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Full text of "The Teaching of the Qur'an"

DAVID O. MCKAY LIBRARY 



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THE TEACHING OF 
THE QUR'AN, 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS GROWTH 
AND A SUBJECT INDEX. 



BY THE REV. 

H. U. WEITBRECHT STANTON, 

Ph.D., D.D. 

CHIEF REVISER OF THE URDU NEW TESTAMENT J EDITOR OF THE 
BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR MISSIONARY STUDENTS. 



LONDON : 
CENTRAL BOARD OF MISSIONS 

AND 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING 
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 
1919 



NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION OP 
ARABIC NAMES AND TERMS 

In default of a universally recognised standard of transliteration 
I have accepted the following as approximating to the best systems 
in use, without entering on minuter distinctions. 

Broadly speaking, the consonants not mentioned below have the 
same value as in the leading European languages. Otherwise (fol- 
lowing the order of the Arabic alphabet) : 

The elision of alif ( \ ) and the hamza ( > ) are expressed by an 
apostrophe, e.g. rasulu'lldh, nisa\ 

th (d>) = English th in thing. 

h ( r ) = a modified, deep guttural h. 

kh ( • ) = ch in loch. 

dh ( i ) = th in the. (In Persia and India read as z.) 

? ( \j° ) = motm< i e cl s. 
z { { J 3 ) = modified z. 

The Arabic letter 'am (?)» being unpronounceable by Europeans, 

is rendered by an inverted apostrophe, e.g. sharVah. 

gh ( c ) = a voiced kh, something like the French r, grasseyS. 

t and z ( L & ]o ) = modified t and z. 

q ( - ) = a deep guttural k sound. 

The long vowels in Arabic are : — Alif ( \ ) = a ; waw (. ) = u ; 
and ydy ( ^ ) = I (continental value in each case). The corre- 
sponding short vowels are rendered a, u, and i (unmarked). The 
first two in some dialects are pronounced e and 6 : hence such 
differences as Muhammad and Mohammed ; Qur'an and Koran. 



17491 



PREFACE 

This book is intended to present the body of religious 
and moral teaching contained in the Qur'an itself apart 
from the Traditions which form the second main basis of 
the Moslem faith. The need for it has been impressed 
upon me during several years in which I have had frequent 
opportunities of lecturing to missionary candidates and 
others on " Outlines of Islam." 

The Qur'an is slightly longer than the New Testament, 
but in contrast to it, and not less so to the Old Testament, 
it is a one-man book, vhich exhibits manifestly the work- 
ings of a single mind under strong religious and other 
impulses. The Jews and Christians, from whom Muhammad 
drew the mass of his material, stood out in his view as 
" People of Scripture," and from the very first Muhammad 
believed himself to be the recipient of portions of a 
heavenly writing which were to be embodied in a new 
Scripture for believers in his message. To present a 
clear idea of what this book contains, as distinct from 
later comments, however authoritative, is as necessary for 
a real comprehension and evaluation of Islam as is a clear 
exposition of the teaching of the Bible itself, as distinct 
from subsequent theology, for the understanding of 
Christianity. 

Islam from the beginning was a theocracy, and it can 
still only be understood as ideally a religion and state in one. 
Muhammad was a prince as well as a prophet, and not only 
led in prayers and preaching, but commanded armies and 



4 PREFACE 

controlled as an autocrat both foreign and domestic policy, 
besides doing the work of a legislator who claimed divine 
authority for his laws. There is, however, no authentic 
official collection of his correspondence, rescripts and 
treaties except what is contained in the Qur'an. Frag- 
mentary though the materials may be, it is here that we 
see reflected the basal relations between the religious and 
civil powers in Islam. 

During the last hundred years Islam has increasingly 
come into contact with other faiths, especially Christianity, 
no longer as the religion of rulers who for a millennium 
enforced its observance by the sanctions of civil and 
criminal law, but as one faith, tolerated and protected in 
its exercise, side by side with others. Even more pene- 
trating has been the influence of religious, social and 
political conceptions and ideals, the free inflow of which 
is no longer hindered. Faced by the life and thought 
of a new age, Islam is struggling with the difficult task 
of adjusting its early medievalism to the demands of a 
modern world. Naturally the tendency of progressive 
Moslems, from Sir Sayyid Ahmad onwards, has been to 
disown the accretions of their schoolmen, and to recur to 
the one sacred volume as the sole genuine expression of 
faith and practice incumbent on the true Muslim. But, 
in making this use of an Arabian book of the seventh 
century, these progressives have claimed, or at least exer- 
cised, a great latitude of interpretation, many results of 
which are highly repugnant to the orthodox. The 
thoughtful missionary or other Christian will not withhold 
his sympathy from those who are striving to vindicate a 
place for a historical form of monotheism in the new 
thought- world : but in order to form a judgment on their 
success or failure in so important and difficult an enter- 
prise it is very necessary that he should be able to estimate 
correctly the actual teaching of the Quran as a whole or 
in any given part. To serve as a practical help in this 
direction is the object of this little manual. 



PREFACE 5 

I am venturing to offer it because I know of no book 
in English that gives a comprehensive sketch of quranic 
theology, or an all-round subject index. The bibliography 
on pp. 135 f. shows that parts of the subject have been treated 
by authors with whose learning I could not pretend to 
compete, as in the first two chapters of Professor Margo- 
liouth's Early Development of Mohammedanism, but for 
systematic treatment we have to look to three German 
works : Gerok's Christologie des Koran ; Pautz's Mohammed's 
Lehre der Ojfenbarung, and — most complete of all — Grimme's 
System der Koranischen Theologie. The best studies on 
quranic theology in English are the pamphlets by Rev. 
W. R. W. Gardner on "The Quranic Doctrines of God, 
Man, Sin, and Salvation." Great help has been obtained 
from Hughes' Dictionary of Islam, which contains useful 
synopses of quranic teaching, with references, under many, 
though far from all, of the relevant headings. Of course 
there are sundry treatises on Moslem doctrine and duty, 
with more or less reference to the Qur'an ; but even Sale's 
"Introductory Discourse" to his translation and com- 
mentary includes a large amount of matter drawn from 
tradition only, and the subject index to Dr. Wherry's 
edition of Sale often refers to notes which embody traditions 
going beyond the text. 

This volume is not intended to be a manual of con- 
troversy, though I earnestly hope that it may be of service 
to those who are called to the great work of interpreting 
the Gospel to Moslems. Spinoza has reminded us that 
human affairs are neither to be wept over nor yet derided, 
but to be understood. And Dr. Grimme well remarks that 
"We who have long since imbibed from their original 
source in the Bible the best conceptions of Mohammed, 
find it difficult to realise the impression which they made 
on Arabian seekers after truth" when first proclaimed. 
Perhaps one has been helped to realise this during thirty- 
five years' residence in the Central Panjab, where Moslems 
are in a majority, through much candid and friendly 



6 PREFACE 

intercourse with thein. At any rate I have tried to under- 
stand the book and its message myself and to cast what 
I have learned from others in a shape which may be useful 
to the student and the teacher. 

If the references in the Subject Index are reasonably 
correct this will be owing to their careful checking by my 
wife. She also compiled the table of variant verse num- 
berings, the lack of which was a great hindrance in dealing 
with different editions of the Qur'an. 

It is hoped that there may be companion volumes to this, 
dealing with other non-Christian Scriptures. 

H. U. WEITBRECHT STANTON. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION 

PREFACE 

INTRODUCTION 

I. Preservation of the Text of the Qur'an 

II. Divisions of the Qur'an ... 

III. Growth of the Qur'an in the Life and Career 
of Muhammad 

THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

I. The Doctrine of God 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



The Doctrine of Revelation 

1. Angels 

2. Scriptures ... 

3. Prophets ... 

The Doctrine of Judgment 

1. Death 

2. Resurrection 

3. The Judgment Day ... 

4. Paradise 

5. Hell 

6. The Divine Decrees 



The Doctrine of Salvation 
1. The Nature of Man ... 
Sin 

The Nature of Salvation 
The Conditions of Salvation ... 

Repentance, Faith, and Good Works 
The Five Pillars of Religion (Confession, 
Prayers, Almsgiving, Fasting, Pilgrimage) 
The Way of Salvation 
Piety — Islam 



2. 
3. 
4. 



5. 



PAGE 

2 



9 
9 

12 

16 

31 
31 

38 
38 
39 
43 

51 
51 
51 
51 
52 
53 
4 

55 
55 
56 
56 

57 
57 

54 
61 
61 



8 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



V. The Law of Life 

1. Law in the Qur'an ... 

2. Government of the State 

3. Warfare 

4. Slavery 

5. Criminal Laws 

6. Civil Regulations 
1. Domestic and Social Laws 
8. Ceremonial Laws 

VI. Attitude to Other Faiths 

SUBJECT INDEX 

SERIAL LIST OF SURAHS 

DATES CONNECTED WITH THE QUR'AN 

TABLE OF VERSES ... 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 



PAGE 

63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 
66 
68 
69 

71 

75 

111 

114 

117 

135 



INTRODUCTION 

Our object is to present the teachings of the Qur'an, 
as elicited from the book itself, apart from the Traditions of 
Islam which form the second basis of the faith. But if the 
statement is made on good authority that the Qur'an is the 
only authentic, contemporary document of Muhammad's 
lifetime the question naturally arises : What evidence have 
we of its authenticity as alleged? To answer this it is 
necessary to make brief reference to the Traditions and 
more especially to the biographies of the prophet, so as to 
see what, and on what basis, they tell us of the preservation, 
collation, and form of the Qur'an. We shall find that the 
utterances of the Qur'an extend over a period of some 
twenty-one years, during which immense changes took place 
in the inner and outer experience of Muhammad, and that 
these changes greatly affected the manner of his teaching 
and to some extent its matter. To understand it with in- 
sight we must therefore briefly trace the main stages of 
growth in the book corresponding to those of his life. 
Accordingly, by way of introduction, we shall deal very 
briefly with the preservation of the quranic text, with its 
divisions and literary character, and with the development 
of its matter. 

I. The Preservation of the Text of the Qur'an. 

With the spread of Islam after the death of Muhammad 
the need of recording utterances of the prophet, other than 
the revelations through Gabriel, presently made itself felt. 



10 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

It is probable that such records began to be made within 
the lifetime of men who had seen the prophet. Within the 
next two centuries they increased enormously, and before 
A.h. 256 the first sifting and regular collection of the 
traditions was carried out by Bukhari (a.h. 194-256) in his 
work known as the Sahlh, i.e. " genuine " collection of Tra- 
ditions. Meanwhile many of these traditions had been 
worked up into biographies of Muhammad. The first of 
these is by Ibn Hishain, who died A.h. 218 ; but this 
contains in abridgment the biography by Ibn Ishaq (d. 
about a.h. 150). Ibn Ishaq drew his information from 
Zuhri, who died a.h. 124, aged seventy-two ; and he in his 
turn from 'Urwa, a relative of the prophet's favourite 
wife 'Aishah, who died in a.h. 94. We are thus brought 
within reach of the original sources, and if we take into 
account also the tenacity of verbal memory among Orientals 
there is reasonable ground for believing in the substantial 
truth of the facts alleged in the biographies of Muhammad 
if they fall in with the tenor of the Qur'an itself. 

Whether Muhammad himself was illiterate or not is a 
disputed point, but the emphasis laid by him from the first 
on a written revelation (96 4 ) makes it highly probable that 
the work of recording the oracles recited to his followers to 
be used in prayers (73 1-7 ) was begun at an early time, and 
the passage 2 10 ° (" Whatever verses we cancel or cause thee 
to forget, we bring a better or its like ") distinctly implies 
the recording of revelations in a written form. Zaid bin 
Thabit, Muhammad's secretary, reported : " We " (including 
apparently other writers) " used in the prophet's house to 
put together the Qur'an out of its fragments." This seems 
to refer to the combining of separate oracles into the longer 
Surahs, such as the second, which are obviously composite. 
Of the result Zaid says : " When the prophet died the 
Qur'an was not yet unified," i.e. the single Surahs had not 
been collected into one volume. The writer who quotes 
him (Jalalu'd Din a's Suyuti) sums up : " During the life- 
time of the prophet the Qur'an had all been written down, 



INTRODUCTION 11 

but it was not yet united in one place nor arranged in 
successive order." The work of collection was accomplished 
by the first Caliph Abu Bakr, that of collation by the third 
Caliph 'Uthman. 

The loss of life among the memorizers and reciters of 
the Qur'an during the fighting in Arabia after the 
prophet's death, especially in the battle of Yamamah 
(a.h. 12), causedgrave anxiety for the preservation of the 
sacred text. The Caliph therefore commanded Zaid bin 
Thabit to collect all the Surahs into one volume. He 
undertook the work with reluctance, but carried it out 
with laborious care, so that the most careful searchers of 
succeeding generations have not produced more than nine 
fragments, and those mostly insignificant, which have a 
colourable claim to be discussed as variant remnants of the 
original. The arrangement followed by Zaid was roughly 
according to length, but the Surahs regarded as revealed in 
Mecca and Medina respectively are kept in distinct groups. 
There appears to be a certain arrangement according to 
alphabetic cryptograms (A, L, M, etc.) prefixed to some of 
the Surahs, and possibly there is an attempt at chronology 
in the order of the numerous shorter chapters, but any such 
tendency is often infringed by the inclusion of later oracles 
in earlier Surahs, as in the long verse 20 of S. 73, which 
relaxes in detail the severer commands of an earlier stage 
as to recital of prayers. 

The followers of Islam were thus furnished with a 
complete collection of the oracles of their prophet, but it 
was still open to individuals to recite them in their own 
;<jlialect, with the possibility of misunderstandings in detail, 
Or to use other collections recorded to have then been 
extant. In a campaign of Muslim troops from Syria and 
Mesopotamia against Armenia the commander found such 
a difference in the recitation of the holy verses that he 
reported it to 'Uthman, the Commander of the Faithful. 
Thereupon 'Uthman borrowed from Hafsah, one of the 
prophet's widows, her copy of Abu Bakr's Qur an and 



12 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

entrusted it to a commission of four trustworthy men, 
including the collector Zaid, himself a Medinite, and three 
others of the Quraish tribe (of Mecca). They were to make 
four identical copies of the volume, and in case of any 
doubt as to the form of a word it was to be written down in 
the dialect of the Quraish to whom Muhammad belonged. 
This they did, and one standard copy was deposited in 
each of the four chief cities of the Caliphate — Medina, Kufa, 
Basrah, and Damascus. From these only must copies 
henceforth be made, and to prevent disobedience all other 
copies were ordered to be burned. The only difference which 
now affects the reader is a slight variety in the numbering 
of the verses. 

II. The Divisions of the Qur'an. 

The name of the Qur'an and the word with which its 
earliest Surah, the 96th, begins (iqra) are both forms of a 
root which means " to recite," whether from memory or from 
the written page. The Qur'an is a recitation or thing to be 
recited, and that not only for the benefit of those who are 
to be instructed in the divine revelation, but also as the 
expression of worship due to Allah ; it is the treasury of 
faith, duty and worship in the very words uttered by Allah, 
who is throughout held to be the speaker. Its division is 
partly literary, partly liturgical ; the former is original, the 
latter secondary. 

It is unnecessary for us to dwell on the Muslim scribes' 
division into 323,621 letters or 77,934 words, but the 
division into verses is structural. They are named ayat or 
signs, and the ambiguity between this word and the same 
term for miracles (semeia) is played upon by Muhammad 
when he places those who reject his verses on a level with 
those who despised the signs of earlier prophets, or when 
he makes his ayat of utterance equal in value to their 
ayat of action. They are characteristic of the literary form 
in which Muhammad cast his utterances. The Arabic poetry 
of his age offered an elegant form of expression which 



INTRODUCTION 13 

would have been highly appreciated ; but, even if he had 
the poetic faculty, which is doubtful, Muhammad was un- 
willing to be reckoned among the venal and frivolous bards 
of his time, just as he distinguished his oracles from those 
of contemporary Jeahins or soothsayers. He therefore adopted 
the form of speech known as saf, or rhymed prose, of which 
I give the first chapter as a specimen : — 

Bismi 'llahi'r rahmani'r rahlm. 

Alhamdu 'lillahi rabbi'l 'alamin, 

A'r rahmani'r rahim, 

Maliki yaumi 'd dm. 

Iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'm 

Ihdina 's sirata'l mustaqim, 

Sirat alladhina an'amta 'alaihim 

Ghaira'l maghzubi 'alaihim wa la 'z zalin. 

Various attempts have been made to give an English 
equivalent. This is Burton's — 

In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Com- 
passionate. 
Praise be to Allah who the three worlds made, 
The Merciful, the Compassionate, 
The King of the Day of Fate. 
Thee do we worship, and of Thee do we seek aid. 
Guide us in the path that is straight, 
The path of those to whom Thy love is great, 
Not of those on whom is hate, 
Nor of those who deviate. 

But this is of course somewhat free and it does not 
rhyme with the Amln with which the devout Muslim ends 
the recital. 

In a western language this impresses us as jingle, but 
we should do the earlier portions of the Qur'an less than 
justice were we so to regard it. In other Asiatic languages 



14 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

besides Arabic, rhymed endings to prose clauses and 
sentences are counted a beauty of literary style, and the 
early quranic Surahs have also a distinct rhythmical 
cadence. Eecited in sonorous long-drawn tones by a 
practised reader whose whole being is thrown into the 
effort of reproducing the words of Allah, they are un- 
doubtedly impressive even to an outsider, and on the 
faithful the effect is electrical. The chilling result pro- 
duced by recitation or reading in the tone of ordinary 
speech is noticeable. Towards the middle period and in 
the Medina Surahs repetition and prolixity are on the 
increase, and finally the discourse becomes undiluted prose, 
though even to the last not without occasional loftier 
passages. Taking the Qur'an at its best, in point of style 
it is far below the level of the Bible whether in lyric or 
rhetoric, argument or narrative. But this does not prevent 
the orthodox Moslem from regarding the Qur'an as the 
supreme proof of its own inspiration by reason of its 
unapproachable style. His prophet frequently insists on 
the fact that the heavenly oracles have now been sent down 
in "plain Arabic," the "vulgar tongue" which all its 
hearers could understand, and he challenges the poets and 
soothsayers who opposed him to produce the like. This, of 
course, they could not, for their verses and spells dealt 
with a lower level of things. The holy book became the 
pattern for the highest possibilities of human speech to 
those who knew Arabic only and accepted the Arabian 
prophet. To believers of other speech the language of the 
book which had been vouchsafed as the vehicle of divine 
revelation was, and is, still more mysteriously magnificent. 
The translations made by Muslims have been until recently 
quite slavishly literal for theological reasons. But the 
attempts of western writers not hampered by such prejudices 
show that the Qur'an does not readily lend itself to a 
translation which is both accurate and pleasing. 

The verses of the Qur'an are built up into chapters 
called Surahs, a word which may mean a layer of stones in 



\ 



INTRODUCTION 15 

a wall. These chapters vary very greatly in length, 
ranging from 286 verses in S. 2 (the Cow) to 3 verses in 
S. 108 (Abundance). The manner of their arrangement, 
according to length (see p. 2), has resulted, generally 
speaking, in an inversion of the chronological order, as 
the longest Surahs, which are mainly the latest, come first, 
while the shortest and earliest are placed last. There 
is little doubt, too, that a good deal of dislocation of 
matter has occurred, see, for instance, p. 19. From the 
fact that Surahs are occasionally mentioned in the book 
itself (as at 11 1G ) we may deduce that Muhammad did 
something towards putting his oracles into shape, but how 
far their present limits or their names are to be ascribed 
to him remains uncertain. 

Of the 114 Surahs of the Qur'an 20 are superscribed 
as revealed at Medina. Being much longer than the 
Mecca Surahs, those of Medina cover more than one- 
third of the volume, besides such later verses as were 
incorporated by the compilers in earlier Surahs. The 
verses in the Arabic text are divided by small circles, but 
the position of these is not quite uniform in all editions, 
so that the total number of verses in the book varies from 
6239 to 6211. There are Hve of these numberings, but 
I have thought it sufficient to give a comparative table at 
pp. 117-34 of the numberings used in Fluegel's standard 
western impression and in the Indian editions. 

For liturgical and devotional purposes the Qur'an is 
further divided as follows : — 

RuJcu' (= bow) is the name given to sections of about 
ten verses, after each of which the devout reader makes a 
bow of reverence. 

JW (portion), in Persian sipdra (a thirtieth), siguifies 
one of the portions for recitation on each day of the month 
of Ramazan. The juz' is divided into four sections : 
rub c =. a quarter; nisf= a half; thulth = three quarters. 

Manzil (stage). Of these there are seven to guide the 
worshipper who desires to read the Qur'an through in a week. 



16 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

All these divisions are marked on the margin of the 
book, and it is by them that the Muslim reader quotes pas- 
sages. Verse numbers are not marked in Oriental editions, 
and Surahs are quoted by name not by serial number. The 
names are taken from some word or phrase in the Surah. 
The result of this mechanical division is that the Muslim 
reader, unless he be a memorizer (hdfiz), is often very slow 
in identifying passages. 

III. The Growth of the Qur'an and the Career of 

Muhammad. 

For the purpose in hand it is not necessary to do more 
than briefly to mention the principal events in Muhammad's 
career, and from the quranic point of view we may con- 
veniently divide this into three periods. The first, up to 
the first flight of many of his followers to the shelter 
afforded by the Christian King of Abyssinia (a.d. 615) 
includes the beginnings of prophecy and the early teaching 
at Mecca. The second, up to the Flight or Hijrah of 
Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in a.d. 622 (a.h. 1)* 
comprises the later type of Meccan Surahs. The third period 
is that of the apostle of Allah, who was also legislator, 
judge and prince at Medina (a.d. 622-632, a.h. 1-11). The 
chapters of the first and second periods are less distinctly 
differentiated from each other than those of the second and 
third, and in any case it cannot be pretended that more 
than approximate accuracy is attainable in the division thus 
made. For convenience sake the chronological succession 
as given by Rodwell in his translation of the Qur'an is 
here generally followed. 

* A. H. stands for Anno Hegirae = in the Year of the Flight, this being 
the Moslem era. The Moslem calendar being lunar its year numbers only 
354 days and its months go round the solar year, making a difference of a 
little over a year in each 33 years of our chronology. The Christian date 
can be found with approximate correctness from any year of the Hijrah by 
his rule : From the Hijrah year number deduct three per cent, and to the 
remainder add 621*54, 



INTRODUCTION 17 

1. Up to a.d. 615 ; Emigration to Abyssinia. — Muhammad 

was born at Mecca about a.d. 570. His father belonged to 

the Banl Hashim, a family of the Quraish tribe, which was 

dignified by its position as guardian of the great central 

sanctuary of pagan Arabia at Mecca, known from its shape 

as the Ka'bah or cube. His grandmother belonged to the 

powerful tribe of the Banl Khazraj at Medina, and he thus 

had connections in both the principal cities of the Hijaz, 

the leading province of Arabia. In 576 Muhammad was 

left as an orphan to the care of his paternal uncle Abu 

Talib, who faithfully discharged his obligation though he 

never embraced Islam. The Qur'an bears witness to 

Muhammad's thankfulness to Allah for His care for an 

orphan lad and to his sympathy with the orphans of his 

community. In 595 Muhammad, at the age of twenty -five, 

married Khadaijah, a wealthy widow of the age of forty 

years, with whom he lived happily for fi\e and twenty 

years. She bore him two sons and four daughters, of whom 

only Fatimah survived. She afterwards was married to her 

father's cousin 'All, son of Abu Talib, whose guardian 

Muhammad became about a.d. 605. At the same time, 

having no son of his own, he also adopted Zaid bin Harith, 

who sprang from a Christian family. Two cousins of 

Khadaijah, 'Uthnian and Waraqah, were Christians. Jewish 

tribes were numerous in the Hijaz, and Muhammad must 

have had intercourse with them from early days. Whether 

there was at that time a class of inquirers after truth known 

as hamf (i.e. " inclined ") is a disputed point. We only 

know that in the Qur'an Abraham is repeatedly called a 

hanif, and that others are exhorted to be the same. As 

a result of these and other influences Muhammad became 

deeply dissatisfied with the paganism of which Mecca was 

the centre, and with the social and moral conditions of his 

people. About the year 610 we hear of his retiring for 

meditation to a cave on Mount Hira' near Mecca, and in the 

next year (611) he received his first revelation. For nearly 

two years after this the visions ceased. During this Fatrah, 

B 



18 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

or intermission, Muhammad was not a little depressed, but 
was comforted by his wife and his Christian cousin Waraqah. 
In 613 the revelations were resumed, but adherents were 
few. The most important were from his domestic circle 
including, besides his wife, his adopted sons 'All and Zaid, 
and his friends Abu Bakr and 'Uthman, afterwards suc- 
cessors in rule. Many slaves also believed, and these 
poorer followers of Islam were severely persecuted. For 
this reason the prophet in 615 advised them to seek refuge 
in Abyssinia, where the Najashi (Negus), or king, received 
them with kindness. This first of the two flights of the 
early Moslems to Abyssinia marks the close of the early 
type of oracle. 

The chapter with which Muhammad's ministry opens is 
the 96th (Clots of blood)— 

1. Recite thou, in the name of the Lord who created — 

2. Created man from clots of blood. 

3. Recite thou ! For thy Lord is the most beneficent, 

4. Who hath taught the use of the pen — 

5. Hath taught man that which he knoweth not. 

6. Nay, verily ! man is most insolent, 

7. Because he seeth himself possessed of riches. 

8. Verily, to thy Lord is the return of all. 

These verses contain in germ the leading ideas of the 
book. The oracles are intended for recitation, whether to 
teach man or to worship God. The goodness of God is 
shown in the creation of man (special emphasis being laid 
on details of the birth process) ; and in enabling him to 
record in writing what he is taught by God. The prophet 
sees himself opposed by insolent, purse-proud men of Mecca, 
who are reminded that they have to return to the Creator 
to be judged by Him. The remaining verses are of a later 
date, and refer to the special case of an enemy, Abu Jahl, 
who had opposed the worship of Allah. He is threatened 
with hell fire, and the Surah ends with the words — 

18. Nay ! Obey him not ; but adore and draw nigh 
(to God). 



1 ! M91 



INTRODUCTION 19 

The character of the Surahs following the Fatrah is well 
exemplified by 112 (Unity), in which Muhammad repu- 
diates both the polytheism of the pagan Arabs, and also 
their sexual conception of divinity — 

1. Say, He is God alone : 

2. God the Eternal ! 

3. He begetteth not, and He is not begotten, 

4. And there is none like unto Him. 

Sins are denounced in the light of coming judgment. 
81 (The Folded up)— 

8. When the female child that had been buried alive 

shall be asked 

9. For what crime she was put to death. 
In 83 (Those who stint)— 

1. Woe to those who stint the measure ; 

2. Who, when they take by measure from others exact 

the full ; 

3. But when they mete to them or weigh to them, 

minish. 

4. What ! have they no thought that they shall be 

raised again 

5. For the great day ? 

The opponents of the prophet in like manner are 
threatened with the pains of hell : S. Ill (Abu 
Lahab) — 

1. Let the hands of Abu Lahab perish, and let himself 
perish ! . . . 

3. Burned shall he be at the fiery flame. 

And their torments are described in 78 (News), in 88 
(Overshadowing) and elsewhere. 

Similarly virtues are enjoined in the light of the joys 
of paradise. Those who are ever constant at their prayers, 
and who own the judgment day a truth, and who control 
their desires (save with their wives, or with the slaves 
whom their right hands have won), and who are true to 
their trusts, these shall dwell amid gardens (70 22_35 ). 
There virgin brides await them who never age, fruits, flesh, 



20 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

and wine at their desire, and the salutation, Peace, Peace ! 
(56 n - 36 ). 

The office of Muhammad at this time is simply that of 
a warner : " Warn, therefore, for the warning is profitable " 
(87 9 ). " Woe, on that day, to those who charged with 
imposture ! " is the refrain of S. 77 (The Sent). For the 
Qur'an was revealed to him in the " Night of Power " 
(97 ! f ), and it is to be recited for Prayer in measured tones 
during the watches of the night (73 1 ~ 4 ). But while Muham- 
mad has distinctly broken with polytheism there is not 
yet the assurance that his message will be victorious : to 
the unbelievers he says (109 4 ~ 6 ): "I shall never worship 
that which ye worship ; Neither will ye worship that which 
I worship ; To you be your religion, to me my religion." 

The Meccan idolaters are conservatives who dread the 
results of change. Besides accusing him as an impostor, 
the proudly contemptuous among them set down the new 
preacher as one possessed with jinns (demons) ; or as a kahin 
(soothsayer). W r hen he warns them they say: "He is 
certainly possessed " (68 51 ). Allah replies: "Warn thou 
then: for thou, by the favour of thy Lord, art neither a 
soothsayer nor possessed" (52 29 ). The majesty of the 
message is emphasized against scorners. "The criminal, 
when our signs are rehearsed to him, says : Tales of the 
ancients " (83 12 f )« To which the answer : " Yet it is a 
glorious Qur'an, written on the Preserved Table " (85 21 f ). 

The exhortations of this period are enforced by frequent 
oaths by various things created ; by the pen and what they 
write (68 *) ; by the fig and the olive (95 x ) ; by the signs 
of the Zodiac (85 *) ; also by refrains, a frequent feature of 
the Qur'an, e.g. in S. 55 (The Merciful), which celebrates 
the power and goodness of God in creation and judgment 
in an address to men and jinns with the refrain, " Which 
then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain deny ? " 
The appeal to history begins with a reference in S. 105 
(The Elephant) to the deliverance of Mecca from invasion 
by Abraha, king of Abyssinia (in 570), with his array of 



INTRODUCTION 21 

elephants. There are beginnings also of the appeal to 
former Scriptures in a vague form, as when Muhammad 
supports his monition to almsgiving, prayers and belief in 
the life to come by an appeal to " the ancient rolls (suhuf), 
the rolls of Abraham and Moses" (87 18 f ). The 'first 
references to the fate of unbelievers in former prophets 
appear in a vague form, as in the mention of Pharaoh and 
Thaniud in 85 17 '. 

2. From the first Abyssinian Flight to the Uijrah (615-622). 
— After three mont.'.s the refugees returned, in conse- 
quence, it is said, of a report that Mecca had been con- 
verted. The biographer Waqidi explains the origin of 
this by relating that Muhammad had recited to his fellow- 
tribesmen the opening verses of S. 53 (the Star) in which 
verses 19 and 20 run : 

Do you see Allat and Al-'Uzza 

And Manat the third beside ? 
to which he then added : 

Verily these are exalted females 

Whose intercession is to be desired, 
winding up with the closing words of the Surah : " Prostrate 
yourselves then before Allah and worship." The leaders of 
the Quraish were glad of this concession to their old belief 
and joined him in worship, but Muhammad was ill at ease. 
Gabriel visited him in the night ; he confessed his sin and 
was pardoned, and in place of the concession to idolatry the 
words were revealed : 

What ! shall ye have male progeny and Allah female? 

That were indeed an unfair partition : 
the allusion being to the Arabs' dislike of female off- 
spring (16 59 ff ). He adds : " These are mere names," but, as 
we shall see, it is not their existence but their divinity that 
is denied. The lapse is referred to later, once and again 
(17 75 ; 22 51 ), but it was never repeated. 

Opposition to Muhammad and his message increased, 
and though he was encouraged by the conversion of 
'Uniar (the second Caliph) he again advised many of 



22 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

his adherents to migrate to Abyssinia, and some of them 
remained there till a.h. 7. From 617-619 the Moslems 
were banned by the Quraish and had to retire to the 
quarter of Abu Talib, emerging only at the annual pilgrim- 
age feast. The Surahs now become more argumentative. 
Muhammad approaches the Jews, not without some 
success : " They to whom we have given the Scripture 
rejoice in what hath been sent down to thee, yet some 
are banded together who deny a part of it" (13 36 ). His 
appeal to the former prophets of whom he had learned 
from the Jews gained him a favourable hearing, and he 
reproduces many Old Testament stories in their talmudic 
form as current in Arabian Jewry. So in "the Banks " 
(37 73 - 148 ) we have Noah, Abraham, Moses, Aaron, Elijah, 
Lot, Jonah : in 40 24_56 Moses, Pharaoh, Haman and Korah 
are jumbled together : in S. 12 (Joseph) we have the 
consecutive story of Joseph, distorted with legendary 
matter, of which Allah says : " In revealing to thee this 
Qur'an (i.e. recital) we will relate to thee one of the most 
beautiful of narratives, of which thou hast hitherto been 
ignorant" (12 3 , cp. 103 ). In S. 19 (Mary) we have the 
story of John the son of Zachariah and of Mary and the 
infant Jesus in accordance with the apocryphal gospels 
current among the Christians of Arabia, with curious added 
solecisms, such as making Mary the mother of Jesus to be 
also the sister of Aaron. 

We can hardly be surprised that his opponents should 
again have brought against Muhammad at this time the 
accusation of plagiarism and forgery : " The infidels say : 
This is a mere fraud of his own devising, and others 
have helped him with it. . . . And they say : Tales of 
the ancients, that he hath put in writing ! and they 
were dictated to him morn and eve " (25 5 f ). In 25 32 he 
laments : " Then said the Apostle : my Lord ! truly 
my people have esteemed this Qur an to be vain babbling." 
To which Allah replies by emphasizing the excellence of 
the book : " The best of recitals hath Allah sent down, a 



INTRODUCTION 23 

book in unison with itself and teaching by iteration ; the 
very skins of those who fear their Lord do creep at it " (39 24 ). 
" A blessed book have we sent down to thee, that men may 
meditate its verses" (38 28 ). "The holy spirit (Gabriel) 
hath brought it down with truth from thy Lord " (16 104 ). 
" We have made it an Arabic Qur'an that ye may under- 
stand, and it is a transcript of the Archetypal Book, kept 
by us ; it is lofty, filled with wisdom " (43 2 f ). It is incom- 
parable : " verily, were men and jinn assembled to produce 
the like of this Qur'an, they could not (17 90 ). " If they 
shall say : It is his own device, say : Then bring ten Surahs 
like it of your own devising, and call to your aid whom ye 
can beside Allah, if ye are men of truth" (11 1G ). The 
Qur'an is its own proof, not as literature, be it marked, but 
as dogma. 

The friendly attitude of Muhammad towards the Jews 
at this time is further shown by his adoption from their 
language of the name Rahman (the Merciful) for Allah. 
At first there seems to have been some doubt about this in 
the minds of his hearers. " When it is said to them : Bow 
down before A'r Rahman, they say : Who is A'r Rahman ? 
Shall we bow down to what thou biddest ? " (25 61 ). Accord- 
ingly the oracle comes : " Call upon Allah, or call upon 
A'r Rahman, by whichsoever ye will invoke him " (17 no ). 
This name is preserved in the bismillah or invocation. On 
the same line at this period are several appeals to the 
goodness of God in nature as in 23 18 ~ 22 . The Qur'an con- 
firms the Torah : " Before the Qur'an was the Book of Moses, 
and this book confirmeth it in the Arabic tongue " (46 u ). 
Still Islam is now proclaimed as the one religion (21 92 ), 
and obedience to Allah and the Apostle begins to appear as 
the basis of Islam. 

In 619 the ban of the Quraish against the family of 
Hashim was removed, but not long after both Khadaijah, 
Muhammad's faithful wife and first believer, and Abu 
Talib his staunch, though unbelieving, protector died. In 
620 Muhammad went on an unsuccessful mission to Ta'if 



24 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

south-east of Mecca. On the way back in the vale of 
Nakhlah he was cheered by the vision of a company of 
jinn who listened to his preaching of Islam and believed 
(S. 72, Jinn). But the same year at the pilgrimage seven 
men from Medina met him and promised to tell of his 
mission. Next year (621) twelve men came ready to pledge 
themselves at 'Aqabah to worship only Allah and to obey 
the prophet. Muhammad's hopes took a wider sweep. He 
had the vision recorded in S. 17 (Night Journey) in which 
he was carried by Gabriel to the temple at Jerusalem 
(which was then a church) to worship and return, and 
towards this sanctuary he and his followers faced in 
worship. He was watching political events outside, and 
when the Byzantine empire at this time roused itself to 
retrieve its ignominious defeat by the Persians, Muhammad 
prophesied in S. 30 (the Greeks) the success of the 
"Romans," the only instance in the Qur'an of a world- 
historical allusion outside Arabia. In this lull of expecta- 
tion Muhammad is comforted by the assurance of victory 
for his message, whatever his own fate ; see S. 43 (Ornaments 
of Gold) : 

39. What ! Canst thou then make the deaf to hear, or 

guide the blind and him who is in palpable error ? 

40. Whether therefore we take thee off by death, surely 

we will avenge ourselves on them : 

41. Or whether we make thee a witness of that with 

which we threatened them, we will surely gain the 
mastery over them. 

42. Hold thou fast therefore that which hath been 

revealed to thee, for thou art on the right 

path. 
At the Pilgrimage of 622 seventy-three men and two 
women from Medina came again to 'Aqabah, to pledge 
their fealty to the prophet and his message, for life or 
death, and returned to prepare the way for his entry to 
their city. Muhammad received the command to "with- 
draw from those who join other gods with Him" (6 106 ). 



INTRODUCTION 25 

He recalls later his danger and the success of his secret 
flight from Mecca in S. 8 (The Spoils) : 

30. " When the unbelievers plotted against thee to keep 

thee prisoner, or to kill thee, or to banish thee ; 

they plotted, but Allah plotted ; and of plotters 

Allah is the best." 

The emigrants, including women and children, may 

have numbered 150. The date of their departure has been 

reckoned as 20th June, a.d. 622. 



8. From the Hijrah to the Death of Muhammad, 

(622-632). 

Keferences to verifiable historical events are far more 
numerous in the Surahs of this period than in all that go 
before. For this reason the main lines of development are 
more clearly marked, and it will be sufficient for our pur- 
pose to mention only the chief. The two leading features 
are the change from preacher to prince, and the consequent 
change in attitude towards Jews and Christians who refused 
to recognise the claims of Muhammad. These changes 
affect Muhammad's domestic life, his official authority, his 
ritual and social legislation and his religious teaching ; and 
they are marked by a new departure, in those military 
operations for the spread of the faith which form the most 
novel and characteristic feature of Islam. 

(1) Change of condition and policy. — The first care of 
Muhammad was to secure the abolition of idolatry and to 
unite the Kefugees, the Helpers,* and the other citizens of 
Medina in the brotherhood of Islam, and afterwards to do 
the same with the surrounding tribes. In this he was 
largely successful, but he was often thwarted by two classes : 
by the Munafiqun, i.e. " hypocrites " or " cowards " of Medina 

* The Refugees (muhdjirun) were the believers who had fled from 
Mecca, the Helpers (ansar) were the beliovers of Medina who had prepared 
for and assisted in the prophet's establishment there. 



26 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

who outwardly conformed but held back from active sup- 
port of the cause, aud later by the Arabs of the desert who 
cared much for booty but little for the faith (9 91 , etc.). 
The former, especially, are often castigated (2 7 ~ 17 , 63 h % 7> 8 * 
etc.). The Jews, who were numerous and powerful in 
Medina and its neighbourhood, Muhammad at first hoped 
to gain for Islam in view of his claim that the Qur'an 
fulfilled their Scriptures, and they were included in the first 
treaties which he made. The oracle commanded : " Let 
there be no compulsion in religion " (2 257 ), in accord with 
the earlier order : " Dispute not, save in kindly sort, with 
the people of Scriptures " (29 45 ). The prayer times, taken 
from Judaism, are now fixed more in detail (30 1G f ). But 
though Muhammad was able to rejoice over the conversion 
of some Jews (3 198 f ), the mass rejected his message and even 
derided his pretensions (2 98 ; 4 i8 f ) . The Qiblah or direction 
of prayers was therefore changed from Jerusalem to Mecca, 
already marked out as the centre of the faith (2 138 ff ), and 
the yearly fast was transferred from the Jewish Day of 
Atonement to the Arabian month of Eamazan (2 1 ^~ 18S ). The 
Jews are charged with hypocrisy and with deceitful treat- 
ment of their Scriptures (2 70-85 ). Muhammad is bidden to 
sever connection with them (2 m ). They falsify the teach- 
ing of their Scriptures (3 72 ; 5 16 ), though these themselves 
are true (5 72 ), and in accordance with the Qur'an (5 52 ). 
They are to be " cast into the fire ; so often as their skins 
shall be well burned, we will change them for fresh skins, 
that they may taste the torment " (4 59 ), and they are 
accordingly attacked, slain, and despoiled by the be- 
lievers (33 26 f ). Christians are more favourably described. 
They are said to be " nearest in affection to " believers 
(5 85 ). But all people of Scripture are summoned to believe 
(3 19_24 ), and now : " Whoso desireth any other religion than 
Islam, that religion shall never be accepted from him, and 
in the next world he shall be among the lost " (3 79 ). 
Presently Christians are denounced no less bitterly than 
the Jews, and believers are to make war upon both (9 29 ~ 35 ). 



INTRODUCTION 27 

As for pagans, the former toleration is abrogated by the 
" verse of the sword " : " Kill those who join other gods with 
Allah wherever ye shall find them, .... but if they shall 
convert, and observe prayers and pay the obligatory alms, 
then let them go their way " (9 5 ). 

(2) The domestic life of Muhammad, if the general 
standard of oriental rulers of his time be taken into account, 
is moderate in indulgence, though of course the standard of 
a prophet claiming to supersede Jesus Christ yields a very 
different result. The biographers agree that he practised 
the charity and thrift which he recommended (17 28 ~ 32 ), but 
the polygamy that he indulged in has left its traces in the 
Qur'an. By a.h. 5 he had five wives, but fell in love with 
Zainab the wife of his adopted son Zaid, and his conduct in 
taking her, contrary to Arab customary law, needed to be 
justified by an oracle (33 1 ~ 6 ). Further liberty was given 
to provide for any like future case : " We make lawful for 
thee any believing woman, if she give herself to the 
prophet, if the prophet desire to marry her ; a special privi- 
lege this, for thee, above other believers" (33 49 ). An 
accusation of unfaithfulness against his favourite wife 'Aishah 
is repelled by another revelation (24 11_25 ) ; and his wives 
are invested with the rank of " mothers of the faithful " 
(33 G ), so that they can never be married to any other. 

(3) Personal authority. — The opening of this period is 
not without traces of inner struggles. S. 3 (the Family of 
'Imran) shows that Muhammad was deeply disturbed by the 
severe reverse of his army at 'Uhud, and that he felt the 
accusations levelled against him by some believers of unfair- 
ness in the division of spoils after successful battles 
(3 153 ~ 159 ). But his personal authority is emphasized as 
successes multiply. " It is not for a believer, man or woman, 
to have any choice in their affairs, when Allah and His 
apostle have decreed a matter (33 3G ) ; it is only for them to 
say : " We hear and we obey " (24 50 ). All booty belongs to 
Allah and His apostle (8 *). None may approach him 
without due respect (24 62 f )- He is the Seal of the prophets 



28 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

(33 40 ). Abraham prayed for the coming of Muhammad 
(2 123 ). Islam is "the baptism of Allah" (2 132 ), the one 
true faith (3 16 ~ 18 « 79 ). 

(4) Ritual and social legislation. — Freedom to adapt his 
former enactments to new conditions is given to Muhammad 
in 2 10 ° : " Whatever verses we cancel or cause thee to forget, 
we bring a better or its like." The lengthy S. 2 (The Cow), 
is characteristic of the period. The first part sets forth in 
some kind of connected sequence the fundamental principles 
of Islam, the place of man in creation, the revelation to 
Israel, and their unfaithfulness to it and their opposition to 
Muhammad ; it then reverts to the faith of Abraham as the 
founder of the Ka'bah, which is now to be the centre of Islam. 
Then from verse 168 on follows a motley collection of laws 
on prohibited foods, retaliation, inheritance, the fast of 
Ramazan, fighting for the faith, the pilgrimage, etc., ending 
with a profession of faith and a prayer for divine help. 
Naturally the Medinite Surahs abound in historical allusions 
which throw light on the career of the prophet. 

(5) The spread of the Faith. — Muhammad had already 
predicted that Islam would spread to other lands (41 53 ), 
and that it was a message for mankind (14 52 ). For the 
realisation of this aim he adopted a policy suited to human 
nature as he knew it. Clan warfare and freebooting were, 
and are still, natural to the Arab, but they are here made 
subservient to a larger plan. In a late Meccan Surah (7 157 ) 
Muhammad had already claimed : " I am Allah's apostle to 
you all." In 8 57_60 he summons the people of the Scripture 
to follow the faith of Abraham which he has restored. But 
if they do not do so then the faithful are to make war upon 
them " till they pay tribute out of hand and be humbled " 
(9 29 ). The " Refugees " from Mecca and the " Helpers " of 
Medina, who have believed and fled their country, and given 
the prophet an asylum, and fought on the path of Allah 
" these are the faithful ; mercy is their due and a noble 
provision" (8 75 ). The exhortation and the promise is to 
all believers : " if, when the command for war is issued, they 



INTRODUCTION 29 

are true to Allah, it will assuredly be best for them " (47 23 ). 
" Repute not those who are slain on the path of Allah to be 
dead. Nay ! Alive with their Lord, they are richly sus- 
tained " (3 163 ). " Whosoever shall obey Allah and the 
Apostle, they shall be with the company of the Prophets 
and of the true-hearted and of the martyrs " (4 71 ). The chief 
references to battles are : to the victory of Badr a.h. 2, in 
S. 3 and 8 ; to the reverse of 'Uhud a.h. 3, in S. 3 ; to the 
expulsion of the BanI Nadhir a.h. 4, in S. 59 ; to the siege 
of Medina a.h. 5, in S. 33 ; to the Pledge of Hudaibiyah at 
the first Pilgrimage a.h. 6, in S. 48 ; to the battle of Hunain 
a.h. 8, in S. 9. 

While we note the change of matter and manner in the 
successive periods we must remember that the earlier 
Surahs (with the exception of verses definitely repealed) 
still stood as divine revelations and they were doubtless 
often enough appealed to. The Surahs of this last period 
are not without occasional outbursts of the old fire, as in the 
" verse of the Throne " (2 256 ) : " Allah ! there is no god but 
He, the Living, the Eternal. Nor slumber seizeth Him, 
nor sleep ; His, whatsoever is in the Heavens and what- 
soever is in the earth ! Who is he that can intercede with 
Him save by His own permission ? He knoweth what hath 
been before them and what shall be after them ; yet nought 
of His knowledge shall they grasp, save what He willeth. 
His throne reacheth over the heavens and over the earth, 
and the upholding of both burdeneth Him not ; and He is 
the High, the Great." If, as seems probable, we take S. 5 
as the latest chapter, then the book ends, after an inter- 
mittent fire of denunciations against Christians, on the 
elemental note : " Unto Allah belongeth the sovereignty of 
the heavens and the earth and all that they contain ; and 
He hath power over all things." 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN.* 

Having briefly sketched the growth of the Qur'an we now 
have to consider the resultant teaching. The previous 
section has already shown how plain and unmistakable are 
its outlines. God, as the supreme Reality, dominates the 
whole book. His revelation and the judgment according 
to men's attitude towards that revelation form the crucial 
message. To this is added instruction as to worship and 
duty whereby man may please Allah now, and attain to bliss 
hereafter, and also laws to regulate the community of be- 
lievers as a state under the rule of Allah through His prophet. 
The traditional theology of Islam reflects these fundamental 
truths in its well-known classification of Iman or Creed with 
its six articles: God, Angels, Scriptures, Prophets, Judg- 
ment and Decrees ; and of Bin, or Religious Duty, com- 
prising : Confession of Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting and 
Pilgrimage. For our purposes it will serve to classify these 
teachings under the following heads : God ; Revelation ; 
Judgment ; Sin ; Salvation ; and the Law of Life, adding a 
supplement on the relation of the quranic teaching to that 
of other faiths. 

I. The Doctrine of God. 

Muhammad was before all things a monotheist, and his 
teaching of God overshadows all else in the Qur'an, as it 
does in the daily life of the Muhammadan. Indeed it is 
this that gives its peculiar dignity and power to the Qur'an 

* Detailed references to passages in the Qur'an on the various topics 
will be found in the Subject Index, pp. 75-110. 



32 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

despite its evident lapses and flaws. The two names of God 
in the earliest Surah (96) are Babb = Lord, and Allah. In 
some thirty of the earlier Surahs the name Babb alone is 
used, frequently as " thy Lord," and also as " Lord of the 
worlds," as in 1 l . Later Allah becomes the predominant 
name and it remains so, though for a time Baliman is much 
used (see above, p. 23). Moslem theology has rightly de- 
termined that Allah is the name of essence (ismu 'dfe dhat) 
as compared with all others which are names of attri- 
bute only (asma's sifat). The name Allah was known to 
the Arabs, as well as to other Semites, and it was not un- 
connected with ancient monotheistic traditions indicated in 
the quranic references to Abraham. It was sometimes given 
to a chief tribal deity among the Arab pagans by way of 
exalting him, and the Qur'an mentions a female deity 
Allat who was associated with Allah as His consort. 
Against this Muhammad utters his protest : " Allah has no 
consort" (6 101 ).' "Allah! There is no God but He" 
(20 7 ) ; the same revelation as that made to Moses (20 u ). 
What then is the character of this One ? 

Allah is a contraction of Al llah = The Deity, the 
article emphasizing His uniqueness. Ildh corresponds to 
the Old Testament Eloah, the root of which is El from 
Ul = to be strong, it therefore signifies the Mighty One. 
In the earliest Surahs the omnipotence of Allah or Eabb is 
more prominent than even His Unity ; it is shown in all 
His dealings with man ; cp. (79 27 ~ 9 , 56 58 ~ 71 ). The essence of 
Allah is Power which overrides all His mere attributes and 
enables Him to exercise them or not, as He pleases. In 
manifold connections it is insisted that He guides and mis- 
leads whom He will (74 34 , etc.), and that He is the un- 
conditioned Disposer (53 24 ~ 7 ; 76 30 ). But the invocation 
of Islam, prefixed to every Surah but one, indicates that this 
sheer Unity of Omnipotence is tempered by a leading, 
perhaps the leading, attribute of Mercy (rahmah). It runs : 
Bismi'llahi'r Rahmani'r Rahlm ; In the name of Allah the 
Rahman the Merciful. Why this tautology of Rahman and 



THE DOCTRINE OF GOD 33 

Rahlm? for the meaning of both is identical. Because 
Rahman is a proper name not of Arabic but of Hebrew 
construction, borrowed from the Jews, with whom Muham- 
mad became more familiar during the latter part of his 
Meccan prophecy, and because the use of it caused some 
misgivings among his followers, so that it was advisable to 
supplement it with the Arabic synonym Rahlm. The Old 
Testament conception of the divine mercy {rehem) was 
embodied in the rahmah of the Qur'an and mitigated the 
sternness of the earliest message.* Creation and revelation 
both evince His kindly forethought and His forgiving 
indulgence. 

Apart from the contrast between Allah the Mighty and 
Jehovah the self-existent God of covenant, there is little in 
the divine attributes as taught in the Qur'an which is not a 
reflection of the teaching of the Old Testament, in its 
Talmudic form. The terms in which the attributes and 
actions of Allah are set forth are, as in the Old Testament, 
frequently anthropomorphic. In accordance with its over- 
mastering conception of God the fertility of quranic 
diction is chiefly manifested in its wealth of names setting 
forth the different aspects of the divine Being and action. 
" Most excellent names hath Allah ; by these call ye on 
Him and stand aloof from those who pervert His names " 
(7 179 , 59 22ff ). These names are reckoned by the traditionist 
Abu Hurairah as ninety-nine ; and this is the generally 
accepted number for which rosaries are made to control the 
recital. Taking this list as a basis, we find that twenty- six 
of the ninety- nine are not found in the Qur'an in the form 
given, though they are based on passages which give some- 
thing near it. Rabb is not included among the beautiful 
names, probably because from the first it was a synonym 
with Allah, but Kahman is among the ninety-nine. Some 
Muslim teachers divide these attributes into the natural 

* The prefixing of the Invocation to every chapter of the Qur'an was, of 
course, subsequent to the " revelation " in each case ; compare the super- 
scriptions of the Psalms. 





34 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

sections of Power, Wisdom, and Goodness; others, more 
commonly, into Names of Terror (asmctu 7 jaldliyah), and 
names of Glory (asmau 7 jamdliyah), of which the former 
are the more numerous. It may be more convenient to 
consider them under the heads of self-subsistent Unity, 
Omnipotence, Omniscience, Justice, Mercy. 

Self-subsistent Unity, — This is primarily expressed in the 
frequent title Al Wahid, the One. As such Allah is the 
Eternal and Enduring (Asmad,Abqd), the Living and Abiding 
(Hai, Qayum). He is the First and the Last, the Outer and 
the Inner (Awwal, Akhir, Zahir, Bdtin, 57 3 ), a passage which 
reminds us of Rev. i. 8 and 17, and which is greatly in 
favour with the Sufis. These last four titles are known as 
" mothers of the Attributes," being regarded as fundamental 
and all-comprehensive. He only is adorable as the Praise- 
worthy, the Glorious (Hamld, Majid), His name is continu- 
ally to be commemorated and to be praised morning and 
night. 

Omnipotence. — Allah is the Source of all things, to whom 
all creatures return, the Powerful (Qadir) who fixes all ; the 
King of the Kingdom (Mdliku'l Mulk) who rules all ; the 
Forceful (Qawwl); the Guardian ( Wakll) ; the Great (Kablr); 
the All-Compelling (Jabbdr); the Haughty (Mutakabbir); He 
is Creator, Maker and Fashioner (Khdliq, Bdri, Musawwir) ; 
He sustains as Life Giver (Muhiy) and Provider (Bazzdq) ; 
He is the Dominator or Victorious who subdues all things 
to His will (Qahhdr). 

Omniscience. — Allah is the Seer (Baslr), all-seeing but 
unseen, the Hearer and the Knower ( Sami', l Allm\ the 
Witness (Shahid) who discerns the secrets of men, and is 
Watchful (Baqlb) over their doings. He is the Light 
{Nur) of heaven and earth, the Wise (Hakim), the Guide 
(Hddl) of those who believe into the straight path, but He 
blinds and deafens the rebellious; He is the Reckoner 
(Hasib) who notes and writes all things. 

Justice. — The title of 'Adl = Just in the traditional list 
is not found in the Qur'an as applied to Allah, but He is 



THE DOCTRINE OF GOD 35 

spoken of as the Truth or Reality (Haqq). It is doubtful 
how far the title Quddus = Holy denotes a moral quality. 
If it does it would seem to be from the side of God's tran- 
scendence above all limitations, including those of sin. 
He is the Avenger or Requiter (Muntaqim), the Judge 
(Hakim) and the Despot (Malik) of the Day of Judgment, 
though this last title is not included in Abu Hurairah's list. 
He will judge each man severally according to his works. 
He is the Gatherer {J ami 1 ) into hell of hypocrites and 
infidels, and also the Answerer (Mujib) of prayer. As the 
Grateful One (Shakur) He is the acknowledger of good- 
will and service on the part of men. 

Mercy. — Rabb is most kindly (Akram) or Generous 
(Karlm). He is the Provider (Razzdq) who feeds all things 
living, the Bestower (Wahhab) of mercy, the Protector 
(WakU) of His servants, Loving (Wadiicl) to those who 
follow His Apostle. This, however, is not identical with 
the New Testament conception of love as an attribute of 
God ; it rather signifies the affection with which the master 
responds to the loyalty of a faithful servant. In the 
Bismi'Udh or Invocation He is The Merciful-One (Rahman) 
who shows Himself Merciful (Bahlm). To sinners who 
believe and repent He is the Relenting-One (Tawivab), the 
Pardoner ('Afuw) who blots out their sins, while to their 
weaknesses He is the Indulgent (Ra'uf). 

The idea of divine transcendence, so relentlessly de- 
veloped by Moslem theology in its conception of tanzlh = 
removal and mukhalafah = contrariety (between Allah and 
the creature), is expressed in the Qur'an, as to some extent 
in the Old Testament, by its teaching on the Throne of 
Allah and the heavens as His habitation. His throne over- 
arches heaven and earth. At the creation " He made them 
seven heavens in two days, and revealed to every heaven 
its command; and we furnished the lower heaven with 
lights and guardian angels." After creation He settles 
Himself upon His throne which is upheld by angels, now 
and at the Judgment Day. 



36 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Creation is an act of Allah's absolute power. "He is 
the wise Creator. When He desireth aught His command 
is but to say : Be, and it is." " He turned to the heaven which 
was then but smoke, and to it and to the earth He said : 
1 Come ye, whether obediently or against your will.' They 
said : ' We come obediently.' : The details resemble those 
of Genesis with Talmudic supplements. " He it is who hath 
made the heaven and the earth in six days : His throne 
had stood ere this upon the waters, that He might make 
proof which of you would excel in works." He created the 
earth in two days, then placed the firm mountains upon it 
and made the whole fruitful in four days, and spread over 
it the vault of heaven without pillars, with the sun and the 
moon, each moving swiftly in its sphere. Creation is made 
to set forth Allah's truth ; all creatures are a sign from 
Him, and join in praising Him ; even the shadows, as they 
rise and fall, are prostrating themselves in worship before 
Him. Creation is a sign to convince unbelievers, while it 
witnesses the goodness of Allah to men. The creation of 
man is twofold : the first of water and of dust making male 
and female, the second by sexual procreation which is 
repeatedly insisted on in detail as a proof of Allah's power 
over man and His care for him. As Allah has brought 
forth all things, so He will call them back and remake 
creation at the resurrection. 

There seem to be traces in the Qur'an of hypostases or 
personal distinctions within the deity ; though here inter- 
pretation is somewhat uncertain owing to the lack of clear- 
ness in Muhammad's reminiscences of the teaching which 
he had heard from Jews and Christians. At the creation 
of the seven heavens Allah revealed to each its own amr, 
i.e. command or bidding (cp. Psalm 148 6 ), see 41 n . In 
32 4 : " He ordains the amr from the heaven to the earth " ; 
and in 65 12 : " It is Allah who hath created seven heavens 
and as many earths ; the divine amr cometh down through 
them all." We are reminded of the Memra or divine Word 
of the Targums, an emanation from God which carries the 



THE DOCTRINE OF GOD 37 

imperative message of His will to the creation. Connected 
with this amr is the idea of the spirit proceeding from 
God. "They ask thee of the spirit (probably Gabriel). 
Say : The spirit proceedeth from the command (amr) of my 
Lord" (17 87 ). In the plenitude of His power Allah 
bestows him. " Exalted beyond the dignities, Lord of the 
Throne, He sendeth forth the spirit proceeding from His 
amr on whomsoever of His servants whom He pleaseth, 
that he may warn of the Day of Meeting" (40 15 ). Mu- 
hammad claims to have received this spirit : " Thus did 
we inspire thee with the spirit proceeding from Our amr " 
(42 52 ). But still more emphatically is this gift claimed 
for Jesus : " Some of the Apostles We have endowed more 
highly than others . . . and We have given Jesus, the Son 
of Mary, manifest signs, and We strengthened him with the 
Holy Spirit" (2 254 ). The addition of the title "holy" in 
this passage is almost certainly an echo of Christian 
phraseology. The clash between the discordant elements 
is shown in 4 169 : " The Messiah, Jesus, Son of Mary, is 
only an apostle of God and His Word which He cast into 
Mary and a Spirit from Him." This close linking of 
Allah, His Word and Spirit, reminds us forcibly of the 
prophetic utterance of the Servant of Jehovah in Isaiah 48 16 : 
" From the time that it was there am I, and now the Lord 
Jehovah hath sent me and His Spirit." It is through the 
Word and the Spirit that Allah reveals Himself, yet the 
quranic oracle goes on : " Believe therefore in Allah and 
His Apostles, and say not : Three ! Forbear ; it will be 
better for you. Allah is One. Far be it from His glory 
that He should have a son." This denial of the Christian 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity is based on the idea that it con- 
sists of Father, Mother, and Son, " When Allah shall say : 
Jesus, Son of Mary, hast Thou said unto mankind : Take 
me and my mother as two gods besides Allah ? ", Jesus will 
deny with indignation (5 116f )- 

The Jewish conception of the Shechinah as the abiding 
Presence of Jehovah on the expiation-throne of the Ark is 



38 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

somewhat similarly adapted. The possession of the Ark 
is promised to Saul as a sign of kingship, and " in it is a 
sahlnah from your Lord" (2 249 ). This sahlnah, which 
means both presence and quiet or security, is thrice sent 
down on Muhammad or his followers at times of danger. 

The quranic conception of the nature of the idols whom 
Allah overthrew is by no means uniform, partly by reason 
of the developments which Muhammad underwent. Of the 
three goddesses, whose position as intercessors with Allah 
he had in a weak moment allowed, he afterwards says 
(53 23 ) : " These are mere names." Of other idols of Arabia 
he says : " Dead are they, lifeless ! and they know not when 
they shall be raised " (16 21 f ). But at the day of judgment, 
instead of interceding for their votaries as these hoped, they 
will accuse them, and moreover it will become evident that 
many of these false gods were really nothing better than 
jinn. They and their worshippers will together be fuel for 
hell-fire. It is not their existence but their deity that is 
denied (cp. 1 Cor. 10 20 ). 



II. The Doctrine of Revelation. 

1. The Angels (Mala'ih). — The tradition of Islam which 
places the doctrine of the Angels immediately after that of 
God is in accordance with the Qur'an, which claims Gabriel, 
the mightiest of archangels, as the special envoy from the 
court of heaven to bring this rescript. In this capacity he 
is called "the holy spirit" as the revealer of Allah's 
message. The angels bear up the throne of Allah and 
worship Him continually. They also prostrated themselves 
before Adam at Allah's command with the exception of 
Iblis, who for that act of disobedience was cast down from 
Paradise. They are messengers of Allah to guard and help 
believers, specially in fighting for the faith, the recorders of 
the deeds of men, who receive their souls at death and 
will intercede for believers at the Judgment. They are 
guardians also of Hell, and will die and be raised again. 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 39 

The devil is called in the Qur'an indifferently by the 
Hebrew derivative Shaitan (Shatan) or the Greek Iblis 
(diabolos). The name Shaitan is generally used with the 
epithet rajlm = stoned or accursed, sometimes marld or 
rebellious. He is one of the jinn, but he also appears as 
an angel cast down from Paradise for his refusal to worship 
Adam. In revenge he tempts him and causes him also to 
fall, and beguiles his descendants except the faithful, who 
drive him away with stones ; and he is the accuser and the 
enemy of man. Shaitan is the leader of a host of shayatin 
or devils, who steal a hearing of celestial secrets, but are 
driven away by a shower of shooting stars. They oppose 
the prophets and teach men sorcery, but were servants to 
Solomon, who by his magic made them build and dive 
for him. 

The quranic teaching as to the devils trenches on that 
of the Jinns or demons ; in fact the two classes merge into 
one another, and are not clearly distinguished from the 
Angels. In 2 32 Iblis appears as one of the angels who 
refuses to worship Adam. In 18 48 , an earlier passage, we 
read that Iblis was one of the jinns. Generally speaking 
these latter are regarded as a class of beings midway 
between men and angels (or men and devils). They are 
created of subtle fire, alongside of men who are created of 
clay, and equally with men are bound to worship Allah, 
and summoned to believe in His Apostle, to whose preach- 
ing they listened on his return from Ta'if. There are among 
them both believers and infidels, and they will be judged 
at the last day, the evil being consigned to hell. These 
tried to overhear celestial secrets but were foiled, and they 
endeavour to lead men astray, more especially the infidels 
who worship them as gods. Jinns, as well as devils, were 
subject to the great magician -prophet Solomon. 

2. The Scriptures. — Here we come to the core of the 
quranic conception of Eevelation. We must, therefore, 
first consider exactly what is meant by " Scripture " in the 
Qur'an, so far as exactitude is possible in a book which 



40 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

represents stages of thought in a mind, powerful indeed, 
yet neither philosophical nor logical. 

The quranic conception of Scripture. — The leading word 
for Scripture is hitab, by which is meant, not primarily 
book or volume, but writing. It is applied most frequently 
by far to the Qur'an itself, but it is also used of other 
Scriptures. Kitdb corresponds to Qur'an as written record 
to utterance, whether recitation or reading. Other words 
are used to denote the form of the writing. Zubur means 
written tables : in the form Zabur it is applied to the 
Psalms. Suhuf (singular sahlfah) means rolls. Ummu'l 
hitab, i.e. Mother of the Book, is the Archetypal Book 
kept with Allah, from which each successive revelation is 
taken and sent down. Lauh, i.e. Tablet is used (in the 
plural) of the Tables of the Law given to Moses, and of 
the Preserved Tablet on which the original of the Qur'an 
is written. 

Bevelation and Inspiration.— -The Scripture itself is the 
revelation, i.e. the unveiling of divine mysteries or teach- 
ings. It is literally Kalamu'llah, the Word of God. This 
is asserted most elaborately in respect of the Qur'an itself, 
but the same is taught of other Scriptures. The most 
characteristic synonym for Scripture is tanzll = a missive 
or rescript sent down from Allah to His Apostle. For 
mankind it is an admonition (tadhhirah) to guide them. 
Inspiration as the divine afflatus by which the message is 
conveyed to the messenger takes a secondary place. The 
nearest term for it is wahl, but this often covers the objec- 
tive message as well as the subjective method of its impart- 
ing. Wahl is the speech of Allah to man ; it is the source 
of the quranic oracles, and it was conferred on Noah and 
other prophets. A conception closely connected with reve- 
lation is that of "guidance" (huda). It is from Allah 
only, but it may lead either to good or evil, for He leads 
astray whom He will. The guidance was accepted by 
Muhammad, as it is by other believers, but rejected by 
infidels, It was given by the former prophets and in the 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 41 

Law and the Evangel, and last by Muhammad in the 
Qur'an, and is to be imparted to others. 

Previous Scriptures. — The continuity of revelation on 
which the Qur'an insists is based upon the succession of 
Scriptures. Between the prophetic revelations there have 
been long intervals, but Scriptures there have always been 
since Adam " was taught words by Allah " (2 35 ). When 
Muhammad summons to the faith he is to say : " In what- 
soever Scriptures God hath sent down do I believe " (42 14 ). 
Rolls were given to Abraham as well as to Moses telling of 
the life to come. Aaron, as well as Moses, received " a lucid 
Scripture." But for all practical purposes it is the Old 
and New Testaments which are referred to as Law 
(Taurat = Tor all) and Evangel (Injll). Scripture, Wisdom 
and Prophecy were granted to Israel, possibly a vague echo 
of the Law, Prophets and Wisdom in the Old Testament. 
The Evangel was given to Jesus by Allah. Both are 
confirmed by the Qur'an, and describe the "people's 
prophet" (Muhammad) who is to come. The Evangel 
predicts his coming as Ahmad, derived from the same root 
as Muhammad, both meaning the Praiseworthy. This is 
arrived at by garbling the promise of the Paraclete in 
John 16 7 . The Greek title paracletes is changed into 
periclytos, i.e. celebrated, and so made synonymous with 
Ahmad. The Law was revealed after Abraham with com- 
mands of Allah which modified previous commands as to 
foods. The prophets judged Israel according to it, and the 
Jewish teachers were its keepers and witnesses. It was 
taught by Allah to Jesus and confirmed by him, and it is 
attested and modified by Muhammad. Both Law and 
Evangel describe the prostrations of Islam and promise 
Paradise to fighters in the way of God. Their followers 
should be obedient to the Qur'an, which is the confirmation 
and safeguard of the previous Scriptures and proves its 
inspiration by agreement with them. The only verbal 
quotation of the Bible in the Qur'an is in 21 105 : " And 
now, since the Law was given, have we written in the 



42 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Psalms (Zabur) that 'My servants, the righteous, shall 
inherit the earth ' " ; see Psalm 37 29 . The stories of 
prophets are greatly distorted. It remains one of the out- 
standing anomalies of history that the religious genius of 
Arabia, who staked the truth of his message on the witness 
of previous Scriptures, should have utterly neglected to 
verify their contents and should have successfully inspired 
his followers through the ages to a like neglect. 

Nevertheless Jews and Christians are designated and 
appealed to in the later Surahs as " people of the Scriptures " 
(ahlu'l kitab). They have no ground to stand on unless 
they accept the latest Scripture as well as the Law and 
Evangel, and the prophet rejoices over some who have 
done so, but the unconvinced he denounces with the utmost 
severity, even exposing them to armed attack or tributary 
subjection. 

The Qur'an as the Final Revelation, — The bare name 
Qur'an occurs in the volume eleven times ; with the article 
" the Qur'an " thirty-six times ; with the pronoun " this 
Qur'an " fifteen times. Generally it applies to one of the 
oracles or one of the Surahs, but sometimes to the whole 
collection, as when it is said in 5 101 : " If ye shall ask of such 
things when the (whole) Qur'an shall have been sent down, 
they shall be shown to you." It is revealed piecemeal to 
Muhammad, telling him what he did not know. Its verses 
are stablished in wisdom and are set forth with clearness. 
It is a revelation (wahi), a missive (tanzil), an admonition 
(dhikra), the Scripture (kitab) par excellence, the Word of 
Allah (kalamu'llah) in the strictest sense, which descended 
on the Night of Power, a transcript from the preserved 
Book. It is the Cord of Allah which binds men to Him as 
long as He pleases ; the Discerner (Furqan) ; discriminating, 
yet lucid and direct, for it is revealed in plain Arabic 
through the prophet who is a man of the people. It is a 
glorious scripture containing good news ; it agrees with 
itself and teaches by repetition, through similitudes of every 
kind and verses which are both figurative and explicit. It 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 43 

is the final revelation in which there can be no change, 
absolutely free from error, and comprising all secrets both 
of heaven and earth. Yet provision is made for changing 
circumstances. Muhammad was accused of forgery because 
he substituted one verse for another. His reply is : " What 
he pleaseth will Allah abrogate or confirm, for with him is 
the Archetypal Book " (13 39 ) ; and if he cancels a verse or 
makes the prophet forget one it is only to grant him one 
equally good or a better (2 10 °). Muhammad is to listen 
carefully to what he hears from Gabriel and not to be hasty 
in the recital of this Arabic Qur'an while the revelation of 
it is incomplete. It must be recited with care and in 
measured tones, and listened to in silence. 

This revelation is its own proof; unbelievers cannot 
produce its like. Only Allah knows its meaning, but 
believers accept it as all from Him. In others it increases 
unbelief and rebellion, but whoso rejects it will be lost. 

3. The Prophets, — As in the case of the Divine Scrip- 
tures, which form a succession from the beginning of the 
race till the series is completed by the Qur'an, so with the 
messengers of Allah to whom they were vouchsafed. The 
Qur'an might have adopted the words of Zachariah the 
father of the Baptist, of whom it tells us a good deal more 
than the New Testament does : " He spake by the mouth 
of his holy prophets which have been since the world 
began." The first is Adam, the last is Muhammad the 
"Seal of the Prophets." To describe the recipients of 
revelation the Qur'an uses both the biblical terms, Basul = 
Apostle or Messenger, and Nabl = Prophet or Utterer.* It 
is difficult to demonstrate any clear line of difference in 
the usage of the two terms except that Basul is the term 
used in the verse 48 29 ; " Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah," 
which is embodied in the latter half of the Kalimah or watch- 

* Basul is an exact equivalent of the New Testament apostolos ; it 
corresponds in meaning to the Old Testament maVak (as in Mai. 3 ] ) 
which last, however, is more often used of angels in Hebrew and always 
in Arabic. Nabl is the exact equivalent of the Hebrew nabl. 



44 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

word of Islam. The use of Basul is preponderant in the later 
passages which assert the authority of Muhammad side by 
side with Allah. The Apostles of our Lord are designated 
by another name, Eatvdri, an Ethiopic translation of apostolos, 
which may have reached Muhammad from Abyssinia. They 
are helpers and followers of Jesus who himself is the Basul 
of that age, and are furnished by him with a table from 
heaven which gives its name to the latest chapter of the 
Qur'an (Siirah Ma'ida, 5), a confused echo either of the 
Eucharist or of the feeding of the 5000, or an amalgam of 
both. They are sent to preach to a certain unnamed city 
(cp. Lk. 10 l ). Like other followers of the former prophets 
they profess themselves Muslims. 

Taking Basul (or Mursal) and Nabl as synonymous, the 
following twenty-eight prophets are mentioned in the 
Qur'an : — 

Of the Old Testament : Adam = Adam ; Idris = Enoch ; 
Salih (the Righteous) = Methusaleh(?); Nuh = Noah; Hud 
(the Jew) = Eber (?) ; Ibrahim = Abraham ; Lilt = Lot ; 
Isma'il = Ishmael; Ishaq = Isaac; Ya'qiib = Jacob; Yusuf 
= Joseph ; Musa = Moses ; Hariin = Aaron ; Shu'aib = 
Jethro ; Aiyiib = Job ; Da'ud = David ; Sulaiman = 
Solomom ; Ilyas = Elijah : Al Yasa' = Elisha ; Dhti'l Kin 
= lord of a portion, possibly Obadiah (I Kings 18 4 , who 
fed the prophets of Jehovah in hiding) ; Yunus = Jonah ; 
'Uzair = Ezra. 

Of the New Testament : Zakariya = Zachariah, father 
of John ; Yahya * = John the Baptist ; 'Isa = Jesus. 

Outside Scripture : Luqman = Aesop (or possibly 
Balaam) ; Dhti'l Qarnain (Lord of the two horns) = 
Alexander the Great. 

The histories of these prophets are said to have been 
revealed by Allah to confirm the heart of Muhammad 
(11 m ), and they occur mainly during the latter period of 
Meccan prophecy which was the most difficult period of his 
struggle against the powerful pagans of Mecca. This 

* Probably from Yokfcai the Aramaic diminutive of Yohanan = John. 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 45 

would predispose him to accept without excessive scrutiny 
the ill-digested mass of talmudic legend, historical fact, 
apocryphal gospel and Arabian folk-lore which these stories 
present. The presentation of them as revealed truth, in 
face of the obvious medley of discordant elements and 
glaring blunders, is a problem of character which it is not 
easv to solve when we consider that this same man was 
fighting a heroic battle in defence of the central truth of 
monotheism. In some way he convinced himself that the 
end justified the means, and certainly the means were ably 
adapted to the end as he saw it. The Arab was no historical 
critic and had no overstrained reverence for historical fact as 
such. Frequent repetition of familiar phrases in a style 
that he admired did not pall upon him but impressed him. 
And there was one line of very relevant thought which 
ran through all the stories. "Through all the ages the 
messengers of Allah have come to peoples of many lands, 
not excepting your own, preaching the Unity, Judgment to 
come and repentance, and they have been spurned by rebel- 
lious nations who have suffered judgments of flood, fire and 
earthquake and passed on to hell, while the faithful few 
were spared and rewarded. I preach to you the same 
message and offer you the same choice." The fact that 
the believers of centuries or millenniums back proclaim 
themselves Muslim, in the same quranic terms as are 
taught to the Meccans, only made the preaching more 
incisive. 

It would be outside the scope of the present work to 
follow out the stories singly, but the principal features of 
each will be found in the reference index under the names 
above mentioned. It must, however, be remarked that even 
the identifications which are given without a query mark 
are in some cases open to question. The stories may be 
divided into four groups. 

First come three which have to do with Arabian peoples. 
To the people of 'Ad the prophet Hud ( = Jew) is sent and 
destroys their pillared city of Iram with a whirlwind. 



46 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

The people of Thamud, who had built themselves dwellings 
in the rocks of the vale of Hijr, are visited by Salih ( = the 
righteous) ; they kill the female camel granted them by 
Allah as a sign and are destroyed by a storm. The dwellers 
in Madyan or Midian are exhorted by Shu'aib (Jethro) to 
repent of unfair dealings and are struck dead in their 
houses. These tales are loosely, if at all, connected with 
the Old Testament. 

Next comes the group of Old Testament prophets 
proper. In some of these stories we notice signs of 
development, as in the case of Abraham and Ishmael 
and Isaac. At first Abraham rejects creature worship as in 
the beautiful legend of the heavenly bodies (6 74 ~ 82 ) ; opposes 
idolatry and is persecuted ; is granted a son and is ready to 
sacrifice him as in the biblical story, and this child is to 
all appearance Isaac, the righteous son wonderfully born 
to him. At Medina the centralisation of worship at Mecca, 
which is to be conquered for Islam, comes to the front, and 
we find Ishmael eclipsing Isaac. It is Ishmael and his 
father who found the sanctuary at Mecca and settle their 
descendants near it. It is strange that the name of Hagar 
should not be mentioned in the Qur'an. Abraham is the 
prophet of all others whom Muhammad regards as his 
pattern. He is the friend of Allah, sound in faith (hanlf), 
neither Jew nor Christian but Muslim, and his religion is 
to be followed. Lot is brought into great prominence with 
frequent repetitions. Most of the stories are given in 
fragments, with repetition of details; the story of Joseph 
in S. 12 is more consecutive ; and it is characterized as the 
most beautiful of tales specially revealed to Muhammad. 
The legendary element is specially developed in the case of 
David and Solomon. The story of Jonah is closest to 
Scripture. Of Moses as a leader the Qur'an makes less 
than of Abraham, though it gives more details of him, 
chiefly in connection with Pharaoh. The assertion in one 
of the latest Surahs that the Jews maintained Ezra to be 
the Son of God has no historical foundation. It may have 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 47 

been that, knowing Ezra to be highly venerated by the 
Jews, Muhammad hoped to fasten upon them in the minds 
of an uncritical audience what he regarded as a specially 
damning charge against the Christians. 

The third group is that of the New Testament prophets, 
Zachariah, John, and Jesus. Here we are in the region of 
apocryphal tradition confusedly reproduced. Zachariah is 
foster father to Mary, and John is granted him in answer 
to prayer. John is to confirm " the Word from Allah," a 
title of Jesus ; he is coupled with his father and Jesus and 
Elijah as among the righteous ones. Of Jesus details are 
given in the subject index ; only outstanding features are 
mentioned here. He is called both by His personal name, 
but in the form ' Isa, and by his title of office, Maslh, the 
Arabic form of Mashiakh. No difference of meaning is 
discernible in the quranic use of the two names. There is 
no direct evidence to show why Muhammad changed the 
original name Yeshu', with the Hebrew radicals ye, shin, 
'ayin, by reversing them to the ( ayin, sin, yd of the Arabic 
' Isa. Arabic-speaking Christians have always kept the 
true name. The most probable conjecture seems to be 
that the change was the result of Muhammad's love for 
assonance which led him also to change Saul and Goliath 
into Talut and Jalut, Gog and Magog into Yajuj and 
Majuj, Aaron and Korah into Hartin and Qarun. Similarly 
he changed the leaders of the New and Old Testament into 
'Isa and Miisa, a pair very familiar in Muslim phraseology. 
Incidentally the meaning of the name Yeshu' has been 
obliterated, and Moslem divines give meaningless explana- 
tions of the quranic form. Jesus is further designated as 
the Servant of Allah, His Apostle, His Prophet, His Word, 
and a Spirit from Him, and as the Word of Truth. His 
mother is Mary, daughter of 'Imran (Amram), and sister of 
Aaron. The Spirit (Gabriel) is sent from Allah to bestow 
on Mary a holy son. The infant speaks in the cradle to 
vindicate His mother, and claims to be a prophet endowed 
with a Scripture, who will die and be raised again. He 



48 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

performs miracles, calls apostles and brings down for them 
a furnished table from heaven. He was no ascetic, but a 
true successor of the former prophets, and His Evangel 
confirms the Law, but relaxes some of its prohibitions. He 
came to bring the one religion, was strengthened by the 
Holy Spirit, and raised to the loftiest grade. As to His 
death and resurrection there is some confusion, which has 
caused much perplexity to interpreters. All people are to 
believe on Him before His death, and He will witness for 
or against them at the judgment. The Jews did not slay 
Him, but His likeness ; He was taken up to Allah. Allah 
delivered Him from the Jews, caused Him to die, and took 
Him up to Himself till the day of resurrection. The 
general belief is that, having been taken up alive to Allah, 
Jesus will come again before the last day to preach Islam 
and then be killed and raised again. In the Qur'an Jesus 
denies before Allah that He has bidden men to take Him 
and His mother as gods besides Allah. He is not a Son 
of Allah, but a creature, " as Adam in His sight," i.e. created 
of dust without a human father. It is infidelity to say that 
Christ, the son of Mary, is Allah. 

Speaking of the messengers of Allah generally, whether 
as Apostles or Prophets, the Qur'an teaches that they are 
taken from angels as well as from among men, the idea 
being apparently that angels, such as Gabriel, who carry 
revelations to men are partakers in the work of the 
Prophets. Before the world Allah made a covenant with 
the Prophets, and then foretold the coming of Ahmad 
(= Muhammad) ; and they will have to give account of 
their fulfilment of its requirements. Many came before 
Muhammad, seeking to turn men from idolatry. They 
preached in the speech of the people to whom they were 
sent, and worked miracles by the permission of Allah. 
Each of them was molested by the wicked one, and none 
was entirely unaffected by him. The sins of Adam, Moses, 
David, Jonah and others are recorded. They were forgiven 
when they repented and prayed for pardon and strength, 



THE DOCTRINE OF REVELATION 49 

and the peace of Allah rests on them. All the Prophets 
are accepted equally by believers, but there are differences 
of grade among them, Jesus being especially named 
(2 251 ). Some were especially endowed with constancy 
(ulu'l ( azm). In 6 83 ~ 6 eighteen favoured ones are mentioned, 
of whom " each one have We preferred above the worlds." 

The last group is that of persons introduced from the 
non-biblical world. Alexander the Great appears as Dhu'l 
Qarnain in the character of a leader who by divine in- 
spiration is enabled to build a rampart against the incur- 
sions of Gog and Magog. Luqman is granted wisdom by 
Allah and preaches humility and Islam to his son. 
Whether either or both of these are to be accounted 
Prophets is not quite certain. At any rate their speech 
and action are cast in the same mould as those of the 
Prophets. With these may be classed the story of the 
Seven Sleepers of Ephesus * or " Companions of the Cave," 
told in the Chapter of the Cave (18), which contains also 
the tales of Alexander and of Moses and his servant. This 
legend of the Cave is the only allusion in the Qur'an to 
Christian Church History. It is reproduced in the same 
confused and inaccurate style as the rest. 

The climax and perfection of the prophetic office is mani- 
fested in Muhammad. He is a mortal man like his hearers, 
albeit an Apostle of Allah and a Prophet like Moses. He 
is taken from among the Arab nation, a man of the people 
(ummi) who addresses them in their common speech. In 
youth he was an orphan and a pagan, but Allah guided 
him, and granted him a revelation and bade him proclaim 
it publicly. He encouraged him in depression and carried 
him in a vision of the night from the Nearer to the 
Remoter Mosque and back. In danger from the plots of 
idolaters he was bidden to withdraw from them and pre- 
served during the dangers of the Flight, and in the day of 

* A company of persecuted Christians of the time of Diocletian who 
take refuge in a cave, where they go to sleep and are awakened after the 
lapse of many years when the Empire has become Christian. 

D 



50 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

battle the peace of the divine Presence descended on him. 
On one occasion he is reproved for slighting a blind beggar 
and courting the wealthy. On another he is nearly led 
astray by unbelievers, and he is bidden once and again to 
seek pardon for his faults. Accordingly he prays for for- 
giveness to himself and to other believers whose iniquities 
press heavily on him. His wives are mothers of the 
faithful ; none may marry them after him. They are 
warned against disobedience and threatened with dismissal. 
Special privileges are granted to him as to choice and 
number of wives, and no blame attaches to the prophet for 
exceeding limits where Allah has given him permission. 
Muhammad is the first of Muslims, a noble pattern to 
believers ; he is sound in faith (hanlf) ; a man of sanity and 
patience who seeks his wage only from Allah. He is not a 
guardian (wakil) of his people, but a warner and a herald ; 
his only duty is clear delivery of his message, whether it 
convinces or hardens gainsayers, and he will be rewarded 
accordingly. He is the Seal of the Prophets, foretold in 
the Law and the Evangel. Belief in, and obedience to, him 
are necessary to salvation, for he has escaped error and 
received complete enlightenment, though he disclaims 
knowledge of the secrets of the Judgment. No private 
opinion can stand against the decree of Allah and the 
Apostle. He and his message are for all the world. He 
was not granted the power of miracles, because they had 
been ineffectual in producing faith in the case of other 
Apostles, and the Book is a sufficient sign. He is accused 
of being a sorcerer, soothsayer, poet, madman, forger, 
impostor, and of defrauding his followers. Woe to his 
accusers ! curses on those who affront or injure him ; 
vengeance will overtake his opponents; hell-fire is for 
those who disobey Allah and His Apostle ; Muhammad will 
not be ashamed at the Hay. 

There is a distinct development in the assertion of his 
authority in the Medina Surahs, whether towards believers 
who are bidden to salute the Prophet and beware how they 



17491 



THE DOCTRINE OF JUDGMENT 51 

enter his presence, while he is told not to yield to them 
— or towards unbelievers who at length are to be reduced 
to submission by warfare. But in the Qur'an Muhammad 
remains a fallible and sinful creature. The conception of 
him as the ideal man and prototype of humanity belongs to 
a later development. 

III. The Doctrine of Judgment. 

1. Death. — The quranic doctrine is simple in comparison 
with later developments. Death is al Yaqin, the Certainty 
which will happen at the stated time : " and when their 
time comes, they cannot put it off an hour, nor can they 
bring it on." Souls are taken to Himself by Allah not 
only in death but also in sleep, They are taken in charge 
by the angel of death. " Allah holds back those on whom 
He has decreed death " till the day of resurrection ; mean- 
while the interval seems to them as but a day. Only those 
are to be prayed for who have died in the faith. The 
examining and recording angels and other elaborations are 
of later date. 

2. The Resurrection. — The commonest terms for this are 
Ba'th = Awakening and Qiyamah = Upstanding. The latter 
term is also applied to the Judgment as a standing before 
the Judge of all. The revival of the dead with their bodies 
was often derided by the pagans of Mecca, and as often 
defended by the Prophet. Allah who has brought men to 
life by a strange and lowly process of nature is well able to 
restore the body thus created. The resurrection is the 
analogue of the birth process ; it is a new creation fore- 
shadowed by the first creation. It is prefigured by the 
springtime and the revival of the parched earth after rain. 
It will follow on two blasts of the trumpet and the shout 
which shall summon all to come forth (cp. 1 Thess. 4 16 ). 

3. The Judgment Day. — " It is appointed unto men once 
to die, and after this cometh judgment " (Heb. 9 27 ) might 
well stand as the motto of quranic teaching on this subject, 



52 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

and it is under this head that the teaching of the Qur'an 
approximates most to that of the New Testament. The 
Besurrection is preceded and succeeded by other episodes of 
the Judgment Day. This is known as the Day, the Hour, 
the Event. It is the Day of Separation (Fad), of Beckon- 
ing (Hisab), of Judgment (Din), the Encompassing Day 
(Yaumu'l Muhit). It is preceded by an awful Blow which 
shakes and pulverises the universe. Gog and Magog will 
break forth and a mysterious Beast of the Earth will appear, 
not, as in the Apocalypse, to corrupt the earth, but to 
rebuke mankind for their unbelief. Terror will seize upon 
mankind and all the bonds of human fellowship will be 
dissolved. When the dead have come forth the actual 
Judgment will begin. Allah appears on His throne borne 
by eight angels while the heavenly hosts hover around 
Him. All nations are assembled on the face of the earth, 
kneeling in awe and gazing on the Judge, each summoned 
to its own Scripture which witnesses against it. This is 
the Day of Judgment when no soul can help another soul ; 
each gives an account for himself before Allah, the most 
just of judges. False gods will be invoked in vain; the 
light or heavy balance will decide. All works will be 
manifested on the Day of Severance. Before each man 
will be placed his book of deeds, and the same before each 
people (ummat) ; the record of Sijjln for the wicked, that 
of 'llliyun for the good; the leaves of the Book will be 
opened and the members of his body will witness against 
the sinner. The blessed shall have their book in the right 
hand, the damned in the left. The Day is sure to come 
though Muhammad may not live to witness it ; the Hour 
is unknown save to Babb : it will be one day as a thousand 
years (cp. 2 Pet. 3 8 ). The infidels will be distressed, for 
no ransom or intercession will avail for them. Babb is the 
only asylum on that day (cp. Isa. 25 4f )» He will then 
reward the prayerful and continent. 

4. Paradise. — The abode of the blessed is designated 
most often as Jannat = the Garden, sometimes as Firdaus, 



THE DOCTRINE OF JUDGMENT 53 

a Persian word of the same meaning which has passed into 
the Greek paradeisos. It is the Garden of Refuge, of 
Delight, of Eternity, and the Garden of Eden or Pleasure. 
Entrance into it is "the great felicity." There is some 
confusion between the Garden of Eden as the abode of 
Adam and Eve in their innocence and the Garden of the 
world to come; the primeval Eden is conceived as being 
in the upper world and Adam and Eve are cast down from 
it to earth. The blessed are welcomed with greetings of 
peace and dwell in gardens by cool flowing streams before 
the Mighty King. They repose on luxurious couches, are 
clad in the richest raiment, enjoy exquisite food, drink of 
fountains in which are mingled camphor and other costly 
essences, and quaff celestial wine at will. They enjoy the 
society of ever virgin houris, dark-eyed damsels with swell- 
ing breasts and shy, retiring glances ; and pure wives are 
provided for them. These visions of delight are a reward 
for the godly who will abide in Paradise while heaven and 
earth shall last. They praise Allah and behold the fiery 
torments of the damned with whom they converse, and to 
whom they refuse water. The inmates of Paradise are the 
prayerful and charitable, who have refrained from unlawful 
lust, righteous believers who were persecuted, fighters in 
the way of Allah. Paradise is a reward for Muslims and 
their wives who have repented, prayed for pardon and done 
good works. 

5. Hell. — The commonest name for this is Na/r — the 
Fire. Its seven other names have the same connotation 
except Ildwiyah = the Pit. The most widely used of the 
quranic names is Jahannam, a transliteration of the Hebrew 
Ge Hinnom, which became in Greek Gehenna. Hell has 
seven gates guarded by nineteen angels. It will be in full 
view at the Judgment. The descriptions of it are set out 
in pungent contrast to the joys of Paradise. Instead of 
cool shade, it blazes with intolerable flames. In place of 
repose and ease, the damned are tortured with burning 
chains and beaten with iron clubs. Instead of delicious 



54 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

foods, they are forced to partake of loathsome fruits, purulent 
gore and boiling water. No peace and kindly greet- 
ings, but wrangling with their seducers. No release shall 
they have from these torments ; they are full of remorse, 
but their prayer to return and amend on earth is refused, 
and the relief of death is denied to them ; they abide for 
ever in Hell. All will go into Hell, but the God-fearing will 
be delivered. Its inmates are the people of the left hand 
who have been unbelieving, covetous and fraudulent, who 
have neglected prayers and alms and worshipped the 
servants and creatures of Allah and opposed His Prophet. 
No intercession will avail the inmates of Hell, for their 
doom is decreed. " On that day we will say to Hell : Art 
thou full? and it will say: Are there any more?" (50 29 ). 
" True shall be the word which hath gone forth from me — 
I will surely fill Hell with jinn and men together " (32 13 ). 
" We have created for Hell many of the jinn and of man- 
kind " (7 178 ). 

In the quranic doctrine of the life to come, as in other 
parts of its teaching, there are stages of development, 
notably in the much greater predominance of luscious or 
lurid descriptions in the earlier Surahs. In the later and 
lengthier chapters Muhammad is occupied with the vindi- 
cation of his authority as against the pagans of Mecca, and 
with the building up of his community at Medina, and an 
occasional reference to the Garden or the Eire is sufficient 
to recall the attention of believers to the delights and terrors 
which had burned themselves into their memory and were 
recorded in writing as the words of Allah. 

6. The Decrees. — The quranic doctrine of Predestination 
is very explicit though not very logical. For the purposes 
of exhortation a power of choice is assumed, but the hearers 
are often reminded that this power itself is in the hands of 
Allah. The determinism of the Qur'an is summed up in 
the word qadar, i.e. measuring. The well-known word 
qismat is not used in this sense in the Qur'an, but its mean- 
ing is the same, viz., apportionment. Qadar expresses 



THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION 55 

the divine act or decree which determines the apportion- 
ment of the lot of all things, animate or inanimate. As 
for the future it fixes the weal or woe of sentient beings 
in the life to come, so in the past it determines the creation 
of all things, the actions of men, belief and unbelief, 
obedience and disobedience, and all the events of life as 
well as its limits, for Allah's behest is a fixed decree, even 
in accidental matters such as that of the wife of Zaid (33 38 ). 
The fate of men and cities is written in their book, on a 
clear register, containing all secret things. Yet those who 
use this as an excuse for their unbelief stand condemned ; 
" The truth is from your Lord, so let him who will believe ; 
and let him who will disbelieve " (18 28 ). And even to Mu- 
hammad, Allah says : " What befalls thee of good it is from 
Allah, and what befalls thee of bad it is from thyself " (4 81 ). 
But a survey of the whole leaves the matter summed up in 
the words : " Allah do all beings in the heavens and in the 
earth adore, whether they will or no" (13 16 ). Had He 
pleased there would have been no idolatry. " Allah is the 
Creator of everything; He is the One, the Dominant " 
(13 "). 



IV. The Doctrine of Salvation. 

1. TJie Nature of Man. — Man was created of fine clay, 
for the service of Allah, to die and rise again ; he is created 
in trouble, being mortal and inconstant when tested with 
good and evil. He can only will as Allah wills, for the 
human race was drawn forth from the loins of Adam to 
make a covenant with Allah ; He has balanced the soul and 
inbreathed it with wickedness and piety; one keeps his 
soul pure, another corrupts it. Man was created good, but 
brought very low ; he fell through the temptation of Iblis 
but received guidance from Allah, who makes his burden 
light because he was created weak. Man has failed to 
accept the revelation of Allah ; when in trouble he cries to 
Him, but when helped forgets Him. He is capricious, 



56 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

covetous, proud, and universally sinful. Mankind are 
descended from one pair, and were originally of one religion 
(ummah). Articulate speech was taught him by Allah, who 
subjected all things to him and feeds him through the 
bounties of nature. Man springs from earth and returns to 
it, and, like all other things, to Allah. The Qur'an thus 
represents man as universally sinful in act, but this comes 
of his weakness, not from a sinful taint. Man is prone to 
sin, but not of sinful nature. He has lost Paradise, but he 
is not radically estranged from God. 

2. Sin. — The principal terms for this are khati'ah 
(Hebrew Khetf) ithm (Hebrew cisham) and dhanh. The last 
of these occurs thirty-eight times and refers chiefly to cere- 
monial offences. Ithm occurs twenty-nine times and largely 
in the same sense. Khati'ah occurs only Hye times. It 
comes nearest to the idea of sin as a missing of the mark 
or standard set up by God. The teaching of the Qur'an 
about sin as such is very sparse. Certain sins, such as 
pride, covetousness, etc., are denounced on occasion, but the 
sin which comprehends all others is shirk = association, 
namely, of other deities with Allah. That is unpardonable. 
Ceremonial offences are generally connected with things or 
actions which are haram, that is devoted. They may be 
specially devoted to God's service, and so their sacredness 
must not be invaded ; or they may be banned as evil and 
therefore shunned (see p. 70). Moral and ceremonial sins 
are subject to the same penalties. Sin, in the main, is dis- 
obedience to the command of Allah. Believers generally 
are to confess their sins, as Muhammad and other prophets 
have done, and they will find that Rabb is merciful to those 
who avoid great sins and commit only venial faults. 

3. The Nature of Salvation. — The word najdt— salvation 
occurs only once in - the Qur'an. In 40 44 a man of 
Pharaoh's people who has believed the message of Moses 
appeals to his fellows : " my people ! why should I call 
you to salvation, and you call me to the Fire ? " The idea 
here is that of deliverance from Hell. Salvation includes not 



THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION 57 

only pardon but also acceptance, both these being granted 
on the Day of Judgment. Its positive aspect is the reward 
of faith and righteousness by the delights of Paradise. In 
effect it is deliverance from the results of sin by obedience 
to Allah (islam). Inasmuch as sin in the Qur'an does not 
include a taint of nature, but only a proneness to wrong 
actions due to the weakness of man, its conception of salva- 
tion does not include the element of regeneration. 

4. The Conditions of Salvation. — These are Repentance, 
Faith and Good Works, the last branching out into the Rye 
religious duties. " Such as repent, believe and act aright, 
these shall enter Paradise " (19 61 and often). 

Repentance is turning from sin to Allah, with the desire 
for pardon, of which it is a condition. It includes a regret 
for the offence and amendment of life. Death-bed repent- 
ance is not accepted. 

The faith which is a condition of salvation is specifically 
"belief in what is revealed to Muhammad" (47 2 ). It is 
necessary for Christians, Jews and Sabeans no less than for 
pagan Arabs. The real believer (mu'min) is he who prac- 
tises his faith ; such as have left their homes and fought in 
the way of Allah and harboured and helped the prophet (8 75 ). 
Allah will put away the guilt of the worst actions and reward 
the best actions of those who believe ; they will be pardoned 
and accepted at the Judgment and will receive their reward 
at the Eesurrection. The love of Allah will then be mani- 
fested to righteous believers, but faith will not avail if 
postponed till the Day. Forgiveness and acceptance are 
determined purely by the prerogative of Allah. His justice 
and mercy are not opposed, for both are equally swayed by 
His power. 

The ruling feature of the virtues specially commended 
in the Qur'an is avoidance of excess. Some follow evil, 
some take a middle course, some excel in merit, and it is 
good that those who can should excel. Liberality without 
profuseness ; kindness to orphans and poor without waste ; 
making the best of men as one finds them ; justice in 



58 THE TEACHING OF THE QUE/ AN 

dealings, truthfulness in witness, faithfulness to engage- 
ments, patience and endurance, obedience to those in 
authority, limitation of sexual indulgence to legal wives 
and concubines, are specially mentioned. Good works do 
away sins and make the doer righteous. They are summed 
up in obedience to Allah and the Apostle. 

The main outline of these duties is in substantial agree- 
ment with the teaching of Christ in Mt. 6 : prayer as an 
offering to God ; fasting as control of self; and alms-giving 
as due to one's fellow-man, are inculcated as primary. They 
are preceded by confession of the faith and supplemented 
by the command to meet annually at a central shrine for 
worship and sacrifice. The individual faith and practice 
of the Muslim is thus linked up with a perpetual celebra- 
tion of the world-wide unity of believers. 

The Five Pillars of Religion (Bin). — (1) The first duty, 
confession of the faith, is not explicitly mentioned in the 
Qur'an, nor does the book contain any definite command to the 
followers of Muhammad to preach his doctrine. The accepted 
way of propagating it in the outer world was by the sword, 
and there is a command to let religious instruction follow 
warfare (9 123 ). But Muhammad himself being commanded 
to preach and to magnify the name of Allah, and he being 
a noble pattern to believers, their duty was obviously to 
confess the faith which they had exercised, and the kalimah 
or watchword for the purpose is taken from two clauses of 
the Qur'an. 

(2) Prayers (salat) are very often coupled with Alms as 
means of salvation and as incumbent on Muslims. Spon- 
taneous prayer is du'a , set prayers are salat. Abraham 
offers du'a that his posterity may observe salat (14 42 ). 
Before him salat was taught to Adam and commanded to 
Moses. It is practised by Muhammad according to divine 
command and he leads in prayer ; it is of the essence of 
religion for Muslims, and it keeps them from obscenity. 
As for its manner, the Face of Allah is everywhere, but 
believers should always turn towards the Sacred Mosque 



THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION 59 

(the Ka'bah at Mecca). Prayers are to be preceded by wash- 
ing with water, or if that cannot be got by scouring with 
sand. The ritual is to be regularly and strictly observed, 
except on certain occasions of danger or sickness. Muslims 
are not to pray when drunk or polluted, nor yet either too 
loud or too low. They should wear goodly apparel in the 
mosque, and during the Friday noon prayer-time work is 
to be suspended. Prayer is a prescribed duty for stated 
hours, before sunrise, at noon, after sunset and at night. 
The marks of their prostration should be seen on believers, 
and in observing prayer they must beware of sloth and 
neglect of almsgiving. 

Of spontaneous prayer we read that Allah is the hearer 
of clu'a : it is to be offered to Him only, for idols cannot 
hear. Allah does not grant the prayer of the double- 
minded (cp. Jas. 1 7f ). Prayer for the faithful departed 
may be offered, but not for unbelievers in hell. 

(3) Almsgiving. — Two principal terms are used for this 
in the Qur'an : zakat = cleansing, and sadaqah = righteous- 
ness. Speaking of almsgiving generally we find it con- 
stantly coupled with prayer as a mark of the true believer. 
Alms are to be given from the believer's superfluity, yet " ye 
cannot attain to righteousness until ye expend in alms of 
what ye love " (3 86 ). They are to be given especially at 
the time of harvest, and bestowed on relatives, orphans, the 
poor and travellers. 

Zakat is used to signify the alms of obligation which are 
levied on various kinds of property and income at a fixed 
rate. The Qur'an specifies levies on money and produce. 
The need of this assessment was in evidence at the outset 
of Muhammad's career owing to the poverty of many 
believers. It afterwards became established as the basis of 
the revenue of his theocracy, side by side with the spoils of 
warfare. Zakat is essential to religion and a chief mark 
of true piety. It has, as its name implies, a cleansing 
effect, and brings pardon of sin. It is to be exacted from 
defeated foes who accept Islam and thus become brothers 



60 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

in the faith. It is a loan to Allah (cp. Pro v. 19 17 ), who will 
repay it doubly with a divine usury; it is a seed which 
brings forth seven hundred fold. 

Sadaqah (Tsaddqah, dikaiosune, righteousness) is the 
name given to freewill offerings. They are to be given to 
the poor, to converts, to captives, debtors, fighters for the 
faith and travellers : also in expiation for neglect of 
pilgrimage duties ; they are to be offered before an inter- 
view with the prophet, and are a subject of complaint 
against him. Sadaqah should be given with kind speech 
and pardon, without upbraiding, from the earnings of the 
faithful and not from inferior things, nor yet wastefully. 
To give publicly is good, to give secretly is better. Pay- 
ment of alms by way of fine may still be meritorious ; regard- 
ing the " Hypocrites" of Medina the command comes : " Take 
from their wealth alms to cleanse and purify them thereby " 

(9 «>«). 

(4) The Fast (Saum). — Fasting in general is mentioned 
both as a work of piety and as penance for offences. Mary, 
the mother of Jesus, vows a fast at the time of His birth. 
It is exacted as an expiation for homicide, for a mistaken 
oath, for killing game at the close time of Pilgrimage, for 
illegitimate divorce. In 2 179 ~ 183 the yearly fast is finally 
set for the entire month of Ramazan, in which the Qur'an 
was first revealed, to begin as soon as the new moon has 
been observed. The sick and travellers are excused, pro- 
vided they fast later when able. Those who are fit to fast 
but do not may redeem it by feeding a poor man. Food 
and drink and marital intercourse are permitted from after 
sunset till dawn. Complete abstinence, with frequent visits 
to the mosque, must continue through the whole day. 

(5) The Pilgrimage. — The Qur'an distinguishes (2 192 ) 
the Lesser Pilgrimage ('umrah = visitation, i.e. of the Holy 
Places) from the Greater Pilgrimage or Hajj (Hebrew Sag s 
i.e. Festival Procession). The 'umrah may be performed at 
any time. The Hajj is to be undertaken at the time of the 
new moon (of the month Dhu'l Hijjah, the twelfth of the 



THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION 61 

Muslim year). The pilgrims are to shave their heads, and 
to bring a gift to the Sacred Mosque. Till the day of 
sacrifice they are to neglect their persons; then they are 
to pay their vows and make the circuit of the Ancient 
House (the Ka'bah). The processions are to extend to Safa 
and Marwah (two mountains near Mecca where idols used to 
stand) and also to Mount 'Arafat. The rite of sacrifice is 
to be performed on the tenth day, and directions are given 
for slaughtering the camels, or other lawful animals, after 
invoking the name of Allah over them. Pilgrims unable to 
arrive in time may send a beast to be sacrificed on their 
behalf. The flesh is to be eaten by the worshippers and 
distributed to the poor. It is not the flesh or blood of the 
sacrifices that is acceptable to Allah, but the piety of the 
worshippers. The pilgrimage is an observance due to Allah 
which may not be slighted, but it is not forbidden to make 
it an occasion of trade, though hunting during the sacred 
days is forbidden. After the sacrifice the pilgrims should 
remain to worship Allah at least two days. Only Muslims 
may visit the Ka'bah. 

5. The Way of Salvation. — Besides the Hye funda- 
mental religious duties which are conditions of salvation 
the way of salvation is summed up in two main conceptions. 
Subjectively, as affecting the personal attitude of the be- 
liever, it is the practice of taqwd or piety ; objectively, the 
thing which must regulate his whole life is islam or 
acceptance, both active and passive, of the will of Allah. ~^ ; Lw *aa**- 

A. Piety. — The meaning of taqwa is fear (i.e. of Allah) 
or abstinence, from idolatry or evil of any kind. Its atti- 
tude is expressed in the words, commonly used in any 
sudden calamity : " Verily, we are Allah's and verily, to 
Him do we return " (2 151 ). Even now He is nearest of all, 
for He comes in between a man and his heart. Piety is to 
believe in the truth, to be sincere in worship, to choose the 
next life rather than this. Not the flesh and blood of 
sacrifices reaches Allah, but piety ; the best garment is the 
raiment of piety. The pious are the meek, patient, truthful, 



62 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

lowly, charitable, penitent, harmless, forgiving, prayerful, 
considerate, just. They practise devotion, moderation, 
purity ; not in superstition, but in the fear of Allah. Their 
hearts repose in the thought of Allah; they meditate in 
silence morning and evening, and say of their purposes : 
" If Allah will." Their hearts thrill with fear at the 
mention of the name of Allah, and faith increases with the 
recital of His signs (the verses of the Qur'an). Piety is 
both the easy way and the steep way, it is obedience to 
Allah and the Apostle, to be shown in family life by men 
and women alike. 

B. Islam is the word chosen by Muhammad to sum up 
his idea of the true religion which is offered by Allah and 
accepted by man if he is wise. The word signifies sub- 
mission, resignation or acceptance, in each shade of meaning 
denoting the true attitude of man towards Allah. Islam 
is the faith of Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus ; the sons 
of Jacob at his death confessed themselves Muslims ; 
believers have been called Muslims by Allah ever since 
Abraham ; acceptance of Islam is demanded by the Law 
and the Evangel; faithful Jews and Christians were 
Muslims before the Qur'an was given : now they and the 
Sabeans have' only to add faith in the Qur'an. Islam is 
belief in all the prophets ; it is the " Baptism (sibghah) of 
Allah." He opens the heart to its reception. Muslims are 
those who have heard the call and believed, setting their 
faces towards Allah with self- surrender and following 
Muhammad ; they are the best of ummahs (religious 
communities). Islam is both a rule and a high-road; it 
must be proclaimed in its entirety, and so accepted, for it is 
the only acceptable religion, now truth is come and false- 
hood has vanished. It is the easy way, but believers must 
fight strenuously for its defence and propagation. It will 
be victorious over every other religion and spread to other 
lands, for it is a message for mankind. Toleration is 
enjoined for a time, but afterwards abrogated by the 
command to do battle with infidels, whether idolaters or 



THE LAW OF LIFE 63 

people of Scripture. Exile and warfare on behalf of Islam 
will be abundantly rewarded, but apostasy from it leads 
to hell. 



Y. The Law of Life. 

1. Laiv in the Quran. — We have seen that the Qur'an 
te aches, to use a Christian phrase, "justification by works." 
To attain salvation men must believe the message of the 
Apostle to be true, and they must do the works commanded 
by him, in return for which, by the mercy of Allah, for no 
one has any claim on Him, they will receive the reward of 
Paradise which He has thought well to grant on these 
/[conditions. The strictly religious conditions of salvation 
have been outlined above. But we have also seen that the 
authority of the Apostle, as the revealer of the will of 
Allah, extends to all affairs of life; he is to judge his 
people and they are to bow to his command without 
question. Hence religious duty in the Qur'an extends to 
all the affairs of life — political, military, civil, social, as 
well as the strictly religious. 

Of law as such there is little mention. The familiar 
term shari'ah only occurs once in the Qur'an (45 17 ), and 
the cognate word shir' ah also once (5 52 ). The general 
meaning of the root is " way " ; the first passage refers 
to the divine command given to Muhammad in a certain 
matter ; the second to the various laws given to leaders of 
successive religions. 

There is no passage in the Qur'an parallel to the 
Decalogue of Moses, but there are several sets of commands 
in which Muhammad may have had the Decalogue more or 
less clearly in mind. The most systematic of these is in 
17 23-4 °. The commands there given are : (1) Put not 
other gods with Allah ; (2) Be kind and respectful to 
parents ; (3) Give what is due to kinsmen, the poor and 
travellers ; (4) Be not wasteful ; (5) Slay not your children 
for fear of poverty ; (6) Draw not near to fornication ; 



66 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

more to come, but it must be remembered that the booty 
belongs in the first place to Allah and the Apostle. 
Prisoners of war are in the power of the captors to kill, sell 
as slaves, hold to ransom, liberate, or convert to Islam. 

4. Slavery. — Slavery is a domestic institution, and as 
an accompaniment of warfare is accepted by the Qur'an. 
The killing of captives after the battle of Badr is referred 
to in 8 68 : " It has not been for any prophet to possess 
captives until he hath slaughtered in the land." The slave 
is the absolute property of his master as man is of 
Allah. Female slaves may be taken as concubines at dis- 
cretion, but their master should not hire them out as prosti- 
tutes ; on the contrary (if he does not want them himself) 
he should make provision for their marriage. Married 
women may be taken to wife if made captive in war. The 
master of the house is free from the rules of decorum before 
female slaves. Slaves are to be kindly treated, and if able 
to redeem themselves they are not to be hindered from 
doing so. It is better to marry a believing slave than a 
free idolater. 

5. Criminal Laws. — These occur in the form of penalties 
enacted for the commission of certain crimes. The thief is 
to lose a hand. The unchaste woman may be immured 
alive or confined for life. In the case of sodomy the 
offenders are to receive an undefined punishment, or if 
penitent to be forgiven. In case of fornication one hundred 
stripes are to be inflicted on each of the offenders. For 
homicide retaliation by the relatives of the person killed 
may be carried out, or blood money may be exacted by 
them. Murder is deserving of hell in the next world and 
of retaliation in this. For warfare against Allah and the 
Apostle the penalty is impalement or mutilation or banish- 
ment. In this and other fragmentary legislation the 
customary law and practice of the Arabs is no doubt 
presupposed. 

6. Civil Regulations. — These too are fragmentary, and 
deal with special needs that arose out of developments in 



THE LAW OF LIFE 67 

Muhammad's career, so that one cannot draw a clear line 
between moral counsels and legal orders. 

For instance, property is not to be expended on vanity 
or on bribery, but no penalty is laid down for the latter. 
The inheritance of property is dealt with in more detail. 
Equitable testamentary provision is to be made verbally 
for parents and kinsmen, and the witnesses are not to alter 
the terms of the bequest. Legacies should be shared by 
men and women and a residue left for the poor and the 
orphan. There are provisions for the portions of husbands 
and wives and of distant relatives, and the husband is not 
to inherit the estate of the wife against her will. Directions 
are also given for attesting a will by oath. Special care for 
the interests of the orphan is repeatedly enjoined. Allah 
had found the prophet an orphan child and guided him, 
and when battles in the way of Allah were fought there 
were many orphans of the " martyrs " to be cared for. They 
were to be treated with fairness, their property guarded, and 
suitable marriages to be arranged for the girls. 

The oaths of the Qur'an are of two kinds. Muhammad 
himself, especially in the earliest Surahs, swears, sometimes 
by the Lord of heaven and earth, sometimes by His 
creatures, as the mountain, the book, the Ka'bah, the sea 
all to confirm the message which he proclaims. On the 
other hand he deals with the oaths which believers swear 
among themselves. They are not to swear readily by Allah 
lest a hasty oath should need revocation, but if one should 
have sworn unadvisedly an expiation for the offence is pro- 
vided, and in 66 2 Muhammad is released from an oath 
to one of his wives. Perjury is forbidden on pain of 
damnation. 

Although Muhammad was originally a trader, yet little 
mention is made in the Qur'an of trade. The only positive 
enactment is that on usury. Selling is allowed, but usury 
is forbidden on pain of hell-fire. Allah, who rewards the 
legal alms, has banned the taking of interest on money and 
believers must therefore abandon it. Believers may carry 



68 THE TEACHING OF THE QUIT AN 

on trade while engaged in pilgrimage, despite other restric- 
tions. Though we have no reason to believe that Muhammad 
ever travelled by sea, he frequently refers to the ocean, and 
to the commerce which it bears. The towering ships are a 
sign of Allah and it is He who speeds them. They are His 
instruments for the enrichment of mankind by trade and a 
sign of His goodness. As for the Calendar it is a divine 
command that the year be reckoned by lunar months and 
that four of these be held sacred. 

7. Domestic and Social Laws. — The most prominent 
element in these is the legislation regarding marriage 
which played so important a part in Muhammad's own life 
after he became a prince with a harem. 

The word for marriage is nikah, which refers to its 
physical aspect. Its object is the begetting of children 
for the multiplication of the race. Marriage, but not con- 
cubinage, is lawful with a Jew or Christian, but marriage is 
unlawful with an idolater. Concubines may be taken from 
among slave girls, but not from among married women, 
except they be captives of war. The number of wives at 
one time is limited to four, but no limit is laid down for 
concubines. Wives are to be treated with love and tender- 
ness, and with strict impartiality. Marital intercourse is to 
be preceded by an act of piety. Eefractory wives may be 
beaten or confined, but conciliation is provided for. The 
marriage of orphan girls is to be carefully arranged. 
Widows must not remarry before they have waited at least 
four months and ten days. A table of prohibited degrees 
of kinship is given, and marriage with a father's wife is par- 
ticularly prohibited (4 26 f ), this having been common among 
the pagan Arabs ; but marriage with the wife of an adopted 
son is definitely allowed, this having been practised by 
Muhammad. At the time of marriage the wife receives a 
dowry from her husband to which she has a right unless 
she of her own accord remits it. Believers may acquire a 
wife for money to be paid as dowry. Any exchange of wives 
must be carried out with fairness. 



THE LAW OF LIFE 69 

Divorce (taldq) is carefully regulated. There must be 
an interval of four months between the declaration, accom- 
panied by separation, and the actual dissolution of the 
" knot of marriage." A divorced wife may not be remarried 
to the same husband more than three times unless marriage 
with another man, followed by a divorce from him, has 
intervened. The dowry of a divorced wife must be returned 
to her and her remarriage not impeded. Eegulations are laid 
down for the case of the wife as divorced, either before or 
after the consummation of the marriage, and also regarding 
the children. 

As for the family, kindness, respect and gratitude are to 
be shown to parents, but this duty may be overridden by 
loyalty to Allah. Children are not to be killed for fear of 
want, for boys and girls are a gift from Allah, but family 
ties may become a temptation to believers to neglect 
striving for the faith. 

A good deal of attention, relatively, is given to deport- 
ment. Believers are to be modest in demeanour, kindly in 
address and courteous in greeting, always using the formula, 
"Peace be to you" (A'ssalam 'alaikuiri). They are to avoid 
frivolity and scandal- mongering and to enter the houses 
of others only after leave has been given, though it is 
legitimate to entertain each other hospitably. Women, 
except those past child-bearing, should not go unveiled, 
save before near relatives. Strict rules are laid down for 
modest behaviour as between men and women and the 
respect to be shown by children and slaves to their elders 
and betters. Eeverent behaviour to Muhammad is specially 
inculcated. 

8. Ceremonial Regulations. — Here again we have to 
realise that the fragmentary directions contained in the 
Qur'an rest on the background of Arab custom, the content 
of which, supplemented by the words of the book, was 
afterwards elaborated in tradition and eventually codified 
by theology. Such regulations as are given in the Qur'an 
were taken over, with very slight alterations in the matter 



70 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

of forbidden foods, from the Jewish code. The rules for 
purification from ceremonial defilement by washing before 
prayers have already been referred to (p. 59). It remains 
to deal with the rules regarding unlawful food and other 
forbidden things, and with such mention as there is of 
sacrifice. 

Glean and Unclean Foods. — The prominence of this dis- 
tinction in Leviticus is reflected in the Qur'an and in 
Muslim life down to this day. The terms used are haram = 
banned or unlawful, and haled = permitted. As in the 
case of the Hebrew Tcherem the ban or prohibition to touch 
may be owing either to the sacredness or to the pollution of 
the object. So the commonest use of haram in the Qur'an 
is as a designation of the Sacred Mosque, but the word is 
also repeatedly applied to forbidden food the use of which 
pollutes, in contrast to the permitted food which Allah has 
sanctified (16 117 ; 10 60 ). Before the Torah came to Moses 
all things were allowed except what Jacob forbade (Gen- 
32 32 ), but the distinction now made in the Qur'an between 
lawful and unlawful foods is not fixed by man but by Allah. 
For lawful flesh a further rule is given that the Muslim 
may eat only that over which the killer has invoked the 
name of Allah. The flesh of idol sacrifices and blood are 
forbidden. A list is given of lawful cattle and fruits, and 
several lists of foods forbidden and permitted. The principal 
prohibitions are those of swine's flesh and strong drink 
(fcjiamr), but though Jchamr is forbidden to believers on 
earth it will be plentifully supplied to them in Paradise. 
If a Muslim eats unlawful food under compulsion or through 
fear he may be pardoned. The food of Jews and Christians 
is lawful to Muslims. 

Other forbidden things. — Together with wine (5 92f ) the 
practice known as maisir is specially prohibited. This 
consisted in a kind of lots, drawn by means of arrows, for 
the division of the portions of a slaughtered camel. It 
is understood to include all games of chance. In the 
same connection images are declared to be an abomination, 



ATTITUDE TO OTHER FAITHS 71 

and this is not practically qualified, as in the Pentateuch, 
by the closely connected command to make cherubim over 
the ark. Magic in the sense of sorcery (sihr) is implicitly 
condemned by Muhammad's frequent repudiation of the 
charge brought against him of being a magician. On the 
other hand there is no prohibition of spells or incantations, 
but the last two Surahs (113 and 114) appear to be of that 
nature and are extensively used as such by Muslims all 
the world over. 

VI. Attitude to Other Faiths. 

No scripture in the world teaches such a " comparative 
religion " as the Qur'an. Assertions regarding its attitude 
to the earlier faiths form, as we have seen, both the woof 
and the warp of the book, its strength and its weakness, 
and this has come out in all the fundamental doctrines. Its 
clear claim is to confirm and perfect the teachings of the 
former Prophets and Scriptures, allowing for as much 
abrogation of previous ordinances as may be necessary for 
the new time. The question remains to be answered : How 
does this claim actually work out ? What has the Qur'an 
set aside of the former teaching as unnecessary, and what 
has it added to the world's stock of religious knowledge and 
inspiration ? 

The Qur'an has three words for religion. The first is 
millah, the derivation of which is disputed, but its general 
use in the book (ten times out of fourteen) is to signify the 
religion of former prophets (especially Abraham) whom 
Muslims should follow, subject to the new light brought by 
Muhammad. The second term is din, meaning religion as 
observance. This is also used of the religion of former 
prophets, especially Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses and Jesus. 
Of din Muhammad at first says : " To me my religion, to 
you your religion," but later he pronounces that Islam is the 
only acceptable religion. The third term is ummah, i.e. 
religious community. Of this it is said that mankind were 



72 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

originally one ummah, and that Allah, had He pleased, could 
have kept them so, but He was pleased to grant every ummah 
a special apostle and a scripture and observances of its own. 

Mnsliyns atp t.hft P.flnt.ml u<mn>fi]i. pid th e best of all. What 

is it that this best of ummdhs has which others have not ? 

The massive simplicity of the outlines of quranic 
theology make the answer to this question comparatively 
simple. Against the paganism of Arabia the Qur'an is 
one long protest, which is not substantially affected by the 
adoption of the Ka'bah with rjLs Black Stone fetish into 
the central ritual of Islam. The Sabean and Zoroastrian 
cults hardly come into practical account. It is to the 
prophets and scriptures of the Old and New Testaments that 
the constant appeal is made. 

In its dealing with the Old Testament the Qur'an has 
made only one essential change. The confusions in its 
reproduction of Old Testament histories and the modification 
of ceremonial laws touch no essential point, nor does the 
Qur'an refuse to recognise the Messiah, though it contradicts 
later Judaism in allowing that Jesus of Nazareth has the 
rightful claim to that title. But in one vital aspect the 
messianic ideal of the Old Testament has undergone a radical 
change. The Coming One who has appeared is indeed a 
prophet and likewise a prince, but His priestly character is 
eliminated, and the idea of atonement wrought by Him is 
set aside. Neither He nor His people are to bring salvation 
and victory by sacrificial suffering, 

On the New Testament side the difference is far greater. 
The conceptions of divine Fatherhood and Sonship are not 
only eliminated but fiercely combated. The divine in- 
carnation in Jesus the Christ is utterly rejected, and the 
historical fact of His death, carrying the implication of His 
atonement and resurrection, is denied. The claim of Jesus 
to be the Saviour and Judge of the world is set aside. The 
Holy Spirit appears only as an angel, and the Trinity of 
the Godhead is misunderstood and repudiated. Yet, with 
all this, we have seen that fragmentary indications of 



ATTITUDE TO OTHER FAITHS 73 

Christian doctrine crop out from time to time, though they 
exercise little effect on the deistic trend of the teaching 
as a whole. 

The new elements of religion added by the Qur'an are 
two— one doctrinal, the other ethical. Obviously the first 
is the apostleship of Muhammad as superseding Jesus and 
all earlier prophets. The second is the strenuous inculcation 
of the duty of warfare for the propagation of the faith. It 
is hardly necessary to point out that the jihad of Islam is 
essentially different from the Old Testament wars of conquest 
or defence which had no reference to imposition of a new 
creed or worship. In modern times the duty of warfare for 
the faith has more and more receded into the background by 
reason of long-drawn political changes, and it seems likely 
to give place to a zeal for purely religious propaganda. 
The future attitude of Muslims towards the fundamental 
issue — Muhammad or Jesus Christ — will depend even more 
on the life than on the preaching of Christendom. 



72 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

originally one ummah, and that Allah, had He pleased, could 
have kept them so, but He was pleased to grant every ummah 
a special apostle and a scripture and observances of its own. 

Mil slim a ptp thft rtftTitrfll umnrn.^ pid the best of all. What 

is it that this best of ummahs has which others have not ? 

The massive simplicity of the outlines of quranic 
theology make the answer to this question comparatively 
simple. Against the paganism of Arabia the Qur'an is 
one long protest, which is not substantially affected by the 
adoption of the Ka'bah with i^ls Black Stone fetish into 
the central ritual of Islam. The Sabean and Zoroastrian 
cults hardly come into practical account. It is to the 
prophets and scriptures of the Old and New Testaments that 
the constant appeal is made. 

In its dealing with the Old Testament the Qur'an has 
made only one essential change. The confusions in its 
reproduction of Old Testament histories and the modification 
of ceremonial laws touch no essential point, nor does the 
Qur'an refuse to recognise the Messiah, though it contradicts 
later Judaism in allowing that Jesus of Nazareth has the 
rightful claim to that title. But in one vital aspect the 
messianic ideal of the Old Testament has undergone a radical 
change. The Coming One who has appeared is indeed a 
prophet and likewise a prince, but His priestly character is 
eliminated, and the idea of atonement wrought by Him is 
set aside. Neither He nor His people are to bring salvation 
and victory by sacrificial suffering. 

On the New Testament side the difference is far greater. 
The conceptions of divine Fatherhood and Sonship are not 
only eliminated but fiercely combated. The divine in- 
carnation in Jesus the Christ is utterly rejected, and the 
historical fact of His death, carrying the implication of His 
atonement and resurrection, is denied. The claim of Jesus 
to be the Saviour and Judge of the world is set aside. The 
Holy Spirit appears only as an angel, and the Trinity of 
the Godhead is misunderstood and repudiated. Yet, with 
all this, we have seen that fragmentary indications of 



ATTITUDE TO OTHER FAITHS 73 

Christian doctrine crop out from time to time, though they 
exercise little effect on the deistic trend of the teaching 
as a whole. 

The new elements of religion added by the Qur'an are 
two — one doctrinal, the other ethical. Obviously the first 
is the apostleship of Muhammad as superseding Jesus and 
all earlier prophets. The second is the strenuous inculcation 
of the duty of warfare for the propagation of the faith. It 
is hardly necessary to point out that the jihad of Islam is 
essentially different from the Old Testament wars of conquest 
or defence which had no reference to imposition of a new 
creed or worship. In modern times the duty of warfare for 
the faith has more and more receded into the background by 
reason of long-drawn political changes, and it seems likely 
to give place to a zeal for purely religious propaganda. 
The future attitude of Muslims towards the fundamental 
issue — Muhammad or Jesus Christ — will depend even more 
on the life than on the preaching of Christendom. 



SUBJECT INDEX. 



Abbreviations. S. = Surah. A. = Allah. Md. = Muhammad. M. = 
Muslim. I. = Islam. Q. = Qur'an. 

Titles of Surahs. Several of these have alternatives, e.g. 17 is either 
Asra (Night Journey) or Band IsrbVil. In such cases I have chosen 
what appeared to be the most widely used. But the identifying 
mark is the serial number of the Surah (list on pp. 111-113). Kod- 
well's Translation has a chronological sequence of Surahs, but a 
table is given in Dent's edition by which the serial number can be 
identified. 

Numeral references. Serial numbers of Surahs are in large figures, verses 
in small. The letter f indicates one following verse ; ff two ; if more 
are referred to the second number is given. "Etc." following a 
reference indicates frequent occurrence of the phrase. 

Headings. English in black type, Arabic in italics. With few excep- 
tions matter is given under the English head. A heading in square 
brackets as [Weights] indicates a cross-reference. 

A. 

Aaron = Harun. [Mary and Moses.] 

l Abasa = " He frowned." Title of S. 80. 

Abel = Jldbil, and Cain = Qabll. Sacrifice and murder. Burial of 
corpse taught by a raven. Cain's repentance. 5 30— 35 . 

Ablutions = Wuzu\ Kules for purification before prayers, 5 8 . 

Abraham = Ibrahim. Kejects creature worship and ancestral idols, 
6 74— 82 ; 43 25> 26 : books were granted him of old, 87 18 f : controversy 
with idolaters, 29 15 ~ 24 ; 2 260 ; 37 81 ~ 96 ; 26 69 ~ 104 ; 21 52 ~ 70 : prays for 
his idolatrous father, 19 42—49 : but this example not to be followed, 60 4 ; 
9 114f : promised a son in old age and warned of the fate of Sodom, 
51 24 - 34 ; 11 72 - 78 ; 15 51 - 60 : pleads for Sodom, 11 77 : is taught the 
resurrection, 2 262 : prepares to sacrifice his son, 37 97— m : he and Ishmael 
found the temple at Mecca and settle their descendants near it : 3 90 - 91 ; 
14 40 . 2 "9-122 . bequeaths Islam to his posterity, 2 121 ~ 126 : hopes for 
forgiveness at judgment day, 26 82 ; 14 42 : the faithful one, 53 38 ; 16 121 : 
the friend of God, 4 124 : sound in faith {hanif), 6 79 ' 162 ; 3 89 , etc. : a true 
prophet, 19 42 : prophecy and scriptures granted to his posterity, 29 26 : 
an imam or leader of the faithful, 2 118 : his religion (millah) to be followed, 
16 124. 4 124. ne was ne ither Jew nor Christian, but hanif and muslim, 
3 60 ; cp. 2 134 : his religion that of Md., 6 162 ; 2 124 : his spiritual kindred 
are followers of Md., 3 61 : he prays for the coming of Md., 2 123 . 

" Abraham " = Ibrahim. Title of S. 14. 



76 THE TEACHING OF THE QURAN 

Abrogation = Naskh. Md. accused of forgery because one verse 
substituted for another, 16 103 : A. may abrogate or confirm as He pleases, 
13 39 : if He cancels a verse grants a better, 2 10 °. 

" Abu. Lahab." To be punished for his enmity. Title of S. 111. 

'^Abundance " = Kauthar. Title of S. 108. 

'Ad, generally coupled with Thamud. A tribe of S. Arabia. 
Punished for rejection of Hud, 26 ™-uo . 7 63-70. 51 «f. 45 20-27. 

Adam = Adam. Created of clay, 15 28 ; 3 52 : the vicegerent 
(khalifah) of A., gives names to all things, 2 28— 31 : Iblis, alone of angels, 
disobeys command to worship him, 2 32 ; 7 10— 17 ; 15 30— 3 : tempted and 
cast down from Paradise to earth, 7 18_ M ; 2 33_7 : fall and restoration, 
20 114-120 . taught words by A., 2 35 : descendants brought forth from 
his loins to witness that A. is their lord, 7 m : covenant of A. with him, 
20 114 . 

'Adiyat = " Chargers." Title of S. 100. 

Adoption. Creates no bar to marriage, 33 4 « 5 > 37 . 

u Adoration " = Sajdah. Title of S. 32. 

Adultery and Fornication. Both = zind. An evil way, 17 34 : to 
be avoided by the pious, 25 68 : accusation against woman needs four 
witnesses; if guilty immure till death, 4 19 : man and woman may be 
punished by scourging, 24 2 : unchaste to marry unchaste or idolater, 
24 3 « 26 : purgation of groundless accusation, 24 4 ~ 10 : rebuke of accusation 
against 'Aishah, 24 11— 25 . 

Affinity. [Marriage.] 

" Afternoon." = l Asr. Title of S. 103. 

Ahlu'l Kitub. [Scriptures, People of the.] Jews and Christians, 
3 198 ; 5 72 , etc. 

Ahmad. The name under which Md. claimed that Jesus foretold his 
coming, 61 6 . [Muhammad.] 

Ahqaf. Title of S. 46 (same in English). 

Ahzab = " Confederates." Title of S. 33. 

A l la = " Most High." Title of S. 87. 

Aiyub = [Job.] 

'Alaq = " Clots of Blood." Title of S. 96. 

Alexander (the Great) = DhuV Qarnain. Campaigns and victory 
over Gog and Magog, 18 82— 101 . 

Al 'Imran = « Family of 'Imran." Title of S. 3. 

Allah. [God.] 

Allah [Lat.] 

Alms (of obligation) = Zakat. Commanded as essential to religion, 
2 40 ; 98 4 : mark of true piety, 23 4 ; 24 37 : loan to A., 73 20 : bringing 
also pardon of sin, 64 17 : doubly repaid by Him instead of usury, 30 38 : 
like a seed grain bringing forth 700 fold, 2 263 : to be exacted from 
defeated foes who accept I., 9 5 ' n . 

Alms (freewill offerings) = Sadaqah. True spirit and right ways, 
2 265 ~ 75 : to be imposed on penitent enemies, 9 104 : expiation for neglect 
of pilgrimage duties, 2 192 : to be offered before interview with Md., 58 13 f 
(distinct from zakat) : subject of accusation against Md., 9 68 : legitimate 
applications, 9 60 : not to be wastefully given, 17 28 . 

Alms (generally). Coupled with prayer, 14 36 , etc. : to be given from 
superfluity, 2 216 f : from what Ms. love, 3 86 : a means of salvation, 
92 e ff - is ; 64 16 : on what to be spent, 2 211 : at time of ingathering, 6 142 . 









SUBJECT INDEX 77 

Amulets. Surahs used for: 1, 6, 18, 36, 44, 55, 67, 78, 113, 114. 
11 Verses of protection " : 2 266 ; 12 64 ; 13 12 ; 15 17 ; 37 7 . 

Art am = " Cattle." Title of S. 6. 

Anliyti = "Prophets." Title of S. 21. 

Anftd = " Spoils." Title of S. 8. 

" Angels " = Mala'ikah. Title of S. 35. 

Angels. Xot daughters of A. but servants, 43 16—18 : messengers of 
A. with 2, 3, or 4 pairs of wings, 35 1 : support His throne, 69 17 : ascend 
to Him in a day of 50,000 years, 70 3 f : descend on Night of Power, 
97 4 : worship A., 7 205 : and repel demons, 37 a : at A.'s command 
worship Adam, except Iblis, 15 30f : appearance demanded by unbelievers, 
15 7f : guardians of believers, 6 61 : helpers in battle, 8 9— ia : record 
actions, 82 n « ia : control the course of the world, 79 5 : receive souls at 
death, 7 35 ; " angel of death," 32 u : witness at Day of Resurrection, 
50 16— 28 : intercede for believers, 40 7tt : attest the book of the righteous, 
83 2° f : witness against idolaters, 37 160 ~ 6 : guard hell, 74 80 : Harut and 
Marut at Babel teach sorcery, 2 96 : will die and be raised, 39 68 . 
[Gabriel.] 

'Ankahut = " Spider." Title of S. 29. 

Ansdr. [Helpers.] 

" Ant " = Naml. Title of S. 27. 

" Apartments " = Eujurat. Title of S. 49. 

Apostasy. Venial, "if under compulsion, 16 108 : if voluntary to be 
severely punished, 16 108 ; 88 23f : leads to perdition, 22 n . 

Apostle (Messenger of God) == Basul or Mursdl. Divine messengers 
taken from among angels and men, 22 74 ; 7 33 : many before Md. with the 
same revelation, 4 161 : office only to announce and warn, 18 54 : specially 
against idolatry, 16 38 ; rejected by unbelievers, 15 n ; 23 46 : sent (by 
Jesus) to the city (of Antioch), 36 13— 33 : their message in the speech of 
their own people, 14 4 : work miracles only by leave of A., 40 78 : must 
give account of ministry, 72 28 : none before Md. unaffected by Satan, 
22 51 : they repent and are forgiven, 27 u : their histories revealed 
by A. to confirm Md.'s heart, 11 121 : of some he is told nothing, 40 78 : 
no difference in their acceptance by believers, 4 149 : some endowed by A. 
more highly than others, especially Moses and Jesus, 2 254 : some specially 
endued with firmness {ulu'l 'azm) 46 34 . 

Apostles (of Jesus) = Eawdrl. Became helpers and followers of 
Jesus the rasul, 3 45f ; 61 14 : professed themselves Ms., 5 ul : desired of 
Jesus a table from heaven, 5 lia . 

Apparel. Simple and splendid clothing gifts of A., 7 25 : goodly 
clothing to be worn in mosque, 7 29f . 

Arabic. The Q. not in a foreign tongue, but in plain Arabic for 
Arabs, 16 105 ; 26 19e ; 41 44 , etc. 

Arabs of the desert. Malingering, 9 91 : undecided as to alle- 
giance, 9 98— io2, 121 . ca ij e( i to be wholehearted in fighting for Islam, 48 16f ; 
49 14 '. [Idolaters.] 

A'rdf. A wall between Heaven and Hell, the people on which see and 
converse with inmates of both, 7 44— 47 . Also title of S. 7. [Purgatory.] 

'Arafat. The Mount of Recognition, 12 miles from Mecca, to be 
visited by pilgrims, 2 194 . 

Arbitrators. To effect reconciliation between husband and wife, 
4 89 . [Marriage.] 



78 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Ark (Fulk — Ship) of Noah. Built under divine supervision to 
save men and beasts, 11 39 ; 23 271 . 

Ark. {Tabut = Hebr. tebuh, i.e. chest.) Of the Covenant with 
sakhiah ( = shechinah) and relics of Moses and Aaron, 2 24D : of bulrushes 
for the infant Moses, 20 39 . 

«« Array" = Saf. Title of S. 61. 

'Asr = "Afternoon." Title of S. 103. 

Asrd = " Night Journey." Title of S. 17. 

" Assembly " = Jumu'ah. Title of S. 62. 

Atonement. [Expiation.] 

Attributes. [God.] 

Augury = divination by flight of birds. Practised by people of 
'Ad and Thamud, 27 48 . 

Zyat = Sign, see Miracles. = Verse, see Qur'an. 

Azar = Terah, the father of Abraham. An idolater, 6 74 : will not 
listen to his son's remonstrance, 19 43— 49 . 

B. 

" Backbiter " = Humazah. Title of S. 104. 

Badr. Battle of B. a sign from A., who succoured Ms. with angels, 

3 11, 119— 21^ 

Balad'= " Soil." Title of S. 90. 

Baiyinah = " Clear Evidence." Title of S. 98. 

Balance = Mlzan. Men to give fair weight, 6 153 ; 7 83 : according 
to the heavenly balance, 55 6 ff : which has come down with the Book, 
57 25 : just balances set up at Day of Resurrection, 21 48 . 

Baptism. Of God only is effectual, 2 132 . 

Baqarah = " Cow." Title of S. 2. 

Barzakh. [Purgatory.] 

Be and it is = kunfa yakunu. [Creation.] 

Beasts. Those sacred to pagans no longer so, 5 102 ; their usefulness 
to man a sign from A., 36 71— 74 : beasts and birds form communities 
(ummafjj 6 38 . 

Beautiful Names. [God.] 

« Bee " = NaM. Title of S. 16. 

"Believer" = Mu'min. Title of S. 40. 

" Believers " = Mu'minln. Title of S. 23. 

Believers. Can only believe by permission of A., 10 10 ° : Faith 
graven by A. on heart and strengthened by His Spirit, 58 22 : to witness 
by upright conduct, 5 n : practise moral and religious duties, 8 2 a ; 23 1—n : 
keep peace and goodwill among themselves, 49 9 ~ 12 : Paradise awaits 
those who rest in the thought of A., 13 28 : He has bought them for the 
reward of Paradise, 9 112 : they are of varying grades in His sight, 3 157 ; 
57 10 : they must be tested, 29 J : if they fail in endurance may be lost, 

4 99 : warned against hardening of heart, 57 15 : must be liberal, 57 10— 24 : 
and fight in cause of A., 49 15 : give honour, not to high birth, but to fear 
of A., 49 13 : are His vicegerents on earth, 35 37 : not to make friends 
with pagans, 58 22 : nor with Jews and Christians, 5 66 « 62 : lowly to the 
faithful, haughty to infidels, 5 69 . 

Birds. Have a language which Solomon knew, 27 16 : form com- 
munities, 6 38 . 



SUBJECT INDEX 79 



Bismilluh. [Invocation.] 
Blood. Forbidden, 2 168 . [Food.] 
"Blow" = Qdri'ah. Title of S. 101. 
Books. [Judgment Day and Scriptures. ]| 
Booty. [Warfare.] 
M Brightness " = Zuhd. Title of S. 93. 
Burial. Of dead taught to Cain by a raven, 5 34 . 
Buruj = " Starry Sky." Title of S. 85. 



C. 

Cain. [Abel.] 

Calf of gold worshipped by Children of Israel, 2 48 « 86 ; 4 152 ; 7 146 : 
made by Samiri, 20 90 . [Moses.] 

Calendar. Year to be reckoned by lunar months, of which four 
months sacred, 9 36 *. 

Camel. A sign of A.'s wisdom and goodness, 88 17 (other rendering 
is "cloud") : lawful for food, 6 144f . 

Captives. [Slaves.] 

Carrion. Forbidden as food, 6 146 . [Food.] 

" Cattle " = An'dm. Title of S. 6. 

Cattle. Pagan superstitions about them, 6 139 ; 5 102 : to be used for 
burdens, journey, and food, 6 143 ; 40 79 : four pairs (i.e. camels, oxen, 
sheep, goats), 39 8 . 

" Cave " = Kahf. _ Title of S. 18. 

" Chargers " = 'Adiydt. Title of S. 100. 

Children. Idolatrous Arabs hate the birth of daughters, 16 59 a : 
offspring not to be killed for fear of want, 17 33 ; 16 *° f : boys and girls 
the gift of A., 42 48 * : may be a temptation, 8 28 ; 64 14 f . 

Children of Israel. [Jews.] 

Christ. [Jesus.] 

Christians = Nasdrd. Often coupled with Jews. [Jews : Scrip- 
tures. People of] In the line of revelation, kind and compassionate, 
but invented monasticism, 57 26— 9 : in covenant with God but at variance 
among themselves, 5 17 : nearest in affection to believers, and free from 
pride, especially priests and monks, 5 85 : cloisters, churches, and oratories 
to be protected, 22 41 : together with Jews, claim to possess the only 
true religion, 2 129 : coupled with Jews and Sabeites, as acceptable, 
2 59 : also with Magians and idolaters as against believers, 22 17 : mutual 
recrimination with Jews, 2 105— 7 : take clergy, monks, and Messiah 
for lprds, 9 31 ; 3 67 : claim to be children of God disproved by their 
sufferings, 5 21 : infidels, because they hold the deity of Jesus and the 
Trinity, 5 76 f : dispute with them to be settled by the ordeal of the 
curse, 3 64 : converts from among them to inherit paradise, 5 86 fl : com- 
mended, 3 198 : recalcitrant will go to hell, 5 88 : Ms. to war against them, 
till they pay tribute, or believe, 9 29 . 

Clean and Unclean. [Food.] 

" Clear Evidence " = Baiyinah. Title of S. 98. 

" Cleaving "= Infitdr. Title of S. 82. 

" Clots of Blood " = 'Alaq. Title of S. 96. 

Commandments. A universal admonition written on tables for 
Moses, 7 142 . 



80 THE TEACHING OF THE QUIT AN 

Commerce. By sea a boon from A., 16 14 ; 17 68 , etc. : on land, 
permissible at pilgrimage, 2 194 : with just measure and balance, 17 37 . 

Concubines. May be taken from among slave girls, 70 29 ~ 31 ; 
23 5— 7 ; 4 3 » 29 f : not from married women, except captives, 4 28 . 

" Confederates " = Ahzdb. Title of S. 33. 

Confession of faith. \_Kalimdh.~\ 

Corruption = Tahrlf. Jews and Christians give contrary interpreta- 
tion of previous Scriptures. 2 107 : Jews misquote their Scriptures, 37 72 ; 
4 48 . 5 45 . pervert the word of God, 2 70 : transcribe it corruptly for 
paltry gain, 2 73 : eternal damnation the lot of those who conceal teach- 
ing of Taurat, 2 1B4 ~ 7 . 169 . 

" Counsel " = Shurd. Title of S. 42. 

Covenant. l Ahd. Made by A. with Adam, but forgotten by him, 
20 m : with posterity drawn forth from the loins of sons of Adam, 7 171 . 
Mithdq with Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Md., 33 7 : pledge by Ms., 
60 12 : promise on part of A., 9 112 : covenant of A. to be kept, 16 93 ; 48 10 . 

" Cow " = Baqarah. Title of S. 2. 

Creation. By fiat: "Be and it is," 36 82 ; 16 42 , etc.: for a worthy 
end, 30 7 ; 21 16t : to set forth His truth, 46 2 : a witness to His rule, 
88 17 ~ 20 ; 31 9 f : all things praise A., 21 19f ; 64 1 : they are a sign from 
Him, 42 28 ; 35 25 , etc. : especially to convince unbelievers, 15 16— 25 ; 
3g 33—40. 21 3i— 36 ? e t c> . creation reveals the goodness of A., 71 12_ 19 ; 
23 18— 22 : made in six days, 7 62 ; without weariness, 50 37 : earth in two 
days and seven heavens in two days, 41 8 « n : mountains placed in four 
days, 41 9 : A. has created seven heavens and seven earths, 65 12 : He 
holds up the heavens without pillars, 22 64 ; 13 2 : created animals of 
water, 24 44 : man of water, 25 56 : of dust, 35 12 : of moist germs, 16 4 : 
brings forth all things and calls them back, 30 10 : will roll up heaven and 
remake creation, 21 104 . 

Crimes. [Punishments.] 

Crucifixion, of Jesus denied, 4 156 . [Jesus.] 

D. 

Daughters. Inheritance half that of sons, 4 12 : pagans call angels 
daughters of A., 16 69 : but lament birth of female children, 16 60 : and 
bury them alive, 16 61 ; 81 8t . 

David = Da>ud. Slew Goliath and was made king, 2 252 : brave, 
wise, sagacious, penitent; mountains and birds join him in praise, 
38 16 ~~ 19 ; 21 78 f ; 34 10 : convinced of sin by two pleaders, repents and 
is forgiven, 38 20 ~ 24 : vicegerent of A., 38 25 : taught by A. the art of 
making armour, 21 80 ; 34 10 : Solomon given him as son, 38 29 : Zabur 
( = Psalter) given him, 17 57 ; 4 161 . 

" Daybreak n = Fajr. Title of S. 89. 

" Dawn " = Falaq. Title of S. 113. 

Death. The Certainty (= alyaqin), 15 " : unavoidable, 3 182 ; 50 18 : 
at stated time, 16 63 ; 3 139 : A. takes souls to Himself at death and in 
sleep, 39 43 : prayer to be said only for faithful departed, 9 85 . 

Debt. Principal to be repaid without interest, 2 278f : leniency in 
recovering, 2 28 ° : to be recorded in writing, 2 282 . [Usury.] 

Decrees = qadar. Determine creation of all things, 54 49f ; 87 2f : the 
limit of life, 3 139 ; 8 17 : all its events, 9 M : all the actions of men, 54 52f ; 



SUBJECT INDEX 81 

g 108 . 14 4 . assignment of men and jinns to hell, 7 178 : good and evil in 
the soul, 91 8 : belief and unbelief, 16 38f ; 10 10 ° ; 36 6 ~ 9 : obedience and 
disobedience, 76 30 ; 51 9 : all sovereignty is A.'s, 13 30 : His behest is a 
fixed decree, 33 38 : He might have guided all to the way, 16 9 ; 42 6 ; 
6 107 : the fate of men and cities written in their book, 17 14 - 60 ; 7 35 ; a 
clear register, 36 n ; containing all secret things, 6 59 ; 57 22 : yet not to 
be used as excuse for unbelief, 16 37 ; 6 149 : good is from A., evil from 
man, 4 81 : choice of faith oi unbelief, 18 28 . 

Defilement, by menstruation, 2 222 . 

Deluge. The ark (or ship) in the flood a warning, 69 llf ; 54 11— 15 : 
Noah builds the ark, his unbelieving son drowned, ark rests on Al Jtidi, 
11 39 ~ 46 . [Noah.] 

Demons. [Jinn.'] 

Deportment. Modest demeanour, 17 39 ; 25 64 : scornfulness for- 
bidden, 49 n : kindly address, 17 55 : courtesy in greeting (saldm 'alaikum), 
q 54 . 4 88 . avoidance of frivolity, 25 72 ; 4 33 : against scandal-mongering, 
4 147 : enter other houses only after leave given, 24 27 ~ 29 : greeting on 
entering, 24 61 : eating in one another's houses, 24 60 : women to go 
unveiled only before near relatives, 24 31 : liberty for women past child- 
bearing, 24 59 : modest behaviour of women and men, 24 30f : respectful- 
ness of slaves and children, 24 57f : respectfulness to Md., 24 62f ; 49 2-5 ; 
specially after affair with Zainab, 33 53 . 

M Desire of increasing " = Takdthur. Title of S. 102. 

Devil = Shaifan (Hebrew : Shdtdn), Iblls (Greek : diabolos), used 
as synonyms, 2 32— 4 : is one of the jinn, 18 48 : ungrateful to his Lord, 
17 29 : refuses to worship Adam, tempts and causes him to fall, 20 115 > 118 ; 
15 31 . 2 32— 4 ? e i Ct . beguiles his descendants except the faithful, 15 39— 4a : 
laid on Job disease and pain, 38 40 : is driven away with stones by 
believers, 15 17 > 34 ; 16 10 °, etc. : accursed till judgment day, 15 35 : will not 
share the guilt of those whom he tempted, 59 16 : the foe of men, 35 6 : 
misleads pagans, 4 117— 9 : seeks to confuse reciters of Q., 16 100— 2 : if 
tempted by him, flee to A., 7 199f ; 23 ". 

Devils = Shaydtin. Rebellious, 37 7 : steal a hearing of celestial 
secrets, 15 18 ; 26 210— 23 , etc. : enemies of prophets, 6 112 : gaolers chained 
to infidels, 43 35 ; 41 24 : pelted by shooting stars, 37 6fl : taught men 
sorcery, 2 96 : built and dived for Solomon, 38 36 ; 21 8a . 

Dhdriydt = " Scattering." Title of S. 51. 

PhuT Kifl = " He of the Portion." Coupled with Idrls (Enoch), 
Ishmael, and Elisha, 38 48 ; 21 85 : possibly Elijah. 

DhiVn Nun = " He of the Fish," i.e. Jonah, 21 87 . [Jonah.] 

DhWl Qarnain = " He of the Two Horns," i.e. Alexander the Great. 
His campaigns and victory over Gog and Magog, 18 82— 101 . 

Din. [Religion.] 

Dinar = Greek dmarion. [Money.] 

Dirham = Greek drachma. [Money.] 

Dispute. With people of Scripture except the malicious among 
them to be kindly, 29 45 . 

" Distinguisher " = Furqdn. Title of S. 25. 

Diviner = Kahin. [Soothsayer.] 

Divorce. Four months' interval between separation and final 
divorce, 2 226— 8 ; 65 1—5 ; divorced wife not to be taken back more than 
three times without other marriage intervening, 2 229f : wife's dowry to be 

F 



82 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

returned and remarriage not impeded, 2 231 f : regulations for care of 
children, 2 233 : provision for wife divorced before or after consummation, 
2 237f,242. 33 48. 65 6f : resumption of intercourse after divorce, 58 1— 5 . 

" Divorce " = Taldq. Title of S. 65. 

Dog. Of the Seven Sleepers (Companions of the Cave), 18 17,21 : lolls 
out his tongue, 7 175 : trained to chase, 5 6 . 

DuTchdn = " Smoke." Title of S. 44. 

E. 

Earth. A. has created the earth in two days, 41 8 : stretched it out 
as a bed and made mountains its tent-stakes, 2 20 ; 13 3 ; 78 6f : at 
resurrection will be A.'s handful, 39 67 : and created anew, 14 49 . 
[Creation.] 

Earthquake. The first sign of the last day, when the dead will be 
cast forth, 99 1— 5 . [Judgment.] 

« Earthquake " = Zalzalah. Title of S. 99. 

Eden. Garden or gardens of. Place of rivers shaded by gardens and 
great bliss, 61 12 : inmates richly clad on pleasant couches, 18 30 : find 
virgins of their own age, 38 50— 4 : enter with believing fathers, wives and 
children, 13 23 : Eden is the reward of the purified, 20 78 : the favour of A. 
is their chief blessing, 9 73 . [Paradise.] 

Egypt. Jacob comes to E., 12 10 ° : Moses and Aaron commanded to 
make qiblahs for prayers in houses of Israelites in E., 10 87 : Pharaoh 
boasts of lordship over E., 43 50 : Moses sends back the people from 
wilderness into E., 2 58 . [Moses : Pharaoh.] 

" Elephant " = Fit. Title of S. 105. 

Elijah = Ilycis or Ilydsin. Withstands the worship of Baal, 37 123— 132 : 
coupled with Zachariah, John and Jesus as just, 6 85 : as Dhu'l Kifl (?), 
21 85 . 

Elisha = Al Yasa'. Coupled with Ishmael and Dhu'l Kifl (Elijah ?), 
38 48 : with Ishmael, Jonah, Lot, as favoured above mankind, 6 86 . 

" Emigration " = Hashr. Title of S. 59. 

Enemy (of the faith). To be slain, 2 186 f : to make friends with is 
forbidden, 60 9 . 

" Enfolded " = Muzammil. Title of S. 73. 

Enoch = Idrls. Man of truth, prophet, raised to a lofty place, 19 57 f : 
steadfast in patience, 21 85 . 

" Enwrapped" = Mudaththir. Title of S. 74. 

Evangel = Injll. [New Testament : Scriptures.] 

Eve. Not named, but referred to as wife of Adam and disobedient 
with him, 2 33f ; 7 18 ; 20 115 ; made from him, 39 8 . 

Evil. To be avoided, 74 5 : to be turned away by good, 41 34 : to be 
exactly recompensed ; good, beyond its merit, 28 84 . 

" Expanding" = Inshirdh. Title of S. 94. 

Expiation = (1) Kaffdrah (covering), (2) fidyah (ransom). (1) Alms 
in lieu of injury inflicted, 5 49 : charity, manumission or fasting for 
mistake in oath, 5 91 : offering to Ka'bah, charity, or fast, for offence of 
killing game on pilgrimage, 5 96 : (2) charity for violation of fast, 2 18 ° : 
fasting, alms, or offering, if head not duly shaved at pilgrimage, 2 192 : no 
expiation for infidels consigned to hell, 57 14 . 

Extravagance. [Sins.] 



SUBJECT INDEX 83 

Ezra = 'Uzair. Said to be regarded by Jews as Son of God, 9 30 : 
referred to : as visiting ruined Jerusalem, 2 261 (?). 

P. 

Faith = Imdn. [Salvation.] 

Fajr = " Daybreak." Title of S. 89. 

Falaq = " Dawn." Title of S. 113. 

Fall of Man. [Adam.] 

" Family of 'Imran " = Al l lmrcin. Title of S. 3. 

Fast = Saum. Vowed by Mary the Virgin, 19 27 : expiation for 
homicide, 4 94 : for mistaken oath, 5 91 : for killing game on pilgrimage, 
5 96 : for illegitimate divorce, 58 4 f : in month Kamazan as soon as moon 
observed, with certain exceptions, 2 179— 81 : indulgence dining night, but 
strict fast through daylight, 2 183 . 

Fatalism. [Decrees.] 

Fath = "Victory." Title of S. 48. 

Fatihah = " Opening." Title of S. 1. 

Fad. [Grace.] 

Fidyah = Ransom. [Expiation.] 

" Fig " = Tin. Title of S. 95. 

Fil = "Elephant." Title of S. 105. 

Fir'aun. [Pharaoh.] 

Firdaus = Paradise. 

Fire = A'n Nar. [Hell.] 

Fire. Obtained by friction, 36 80 ; 56 70 . 

Fish. May be caught during pilgrimage, 5 97 . [Jonah.] 

" Folded up " = Takwir. Title of S. 81. 

Food and drink. Before Torah all things allowed, except what 
Jacob forbade, 3 87 : distinction between lawful and unlawful foods not 
fixed by man, 10 60 : M. may eat only that flesh over which the killer has 
invoked the name of A., 6 118 £ 121 : lawful cattle and fruits, 6 137— 51 : 
fish, 5 97 : restrictions beyond legal ones not to be made, 5 89 f : forbidden 
foods, 16 116— 20 ; 2 168 ; 5 1—4, 6 : game during pilgrimage, 5 1 : wine for- 
bidden with gambling, 2 216 ; 5 92f : wine lawful in paradise, 47 16 : if M. 
eats or drinks unlawful things under compulsion or through fear he may 
be pardoned, 5 94 ; 6 119 « 146 : food of Jews and Christians lawful to Ms., 5 7 . 

Forbidden actions — Haram. Gambling, 2 216 ; 5 92 f : divination 
by arrows for division of camel, 5 4 : usury, 3 125 f , etc. [Usury.] 

Forgiveness. To be shown to those " who hope not for days of 
God," 45 13 : to Jewish opponents who are to be shunned, 2 103 : retalia- 
tion legitimate, forgiveness meritorious, 42 37— 41 . [God.] 

Fornication. [Adultery.] 

Freewill. [Decrees.] 

Friendship. With Jews and Christians forbidden, 5 56 . 

Fruits. Of the earth, sign of A.'s care for His creatures, 6 142 ; 13 3 . 

Fugitives = Muhajirun. (From Mecca.) To be rewarded in this 
world and the next, 16 43 « m ; especially those who die in the way of A. 
(fighting), 22 57 : to be helped by wealthy brethren, 24 22 : and receive 
part of spoil, 59 8 : coupled with Ansar (helpers at Madinah), 9 101 « 118 . 

Fussilat = " Made plain." Title of S. 41. 

Furqdn = "Distinguisher." Title of S. 25. Term applied to the 



84 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Q., 2 ^ ; 3 2 ; 25 * : to the Torah, 2 50 ; 21 49 : to the victory of Badr, 8 42 . 
[Qur'an; Scriptures.] 

G. 

Gabriel = Jibril. (Mentioned by name) : Unbelievers are enemies of 
him and Michael, 2 91 f : together with A. he is protector of the prophet, 
66 4 . (Referred to) ; he brings down the Q. as being the illustrious mes- 
senger, 81 19 ~ 21 : terrible in power, 53 4 ~ 12 : standing near the Sidrah tree, 
53 13 ~ 18 : as the faithful spirit, 26 193 : the holy spirit, 16 104 : he is the 
spirit standing before A. at the judgment, 78 38 : the holy spirit who 
strengthens Jesus, 2 81 » 254 ; 5 109 : as spirit of A. announces conception of 
Jesus to His mother, 19 17_ 21 . 

Gambling. [Forbidden things.] 

Game. [Food and Drink.] 

Ghdshiyah = " Overshadowing." Title of S. 88. 

Geni. [Jinni.] 

God. Allah = the Mighty : Babb = Lord. He has beautiful Names 
by which He is to be worshipped, 20 7 ; 7 179 ; 59 24 . (Those printed 
below in black type are the principal ones used in the Q.) 

He is One ( Wahid), 2 158 ; 37 4 , etc. : unbegotten, unbegetting, 112 3 : 
He has no son, 25 2 : who could intercede with Him, 43 81 « 86 : for He has 
no wife, 6 101 : nor other partners, 17 m : there is no God but He, 73 9 ; 
37 4 , etc. : Jesus is not A. nor is A. threefold, 5 76 * : angels are not His 
daughters, 43 14 ~ 19 ; but His armies, 74 34 : He is the Living (Haiy), 
the Self- sub sis ting (Qayum), 3 x , etc.: the Eternal (Asmad), 112 2 : 
the Abiding (Abqd), 20 75 : He is the First, the Last, the Seen, the 
Hidden (Awwal, Akhir, Zahir, Batin), 57 3 : the Praiseworthy and 
Glorious (Hamid, Majld), ll 76 , etc.: the Serene (Salam), 59 23 : the 
Wealthy (Ghani), 60 ® : the Holy (Quddus), 59 23 : praise and worship 
are due to Him, 1 1— 4 : He is to be adored and approached, 96 18 : magni- 
fied, 74 3 : His Name to be commemorated, 73 8 : praised, 56 73 ; morning 
and night, 52 48f . 

He is the Powerful (Qadir), 2 19 , etc. : the Forceful (Qawwi), 11 69 : 
the Mighty QAziz), 42 *• 18 , etc. : the Exalted QAli), the Grand 
QAzim), 2 256 : the Lofty (Muta'al), 13 10 : the Firm {Matin), 51 58 : 
the Great (Kabir), 34 22 : the Capacious (Wasi 1 ), 2 248 : the Domina- 
tor (Qahhar), 13 17 : the Overcomer (Muqtadir), 18 43 : the All-com- 
pelling (Jabbar), 59 23 : the King (Malik), 1 3 , etc. : King of the 
Kingdom (MdlikuH Mulk), 3 25 : the Governor ( Wal), 13 12 : Creator, 
Maker, Fashioner (Khaliq, Burl, Musawwir),l59 24 : the Euler of 
all things, 5 12 ° : perfect and unchanging in all His works, 67 3 ; 48 23 : 
manifested by His works, 41 8—11 ' 37_ 40 : and in His providence, 42 28 ~ 33 , 
etc. : the Life Giver (Muhiy), 30 49 ; 41 39 : the Lord of Majesty and 
Bounty (DhuH Jaldl wa'l Ikram), 55 27 » 78 : the absolute Disposer, 
5324—27 . 76 30 . misleads and guides whom He will, 74 34 , etc. 

He is the Watchful (Baqib), 4 1 : the Reckoner (Hasib), 4 7 - ** -. 
who notes and writes all things, 78 29 : the Judge (Hakim), 95 8 ; 7 85 : 
He plots against the plotter, 86 16 , etc. : destroys the disobedient, 53 51— 5 : 
seizes him by his forelock and summons the guards of hell, 96 14— 7 : He 
is the Arbitrator (Fattah), 34 25 : who has a fixed time, 71 4 : the 
Answerer (Miijib), 11 64 : the Grateful (Shakur), 35 27 : the Avenger 



SUBJECT INDEX 85 

(Muntaqim), 32 22 : the Slayer (Mumit), 2 26 : the Gatherer into hell 
(Jami'), 4 139 . 

He is omniscient, 6 59 ; 58 8 : the Subtle {Latif), 6 103 ; who pervades 
all things, 57 3 : closer to man than his neck-vein, 50 15 : the Seer 
(Basir), 96 13 , etc. : who stands on a watch-tower, 89 13 : all-seeing, but 
unseen, 6 103 : the Knower ( l alim), 35 43 , etc. : acquainted with the 
secrets of men, 20 *- 6 : perceiving things unseen, 27 66— 80 : the Witness 
(Shahid), 3 93 , etc. : the Hearer [Sami 1 ), 40 21 , etc. : the Cognizant 
(Khabir), 6 103 , etc. : the Wise (Hakim), 2 123 , etc. : the Light (Nur) 
of heaven and earth, 24 35 : the Guide (Hiidi), 22 53 : blinds and deafens 
the rebellious, 45 22 . 

He is Generous (Kdrim or AJcram), 96 3 : the Provider (Bazzdq), 
51 58 : cares bountifully for mankind, 16 10— 18 : feeds the animal creation, 

29 60 : He is the Protector (Muhaimin), 59 23 : and Guardian ( Wakil) 
of His servants, 4 83 : the Bestower of benefits (Wahhdb), 3 6 , etc. : 
the Beneficent {Barr\ 52 28 : the Enricher (Mughni), 4 129 : He is 
the Merciful One (Bahmdn), the Merciful (Bahim), 1 2 , etc. ; may- 
be called either Allah or Rahman, 25 61 ; 17 no '; 13 29 : merciful to 
venial sins, 53 33 : forgives all sins, 39 54 : He is the Forgiver {Qhdfir), 
40 3 : Pardoner (Ohaffdr), 38 66 : Remitter (Ghafur), 35 27 : the 
Clement (Halim), 2 225 : the Relenting (Tawwdb), 9 119 : the Indul- 
gent (Rc?uf) K 2 138 , etc. : the Loving (Wadud), 11 92 ; 85 14 : to those 
who follow His apostle, 3 29 . 

Gog and Magog = Ydjiij, Mdjuj. Way opened for them, 21 96 : 
they waste the earth, 18 93 : subdued by Dhu'l Qarnain, 18 93-6 . 

Goliath = Juliet. Saul's army afraid of him, but David slew him, 

2 250— 2^ 

Gospel = Injll. [New Testament.] 

Grace = Fas I. Divine goodness or bounty, often coupled with mercy 
(rahmah), 4 113 » 174 : shown to Israel after apostasy at Sinai, 2 61 : in 
raising the dead, 2 244 : granting revelation, 2 38 ; 57 29 : wealth, 62 10 : 
Paradise, 42 21 . 

" Greeks " = Bum. Title of S. 30. Defeated by Persians, but will 
defeat them later, 30 1 ~ 3 . 

Greeting. [Deportment.] 

Guidance. Only from A., 2 114 : to good or evil, 90 10 : rejected by 
the unbeliever, 96 n ; 7 192 , etc. : whom A. leads astray, 40 ? 4 ; 6 39 » 126 , 
etc.: accepted by Md., 93 7 ; and other believers, 2 4 : through former 
prophets, 6 88 , etc. : in Torah, 2 154 ; 5 48 , etc. : tables of law, 7 153 : Injll, 

3 2 ; 5 co : through Md., 4 11S ; 9 33 , etc. : in Q., 2 1 - 91 , etc. : to be im- 
parted to others, 3 66 . 

H. 

JJubll = Abel. 

Jladld = " Iron." Title of S. 57. 

j/ajj = " Pilgrimage." Title of S. 22. [Pilgrimage.] 
Haman. [Pharaoh.] 

Han if = Sound in faith. Of Abraham, as no idolater, 3 89 ; 
6 79 '* 162 ; 16 121 : as neither Jew nor Christian, 2 129 ; 3 60 : of Md., 10 105 : 

30 29 : of believers generally, 22 32 ; 98 4 . 
Haqqah = " Infallible." Title of S. 69. 
Harum, Haldl. [Things forbidden.] 



86 THE TEACHING OF THE QURAN 

Harun. [Aaron.] 

Harut and Marut. [Angels.] 

Eashr = " Emigration." Title of S. 59. 

Hawdrl. [Apostles of Jesus.] 

Heaven. [Paradise.] 

Heavens. Seven heavens, 41 n : and as many earths, 65 12 : held 
up without pillars, 22 M ; 13 2 . [Creation.] 

" He frowned " = 'Abasa. Title of S. 80. 

Hell. Nar = fire ; and seven other names with the same connotation 
except hdwiyah = the pit. Has seven gates, 15 44 : guarded by nineteen 
angels, 74 30 f : in full view at judgment, 79 36 : consuming fire, 74 2S f : 
its torments are fetters and flame, 73 12 f : boiling water and gore for food, 
38 57 : damned neither die nor live, 20 76 : full of remorse, 26 91— 102 : 
wrangle with their seducers, 38 64 : the relief of death denied to them, 
43 77 : desire to return and amend on earth refused, 23 101 ~ 103 : no release 
from torments, 40 52_ 55 : for ever in hell, 43 74 f ; 2 75 : all go into it, but 
the god-fearing delivered, 19 72 f : its inmates the people of the left hand, 
90 19 f ; 56 9 > 40 : whose balances are light, 101 6 : have been covetous, 
102: unbelieving, 90 18—20 : neglected prayers and alms, 74*4—48. wor- 
shipped servants and creatures of A., 18 102 - no : opposed Md., 74 x ; 111 ; 
104 : intercession avails not its inmates, 74 49 : A. cries, " Art thou 
full ? " 50 29 : He will surely fill hell with men and jinns, 32 13 ; 11 12c : 
many of both created for hell. 7 178 . 

Help = Nasr. Title oflS. 110. 

Helpers = Ansur. All believers to be helpers of A., 61 14 : helpers 
of Md. at Medina especially commended, 9 101 « 118 . 

"Hijr." Title of S. 15. Its inhabitants rejected the messenger 
of A.,' 80 . 

Holy Spirit. [Gabriel.] 

Honey. A God-given medicine, 16 71 . 

Houris. [Paradise.] 

Houses, Entering. [Deportment.] _ 

Hud. (Heber ?). A prophet sent to the people of Ad, 7 63 - 70 ; 

1 1 52— 63 . 26 123— 139 # 

"Hud." Title of S. 11. 

Hujurut = "Apartments." Title of S. 49. 

Humazah = "Backbiter." Title of S. 104. 

Hunain. Site of a battle A. H. 8, 9 25 . 

Hunting. Forbidden during pilgrimage, 5 *• 3 . 

" Hypocrites " = Munufiqun. Title of S. 63. Slackness and fervent 
professions, 48 11— 15 : covert opposition to Md., 63 1-s ; 24 46 ~ 52 : refusal to 
obey his decisions, 4 64 : penalty denounced on tergiversation, 4 137 ~ 46 : 
9 68f : their treachery, 2 20 °- 3 : punished after siege of Madinah, 33 9 ~ 26 : 
liable to same penalties as infidels, 9 74 ~~ 80 : to be seized and killed, if 
taken in intrigue, 4 90— 3 : God knows them, 29 10 : Md. not to pray for 
them, 4 107— 9 : no forgiveness for them, 9 81 ; 63 6 : not to be obeyed, 
but not to be injured, 33 47 . 

I. 
lblls. [Devil.] 
Ibrahim. [Abraham.] Title of S. 14. 



SUBJECT INDEX 87 

'Iddah. Period of waiting for women after divorce or death of 

husband, 65 4 ; 2 234 . ., A r 3 , 

Idolatry = SHrft. Association of other deities with A., £> . 
idolaters unclean, 9 » : will be confounded at day of lodgment 28 
not to be prayed for,9 114f : shirk the unpardonable sin, 4^ . 

Idols. Wathan (pi. ottto); ?anom (pi. a*7i«m). Allat, Al Uzza, 
Manat, mere names, 53 *-« : Wadd, Sowa< Yarfiuth Ya'uq, Nasr H 
Tishflt 16 38 • 39 19 : insubstantial as web of spider,29 40 : most of them are 
ffi2i lifeless create nothing, 16—; 35 38 : helpless 7 **- ': 
ave had no scripture granted them, 35 ™; 46 > : credited with daughters 
whom for themselves men dislike, 16 — : likened to slaves and dumb 
men 16 771 : regarded by idolaters as advocates with A., 1U ; b . 
cannot intercede for them, 30"; 39«.»: will accuse their ^votaries on 
day of judgment, 19 "< ; 10 29 ', etc. : together with them are fuel for hell- 
fire, 21 98 ' : Ms. not to revile them lest idolaters blaspheme A., 6 : 
images are an abomination, 5 92 . 

Ifrit* A spirit 'among the jinn who served Solomon, 27 39 . [Jinn.] 

Tkhlas -" Unity." Title of S. 112. 

'ITtivun. A register of the righteous in Paradise, 83 * paradise.] 

fit'XS (o^S: Abraham, 2 ns: Moses 11- 46": 

prophets Generally at judgment 17 » : = a Model or prototype : of the 
Scord of divine decrees, 36 » ; of pious life, 25 " : = a warning Example, 
Sodom and Jlidian, 15 m . 

Immunity. lth 6f font monfe from attack, granted to idolaters leagued 
withSms, 9 »- (sometimes used as title of S. 9, Taubat = " Eenun- 

Cia 'lmr5n. The father of Miriam, the prophetess, 3 »« : the father of 

^ Yndulg'ence, tobelievers. No soul hurdened beyond its power, 23 « : 
we will lay on them our easy behests, 18 * 7 . 

" Inevitable "= Waqi'ah. Title of S. 50. 

« InfaUible » = fiS^. Title of S ' 69 ( sometimes ^ UOted aS 
Inevitable). 

SSfc'SjraSSMI- the truth, a rejects the aioostle- 
ship of Md. or truth of Q., 2 " : who believes in the Godhead of Chnst, 
5 '«• or the Trinity, 5": cp. 98 ». Jfttsinfe = one who gives associates 
to A genera ly used of Meccan idolaters, 15*- and often. (1) Then: 
tenete and behaviour. Deceitful and wealthy, 68*-° : disbelieve judg- 
ment day 82 »: ungrateful for A.'s benefits 30 »- ; 25 - « «fo.e to leave 
their idols, 38 «— : ignore the Creator and His message, 52 . object 

to need of zakat if A. feeds all, 36"': mock at A.'s poverty when 
asked for zakat, 3™: rail at Md.,26»-: give the he to _the prophet 
and his teachings, 83 ">-': object to Md. as living the life of an o « °°ary 
man 25 «'• 22 <: reject resurrection and hie to come, 6f»; 23 . ana 
ascribe offspring to A., 2 "° ; 10", etc.: deride Islam its observances 
ind followers 5 02 '; 83 »— 6 : adhere to ancestral tradition, io 
^m mere op mons, '53 »: follow devils and poets 20^-: deplore the 
birth of daughters, 43 « : proud and scornful, 1G » « : known by strangeness 



88 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

of speech, 47 32 : desire open writings from heaven, 74 52 : demand a 
sign, 6 109 : demand a change in Q. 10 16 : accuse Md. of forging Q., 
52 33 : of magic, 74 24f . (2) How to be treated by Ms. No oaths binding 
towards them as perjurers, 9 12 : Md. to be patient with them and 
depart, 73 10t ; 86 17 : not to sit with them, 6 67 : abandon them till 
judgment comes, 37 174— 8 : Ms. not to be intimate with unbelievers, 
3 ii4_6. fig j lt w i th them or let tliem acce pt Islam, 48 16 ; 9 6 - 11 ; 

2 186—9 . those who have kept treaties not to be attacked, 9 4 « 7 : if not 
actual opponents may be dealt with as friends, 60 1— 3 > 8 f : dispute with 
Jews kindly, 16 126 : pagans summoned after Badr to surrender and 
believe, 8 19 : to be forgiven on conversion to Islam, 8 39 . (3) How 
dealt with by A. Punished for rejection of former prophets, 54 3— 8 ; 
43 *~ 7 , etc.: A. will foil their plots against Md., 43 78 ~ 84 ; 14 47 : 
not visited with judgment while Md. is among them, 8 33 : their works 
like mist and darkness, 24 39f : punishment delayed to test by pros- 
perity, 21 m ; 43 28— 38 : present chastisement to lead to repentance, 
32 21 : length of days only increases sin, 3 172 ; 9 55 : punished by 
judicial blindness," 6 no f : hell is their portion, 85 10 ; 54 43 ~ 48 : chains 
and fire, 76 4 ; 3 8 : excluded from Paradise till camel pass through 
needle's eye, 7 38 : unjust to their own souls, 16 30 » 35 *; 30 8 ; 28 15 : 
predestined to infidelity, 10 34 : devils sent to urge them into sin, 19 86 ; 
reject apostles by A.'s action, 15 11— **. 

Infitar = " Cleaving." Title of S. 82. 

Inheritance. Equitable provision to be made, 2 176 ~ 8 : legacies to 
be shared by men and women and residue for poor and orphans, 4 8— 12 : 
share of husbands and wives, 4 13 f : of distant relatives, 4 15 : husband not 
to inherit from wife against her will, 4 23 : rules for making and attestation 
of wills, 5 105- 7 . 

Injil = Evangel, i.e. the written revelation of God to Jesus. 
Mentioned by name only in later Surahs. Brought to Jesus, 5 50 ; 57 27 : 
its followers should be faithful to it, 5 51 : coupled with the Law (Taurat), 

3 58 . 48 29 . 5 70, 72 . k th referring to Md. as nabl ummi, 7 156 : coupled 
with Law and Q., 9 112 ; 3 2 : with Q. Wisdom and Law, 5 no : Jesus 
predicts coming of Ahmad, 61 6 . 

Insan = " Man." Title of S. 76. 

Inshirah = " Expanding." Title of S. 94. 

Inshiquq = " Splitting asunder." Title of S. 84. 

Inspiration = walii. The source of Md.'s warnings, 21 46 : of the 
Q. oracles, 53 4 : the speech of A. to man 42 50 : sent to Md. by the spirit 
(Gabriel), 42 52 : also to Noah and other prophets, 4 161 : the bee inspired 
to build hive and make honey, 16 70 f . 

Intercession = shafa'ah. Wholly with A., 39 45 ; 6 61 » 69 : only by 
him whom A. permits, 53 261 ; 21 27 ~ 29 : the angels, even Gabriel not 
excepted, 78 38 : only through covenant with Rahman, 19 90 : intercession 
of idols unavailing, 30 12 : 43 86 : no intercession for wicked in hell, 
74 49 . 

Invocation = bismi'llah. " In the name of A. the Merciful One, 
the Merciful." Prefixed to every Surah of the Q. except the 9th. 

Iram. A city of the land of 'Ad, 89 6 . 

"Iron " = Eadld. Title of S. 57. 

i Isa = Jesus (which see). 

Isaac = Ishdq. I. and Jacob given as sons to Abraham, 21 72 ; and 



SUBJECT INDEX 89 

made prophets, 19 50f : I.'s birth as child of promise to Sarah, 11 72 ~ 7 : 
the unnamed son of Abraham offered, 37 97— 113 . 

Ishmael = Isma'il. Apostle and prophet, 19 55f : helps his father 
in building Ka'bah, 2 119 ~ 21 : coupled with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob 
and the Tribes (of Israel), 2 134 ; 3 78 : as inspired, 4 161 : coupled with 
sundry other prophets, 6 86 ; 21 85 ; 38 48 . 

Islam. (1) Its Claim. The true religion before A., 3 17 : no_ other 
accepted by Him, 3 79 ; 5 5 : perfected by Him and ordained for believers, 
5 5 : He opens the heart to its reception, 6 123 ; 39 23 : believers in it to 
disregard taunts, 49 17 : some after being called to it devise falsehood, 61 7 . 

(2) Its Previous Existence. The faith of Noah, 10 73 : also of Abraham, 
Moses and Jesus, 42 n : enjoined by Jacob at point of death, 2 127 : A. 
names believers Ms. as following faith of Abraham, 22 77 : acceptance of 
I. demanded by Law and Evangel, 5 70 » 72 : faithful Jews and Christians 
were Ms. before Q. came, 28 53 : Jews, Christians and Sabeans have only 
to add faith in revelation of Q., 5 73 : I. is belief in all the prophets, 2 130 . 

(3) Its Nature and Excellence. It is the Baptism of A., 2 132 : Ms. are 
those who have heard the call and believed, 3 19 ° : who deny Taghiit and 
believe in A., 2 257 : who set their face towards A. with self-surrender, 
31 21 : believe in A. and the Apostle, 64 8 - 12 : follow Md., 3 18t : they are 
the best of ummahs, 3 106 : I. is a rule {shir 1 ah) and high-road (minhiij), 
5 52 : must be proclaimed in its entirety, 5 71 : and so accepted, 2 204 : 
truth is come and falsehood has vanished, 17 83 : obedience to the Apostle 
is obedience to A., 4 82 : no affair to be entered on till both permit, 49 1 : 
rules of faith and conduct given, 6 152-4 : controversy with God forbidden, 
42 15 : I. is the easy way, 87 8 ; 7 40 : fruitful in preaching and profession, 
14 29 ~ 31 . (4) Its Propagation. Spread of I. round Mecca, 21 45 : to be 
victorious over every other religion, 61 9 ; 9 33 : to spread to other lands, 
41 53 : a message for mankind, 14 52 : reception of women converts, 60 12 : 
no compulsion in religion, 2 257 : Ms. will overcome infidels in battle, 
3 107 r . ex jj e an( j war f are f or sa ke of I. to be rewarded, 4 101 : rejection of 
call brings divine judgment, 3 17 : apostasy from I. leads to hell, 4 115 : 
but opponents from among people of Scriptures may be forgiven and 
shunned, 2 103 : Ms. not to be intimate with infidels, 3 114— 6 . [Warfare.] 

Israel, Children of = Banilsrull. (1) History. Prophets and Kings 
appointed over them before Moses, 5 23 : Israel in Egypt, 28 2 u : pass the 
Red Sea, 26 63 -« ; 7 134 : guided in wilderness, 7 160 ~ 2 : lust for herbs of 
Egypt, 2 58 : worship golden calf, 2 48 ' 51 : break Sabbath by fishing, 7 1G3 : 
made into apes for disobedience, 7 166 : divided upon earth as peoples, 
7 167 : Mount Sinai shaken over them, 7 170 : commanded to sacrifice a 
red cow, 2 63— 8 : refusal to enter Canaan and punishment, 5 23— 9 : inherit 
eastern and western lands, 7 133 : ill-doing and punishment, 17 4— 8 : desire 
a king, 2 247 : Saul appointed and given the Ark, 2 248f : they are cursed 
by David and Jesus, 5 82 . (2) Status. They are favoured above all 
peoples, 2 44 « 116 : keepers and witnesses of the Book of A., 5 48 : students 
of the Law, 7 168 ; 2 41 : in covenant with A., 2 77f : which they should 
have kept, 2 38 : but they broke it by concealing its truths from mankind. 
3 184 . 5 i5i. there are pious persons among them, 3 109 J ; 4 16 ° : converts 
from among them commended, 3 198f : but bad mixed with the good, 
3 68 ": some rejoice in Q. some oppose, 13 36 : they believe in A. and 
Judgment 'but not in Md., 2 7 . (3) Opposition to Md. Publish part of 
Law and conceal part, 6 91 : barter God's signs for a mean price, 2 73 ; 



90 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

3 71 : reject witness of Book of A., 2 95 : alter the gift of A., 2 *° 7 : mis- 
quote Scripture, 3 72 ; 4 48 : try to mislead others, 8 62— 5 : like ass beneath 
load of books, 62 5 : their appeal to A.'s special favour is their condemna- 
tion, 62 6 : they calumniate Mary and Jesus, 4 155 f : mock Md. with 
ambiguous greeting, 2 98 ; 4 48 f : intrigue against him, 59 11— 16 : join 
idolaters to oppose him, 4 52 ~ 9 : their hypocritical enmity denounced, 

2 8— 19 : they are most covetous of this life, 2 90 : take usury, 4 159 : eat 
unlawful things, 5 67 : refuse to accept Md. as judge, 5 47 : are his most 
persistent opponents, 5 81— 5 . [Prophets : Scriptures : single names, 
Moses, etc.] 

J. 

Jacob = Ya'qub. Son of Abraham, 21 72 : prophet, 19 50f : in 
connection with story of Joseph, 12 4 ~ 102 : bequeaths Islam to his 
children, 2 127 . 

Jdhannam — Hell (which see). 

Jdlut = Goliath (which see). 

Jannat. [Paradise.] 

Jathiyah = " Kneeling." Title of S. 45. 

Jesus Christ = l Isa Masih. 'Isa, 25 times of which 4 in Meccan 
Surahs. Masih, 8 times only in Medina Surahs. No distinction is made in 
meaning. Names used in Q. : (1) 'Tsa, 19 35 , etc. : probably Yisu 1 
modified to rhyme with Musd : (2) Bin Maryam = Son of Mary, 19 35 , 
etc. : (3) Al Masih = the Christ, 3 40 : (4) Kalimatu'lluh - the Word of 
God, 4 169 : (5) Qaulu'l Haqq = the Word of Truth, 19 33 : (6) Buliun 
min Allah = a Spirit from God, 4 169 : (7) Rasulullah = Messenger of 
God, 4 169 : (8) 'Abdullah = Servant of God, 19 31 : (9) Nabiyu'llah = 
Prophet of God, 19 31 : (10) Wajlhan fi'd dunyd wall akhirati = Illus- 
trious in this world and the next, 3 40 . 

(1) Annunciation. Announced by angel as Word, Messiah, illustrious, 
near to A. ; A. will create him, teach him, and make him a messenger 
to Israel, 3 37_43 : Spirit appears to bestow on Mary a holy son, 
19 16— 21 . (2) Birth. Jesus born under a palm-tree from which fresh 
dates fall on Mary : speaks in cradle to vindicate her ; claims to be a 
prophet with scripture ; will die to be raised again, 19 22 ~ 34 : mother 
and child a sign, placed in quiet garden, 23 52 . (3) Miracles. Will give 
life to birds of clay, heal blind and leper, raise dead, tell secrets : apostles 
called to be his helpers, and Ms., 3 43— 6 , 5 109fl : brings down a furnished 
table from heaven, 5 112 ~ 5 . (4) Mission. A follower of former prophets, 
not ascetic: confirmed by John as the Word from A., 3 34 ;,57 26f : His 
Evangel confirms the Law, 5 50 f : strengthened by Holy Spirit, raised to 
loftiest grade, 2 81 , 254 : announces coming of Ahmad after him, 61 6 : 
coupled with Zachariah, John and Elijah, 6 85 : all people of Scripture 
shall believe on him before his death and he shall witness against them at 
judgment, 4 157 : attests the Law and relaxes some of its prohibitions, 

3 44 : came to bring the one religion, 21 91 f ; 23 54 : (5) Crucifixion. A. 
delivers him from Jews, causes him to die and takes him up to Himself till 
day of resurrection, 3 47f : Jews did not slay him but his likeness ; he was 
taken up to A., 4 156 . (6) His Nature. He is Word of Truth, not Son, but 
creature, 19 35f : as Adam in sight of A., created of dust, 3 52 : set on a 
level with their idols by Meccans ; a sign of the last hour, came to clear 
up differences, 43 57— 65 : Jews say Ezra is son of A. ; Nazarenes say the 



SUBJECT INDEX 91 

Christ is son of A. ; they he, 9 30 : Jesus as a true prophet could not 
possibly have claimed for himself divine worship, 3 73 : to say that Christ, 
son of Mary, is God is infidelity, 5 19 . (7) Trinity denied. Christ the 
son of Mary is not God but only a prophet : God is not one of three, 
5 76 ~ 9 : Christ is only an Apostle, the Word of God conveyed to Mary and 
His Spirit : say not Three, 4 169f : Jesus denies that he and his mother are 
gods beside Allah, 5 116ff . 

Jews. [Israel.] 

Jeth.ro = Shu'aib. Sent to Midian, bids the people give fair measure ; 
A. is loving, but will punish ; they reject him and are destroyed by earth- 
quake, 11 8& ~ 98 : substantially the same, 26 176 - 190 ; 7 83 ~ 91 . 

Jibru'll (Q. Jibril). [Gabriel.] 

Jibt. An idol of the Quraish accepted (together with Taghiit) by 
certain renegade Jews, 4 54 . 

Jihad. 4 times in Q. Mighty strife by means of Q., 25 e4 : strive in 
(the way ol) A. his true strife, 22 77 : go forth to strife in my way, 60 * : 
kindred should not be dearer than strife in the way of A., 9 24 . [Warfare.] 

Jinn or jinnl. (Spirits good or evil.) Created of fire, 55 14 ; 15 27 : 
created with men to worship A., 51 56f : Iblis was of the jinn ; apostles came 
to them as to men, 6 13 ° : try to overhear celestial secrets, but are foiled, 
72 8f : help to lead men astray, 41 29 : are made partners with A. by 
infidels, 6 10 ° : unbelieving jinn go to hell, 6 128 ; 41 ** ; 11 120 : were 
subject to Solomon, 27 17 , 39ff : are both believers and infidels, 72 n ' 14 : 
crowd round Md. to hear Q. and become Ms., 46 28ff ; 72 >« 18f » M ; judged 
with men as corporeal beings, 55 31 . 

" Jinn." Title of S. 72. 

Jizyah = Tribute. To be paid after military defeat by People of 
Scriptures who do not believe in A. and last day and haram, 9 29 . 

Job = Aiyub. His trial and restoration, 38 4 °— 4 ; 21 83f : coupled 
with Jesus, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon, 4 161 : David, Solomon, Joseph, Moses 
aud Aaron, 6 84 . 

John (the Baptist) = Yaliyd. Annunciation of birth, 19 1—12 : 
granted to prayer of Zachariah, 21 89f : to confirm the Word from A. ( = 
Jesus), 3 34 : receives a book from A., 19 13 : his virtues, 19 14f : coupled 
with Zachariah, Jesus and Elijah, 6 85 . 

Jonah = Yunus. His mission and deliverance, 37 139 ~~ 48 : cries from 
the fish's belly, 68 48f : confesses his fault and is delivered, 21 87f : the 
only prophet who brought his hearers to repentance, 10 98 : coupled with 
Ishmael, Elisha, and Lot, 6 86 . 

Joseph = Yasuf. His story fills S. 12. Kevealed as the most 
beautiful of tales, 3 : he preaches Islam to fellow-prisoners, 37— 40 : the 
device of the silver cup is suggested by A., 7G : he prays to die a M., 102 : 
this is a secret history revealed, 103 : an instruction (memorial) for man- 
kind ('alamin), 104 ; an explanation of all things, m : his hearers doubt his 
message and promise of messenger to follow, 40 36 : coupled with Job, 
Moses, Aaron, and other prophets, 6 84 . 

" Joseph " = Yusuf. Title of S. 12. 

Judaism. [Israel.] 

Judgment Day. Terms in Q. (1) Yaumu'l qiyumah = Day of 
Standing up, 2 79 : (2) Yaumu'l Fasl = Day of Separation, 77 14 : (3) 
Yaumu'l Hisub = Day of Reckoning, 40 28 : (4) Yaumu'l BaHh = Day of 
Awakening, 30 56 : (5) Yaumu'd Din = Day of Judgment, 1 3 : (6) Yaumu'l 



92 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Muliit = the Encompassing " Day, ll 85 : (7) A's Sa l ah = the Hour, 
7 186 . " 

It is the sudden Event, 69 15 ; 79 46 : the Hour, 19 77 , etc. : sure to 
come, 51 5f : near at hand, 77 7 , etc. : its signs already manifest, 47 20 : 
Md. may not live to witness it, 10 47 : hour unknown save to Kabb, 
79 42ff , etc. : one day as a thousand years, 32 4 ; 22 46 : earth and moun- 
tains shake, 73 14 ; 22 1 : heavens rent asunder, 73 18 : the Blow which 
pulverises all thiDgs, 101 1— 4 : trumpet sounds, 74 8 ; 80 33 : graves open, 
82 1—4 : children turn grey headed, 73 17 ; sundry portents, 81 , 82, 83, 
etc. : the analogue of first creation, 79 27— 34 ; 21 104 : day of doom from 
A., no human help, 82 18f : absolutely just judgment, 95 7f : day of 
account by angels, 50 16_ 29 : false gods invoked in vain, 28 62_ 9 , 74f : each 
gives account for himself, 80 37 ; 16 112 : light and heavy balances decide, 
101 6f ; 7 7f : blessed have book in right hand, damned in left, 69 19 ~ 29 ; 
84 7 ~ 15 : all works manifested, 99 6 ff ; 82 5 : members of body witness 
against sinner, 41 18 ~ 22 ; 24 24 : each man has his book of deeds, 18 45 ff : 
and each people (ummah), 45 27f : record of Sijjln for wicked, Illiyun for 
good, 83 7 ~ 21 : leaves of Book opened, 81 10 : men guided and misled by 
A., 17 "; 32 13 : no ransom or intercession for infidels, 2 117 : misleaders 
and misled wrangle, 14 24— 7 : 40 50 : deniers of judgment confounded, 
51 10— 14 : oppressors, covetous, and rapacious punished, 89 18— 26 : infidels 
distressed, 7 48f ; 80 40ff , etc.: their blindness will increase after judg- 
ment, 17 74 : Rabb the asylum on that day, 75 8— 12 : reward to prayerful 
and continent, 70 22 ~ 35 . 

Jumu'ah = " Assembly." Title of S. 62. 



X. 

Ka'bah. A house (bait) founded by Abraham and Ishmael, 2 119_ 22 : 
its site assigned by A. to Abraham for circuit (tawaf), 22 27 : a station 
for mankind, 5 98 : offering to be made at K. if game killed on pilgrimage, 
5 96 : a " sacred precinct " (haram), 28 57 : the " Sacred Mosque " 
(masjidcb'l haram), finally appointed as qiblah, 2 139 » 144f : pilgrimage to 
be made to it, 9 19 : infidels would keep Ms. from it, 5 s ; 8 34 ; 48 25 : or 
make them unfaithful to it, 22 25 : Ms. may defend it, 2 214 : but not attack 
infidels there unless attacked, 2 187 : league made there, 9 7 : believers 
shall enter it in peace, 48 27 : infidels thenceforth not to approach it, 9 28 : 
penalty for failing to visit it, 2 192 . 

Kafir = coverer. [Infidel.] 

Kaffarah = covering. [Expiation.] 

Kafirun = " Unbelievers." Title of S. 109. 

Kdfur = camphor. A fountain in Paradise, 76 5 . 

Kahf = " Cave." Title of S. 18. 

Kahin. [Soothsayer.] 

Kauthar = " Abundance." Title of S. 108. 

Kalimah = watchword. There is no deity but A., 47 21 : Md. is the 
Apostle of A., 48 29 . 

Kalimatullah = Word of God : Jesus is an Apostle of A. and His 
Word, 4 169 . [Jesus.] 

KalamuHldh = Word of God. A sect of them (Jews) have heard 
the Word of A., 2 70 . 



SUBJECT INDEX 93 

Khalifah = vicegerent. Adam placed as Khalifah on earth, 2 28 : 
David to judge with truth as Khalifah of A., 38 25 . 

Khalilu'llah = Friend of God. A. took Abraham as His friend, 4 124 . 

Killing. Only permitted for just cause, 17 35 . [Punishments : 
Warfare.] 

Kindred. [Inheritance : Marriage : Mother : Parents.] 

"Kingdom" = Mulk. Title of S. 67. [God : Beautiful Names.] 

Kitab = writing. [Scriptures : Decrees.] 

u Kneeling " = Jathiyah. Title of S. 45. 

Kora-h = Qurun. Moses sent to Pharaoh, Haman and Korah, 
40 ^ f ; 29 38 : K. proud of his enormous wealth, despises his people and 
is swallowed by the earth, 28 76_83 . 

L. 

Lail = " Night." Title of S. 92. 

LailatxCl Qadr. [Night of Power.] 

Lapwing = hudhud. Messenger between Solomon and Queen of 
Sheba, 27 »• 28 . 

Lat (or Hat). An Arabian deity, consort to Allah, coupled with 
'Uzza and Manat, 53 19 «. 

Lauhu'l Mahfuz = Preserved Tablet. [Qur'an.] 

Law (of Moses). [Pentateuch.] 

Legacies. [Inheritance.] 

** Light " = Niir. Title of S. 24. 

Lot = Lut. Wise and righteous, 21 u l : remonstrates with Sodom- 
ites, 27 55 ~ 9 ; 7 78 ~ 82 : mission of the angels to Sodom, 15 61 ~ 76 ; ll 79 - 84 : 
rescued from destruction, 37 133 ~ 8 ; 29 23 ~ 34 : rejectors punished, 54 33 ~ 8 ; 

2(3 160-75 # 

Love. Hubb. A. will raise up a people loved by Him and loving 
Him, 5 59 : love to A. shown by following His Apostle, 3 29 : infidels love 
idols as they should love A. ; the faithful love A. more, 2 160 : Meccans 
love riches with exceeding love, 89 21 : Joseph infatuates Zulaikhah with 
love, 12 30 . Mahabbah. A. sets His love on Moses, 20_ 39 . Wudd. To 
righteous believers A. will show love at judgment, 19 95 f . Mawaddalu 
Friendship between believer and A., 4 75 : idols as an object of love, 29 24 : 
between Ms. and Christians, 5 85 : between husband and wife, 30 20 : 
among kinsfolk, 42 22 : to enemies, 60 7 . 

Luqman. Granted wisdom, 31 u : preaches Islam and humility to 
his son, 31 12 - 15 ~ 18 . 

"Luqman." Title of S. 31. 

Lut = Lot. 

M. 

Ma'arij = " Steps." Title of S. 70. 
" Made Plain " = Fussilat. Title of S. 41. 
Madyan = Midian. Shu'aib (Jethro) sent to M., 7 83 . 
Magians = Majus. Coupled with Jews, Sabeans, and Christians, as 
against Ms., 22 17 . 

Magic = sihr. Taught by Harut and Marut at Babel, 2 ° 6 : Pharaoh 



94 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

a great magician, 26 48 : his magicians encounter Moses, 26 33— 47 ; 
7 no-lie. Moses accused of magic, 10 77 ' ; 27 13 : Md. often similarly 
accused, 37 15 ; 61 6 , etc. 

MaHdah = " Table." Title of S. 5. 

Majus. [Magians.] 

MalaHkah = "Angels." Title of S. 35. 

MalakvCl Maut - Angel of death, 32 n . [Angels.] 

Malik. The angel who keeps the damned in hell when they desire 
annihilation, 43 77 . 

Man. Created (from clots of blood, 96 2 : germs, 86 6f , etc.) : of fine 
clay to die and rise agaiu, 23 12— 16 : together with jinn, 55 13f ; 15 26 fi : for 
the service of Allah, 51 56 : in trouble, 90 4 : mortal, 21 35 : to taste of 
death, to be tested with good and evil, 21 36 : can only will as A. wills, 
81 29 ; 76 30 : posterity drawn forth from loins of children of Adam 
for covenant with A., 7 171 1 ; 33 7 : soul balanced by A., and inbreathed 
with wickedness and piety, 91 7f : one keeps it pure, another corrupts, 
91 9f : created good, brought very low, unless he believe and do good 
works, 95 4£E : falls through temptation of Iblis, but receives guidance, 
20 118— M : created weak, but A. makes his burden light, 4 32 : has failed 
to accept A.'s revelation, 33 72 : in trouble cries to A., when helped forgets 
Him, 10 13 ' 23 *: inconstant, 17 12 ; 89 14 ~ 17 , etc.: capricious, 41 49 ~ 51 : 
covetous, 17 102 ; 70 19 ~~ 21 : proud of riches, 96 6f : universally sinful, 
16 63 : descended from one pair, 4 1 : taught articulate speech by A., 55 2 f : 
originally of one religion (ummah) y 10 20 ; 2 209 : all things subjected to 
him, 14 37 : man a step above woman, 2 228 ; 4 38 : fed by A. through 
nature } 80 24— 32 : A. takes his soul in sleep, 39 43 ; 6 60 : man and all things 
return to A., 28 88 ; 39 9 : man springs from earth and returns to it, 
71 16f ; 20 57 : is a witness against himself at resurrection, 75 14f . 

" Man" = Insun. Title of S. 76. 

Manna = mann. Sent to Israel with quails, 20 82 : and with cloud, 

2 54 • 7 160^ 

Marriage = nikah. For begetting of children, 2 223 : and multipli- 
cation of race, 42 9 : wife to be treated with love and tenderness, 30 20 : 
marriage (but not concubinage) with Jew or Christian lawful, 5 7 : 
not with idolaters or idolatresses, 2 22 ° : nor married women except 
captives of war, 4 28 : father's wife forbidden, 4 26 : list of prohibited 
degrees, 4 27 : wife of adopted son allowed, 33 4 : exchange of wives to be 
fairly carried out, 4 241 : wives up to four, 4 3 : slave girls at discretion, 
70 30f ; 23 5— 7 ; 4 29f : marriage of orphans, 4 126 : remarriage of widows, 
2 234—6 . r ight of wife to dowry, 4 3 : marital intercourse to be preceded 
by act of piety, 2 223 : wives, as far as possible, to be treated alike, 4 128 : 
treatment of refugee women from among pagans, 60 10— 12 : refractory 
wives to be beaten, 4 38 : separation by agreement aUowed, 4 127 : recon- 
ciliation of differences, 4 39 : M. may acquire wife for money to be paid 
as dowry after cohabitation, 4 28 . 

Martyrs = shahld. Classed with prophets, confessors and 
righteous, 4 71 . 

Mary = Maryam. Daughter of 'Imran = Amram, reared by 
Zachariah, 3 31f ' 39 : sister of Aaron, 19 29 : annunciation and conception 
of Jesus, 19 16— 22 ; 3 37— 42 : kept her maidenhood, the spirit of A. 
breathed into her, 21 91 ; 66 12 : birth of Jesus and accusation of 
unchastity, 19 23— 39 : vindication by his speech in cradle, 19 30— 35 . 



SUBJECT INDEX 95 

" Mary " = Mdryam. Title of S. 19. 

Marwah. A hill near Mecca visited by pilgrims, 2 153 . 

Maslli = Messiah [Jesus Christ]. 

Masjid = [Mosque]. 

MasjidiCl Haram. [Ka'bah.] 

Ma'un = "Necessaries." Title of S. 107. 

Measure. [Weights.] 

Mecca = Makkah. The first house for mankind in Bakkah, 3 90 : to 
be destroyed, like former cities, because it expelled Md., 47 14 : victory in 
valley of M., 48 M : spared because believers mingled among infidels, 
48 25 . 

Medina = Yathrib. Divided counsels during siege of city by 
Quraish, 33 13 . 

" Men " = Nas. Title of S. 114. 

u Merciful " = Rahman. Title of S. 55. 

Messenger. [Apostle.] 

Messiah. [Jesus Christ.] 

Michael = Mlkdl. The enemy of M. and Gabriel is the enemy of 
A. 2 92 . 

' Milk. Of cattle a gift of A., 16 68 . 

Miracles [or Signs] = ay at. Of Noah, 23 31 : Moses, 17 103f ; 
7 101 - 32 ; 27 o- 14 : Solomon, 21 81 ; 34 u > 13 : Jonah, 37 142 - 6 : Jesus, 
3 43-6 . 5 io9-i5 . demanded by unbelievers, 17 92 - 5 ; 6 37 ; 2 112 : disre- 
garded by Pharaoh, 54 42 : called magic by infidels, 54 2 ; A. could send 
sign from heaven if He pleased, 26 3 : Md. content to wait till He does 
so, 10 21 : can only be done by permission of A., 13 38 : Md. declines 
challenge to perform, 21 5f ; 6 109 : not sent with miracles because infidels 
of old despised them, 17 61 : the Q. is a sufficient sign, 29 48— so : the 
fruitful earth is a sign, 26 6 f . 

Mithaq. [Covenant.] 

Mizdn. [Balance.] 

Moderation. [Virtues.] 

Monasticism. Not prescribed by A., but invented by Christians, 
57 27 : monks taken for lords beside A., 9 31 : but approved as free from 
pride, 5 85 . 

Money. Qintar, a large gold coin or sum of money = talent, 3 68 : 
dinar, a small gold coin = denarius, 3 68 : dirham, silver drachma ; of 
the sale price of Joseph, 12 20 . 

Months. [Calendar.] 

" Moon " = Qamar. Title of S. 54. Md. swears by it, 74 35 ; 84 18 ; 
91 2 ; set in sky for light, 10 5 ; 71 15 : travels to appointed goal, 35 14 ; 
39 7 : eclipsed, 75 8 : split at Day of Judgment, 54 *. 

Moses and Aaron = Musd, IJdrun. Childhood cf M., 20 38— 41 : 
sojourn in Midian, 20 42 : his call in the Vale of Tuwa, 79 16 ; 20 9 ~ 35 : 
to deliver Israel, 14 5 ~ s : mission to Pharaoh, 79 17 ~ 26 ; 20 44 ~ 75 : M.'s 
wonders, 17 103-6 ; 27 6— 14 ; 7 101 ~ 32 : commands people to make a giblah 
in their dwellings in Egypt, 10 87 : judgments on Pharaoh, 54 41f ; 
44 16— 32 : exodus of Israel, 26 9_68 : M. on Sinai, 7 138 : his vision of God, 
7 139 : his penitence, 14 ° ; chosen above all to speak with God, 141 ; 19 03 : 
granted tables with monitions concerning every matter, 7 142 : book of 
Law, 28 43 : episode of calf, 7 146 ~ 53 ; 20 85 - 97 : wrath against Aaron, 
20 92 ~ 5 : told to predict advent of " the messenger, the prophet of the 



96 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

people," 7 155 f : gives water from rock, manna and quails, 7 160 : fable 
of M. and his fellow-travellers by land and sea, 18 69 ~ 81 : 70 men 
destroyed by earthquake, 7 1M 1 : punishment of Korah, 28 76— 82 : affront to 
M. reproved, 33 69 : calls on Israel to enter Canaan and they refuse, 5 24— 9 : 
a lucid book granted to M. and A., 37 114 « 117 ; M. granted guidance and 
to his people heritage of the Book, 40 56 : his pages record a divine recom- 
pense, 53 37— 42 : M. is rasul and ndbl and granted help of Aaron as nabi, 
I952— 4. hjg \) 00 k i s a furqcln (discerner), 21 49 : he asks forgiveness for 
sin of manslaughter, 28 15 : for himself and for his brother, 7 ieo . 
" Most High " = A Ha. Title of S. 87. 

Mosque = masjid. Prayer house. Of the temple at Jerusalem 
which was destroyed, 17 7 : a mosque built for mischief, 9 108 : another 
for piety, 9 109 : in mosques A. only to be adored, 72 18 : not to be visited 
by infidels, but only by believers, 9 17 f . 

Mother. Kindness to, 46 14 : reverence, 4 1 . 
"Mountain " = Tur. Title of S. 52. 
Mudaththir = " Enwrapped." Title of S. 74. 
Muhujirln = [Refugees]. 

Muhammad. (1) His nature and qualities. A servant, 96 10 : only 
a man like you, 18 no ; 41 5 : mortal, albeit an Apostle, 21 35 ; 3 13s : like 
Moses, 73 15 f : A.'s Apostle to all men, 7 157 : an Apostle from the Arab 
nation, 3 158 : Prophet of A., 8 65 : the unlettered (ummi) Prophet fore- 
told in Law and Evangel, 7 156 fl : Seal (Khatim) of the Prophets, 33 40 : 
not a guardian (wakil), 17 66 : 42 47 : but a warner (nadhir), 74 2 ; 67 26 , 
etc. : a herald (bashir), 35 22 ; 2 113 : sent as a mercy to the worlds, 21 107 : 
come to clear up neglected truths of Scriptures, 5 18, 22 : your iniquities 
press heavily on him, 9 129 : sanity and patience, 68 2 ff : he is a hanif 
(sound in faith), 30 29 : seeks his wage only from A., 34 46 . (2) His 
mission and message. Is encouraged in depression, 93 3£E ; 15 97f : is to 
wait patiently on Kabb, 74 7 : to be unselfish in bestowal of favours, 74 6 : 
to recite what he hears from A., 75 18 : to proclaim his message, 93 ll : 
publicly, 15 94 : it is a warning (tadhJcirah). 74 50 ; 87 9 : a message (clhikr) 
for the worlds, 81 27 ; his only duty is its clear delivery, 16 84 : the gift 
of the Q. is an earnest of Md.'s final bliss, 28 85 : it confirms infidels in 
error, 71 24 : he is sent after others to bring in a law of religion, 45 17 : 
which is enforced by penalties and rewards hereafter, 4 17f : belief in and 
obedience to him is necessary to salvation, 47 2 : he has escaped error 
and received complete enlightenment, 4 113 : disclaims knowledge of 
future judgment, 6 eo ; 11 33 : prophesies victory of Greeks over Persians, 
30 1— 5 : the secret of Judgment is revealed to the chosen Apostle, 72 26 '. 

(3) Events in life. Md. in youth an orphan and a pagan, 93 6I : is to 
withdraw from idolaters, 15 94 : in danger from plots of Meccans, 8 30 : 
warned to leave Mecca, 29 56 ; 6 106 : to bid farewell to Meccans, 43 89 : 
the saklnah (divine presence) sent down on him at Hunain, 9 25f,4o > 

(4) Accusations. Accused of being a sorcerer, 74 24 f ; 51 52 f : or pos- 
sessed by jinns, 7 183 ; 15 6f : soothsayer, 81 24 : or poet, 52 29 f ; 37 35 : of 
forging Q., 52 33 ; 21 6 : imposture, 35 4 « 23 : defrauding his followers, 3 165 . 

(5) Visions. Hears revelation when wrapped in mantle, 74 1 ; 73 * : 
sees Gabriel approaching, 81 23 ; 53 6f : encouraged by him after Fatrah, 
19 65 f . against opposition of Meccans, 43 39— 43 : carried by night to the 
Kemote Mosque, 17 K (6) Authority. Md. is the first of Ms., 39 14 ; 6 14 : 
a noble pattern to believers, 33 21 : sent to mankind at large, 34 27 : 



SUBJECT INDEX 97 

claims right of recognition by Jews, 6 20 : to decide controversy in 
religion, 42 14 : and matters generally, 4 62 « 68 « 106 : arbiter between claims 
of other faiths, 5 64 : A. and Apostle coupled, 64 8 - 12 , etc. : no private 
opinion stands against their decree, 33 36 : believers to salute the Prophet, 
33 66 : to treat him with respect, 49 2 ~ 5 : Md. not to yield to his followers, 
49 7 . (7) Denunciation of opponents. Disobedience to A. and Apostle 
punished by hell, 72 24 : woe on accusers of imposture, 77 15, 19 , etc. : 
curse on those who affront him, 33 57 : or injure him, 9 61 ~ 4 : prayer 
for vengeance on opponents, 23 95— 10 ° ; judgment will overtake them, 
51 » f : Md. will not be ashamed on the Day, 66 8 . (8) Short- 
comings. Reproved for slighting a blind man and courting the wealthy, 
80 1— 10 : nearly led astray by unbelievers ; bidden to seek for pardon for 
his faults, 40 fi7 : prays for forgiveness, 2 286 ; 47 21 ; 4 106 : why not 
granted power of miracles like Moses, 28 48 ; 29 48fl . (9) Domestic 
affairs. Md.'s wives are mothers of the faithful, 33 6 : none may marry 
them after him, 33 63 : they are to veil themselves carefully, 33 69 : to 
be modest and obedient, else will be dismissed, 33 28 ~ 36 : two of them 
rebuked and threatened with dismissal, 66 3ft : warned by example of 
wives of Noah and Lot, 66 10 : Md. granted special privileges as to choice 
and number of wives, 33 49— 52 : no blame to the prophet in exceeding 
limits when A. has given permission, 33 38 . 

" Muhammad." Title of S. 47. 

Mujadilah = "Wrangler." Title of & 58. 

Mulh = "Kingdom." Title of S. 67. 

Mw'min = "Believer." Title of S. 40. 

Mu'minun = " Believers." Title of S. 23. 

Mumtahinah = " Tried." Title of S. 60. 

Munafi'qun = " Hypocrites." Title of S. 63. 

Murder. [Punishments.] 

Mursal. [Apostle.] 

Mursaldt = " Sent Ones." Title of S. 77. 

Musu. [Moses.] 

Muslim. [Islam.] 

" Mutual Deceit" = Taghdbun. Title of S. 64. 

Mut'ah — [Temporary marriage]. 

Muzammil = " Enfolded." Title of S. 73. 

N. 

Nabd = " News." Title of S. 78. 

Ndbi. [Prophets.] 

Nahl = " Bee." Title of S. 16. 

Najrn = " Star." Title of S. 53. 

Naml = " Ant." Title of S. 27. 

Nur = Fire. [Hell.] 

Nas = " Men." Title of S. 114. 

Na8tira — [Christians]. 

Nasr = " Help." Title of S. 110. 

Nasr. An Arabian idol (probably in form of eagle), 71 23 . 

Ndzi'ut = "Those who drag forth." Title of S. 79. 

" News " = Nabd. Title of 8. 78. 

" Necessaries " = Md'un. Title of S. 107. 

G 



98 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

New Testament. \_Injll.] 

Nicknames. Forbidden, 49 n . 

" Night" = Lail. Title of S. 92. 

" Night-comer " = Tdriq. Title of S. 86. 

"Night Journey" = Asrd. Title of S. 17. 

Night Journey. Md. carried from masjidctt hardm (Ka'bah) to 
masjida'l aqsd (temple of Jerusalem), 17 1 . 

Night of Power = lailatu'l qadr. On which the Q. descended, 
97 lfl . 

Nimrod = Namrud. Tries to intimidate Abraham but is con- 
founded, 2 260 : casts Abraham into fire, but A. is delivered, 21 68f . 

Nisa = " Women." Title of S. 4. 

Noah. Preaches 950 years, 29 13 : his wife unbelieving, 66 10 : 
demands obedience as a faithful messenger, 26 1071 : threatens destruction, 
71 ; 23 23 ~ 31 : rejection followed by flood, 54 9— 16 : by destruction of man- 
kind, 51 46 : N. delivered in answer to prayer, 21 76f : the Ark a secret 
history revealed, 11 38— 61 : N. sins in asking deliverance of infidel son, 
11 471 : N. prays for pardon, 71 29 ; 11 49 . 

" Noah " = Nuh. Title of S. 71. 

Nur = "Light." Title of S. 24. 



Oaths. Md. swears by Lord of heaven and earth, 51 23 : by 
mountain, book, Ka'bah, sea, 52 1— 6 , etc. : believers not to swear by God, 
lest a hasty oath need revocation, 2 224 ' : perjury forbidden, 16 96 : its 
penalty damnation, 3 71 : expiation for hasty oaths, 5 91 : Md. released from 
oath to his wife, 66 2 . 

Old Testament. [Scriptures : Taurdt ; Zabur ; Prophets.] 

" Opening " = Fdtihah. Title of S. 1. 

" Ornaments " = Zukhruf. Title of S. 43. 

Orphans. Md. an orphan child, 93 6 f : their property to be guarded, 
17 36. 42,4,7. t^y are t ^ e treated with fairness, 2 218 ; 4 9-11 : pro- 
vision for their marriage, 4 3 « 126 . 

" Overshadowing " = Ghdshiyah. Title of S. 88. 



Parables. Of the two gardens, 18 31— 41 : impious owners of garden, 
68 i7-33. of Q od as tne Lig h tj 24 35 : the fire at night, 2 16 ': the 
storm, 2 181 . 

Paradise = Jannat (garden) firdaus (paradeisos). Names in Q. 
JannatiCl khuld = Garden of Eternity, 25 16 : Ddru\ Saldm = Dwelling 
of Peace, 6 127 ; 10 M : Ddru'l Qardr = Abiding Mansion, 40 42 : 
JanndtuH l Adan = Gardens of Eden, 9 73 : Janndtu'l Ma'wd = Gardens 
of Kefuge, 32 19 : Janndtu'n Ntfum = Gardens of Delight, 5 70 : Janndtu'l 
Firdaus = Gardens of Paradise, 18 107 : 'llliyun (chamber of Book of 
Life), 83 18 : Ddru'l dkhirat = the Mansions to come, 29 64 : Ghurfat = 
the High Place, 25 75 . Paradise is for the people of the Right Hand, 74 41 * ; 
56 8 , etc. : who please A, 89 27— 30 : the pious (muttaqln), 68 34 ; 50 30— 34 : 
who refrain from unlawful lust, 79 40 f : righteous believers who are 
persecuted, 85 10f : humble and charitable, 57 16-17 ; refugees and 



SUBJECT INDEX 99 

sufferers for A., 3 194 : fighters in the way of A., 47 5 ~ 7 ; 5 39 ; 9 lia : a 
reward for Ms. and their wives, 43 68_ 73 : the blessed abide there while 
heaven and earth last, 11 no : they praise A., 10 10f : behold the torments 
of damned and converse with them, 79 36 ; 37 48— 57 : refuse water to 
them, 7 48 * : dwell in gardens by rivers before the Mighty King, 54 54 1 : 
enjoy repose, rich raiment, delicious food and drink, 76 12— 22 , etc. : drink 
delicious wine, 47 16 : and enjoy society of ever- virgin houris, 56 22f « 34 « fl : 
and wives of perfect purit} r , 2 23 ; 4 60 : unknown visions of delight a 
reward for godly, 32 17 : entrance into it is the great felicity, 10 64f : it 
is attained by repentance and prayer for pardon, and good works, 3 127_ 30 . 
[Salvation.] 

Pardon. A. forgives all sins, 39 54 : if men repent, 4 20 ;9 5 : believe, 
35 8 : and do right, 25 71 : obey A. and Apostle, 33 71 : fear their Lord, 
67 12 ; 8 29 : shun great sins, 4 35 . 

Parents. Kindness and respect and gratitude due, 17 24f ; 46 14fl , 
etc. : to be over-ridden bv loyalty to A., 29 7 ; 31 13f . 

" Pen " = Qalam. Title of S. 68. 

Pentateuch = Taurat. Kevealed after Abraham, 3 58 ; contains 
the command of A., 5 47 : which modifies previous commands as to food, 
3 87 : gives guidance, 3 2 : and light, prophets judged by it, Jewish 
teachers were its keepers and witnesses, 5 48 : taught by A. to Jesus, 
5 no : confirmed by him in the Evangel, 5 50 : where he promises the 
prophet Ahmad, 61 6 : attested and modified by Md., 3 44 : coupled often 
with Evangel, 3 43, 58 , etc. : both to be observed together with Q., 7 156 : 
Md. described in Pent, and Ev., ibid. : they picture the prostrations o 
Islam, 48 29 : both together with Q. promise Paradise to fighters in Way 
of A., 9 n2 : disobedient Jews under Law like ass under load of 
books, 62 5 . 

Pharaoh = Fir'aun. Lord of stakes = Impaler, 89 9 ; 38 n : orders 
Haman to build him a tower, 40 38 f ; 28 38 : defies Moses, 73 15 f : threatens to 
kill him, 40 27 : rejects his signs and is punished, 54 41f ; 43 45— 56 : likeness 
of his punishment to that of 'Ad and Thamud, 85 18 ; 89 5— n : he and 
his followers are leaders of those who invite to hell-fire, 28 41 : a man of 
his family preaches Islam, 40 29— 36 : P. while drowning confesses A. and 
is rescued, 10 90fl . [Moses.] 

Piety = taqwd. We are God's and to Him we shall return, 2 m : 
A. comes between a man and his own heart, 8 24 : piety is the choice of the 
life to come rather than this, 17 19— 21 ; 13 26 , etc. : to bring the truth and 
believe it to be the truth, 39 34 ; sincerity in worship, 39 2 1 : the raiment 
of piety is best, 7 25 : piety, not flesh and blood of sacrifice, reaches A., 
22 38 : the pious are friends (auliya) of A., 10 63 : the pious are they who 
walk upon the earth softly, 25 64 : patient, truthful, lowly, charitable, 
penitent, 3 1{5 : harmless, forgiving, prayerful, considerate, just, 42 34 ~ 38 : 
practise devotion, moderation, purity, 25 65— 8 : not in superstition, but in 
fear of A., 2 186 : their hearts repose in thought of A., 13 M : they meditate 
in silence morning and evening, 7 204 : say of their purposes, " If A. will," 
18 23 : prayers, legal alms, faith in world to come, 27 2 ; 31 3 , etc. : and 
recitation of Q., 35 26 : their hearts thrill with fear at Name of A. and 
faith increases at recital of signs, 8 2 : piety not in ritual but in faith 
and charity and worship, 2 172 : the easy way, 87 8 : and the steep way, 
90 11— 16 : obedience to A. and Apostle, 4 71 ; 33 71 : obedience is better 
than oaths, 24 62 : kind speech and forgiveness better than bestowal of 



100 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

alms and enmity, 2 265 : piety to be shown in family life, 25 74 : by men 
and women alike, 33 35 : refugees, helpers and fighters are the faithful, 
8 75 : the gravest duty is the remembrance of A., 29 44 . 

Pilgrimage = Hajj (greater pilgrimage) and 'umrah (lesser pilgrim- 
age), 2 192 : hajj at time of new moon, 2 185 : its various observances, 
2 193—9 . r ites of circuit and sacrifice, 22 28— 35 : is to extend to Safa and 
Marwah, 2 153 : a service. due to A., 3 91 : observance not to be violated, 
5 2 : hunting unlawful, fishing permitted, 5~ 93— 7 : only Ms. may visit 
Ka'bah, 9 18, 2S : proclamation of greater pilgrimage (by Md.), 9 3 . 

" Pilgrimage " = Hajj. Title of S. 22. 

Plagues of Egypt. Dearth, flood, locusts, lice, frogs, blood, drown- 
ing, 7 127— 33 : nine clear signs, 17 103 f . 

Poets. Those who go astray follow them, 26 224 : Md.'s opponents 
call him a poet, 52 30 : and mad, 37 35 : A. has not taught him poetry, 
36 69 : his speecji is not poetry, 69 41 . 

" Poets " = shu'ara. Title of S. 26. 

Polygamy. [Marriage.] 

Polytheism. [Idolatry, Idols.] 

Poor. Neglect of, 69 34 ; 74 45 , etc. : oppression, 89 18 ~ 21 ; 68 24 : 
duty towards, 17 28 ; 30 37 : charity to p. expiation for sin, 2 18 °. 

" Power " = Qadr. Title of S. 97. 

Prayer. Abraham offers prayer (du l a) that his posterity may observe 
prayers (salat), 14 42 . 

(1) Set Prayers = Salat. Taught to Adam, 2 35 : commanded to 
Moses, 20 14 : likewise to Md., 73 20 : practised by him, 96 10 : a prescribed 
duty for stated hours, 4 104 ; 6 71 : belief in Q. and in next life, with prayers, 
the sum of religion, 6 92 : prayers keep man from sin, 29 44 : the face of A. 
is everywhere, 2 109 : but believers always to turn towards the Sacred 
Mosque, 2 136— 45 : should pray in an acceptable mosque, 9 108— u : enjoin 
prayers on thy family, 20 132 ; Md. accustomed to lead in prayers, 4 103 : 
rules for purification, 5 8 f : marks of prostration to be seen on believers, 
48 29 : ritual to be strictly observed, except in times of danger, 2 239 f : 
relaxation for times of danger or sickness, 4 1021 : men not to pray when 
drunk or polluted, 4 46 : to pray neither too loud nor too low, 17 no : all 
grades of men equally admissible, 6 62 : goodly apparel to be worn in 
mosque, 7 29 : during prayer time on Friday work to be suspended, 
62 9—11 : night a suitable time, 73 2 f< 6 « 20 : before sunrise, at sunset, and 
night, 50 38 f ; 20 13 ° : sunset, daybreak, night, 17 80 f : evening, morning, 
twilight, noon, 30 16 f : early morning, close of day, approach of night, 
11 116 : warning against sloth and lack of charity, 107 6fl : prayer not 
to be offered for unfaithful departed, 9 85 . 

(2) Free Prayer = Dria. God is hearer of prayer, 3 33 ; 14 41 ; etc. : 
to Him only to be offered, 13 15 : idols cannot hear, 35 15 : prayer to 
be persevering, 41 49ft : for departed, by Noah, 71 29 : generally, 9 lut . 

Predestination. [Decrees.] 

Pre-existence (?) Thy Lord drew forth their descendants from the 
loins of the children of Adam, 7 171 . [Man.] 

" Prohibition " = Tahrim. Title of S. Q6. 

Property. Not to be expended on vanity or bribery, 2 184 : a reward 
for what is expended in the way of A., 2 26S f . 

Prophets = nabi, almost always in plural aribiya or nabiyln. They 
are evangelists and warners, furnished with scripture, 2 209 : each has 



SUBJECT INDEX 101 

had a wicked enemy, 25 ss : their reward in the Garden of Eden, 
19 59_ 64 ; 38 45— 54 : some have higher gifts than others, 17 57 : Peace be 
on Noah, Abraham, Moses, Aaron, Elijah, 37 "• 109 « 12 °- 13 ° : Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, family of 'Imran chosen above all, 3 30 : eighteen favoured ones 
named, 6 83_6 : A. made a covenant with prophets, 33 7 * : the coming of Md. 
foretold, 3 75 : Ms. believe in them all without difference, 3 78 : all of 
them prav for pardon and strength, 3 141 . 

Prophets = Anbiya\ Title of S. 21. 

Psalter = Zabur. [David.] 

Punishments. For homicide, retaliation or blood-money, 2 173 ; 4 94 : 
murder deserving of hell, 4 95 : wilful suicide the like, 4 33 f : lifelong 
imprisonment for unchaste women, 4 19 : one hundred stripes to each 
person guilty of fornication, 24 2 : for sodomy, reproof or pardon, 4 30 ': 
for warfare against A. and Apostle, death or impalement or mutilation or 
banishment, 5 37 : thief to lose hand, 5 42 . 

Purgatory = Barzahh. Interval between death and resurrection in 
case of wicked, 23 101 * (see also A'raf). 

Purification. [Ablutions : Prayers.] 

Q 

Qabil = Cain. [Abel.] 

Qadr = « Power." Title of S. 97. 

Qaf. Title of S. 50. 

Qalam = " Pen." Title of S. 68. 

Qamar = " Moon." Title of S. 54. 

Qari'ah = " Blow." Title of S. 101. 

Qdrun [ = Koran]. 

Qasas = " Story." Title of S. 28. 

Qiblah = Direction of Prayers. Israelites in Egypt to make qiblah 
in their houses, 10 87 : the East and the West is God's, whichever way 
ye turn is His Face, 2 109 : turn towards every place where He is 
worshipped, 7 28 : Ms. to turn towards the Sacred Mosque, 2 136 ~~ 45 . 

Qintur. [Money.] 

Qiydmah. [Resurrection.] 

Qiydmah = " Resurrection." Title of S. 75. 

" Quraish." Title of S. 106. 

Qur'an. Descended on Night of Power, 97 1 : in month of Ramazan, 
2 181 : the blessed Night, 44 2 : written on the Preserved Tablet, 85 21 f : 
the Preserved Book, 56 77 : the Original Book (ummu'l kitdb), 43 3 : the 
Word of A., 2 70 : arranged in portions by A., 25 34 ; 17 107 ; 75 17 : a 
Surah spoken of as Qur'an, 12 3 : written by honoured scribes, 80 15 : use 
of Pen taught by Rabb, 96 4 f : its verses established by wisdom set forth 
with clearness, 11 2 : a revelation to Md. of what he did not know, 4 113 : 
when completed will be a perfect revelation, 5 m . It is a missive (tanzil), 
56 79 ; 69 43 ; 14 *, etc. : a revelation (wahi), 53 4 : an admonition, (dhikra), 
74 34 - 54 : (tadhlcirah), 73 19 ; 68 52 , etc. :* sure knowledge, 69 51 : varied in 
warning, 17 43 : its verses are both figurative and explicit, 3 5 : contains 
similitudes of every kind, 18 52 . It is easy for warning, 54 17 » 32 « 40 : set 
forth in verses (ayut), 27 l : not tortuous, but direct, 18 lf ; 39 29 : a clear 
sign to the heart of the believer, 29 48— 50 : its words are weighty, 73 5 : 
it is a discriminating discourse (qaulunfasalun), 86 13 : in plain Arabic, 



102 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

20 112 ; 43 2 , etc. : the Discerner (furqan), 25 1 ; 3 2 : the Cord (hall) of 
A., 3 98 : which He might remove if He pleased, 17 88 : a lucid Scripture, 
44 1 ; 26 *, etc. : good news, 19 97 ; 17 9 : a glorious Scripture, 50 1 ; 15 87 : 
clears up everything, 16 91 ; 10 38 : settles controversies of Israelites, 27 78 : 
the best of recitals, agrees with itself and teaches by repetition, 39 24 : the 
Scripture with Truth and Balance, 42 16 : the final revelation, 7 184 f : 
instruction for all men, 12 104 ; 6 90 : no change in words of A., 10 65 ; 
6 34 « 115 : comprises all secrets of heaven and earth, 27 77 ; 10 62 : absolutely 
free of error, 41 42 : command to recite, 96 1 » 3 ; 27 94 , etc. : A. recites it 
as a pattern for Md. to follow, 75 16 fi : He teaches to recite, letting Md. forget 
only what He pleases, 87 6f ; 13 39 : if He cancels a verse grants a better, 
2 10 ° : as much as is easy to be recited, exemption in sickness, travel or 
battle, 73 20 : to be recited in measured tones, 73 4 : Md. is not to be hasty 
in recital till oracle is complete, 20 113 : seven verses of recital previously 
given (Fatihah), 15 87 : Q. not to be broken up, 15 90f : recitation to be 
listened to in silence, 7 203 : only A. knows its meaning, 3 5 : the faithful 
accept it as all from Him, 3 5 : it brings healing to the faithful, ruin to the 
wicked, 17 84 : its revelation increases unbelief and rebellion of many, 
5 69 : treated by infidels as a lie, 84 21f : 6 66 : said to be tales of ancients, 
dictated to Md. by others, 25 M : not recited nor copied beforehand, 29 47 : 
nor forged by Md., 52 33 ; 16 105 , etc. : unbelievers challenged to produce a 
like revelation, 52 34 ; 11 16f , etc. : whoso rejects it will be lost, 2 115 . It 
is foretold in earlier Scriptures, 26 196f : and confirms them, 12 1U ; 10 38 , 
etc. : and is their safeguard, 5 52 : agreement with them proves its 
inspiration, 46 9 . 

E, 

Ball. [God.] 

Ba'd = " Thunder." Title of S. 13. 

Rahman. [God. J 

Rahman = " Merciful." Title of S. 55. 

Ramazan. [Fast.] 

" Ranks " = Saffat. Title of S. 37. 

Ransom = Fidyah. [Expiation.] 

Rass. Probably a place-name ; uncertain meaning. Its people 
rejected messengers of A., 25 40 ; 50 12 . 

Basill. [Apostle.] 

Red Sea. Referred to as Bahr — sea. Divided by Moses, Pharaoh 
drowned in it, 2 47 : children of Israel brought across it, 10 90 . 

Refrains. Frequent in structure of Surahs, e.g. 54 16f « 21 « 30 « 32, 40 ; 

77 15, 19, 24, 28, 34, 37, 40, 45, 47, 49^ 

Refugees = Muhajirln. Those who fly country for A.'s sake will be 
rewarded, 16 43 » m : especially if they die in His cause, 4 101 : coupled 
with Ansdr (helpers), 9 101 » 118 : A., well pleased with both, has prepared 
paradise for them, 9 101 : A. is turned to the Refugees and to the Prophet, 
9 118 : they are to be forgiven their offences, 24 22 : believing women 
refugees to be received, 60 10 : refugees not so near of kin to other 
believers as blood relations, 33 6 : their share of spoil, 59 8 : claim to 
alms, 24 22 . 

Religion. Din (observance). Of Abraham, 22 77 : adopted by 
Jacob, 2 126 : r. of Noah, Md., Abraham, Moses, Jesus, 42 n : sincere 
religion demanded by A., 7 K : Islam is the true r., 3 17 : Ms. are brethren 



SUBJECT INDEX 103 

in r., 9 u ; 33 5 : instruct others in r., 9 123 : to you your r. to me ray r., 
109 6 : no compulsion in r., 2 257 : fight till the only religion be that of 
A., 2 189 : prayer and alms are true r., 98 4 . 

Millah. Eight times for religion of Abraham, 2 124 » 129 ; 3 89 ; 4 124 ; 
q 162 . 12 38 . 16 124 . 2 2 77 ; once of former prophets, 38 6 : five times 
of idolaters, 12 37 ; 7 86f ; 14 16 ; 18 19 : once of Jews and Christians, 2 114 . 

Ummah (religious community). Mankind originally one u., 2 209 ; 10 ^ : 
only one u. of Jesus and His predecessors, 23 54 ; 21 92 : split into sects, 
21 93 . e 160 . ^. cou id have caused all to be of one u., 11 120 ; 5 53 : to 
every u. observances enjoined, 22 66 : u. of Noah, 40 5 : Abraham, 16 121 : 
Moses, 7 159 : every u. had its apostle, 10 48 ; 16 38 : and its own book, 
45 27 : Ms. are the central u., 2 137 : the best u., 3 106 . 

" Renunciation " = Taubah. Title of S. 9. 

Repentance. Turning from sin to A., 24 31 ; 25 71 , etc. : amendment 
of life, 4 20 , etc. : condition of pardon, 4 20 ; 9 5 , etc. : with faith and good 
works brings salvation, 19 61 . 

Reprobates. Who had believed and then become infidels, 3 80 ; who 
have made religion a sport, 6 69 . 

Responsibility. No soul shall bear another's burden, 35 19 : none 
burdened beyond its power, 2 286 : every soul in pledge for what it has 
deserved, 74 41 : guided and erring each bears his own load, 17 16 »; each 
answerable for his good or evil, 41 46 ; 6 12 « etc. : unbelievers responsible for 
their blasphemy, 10 42 : hearers of Md. responsible for attitude to his 
message, 10 108 : grades of recompense for deeds, 6 132 : no ransom {'adl) 
for soul at judgment, 2 45 : predestination and accountability in one, 

16 95. 8127M 

Resurrection. Qiydmah = arising : haHh = awakening. Restora- 
tion of body to life, 86 8 : derided by Meccans, 37 15 " ; 44 33_ 6 : doubts 
repelled, 75 s-6 ; 56 63_ 72 : foreshadowed by creation, 50 6— "» 14 : a new 
creation, 29 18 f : complement to birth and death, 80 20it : possibility 
proved by birth process, 75 37— 40 ; 56 57 ~ 62 : prefigured by springtime, 
30 18 » 49 : and revival by rain, 22 5 ; 35 10 ; 7 55 : following on two blasts 
of trumpet, 36 49 ~ 54 : and shout when all come forth to A., 50 40_43 : then 
just balances brought out, 21 48 : and unbelievers no longer summoned to 
believe, 30 57 . 

" Resurrection " = Qiydmah. Title of S. 75. 

Revelation. [Inspiration: Scriptures.] 

Retaliation = Qisds. Confirms enactment of Mosaic law, 5 49 : 
reprisals to be exactly according to injury suffered, but patience is better, 
16 127 ; 42 38ff : just retaliation is right, 22 40 - 59 : rules of retaliation for 
bloodshed, 2 173fr : reprisals against sacrilege, 2 19 °. 

Rites = mansak. Appointed to every people, 22 35 > 66 : Abraham and 
Ishmael pray to be taught rites of Ka'bah, 2 122 : rites of pilgrimage to be 
accomplished, 2 196 . 

Reward = thavmb. Bliss of the life to come, 3 139 « 141 « 195 } etc. 

Ruh. [Spirit.] 

Rum = " Greeks." Title of S. 30. 

Iiuyd [ = Visions]. 

S. 

Saba. An Arab tribe of Yaman, punished by A. for ingratitude, 
34 14 " : a province of Arabia = Sheba of Bible, 27 22 . [Solomon.] 



104 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

" Saba " = Saba\ Title of S. 34. 

Sabbath = Sabt. Israelites commanded not to break, 4 153 : ordained 
for those who differ about it, 16 125 : transgressors changed into apes, 2 61 : 
cursed by A., 4 60 : punished by withdrawal of fish, 7 163 . 

Sabeans — Sdbi. Probably star worshippers. Coupled with Jews 
and Christians as believers in A., 2 59 ; 5 73 : also with Magians, 22 17 . 

Sdbllu^lldh = Way of A. [Warfare.] 

Sacred Animals. Of Arabs, no longer to be venerated, 5 102 . 

Sacrifice. (1) Dhabh = slaughter. Intention of Abraham to sacrifice 
his sod, 37 101 ; sacrifice of cow ordered to Moses, 2 63_ 6 . (2) Qurban = 
offering. Demanded by Jews to be consumed by fire from heaven, 3 179 : 
brought by sons of Adam, 5 30 . (3) Nahr = stabbing (of camel's breast) ; 
to be done with prayer, 108 2 . (4) Eadi = gift of animal sent to Ka'bah 
for sacrifice, 2 192 ; 5 2 - 96 « 98 . Name of A. to be recited over beasts when 
slain at Ka'bah, 22 34 ~ 37 : camel appointed for Ms., 22 37 : of value only 
with pious intention, 22 38 . 

"Sad" = Sad. Title of S. 38. 

Sadaqah = [Alms]. 

Safu. A hill near Mecca, to be visited at pilgrimage, 2 153 . 

Saff = " Array." Title of S. 61. 

Sdffat = " Ranks." Title of S. 37. 

Sahifah = book or roll. Ancient books, 20 133 : honourable, 80 13 : 
of Moses, 53 37 : and Abraham, 87 18f : pure pages (of Q.), 98 2 : book 
of judgment, 81 10 ; 74 52 . [Scriptures.] 

Saints = Wall, pi. auliyd. Friends of A. to whom no fear or 
grief, 10 63 . 

Sajdah = " Adoration." Title of S. 32. 

Sajdah = Prostration, 25 65 ; 4 103 . [Prayers.] 

Saklnah. The Ark (tablet) of the Covenant with the Sakinah 
(Shechinah) to come to Saul, 2 249 : the divine confidence sent down 
upon the Apostle and the faithful in danger, 48 4 - 26 ; 9 26 - 40 . 

Saldt. [Prayers.] 

Salih. A prophet sent to tribes of 'Ad and Thamud, but rejected 
by them," 7 71 ~ 7 . 

Salsabil — the softly flowing. A spring in Paradise, 76 18 . [Paradise.] 

Salutations. [Deportment.] 

Salvation. Unbelievers invited to najat — deliverance (from hell), 
40 44 : Paradise is the reward of faith, well-doing, testimony, 103 2 * : sub- 
mission to A. and doing good, 2 106 : repentance and prayer for pardon, 
3 127—30 . repentance, faith, well-doiDg, 19 61 : for those whose balance is 
heavy, 23 104 : with good works, 16 99 ; 43 72 : who labour for A., 16 34 ; 
7 41 : who practise faith, prayer, alms, sexual moderation, fidelity, 23 1—11 : 
repentance, faith, good works, 25 70 : for men and women alike, 33 35 : 
for Ms., Christians, Jews, Sabeans, who believe in A. and Judgment and 
do good, 2 69 : conditional on belief in Md.'s message, 47 2 : obedience to 
A. and His Apostle, 24 51 : good deeds drive away evil deeds, 11 116 : 
and do away sins, 2 273 : A. will put away guilt of worst actions and 
reward best actions of believers, 39 36 : all die, and receive recompense 
at resurrection, 3 182 : pardon and acceptance at Judgment, 3 m f : in 
A.'s ^ presence due grade, forgiveness, and provision, 8 4 : love of A. 
manifested to righteous believers at Judgment, 19 951 : faith will not 
avail if postponed to Judgment, 6 159 . 



SUBJECT INDEX 105 

Samiri. The artificer who made the golden calf, 20 S7 . [Moses.] 
Saqar. [Hell.] 
Satan. [Devil.] 

Saul = Tdlut. Made king ; receives the Ark and Covenant, tests 
his forces by* drinking at river, with help of David slays Goliath, 2 247— 52 . 
" Scattering " = Dhuriyut. Title of S. 51. 

Scriptures. Kitub = writing ; zubur = tablets ; suhuf — rolls ; 
lauh = slab. The archetypal book (ummuH kitub) with A., 13 39 : 
tablets for people of monition, 16 45f : Scriptures of Jews are Book 
of A., 2 95 ; 3 22 : a lucid book each to Moses and Aaron, 37 117 : Writing, 
Wisdom, and Prophecy granted to Israel, 45 15 : and to Prophets generally, 
6 89f : only to two other peoples, 6 157 : prophecy and writings to Abra- 
ham's posterity, 29 ^ : no Scriptures granted to opponents of Md., 
68 37f > 47 : people to whom they are granted should believe, 74 31f : rolls 
of Abraham and Moses tell of life to come, 87 17 ff : ancient rolls contain 
clear proofs of this revelation, 20 133 : tables appealed to against Meccans, 
54 43 : Ms. to discuss kindly with people of Scriptures, 29 45 : doubts as 
to Scriptures to be solved by inquiry from their readers, 10 94 : earlier 
and later Scriptures to be alike believed, 4 135 : verbal quotation of Ps. 
37 29 (the only one in Q.), 21 106 : reference to Law and Evangel 
(Mk. 4 a 8 ), 48 29 : Ms. accept all Scriptures sent down by A., 42 14 ; 29 45 : 
they are confirmed by Q., 10 38 ; 2 38 , etc. 

Scriptures (People of). [AhluH Kitub.'] 

Sea = bahr. Oath confirming judgment, by the swelling sea, 52 6 : 
compared to boundless revelations of Rabb, 18 109 : towering ships in sea 
are signs of A., 42 31 : it is R. who speeds the ships at sea, 17 68 . [Red 
Sea.] 

Seal of the Prophets = Khutimu'n Nabiyin. Title claimed by 
Md., 33 40 . 

Sects = firqah. Split up religion, rejoice in own party, 30 31 : re- 
probated by A., 42 n : did not arise in Israel till Law was given, 10 93 : 
did not arise among people of Scriptures till after Q. came, 98 3 ; 3 17 » 101 : 
Jews and Christians separated through jealousy, 42 13 : sectarianism 
prevented followers of former faiths from accepting Islam, 2 234 . 

" Sent Ones " = Mursalut. Title of S. 77. 

Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. Story of Christian youths immured 
during persecution of Decius, told in S. 18, the Cave, 8 ~ 2G . 

Shafu'ah. [Intercession.] 

Shams = " Sun." Title of S. 91. 

Shechinah. [Sakinah.'] 

Ships. From the ark of Noah onwards a token of Providence, 
36 41 ~ 6 ; 23 22 : A.'s instruments for enrichment by trade, 17 68 ~ 72 ; 45 u : 
a sign of the goodness of A., 30 45 ; 42 31 . 

Shirk. [Idolatry.] 

" Short Measure " = Tatflf. Title of S. 83. 

Shu^aib. [Jethro.] 

Shura = " Counsel." Title of S. 42. 

Shu'aru = " Poets." Title of S. 26. 

Sidratu'l Muntahu = the Plum tree of the Boundary. On the out- 
skirts of Paradise, near which Gabriel appeared, 53 8_ 18 . 

Signs of A.'s working. Frequently of creation, 30 19 ~ 21 ; 45 2 ~ 8 - 10 : 
nature, 17 13 ; 41 37fl : life of world, 30 22 ~ 27 , etc. [Miracles.] 



106 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Sijill = Register of deeds. Rolled up against Judgment Day, 21 104 * 

Sijjin. A register of the deeds of the wicked kept in hell, 83 7 s . 

Sin (dhanb, TchaWah, ithm). R. is merciful to those who avoid great 
sins and commit only venial faults, 53 33 : avoid great sins, A. will blot 
out faults, 4 35 : the unpardonable sin is polytheism (shirk), 4 61 « 116 : death- 
bed repentance not accepted, 4 22 . 

Sinai = Tut or " the mountain." Moses called on the right side of 
S., 19 53 ; 28 *«: sees fire on slope, 28 29 : olive tree on S., 23 2°: S. lifted 
up over Israel, 2 60 « 87 ; 4 153 . 

Sins. Covetousness, 92 8—n : pride, 17 39 : envy, 113 5 : extravagance, 
17 28f ; 7 29 : niggardly and ostentatious almsgiving, 4 411 : infanticide, 
60 12 : condemnation of lawful food, 6 141 : cheating, 83 1—6 : suspicions 
and slander, 49 12 ; 4 112 ; theft, 60 12 . 

SiratiCl Mustaqlm = the Right Way. Fear A. and obey me, this is 
the right way, 3 44 : lead us on the r. w., 1 5 . About 30 times in Q. 

Slavery. Captives enslaved by prophets after warfare, 8 68 : slave 
the absolute property of his master as man is of God, 16 77 ; 30 27 : female 
slaves may be taken as concubines at discretion, 4 3 « 29 ; 33 49 : provision 
to be made for marriage of female slaves, 24 32 : not to be forced to 
prostitution, 24 33 : married women may be taken to wife if captives, 4 28 : 
man free from restrictions in case of female slaves, 23 6 : slaves to be 
kindly treated, 4 40 : if able to redeem themselves not to be prevented, 
24 33 : believing slave better than infidel freeman, 2 22 °. 

" Smoke " = DuMan. Title of S. 44. 

Sodomy. [Punishments.] 

" Soil " = Balad. Title of S. 90. 

Solomon = Sulaimun. Slaughters horses which caused him to forget 
worship and is made autocrat of winds and demons, 38 29— 39 ; 21 81f : 
wisdom in judgment, 21 78f : dealings with jinns, animal creation, and 
Queen of Sheba, 27 16— 45 : winds and jinn work for him till after death, 
34 n - 13 . 

Sorcery. [Magic] 

Soul = nafs. The individual responsible for actions, 3 ^ 

Sound in faith = [Hanif~\. 

Soothsayer = Kahin. Md. is not a s., 52 29 : Q. is not the word of 
as., 69 42 . 

Spells. Against evils of creation, night, witches, and envy, 113 1—5 : 
against whispering Satan, jinns and men, 114 1—6 . 

M Spider " = 'Ankdbut. Title of S. 29. 

Spirit = Ruli. (1) Generally. Descends on Night of Power, 97 4 : 
proceeds at command of Rabb, 17 87 : sent down, with angels, on 
whomsoever A. pleases, 16 2 ; 40 15 : sent to Md. with inspiration, 42 52 : 
strengthens believers, 58 22 : (2) BuhiClAmin = the Faithful Spirit, brings 
down Q. in Arabic from the Lord of the Worlds, 26 192 ~ 6 : (3) BuhuHlah 
= the Spirit of God. The Messiah Jesus is a Spirit from Himself, 4 169 : 
Mary, into whom we breathed of our Spirit, 21 91 ; 6Q 12 : A. breathed His 
Spirit into Adam, 32 8 ; 15 29 ; 38 72 : (4) Buhu'l Qudus, = Holy Spirit, 
Jesus son of Mary, strengthened by H. S., 2 81 » 254 ; 5 109 . 

" Splitting asunder " = Inshzqaq. Title of S. 84. 

" Spoils " = Anfal. Title of S. 8. 

Spoils. [Warfare.] 

" Star " = Najm. Title of S. 53. 



SUBJECT INDEX 107 

* Starry Sky " = Buruj. Title of S. 85. 

Stars. Created with sun and moon, 7 52 : adore A., 22 18 ; guide 
men by land and sea, 16 16 ; 6 97 : serve mankind, 16 12 : Abraham prevented 
from worshipping s., 37 86 ; 6 76 : blotted out and fall at judgment, 77 8 ; 81 3 . 

" Steps " = Ma'arij. Title of S. 70. 

M Story " = Qasas. Title of S. 28. 

Suicide. Forbidden, 4 33 . 

Sulaimdn, [Solomon.] 

Sun. Worshipped by idolaters, 27 24 : Abraham prevented from 
adoring, 6 78 : worship forbidden, 41 37 : serves mankind, 14 37 : under 
divine laws, 29 61 ; 31 w , etc. : perishes at judgment day, 75 9 ; 81 \ 

" Sun " = Shams. Title of S. 91. 

Supererogation = Nafl. Extra prayers, 17 81 . 

Surah, section of Q., mentioned 2 21 ; 4 1 , etc. [Qur'an.] 

Swearing. [Oaths.] 

Swine's Flesh. Prohibited together with carrion, blood, etc., 2 16S ; 
5 4 ; 6 146 ; 16 * 16 . [Pood.] 



" Table » = Mffidah. Title of S. 5. 

Tables of Law. [Moses.] 

Tdbut. [Ark.] 

Tdghubun = " Mutual Deceit." Title of S. 64. 

Tughut. An idol of the Quraish, 4 54 ; 2 257 } 259 . 

Ta" Ha. Title of S. 20. 

Tahrif = [Corruption]. 

Tahrim = Prohibition. Title of S. Q6. 

Takdthur = " Desire of Increasing." Title of S. 102. 

Takwir = " Folded Up." Title of S. 81. 

Talaq = "Divorce." Title of S. 65. 

Tdlut. [Saul.] 

Tariff = « Night-comer." Title of S. 86. 

Tasnirn. A fountain in Paradise, 83 27 *. 

Tat/if = " Short Measure." Title of S. 83. 

Taubah. [Repentance.] 

Taubah = " Renunciation." Title of S. 9. 

Taurdt. [Pentateuch.] 

Tavjaf. Circuit of Ka'bah ; enjoined, 22 27 . [Pilgrimage.] 

Tayammurn = Sand purification. [Ablutions.] 

Temporary marriage = mut'ah. Wives may be sought by means 
of wealth ; after cohabitation, dowry to be returned to them, 4 28 . 

Testimony = Shahddah. Law of, 5 105— 7 . 

Thamud. A rebellious tribe to whom Salih was sent, 7 71 ; 9 71 , etc. 

Tliavjdb. [Reward.] 

Theft. Punished by amputation of hand, 5 42 . 

Things Forbidden. [Food : Usury.] 

" Those who drag forth " = Ndzi'dt. Title of S. 79. 

Throne of God (Kursi). Reaches over heaven and earth, 2 256 : 
( ( arsh) borne by eight angels at Judgment Day, 69 17 . 

" Thunder " = Ba'd. Title of S. 13. 

Tin = "Fig." Title of S. 95. 



108 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

Treaties = 'Ahd. Broken by enemies, 8 58 : to be observed for time 
specified, 9 4 . 

Tree. Satan offers to show Adam the Tree of Eternity (Khuld), 
20 118 : says it is forbidden lest they become immortal, 7 19 ; on tasting of 
it they see their nakedness, 7 21 . 

Tribute. Poll tax (Jizyah) to be imposed on Jews and Christians 
refusing Islam, 9 29 . 

" Tried" = Mumtaliinah. Title of S. 60. 

Trinity. Say not " three ", 4 169 : A. is not the third, besides 
Messiah son of Mary and His mother, 5 76f > 79 : Jesus never said : u Take me 
and my mother as two gods beside A.," 5 116 . [G-od.] 

" Troops " = Zumar. Title of S. 39. 

Trumpet = Sur. [Resurrection.] 

Tur = «< Mountain." Title of S. 52. 

Tiir. [Sinai.] 

U. 

Ulu'l l Azm = Possessors of constancy : a title given to certain 
Apostles, 46 34 . [Apostles.] 

Ummah. [Beligion.] 

TJmml — of the people, or perhaps, illiterate ; a designation of Md., 
7 156 . 

Ummu'l Kitab = original writing. Of the tablet on which A.'s decrees 
are inscribed, 13 39 : of the verses (ayat) of the Q., 3 5 . 

'Umrah = the lesser Pilgrimage or visitation of the Holy Places at any 
time ; offering to be brought, 2 192 : only allowed to Ms., 9 18 . 

" Unbelievers " = Kafirun. Title of S. 109. 

" Unity " = Jkhlas. Title of S. 112. 

Unity. [God.]" 

Usury. Usury banned by A., alms rewarded, 30 38 : selling allowed, 
usury forbidden on pain of hell fire, 2 276fE : to be abandoned, 3 125 . 

'TJzoiir — [Ezra], 

'Uzza: an Arabian idol, 53 19 . [Idols.] 

V. 

Veiling. Of women, 24 31 . 

" Victory " = Fath. Title of S. 48. 

Virtues. Some follow evil, some a middle course, some excel in 
merit, 35 29 : moderation in liberality, 17 30£E ; 2 191 : in sexual indulgence, 
23 5£f : making the best of things, 7 198 : justice, 16 92 ; 4 61 : truth in 
witness, 4 134 : faithfulness to engagements, 16 93f ; 5 1 , etc. : and vows, 
76 7 : obedience to authority, 4 62 : patience, 2 148 f , etc.: endurance, 
16 98 : benevolence to kindred, 16 92 : kindness to orphan and poor, 93 9f ; 
4 *- 7 ' 40 : without waste, 17 28f : liberality, 2 191 ; 47 38ff . 

Visions = ruya. Of Abraham, 37 105 : Joseph, 12 5 : Pharaoh's 
dreams, 12 43 ~ 9 : Md., 17 62 . 

W. 

Wall. [Saints.] 

Waqi'ah = " Inevitable." Title of S. 56. 

Warfare. Jihad fl sabila^lldh = Strife in the Way of God. Those 



SUBJECT INDEX 109 

driven from their homes for the faith allowed to fight, 22 40fl : a revelation 
of divine truth, 8 5— 10 ; command to fight must be promptly obeyed, 
47 22 f . ^ h ag sen j. d own i ron as an ev ii an d a benefit to man, 57 M : 

slaughter of enemies enforced by confused stories of Saul and others, 

2 244—52 . W ar to be waged in the cause of A. against enemies, 2 186— 9 : 
against infidel neighbours, 9 124 : after four months' immunity, 9 w : 
against Jews and Christians, offering Islam or tribute, 9 29 : precautions 
and tactics, 4 73 : Md. to consult believers and trust in A., 3 153 : strike 
off heads and finger tips, 8 12 : fight till religion is all of A., 8 40 : war in 
sacred months may be a duty, 2 214 : avoid insincere mediation, 4 87 ; 
allow no overtures at time of vantage, 47 37 : details of battle of Badr, 
8 43—51 ; 3 n : wayfarers not to be indiscriminately looted, 4 96 : war to be 
followed by religious instruction, 9 123 : rank of warriors above that of non- 
combatants, 4 97 : the fighter is on the side of A., 4 78 : exile especially 
acceptable, 2 215 : the slain on God's path are living, 2 149 ; 3 163 : they are 
martyrs, 4 71 : exile and death in way of A. rewarded to men or women, 

3 193ff : death in His path better than wealth, 3 151f : rewarded by Para- 
dise, 47 5ff ; 5 39 : rich booty granted and more to come, 48 20t : booty 
belongs to A. and Apostle, 8 1>42 : 59 7 : captives in power of captors, to 
kill, sell, hold to ransom, liberate, convert, 8 70f ; 47 4f : encouragements to 
fight, 8 «.««.66f . 61 n fl : especially after defeat of 'Uhud, 3 n 7 " 24 , etc. : 
slackness rebuked, 61 2£r : 9 42— " : especially of Badawin, 9 87 ~ 10 ° : blame 
to the timid, 2 212 f : prayer for victory over infidels, 2 286 : victory of 
Badr a sign from A., 3 u : it was A. who slew enemies, 8 17 : siege of 
Madina raised, 33 9 ~ 27 : victory sealed at Hudaibiya, 48 1 : divine help in 
taking of Mecca, 110 lfl . 

"Water. The origin of life in the Creation, 21 31 . 

Week. Heaven and earth created in six days, 7 52 : Sabbath insti- 
tuted only for those who differed about it, 16 125 : on Friday suspension 
of work at prayer time, 62 9fl . 

Weights and Measures. To be just and full, 7 83 : unfairness to 
be punished on Judgment Day, 83 1 fl . 

Widow. To wait four months and ten days before remarriage, 
2 234 : to be left a year's maintenance after death of husband, 2 241 . 

Wills. [Inheritance.] 

Winds. Hurricane (Sarsar), 69 6 : desiccating blast {'aqlm), 51 41 : 
fertilising winds (lawaqih), 15 22 : harbingers (muhashshirdt) of rain, 30 47 . 

Wine = Khamr, intoxicant. In it is sin and advantage, but sin 
greater than advantage, 2 216 : an abomination of Satan's work, 5 92 : 
served by butler to Pharaoh, 12 41 : rivers of delicious wine in Paradise, 
47 16 . 

Witchcraft. [Spells.] 

Witness. [Testimony.] 

Wives. [Marriage : Muhammad.] 

Women. Reward to good men and good women, 33 36 : modest 
behaviour and veiling enjoined, 33 69 : treatment of women converts, 
60 10fl : penalties for defamation of virtuous women, 24 *" 9 - 23 . 

" Women " = Nisd\ Title of S. 4. 

Word of God. [Qur'an : Scriptures.] 

" Wrangler " = Mujadilah. Title of S. 58. 

Writing = Kitub. [Scriptures.] 

Works. Sent before to A. and recompensed, 73 *> : absolutely 



110 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 

revealed at Judgment Day, 99 6 s ; 82 5. [Judgment Day : Salva- 
tion.] 

Wuzu\ [Ablutions.] 



Yaghuth. An idol, 71 23 . 

Yahyu. [John.] 

Ya'juj. [Gog.] 

Yaqin. [Death.] 

Ya'qub. [Jacob.] 

Ya Sin. Title of S. 36. 

Yathrib. [Medina.] 

Ya'uq. An idol, 71 23 . 

Yunus = " Jonah. 1 ' Title of S. 10. 

Yusuf = " Joseph." Title of S. 12. 

Z. 

Zdbur = Psalter. [David : Scripture.] 

Zaid. Freedman and adopted son of Md. : divorce of his wife Zainab 
in Md.'s favour commended by A., 33 37 . 

Zakarya. Zachariah. Father of John the Baptist. Coupled with 
John, Jesus and Elijah as just, 6 85 : foster father to Mary, receives 
promise of son, 3 32— 6 : his prayer and its answer, 19 1—12 ; 21 89 f . 

Zakdt = purification, i.e. alms of obligation. [Alms.] 

Zahalah = " Earthquake.'' Title of S. 99. 

Zanjdbil = Ginger, an ingredient in the beverage of Paradise, 76 17 . 

Zaqqum. An infernal tree, the fruit of which the damned must eat, 
37 6 °- 4 ; 44 43 ~ 6 ; 56 51 fl . 

Zodiac (Signs of). MintaqatuH buruj = the zone of constellations. 
Oath by constellations, 85 1 : placed in heaven and adorned by A., 25 62 ; 
15 16 . * 

Zulia = " Brightness." Title of S. 93. 

Zukhruf = " Ornaments." Title of S . 43. 

Zumar = " Troops." Title of S. 39. 



SERIAL LIST OF SURAHS.* 



No. 


Title of Surah. 


1. 


Fatihah 


2. 


Baqarah 


3. 


Al 'Imran 


4. 


Nisa' 


5. 


Ma'idah 


6. 


An'am 


7. 


A'raf 


8. 


Anfal 


9. 


Taubah 


10. 


Yunus 


11. 


Hud 


12. 


Yusuf 


13. 


Ra'd 


14. 


Ibrahim 


15. 


Hijr 


16. 


Nafcl 


17. 


Asra 


18. 


Kahf 


19. 


Maryam 


20. 


Ta Ha 


21. 


Anbiya' 


22. 


Hajj 


23. 


Mu'minun 


24. 


Niir 


25. 


Furqan 


26. 


Shu'ara' 


27. 


Naml 


28. 


Qasas 


29. 


'Ankabut 


30. 


Rum 


31. 


Luqman 


32. 


Sajdah 


33. 


Ahzab 


34. 


Saba' 


35. 


Mala'ikah 


36. 


Ya Sin 



Quoted in English as- 
Opening 

Cow 

Family of 'Imran 

Women 

Table 

Cattle 

Araf 

Spoils 

Renunciation 

Jonah 

Hud 

Joseph 

Thunder 

Abraham 

Hijr 

Bee 

Night Journey 

Cave 

Maiy 

TaHa 

Prophets 

Pilgrimage 

Believers 

Light 

Distinguisher 

Poets 

Ant 

Story 

Spider 

Greeks 

Luqman 

Adoration 

Confederates 

Saba 

Angels 

YaSln 



* A few of the Surahs have alternative names as Banu Isrd'il for Asra 
(17). These may be found in the index to Fluegel's edition of the Qur'an 
or in Hughes' Dictionary, pp. 490-2. 



112 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



No. 


Title of Surah. 


Quoted in English as — 


37. 


Saffat 


Eanks 


38. 


Sad 


Sad 


39. 


Zuniar 


Troops 


40. 


Mu'min 


Believer 


41. 


Fussilat 


Made Plain 


42. 


Shura 


Counsel 


43. 


Zukhruf 


Ornaments 


44. 


Dukhan 


Smoke 


45. 


Jathiyah 


Kneeling 


46. 


Ahqaf 


Ahqaf 


47. 


Muhammad 


Muhammad 


48. 


Fath 


Victory 


49. 


Eujurat 


Apartments 


50. 


Qaf 


Qaf 


51. 


Dhariyat 


Scattering 


52. 


Tur 


Mountain 


53. 


Najm 


Star 


54. 


Qamar 


Moon 


55. 


Kahman 


Merciful 


56. 


Waqi'ah 


Inevitable 


67. 


Hadid 


Iron 


58. 


Mujadilah 


Wrangler 


59. 


Hashr 


Emigration 


60. 


Mumtahinah 


Tried 


61. 


Saff * 


Array 


62. 


Jumu'ah 


Assembly 


63. 


Munafiqun 


Hypocrites 


64. 


Taghabun 


Mutual Deceit 


65. 


Talaq 


Divorce 


66. 


Tahrim 


Prohibition 


67. 


Mulk 


Kingdom 


68. 


Qalam 


Pen 


69. 


Haqqah 


Infallible 


70. 


Ma'arij 


Steps 


71. 


Nuh " 


Noah 


72. 


Jinn 


Jinn 


73. 


Muzammil 


Enfolded 


74. 


Mudaththir 


Enwrapped 


75. 


Qiyamah 


Kesurrection 


76. 


Insan 


Man 


77. 


Mursalat 


Sent Ones 


78. 


Naba 


News 


79. 


Nazi'at 


Those who Drag Forth 


80. 


'Abasa 


He frowned 


81. 


Takwir 


Folded up 


82. 


Infitar 


Cleaving 


83. 


TatM 


Short Measure 


84. 


Insniqaq 


Splitting Asunder 


85. 


Buriij 


Starry Sky 


86. 


Tariq 


Night-comer 


87. 


A'la 


Most High 



SERIAL LIST OF SURAHS 



113 



No. 


Title of Surah. 


Quoted in English as— 


88. 


Ghashiyah 


Overshadowing 


89. 


Fajr 


Daybreak 


90. 


Balad 


Soil. 


91. 


Shams 


Sun 


92. 


Lail 


Night 


93. 


Zuha 


Brightness 


94. 


Inshirah 


Expanding 


95. 


Tin 


Fig 


96. 


'Alaq 


Clots of Blood 


97. 


Qadr 


Power 


98. 


Baiyinah 


Clear Evidence 


99. 


Zalzalah 


Earthquake 


100. 


'Xdiyat 


Chargers 


101. 


Qari'ah 


Blow 


102. 


Takathur 


Desire of Increasing 


103. 


'Asr 


Afternoon 


104. 


Humazali 


Backbiter 


105. 


Fil 


Elephant 


106. 


Quraish 


Quraish 


107. 


Ma'tin 


Necessaries 


108. 


Kauthar 


Abundance 


109. 


Kafirun 


Unbelievers 


110. 


Nasr 


Help 


111. 


Abu Lahab 


Abu Lahab 


112. 


Ikhlas 


Unity 


113. 


Falaq 


Dawn 


114. 


Nas 


Men 



DATES CONNECTED WITH THE 

QUR'AN. 

A.D. A.H. 

570. Birth of Muhammad at Mecca. 

576. He is left an orphan to the care of his paternal uncle Abu 

Talib. 

595. Married to Khadaijah 

605. Becomes guardian of 'All and adopts Zaid bin Harith as son. 

610. Meditations in cave on Mount Hira'. 

611. First revelation, followed by blank interval (Fatrah). 
613. Kevelations resumed. 

615. First migration of persecuted Muslims to Abyssinia, and 
return. 

615. Temporary concession to idolaters; immediately revoked. 

616. Second migration of Muslims to Abyssinia, 
617-9. Muslims under the ban of the Quraish. 

619. Death of Khadaijah and Abu Talib. 

620. Unsuccessful mission to Ta'if and vision of believing jinn. 

621. Twelve believers from Medina pledge obedience to Allah and 

the prophet. 

622. More than seventy give a similar pledge at 'Aqabah. 

622. Hijrah or flight of Muhammad and his adherents from Mecca 
to Medina. The Era of Islam ; 20th June, 622. (As the 
first year of this era begins in the middle of the Christian 
year, there is often a discrepancy between the relations of 
A.D. and A.H., e.g. May A.D. 623 would fall in A.H. 1, 
while July of the same year would be dated A.H. 2) . 1 

622. Dec. First attack on Meccan caravans under Hamzah's 

command .1 

623. Followed by five more, of which three under Muhammad's 

personal leadership. Divine command to fight the 

idolaters 2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



623. Fast of Ramazan substituted for Day of Atonement 

623. Mecca as Qiblah instead of Jerusalem .... 

624. Jan. Victory of Muslims over Quraish at Badr 
624 Feb. Jewish tribe of Ban! Qainuqa' driven into exile . 
624-5. Fatimah married to 'All. Birth of Hasan and Husain 

625. Reverse of Muslims in Battle of 'Uhud . 

625. Ban! Nadhir (Jews) attacked and driven into exile . 

626. Muhammad marries Zainab, the divorced wife of Zaid his 

adopted son. 'Ayishah accused and defended . 



DATES CONNECTED WITH THE QUR'AN 115 

A.D. A.H. 

627. Siege of Medina and Battle of the Trench .... 5 

627. Jewish tribe of Ban! Quraizah slaughtered .... 5 
627-8. Seventeen small expeditions and raids .... 6 

628. Muhammad and his followers make the Lesser Pilgrimage as 

far as Hudaibi3 7 ah. " Pledge of the Tree " ... 6 
628. Muhammad despatches summons to accept Islam to the 

monarchs of Byzantium, Persia and Abyssinia ... 7 

628. Conquest of Khaibar 7 

629. The Greater Pilgrimage performed. Muhammad marries 

Maimiinah, his tenth wife after Khadaijah's death . . 7 

630. Conquest of Mecca and destruction of idols at Ka'bah . . 8 
630. Victory at Hunain. Repulse at Ta'if ..... 8 
630. Mary the Coptic slave-girl bears a son (Ibrahim) to M. . . 9 
630-1. Deputations of submission from Arabian tribes ... 9 

630. Submission of Ta'if and destruction of idols .... 9 

631. Proclamation of the "Release," enjoining warfare against 

idolaters ' 9 

631. Submission of sundry Christian tribes 9 

631. Farewell Pilgrimage and announcements by M. . .10 

632. Sickness and death of M 11 

632-5. Qur'an collected into one volume by Zaid ibn Thabit under 

order from Abu Bakr 11-14 

651. Revision of Qur'an and establishment of one standard text 

by order of 'Uthman 30 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 
IN FLUEGEI/S AND IN INDIAN EDITIONS 
(INCLUDING WHERRY'S EDITION OF SAFE'S 
TRANSLATION) OF THE QUR'AN. 

S.= Surah ; F. =Fluegel verse numbers ; I. = Indian verse numbers. 

Only variant numbers are marked ; the others tally. Where 
the markings tally the first and last Nos. of the identical series are 
given. 

Quotations in this book are according to Fluegeh 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


1 


i 


1 


2 


21 


23 


2 


47 


50 


2 


72 


77 


2 


98 


104 




5 


5 




22 


24 




48 


51 




73 


7 8 




99 


J 05 




6 


6 




23 


25 




49 


52 




79 




100 


106 






7 




24 


26 




50 


53 




74 


80 




101 


107 










25 


27 




51 


54 




75 


81 




102 


108 


2 


i 


1 




26 


28 




52 


55 




76 


82 




103 


109 




2 




27 


29 




53 


56 


77 


83 




104 


no 




2 


3 




28 


30 




54 


57 


7 8 


84 




105 


in 




3 


4 




29 


3i 




55 


58 




79 


^5 




106 


112 




4 


5 




30 


32 




56 


59 




80 


86 




107 


113 




5 


6 




3i 


33 




57 


60 




81 


87 




108 


114 




6 


7 




32 


34 




58 


61 




82 


88 




109 


115 




7 


8 




33 


35 




59 


62 




83 


89 




no 


116 




8 


9 




34 


36 




60 


63 




84 


90 




III 


117 




9 


10 




35 


37 




61 


64 




85 


9i 




112 


118 




10 


11 




36 


38 




65 




86 


92 




113 


119 




ii 


12 




37 


39 




62 


66 




8 7 


93 




II 4 


120 




12 


13 




38 


40 




63 


67 




88 


94 




H5 


121 




13 


M 




41 




68 




89 


95 




116 


122 




M 


15 




39 


42 




64 


69 




90 


96 




117 


123 




1 5 


16 




40 


43 




65 


70 




9i 


97 




118 


124 




16 


17 




41 


44 




66 


7i 




92 


98 




119 


!25 




17 


18 




42 


45 




67 


72 




93 


99 




120 


126 




18 


19 




43 


46 




68 


73 




94 


100 




121 


127 




19 


20 




44 i 


47 




69 


74 




95 


101 




122 


128 




21 




45 


48 




70 


75 




96 


102 




123 


129 




20 


22 




46 


49 




7i 


76 




97 


103 




124 


I30 



118 THE TEACHING OF THE QURAN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


2 ] 


[25 ] 


31 


2 ] 


70 ] 


75 


2 215 218 


2 2 


71 1 


.68 


3 


31 


34 


] 


[26 i 


32 


] 


71 ] 


76 


216 ~T~ 


2 


•72 269 




35 


] 


[27 ] 
[28 ] 
[29 i 
[30 : 


-33 
^34 
^35 
[36 


] 

] 
] 


[72 ] 

[74 

175 ] 


■77 
[78 

[79 


217 
2l8 
219 
220 


220 
221 


270 

273 ' 
/D 271 

272 

274 ' 
'* 273 




32 
33 
34 
35 


36 

37 
38 
39 




[31 


[37 




[76 : 


[80 




221 




< 


175 274 




36 


40 




132 


t38 




[77 


[81 




222 : 


222 


: 


276 : 


7 -75 




37 


4i 




133 


t39 




178 


[82 




234 


234 


, 


*77 : 


276 




38 


42 




!34 


140 




179 


r8 3 




235 


235 




277 




39 


43 




135 


141 




180 


184 




236 




278 


278 




40 


44 




136 


142 




181 


185 




237 


236 


286 


286 




4i 


45 




137 


143 




182 


186 




238 


237 


1 






42 


46 




138 




183 


187 




239 


238 










A O 


47 




139 


144 




184 


188 




240 


239 










43 


48 




140 


*45 




185 


189 




241 


240 


3 


I 


1 




44 


49 




141 


146 




186 I 


190 1 


242 


241 


O 




2 




50 




142 


147 




187 


191 


243 


242 




2 


3 




45 


5i 




143 


148 




188 


192 


244 


243 




3 




46 


52 




J 44 


149 




189 


193 




245 


244 




4 


4 




47 


53 




r 45 


150 




190 


194 




246 


245 




5 




48 


54 




146 


151 




191 


195 




247 


246 




5 


6 




49 


55 




147 


152 




192 


196 




248 


,247 




6 


7 




5° 


56 


148 


153 




193 


197 




249 


'248 

1 




7 


8 




5 1 


57 


x 49 


154 




194 


198 




250 


249 


8 


9 




52 


58 


l^ 


*55 




195 


199 




251 


250 




9 


10 




53 


59 




1 5 1 


156 




196 


200 




252 


251 




10 


11 




54 


60 




152 


*57 




197 


201 




253 


252 




11 


12 




55 


61 




J 53 


158 




198 


202 




254 


253 




12 


13 




56 


62 




154 


159 




199 


203 




255 


254 




13 


14 




57 


63 




1 55 


160 




200 


204 




256 


255 




14 


15 




58 


64 




156 


161 




201 


1205 




257 


256 




15 


16 




59 


65 




1 57 


162 




202 


206 




258 


^ r <*? 




16 


17 




60 


66 




158 


163 




203 


207 




259 


\ 2 57 




17 


18 




61 


67 




159 


164 




204 


208 




260 


258 




18 


19 




62 


68 




160 


165 




205 


209 




261 


i 2 59 




19 




63 


69 




161 


166 




206 


210 




262 


260 




20 


20 




64 


70 




162 


167 




207 


211 




263 


261 




26 


26 




65 


7 1 




163 


168 




208 


212 




264 


262 




27 


1 27 




66 


72 




164 


169 




209 


213 




265 


263 




28 




67 


73 




165 


170 




210 


214 




266 


264 




28 


29 




68 


74 




166 


171 




211 


215 




267 


265 




29 


30 




69 




167 


172 




212 


216 




268 


|266 




3i 




70 


75 




168 
169 


J 73 
174 




213 
214 


217 




269 
270 


267 




30 


32 
33 




71 
72 


76 
77 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



119 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


P. 


L 


S. 


P. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


3 


73 


78 


3 


118 


121 


3 


160 


165 


4 


3 


3 


4 


46 


43 




74 


79 




119 


122 




161 


166 




4 




47 


44 




75 


80 




120 


123 




162 


167 




4 


5 




45 




7 6 


81 




121 


124 




163 


168 




5 






48 


46 




77 


82 




122 


!25 




164 


169 




6 


6 




49 




78 


83 






126 




165 


170 




7 






50 


47 




79 


84 




123 


127 




166 


171 




8 


7 




51 


48 




80 


85 




124 


128 




167 


172 




9 


8 




52 


49 




81 


86 




125 


129 




168 


173 




10 


9 




53 


50 




82 


87 




126 


I30 




169 


174 




11 


10 




54 


5i 




83 


88 






131 




170 


*75 




12 


11 




55 


52 




84 


89 




127 


132 




171 


176 




13 






56 


53 




85 


90 




128 


133 




172 


177 




to 


12 




57 


54 




86 


9i 




129 


*34 




173 


178 




16 






58 


55 




87 


92 




130 


135 




174 




17 


13 




59 


56 




88 


93 




131 


136 




t-75 


179 




18 


J 4 




60 


57 




89 


94 




132 


1 37 




176 




19 


15 




61 


58 




90 


95 




133 


138 




177 


180 




20 


16 




62 


59 




9i 


96 




!34 


139 




178 


181 




21 


!7 




63 


60 




92 




135 


140 




179 


182 




22 


18 




64 


61 




93 


97 




136 


141 




180 






23 


19 




65 


62 




94 


98 




137 


142 




181 


183 




24 


20 




66 


63 




95 


99 




138 


143 




182 


184 




25 


21 




67 


64 




96 


100 




139 


144 




183 


185 




26 


22 




68 


65 




97 


IOI 




140 


145 




184 


186 




27 


23 




69 


66 




98 
99 


102 




141 


146 
147 




185 

186 


187 
188 




28 
29 


24 
25 




70 


67 

68 




100 


103 




142 


148 




187 


189 




30 




7 1 


69 




IOI 


104 




143 


149 




188 


190 




3i 


26 




72 


70 




102 


105 




144 


*5° 




189 


191 




32 
33 


27 




73 


7i 




103 
104 


106 
107 




145 
146 


151 




190 
191 


192 




28 
29 




74 
75 


72 

73 




105 


108 




147 


152 




192 


193 




34 


30 




76 


74 




106 


109 




148 


153 




193 






35 


3i 




77 


75 




107 


no 




149 


154 




194 


194 




36 


32 




78 


76 




108 


in 




x 5° 


*55 




195 






37 


33 




79 


77 




109 
no 


112 
113 




151 
152 


156 
1 57 




196 


195 
196 




38 
39 


34 
35 




80 
81 


78 
79 




in 


114 




1 53 


158 




197 


197 




40 


36 




82 


80 




112 


115 




!54 


159 




198 


198 




4i 


37 




83 


81 




113 


116 




*55 


160 




199 




42 


38 




84 


82 




114 


117 




156 


161 




200 


198 




43 


39 




85 


83 




"5 


118 




157 


162 










44 


40 




86 


84 




116 


119 




158 


163 


4 


1 


1 




45 


4i 




87 


85 




117 


120 




159 


164 




2 


2 




42 




88 


86 



120 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I, 


S. 


F. 


I. 


4 


89 


87 


4 


140 


141 


5 


6 


4 


5 


50 


4 6 


5 


92 


90 




90 


88 




141 


142 




7 


5 




51 


47 






9i 




91 


89 




142 


H3 




8 


6 




52 


48 


vd 


92 




92 


90 




143 


144 




9 






53 




94 


93 




93 


9i 




144 


145 




10 


7 




54 


49 




95 


94 




94 


92 




H5 


146 




11 


8 




55 


50 




96 


95 




95 


93 




146 


147 




12 


9 




56 


5 1 




97 


96 




96 


94 




147 


148 




13 


10 




57 


52 




98 


97 




97 


95 




148 


149 




14 


11 




5^ 


53 




98 




98 


96 




149 


150 




15 


12 




59 


54 




99 


99 




99 


97 




150 


1 5 1 




16 


13 




60 


55 




100 


100 




100 


98 




r 5* 


152 




17 


M 




61 


56 




IOI 


IOI 






99 




152 


153 




18 


15 




62 


57 






102 




IOI 


100 




153 


I 54 






16 


63 


58 




102 


103 




102 


IOI 




154 


1 55 




19 


17 


64 


59 




103 


104 




103 


102 




155 


156 




20 


65 


60 




104 


105 




104 


103 




156 


157 




21 


18 


66 


61 


105 


106 




io 5 


104 




158 




22 


19 


67 


62 


I106 


107 




106 


!°5 




157 


159 




23 


20 




68 


63 




107 


108 






106 




158 


160 




24 


21 




69 


64 




108 


109 




107 
117 


107 

117 




159 
160 


161 
162 




25 
26 


22 
23 




70 


65 
66 




109 
no 


no 




118 


118 




161 


163 




27 


24 




71 


67 




III 


in 




1 J- KJ 


119 




162 


164 




28 


25 




72 


68 




120 


120 




119 


120 




163 


165 




29 


26 




73 


69 










I20 


121 




164 


166 




30 


27 




74 


70 


6 


I 


1 




121 


122 




165 


167 




31 


28 




75 


7i 




65 


65 




122 


123 




166 


168 




32 


29 




76 


72 




66 


66 




123 


I24 




167 


169 




33 


30 




77 


73 




\J\J 


67 




I24 


125 




168 


170 




34 


3i 




78 


74 




67 


68 




125 


126 




169 


171 




35 


32 
33 




79 


75 




68 


69 




126 
I27 


127 

128 




170 

171 


172 




36 
37 




80 
81 


76 
77 




69 
70 


70 
7i 




128 


129 




172 


173 




38 


34 




82 


78. 




7 1 


72 




129 


I30 




T 73 


174 




39 


35 






79 




72 


73 




130 


131 




174 


*75 




40 


36 




83 


80 




73 


74 




131 


132 




176 




41 


37 




84 


81 




74 


75 




132 


133 




*75 


177 




42 


38 




85 


82 




75 


76 




133 


!34 










43 


39 




86 


83 




76 


77 




134 


135 










44 


40 




8 7 


84 




77 


78 




135 


136 


5 


1 


1 




45 


4 1 




88 


85 




78 


79 




I36 


137 




2 


O 




46 


42 




KJkJ 


86 




79 


80 




137 


138 




3 


Jm 




47 


43 




89 


8 7 




80 


81 




138 


139 




4 


3 




48 


44 




90 


88 




81 


82 




139 


140 




5 




49 


45 




91 


89 




82 


83 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



121 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


P. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


6 


83 


84 


6 


128 


129 


7 


28 


29 


7 


72 


74 


7 


116 


119 




84 


85 




129 


130 






30 




73 


75 




117 


120 




85 


86 




130 


131 




29 


3i 




74 


76 




118 


121 




86 


87 




131 


132 




30 


32 




75 


77 




119 


122 




87 


88 




132 


133 




3i 


33 




76 


78 




120 


123 




88 


89 




133 


134 




32 


34 




77 


79 




121 


124 




89 


90 




x 34 


135 




33 


35 




78 


80 




122 


125 




90 


9i 




135 


136 




34 


36 




79 


81 




123 


126 




9i 


92 




136 




35 


37 




80 


82 




124 


127 




92 


93 




137 


J 37 




36 


38 




81 


83 




125 


128 




93 


94 




162 


162 




37 


39 




82 


84 




126 


129 




94 


95 




163 


163 




38 


40 




83 


85 




127 


130 




95 


96 




164 




39 


4i 




84 


86 




128 


131 




96 


97 




164 


165 




40 


42 




^5 


8 7 




129 


132 




97 


98 




165 


166 




4i 


43 




86 


88 




130 


133 




98 


99 










42 


44 




8 7 


89 




131 


!34 




99 


100 










43 


45 




88 


90 




!35 




100 


IOI 


7 


j 


1 




44 


46 




89 


9i 




132 


136 




IOI 


102 






2 




45 


47 




90 


92 




133 


137 




102 


103 




2 


3 




46 


48 




9i 


93 




134 


138 




103 


104 




3 


4 




47 


49 




92 


94 




135 


139 




104 


105 




4 


5 




48 


50 




93 


95 




136 


140 




105 


106 




5 


6 




49 


5i 




94 


96 




137 


141 




106 


107 




6 


7 




50 


52 




95 


97 




138 


142 




107 

108 


108 
109 




7 
8 


8 
9 




5i 

52 


53 

54 




96 
97 


98 
99 




139 
140 


143 




109 


no 




9 


10 




53 


55 




98 


100 




141 


144 




no 


in 




10 


n 




54 


56 




99 


IOI 




142 


J 45 




III 

112 


112 
113 




n 
12 


12 
13 




55 

56 


57 
58 




100 

IOI 


102 
103 




J 43 
144 


146 




113 


114 




13 


14 




57 


59 




102 


104 




145 


147 




114 

115 


115 
116 




14 
15 


15 

16 




5^ 
59 


60 
61 




103 


105 

106 




146 
147 


148 




116 


117 




16 


17 




60 


62 




104 


107 




148 


149 




117 


118 




J 7 


18 




61 


63 




105 


108 




149 


150 




118 


119 




18 


19 




62 


64 




106 


109 




150 


I 5 1 




119 


120 




19 


20 




63 


65 




107 


no 




T 5* 


152 




120 


121 




20 


21 




64 


66 




108 


in 




152 


!53 




121 


122 




21 


22 




65 


67 




109 


112 




153 


J 54 




122 


123 




22 


23 




66 


68 




no 


113 




154 


155 




123 


124 




23 


24 




67 


69 




in 


114 




*55 


156 




I24 


!25 




24 


25 




68 


70 




112 


"5 




156 


1 57 




125 


126 




25 


26 




69 


7i 




113 


116 




157 


158 




126 


I27 




26 


27 




70 


72 




114 


117 




158 




127 


128 




27 


28 




7 1 


73 




115 


118 




159 


159 



122 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


P. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


7 


165 


!65 


8 


36 


36 


9 


61 


61 


9 


106 


io 5 


10 


27 


26 




166 


166 




37 




62 




107 


106 




28 


27 






167 




38 


37 




63 


62 




108 


107 




29 


28 




167 


168 




39 


38 




64 


63 




109 


108 




30 


29 




168 


169 




40 


39 




65 


64 




no 


109 




3i 


30 




169 


170 




4 1 


40 




66 


65 




in 


no 




32 


3i 




170 


171 




42 


4 1 




67 


66 




112 


in 




33 


32 




171 


172 




43 


42 




68 


67 




113 


112 




34 


33 




172 


*73 




44 




69 


68 




114 


113 




35 


34 




173 


174 




45 


43 




70 


69 




115 


114 




36 


35 




!74 


*75 




46 


44 




7 1 


7° 




116 


115 




37 


36 




*75 


176 




47 


45 




72 


7i 




117 


116 




38 


37 




176 


177 




48 


46 




73 


72 




118 


117 




39 


38 




177 


178 




49 


47 




74 


73 




119 


118 




40 


39 




178 


179 




50 


48 




75 


74 




120 


119 




4i 


40 




179 


180 




5i 


49 




76 


75 




121 


120 




42 


4i 




180 


181 




52 


50 




77 


76 




122 


121 




43 


42 




181 


182 




53 


5i 




78 


77 




123 


122 




44 


43 




182 


183 




54 


52 




79 


78 




124 


123 




45 


44 




183 


184 




55 


53 




80 


79 




125 


124 




46 


45 




184 


185 




56 


54 




81 


80 




126 


125 




47 


46 




185 


186 




57 


55 




82 


81 




127 


126 




48 


47 




186 


187 




58 


56 




83 


82 




128 


127 




49 


48 




187 




59 


57 




84 


83 




129 


128 




50 


49 




188 


188 




60 


58 




85 


84 




130 


129 




5i 


50 




190 


190 




61 


59 




86 


85 










52 


5i 




191 


191 




62 


60 




87 


86 


10 


1 


1 




53 


52 




192 




63 


61 




88 


87 




9 


9 




54 


53 




192 
193 


i93 
194 




64 


62 
63 




89 
90 


88 
89 




10 
11 


10 




55 
56 


54 
55 




194 


195 




65 


64 




9i 


90 




12 


11 




57 


56 




195 


196 




66 


65 




92 


9i 




13 


12 




58 


57 




196 


197 




67 


66 




93 


92 




14 


13 




59 


58 




197 


198 




68 


67 




94 


93 




15 


14 




60 


59 




198 


199 




69 


68 




95 


94 




16 


15 




61 


60 




199 


200 




70 


69 




96 


95 




17 


16 




62 


61 




200 


201 




7 1 


70 




97 


96 




18 


17 




63 


62 




201 


202 




72 


7 1 




98 


97 




19 


18 




64 


63 




202 


203 




73 


72 




99 


98 




20 


19 




65 


64 




203 


204 




74 


73 




100 


99 




21 


20 




66 


65 




204 


205 




75 


74 




IOI 


100 




22 


21 




67 


66 




205 


206 




76 


75 




102 
103 


IOI 

102 




23 
24 


22 
23 




68 
69 


67 
68 


8 


1 


1 


9 


1 


1 




104 


103 




25 


24 




70 


69 




35 


35 




60 


60 




io 5 


104 




26 


25 




7i 


7° 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



123 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


10 


72 


7i 


11 


34 


32 


11 


78 


7 6 


11 


I20 


[18 


13 


32 


32 




73 


72 




35 


33 




79 


77 






[19 




43 


43 




74 


73 




36 


34 




80 


78 




E2I 


120 










75 


74 




37 


35 




81 


79 




E22 


121 


14 


1 


1 




76 


75 




38 


36 




82 


80 




122 




8 


8 




77 


76 




39 


37 




83 


81 




123 


123 




9 


9 




78 


77 




40 


38 




84 


82 










10 




79 


78 




4i 


39 




83 


12 


I 


I 




n 


TA 




80 
81 


79 




42 


40 




85 


84 




95 


95 




12 


1U 




80 
81 




43 
44 


41 
42 




86 
87 


85 
86 




96 
97 


96 




13 


II 




109 


109 




45 


43 




88 




98 


97 




15 


12 










46 


44 


89 


87 


99 


98 




16 


13 


11 


1 


1 




47 


45 


1 90 


88 




100 


99 




17 


14 




4 


4 




48 


46 




9i 


89 




IOI 


100 




18 


15 




f 5 






49 


47 




92 


90 




102 


IOI 




19 


16 




6 






50 


48 




93 


9i 




103 


102 




20 


17 




t7 






51 


49 




94 


92 




103 




21 


18 




8 


6 




52 


50 




95 


93 




104 


104 




22 


19 




9 


7 




53 


5 1 




96 




in 


in 




23 


20 




10 




54 


52 




97 


94 










24 






H 


8 




55 




98 


95 


13 


1 


1 




25 


21 




12 


9 




56 


53 




99 


96 




4 


4 




26 


22 




J 3 


10 




57 


54 




97 




5 


5 




27 






M 


11 




58 


55 




100 


98 




6 




28 


23 




15 


12 




59 


56 




101 


99 




7 


6 




29 


24 




16 


13 




60 


57 




102 


100 




8 


7 




30 


25 




x 7 


14 




61 


58 




103 


101 




9 


8 




31 


26 




18 


J 5 




62 


59 




104 


102 I 


10 


9 




32 


27 




19 


16 




63 


60 




J Q5 


103 


n 


10 




33 


28 




20 


*7 




64 


61 




106 


104 




12 


n 




34 


29 




21 


18 




65 


62 




107 


105 




13 


12 




35 


30 




22 


19 




66 


63 




108 


106 




14 


13 




36 


31 




20 




67 


64 




109 


107 




15 


14 






32 




23 


21 




68 


65 




no 


108 




16 


15 




37 


33 




24 


22 




69 


66 




III 


109 




J 7 


16 






34 




25 


23 




70 


67 




112 


no 




18 


17 




38 


35 




26 


24 




7i 


68 




113 


in 






18 




39 


36 




27 


25 




72 


69 




II 4 


112 




19 


19 




40 


37 




28 


26 




73 


7° 




115 


113 




27 


27 




A T 


38 




29 


27 




74 


7 1 




Il6 


114 




28 


28 




4 1 


39 




30 


28 




75 


72 




117 


"5 






29 




A O 


40 




31 


29 




76 


73 




Il8 


116 




29 


30 




42 


4i 




32 


30 




77 


74 




119 


117 




30 


3i 




43 


42 




33 


31 




75 










3i 




44 


43 



124 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


s|f. 


I. 


14 


45 


A A 


16 


5i 


49 


16 


96 


94 


17 


16 


I 5 


17 


60 


58 




46 


44 




52 


50 




97 


95 




17 


16 




61 


59 




47 


45 




53 


5i 




98 


96 




18 


17 




62 


60 




46 




54 


52 




99 


97 




19 


18 




63 


61 




48 


47 




55 


53 




100 


98 




20 


19 




64 


62 




49 


48 




56 


54 




IOI 


99 




21 


20 




65 


63 




50 


49 




57 


55 




102 


100 




22 


21 




66 


64 




5i 


50 




58 


56 




103 


IOI 




23 


22 




67 


65 




5i 




59 


57 




104 


102 




24 


23 




68 


66 




52 


52 




60 
61 


5S 
59 




105 
106 


103 

104 




25 

26 


24 




69 
70 


67 
68 


15 


1 
99 


1 
99 




62 


60 




107 


105 




27 


25 




7i 


69 






63 


61 




108 


106 




28 


26 




72 


70 


16 


1 


1 




64 


62 




109 


107 




29 


27 




73 


71 




20 


20 




65 


63 




t in 


108 




30 


28 




74 


72 




21 


21 




66 


64 




ilU 


109 




3i 


29 




75 


73 




22 






67 


65 




III 


no 




32 


30 




76 


74 




23 


22 




68 


66 




112 


in 




33 


3i 




77 


75 




24 


23 


69 


67 




113 


112 




34 


32 




7 8 


76 




25 


70 


68 




II 4 


113 




35 


33 




79 


77 




26 


24 


7i 


69 




"5 


114 




36 


34 




80 


7 8 




27 


25 




72 


70 




116 


115 




37 


35 




81 


79 




28 


26 




73 


7 1 




117 


116 




38 


36 




82 


80 




29 


27 




74 


72 




118 


117 




39 


37 




^3 


81 




30 


28 




75 


73 




119 


118 




40 


38 




84 


82 




3i 


29 




76 


74 




120 


119 




4i 


39 




85 


S3 




32 


30 




77 


75 




121 


120 




42 


40 




86 


84 




33 


31 




78 


76 




122 


121 




43 


4i 




8 7 


85 




34 


32 




79 


77 




123 


122 




44 


42 


88 


86 




35 


33 




80 


7 8 




124 


123 




45 


43 


89 


8 7 




36 


34 




81 


79 




125 


124 




46 


44 


90 


88 




37 


35 




82 


80 




126 


125 




47 


45 




91 


89 




38 


36 




83 


81 




127 


126 




48 


46 




92 


90 




39 


37 




84 


82 




128 


127 




49 




93 


9i 




40 


38 




85 


83 




128 




50 


47 


94 


92 




4i 


39 




86 


84 










5i 


48 


95 


93 




42 


40 




8 7 


S 5 


17 


1 


1 




52 


49 


96 


94 




43 


4i 




88 


86 




8 


8 




53 


50 




97 


95 




44 


42 




89 


87 




9 


9 




5i 




98 


96 




45 


43 




90 


88 




10 




54 


52 




99 


97 




46 


44 




9i 


89 




11 


10 




55 


53 




EOO 


98 




47 


45 




92 


90 




12 


11 




5° 


54 




[OI 


99 




48 


46 




93 


9i 




13 


12 j 


57 


55 




[02 : 


[OO 




49 


47 




94 


92 




14 


13 


58 


56 




[03 ] 


EOI 


5 ° 


48 




95 


93 




15 


J 4 


59 


57 




[04 b 


E02 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



125 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. F. 


I. 


17 


105 


103 


18 


34 ; 


36 


18 


79 


80 


19 


29 


28 


19 


74 


73 




106 


104 




35 


37 




80 


81 




30 


29 




75 


74 




105 




36 


38 




81 


82 




3i 


30 




76 


75 




107 


106 




37 


39 




82 


83 




32 


31 




77 




108 j 


107 




38; 


40 




83 


84 




33 


32 




78 


76 






108 




39 | 


4i 




85 




34 


33 




79 


/ 




109 


109 




40 


42 




84 


86 




35 


34 




80 


77 




in 


in 




4i 


43 




^5 


uu 




36 


35 




81 


7 S 










42 


44 




86 


87 




37 


36 




82 


79 


18 


1 


1 




43 


45 




8 7 


88 




38 


37 




83 


80 







2 




44 


46 




88 


89 




39 


38 




84 


81 




£ \ 


3 




45 


47 




89 


90 




40 


39 




85 , 


82 




3 


4 




4 6 


48 




90 


9i 




41 


40 




86 


83 




4 


5 




47 


49 




9i 


92 




42 


4i 




87 


84 




5 


6 




48 


50 




92 


93 




43 


42 




88 


85 




6 


7 




49 


5i 




93 


94 




44 


43 




89 


86 




7 


8 




50 


52 




94 


95 




45 


44 




90 


87 




8 


9 




5 1 


53 




95 


96 




46 


45 




9i 


88 




9 


10 




52 


54 




96 


97 




47 


46 




89 




10 


11 




53 


55 




97 


98 




48 


47 




92 


90 




11 


12 




54 


56 




98 




49 


48 




93 


9i 




12 


13 




55 


57 




99 


99 




50 


49 




92 




13 


14 




56 




no 


no 




5i 


5° 




94 


93 




14 


15 




57 


58 










52 


5i 




94 




15 


16 




58 


59 


19 


1 


1 




53 


52 




95 


95 




16 


17 




59 


60 


X <7 




2 




54 


53 




98 


98 




17 


18 




60 


61 




2 


3 




54 










18 


19 




61 


62 




3 


4 




56 


55 


20 


j 


1 




19 


20 




62 


63 




4 




57 


56 






2 




20 


21 




63 


64 




5 


5 




58 


57 




2 


3 




21 


22 




64 


65 




6 


6 




59 


58 




3 


4 




22 






65 


66 




7 


7 




60 


59 




4 


5 






23 




66 


67 




8 




61 


60 




5 


6 




2 3 


24 




67 


68 




9 


8 




62 


61 




6 


7 




24 


25 




68 


69 




10 


9 




63 


62 




7 


8 




25 


26 




69 


1 70 




n 


10 




64 


63 




8 


9 




26 


27 




7° 


; 71 




12 


n 




65 


64 




9 


TO 




27 


28 




7i 


72 




13 


12 




66 


65 




10 


± KJ 




28 


29 




72 


73 




14 


13 




67 


66 




n 


II 




29 


30 




73 


74 




14 




68 


67 




14 


14 




30 


3i 




74 


75 




15 


15 




69 


68 




15 


T £ 




3i 


(32 




75 


76 




25 


25 




70 


69 




16 


1 5 




33 




76 


77 




26 


26 




7i 


70 




17 


16 




32 


(34 




77 


78 




27 






72 


7i 




18 


17 




33 


35 




78 


79 




28 


27 




73 


72 




19 


18 



126 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


20 


20 


19 


20 


66 


63 


20 


112 


113 


21 


54 


53 


22 




42 




21 


20 




67 


64 




113 


114 




55 


54 




43 


43 




22 


21 




68 


65 




114 


115 




56 


55 






44 




23 


22 




69 


66 




115 


116 




57 


56 




44 


45 




24 


23 




70 


67 




117 




58 


57 




45 


46 




25 


24 




7i 


68 




116 


118 




59 


58 




46 


47 




26 


25 




72 


69 




117 


119 




60 


59 




47 


48 




27 


26 




73 


70 




118 


120 




61 


60 




48 


49 




28 


27 




74 


7i 




119 


121 




62 


61 




49 


50 




29 


28 




75 


72 




120 


122 




63 


62 




50 


5i 




30 


29 




73 




121 


123 




64 


6^ 




5i 


52 




3i 


30 




76 


74 




122 




65 


64 




52 


53 




32 


3i 




77 


75 




123 


T O A 




66 


65 




53 


54 




33 


32 




78 


76 




124 


1Z1 




67 


66 




54 


55 




34 


33 




79 


77 




125 


125 




67 




55 


56 




34 




80 




135 


135 




68 


68 




56 


57 




35 


35 




81 


78 










112 


112 




57 


58 




38 


38 






79 


21 


1 


I 










58 


59 




39 


39 




82 


80 




27 


27 


22 


1 


1 




59 


60 




40 




83 


81 




28 


28 




17 


17 




60 


61 




41 


A f\ 




84 


82 




29 




18 


18 




61 


62 




42 


4O 




^5 


83 




30 


29 




19 




62 


63 




43 


41 




86 


84 




3i 


30 




20 


. J 9 




63 


64 




44 


42 




87 


^5 




32 


31 




?T 


20 




64 


65 




45 


43 




88 


86 




33 


32 




.4* X 


21 




65 


66 




46 


44 




89 






34 


33 




22 


22 




66 


67 




47 


45 




90 


87 




35 


34 




24 


24 




67 


68 




48 


46 




88 




36 


35 




25 


25 




68 


69 




49 


47 




9i 


89 




37 


36 




26 




69 


70 




5° 


48 




92 


90 




38 


37 




27 


26 




70 


71 




51 


49 




93 


9i 




39 


38 




28 


27 




71 


72 




52 


50 




94 


92 




40 


39 




29 


28 




72 


73 




53 


5 1 




93 




4i 


40 




30 


29 




73 


74 




54 


52 




95 


94 




42 


4i 




31 


30 




74 


75 




55 


53 




96 


95 




43 


42 




32 


3i 




75 


76 




56 


54 




96 




44 


43 




33 


32 




76 


77 




57 


55 




97 


97 




45 


44 




34 


33 




77 


78 




58 


56 




105 


105 




46 


45 




35 


34 




78 




59 


57 




106 


106 




47 


46 




36 


35 










60 


58 






107 




48 


47 




37 


36 


23 


1 


1 




61 


59 




107 


108 




49 


48 




38 


37 




26 


26 




62 


60 




108 


109 




50 


49 




39 


38 




27 


27 




63 


61 




109 


no 




51 


50 




40 


39 




28 




64 






no 


in 




52 


5i 




4i 


40 




29 


28 




65 


62 




in 


112 




53 


52 




42 


41 




30 


29 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



127 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


23 


3i 


30 


23 


76 


74 


24 


1 


1 


25 


13 


12 


25 


58 


56 




32 


3i 




77 


75 




13 


13 




J 4 


13 




59 


57 




33 ! 


32 




78 


76 




H 


14 




15 


14 




60 


58 




34 


33 




79 


77 




15 




16 


15 






59 




35 




80 


78 




I 5 


16 




17 


16 




61 


60 




36 


34 




81 


79 




16 


17 




18 


17 




62 


61 




37 


35 




82 


80 




17 


18 




19 


18 




63 


62 




38 


36 




83 


81 




18 


19 




20 


19 




64 


63 




39 


37 




84 


82 




19 




21 




65 


64 




40 


38 




^5 


83 




20 


20 




22 


20 




66 


65 




4i 


39 




86 


84 




43 


43 




23 


21 






66 




42 


40 




8 7 


85 




44 


44 




24 


22 




67 


67 




43 


4i 




88 


86 




45 




25 


23 




77 


77 




44 


42 




89 


8 7 




45 


46 




26 


24 










45 


43 




90 


88 




46 


47 




27 


25 


26 


T 


1 




46 


44 




9i 


89 




47 


48 




28 


26 


64 \J 


JL 


2 




47 


45 




92 


90 




48 


49 




29 


27 




2 


3 




48 


46 




93 


9i 




49 


50 




30 


28 




3 


4 




49 


47 




94 


92 




5° 


5 1 




3i 


29 




4 


5 




50 


48 




95 


93 




5i 


52 




32 


30 




5 


6 




51 


49 




96 


94 




52 


53 




33 


31 




6 


7 




52 


50 




97 


95 




53 


54 




34 


32 




7 


8 




53 


5 1 




98 


96 




54 


55 




35 


33 




8 


9 




54 


52 




99 


97 




55 


56 




36 


34 




9 


10 




55 


53 




100 


98 




56 


57 




37 


35 




10 


n 




56 


54 




IOI 


99 




57 


58 




38 


36 




n 


12 




57 


55 




102 


100 




58 


59 




39 


37 




12 


13 




58 


56 




103 


IOI 




59 


60 




40 


38 




13 


J 4 




59 


57 




104 


102 




60 


61 




4i 


39 




14 


15 




60 


58 




105 


103 




61 






42 


40 




15 


16 




61 


59 




106 


104 




62 


62 




43 


4 1 




16 


J 7 




62 


60 




107 


105 




64 


64 




44 


42 




J 7 


18 




63 


61 




108 


106 










45 


43 




18 


19 




64 


62 




109 


107 


25 


1 


1 




46 


44 




19 


20 




65 


63 




no 


108 




2 


2 




47 


45 




20 


21 




66 


64 




III 


109 




3 


3 




48 


46 




21 


22 




67 


65 




112 


no 




4 




49 


47 




22 


23 




68 


66 




113 


in 




5 


4 




50 


48 




23 


24 




69 


67 




II 4 


112 




6 


5 




5i 


49 




24 


25 




70 


68 




115 


113 




7 


6 




52 


50 




25 


26 




7i 


69 




Il6 


114 




8 


7 




53 


5i 




26 


27 




72 


70 






115 




9 


8 




54 


52 




27 


28 




73 


71 




117 


116 




10 


9 




55 


53 




28 


29 




74 


72 






117 




n 


10 




56 


54 




29 


30 




75 


73 




Il8 


118 




12 


n 




57 


55 




30 


3i 



128 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


P. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


26 


3i 


32 


27 


55 


54 


28 


3 


4 


29 


21 


22 


30 


9 


10 




32 


33 




56 


55 




4 


5 




22 


23 




10 


11 




33 


34 




57 


56 




5 


6 




23 


24 




11 


12 




34 


35 




58 


57 




6 


7 




24 


25 




12 


13 




35 


36 




59 


58 




7 


8 




25 


26 




13 


14 




36 


37 




60 


59 




8 


9 




26 


27 




14 


15 




37 


38 




61 


60 




9 


10 




27 


28 




15 


16 




38 


39 




62 


61 




10 


11 




28 


29 




16 


17 




39 


40 




63 


62 




11 


12 




29 


30 




17 


18 




40 


41 




64 


63 




12 


13 




30 


3i 




18 


19 




4i 


42 




65 


64 




13 


14 




3i 


32 




19 


20 




42 


43 




66 


65 




14 


15 




32 


33 




20 


21 




43 


44 




67 




15 


16 




33 


34 




21 


22 




44 


45 




68 


66 




16 


17 




34 


35 




22 


23 




45 


46 




69 


67 




J 7 


18 




35 


36 




23 


24 




46 


47 




70 


68 




18 


19 




36 


37 




24 


25 




47 


48 




71 


69 




19 


20 




37 


38 




25 


26 




48 


49 




72 


70 




20 


21 




38 


39 




26 


27 




49 




73 


7 1 




21 


22 




39 


40 




27 


28 * 




5° 


5° 




74 


72 




22 


23 




40 


41 




28 


29 




226 


226 




75 


73 




23 




4 1 


42 




29 


30 




227 


227 




76 


74 




24 


24 




42 


43 




30 


3i 




228 




77 


75 




88 


88 




43 


44 




3i 


32 










78 


76 










44 


45 




32 


33 


27 


1 


1 




79 


77 


29 


T 


1 




45 


46 




33 


34 







2 




80 


78 




X 


2 




46 


47 




34 


35 




m$ 


3 




81 


79 




2 


3 




47 


48 




35 


36 




3 


4 




82 


80 




3 


4 




48 


49 




36 


37 




4 


5 




83 


81 




4 


5 




49 


50 




37 


38 




5 


6 




84 


82 




5 


6 




50 


5i 




38 


39 




6 


7 




85 


83 




6 


7 




51 


52 




39 


40 




7 




86 


84 




7 


8 




52 




40 


41 




8 


8 




87 


85 




8 


9 




53 


53 




4i 


42 




43 


43 




88 


86 




9 


10 




69 


69 




42 


43 




44 


44 




89 


8 7 




10 


11 










43 


44 




45 




90 


88 




11 


12 










44 


45 




46 


45 




9i 


89 




12 


13 


30 


1 


1 




45 


46 




47 


46 




92 


90 




13 


14 






2 




46 


47 




48 


47 




93 


9i 




J 4 


15 




2 


3 




47 


48 




49 


48 




94 


92 




15 


16 




3 


4 




48 


49 




50 


49 




95 


93 




16 


17 




4 


5 




49 


50 




5i 


50 










17 


18 




5 


6 




50 


5i 




52 


51 


28 


1 


1 




18 


19 




6 


7 




5i 


52 




53 


52 






2 




19 


20 




7 


8 




52 


53 




54 


53 




2 


3 




20 


21 




8 


9 




53 


54 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



129 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F " 


I. 


S. 


P. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


30 


54 


55 


32 


5 ! 


6 


34 


26 


27 


35 




19 


36 


14 


15 




55 







7 




27 


28 




20 


20 




15 


16 




56 


56 




7 


8 




28 


29 






21 




16 


17 




60 


60 




8 


9 




29 


30 




21 


22 




17 


18 


31 




1 




9 


10 




30 


3i 




^3 




18 


19 




1 


2 




10 






3i 


32 




22 


24 




19 


20 




2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 


3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

TO 

11 
12 




11 
30 


1 1 
30 




32 
33 


33 
34 




23 
24 


25 
26 




20 
21 


21 

22 




33 


1 
40 

4 T 

4? 

43 

44 

45 
46 


1 
40 

4i 
42 

43 

44 

45 
46 

47 




34 
35 
36 

37 
38 

39 
40 

41 


35 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 

4i 
42 




25 

26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 


27 
28 
29 
30 
3i 
32 
33 
34 




22 
23 
24 

25 

26 

27 
28 

29 


23 
24 
25 
26 

27 

28 

29 
30 




12 
13 


13 

14 






42 
43 


43 
44 




32 
33 


35 
36 




30 
31 


3i 




14 

J 5 
16 

17 
18 


15 

16 

17 
t8 




47 
48 

49 

50 
51 


48 

49 

50 




44 
45 
46 

47 


45 
46 

47 
48 




34 
35 
36 

37 


37 

38 
39 


37 


32 
83 

1 


32 

83 

1 




19 




51 
73 




48 


49 




38 


40 




28 


28 




19 
20 


20 

21 




73 




49 
50 


50 
5i 




39 
40 


4i 
42 




29 


29 
30 




21 

22 


22 
23 


34 


1 


1 




5 1 

52 


52 
53 




41 
42 


43 




30 
3i 


31 
32 




23 
2 4 


24 
25 




9 


9 




53 


54 




43 


44 




32 


33 






10 


10 




54 




44 


45 




33 


34 




25 
26 


26 

27 
28 




11 


11 
12 


35 


1 


1 




45 






34 
35 


35 
36 




27 
28 
29 
30 
3i 
32 
33 
34 




12 


13 




6 


6 


36 


1 


1 




36 


37 




29 
30 
31 
32 




13 

14 

15 
16 

1? 


14 

15 

16 

17 
18 




I 

9 
10 
11 


7 

8 

9 
10 




2 
3 
4 
5 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 




37 
38 

39 
40 

4i 


38 

39 

40 

4 1 

42 




33 




18 


19 




12 


11 




6 


7 




42 


43 




34 




19 
20 


20 
21 




13 
14 


12 

13 




7 
8 


8 
9 




43 
44 


44 
45 


32 


1 


1 




21 


22 




15 


14 




9 


10 




45 


46 






2 




22 


23 




16 


x 5 




10 


11 




46 


47 




2 


3 




23 


24 




17 


16 




11 


12 




47 


48 




3 


4 




24 


25 




18 


17 




12 


13 




49 




4 


5 




25 


26 




19 


18 




13 


14 




48 


5° 



130 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


37 


49 


5i 


37 


94 


96 


38 


33 


34 


39 


16 


14 


39 


60 


59 




50 


52 




95 


97 




34 


35 




17 


15 




61 


60 




5 1 


53 




96 


98 




35 


36 




18 


16 


62 


61 




52 
53 


54 
55 




97 
98 


99 
100 




36 
37 


37 
38 




19 


17 
18 




63 


62 
63 




54 


56 




99 


IOI 




38 


39 




20 


19 




64 


64 




55 


57 




100 






39 


40 




21 


20 




75 


75 




56 


58 




IOI 


102 




40 


4 1 




22 


21 










57 


59 




102 






4 1 


42 




23 


22 


40 


j 


1 




58 


60 




103 


103 




42 


43 




24 


23 






2 




59 


61 




182 


182 




43 


44 




25 


24 




2 


3 




60 


62 










44 




26 


25 




3 




61 


63 


38 


2 


1 




45 


45 




27 


26 




4 


4 




62 


64 






2 




74 


74 




28 


27 




17 


T 7 




63 


65 




2 


3 




75 


75 




29 


28 




18 


iR 




64 


66 




3 


4 




76 




30 


29 




19 


J. O 




65 


67 




4 


5 




77 


76 




3i 


30 




20 


19 




66 


68 




5 


6 




78 


77 




32 


3i 




21 


20 




67 


69 




6 


7 




79 


78 




33 


32 




22 


21 




68 


70 




7 


8 




80 


79 




34 


33 




23 


22 




69 


7 1 




8 


9 




81 


80 




35 


34 




24 


23 




70 


72 




9 


10 




82 


81 




36 


35 




25 


24 




7 1 


73 




10 


11 




S3 


82 




37 


36 




26 


25 




72 


74 




11 


12 




84 


83 




38 


37 




27 


26 




73 


75 




12 


13 




S5 


84 




39 


38 




28 


27 




74 


76 




13 


14 




85 




40 


39 




29 


28 




75 


77 




14 


15 




86 


86 




4 1 


40 




30 


29 




76 


7 8 




1 5 


16 




88 


88 




42 


4i 




3i 


30 




77 


79 




16 


17 










43 


42 




32 


O T 




78 


80 




17 


18 


39 


1 


1 




44 


43 




33 


3 1 




79 


81 




18 


19 




2 


2 




45 


44 




34 


32 




80 


82 




19 


20 




3 






46 


45 




35 


33 




81 


83 




20 


21 




4 


3 




47 


46 




36 


34 




82 


84 




21 


22 




5 






48 


47 




37 


35 




83 


85 




22 


23 




6 


4 




49 


48 




38 


36 




84 


86 




23 


24 




7 


5 




50 


49 




39 


"> M 




^5 


87 




24 


25 




8 


6 




5i 


50 




40 


37 




86 


88 




25 


26 




9 


7 




52 


5 1 




4i 


38 




8 7 


89 




26 


27 




10 




53 


52 




42 


39 




88 


90 




27 


28 




11 


8 




54 


53 




43 


40 




89 


91 




28 


29 




12 


9 




55 


54 




44 


4i 


90 


92 




29 


30 




13 


10 




56 


55 




45 


42 


91 


93 




30 


3i 




14 


11 




57 


56 




46 


43 




92 


94 




3i 


32 




12 




58 


57 




47 


44 




93 


95 


32 


33 




15 


13 




59 


58 




48 


45 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



131 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


vS. 


F. 


1. s. 


F. 


I. 


40 


49 


! 46 


41 


13 


14 


42 


26 


27 


43 


r 5 


16 J44 


4 


5 




5° 


1 47 




H 


15 




27 


28 




16 


!7 


5 


6 




5i 


i 48 




15 


16 




28 


29 




17 


18 


6 


7 




52 


49 




16 


T 7 




29 


30 




18 


19 


7 


8 




53 


50 




17 


18 




30 


3i 




19 


20 j 


8 


9 




54 


5 1 




18 


19 




3i 


32 




20 


21 j 


9 


10 




55 


52 




19 


20 




33 




21 


22 




10 


11 




56 


53 




20 


21 




32 


34 




22 


23 




11 


12 




54 




21 


22 




33 


35 




23 


24 




12 


13 




57 


55 




22 


23 




34 


36 




24 


25 




13 


14 




58 


56 




23 


24 




35 


37 




25 


26 




14 


15 




59 


57 




24 


25 




36 


38 




26 


27 




15 


16 




60 


58 




25 


26 




37 


39 




27 


28 




16 


17 




61 


59 




26 


27 




38 


40 




28 


29 




J 7 


18 




62 


60 




27 




39 


4i 


29 


30 




18 


19 




63 


61 




28 


28 




40 


42 


30 


31 




19 


20 




64 


62 




54 


54 




4i 


43 


3I 


32 




20 


21 




65 


63 










42 






32 


33 




21 


22 




66 


64 


42 




1 




43 


44 




33 


34 




22 


23 




6 2 


65 




1 


2 




44 


45 




34 


35 




23 


24 




68 


66 






3 




45 


46 




35 


36 




24 


25 




69 


67 




2 


4 




46 


47 




36 


37 




25 


26 




70 


68 




<3 

J 


5 




47 


48 




37 


38! 


26 


27 




7 1 


69 




4 


6 




48 


49 




38 


39 j 


27 


28 




72 


70 




5 


7 




49 


50 




39 


40 




28 


29 




73 


7i 




6 


8 




50 


5i 




40 


4i 




29 


30 




72 




7 


9 




51 




4i 


42 




30 


3i 




74 


73 




8 


10 




52 


52 




42 ! 


43 




31 


32 




74 




9 


11 




53 


53 




43 ! 


44 




32 


33 




75 


75 




10 


12 










44 


45 




33 


34 




85 


85 




11 


13 


43 


1 


1 




45 


46 




34 


35 










12 




2 




46 


47 




35 


36 


41 


1 


1 

2 




13 
14 


15 




2 
3 


3 

4 




47 
48 


48 
49 




36 
37 


37 




2 


3 




15 


16 




4 


5 




49 i 


50 




38 


38 




3 


4 




16 


17 




5 


6 




50 j 


5i 




59 


59 




4 


5 




17 


18 




6 


7 




5i 


52 










5 


6 




18 


19 




7 


8 




52 ! 


45 


j 


1 




6 


7 




19 


20 




8 


9 




53 


53 






2 




7 i 


8 




20 


21 




9 


10 




89 


89 




2 


3 




8 


9 




21 


22 




10 


11 










3 


4 




9 


10 




22 


23 




11 


12 


44 


j 


1 




4 


5 




10 


11 




23 


24 




12 


13 






2 




5 


6 




11 


12 




24 


25 




13 


14 




2 


3 




6 


7 




12 


13 




25 


26 




T 4 


15 




3 


4 




7 


8 



132 THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


■Is 


F. 


I. 


S. F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


45 


8 


9 46 


16 


17 47 


26 


24 50 


34 


35 


53 


5i 


5° 




9 


10 




17 


18 




27 


25 




35 


36 




52 


5 1 




IO 


11 




18 


19 




28 


26 




36 


37 




53 


52 




n 


12 




19 


20 




29 


27 




37 


38 




54 


53 


12 I 


13 




20 


21 




30 


28 




38 


39 




55 


54 


13 


14 




21 


22 


3i 


29 




39 


40 




56 


55 




14 


15 




22 


23 


32 


30 




40 


4 1 




57 


56 




15 


16 




23 


24 




33 


3i 




41 


42 




58 


57 




16 


17 




24 


25 




34 


32 




42 


43 




58 




17 


18 




25 


26 




35 


33 




43 


44 




59 


59 




18 


19 




26 


27 




36 


34 




44 


45 




62 


62 




19 


20 




27 


28 




37 


35 




45 


54 


1 


1 




20 


21 




28 


29 




38 


36 










36 

37 
38 
39 


36 




21 


22 




29 


30 




39 


37 


51 


1 


1 






22 


23 




30 


31 




40 


38 




60 


60 




37 




23 
24 


24 
25 




3i 

32 


32 
33 


48 


1 


1 


52 


1 


1 




38 




2 5 


26 




33 


34 




29 


29 




49 


49 






39 




26 


27 




34 




49 


1 


1 


53 


1 


1 




40 


40 




27 


28 




35 


35 




18 


18 




25 


25 




55 


55 




28 
29 


29 
30 


47 


1 


1 


50 


1 


1 




26 
27 


26 


55 


1 


1 
2 




30 


3i 




3 







12 


12 




28 


27 




2 


3 




3i 


32 




4 


4 




13 


13 




29 


28 




3 


4 




32 


33 




5 




14 




30 


29 




4 


5 




33 


34 




6 


5 




14 


J 5 




3i 


30 




5 


6 




34 


35 




7 


6 




15 


16 




32 


3i 




6 


7 




35 


36 




8 


7 




16 


17 




33 


32 




7 


8 










9 


8 




!7 


18 




34 


33 




8 


9 


46 


j 


1 




10 


9 




18 


19 




35 


34 




9 


10 






2 




11 


10 




19 


20 




36 


35 




10 


11 




2 


3 




12 


11 




20 


21 




37 


36 




11 


12 




3 


4 




13 


12 




21 


22 




38 


37 




12 


13 




4 


5 




J 4 


13 




22 


23 




39 


38 




13 


14 




5 


6 




15 


14 




23 


24 




40 


39 




14 


15 




6 


7 




16 


15 




24 


25 




41 


40 




15 


16 




7 


8 




!7 




25 


26 




42 


4i 




16 


17 




8 


9 




18 


16 




26 


27 




43 


42 




J 7 




9 


10 




19 


17 




27 


28 




44 


43 




18 


I 18 




10 


11 




20 


18 




28 


29 




45 


44 




78 


| 78 




11 


12 




21 


19 




29 


30 




46 


45 










12 


13 




22 


20 




30 


3i 




47 


46 


56 


1 


1 




13 


14 




23 


21 




31 


32 




48 


47 




21 


21 




14 


15 




24 


22 




32 


33 




49 


48 




22 


22 




15 


16 




25 


23 




33 


34 




50 


49 






23 



TABLE OF VERSE NUMBERINGS 



133 



s. 


F. 


I. 


s. 


F. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


1 js. 


F. 


1. 


S. 


F. 


I. 


56 


23 


24 


56 


83 


84 


58 


20 


19 


71 


8 


9 


74 


37 


34 




24 


2 5 




84 


85 




O T 


20 




9 


10 




38 


35 




e 


26 




^5 


86 




z I 


21 




10 


11 




39 


36 




26 


27 




86 


87 




22 


22 




11 


12 




40 


37 




27 
28 
29 


28 
29 
30 




87 
88 
89 


88 

89 
90 


59 


I 
24 


1 
24 




12 
13 
14 


13 
15 




4i 
42 


38 

39 
40 




30 


3i 




90 


9i 


60 


I 


1 




15 


16 




4i 




31 


32 




9i 


92 




13 


13 




16 


!7 




43 


42 




32 


33 




92 


61 


I 


1 




17 


18 




44 


43 




33 


34 




93 


93 




T 4 






18 


19 




45 


44 




34 


35 




96 


96 




T 4 


*4 




19 


20 




46 


45 




35 


36 


57 


1 


1 


62 


I 


1 




20 


21 




47 


46 




36 
37 
38 


37 
38 
39 




12 
13 


12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

1 7 
18 

19 


63 


II 
I 


11 
1 




21 
22 
23 


22 
23 




48 
49 
5° 


47 
48 
49 




39 
40 

4i 


40 

4i 

42 




15 
t6 


64 


II 
I 


11 

1 




24 
25 
26 


24 
25 




5i 
52 


50 
5i 
52 




42 
43 
44 


43 
44 
45 




17 
18 

19 


65 


18 

I 


18 

1 




27 
28 

29 


26 

27 
28 




53 
54 


53 
54 
55 




45 


46 




20 




12 


12 










55 


56 




46 






ZvJ 










72 


1 


I 










47 


47 




21 


21 


66 


I 


1 




21 


21 




1 


1 




48 


48 




29 


29 




12 


12 




22 


22 


75 


40 


40 




65 


65 


58 


1 


1 










23 










66 


66 




2 


2 


67 


I 


1 




24 


23 




1 


1 






67 




3 






30 


30 




25 


24 


76 


3i 


3i 




67 


68 




4 


3 










-26 


25 










68 


69 




a 


4 


68 


I 


1 




£m\J 


26 




1 


1 




69 


70 




6 


5 




52 


52 




27 


27 


77 


50 


50 




70 


7i 




7 


6 










28 


28 










71 


72 




8 


7 


69 


I 


1 








78 


1 


1 




72 


73 




9 


8 




52 


52 


73 


I 


I 




39 


39 




73 


74 




TO 


9 










20 


20 




40 


40 




74 


75 




II 


10 


70 


I 


1 










4i 




75 


76 




12 


11 




44 


44 


74 


i ! 


1. 










76 


77 




13 


12 










30 


30 


79 


1 


1 




77 


78 




14 


13 


71 


1 


1 




31 






46 


46 




78 


79 




15 


14 




4 


4 




32 ; 


31 










79 


80 




16 


J 5 




r* 


5 




33 1 


80 


1 


1 




80 


81 




J 7 


16 




5 


6 




34 






H 


M 




81 


82 




18 


!7 




6 


7 




35 1 


32 




15 


15 




82 


83 




19 


18 




7 


8 




36 


33 




16 



134 



THE TEACHING OF THE QUR'AN 



s. 


F. 


I. 


S. F. 


I. 


s.!f. 


I. 


S. 


F. 


1. 


s. 


F. 


I. 


80 


16 

18 


17 
18 


89 


3 
4 

5 


4 

5 
6 


90 J 


18 

19 
20 


19 
20 


98 


1 
2 


1 
2 
3 


104 


1 
9 


1 
9 




19 


1 9 




6 


7 


j 








3 


4 


105 


1 


1 




20 


20 




7 


8 


91 


1 


1 




4 


5 




5 


5 




42 


42 




8 


9 










5 


6 
















9 


10 




T 5 


J 5 




6 


7 


106 


1 


1 


81 


I 


1 




10 


11 










7 


8 




4 


4 




29 


29 




11 

12 


12 
13 


92 


1 
21 


1 
21 




8 




107 


1 


1 


82 


I 


1 




13 


14 








99 


1 


1 




7 


7 




19 


19 




x 4 


15 


93 


1 


1 




8 


8 
















15 


| 


11 


11 








108 


1 


1 


83 


I 


1 




16 


















3 


3 




36 


36 




17 


16 


94 


1 


1 


100 


1 


1 
















18 


17 




8 


8 




11 


11 


109 


1 


1 


84 


I 


1 




19 


18 
















6 


6 




25 


25 




20 


19 


95 


1 


1 


101 


1 


1 
















21 


20 




8 


8 




2 


110 


1 


1 


85 


I 


1 




22 


21 










2 


3 




3 


3 




22 


22 




23 


22 


96 


1 


1 




3 


4 
















24 


23 




10 


10 




4 


5 


111 


1 


1 


86 


I 


1 




25 


24 




11 


11 




5 


6 




5 


5 




17 


17 






25 






12 




7 
















26 


26 




12 


13 




6 


8 


112 


1 


1 


87 


I 
19 


1 
19 




30 


30 


1 13 
1 14 


14 
15 




7 


9 
10 




4 


4 
















x 5 


16 




8 


11 


113 


1 


1 


88 


I 


1 


90 


1 


1 




16 


J 7 










5 


5 




26 


26 




14 


14 




17 


18 


102 


1 


1 


















!5 




18 


19 




8 


8 


114 


1 


1 


89 




1 




1 5 


16 
















6 


6 




I 


2 




16 


17 


97 


1 


1 


102 


; 1 


1 










2 


3 




17 


18 




5 


5 




3 



J 




















1 












1 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

There is, of course, a great mass of works on the Qur'an, but 
being here concerned with the Teachings of the Qur'an as such, 
I only refer to works on that subject or closely allied to it. 

i. THE) QUR'AN IN ARABIC, AND CONCORDANCES. 

The best edition for the Western student is Corani Textus 
Avabicus, edited by Gustavus Fluegel, Leipzig, 1858, third edition, 
often reprinted. A handy edition has been published by the 
Ahmadiya Mission at Woking, entitled The Holy Qur'an (Islamic 
Review Office, 191 7). It contains the Arabic text side by side 
with an English translation, revised in the sense of the Ahmadiya 
tenets by Maulvi Muhammad Ali. Dr. Fluegel also compiled a 
Concordant ia Corani (Leipzig, 1842). Miftahul Quran, by the 
Rev. Ahmad Shah, contains a Concordance with a complete 
Glossary, giving meanings both in English and Urdu (Lazarus 
and Co., Benares, 1906). 

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE QUR'AN. 

The earliest is by G. Sale, The Koran. It appeared first in 
1734, and has often been reprinted. It is reproduced, together 
with Sale's Preliminary Discourse in the Commentary , edited by 
the Rev. E. M. Wherry, D.D., in Triibner's Oriental Series, 1882-6. 
The Qur'an, by E. H. Palmer, appeared in two volumes in the 
Sacred Books of the East Series (1880) ; and in one volume by 
Oxford Clarendon Press, 1908. The Koran, by the Rev. J. M. 
Rodwell, has been published in several editions. The handiest 
is Dent's in " Everyman's Library." It has the surahs arranged 
in chronological order. 

INTRODUCTIONS TO THE QUR'AN. 

It is impossible to separate entirely between the biographies 
of Muhammad and treatises on the teaching of the Qur'an. The 
biographies mentioned are those which contain a substantial 
element dealing with the distinctive teaching of the book. 

Geschichte des Qorans, by Theodor Noeldeke (second edition, 
Leipzig, 1909), is still the leading work on the history of the book. 
The Historical Development of the Qur'an (S.P.C.K.), by Edward Sell, 



136 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

follows Noeldeke's arrangement with plentiful textual quotations. 
The Original Sources of the Quran, by W. St. Clair Tisdall (S.P.C.K., 
1905), and Judaism and Islam, by Abraham Geiger (Simpkins, 
1898), deal with derivation from previous religions. The Life of 
Mahomet, by Sir William Muir (Smith, Elder, 1894), Das Leben 
und die Lehre des Mohammad, by Adolf Sprenger (Berlin, 1869), 
and Mohammed, Part I., his Life, by H. Grimme (Minister, 1892), 
contain valuable sections on development and teaching. Good 
introductions are given hi Weil's Einleitung in den Koran (Leipzig, 
1878), and in the articles " Koran " and " Qur'an " in the En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica, and the Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, and in Hughes' Dictionary of Islam. 

WORKS ON QURANIC THEOLOGY. 

Articles under the various headings, such as " Allah," in the 
works of reference just mentioned, to which must be added the 
Encyclopaedia of Islam (published up to "Ijtihad"), give much 
information and extensive bibliographies. Hughes is specially 
useful for full references, but several relevant subjects are omitted. 

Geschichte der Herrschenden Ideen des Islam, by Alfred von 
Kremer (Leipzig, 1868 ; English translation by Salahud Din 
Khuda Bakhsh, Calcutta, 1906) and The Early Development of 
Mohammedanism, by D. S. Margoliouth (Williams and Norgate, 
1 91 4), show the relation of the basal quranic conceptions to later 
developments. 

The teaching of the Qur'an as a whole is ably presented in 
Mohammed (Part II.), by Hubert Grimme (Minister, 1895), com- 
prising a short introduction and a System of Quranic Theology. 
More or less partial treatments are given in the following, as 
shown by their titles : Christologie des Korans, by Gerok ; 
Mohammeds Lehre der Offenbarung, by Pautz ; The Coran (its 
composition and teaching, and the testimony it bears to the 
Holy Scriptures) by Sir William Muir (S.P.C.K., 1878): The 
pamphlets in the " Islam Series " of the Christian Literature 
Society for India (191 4 ff.), on the Quranic Doctrine of God, of 
Man, of Sin, and of Salvation, by W. R. W. Gardner, are the 
best studies in English on these subjects. There is also a 
good study on The Holy Spirit in Qur'an and Bible, by C. G. 
My lrea and I. Abdul Masih. In The Moslem Doctrine of God 
and The Moslem Christ, by S. M. Zwemer, we come to the line 
where the theology of the Traditions is fused with that of the 
Qur'an. The most complete monograph on the " Beautiful Names 
of. God " is the article by J. W. Redhouse in the Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, pp. 1-69. 



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