rant jelly. Strain the sauce through a fine hair sieve over the ham, and serve with 
vegetables. 

Boiled Ham. 

Wash the ham, place it in a saucepan, and cover it with hot water ; simmer 
gently for about five hours, then move the saucepan on one side of the fire, and let 
the ham remain in the water for an hour or two longer. When it is almost cold 
remove, sprinkle over baked breadcrumbs and three or four tablespoonfuls of fine 
moist sugar. 



PORK. 



Broiled Boned Ham. 



217 



Wash a ham, place it in a saucepan, cover it with cold water, and boil it for four 
or five hours, according to its size. Take out the bone, roll the ham, place it in a 
basin with a large weight on the top. When cold put it on a dish, garnish with 
parsley, and serve. 

Broiled Ham. 

Either freshen a slice of ham by soaking it in icewater over night, or by heat- 
ing it in enough water to cover it ; then wipe dry, put it between the bars of a grid- 
iron and brown slightly on both sides. Season with salt and pepper, and serve either 
plain or with fried eggs. 

Ham Cooked in Madeira Wine or Champagne. 

Put a ham into a bowl of cold water, and let it soak for a day and a night ; take 
it out, drain it, put it into another saucepan, pour over it one pint of Madeira or cham- 
pagne, and cook gently until done. Put it on a dish, pour the liquor over, and serve 
hot with a garnish of cooked vegetables. 

Ham Croquettes. 

Chop very small one-fourth of a pound of ham, mix with it an equal quantity of 
boiled and mashed potatoes, two chopped hard-boiled eggs and one tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, seasoning all to taste; then stir in the yolk of an egg. Flour the 
hands and shape the mixture into small balls; put some fat in a fryingpan, and when 
it is hot place the croquettes in the pan and fry them an equal brown all over; place 
them on a hot dish, garnish with parsley, and serve. For a light luncheon or a late 
supper dish these croquettes are well suited, or they may be served for breakfast. 

Deviled Ham. 

Cut some thin slices of ham, spread them with mustard mixed with oil and vine- 
gar, place them in a baking dish and cook in the oven. Boil some potatoes, mash, 
put a mound of them on a dish, arrange the pieces of cooked ham against the mound, 
and serve. Tartar sauce is sometimes served with this dish. 

Fried Ham. 

Cut off a thick slice of ham, place it in a saucepan over the fire in sufficient cold 
water to cover, and let the water come to the boil. Pour it off, put the ham over the 
fire and fry slowly until it is brown on both sides. Then season with pepper, and serve. 
Eggs are usually served with fried ham. They may be fried in the same pan or sep- 



2i8 PORK. 

arately in sufficient fat to prevent burning, seasoned with pepper and salt, and placed 
round the dish and over the ham. 

Frizzled Ham. 

Cut about one pound of fat ham into as thin slices as possible. Put a fryingpan 
over the fire, and let it become smoking hot, then put in the slices of ham and fry for 
two or three minutes ; dust them with dry flour, and cook until the flour is brown. 
During this time mix one tablespoonful each of vinegar and dry mustard together. 
When brown add the mustard and vinegar, and sufficient boiling water to cover the 
ham. Boil gently for a moment, and serve. Eggs may be cooked with the ham in 
place of the flour and water. 

Ham and Chicken Pie. 

Trim off the skin of some cold chicken, and cut the meat into small pieces 
(chopping it), mix with it an equal quantity of finely chopped lean ham and a small 
lot of chopped shallot. Season with salt, pepper and pounded mace, and moisten 
with a few tablespoonfuls of white stock. Butter a piedish, line the edges with puff 
paste, and put in the mixture ; place a flat of puff paste on the top, trim it round the 
edges, moisten and press together, punch a small hole in the top, and bake in a 
moderate oven. When cooked pour a small quantity of hot cream through the 
hole at the top of the pie, stand the piedish on a flat dish, and serve- 

Roasted Ham. 

Choose a small ham, soak it for an hour in fresh water, pare the surface, place 
it in a large saucepan, and cover with cold water ; when boiling move the saucepan 
to the side of the fire, and let it simmer for three-quarters of an hour ; then drain 
the ham, remove the thighbone, and peel off the rind. Put it in a basin, pour in 
enough cooked marinade to cover, and let it macerate for about twenty-four hours, 
with the pan covered. Drain the pan, mask it with a vegetable mirepoix, cover it 
with two or three buttered sheets of paper, put it on a cradle-spit, and roast before a 
clear fire, basting now and then with fat. In the course of three-quarters of an hour 
mix some of the marinade in the drippings, and baste the ham with it. Remove the 
papers from the ham in another hour's time and roast thirty minutes longer. W r hen 
cooked take it off the spit and place it on a hot oval dish ; strain the stock from the 
dripping-pan, skim off the fat, reduce some of it to half glaze, mix with it one tea- 
cupful of brown sauce, stir it over the fire again for two or three minutes, then pour it 
over the ham, and serve with vegetable croquettes in a separate dish. 

Ham Steaks. 

Cut some slices of raw ham of moderate thickness and put them into a frying- 
pan with a little water; let it boil, turn the steaks and continue boiling until dry, 



PORK. 219 

sprinkle them with flour, pour over a teacupful of milk, put in a small lump of butter, a 
teaspoonful of mixed mustard and a little cayenne. When it boils put the ham on a 
hot dish, pour over the sauce, and serve. 

Hashed Pork. 

Cut into slices some cold boiled or roast pork and sprinkle with some salt and a 
small quantity of cayenne; then place in a saucepan over the fire an ounce and a half 
of butter, a small teaspoonful of mustard, a dessertspoonful of walnut liquor, and a 
similar quantity of soy or mushroom catsup. Heat the sauce well and put into it the 
slices of pork and let them get well-heated through and through, but taking good 
care that the sauce does not come to a boil; lay the pork on a hot dish, squeeze a few 
drops of lemon juice over the sauce and pour it over the pork, and serve. 

Baked Pig's Head. 

Cut a pig's head into halves and thoroughly clean it, take out the brains, trim 
.the snout and ears and bake it in a moderate oven for an hour and a half. Wash the 
brains thoroughly, blanch them, beat them up with an egg, salt and pepper, some 
finely-chopped or pounded sage, and a small piece of butter. Fry or brown them on 
the fire, and serve with the head. 

Boiled Pig's Head. 

Take out the bone from half a pig's head, rub it over with salt and put it into a 
basin with a few sweet herbs, cloves and peppercorns. Pour over one-half pint of 
vinegar and let it remain for a day or so. Take it out, drain, wipe it dry on a cloth, 
singe it and cut it in pieces; put them in a saucepan, pour in the strained vinegar 
pickle, add a little water and a few vegetables cut in pieces, place the pan over the 
fire, bring to a boil, then cook over a slow fire for four hours. Take out the pieces 
of meat, trim the outer sides of the tube of the ear, place it in the center of the dish 
with the pieces of meat round it, pour over some poivrade sauce, and serve. 

Pig's Kidneys, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Clean and wash some pig's kidneys, cut them down the center without quite 
dividing them and run them through with a skewer to keep them fast. Rub them 
with a little butter, sprinkle over salt and pepper, put them on a gridiron over a clear 
fire, and broil for fifteen minutes. Take them off when done, remove the skewers, put 
them on a dish, pour over a little maitre d'hotel sauce, and serve. 

Stewed Pig's Kidneys. 

Put a couple of pig's kidneys in a little cold water and steep them for a few 
minutes. Take them out, drain, cut them into slices and put them in a saucepan 



220 PORK. 

together with two ounces of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, half as much minced 
parsley, two chives, one saltspoonful of pepper, and a wineglassful of Madeira; place 
the pan on the fire and cook the contents gently without letting them boil for fifteen 
minutes. They must be stirred constantly, as they are very likely to burn. When 
done, put them on a dish, and serve very hot. Pig's kidneys may also be cooked in 
the same way as sheep's if desired. 



Roasted Leg of Pork. 



Select a leg of pork weighing about six pounds, and score the rind evenly; place 
it on a bakingpan and set it in the oven, turning it frequently to insure even cooking; 
this will require about three hours for this weight of meat; baste frequently with its 
own drippings, and when done, place it on a dish, thicken the gravy with a little flour 
and butter, pour it over and serve with a sauceboatful of tomato sauce. 

Roasted Loin of Pork, Bordelaise. 

Trim off most of the fat from half a saddle of pork, take out the spine bone, and 
slightly score the fat, and stick in each end a clove of garlic; truss the loin and place 
it in a baking pan with half a pint of water and sprinkle it over with powdered sage, 
salt and pepper; cover the meat with a sheet of buttered paper, and roast in a mod- 
erate oven, basting it frequently. When it has cooked for an hour and ten minutes, 
place a few button mushrooms around it, and baste them with the liquor in the pan; 
then take out the pork, put it on a dish, and garnish it with cooked mushrooms; skim 
off th'e fat from the gravy, adding to it a few tablespoonfuls of rich gravy or a little 
glaze, boil it up once, and pass it through a fine sieve or strainer over the meat, and 
serve. 

Roasted Loin of Pork, French Style. 

Select a large loin of pork, score and cut off the minion or small fillet, remove 
the skin and take out the sinews, and chop fine; add an equal bulk of breadcrumbs to 
the minced meat, and mix in a little sage and parsley, together with one small onion, 
all finely chopped, sprinkle a little salt and pepper over, and form it into a stiff paste 
with the yolks of three eggs; fill the cavity of the loin where the fillet was taken 
from with this stuffing, and cover it with a piece of pig's caul, then fill the flap, and 
tie up the loin, after which set it in front of a clear fire, roasting it for an hour. Place 
it on a dish, sprinkle over with salt, pour over a little piquant sauce or rich gravv, 
and serve. 

Roasted Marinaded Pork. 

Trim well all the skin from a piece of pork, rub it thoroughly with salt, place in 
a deep dish with a few sliced onions, sage leaves, thyme, basil, a few juniper berries 
and cloves, dusting it over with plenty of pepper ; baste the meat with four or five 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and let it stand for a few days ; basting and turning it two 



PORK. 221 

or three times a day, then put it together with the other ingredients in a baking dish, 
place it in the oven, and bake it until half cooked, take the dish out of the oven, pour 
in boiling water, and stir it thoroughly ; strain the gravy through a fine hair sieve, return 
it to the oven, and finish cooking it, basting the meat well while baking. Put the meat 
on a hot dish, skim off the fat from the sauce and strain it through a fine hair sieve. 
Pour it over the meat, and serve. 

Minced Pork. 

Chop up finely a couple of pounds of fresh lean pork, and break up half a pound 
of stale bread, soaking it till soft in three-quarters of a pint of milk ; mix together 
the minced pork and soaked bread, with two well-beaten eggs, and season with 
pepper, salt and powdered sage ; place this mixture in a buttered earthenware dish, 
place it in a moderate oven and bake for two hours, and serve hot with fried apples. 

Pickled Pork. 

After the pig has been dressed and is cool enough to cut up, pack the side 
pieces in a cask, with a liberal quantity of salt, and pour in enough water to come to 
the top of the pork ; place a cover over, with a heavy weight on top, keeping the 
pork well excluded from the air until it is wanted. 

Baked Pickled Pork and Beans. 

Place in a saucepan of water one quart of white beans, which have been pre- 
viously soaked for twelve hours in water, and boil them gently until they are done 
and can be easily pierced with a pin ; great care should be used not to boil them too 
fast, as they will break open ; a small chopped onion may be boiled with them if 
desired. Turn them out into a colander, and pour cold water over to cool them. 
Put three quarters of a pound of salted pork, after cutting it into strips, three or four 
in number, into a deep baking dish, and pour in enough boiling water to cover. 
Bury the pieces of pork in the beans, then put one teaspoonful of salt into a basin, 
and stir in a teaspoonful of mustard mixed with half a teacupful of molasses ; pour in 
enough water to make the entire quantity half a pint, and pour this mixture over the 
beans and pork, adding enough more of the boiling water to make them well mois- 
tened. Place the dish in a moderate oven and bake for an hour ; then turn the beans 
out onto a dish, and serve with the pieces of pork in the center. A teaspoonful of 
bicarbonate of soda should be added to the saucepan in which the beans are being 
boiled, as it will destroy the acid taste of the skins. 

Boiled Pickled Pork and Cabbage. 

Pare, divide, and cut into quarters a medium-sized cabbage, wash well and par- 
boil for about ten minutes, and then place them in a vessel with a pound of well- 



222 PORK. 

washed salt pork, three sausages, a branch of celery, an onion, two large carrots, a 
blade of mace, a bay leaf and a sprig of thyme, half a pinch of pepper, but no salt, 
and cover over with buttered paper ; simmer over a gentle fire for an hour and a 
half, and then remove the cabbage with a skimmer and place it on a dish, together 
with the pork and the sausages, laying them on top ; garnish the dish with the 
balance of the vegetables, and serve. 

Pork Pie. 

Take one pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of lard, and half an ounce of butter, 
rub about two-thirds of the" lard into the flour, and melt the rest with the butter in a 
small quantity of hot milk and water ; skim it well and mix it in slowly with the 
flour, adding a little salt and some more of the milk, if found necessary to make the 
paste of the desired consistency ; knead it thoroughly and raise the crust to an oval 
shape ; cut some rather lean pork into slices, season it with chopped sage, salt and 
pepper, and a very little each of cayenne and mace ; put the pork into the crust and 
cover it ; trim the edges of the paste, moisten and press them together. Then roll 
out the trimmings of the paste, cut them into leaves, moisten at the bottom, and 
ornament the top of the pie with them, leaving a small hole in the top of the crust. 
Place it in a moderate oven and bake for two hours or more, according to the size of 
the pie ; then with the trimmings of the pork prepare some well seasoned gravy, and 
when the pie is done filter it through the hole at the top of the crust, serving either 
hot or cold, as may be desired. 

Stewed Stuffed Ribs of Pork. 

Select a young loin of pork and joint the bone; peel, core, and cut into quarters 
enough cooking apples, and stuff the pork with them, trussing it so as to keep them 
in securely; lay the meat on a baking dish, baste with a few tablespoonfuls of warmed 
butter, and bake in a brisk oven until lightly browned all over. Then lay the meat 
in a stewpan, pouring in a breakfast cupful of clear, boiling broth over it, put on the 
lid, and keep it at the side of the fire, stewing slowly for a little more than two hours, 
basting the meat frequently, and adding a little water from time to time, as it becomes 
reduced by the boiling. When the meat is done place it in a hot dish, skim off the 
fat from the cooking liquor, and strain through a fine hair sieve over the pork. 

Roasted Saddle of Pork. 

Select a good saddle of pork, remove the fat and skin, and cover it with a well 
buttered sheet of paper, and roast it in a hot oven until done, allowing about twenty 
minutes to each pound of meat. Baste constantly, and when cooked put it on a dish 
and serve with a little brown gravy poured over, and a little Robert sauce or 
tomato sauce in a sauceboat. 



PORK. 223 

Baked Sausages. 

Place twelve sausages on a baking dish, prick them a little, and separate them 
by twelve slices of bread cut the same length as the sausages. Bake in the oven for 
twelve minutes, basting them occasionally with their own liquor, and serve on a 
metal dish with one-half pint of hot Madeira sauce in a sauceboat. 

Bologna Sausages. 

Chop fine one pound each of beef, veal, pork and rather fat bacon; mix well with 
the above ingredients three-fourths of a pound of beef suet, also chopped fine, and 
season with sage, sweet herbs, salt and pepper. Press the mixture into a large skin, 
tie it tightly at both ends and prick it in several places. Put the sausage into a sauce- 
pan, cover it with boiling water and let it boil slowly for an hour. When cooked 
place the sausage on straw to drain. 

Country Sausage. 

Prepare a sausage forcemeat and divide it into small portions, flour the hands 
and roll it into balls. Put some butter in a fryingpan and when it is hot fry the balls, 
a few at a time, adding more butter when required. Turn them constantly and when 
equally browned drain them, put them on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and 
serve. 

Deviled Sausages. 

Steam some pork sausages for an hour, then leave them until cold. Cut some 
pieces of bread about two inches in length and one and one-half inches wide and fry 
them in butter to a pale golden color. Drain them and mask them with a thin coat- 
ing of curry paste. Skin the sausages and cut them lengthwise into thin slices, then 
cut each slice into halves, place half a slice of sausage on each piece of bread and 
spread a little mango chutney over them. Put them in the oven with a cover over 
and leave until hot. Spread an ornamental dish-paper over a hot dish, place the sau- 
sages on it, garnish them with slices of lemon and fried parsley, and serve. 

Frankfort Sausages. 

Any part of the pork may be used for these sausages, having the same quantity 
of fat that there is lean; mince the meat finely and season it with ground coriander- 
seeds, salt, pepper and a small quantity of grated nutmeg; the quantity of seasoning 
may be judged according to that of the meat. Fill the skins (they should have been 
well cleansed and steeped in cold water, salted, for a few hours), secure them well at 
the ends, and hang them in a cool dry place until wanted. 



224 PORK. 



Fried Sausage Meat. 



Turn some sausage meat out of the skins and divide and roll it into small balls; 
wrap each ball in a thin rasher of bacon and pass a skewer through to keep it on. 
Put them in a fryingpan with a little butter and fry lightly. When cooked lay them 
on a hot dish that has been spread with a folded napkin, or a fancy dish-paper, and 
garnish with fried parsley and small croutons of fried bread. Serve immediately. 

Ham Sausages. 

Mince about five pounds of unsmoked ham fine, if in cold weather, one pound 
of hog's leaf, or inner pork fat, and cut it into small squares. Season the mince with 
three ounces of salt, one-half ounce of coarsely ground black pepper, a few whole 
peppercorns, and one-half teaspoonful of saltpetre. Mix the seasoning well into the 
mince and moisten it slowly with two or three tablespoonfuls of rum or port wine, 
then mix in the fat. Cover the mixture and leave it for a few hours. Cleanse well 
and prepare some skins, tie them round the bottom, then pass the mixture through 
them into a funnel. When the skins are well filled tie them into lengths about one 
and one-half feet in length. In about twelve hours time tie the sausages closer if 
possible, and bind them round from one end to the other with broad tape; fasten the 
tape well at the ends. Hang the sausages for nearly two weeks in cool smoke, then 
remove them from the smoke and place them in a cool, dry place until wanted. 
When the sausages are filled care should be taken that no air spaces are left; should 
there be any they should be pricked through with a long, thin iron skewer. 



Pork Sausages. 



After emptying and cleaning thoroughly the intestines of an ox, cut the skins 
into the necessary lengths and place them in a basin of salted water or a weak solu- 
tion of lime water and allow them to remain there for three or four days, turning 
them frequently inside and out. Then remove them from the solution and clean 
them thoroughly by scraping inside and out and place them in a basin of slightly 
salted water, letting them remain in it until they are wanted for use, when they are to 
be well drained. Meanwhile, place ten pounds of pork with a fair quantity of fat in 
a bowl of pickle and let it remain there for one week, and then remove, drain and 
mince it very fine, sprinkling over it a quarter of a pound of salt, one ounce of pepper 
and a little allspice, say about one teaspoonful. Place the sausage meat in the skins, 
filling them as full as possible and securely tying both ends, wrap muslin around them 
and smoke them for twelve to fourteen days, then take out and rub well with pepper 
hanging them in a cold place until they are wanted, when they should be boiled, and 
when cold, cut into thin slices, and served. 



PORK. 225 

Pork Sausages Boiled in White Wine. 

Place in a stewpan half a dozen sausages, together with half a pint of white wine, 
sprinkling over a small quantity of pepper, set the pan over the fire, covering it over 
with the lid and boil the contents gently for about eight minutes, then remove the 
sausages and place them on a dish, add a teacupful of poulette sauce to the liquor and 
reduce it for four minutes, then take the pan from the fire and stir in an ounce 
of butter and one tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley. After the butter has 
melted, pour the liquor over the sausages and serve. 

Smoked Sausages. 

Mix with ten pounds of fine-chopped beef, one teacupful of salt and one pinch 
of saltpetre, add four pounds of chopped pork and two pounds of chopped fat bacon; 
season the meat with eight ounces of cumin, four ounces of pepper, two ounces of 
pimento, all of which must be ground. Peel and chop a few cloves of garlic, mix 
them with the above ingredients and chop all together for a few minutes longer, ad- 
ding by degrees at the same time one pint of water. Fill some pig's intestines with 
the mixture, tie them into small sausages and smoke them for a few hours. Boil the 
sausages for five minutes then drain them cool. 

Stewed Sausages with Cabbage. 

Procure a medium-sized white cabbage, remove all the green leaves, and cut it 
into quarters, removing the center stalks. Wash thoroughly in cold water, drain well, 
cut them into small pieces, put them into boiling salted water for five minutes. Re- 
move it to cold water to cool moderately, take out the pieces of cabbage, drain in a 
colander and put into a saucepan with one gill of fat from soup stock or one ounce of 
butter. Season with a pinch of salt and one-half pinch of pepper and a whole me- 
dium-sized onion and a carrot cut into quarters. Put on the cover of the saucepan, 
set it on a moderate fire and cook for half an hour. Take twelve sausages, prick them 
with a fork, add them to the cabbage and allow all to cook together for twelve min- 
utes. Dress the cabbage on a hot dish and arrange the sausages and carrot on top. 
Serve very hot. 

Westphalian Sausages. 

Use uncooked pork, the fat and lean of which should be as nearly as possible in 
equal quantities; cut it up into small squares, and for every pound of meat season with 
one-half ounce of salt and a small quantity of freshly-ground black pepper. Thor- 
oughly clean a number of pig's skins and soak them in cold-salted water for one or 
two hours. Fill the skins with the sausage mixture and hang them up to smoke. 
When sufficiently smoked they may be prepared for serving when liked. If the sau- 



226 PORK. 

sages are to be eaten fresh they will be improved by hanging another week in a cool 
and very dry place. 

Roasted Shoulder of Pork. 

Remove the bone from a shoulder of pork and spread it over inside with a stuf- 
fing of sage and onions, filling the cavity where the bone was taken out; roll up and 
secure it with a string, place it in a pan and roast in a good hot oven until done. Put 
it on a dish, skim off the fat from the pan, adding a little water to it and a table- 
spoonful of made mustard, boil the gravy up once and pass it through a strainer over 
the meat, and serve. 

Suckling Pig. 

The suckling pig should not be more than a month or six weeks old, and if pos- 
sible it should be dressed the day after it is killed. The first step is to scald it, and 
this should be done as follows : Put a large pan of water over the fire to boil. Soak 
the pig in cold water for fifteen minutes, then plunge it into the boiling water, hold it 
by the head and shake it about until the hair begins to loosen. Then take it out of 
the water and rub it vigorously with a coarse towel until all the hairs are removed. 
Cut the pig open, remove the entrails, and wash it thoroughly in plenty of cold water. 
Dry the pig on a towel, cut the feet off at the first joint, leaving sufficient skin to turn 
over, and keep it wrapped in a wet cloth until ready for use. 

Baked Suckling Pig. 

Choose a small, plump pig. Use the liver, heart and lights for the dressing, after 
first putting them over the fire in salted boiling water, and boiling them until tender, 
or mincing after browning them in butter. Peel and grate an onion, put it over the 
fire in a fryingpan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and fry it slowly ; mince the 
heart, liver and kidneys, add them to the onion ; soak two breakfast cupfuls of bread 
in cold water until soft, then squeeze it in a towel to extract the water, and put it with 
the minced mixture and onions ; season the mixture highly with salt, pepper, ground 
sage, and marjoram, and stir it till it is scalding hot. Use this stuffing for the pig, 
sewing it up ; truss it so as to keep the legs in place, put it into a dripping pan just 
large enough to hold it, and bake it in a moderate oven. For the first hour baste it 
with butter and water, after that with butter alone. If the ears and tail seem in 
danger of browning, wrap them in buttered paper, season it two or three times with 
salt and pepper while it is being basted, A medium-sized pig will take from two to 
two and one-half hours to bake. When the pig is done put it on a dish to keep hot 
after removing the stitches which retain the stuffing, and garnish with brussel sprouts 
and potato croquettes. Place the dripping-pan over the fire, stir in one tablespoon- 
ful of flour, and brown it ; then add equal quantities of boiling water or wine, or 
three parts of water and one of mushroom or walnut catsup. Let the gravy thus 
made boil once, season it with salt and pepper, and then serve it with the baked 



PORK. 227 

pig. The stuffing may be varied by using mashed potatoes instead of the soaked 
bread. Apple sauce is the usual accompaniment. Cold-slaw and cranberry jelly or 
stewed cranberries are used in America with roasted or baked suckling pig. Prepare 
the apple sauce as follows : Peel, quarter, and core some tart apples, stew them to a 
pulp over a slow fire, adding at first three tablespoonfuls of water to one pint of apples 
to prevent their burning ; when the apples are stewed to a pulp, stir with them a 
tablespoonful of butter to each pint of the sauce, and then use it either hot or cold. 

Timbale of Suckling Pig. 

Cut up half a small suckling pig into small pieces, and put them in a saucepan 
with a little mirepoix and white wine, and boil them. Take out the pieces of meat 
and let them cool, removing the bones, if any. Add a little calfs-foot jelly to the 
liquor and clarify it. Pack a large-sized timbale mould in ice, place poached eggs 
intermixed with sliced gherkins and slices of beet-root in the bottom and round the 
sides, dipping each into half-set jelly to keep them fixed in their places. Pour a thick 
layer of jelly at the bottom of the mould, and when it is set and firm, arrange the 
pieces of pig's meat, alternating with minced gherkins and whole capers, taking care 
to leave a hollow space in the center. Fill this cavity with almost cold but stiff 
liquid jelly and let it set firm. Turn the timbale out onto a dish, and serve with a 
little horseradish sauce in a sauceboat. 

Boiled Pig's Tails. 

Trim and well wash four or five pig's tails, put them in a saucepan of salted water 
and boil until done. Take them out, drain, wipe them on a cloth, and arrange on a 
dish over a puree of peas. Put a few chopped mushrooms in a fryingpan with a little 
butter, and fry till quite brown; put them in a saucepan with a little stock, reduce it, 
and add the yolks of one or two eggs to thicken. Pour it when ready over the tails, 
and serve. 



Veal. 

Attereaux of Veal and Ham. 

Cut into slices about one-fourth of an inch in thickness a quantity of cold cooked 
veal and lean ham. Divide these into flat squares about one inch wide each way. 
String them on small steel or silver skewers, arranging the ham and veal alternately, 
commencing with a veal square and ending with the same. Dip the attereaux into 
egg, roll them in breadcrumbs, and fry them for a few minutes. Take them out, 
arrange on a dish on a folded napkin. Garnish them with sprigs of fried parsley and 
serve as hot as possible. They are held in the hand by means of a table napkin, and 
the pieces are taken off the skewer with a fork to.be eaten. 

Blanquette of Veal and Ham. 

Cut one and one-half pounds of cooked veal into pieces, and mix it with one-half 
pound of cooked ham, also cut into pieces. Put the meat into a saucepan with one 
pint of cream sauce, one teaspoonful of lemon juice, a small quantity each of pepper 
and salt, and boil it. When boiling, move the saucepan to the side of the fire, add 
the yolks of two eggs that have been beaten with one teacupful of milk, and stir by 
the side of the fire for a few minutes. Turn the blanquette out onto a hot dish, 
garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs, and serve. 

Blanquette of Veal with Mushrooms in Croustade. 

Cut some cold roasted fillet of veal into collops one and one-half inch in diameter, 
and one-fourth of an inch thick, slice one-fourth of the quantity of mushrooms, and 
mix them with the veal in some allemande sauce. Prepare a paste croustade two 
inches high, and the same size as the dish on which it is to be served, make the 
blanquette hot, turn it into the croustade, and serve. 

Blanquette of Veal with Noodles. 

The same as for Blanquette of Veal, arranging one-fourth of a pound of cooked 
noodles round the serving dish as a border. 

Blanquette of Veal with Peas. 

Prepared the same as for Blanquette of Veal, adding one pint of cooked green 
or canned blanched peas two minutes before serving. 

228 



VEAL. 229 

Boudins of Veal. 

Chop fine the remains of some cold veal and stir in with it some finely chopped 
bacon and parsley; season to taste with salt, pepper and the smallest quantity of 
mace. Place the mince in a stewpan, moisten it with a few tablespoonfuls of clear 
gravy and stir it over the fire until very hot; then move it to the side of the fire and 
stir in the beaten yolks of three eggs. Thickly butter the interior of some small tin 
boudin moulds, fill them three-fourths full of the above mixture and tie a sheet of 
buttered paper over each. Stand the tins in a stewpan with boiling water to about 
half their height and boil the contents for about twenty minutes. At the end of that 
time turn the boudins out of their tins onto a hot dish, pour some white sauce over 
them, and serve. 

Croquettes of Calf's Brains. 

Boil one-half pound of brains gently for about twenty minutes, and then put 
them in cold water for a few minutes; peel off the outside, chop up the brains 
and add one-half breakfast cupful of breadcrumbs; mash all together, add a tea- 
spoonful of finely-minced parsley, one ounce of butter, the yolk of an egg, a 
little lemon juice, grated nutmeg, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix all well 
together, and after flouring the hands make it up into shapes resembling sausages. 
Coat these with flour and fry in a wire basket, in lard or butter, until they are 
of a slight yellow color. Serve with cream sauce. 

Calf's Brains in Matelote. 

Peel twenty small onions and put them into a saucepan with one ounce of butter, 
and fry to a light brown color; add half an ounce of flour, stirring well for a few 
minutes; then add one-half breakfast cupful of good broth, one teacupful of red 
wine, and salt and pepper to suit the taste. Place the pan on the side of the fire, and 
let the liquor simmer for thirty minutes. Open a can of mushrooms, pick them over, 
wash, and cut into fairly small pieces; put them into the sauce and boil for eight 
minutes longer. Drain the boiled brains, place on a warm dish, surrounded with the 
onions and mushrooms, and serve with the sauce poured over all. 

Calf's Brains in Scallop Shells. 

After boiling two brains, cut them into dice, season well, and put them into a 
basin. Gradually reduce two or three tablespoonfuls of bechamel sauce in a sauce- 
pan, and add two tablespoonfuls of melted glaze. When it is cooked to a nice cream, 
add four tablespoonfuls of cooked sweet herbs, cook the mixture for two or three 
minutes, then add the brains, and take the pan off the fire. Have ready eight or nine 
well-cleaned scallop shells, fill them with the mixture, sprinkle over some grated 
Parmesan cheese, and glaze. Serve hot. 



230 



VEAL. 



Calf's Brains, Poulette Style. 

Put a large piece of butter in a saucepan, and after melting it gradually add one 
teacupful of flour, mix well together and add one teacupful of clear broth, taking care 
to stir well all the time, then add about half a gill of white or Madeira wine and water 
in equal parts. Next add a few small onions and mushrooms and boil until they 
are done, adding a little grated nutmeg and salt and pepper according to the taste; 
when these are soft put in the brains and boil again for twelve or fifteen minutes; 
take out the brains and put them on a dish, add the yolk of an egg and the juice of a 
lemon to the sauce and pour it over the brains. The dish must be served very hot. 

Calf's Brains with Black or Brown Butter. 

After cleaning, blanching and preparing take three calf's brains, put them in a 
stewpan and cover over with water, add two or three pinches of salt, one-half break- 
fast cupful of vinegar, one medium-sized sliced carrot, one sprig of thyme, one bay 
leaf and a dozen whole peppers; boil for five minutes, drain thoroughly and cut 
each brain into halves. Arrange on a dish, and serve with one gill of very hot black 
or brown butter. 

Braised Breast of Veal, Milanese Style. 

Bone a breast of veal weighing about two and one-half pounds, and season with 
one tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of pepper. Stuff it in the usual way 
with forcemeat, roll and tie it, making a few incisions in the skin. Put it into a 
braising-pan with a sliced carrot and onion, and braise it for an hour and a half, bast- 
ing it now and then with its own gravy. Serve with one pint of hot Milanese garn- 
ishing on a dish, placing the meat on top, and straining the gravy over it. 

Breast of Veal, Poulette. 

Cut a breast of veal into small equal-sized pieces, blanch, put them in a saucepan 
with a small quantity of the water in which they were parboiled and warm them over 
the fire. Sift in a small quantity of flour, stir it until smooth, then put in a lump of 
butter, some mushrooms, carrots, bay leaves, a bunch of sweet herbs and salt and pep- 
per to taste. Place the lid o.n the saucepan and cook the contents gradually until 
nearly done, then put in some young white onions and fish cooking. When done 
place the pieces of veal on a hot dish and keep it near the fire while the sauce is be- 
ing prepared. Strain the cooking liquor through a fine hair sieve into another sauce- 
pan, squeeze in a small quantity of lemon juice and then pour in the beaten yolks of 
four eggs; stir it over the fire until thick, not allowing it to boil, then pour it over the 
veal, and serve. 



VEAL. 231 

Roasted Breast of Veal. 

Remove the tendons from a breast of veal, fasten the sweetbread to the joint with 
skewers, wrap it up in a sheet of buttered paper, place in a pan and roast it in a hot 
oven. When the veal is cooked, which will take about an hour and a quarter, or pos- 
sibly more, according to the size of the joint, remove the paper, place the veal on a 
hot dish, garnish it with slices of lemon, pour over it a little rich gravy, and serve with 
a sauceboatful of melted butter. 

Brisotin of Veal. 

Cut up six pieces of lean veal about one-fourth of an inch in thickness and six 
inches in length. Flatten them with a cutlet bat and season with a small quantity 
each of salt and pepper. Lard the centers, using a small larding-needle, with strips 
of fat pork or bacon. Cover with any kind of forcemeat, roll them up and tie with 
a string. Put them into a deep sautepan with a small quantity of fat, one sliced car- 
rot and one medium-sized onion. Cover the whole with a piece of buttered paper, 
set it on fire, allow it to take on a good golden color for about five minutes. Moisten 
with one-half pint of white broth, remove the sautepan to the oven and cook slowly 
for twenty minutes, basting occasionally. Turn the whole carefully out onto a dish, 
and serve it at once. 

Brisotin of Veal, Nantaise. 

The same as for Brisotin of Veal, placing half a dozen stuffed lettuce heads 
around the dish for a garnish and pouring over one gill of hot Madeira sauce. 

Broiled Veal, Venetian. 

Procure some rather thick and large slices of veal and lay them on a dish with 
some chopped mushrooms and shallots, some thyme, bayleaf and chopped parsley. 
Dredge them over with salt and pepper and baste them with a few tablespoonfuls of 
olive oil. Allow the slices to steep in this marinade for an hour or so, turning them 
now and then so that they will be equally flavored. Strew them over with finely 
grated breadcrumbs, place them side by side on a gridiron and broil over a clear fire. 
When done on one side, turn and baste them with the remainder of the marinade. 
When cooked, arrange the slices of veal on a hot dish, squeeze the juice of an orange 
over, and serve. 

Cannelon of Veal. 

Mince fine two pounds or so of cold roasted veal and one pound of ham; mix 
well among it one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one teaspoonful of powdered 
mace, one bare teaspoonful of finely-chopped lemon peel and salt and pepper to 
taste. Then stir in the beaten yolks of three eggs, one-fourth pint of good gravy and 
four ounces of sifted breadcrumbs; shape this into a rather short thick roll with the 



232 VEAL. 

floured hands. Flour the inside and put it in a well-greased bakingpan; place a cover 
on it and place it in the oven until it is smoking hot; then remove the cover from the 
tin and let the cannelon brown; draw it to the door of the oven and brush it over 
with the beaten white of egg; push it in again and shut the door for a minute to let it 
glaze. Place the cannelon carefully on a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried 
potato croquettes and quarters of lemon, pour over a rich brown gravy, and serve. 



Broiled Veal Chops. 



Cut off a number of chops, trim off the fat, and beat them till quite tender. 
Put them into a pan, pour over enough boiling water to cover, place the lid on, and 
stand the pan at the side of the fire where the chops can be allowed to simmer 
gently until done. When about three-fourths cooked, sprinkle over a small quantity 
each of pepper and salt. When done, remove them from the pan, dry them in a 
cloth, spread a little butter over them, brush them over with egg, and then sprinkle 
over some bread or cracker crumbs. Place them on a baking-sheet in the oven, and 
when they are nicely browned arrange them on a dish round a pile of mashed potatoes, 
and serve. 

Fried Veal Chops. 

Remove all the bones and sinews from the chops, mince the meat very fine 
and mix with it two-thirds of its quantity of finely-chopped streaky bacon ; season 
the mixture to taste with salt, pepper and spices. Cut some pieces of caul in 
the shape of chops, spread the minced mixture over them, and bury a bone in every 
one so that the end only will be seen. Strew some grated breadcrumbs and a few 
sweet herbs over the chops. Melt a large lump of butter in a flat stewpan, put in the 
chops and fry them. When cooked and nicely browned, drain and place them on a 
hot dish ; garnish with fried parsley, and serve at once. 

Chump of Veal, Bourgeoise Style. 

Lard a chump of veal with strips of bacon. Butter the interior of a stewpan, 
put in some slices of bacon and trimmings of veal, place the chump over them and 
add three or four leeks, onions, carrots, a few sprigs of parsley, and one-half pint of 
stock. Place the cover on the stewpan with some live embers on it, and braise the 
contents over a slow fire. When cooked drain the veal and glaze it. Strain the 
sauce through a fine sieve into another saucepan, boil it quickly until reduced to a 
glaze, then pour in one-half teacupful of Spanish sauce ; boil, pour it over the veal, 
and serve. White wine and gravy colored with a small quantity of browning may be 
used in place of the Spanish sauce if desired. A lump of butter should be dissolved 
in the sauce before it is poured over the veal. 



VEAL. 233 

Roasted Chump of Veal. 

Place a chump of veal in a deep dish, sprinkle some mixed herbs, pepper and 
salt over, cover it with white wine and allow it to soak for two days. At the end of 
that time lard the veal with some strips of bacon and roast it in a brisk oven. Mean- 
while prepare some ravigote sauce. When cooked place the chump of veal on a hot 
dish, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Veal Collops. 

Pare and cut two pounds of veal (taken, if possible, from the hip), into half a 
dozen thick slices, season them with one pinch of salt and one-half pinch of pepper, 
place them in a sautepan on a very hot fire with one ounce of butter and brown them 
for five minutes on each side. Place them on a hot dish, and serve with any desired 
sauce or garnish. 

Veal Collops, Provincial. 

These are prepared as for veal collops, replacing the butter with the same 
quantity of oil. Season well and when browned on both sides add a finely-chopped 
onion or a shallot. Let color lightly and moisten with one gill of broth. Add 
two tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce, three chopped cepes or mushrooms, two 
crushed cloves of garlic and one teaspoonful of parsley. Boil once, and serve with 
six croutons of fried bread for a garnish. 

Veal Collops with Stuffed Peppers. 

Proceed in the same way as for veal collops, adding the juice of half a medium- 
sized lemon and one gill of hot Madeira sauce. Cook for three minutes longer, and 
decorate the dish with half a dozen stuffed green peppers three minutes prior to serv- 
ing it. 

Cream of Veal. 

Cut the most tender part of a fillet of veal into small pieces, place them in a 
mortar with an equal quantity of bread that has been soaked in boiling milk, and 
pound together. Stir into the above mixture the yolk of one egg, the whites of two, 
and enough cream to bring it to a stiff batter; season with salt and pepper to taste. 
Butter a plain mould, ornament the insides with slices of truffles, and pour in the 
above mixture. Stand the mould in a saucepan with boiling water to three-fourths 
its height, and allow it to steam for an hour. At the end of that time turn the cream 
out of the mould onto a hot dish, pour some perigueux sauce round, and serve. 

Veal Croquettes. 

Take some cold veal, cut off the fat and skin, and chop the veal up very fine, 
seasoning with onion juice, celery salt, cayenne, chopped parsley, salt and pepper 



234 VEAL. 

Oysters parboiled and drained may be used, taking half the bulk of them to the 
quantity of meat. Mix together well and moisten with well-beaten egg and white 
sauce. Make the paste into the shape of balls, and dip them first into bread or 
cracker crumbs, then in egg, and then in crumbs again; plunge them into a fryingpan 
of boiling fat, and fry until done and of a light brown color. 



Curried Veal, Indian Style. 



Cut into pieces two pounds of any kind of lean raw veal, place the pieces in a 
saucepan, cover with warm water, season with two pinches of salt and one pinch of 
pepper and add a garnished bouquet and half a dozen small onions; cook the whole 
for twenty-five minutes. Prepare one gill of white roux in a saucepan, moisten it 
with the liquor from the veal, stir it well and add one teaspoonful of moistened curry 
powder and three raw yolks of eggs, beating them up as they are put in. Place the 
veal on a hot dish, strain the roux over it immediately, as it must not cook again, 
garnish with a border of plain boiled rice, and serve. 

Cushion of Veal, Bordelaise. 

Braise a cushion of veal, and when tender drain it and cut into moderately thick 
slices; place them on a dish and cover them over; wash, drain and slice twenty mush- 
rooms; put a chopped onion into a deep fryingpan with a lump of butter and fry for 
a few minutes without browning, then put in the mushrooms, season to taste with salt 
and pepper, and fry them quickly until the moisture has in part evaporated. Sprinkle 
a little flour over the mushrooms, one teacupful of finely-chopped parsley, and pour 
in one teacupful of gravy; stir the sauce and boil it quickly for ten minutes; place a 
layer of the stew on a dish and then a layer of the meat, another layer of the stew, 
and so on until all is used, finishing with a layer of the stew. Cover the above mix- 
ture with breadcrumbs, place a few bits of butter on the top and put it in a quick 
oven for twenty minutes, basting occasionally with the butter. When cooked drain the 
butter off the dish, pour a small quantity of rich gravy round it, and serve. 

Cushion of Veal, Duchess. 

Trim a large white cushion of veal and stud it with square fillets of raw truffles, 
dust over them a small quantity of salt, cover the studded part of the meat with thin 
slices of bacon, and truss it. Place some trimmings of bacon in a stewpan, put in the 
meat, pour some clarified butter over and braise for two hours in a moderate oven, 
basting it occasionally with the drippings in the pan. Cut some cooked potatoes into 
an oblong shape, like large dominoes, and glaze them. Garnish the dish on which 
the veal has been placed with the potatoes, and serve with a sauceboatful of brown 
sauce that has been reduced with white wine and essence of truffles. 



VEAL. 235 

Veal Cutlets. 

Trim some thinly-cut veal cutlets to a nice shape, flatten them with a cutlet 
bat, and sprinkle them over with salt and pepper. Mince together in equal quantities 
some pieces of veal and fat bacon, mix them with one-third of their bulk of finely- 
grated breadcrumbs, one-half tablespoonful of finely-minced shallot, and a moderate 
quantity of powdered sweet herbs ; bind the mixture with beaten egg, and, when well 
mixed, cover the cutlets completely with it, smoothing it over with the flat blade of 
a knife. Roll the cutlets in beaten eggs and breadcrumbs, and fry them until well 
browned in boiling lard. Drain, place them on a hot dish, pour a well-flavored rich 
brown gravy over, garnish with slices of lemon, and serve. 

Baked Veal Cutlets with Sweet Herbs. 

Put some chopped mushrooms, sweet herbs, winter savory and shallots, with 
two ounces of butter and some salt and pepper into a stewpan, and stir them over the 
fire until well mixed and hot. Trim the cutlets nicely, spread over them some of the 
mixture, brush over with beaten egg, and coat them well with grated breadcrumbs. 
Place the cutlets on a baking-dish and bake them. Pour one breakfast cupful of 
white wine and a small quantity of cullis into the saucepan with the remainder of the 
herbs, and boil ; skim the sauce. When cooked, place the cutlets on a hot dish, pour 
the sauce round, and serve. 

Braised Larded Veal Cutlets with String Beans. 

Trim some small veal cutlets, keeping the bone very short, and lard them all on 
the same side with bacon. Place the cutlets in a stewpan with some minced vege- 
tables, and clear stock, and braise them. When cooked glaze the cutlets. Boil some 
string' beans in salted water until tender, then drain, chop them finely, and mix a little 
butter in with them. Place a flat mound of mashed potatoes on a hot dish, pile the 
beans in the center, lean the cutlet against the beans, and serve with a sauceboatful of 
gravy. 

Broiled Veal Cutlets. 

Cut half a dozen veal cutlets from a fine piece of loin of the white veal, pare and 
flatten them slightly, place them on a dish and season with one tablespoonful of salt, 
one teaspoonful of pepper and one tablespoonful of sweet oil. Turn the cutlets over 
a number of times to have them well covered, place them on a broiler over a clear 
fire and cook them for eight minutes on both sides. Remove them from the fire, ar- 
range them on a hot dish, spread over a small quantity of maitre d'hotel butter, and 
serve as soon as possible. 



236 VEAL. 

Broiled Veal Cutlets with Colbert Sauce. 

Trim a few veal cutlets, beat them lightly with a cutlet-bat, dust over with salt 
and pepper and roll them in melted butter and breadcrumbs; broil them on both 
sides over a clear fire; dish them in a circular form round a puree of string beans and 
pour over some colbert sauce, which is made by mixing one tablespoonful of chopped 
parsley and a little grated nutmeg with one breakfast cupful of butter. Pour into a 
stewpan one breakfast cupful of melted meat glaze and let it boil; then move it to the 
side of the fire and add by degrees the prepared butter alternately with the juice of 
three lemons; stir quickly over the fire, but do not let it boil. When the sauce has 
thickened remove it from the fire and add a wineglassful of cold water. 

Broiled Veal Cutlets with Tomato Sauce. 

Beat some cutlets with the flat side of a chopper, trim, season them with salt 
and pepper, and arrange them on a gridiron. Broil the cutlets over a clear fire, 
turning and basting them with butter. When cooked, brush the cutlets over with a 
paste brush dipped in melted glaze, arrange them in a circle on a hot dish, and serve 
with a sauceboatful of tomato sauce. 

Curried Veal Cutlets. 

The veal cutlets should be prepared as for collops by cutting them into shape, 
dipping them into the yolks of eggs and covering with grated breadcrumbs mixed 
with two tablespoonfuls of curry powder and one tablespoonful of salt. Fry them 
in butter and serve with a curry sauce made as follows: Take three equal parts of 
curry powder, butter and flour, work them into a paste, turn it into the pan from 
which the cutlets have been removed, moisten with one breakfast cupful of water, 
add a seasoning of cayenne and salt and allow it to thicken before using. 

Veal Cutlets, Dauphin. 

Trim half a dozen cutlets of veal on one side only, lard them with veal and 
bacon chopped fine and braise them. Reduce the liquor in which they were stewed, 
then glaze the cutlets with it, and serve either with stewed endives or sorrel. 

Veal Cutlets, Financiere. 

Cut a few cutlets from a neck of veal, shorten the rib bones and cut off the 
chine bones. Beat the cutlets lightly with a cutlet bat, stud them all over the same 
side in a fancy pattern with square fillets of truffles and sprinkle some salt and pepper 
over. Put some finely-chopped carrots and onions in a stewpan, then the cutlets, 
placing them side by side, and cover them with a clear broth. Boil the liquor until 
it is reduced to one-third of its original quantity, then move the stewpan to the side 



VEAL. 



237 



of the fire and braise the cutlets slowly for about forty-five minutes, basting them 
frequently. When cooked remove the meat from the fire and leave them in their 
cooking stock until nearly cold. Trim the cutlets neatly, place them in another 
stewpan with the cooking stock and heat them slowly in the oven. Cover the bottom 
of a hot dish with financiere sauce, place some ruffles around the bones of the cutlets, 
lay them on the dish, and serve. 

Veal Forcemeat Cutlets. 

Chop fine two pounds of lean veal, cut from the hip if possible, place the meat 
in a bowl with two ounces of chopped raw veal suet, season with a pinch of salt, half 
a pinch of pepper and one-third of a pinch of nutmeg; add one-half breakfast cupful 
of good cream, one chopped shallot and two raw eggs, well mixed together. Roll 
the mass out to a thickness of one-half inch, cut some cutlets with any kind of cutlet- 
cutter, dust over with breadcrumbs and fry in a pan with two ounces of clarified but- 
ter for four minutes on each side. Serve with any kind of sauce. 

Fried Veal Cutlets with Tomatoes. 

Cut about two pounds of veal cutlets from the leg into small slices, season them 
with pepper and salt, roll them in cracker-dust, then dip them in beaten eggs and 
again in cracker-dust. Have in readiness on the fire a fryingpan containing smoking 
fat one-half an inch in depth; put the veal into the hot fat and fry brown on both 
sides. While the veal is frying wipe half a dozen large, firm tomatoes with a damp 
cloth, slice them about one-half an inch thick, roll them in flour, season with pepper 
and salt and fry until brown in the pan with the veal. Serve the veal on a dish, with 
the tomatoes laid neatly round in a circle. The veal cutlets may be dipped in bread- 
crumbs and fried, and served with the tomatoes. 



Veal Cutlets in Papers. 



Pare neatly half a dozen veal cutlets, put them into a sautepan with one ounce of 
butter and season with one tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of white pepper. 
Add half of a chopped onion and brown slightly; add four finely-chopped mushrooms 
and cook for eight minutes; then pour in a gill of Spanish sauce and cook for four 
minutes longer. Remove, drain the cutlets and stand them one side to cool. Add 
to the gravy one teaspoonful of chopped parsley and two tablespoonfuls of bread- 
crumbs. Have in readiness six pieces .of oiled white paper cut into the shape of 
hearts, place a thin slice of cooked ham on one side of the paper, pour over the ham 
a small quantity of the stock, and on top of it place a cutlet and another layer of the 
stock, and over all a thin slice of cooked ham. Cover with the second part of the 
paper, and close it by folding the two edges firmly together. Bake for a little time 



238 VEAL. 

at the most not more than five minutes in rather a moderate oven, and serve without 
delay. 

Veal Cutlets in Surprise. 

Any underdone pieces of veal may be used, trimming them to a nice shape. 
Mix with some finely-grated breadcrumbs half their quantity of mixed bacon, mod- 
erate quantities of chopped parsley and shallot, salt and pepper to taste and a little 
grated nutmeg. Bind the mixture with the beaten yolk of egg, spread a layer of it 
over one side of each cutlet, and wrap each in a slice of fat bacon, and then in a sheet 
of oiled paper, folding it well round the edges. Place a lump of butter in a flat stew- 
pan over the fire ; when blue smoke rises put in the cutlets, and fry them from five to 
ten minutes. When cooked drain the cutlets, place them on a hot dish over which 
has been spread a folded napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve. 

Veal Cutlets, Lyonese. 

Trim the cutlets and dust them on both sides with salt and pepper. Place a 
lump of lard in a stewpan to melt ; then put in the cutlets, and fry them over a brisk 
fire until done on either side. Drain the fat out of the stewpan, pour over the cutlets 
one-half teacupful of rich broth, and boil it quickly until reduced to a glaze ; then 
turn the cutlets, pour in the same quantity of broth as before, and reduce that. When 
finished, arrange the cutlets in a circle on a hot dish. Pour into the stewpan in 
which they were cooked one-half pint of brown sauce and one teaeupful of 
Madeira wine, and boil it ; then add one teacupful of chopped gherkins, two or three 
tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley and a small piece of butter. When the butter has 
dissolved pour the sauce over the veal, and serve it. 

Veal Cutlets, Maintenon. 

Prepare the cutlets in the usual way, and broil them ; but just before they are 
done take them out to drain and let them cool. Put some bacon cut in the shape 
of hearts on either side of the cutlets, wrap them round with paper dipped in oil, and 
broil them on both sides over a clear fire. 

Veal Cutlets, Marechal. 

Remove the skin and fat from about two ounces of mutton, chop the lean, put it 
in a mortar, pound it well, and then pass it through a fine hair sieve. Mix with one- 
half tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, and enough cream to bind it, not making 
it too liquid, and season it with salt, pepper, and a small quantity of grated nutmeg. 
Trim neatly four or five veal cutlets, dip them in well-beaten egg, and then roll them 
in breadcrumbs that have been well-seasoned with salt and pepper. The cutlets 
should be well-covered on both sides with the crumbs. Put some clarified fat into a 



VEAL. 



239 



deep fryingpan and place it over the fire until a column of blue smoke arises, then 
put in the cutlets and fry them for nearly ten minutes; turn them when browned on 
one side and brown the other. When fried, drain the cutlets, spread over each a 
layer of veal mixture, place them side by side in a shallow tin dish, strew a small 
quantity of finely chopped mushrooms over them, sprinkle very lightly with salt and 
pepper, and bake them for ten minutes in a moderate oven. When cooked, arrange 
the cutlets on a hot dish over which has been spread an ornamental dish-paper, 
garnish them with neat sprigs of parsley, and serve. 

Veal Cutlets, Milanese. 

Trim the cutlets neatly to about the same size. Boil two ounces of macaroni in 
salted water; when tender, drain it and stir in one ounce of butter, two ounces of 
grated Parmesan cheese, and one teacupful of tomato sauce. Mix one teacupful of 
finely grated breadcrumbs with one teacupful of grated Parmesan cheese, and season 
well with salt and pepper. Roll the cutlets in warmed butter, and then in the bread- 
crumbs, and leave them for a few minutes; then dip them in beaten egg and again in 
the mixture. Place a large lump of dripping or lard in a flat stewpan and place it 
over the fire; when blue smoke rises, put in the cutlets and fry them until nicely and 
equally browned. Move the macaroni away from the fire, and stir in the beaten 
yolk of an egg. Pile this in the center of a hot dish, arrange the cutlets around it, 
garnish it with fried parsley, and serve. 



Veal Cutlets, Perigueux. 



Trim some veal cutlets a little more than an inch in thickness, keeping the bones 
short, and lard them through with raw truffles cut in square fillets. Line the bottom 
of a flat stewpan with sliced vegetables and lay the cutlets on them, add veal broth 
to half their height and a bunch of herbs and parsley, and reduce the broth to half its 
original quantity; then cover the cutlets with buttered paper, move them to the side 
of the fire, and simmer slowly, adding a little more broth now and then. When done, 
drain the cutlets and place them on a circle of forcemeat poached in the dish, having 
in the center a small bread crustade filled with cooked truffles. Add the trimmings 
of the truffles to the liquor that the cutlets were cooked in, reduce, skim off the fat, 
thicken with a little brown sauce, strain it, pour some of it over the cutlets, and serve 
the balance in a sauceboat. 

Veal Cutlets, Provincial Style. 

Trim the cutlets, season them with salt and pepper, flour over, place them in a 
stewpan with a lump of butter, and fry. When the meat has set drain the fat from 
the stewpan and pour in some broth to half the height of the cutlets. When the 
liquor boils move the stewpan to the side of the fire, and keep it simmering until the 



2 4 o VEAL. 

cutlets are done. Chop fine six large white onions, place them in a stewpan with a 
lump of butter, and fry them over a moderate fire until nicely browned. Dredge a 
little flour, pepper and salt over the onions, pour in one-half pint of wine and gravy 
mixed in equal quantities, and boil them for ten minutes. When cooked, arrange the 
cutlets in a circle on a hot dish, turn the minced onions and gravy in the center, 
sprinkle over a little parsley and cayenne pepper, and serve. 

Veal Cutlets Sauted. 

Trim five or six veal cutlets, put them in a saucepan with a little stock, and boil 
them gently until they are done; then drain, place them on a plate, put another plate 
on top, with a weight on that, and leave them until cold. Boil some brown sauce 
with trimmings of truffles until well reduced, then dip in the cutlets and coat them 
thickly all over; sprinkle them with flour on both sides, brush over with beaten egg, 
cover thickly with finely grated breadcrumbs, and last of all brush over with clarified 
butter. Place the cutlets in a sautepan with a little butter, and saute them until 
lightly browned. Drain the cutlets, place them on a hot dish, garnish them with 
fried parsley, and serve with a sauceboatful of white sauce. 

Veal Cutlets, Spanish Style. 

Place two or three thin slices of ham in the bottom of a saucepan, also a bunch 
of parsley, half a bay leaf and a little thyme. Trim some veal cutlets, season them 
with pepper and salt, lay them on top of the ham and butter and fry them over a 
moderate fire. Drain the fat off and pour on one-half teacupful of Spanish sauce and 
one tablespoonful of broth. Dish the cutlets, strain the sauce, pour it over them, and 
serve. 

Veal Cutlets, St. Cloud Style. 

Lard six veal cutlets with two small truffles, one ounce of cooked beef tongue, 
and one ounce of larding pork, all cut in the same fashion. Place them in a saute- 
pan with a pinch of salt, one sliced onion and one sliced carrot, and allow them to 
brown for ten minutes, taking care to keep the lid on the pan. Moisten with one- 
half pint of broth, and place them in the oven to finish cooking for at least fifteen 
minutes. Serve with a hot salpicon sauce poured over the dish, and the chops placed 
on the top. 

Calf's Ears, Financiere Style. 

Cut off the ears, blanch and place in a saucepan with a little stock or water, and 
boil until quite tender. In the meantime cut a crouton of bread about two inches 
square at the base, and three inches high, fry in lard and put in the center of a dish. 
Take out the ears, dry them on a cloth, and stand them on the dish, leaning them 
against the bread ; put a heap of financiere garnishing in the spaces between the ears, 



VEAL. 241 

with a truffle and a cockscomb added. Put four cockscombs on the top of the 
bread, and a large truffle on top of them, and serve with some financiere sauce separate 
in a boat. 

Fried Calf's Ears with Tomato Sauce. 

Boil eight ears, and let them cool in the liquor, drain, wipe dry, and cut up into 
quarters. Place them in a basin and dust over with chopped parsley, salt and 
pepper ; flour them separately, dip into well-beaten egg, and then into sifted bread- 
crumbs. Put them into a fryingpan with plenty of boiling lard, putting in a few 
at a time, and fry them for about ten minutes. Then take them out, drain, pile on a 
dish, pour around tomato sauce, and serve. 

Calf's Feet as Mock Terrapin. 

Boil eight feet till tender; remove the meat from the bone and put in a stew- 
pan with one-half pint of the liquor in which they were boiled and three tablespoon- 
fuls of butter. Mash the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs with one teaspoonful of 
dry mustard and a small pinch of cayenne, adding salt to the taste. Mix the egg in 
with the meat and stir over the fire for fifteen minutes and add two wineglassfuls of 
white wine. Dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Boiled Calf's Feet. 

Split each of three feet into halves and, after removing the large bones, put 
them to soak in fresh water for one hour. Wash thoroughly, drain and place them 
in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of flour and three or four quarts of water. Stir 
well; add one gill of vinegar, one onion, one carrot (all cut into shreds), twelve 
whole peppers, a handful of salt and a bunch of garnished parsley, and cook briskly 
for an hour and a half. Drain thoroughly, and serve with any kind of sauce. 

Fricassee of Calf's Feet. 

Soak four calf's feet for three hours in cold water; allow them to simmer in 
equal proportions of milk and water until they are sufficiently tender to remove the 
soft part from the bones, dip them in the yolk of an egg, spread fine breadcrumbs 
over them, season with pepper and salt, and fry to a light brown in butter. Serve 
with white sauce. 

Calf's Feet Fritters. 

Cut into thick slices some boiled calf's feet, dip them into beaten egg, roll them 
in breadcrumbs and fry in boiling fat to a light brown. Fry some slices of onions, 
place them in the center of a hot dish, arrange the pieces of feet around, and serve, 
or they may be garnished with fried parsley. 



242 VEAL. 

Grilled Calf's Feet. 

Remove all the bones from a blanched calf's foot, cut the flesh into rather small 
pieces, egg and breadcrumb them and grill until they are of a light brown, then serve. 

Stewed Calf's Feet. 

Put a well-cleaned calf's foot into a saucepan with four onions, two or three 
cloves, one bayleaf, pepper and salt and stew all gently until done. Then remove all 
the meat from the bones, cut it into small pieces, egg and breadcrumb them and 
fry them in butter to a light brown." Serve the foot with a puree of tomatoes or 
mushrooms. 

Calf's Feet with Piquant Sauce. 

The same as for boiled calf's feet, using one-half pint of piquant sauce to pour 

ovetvjj iOO q^ 

Calf's Feet with Poulette Sauce. 

..;.-, 

Same as boiled calf's feet, adding one-half pint of poulette sauce, made as fol- 
lows : Put one pint of hot German sauce into a saucepan with one ounce of fresh 
butter, add the juice of one-half of a medium-sized lemon, and one teaspoonfui of 
chopped parsley. Heat thoroughly on a hot stove until well melted and mixed, but 
do not allow it to boil. Keep the sauce warm, and serve poured over the calf's feet 
on a dish. 

Braised Fillet of Veal. 

Choose a nice piece of fillet of veal, any part can be used ; put a good sized 
lump of butter in a saucepan to melt ; put in the veal and brown it on both sides. 
Pour clear broth or water over the veal, place the cover on, and steam over a clear 
fire, basting occasionally with its own liquor. Peel and slice a carrot and onion, and 
put them into a saucepan with a small quantity each of lemon peel, mace and thyme; 
pour in one-half pint of water and boil for twenty minutes. Strain the seasoned 
water over the veal, and continue cooking it. When the meat is tender, drain, place 
it on a hot dish and garnish with slices of lemon and crisped slices of bacon. Skim 
the fat off the cooking liquor, strain it through a fine hair sieve, and serve with the 
meat in a sauce tureen. 

Roasted Fillets of Veal with Fine Herbs. 

Lard the fillets with thin strips of bacon, place them in a deep dish with some 
finely-chopped mushrooms, shallots, chives, parsley, fennel, laurel leaves and thyme; 
sprinkle a small quantity of salt, pepper and grated nutmeg over them, cover them 
with olive oil and let soak for three hours. Drain the oil from the fillets, cover them 
with the mixed herbs, wrap them in thickly-buttered sheets of paper, fastening them 



VEAL. 243 

securely to keep the herbs in, and roast them in a good hot oven. When cooked 
take the paper off the fillets and scrape off the herbs. Put them in a saucepan with 
some gravy, a little lemon-juice and a lump of butter and boil it. Beat the yolk 
of an egg with a small piece of warmed butter, rub the fillets in this and then in 
grated breadcrumbs, giving them a good coating and brown them in a quick oven. 
When cooked, place the fillets on a folded napkin on a hot dish garnished with fried 
parsley, and serve them with sauce in a sauceboat. 

Fillet of Veal with Brain Fritters. 

Cut off a fillet from a leg of veal and rub it well over with the juice of a large 
mushroom, extracted by breaking it up and sprinkling salt over. If a little grated 
orange-peel and cayenne are added it will be improved. Dip the fillet in flour, 
brush over with egg, plunge it into boiling fat and fry it, or wrap it in oiled paper 
and grill it over a clear fire. Cut a calf's brain into equal-sized pieces, blanch and 
stew in stock for about fifteen minutes. Prepare a rather thick batter with the yolk 
of an egg, two ounces of flour, one-half tablespoonful of olive oil and warm butter; 
when ready, beat in the white of an egg whipped to a froth. Drain the pieces of 
brain, dip them into the batter, plunge into boiling fat, fry and drain them. Place 
the fillet on a dish, arrange the brain fritters and some fried slices of potato round, 
also sprigs of fried parsley, and serve with thick brown sauce in a sauceboat. 

Veal Fricadelles. 

Chop fine two pounds or more of lean veal and about three ounces of lean 
ham. Put one breakfast cupful of breadcrumbs in a saucepan with one-half pint of 
milk and stir it over the fire until cooked to a smooth paste, taking care that it does 
not burn at the bottom. Mix the bread with the chopped veal and ham, season the 
mixture with pepper, salt and the juice of half a lemon, and work it in with one- 
fourth pound of butter. When well mixed divide the mixture into small equal-sized 
portions, roll them into the balls, then dip them in beaten egg. Put one-fourth 
pound of butter into a fryingpan and when hot put in the balls and fry them until 
lightly browned. Great care must be taken not to burn them. Take the balls out 
of the fryingpan and stir into the butter three tablespoonfuls of flour. When a dark 
brown turn the flour into the saucepan, pour in by degrees one and one-half pints 
of stock, and when boiling put in the balls. Move the saucepan to the side of the 
fire and allow the contents to simmer slowly for an hour. Turn the fricadelles and 
gravy on to a hot dish garnished with slices of lemon or sippets of toast and croutons 
of fried bread, and serve. 

Fricandeau of Veal. 

Fricandeau of veal is properly made from the round muscle which is found on 
the innerside of the leg of veal, and is called the kernel, or cushion. To obtain it the 



244 VEAL. 

rest of the leg must be used for dishes which do not require special cuts. A thick 
cutlet is sometimes used as a fricandeau. Use a medium sized larding-needle and 
strips of fat salt pork cut less than a fourth of an inch square and two inches long; 
put the strips of pork or lardoons one by one into the split end of the needle and 
take a succession of stitches about one-fourth of an inch in length and depth in the 
upper surface of the veal in a line down the center, then make other lines of lardoons 
on both sides of the middle line, allowing the ends of the lardoons to come between 
each other, until the upper surface of the veal is thickly larded. After this is done 
it may be braised or baked. The fricandeau can be baked on a bed of vegetables, 
which may afterwards be rubbed through a sieve with a masher and form the basis of 
a brown gravy, or it may be garnished after cooking with green peas and spinach, or 
served with brown mushroom sauce. A larded fricandeau is a choice dish, even when 
it is made from a thick cutlet, if garnished with button mushrooms and truffles. When 
it is not desirable to use lardoons of pork, bacon strips of cold boiled tongue may 
replace them, or beef fat, if it be found sufficiently tough to permit it to be pulled 
through the rather dense fiber of uncooked meat. In larding veal the udder fat 
makes very passable lardoons. This fat is rather more substantial than that which 
lies about the kidneys, and which would crumble if drawn into uncooked meat. If 
the thin, fat membrane that is sometimes spread over spring lamb is cut into small 
squares it may be used in place of pork. 

Fricandeau of Veal with Puree of Sorrel. 

Cut a slice weighing about three pounds from a leg of veal, remove the sinews 
and lard the surface with fat bacon or pork, using a medium-sized larding-needle. 
Place it in a sautepan in which there are already pieces of pork skin, one sliced onion, 
one sliced carrot and a garnished bouquet. Season with one tablespoonful of salt, 
cover with buttered paper and let it color slightly for five minutes on the stove. 
Then moisten with one-half pint of white broth and cook for an hour. Serve with 
one-half pint of puree of sorrel on the dish, placing the veal on top. 

Grenadins of Veal, Chipolata. 

The same as for grenadins of veal with puree of green peas, only adding one pint 
of hot chipolata garnishing instead of the peas. 

Grenadins of Veal with Puree of Green Peas. 

Cut into half a dozen pieces two pounds of lean veal taken from the leg. 
Remove the sinews and lard the veal on one side, using a rather coarse needle for the 
purpose. Lay the pieces on a sautepan with one onion, one carrot and some scraps 
of pork, and let them brown together for six minutes. Season with one tablespoon- 
ful of salt, and moisten with one gill of white broth. Place the pan in the oven, 



VEAL. 245 

covering it with a piece of buttered paper ; at the end of thirty minutes, or when the 
contents are of a good color, remove it, and serve with one-half pint of hot puree of 
peas, spread on a dish, the grenadins on top, and the gravy strained and poured over 
all. 

Veal Ham. 

Trim a leg of veal to the shape of a ham. Mix well together one pint of bay 
salt, one pound of common salt, one or two ounces of saltpeter, one ounce of powdered 
cinnamon and one ounce of juniper berries, also powdered. Rub the meat well with 
this mixture, and place it on a tray with the skin downwards. Baste it well every 
day for about two weeks. At the end of that time hang the meat over wood smoke 
for a fortnight. Afterwards boil or partially boil, and then roast it. 

Haricot of Veal. 

Select four or five pounds of the best end of a neck of veal, cut or chop the bones 
short but do not cut up the veal, put it into a stewpan, cover it with brown gravy and 
let it simmer. Stew in another saucepan in some good stock six small cucumbers 
peeled and sliced, two cabbage lettuces well washed and cut in quarters, and one pint 
of green peas. When these are cooked and the veal nearly done put them into the 
stewpan with the veal and let all simmer together for ten minutes. Place the veal on 
a hot dish, arrange the eight pieces of lettuce and a few forcemeat balls round it, pour 
the gravy and the rest of the vegetables over, and serve. 

Hashed Veal. 

The remains of cold veal can be used and it is better if rather underdone. Cut 
the meat into thin slices, trimming off all the skin and gristle; slice a couple of onions 
and shallots, put them in a stewpan with a lump of butter, dredge them over lightly 
with flour and toss over the fire until they begin to brown. Pour in about three- 
fourths of a pint of clear broth, add a bunch of sweet herbs and boil gently for ten 
or fifteen minutes. Place the slices of veal in a clean stewpan, strain the gravy over 
them, put in one tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, the grated peel of half of a 
small lemon and a little grated nutmeg; season the whole with salt and pepper to 
taste. Let the hash simmer for five minutes close to the fire. Turn it out onto a 
hot dish, garnish with sippets of toast or croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Boiled Calf's Head. 

Plunge a fine, fresh, white calf's head into hot water, leaving it for one minute, 
lift it out and sharply rub it all over with a rough towel in order to remove all remain- 
ing hairs. Carefully cut the flesh, beginning at the center of the head, right down to 
the nostrils. Then, with a very sharp knife, bone it from the top to the base on both 
sides. Place in a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of flour, one gill of vinegar, one 



246 VEAL. 

medium-sized, well cleaned and sliced carrot, one sound peeled onion, eighteen or 
twenty whole peppers and two or three pinches of salt. Pour in very gradually two 
quarts of cold water, briskly stirring until all is added. Cut up half of the head into 
six equal pieces, add them to the broth, as also the other whole half, and let all cook 
together over a moderate fire for an hour and a half. Lift up the pieces and the half 
head and place the six pieces on a dry napkin. Have ready a hot dish with a folded 
napkin over it, tastefully dress the six pieces on it, decorate with parsley or greens, 
and serve with any desired sauce. Place the remaining half head in a stone jar, 
strain the broth over it and preserve it in a cool place for any purpose desired. 

Boiled Calf's Head with Vinaigrette Sauce. 

Proceed the same as for boiled calf's head, laying a folded napkin on the dish 
and fixing thereon the half of the head. Decorate with parsley leaves, and serve with 
one pint of vinaigrette sauce in a sauceboat. 

Braised Calf's Head. 

Clean and bone the head. Prepare a sufficient quantity of finely-chopped lean 
veal and fat bacon to stuff it. Season the stuffing with sweet herbs, salt and pepper, 
and bind it with the beaten yolks of three eggs. Stuff the head, sew it up securely to 
prevent the stuffing from oozing out and wrap it in a cloth. Line a braising pan with 
slices of veal and bacon; also a few slices of carrots; put in the head with a bunch of 
thyme and parsley and two bay leaves; season to taste with spice, and pour in one 
pint of broth and one-half pint of white wine. Stew the head for four hours. When 
cooked take it out of the cloth, put it on a hot dish and garnish with a financiere stew. 
Strain the cooking liquor of the head into a small clean stewpan, mix a wineglassful 
of Madeira wine with it; boil it a few minutes, then pour it over the head, and serve. 

Calfs Head, Financiere. 

For the preparation of this neat dish all the principal parts are prepared as for a 
stew the ears are scalded and stuffed, the brains formed into cakes. The pieces of 
meat are cut into large discs and arranged round a forcemeat loaf made of the trim- 
mings, and around this again, either on the same dish or upon one below it, the ears 
and brain-cakes are arranged with blanched olives and button mushrooms. Skewers 
garnished with cockscombs, truffles and various other things, surmount the whole. 

Hashed Calf's Head. 

Cut any desirable quantity of cold boiled calf's head into pieces about the size 
of a small apple. Put two or three ounces of butter into a saucepan to melt, mix in 
three tablespoonfuls of flour, and add one or two breakfast cupfuls of veal stock. 
When thoroughly incorporated add a few small mushrooms, salt and pepper to suit 



VEAL. 



247 



the taste, and boil well for ten minutes or so. Remove the saucepan to the side of the 
fire, add the hashed meat and allow it to get hot without boiling. Remove the pan 
from the fire, stir in the yolks of two eggs beaten up with the juice of a lemon and 
strained, and also add a little chopped parsley or tarragon. Turn the hash out onto 
a dish, and serve. 

Calf's Head in Tortue. 

Cut the meat of half a cold-boiled calf's head into small pieces. Mix one wine- 
glassful of sherry with one-half pint of well reduced stock, add to this the yolks of 
six hard boiled eggs and the whites cut into small pieces, three chopped gherkins, six 
quenelles of veal forcemeat, the pieces of head and a little cayenne pepper. Place 
the saucepan over the fire till the contents are hot. Pile the pieces of head in the 
middle of a hot dish, pour the sauce and eggs round it, garnish with croutons of fried 
bread, and serve. 

Calf's Head, Royal Style. 

This is considered by all epicures the very best of calf's head dishes. In the 
center of a silver dish is set a forcemeat loaf made from the fragments of the heads 
and necks used, scraps of veal, tongue and other things. About this are laid, over- 
lapping each other, discs of the meat off the head, and between these alternately 
a blanched cockscomb and three button mushrooms, diminishing in size upwards. 
The ears scored and stuffed with a truffle in each, are placed on the loaf with truffles 
between them, and fried bread wedge-shaped croutons are ranged round the loaf, with 
truffles set on the base of every crouton. A few sprigs of fried parsley are some- 
times added, and the whole is served with royal sauce. 

Stewed Calf's Head. 

After boning a calf's head, cut out the tongue and brains, and steep them with 
the meat in cold water for a few hours. Chop fine one-half pound of lean veal 
and one pound of beef suet and mix with them one breakfast cupful of grated bread- 
crumbs, the grated peel of one lemon, two or three tablespoonfuls of powdered herbs, 
and pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg in suitable quantities. Mix these ingredients 
well and bind them together with the beaten yolks of four or five eggs. Wash the 
head, dry it on a cloth, stuff it with some of the forcemeat and bind it round securely 
with tape. Place the head in a saucepan with a bunch of sweet herbs, two quarts of 
clear gravy, and one-half pint of white wine. Put the saucepan over the fire until the 
liquor boils, then move it to the side, cover it tightly, and keep the contents sim- 
mering until the head is tender. Boil the tongue in a small quantity of water, and, 
when cooked, drain and cut into thin slices. Chop the brains with a small quantity 
of parsley, dredge them with about one tablespoonful of flour, and season with finely- 
minced lemon-peel, salt, pepper and a small quantity of grated nutmeg; then mix in 
two well-beaten eggs. Shape the remainder of the forcemeat into small balls, put a 



248 VEAL. 

large lump of dripping into a fryingpan, make it hot, and fry the foremeat balls in it, 
also the brain mixture which should be dropped in with a spoon in small quantities. 
When fried drain the forcemeat balls and brain cakes on a wire sieve in front of a 
clear fire. When the head is cooked, remove the tapes and place it on a hot dish, 
strain the cooking liquor through a fine hair sieve, return it to the saucepan with one 
ounce of butter that has been mixed with two tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir it over 
the fire until thickened. More salt and pepper may now be added if required. 
Make the slices of tongue hot in the gravy, then pour it over the calf's head; garnish 
with slices of lemon the forcemeat balls and brain cakes, and serve while it is very 
hot. If there is too much liquor to go on the dish with the head, serve the remainder 
in a sauceboat. 

Veal in the Saucepan. 

Cut four pounds of veal about three inches thick off the fillet, roll it up, bind it 
round with tape, rub it over with flour, put it in a stewpan with a small lump of 
butter, and fry it until nicely browned all over. Pour one-half pint of rich gravy in 
with the veal, season it with salt and pepper, place the lid on the stewpan, and cook 
the contents slowly for four hours. When done, take the veal up, place it on a hot 
dish, first removing the tape, and keep it hot. Boil the cooking liquor quickly until 
stiffly reduced, then pour it over the meat and serve. 



Veal, Italian Style. 



Boil about one pint of milk with an onion and a bay leaf, for fifteen minutes ; 
then remove the bay leaf, and pour the boiling milk over a heaping breakfast cupful 
of breadcrumbs. Chop fine one pound of raw veal and pound it in a mortar, 
mixing with it a small quantity of cold, cooked fat ; then mix in the soaked crumbs, 
and pass the mixture through a coarse sieve. Divide it into equal portions, which 
mould into rolls with flour. Procure as many pieces of cloth as there are rolls, wring 
them out in boiling water, flour them, tie a roll in each, place them in a saucepan of 
boiling water, and boil from ten to fifteen minutes. When cooked, drain the rolls, 
remove the cloths, place them on a hot dish, pour some well-flavored brown sauce 
round them, and serve. 

Braised Kernel of Veal with Bechamel Sauce. 

Remove the udder and pare a cushion of veal, lard it interiorly with fillets of 
bacon, and season it with salt and pepper to taste. Line a bakingpan with trimmings 
of bacon and ham and some sliced vegetables ; put in the cushion with about one 
teacupful of broth, and place the cover on. Place some hot ashes on the lid, and 
braise it over a slow fire. Cut some mushrooms into slices, place them in a frying- 
pan with a lump of butter and fry until the moisture has reduced slightly. Season 
the mushrooms with pepper and salt, put them in one pint of reduced bechamel 



VEAL. 249 

sauce, and boil them for two or three minutes, then move them to the side. When 
the veal is done, remove it from the braisingpan and cut it up into thin slices. Line 
the bottom of a deep dish with the mushroom mixture, then arrange the slices of 
meat on it, putting them into shape again, alternating each layer with a small 
quantity of the mushroom mixture. Place the dish in the oven until the surface of 
its contents is nicely colored, then remove it, garnish with croquettes of potatoes, and 
serve. 

Kernel of Veal in Ballotines. 

Lard a cushion of veal with strips of bacon that have been well-seasoned with 
mixed spices, finely-chopped parsley, thyme and bay leaves, shallot, salt and pepper. 
Melt about one-half pound of butter in a stewpan, dredge the veal over with salt and 
pepper, put it in and stew over a slow fire. In forty-five minutes take the veal out of 
the pan and put it on a dish. Mix in with the butter four tablespoonfuls of grated 
bacon, one teacupful of pure olive oil, and a scant tablespoonful of chopped shallots. 
Fry these ingredients for a few minutes, then put in a dozen chopped mushrooms, one 
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and season with salt and pepper and a small 
quantity of grated nutmeg. When well done pour the mixture over the veal and 
leave until cold. Afterwards cover the meat with thin slices of bacon, and wrap it 
with all its seasoning in a sheet of paper; fold it up securely seeing that the seasoning 
cannot escape, and bind it round with tape. Place it on a gridiron and broil over a 
clear fire for an hour or so, turning it occasionally. Take care not to allow the paper 
to burn. When cooked, place the meat on a hot dish, and serve. 



Kernel of Veal, Jardiniere. 



Beat and trim a cushion of veal, and lard it with thin strips of fat becon two 
inches long. Put some slices of bacon and two sliced onions into a stewpan with two 
bay leaves, a few sprigs of parsley; add the cushion, pour over it one pint of white 
stock,' cover with the lid, and place it in a moderate oven for three hours. Baste the 
veal occasionally with its own liquor; if the moisture becomes absorbed, pour in a 
little more broth or some water. Peel eighteen young onions, the same number of 
carrots, and the same of young turnips; the two latter should be cut the shape of 
pears. Blanch the vegetables; put one ounce of butter into a sautepan with one 
tablespoonful of moist sugar, melt it, and then put in the onions; cover them with 
stock, and stew gently until tender. Cook the carrots and turnips in the same way, 
only in separate pans. The cooking stock of the vegetables should be reduced to a 
thin glaze by the time they are cooked. Peel and boil about four pounds of potatoes, 
drain them when soft, mash them with a small quantity of milk or butter, press them 
into a border mould, and stand it in a bain marie. Put the glaze from the vegetables 
into a sautepan with one quart of brown sauce and about one breakfast cupful of the 
gravy from the veal, first freeing it from fat. Boil the sauce until it becomes reduced 



250 VEAL. 

to rather a thick glace, skimming it frequently. When cooked, glaze the kernel or 
cushion and brown it under a salamander. Turn the border of potatoes onto a hot 
dish, arrange the glazed vegetables on the border, and place the noix in the center. 
Pour the sauce over the vegetables, and serve. 

Kernel of Veal, Sauted. 

Trim off the skin and cut a kernel of veal into small round pieces about one and 
one-half inches in diameter, beat and trim them neatly. Put one-fourth pound of 
butter into a sautepan, set it on a good fire, and when melted put in the pieces of 
meat with one or two tablespoonfuls of finely chopped parsley, toss until cooked, 
then place them on a hot dish. Pour one-half pint of well reduced veloute sauce 
into the pan with the butter, stir it over the fire until boiling, then move it to the 
side, and stir in the yolks of two eggs that have been well-beaten with two table- 
spoonfuls of cream. Pour the sauce over the meat, and serve. 

Broiled Veal Kidney, Maitre d'Hotel. 

Cut a veal Kidney in halves lengthwise, pound it lightly, sprinkle over a little 
salt and pepper, and dip each piece in butter that has been slightly warmed. Cover 
thickly the pieces of kidney with the butter and broil them over a clear fire, allowing 
about five minutes for each side. Place two ounces of butter in a basin, season it with 
chopped parsley, pepper and salt, squeeze in a little lemon juice and work it close to 
the fire until warm, though it must not be oiled. Put the maitre d'hotel butter on a 
dish, place the pieces of kidney over, and serve. 



Fried Veal Kidney. 



Remove the fat from several kidneys and cut them into rather thin slices; spray 
the slices with pepper and salt, plunge them into well-beaten egg and then into bread- 
crumbs and fry in a stewpan with a little butter until done. Put a mince of mush- 
rooms in the center of a dish, place the slices of kidney around, cover over with a few 
tablespoonfuls of Colbert sauce, and serve. 



Veal Kidney Fritter. 



Put four or five eggs into a basin, beat them well, add one teacupful of cream, a 
little finely-shred parsley, cloves and chopped mushrooms, seasoning with pounded 
mace, salt and pepper. Mince fine the required quantity of kidney, together with 
a little of the fat adhering to it, and stir this in with the egg mixture. Butter a.fry- 
ingpan and place it on the fire; when hot pour in the mixture and stir it until cooked, 
using care not to spread it out too thin. Remove the pan from the fire, brown che 
mixture with a salamander, or by holding the pan in front of the fire, and serve im- 
mediately. 



VEAL. 251 

Veal Kidney Stewed in Wine. 

Cut a veal kidney into several pieces, remove the sinewy parts and cut it in slices 
of moderate thickness. Put in a quarter of a pound of butter in a fryingpan to melt; 
then put in the slices of kidney, season with pepper and salt and fry them over a brisk 
fire until the moisture has disappeared. Put two tablespoonfuls of chopped shallot 
and onions into a stewpan with a lump of butter and fry them without browning; add 
fifteen or eighteen mushrooms, a bunch of parsley and a clove of garlic in with the 
onions. Pour in over the onions, etc., one-half pint of white wine and the same quan- 
tity of gravy. Boil the liquor till it is reduced to half its original quantity, then strain 
it through a fine hair-sieve into another saucepan; stir in with it a little thick brown 
sauce and a half teacupful of melted glaze, stir it over the fire for three or four min- 
utes, then throw in the slices of kidney and heat them without boiling. Take the 
garlic and bunch of parsley out of the liquor, place the kidney and sauce on a hot 
dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread or bits of toast, and serve. The slices of 
kidney may also be served in a fancy paste croustade. 

Braised Knuckle of Veal. 

Lard well a knuckle of veal weighing about three pounds; braise it in a pan with 
one ounce of fresh salt pork, one tablespoonful of salt and one teaspoonful oj: pepper. 
Cook for fifteen minutes, stirring now and then, and moistening with one-half pint 
each of Spanish sauce and white broth. Add one pint of raw jardiniere and one break- 
fast cupful of flageolets. Cook all together for forty-five minutes. Transfer the 
knuckle to a hot dish, pour the garnishing over, and serve very hot. 

Baked Leg of Veal with Cream Sauce. 

Place a small leg of veal in rather a deep baking dish; melt a lump of butter, 
pour it over the veal and roast it in a slack oven. Turn the meat now and then and 
baste it well. When nearly cooked sprinkle over with a little flour and salt, pour over 
it one-half pint of cream and finish cooking, basting from time to time and keeping 
the oven slack. When done drain the leg, place it on a hot dish and arrange a truffle 
round the knuckle-bone. Pour the cream into a small saucepan, mix a small quantity 
of melted glaze with it and boil until slightly reduced. Add two or three drops of 
vinegar, then pour the same over the meat, and serve. 



Leg of Veal in Surprise. 



Lard the veal with fat bacon and lemon peel cut very thin. Make a rich oyster 
forcemeat to stuff it with. When stuffed put it in a stewpan, barely cover with water, 
and allow it to stew until tender and thoroughly done, then take it up. Skim the 
liquor well leaving no fat on it, and add to it a piece of butter rolled in flour, the 



252 VEAL. 

crumb of a roll grated finely, a little mushroom catsup, a small quantity of lemon 
juice, one pint of cream and one-half pint of oysters ; stir this over the fire until it 
thickens, let it boil for a few minutes, then pour over the veal ; garnish with oysters 
fried in butter and slices of toasted bacon. 

Calf's Liver. 

Those who are addicted to the eating of liver will appreciate that of the calf 
above all others. It should be cut into slices a half inch or so thick, and well 
washed, dried and floured before using. The flesh is close and dry when cooked, 
and therefore requires some qualifying material to be served with it, such as bacon. 

Liver and Bacon in Paper Cases. 

Boil some calf's liver until tender and cut it into slices. Open a sheet of com- 
mon note paper, and place on one-half of it a nicely trimmed rasher of bacon; have 
well mixed half an ounce of sifted breadcrumbs, and about one saltspoonful each of 
pepper, sifted herbs, chopped parsley, salt, and very finely-chopped onion ; sprinkle 
nearly one teaspoonful of this seasoning over the rasher of bacon, lay it on a slice of 
the liver, sprinkle this also with about a teaspoonful of the seasoning, lay on top an- 
other nicely-trimmed thin rasher, fold the other half of the paper over, turn up the 
edges of the paper at the three open sides, and fry for quarter of an hour, turning 
once. Serve while it is very hot. 

Braised Calf's Liver. 

Remove the skin, gall and spleen from a very white calf's liver, lard it with some 
well-seasoned fillets of ham and fat bacon, the larding to be done in such a way that 
the fillets do not cross the top surface. Put the liver in a basin with some trimmings 
of truffles, a bay leaf, a few sprigs of parsley and thyme and a little salt and spices. 
Let it remain in this for two hours, then wrap the liver and seasonings up in a large 
piece of pig's caul, and tie it securely with tape. Place a- good-sized lump of lard in 
a stewpan, and when boiling put the liver in, fry it for about fifteen minutes, then put 
the lid on the stewpan with some live embers on the top, move the stewpan to the side 
of the fire, and braise the liver for one hour, turning it frequently. Peel and scald two 
dozen small onions and two dozen small carrots, put them in with the liver, the onions 
on one side and the carrots on the other, sprinkle in a little salt, place the lid on the 
stewpan again, with a fresh supply of live embers on the top, and finish cooking by 
the side of a moderate fire for another hour. Remove the liver, drain it, put it in a hot 
dish, and arrange the vegetables neatly round it. Skim the fat off the cooking liquor, 
mix with it one wineglassful of white wine and a little gravy, boil quickly till it is 
reduced one-half, then mix with it a small quantity of brown sauce and stir over the 
fire a few minutes longer. Sprinkle in a little pepper and salt, strain the sauce, pour 
it over the liver, and serve. 



VEAL. 



253 



CalPs Liver, Brittany Style. 



Chop fine four or five large-sized onions, put them into a saucepan with a bay 
leaf and a lump of butter and fry till well browned. Sprinkle a little salt, pepper 
and flour over the onions, add a pinch of sugar, pour in a half pint of gravy, and boil 
them gently till cooked. Cut a calf's liver in slices and season with salt and pepper, 
place them in a fryingpan with a lump of butter, and fry over a quick fire. When 
the pieces of liver are cooked remove the pan from the fire, pour a small quantity of 
glaze and lemon juice over and sprinkle in a little chopped parsley; toss them 
about well until all the slices are covered. Arrange these in a circle on a hot dish, 
and fill in the center with the chopped onions. Garnish with croutons of fried bread 
that have been brushed over with a paste-brush dipped in melted glaze, and then serve. 

Broiled Calf's Liver with Bacon. 

Take a white and tender calf's liver weighing about a pound and a half, pare and 
trim off the hard portions, cut it into six slices of equal size and put them on a dish. 
Season with one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper and one tablespoon- 
ful of sweet oil; mix well together. Broil for a few minutes on each side, arrange 
the slices on a hot dish and decorate with six thin, crisp slices of broiled bacon. 
Spread over the whole one gill of maitre d'hotel butter, and serve very hot. 

Curried Calf's Liver. 

Cut two pounds of liver into small thin pieces. Fry two small sliced onions in 
a little butter, put in the pieces of liver and fry them, adding more butter as required. 
Mix two tablespoonfuls of curry powder with four tablespoonfuls of flour, stir it in 
with the liver, sprinkle salt, pepper and a little cayenne over, then stir all over the 
fire for two or three minutes, adding slowly one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of 
stock. Boil and turn all on to a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and 
serve. 

Calf's Liver, French Style. 

Select a sound white liver, cut it into slices and place them in a saucepan with 
two thin slices of fat bacon, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one finely chopped 
shallot, a small lump of butter, and pepper and salt to taste. Put on the lid and keep 
the saucepan close to a moderate fire in order that the liver may cook without sim- 
mering. When thoroughly done, which will take about an hour and a half, put it on 
a hot dish and keep it warm. Boil the gravy and bacon together, pour it over the 
liver, and serve at once. 

Calf's Liver, Milanese Style. 

Cut a large, white liver into thin slices, pound these slightly, sprinkle over a 
little salt and mixed spices, dredge with flour, and dip in beaten eggs. Place some 



254 



VEAL. 



lard in a fryingpan, and when boiling plunge the slices of liver in. Fry them till 
well browned, and sprinkle a little salt over; arrange on a hot dish, and garnish with 
lemons cut in quarters, and serve. 

Minced Calf's Liver. 

Chop fine about a pound and a half of calf's liver, a small onion and a quarter of 
a pound of fat bacon. Place the onion and bacon in a stewpan with a small piece of 
butter, and stir it over the fire for five minutes. Then put in the liver and sprinkle 
over salt and pepper, and any kind of seasoning that may be desired, and stir the 
whole over the fire for ten or twelve minutes. Turn the mixtnre onto a dish, leave it 
until cool, then mix in three well-beaten eggs. Sew a caul into a bag, put the mince 
into it, and fasten at the end. Melt a good-sized lump of butter in a saucepan, then 
put it in the bag, place the lid on the saucepan, and steam it for an hour turning 
occasionally. When cooked take the caul out of the saucepan, and allow it to get 
cold before serving. 

Stewed Calf's Liver, Bourgeoise. 

Place in a saucepan over the fire a small calf's liver thoroughly larded with pieces 
of larding pork previously seasoned with a pinch or two of chopped parsley and a 
clove (crushed) of garlic with two tablespoonfuls of clarified butter, one sprig of 
thyme, two bay leaves, half of a sliced carrot, and half of a sliced onion, then turn the 
liver over and moisten it with one gill of Spanish sauce, and one gill of white broth. 
Season with a pinch of salt and a little pepper, and cook for forty-five minutes. 
Strain the sauce into another saucepan, meanwhile keeping the liver in a warm place; 
add to the gravy two medium-sized, well-scraped, sliced raw carrots, and two or three 
ounces of salted pork cut into shreds. Stew well together for twenty-five minutes, 
and pour the garnishing over the liver just prior to serving. Decorate with six or 
eight small onions placed round the dish. 

Veal Loaf. 

Put one and one-half pounds of veal into a stewpan with an onion, carrot and 
bunch of sweet herbs, pepper and salt, and sufficient water to cover it, and stew the 
veal gently until tender. Ornament the interior of a mould with hard-boiled eggs, 
beet-root and olives, all cut into different shapes, and stuck with half-set aspic jelly. 
Leave the mould until the jelly has set. Drain the veal when cooked, trim off all 
the fat, chop it fine, and mix one pint of liquid jelly with it. When the mince is 
nearly cold, turn it carefully into the decorated mould, and leave till set. Turn the 
shape out of the mould onto a fancy dish, garnish it with parsley, and serve at once. 



VEAL. 255 

Braised Loin of Veal. 

Remove the bone from the loin, and lard it with thick strips of bacon. Place 
some thin slices of bacon in a stewpan, sprinkle over some chopped parsley, chives, a 
clove of garlic, a bunch of thyme, and some laurel leaves, put in the larded veal, 
season with salt and pepper to taste, cover with slices of carrots, onions and turnips, 
moisten with stock to a trifle more than half its height, and cook slowly for half an 
hour. When cooked put the veal on a hot dish, strain the sauce through a silk sieve, 
boil it quickly until reduced, then pour it over the veal, and serve. 

Loin of Veal, Farmer's Style. 

Stuff about seven pounds of the loin of veal cut from the best end with veal 
forcemeat, truss it and cover with a sheet of thickly buttered paper. Roast the veal 
in the oven for an hour and a half, basting frequently with butter. At the end of 
that time baste the veal with cream until it is well cooked (which will take about 
thirty minutes longer). When done dress the veal on a hot dish, mix the basting 
cream with a little hot bechamel sauce and water, pour it over the veal, and serve. 

Roasted Loin of Veal. 

Saw the spine and whatever hipbone remains from a fine white, fresh fat loin of 
veal with the kidney. Season the loin with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of salt 
and one heaping teaspoonful of pepper, and roll the flank part neatly over the kidney, 
tying it with a string. Have in readiness a lightly buttered roastingpan, place the 
loin in it, pour in one wineglassful of water, and put a few bits of butter here and 
there over the meat, then cover its entire length with a piece of well-buttered paper. 
Place the pan in a moderate oven, and roast for one hour and three-quarters, basting 
it frequently meanwhile with its own gravy. Remove it from the oven, untie and 
place it on a hotwater dish. Add three tablespoonfuls of broth to the gravy in the 
pan, skim off the fat and reduce it to the consistency of half glaze. Strain it through 
a sieve, either over the roasted meat or into a sauceboat, and serve at once. 

Minced Veal, Turkish Style. 

Mince fine three pounds of raw veal, put it into a saucepan with two ounces 
of butter, two tablespoonfuls of water, and one saltspoonful of salt, and stir it over 
the fire until the moisture has evaporated, and the mince is well browned. Peel and 
chop fine three onions and a small bunch of parsley from the stems; soak the crumb 
of a French roll in water. Mix all the ingredients together, season with salt and 
pepper and stir in sufficient beaten egg to form a rather stiff paste, working it well. 
Put two ounces of butter into a deep fryingpan, place it over the fire until hot, then 
pour in the mixture and fry it until nicely browned, turning it when done on one side 



256 VEAL. 

and finishing the other. When cooked turn the cake of mincemeat onto an orna- 
mental dish-paper on a hot plate, garnish with fried parsley, and serve at once. 

/ '' 

Minced Veal with Macaroni. 

Mince fine one pound of veal, and mix with it one-fourth pound each of finely- 
grated breadcrumb and minced ham, together with a little lemon peel. Season the 
mixture with salt and pepper, and bind it together with two tablespoonfuls of rich 
gravy and two well-beaten eggs. Boil six ounces of macaroni, and when tender 
drain it well. Butter a mould, line it with macaroni, mix a little of the macaroni with 
the veal mixture, and turn it into the mould, pressing it tightly down. Stand the 
mould in a saucepan with boiling water to three-fourths its height, and steam it for 
half an hour. When cooked turn the veal and the macaroni out of the mould onto 
a hot dish, and serve with a sauceboatful of rich gravy. 

Minced Veal with Mushrooms and Cream. 

Empty a can of small mushrooms into a saucepan, put in a piece of butter and 
stew them for fifteen minutes over a clear fire. Chop fine some cold roasted veal 
and season it with pepper and salt. Mince the mushrooms, mix them with the veal 
and turn all into a saucepan with two ounces of butter that has been well worked 
with two ounces of flour and a little more than one-half teacupful of cream or 
creamy sauce. Stir the mixture well over the fire for a few minutes. Turn the 
mince out onto a hot dish, garnish with sippets of toast, and serve. 

Mireton of Veal. 

Chop fine some cold roasted veal, mix with it one-half pound of ham also 
very finely-chopped and season it with salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. Soak the 
crumb of a French roll in one teacupful of milk. Slice a small onion and fry 
it until nicely-browned in a little butter; then drain and mince it fine; put all 
the above ingredients in a saucepan with the grated peel of a lemon and one tea- 
cupful of cream and stir it over the fire until it is hot. Beat an egg well and add 
it to the mixture, then move the saucepan off the fire; butter a mould, pour the 
mixture into it and press the lid down tightly; put the mould in the oven and 
brown the contents slightly. When cooked place the mireton on a hot dish, 
pour some rich gravy over it, and serve. 

Montglas of Veal with Croutons. 

Trim off all the sinewy parts of a cooked minion fillet of veal, cut it into 
slices about one-fourth of an inch thick, then cut them into small squares. Put 
the veal into a saucepan with half its quantity of cooked pickled tongue and mush- 



VEAL. 257 

rooms also cut into small pieces. Pour one-half pint of brown sauce and one wine- 
glassful of Madeira wine over the above ingredients, season with a little cayenne 
pepper and keep it on the fire until on the point of boiling, then move it to the 
side. Turn the montglas onto a hot dish, garnish with glazed croutons of fried 
bread, and serve. 

Braised Neck of Veal with Truffles. 

Trim a neck of veal, that part used for cutlets, cut the bone off short and lard it 
with black truffles in such a way as to resemble a draught-board. Braise the meat 
with plenty of bacon on the top, so that it will retain its white color, and glaze the meat 
slightly. Put the meat on a hot dish, cover it with Italian sauce and truffles, and serve. 

Neck of Veal, St. Glair Style. 

Roast a nicely-trimmed end of a neck of veal in vegetables; when nearly cooked 
remove the paper and vegetables and brown it lightly. Peel and boil a sufficient 
quantity of potatoes, mash them with butter and press them into a border mould. 
Stand the mould in a bain marie to keep hot. Make about one pint of thin tomato 
sauce, and mix with it one-half teaspoonful of anchovy butter. Cut a dozen slices of 
bacon into heart-shaped pieces and fry them. Place the veal on a hot dish, garnish 
with the slices of bacon, and serve with the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Veal Patties. 

Mince about four pounds of leg of veal and one-fourth pound of salt pork. Roll 
half a dozen soda crackers and sift them. Mix with the minced meat one table- 
spoonful each of salt and pepper, one grated nutmeg and two well-beaten eggs. 
Mould the mixture into small oval shapes, place them in a baking-dish, sprinkle the 
cracker-crumbs over the top, place a few small pieces of butter here and there and pour 
in one-half teacupful of water. Bake the patties in a quick oven, basting them often. 
When cooked arrange them on a hot dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with a 
sauceboatful of clear gravy. 

Veal Paupiettes. 

Cut some thin cutlets from a fillet of veal, and beat them flat and even. Mince 
a small quantity of veal very fine, mix it with some of the kidney fat chopped very 
fine, and half a dozen anchovies chopped fine also, adding a little salt, ginger and 
powdered mace. Place this mixture over the slices of veal and roll them up. Beat 
up an egg, dip the rolled slices into it, and then into sifted breadcrumbs. Let them 
stand for fifteen or twenty minutes, then egg them again, roll them in breadcrumbs, 
and fry to a golden brown in boiling lard or clarified dripping, or stew them in some 
rich gravy with one-half pint of white wine and a small quantity of walnut pickle. 



258 VEAL. 

Veal Pie, French Style. 

Trim off the skin from some remains of cold roast veal, and mince the meat as 
fine as possible with one-third of its quantity of ham. Open and beard two dozen 
oysters, mix them with the veal, season the mixture with powdered mace, grated 
lemon peel, salt and pepper and a few drops of mushroom ketchup, and moisten it 
with the strained liquor of the oysters and a moderate quantity of rich brown gravy. 
Prepare a nice puff paste, line a buttered pie-dish with it, put in the above mixture, 
cover with a flat of paste, trim it off neatly round the edges, wet them with a small 
quantity of water, and pinch both together. Bake the pie for about half an hour, or 
until the paste is cooked, and then serve. 

Veal Kidney Pie. 

Chop very fine three kidneys together with their fat, and stir in with them a 
small quantity of finely-chopped sweet herbs and chopped celery; season with grated 
nutmeg, mace and pounded cloves, and pepper and salt to taste, adding the chopped 
yolks of four hard-boiled eggs, and one scant breakfast cupful of grated breadcrumbs. 
Butter a pie dish, line it with puff paste, put in the above mixture, moisten with one 
or two tablespoonfuls of sherry, and cover the pie with a flat layer of puff paste; trim 
off evenly round the edges, moisten and press them together. Make a slight incision 
in the top of the pie, and bake in a slow oven. Serve while hot. 

Veal and Oyster Pie. 

Cut one pound of neck of veal into. small pieces, put them in a saucepan, cover 
with water and stew them for an hour. Cut two ounces of pork into small pieces, put 
them in with the veal, and add one chopped onion, one tablespoonful of chopped 
parsley, one tablespoonful of thickening, one teacupful of milk, and salt and pepper 
to taste. Cook the mixture for twenty minutes longer, then turn it into a shallow 
dish, put a breakfast cupful of oysters over the top, dredge in some pepper, salt and 
flour, and cover the pie with a common pie-crust. Bake the pie for about half an hour, 
and serve it either hot or cold. 

Quenelles of Veal. 

Trim off the fat from one pound of veal, chop, place it in a mortar and pound it. 
Put one breakfast cupful of breadcrumbs into a saucepan with one-half pint of milk 
and stir over the fire until smooth, then leave until cool. Stir the pounded veal and 
breadcrumbs well together, season with a small quantity of grated nutmeg, the juice 
of half a lemon, pepper and salt, and add one-half pint of white sauce, the yolks of 
four eggs one at a time and then the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Melt a lump 
of butter in a frying-pan, mould the mixture into quenelles with two tablespoons, which 



VEAL. 259 

should be dipped in hot water each time a quenelle is moulded. Slip the quenelles 
off the spoons into the fryingpan, and when all are finished cover them with boiling- 
white stock and cook them for twenty minutes. Prepare a border of mashed potatoes 
on a hot dish. When cooked drain the quenelles, put them on the border, with one 
tablespoonful of bechamel sauce on each, pour a quantity of bechamel sauce in the 
center of the dish, and serve the quenelles at once. 

Veal Rissoles. 

Mince fine one pound of veal and one-fourth pound of suet. Soak two pounds 
of breadcrumbs in a small quantity of milk till soft, mix them with the veal and suet, 
season with a little pounded mace, pepper and salt, and bind with the beaten yolks of 
a couple of eggs. Mould the mixture into small balls, brush them over with clarified 
butter and cover them thickly with breadcrumbs. Put a lump of butter into a frying- 
pan and melt it; then put in the rissoles and fry them till well browned all over. 
Drain the rissoles, place them on a folded napkin or ornamental dish-paper on a hot 
dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve with a sauceboatful of rich brown gravy. 

Rolled Veal. 

Bone a loin of veal and trim it neatly. Prepare a stuffing with finely-minced ba- 
con and breadcrumbs, seasoning them with grated lemon peel, sweet herbs, pounded 
mace, salt and pepper and cayenne pepper, and binding it all with beaten egg. Spread 
the mixture over the veal, roll it up, bind it tightly to keep it in shape, place it in a 
stewpan, lay a few slices of fat bacon on the top, cover it with nicely-flavored stock, 
and stew it gently for four hours. When cooked remove the veal from the fire and 
allow it to partly cool in the stock; then drain it, put it between two dishes, with a 
weight on the top, and leave till cold. Remove the bindings and brush it over with 
melted glaze. Spread a folded napkin on a dish, place the veal on, garnish with pars- 
ley, and serve. 

Roasted Round of Veal. 

Cut a slice of veal out of the largest part of the leg, remove the center bone, and 
fill the cavity with bread stuffing. Wrap the meat in a sheet of buttered paper, 
arrange it in the pan and roast it in a hot oven, basting it frequently. Half an hour 
before the fillet is done, remove the paper, sprinkle a little salt over it, and allow it to 
brown nicely. When cooked, remove the meat from the oven, glaze it, place it on a 
hot dish, pour a little brown gravy over, and serve with a separate dish of vegetables. 

Veal Sausages. 

Chop two pounds or so of veal very fine, carefully removing from it all skin 
and sinew, mix with it one pound of finely-chopped beef suet, and season well with 



260 VEAL. 

salt, pepper, chopped parsley, thyme and marjoram. Place the mixture in well- 
cleaned skins and tie them at intervals with twine. 



Scalloped Veal. 



Mince a quantity of cold roasted veal, season it with salt, pepper and grated 
nutmeg, moisten it well with a few tablespoonfuls of cream, place it in a saucepan 
and stir it over the fire for a few minutes. Fill some scallop shells with the veal 
mixture, cover them over with grated breadcrumbs, put a few small bits of butter in 
each, and brown them in the oven or under a salamander. Place the shells on a 
folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper laid on a dish, and serve them. 

Roasted Shoulder of Veal. 

Remove the knuckle from a shoulder of veal and roast the fillet, basting it often. 
When cooked place the veal on a hot dish, garnish it with slices of lemon, and serve 
with a sauceboatful of oyster sauce. 

Spiced Veal. 

Cut some cold lean veal, either fried or baked, into pieces about one inch 
square. Pour on sufficient scalding-hot vinegar to cover, adding to each pint of 
the same one dozen whole cloves, one-half stick of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of 
salt and a small red pepper or a dozen peppercorns. When the vinegar is hot pour 
it and the spices over the pieces of veal and allow them to stand in the pickle for 
at least twenty-four hours. It is then ready for use and is excellent when served for 
cold luncheon or supper. 

Broiled Veal Steak. 

Grease a gridiron well, put a steak of veal on it and broil over a clear fire, turn- 
ing now and then. Chop fine four or five small fresh onions, put them in a sauce- 
pan with a little tomato catsup, a small quantity of thyme and one ounce of butter; 
fry them for a few minutes, then pour in one teacupful of broth and boil slowly for 
twenty minutes. When cooked and nicely browned put the veal stock on a hot dish 
with a lump of butter on it. Stir one tablespoonful of flour into the gravy, color it 
with a little browning, pour in a few drops of wine and stir over the fire until 
boiling fast Pour the gravy over the veal, and serve with a dish of spinach or 
sorrel. 

Stewed Veal. 

Put two tablespoonfuls of flour and two ounces of butter into a stewpan and stir 
over the fire until browned and well mixed; then put in the veal, cut into pieces, 
and fry a little. Put in some young onion, button mushrooms, peas, carrots, a bunch 
of thyme and some laurel leaves, with salt and pepper to taste, and moisten the whole 



VEAL. 261 

with a little warm water. Boil the veal gently until cooked, then turn the stew onto a 
hot dish, and serve at once. 

Stewed Veal, Bourgeoise. 

Cook in one ounce of warm butter three pounds of lean veal cut in pieces and six 
small onions. After cooking for ten minutes add two tablespoonfuls of flour and mois- 
ten with one quart of white broth. Stir well and season with one heaping tablespoon- 
ful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper and one-half wineglassful of red wine. Add two 
or three carrots cut into small squares one ounce of salt pork cut up into pieces, 
and a garnished bouquet. Cook for forty minutes longer, remove the bouquet, and 
serve very hot. 

Stewed Breast of Veal. 

Blanch a breast of veal, put it in a stewpan with a bunch of sweet herbs, two 
onions each stuck with two or three cloves, the peel of half a lemon, a blade of mace, 
three ounces of butter, and salt and pepper to taste. Fry the veal for two or three 
minutes, but do not allow it to take color, then pour in one pint of hot water and stew 
it gently until tender. When cooked remove the long bones from the veal and strain 
the liquor. Put one ounce of butter and one tablespoonful of flour in a stewpan and 
mix them over the fire, then stir in the veal stock, add one teacupful of thick cream, 
and stir the whole over the fire until boiling; then move the stewpan to the side of 
the fire and stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs, the juice of half a lemon, and some 
oysters that have been blanched in their own liquor. Place the veal on a hot dish, 
garnish it with fried oysters and slices of lemon, and serve. 

Stewed Breast of Veal, Nantaise. 

Trim three pounds of the breast of veal, make a few incisions on the top, and tie 
it round tightly with string. Place it in a deep sautepan with a piece of pork skin 
cut up, a carrot and a sliced onion, and cover with buttered paper; when it begins to 
color after cooking five minutes or so, moisten it gently with one pint of water or 
broth. Baste as often as possible, and allow it to cook for one hour. Place it on a 
dish, strain the sauce over, garnish with six stuffed lettuce heads and a few croutons 
of fried bread, and serve. 

Stewed Breast of Veal with Turnips. 

Cut half of a breast of veal into small pieces. Put one-fourth pound of butter 
into a saucepan with three tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir it over the fire for a few 
minutes; then put in the pieces of veal and fry them until the meat has well set. 
Remove the stewpan from the fire, drain off the fat, pour in by degrees sufficient 
broth and white wine mixed in equal quantities to cover the meat, also put in a large 



262 VEAL. 

onion stuck with three or four cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs and a small quantity of 
pepper. Place the saucepan on the fire until the liquor commences to boil, then 
move it to the side, and allow it to simmer. Peel some turnips, cut them into the 
shape of balls with a vegetable cutter, and blanch them for a few minutes; then drain, 
place them in a fryingpan with a lump of butter or lard, and fry them until lightly 
colored, seasoning with a little pepper, salt and a little sugar. Drain all the fat from 
the turnips, put them in with the meat and finish the cooking. When cooked skim 
the fat off the stew, turn it out on to a hot dish, and serve. 

Stewed Fillet of Veal. 

Bone a fillet of veal, fill the cavity with veal stuffing, then lard the fillet and half 
roast it; then put it into a stewpan with two quarts of white stock, one teaspoonful of 
mushroom catsup, and one teaspoonful of lemon pickle. Let it simmer slowly until 
cooked. Strain the gravy, then thicken it with butter rolled in flour, add a few 
pickled mushrooms and a little salt and cayenne, and pour it over the boiling veal on 
the dish. Have in readiness two or three dozen forcemeat balls to put round and on 
top of it, place some slices of lemon round, and serve the dish. 

Stewed Kernel of Veal. 

Saw the knuckle off a leg of veal, lay the fillet on the table, cut through the 
bone in the center under the udder until the skin is cut through, then remove the 
bone and lay out the meat. There will be separate pieces of meat, the largest of 
which is the kernel. Cut it out by pressing the hand upon it, and then with a sharp 
knife cut down close to the skin until it comes to the udder ; then take the piece of 
meat out, and lay it on the table, the best side down and beat it well. Trim this 
meat neatly, and lard it with thin strips of fat bacon. Cut off the udder and secure 
it to the side of the kernel. Line a flat stewpan with pieces of bacon and two sliced 
onions, put in the veal with a bunch of sweet herbs and two bay leaves, and pour 
in two breakfast cupfuls of clear broth, Place the stewpan in a moderate oven, 
and cook the contents for three hours, basting the meat occasionally with some of 
its own cooking liquor. Should all the moisture become absorbed, a small quantity 
of water may be added. When cooked take the veal out of the stewpan, glaze it 
and brown it lightly with a salamander. Lay it on a hot dish, and keep it hot 
while the sauce is being prepared. Strain the cooking gravy through a fine hair 
sieve into a small saucepan, season it with pepper, and boil it up. Then pour the 
gravy over the kernel, and serve. 

Stewed Knuckle of Veal. 

Take a knuckle of veal, break the bone well in two or three places, put it into a 
saucepan with a bunch of sweet herbs, eight or ten shallots, a small quantity of whole 



VEAL. 263 

black pepper, a blade or two of mace and salt to taste, pour over it five pints of 
water, put it on the fire, and allow it to boil gently until the water is reduced to two 
and one-half pints. Then take out the meat, strain the gravy, mix in with it two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, stir it over the fire until it boils, and cook it for ten minutes, 
stirring now and then. Then put back into the gravy the best part of the meat cut 
nicely from the bone, add a very small quantity of cayenne, lemon juice to taste, and 
two wineglassfuls of Madeira wine, and allow all to get quite hot. Garnish with 
sippets of toast, slices of lemon, and piles of forcemeat balls, and serve. 

Stewed Loin of Veal. 

The chump end of a loin of veal is the best part to stew. When well floured, 
place it in a saucepan with a little butter that has been browned over the fire, and 
brown the veal in it ; when of a good color, pour in enough good veal broth to half 
cover it, put in a couple of carrots, cut in pieces an onion, a small sprig of parsley, 
and a small bunch of sweet herbs, and stew gently for two hours and a half. When 
half done, turn it, and when quite done, take it out. Thicken the broth, season it to 
taste, pour over the veal, and serve. 

Stewed Veal, Marengo. 

Cut three pounds of lean veal into pieces and cook them in a stewpan with one 
gill of oil, a cut up onion or two shallots and two or three ounces of salt pork, also 
cut in pieces. Toss them occasionally, and when well browned, which should take 
about ten minutes, dredge in two tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring well. Moisten 
with one quart of white broth and one gill of tomato sauce and season with one table- 
spoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of pepper, adding a crushed clove of garlic and 
a garnished bouquet. Cook for forty minutes and serve with croutons of fried bread 
for garnish with a little chopped parsley sprinkled over. 

Stewed Neck of Veal. 

Trim a neck of veal, soak it in tepid water for a short time, then put it in boil- 
ing water and leave it for ten minutes. Put one-fourth pound of butter in a stewpan 
and add two ounces of flour and stir it over the fire until well mixed ; then put in the 
veal, two or three onions, carrots and parsnips, a bunch of parsley, a clove of garlic, 
two or three cloves, a little salt and pepper, and moisten with a little water. Cook 
the meat gently until tender, then take it out and place it on a hot dish. Boil the 
cooking liquor until well reduced, then strain it through a fine hair sieve. Mix one 
tablespoonful of chopped gherkins and one teaspoonful of vinegar with the sauce, and 
serve in a sauceboat with the veal. 



264 VEAL. 

Stewed Veal, Provincial. 

Cut into pieces three pounds of lean veal from the breast or shoulder-blade and place 
them in a stewpan with one ounce of butter, two tablespoonfuls of sweet oil and one 
chopped onion. Cook for ten minutes, stirring now and then; add two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour, stir again and moisten with one quart of white broth. Season with one 
heaping tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper and add half a dozen minced 
mushrooms, three crushed cloves of garlic and a bunch of garnished parsley. Cook 
for forty minutes, and serve on a hot dish with a little chopped parsley sprinkled 
over it. 

Stewed Veal, Solferine. 

Cook three pounds or so of veal cut into pieces from the breast or shoulder in 
one ounce of butter with half a dozen small young onions. When cooked for ten 
minutes add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and moisten with one quart of white broth, 
and one gill of tomato sauce, seasoning with one tablespoonful of salt and one tea- 
spoonful of pepper. Stir together well until it reaches the boiling point, then add 
two turnips and two or three carrots cut out into various shapes with a vegetable 
scoop, and a garnished bouquet. Cook for forty minutes longer, and serve. Any kind 
of vegetables in season may be added. 

Stewed Veal with Oyster Plant. 

Prepare and cook the same as for stewed veal bourgeoise, putting in place of the 
garnishing one bunch of well cleaned raw oyster plant cut into pieces forty minutes 
prior to serving. 

How to Prepare Sweetbreads. 

Leave a dozen sweetbreads in cold water for two hours to disgorge, then change 
the water and boil them for a few moments on a hot fire ; take them off and refresh 
in cold water ; cut away all the windpipes and fibrous nerves and then prepare them 
as required in the various recipes. 

Aiguillettes of Sweetbreads. 

Boil a sufficient number of throat sweetbreads in water for ten minutes. Pour off 
the water and add some onion, carrot and turnip, all sliced, bay leaves, and enough 
stock or broth. Let all simmer for twenty minutes, until the sweetbreads are quite 
firm; then take out and lay on a clean cloth. Cut them into pieces about the size of 
a quarter, with a long, round cutter, and season with pepper and salt. Then chop 
some shallots very fine, and fry them in a stewpan with a little butter until they are 
quite white; add some white sauce and a little white stock. Reduce it slowly until 
thickish, when the yolks of some eggs may be beaten in and the juice of some lemon. 



VEAL. 265 

Do not let it boil after the yolks are added, but remove to one side of the stove. 
Dip the pieces of sweetbread into the sauce, and lay them on a dish until they are 
cold. Run the skewers through the centers of the pieces, two on a skewer. Put 
plenty of egg and breadcrumb on them and fry in hot lard, serving very hot on a 
folded napkin or dish-paper. 

Attereaux of Sweetbreads. 

Boil two large sweetbreads until they are done; let them cool and divide them 
into slices. Sprinkle over them a little salt and pepper, and arrange them round the 
bottom of a sautepan in which some butter has been spread. Fry over a sharp fire; 
take them out and place them on a slab to cool, with a light weight on top to make 
them flat. When these slices are quite cold, cut them round with a cutter, and put 
them into a basin with an equal quantity of similar rounds of boiled tongues and 
mushrooms, all cut with the same cutter so as to be exactly the same size as the 
rounds of sweetbreads. Pour over them in the basin a little well reduced brown sauce, 
roll them in this sauce, and then string them alternately on little wooden skewers. 
Have ready some villeroy sauce, made by beating some yolks of eggs up in a mortar 
with butter divided into little pieces; add this to the usual white sauce, reduced and 
made consistent, and boil up. Dip the attereaux in the sauce made at the same time 
as they are preparing, and arrange them on a baking sheet, at a little distance from 
each other to let the sauce cool. Then take them out, one by one, trim off the super- 
fluous sauce, and roll them in breadcrumbs; dip into beaten egg, and again roll in 
breadcrumbs; then plunge them into boiling fat until of a good color. Drain, remove 
the wooden skewer, place them on ornamental metal attelettes, and dish on a folded 
napkin. No sauce is required in serving these. 

Braised Sweetbreads. 

Take six blanched heart sweetbreads, lard the upper parts slightly, and place 
them in a braisingpan with some slices of fat pork; add half of a sliced carrot, half of 
a sliced onion, and a garnished bunch of parsley. Sprinkle with a little salt, and 
cover with buttered paper. Cook them to a golden color on the fire, and moisten 
with one-half pint of strong white broth; place the pan in the oven, and bake the 
sweetbreads for forty minutes, basting occasionally with the gravy, lifting the buttered 
paper, and replacing it each time in the same position. The sweetbreads will now be 
ready to serve with any kind of sauce that may be desired. 

Braised Sweetbreads, Montglas. 

Place half a dozen small sweetbreads in an equal number of small buttered 
paper cases, having cooked fine herbs strewn over the bottom. Heat it in the 



266 VEAL. 

oven for five minutes, then pour one tablespoonful of hot montglas over each and 
serve on a dish with a folded napkin. 

Braised Sweetbreads, Pompadour. 

Braise six sweetbreads, pour one-half pint of hot bernaise sauce on a dish 
and sprinkle with two truffles cut into small pieces, place six artichoke bottoms 
over the sauce, place a sweetbread on each with a truffle on top, and serve at once. 

Broiled Sweetbreads, Colbert. 

Cut into halves three fine blanched sweetbreads, season with one pinch of 
salt and one-half pinch of pepper and pour over one tablespoonful of oil; stir 
together well and broil them over a sharp fire for five minutes on each side. 
Dress on a hot dish, and serve with one pint of hot colbert sauce poured over. 

Broiled Sweetbreads, Maitre d' Hotel. 

Split the sweetbreads into flat slices, dust them with pepper and salt, and rub 
them well over with flour. Broil the sweetbreads over a clear fire, turning them often 
and basting with warmed butter. Place one-fourth pound of butter in a saucepan, 
with one tablespoonful each of water and chopped parsley, the juice of a large lemon 
and a little cayenne pepper. Place the sweetbreads on a hot dish and garnish them 
with slices of lemon and sprigs of parsley. 

Collops of Sweetbreads with Green Peas. 

Soak four large sweetbreads in warm water to remove all the blood, then blanch 
them till firm. Cut the sweetbreads into large collops, place them in a fryingpan with 
some butter and fry over a clear fire, turning when done on one side. When cooked 
drain the butter off the sweetbreads, put a little glaze in the pan and stir them until 
well glazed. Arrange the collops in a circle on a hot dish, fill the center with boiled 
green peas, and serve. 

Creamed Sweetbreads. 

Wash and boil the required number of sweetbreads for twenty minutes or so, then 
drain and chop them into small pieces; put them into a saucepan with some white 
sauce and boil for a few minutes. Toast some slices of bread, remove the crusts, but- 
ter the slices, cut them into halves or quarters and place them on a hot dish. Pour 
the creamed sweetbreads over the toast, and serve hot. 

Sweetbread Cromeskies. 

Boil an udder of veal in a stockpot, and when done leave it until cool, then 
trim and cut into thin slices the whole length of the piece. Blanch some throat 



VEAL. 267 

sweetbreads, trim and cut them into small square pieces; cut an equal quantity of 
mushrooms in the same way and stir them together in some stiffly-reduced allemande 
sauce. When cold, place portions of the sweetbread mixture on slices of udder, 
wrap the udder round them and roll them into the shape of corks. Dip the crome- 
skies into frying-batter and fry them in a deep pan in plenty of fat until they are crisp 
and lightly browned. Drain the cromeskies, place them on a hot dish, garnish them 
nicely all round with fried parsley and serve. 

Royal Sweetbread Croquettes. 

Put three small or two large sweetbreads into boiling water for five minutes. 
Chop them finely with one boiled boned chicken, adding one teaspoonful of onion 
juice, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley and one teaspoonful of mace. Put two 
tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan with one large tablespoonful of flour; when it 
bubbles add one pint of cream, the chopped mixture, and stir all together thoroughly 
until well heated. Remove from the fire, add the juice of half a lemon and set on 
one side to cool. Roll the mixture into shapes and dip them into beaten eggs and 
then into fine cracker-crumbs. Let the croquettes stand until dry, dip them again in 
egg and finally in breadcrumbs. All the crumbs should first be salted and peppered. 
Fry quickly in boiling fat and serve. 

Curried Sweetbreads. 

Take two calf's sweetbreads and cut them into pieces about two inches square. 
Pour into a pan three-fourths of a pint of good vealstock, put it over the fire and 
then throw in an onion sliced and fried, one tablespoonful each of curry-powder and 
vinegar, salt to taste, and one ounce of butter with sufficient flour rubbed into it to 
thicken the gravy; stir until it boils, then put in the sweetbreads and let them sim- 
mer for half an hour longer. 

Sweetbread Cutlets. 

Cut some cold cooked sweetbreads into round pieces, brush them over with 
beaten egg, then coat well with finely-grated breadcrumb that has been seasoned 
with pepper, salt, and a little dried parsley. Place a lump of butter in a fryingpan, 
and when it has melted put in the cutlets and fry them until they are nicely browned. 
Arrange them in a circle on a dish, with a small crouton of fried bread between each, 
pour a small quantity of thick brown gravy in the center, and serve. 



Sweetbreads, English Style. 



Wash the sweetbreads and parboil them; put them in a saucepan over the fire 
with barely sufficient white stock to cover, and let them stew gently for about twenty- 



268 VEAL. 

five minutes. Add a seasoning of white pepper, salt, and a small quantity of mace, 
thicken the gravy with butter and flour and add a little cream and cucumber catsup. 
Pour the gravy over the sweetbreads, and serve young peas or French beans with them. 

Sweetbreads, Financiere. 

Wash and blanch the sweetbreads, then drain and press them between two plates 
until they are cold; trim and season them with pepper and salt; butter the bottom of 
a sautepan, put in the sweetbreads and fry until they are done on both sides, then 
pour in one teacupful of clear broth and reduce that also to a glaze. When well 
glazed put the sweetbreads on a dish and keep them hot while the following garnish 
is being prepared. Pour one-half pint of wine in the stewpan that the sweetbreads 
were cooked in, and when boiling strain the wine through a fine hair sieve, skim off 
the fat and boil it until reduced to half its original quantity. Peel four or five raw 
truffles, cut them in quarters, place them in the wine with one teacupful of brown 
sauce, and boil for five minutes. Put eighteen or twenty button mushrooms in the 
sauce, with the same quantity of small poached quenelles and sprinkle them with a 
little cayenne pepper. Pour the garnish all round the sweetbreads, and serve them 
while very hot. 

Fricandeau of Sweetbreads. 

Skin and wash some sweetbreads, and lard them with well-seasoned bacon. Line 
a braisingpan with slices of bacon and beef. Put in some slices of onion, carrots, 
thyme, bay leaves, and a seasoning of silt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and mixed spices; 
then put in the sweetbreads, cover them well with some of the same seasoning, and 
moisten with a little broth. Fix the lid on tightly; solder the edges with hot water 
paste, so that no air can be admitted, place some live embers on the lid, place the 
pan over a slow fire, and cook the contents for forty-five minutes. When cooked, 
pour the sauce through a fine hair sieve, add one pinch of sugar to it, and boil until 
reduced. Glaze the sweetbreads with the reduced sauce. Put the sweetbreads on a 
puree of chicory that has been placed on a hot dish, garnish with stewed cucumbers, 
and serve. 

Fried Sweetbreads with Perigueux Sauce. 

Boil the sweetbreads, leave until cold, then cut them into slices. Melt a small 
quantity of butter in a flat stewpan, put in the slices of sweetbreads, sprinkle over a 
little pepper and salt, and fry them on both sides, add one-half pound of truffles cut 
in small pieces and a little white wine. Place the lid on the stewpan, cook the con- 
tents till the moisture has reduced to a glaze, then pour in a little brown sauce and 
put the mixture into a bain-marie. Butter a border mould, fill it with veal quenelle 
forcemeat, and poach it in a bain-marie. When firm turn the forcemeat out of the 
mould on to a hot dish, put a garnishing in the center, and serve. 



VEAL. 269 

Sweetbreads in Cases. 

Boil the sweetbreads, then drain and cut them into small pieces, place them in 
some cream sauce, and season it with pepper and salt. Fill some paper cases with 
the above mixture, cover them with breadcrumbs, put one tablespoonful of warmed 
butter in each, and place them in the oven. When the mixture is nicely browned on 
the top, remove the cases from the oven, arrange them on a folded napkin laid on a 
dish, and serve. 

Sweetbreads in Shells. 

Cut four blanched sweetbreads into small slices, and stew them in a saucepan 
with one-half ounce of butter, one-half wineglassful of white wine, and three table- 
spoonfuls of mushroom liquor. Cook for ten minutes, and then add one gill of 
veloute sauce, six minced mushrooms and two truffles, also finely chopped. Season 
with one-half tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, and one-half tea- 
spoonful of grated nutmeg, and finish by adding two tablespoonfuls of cream or one- 
half ounce of butter. Fill eight table shells with this, sprinkle them with sifted 
breadcrumbs, pour over a few drops of clarified butter, and place them in the oven to 
brown slightly for six minutes longer. Serve on a hot dish with an ornamental paper 
over, and garnish with fried parsley. 

Sweetbread in White Sauce. 

Put a sweetbread in a bowl and cover it with cold water, and let it steep for an 
hour or two. Drain the sweetbread, put it into a saucepan with sufficient cold water 
to cover, and stand it over the fire. When the water boils move the saucepan a little 
off the fire so that the sweetbread may cook slowly for about thirty minutes. At the 
end of that time plunge the sweetbread into a basin of cold water, then drain it, 
trim off the fat, and cut it into small pieces. Put one-third of a tablespoonful of 
arrowroot into a basin, and mix it smoothly with one breakfast cupful of milk ; turn 
it into the saucepan, stir over the fire until it boils, then put in the sweetbread, and 
season to taste with pepper and salt, and simmer it gently at the edge of the fire for 
ten minutes. At the end of that time turn the sweetbread and sauce onto a hot 
dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread that have been fried brown in butter, or 
sippets of toast, and serve. 

Larded Sweetbreads. 

Partially boil the sweetbreads, then drain and leave them until cold. Lard the 
sweetbreads with strips of bacon and lemon peel, putting the bacon in the center and 
the peel down the sides. Lay them in a stewpan with brown gravy to a little more 
than half their height, and let them simmer gently for an hour. Arrange the sweet- 



270 VEAL. 

breads on a hot dish, thicken the gravy with a little flour, season it to the taste with 
lemon juice and catsup, and pour it over the sweetbreads. They should be served 
while very hot. 

Sweetbreads, Montebello. 

Prepare some sweetbreads the same as sweetbreads Waldorf ; take them from 
under the weight and trim them into ovals ; cover them all with a preparation made 
of other sweetbreads minced into very small dice with mushrooms of the same size 
mingled with cream sauce, salt and pepper. Form this over the ovals in a dome- 
shape and cover with chicken forcemeat, containing very finely shredded red beef 
tongue. Dress the ovals on a dish covered with Montebello sauce, made by mixing 
tomato and Bearnaise sauce together. 



Sweetbreads, Parisian Style. 



Wash four sweetbreads and boil them for twenty or twenty-five minutes, then 
drain and soak them in cold water. Lard two of the sweetbreads with bacon, and 
stud the other two with fillets of raw truffles, pointed at one end. Put some slices of 
onions, carrots and turnips in a stewpan with some thin rashers of bacon, put in the 
sweetbreads, season with a little salt, and pour in some good broth to about three- 
fourths their height. Place a sheet of buttered paper over the sweetbreads, and boil 
them gently till the liquor is reduced to one-third, then place the lid on the stewpan 
with some hot ashes on it and finish cooking them. Ornament a border mould with 
some truffles, fill it with veal forcemeat and poach it in the bain-marie. When cooked 
turn the border of forcemeat onto a hot dish, place a piece of fried bread in the 
center masked with forcemeat, and fill up the hollow with cooked sliced truffles and 
mushrooms. Brush the sweetbreads over with melted glaze, and stand them on the 
border resting them on the block of bread. Place three button-mushrooms and a 
truffle between each sweetbread, garnish an attelette skewer with a truffle and a cocks- 
comb, and fix it in the top of the bread support ; pour round the dish a small quantity 
of brown sauce that has been reduced in a little white wine, trimmings of mushrooms 
and truffles. Serve the sweetbread with a sauceboatful of the same sauce. 

Sweetbread and Mushroom Patties. 

Soak a sweetbread in cold water, blanch it in boiling water, take it out, drain, 
trim, remove the skin, fat and gristle. Put it in a saucepan and pour on sufficient 
water to cover; and boil for about fifty minutes, then remove it, drain, and cut up into 
pieces about one-half an inch thick. Wash thoroughly eight or ten large peeled 
mushrooms, put them into a saucepan with one-half an ounce of butter and one tea- 
spoonful of lemon juice. Add a small quantity of salt and pepper, cover the sauce- 
pan and cook slowly for about twenty minutes. Put one ounce each of butter and 
flour into the saucepan, mix together thoroughly, pour in one teacupful of rich stock 



VEAL. 271 

and boil for a few minutes, stirring continually. Then add one tablespoonful of 
cream, also the mushrooms and sweetbread. Sprinkle over salt and pepper to taste 
and turn the mixture out to cool. Have ready a dozen small patty pans well buttered 
and lined with a rich puff paste, fill them with the sweetbread mixture, cover with 
more of the paste, brush over the top with a well beaten egg, put them into a mod- 
erate oven, and bake for twenty or twenty-five minutes ; then remove, and serve with- 
out delay. 

Sweetbread Pie, Financiere. 

Butter a pie mould and line it with short paste. Mix some sweet herbs with a 
sufficient quantity of raw chicken forcemeat and put a layer of it at the bottom; fill 
the pie with collops of calf's or lamb's sweetbreads that have been fried with herbs, 
put in another layer of the forcemeat, lay a flat of paste on the top, moisten the edges 
and press them together, trimming round evenly; brush the top over with a paste 
brush dipped in beaten egg, cover with a sheet of paper and bake for an hour and a 
quarter in a moderate oven. Shape out of some veal forcemeat fifteen quenelles and 
poach them in salted water. Lard a lamb's sweetbread, braise and glaze it with some 
fowls' livers, truffles, cockscombs and button mushrooms. Prepare a garnishing. 
When cooked take the pie out of the oven, take off the top round of paste and the 
top layer of forcemeat, slip the pie onto a hot dish and pour into it some brown 
sauce that has been reduced with a little Madeira. Arrange the garnishing in the 
center, placing the sweetbread on the top, put the quenelles on the rim, and serve the 
pie while hot with a sauceboatful of Madeira sauce. 

Sweetbreads, Piedmontese. 

Boil two or three sweetbreads, drain and let them get cold, then cut them into 
slices broadwise. Season the slices of sweetbread, place them in a sautepan with 
some clarified butter and fry until they are slightly browned on both sides. Drain 
the butter off the sweetbreads, pour in a little white wine and boil it till reduced; add 
a small quantity of white sauce, keep the pan over the fire for a few minutes, then 
put in ten or a dozen thinly sliced raw truffles; move the saucepan to the side of the 
fire and keep it covered. Boil three-fourths of a pound of well-washed rice, turn it 
into a buttered border mould and keep it in a hot closet for ten minutes. When set 
turn the border of rice out of the mould onto a hot dish, pour the sweetbread mix- 
ture in the center, and serve it while very hot. 

Rissoles of Sweetbread. 

Wash and boil two sweetbreads for twenty or twenty-five minutes, drain and 
leave them until cold. Cut the sweetbreads into slices and then into small squares. 
Fry a chopped onion in a saucepan with a little butter, then put in one-fourth pound 
of ham and the same quantity of raw mushrooms, all cut into small pieces. Fry the 



272 VEAL. 

above mixture until the moisture has evaporated, put in the pieces of sweetbread, 
season them with salt and pepper, then stir them over the fire for a minute or two. 
Pour in one-half teacupful of half reduced bechamel sauce, remove it from the fire 
and leave until cool. Roll one pound of puff paste out onto a floured board to 
a thin square, divide the sweetbread mixture into small equal quantities, put them on 
the paste a little apart from each other, dampen the paste with a paste brush dipped 
in water, fold the edges over the sweetbread mixture, pressing them down with the 
fingers, then cut the rissoles with a plain half-moon-shaped tin cutter. Arrange the 
rissoles on a baking tin, brush them over with beaten egg, sprinkle with crushed ver- 
micelli and bake. When cooked pile the rissoles on a folded napkin spread over a 
plate, and serve. 

Scalloped Sweetbreads, Richelieu. 

Take four blanched sweetbreads, cut them into slices and stew them in a saucepan 
with one ounce of butter and one-half of a wineglassful of white wine. Season with 
one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper and a small quantity of grated 
nutmeg. Cook for six minutes, moistening with one gill of thick white sauce, and 
add two sliced truffles and four sliced mushrooms. Fill six scallop shells with the 
preparation, sprinkle the tops over with breadcrumbs, pour over all a few drops of 
clarified butter and brown slightly in the oven for about five minutes. Serve on a 
dish with a folded napkin. 

Stewed Sweetbreads, Catalane. 

Cut into slices four blanched sweetbreads, put them in a sautepan with one-half 
gill of sweet oil, one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, two chopped 
shallots and half of a slice of green pepper. Cook to a golden color for about six 
minutes and add two peeled tomatoes cut into pieces, one gill of Spanish sauce and 
a crushed clove of garlic. Cook for ten minutes longer, arrange the sweetbreads on 
a hot dish, and serve without delay. 

Timbale of Sweetbread. 

Wash some sweetbreads, put them in a saucepan with cold water and a lump of 
salt and boil for ten minutes; then put them into cold water and leave until quite 
cold, then lard them with thin strips of fat bacon. Place the sweetbreads in a stew- 
pan with some well-flavored stock (which should reach to a little more than half their 
height) and stew them gently for about an hour, basting frequently. When cooked, 
leave them until cold, then cut them into thin slices. Butter a timbale-mould and 
line it with a short paste about one-eighth of an inch thick; fill it with alternate 
layers of sweetbread, nicely flavored forcemeat and mushrooms, seasoning between 
each layer with pepper and salt. Strain the cooking-liquor of the sweetbreads, skim 



VEAL. 273 

it well and pour it over the contents of the mould. Cover the timbale with paste and 
put it in the oven, fixing it in position with ashes heaped up on both sides, When 
cooked turn the timbale out of the mould onto a hot dish, garnish with parsley and 
mushroom tops, and serve. 

Sweetbreads, Toulouse. 

Steep the sweetbreads until all the blood is drawn out of them, then blanch them 
in boiling water for five minutes or until they are firm. Drain the sweetbreads and 
leave them till cold, then trim and lard them thickly. Place a layer of sliced onion, 
carrot and celery at the bottom of a sautepan, put in the cutlets of sweetbreads and 
pour in a little stock, but not sufficient to cover them. Glaze the sweetbreads in a 
hot oven for about twenty minutes, basting them occasionally with their cooking 
liquor. Cook some asparagus tops and make a bed of them on a hot dish. When 
well browned and glazed drain the sweetbreads and pile them on the asparagus. Pass 
the cooking liquor through a silk sieve, skim off all the fat, pour it over the sweet- 
breads, and serve. 

Sweetbread Vol-au-Vent, Financiere. 

Prepare one pound of puff paste and roll it out to about two and one-half inches 
in thickness. Cut a round out of the paste with a tin cutter, brush the round over 
with a paste brush dipped in beaten egg without touching the sides, and with a knife, 
the point being held inwards towards the center, make a circular incision pressing 
the inner paste to prevent its closing up again. Make a lid with some of the remain- 
ing paste to fit in the wall of the vol-au-vent, brush the top over with beaten egg, 
place the paste on a baking-sheet and bake for half an hour in a moderate oven. Put 
one ounce of butter and a tablespoonful of flour in a stewpan, stir it over the fire until 
well mixed, then pour in gradually one pint of stock and keep stirring over the fire 
until boiling. Put one wineglassful of sherry, two tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketch- 
up and a little cayenne pepper in the sauce, move it to the side of the fire and let 
it simmer gently for fifteen minutes for the purpose of clarifying it; then skim it, put 
in a piece of glaze, put it on the fire and let it boil quickly for five minutes longer. 
When the glaze has dissolved, strain the sauce through a fine hair-sieve into another 
saucepan, put in it two partially-boiled calf's sweetbreads, three or four cockscombs, 
a few truffles and mushrooms, all cut up into fairly small pieces. Boil the sauce 
gently until the sweetbreads, etc., are cooked, then season to suit the taste with pep- 
per and salt. When cooked take the vol-au-vent out of the oven, remove the center 
carefully without damaging the case, put the above mixture into it and then cover 
with the lid. Place the vol-au-vent on a folded napkin on a hot dish and serve while 
very hot. If the cases are made and cooked before the mixture with which to fill 
them is ready, they can always be placed in an oven and warmed again. 



274 VEAL. 

Sweetbreads, Waldorf. 

Disgorge some sweetbreads in cold water for one hour, change the water and 
boil them over a slow fire for half an hour, then refresh and lay them under a weight 
for another half hour; remove and lard with small fat pork lardings. Line the bottom 
of a saucepan with the fragments of fat pork, parsley roots, a slice or two of carrot 
and a minced onion; add a little white broth and the sweetbreads, and leave to 
simmer for half an hour. Dress them onto artichoke bottoms, laid on a dish, half a 
sweetbread on each, and serve with a brown sauce containing chopped truffles and 
small chicken quenelles. 

Sweetbreads with Black Butter. 

Boil the sweetbreads, and then press them between two plates until cold. Cut 
them into thin slices, and rub them in plenty of flour. Put one and one-half pounds 
of butter into a fryingpan, and stir it over the fire until frothy and brown, then put in 
the sweetbreads, and brown on both sides. When cooked place the sweetbreads on a 
hot dish, garnish with a few olives and slices of lemon, put a little of the browned 
butter over, and serve. 

Sweetbreads with Mushrooms. 

Boil the sweetbreads for twenty or twenty-five minutes, then cut them into small 
pieces, place them in a saucepan with an equal amount of chopped mushrooms, cover 
with a cream sauce and boil them for a few minutes. Turn the mixture onto a hot 
dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Curried Tendons of Veal. 

Cut the tendons into equal-sized pieces, and braise them. When cooked, drain 
the tendons and press them between two plates till nearly cold. Strain the cooking 
liquor into another saucepan. Mix two tablespoonfuls of curry powder with two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, mixing them to a paste with a little water, then pour it in the 
strained liquor, and stir well over the fire until boiling. Trim the tendons neatly, 
put them in the curry, and boil gently for fifteen minutes. Put some slices of fat 
bacon on a dish, put the tendons on them, pour over the curry, and serve with a dish 
of plain boiled rice. 

Timbales of Veal. 

Trim off all the skin from a fillet of veal, cut the meat into small pieces, place 
them in a mortar and pound them. Put half a dozen chicken's livers in a fryingpan 
with some fat bacon, to fry. Drain the livers, pound them, mix them with the 
pounded veal, season with mixed spices, pepper and salt, and pass it through a fine 



VEAL. 275 

hair sieve; then mix with it five tablespoonfuls of rather coarsely chopped cooked 
ham. Butter some small moulds, line them with a rich puff paste, and fill them 
with the mixture. Bake for about forty-five mmutes in a moderate oven, then 
remove, and level the contents off to the same height as the moulds. Take the 
timbales out of the moulds, pour a little thick sauce in them, cover with some lids of 
puff paste that have been baked by themselves, arrange them on a hot dish covered 
with a folded napkin, and serve at once. 

Stewed CalPs Tongue and Brains. 

Place in hot water a boiled calf's tongue and a cooked brain, keeping the brain 
as whole as possible, and get them hot. Make a brown gravy by stirring one table- 
spoonful each of butter and flour over the fire until light brown, and then slowly stir 
in one pint of boiling water; season with one teaspoonful of salt, and- pinch or two of 
pepper, and one gill of vinegar; lay the tongue and brain on a hot dish, pour the 
gravy over, and serve at once. Or serve them with a hot sauce made by mixing with 
a breakfast cupful of mayonnaise, one saltspoonful of dry mustard, one tablespoonful 
each of chopped parsley, capers and pickles, and one teaspoonful of grated onion. 

Calf's Tongue with Tomato Sauce. 

Trim and well wash a calf's tongue, place it in a saucepan of boiling water, and 
scald. Remove, drain and lard, put it into a saucepan with two carrots and two or 
three onions, three heads of cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, and sufficient rich 
stock to moisten. Allow it to simmer gently for four hours. Take out the tongue 
when done, and slice it in halves, removing the skin; put them on a dish, and serve 
with tomato sauce poured over. 



Poultry. 



Capons. 

The instructions for preparing capons for cooking are as follows: 
FOR CLEANING AND TRUSSING : Pluck off all the feathers and singe a capon, chop 
off the head close to the back, remove the crop, and loosen the liver and other inside 
parts to the breast end. Cut around the vent, draw it clean, flatten the breast-bone 
with a cutlet bat, cut off the toenails and tuck the feet down close to the legs. 

FOR BOILING Put the forefinger through the interior, under the skin of the legs, 
raise it, make holes in them, and push in the legs. Pass a skewer into the first joint 
of the pinion, bringthe middle of the leg close to it; push a skewer through the middle 
of the leg into the body, and repeat this operation on the other side. Place the liver 
and gizzard in the pinions, turn the ends or points on the back, and fasten the legs 
into position by tieing them with a string. 

Boiled Capon. 

Draw a fat capon, be careful not to remove the fat from the rump; peel about 
one-half pound of truffles, boil them in a little Madeira; take the trimmings of the 
truffles and pound them with an equal amount of breadcrumbs, add half a goose's fat 
liver, the whites of two eggs, and a few tablespoonfuls of scraped bacon; rub through 
a sieve. Truss the capon with its legs forced under the skin, rub it with lemon, and 
tie on it thin slices of bacon fat: put it in a pan with some slices of vegetables and 
bacon. Place in sufficient white broth to cover, and over all a piece of buttered 
paper, and boil gently. When cooked drain and take off the string. Put a layer of 
the forcemeat on a dish, put the capon over and garnish both sides with white cocks- 
combs. 

Boiled Barded Capon with Mushrooms. 

Take a young capon, singe and draw it, fill it within with bread-stuffing of veal 
or forcemeat, with the stems of some chopped mushrooms added. Put a slice of fat 
bacon on the breast, score a little and tie it on. Put it in a stewpan with enough 
unskimmed broth to cover it, add spices and aromatics to flavor. Place the pan on a 
slow fire, broil one hour. When it is cooked take it from the pan, skim off the fat 
from the stock, and make a little white sauce reduced with the liquor, in which a few 
mushrooms have been boiled. Add the yolks of two eggs to thicken it. When 
ready to serve, remove the string and bacon. 

276 



POULTRY. 277 

Braised Capon. 

Take a capon, draw and truss it, put it into a braisingpan with half a pound of fat 
bacon, sliced; add one tablespoonful of butter and a pint of veal broth. Place it on 
a brisk fire, which will give the capon a brown color. Then remove it to a moderate 
fire, and put some hot coals or embers on the top, and braise the capon for an hour. 
Skim off the fat from the liquor, add half a pint of good stock, reduce it to a half- 
glaze, strain and pour over the capon. Capons may be stuffed with truffles, chest- 
nuts, sausages, olives, or plain veal stuffing. 

Braised Capon, Chipolata Style. 

Choose a fine young capon, draw and singe it, and truss as if for boiling. Peel 
a lemon, slice it, lay the slices on the capon, and support them with thin layers of 
bacon fat. Tie them up, and put the capon into a stewpan spread with vegetables 
and trimmings of fat. Allow it to cook for a few minutes, and add ten or twelve 
ounces of pickled pork. Then pour in sufficient good broth and white wine to cover 
one-half the height of the capon. Boil it up and put the capon on a moderate fire, 
so that it will braise slowly. It will be necessary to turn it several times, and will 
require about an hour and a quarter to cook thoroughly. When done, remove the 
pan from the fire, and twenty minutes before serving put about twenty small chipolata 
sausages, or one large common sausage (not too thick), into the pan. Chipolata 
sausages are made of poultry meat, bacon, and bread-pulp. When ready take out 
the capon, strain through a sieve the cooking stock, remove the fat, and reduce it to 
half-glaze, adding a few tablespoonfuls of good brown sauce and two or three dozen 
fresh mushrooms. When it is sufficiently reduced add the sausages, the pork cut 
into squares, twenty-four cooked chestnuts, and the same number of small glazed 
onions. Place the capon on a dish, garnish with onions, sausages, etc., and serve 
with the sauce. 

Braised Capon, Financiere. 

Take one capon; pluck, singe and draw it, remove the forked part of the breast- 
bone, fill the crop skin with butter seasoned with pepper and salt, and truss the capon 
in the same way you would for roasting. Lard the breast with strips of bacon fat, 
and tie some slices of fat bacon over the remainder of the capon; that is, the parts not 
larded. Put it into the braisingpan with a sufficient quantity of good stock to come 
above the pinions, then lay a round of buttered paper over the capon, cover over the 
pan, and let it simmer for an hour. Remove the paper and glaze the parts that are 
larded. Then make a ragout of foies gras, cut in scallops, mushrooms, and some 
small chicken quenelles mixed in financiere sauce, and put it on a dish round a block 
of fried bread, made by cutting the crumb of bread in the shape of a block eight 
inches in height, six inches square at the base, and three and one-half inches square 



2 ;8 POULTRY. 

at the top; fry this in some boiling fat, let it drain, and it is then ready for use. It 
can be fixed to the dish with a little paste made of egg and flour. Arrange the capon 
with its crop downward, and place two geese's fat livers, studded with small truffles, 
between them on the other two sides of the bread. Range a crayfish on either side 
of the geese's fat livers, and cockscomb on the top. Put a larded sweetbread on 
the top of the bread support, then garnish three silver skewers with cockscombs, 
crayfish and mushrooms, in the order named, and thrust them into the capon and 
sweetbreads. Put some financiere sauce in a sauceboat, and serve. 

Braised Capon, Godard Style. 

Prepare and cook one capon as for braised capons, financiere, but do not lard 
the breasts. Then make a stew of cockscombs, truffles and mushrooms moistened with 
Godard sauce. Prepare a dish with a bread support and croutons of fried bread round 
the edge; pour in the stew and garnish with cockscomb, truffles, some larded sweet- 
breads, and a large quenelle ornamented with truffles and tongues in the following 
order: a larded sweetbread on each of the sides and one on the top of the bread and 
a quenelle on top of the two sweetbreads; put that on the dish by the side of the 
bread; place a truffle on the top of each quenelle and one on each side of the 
sweetbreads, leaving a little space between and a cockscomb in the space left 
between the sweetbreads and the truffles and one at the base of the capon. Then 
take a silver skewer and put two cockscombs and a truffle on it and thrust it into 
the bread support between the legs of the capon. Serve some Godard sauce separately 
in a sauceboat. 

Braised Capon with Sweetbread and Truffles. 

Prepare and truss a capon as for capons, financiere. Then make a stew of 
chicken quenelles and cut mushrooms mixed in a Regence sauce. When the capon is 
done, drain and place it on a dish and lean it against a block of fried bread with the 
crop downwards. Then place one braised sweetbread below the capon and one on 
the top of the bread. Put a crayfish on each side of the sweetbread except the 
sweetbread on the top and a truffle on each crayfish. Serve with some Regence sauce 
in a sauceboat. 

Capon Pie. 

Separate the flesh from the bones of a cold roasted capon and cut it into slices 
with the exception of the thighs and pinions, which should be left whole. Remove the 
skin from and boil about one-half pound of chestnuts, chop fine in equal quantities 
some thyme, sweet marjoram and pennyroyal; line a pastrypan with paste, put in it 
the thighs and pinions and strew over them a quantity of minced onions; then put in 
flesh of the bird with four sweetbreads and half a dozen oysters cut in halves, season 



POULTRY. 279 

them with sweet herbs, salt, cloves, grated nutmeg and a bit of mace ; cover with the chest- 
nuts and put a few small pieces of butter over. Close the pan and bake the pasty in 
a quick oven. Meanwhile prepare a sauce with gravy, stock, drawn butter, two or 
three boned and filleted anchovies and a small quantity of grated nutmeg. When 
cooked, garnish the pasty with slices of lemon, pour the sauce over it, and serve. 

Roasted Capons. 

Cut off the first joint of the pinions, beat the breastbone flat with a rolling pin, 
push a skewer through the pinion bringing the middle of the legs close, pass a skewer 
through the legs, body, and remaining pinion, twist the neck, and fasten the head on 
the skewer the bill pointing forwards ; pass another skewer through the sides, and 
fasten the legs close on either side. Run a skewer through all, and the capon is 
ready for cooking. 

Roasted Capons with Noodles. 

Prepare a capon, as for braised capons, financiere, covering the breast with 
slices of bacon-fat instead of larding them. Wrap some brown paper round the 
capon, and roast it before a good fire. When it is done move it from the spit, and 
take off the bacon, Moisten some noodles with German sauce, and add to this some 
Parmesan cheese and chicken glaze. Place the noodles on a dish two inches in thick- 
ness, put the capon on them, and serve with German sauce. 

Stewed Capon, French Style. 

Pluck, singe and draw a capon, wipe it thoroughly both inside and out, rub it 
well with lemon and truss ; tie some slices of bacon fat over, put it into a saucepan 
with an onion cut in slices, pour over one breakfast cupful of good stock or gravy, 
and stew gently on the side of the fire until the bird is done. Place it on a dish, and 
serve. 

Instructions for Cleaning a Chicken. 

Lay the bird on its back with its tail toward you, cut a circle around the vent to 
free the bowels, then turn the chicken about so that the breast is toward you and the 
head and neck hanging over the edge of the table. Open the neck at the back, cut- 
ting lengthwise along the bone, and when this incision is long enough draw the 
skinned neck in a loop through the incision. Chop off the neck at the base and then 
cut through the skin of the neck across the slit so as to leave a flap about two inches 
long. Next insert the fingers through the opening in the neck and draw out the 
entrails, taking every care not to break them. If they should be burst by any acci- 
dent the interior of the carcass must be washed out and dried. If the entrails are 
sound the inside may be dried by wiping out with a cloth. Singe the chicken and 



280 POULTRY. 

the legs especially until the skin will peel off by drawing a cloth along them. Shorten 
the toes and spurs by clipping them and the bird is then ready for trussing. Some 
cooks cut off the feet just below the joint where the feathered legs commence; for 
boiling it is well to do this, but for roasting it is not necessary. 

If the poulterer cleans the bird it may be cut up for an entree as follows: Split 
the chicken into halves lengthwise by cutting down the middle of the back with a 
sharp knife, laying the fowl wide open and chopping through the breast bone from 
the inside. Lay one-half on the board and chop slantingly through the end of the 
drumstick at the hip joint or a little on the fleshy side of it; next cut off the side 
bone and tail end, leaving as much meat as possible on the body a little of which 
may be taken from the thigh. Cut off the second joint by chopping straight across 
the chicken, thereby dividing the quarters into three pieces of equal weight. Cut off 
the two small joints of the wing; chop off the main joint slantwise so that it will have 
attached to it a piece of the neckbone and a small part of the flesh of the breast. 
There will then remain nearly the entire breast, which should be chopped straight 
across to make two pieces. Cut up the other half of the fowl in the same way. The 
object of cutting up a fowl in this way is to provide for each person a piece of meat 
of equal size and appearance. Treated otherwise one would have all meat and another 
a dark-looking, bare piece of bone. 

Boning a Chicken. 

Break the bones of the bird just above the feet by giving them a blow with a 
knife, cut the skin round and give the feet a twist, thus breaking them off and with 
them the strong sinews of the legs. Chop off the wings just above the second joint. 
Slit the skin of the neck and pull it out, cut it off close and trim the skin neatly. 
Make an incision along the back from the neck to the tail, then separate the flesh 
from the bones beginning at the neck end. When the wing bone is reached disjoint 
it from the carcass, make a slit along the inside of the wing and remove the bone, 
then disjoint the thigh bone from the carcass. Proceed the same with the other 
side. Work along each side, detaching the breast and being very careful not to 
break the skin, especially over the breast, where it is very tender; then remove the 
carcass; make an incision along the thigh, dissect the bone from the flesh, scrape 
the flesh of the leg along the bone and then pull it out in such a way as to draw out 
the remaining sinews with it. 

If very old and tough the chicken may be made tender in the following 
manner* Cut it up into joints; put these into a deep pan with sufficient slightly 
salted water to cover; set the pan in the oven and let it remain until the bones 
can be easily pulled out. It will require three or four hours for this. As the 
water boils away more boiling water must be added so as to have the meat always 
covered. Now draw out all the bones, remove the skin and sinews, and the flesh 
will be quite tender and fit for using in stews, curries or such like dishes. 



POULTRY. 281 



Trussing Chickens, Fowls, Turkeys, Etc. 

Turkeys and fowls are trussed in the same way, so that what is said of one will do 
for the other. As there is a good deal to say on this subject it will be well to observe 
that when drawn according to the directions given under- their respective headings the 
free use of the flour-mop or dredger is an absolute necessity, otherwise the bird will 
have a most revolting appearance, being besmeared with blood and other discoloring 
substances from the inside, and would be anything but attractive or appetizing. 

The first thing to do with a fowl is to clean or "draw" it. When you have done 
this single it, chop off the toes of the claws, leaving about one-fourth of an inch, and 
serve the spurs in the same way; then chop off the pointed tips of the pinions and 
turn the wings in so as to make triangles on the back of the bird, the tips being pushed 
over the first joints. 

Let it be said here, once for all, that the practice of fixing the gizzard and liver 
into the wings has long since been done away with, both being useful for other pur- 
poses, but spoiled by roasting or baking. 

Having arranged the wings, lay the fowl on its back, and so that it will be on its 
folded wings also; then grip both thighs with one hand, and with a long packing nee- 
dle threaded with twine (white in preference), pierce through the thighs and body in 
the bend of the joint. Draw the string through and push the needle under the joint 
of the wing nearest the leg alongside of it, then cut through the middle of the chick 
part, taking a stitch through the flap of the neck, drawn tightly down, stitching it on- 
to the back, then through the opposite pinion. Press the leg into an even position 
and square the fowl nicely before you; when it is evenly and neatly shaped, tie the 
ends of the string fairly tight, That done press the leg down and pass the needle 
through the leg and body to the other side; draw it tightly and return through the 
flesh over the outside of the backbone, through again to the joint where the two ends 
are tied. Finally, cut a small slit in the apron just above the vent and force the cush- 
ion of the tail through this hole so that it remain in the bird out of sight. When 
fowls are stuffed the stuffing is pushed through the hole where the vent was before the 
tail was tucked in, and thrust clear up to the breast, filling it out like a crop. Should 
there be any difficulty in making the vent keep in its place, a small skewer must be 
used. 

Some cooks cut the feet off at the ankle joints; that is, where the scaly part joins 
the feathers, and this practice is a good one; but when it is decided to leave the legs 
on they must be singed or rather burnt until the outer skin can be stripped off by 
drawing a cloth firmly along it. Take care to see that both the knots of the trussing- 
twine are on the same side of the bird, as they are more easily removed after cooking. 

Pheasants, pigeons and partridges can be trussed for roasting in a similar manner 
to that described above. 

Fowls and turkeys for broiling or braising require a somewhat different manner 



282 POULTRY. 

of trussing. Make an incision in the leg down to the bone, then insert the ringers in 
the vent and loosen the skin from the flesh all round the thigh. When the limb is 
thoroughly loosened from the skin lift the cut edge nearest the body of the bird, and, 
folding the limb, thrust it under the skin until it can be seen. The strings are then 
fastened over the feet. 

The great difficulty about this latter method of trussing is to get the legs well 
under the skin without breaking it. The insufficient loosening of the skin is generally 
the prime cause of the trouble. 

Geese and ducks are trussed by turning the wings under and fastening the legs 
close to the sides by skewers. When, as is sometimes the case, the feet of the duck 
are left on, the joint is severed and the toes cut off, and the feet scalded and peeled; 
the bird is then trussed in the usual manner. The feet are tied under the back against 
the points of the wings. 

Chicken, Bechamel Sauce. 

Put into a large saucepan two onions cut in quarters with one ounce of butter 
and fry for a few minutes. Cut about a pound and a half or two pounds of fillet of 
veal into small pieces and put these in with the onions, also two chickens from which 
the fillets have been removed, seasoning them with salt and pepper; fry the meats for 
a few minutes, then dredge in half a pound of flour, stir it over the fire and pour in 
gradually three quarts of stock, add a bunch of sweet herbs and continue stirring 
until it boils. Move the stewpan to the side of the fire, put on the lid and let 
the contents simmer for two hours. The fat should be skimmed off frequently. 
Strain the sauce through a fine hair sieve into another stewpan and boil it quickly, 
adding a pint of thick cream in three separate portions. When the sauce is reduced 
to such a consistency that it coats the spoon, strain it through a broth napkin into a 
basin, and stir it until cold. 

Boiled Chicken. 

Put one quart of broth into a stewpan over the stove, and when it boils put in a 
cleaned and trussed fowl or chicken and season with an onion, a bunch of sweet herbs 
and a little salt and pepper. When the fowl is done, dish it up, garnish with pieces 
of fried bacon, and serve with white sauce. 

Boiled Chickens, Providence Style. 

Singe, draw and wipe two chickens, truss them from the wing to the leg with a 
needle, and boil them in a saucepan of broth for three-quarters of an hour. Prepare 
one pint of allemande sauce with the broth of a chicken, adding one teacupful each of 
finely cut boiled carrot and cooked lima beans or flageolets, and cook for three 
minutes longer. Dish up the fowls, untruss, pour over the sauce, arrange the vege- 
tables on either side, and serve with chopped parsley sprinkled over. 



POULTRY. 283 

Boiled Chickens, Royal Style. 

Truss two chickens as for boiling, lard their breasts thoroughly and place them 
in a stewpan with stock up to the larding; then cover them over with a piece of 
buttered paper, put a tight-fitting lid on the pan and let them gently simmer until 
done. While they are cooking, cut a croustade of bread in the shape of a vase, and 
fry it; put this in the center of the dish, place the fowls on either side, garnish the 
dish with a garnishing of cockscombs, truffles, mushrooms and ham, cut in fancy 
shapes and pour over one pint of good white sauce, previously made hot. The 
croustade should have fine, ornamented, fancy skewers stuck in it, upon which may 
be arranged some of the pieces out of the garnishing, and two or three crayfish. 

Boiled Stuffed Chicken. 

Fin the body of a cleansed fowl or chicken with small onions, which have been 
half cooked in milk. Boil the giblets with some onions and two or three slices of 
bacon, and when done, strain the gravy in a saucepan, put in the fowl and simmer 
until quite tender. Boil three large onions in a quart of milk, and when it is reduced 
to half its original quantity, thicken with half a teacupful of flour that has been 
smoothly moistened with milk. Stir the sauce over the fire until thick; add two pats 
of butter and a little pepper and salt and stir by the side of the fire until the butter 
is dissolved. Dish the fowl, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Boiled Chicken with Onions. 

Take a young, fat chicken, singe, draw and truss it for boiling; put it into a 
buttered saucepan with a pint of white broth, sprinkle a little salt and pepper over, 
place the pan over a moderate fire and cook gently for thirty minutes. Blanch one 
pound of small onions, place them in the pan with the chicken and cook gently for 
thirty minutes longer. Whilst the chicken is cooking, it should be turned two or 
three times. Pour the broth and onions over, and serve. 

Boiled Chicken with Poulette Sauce. 

Boil a chicken in broth seasoned with an onion stuck with three cloves, a bunch 
of sweet herbs and a little salt and pepper. Turn half a pound of mushrooms and pre- 
pare one pound of poulette sauce. When the fowl is done, dish it, garnish with the 
mushrooms, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Boiled Chicken with Rice. 

Singe, draw and truss a chicken and boil it for fifteen minutes ; add one onion 
stuck with three cloves, one saltspoonful each of salt and pepper and a bunch of 
sweet herbs. Take out the onions and herb and put in a breakfast cupful of well washed 



284 POULTRY. 

rice and boil until the rice is tender ; dish the fowl, add a teacupful of gravy or stock to 
the liquor in which it was boiled ; pour the gravy and rice around the fowl, and serve. 

Boiled Chicken with Tarragon Sauce. 

Take a large chicken, singe, truss and draw ; put a piece of butter mixed with a 
handful of tarragon leaves inside ; cover it with thin slices of fat bacon, put it in a 
saucepan with the neck, gizzard and some pieces of trimmings of veal ; add one tea- 
cupful of Madeira wine, sufficient broth to cover, and some fat skimmed off some rich 
stock. When boiling, stand the saucepan at the side of the fire and simmer for three- 
quarters of an hour. Take the chicken out when it is cooked, strain and skim the 
liquor, thicken with a little roux, put in a small bunch of tarragon leaves, and boil for 
twenty minutes. Skim, strain and reduce the sauce, thicken it with the beaten yolks 
of two eggs and stir over the fire until it comes to a boil ; then add a small piece 
of butter and one tablespoonful of blanched green tarragon leaves. Dish the chicken, 
pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Braised Chickens. 

Take three young fat chickens and cut them into quarters; put a little butter at 
the bottom of a saucepan, and when it is melted add a layer of sweet herbs, a little 
onion, shallot and mushrooms, all chopped fine, and a large bunch of parsley. 
Place the legs first, and then the remainder of the fowls on them, sprinkle over a lit- 
tle more sweet herbs, cover over the pan, set it on the fire and place hot ashes on the 
lid. Let this cook for twenty minutes or so, then put the meat on a dish, pour a little 
melted glaze over the herbs, then pour over the chicken, and serve. 

Braised Chickens, Montmorency Style. 

Select a couple of chickens of equal size, draw and singe them and fill the insides 
with a paste made of butter, lemon juice, salt and pepper, and tie them up into shape. 
Put a saucepan of water on the fire, and when it boils dip the breasts of the birds in 
for a few minutes to make the meat firm. Lard the breast with thin strips of fat pork; 
put the chickens into an oval-shaped saucepan with several layers of fat pork around, 
but not over them; add a little good, freshly made broth (for if it has not been made 
fresh it will turn the meat red) to moisten; place the pan on the fire and cover the lid 
over with hot ashes to cook the bacon quickly; when this is a good brown color the 
ashes may be taken off and the fowls left to cook for thirty minutes very gently. 
Then take them out, remove the string and dish with a financiere garnishing. 

Braised Chickens, Printaniere. 

Take a large fowl or chicken, singe, draw and truss and put in a stewpan, add 
eight ounces of chopped bacon and fry the bird lightly. Scald and chop in small 



POULTRY. 285 

squares about half a pound of streaky bacon; put it in a stewpan with four small car- 
rots and onions, season with salt, add a teacupful of broth; put the lid on the stewpan 
with some live embers on the top, stand it over a moderate fire and finish braising. 
Dish the chicken, mix some cooked peas with the vegetables and garnish the dish 
with them. Stir and mix an equal quantity of white sauce with the liquor, boil for a 
few minutes, strain, pour it over, and serve. 

Broiled Chickens. 

Take a chicken, clean, singe and split it down the back; break the joints, take 
out the breast-bone and wipe the bird clean; dust a little pepper and salt over it, 
rub with warm butter, put on a gridiron over a good, clear fire, and broil for twenty 
minutes or so. Place it on a dish with some more butter over and serve quite hot. 
To carve this, separate the legs and wings from the body, and then the breast from 
the lower parts 

Broiled Chicken Cutlets. 

Cut off the larger fillets of four chickens without injuring the small fillets; cut 
the wishbone in halves, take off the small fillets, remove the skin and make them 
into the shape of hearts, sticking the wishbones into the ends or points so as to make 
them look like cutlets. Sprinkle them with plenty of salt and pepper, brush them 
on both sides with egg and cover with breadcrumbs; next dip them into melted 
butter, then into crumbs again, smooth them over with a knife and broil over a good 
fire until of light brown. Pour some Spanish sauce on a dish, put the cutlets on it 
and serve. If preferred, they may be fried in butter. 

Broiled Chickens with Bacon. 

Singe two chickens, draw and wipe them ; cut off their heads and then split them 
lengthwise without separating. Place them on a dish, season with salt, pepper and 
one tablespoonful of sweet oil, turn them well in the seasoning and broil for nine 
minutes on each side. Prepare six small toasts on a hot dish, arrange the chickens 
over, spread half a gill of maitre d'hotel butter on top and add six thin slices of 
boiled bacon. 

Capilotade of Chicken. 

Take some remains of cold roasted chickens and cut them into pieces. Put in a 
stewpan two ounces of butter with two tablespoonfuls of flour and stir over the fire 
until well mixed; then put in a few chopped herbs and some mushrooms that have 
been scalded and cut up into small pieces, and fry them; when browned, pour over 
half a pint of white wine and an equal quantity of broth and boil gently for twenty 
minutes. Put the pieces of chicken into the sauce and stew them slowly for about 
fifteen minutes. Turn the stew onto a hot dish, garnish with sippets of toast or 
croutons of fried bread, and serve. 



286 POULTRY. 

Chicken Croquettes. 

Take two chickens weighing about three pounds each, put them into a saucepan 
with water to cover, add two onions and carrots, a small bunch of parsley and thyme, 
a few cloves and half a grated nutmeg, and boil until the birds are tender; then 
remove the skin, gristle and sinews and chop the meat as fine as possible. Put into 
a saucepan one pound of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour, stir over the fire for a 
few minutes and add half a pint of the liquor the chickens were cooked in and one 
pint of rich cream, and boil for eight or ten minutes, stirring continually. Remove 
the pan from the fire, season with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg and a little powdered 
sweet marjoram, add the chopped meat and stir well. Then stir in rapidly the yolks 
of four eggs, place the saucepan on the fire for a minute, stirring well, turn the mass 
onto a dish, spread it out and let it get cold. Cover the hands with flour and form 
the preparation into shapes, dip them into egg beaten with cream, then in sifted 
breadcrumbs and let them stand for half an hour or so to dry; then fry them a 
delicate color after plunging into boiling lard. Take them out, drain, place on a 
napkin on a dish and serve. The remainder of the chicken stock may be used for 
making consomme or soup. 

Chicken Croquettes, Perigourdin. 

Prepare some croquettes composed of chicken, mushrooms, two truffles cut into 
small square pieces and one ounce of cooked smoked tongue in small pieces. Fry 
them for four minutes, and serve. Heat half a pint of Madeira sauce, add to it one 
chopped truffle and six chopped mushrooms. Cook for five minutes, and serve in a 
sauceboat. 

Chicken Croquettes, Queen Style. 

Make a croquette preparation of chicken and mushroom, roll it into eight cork 
shaped pieces, dip each one separately in beaten egg and then into breadcrumbs. 
Fry them in very hot fat for four minutes, drain thoroughly and place them on a hot 
dish over a folded napkin. Serve with half a pint of hot Queen sauce in a sauceboat. 

Curried Chicken. 

Singe and draw a chicken weighing about three pounds and cut the flesh into 
square pieces; put these in cold water for five minutes, wash them well, drain and put 
them in a saucepan filling it up to the surface with hot water; season with salt, 
pepper and grated nutmeg. Add a bunch of sweet herbs and six small onions and 
cook on a moderate fire for forty-five minutes, skimming well. Take another sauce- 
pan, place in it a gill and a half of white roux, moisten it with all of the broth from 
the chicken, and mix well together. Prepare a tablespoonful of diluted curry with the 
yolks of four eggs and the juice of half a lemon, beat all well together and pour it 



POULTRY. 287 

into the sauce a little at a time, stirring continually and not allowing it to boil. 
Pour the sauce over the chicken which remains in the saucepan, dress immediately on 
a hot dish, garnish with boiled rice, and serve. 

Curried Chicken, Creole Style. 

(Prepare and cook the same as Curried Chicken) adding one green pepper cut 
very fine, one chopped onion and half a clove of garlic; cook for twenty minutes 
with the chicken. 

Curried Chicken, Spanish Style. 

Prepare the same as for curried chicken, adding two tomatoes cut up and one 
green pepper; cook for ten minutes with the chicken. 

Chicken Custard. 

Put one breakfast cupful each of chicken stock and cream into a saucepan and 
boil; then pour them over the yolks of three well-beaten eggs, put them into the 
bain-marie, add a little salt, and cook until the mixture thickens a little. Let it get 
cold, put it into custard cups, and serve. 

Chicken Cutlets. 

Take a cold boiled chicken, chop it into dice, and put it into a stewpan to cook 
with half its bulk of raw truffles, also cut into dice, four tablespoonfuls of quenelle 
forcemeat, and two tablespoonfuls of reduced veloute sauce. Divide this mixture 
into eight equal parts, and roll them on a well floured board, making them into the 
shape of cutlets, and sticking a small bone in the thin end. Dip them one by one 
first into beaten egg and then into breadcrumbs, taking care that the crumbs are 
equally distributed over them; plunge them into a fryingpan with butter, and fry until 
colored. Take them out, drain on a cloth, put a paper frill on each bone, and arrange 
them in a circle on a dish with a mince of vegetables in the center. 

Deviled Chicken. 

Make a mixture of cayenne, salt, mustard, grated lemon peel, lemon juice, sherry 
wine, and Worcestershire sauce, or any other except anchovy. Cut off some slices 
of cooked chicken, butter, lay them in the mixture and let them soak for some time. 
Put sauce and all into a saucepan over the fire. Do not let it boil, and serve very hot. 

Braised Fillets of Chicken. 

Cut off some fillets of chicken and with a larding-needle lard each of them with 
four strips of pork ; put a slice of fat pork for each fillet on the bottom of a braising 



288 POULTRY. 

pan and on top of the pork, a little piece of onion ; sprinkle the fillets over with salt, 
pepper and flour, place them on the top of the pork and onion, pour in two pints of 
stock, cover over the pan and cook for an hour or so, basting frequently. A little 
more water or stock may be required if the other boils away, so that when it is 
completely done at the end of the hour there will be about one pint left in the pan ; 
take out the fillets, drain them, cover with slightly warmed butter and dust them over 
with flour again ; then place them on a gridiron over the fire and broil them until 
they are a light brown color. After the meat has been removed from the gravy, skim 
off the fat ; put one tablespoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of flour into a sauce- 
pan and cook until of a light brown ; then add it to the gravy, and boil up again. 
Place the fillets on a dish, and pour the sauce around them, or put them on a heap of 
mashed potatoes, with a little parsley at the edge and the sauce poured around. 

Epigrammes of Chicken Fillets. 

Cut off the fillets from three chickens, trim, put them into a sautepan with clarified 
butter, give them a curve in the pan, pour more butter over, place a sheet of buttered 
paper over all, set the pan in the oven or over the fire, and cook until the flesh is 
done. Cut off the legs, bone them, put them in a saucepan with a little mirepoix 
braise, take them out when done and press between them two dishes until cold ; now 
dip them into warm reduced allemande sauce, next in breadcrumbs, then in egg and 
breadcrumbs again. Stick a piece of bone in the thin end of each, plunge them into 
boiling fat, and fry. Have ready a hollow croustade of bread, place in the center of a 
dish, arrange the fillets around alternately with the legs, fill the croustade with mush- 
rooms or other puree, and serve with allemande sauce in a tureen. 

Fried Chicken Fillets with Mushrooms. 

Take half a pound of white mushrooms, peel and turn, put their trimmings 
into a stewpan, and the mushrooms into a fryingpan with half a teacupful of water, 
a small piece of butter and a little salt. Boil the mushrooms for three or four min- 
utes, then strain their liquor into the stewpan with the trimmings, add one pint of 
bechamel sauce, and boil it until rather thickly reduced ; then pass it through a fine 
hair sieve, return it to the stewpan, put in the mushrooms, one teaspoonful of sugar, 
mix half a teacupful of milk, and boil it up again. Trim the fillets of a fowl, put 
them in a fryingpan with a lump of butter, and fry them over a moderate fire. When 
cooked the fillets should be quite white. Serve on a hot dish with the mushrooms in 
the center. 

Larded Fillets of Chicken. 

Take ten, without removing the small or minion fillets and lard each on the 
smooth surface with five strips of bacon; sprinkle them over with salt and pepper, 
arrange them in a fryingpan close together on a few slices of bacon, add a little 



POULTRY. 289 

butter and put them on the fire for two or three minutes, then place the pan in a 
moderate oven and leave it for five minutes longer. Glaze them with a paste brush 
and cook to a good color, leaving them a little underdone. Make a mince of black 
truffles, with a little Madeira added; put in the center of a dish, place the fillets in a 

circle leaning against it, with the sharp pointed ends uppermost, and serve. 

N 

Chicken Fillets, Perigord Style. 

Take two cold braised chickens, cut off the fillets and divide each into halves. 
Put in a mortar two ounces of goose's fat liver, pound and rub it through a fine hair 
sieve. Chop an onion finely, put it in a saucepan with a small lump of butter, pass 
it over the fire for a few minutes and then pour in one breakfast cupful of white 
sauce that has been boiled until thickly reduced. When on the point of boiling, put 
in the pounded fat liver and stir in quickly the beaten yolks of two eggs. Leave 
the sauce until cold. Coat the fillets with the cold sauce, dip them in well-beaten 
eggs, roll them in breadcrumbs, then beat them lightly with a knife, and repeat the 
operation. Plunge the fillets into a stewpan half full of boiling lard, and fry them 
until browned; then drain, arrange in a border of mashed potatoes, garnish the center 
with fried water cresses, and serve with a sauceboatful of gravy. 

Chicken, Princess Style. 

Cut off the fillets from five chickens, pare and flatten them a little with a knife- 
handle. Shape their largest sides a good round, trim them to a point to resemble 
cutlets, sprinkle over with salt and cover with a cloth. Take a saucepan and put in 
it five ounces of butter, melt, let it settle, and pass it through a strainer. Make some 
highly-flavored forcemeat from the flesh off the legs, put it into a well-buttered plain 
border mould, and place it in the bain-marie to poach. In the meantime, boil a 
pickled beef tongue in salted water, and keep it hot; peel fifteen small raw truffles, 
and keep them covered over until wanted. Next prepare some stock with the bones 
of the birds, vegetables, sweet herbs, white wine .and broth. When cooked strain it, 
add the truffle trimmings and reduce it to half glaze; add its equal bulk of brown 
sauce and boil for a few minutes ; then pass it through a cloth into another smaller 
saucepan, put in the raw truffles, add two or three tablespoonfuls of sherry and boil 
again very slowly for eight or nine minutes. Now pour the clarified butter into a flat 
saucepan, put the fillets in close to each other, place the pan on the fire and cook 
them on both sides for about two minutes, then take them out and drain well. Take 
out the tongue, drain, skin and cut it up, in a slanting direction, into as many slices 
as there are fillets, shaping them like these. Now turn the border out onto a dish, 
and place the fillets and slices of tongue, glazed with a paste brush, alternately 
around it, with the truffles in the center. Pour a little of the sauce over the truffles, 
and serve the remainder in a boat. 



2 9 o POULTRY. 

Chicken Fillets, Sauted. 

Cut off nine fillets of chickens, pound them lightly with a vegetable masher, dust 
over with salt and pepper and cover well with flour. Put one tablespoonful of butter 
for each fillet into a fryingpan; when it is quite hot put in the fillets and fry them for 
twenty minutes, turning them so that both sides will be browned. Take them out and 
put them in front of the fire to keep warm. To every six tablespoonfuls of butter 
used add two more to the pan, and wKen it is melted mix in one tablespoonful of flour; 
as soon as this begins to brown add gradually one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of 
cold milk, stirring continually; boil for a minute and add salt, pepper and a little mus- 
tard. Put a pile of mashed potatoes or green peas in the center of a dish, place the 
fillets against it, and serve with the sauce poured around. 

Chicken Fillets Sauted, Royal Style. 

Cut off the fillets of two chickens, which will be four large ones and four small, 
called minion fillets, being the inside fillets, and flatten them a little with the handle 
of a knife dipped in water. Remove the coarse upper skin, take out the sinews from 
the small fillets and dip each one separately into butter; then sprinkle them overwith 
salt, put them into a sautepan, and fry lightly. When done take them out, drain and 
put them in a circle on a dish. Add a little cream and one tablespoonful or so of 
well-seasoned bechamel sauce to the butter in the pan. Let it thicken over the fire 
for a while and pour it over the fillets. Prepare a garnishing of kidneys, mushrooms, 
quenelles, cockscombs and truffles. Place them in the center of a dish, and serve. 

Chicken Fillets Sauted with Truffle Sauce. 

Cut the fillets off two chickens, separating the smaller from the larger ones, trim 
and put in a sautepan with a pat of butter and fry slowly, keeping them white; pour 
about three-quarters of a pint of bechamel sauce into a saucepan with half a pint of 
white stock and boil until thickly reduced; then strain it through a fine hair-sieve into 
another saucepan, add four or five sliced truffles and boil up again; then mix in a half 
teacupful of thick cream, and season with a small quantity of salt and sugar. When 
cooked put the fillets on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them, and serve. 

Chicken Fillets, Villeroy. 

Take the fillets from four chickens and sprinkle them with salt and pepper; put 
them in a fryingpan with a little butter to cook, taking care to let them be rather 
underdone. Place them on a board with another one on the top and a slight weight 
onto that; afterward cut them into shapes. Take them one at a time and dip into 
hot chaudfroid sauce and put them on a baking sheet at a little distance from one 
another. Let them get quite cool, remove the superfluous sauce, cover them first 



POULTRY. 291 

with breadcrumbs, then dip them into egg and then into crumbs again. Put a few of 
them at a time into a fryingpan of boiling fat and as soon as they are of a fine color 
take them out and put them in a circle on a folded napkin on a dish, placing a little 
parsley, slightly fried, in the center. 

Chicken Fillets with Asparagus. 

Take two fat birds and cut them up so that the breast and breast-bone will be 
one piece and the back and legs another. Put the back parts into a saucepan with 
one gallon of water, and, when it boils, add the breasts. When these have boiled for 
an hour or so and are quite tender, take them out and let them cool. Put a few vege- 
tables in the liquor and boil fast until it is reduced to one-half its original bulk; then 
strain it through a cloth into another saucepan and add two tablespoonfuls of each of 
butter and flour previously worked together in a pan over the fire, to thicken it, and 
place the pan on the side of the fire where its contents will simmer gently. Skim 
frequently, and when the liquor is reduced to one quart pour in a small quantity of 
mushroom liquor, prepared by boiling button mushrooms in stock. Reduce again, 
and when it is less than one quart and getting thick add one tablespoonful of butter, 
a little lemon juice, salt and cayenne. Have in the meantime one breakfast cupful of 
cream boiling, add it to the liquor in the other pan a little at a time to make it the 
required consistence and then pass all through a strainer. Cut the meat away from 
the breastbone and trim it into shape, plunge the pieces into boiling chicken broth to 
get thoroughly warmed through, place them on a dish and pour the sauce over them. 
Cut from the stalks some asparagus heads, boil them in salted water like peas, drain, 
shake in a pan with melted butter, and place on the dish with the fillets. 

Chicken Fillets, with Mushroom Puree. 

Roast three chickens, having them not quite done. Remove them from the 
spit, let them get cold and then lift off the fillets from the backs, also the legs and 
the breasts, trimming and taking off all the skin. Put three teacupfuls of yellow 
sauce into a pan with a teacupful and a half of aspic jelly, both slightly warmed. Place 
the pan on the ice and stir until moderately thick; then remove the pan from the ice, 
dip the pieces of fowl singly into the sauce, covering them entirely, and arrange them 
side by side on a baking sheet. Fill a border mould with cooked rice, let it set, 
turn it out onto a dish, fill the center with a puree of mushroom, heaping it up. 
Arrange the fillets around on top of the border. 

Chicken Fricassee. 

Take a chicken weighing about three pounds, cut it into pieces and steep these 
in cold water for an hour. Drain and put them in a large saucepan pan with an 
onion with three cloves stuck in it, a bunch of sweet herbs, a saltspoonful each of 



292 POULTRY. 

salt and pepper, and one quart of water. When the water boils skim it, move it to 
the side of the fire and let it simmer for half an hour with the lid partly off. Take 
out the pieces of fowl, drain and let them cool for a few minutes in cold water. Keep 
the liquor in which they were cooked. Put three tablespoonfuls each of butter and 
flour in a stewpan, stir them over the fire until smooth, but not brown; add the broth 
and the liquor in which a can of mushrooms have been cooked, and simmer for half 
an hour. Warm the pieces of fowl in half a pint of the sauce in a separate pan. Beat 
the yolks of four eggs; add one tablespoonful of melted butter and stir the sauce over 
the fire until thick, but not boiling; strain the gravy and then add the mushrooms. 
Put the two back pieces of the fowl in the middle of the dish and arrange on them 
one above the other, first the feet, then the two pieces of neck, and lastly the 
pinions. Rest the legs and wings against the sides of the square and put the pieces 
of breast on the top. Arrange the mushrooms round the dish, pour over the sauce, 
and serve. 

Chicken Fricassee, American Style. 

Boil two fowls, cut them into twelve pieces, put them into a saucepan with eight 
minced mushrooms, one ounce of cooked salted pork cut into small squares, and half 
a pint of allemande sauce. Warm thoroughly without boiling, and serve with any 
desired garnish. 

Chicken Fricassee, Bonne Femme. 

Prepare and cut a chicken up as for a fricassee; slice an onion and a carrot, put 
them in a large stewpan with six ounces of butter and' fry for five minutes, stirring 
contiuually. Put in the chicken and one saltspoonful each of salt and pepper and 
stir over the fire for five minutes longer; then work in three tablespoonfuls of flour, 
stir for two or three minutes, add three or four tomatoes cut in pieces and a pint and 
a half of broth. Stir over the fire until boiling, then move the stewpan to the side 
and simmer for half an hour. Take a pint and a half of mushrooms cut in slices and 
some chopped parsley, and put into the liquor; boil for ten minutes longer. Serve 
on a hot dish. 

Chicken Fricassee, Peasant Style. 

Cut into slices or small pieces a few onions, carrots and celery roots and put 
them into a saucepan with a little olive oil and a bunch of sweet herbs, being careful 
that the vegetables are fresh and tender. Cut up two fowls into five pieces each, put 
the legs in the saucepan over the vegetables, sprinkle over cayenne to taste, add a 
little sauce and set the pan over a good fire for five minutes or so to cook; then take 
the pan off the fire, cover and put it in a hot oven so that the legs will be slowly and 
thoroughly done. Turn them often and then add the fillets and pieces of breast and 
a couple of large tomatoes wfth the seeds taken out and each one cut into six pieces: 
cover the pan over again, return to the oven and let it remain for fifteen minutes 



POULTRY. 295 

longer; take it out and place the pieces of chicken-meat in a pile on a dish. Remove 
the fat from the liquor, take out the bunch of sweet herbs and put in a few blanched 
olives; thicken with a little melted glaze, boil up once, add a small quantity of finely- 
minced tarragon leaves, pour all over the chicken in the dish, and serve. 

Fried Chicken. 

Take a chicken, pluck, singe and wipe it with a wet towel, and cut in joints. Put 
into a fryingpan one pint of cream and place it over a moderate fire until it begins to 
color, then put in the chicken and fry until the underside is of a light brown. Take 
out a part of the cream, turn the chicken over, season with pepper, and finish cooking 
it. Put it on a hot dish when done, and pour the cream which was taken out back 
into the fryingpan, stir it well with what remains in the pan, let it boil once, and serve 
it with the chicken sprinkled with salt. A small chicken may be breaded, either 
whole or in quarters, and fried brown in smoking fat. 

Fried Chicken, Marengo Style. 

Cut up a chicken and trim the pieces. Put plenty of oil in a stewpan with a 
minced clove of garlic and a small bundle of sweet herbs; when boiling put in the 
pieces of fowl, season with salt and pepper and fry them. When cooked strain nearly 
one teacupful of oil from the saucepan into a small stewpan; mix with it a moderate 
quantity each of finely-chopped mushrooms, shallots and parsley, and one wine-glass- 
ful of white wine and sufficient clear stock, freed from fat, to make the sauce. Season 
to taste with salt and pepper, and boil the sauce for about a quarter of an hour, Pile 
the pieces of fowl on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them, garnish with croutons of 
bread fried brown in butter, and some button mushrooms, and serve. 

Fried Chicken, Mercier Style. 

Pluck a chicken, clean and truss as if for roasting, sprinkle it well with flour, 
plunge it into boiling fat to cover, and fry for fully twenty minutes. Take it out, 
drain and cut it into joints, cover them over separately with rich forcemeat beaten up 
with egg, and place them in the oven for a few minutes for the forcemeat to set. In 
the meantime whip the whites of two or three eggs to a stiff froth, color this with 
three colors, leaving a part white, decorate the forcemeat with these, place the pieces 
of fowl in the oven for a moment to set, and serve immediately. 

Fried Chicken, Vanderbilt Style. 

Prepare and clean a chicken, and commencing from the neck, rem6ve the skin 
from the flesh all around, including the legs; then stuff it with veal and tongue force- 
meat, taking care not to fill it too full, only over the wishbone, and to fill all the 
cavities, making it plump and round. Then truss it as if for roasting, plunge into 



294 POULTRY. 

boiling fat sufficient to cover it, and fry a golden brown. Serve hot with piquant 
sauce, or cold, with salad. 

Fried Chicken with Okras. 

Take a very tender chicken, clean and cut into joints suitable for frying, season 
with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. Wash two dozen pods of okras and slice 
them thinly, throwing away the stems. Peel and slice one medium-sized onion; cut a 
quarter of a pound of ham in half-inch dice and chop one small green or red fresh 
pepper, very fine. First fry the chicken and ham brown, putting them into enough 
smoking hot lard to half cover them; then add the okras, onion and pepper and 
enough broth, cold gravy, or boiling water to cover all. Season to taste with salt and 
stew gently until both chicken and vegetables are quite tender. If the broth becomes 
thicker while cooking than ordinary gravy, add to it a little boiling water. Fried 
oysters may be added to the preparation just before serving. It is usual to serve a 
dish of plain boiled rice with this dish. 

Chicken Fritters. 

Take a cold roasted chicken and mince the white meat fine. Beat four eggs 
with half a pint of milk and one pint of cream, and then stir in sufficient ground rice 
to make a thin batter. Put the minced chicken in the batter with two tablespoonfuls 
of finely-shredded candied lemon peel, the grated peel of one fresh lemon, and 
sweeten to taste with caster-sugar. Then turn into a saucepan and stir over the fire 
with a wooden spoon. Leave the mixture until cool when cooked, then roll it out, 
and cut it into small rounds. Put a lump of butter into a fryingpan and make it hot; 
then put in the fritters and fry them until lightly browned. Drain them, lay on a 
folded napkin, sift powdered sugar over, and serve. 

Chicken Giblet Pie. 

Put into a pie dish some stewed chicken giblets together with the meat from the 
necks and pinions of the fowls. Place them in layers with slices of fat bacon between 
until the dish is full, pour in a little good gravy, cover the dish with a crust of mashed 
potatoes; bake in the oven for half an hour. 

Stewed Chicken Giblets. 

Wash the giblets from four or five chickens, dry on a cloth, and sprinkle over 
with flour; fry them in a fryingpan with a little butter. Cut the gizzards in slices, 
put them in the saucepan with the giblets, add six onions cut up small and slightly 
browned, and a small bunch of sweet herbs; then pour over sufficient stock to cover, 
and season with salt and pepper. Place the pan over a moderate fire where it will 



POULTRY. 295 

simmer for about an hour. When the giblets are perfectly done, drain them out, 
pass the gravy through a strainer and remove all the fat. Rub the onions through a 
fine sieve and mix with them one tablespoonful of flour, then stir them into the gravy, 
boil up again, add the giblets, and let it remain until perfectly hot, then serve. 

Grilled Chickens, Hunter's Style. 

Select small chickens for this. Split them down the backs and beat them with 
a cutlet bat until flat. Should the birds be large they must be cut into joints. Soak 
them for an hour in olive oil seasoned with salt and pepper, slices of onion, parsley 
and lemon juice; sprinkle lightly with breadcrumbs and cook them on a gridiron. If 
cut up into joints dish them up in the form of a pyramid. Add to some Madeira 
sauce a sliced onion, fried, and some chopped ham; warm it up, pour over the chick- 
ens, and serve. 

Hashed Chicken. 

Put the bones and small pieces of any kind of cooked chickens into a saucepan 
with cold water enough to cover, add a few sliced fried onions, two carrots, sweet 
herbs, a blade of mace, and salt and pepper to taste. Place the pan over the fire and 
boil until all the goodness is extracted; then strain the liquor and add a little 
flour and butter to thicken it. Put into a saucepan the chicken-meat, add the gravy 
and place the pan on the side of the fire where it will simmer for twenty minutes; 
squeeze in the juice of half a lemon just before serving. Put the pieces of chicken 
on a dish, pour the gravy over and garnish with croutons of fried bread. 

Chickens in Shells. 

Cut the fillets of some chickens into scollops, put them in a fryingpan with a 
piece of butter and fry them lightly. Cook an equal quantity of truffles in Madeira 
wine and when done divide them the same size as the scollops. Mix these together 
with some reduced German sauce, grate finely some breadcrumb and fry in butter 
until brown. Fill eight shells with the chicken mixture, cover them with the fried 
breadcrumbs and put them for a few minutes in a moderately warm oven. Arrange 
the shells on a folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper on a hot dish, garnish with 
fried parsley, and serve. 

Broiled Chicken Legs. 

Take the legs of some cold chickens, remove the skin, cut the flesh on both sides 
of the bone and spread over them a preparation made of half a teaspoonful each of 
salt and pepper, a little cayenne, half an ounce of warmed butter and one saltspoonful 
of essence of anchovies, all well mixed. When this is rubbed into the meat, especially 
into the cuts, place them over a rather slow fire on a gridiron, and broil them for about 



296 POULTRY. 

ten minutes, turning them occasionally. They are then ready for serving. A little 
cooked bacon should be served with them. 



Deviled Chicken's Legs. 



Cut off the legs from three chickens and singe them slightly with a little alcohol 
lighted on a plate, put them into the stockpot and boil for ten minutes. Remove 
them to a dish, cool thoroughly, season with salt, pepper and a very little cayenne; 
also two tablespoonfuls of Worcestershire sauce and half a teaspoonful of ground mus- 
tard. Now roll them well together, pass one after another into sifted breadcrumbs, 
and broil them on a moderate fire for four minutes on each side. Then arrange them 
on a hot dish, pour over one gill of hot deviled sauce, sprinkle a little chopped parsley 
on the top, and serve very hot. 



Chicken Legs in Papers. 



Take some cold cooked chickens and bone the legs. Mix some chopped parsley, 
pepper and salt with a little liquefied butter and dip the legs in it; put on each side of 
them a slice of cooked fat pork, wrap them in buttered paper, securing it at the edges 
and broil them over a clear fire, turning to cook both sides alike. When done dish 
them, pour over hot beef gravy, garnish with parsley, and serve. 



Chicken Legs, Perigueux. 



Cut off the legs from four chickens, bone them without cutting the skin, sprinkle 
over with salt and pepper, fill them with either cooked chicken forcemeat or quenelle 
forcemeat mixed with sweet herbs; put them in a saucepan with a little gravy mixed 
with white wine, place the pan on the fire, and boil gently. Take them out when done 
and lay them between two boards with a weight on top; when perfectly cold, trim 
and arrange in a flat saucepan, adding a little of the stock in which they were cooked 
reduced to half glaze; place the pan over a very slow fire and warm thoroughly. Take 
them out and place a paper frill on the small end of each and put them on a dish in a 
circle. Add four or five peeled and chopped raw truffles to the liquor, one wineglass- 
ful of Madeira and a little boiling brown sauce, and, after standing it on the fire a few 
minutes, pour it all over the stuffed legs, and serve. 

Chicken Livers in Cases. 

Take eight fat livers, remove the gall, trim off all the green part, plunge them into 
boiling water and poach without boiling; drain, pare slightly and cut each into halves. 
Put with the trimmings of these livers a few more livers in a fryingpan, add a little 
lard, and fry them; when cool, put them in a mortar with an equal quantity of fat 
bacon finely chopped, pound, sprinkle in pepper, salt and spices, pass it through a 
sieve and then mix with it two tablespoonfuls of quenelle forcemeat, two tablespoon- 



POULTRY. 297 

fuls each of sweet herbs and onions, four tablespoonfuls each of truffles and mush- 
rooms, all finely chopped; mix with this a few tablespoonfuls of melted glaze; take 
eight cases, either square or round, oil and line them inside with half of the above 
mixture. Fry the livers in a little butter and two tablespoonfuls of white wine over 
a quick fire. When the wine is reduced take out the livers, put them on a plate, dip 
a paste brush with melted glaze and brush them over with it. Cut each of the halves 
of livers in halves again, put two pieces in each of the cases, cover them with a layer 
of forcemeat, put a piece of paper dipped in oil over each, then stand the cases on a 
baking sheet, and warm them at the entrance of a moderate oven. Put the cases of 
liver on a hot dish, pour a little reduced brown sauce over each, and serve. 

Chicken Livers on Skewers. 

Take the livers of eighteen chickens, clean, cut away the galls and dry them well 
with a cloth; season with salt and pepper and cut each liver into halves. In the 
meantime cut off six slices of lean bacon and broil them for one minute, then cut 
each slice into six pieces. Take six silver skewers (attelettes), run one through the 
center of the liver, next a piece of bacon, and continue in this way until the six 
skewers are filled with the pieces of liver and bacon. Roll them in a tablespoonful 
of oil, dip them into sifted breadcrumbs and put them on a moderate fire to broil for 
five minutes on each side. Arrange them on a hot' dish, pour over half a gill of 
maitre d'hotel butter, and serve with a little watercress for garnish. 

Chicken Livers Stewed in Madeira Wine. 

Take the livers of ten or twelve fowls, cut away the galls, dry them with a cloth 
and fry them in a saucepan with one ounce of butter over a brisk fire for five minutes ; 
season with salt and pepper; add a half wineglassful of Madeira wine, reduce for one 
minute, then moisten with half a pint of Spanish sauce and cook again for three 
minutes; add half an ounce of butter and the juice of half a lemon, tossing the pan 
without letting the contents boil. Pour the whole on a hot dish, and serve garnished 
with six croutons of bread. 

Chickens' Livers Stewed with Mushrooms. 

Prepare the same as for fowl's livers stewed in Madeira wine; adding three min- 
utes before serving six sliced mushrooms. 

Minced Chicken, Polish Style. 

Take some pieces of cold fowl, mince and put into a stewpan with bechamel 
sauce and stir over the fire until hot, but not boiling. Garnish with croutons of fried 
bread. 



298 POULTRY. 

Minced Chicken with Eggs. 

Take a cold cooked chicken, remove the skin, separate the flesh from the bones 
and cut it into small pieces; put the bones and trimmings into a stewpan with a pint 
and a half of stock, a small onion stuck with two or three cloves, and a small bunch 
of sweet herbs. Boil the stock for an hour, then strain it into a clean stewpan, skim 
off all the fat, put in the pieces of chicken and keep them simmering at the edge of 
the fire. When the bird is tender, mix a tablespoonful of flour with a small quantity 
of milk and stir it into the stock, letting it simmer, but not allowing it to boil. Add 
one teaspoonful of chutney to the sauce and more seasoning if required, and turn the 
whole out onto a dish. Break carefully over the top as many eggs as will just cover 
the mince, but do not crowd them, and be very careful not to damage the yolks; 
strew a few sifted breadcrumbs lightly over the top, dust over with salt and pepper, 
and put them in the oven until the eggs are set, but taking care not to let them get 
hard. When ready, take the dish out of the oven, and serve garnished with croutons 
of fried bread. 

Chicken Patties. 

Take some patty-pans and line with puff paste and bake to a light brown. 
Take any remains of cold roasted chickens and their stuffing, put bones and stuffing 
into a saucepan with one breakfast cupful of water, and stew slowly. Mince the 
chicken very fine. When the gravy, made of the stuffing and bones, is reduced to a 
quarter of a pint, strain and put it on the fire again, add three tablespoonfuls of milk, 
one ounce of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt. Let this boil for a 
few minutes, stir in the minced chicken and let it get very hot but do not let it boil 
after the chicken is added. Turn the paste out of the tins, arrange on a hot dish, fill 
them with the minced chicken, taking care that it is stirred thoroughly. Serve very 
hot. 

Chicken Pot Pie. 

Cut a chicken weighing from three and a half to four pounds into twelve equal 
pieces; put these in a stewpan, cover with cold water and leave them in for thirty 
minutes. Then wash them well, drain and return to the pan. Cover again with fresh 
water, season with salt, pepper and grated nutmeg, add a bunch of parsley, six small 
onions and four ounces of salted pork cut into square pieces, and cook for three- 
quarters of an hour, taking care to skim well ; add one pint of raw potatoes and 
three tablespoonfuls of flour diluted with a breakfast cupful of water. Stir until it 
boils, and cook for ten minutes. Remove the parsley and transfer the whole to a 
deep earthenware baking-dish, then moisten the edges of this slightly with water, 
and cover the top with crust. Brush the surface over with egg, make a few trans- 
verse lines in the paste with a fork, and cut a hole in the center. Bake in a brisk 
oven for fifteen minutes and send to the table. 



POULTRY. 299 

Chicken Pilau, Turkish Style. 

Take a chicken weighing, two pounds, singe and draw, wipe it well, and cut it 
into twelve pieces of equal size. Put these into a stewpan with one ounce of butter, 
and brown; add one chopped onion and one chopped green pepper, and cook for six 
minutes, stirring lightly with a wooden spoon. Moisten with a pint of rich chicken 
broth and one gill of tomato sauce, and add two ounces of dried mushrooms that 
have been soaking in water for several hours, or twelve canned mushrooms, and 
season with salt and pepper, and half a teaspoonful of diluted saffron. When incor- 
porated add half a pint of well-washed uncooked rice and three tablespoonfuls of 
grated Parmesan cheese. Cook for twenty minutes more, and serve. 

Stuffed Chicken Quenelles. 

Place one ounce of gelatine in a basin, cover it with cold water, and soak it for 
an hour. Trim off all the skin from the flesh of a chicken, pick the meat from the 
bones, chop it fine, and pound in a mortar until it is smooth ; then stir in with it one 
tablespoonful of chopped and pounded pork, and pass the whole through a fine sieve. 
Put one breakfast cupful each of stale breadcrumbs and milk in a small saucepan, 
and boil for ten minutes, stirring at the same time to keep it smooth. Mix the bread- 
crumbs with the pounded meat, season with one teaspoonful each of lemon juice and 
onion juice, and pepper and salt to taste ; add six ounces of warmed butter, one 
teacupful of white stock or cream, the yolks of three eggs, and finally the well- 
beaten whites, and work the mixture till it is quite smooth. Put two tablespoonfuls 
of butter into a saucepan together with one tablespoonful of flour, and stir it over the 
fire until smooth but not browned, stir in by degrees one pint of cream, one 
tablespoonful of lemon juice, a little mace, plenty of pepper and salt, and boil for 
two minutes ; then stir in the soaked gelatine, and remove it from the stove. Mix 
three breakfast cupfuls of cold cooked chicken in the sauce, and stand it one side till 
cool. Butter eighteen egg cups, line them with a thick layer of the forcemeat, fill 
the center with the chicken and sauce mixture (it should have become fairly firm), 
then cover it with the forcemeat. Stand the egg cups in a steamer, place a sheet of 
paper over them, place the cover on the steamer, set it over a saucepan of boiling 
water and steam the quenelles for thirty minutes or so without letting the water 
boil too rapidly. When cooked remove them from the pan and stand them one 
side till done. Turn the quenelles out of the egg-cups, dip them well in beaten eggs 
and breadcrumbs and fry for three minutes in boiling fat to lightly color them. 
Drain the quenelles, place them on a hot dish, garnish with stoned olives, and serve. 

Chicken Rissoles. 

Make a well flavored mixture of mushrooms, pickled tongue and the meat of a 
cold fowl, all cooked ; thicken with a little bechamel sauce reduced with glaze, and 



300 



POULTRY. 



set it in a basin to cool. Prepare three-quarters of a pound of puff paste and roll it 
out into long, thin strips with the edges trimmed, then take a little of the mixture at 
a time with a small spoon and place it at intervals on the paste, leaving about one 
inch clear from the edge. Wet the edge of the paste and fold it over so as to com- 
pletely cover in the chicken mixture ; then with a channeled paste-cutter cut the 
paste into rissoles, having the meat in the center of the cutter. Roll out the rest of 
the paste, and continue until all the rissoles are made. Dip each one separately into 
well-beaten egg and put them in a fryingpan of fat over a slow fire. When done take 
them out, put them on a dish with a folded napkin, and serve. 

Roast Chicken. 

Take a chicken, clean, singe, and remove the pin feathers; then wipe it clean, 
stuff and truss it. Rub it over with a mixture of salt, pepper, and flour, and warmed 
butter, and put it into a bakingpan with a little chicken fat or dripping, and set it in 
the oven. When the flour is well browned, reduce the heat of the oven, baste well 
with its fat, and afterward with three or four ounces of butter melted in a breakfast 
cupful of boiling water. When the chicken is brown on one side, turn it over on the 
other, so as to color it well all over, adding a little more water if there should not be 
sufficient to baste with. A bird weighing from four and a half to five pounds will 
take about an hour and a half to bake. 

Roasted Chicken, Maryland Style. 

Take two small chickens, detach their legs and wings and lay them on a plate; 
season with salt and pepper, dip them in beaten egg, roll in sifted breadcrumbs, and 
place them in a buttered pan. Pour over an ounce of clarified butter and roast in the 
oven for eighteen minutes. Pour half a pint of cream sauce on to a hot dish, arrange 
the chickens on top, decorate with six thin slices of broiled bacon, also six small corn 
fritters, and serve as hot as possible. 

Roasted Chicken with Chestnut Stuffing. 

Dress two small chickens and boil gently in sufficient water to cover until tender. 
While they are cooking, either boil or roast sufficient chestnuts to fill it. If the nuts 
are roasted, make a cross cut on each to prevent the bursting of the shell. Remove 
the shells and skins of the chestnuts, fill the chicken with them, and brown it quickly 
in a hot oven, basting it every few minutes with butter, salt and pepper mixed 
together. Serve when sufficiently brown. 

Roasted Chicken with Oyster Sauce. 

Pick and draw two chickens; chop fine a sufficient quantity of oysters with 
truffles to fill them, season with chopped parsley, spices, salt and pepper, and stuff 



POULTRY. 



301 



the birds with the mixture; then truss them, lay them in a baking-pan, pour butter 
over, and roast in the oven. Blanch twenty or thirty oysters, put them in a stewpan 
with a lump of butter, a few tablespoonfuls of chopped herbs, and a small quantity of 
olive oil, and toss them about over the fire for about twenty minutes. Mix one wine- 
glassful of white wine and about a teacupful of stock with the oysters, put in half an 
ounce of butter kneaded with half a tablespoonful of flour, and stir it over the fire 
until thick. When the chickens are cooked, remove them from the oven, untruss, 
place them on a hot dish, arrange the oysters around with slices of lemon, pour the 
sauce over, and serve. 

Chicken Sauted. 

The Dubois method of preparing this dish is as follows: Put into a stewpan 
some peeled truffles with a wineglassful of wine and a little salt, place the pan on the 
fire and boil, but do not do so until just previous to using them. Put an equal quan- 
tity of mushrooms in a saucepan and boil them, adding a little butter and the juice 
of a lemon. Take a couple of fat chickens, singe, draw and cut off the pinions and 
claws, and remove the legs. Cut the breast up so as to have two fillets and a breast 
part. Chop the bones of the body in halves and break the thick bones of the leg 
with a knife and take them out. Place the legs in a sautepan with a little butter, 
arrange them at the bottom, then put the neck, pinions and bones from the body, 
season them with salt and pepper and place the pan on the fire so that they will fry 
slowly. When they are about half cooked put in the fillets and breast parts, also a 
little parsley, sweet herbs and a clove of garlic; when the meat is set remove it from 
the pan with a skimmer, put it into another sautepan and stir in the truffles; remove 
the fat from the first sautepan, put in the truffle trimmings and a wine-glassful of 
white wine, boil for a few minutes and then add twice its bulk of brown sauce and 
the liquor in which the truffles were cooked. Boil this sauce quickly for ten min- 
utes or so; remove the fat and pass it through a fine sieve onto the chicken meat. 
Warm the meat, taking care not to let the sauce boil again. Put in the center of a 
dish a croustade of fried bread, place the pinions and bones from the body around it; 
then place the fillets and legs around that again, and the parts of the breast on top. 
Garnish the base with some truffles and mushrooms, put a few cockscombs here and 
there, remove the fat from the sauce, and serve the meat with the sauce poured over. 

Chicken Saute, Bordelaise Style. 

Take two chickens, singe and draw, cut them into twelve pieces each and put 
them into a sautepan with two tablespoonfuls of oil and one chopped shallot, and let 
brown well for five minutes; then moisten with half a wineglassful of white wine, 
adding three artichoke bottoms, each one cut into four pieces; season with salt and 
pepper, put on the lid and simmer slowly for fifteen minutes. Add a teaspoonful of 
meat glaze when about to serve, and also the juice of half a lemon and a teaspoonful 



3 02 POULTRY. 

of chopped parsley. Dish up the pieces, decorate with paper ruffles and garnish with 
the artichoke bottoms in clusters and twelve cooked potatoes. 

Chicken Sauted, Hungarian Style. 

Take two fowls, singe and draw. Cut them into twelve pieces and put them into 
a sautepan with one ounce of clarified butter, adding one finely-chopped onion and a 
seasoning of salt and pepper. Cook slowly without browning for five minutes on 
each side, then moisten with half a pint of bechamel sauce and half a breakfast cupful 
of cream and cook again for twenty minutes. Serve, after first skimming off the fat, 
with six croutons of fried bread for a garnish. 

Chicken Sauted, Marengo. 

Singe two fowls, draw and cut them into six pieces each, lay them in an oiled 
stewpan and brown slightly on both sides for five minutes, seasoning with salt and 
pepper; when of a golden color moisten with a half pint of Spanish sauce and half a 
breakfast cupful of mushroom liquor; add twelve button mushrooms and two truffles 
cut in thin slices, also half a wineglassful of Madeira wine, cook for twenty minutes, 
and serve with six fried eggs and six croutons of fried bread. Put paper ruffles on 
the ends of the wings and legs of the chickens, and serve with the eggs and bread 
around the edge. 

Chicken Sauted with Tarragon. 

Take a raw chicken and cut into small pieces and season with salt and pepper. 
Have a small bunch of tarragon and pick off the leaves; put the stalks in a saucepan 
with half a pint of clear gravy and boil for twenty minutes; blanch the leaves. Put 
into a sautepan some olive oil and when boiling add the pieces of chicken and toss 
them about until cooked and browned. Strain the gravy from the tarragon stalks 
and mix the leaves with it. Place the pieces of chicken on a hot dish, pour the gravy 
over, and serve right away. Care should be taken to drain the oil off the meat as 
much as possible. 

Scalloped Chicken. 

Put into a shallow dish a layer of cold cooked chicken, then a layer of boiled 
rice or macaroni and a little tomato sauce and so on until the dish is full. Sprinkle 
breadcrumbs over the top, put the dish in the oven and bake until brown. 

Souffles of Chicken. 

Cut off about one pound of cold roasted fowl, pound it in a mortar, pass it 
through a hair sieve and mix with it a breakfast cupful and a half of reduced bech- 
amel sauce; when cold, add the yolks and whites of five eggs beaten separately and a 



POULTRY. 303 

little grated nutmeg. Fill some paper cases with the mixture and bake in a hot oven 
for a quarter of an hour. 

Stewed Chickens. 

Take two chickens, cut off the feet and beat the breast bones until flat, but with- 
out breaking the skin, and dredge them over with a little flour. Put a large lump of 
butter into a stewpan and make it hot, then put in the chickens and fry them until 
brown. Cut one pound of gravy beef and half a pound of beefsteak into thin slices, 
drain the butter out of the pan containing the fowls and cover them with the slices of 
beef; put in a few slices of carrot and onion, a bunclj of sweet herbs, two or three 
cloves, a small piece of mace and a dust of pepper; pour over one quart of boiling 
water, cover the stewpan closely, and stew the contents for a quarter of an hour. 
Take out the chickens but continue boiling the meat until a rich brown gravy is 
formed. When the gravy is ready, strain it through a fine hair sieve, return it to the 
saucepan again with the chickens, add about a teaspoonful of red wine and keep it 
over a slow fire until the chickens are hot through again. If desired, a few mush- 
rooms may be added, but they must be put in after the gravy is strained. Boil some 
thin slices of ham until slightly crisped. Put the chickens on a hot dish, pour the 
gravy around them. Serve garnished with the ham and sliced lemons. 

Stewed Chickens, Cardinal Style. 

Soak two chickens in a basin of cold water for about an hour ; take them out 
and let them drain, then lift up the skin from the breasts and legs as much as possible 
without tearing it, and fill the cavity with forcemeat of fowl, colored with lobster 
spawn to a deep red ; truss the fowls as if for boiling, cover them with thin layers 
of fat bacon, put them in a stewpan with some chopped vegetables, cover with stock 
and simmer gently. Care must be taken that they do not boil fast or the force will 
burst the skin of the fowl, and so look unsightly when served. Dish with an orna- 
mental croustade of fried bread in the center of the dish, garnish with quenelles of 
fowls, both red and white, glazed truffles, cockscombs, crayfish tails and button 
mushrooms, and on each side of the croustade put a larded sweetbread. Serve with 
cardinal sauce and garnish with ornamental silver skewers set in the croustade. 

Stewed Chicken, Matelote Style. 

Singe a fowl, draw and cut up in pieces, rub it with butter and flour and brown 
in an oven. Put four tablespoonfuls of butter in a fryingpan and in it fry a carrot, a 
parsnip and an onion all cut in slices. Place the fowl in a stewpan with the vegetables 
and one quart of white stock. In the butter in which the vegetables were fried brown 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir this in with the fowl ; mash the liver and add 
the chicken, with one tablespoonful of capers, and salt and pepper to taste. Simmer 



304 POULTRY. 

slowly for three-quarters of an hour, add a quarter of a pound of mushrooms cut 
into small pieces, and simmer for a quarter of an hour longer. Serve garnished with 
mashed potatoes. 

Stewed Chicken, Milanese Style. 

Pluck, singe and draw a chicken, remove the bones and dust the inside with a 
little salt and pepper. Have a stuffing prepared in the meantime as follows: Chop 
the yolks of eight hard boiled eggs and mix them with six ounces of minced and 
pounded raw, lean ham and an ounce and a half of pork, and pass the mixture 
through a coarse sieve; add two shallots, one tablespoonful of parsley, a little 
thyme and bay leaf, all chopped fine and two ounces of breadcrumbs; make this 
into a paste with two eggs and add a dozen uncooked oysters. Sew the fowl up to 
prevent the stuffing from coming out, tie up in a well-buttered cloth, and put it in a 
saucepan with sufficient boiling stock to cover, and cook gently on the side of the 
fire for thirty minutes or so, according to the size of the bird. Take it out and when 
it is cool, remove the cloth, roll the chicken in flour, dip in beaten egg, cover with 
breadcrumbs, put in a saucepan with enough boiling fat to cover it and fry for about 
ten minutes. Serve garnished with fried parsley, with a little veloute sauce in a sauce- 
boat. 

Stewed Stuffed Chickens, Godard. 

Clean and prepare two chickens, stuff them with forcemeat, truss, put them into 
a saucepan of white stock and boil until tender. Place in the center of a dish a crou- 
stade of fried bread, untruss the fowls and put one at each end of the dish, leaning 
against the croustade. Garnish with truffles, cockscombs and button mushrooms, 
glazing the truffles and washing the cockscombs and mushrooms with white sauce 
reduced with mushroom liquor. Put three skewers, decorated with truffles, mushrooms 
and cockscombs in the croustade, and serve. 

Stewed Chickens, Villeroy. 

Take a couple of chickens, draw and singe; remove the breast-bones and stuff 
them with a mixture of butter, lemon juice (the juice of half a lemon will be enough), 
salt and pepper to taste; tie them up in shape with string and put into a saucepan of 
water. Pour a little marechale sauce into another pan; also three or four tablespoon- 
fuls of tarragon vinegar; place this pan on a sharp fire and let the liquor reduce quickly 
to half its original bulk, then add six tablespoonfuls of veloute sauce, sprinkle a little 
salt and pepper over to taste; add the yolks of two eggs and mix thoroughly. In the 
meantime place some slices of lemon and bacon over the chickens in the saucepan and 
put a few slices around them, place the pan over a good fire and cook for half an hour, 
when the meat should be done. Lay the chickens on a dish, having previously re- 
moved the string and drained them, add a lump of butter to the sauce, work it well, 
pour it over them, and serve. 



POULTRY. 305 

Stewed Chicken with Asparagus. 

Cut up a chicken into quarters, put it into a saucepan with a little butter to fry; 
when it begins to steam, dust over with flour and fry to a pale brown; sprinkle over 
one teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a little salt. Take a couple of bunches of 
asparagus, break off the tender parts, wash them well in salted water, boil slightly in 
more salted water and drain them; put a lump of butter and one tablespoonful of 
cream into a saucepan over a slow fire, place half the asparagus on top, dust with pep- 
per and then arrange the pieces of chicken over it; cover it with the remainder of the 
asparagus, put a few small pieces of butter on top, pour over one breakfast cupful of 
cream and stew gently until "done. Turn the whole out onto a dish, garnish with 
croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Stewed Chicken with Mushrooms. 

Cut a chicken into pieces and stew it gently in milk and water in equal parts, 
adding a small quantity of butter. Put a small lump of butter into a saucepan on the 
fire to melt, add two tablespoonfuls of button mushrooms, a seasoning of mace, white 
pepper and salt, and cook. Take out the chicken meat when done, drain it, put it 
into a saucepan with the mushrooms, warm them all up together, and serve. If more 
sauce is desired, a breakfast cupful of sweet cream may be added to the mushrooms 
when nearly cooked. 

Stewed Chickens with Tomatoes. 

Cut a chicken into five pieces and put the legs, wings and body into a flat stew- 
pan with a little oil, two or three small onions, a clove of garlic and a bunch of 
parsley. Place the pan on a moderate fire, and let it remain until the meat is half 
cooked. Then add the fillets and pieces cut off the breast and sprinkle them over 
with salt and pepper; return the pan to the fire and complete the cooking, giving 
them a turn over now and then. Select eight or nine large tomatoes, cut them 
through, remove the seeds, arrange them in a large saucepan with oil, dust them over 
with salt and fry first on one side and then on the other; sprinkle over a little finely- 
minced parsley, and put the pan over a moderate fire until the tomatoes are cooked. 
This must be done very gently. Then put them on a dish, and place the pieces of 
chicken on them. Put into a saucepan five tablespoonfuls of good gravy, boil for two 
minutes, pour over the meat through a conical strainer, and serve. 

Supreme of Chickens. 

Cut into slices a quarter of an inch thick the meat off the breasts of three fowls; 
trim them to one size and to the shape of pears; lay them in a tin dish with plenty of 
butter, dust them over with salt, cover them with a sheet of buttered paper and put 



306 POULTRY. 

them by until just before they are wanted, when they must be put in the oven and 
baked. Cut some slices of dressed tongue the same shape but a little smaller than 
the cutlets, and warm them in the same manner but without using so much butter. 
Cut up the remains of the chickens into pieces, put them in a stewpan with slices of 
ham and bacon, trimmings of veal and half a calf's foot; add vegetables such as 
onions, carrots and thyme, celery, mushrooms, parsley, marjoram, a bay leaf and a 
few trimmings of truffles. Season to taste with pepper, salt, mace and cloves, fill up 
the saucepan with cold water, put on the lid and simmer gently for three or four 
hours. Strain the liquor through a fine hair sieve, leave it until cool and then skim 
off all the fat. Put two ounces of butter into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, stir-it over the fire until well mixed and then pour in gradually the above liquor. 
Stir it over the fire until very hot, but do not allow it to boil, then move to the side. 
Take a small canful each of mushrooms, truffles and cockscombs and heat them by 
standing the cans in hot water. Pour some of the above liquor onto a hot deep dish, 
pile the cockscombs, mushrooms and truffles in the center. Arrange the pieces of 
fowl and tongue around, and serve. 

Supreme of Fillets of Chicken. 

Take three very fat young birds, clean and scald the legs in hot water. Cut off 
the fillets, trim and flatten the large ones, stick two of the small fillets together to 
form one, put them into a sautepan, cover with melted butter and sprinkle with a 
little salt. Fry them lightly on both sides until they are quite firm and done. Drain 
off the butter from the pan, add three tablespoonfuls of highly seasoned bechamel 
sauce to the gravy that is left and hold the pan over the fire, moving it constantly so 
as not to let the sauce boil. Put the fillets on a dish, place small pieces of fried bread 
between them, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Supreme of Chickens, Rothschild Style. 

Have ready chicken supreme prepared as for Toulouse, but stuffing with puree of 
chestnuts instead of the chicken forcemeat. Mince two truffles very fine, mix with 
one pint of hot puree of chestnuts, arrange the hot puree on a hot dish, place six 
croutons of fried bread over this, arrange the supreme over the croutons and decorate 
the top of each right in the center with one cooked mushroom. 

Supreme of Chickens, Toulouse Style. 

Take three chickens, singe, draw and wipe; remove the skin from the breasts; 
make an incision on top of the breastbone from end to end and with a sharp knife 
carefully cut off the entire breast on each side, including the small wing bone, which 
must not be separated. Under each breast will be found a small fillet; carefully 
remove it and place on a dish for future use. With a sharp knife make an incision 



POULTRY. 307 

three inches in length by one inch in depth in each breast at the thinner end, season 
the insides with salt and pepper equally distributed and stuff them with two ounces 
of chicken forcemeat mixed with two truffles and four mushrooms also finely sliced. 
Butter a copper sautepan and lay in gently the six breasts. Take each small fillet 
and press it gently with the fingers to give it shape; then make six small slanting in- 
cisions on top of each and insert in these slices of truffle cut with a tube half an 
inch in diameter. Slightly moisten the top of every breast with water, carefully 
arrange one fillet on top of each lengthwise and sprinkle over a little clarified 
butter, using a feather brush. Pour into the pan but not over the supreme a 
quarter of a wineglassful of Madeira wine and two tablespoonfuls of mushroom 
liquor, tightly cover with the lid and place it in the hot oven for ten minutes. 
Pour one pint of hot Toulouse garnishing on a hot dish, take out the supreme 
from the oven, neatly arrange it over the garnish, adjust paper ruffles on each 
wing bone, and serve at once. 

Timbale of Chickens. 

Pick out a couple of fowls of medium size, singe and draw them and remove the 
pinions and leg bones. Cut each bird into five pieces, not including the backs which 
are cut in halves ; break the thick bones in the legs, take them out and put the legs 
into a saucepan with the wings; add eight ounces of smoked ham cut up small, three 
tablespoonfuls of the melted fat of bacon, a bunch of parsley and a few sweet herbs. 
Set the pan over a brisk fire and add a little seasoning ; when they are done and a 
light color take the chicken and ham out with a skimmer and put them into another 
saucepan to keep warm on the side of the fire. Put two tablespoonfuls of finely- 
minced shallot and onion into the saucepan with the liquor, fry them and then add 
fifteen mushrooms cut in quarters. Place the pan over the fire again and when the 
moisture is reduced add half a dozen chickens' livers, scalded and cut into halves ; 
four tablespoonfuls of white wine or Madeira and the same quantity of melted glaze. 
Return the chicken to this saucepan, toss them in the sauce, removing the pan from 
the fire while so doing, sprinkle a little parsley over them, and let them stand for a 
little while. In the meanwhile line a timbale mould with short paste and mask it with 
a layer of raw minced veal or pork mixed with four tablespoonfuls of fine herbs. Put 
in the pieces of chicken, the ham, livers and mushrooms, spread the top over with 
more of the raw mince, put a layer of paste on the top, fold the paste over from the 
sides, put the timbale on a baking sheet, and bake it in a moderate oven for one hour. 
Remove it when it is done, turn it out, make a small hole in the top, pour in a break- 
fast cupful of gravy previously reduced with a little Madeira or white wine, and serve 
quite hot. 

Turban of Chickens, Cleveland Style. 

Take two fowls, singe, draw and wipe them well ; bone and cut them into quar- 
ters ; then put them into a sautepan with one ounce of butter, salt and pepper and 



308 POULTRY. 

half a glassful of Madeira wine; boil slowly for ten minutes. Take one breakfast 
cupful of chicken forcemeat and add to it one chopped truffle, three chopped mush- 
rooms and half an ounce of cooked minced tongue and stir well. Put the forcemeat 
on a dish, lay the pieces of chicken on top, crownshaped, and decorate with twelve 
whole mushrooms and two thinly sliced truffles. Add half a pint of Spanish sauce, a 
teaspoonful of chopped chives and a small pat of fresh butter to the chicken gravy. 
Pour this immediately over the fowls, put the dish in the oven and cook slowly for 
ten minutes ; squeeze over the juice of half a lemon, and serve with six heart-shaped 
croutons of fried bread. 

Truffled Chicken. 

Bone a fat chicken and put it on a table with the fillets cut off the breasts of 
two other fowls; cut some large slits in them all and put pieces of pork cut into thin 
slips in the cuts. Chop into slices one quart of truffles and put them where they will 
show in the white meat when it is cut; sprinkle well with pepper, salt and powdered 
thyme and a little finely grated nutmeg, and put the pieces of the breasts in the thin- 
nest parts of the fowl, draw the two sides together, sew them up into shapes as near 
the original as possible, wrap the fowl in a cloth, tie it round with a string and boil it 
in salted broth for two hours. Take it out, put it in a mould with a weight on top and 
let it cool. When perfectly cold remove the string and cloth, put it on a dish and 
cut it up in slices; or, it may be put into a mould and filled up with aspic jelly, or 
masked with liquefied butter. 

Vol-au-Vent of Chicken. 

Cut a pint and a half of cooked chicken meat into dice and season with salt and 
pepper. Make a cream sauce and season also with salt and pepper, adding half a 
teaspoonful each of onion juice and made mustard. Heat the chicken in this, and with 
it fill some vol-au-vent cases. 

Vol-au-Vent, Toulouse. 

Prepare one-half pound of puff paste, giving it six turns. Roll the paste out to 
about two inches in thickness, and with a small round tin cutter divide the paste into 
rounds; with another tin cutter, one inch smaller in diameter than the one just used, 
cut three parts through the center of each round of paste, thus forming the lids. Place 
the cases on a baking-sheet in a moderate oven, and bake until done, and nicely 
browned. Then lift up the middle pieces carefully and scoop out the underdone 
paste. Prepare a few quenelles of chicken forcemeat, place them in a saucepan with 
the flesh of half of a cooked cold chicken cut into small pieces, two ounces of chopped 
cooked tongue, three or four sliced truffles, five or six mushrooms, three cockscombs 
and one-half pint of supreme sauce. Stir the above mixture over the fire until hot, 



POULTRY. 309 

though not boiling, fill the vol-au-vents with it, arrange them on a folded napkin or an 
ornamental dish-paper laid on a hot dish, and serve without delay. The cases should 
only be filled when ready to serve, as if left standing long the mixture in them is 
likely to make them heavy. 

Chicken, Waldorf Style. 

Boil a chicken till it is tender, take it from the fire, and remove all the white meat, 
cutting it into dice-shaped pieces, and adding two large truffles, cut the same. Put 
these all into a saucepan with a pint of fresh thick cream, season with salt and pepper, 
and allow it to boil for twelve minutes, then thicken with two raw eggTyolks diluted 
in two large spoonfuls of Madeira wine. Stir this thoroughly in with the chicken, 
also two ounces of fresh batter added in small bits, and mingle without letting it boil 
again, then serve. 

Braised Duck. 

Draw and clean a large duck, stuff the breast with bread or meat stuffing, and 
truss it. Put into a stewpan some slices of fat bacon or a little butter; when melted 
place the duck over it on its breast first, to give it a little color, then turn it over. 
When the back is slightly colored, surround the duck with whole vegetables, such as 
carrots, potatoes, etc.; add salt, pepper and seasoning, and a breakfast cupful of 
broth; simmer over the fire until the liquid has reduced to glaze, then add broth and 
white wirie to reach to half the height of the duck, cover with thin slices of fat bacon, 
and braise it. When done, take out the duck and vegetables, and reduce the liquor 
to half-glaze. Untruss the duck and dish it; strain and skim the stock and thicken 
with a little brown sauce. Garnish the duck with vegetables, pour a little of the 
sauce over it, and serve the rest in a sauceboat. 

Braised Duck, Empress Style. 

Prepare a duck by cutting off the wing and half of the breast; take off the skin, 
remove the bone from the wing and fill up its place with quenelle forcemeat. Lard 
the breast and put it into a braisingpan over slices of leeks, carrots, onions, a little 
parsley, thyme, chervil, bay leaves, and lemon peel. Pour over sufficient stock to 
prevent burning, set the pan on the fire and braise the half duck; then glaze it, put 
on a dish over a layer of cooked sea-kale, and serve with puree of beans for garnish. 

. Braised Duck with Mushrooms. 

Braise a duck. Melt two ounces o-f butter in a stewpan; add a few chives, several 
finely-minced mushrooms and a bunch of parsley, and fry them for ten minutes; 
dredge in a little flour ; add the liquor from the duck after braising, and stir over the 
fire for a few minutes; skim off the fat and strain. Place the duck on a dish, pour 
over the gravy, and serve. 



310 POULTRY. 

Deviled Duck. 

Clean a good-sized duck and split down the back. Prepare a mixture of dry 
mustard, pepper, salt and chutney; rub it all over the duck, having previously 
pricked the skin with a fork, and boil it for twenty minutes. Put half a teacupful 
each of white wine, mushroom catsup, lemon-pickle and stock into a saucepan, and 
add a little sugar. Dish the duck, pour the sauce over it, and serve hot. 

Stewed Duck's Giblets. 

Wash the giblets, cut up the gizzards; disjoint the head, neck and pinions, and 
put them over the fire in a stewpan; add a small onion, a couple of cloves, one dozen 
peppercorns, a small bunch of savory herbs, a teaspoonful of catsup, two ounces of 
butter and half a pint of broth. Let them stew gently until the giblets are tender, 
then lay them on a hot dish Strain the gravy, put it back into the stewpan, thicken 
with a little butter rolled in corn meal, and stir in one wineglassful of white wine. 
Pour the gravy over the giblets, and serve hot. 



Ducks, Hunter's Style. 



Take three ducks, singe, draw, truss and cook in a stewpan with a piece of butter 
over a moderate fire. Fry the livers of the ducks with other poultry livers of slices of 
calf's liver; when they are cool pound them and pass through a sieve, mix in a little 
glaze and with it mask a few bread-crusts cut into oblong shapes and browned in but- 
ter. Arrange in the center of a dish a heap of green peas or any other vegetable; cut 
the ducks into pieces of fillets, trim them, arrange them with the crusts around the 
pyramid and place a decorated skewer in the center of the heap Mask the fillets of 
duck with brown sauce reduced with Madeira, and serve. Serve the remainder of the 
sauce in a sauceboat. 

Duck Pie. 

Skin and boil for a quarter of an hour a duck, having first cut off the neck. Put 
the well-washed giblets over the fire with an anchovy, a little whole black pepper, a 
small bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, a bit of mace, a crust of bread toasted very 
brown, a very little cayenne and an ounce of butter. Cover the pan until the butter is 
quite melted and all is quite hot, then add half a pint of boiling water and stew until 
tender. Take up the giblets, strain the liquor and let it and the giblets stand until 
quite cold. When the duck is roasted remove and cut in pieces while yet hot. When 
the giblets are cold put them into a pie-dish, pour over the skimmed liquor they were 
boiled in with the gravy that has run from the duck, season the duck with salt and 
pepper, put into a pie-dish with a few pieces of butter, cover with puff-paste or short- 
crust, and bake. 



POULTRY. 



Roast Ducks. 



3 11 



Truss the birds, having first removed the pinions, legs, crop, entrails and oil-bags; 
rub a little butter over them and dredge with flour, salt and pepper, and roast in a hot 
oven for twenty or thirty minutes. If preferred stuffed, peel, core and quarter some 
apples and fill the body with them, removing them when the bird is done, as they are 
not fit to eat, the flavor being too strong. Serve with olive sauce and green peas. 

Roast Duck with Orange Sauce. 

Scrape a tablespoonful each of fat bacon and raw onion and fry them together 
for five minutes; add the juice of an orange and a wineglassful of port wine, the 
drippings from the duck and seasoning of salt and pepper. Keep this hot without 
boiling, and serve with the duck after it is roasted. 

Salmis of Duck. 

Take a cold roasted duck; cutoff the fillets, trim them and put in a stewpan with 
a little salt and allspice; add one teacupful of olive oil and a wineglassful of claret; 
stir over the fire until the fillets are hot through, then dish and serve. 

Stewed Ducks. 

Cut into joints two ducks, put in a stewpan with one pint of rich gravy; let this 
come to a boil, and as the scum rises, remove; season with salt and cayenne and stew 
gently for three-quarters of an hour; mix until smooth two teaspoonfuls of ground 
rice with one wineglassful of port wine, stir it into the gravy and boil for seven or 
eight minutes longer; then turn the whole onto a dish, and serve very hot. 

Stewed Duck with Chestnuts. 

Draw and prepare a duck, lard the breast with bacon and roast it in the oven; 
put into a saucepan one pint of beef gravy, two dozen roasted and peeled chestnuts, 
two onions sliced and fried in butter, a small sprig of sage and thyme, and season 
with pepper and salt. Cut the duck up and put it in the saucepan, cover, and stand 
the pan by the side of the fire and simmer for twenty minutes; then dish it, skim the 
gravy, take out the herbs, add one teacupful of sherry wine, thicken with flour and 
butter, and boil. Then pour it over the duck, and serve with the chestnuts around it. 

Stewed Duck with Olives. 

Prepare and truss a duck, making it as plump as possible, and squeeze lemon 
juice over it, rubbing it in. Put the duck in a stewpan with a good-sized piece of 
butter, and brown it all over; stir in one dessertspoonful of flour, and when brown 



312 POULTRY. 

add one breakfast cupful of broth. Remove the kernels from some olives (by peeling 
them thick), scald them in boiling water, and when the duck is nearly done, add 
them to the stewpan and cook. When ready, dish the duck and arrange the olives 
around it; skim the fat off the gravy, pour it over the duck, and serve. 

Duck with Marinaded Cucumbers. 

Place three salted cucumbers in a basin and pour one pint of water and half a 
teacupful of vinegar over them, and let them marinade for two or three hours. Then 
cut a small duck into eight pieces, peel and slice one onion and put it into a sauce- 
pan with a lump of butter, and fry for a few minutes; put in the pieces of duck, and 
fry them until lightly browned, pour over one breakfast cupful of stock, add a clove 
of garlic and a bay leaf, and stew gently at the side of the fire until tender, then 
drain the slices of cucumber and put them in with the duck to get hot. When pre- 
pared, turn all out on a hot dish, and serve. 

Curried Duckling. 

Put into a saucepan four teaspoonfuls of chopped onion, one teaspoonful each of 
ground chillies and turmeric, half a teaspoonful of ground ginger, and a quarter of a 
teaspoonful of ground garlic with two ounces of boiling fat, and brown them. Cut a 
duckling up into several pieces, and brown it slightly in the saucepan with a tea- 
spoonful of salt, pour in two breakfast cupfuls of water and simmer on the side of 
the fire until the meat is quite tender, which will occupy "about an hour and a half. 
When done turn the curry out on a dish, and serve very hot. If desired, half a 
teaspoonful each of ground coriander and cumin seeds may be added to this curry 
with advantage. 

Fillets of Ducklings with Green Peas. 

1 I ) Roast two or three ducklings in the oven, basting frequently. Boil a pint 
and a half of green peas, and when tender strain off the water; mash about one 
pound of boiled potatoes, put them into a border mould, poach in the bain-marie 
for a few minutes, and then turn them out onto a hot dish. Cut as many thin 
croutons of bread as fillets and fry them in butter until browned. When the duck- 
lings are cooked cut off the fillets, trim them, and arrange alternately with the 
croutons on the border of potatoes. Strain the gravy that has run from the duck- 
lings into the stewpan with the peas, put in two ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of 
sugar, and a little salt, and stir over the fire for a few minutes. Beat the yolk 
of an egg with half a teacupful of cream or milk, then mix it in with the sauce; 
and stir by the side of the fire until thick. The sauce must not boil after the 
egg is added. Heap the peas in the center of the dish, and serve. 

(2) Roast and fillet the ducklings as for No. I, score the skin, arrange the 



POULTRY. 313 

fillets in a circle on .a dish, fill the center with plain boiled green peas, and serve 
with a sauceboatful of half-glaze. 

Roast Ducklings. 

Take a duckling weighing from three to three and a half pounds, singe, draw 
and wipe; then stuff with forcemeat, place in a roastingpan with half an ounce of 
butter, sprinkle with salt, and cook in the oven for forty minutes, basting occasionally. 
Lay the bird on a dish and untruss it; skim the fat off the liquor, add one teacup- 
ful of white broth, let it come to a boil, then strain over the bird, and garnish with 
fried hominy. 

Roast Duckling with Apple Sauce. 

Prepare and truss a tender duckling of about three and a half pounds weight; 
place it in a roasting pan, spread over it half an ounce of butter and a pinch of salt; 
cook in a brisk oven for thirty minutes, basting now and then with its own liquor. 
Place the duck on a hot dish and untruss, skim the fat off the liquor in the pan, pour 
in a teacupful of broth; let it come to a boil, then strain it over the duck and garnish 
with watercresses. Serve with hot applesauce in a sauceboat. 



Giblet Pie. 

Prepare and stew three or four sets of giblets and when they are done place them 
in a dish with the meat from the neck and pinions, arranging them in layers with a 
few slices of boiled bacon between; pour in a little gravy, cover the dish with a good 
pie-crust and put it in the oven for thirty minutes. If desired mashed potatoes may 
be put on the top instead of pie-crust and a little mushroom or walnut catsup poured 
into the dish. Celery and sweet herbs are sometimes used. 



Deviled Goose. 

Take a good-sized goose, singe and draw, plunge it into a pan of boiling water 
and leave for thirty minutes or so; then stuff it with a mixture made of mashed pota- 
toes, butter, onions, parsley, thyme and a little black pepper. Put a few slices of fat 
pork in a pan, place the goose on it and pour in a pint of broth. Put a little butter 
on the breast of the bird and pour over it a mixture made of two tablespoonfuls of 
each of pepper, vinegar, celery vinegar, made mustard and half that quantity of any 
acid fruit jelly. Sprinkle over salt and pepper, dust it well over with flour and put in 
a quick oven, basting frequently. When done take it out, lay it on a dish, skim the 
fat off the gravy, pour it over, and serve. 



3 i4 POULTRY. 

Attereaux of Goose's Fat Liver. 

Take half of a cold cooked fat liver, divide it into half-inch squares, a fifth of an 
inch thick; put them into a kitchen basin, add an equal quantity of same-sized squares 
of cooked pickled beef tongue, season, sprinkle over a handful of minced truffles and 
pour over a few tablespponfuls of hot villeroy sauce. Roll them in this sauce until 
they are thoroughly masked in it and then let them cool. Thread the squares of 
tongue and liver alternately upon some wooden or metal skewers and roll them in 
breadcrumbs; dip in beaten egg, roll in breadcrumbs again, plunge them into plenty 
of boiling hog's lard, and fry to a bright brown color. Remove, drain and serve on a 
folded napkin or ornamental dish-paper with lemons cut into quarters set all round. 

Goose's Fat Liver Croquettes. 

Take half a pound each of truffles and fat liver, cut into small pieces of equal 
size and put them into one quart of hot Spanish sauce reduced with a little essence of 
truffles and made quite thick. Take them out when cool, separate the pieces, roll 
them into little balls, dip them into egg beaten up with oil, salt and pepper, and then 
roll them on a board covered with breadcrumbs. Plunge them into a pan of boiling 
fat and fry to a light brown color. Take them out, drain, dust over with salt, place 
them on a napkin on a dish, and serve. 

Fried Goose's Fat Liver with Truffle Sauce. 

Take a large liver and without steeping it in water cut it up in slices as near of a 
size as possible, sprinkle them over with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, dip into 
beaten egg and then into breadcrumbs. Put half a pound of butter into a flat saute - 
pan; when it is warm, add the slices and fry them over a brisk fire turning them over 
so as to cook on both sides. When done to a light brown, take them out again, 
drain, put them in a circle on a dish and stand a boat of perigueux sauce in the 
center. Garnish with slices of lemon, and serve hot. 

Goose's Fat Liver in Shells. 

Take a half or three-quarters of a fat liver and chop it into pieces, small dice or 
squares and put them into a saucepan with half their bulk of chopped mushrooms. 
Sprinkle over a little salt and pepper and place the lid on the pan; put three-quarters 
of a pint of bechamel sauce into another saucepan and place it over a quick fire to 
reduce it, keeping it stirred constantly and adding slowly a few tablespoonfuls of 
melted glaze until the sauce is soft enough without being too thick; then add it to the 
fat liver mixture in the other saucepan and place the pan on the side of the fire where 
it will warm without boiling. Fill ten tableshells with the mixture, smooth the 



POULTRY. 315 

surface, cover them with breadcrumbs and salamander, or place them in a slow oven 
to brown. Serve the shells on a folded napkin on a dish, and serve. 

Goose's Giblets Stewed with Apples. 

After cleaning the giblets thoroughly, cut them up and put them in a stewpan 
with an onion stuck with three cloves, a small bunch of parsley and a little water; 
dust in salt and pepper and stew them gently; peel some apples, cut them in quarters 
and core; put them in a stewpan with a small quantity of water, a slice of lemon peel, 
brown sugar to taste, and cook them gently until soft, but without breaking; put one 
ounce of butter in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of flour, and stir it over the fire until 
brown; then mix in a small quantity of the cooking liquor of the giblets; strain the 
syrup off the apples, mix it in with the sauce and stir over the fire until thick and 
smooth. Take a tablespoonful of currants, wash them thoroughly and put them in 
boiling water until plump. Remove the onion and parsley from the giblets, pour the 
sauce in with them and color darkly with caramel. After draining them, mix the 
currants, and the quarters of apples in with the giblets and make all hot together. 



Deviled Leg of Goose. 

Remove all the water from a tablespoonful of fresh butter by beating it up with 
a little salt; add to it one saltspoonful each of dry mustard and white pepper, half a 
saltspoonful 'of dried salt and any kind of chutney, also a small quantity each of 
sugar and cayenne. Work these to a paste, spread it over the leg of a cold cooked 
goose so as to cover it, put it on a gridiron and broil both sides over a clear fire. 
Serve at once. 

Stewed Goose Livers. 

Take six goose's livers, clean and wash them thoroughly, and put them in a stew- 
pan with two or three shallots, a piece of parsnip, a small bunch of sweet herbs, with a 
few sprigs of parsley tied up in it, two or three cloves, salt and pepper to taste and 
about three-quarters of a pint of clear stock. Move the saucepan to the side of the 
fire when boiling and keep the contents simmering gently until the livers are tender. 
When cooked take the livers out of the saucepan, being very careful not to break them, 
and cut them into slices. Take some of their cooking liquor to make the sauce, strain 
it into a small stewpan, thicken it with a little flour kneaded with butter, and stir it 
over the fire until boiling; next put into it a few sliced mushrooms and the sliced liv- 
ers and let the whole simmer gently at the side of the fire for a few minutes. Turn 
the livers and mushrooms with the sauce over them on to a hot dish, garnish with thin 
rolls of fried bacon and small croutons of bread fried brown in butter, and serve. 



3 i6 POULTRY. 

Pate of Foies Gras. 

Select a good-sized goose's fat liver and remove the gall with care, put the liver 
into a pan of boiling water to set, taking care that it does not boil, then take it out 
and let it cool. Put two tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped onions into a sautepan with 
a little rasped bacon and fry, but without allowing it to color. Cut the liver into large 
squares, put it into the pan with the onions and add eight ounces of raw truffles cut 
up into smaller squares or dice; sprinkle over a little salt and add a few spices to sea- 
son. Place the pan over the fire for eight minutes or so, tossing it now and then, then 
take it from the fire and let the contents cool. Chop fine half a pound each of lean 
veal and fat bacon, mix in with them two or three tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs 
soaked in milk and squeezed thoroughly dry, mince it up a little more and season with 
salt and pepper. Place this mince in a basin, add some trimmings of truffles and 
the fat liver also chopped very fine, and half a pound of lean ham cut into small 
dice or squares. Butter a hot pie mould, place it on buttered paper on a baking 
sheet, line it with short paste, put a layer of the mince at the bottom and sides, 
then fill it with a round flat of paste, decorate it, leave a hole in the center, brush 
it over with egg and bake for an hour and a half in a moderate oven. As soon 
as the paste begins to color place a piece of buttered paper over it. When it is 
done remove the top of the pie, wipe off as much of fat as possible, mask the 
contents with brown sauce reduced with Madeira and trimmings of truffles, and serve 
very hot. 

Goose Pie. 

Cut the meat from the bones of a cold, cooked goose, put the bones with skin 
and stuffing (if any) into a saucepan with a little water and boil for two hours. Suf- 
ficient water should be used so that when boiled there will be at least one pint of 
gravy. Let it cool and skim off the fat. Put a layer of apple sauce at the bottom 
of a dish, lay the meat on this, cover it over with another layer of sauce, and fill the 
dish up with as much gravy as it will conveniently hold. Sprinkle over with pepper 
and salt, cover the dish with a good suet crust and bake in a moderate oven until the 
crust is done. If uncooked meat is used it should be first stewed for an hour or so. 
Boiled and minced onions may be used in place of the apple sauce if desired. 

Goose Giblet Pie. 

Take a goose, singe and scald the wings and head, cut off part of the beak and 
remove the eyes, skin the feet and head, cut open the gizzard and cleanse it, cut 
the neck into moderate-sized pieces and the liver and heart into halves. Put the 
giblets into a stewpan with a sliced onion, a few peppercorns and a bunch of sweet 
herbs, moisten to height with water and keep them gently simmering at the side of 
the fire for about an hour and a half, leave the giblets until cool and cut them into 
smaller pieces. Take a pie-dish and fill it with alternate layers of tender steak and 



POULTRY. 317 

the giblets, seasoning each layer with salt and pepper. Strain in the cooking liquor 
of the giblets and cover the whole with a good plain crust, trimming off neatly round 
the edges and making a hole in the center. Lay a sheet of paper over the top of the 
pie and bake for an hour and a half in a brisk oven. It may be served either hot or 
cold. 

Roasted Goose and Chestnut Stuffing. 

Peel fifty chestnuts, chop them up as small as possible, put them into a sauce- 
pan with two ounces of butter, half a pound of sausage meat, half an onion finely 
chopped, a little minced parsley and a very small quantity of garlic. Set the sauce- 
pan on the fire and cook for ten minutes. Scald and chop finely the liver of a goose, 
add it to the chestnut mixture and cook gently for a quarter of an hour. Prepare a 
goose, stuff it with the mixture and roast it in a hot oven. Boil gently fifty more 
chestnuts in white wine, adding any required seasoning and cooking them until tender 
but not broken. When the goose is done put it on a dish, garnish with the boiled 
chestnuts, and serve. 

Smoked Goose. 

Pluck a goose as soon as killed, remove all the back, together with the bone 
attached to it, take out the inside of the remainder of the bird, wash and dry it, open 
it out flat, rub well with a mixture of salt, saltpeter and honey, and leave for a couple 
of days; then rnb it over with powdered thyme, allspice, garlic and white pepper and 
leave it for another two days; then sew it up, first in muslin and then in thick cloth, 
and hang it for a week over a wood fire. Take it down, remove the thick cloth, 
and put it in a cool current of air for three days; then remove the muslin, sew it up in 
more muslin and place in a cool room until wanted. The back part that was taken 
away may be used for stew or broth. 

Stewed Goose. 

Take two onions, peel and chop and put them in a stewpan with one tablespoonful 
of goose dripping or fat, and fry until soft and lightly colored, then dredge with 
flour, brown them and stir in one pint of clear broth. Cut up any cold remains of 
goose and put it into the sauce with a wineglassful of white wine and a tablespoonful 
of vinegar, and season to taste with salt and pepper. Put the lid on the pan and 
stew the contents for a quarter of an hour. Turn the stew out onto a hot dish and 
serve with any kind of vegetables on a separate dish. 

Baked Gosling. 

Select a gosling not very young, for the flesh is then flabby and after it has 
hung for a day or so, pluck, singe and draw it ; then put it in water with a little 
salt, and let it remain for several hours, to remove the strong taste. Wash and wipe 



3 i8 POULTRY. 

the inside, and fill it with a stuffing made with finely-mashed potatoes, a little lump 
of butter, a pinch of salt or fresh pork chopped very fine, a minced onion and a 
small quantity each of chopped parsley, thyme and sage. Sew it up, truss and grease 
it all over with butter or lard. Put it on a trivet on a baking-dish with the giblets; 
pour into the dish one breakfast cupful of boiling water, and put it into a quick oven. 
Baste frequently, turning it round now and then so as to brown on both sides. 
When thoroughly cooked, put on a dish with gravy, and serve with onion sauce. 

Braised Gosling. 

Pluck, draw and singe a gosling and stuff it with forcemeat made with pork 
slightly seasoned and mixed with a little parsley and breadcrumbs; sew it up, chop 
off the leg bones and pinions at the joints and truss it; put the fat from the gosling 
at the bottom of a saucepan with a few vegetables cut in slices, place the gosling on 
these and pour in a pint of broth with a little salt and reduce the liquor over a brisk 
fire; pour in half a bottle of wine and a little more broth to half the height of 
the bird; drop in a few cloves and peppercorns and a bunch of sweet herbs. Boil 
up and remove the pan to a moderate fire, cover the goose with buttered paper, 
baste often and put the lid on the pan. Place a few hot ashes on the top and 
braise for three hours. When done pour off the stock, skim off the fat, put the 
fat back with the goose into the pan, keeping it hot, and reduce the stock to half- 
glaze in another saucepan; add a little brown sauce to thicken it, reduce again, 
stir well, add a teacupful of Burgundy and keep it hot in the bain-marie. Untruss 
the goose, place it on a hot dish and garnish with cooked glazed chestnuts, ar- 
ranged alternately in groups with small cooked sausages. Pour a little of the 
sauce over the goose, put a paper ruffle on each leg, and serve with the rest of the sauce 
in a boat. 

Pigeons. 

Pigeons should always, if possible, be drawn as soon as they are killed, then well 
washed and thoroughly dried. They are trussed by cutting off the neck, also the 
toes at the first joint, then crossing the wings over the back and securing these 
with a skewer thrust through them and the body; they are then ready for roasting. 

Pigeons Bourgeoise. 

Clean and truss two pigeons and braise them for forty-five minutes. Stone six 
olives and shape six pieces of carrot and six pieces of turnip like olives; boil 
them in a weak stock together with six mushrooms and eight small quenelles. 
When these are cooked cut the pigeons into four pieces each and put them on a 
hot dish, pour one-half pint of hot brown sauce over them, arrange the vegetables 
and quenelles tastefully about and garnish with nicely-shaped croutons of fried 



POULTRY. 319 

bread. This is a very plain and unpretentious but delicious mode of cooking 
pigeons. 

Braised Pigeons. 

Draw and wash three young pigeons, wipe them well and stuff them with 
breadcrumbs that have been well seasoned and moistened with warmed butter, and 
cook them in a braising pan. Boil some spinach, chop it well, and season with salt 
and pepper. Toast three slices of bread, lay them on a hot dish, spread the spinach 
over them, put a pigeon on each slice, and serve with a sauceboatful of gravy. 

Broiled Pigeons. 

Clean the pigeons, split them down the back, wipe them with a damp towel, and 
sprinkle salt and pepper over them. Roll them in warmed butter, dredge with flour, 
and broil for ten minutes over a clear fire, turning to do both sides equally. Toast 
some thick slices of bread without a crust, butter them and put them on a hot dish. 
When cooked lay the pigeons on the toast, garnish round with parsley, and serve. 

Broiled Pigeons, Crapaudine. 

Clean two pigeons, cut them lengthwise under the breast, beat them flat, and 
season with salt and pepper. Put them in a sautepan with a tablespoonful of butter, 
and fry them for fifteen minutes. Drain them, and place between two plates with a 
weight on top, and leave them till cold. Fry a tablespoonful of chopped shallot in 
the sautepan, then pour in one-half pint of broth, add a little pepper, and boil till 
reduced to half its original quantity. Skim the fat off the gravy, strain it through a 
pointed strainer into a smaller stewpan, and keep it hot. Roll the pieces of pigeon 
in warmed butter, then in breadcrumbs, and broil them over a clear fire, browning 
both sides equally. Put the pigeons on a hot dish, garnishing round with slices of 
lemon, and serve with the gravy in a sauceboat. 

Broiled Pigeons in Papers. 

Clean the pigeons, put them into a saucepan with chopped bacon, a lump of 
butter and a little salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. Fry them slowly, and when half 
done, put in with them mushrooms, a minced shallot and sweet herbs. When nicely 
done, take them out and leave them to get cold. Then split the birds in halves 
lengthwise, sprinkle them over with pepper, salt and powdered sweet herbs and wrap 
each piece in buttered writing paper. Broil them over a clear slow fire for twenty 
minutes, turning to do them equally. Put the pieces of pigeons on a hot dish 
garnished round with slices of lemon and serve. 



3 20 POULTRY. 

Chartreuse of Pigeons. 

Peel an equal quantity of carrots and turnips aud cut them into small balls with 
a vegetable cutter and boil them separately in salt and water, keeping them a little 
firm. Drain, wipe them on a cloth and leave them till cold. Cut the fillets off some 
young pigeons, trim away the sinewy skin, beat them lightly, season with salt and 
'pepper and lay them in a buttered sautepan. Thickly butter a plain border mould, 
arrange the vegetable balls in circles alternately round the sides, fill the hollow of 
the mould with potatoes that have been boiled and mashed with a little butter and 
stand the mould in a bain-marie for an hour. When ready, fry the fillets over a 
quick fire, turning them. After they are cooked, drain off the butter, pour over two 
or three tablespoonfuls of glaze, and keep them hot. Turn the decorated border out 
of the mould onto a hot dish and fill the center with some chopped and cooked vegeta- 
bles that have been mixed with some bechamel sauce. Arrange the fillets almost upright 
on the border letting them slightly overlap each other, and serve with a sauceboatful 
of brown sauce which has been prepared with the legs and trimmings of the pigeons. 

Curried Pigeons, Indian. 

Put four teaspoonfuls of ground onions, a teaspoonful each of ground chillies and 
turmeric, half a teaspoonful of ground ginger and one-fourth teaspoonful of ground 
garlic into a saucepan with two ounces of boiling fat and cook until the ingredients 
are slightly browned; add four young pigeons each cut up into quarters and about a 
teaspoonful of salt, and cook until they are browned; then add two breakfast cupfuls 
of water and continue to cook slowly till the pigeons are tender. Turn the curry 
out on a hot dish, and serve very hot. 

Pigeon Cutlets. 

Having plucked and prepared the birds, put them in a stewpan with sufficient 
clear stock to cover, and boil slowly until tender. When cooked drain and cut them 
up into convenient pieces. Season some grated breadcrumbs with moderate quanti- 
ties of finely-chopped thyme, parsley and lemon peel and a little cayenne pepper. 
Dip the pieces of pigeon in beaten egg and roll them in seasoned breadcrumbs, giv- 
ing them a good coating. Put a large lump of lard or fat into a deep fryingpan, 
place it on the fire, and when the blue smoke arises put in the pieces of pigeon and 
fry them till nicely browned. Put one ounce of butter and a tablespoonful of flour 
into a stewpan, stir them over the fire till mixed and browned, then strain in the liquor 
in which the pigeons were boiled, season to taste, and stir till boiling. Form a pyra- 
mid of potatoes on a hot dish, arrange the pieces of pigeons in an upright position all 
round them, pour the sauce round the pigeons, and serve. 



POULTRY. 321 

Fried Pigeon Cutlets. 

Remove the wing-bones from four pigeons and tuck the leg-bones inside. Cut 
them in halves, sprinkle over salt and pepper, put them in a sautpan with a little 
butter, and fry them. When done press them between two plates with a weight on 
top till cold. Dip them first in butter and then in breadcrumbs and broil over a good 
fire to color them. Place them in a circle on a dish, fill the cavity in the center either 
with string beans, asparagus, peas, sliced mushrooms or with a macedoine of various 
vegetables. 

Pigeons, Duchess. 

Clean the pigeons, cut them into quarters, pour boiling water over the claws, and 
when sufficiently soaked trim off the skin and nails. Sprinkle over them a little 
black pepper and allspice, rubbing it in slightly with the hand; lay them in a basin, 
pour some red wine over them, cover and leave them for several hours or over 
night. Then put them with the wine into a stewpan, pour in enough brown stock 
to cover, and boil them for an hour over a slow fire. When well cooked drain and 
pound their livers in a mortar. Boil the cooking stock quickly till reduced to 
half its original quantity, then mix with it the pounded livers and one tablespoon- 
ful of desiccated cocoanut. Arrange the wings and claws of the birds together to 
form a center piece for the dish, putting a piece of watercress in each claw. Put it 
in the middle of a hot dish, lay the quarters of birds round it, putting between each 
quarter a small roll of fried bacon, pour round the thickened gravy, garnish the 
edge of the dish with a fringe of watercress, on which lay quarters of lemon, and 
serve. 



Epigrammes of Pigeons. 



Cut the fillets off four pigeons and remove the skin and minion fillets. Beat the 
minion fillets lightly, and put them on the other fillets. Sprinkle a little salt and 
pepper over them, arrange them on the bottom of a flat stewpan with some clarified 
butter, and cover over with a sheet of buttered paper. Cut the meat off the legs of 
the pigeons, and with that, the trimmings of the fillets and an equal quantity of 
poultry flesh, prepare some quenelle forcemeat; take up six tablespoonfuls of it, put 
them on a floured table, and shape each spoonful of it like the fillets of the pigeons. 
Place them side by side in a buttered sautepan, stand it in the bain-marie and poach 
them; when done, drain, and leave till cool. Dip the forcemeat fillets in beaten eggs 
and roll them in breadcrumbs seasoned with sweet herbs. Fry the fillets of pigeons, 
and at the same time the fillets of forcemeat, in a flat stewpan with a piece of butter. 
When nicely browned on both sides, drain the fat off the fillets, pour over two 
tablespoonfuls of melted glaze and one tablespoonful of Madeira, boil and move 
the pan off the fire. Put the fillets on a hot dish in a circle, alternating them with 



322 



POULTRY. 



the fillets of forcemeat, fill the center with a puree of vegetables or chestnuts, pour 
a little rich, brown gravy over them and serve with a sauceboatful of the same. 

Pigeons, Financiere Style. 

Put four pigeons, cleaned and trussed, into a stewpan with some thin slices of 
fat bacon on the top, and chicken broth to their height; put a sheet of buttered 
paper over them, cover the pan and cook slowly till tender. Prepare a garnishing 
of truffles, mushrooms, cockscombs and some chicken quenelles, mixed in financiere 
sauce. Fry a block of bread three inches high, and narrower at the top than at the 
bottom. Drain the pigeons, and rest them against it, put some of the garnishing 
around the dish, and some piled up between the birds. Place a larded and glazed 
sweetbread on top of the bread. Pour a small quantity of financiere sauce over the 
pigeons, and serve with some more in a sauceboat. 

Fricandeau of Pigeons. 

Singe and draw four pigeons, truss them as for roasting, remove the feet and 
pinions, lard the breasts, and stuff them with forcemeat. Place some thin slices of 
fat bacon in a stewpan, then a layer of veal, put in the pigeons, also a blade of 
beaten mace, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little salt and pepper, then cover the birds 
with some more veal and bacon. Prepare with the bones and trimmings one pint of 
gravy, pour it in with the pigeons, put the lid on the pan, and let the contents 
cook slowly for an hour. Take the pigeons out, skim and strain the gravy, then 
boil it till reduced to half its original quantity; put the pigeons in again and 
stand them over the fire for five minutes. Lay them on a hot dish, pour the sauce 
over, garnish with slices of lemon, and serve. 

Fricasseed Pigeons. 

Singe and draw two pigeons, and wipe them well with a damp cloth. Cut them 
into pieces, and put them in a saucepan; pour in one pint each of claret and water, 
add a blade of mace, one onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little pepper and salt, and 
one and one-half tablespoonfuls of butter that has been kneaded with a little flour. 
Cover the pan, and cook slowly for three-fourths of an hour. Remove the pieces of 
pigeons onto a hot dish, and keep them warm. Strain the gravy, and stir in with it 
the yolks of three eggs; when thick pour it over the meat, put some fried oysters on 
top, garnish round with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Fried Pigeons. 

Pluck and prepare three pigeons for cooking, split them into halves lengthwise, 
remove the breast-bone, and beat the flesh flat. Put them into a fryingpan with two 
ounces of butter and a little pepper and salt. When fried, place them between two 



POULTRY. 323 

plates with a weight on top, and leave till cold. Prepare four ounces .of quenelle 
forcemeat, and spread it over the side of each half ; roll them in beaten egg and 
breadcrumbs, and fry them in clarified fat. When cooked put them in a circle on a 
hot dish, fill the center with a macedoine of vegetables, pour some hot brown sauce 
round, and serve. 

Fried Pigeons with Celery. 

Cut three pigeons into halves, brush them over with egg, dip them into bread- 
crumbs, plunge them into a pan of boiling lard, and fry them. Have .ready a .puree 
qf celery, put it on a dish, place the halves of pigeons on top, and serve with croutons 
of fried bread for garnish. 

Pigeon Pie. 

Pick and draw some young pigeons, wash them, lay them in a saucepan of boiling 
water, add a piece of onion and a. little salt,, cover the pan and boil until tender. 
Take the pigeons .out., drain them, and put in each a teaspoonf-ul of butter, .a .small 
quantity of salt, pepper, thyme and a hard-boiled egg. Lay them in a deep baking- 
dish and strain their cooking liquor over them; put ia one teacupful of cream, 
one tablespoonful of butter, two tahlespoonfuls >of breadcrumbs, one tabLespoonful of 
minced parsley and thyme, and a pinch of salt. Cover the pie with a rich crust, 
ornament it, stick four of the claws an the crust, and bake it. Serve either hot or 
cold. If cold set the pie-dish on an under dish with a .napkin folded about it, 
and garnish freely with sprigs of parsley. 

; Roasted Pigeons. 

It is well to stuff pigeons for roasting with a well-seasoned veal forcemeat. Their 
flavor is much improved by this means, and parsley fried in butter can then be 
served with them. The stuffing should consist of minced raw veal, fat bacon, bread- 
crumbs soaked in milk, and all mixed together and well seasoned. In America it is 
usual to serve roasted pigeons with red currant jelly or stewed apples without sugar, 
dressed celery or other salad, mashed turnips or squash. All are considered suitable 
for these birds. 

Roasted Pigeons Stuffed with Chestnuts. 

Singe and draw two pigeons and truss them as for roasting. Boil one-half pint 
of chestnuts, and when tender peel and pound them in a mortar with the same quan- 
tity of finely-chopped bacon. Stuff the pigeons with the chestnut mixture, put a vine 
leaf on each breast and bind them round with a thin slice of fat bacon; then roast 
them in a hot oven for half an hour. Chop fine the livers and mix them with 
a sprig of chopped parsley, a tablespoonful each of sauce and gravy, a lump of 
butter, a piece of grated lemon peel; add a little grated nutmeg, salt and pepper. 



324 



POULTRY. 



Stir the mixture over the fire for a few minutes. Put the birds on a hot dish, and serve 
them with the sauce. 

Salmis of Pigeons. 

Cut some cold cooked pigeons into nice pieces, season them on both sides with 
salt and pepper, and flour them well; put them in a stewpan with a little cold water, 
one ounce of butter, a few drops of mushroom catsup, and boil over a slow fire for a 
few minutes. When done turn the salmis onto a hot dish, garnish it with sippets of 
toast or croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Stewed Pigeons with Green Peas. 

Truss two pigeons with their legs inwards, cutting off the necks and washing the 
livers and returning them again to the insides of the birds. Blanch four ounces of 
streaky bacon, cut it into squares removing all rind, and fry it in a stewpan with one 
ounce of butter. When lightly browned take the bacon out, put the pigeons in and 
fry them brown, then remove them and place them one side with the bacon. Stir 
two tablespoonfuls of flour in the stewpan with the fat, and when cooked pour in one 
and one-half pints of broth. When boiling strain it through a conical strainer into 
another stewpan; put in the pigeons and bacon, one quart of green peas, a bunch of 
sweet herbs, and pepper and salt to taste. Cook slowly for half an hour, then , take 
them out, remove the strings and place them on a hot dish. Take the bunch of herbs 
out, skim the fat off the peas, put them and the bacon round the birds, and serve with 
a sauceboatful of the strained gravy. 

Stuffed Pigeons. 

Pluck, draw, and clean the required quantity of pigeons, and make an incision in 
the center of each breast without cutting the flesh. Put the crumb of a stale roll in 
as much milk as it will absorb, and when soft squeeze it well and mix with it two or 
three finely-chopped button mushrooms, a moderate quantity each of chopped shallot 
and parsley, one-half ounce of butter, and salt and pepper to taste. When these in- 
gredients are well mixed, lift the skin on each side of the incision made in the breast 
of the bird, and stuff them with it. Sew up openings and put a small onion in each 
bird. Place them in a stewpan, with a few trimmings of ham or lean bacon, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, and salt to taste. Moisten to height with stock, and cook them over 
a slow fire. When the pigeons are tender, strain off some of their liquor into a 
smaller stewpan, thicken it with a little flour and butter that have been rolled together, 
and add a wirieglassful of white wine. Stir it over the fire till boiling, then move it 
to the side. Toast some slices of bread, lay them on a hot dish, and place the 
pigeons on them; pour a small quantity of gravy round, and serve with the remainder 
in a sauceboat. 



POULTRY. 



3 2 5 



Timbale of Pigeons with Truffles. 

Pluck, singe and clean eight pigeons, truss them, chop them into halves, put them 
in a sautepan with butter or bacon fat, adding a tablespoonful of parsley, two table- 
spoonfuls of mushrooms, and four tablespoonfuls of truffles, all finely chopped. 
Season to taste with grated nutmeg, salt and pepper, and boil over a slow fire for 
fifteen minutes. Let them cool in the liquor, and remove as many bones as possible. 
Fill a mould with paste, mask the bottom and sides with game forcemeat, put in the 
halves of pigeons, with a few slices of truffles intermixed, pour over the butter from 
the fryingpan, cover over with a little more of the paste, set the mould in a moderate 
oven, and bake for an hour and a half. Turn it out when done, and serve. 

Squabs, American Style. 

Singe, draw and truss half a dozen fine fat squabs, stuff them with American 
forcemeat, and place them in a roastingpan with one pinch of salt evenly distributed, 
and one-half ounce of butter spread over. Place them in a hot oven and roast for 
eighteen or twenty minutes. Remove them from the oven, untruss and dress them 
on a hot dish. Skim the fat off the gravy, and add to it one gill of rich broth; 
let it come to the boil, and strain into a saucebowl. Decorate the dish with a 
small quantity of fresh watercress, arrange a slice of broiled bacon over each bird, 
and serve. 

Squab Ballotines. 

Singe, draw and remove the bones from half a dozen tender squabs, stuff 
them with a nice chicken forcemeat, and leave on one leg to decorate later with a 
truffle. Form each squab to a round shape, place them in a buttered sautepan, 
season with one pinch of salt and half a pinch of pepper, and cover with a piece 
of buttered paper. Place the pan in the oven for fifteen minutes. When cooked 
serve wifh one-half pint of hot Italian sauce, laying the squabs on top, with a 
paper ruffle fastened to each leg. Garnish the dish with watercress. 

Broiled Squabs. 

Singe and pluck a couple of squabs, cut off the feet and heads and wipe them 
with a wet cloth. Butter a double gridiron, lay the birds between the bars, and brown 
them quickly on both sides over a clear brisk fire. Shake a little pepper and salt 
over them, place them on a dish, lay slices of orange round, and serve. 

Broiled Squabs on Toast with Bacon. 

Singe, draw, and cut off the necks from three good-sized squabs; split them 
without detaching them, lay them on a dish and season with one pinch of pepper, 



326 POULTRY. 

one-half pinch of salt, and one tablespoonful of sweet oil; roll them well, and broil 
them for six minutes on each side. Prepare a dish with six toasts, arrange the squabs 
over, and spread one gill of maitre d'hotel butter on the top. Decorate the dish with 
six slices of broiled bacon, and serve. 



Squabs, Chipolata. 



Prepare and roast half a dozen squabs, and serve them with one pint of hot 
chipolata garnishing on a hot dish, with the squabs neatly arranged over. 

Compote of Squabs. 

Singe, draw, and truss with their legs thrust inside six fine, fat squabs, lay them 
in a saucepan with one-half ounce of butter, and a chopped carrot and chopped onion. 
Season with one pinch of salt, put the lid on the pan, and cook on a good fire for ten 
minutes. Put in a saucepan six small glazed onions, one medium-sized carrot, cut 
with a vegetable scoop one ounce of salt pork cut into small pieces, and six cut-up 
mushrooms:;, moisten them with one pint of Spanish sauce, and cook together for 
thirty minutes. Transfer the squabs to this mixture, and cook again for five minutes. 
Dress the garnishing on a hat dish, arrange the squabs on top, and serve. 

Squabs, Crapaudine. 

Singe and draw six tender squabs, splitting them through the back without en- 
tirely dividing them; break the bones of the legs and wings, flatten them well and lay 
them on a dish, season with one pinch of salt, one pinch of pepper and two table- 
spoonfuls of oil, roll them in well, then dip them in breadcrumbs, and broil slowly 
for seven or eight minutes on each side. Arrange them on a hot dish, and serve with 
one-half pint of hot Robert sauce, to which should be added three chopped mush- 
rooms. Serve the sauce on a dish with the squabs on top. 

Squab Pie. 

Make a rich paste and line a deep earthenware dish with it. Cut about one 
pound of tender roast of veal into slices one-half inch thick first removing the bones, 
and place a layer of meat around the sides and on the bottom of the dish, Carefully 
pluck six squabs, cut off the heads and feet, singe and draw them, wiping them with 
a wet towel; cut the livers and gizzards fine together with an equal quantity of fat 
salted pork or bacon, add to them an equal measure of fine breadcrumbs, one egg 
and a seasoning of salt and pepper, and use this forcemeat to stuff the squabs with. 
Lay them in a deep dish prepared as above and cover them with some slices of veal. 
Put over the fire in a fryingpan one dessertspoonful each of butter and flour, stir until 
brown and then mix in one and one-half breakfast cupfuls of boiling water and a 
seasoning of salt and pepper. When this sauce boils pour it into the pie,, and cover 



POULTRY. 327 

with an upper crust of paste, wetting the edges to cause them to adhere; cut several 
slits in the upper crust and brush over with beaten egg. Bake the pie in a moderate 
oven for two hours, taking care that it does not burn. If the crust browns too quickly 
cover it with a buttered paper, and lessen the heat of the oven. The pie may be 
served either hot or cold as desired. 



Roasted Squabs. 



Singe, draw, cut off the necks and wipe neatly six fine squabs; put them in a 
roastingpan with one-half pinch of salt, evenly spread, and a little butter; place the 
pan in a sharp oven and cook the birds for twelve or fourteen minutes; then remove 
from the oven, untruss and dress them on a hot dish on which have been previously 
placed six small canapes of game, one on each canape. Decorate the dish neatly 
with fresh watercress. Skim the fat from the gravy and add to it one gill of white 
broth. Allow it to just come to the boil; then strain it into a saucebowl, and serve. 



Turkeys. 



There is some difference in the methods adopted for trussing a turkey for roasting 
or braising and boiling. For roasting the same process as that described under truss- 
ing poultry is employed. For braising or boiling, trussing differs from the former in 
that the legs are tucked under the apron as follows : 

Singe and draw the bird, cut the legs off at the first joint, pass the finger into 
the inside, raise the skin of the legs, and tuck them under the apron of the bird. 
Pass a skewer through a joint of the wing and the middle joint of the leg, and run it 
through the body and the other leg and wing. Clean the liver and gizzard, and tuck 
them in with the pinions. Turn the small end of the pinion on the back, and fasten 
some twine over the ends of the legs to keep them in their places. 

Turkeys are often boned for making galantines or preparing other dishes in which 
the meat of the turkey without the skeleton is preferred. In some of the following 
recipes the boning of the turkey is prescribed, and the following is the method by 
which it should be done : 

The skin of the turkey for boning must not be broken or damaged in the slightest 
way, otherwise the effect will be spoiled. Pluck and singe the bird, chop off the head 
and lower joints of the legs, and the tips of the wings, and draw out the tendons from 
the legs, loosening the skin round the drumstick. The turkey must not be drawn 
before boning. Place the bird on its breast on a board, and with a sharp knife make 
a cut through the skin of the neck to the middle of the back or near the junction of 
the side bone. Scrape away the flesh with the skin until the end of the shoulder- 
blade is reached, ease the flesh from this and continue to follow the bone to the 
shoulder joint down to the middle joint in the wing. Care must be taken at this 
point, as the skin lies very near the bone. The lower or first bone should be left 



328 POULTRY. 

in the wing, as it is not in the way of carving, and helps to form the bird into 
shape. Should the turkey be small, the wings may be chopped off at the middle 
joint, as there is but little meat on them. Serve the other wing in the same way, 
and then follow the collarbone, loosening the crop from the flesh. Care must again 
be taken in removing the flesh from the breast-bone not to cut through the skin 
on the ridge ; it should be pushed away with the fingers, and the pieces that are 
detached from the other flesh can be inserted in their places afterward. As soon as 
the breast-bone is freed of meat, take off that from the ribs, then take it from the legs 
at the top joint, and then the drumsticks, turning the flesh inside out as if you were 
pulling a glove from your finger. When both of the legs have been boned, scrape 
down to the end of the backbone, and cut through the bone, leaving a part of it in 
the tail to hold the skewers. Now separate the membrane under the body, and all 
the flesh should be in the skin, while the skeleton containing the inside can be pulled 
away at the neck. 

Boiled Turkey. 

Singe and draw a turkey and truss it as for boiling. Wrap the gird in a cloth, 
place it in a saucepan with- plenty of hot water and remove the scum as it rises to the 
top; when the water boils move the saucepan to the side of the fire and let it simmer 
from one hour and a half to two hours, according to the size of the bird. When 
cooked drain the turkey, remove the cloth, put it on a hot dish, pour a small quantity 
of parsley and butter over it, and serve with a sauceboatful of sauce. 

Boiled Turkey, 'English Style. 

Select a very fine tender turkey of about five pounds in weight, singe and draw 
it, and truss with a needle from the wing to the leg. Place it in a soup pot, cook for 
one hour and remove it to a hot dish. Decorate the dish with one pint of cooked 
spinach, English style, and six slices of hot cooked lean ham. Serve with one-half 
breakfast cupful of hot broth poured over the turkey so as to keep it moist. 

Boiled Turkey Stuffed with Celery. 

Wash half a head of celery, chop it vtry fine, mix four heaping tablespoonfuls 
of stale breadcrumbs with it, add one and one-half tablespoonfuls of salt, one-half tea- 
spoonful of pepper, two ounces of warmed butter and two beaten eggs, and stir all to- 
gether until thoroughly mixed. Stuff the turkey with the mixture, sew up the open- 
ings and truss it. Rinse a cloth in cold water, wring it out and dredge it with flour. 
Wrap the turkey in a cloth, tying it securely, place it in a saucepan of boiling water 
and boil it quickly for twenty minutes; then move it to the side of the fire and let it 
simmer. Allow three hours for a turkey weighing nine or ten pounds, and about ten 
minutes for every additional pound. When cooked drain the bird, put it on a hot 
dish, and serve it with a sauceboatful of celery sauce. 



POULTRY. 



329 



Boiled Turkey with Oyster Sauce. 

Select a tender hen turkey weighing about seven pounds, have it carefully 
plucked, singed and wiped with a wet towel, cut off the head and feet and draw it with- 
out breaking the intestines; stuff it with equal quantities of stale bread and oysters 
seasoned with salt and pepper, or truss it unstuffed. Place it over the fire in a 
sufficient quantity of water to cover it, skim off all the scum as it rises, and boil the 
turkey gently for about two hours, or until it is tender. Place the bird on a dish, 
and serve oyster sauce in a sauceboat. 

Turkey, Bourgeoise Style. 

Singe, draw and truss a turkey, as for roasting, but do not stuff it, and roast it 
in a hot oven, basting it well with butter until nicely browned. Place a few slices of 
veal at the bottom of a deep stewpan, put in the turkey, cover it with slices of bacon, 
moisten to its height with stock or broth, put in a bunch of sweet herbs, and season 
to taste with pepper and salt, and let it simmer by the side of the fire. When 
cooked take the turkey out and place it on a hot dish. Skim the fat off the cooking 
liquor, strain it through a fine hair sieve over the bird, and serve. 

Braised Turkey. 

Draw a turkey, truss it as for boiling, and stuff it with a chestnut-and-truffle 
stuffing, which should be made as follows Peel off the dark skin from a quantity 
of chestnuts, place them in a saucepan with two bay leaves, a handful of coriander 
seeds, a lump of salt and plenty of water, boil, and when nearly soft, drain them, and 
remove the inner skin. Put one pound of finely-minced bacon and two or three chopped 
shallots into a stewpan, and toss them over the fire for a few minutes. Cut one pound 
of chestnuts up into small pieces, put them in with the bacon, add one-half pound of 
truffles, also cut into moderate-sized pieces, and season to taste with pepper, salt, spices 
and a moderate quantity each of thyme and marjoram. Stir the mixture over the fire 
for two or three minutes longer, then stuff the bird with it. Put a few slices of bacon at 
the bottom of a stewpan and put in the bird with three or four sliced carrots, onions, 
a clove of garlic, a bunch of sweet herbs tied together with a few sprigs of parsley 
and a bay leaf, add a few peppercorns and salt to taste, moisten to height with one- 
half pint of sherry and clear stock and cover with a sheet of buttered paper. Put 
the lid on the pan with some hot ashes on it, and place it over a slow fire. Braise 
the turkey for about four hours, and when cooked, place it on a hot dish. Strain the 
cooking liquor into a small saucepan, skim off all the fat and boil it up again; then 
pour it over the bird, garnish round with potato croquettes and Brussels sprouts, and 
serve. 



330 POULTRY. 

Braised Turkey Stuffed with Truffles. 

Singe and draw a fat hen turkey, cut the neck off, leaving i.ne crop skin as long 
as possible, scald the feet and rub off the skin. Peel three pounds of truffles and 
cut them into small balls. Put one and one-half pounds of grated fat bacon into a 
fryingpan, put in two shallots, two bay leaves, two sprigs of thyme and one clove of 
garlic, season to taste with pepper and salt and fry over a slow fire. When cool, 
strain the melted bacon fat into a basin and put in the truffles and half of the truf- 
fle trimmings, chopped. Stuff the turkey with the above mixture and truss it as for 
boiling. Line a braisingpan with slices of fat bacon, place the turkey in wrapped in 
a sheet of buttered paper, and cover it with three pints of mirepoix and one-half pint of 
Madeira. When the liquor boils, move the braisingpan to the side of the fire, place 
hot ashes on the lid and braise the turkey. Make some hot perigueux sauce, using up 
the balance of the truffle trimmings. When cooked, drain the turkey, untie it, place 
it on a hot dish, pour some of the hot sauce over it, and serve with the remainder in 
a sauceboat. 

Braised Larded Turkey with Chestnut Puree. 

Singe and draw a small turkey, break the breastbone, cut the legs at the first 
joint and remove the bone to shorten the legs. When the legs have been singed, 
push them into the thighs by the opening of the drumsticks. Chop fine a quantity 
of beef-suet, mix an equal quantity of breadcrumbs with it, and truss the bird with a 
strong string. Set the skin of the breast and legs by singeing, and lard it with bacon. 
Put some trimmings of bacon and vegetables into a braisingpan, put in the turkey, 
moisten it to its height with broth and cover it with a sheet of buttered paper. 
When boiling, move the pan to the side of the fire, put some hot ashes on the lid and 
let the broth simmer till the turkey, which should be continually basted with its own 
cooking liquor, is done. Glaze the breast of the bird with a paste-brush, and when 
well browned, drain ft and put it on a hot dish. Mix an equal quantity of white 
wine with the cooking liquor, skim off the fat, strain it through a fine hair sieve into 
another stewpan and boil it quickly until it is reduced to half-glaze. Serve the 
turkey with the sauce in a sauceboat and a separate dish of chestnut puree. 

Turkey Breasts, Spanish Style. 

Proceed as for turkey breasts chipolata, but after cooking for twenty minutes 
only take the turkey off, place it in another saucepan and baste it with its own gravy, 
adding one-half pint of Spanish sauce. Blanch one-half pint of chicken or turkey 
livers, cut them into two or three pieces each, according to their size, and put them 
into a saucepan with the turkey, adding one-half wineglassful of Madeira wine. Cook 
for twenty minutes longer, and serve with the livers placed round the breasts and the 
gravy poured over. 



POULTRY. 331 



Turkey Croquettes. 



Cut the meat off the breast of a cold cooked turkey, trim off the skin and fat 
and cut the lean into small squares; put them into a saucepan with an equal quantity 
of rice that has been boiled in broth till dry and of whole grain, sprinkle in one table- 
spoonful of curry powder and keep it covered. Pour one pint of bechamel sauce into 
a flat stewpan and boil it until reduced, stirring and adding gradually sufficient melted 
glaze to bring it to a creamy consistency. Mix one tablespoonful of curry powder 
with a small quantity of milk, stir it into the sauce, then pour the whole over the 
meat and rice. Stir the mixture over the fire for five minutes, then turn it into a 
basin and leave it until cool. When firm divide the mixture into equal quantities 
with a tablespoon, roll them in finely grated breadcrumbs, dip them in beaten egg and 
roll in breadcrumbs again. Boil a quantity of lard in a fryingpan, plunge the cro- 
quettes into it and fry them until they are well and equally browned. When cooked 
drain them, put them on a dish-paper placed on a hot dish, garnish, and serve. 



Fillets of Turkey, Milanese. 



Remove the sinewy skin from two breast fillets that have been cut from a small 
raw turkey, cut the meat into slices slanting lengthwise, trim them and beat them 
lightly. Dip the slices in beaten egg and then in freshly-grated breadcrumbs. Melt 
a lump of butter in a fryingpan, put the fillets in and fry them quickly on both sides 
till well browned. Put a garnish of rice with mayonnaise in the center of a hot dish; 
when cooked arrange the fillets in a circle round it, pour over them the butter in 
which they were cooked, and serve them. 

Turkey Fricassee. 

Separate the meat from the bones of some remains of cold cooked turkey, cut it 
into small pieces, and season it with salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. Pour one tea- 
cupful of milk into a saucepan with a thin strip of lemon peel, and boil it for five 
minutes. Mix one dessertspoonful of cornstarch to a paste with a little cold milk, 
then stir it into the milk in the saucepan, and keep on stirring it over the fire for two 
minutes; then take out the lemon peel, remove the sauce from the fire, and allow it 
to cool for several moments. Add one-half ounce of butter to the sauce, put it in the 
cut-up meat, and stir it over the fire until hot. While the turkey is being warmed up 
fry some thin squares of bacon. Turn the turkey onto a hot dish, arrange the bacon 
around, and serve. 

Turkey Giblets. 

These should be carefully preserved as they come in very handy for making 
sauce or gravy, or they can be used to make dishes by themselves. The old-fashioned 
system of tucking the gizzard and the liver into the wings when trussing for roasting 



332 



POULTRY. 



has long since been condemned by common sense, they being spoiled by drying and 
hardening in the cooking. 

The gizzard, liver and heart should be placed in a pan of water as soon as it is 
removed from the interior of the bird. The liver should be well squeezed in the 
water in order to disgorge it of its blood, and the heart should be cut open and also 
disgorged. The gizzard or crop should be cut open and all the stones or other con- 
tents be washed out; the thick white lining can be peeled off. The feet must be 
scalded and skinned, and any odd pieces of the neck may also be skinned and other- 
wise cleaned for making gravy. 



Turkey Giblets on Skewers. 



Remove the gall from the livers of two or three turkeys, and cut them into 
moderate-sized squares, split the hearts in two, open and empty the gizzards and 
wash them well in warm water. Run a thread through the gizzards, put them into a 
saucepan with a quantity of stock, and boil them for three-quarters of an hour. 
Drain, divide and trim off the hard skin, and cut them into the same sized pieces as 
the livers. Season the giblets with chopped parsley, pepper and salt, and baste them 
with a small quantity of oil, and mix with them the same quantity of thin squares of 
bacon as there are gizzard and liver squares. File the meat on skewers in alternate 
order, roll them in finely grated breadcrumb, place them side by side on a gridiron 
and broil them over a clear fire, turning them when done on one side. When nicely 
browned put the skewers of giblets on a folded napkin laid on a hot dish, and serve. 



Stewed Turkey Giblets with Turnips. 

Clean and blanch a pair of turkey giblets. Divide the neck and gizzard each into four 
pieces, and cut the pinions and legs in two. Cut one-half pound of streaky bacon 
into slices one inch thick, then divide them into pieces one and one-half inches long; 
place them in a stewpan with a piece of butter and fry till they are lightly browned. 
Take the bacon out, put in the giblets and fry them. Put the bacon back into the 
stewpan with the giblets, add one pound of turnips cut to the shape of corks, ten or 
twelve button onions and one ounce of butter. Fry the above ingredients until 
browned, then put in fifteen peeled potatoes, a bunch of sweet herbs and one quart 
of water; season with salt and pepper and let the whole simmer gently by the side of 
the fire for an hour and a half. Ten minutes before dishing the stew, put in the 
turkey livers. When cooked, take the bunch of sweet herbs out of the stew and 
skim off the fat. Turn the giblets onto a hot dish, arranging them with the heart, 
livers, gizzards and legs in the center of the dish, place the pieces of neck round 
them, put the pinions on top, pour over the remainder of the stew, and serve at once. 



POULTRY. 333 

Hashed Turkey. 

Cut up whatever may be left of a roasted turkey and put it into a saucepan; add 
to it some shallots, mushrooms and truffles, chopped parsley, two tablespoonfuls of 
cullis, about a half pint of stock, or a little more, one wineglassful of white wine and 
a seasoning of pepper and salt, and allow it to simmer for half an hour. Then add 
one pounded anchovy and one teaspoonful of lemon-juice. Skim off the fat, and 
serve hot all together. 

Hashed Turkey, Royal. 

Take about a pound and a half of nicely-shaped pieces of cooked turkey, place 
them in a saucepan with one pint of bechamel sauce, three tablespoonfuls of mush- 
room liquor, and two truffles cut into square pieces. Season with one pinch of salt, 
one-half pinch of pepper and a little grated nutmeg, all heated together for ten 
minutes; then serve with six heart-shaped pieces of bread for a garnish. 

Hashed Turkey with Cream. 

This is prepared in the same manner as hashed turkey royal, substituting one 
pint of cold cream and one tablespoonful of butter for the bechamel sauce, omitting 
the truffles, and reducing the cream with the hash to one-half, which will take about 
four or five minutes. Pour the whole onto a hot dish, and serve. 

Broiled Turkey's Legs. 

Cut off the legs of a cold roasted turkey, sprinkle them over with salt, pepper 
and cayenne, and cut them slightly across with a sharp knife. Squeeze some lemon 
juice over, place them on a well-greased gridiron and broil until nicely browned on 
both sides over a clear fire. When finished place the legs on a hot dish, baste them 
with warmed butter, and serve. 

Deviled Turkey's Legs. 

Cut and trim the legs of a cold cooked turkey and season them well with salt 
and pepper. Mix a small quantity of mustard to a paste with some oil, rub the legs 
in it and broil them over a clear fire, turning and basting often. When nicely colored 
put the legs on a hot dish, pour a little rich brown gravy over them, and serve. 

Minced Turkey with Poached Eggs. 

Singe and draw a turkey weighing about eight pounds, boil it gently until cooked, 
then drain and leave it until it is cool. Cut all the flesh off the bones, chop it fine, 
mix with it two breakfast cupfuls of finely-grated breadcrumbs. Place the bones and 



334 POULTRY. 

trimmings of the turkey in a saucepan with an onion and three quarts of broth, boil 
quickly till it is reduced to half its former quantity, and then strain it. Put a lump of 
butter in a saucepan with one tablespoonful of flour and stir it over the fire until 
browned, then mix in gradually the strained broth, season it with salt and pepper and 
stir it over the fire until boiling; then put in the minced turkey and breadcrumbs, and 
continue stirring until it is hot all through. Take up the mince in breakfast cupfuls, 
flatten it, turn it out onto a hot dish, place a poached egg on each mound, and serve. 



Turkey Patties. 



Mince the flesh of some cold cooked remains of turkey, and season it with a 
little grated lemon peel and nutmeg, salt and pepper. Put it into a saucepan with 
sufficient cream and butter to make it of a proper consistency, and stir it over the fire 
until hot. Butter some small patty pans, line them with paste, fill them with the 
above mixture, place a paste cover on the top, and trim the edges, moistening and 
pressing them together. Bake the patties in a moderate oven. When cooked re- 
move them from the tins, place them on a folded napkin or ornamental dish-paper 
placed on a hot dish, and serve. 



Turkey Pie. 



Pick the meat from the remains of some cold roast turkey, and chop it fine. 
Put the mince into a saucepan with a small quantity of milk, pounded mace, pepper 
and salt, judging the amount by the quantity of the meat; thicken it with a little flour 
that has been worked with butter, and stew it gently for a few minutes. Line a but- 
ter dish with a good piecrust, and when the above mixture is cold pour it over the 
paste, place a paste cover on the top, moisten and press the edges together, and bake 
in a quick oven. When cooked the pie can be served either hot or cold. 

Roast Turkey. 

Singe, draw and truss a turkey, season it interiorly with salt and cayenne pepper, 
put it in a baking-dish with the washed liver and gizzard, and sufficient water to make 
the gravy, and bake it in a brisk oven, basting frequently, When it begins to brown 
dredge it over with flour, turning it often so that each part can be equally browned. 
Cover the breast with a sheet of buttered paper. When cooked, cut the liver and 
gizzard up, place them in a small saucepan with a lump of butter and one teaspoonful 
of cream, and stir it over the fire until it is hot. Place the turkey on a hot dish, first 
removing the paper from the breast. Skim the fat off the gravy into the bakingpan, 
and strain it into the saucepan with the gizzard and liver. Pour the gravy over the 
turkey, and serve it while very hot. 



POULTRY. 335 

Roasted Turkey, Financiere Style. 

Prepare the bird as for roastiug, season the interior with one teaspoonful of 
finely-chopped thyme and parsley, and a small quantity of mace, pepper and salt. 
Stuff the bird with veal forcemeat, make an incision down each side of the breast, 
and fill them with washed and sliced truffles. Put the bird in a deep dish, sprinkle 
a small quantity of cayenne pepper over it, and allow it to soak in wine for twelve 
hours. At the end of that time fasten a sheet of buttered paper over the bird, and 
roast it in a brisk oven from an hour and a half to two hours, according to the size of 
the bird. Baste it in the wine in which it marinaded until it is half cooked, and then 
continue basting it with butter. Pour the remainder of the wine into a saucepan with 
one breakfast cupful of rich, brown gravy, one tablespoonful of Indian soy, and the 
strained juice of one lemon, seasoning to taste with salt and pepper. When boiling, 
move the sauce to the side of the fire, and keep it simmering gently for fifteen or 
twenty minutes. When cooked, take the turkey up, remove the buttered paper, 
place it on a hot dish, pour the sauce round it, and serve. 

Roasted Turkey Stuffed with Bacon and Truffles. 

Singe, draw and truss a turkey. Wash and peel one and one-half pounds of 
truffles, chop them, place them in a mortar and pound them. Chop and pound an 
equal quantity of fat bacon, and mix it with the truffles. Stuff the bird with the 
mixture, cover the breast with a sheet of buttered paper, and roast it in the oven, 
basting ft frequently with butter. When the bird is nearly done, remove the paper, 
dredge it over with flour, and baste with butter till nicely browned. When cooked 
place the turkey on a hot dish, pour a little rich, brown gravy over it, and serve with 
a sauceboatful of the same. 

Roasted Turkey Stuffed with Chestnuts. 

Singe, draw and truss the bird as for roasting; peel fifty or sixty chestnuts, 
blanch them in boiling water until the inner skin can be easily removed, and then boil 
them until soft; drain and chop them very fine. Empty two marrow bones, and 
cut the marrow into small pieces; mix these and the chestnuts together, season the 
mixture with a small quantity of salt and stuff the turkey with it. Cover the breast 
with a sheet of buttered paper, lay the bird on a bakingpan, and roast it in a hot oven, 
basting it constantly with butter. When nearly cooked, take the paper off the turkey, 
sprinkle over some flour and a little salt, and baste it with butter till frothed and 
browned. When cooked, place the bird on a hot dish, pour a little chestnut sauce 
over it, and serve with a sauceboatful of rich brown gravy, and a sauceboatful of 
bread sauce. 



336 POULTRY. 

Roasted Turkey Stuffed with Oysters. 

Prepare the bird as for roasting; crumble sufficient breadcrumbs to make four 
breakfast cupfuls and mix with it an equal quantity of crushed oyster crackers. 
Warm one-half pound of butter and stir it in with the breadcrumbs, with the liquor 
from four or five dozen oysters, and two beaten eggs. Put in the oysters, season the 
mixture to taste, then stuff the turkey with it, putting it in loosely so that the crumbs 
may absorb the gravy. Cover the bird with a thickly-buttered sheet of paper on a 
pan, and roast it in a hot oven, basting it often with butter. Ten minutes before 
removing the bird from the fire take off the paper, sprinkle over flour and salt, and 
baste it again wifh butter to color it. When cooked, place the turkey on a hot dish. 
Prepare some brown sauce with the contents of the drippingpan, pour a small quantity 
of it round the bird, and serve with the remainder in a sauceboat. 



Roast Turkey, Turkish Style. 

Clean and truss a turkey. Wash and partly boil one breakfast cupful of rice, 
then drain it, and mix with it about one dozen chestnuts peeled and cut into small 
pieces, one-fourth pound of well washed currants, and two ounces of blanched and 
chopped pistachio nuts, seasoning the mixture with salt and a small quantity each of 
cayenne pepper and ground cinnamon. Put one-fourth pound of butter into a stew- 
pan and place it over the fire; when melted pour in the mixture and stir it over the 
fire until well mixed with the butter. Stuff the turkey with this, sew up the breast, 
place it on a baking dish and bake it, keeping it well basted with butter. When 
cooked, place the bird on a hot dish, and serve with a sauceboatful of rich, clear gravy. 

Scalloped Turkey. 

Cut off all the meat from a boiled or roasted turkey and mince it very fine. 
Crack and break the carcass, put it into a saucepan together with the fat, skin and 
gristle, cover it with cold water and let it simmer to make the gravy. Grease the 
inside of a piedish, cover the bottom with a layer of breadcrumbs, over this put a 
layer of minced turkey, on this lay bits of butter and any bits of stuffing, then a 
layer of breadcrumbs, and so on until all the minced turkey is used up. When all 
the goodness is extracted from the bones strain the gravy, pour it back into the 
saucepan and thicken the browned flour. Pour some of this gravy into the piedish 
and with the remainder of it moisten sufficient fine breadcrumbs to form a smooth 
paste over the top; season with a little salt and pepper and spread the moistened 
breadcrumbs evenly and rather thickly over the scallops. Lay a dish over all and 
bake it for half an hour; then remove the cover, and, when browned, serve. 



POULTRY. 



337 



Stewed Turkey with Celery. 

Clean and truss a hen turkey as for boiling, stuff it with veal forcemeat, place it 
in a large saucepan with plenty of hot water, and boil it gently until tender. When 
the turkey is done take half of the cooking liquor and put it into another saucepan 
with four well-washed heads of celery, and stew them until tender. Remove the 
celery from the liquor, put in the turkey, breast downward, and boil it gently for 
twenty minutes; then drain it, put it on a hot dish and keep it near the fire. Stir 
one ounce of butter into one tablespoonful of flour, put it in the celery liquor, stir it 
over the fire until boiling, then put in the celery cut up into short lengths, and warm 
it again. Pour the sauce and celery over the turkey, and serve. 

Stewed Turkey with Noodles. 

Singe, draw and truss a turkey with the legs turned in. Melt some bacon fat in 
a stewpan, put in the bird, cover the breast with thin slices of fat bacon and fry it 
over a moderate fire until nicely browned. Pour some broth in with the turkey to 
three-fourths its height, add two or three small onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, a 
piece of celery root, four or five cloves and eight or ten peppercorns. Boil the liquor 
for ten minutes, then move the pan to the side of the fire, place some hot ashes on 
the lid, and stew the turkey until cooked. Prepare a garnish of noodles, finishing it 
with butter and grated Parmesan cheese, then place it on a hot dish. Remove the 
string from the turkey and place it on the dish with the noodles. Skim and strain 
the cooking liquor, thicken it with tomato sauce and boil it for a few minutes. Pour 
a small quantity of the sauce over the bird, and serve it with the remainder of the 
sauce in a sauceboat. 

Turkey, Toulouse. 

Peel from two to three pounds of raw truffles, chop the trimmings with one-half 
pound of fresh bacon, place them in a mortar and pound them, passing the mixture 
through a fine hair sieve. Singe and draw the turkey, stuff it with the pounded mix- 
ture, truss it, fasten a sheet of buttered paper around, place it in a pan and roast it in 
a hot oven, basting now^and then with butter. Ten minutes prior to taking the bird 
out remove the paper and let it brown, dusting it over with salt. Place some slices 
of toast on a hot dish, place the turkey on them, garnish with roasted quails at each 
side and the truffles, seasoned and boiled in white wine, at each end, and serve with a 
sauceboatful of rich gravy. 



Game. 

Canvas-Back Duck. 

When served the breast only is carved. Stick the fork straight and firmly into 
the middle of the breastbone, commence from the neck down to the back, straight to 
the backbone, and around the back ; then from the point of starting around the collar- 
bone. Cut the joint off the wing. Commence cutting again from the point of start- 
ing ; carefully and gently carving off the entire breast so that no meat remains. 
Proceed precisely the same with the other side. When finished there will remain 
only the carcass. The more quickly the duck is cooked the finer flavored it will be ; 
and the hot dish for serving and also hot plates should always be ready before the 
ducks are done. The ducks should never be overdone. 

Broiled Canvas-Back Ducks. 

Take a fine fat canvas-back duck, pick, singe, draw and wipe it thoroughly. Split 
it through the back without detaching the pieces, lay on a dish to season with a pinch 
of salt, half a pinch of pepper, and one tablespoonful of oil. Roll the duck well in 
it and broil for seven minutes on both sides. Dress it on a hot dish, spread over one- 
half gill of maitre d'hotel butter, decorate with a bunch of watercress, and serve. 

Roasted Canvas-Back Ducks. 

Procure a fine fat canvas-back duck, pick, singe, draw thoroughly, and wipe it ; 
throw inside a light pinch of salt, run in the head from the end of the head to the 
back, truss it and place in a roastingpan. Sprinkle on a little salt, put it in a brisk 
oven, and cook for eighteen minutes ; arrange on a very hot dish, untruss, throw in 
two tablespoonfuls of white broth, and serve with six slices of fried hominy for 
garnish, and currant jelly on a dish. 

Red-head and mallard ducks are prepared in exactly the Same way as canvas-back. 



Ruddy Ducks, Broiled. 



Select a good, fat ruddy duck and prepare it by singeing; after picking it thor- 
oughly, draw and wipe it well, then split it through the back, but take care not to de- 
tach the pieces, then put the duck on a dish with a little salt and half the quantity of 
pepper, to which should be added a tablespoonful of melted butter, and broil for four 
minutes on each side. When cooked dress the bird upon a hot dish on a little mai- 
tre d'hotel butter, decorate with watercress, and serve. 

338 



GAME. 339 



Ruddy Ducks, Roasted. 



Pick, singe and draw, wiping well a good, fat ruddy duck, and dredge inside a 
pinch or two of salt, then draw its head through an opening at the base of the neck 
and put it in a roastingpan, add a little more salt and set it in a brisk oven, cooking 
for about ten minutes. When it is done put it on a hot dish, untruss and pour a little 
good white broth inside the bird; cut in slices, garnish with a little fried hominy, to- 
gether with some currant jelly. 

Broiled Teal Ducks. 

Choose three fine, fat teal; pick, singe and dry them; cut off their heads and split 
the birds into halves without separating the parts. Place them on a dish and season 
with one pinch of salt, one-half pinch of pepper and one tablespoonful of sweet oil. 
Roll them well in it and put them to broil over a moderate fire for seven or eight 
minutes on either side. Have in readiness a hot dish with six large slices of toasted 
bread; divide the teal and lay one-half of them on the top of each Spread over one 
gill of maitre d'hotel butter, garnish with a little watercress, and serve. 



Deviled Teal Ducks. 

Cut into small pieces two or three large onions, place them in a mortar, add a 
small piece of green ginger and six or eight green peppers, and pound them to a 
pulp. Add two teaspoonfuls each of chutney and mustard, and a small quantity each 
of cayenne, pepper and salt; put the mixture into a saucepan, and pour in one-half 
pint of claret. Cut a teal in pieces and put them in a saucepan, and let them simmer 
gently at the side of the fire until the meat is done; this will take a long time. 
Arrange the pieces of teal on a dish, pour the sauce over, and serve. 



Teal Ducks, Gourmet Style. 

After the bird has been plucked, singed and drawn, split it open down the back 
with a knife, but do not divide it; pour boiling water over and remove the pink sub- 
stance that will be found to line the back; season the interior of the teal with spices, 
and brown it in a brisk oven for ten or fifteen minutes. Afterwards place the bird 
on a gridiron, the inside next to the fire, and broil it for five minutes. Make some 
rich brown gravy, thickening it with baked flour. Place the bird on a large slice of 
toasted bread, garnish it with groups of vegetables, slices of beet-root and quarters 
of lemons and oranges, and serve with a red currant jelly on a small glass dish. A 
fringe of watercress should also be arranged round the dish. 



340 



GAME. 



Roast Teal Ducks. 



Singe, draw and truss the required number of birds, wipe them with a wet towel, 
cut off the heads and feet. Put one tablespoonful of butter, one saltspoonful of salt, 
and one saltspoonful of pepper in each bird, and lay them in a dripping pan ; peel 
an onion, put it into the pan with the teal, set the birds in a -very hot oven, and bake 
them for twenty minutes, basting them every five minutes, adding more butter if it is 
required for basting. Just before serving the birds, season them with salt, and serve 
with a sauce made up as follows, while they are being cooked : Peel and chop fine 
a shallot or onion, put it over the fire with one tablespoonful of butter, and when the 
butter begins to brown, stir in one tablespoonful of flour; when the flour is brown add 
one-half pint each of port wine and boiling water, one teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth 
teaspoonful of pepper and a little grated nutmeg. Stir the sauce until it boils, then 
keep it hot. When the birds are done, pour the drippings from them into the sauce, 
mix them well with it, and serve hot. 

Broiled Wild Ducks. 

Pick, singe, draw and wipe well a pair of wild ducks, split them down the back 
without detaching, place them skin downwards on a dish, season with salt and pep- 
per and pour over two tablespoonfuls of oil. Boil the birds well in this marinade, place 
them on a broiler over a brisk fire, and broil for seven minutes on each side. Place 
them on a hot dish, cover with maitre d'hotel butter, garnish with watercress, and 
serve. 

Fillets of Wild Ducks. 

Prepare and roast the ducks as for fillets of wild ducks with game sauce, keep- 
ing them rather underdone. When cooked remove the fillets from the breasts and 
trim them neatly. Cut as many croutons of bread as there are fillets, and fry them 
in butter until they are of a golden brown color. Chop the livers of the ducks, sea- 
son with salt, pepper and finely-minced parsley, and work in a small quantity of 
butter. Spread the croutons with a layer of the liver mixture, thicker in the middle 
than at the sides; place them for a few minutes in a hot oven, and then brown them 
with a salamander. Arrange the fillets and croutons in a circle on a hot dish alter- 
nately, pour in the center some game sauce with a few mild stoned olives in it, and 
serve. 

Fillets of Wild Ducks with Orange Sauce. 

Fillet three wild ducks, score the skin and put them in a bowl with onions cut 
in halves, a few sprigs of parsley, some mushroom catsup, and season with salt, pep- 
percorns, and cover with oil. When the fillets have steeped in this marinade for an 
hour take them out, put them in a fryingpan with a little oil, and fry them over a 



GAME. 341 

sharp fire, turning occasionally. When done drain, arrange on a dish in a circular 
form, and serve with orange sauce in a sauceboat. 

Roasted Wild Duck. 

Prepare a wild duck, cut off the head and neck, scald the feet, and truss them 
with the duck in the same way as a fowl. Put the duck close to a sharp fire for 
a few minutes to brown, then move it a little way back, and baste continually with 
butter till done; just before it is taken up dredge with flour. In the meantime soak 
the necks and gizzards in a pint of water over the fire till the water is reduced to one- 
half pint, or in place of water use one-half pint of veal gravy; put into this a slice of 
lemon or orange, one onion, three or four leaves of basil, a blade of mace, a little 
pepper and salt, and boil together for a few minutes, then strain; add a wineglassful 
of port wine, and the juice of a lemon or orange. Dish the ducks when done, pour 
the gravy over them, and serve. 

Salmis of Wild Duck. 

Cut off all the flesh from two roasted wild ducks, skin and trim them, and put 
the meat in a stewpan, Put the bones, trimmings and skins, with four shallots, four 
onions (one stuck with four cloves), one bunch of parsley and half a bottle of 
claret in another stewpan, and boil till the liquor is reduced to half its original quan- 
tity; then add one and one-half pints of Spanish sauce, and simmer for twenty 
minutes. Skim, strain through a conical strainer into another stewpan and boil till 
the sauce coats the spoon. Pour one-fourth of this over the pieces of duck, and set 
the pan over the fire till they are hot through, but do not boil them. Dish the duck, 
pour over the remainder of the sauce, garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 

Bouchees of Game. 

Put two and a half breakfast cupfuls of game sauce into a stewpan with the flesh 
of any cold cooked game cut up small; stir over the fire until hot, season with salt 
and a small quantity of sugar, then move the pan to the side. Roll out one pound of 
puff paste to a quarter of an inch in thickness, cut out some rounds with a fluted tin 
cutter about an inch and a half in diameter, sprinkle water over a baking sheet, lay 
the rounds on it and brush them over with a paste brush dipped in beaten egg. 
With a plain tin cutter, a size smaller than the one previously used, mark a ring on 
the top of each piece of paste, dipping the cutter into hot water every time. Bake 
the paste in a quick oven for twenty minutes, keeping the oven door closed. When 
cooked, take the bouchees out of the oven, and lift off the lids as carefully as possible 
with a sharp-pointed knife so as not to break them; scrape out the soft paste, leaving 
a hollow, fill them with the game, replace the lids, put them on a folded napkin on a 
hot dish, and serve. 



342 GAME. 

Game Croquettes. 

Take the white flesh of any cold roasted game; melt a lump of butter in a stew- 
pan and mix with it one scant tablespoonful of flour, then put in the minced game 
and season to taste with salt, pepper and a small quantity of nutmeg; stir over the 
fire until very hot, then move it to the side and mix in the beaten yolks of one or 
two eggs and the strained juice of half a lemon. Spread the mixture on a dish and 
leave it until nearly cold. Divide and mould the mixture into small balls, dip them 
in beaten eggs and roll in fine breadcrumbs sufficient to cover. Put a large piece of 
butter or clarified fat into a flat stewpan, place it on the fire, and when the fat boils 
put in the croquettes and fry them until nicely and equally browned. Spread a 
folded napkin on a hot dish, pile the croquettes on it, garnish with fried parsley, and 
serve. 

Game Cutlets. 

Take any cold cooked game and cut the flesh into dice. Soak a third of an 
ounce of gelatine for an hour and a half in a breakfast cupful of water. Put two 
tablespoonfuls of butter into a fryingpan; when it is hot add one tablespoonful of 
flour, mix well until brown and quite smooth, add a pint of rich stock, one egg, four 
cloves, a tablespoonful of onion juice, and salt and pepper to taste; simmer for ten min- 
utes and pour it over the game. Return all to the pan and simmer for a quarter of 
an hour longer. Beat one egg in a basin, add it to the gelatine, stir it into the mix- 
ture and remove from the fire at once. Put the pan into a larger one with cold 
water so that it will cool, stirring well. When cold, turn the mixture into a shallow 
bakingdish smoothing it to about an inch in thickness and set it on the ice to get 
hard; cut it into cutlet shapes with a knife that has been dipped in water, then place 
the dish in another one of warm water to loosen the cutlets from the bottom. Pre- 
pare one quart of game forcemeat, cover the cutlets over with it and return them to 
the ice again. Beat two eggs in a basin, remove the cutlets from the ice and cover 
them over with the eggs and afterwards with breadcrumbs; put two or three at a time 
into a frying basket, plunge them into boiling fat and fry for two minutes; take them 
out, drain and put them on brown paper until drained. Stick a bone in the end of 
each, garnish it with a paperfrill, arrange the cutlets in a circle on a dish, and serve 
with parsley. 

Deviled Game. 

Clean and prepare any game in season and half roast it. Mix equal quantities of 
salt, cayenne and curry powder and then add double this quantity of powdered dried 
truffles. Put the entrails and brains of the bird in a mortar, crush them well and add 
the yolk of a hard boiled egg, the grated rind of a lemon, a dessertspoonful of chutney, 
a little soy, a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup, a wineglassful of Madeira and the 
juice of half an orange or lemon. Dust the bird over with the powder, put it in a 



GAME. 343 

dish with the brain mixture, place the dish over a spirit lamp in a chafingdish, cover 
tightly and cook until the flesh is thoroughly incorporated with the mixture. Now 
add a little salad oil; let it get hot, turn out on a dish, and serve as quickly as possible. 

Fillets of Game in Cases. 

Make some cases of white paper, butter them and put a piece of bacon fat in 
each. Cut any cold roasted game into slices, put them in the cases, place a little 
bacon fat over each, strew grated breadcrumbs on the top and bake in a brisk oven 
until browned. Spread a folded napkin or an ornamental dish-paper on a hot dish 
and arrange the cases on it, garnishing here and there with fried parsley. 

Game Pie. 

Rub four ounces of butter into twelve ounces of flour and make it into a paste 
by adding one egg, half of which may be beaten up with water sufficient to make the 
paste firm and consistent. Knead it thoroughly and cut off a piece about the size of 
a large apple to form the lid of the pie. Butter a raised pie mould, line it with the 
paste, pressing it into shape and cut it round at the top, leaving about half an inch 
above the mould. Clean and wash any game, such as grouse, partridge, pheasant or 
hare, cut them up, and take out all the bones ; chop up the hearts and livers, mix in 
one pound of sausage-meat and two ounces of breadcrumbs, blend together, working 
with the hand and adding pepper and salt to taste. When thoroughly mixed, put a 
layer of it at the bottom of the mould, then half of a bird and sprinkle it over with a 
teaspoonful each of salt and pepper and half a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg; 
cover with another layer of the sausage-meat, together with a few halves of truffles 
and square pieces of cooked beef tongue, then another half bird and continue in 
this order until the mould is quite full. Damp the edges of the crust with a wet 
paste brush, cover it with the paste lid, press the edges together to anneal them, 
trim round the edge, decorate the top with paste leaves or flowers, brush over with 
egg, make a hole in the center and put the pie in a moderate oven for about an hour 
and a half. Put the bones in a small saucepan with a little water or broth, and boil 
for an hour and a half; that is, while the pie is baking ; strain this gravy and pour it 
into the pie, when it is done, through a funnel inserted into the hole; remove the mould 
shape, and when the pie is cold, take off the lid, fill it up with chopped aspic jelly, 
put it on a dish, garnish with more of the jelly, and serve. 

Salmis of Game. 

Cut the meat from some cold-roasted game into small pieces; break the bones 
and put them with the trimmings in a stewpan, add one pinch of sweet herbs, two 
cloves, two peppercorns and some cold water; set it on the fire and boil. Fry two 
small-sliced onions in butter until brown; sift in two tablespoonfuls of flour and stir 



344 GAME. 

until cooked. Strain the liquor in which the bones were boiled, mix with it the flour 
and onions, put in two tablespoonfuls of Worcestershire sauce, one tablespoonful of 
lemon juice, a pinch of salt and the pieces of meat. Simmer for fifteen minutes and 
add a few button mushrooms. Fry some slices of bread without crusts in butter, put 
them on a hot dish, pour over the salmis, garnish with fried parsley, and serve. 

Game Souffles. 

Cut off about two pounds of flesh from any cold roasted game, trim off the skin, 
chop the flesh, pound it in a mortar, then pass it through a fine hair-sieve. Mix three- 
quarters of a pint of Spanish sauce with one teacupful of essence of fowls and boil un- 
til it is reduced to one-third. Mix the pounded game into the sauce and leave it until 
cold. Beat the yolks of ten eggs and mix them with the puree; whip the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, add them to the mixture and season with a little grated nut- 
meg and salt and pepper. Fill some small paper cases with the mixture, put them 
into a quick oven and bake for fifteen minutes. Place the cases on a dish, and serve 
garnished with fried parsley and slices of lemon. 

Vbl-au-Vent of Cold Game. 

Cut the meat from any cold cooked game into pieces and mix with it an equal 
quantity of cold ham or beef tongue, also cut into small pieces. Break up the bones 
of the bird and put them with the trimmings into a saucepan; add a blade of mace, 
two or three allspice, a small quantity of salt and nutmeg, and about two-thirds of a 
breakfast cupful of white stock, and boil gently for half an hour. Rub the skin off a 
few small button mushrooms with apiece of flannel dipped in salt, put them in a stew- 
pan, strain the gravy from the bones over them, and stew gently. When they are 
nearly cooked put in the meat with two or three tablespoonfuls of minced truffles, one 
teacupful of thick cream and one ounce of butter worked into a tablespoonful of flour. 
Stir the whole over the fire until boiled and quite thick. Prepare a vol-au-vent case 
by rolling out some paste one inch thick laid on a greased baking sheet, and cutting 
a round as large as a dinner plate; mark out with the point of a knife an inner circle 
about one inch from the edge and not more than a quarter of an inch deep, bake it, 
and after removing the thin inner circle pile up the center with the game preparation. 
Cut up the thin slab from the center into shapes and lay over the game mixture, pre- 
viously brushing with white of egg each place where the ornament is to be laid. Pass 
the salamander over the top, and serve on a hot dish. 

Baked Wild Goose with Mushroom or Celery Sauce. 

Pluck, draw and singe a wild goose and steep it in salted water for several hours. 
Cut an onion into slices, put it in the inside, sew it up and plunge it in a saucepan of 
boiling water for twenty minutes. Take it out, remove the onion and stuff the bird 



GAME. 



345 



with a little celery and mashed potatoes, a few hard boiled eggs and a little fat pork 
or any other cold meat, all very finely chopped; also a grated turnip, a little chopped 
onion, a tablespoonful of pepper, vinegar, and salt and pepper to taste. Sew it up, 
truss it and put it in a bakingdish with a teacupful of stock or broth, brush over with 
warmed butter, dust with flour, put a piece of well-buttered paper over the breast, and 
bake in a moderate oven till done. Place it on a dish and pour over it either its own 
gravy or a little mushroom or celery sauce. Garnish the dish with sprays of water- 
cress, and serve. 

Broiled Grouse. 

Singe, draw and wipe three or four grouse, split them in halves through the backs 
without separating the parts, lay them in a dish and season with salt, pepper and one 
tablespoonful of sweet oil. Roll them well in it, then put them over a brisk fire and 
broil for seven minutes on each side. Put one tablespoonful of butter and a finely- 
chopped shallot in a small saucepan on a hot range, cook for one minute, add two 
chopped mushrooms, moisten with one tablespoonful of rich sauce, add one table- 
spoonful of made mustard, stir all well together, season with salt and cayenne, and 
cook for one minute longer. Pour the sauce on a hot dish, place the grouse over, 
decorate the dish with slices of broiled bacon, lemon and truffles, and serve very hot. 

Fried Grouse Cutlets. 

Prepare three young grouse and cut them in halves lengthwise, split the drum- 
stick and push it inside the hip; beat each half slightly, skin, roll in clarified 
butter and breadcrumbs, season with salt and pepper and fry for twelve or four- 
teen minutes over a moderate fire, turning them so as to cook both sides. Make 
a sauce as follows: Put a small bunch of herbs in a saucepan with the juice of two 
lemons and two dessertspoonfuls of finely-chopped shallots; boil for two minutes 
with the cover on the pan, add one teacupful of raw mushrooms cut into small 
squares, simmer until the liquor is reduced, then pour in one breakfast cupful of 
melted meat-glaze. When boiling move the stewpan from the fire and stir in five 
ounces of butter; when this is melted, without boiling, and the sauce well thick- 
ened, add a little vinegar, two tablespoonfuls of gherkins cut into small squares, one 
tablespoonful of soy and one tablespoonful of tarragon leaves chopped small. Dish 
the cutlets, and serve with the sauce poured over. 

Larded Grouse 

Clean and thoroughly wash a grouse, and lard the legs and breast, placing a 
skewer through the legs and tail; rub some warmed butter over the breast, then 
dredge it over with a little salt and plenty of flour. Place it on a bakingdish and 
set it in a brisk oven, and cook for from twenty to thirty minutes. Cover a hot dish 



346 GAME. 

with bread sauce, put the grouse on it, and sprinkle over some fried breadcrumbs. 
Garnish with parsley, and serve. 

Grouse Pie. 

Singe and draw three young grouse, and remove their feet, necks and pinions; 
divide their bodies each into three pieces, and put them in a stewpan with the pinions 
and some chopped bacon; fry and put in six ounces of chopped ham (raw), a bunch 
of sweet herbs and parsley and a little salt and pepper. When the ham is cooked 
add about eighteen mushrooms cut in halves, and one tablespoonful of chopped 
onion; pour in two tablespoonfuls of white wine and reduce the liquor. Take the 
stewpan off the fire and let the contents cool. Arrange the meat in a piedish, with 
hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters amongst it, pour over the gravy through a conical- 
shaped strainer, and cover with puff paste ; brush the crust over with whites of 
eggs, and place in a hot oven until done. Take the pie out of the oven, lift the 
crust, pour in a little more thickened game gravy, and serve either hot or cold. 

Roasted Grouse. 

Pluck and singe a grouse, draw it and allow it to hang in a cool place for 
several days. Wipe it well inside without washing, chop off its head and truss it; 
place a large lump of butter inside; put it on a spit in front of a clear fire, and roast 
for from thirty to forty minutes, basting frequently with butter. Put the liver of the 
grouse into a saucepan of water with a small lump of butter, salt and pepper to 
taste, boil it until it is like a paste, take it out, spread it over pieces of toast on a 
dish, place the grouse on the top, and serve with a sauceboatful each of rich gravy 
and bread sauce. 

Salmis of Grouse. 

Singe, draw, wipe and truss two grouse, season with salt, put a few small pieces 
of butter over them, place them in a roastingpan in a brisk oven, and cook for eight 
or ten minutes. Untruss and cut away the wings, legs and breasts. Place one ounce 
of butter in a saucepan with about one-half a carrot cut into small pieces, half an 
onion cut the same, two bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, and six whole peppers, and 
fry to a golden color, which will take about five or six minutes. Hash the bodies of 
the two grouse and add them to the other ingredients. Moisten with one pint of 
Spanish sauce, one-half breakfast cupful of mushroom liquor, one-half wineglassful of 
sherry, and the zest of a lemon, season with salt, pepper and nutmeg, and cook for 
twenty minutes. Then put the wings, legs and breasts into a separate saucepan and 
strain the sauce over, adding two minced truffles and six minced mushrooms. Cook 
for three minutes longer, dress them on a hot dish, and serve with croutons of fried 
bread for a garnish. 



GAME. 347 

Stewed Grouse. 

Take a brace of grouse and truss and stuff them. Place one-fourth pound of 
butter or good dripping into a fryingpan and fry in it while it is quite hot, first one 
grouse and then the other, turning them so as to brown them all over. In the mean- 
time have one-half pint of good gravy heating in a small saucepan. When both birds 
are browned put them in a large saucepan, pour the hot gravy over, place the lid on 
tight and let them stew very gently for an hour until they are tender; then put them 
on a hot dish and cover, to keep the heat and flavor in. Let the gravy cool a little, 
skim off the fat that rises and strain it. Put it over the fire again, stir in enough 
brown flour to thicken, and boil hard for five minutes; skim again, place the birds 
back in the gravy and let them get quite hot, but do not let the gravy boil after they 
are put in. Place them on a hot dish, pour a little of the gravy over, and serve the 
balance in a small tureen. Green peas and currant jelly may also be served separate. 

Supreme of Grouse, Richelieu Style. 

Singe, draw and wipe three grouse, removing the skin from the breasts. With a 
sharp knife make an incision on the top of each breastbone from end to end. Care- 
fully cut off the entire breasts on both sides, including the small wing bone, taking 
care not to leave a particle of meat on the bones. Remove the small fillets found 
under the breasts, putting them one side for further use. Make an incision in the 
breasts at the thinnest side, about three inches long, and one inch in depth, season 
them inwardly with pepper and salt, stuff them with chicken forcemeat mixed with 
two truffles and four mushrooms, all finely sliced, and put them into a buttered saute- 
pan. Gently press the small fillets, using the fingers to give them a hollow shape. 
Make six slanting, small incisions on the top of each, and insert in them a small piece 
of smoked beef, one-half inch in diameter; moisten slightly the top of the breasts 
with water, place a fillet lengthwise on them, and sprinkle over a little clarified but- 
ter, using a feather brush. Pour into the pan, but not over the meat, one-fourth 
wineglassful of Madeira wine and two tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup, lightly 
cover the pan and place it in a hot oven for ten minutes. Arrange the supremes on 
a hot dish, and serve with a little Perigueux sauce boiled for three minutes with one 
teacupful of tomato sauce, in a sauceboat 

Broiled Guinea Fowls. 

Pluck, singe and draw two or three Guinea fowls, wash them thoroughly, and 
split down the backs; wipe dry and flatten them slightly. Dust, salt and pepper over 
both sides, dip them in flour, and put them on a gridiron over a clear fire. Brush 
over frequently with a little butter, and when they have been cooking for about fifteen 
minutes, put them on a dish, pour over a rich gravy, and garnish with mashed potatoes. 



348 GAME. 

Roasted Larded Guinea Fowl. 

Plunge, singe and draw a Guinea fowl, lard the breasts with strips of fat bacon, 
and truss it like a pheasant. Put it on a spit in front of a clear fire and roast for an 
hour, basting frequently with butter. Sprinkle it well with flour, cook for ten or 
fifteen minutes longer, place it on a dish, pour round a little rich gravy, and serve 
with a sauceboatful of rich gravy. 

Hares. 

Before cooking a hare it must be skinned, and if intended for roasting it must be 
trussed, so as to give it a good effect. This is done in the following manner: 

Chop off the feet of the first joints, lift the skin from the back, and draw it first 
over the hind legs and then over the fore legs; let the tail remain on with the hair; 
cut the skin from the head and ears, leaving the latter on, cut through the sinews of 
the legs, and bring the hind legs forward, passing a skewer through both of them as 
well as the body, and bring the fore legs back, passing a skewer through them also. 
Fix the head upright by means of a skewer thrust through the mouth to the back of 
the head and then into the back between the shoulders. Wipe the inside very dry, 
stuff, and sew it up. Pass a string round the ends of the skewers which fix the legs, 
drawing it over the back of the hare so as to keep the legs close up to the body. 

A very popular mode of preparing hares for cooking is to remove the bones, and 
re-form the body in such a way that it may be carved without difficulty. The method 
of procedure for this boning is as follows: 

The hare should be fresh. Skin and clean it as directed, and then with a sharp 
knife begin cutting down along the crest of the backbone, and dissect the flesh from 
the ribs. Do not disconnect the flesh, but leave it hanging. Separate the backbone 
from the head at the first joint of the neckbone, leaving the head on, then pass the 
knife carefully under the flesh down the middle of the back until the whole of the 
bone is clear. The legs may be either cut off or dissected out. The hollow from 
which the spine and ribs have been taken should next be stuffed with forcemeat or 
well-seasoned bread stuffing, the belly sewn together, and the hare fastened with 
string and skewers, in order to bring it into as nearly its original shape as possible. 



Hares Backs with Poivrade Sauce. 

Remove the backs of a couple of hares, lard them with strips of firm bacon fat, 
wrap them round with buttered or oiled paper, place them on the spit in front of a 
clear fire, and roast until done. About five minutes before taking them from the fire, 
remove the paper so as to glaze them with thin liquor, put them on a dish, and serve 
poivrade sauce in a sauceboat. 



GAME. 



Baked Hare. 



349 



Select two nice hares, cut them into halves, separating the fore from the hind 
quarters. Bone the saddles down to the legs, but do not bone the legs; put them in a 
deep earthenware dish, pour in one wineglassful of white wine and add one fair-sized 
sliced lemon, one sliced and peeled onion and one sprig of thyme, seasoning with 
pepper, salt and two or three cloves. Roll the saddles well in the seasoning several 
times and place one side to steep for twelve or fourteen hours. Take out the pieces, 
stuff the bone saddles with a rich stuffing, give them a round shape and tie them so 
as to hold them firmly. Place a piece of fat pork over each saddle, put them in a 
roastingpan with one carrot and one onion cut into slices and placed at the bottom 
of the pan, and pour over one pint of broth. Put the pan in a hot oven and bake for 
forty-five to fifty minutes, taking care to baste frequently with the gravy that comes 
from them. Take them from the oven, untie, dress on a hot dish, strain the gravy 
over the saddles, decorate the dish with heart-shaped croutons, and serve. The fore 
quarters can be used for civets or other dishes. 

Broiled Hare. 

Rub the legs and shoulders of a hare with butter, lay them in a deep earthen- 
ware dish with one large sliced onion, a small quantity of thyme and parsley, a bay- 
leaf, a moderate quantity of pepper and salt, one breakfast cupful of vinegar, and half 
as much water. Cover the hare with another dish and let it macerate for two days. 
Drain the pieces of hare, rub again with butter, lay them on a gridiron and broil over 
a clear fire, turning when done on one side. When cooked lay the pieces on a hot 
dish covered with a folded napkin and garnished with fried parsley, and serve. 

Civet of Hare. 

Skin and clean a hare, using care to save all the blood; chop off the hind legs, 
and cut them up into two or three pieces; also divide the body into equal parts. Cut 
one-half pound of bacon into small pieces about one inch in thickness, and blanch in 
boiling water. Remove, drain and fry in a stewpan with a little butter until quite 
brown; take them from the pan, throw in the pieces of hare and cook until they are 
quite firm. Lift them out, and mix in a little flour to thicken the gravy; then add 
one quart of broth, and one pint of red wine. Put the pieces of hare back again, also 
the bacon, and add a bunch of parsley, a few spices, onions, pepper and salt to taste, 
and a little trimmings of mushrooms. Put the pan on the fire again and boil for an 
hour. Skim off the fat and place the pieces of hare and bacon (one at a time) in a 
clean saucepan. Skim the sauce again, put it on the fire and reduce until it is quite 
thick and will stick to the hare after having been passed through a fine sieve. Put a 
few onions fried in butter to a light brown in a saucepan with a little broth, and stew 



350 GAME. 

them; add a few mushrooms also fried in butter, and the blood and liver to thicken. 
Warm up and let it remain on the side of the fire, taking care not to boil it, or the 
blood will be likely to curdle, when the sauce would not be dark enough in color. 
Place the pieces of meat on a dish, and serve with onion broth poured over the hare. 

Civet of Hare, Bourgeoise. 

Clean a hare and cut into small pieces, saving the blood. Put two ounces of 
butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour into a stewpan, and stir them over the fire 
until well mixed; then put in the pieces of hare, with a few slices of fat bacon, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, some mushrooms and artichoke bottoms, a few small onions fried in 
butter and pepper and salt, moistening with one-half pint of white wine and enough 
stock to cover. Stew the hare until tender, and then put the pieces on a dish. Skim 
the sauce, remove the bunch of herbs, add the crushed liver of the hare, also the blood, 
and boil again. Pour the sauce over the hare, and serve. 

Civet of Hare, French Style. 

Skin a good-sized hare, draw it, and preserve the blood should there be any, and 
also the liver, with the gall carefully removed. Place the blood and the liver on the 
same dish, and cut the hare into a dozen pieces; put these into a stone jar, seasoning 
with salt, pepper and nutmeg, adding also one sliced onion, one sprig of thyme, two 
bay leaves and half a wineglassful of white wine; stir all together well, and steep for 
six hours. Remove the pieces of hare, put them in a saucepan with one ounce of 
butter, adding twelve glazed small onions, and one ounce of salted pork cut into small 
pieces, and cook on a sharp fire for ten minutes; then add three tablespoonfuls of 
flour; stir thoroughly and moisten with one wineglassful of red wine and one pint of 
white broth, and stir until it boils, seasoning again with pepper and salt. Cook for 
one hour longer, and fifteen minutes before it is done put in the blood, also the heart 
and liver, both finely chopped and mixed together. Serve with croutons of fried 
bread for a garnish. 

Fried Fillets of Hare with Quenelles. 

Take two fillets of hare, trim, cut them slantwise across into five pieces each, 
moisten and beat a little, then sprinkle them over with salt and pepper. Pour a little 
melted butter into a flat stewpan, and put in the fillets, arranging them side by side. 
Prepare a little game gravy with the bones and remaining parts of the hare, adding a 
small quantity of thickened brown sauce. Prepare a forcemeat with the trimmings 
of the fillets, shape them into quenelles with a small spoon, and poach them in 
salted water. Place the pan with the fillets on the fire and fry briskly, turning 
them in order to cook both sides. Take out and drain ; pour on four tablespoon- 



GAME. 351 

fuls of sauce, put them on a dish and pour the remainder of the sauce over. Place 
the quenelles around the dish, and serve. 

Larded Fillets of Hare, Minute Style. 

Skin and clean a hare, cut off the fillets, lard and put them into a basin, season 
with ground mixed spice, pour over enough oil to moisten, and let them soak for one 
hour. In the meantime pour some stock in a saucepan, and reduce it nearly to a 
glaze; then add a slice of fat bacon and the larded fillets, cover with a piece of but- 
tered paper, and simmer for twelve minutes, by which time the fillets should be well 
cooked and browned. Great care should be taken not to let the fillets burn. Put 
them onto a dish, add a little rich stock to the glaze, stir well, pour it over, and serve. 

Fillets of Hare with Poivrade Sauce. 

Clean two hares, cut off the fillets, remove the skin, and lard them well, 
using a small needle. Place them in a deep dish, and season with salt and pepper, 
adding one onion and one carrot cut in small pieces, and half a dozen tablespoonfuls 
of white wine. Let all soak together for two hours, then transfer all to a baking- 
pan, with some scraps of pork rind placed at the bottom of the pan, and put this in 
the oven to cook. Place the fillets on a dish, pour in the pan one gill of hot broth, 
allow it to come to the boil, strain it over the fillets and serve with poivrade sauce 
separately. 

Gibelotte of Hare. 

Proceed the same way as for civet of hare, French style, replacing the red wine 
with one pint of white broth, and adding twelve whole mushrooms five minutes before 
serving. 

Hare Pie. 

Skin a hare and cut into joints, putting the blood into a basin, or, if more conven- 
ient, cut into half-joints. Chop fine one pound of veal and mix it with an equal 
quantity of sausage meat; chop two shallots, mix them with some finely-minced pars- 
ley or thyme, and dust over with salt and pepper; chop also some veal bones into very 
small pieces. Put a layer of the hare meat at the bottom of the pie-dish, then a layer 
of the sausage and veal mince, sprinkle over with the parsley and shallot, and cover 
the whole with some bacon. When the dish is nearly full add the blood and a half-pint 
of Madeira, put three bay leaves on the top, cover over with the lid, seal it hermeti- 
cally with paste made of flour and water and bake in a slow oven for ten hours. It is 
usually put in a baker's oven and left there for the night. The veal bones should be 
added to the meat and put about it indiscriminately. 



352 



GAME. 



Roasted Hare with Cream Sauce. 



Prepare a hare and if it is an old one lard it with fine strips of bacon. Boil the 
liver, chop it and mix half of it with enough chopped beef-suet, herbs, salt, pepper 
and grated nutmeg to taste, and bind the whole together with beaten egg. Stuff the 
hare with the mixture, sew it up and fix it in front of a clear fire, putting it some dis- 
tance off at first and afterwards bringing it closer. Baste with three pints of milk 
until half cooked and then finish with butter. Prepare the following sauce for it : 
Pour the milk with which the hare was first basted into a saucepan, put in a bunch of 
sweet herbs, let it stew within twenty minutes of the hare being cooked, and then 
strain it. 

Salmis of Hare. 

Clean and skin a hare, split it down the back and cut off all the fillets with their 
bones attached. Put the remainder of the hare into a saucepan with a rich sauce and 
stew until the meat will easily leave the bones; stew also the liver together with a 
little calf's liver and pound them in a mortar with butter and seasoning; also pound 
the stewed flesh of the hare with more seasoning and butter, keeping them separate 
from the liver. Put two breakfast cupfuls of stale breadcrumbs into a basin, pour 
over one pint of boiling cream, throw in a raw onion and a bay leaf and let it get 
cold. Take out the onion and bay leaf and work in a large piece of butter, a season- 
ing of white pepper, mace and salt. Mix half of this with the liver and the other half 
with the pounded hare meat. Place these two mixtures in alternate layers in a mould 
and steam them for an hour. Arrange the cutlets on a dish with one-half pound of 
melted butter poured over, allow them to soak, spread them out to cool, fry in butter, 
turn the contents of the mould out onto a dish and arrange the cutlets round, lean- 
ing them against it. Then pour around a good rich sauce made from truffles, red 
wine and any bones of hare not previously used, season all to taste and thicken with 
roux. 

Stewed Hare. 

Skin and wash a hare, draw off all the blood and cut into halves through the 
middle. Lard the hare as thickly as possible and put it into a saucepan covered at 
the bottom with slices of bacon. Place a large bunch of parsley in a muslin bag with 
a few bay leaves, a little thyme, a clove, sweet basil, spices and add with four onions, 
two or three carrots, two calf's feet and a few pieces of bacon cut from the breast; 
dust over a little salt and pepper and add one pint of white wine and two tablespoon- 
fuls of broth. Place a round of well-buttered paper over the hare to keep it from 
burning or becoming dry, place the lid on the saucepan, seal hermetically by luting 
the rim and edge with flour and water paste, and cook for three hours at the side of 
the fire and very gently. Take off the lid, remove the hare, drain and put it on a 



GAME. 353 

dish. Skim the liquor and pass it through a sieve. Place a little butter and flour in 
a saucepan and when it is of a light color add the liquor from the hare, boil it up, 
serve with the hare, but not poured over it. 

Timbales of Hare. 

Trim off all the skin of some cold cooked hare, chop the flesh, place it in a 
mortar and pound till smooth; mix it with one-third of its quantity of grated bread- 
crumbs, a little finely-chopped parsley and pepper and salt to taste. Whisk the 
whites of two eggs to a stiff froth, stir them in with the mixture and add a few drops 
of clear gravy to bring all to a proper consistence. Butter some small timbale 
moulds, fill them with the mixture, place them in a stewpan with boiling water to 
three-fourths of their height, and steam for about half an hour. Warm a little 
rich gravy and mix it with one tablespoonful of claret. When ready turn the 
timbales out onto a hot dish, pour round the gravy, and serve. 

Ballotines of Larks. 

Bone the required quantity of larks, fill them with chicken forcemeat, place a 
truffle turned to a ball shape into each bird, and fold them round it. Tie each lark 
up in a small cloth and braise it in Madeira and mirepoix. Place a bed of mashed 
potatoes on a hot dish, take the cloth off the larks, arrange them over the center of 
the bed, reduce some Spanish sauce with essence of lark, pour it over the larks, and 
serve. 

Broiled Larks. 

Truss and prepare the required quantity of larks; brush over with beaten eggs, 
sprinkle with plenty of breadcrumbs, place them on a gridiron, and broil over a very 
clear fire. Lay some slices of bread on a hot dish, dress the larks on them, pour a 
little rich brown gravy around, and serve. 

Larks in Cases. 

Pluck, singe, draw, and bone the larks; stuff each bird with a mixture composed 
of three parts minced white flesh of cooked chicken and one part ham and raw bacon 
seasoned with chopped sage, salt and pepper, and a small quantity of pounded mace. 
Butter as many paper cases as there are birds, spread a layer of the same forcemeat 
in each, place the birds in the cases, place a slice of bacon over each, and bake in a 
moderate oven. When it is cooked remove the bacon, pour a small quantity of rich 
gravy and a few drops of lemon juice in each case, stand them on a hot dish over 
which has been placed a fancy-edged dish-paper, garnish with parsley and cut lemons, 
and serve. 



354 



GAME. 



Lark Patties. 



Clean and bone the required quantity of larks, open and season them slightly; 
mix some forcemeat with a little chopped truffles, place a little in each lark and roll 
them up in a round shape. Line some small pie-moulds with short paste, put a layer 
of forcemeat at the bottom of each mould, then the larks, spread another thin layer 
of forcemeat on the top, cover the patties with short paste, pinching the edges to make 
them stick, egg the tops, then put a round of puff paste on each. Egg the tops once 
more and place the patties in a hot oven to bake for twenty minutes. When they are 
cooked cut off the covers and pour in one tablespoonful of Spanish sauce, reduced 
with a little essence of lark, place the covers on again, and serve while they are hot. 

Larks, Portuguese Style. 

Singe, clean, bone and cut the wings and legs off one dozen larks, place the 
bones and trimmings in a stewpan with a small carrot and a small onion cut into 
slices a bay leaf, a few cloves, a bunch of parsley, and cover the bottom of the stew- 
pan with some sherry wine; allow this to reduce, then moisten with good gravy; let 
all simmer gently for an hour, then strain it. Prepare a chicken forcemeat and place 
it in a biscuit bag, also have cooked a dozen small black truffles, as round as possible, 
and no larger than an olive. Stuff the larks with the forcemeat and put in the center of 
them a small round truffle, roll the larks very neatly and wrap each in a piece of 
muslin, and tie with a string. Put them into a stewpan with some bacon over the 
bottom, and pour in a little strong gravy as above, and bake them in a hot oven for 
thirty minutes. Meanwhile prepare and cook one dozen mushrooms, take half a pint 
of Spanish sauce and place it in a sautepan with the same quantity of tomato sauce, 
six tablespoonfuls of gravy and a little essence of lark, reduced to half-glaze. Shape 
the mushrooms with a plain round cutter, arrange them in a sautepan, unwrap and 
place one on each lark, sticking them with the remains of the chicken forcemeat, 
cover and place in the oven for a few minutes. Sauce them, dress them on a plain 
border made from chicken forcemeat or mashed potatoes, and pile in the center some 
rice cooked with white stock. Put a little of the sauce over the larks, and serve the 
remainder in a sauceboat. 

Roasted Larks. 

Clean and prepare the larks, tie them up in thin slices of fat bacon and then in 
vine leaves, and roast in front of a clear fire, basting frequently with butter and turning 
the spit very rapidly. Serve hot. 

Lark Scallops on a Croustade. 

Cut the fillets from about fifteen larks; place them in a sautepan with a piece of 
butter, dust with salt and pepper and fry them. When cooked, drain and let them 



GAME. 355 

cool. Slice the same quantity of truffles as there are larks. Reduce some partridge 
chaurroid sauce with a little essence of larks and mix it with the cooked fillets of 
larks and the sliced truffles. Prepare a fried bread croustade, put it on a hot dish, ar- 
range the scollops on it in the shape of a pyramid, garnish the dish with croutons of 
aspic jelly, and serve. 

Broiled Ortolans in Papers. 

Rub with melted butter or salad oil as many sheets of paper as there are birds 
and cut them just large enough to double over the birds and turn in all round the 
edges like a hem in order to preserve the fat and trail while the birds are being 
cooked. Carefully pluck and singe the birds, cut off the beaks and claws, skin the 
heads and necks and wipe them with a clean cloth; twist the feet, lay the heads close 
to the sides of the birds and inclose in the paper. Place them on a gridiron over a 
very slow fire and broil for about five minutes or until they swim in their own fat. 
Serve them at once in the papers on a plate covered with watercress. The papers 
are not to be removed till just before eating the birds. 

Fried Ortolans. 

Draw and singe twenty-four ortolans, put them in a fryingpan with some melted 
bacon and two bay leaves sprinkled over with salt and pepper and fry over a brisk 
fire, turning them frequently. Strain off the fat, add some vinegar and some melted 
glaze and reduce the liquor quickly over a brisk fire. Take out the bay leaves, add 
a salpicon of lean smoked ham steeped in water and a little Spanish sauce reduced 
with white wine and warm the ham without boiling the liquor. Arrange the birds in 
a pile in the center of a dish, pour the sauce over, and serve with a garnish of small 
quenelles. 

Ortolans in Cases. 

Pluck, draw, and singe one dozen ortolans, and put them into small cases masked 
with Perigueux sauce, putting their heads through a hole cut for the purpose. Place 
them in a quick oven for a few minutes, or they may be salamandered, and when they 
are done, damp them with a little more of the perigueux, and serve. Care must be 
taken in drawing them to take out their gizzards. 

Ortolan Patties. 

Make six patties of tart paste in fluted moulds made with hinges so that they 
will open to let out the patty crusts when done ; fill them with flour and bake. When 
set take them out of the moulds and let them get cold. Place at the bottom of each 
one tablespoonful of royal salpicon, and then place in each patty two well picked, 
fine, fat, raw, seasoned ortolans, covered with a thin slice of bacon ; lay them on a 



356 GAME. 

small baking pan, place in a moderate oven and bake for fifteen minutes. Remove 
from the oven, take off the lard from the birds, moisten each patty with two table- 
spoonfuls of hot Madeira sauce, and serve on a hot dish with a folded napkin placed 
over it. 

Ortolans, Perigordine. 

Prepare the birds as for roasting, cover them with slices of fat bacon, put them 
in a saucepan, set in the bain-marie, add a little stock mixed with lemon juice, baste 
them with this, and cook them. Scoop out the center from as many truffles as there 
are birds, put them into a saucepan with sufficient champagne to boil them in, take 
them out when done and stuff with a little game puree. Put them into the saucepan 
with the ortolans, warm them all up for a few seconds, arrange them on a dish, and 
serve with a little of the sauce to moisten them. 

Ortolans, Provincial Style. 

Procure as many large truffles as there are birds to be cooked and make some 
French forcemeat. Remove the feet and heads from the birds and season well with 
salt and pepper; lay the birds on their backs on the truffles, put them in a deep stew- ' 
pan with two gills of red wine and about the same quantity of clear veal stock and 
cover with slices of bacon; coyer and stew slowly. When they are cooked remove 
the birds and truffles and keep them hot; strain the sauce through a fine sieve, skim 
off all the fat, pour it into a small, clean stewpan and boil till reduced to half its 
original quantity. Mix with the sauce one breakfast cupful of brown Spanish sauce 
and boil it again until somewhat reduced. Put some pieces of toast on a hot dish, 
pour the sauce over, put the birds and truffles on them, and serve. 

Roasted Ortolans. 

Pluck and singe one dozen ortolans, make a hole in the sides and remove the 
gizzards, but do not draw them. Stuff the heads into the holes, wrap them round 
with thin slices of fat bacon and put them in the oven to roast. Let them remain for 
ten or twelve minutes, sprinkle over with salt, arrange them on a dish on croutons of 
fried bread, and serve. They may be wrapped in vine leaves (freshly gathered) if 
preferred instead of the bacon, which destroys the delicate flavor to a certain extent. 
A rich sauce should be served with them. 

Boiled Partridges With Cream Sauce. 

Pluck, singe and draw six birds without breaking ' the entrails, wipe them with a 
wet towel and put them in a pan with sufficient boiling water to cover; add one table- 
spoonful of salt and boil them slowly for fifteen minutes. Meanwhile put one-half 
pint of thick cream into a saucepan set in a pan of boiling water, add to it one table- 
spoonful of butter and one-fourth saltspoonful of white pepper, and stir one way till 



GAME. 357 

the butter is melted, then leave the sauce where it will keep hot. When the par- 
tridges are done put them on a hot dish, dry them with a soft cloth, pour the cream 
sauce over, and serve them hot, garnished with sprigs of parsley. 

Braised Partridges. 

Singe, draw and truss three partridges as for boiling, put them in a stewpan with 
a slice of chopped fat bacon, and a bunch or faggot of sweet herbs and fry them till 
nicely colored all over; then pour in a little wine, put the lid on the stewpan with a 
few hot ashes on it, and let them braise gently. When nearly done put in with the 
partridges one-half pound of ham, cut in dice, and four large cloves of garlic that have 
been boiled in plenty of water; sprinkle a little Spanish red pepper over, and continue 
cooking for about fifteen minutes. When done take the partridges out, drain, remove 
the strings, put them on a hot dish, and garnish around with the garlic and ham; 
take the sweet herbs out of the cooking stock, skim the fat off, thicken it with a little 
brown sauce, pour it over the partridges, and serve. 

Braised Partridges and Cabbage. 

Truss a couple of old partridges as for boiled chickens. Put them in a sautepan 
and brown them slightly over a brisk fire. Cut some. bacon and two onions into dice, 
put them in a braising pan with the partridges, surround them with stock and braise 
till three parts done. Wash thoroughly a young cabbage, then blanch, drain, and 
dry it; put it in with the partridges, and finish cooking them together. When cooked 
make a bed of the cabbage on a hot dish and put the patridges on it with the pieces 
of bacon around. Strain the cooking liquor through a fine hair sieve, boil it until 
reduced, keeping the partridges hot at the same time. When ready pour the sauce 
round, and serve. 

Braised Partridges, Financiere. 

Singe, draw, wipe and truss two partridges with their wings inside. Lay a piece 
of pork rind in a saucepan, adding one carrot and one onion, both cut in slices, two 
bay leaves, one sprig of thyme, and the two partridges, seasoning with a little salt and 
pepper. When the birds have assumed a good golden color on the hot stove, moisten 
with one-half pint of broth; put the saucepan in the oven and cook for twenty minutes 
longer. Dress them on a dish, untruss, pour over one-half pint of hot financiere 
sauce, and serve. The gravy from the partridges can be utilized for making the 
financiere sauce. 

Braised Partridges, Perigueux. 

Clean three partridges and truss them as for boiling. Fasten some thin slices of 
fat bacon round them, put them in a stewpan with three-fourths of a pint of mirepoix 
and one-fourth pint of essence of truffles, put a sheet of buttered paper over them, 



358 GAME. 

stand the stewpan over a slow fire and let the contents simmer till the partridges are 
done. Cut a three-sided block of bread three inches high, two and one-half inches at 
the base and one and one-half inches at the top, fry it, and then fix it in the middle 
of a dish with a paste prepared with a little flour and white of egg. Drain the par- 
tridges when cooked and place one on each side of the bread. Shape three large 
partridge forcemeat quenelles like pears and put one between each bird; mix some 
essence of partridge with perigueux sauce, pour it over the birds, put a large truffle 
on top of the bread, fill a sauceboat with the same sauce, and serve it with the par- 
tridges. 

Braised Partridges with Truffles. 

Prepare and truss three partridges as for boiling, put them in a stewpan with some 
mirepoix and cook them; when done drain and arrange them on a hot dish to form a 
hollow triangle. Put round some sliced truffles that have been mixed with supreme 
sauce, fill a sauceboat with supreme sauce, and serve. 

Broiled Partridges, American Style. 

Singe, draw and wipe neatly three tender partridges; cut them in halves, lay them 
on a dish and season with a little salt, pepper and one tablespoonful of oil. Roll them 
in well and put them to broil for seven minutes on each side. Prepare six slices of 
fried hominy, arrange them on a hot dish, place the partridges over and pour one gill 
of maitre d'hotel butter on top; place six slices of broiled bacon over the birds, and 
serve. 

Broiled Partridge Cutlets with Colbert Sauce. 

Chop three tender partridges each in halves lengthwise, sprinkle salt and pepper 
over them, dip them in warmed butter, then in breadcrumbs, put them on a gridiron 
and broil over a clear slow fire, turn them when done on one side and finish the other. 
When cooked put the partridges on a hot dish, pour over some Colbert sauce, and 
serve. 

Chartreuse of Partridges. 

Cut a cabbage into quarters, wash it well, plunge it into boiling water, then soak 
it in cold water for two hours. Drain and squeeze all the water out of the cabbage, 
cut the stalks out, tie the pieces together, and put them in a stewpan with two or 
three slices of streaky bacon previously blanched; pour some general stock, mixed 
with essence of partridge, over it, put in some clarified fat, and finish as described 
for Cabbage for Garnishing. Cut some carrots and turnips into slices two inches long 
with a vegetable cutter, and cook them separately, as described for Garnishes. Put a 
round of paper at the bottom of a plain entree-mould that has been buttered, garnish 
it with pieces of carrot and turnip, and put a layer of cabbage in the mould. Cut up 



GAME. 359 

three roast partridges, put four fillets on the cabbage, then put another layer of the 
cabbage on them; continue with alternate layers of partridge and cabbage till the 
mould is full. Stand the mould in a bain-marie till the contents are warm. When 
ready to serve turn the chartreuse onto an entree dish, and arrange alternately round 
the base some rounds of carrots and turnips, with a string bean between each. Put 
some rings of turnip round the top of the chartreuse and a Brussels sprout in each. 
Make a sort of cup or vase with a carrot, fill it with string beans, and place it in the 
center. Reduce some Spanish sauce with essence of partridge, fill a sauceboat with it, 
and serve with the chartreuse. 

Partridge Croustades. 

Truss eight partridges as for braising, fasten a thin slice of bacon on each one, 
put them in a stewpan with some mirepoix, stand them over a slow fire and simmer 
till done. Prepare fourteen truffles, eight cockscombs, and eight large crayfish as 
for garnish. Cut an oval shaped piece of bread, fry it, put it on a dish, and place a 
block of fried bread in the center. Drain the partridges when cooked, arrange them, 
necks downward, against the block of bread, and put a crayfish between each. Stick 
a silver skewer garnished with cockscombs and truffles in each bird, so as to form a 
circle, and place the remaining truffles inside the circle. Fill a silver casserole with 
a financiere garnishing that has had some Spanish sauce reduced with essence of 
partridge mixed with it, and serve. 

Fillets of Partridges, Financiere. 

Trim and lard the fillets of six partridges with thin strips of bacon, put them in 
a sautepan with a little melted glaze and cook them. Make a croustade of paste 
the same size as the dish on which the fillets are to be served and two inches deep. 
Prepare a financiere garnishing of foies gras, truffles, mushrooms, cockscombs and 
kernels and chicken forcemeat quenelles mixed in a financiere sauce. Trim the 
minion fillets into scallops and mix them in the garnishing, half of which should be 
turned into the croustade. Arrange the fillets on it in a circle, pile the remaining 
garnishing in the center, and serve with a sauceboatful of financiere sauce. 

Fillets of Partridges, Toulouse. 

Cut the fillets off six partridges and trim and curve them slightly; put the large 
ones in one buttered sautepan and the minion fillets in another. Stick a little piece 
of truffle with the white of an egg on the round ends of each of the small fillets. Fry 
the large fillets and when cooked drain and arrange them round a croustade on a hot 
dish. Cook the small fillets in the oven and when done put in a circle on the others. 
Fill the croustade with cocks' kernels mixed in supreme sauce, pour some supreme 
sauce over the fillets, and serve. 



360 GAME. 

Fillets of Partridges with Truffles. 

Cut the fillets off the breasts of some partridges, making four fillets of each 
breast, trim them to a nice shape, lay them in a thickly buttered baking tin, dust 
over with salt and cover with a sheet of buttered paper. Slightly roast the birds 
from which the fillets have been removed, cut them into small pieces, put them in a 
saucepan with a few trimmings of ham, two or three cloves and peppercorns, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, two shallots, salt to taste and a sufficient quantity of clear stock to 
cover; one wineglassful of claret may also be added if liked. Boil the whole over a 
slow fire for from one and a half to two hours. Stir one ounce of butter and one- 
half ounce of flour in a stewpan over the fire. Skim and strain the liquor from the 
birds and stir it in gradually with the butter and flour; put in a few button mush- 
rooms and truffles and boil them gently until cooked. Put the fillets in the oven and 
bake them till just set. When the truffles and mushrooms are cooked take them out 
of the sauce and pile them in the center of a hot dish; drain the fillets from the butter, 
arrange them round the truffles, pour the sauce over them, and serve. 



Partridge Pie. 

Singe, draw and clean three partridges, put them in a fryingpan with a little but- 
ter, season them well and fry lightly. Line the inside of a pie-dish with some veal 
cutlets, and over that put a slice of bacon, a little chopped parsley and two chopped 
mushrooms. Cut the partridges in halves, put them in and place two more chopped 
mushrooms and a little chopped parsley over; cut some hard-boiled eggs in halves, 
put them on the top and pour in one-half pint of gravy. Put a strip of puff paste 
round the edge of the dish, place a cover of the paste on the top and press them to- 
gether; dip a pastebrush in beaten egg, brush the top of the pie over with it and 
make a small hole in the center. Put it in a hot oven with a piece of paper on top to 
prevent its browning too much, and bake it for an hour. Serve either hot or cold. 



Partridges, Princess Beatrice Style. 

Prepare three partridges, truss them for roasting, and lard their breasts with thin 
strips of fat smoked bacon. The larding can be done in a fancy design. Lay the 
birds in a basin with some verjuice and leave them for an hour or two. When ready, 
drain and wipe them very carefully on a dry cloth without disturbing the pattern of 
the larding. Butter some sheets of broiling-paper, wrap each bird separately in it 
and roast them in the oven, keeping them well basted. In about half an hour re- 
move the paper and brown the birds. Lay them on a hot dish garnished with water- 
cress, and serve with a clear sauce. 



GAME. 361 

Puree of Partridge. 

Empty and clean three partidges, put them in a braisingpan with a little game 
broth and braise them. When done let them cool. Strain the cooking liquor through 
a fine hair-sieve, skim off all the fat, put it in a stewpan with double its quantity of 
veloute sauce and boil till reduced to the thickness of thick supreme sauce. Take all 
the meat from the partridges when cold, chop it, put it in a mortar and pound, pouring 
on at the same time the sauce. Pass the puree through a fine hair-sieve and it is then 
ready for use. 

Roasted Partridges. 

Pluck the partridges, draw and truss them, and fasten some thin slices of fat 
bacon round them, roast for fifteen minutes in a hot oven. Five minutes before dish- 
ing take the bacon off, sprinkle a little salt over the birds, and brown them. Put the 
partridges on a hot dish, and serve them with a sauceboatful of brown gravy. 

Roasted Partridge, Perigord. 

Pluck, singe, and draw three partridges. Put four ounces of scraped fat bacon 
in a stewpan with three bay leaves, a blade of mace, and two or three cloves, and 
place over the fire till boiling ; then take out the bay leaves, cloves and mace. Finely 
chop three large truffles, put them in with the fat, also put in ten sliced truffles, pour 
in one quart of white sauce, and boil it until thickly reduced, keeping it well stirred 
at the same time. Move the pan to the side of the fire, stir in quickly the beaten 
yolks of two eggs, and pour it on the plate. When the truffle mixture is cold, stuff 
the partridges with it, then hang them up and leave them for a few days, so as to be 
well flavored with the truffles. When ready for cooking, wrap the birds separately in 
sheets of buttered paper, fix them on a roasting pan and roast them in a hot oven for 
half an hour. Pour two quarts of white sauce into a saucepan with one pint of veal 
broth, put it over the fire, and when it boils add a few thinly-sliced French truffles, 
and a scant teaspoonful of sugar. Stir and boil it until thickly reduced, then mix in 
two tablespoonfuls of whipped cream. When cooked take the birds out of the sheets 
of paper, put them on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them, and serve while very hot. 

Roasted Partridges Stuffed with Truffles. 

Singe and draw two young red partridges. Peel six black truffles, cut them in 
quarters and sprinkle salt and pepper over them. Chop the livers of the partridges 
that have been cooked with two chickens' livers, an equal quantity of fat bacon and 
the trimmings of the truffles ; put the mince in a mortar, pound it and pass it through 
a fine hair-sieve. Put some bacon fat in a fryingpan, and when melted put in the 
truffles ; toss them about over the fire for two or three minutes, then mix them with the 



362 GAME. 

forcemeat and stuff the partridges with it ; truss, lay them in a roastingpan, spread 
with butter and set the pan in the oven, basting the birds occasionally with their own 
butter. When the birds are cooked (they will take from twenty to twenty-five min- 
utes, according to their size), sprinkle salt over and put them on a hot dish. Mix a 
little gravy in the drippings, skim off the fat, and boil it till reduced to half its orig- 
inal quantity, then strain it through a fine hair-sieve. Garnish the partridges with 
slices of lemon, and serve them with the sauce in a sauceboat 

Salmis of Partridges. 

Truss three perfectly fresh partridges as for roasting, put them in a sautepan with 
a little butter, and brown them over a brisk fire. Leave them till half cold, then cut 
the wings and legs off and separate the breasts; pare and trim each piece. Put the 
carcasses, trimmings, and some fat bacon in a stewpan, and with them prepare a little 
rich gravy. Fry the livers in butter, then put them in a mortar and pound them, add 
them to some brown sauce, stir it over the fire till hot, then skim and pass it through 
a fine hair-sieve. Put it again in the saucepan, strain the gravy in, turn the legs of 
the partridges in, and warm them. Arrange the legs on a hot dish, put the wings on 
them, and the breasts at the top. Put some croutons of fried bread, mushrooms, and 
truffles round the dish, pour the sauce into a sauceboat, and serve. 

Partridge Sauted, Hunter's Style. 

Singe, draw and wipe two fine, tender partridges, cut them into twelve pieces, 
place them in a sautepan with one ounce of butter, add a little salt and pepper, and 
brown well for three minutes on each side; add a finely-chopped shallot, one-half 
wineglassful of Madeira wine, one-half pint of Spanish sauce, and twelve whole mush- 
rooms. Cook for fifteen minutes longer, then serve with six croutons of bread round 
the dish for garnish. 

Stewed Partridges. 

Procure three partridges, .old ones will do, lard them, and truss them as for boil- 
ing. Line a stewpan with slices of fat bacon, put in the parti idges, breasts down- 
wards, with a slice of lean veal, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a few chopped savory 
vegetables; pour in a teacupful each of gravy and white wine. Let all cook over a 
slow fire for an hour and a half; then place the partridges on a hot dish, strain their 
cooking liquor over them, garnish with cut lemons and fried parsley, and serve. 

Stewed Partridges, Chipolata. 

Cut a partridge into quarters, put it into a pan with butter, and fry it until brown, 
dusting it over with flour. Put in two dozen small onions, one-half pound of sausages 
cut into thin slices and fried, six chopped mushrooms, and twelve roasted chestnuts; 



GAME. 363 

add seasoning to taste, pour in two or three wineglassfuls of white wine, and stew till 
all is tender. Thicken the sauce, turn the whole onto a dish, and serve with croutons 
of fried bread. 

Stewed Partridges, Montmorency. 

Truss some young partridges as for stewed partridges, Spanish style. Dip the 
breasts into boiling water to make them firm, then plunge them into cold water, and 
lard them with bacon. Put some slices of fat bacon at the bottom of the stewpan, 
put the partridges in, put some more rashers of fat bacon on the top of them, and 
moisten to half their height with fowl broth. Stand the pan over a brisk fire for a 
few minutes, then move to the side and cook slowly for twenty minutes. Glaze, take 
them out, drain, and glaze again. Put them on a hot dish, and serve with a Dutch 
sauce. 

Stewed Partridges, Spanish Style. 

Pluck two or three partridges carefully so as not to injure the skin, clean them, 
cut off the sinew that is under the joints of the legs, and skewer the legs up towards 
the breast. Fill a needle with packthread, run it through the stump of the right 
wing, then through the thick joint of the leg, next across the body, and then again 
through the other stump; then tighten the packthread and fasten the knot. Run the 
needle through from the back to the side beneath the leg, and then above the pinion 
below the breast, so as to perforate the breast bone, let the needle come out from the 
part parallel to that where it was first introduced, then through the side to the 
back, and then fasten the packthread. Care should be taken to give the birds as nice 
a shape as possible. Put some slices of bacon at the bottom of a large stewpan, put 
the partridges in, cover them with more bacon, pour in some rich fowl broth, cover, 
and cook for twenty minutes over a slow fire. When done drain them, place on a hot 
dish, pour over some Spanish sauce in which has been mixed a little glaze, and serve. 

How to Truss Pheasants, Etc. 

Pheasants are trussed in the same manner as fowls, and so are partridges and 
grouse, with the exception that, like all small wild fowl, the legs are crossed and the 
heads skinned and threaded on skewers through the pinions; pigeons and other birds 
of a similar size are trussed in such a manner as to make the breasts plump out. 

Snipe and woodcock are trussed in France by thrusting the long beak through 
the body and fastening the wings under the thighs; woodcocks are sometimes trussed 
with the head "hooded," as it is called, under the skin of the breast. 

Braised Pheasant. 

, Prepare and truss a pheasant as for boiling. Line a stewpan with slices of fat 
bacon and one or two thick slices of veal, put in the bird, season it well with salt 



364 GAME. 

and pepper, add a few sweet herbs, cover it with more slices of bacon and veal, cover 
the stewpan down perfectly air-tight, and put it in a moderate oven and cook for two 
hours. When done place it on a hot dish, strain over it some of the gravy that will 
have run from it while cooking, garnish it with sliced lemons, and serve. 

Braised Pheasant, Financiere. 

Prepare and braise two pheasants. Then prepare a financiere, garnishing with 
foies gras, cockscombs, truffles and pheasant forcemeat quenelles, and mix with them 
some financiere sauce. Put a block of fried bread in the center of a dish, sticking it 
onto the dish with the white of egg and flour paste; arrange the pheasants, leaning 
against each end of the bread, put the garnishing in the dish in order, put a row of 
pheasant forcemeat quenelles between each pheasant, a cooked and larded sweetbread 
each side of the bread, with cooked truffles on each. Put four crayfish and some 
cockscombs in the spaces, and put another larded and sweetbread on top of the bread. 
Get five silver attelettes and garnish them with cockscombs, truffles and crayfish, stick 
them in the pheasants and sweetbreads, and serve with a sauceboatful of financiere 
sauce that has been reduced with essence of pheasant. 

Broiled Pheasant. 

Cut the bird into four pieces and fry them in lard; when nicely browned all over 
and half done through, take them from the fire, drain the lard from them, brush over 
with beaten egg, roll them in a paper of breadcrumbs mixed with salt and cayenne, 
put them on a hot well-greased gridiron and broil them for ten minutes over a clear 
fire. 

Fillets of Pheasants, Maintenon. 

Take the fillets from two large young pheasants and cut each in two slices, beat 
them lightly, season with salt and pepper, put them into a sautepan with two table- 
spoonfuls of olive oil and saute them over a quick fire, keeping them rather under- 
done. When cooked, take the fillets out and drain them. Put two chopped onions 
in the sautepan and fry them till lightly browned, adding more oil if necessary; then 
mix in two tablespoonfuls each of chopped mushrooms and chopped parsley and one 
pint of white sauce seasoning with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg and one-half tea- 
spoonful of sugar. Bail the sauce till thickly reduced, stirring it at the same time; 
put the fillets in the sauce, move it away from the fire and leave it till cold. Cut as 
many pieces of white paper as there are fillets into heart-shaped pieces; put a fillet 
on each with the sauce divided equally and wrap the papers over, twisting them well 
at the ends. Broil the fillets over a clear, but slow fire. When cooked put them on 
a hot dish, leaving them in their papers, and serve with a sauceboatful of rich gravy. 



GAME. 365 

Fried Fillets of Pheasants with Truffles. 

Cut off the fillets of two young but well-hung pheasants; put them in a saute - 
pan with some thin slices of truffles and fry them in clarified butter. When nicely 
browned on both sides drain them, place on a sheet of paper on the table and trim them 
all to the same shape, leaving the truffles to cook a little longer; put the fillets in the 
sautepan again and give them one or two turns over the fire. Reduce some bechamel 
sauce with essence of truffles and pheasants; drain the fillets and truffles, arrange them 
on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them, and serve. 

Deviled Legs of Pheasants. 

Take the legs of cold roast pheasants, score them across four or five times, rub 
mustard, salt and pepper into the cuts, and broil them on a hot gridiron with a piece 
of cold butter laid on each leg. Serve as hot as possible. 

Pheasant Perigueux. 

Pluck, singe and draw a pheasant and make the following forcemeat: Peel one- 
half pound of fresh truffles, chop and pound them in a mortar with three ounces of 
bacon fat. Put the pounded mixture in a small saucepan and stir it over the fire 
until hot through; then turn it in a basin, let it get cold, and season it to taste. Stuff 
the bird with this and leave it for two days to absorb the flavor of the truffles. Wrap 
it in a sheet of buttered paper, lay it in a roasting pan and set it in the oven to roast, 
keeping it well basted. When the pheasant is cooked remove the paper, place it on 
a hot dish, pour round it a rich brown gravy made from the necks, gizzards, etc., and 
serve, garnished with truffles and potato croquettes, with a little mushroom catsup 
and essence of ham added 

Roasted Pheasant. 

Singe and truss the bird and put inside a shallot and a lump of butter; lard the 
breast close with thin strips of bacon, and tie a thin strip of bacon over the larded 
part. Roast the bird in a good hot oven, basting it often with butter. Five minutes 
before taking the bird from the oven remove the slice of bacon and brown the larded 
part. When cooked place the bird on a hot dish, strew over it some crumbs of bread 
that have been fried brown in butter, and serve it with a sauceboatful each of rich 
brown gravy and bread sauce. 

Salmis of Pheasant. 

Cut off the flesh of a cold roast pheasant, remove the skin, and trim each piece 
nicely; put the bones and trimmings in a stewpan with two shallots, a clove of garlic, 
a laurel leaf, the grated rind of half a lemon, and a small piece of meat glaze, moisten 



366 GAME. 

with one pint of white wine and one tablespoonful of rich gravy. Stew the whole 
gently till the sauce has sufficiently reduced, then strain it through a fine hair-sieve. 
Return it to the saucepan, put in the pieces of pheasant meat, heat them through but 
do not boil the sauce again. Arrange the meat on a hot dish, squeeze the juice of an 
orange into the sauce, pour it round the meat, garnish with sippets of toast, or crou- 
tons of bread that have been fried brown in butter, and serve while very hot. 

Pheasant Soubise. 

Truss a pheasant as for boiled chicken, put it in a braisingpan with a layer of 
bacon, some chopped vegetables, some sweet herbs, and one-half pint of stock, and 
braise it. When cooked take it out of the braisingpan, drain it and dry it in front of 
the fire. Place it on a hot dish, surround it with soubise sauce, and serve 

Braised Plovers. 

Line a braisingpan with sliced bacon and beef cut about half an inch thick, put 
in a couple of carrots, two small onions, a bunch of thyme and bay leaves, together 
with some mixed herbs, pepper and salt, and a little grated nutmeg and mixed spice; 
then put in the birds, fasten on the lid tightly, solder the edges of the pan to prevent 
air ffom getting inside, and cover the lid with live embers, simmer until done, or 
nearly so, when the heat should be somewhat lessened until quite cooked, then place 
on a hot dish and stand them near the fire. Skim off all the fat from the liquor and 
pass it through a fine hair-sieve over the birds, squeeze the juice of a lemon over, and 
garnish with egg croquettes and watercress. 

Broiled Plovers. 

Secure six fine fat plovers, pick, singe, draw and wipe them well, pick out the 
eyes, and split them through the back without separating the parts, and place them 
upon a dish. Season with a pinch of salt and half as much pepper, and add a table- 
spoonful of oil. Rub in the seasoning thoroughly, and place the birds on a broiler to 
cook for four minutes on either side; then dress them on a hot dish with six pieces of 
toast, spread over a gill of maitre d'hotel butter, decorating with a little watercress, 
and serve. 

Fried Plovers with Truffles. 

Place four plovers in a saucepan after cleaning, drawing and trussing them, and 
add five ounces of butter, a couple of cloves, and a few raw truffles cut into slices, 
with salt and pepper to taste. Place the pan over a brisk fire and cook for about ten 
minutes or so, then add two tablespoonfuls of flour and a wineglassful of white wine 
to a half pint of the stock; pour it into a saucepan, place it over a fire and cook 



GAME. 367 

gently for twenty minutes, stirring frequently. When done, arrange the birds on a 
dish, add the juice of one lemon to the stock, boil again for a few minutes, and pour 
it over the plovers, and they are ready for serving. 

Roasted Plovers. 

Pluck and singe the desired number of birds, take out the gizzards, but leaving 
the remainder of the entrails inside. Tie a thin slice of fat bacon over the breast of 
each bird, and range them in a hot oven to roast. Place in a drippingpan some slices 
of toast and baste them continually with butter; just preparatory to removing the 
birds from the fire, take off the rashers of bacon and dust them with salt; when the 
birds are done, place the toasts on a .hot dish, with a bird on each, decorate with 
quartered lemons, and serve with a sauceboat of white sauce. 

(2.) Pick, singe, draw and wipe six tender and fat plovers, pick out the eyes, 
and truss the legs together, and skewer the head under one leg; then lay a thin slice 
of larding pork on each bird, tie them securely, and put in a roastingpan, seasoning 
with a little salt, spread over a very little butter, and put them on a spit, roasting for 
ten minutes, Then take them from the fire, and arrange six small canapes for game 
on a hot dish, dress the plovers on them, garnish with a little watercress, and serve. 

Salmis of Plover, Maison d'Or. 

Procure six fat plovers, pick, singe and draw, pick out their eyes, skin the heads, 
wipe, and sprinkle over with a little salt; place in a roastingpan and cook for four 
minutes, then cut off the legs and necks, reserving the heads for future use. Chop 
up half a carrot and onion, put them in a saucepan with one ounce of butter and a 
small garnished bouquet and six whole peppers; cook for five minutes, add a break- 
fast cupful of Spanish sauce, half a wineglassful of sherry, and three tablespoonfuls 
of mushroom liquor, sprinkling over salt and pepper to taste; then cook them for 
fifteen minutes longer. Run the bills through good-sized mushrooms, stick them into 
the breasts of the plovers, and place them in a sautepan, strain over the liquor, and 
add a dozen mushrooms cut in halves and the zest of a lemon, cook for six minutes, 
then put them on a dish, strain over the sauce, and serve with croutons of fried bread 
covered with cooked goose's fat livers for a garnish. 

Fricassee of Prairie Chicken. 

After thoroughly cleaning and singeing the bird, cut it up at the joints and flatten 
them a little with a cutlet bat; put the pieces of the bird into a saucepan with an onion 
stuck with a couple of cloves and a bunch composed of one or two small sprigs of 
thyme, parsley and bay leaf, pour in enough broth to cover, and place the pan over 
the fire until the liquor boils, then remove it to one side and let it simmer until the 
bird has become tender. Place two ounces of butter in a stewpan with a table- 



368 GAME. 

spoonful of flour, stir over the fire until melted, then pour in the cooking liquor of the 
bird, passing it through a strainer, and season to taste with salt and pepper, and con- 
tinue stirring over the fire until it boils again; put a few sliced mushrooms in the 
liquor and boil a few minutes longer, then put in the pieces of the bird. Stir the 
beaten yolk of one egg into the fricassee and turn it onto a hot dish, serving 
immediately. 

Roasted Prairie Chicken. 

Having cleaned and singed the bird, squeeze the juice of a lemon over the 
stomach and legs and rub it in thoroughly; lay some thin slices of bacon on the 
breast, fastening them in position with twine, then wrap the bird in a sheet of well 
buttered paper, lay it on a roastingpan, and roast it in a hot oven, basting continually. 
It should cook in twenty minutes or half an hour, according to its age. About five 
minutes before taking it out remove the paper, but allowing the slices of bacon to 
remain on it; place the bird on a hot dish, mix in the juice of half a lemon with the 
gravy in the drippingpan, season with a little salt and pepper, and strain through a 
fine hair-sieve over the bird, garnishing with watercress, and serve. 

Stewed Prairie Chicken. 

Put about three tablespoonfuls of small squares of fat salted pork into a stewpan 
with an ounce of butter and toss them about over a brisk fire until melted, then pre- 
pare and truss a bird, put it in the fat with a bunch of sweet herbs, one large onion 
and a small carrot, cut in slices and fry the whole together until it begins to color, 
then moisten to height with white wine and broth mixed in equal amounts and keep it 
simmering gently at the side of the fire. When the bird has become tender, place it 
on a hot dish; boil the cooking liquor for a few minutes so as to slightly reduce it 
and pour it through a strainer onto the bird, and serve. A puree of either beans, 
peas, asparagus or mushrooms is a good accompaniment to this dish, 
i 

Broiled Quails. 

Singe and draw the quails, split them lengthwise down the back and wipe them 
with a damp cloth. Season with salt and pepper, rub them well in warmed butter 
and dredge with flour. Place the birds on a gridiron over a clear fire and broil for 
ten minutes. Cut some thick slices of bread, remove the crusts, toast and butter 
them and lay them on a hot dish. Place a quail when cooked on each slice, garnish 
with parsley, and serve. 



Broiled Quails with Bacon. 



Singe, draw and wipe well half a dozen fine fat quails, split them through the 
back without separating the parts, and break the two leg-bones. Place them on a 
dish, season with a pinch of salt, one-ha-f pinch of pepper and one tablespoonful of 



GAME. 369 

sweet oil, mixing them in well, and place them on a moderate fire to broil for six 
minutes on both sides. Arrange six pieces of toast on a hot dish, place the quails on 
top, pour over one gill of maitre d'hotel butter, decorating with six slices of broiled 
bacon, and serve. 

Quails Crapaudine. 

Singe and draw the quails, remove the claws and truss them with their legs 
inward. Pinch the breast and scallop it without reaching the skin; beat the birds 
flat, sprinkle over salt and pepper and dip them twice in clarified butter and bread- 
crumbs. Boil them over a clear fire, and serve with Italian sauce. 

Larded Quails. 

Singe, draw and wash the quails, lard the breasts and legs, run a small skewer 
through the legs and tail and bind them firmly round with thread. Baste the breasts 
with a small quantity of clarified butter, dust a little salt over and dredge them thickly 
with flour. Place the quails in a bakingdish and bake them in a quick oven for fif- 
teen minutes. Put a layer of bread sauce on a hot dish; when cooked untie the birds, 
place them on the dish with the bread sauce, sift plenty of fried breadcrumbs over 
them, garnish with a little parsley, and serve. 

Quails in Cases. 

Singe and draw the quails and remove half of the backbones. Fry the livers of 
the quails with the same quantity of chicken's livers in a small quantity of rasped 
bacon fat and season them with pepper and salt. When cold pound the fried livers 
with an equal quantity of chopped ham and some chopped truffles. Stuff the truffles 
with half of the prepared forcemeat, truss them, place them in a stewpan with a 
little butter and fry until half cooked. Mix with the remainder of the forcemeat 
two or three tablespoonfuls of cooked fine herbs. Spread a layer of it in the bot- 
tom of the required number of oiled oval-shaped paper cases and place a quail in 
each; spread two sheets of paper over a baking sheet, put the cases on it and 
bake them in a moderate oven for twenty minutes or so. When the birds are 
cooked take the cases up, place them on a hot dish, pour in each a small quantity 
of sauce that has been reduced in Madeira, and serve. 

Quails Jardiniere. 

Draw and truss the quails, and place them in a stewpan with some thin slices of 
fat bacon, one breakfast cupful of mirepoix, and one teacupful of Madeira; stew them 
gently until cooked. Butter a plain border mould, fill it with braised cabbage-let- 
tuces and press them tightly down. Turn the border out on a hot dish, and fill the 



370 GAME. 

center with cooked carrots, turnips and French beans ; arrange the quails, resting half 
on the borders and half on the vegetables, brush them and the border over with 
melted glaze, and serve with a sauceboatful of melted glaze. 

Roasted Quails. 

To prepare this dish successfully a clear hot open fire is best, but in lieu of that 
a very hot oven will answer. Pluck, singe and draw the birds, wipe them with a wet 
towel, cut off the heads and feet, wrap each bird in a slice of fat salted pork, and 
pack them closely in a saucepan just large enough to hold them. Season the quails 
highly with salt and cayenne, pour over just enough boiling water to cover them, 
place the cover on the saucepan, and place it on a hot fire for five or ten minutes. 
Then take up the quails, remove the pork, wipe the birds on a clean towel, rub them all 
over with butter and roast them brown before a very hot fire, or in a hot oven, basting 
them twice with more butter and their drippings. Meanwhile strain the gravy in 
which they were stewed, and melt it with an equal quantity of red currant jelly to 
form a sauce, or serve cold red currant jelly with them. Serve the birds hot as soon 
as they are browner 1 . 

Salmis of Quails. 

Draw and prepare two quails, cut them into halves lengthwise down the back, 
place them in a pan with a small quantity of butter, and cook them. Have in readi- 
ness two croutons of fried bread, and place the birds on them ; reduce and thicken 
the liquor, strain it, pour it over the birds and serve with a little lemon juice squeezed 
over each. 

Quails with Green Peas. 

Singe, draw and truss the quails as for boiling, place them in a stewpan with a 
piece of butter, and fry till they are nicely browned; then put in one-half pound of 
streaky bacon, blanched and cut into squares, one and one-half pints of green peas, 
one onion, a bunch of parsley, salt, and a sufficient quantity of broth to cook them 
in. Place the lid on the stewpan and let the contents simmer by the side of the fire 
for fifteen minutes. When cooked drain the quails and cut off the strings. Remove 
the parsley and onion from the peas, stir a piece of kneaded flour and butter in with 
them, turn the peas onto a hot dish, put the quails round on the peas, with the legs 
toward the center, brush them over with melted glaze, and serve. 

Deviled Rabbit. 

Cut a rabbit into, joints and parboil them; when they are entirely cold, score them 
to the bone, making the cuts about one-half inch apart. Melt over the fire three 
ounces of butter, mix with it a little cayenne pepper, salt and mustard, one table- 
spoonful of vinegar, and one teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce; stir all this well 



GAME. 



37* 



together, rub each piece of rabbit with it, rubbing it thoroughly into the scoring, and 
broil them on a hot gridiron over a clear, brisk fire, turning the pieces as soon 
as they commence to drip. When they are brown pile them on a hot dish, melt some 
butter, and pour it over. Allow them to lie in this for three or four minutes, 
turning them often. If any of the mixture is left pour it over, and serve. 

Fillets of Rabbit, Valencienne Style. 

Skin the rabbits, cut the fillets from the bones, and if large cut each fillet into 
halves, trim them to the shape of a small cutlet, beat them, place them in a well- 
buttered sautepan, squeeze the juice of a lemon over, sprinkle them over with pepper 
and salt, and stand them over a moderate fire, turning them when cooked on one 
side, and finishing the other. The fillets should not be browned. When quite firm 
arrange them in a circle on a hot dish. Pour a little more than one pint of sauce 
into the sautepan, with one breakfast cupful of white stock, stir it over the fire, and 
reduce it until it adheres to the back of a spoon; then stir in one-half teacupful of 
cream, and a small quantity of lemon juice, and season to taste with salt and pepper. 
Pour the sauce over the fillets, and serve. 

Jugged Rabbit. 

Clean a rabbit, disjoint it and cut the body into four pieces. Cut one-half pound 
of lean salt pork into small pieces, put them in a stewpan with one ounce of butter, 
and toss it over the fire until the butter has melted; then put in the pieces of rabbit, 
and fry them until lightly browned. Sprinkle over one tablespoonful of flour, pour 
in one-half pint each of claret and broth, add eight or ten small onions, a bunch of 
sweet herbs, a clove of garlic, and two or three cloves, and place the stewpan over the 
fire until the contents -boil; then move it to the side, and allow them to simmer gently 
until the rabbit is tender. When cooked, place the pieces of rabbit on a hot dish, 
arrange the onions round them, strain the cooking liquor through a fine hair-sieve, 
and serve. 

Rabbit Pie. 

Clean and skin two or more rabbits, cut them up into joints, and then again into 
small pieces, removing all the largest bones; add about one pound of steak, and a 
few slices of bacon also cut up small, sprinkle the whole over with finely-minced 
parsley and thyme, and salt and pepper to taste; put them at the bottom of a pie- 
dish intermixed with a few forcemeat balls or yolks of hard-boiled eggs, pour over 
enough stock or water to moisten, place a crust of light paste on the top, brush it 
over with beaten eggs slightly salted, place the dish in a moderate oven, and bake for 
a couple of hours. When cooked take it out, and serve it either hot or cold. 



372 GAME. 

Roasted Rabbit with Olives. 

Clean a rabbit well, lard its fleshy parts with strips of salted pork, wrap it up in 
a sheet of buttered paper, fastening it with skewers or binding twine round it, and' 
roast it in a hot even, basting it frequently. About ten minutes before removing the 
rabbit from the oven, the paper should be removed to allow it to brown. When the 
rabbit is cooked, pour the gravy out of the drippingpan into a small saucepan, add 
some clear beef gravy if there is not sufficient, season it to taste with salt and pepper, 
and put in three dozen stoned olives. Stir the sauce over the fire and boil it for five 
minutes. Untruss the rabbit, and place it on a hot dish, garnish round with the 
olives, pour the sauce over it, and serve. 

Rabbit Sauted. 

Skin and clean well a young rabbit and cut it up into joints. Put a few pieces of 
ham into a sautepan with a little butter, toss the pan over the fire for a few minutes, 
add the pieces of rabbit and a little each of finely-chopped parsley, thyme and onion, 
and cook for a few minutes longer; sprinkle flour over the rabbit, pour in stock and 
white wine in equal proportions and enough to moisten, remove the pan to the side 
of the fire, and simmer gently until the meat is quite tender. Place the meat on a 
dish to keep it hot; pour the sauce through a sieve into a saucepan, add a few 
chopped mushrooms, stew for a few minutes longer, pour it over the rabbit, and serve 
very hot. 

Stewed Rabbit. 

Draw, skin and wash a rabbit, and cut it into pieces about two inches in length. 
Cut one-half pound of streaky bacon into pieces about one and one-half inches long 
by one inch in width, blanch and dry them, put them into a fryingpan with one ounce 
of butter and fry to a light brown color. Take them out, put in fifteen button mush- 
rooms and fry them also, then put them on a plate and keep them hot. Put the 
pieces of rabbit into the fryingpan and fry them gently for ten minutes, then dust in 
one ounce of flour, stir well for a couple of minutes, and add three teacupfuls each of 
broth and red wine, a bunch of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, and the mushrooms 
and pieces of bacon. Place the pan at the edge of the fire and simmer gently for 
about twenty minutes, then add two more pints of mushrooms and cook for five 
minutes longer. Remove the herbs, turn the remainder out onto a hot dish, and 
serve it immediately. 

Stewed Rabbits with Fine Herbs. 

Put a few chopped mushrooms and shallots into a saucepan with a small quantity 
of butter, add a little minced parsley, place the saucepan over the fire and cook them 
until done; then put in two rabbits cut up into pieces, dust them over with salt, pepper 



GAME. 



373 



and grated nutmeg, add a small bunch of sweet herbs, and toss the pan over the fire 
for a few minutes; pour in one breakfast cupful of white wine, place the lid on the 
pan, pile hot ashes on it, and let it remain on the fire for about twenty minutes. Add 
the juice of a lemon, a small lump of both butter and game glaze, sprinkle over 
a small quantity of flour, and stir well for two or three minutes. Turn the whole 
out onto a dish, piling it up, and serve. 

Broiled Reedbirds. 

Dress the reedbirds without splitting them, place an oyster in each one, season 
them with salt and pepper, broil them quickly over a hot clear fire for about five 
minutes, and serve at once. 

Fried Reedbirds. 

Pluck and dress the birds, splitting them down the back; season them rather 
highly with salt and pepper, roll them in flour, cornmeal or sifted bread or cracker 
crumbs and fry them brown in butter or lard equally mixed and made smoking hot 
before the birds are placed in it. Or dress, split and season them. They must be 
served hot as soon as they are brown. 

Roasted Reedbirds. 

Procure a dozen freshly killed, fine, fat reedbirds, cut off their legs and wings, 
pick the eyes out, remove the skin from the heads, clean and wipe them neatly and 
with a skewer remove the gizzards from the sides; then cover their breasts lightly 
with thin slices of bacon, arrange them on three small skewers, four on each one, and 
place them in a roastingpan; season with a pinch of salt, spread over a very little 
butter, and stand them in the oven to roast for seven minutes. Place them on a hot 
dish on pieces of toast, and serve at once. 

Broiled Snipes. 

Pick, singe, draw and dry eight fine snipes, remove the skin from the heads, split 
them into halves without detaching the parts, and place them on a dish. Season with 
one pinch of salt, one-half pinch of pepper and one tablespoonful of oil; put them to 
broil (with the bills stuck into the breasts), and allow them to cook for four minutes 
on either side. Put six slices of hot toast on a hot dish, arrange the snipes on them, 
spread one gill of maitre d'hotel butter on top, decorate the dish with watercress, and 
serve. 

Fillets of Snipes in Cases. 

Detach the fillets from the bones of some snipes, trim them neatly and lay them 
in a buttered stewpan. Prepare a puree with the legs of the snipes, a few poultry 
livers, some game giblets, boiled rice, stock and butter. Procure as many paper cases 



374 GAME. 

as there are fillets and brush over their interiors with oil. Fry the fillets over a 
brisk fire, turning them when they are cooked on one side. Fill the cases with 
the puree, then place a fillet of snipe in each case. Coat the top of each with some 
brown sauce that has been reduced with the essence of game, place the cases on a 
baking sheet, and place them in the oven for a few minutes to glaze. Arrange the 
cases piled up on a folded napkin on a hot dish, and serve. 

Roasted Snipes. 

Pluck, singe and draw some snipes and take out the backbones. Chop fine a 
quantity of fresh pork and mix with it an equal amount of chopped raw mushrooms, 
one pinch of shallot, some parsley, salt and pepper. Fill the birds with the above 
mixture, sew them up and truss; fix the snipes on a spit and roast them in front of a 
clear fire, or, if not convenient, roast them in the oven, basting them constantly with 
butter. Place some slices of bread underneath the birds in the drippingpan. Put two 
sliced onions into a stewpan with a small lump of butter, season with salt and pepper, 
and fry until well browned; then dredge in a little flour, and stir in by degrees about 
one-half pint of stock, and boil it gently until the onions are cooked. Fry the trails 
of the snipes with three chickens' livers, season them, pound and pass them through 
a fine hair-sieve. Put the puree of trails into a saucepan with a little white wine and 
the onions, stir them over the fire for a few minutes, but do not allow them to boil. 
When cooked remove the snipes from the fire, brush them over with melted glaze, put 
the pieces of bread from the drippingpan on a hot dish, stand the snipes on them, 
pour the sauce over, and serve. 

Salmis of Snipes. 

Divide eight cold roasted snipes into two pieces each, trim off the necks, skin 
the feet and place the bodies in a sautepan; put the bones and trimmings in a mortar 
and pound them; then put them in a saucepan with a bunch of sweet herbs, three cloves, 
two shallots, and one-half pint of claret. Boil quickly till the liquor has reduced to half 
its original quantity, then pour in one pint of Spanish sauce and let it simmer by the 
side of the fire for about thirty minutes, skimming frequently. Strain the sauce 
through a silk sieve into another saucepan and boil it quickly until it is reduced to 
a thick cream. Pour a little of the sauce into the sautepan with the snipes and warm 
without boiling. Put the pieces of snipe on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, garnish 
with croutons of fried bread, and serve. 



Squirrels, American Style. 



Put slices of fat bacon in a bakingdish. Skin and wash a squirrel, wipe it dry, 
lay it on the bacon and place two slices of fat bacon on the top. Bake in a mod- 
erate oven and when done, lay it on a hot dish and keep it in front of the fire until 



GAME. 375 

wanted to serve. Take the bacon out of the bakingdish, dredge into the gravy one 
tablespoonful of flour and stir it over the fire until it is brown. Pour into the gravy 
one teacupful of brown stock, a little walnut catsup or tomato sauce and a small 
lump of butter. Stir the above over the fire until the butter has dissolved, then re- 
move it, cool it a little, pour it over the squirrel, garnish with stewed corn and po- 
tato-balls, and serve. 

Broiled Squirrel. 

Wash and wipe a squirrel dry, brush it over with warm butter or bacon-fat and 
broil it over a clear fire for ten minutes. When cooked, place the squirrel on a hot 
dish, set some slices of broiled salt pork on top of it and pour some rich brown 
gravy, garnish round with boiled potatoes, and serve. 

Broiled Venison Chops. 

Cut the chops of a moderate thickness, remove the bones and season the chops 
with salt and pepper, then put them into a basin, baste them with olive oil and allow 
them to steep in it for two days. When ready for them place the chops on a greased 
gridiron, and broil them over a clear fire for twenty minutes, turning them when half 
done. When cooked place the chops on a hot dish, brush them over with a paste 
brush dipped in glaze, and serve them with a dish of butter. 

Broiled Venison Chops with Chestnut Puree. 

Take half a dozen fine venison chops, pare, flatten them a trifle, and put them 
on a plate, with one pinch of salt, one-half pinch of pepper and one tablespoonful of 
oil. Roll them well in this seasoning, and put them to broil for four minutes on each 
side. Put one pint of hot puree of chestnuts on a dish, place the chops over, and 
serve with a gravy poured over all. 

Fried Venison Chops. 

Season the chops with pepper and salt, place them in a fryingpan with a lump of 
butter, and fry over a clear fire, turning them frequently. Trim some mushrooms, 
put them in a small saucepan, pour over one-half pint of brown gravy, season to taste 
with salt and pepper, and let them simmer gently while the chops are cooking. In 
the course of twenty minutes the chops should be cooked; then put them on a hot 
dish, pour the gravy over them, and serve without delay. 

Venison Collops. 

Trim off the skin and sinews from any remains of cold cooked venison, chop 
fine the flesh and mix with it one-third of the quantity of finely-minced bacon and 
one teacupful of finely-grated breadcrumbs. Season the mixture to taste with salt, 



376 GAME. 

pepper and a few mixed herbs, and bind it well with beaten eggs. When well worked 
together divide the mixture into small quantities, which roll into balls, flatten them 
and dip them into beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs. Place a lump of butter in a 
fryingpan, melt it, put in the collops and fry them until nicely browned on both sides. 
When cooked drain them, arrange on a dish that has been spread over with a folded 
napkin, and serve with a sauceboatful of piquant sauce. 

Braised Venison Cutlets. 

Lard the cutlets and put them into a stewpan with a bunch of thyme and pars- 
ley, two carrots and one sliced onion. Pour in a small quantity of gravy and braise 
the cutlets for twenty minutes. When cooked brush them over with a little melted 
glaze, arrange them on a hot dish, and serve them with a sauceboatful of piquant 
sauce. 

Broiled Venison Cutlets. 

Cut some cutlets off the breast of a doe, remove the chine bone and trim round 
the other end of the bone; beat the cutlets lightly, season them with salt and pepper 
and lay them on a deep dish, spread some chopped onions and parsley leaves over 
them, cover with good oil and allow them to macerate for two or three hours in a 
cool place. Drain the cutlets, place them on a gridiron and broil over a clear fire, 
turning them when done on one side and finishing the other. Make some piquant 
sauce and mix with it at least two tablespoonfuls of currant jelly. When the cutlets 
are nicely browned arrange them, overlapping each other, on a hot dish, pour the 
prepared sauce over them, and serve. 

Roasted Fillet of Venison. 

Lard the fillet of venison with narrow strips of bacon, trimming it neatly; put 
it in a basin with one onion, stuck with three cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little 
black pepper, and cover with equal quantities of white wine and vinegar; allow it to 
soak for two days. At the end of that time roast the fillet in a hot oven, basting it 
continually with the marinading stock. When cooked place the fillet on a hot dish, 
mix a little of the basting-liquor with some poivrade sauce, and serve it in a sauce- 
boat with the fillet. 

Fillet of Venison, St. Hubert. 

Lard with strips of bacon, some thick slices cut from a fillet of venison. Place 
a lump of butter in a saucepan; then put in the slices of venison, a bunch of sweet 
herbs, salt and pepper, and cover them with red wine and stock in equal quantities. 
Stew the venison by the side of the fire, then stir in a little brown thickening, and add 
a lump of sugar and some sliced gherkins. When cooked, turn the venison onto a 
hot dish, and serve it without delay. 



GAME. 377 

Roasted Forequarter of Venison. 

Bone the venison, beat it well and rub it with salt. Prepare a paste of flour, 
eggs, a pinch of salt, and a small quantity of water, and leave it in a cool place for an 
hour; then roll it out thinly, cover it with slices of bacon, place the venison on the 
bacon, sprinkle some salt and pepper over it, and wrap it up. Dampen the edges of 
the paste with water, and press them firmly together, wrap in a sheet of buttered 
paper, and roast it in a hot oven on a baking pan. Fifteen minutes before taking the 
venison up, remove the paper and paste. When cooked take the joint carefully off 
the pan, place it on a hot dish, and serve with red currant jelly, and a sauceboatful of 
poivrade sauce. 

Jugged Venison with Poivrade Sauce. 

Take two and one-half pounds of venison, the lower part if possible, as the lean 
parts are preferable, and cut it into small square pieces ; place these in an earthenware 
jar with one sliced onion, one-half bunch of parsley roots, a sprig of thyme, two or 
three bay leaves, a dozen whole peppers, two pinches of salt, one-half pinch of pepper, 
and one-half wineglassful of vinegar. Allow them to marinade for twelve hours. 
Drain off the juice, put the venison into a sautepan with one ounce of clarified butter, 
and cook for ten minutes ; then add three tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring it well 
while adding. Moisten with one and one-half pints of broth, also the marinade liquor 
well strained. Season with one pinch of salt, and half a pinch of pepper, and cook 
for forty minutes longer. Arrange the civet on a hot dish, sprinkle over a little 
chopped parsley, and serve. 

Roast Leg of Venison. 

Remove the dry skin from the leg, wipe it with a damp cloth, and cover 
it with a flour and water paste. Put the venison in a baking tin and roast it 
in a very hot oven. Baste the meat continually, cook it for about an hour and 
a half, then remove the paste, coat it with butter, and sprinkle it well with flour. 
Cook for one hour longer, basting it frequently with butter, salt and flour. 
When cooked place the venison on a hot dish, and serve it with a sauceboatful of 
game-sauce. The above mentioned time is intended for a leg weighing about fifteen 
pounds. 

Roasted Venison. 

The loin, haunch, saddle or shoulder of venison may be roasted. After the 
piece has been carefully trimmed and freed from hairs, wipe it with a wet towel, 
season it with pepper and salt, cover it with several thicknesses of buttered paper, or 
with a paste made of flour and water, to retain its juice, place it in the oven and roast 
it twenty minutes for each pound of meat. Take off the paste or paper and quickly 



378 GAME. 

brown the venison. If a frothy appearance is desired, dredge the meat with flour, 
and baste it with butter before browning it. Serve very hot with red currant jelly. 

Baked Saddle of Venison. 

The saddle of venison is the double loin. Have the ribs cut off close to use 
for soup, stew or pastry. Wipe all the hairs off with a soft cloth dampened in warm 
water, tie thickly-buttered paper over the upper part of the saddle, lay it on a rack 
in a bakingpan and quickly brown the joint in a hot oven; then remove the paper 
and season with salt and pepper. Put into the drippingpan one teaspoonful each of 
butter, boiling water and red currant jelly, and baste the venison with this sauce until 
it is entirely brown, then serve hot with the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Saddle of Venison, Polish Style. 

Prepare a saddle or haunch of a buck (one that has not been fattened being prefera- 
ble), place in a stewpan, add two quarts of cooked marinade stock. Allow it to re- 
main in this for four hours, turning it frequently; take it out, allow it to drain, lard 
the fillets with bacon, place it in a braisingpan and moisten to half the height of the 
meat with broth and a small quantity of its marinade. Braise it on a moderate fire 
and baste frequently. Dish it up, garnish with a pile of round truffles and two 
mushrooms stuffed along the sides, and a pile of sourkraut at each end. Pour over 
a little brown sauce that has been prepared with the meat, and serve the balance of 
the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Roasted Saddle of Venison. 

Procure a small saddle of venison weighing about five pounds, pare it neatly, 
remove the sinews from the surface and lard it with a larding-needle, tying it three 
times round. Put into "a roastingpan one sliced onion and one sliced carrot, then put 
in the saddle, seasoning with one pinch of salt; spread over one-half ounce of butter 
and stand it in a brisk oven for fifty minutes, basting it frequently with its own 
gravy. Untie before lifting it from the pan, and arrange it on a hot dish. Pour into 
the pan one wineglassful of Madeira wine and one gill of white broth, and let it come 
to a boil on the stove. Skim off the fat, strain the lean part over the saddle, and 
serve it with one-half pint of hot currant jelly sauce in a sauceboat. 

Roasted Shoulder of Venison, French Style. 

Bone and stuff a shoulder of venison, lard it, and either roast or bake it, protect- 
ing the lardoons with several thicknesses of buttered paper. If the meat is basted 
while it is being cooked, take care not to baste the larded part, as that would soften 
the lardoons. When the venison is nearly done season it with salt and cayenne, 



GAME. 



379 



remove the buttered paper, brown the lardoons and then remove the skins used to 
confine the stuffing, and serve the venison hot with red currant jelly or any suitable 
sauce. 

Broiled Venison Steaks. 

Cut two or three pounds of venison into steaks about one-half inch thick and 
broil them on a buttered gridiron over a very hot fire for four minutes on either side. 
While the steaks are being broiled melt on a dish before the fire equal parts of red 
currant jelly and butter, one tablespoonful each to every pound of venison, and a 
seasoning of salt and pepper; place the steaks on this when they are broiled, turn 
them over once, and serve them hot. 

Venison Steaks, Hunter's Style. 

Procure from a newly killed deer a fine leg of about five pounds weight, remove 
the bone, cut off half a dozen slices, pare and flatten them, put them on a plate 
and season with one pinch each of salt and pepper, one-third of a pinch of nut- 
meg and one tablespoonful of oil, rolling them well. Broil them for five minutes 
on each side over a brisk, clear fire. Dress on a hot dish, and serve with one gill of 
maitre d'hotel butter, decorating the dish with a small quantity of watercress. 

Stewed Venison. 

Cut the meat into fairly small square pieces. Put about three ounces of butter 
in a stewpan, melt it and then dredge in a small quantity of flour, stirring at the same 
time to mix with the butter. Put in two or three tablespoonfuls of bacon cut into 
small squares, two chopped shallots, half a dozen small onions, two cloves of garlic, 
and a few mushrooms. Put in the meat, season with salt and pepper and pour in suf- 
ficient claret and water mixed in equal quantities to cover the whole. Boil the meat 
gently at the side of the fire until tender, then remove it from the stewpan, skim the 
fat off the sauce, remove the garlic, and boil it quickly until rather thick and brown. 
Arrange the meat on a hot dish, pour tne sauce and other ingredients over it, and 
serve without delay. 

Grilled Widgeons. 

Remove the heads, neck and wings from a brace of widgeons, split them down 
the back' and truss as for spatchcock. Remove the breast-bones and rub the interior 
of the birds with mushroom powder. Put the trimmings and bones into a 
stewpan with the gizzards and livers, one teaspoonful of made mustard, one wine- 
glassful of port wine, salt, pepper and cayenne to taste, a small quantity of brown 
stock, and boil gently for half an hour. Lay the birds on a gridiron and broil them 
over a clear fire, turning them when done on one side. When cooked, lay the birds 



380 GAME. 

on a hot dish, squeeze the juice of half a lemon into the gravy and strain it over 
them. Serve while very hot. Mallard or pintail can be used in place of widgeons if 
preferred. 

Roasted Widgeons. 

Pluck and singe a brace of widgeons, cut off the heads and claws, draw the birds 
without breaking the entrails and wipe them with a wet cloth; rub them all over with 
cold butter, dredge them with flour and roast them for about twenty minutes. Care- 
fully preserve all the gravy that flows from them, and when nearly done sprinkle 
them with salt and pepper. Serve at once with their gravy and red currant jelly, or 
with orange essence made as follows: Chop very finely two peeled onions or one 
shallot, grate the yellow rind of a large orange and chop one ounce of ham or bacon 
very fine; put these ingredients into a small saucepan, add to them a small sprink- 
ling of salt and pepper, one-half pint of gravy from roasted wild fowl, one gill of 
port wine and one saltspoonful of salt, and simmer all gently for ten minutes. Mean- 
while squeeze the juice from a whole orange and half a lemon into a sauceboat. At 
the end of ten minutes strain the sauce into the orange and lemon juice, and serve 
immediately. 

Broiled Woodcocks. 

Pluck, singe, draw, pick out the eyes, and remove the skin from the heads of six 
fine woodcocks, wipe them neatly, and split them through the backs without separat- 
ing the parts. Put them on a dish, season with a little salt and pepper, and a table- 
spoonful of sweet oil. Roll them well with the seasoning and put them on to broil 
with the bills stuck in the breasts. Let them broil for four minutes on each side, 
then arrange them on a dish with six pieces of heart-shaped fried bread covered with 
minced hearts and livers as for roasted woodcock, spread over a gill of maitre h'hotel 
butter, decorate with six slices of fat bacon, and serve. 

Fillets of Woodcock in Surprise. 

Roast some woodcock in a hot oven, keeping them rather underdone. When 
cooked cut the fillets carefully off the breasts of the woodcocks, cover each with 
chicken forcemeat, and let them simmer in some stock for ten or twelve minutes. 
Put as many dressed cockscombs as there are fillets in a little stock, and warm them. 
Put a border of mashed potatoes on a hot dish, arrange the fillets, and cockscombs 
alternately on them, pour over some veloute game-sauce and serve. 

Fillets of Woodcocks, Lucullus. 

Singe and draw some birds, fix them on a spit and roast, keeping them rather 
underdone. Make about one-half pound of chicken forcemeat, take the fillets off the 
birds, spread them over with the forcemeat, brush over with beaten egg, lay them in 



GAME. 381 

a buttered sautepan, pour in sufficient white stock to cover them, and boil gently for 
a few minutes. Chop the flesh off the legs and the trails, put it in a mortar, pound 
and pass through a fine hair-sieve. Put the pounded meat in a saucepan with one and 
one-half breakfast cupfuls of game-sauce (which can be made from the bones of the 
birds) and boil it till thick, move the sauce to the side of the fire and stir in thebeaten 
yolks of two eggs. Arrange the fillets of woodcocks in a circle on a hot dish, alter- 
nating each with a crouton of fried bread, pour the sauce in the middle of the dish, 
and serve. 

Fillets of Woodcock on Toast. 

Separate the fillets from the bones of some woodcocks, trim them neatly, season 
with salt and pepper, and brush over with warmed butter. Chop the trails of the 
birds and mix them with some chopped parsley, shallots and scraped bacon, and 
season the mixture with salt and pepper. Cut some crusts of bread longer than the 
fillets, make some deep slits down the edges, fry them in butter, then scoop out the 
crumb. Fill the crusts with the chopped trail mixture and bake them. Put the fillets 
of woodcocks in a fryingpan with some butter and fry them. Mix some meat glaze 
with some stock that should have been made with the pounded carcass of the birds. 
When cooked place the crusts on a hot dish, put a fillet on each crust, and serve them 
with the sauce in a sauceboat. 

Fillets of Woodcock with Truffle Puree. 

Separate the fillets from the bones of the birds, trim, and put them in a frying- 
pan, season with a little salt and pepper, and baste with a little warmed butter. Stud 
each of the minion fillets with a small square of truffle, lay them in a bakingdish 
with a small lump of butter, cover with a sheet of buttered paper, and bake in the 
oven. Fry the large fillets over a moderate fire. Fix a croustade in the center of a 
hot dish and fill it with truffle puree. Arrange the large fillets when cooked in a 
circle round the croustade, then place the minion fillets around them. Pour over the 
fillets some essence of woodcocks that have been mixed with a small quantity of half 
glaze, and serve then. 

Woodcocks in Croustades. 

Singe and bone some woodcocks and sprinkle them inwardly with pepper and 
salt. Break the back and bones into small pieces, put them in a stewpan with a lump 
of butter, and fry them over a clear fire till browned, and then cover them with white 
wine and broth and let simmer for twenty minutes. Strain the liquor off the bones 
into another stewpan, boil it till reduced to half glaze, then thicken it with two or 
three tablespoonfuls of sauce. Put the trails of the woodcocks and five or six 
chickens' livers in a fryingpan with some bacon fat and fry them quickly; add salt 
and pepper, leave till cool, then pound them in a mortar with half their quantity of 



382 GAME. 

chopped bacon and the same of panada. Mix four tablespoonfuls of chopped raw 
truffles with the above mixture and stuff the birds with it, roll one bird to a round 
shape and the remainder to an oval shape, fastening them securely with twine. Place 
two or three rashers of bacon and some sliced vegetables, such as carrots, turnips and 
onions, at the bottom of a stewpan, put in the birds, sprinkle a little salt over them, 
pour in to half their height some white wine and broth mixed in equal quantities, put 
the lid on the pan and braise the birds. Cut as many small croustades of bread as 
there are birds, shaping one round and the rest oval, make a cut round on the upper 
surface with the point of a knife, and fry them in fat till nicely browned. When 
done, drain, scoop them out, and spread a thin layer of game quenelle forcemeat all 
over the insides. Put the croustades in the oven and bake them till the forcemeat 
has set. When done, fit the birds in the bread cases and pour the sauce over them. 
Arrange the croustades on an ornamental dish-paper that has been placed on a hot 
dish, putting the oval-shaped ones all round and the round one in the center, and 
serve while hot. 



Woodcocks, Minute Style. 



Put three ounces of butter in a small fryingpan over a good fire, add some shred 
shallots, a little pepper and salt, and grated nutmeg; when the butter is quite hot put 
a brace of woodcocks into the pan, fry them for seven or eight minutes, and add a 
tablespoonful of white wine, the strained juice of two lemons, and some raspings of 
crusts of bread; let the woodcocks remain in the pan till the sauce has boiled up 
once, then put the birds on a hot dish, pour the sauce over them and serve at once. 



Woodcocks, Perigueux. 



Truss some woodcocks, put them in a stewpan with thin slices of fat bacon on 
top, pour in one pint of mirepoix and one-half pint of Madeira, and cook over a slow 
fire. Boil some perigueux sauce together with the extract of woodcocks till reduced. 
When done, drain the birds, put them on a hot dish, strain the sauce over them, and 
serve. 

Roasted Woodcocks. 

Truss the required quantity of woodcocks without drawing them, fastening the 
legs close to the body with an iron skewer. Toast as many slices of bread as there 
are woodcocks. Roast the woodcocks in a good oven. Lay a slice of toast in a 
drippingpan under each bird to catch the trail, and let them roast for thirty minutes. 
They should be rather underdone. While they are roasting baste them with butter. 
When sufficiently cooked lay the pieces of toast on a hot dish and put one of the 
birds on each, pour a little beef gravy in the dish, and serve some more in a sauce 
tureen. Garnish the dish with thin slices of lemon and watercress. 



GAME. 383 

Salmi of Woodcock. 

Split three woodcocks lengthwise down the back, then divide them into joints, 
and lay them aside on a dish. Bruise the livers and trails of the birds, lay them on 
the dish with the birds, strew two tablespoonfuls of finely-minced lemon peel over, 
and dust with salt, white pepper, a little cayenne, grated nutmeg, and two teaspoon- 
fuls of French mustard ; moisten with a wineglassful of white wine and the strained 
juice of four lemons. Put the dish in the oven, and turn the contents about occasion- 
ally so that they may be well seasoned. When very hot take the dish (which should 
be of silver) out of the oven, pour a few drops of olive oil over the salmis, stir it 
about a little, and serve while very hot. 

Broiled Woodhens. 

Draw the birds, and truss them with their legs tucked into the body ; singe, and 
split them into halves lengthwise, beat each piece lightly, season and brush them over 
with clarified butter, and coat them with breadcrumbs. Grease a gridiron, heat it, 
put the pieces of birds on it, and broil over a clear but moderate fire ; turn to 
brown both sides. When done arrange them on a hot dish, garnish them with parsley, 
and serve with a sauceboatful of cold tartar sauce. 

Woodhens, Russian Style. 

Singe and truss the birds as for roasting, season with salt and pepper, put them 
into a stewpan with a lump of butter, and fry them over a moderate fire till nicely 
browned. Pour a small quantity of cream over the birds, and finish cooking them, 
basting frequently with it. When cooked, drain the birds, and arrange them on a 
dish that will bear the heat of the oven. Mix about one breakfast cupful of bechamel 
sauce with the cooking sauce of the birds, and boil it till reduced to a thick consist- 
ency. Pour the sauce over the birds, cover them thickly with breadcrumbs and place 
the dish in the oven. When the breadcrumbs are browned, remove from the oven, 
garnish with watercress and slices of lemon, and serve. 



Cold Dishes. 

Tenderloin of Beef in Aspic. 

Trim well a small tenderloin of beef and make a deep incision down the thin 
side. Chop fine some lean veal, passing it through a fine hair-sieve, returning it to 
the mortar, and mix with an equal quantity of chopped beef suet and about a third 
that amount of panada; pound well together and season with salt, pepper and grated 
nutmeg, bind it together with beaten eggs, and mix in some truffles, beef tongue and 
whites of hard-boiled eggs, all cut into small slices. Stuff the tenderloin with the 
forcemeat; cover it first with slices of celery, then with cooked ham, and lastly with 
thin slices of fat bacon, and tie up. Place the beef in a braisingpan with two calves' 
feet and some stock, and stew the meat two or three hours and until tender over a 
slow fire. When cooked, take the beef out of the liquor and leave it until quite cold. 
Strain the liquor through a fine hair-sieve into a basin and leave it until it is set; 
strain off all fat, and rub it over with a cloth dipped in hot water to remove all t