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Oftober, 1947 • 25 fPBts 


'TVie great highroad oj human ivelfare lies along the old highway of steadfast well-doing^* * 


JVhr some homes get better all the time 

Homes, like hmnan licings, need stout "constitutions". . . 
which depend, in turn, on building j)roducts used. And 
these are getting better all the time. 

In building or remodeling today, you can choose weather- 
defiant paint . . . warm-hued and lasting ])lastic tiles for 
kitchens and bathrooms . . . hardware and window screens 
of stainless steel or anypurpose plastics. 

Yours, too, are heating installations with leakproof 
welded piping and streamlined plumbing. To say nothing 
of resin-glued plywood, good for decades as sheathing, sub- 
flooring, doors and com]jlete interior and exterior walls. 

These are a few of today's countless building products 
that give better service because into them f^o better basic 

Producing better materials for the use oj science anil 

industry and the benefit oj mankind is the work oj the 
people oj Union Carbide. 

It takes basic know ledge and relentless research. Tremen- 
dous pressures and extreme vacuums. Heat up to 6000° 
and cold down to 300° below zero, Fahrenheit. Working 
with these— anfZ working together— the various Units of 
UCC now separate or combine nearly one-lialf of the many 
elements of the earth. 

FREE: You are invited to send for the illustrated booklet, "Products 

and Processes," whicli describes the ways in which industry uses 
ICC's Alluys, Chemicals, Carbons, Cases, and Plastics. 

Union Carbide 





■ — Products of Divisions and Units include 

LiNDE Oxygen • PREST-O-LrrE Acetylene • Pyrofax Gas • BAKELrrE, Krene, Vinyon, and Vinylite Plastics 
National Carbons • Eveready Flashlkhits and Batteries • Acheson Electrodes 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • F.lectromet Alloys and Metals 

Haynes Stellite Alloys • Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

As you complete your college career, you must find 
the answers to two big questions. Finding the right 
answers bears importantly on your future success and 

1. U huh is the rijiht job Jor mc? In what line of work 
. . . research, design, manufacturing, engineering, 
sales, business administration . . . can I best put 
my training and natural abihties to work? 

2. How can I find the right conipunv.'' Wliat tv[)e 
of company, in what line of business, offers the 

greatest return for the investment of my time 

and talents? 
To help vou answer these all-important questions, 
Westinghouse offers a new 32-page book — Finding 
Your Place in Industry. It describes the many career 
opportunities open with Westinghouse, and how the 
Westinghouse Graduate Student Training Course fits 
vou for advancement in your chosen profession. 

No matter what type of career you plan, it will pay 
vou to read this book. Get your free copy today! 



Fo obtain copy of Finding )'our Place in Industry, consult 
'lacement Officer of your university, or mail this coupon to: 

'I'lic Dislrirt I'.ilittdliimiii Coiinlinator 

If fslinfihiiusr l-.lcilric (iiijxjrniion 

20 A. /( <,rkri Driir, P. U. Box B, Zone 90 

Chicago 6, Illinois 



This advertisement appears in College Engineering Publications 
during October, November and December, 1947 

iw Development 

Itfi .l»hn IHvh. K.I-:. */.9 

Weld Engineering Cuts 
33 Operations to 5 

A >iniplc ili->i;;ii ;iiul process change 
can sometimes produce important sav- 
ings in production costs, while increas- 
ing output and improving quah't\'. 

This is demonstrated in the case of a 
reinforced bus pillar, fabricated from 13 
.separate stampings by Hawthorne Metal 
Products company, Detroit, and design- 
ed originally for single spot welding. 
This in itself resulted in a rather low 
fabricating cost. When the job was re- 
leased for production, however, the sup- 
plier of the welding equipment — Pro- 
gressive Welder company of Detroit — 
recommended the forming of a series of 
projections in five of the stampings at 
the time that these were produced. 

The new stampings were then attacli- 
ed to the pillars by projection welding, 
using a type welder. As a result. 
only one operation was required to join 
each of these five stampings to the pil- 
lar proper instead of ,v? indi\idual spot 

Moreover, by using simple locating 
dies in the press welder it was possible 
to get accurate locating and alignment 
without clamping of the parts prior to 
welding. The net result of the changes 
wa,>- to double the productivity of the 
welding equipment, 100 completed as- 
semblies being produced per hour in 
comparison to 50 per hour by straight 
spot welding, and at the same time cut 
the fabricating cost in half. 

Front Wheels 

The latest innovation in tractor de- 
sign was announced recently by the 
John Deere Tractor company, of Mo- 
line, Illinois. The idea consists of adapt- 
ing the knee-action wheel idea to farm 
tractors. Manufactured under the trade 
name of "Roll-O-Matic," the knee- 
action principle applied only to the front 
wheels results in increased smoothness 
and safety of operation along with 
longer tire life. 

As shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration, the fundamental principle of 
operation of the "Roll-O-Matic" knee- 
action front wheels is readily seen. Me- 
chanically, a gearing system is included 
so that the slightest up or down move- 
ment of one wheel is instantly transfer- 
red to the other which automaticalix 

The latest addition to the "flying laboratories" is the B-29 whose space 
permits engineers and designers to study the gas turbine in actual use 

equalizes the load. -At the same time the 
up and down movement of the front 
end of the tractor as it goes over bumps 
and clods is reduced to 50 per cent that 
of the conventional wheel arrangement. 
By minimizing this up and down 
movement of the front end, and by 
automatically equalizing the load on 
each tire, the "Roll-O-Matic" front 
wheels promise a safer, more comfort- 
able ride and greatly increased front 
tire life. 

Diagramotic sketch showing how 
"knee-action" limits the front end 
motion by 50 per cent. 

Flying Test Stands 

Working (jii a tliglu testing project 
sponsored jointly by the Army Air 
Forces and the (General Electric com- 
pany, engineers and designers have been 
able to gain invaluable assistance in the 
design of aircraft gas turbines through 
utilizing army bombers which have been 
converted into flying laboratories. 

Inaugurated in 1942 when the P^light 
Test Division obtained a B-23 for flight 
investigations of the turbo-supercharger, 
the division has since used many differ- 
ent types of army aircraft to serve in 
the role of "papa" to experimental 
equipment. The most recent and largest 
of the planes to be used for this purpose 
is the B-29, shown in the accompanying 
illustration as it is being equipped for 

Since the jet power plants are in- 
stalled as auxiliary equipment rather 
than substitute engine, the method has 
proved to be a safe and expedient wa\ 
of conducting the tests under altitude 
conditions. Although used at the pres- 
ent time mostly for tests on the power- 
tid 1 Cj-180 gas turbine, the fhing lab- 
oratories have proved quite successful in 
the testing of new gas turbine units 
prior to actual installation aboard air- 

In addition to these advantages the 
method has also enabled important com- 
ponents to be tested with older engines 
before the completed unit is ready. 


No, this picture isn't faked. It shows 
white-hot molten metal being pour- 
ed into a little glass dish resting on ice. 
This is Coming's "Vycor" brand 96°^ 
silica glass, a result of the first really new 
glassmaking process in over 2000 years. 
It can withstand sudden extremes of 
hot and cold without breaking, and tem- 
peratures up to 2000° F. without melt- 
ing. It is one of the hardest, most acid- 
resistant, and electrically-resistant 
glasses known. And it has already open- 
ed up new fields in many industries. 
Now it is ready to go to work to make 
cooking easier, cleaner, and safer for 
millions of women ... as a burner plate 
on a modern gas range, soon to be 
announced. The smooth glass plates will 

distribute heat more evenly and give 
firm support to even smallest utensils. 
And they will keep spilled food from 
clogging burners. 

Corning began its search for heat-resis- 
tant glasses years ago when it was asked 
by railroads to supply a glass for brake- 
men's lanterns that wouldn't shatter 
when a gust of cold rain hit it. This was 
the forerunnerof the famous Pyrex brand 
glasses which have since found their way 
into thousands of industries in such di- 
verse form as glass piping, laboratory 
ware, and ex-ray tubes, and into millions 
of homes as Pyrex Ovenware and 
Flameware cooking utensils. 
Corning not only knows glass, but 
knows how to make it work. It has 

the finest glass research organization and 
the finest group of skilled workers in the 
world ... a hard-to-beat combination that 
will be at your service whatever career 
you choose. In the meantime, learn all 
you can about glass and if we can help 
answer any questions, call on us. Corning 
Glass "Works, Corning, N. Y. 




Research in Glass 


OCTOBER, 1947 

Get off to a better start 
in engineering . ♦ ♦ . 



TAPERED Toller Warihcs 

A. good start is half the race. The more you know when 
you graduate, the better your opportunity for success. 

Your professors have your best interests at heart, but what you 
learn outside the classroom will be a plus advantage of great value 
when you toe the mark for the start of your career. 

Take bearings for example. No form of mechanical equipment with 
rotating parts can operate without them. By acquiring now a thor- 
ough knowledge of Timken Tapered Roller Bearings — their design, 
application and possibilities — you will be in position to meet and 
beat any bearing problem you ever may encounter. 

For Timken Bearings have proved their ability to serve in machin- 
ery throughout all industries and have received the universal ac 
ceptance and preference of engineers everywhere. They are the 
bearings experienced engineers specify more than any others. 

Our engineers will help you to become a bearing specialist. Write 
us today and tell us what course you are studying. The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



George R. Foster Editor 

Francis Green issistant Editor 

Ed Witort Assistcmt Editor 

Harbara Schmidt —l/c;X-(«/> Editor 

R( porliny 

Robert Bills 
John Dick 
Don Hornbeck 
Donald JohiiMHi 
Karl Higendorf 
Ralph Lendinfj 
Tom Moore 
Martin Sabatli 
Carl Sonneiivchcin 

Ruth Bone 
Phil Doll 
Charles Jansen 
Ronald Johnson 
Jim Lecming 
Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
John Shurtleff 
Arthur Welcher 


Gene Roh'uKon, lU iistratioiis Editor 
Robert VanWinkle 


Robert A. Johnson Bus. Mt/r. 

Jan Henjjston hs't Bus. Mt/r. 

Toby Lexiiison -Iss't Bus. Mgr. 

Frank Mitch Ass't Bus. Mgr. 

John Bogatta Don Halperin 

Rudy Vergara George Kvitek 

Mitchell Cassidv 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 

Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illinois 
Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa Transit. 
Kansas Engineer, Kansas State Engineer, 
Kentucky Engineer, Marquette Engineer, 
Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint. 
New York University Quadrangle, Ohio 
State Engineer, Oklahoma State Engineer, 
Penn State Engineer, Peinisylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rose Technic, Tech 
Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Pulilished eight times during the year (Oc- 
li'her, November, December, January, Febru- 
^uy, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1921,, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall. Urbana. Illinois. Subscription $l..iO 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

National Advertising Representative — Littell 
Murray-Barnhill. eOS North Michigan Ave- 
nue, Chicago 11, III. 101 Park Avenue, 
New York 17, New York. 

Volume 63 

No. 1 

The Tech Presenis 


Look Before You Leap ^ 

Carl Sonncnschein. M.E. '4S 

The Gyro-Compass 8 

Elcrhcrt Mazer 

The Pier Branch 9 

Francis Green, E.E. '48 

Industrial Ceramics Grows L p 10 

Karl Ullf/cidorf. E.E. '48 

Quality Control — Industry's Watchdog - 12 

Jerry Matheus. M.E. '47 


New Developments - 

John Dirk. E.E. '49 

Illini In Action - ^-^ 

Florian kaitis 

Engineering Societies - '*^ 

Introilucing '^ 

John Shurtleff 

Editorial 20 

Crossword Puzzle 9 

Technocracks "fO 


Typical of the problems faced by many veteran students is 
this picture of "Study Hour." Dont laugh, it could happen to you. 


Shown assembling a new television antenna, these two 
workmen are perched high on the Empire State building. (Court- 
esy of General Electric company). 



\ f* 

look Before You leap 

Itfi t'arl SnnnvnMf-hfin. 31. K. 'lit 

Some people are adaptable to any sit- 
uation or job, but most are not. All too 
often a man, or woman, finds nut, too 
late, that he has accepteil a position 
which does not appeal to him and for 
which he is unable to show the proper 
interest. Are you going to be one of 
this misplaced and misled group? 

It is a generally accepted fact that 
one reason people go to school is to 
increase their ultimate earning power. 
As a group, engineers are not the high- 
est paid of the professional men and 
women, although there are exceptions. 
However, in order for a person to be 
able to accept greater responsibilities anti 
Shence a larger remuneration, he must 
^have a real and vital interest in the 
work which he is doing. 

There are several basic considerations 
which enter into the acceptance or re- 
jection of a job offer, and for the most 
part the\- are predicated upon personal 
desires, likes, and dislikes. 

Let us now consider the average stu- 
dent as he approaches the ultimate goal, 

Needed—^A Job 

Having completed almost four years 
of constant and intensive study he finds 
that very shortly his period of incuba- 
tion, as an engineer, will end. It is us- 
ually at this time that the prospect 
of having to choose a job is first brought 
forcibly to his attention. There are a 
few persons who already have a course 
of action laid out for themselves, but 
they are the lucky few. 

Now that the realization of the ne- 
cessity of getting a job has become mani- 
fest, the student arranges, through the 
college office, to have several interviews. 

The number of interviews the student 
has will vary according to the indivdual. 
Some persons may need only one or two 
in order to make their decision, while 
others will require a half dozen or more. 

Advice from the Dean's office indi- 
cates, that the greatest difficulty that 
the interviewers find with the students 
is that they do not know what they 
want, nor do they come to the inter- 
views equipped to ask intelligent ques- 

All too often, due to this unprepared- and indecision, a man may either 
pass up a good offer, or he may accept 
a job for which he is mentally unquali- 
fied. This can onh' lead to a condition 

OCTOBER, 1947 

of unhappiness and discontent with his 

The purpose of this article is not to 
tr\ to tell anybody which job the\- 
should or should not accept, but rather 
it is an attempt to point out a few of 
the factors which should be considered 
by all persons seeking employment. 
Neither is the article intended only for 
those seniors who expect to graduate 

This article is the first of a se- 
ries designed to impress upon the 
student the realization that the 
ultimate goal of all education lies 
in the proper selection of a job 
in which he can best utilize his 
talents and training. Although 
space does not permit a complete 
discussion on the subject of select- 
ing a job, the article at least sug- 
gests many lines of investigation 
that may be followed by the stu- 
dent who is truly interested in 
fitting himself into a more than 
just adequate job. In attempting to 
help open up one line of investi- 
gation, the subsequent articles in 
this series will deal with specific 
descriptions of several small in- 
dustrial organizations located in 
the State of Illinois. They have 
been chosen because they are also 
representative of a group of em- 
ployers with whom the engineering 
student has had little direct con- 

in the near future but is applicable to 
freshmen and .sophomores as well. This 
will become more evident as we pro- 

Most of the engineering curricula in 
the junior and senior years provide op- 
portunity for the student to take op- 
tions which give him a chance to de- 
velop any special interests he may have. 

This line of attack is of utmost im- 
portance but its significance is complete- 
ly lost to the student who has not put 
forth any effort toward developing spe- 
cialized interests. 

We must accept the fact that engi- 
neering today is such a broad and com- 
prehensive field that no one man can 
possibly be accomplished in all of its 
ramifications. As a result of this condi- 
tion, engineers have become a group of 
specialists. When a man decides to be- 
come a specialist, he automaticallv nar- 

rows his future into a well defined path ; 
and, once having made the choice, it will 
be very sad and disillusioning for the 
person who then finds that he does not 
like and enjoy the work he is doing. 

For the most part, freshmen are ex- 
cluded from extra-curricular activities 
until they have qualified themselves 
scholastically. For those who are quali- 
fied the numerous engineering societies 
and other school activities are a deep 
well for the accumulation of an insight 
into the various phases of engineering. 
The student should take full advantage 
of these opportunities that are offered 
to him t(j learn about his and other pro- 

Summer Jobs Valuable 

The accumulation of practical experi- 
ence of various types, through the me- 
dium of summer jobs, is another fine 
way of acquiring this diverse knowl- 

Unfortunately for the student, most 
of the trade publications are far too 
technical for all but the seniors and 
some juniors to be able to read and 
understand. However, mere perusal of 
these publications is, or should be, of 
interest to all engineering students. 

All of these things which have been 
mentioned will help to prepare a person 
to make up his mind when the time 

In the final analysis, the true proof 
of the pudding is in the eating, so it 
is impossible to be absolutely sure that 
>our choice is the right one luitil after 
\ou have worked at the job for a while. 
Nevertheless, prior to employment, an 
honest consideration of all factors shovild 
greatly increase the chances of making 
the correct choice. 

Now let us consider the senior who 
has accomplished his formal educational 
program and is about to set forth on the 
real business of living. Let us assume 
that this particular individual has 
thought over the prospects and has de- 
cided upon what type of work he wants 
to do. The only question he has yet to 
answer is, "Whom shall I work for?" 

As we have already mentioned, the 
college office arranges for interviews be- 
tween representatives of industry and 
the students. This is one of the finest 
services, of many, that the office does 

Analyse the Problem 

When our student approaches his in- 
terview, there are a number of impor- 
tant questions to which he should desire 
the answers. 

The locale of the employment is al- 
wa\s an important consideration, espe- 
cially in these days of housing short- 
ages. Should it not be possible to obtain 
adequate housing it would be absoluteh' 
foolish for a person to try to accept a 
(Continued on Page 22) 

^Ite Qiyia Go^nt/pxiAA. 

Itij llfrhvrt .Mnzvr 

As lati* as till- iiiiiliik- of thf 19th cen- 
tury, there were people that still clunji 
to the belief that the uni\erse rotated 
around a stationary earth. Scientists had 
attempted to disprove this lallacy as 
early as the I7th century, but could not 
decisively do so. In 1851, Jean Bernard 
Leon Foucault, a prominent French sci- 
entist of the period, threw some light 
on the situation by showing that the 
earth was actually rotating on its axis. 

Incorporating theories developed by 
Galeleo, Newton, and Kepler, he 
mounted a wheel in a frame on very del- 
icate bearings so that it could maintain 
its spinning axis in a fixed direction. 
Hy conducting a series of experiments 
with this apparatus, he proved that the 
earth turned relative to the stationary 
direction of the spinning axis of the 
wheel. Foucault called his delicate ap- 
paratus a gyroscope from the Greek 
word "gyros" (revolution), and "sko- 
pien," (to view), and he predicted that 
some day it would be used to navigate 

At the turn of the 2llth century. Dr. 
Elmer A. Sperry, founder of the Sperry 
Gyroscope company, became intrigued 
with the many possibilities of mechani- 
cal applications of the gyroscope and 

Even though the principle of 
operation of the Sperry gyro- 
compass may be well known to 
the reader, you will find in this 
article a clear description of not 
only liow it functions but also 
some of the problems encountered 
in its design. 

tlcdicatcd himself tf) the development of 

Before going into the problem con- 
fronting Dr. Sperry in the development 
of the gyro-compass, it would be best to 
define the gyroscope and briefly state 
its properties. 

A gyroscope consists of a solid wheel 
with its mass concentrated about the 
rim. It is so suspended that it may ro- 
tate about its spinning axis and turn 
about its vertical and horizontal axes. 
These axes are mutually perpendicular 
and coincide with the center of mass at 
the geometric center of the wheel. Its 
physical properties are : ( 1 ) the ability 
to hold its position in space unless acted 
upon by an external torque, and (2) 
if such a torque were applied, action 
would take place about an axis 90 de- 

A cut-away view of the Sperry gyro-compass showing 
details of the internal assembly 

grecs from the applied torque. In cjtlui 
words, if a torque were placed on the 
vertical axis, the gyroscope would turn 
about its horizontal axis. This peculiar 
property is known as "precession." 

Dr. Sperry had a scries of obstacle- 
to hurdle before he could build his 
first g\ro-compass. The first, the prob- 
lem of a continuoush' spinning rotor, 
was easily overcome by evacuating the 
center of the gyro-wheel and installing 
a set of induction windings; thus mak- 
ing the gyro-wheel the rotor of an in- 
duction motor. Rotors in the most com- 
monly used Sperry compasses weigh 35 
lbs. an<l develop a speed of approximate- 
K' fi, 1)0(1 r.p.m. They are driven by 
induction windings supplied with 30 
\olt, .1 phase, 210 cycle alternating cur- 

The iMoblcm of making a gyroscope 
north-seeking and north-remaining was 
more complex. Dr. Sperry knew that if 
the plane of rotation of a gyroscope 
were parallel to the earth's plane of ro- 
tatin, their spinning axes would point 
to the true geographic north and south. 
The rotation of the earth woLild cause 
no deviation from the true north and, 
by definition, the gyroscope would be- 
come a compass. For all practical pur- 
poses, however, it would be impossible 
to set the plane of rotation of a gyro- 
scope parallel to the earth's plane of ro- 
tation vmless a mechanical setup was 
used. Dr. Sperry conceived an ingeni- 
ous method. Utilizing the gyroscopic 
property of precession and the apparent 
tilting of the gyro-rotor because of the 
rotation of the earth, he placed a tank 
of mercury on each side of the rotor and 
connected them with a unrestricted pipe ; 
thus allowing mercury to flow freely 
from one tank to the other. He attached 
these to the bottom of the rotor case by 
means of a connection arm and an eccen- 
tric pin, (called "eccentric" because it 
is attached approximately 1" from the 

Let us see what effect the addition 
of mercury ballistic tanks had on the 
gyro-scope. Assume the rotor to be le\el 
and pointing east and west. As the earth 
rotates from west to east, the east end 
of the gyro-scope will appear to tilt up. 
This apparent tilting will cause mercury 
to flow from the east to the west bal- 
listic tank and, in effect, place a torque 
on the horizontal axis. Following the 
rule of precession previously stated, the 
rotor will commence to turn about its 
vertical axis. 

Due to the unrestricted flow of mer- 
cury, the rate of precession is direct!) 
proportional to the angle of tilt and, 
since the earth rotates continually, the 
amount of tilt will gradually increase 
until the spinning axis of the rotor 
moves into the plane of a meridian. At 
this point, the angle of tilt, the amount 
(Continued on Page ,36) 


The Pier Bnindi 

Bfi Frtinvis Green. E.E. '^S 

Welcome to the College of Engineer- 
ing, freshmen and sophomores of the 
undergraduate division at Xavy Pier! 
Your student engineering magazine 
wants to acquaint you and the rest of 
(lur reading public with our engineering 
college and the Pier branch, its teach- 
ing personnel, and student personalities 
and 'characters,' if any. In one year the 
Pier has been built up to one of the 50 
largest centers of secondary education 
in the United States with an enrollment 
of 4,000 students, and 276 faculty mem- 
bers. Most students come from within 
the cit\' of Chicago and the faculty — far 
from being unknown and without repu- 
tation — include such men as Dr. Char- 
les C. Caveny, dean of the undergradu- 
ate division, from Penn State, Dean 
Randolph P. Hoelscher, associate dean 
of engineering sciences, from the Ur- 
bana faculty, and several men from 
Northwestern university. 

With the exception of a dozen or so 
engineering sophomores and a propor- 

A familiar sight to "Pier Branch" students is Navy pier, the home 
of the University's undergraduate division at Chicago 

tionate amount of men in other divisions 
of the University, all students of last 


3ic T's trap 
e dvanced 

14. German wt 

produced h 

first lelephc 

in 1861 
16. Washing m, 

rial, still sc, 

18. Social gath 

19. Stain of d 

20. Freezing po 

('rossword Puzzle 



26. Irrational 
28 Rumanian 



29. Keep 
said of a machin 

30, Free negative 

32. Monotonous 

34. Irish dramatist. 

once employed 

in first English 



36 Conquered 

37 -rhe Wizard ol 
Menlo Park" 

40 Su 



















«'" 1 




ff^n 1 




r EJ L 













42 B 


WT 1 







''\ \ u 


























1 IT 


41. I 


dio sta- 
tion to broadcast 
scheduled pro- 
grams, opened 
in 1920 

43. Large simian 

44. Stout, as one 
needing an elec 
trical reducing 

46 Mineral used In 
cells: chem. 

47 Iniure the ■■■■ 
face of 

49. Estimate 

54. t.i 

fiers often help 
these people 

56- Edges of a roof 

58. Wing 

60. Important part 
of a radio set 

63. For all time 

64 Floats, as on 
a liquid 

66. Bean sauce 

67. State of being 

58 Female sheep 

2. Self 

3. Ruth's second 
husband: Bible 

4. Me 


9. Planet for which 31. Important print- 
the heaviest 
metal is named 

10. Six: Spanish 

11. Moral trans- 

15. He patented an 
atic tele- 

33. Con 
35. Hav 
38. Defy 






17. South American 

19. Support for rail- 
road tracks 

21. Letter of old 
Norse alphabet 

23. High voice 

24. Englishman who 

devised an 

electric light 

39. Memorandum 
42. French physici 

developed the 

45. Regular 

48. Donkey 


« Moving part of 25 Positive 

a dynamo or electrode 

motor 27. Fall in drop: 

6. Source of a metal 29. German whc 

7- Former Russian founded the 

autocrat mathematica 

8. Tellurium: chem. theory of 



52. State 

53. Cut with a saw 
55. This protects a 

circuit from 

57. Hail! 
59. Falsehood 

61. Arch of refracted 

62. Ample light 
prevents strain 
on this 

64. City thorough- 
fare: abbr. 

65. Kind of ship: 

year are coming back to the Pier to 
embark on their second year of college. 
Several new instructors and 24 new 
courses on the sophomore le\el are now 

This year the expansive opportunities 
of technical and non-technical extra- 
curricular activities will go into full 
swing — a theatrical group, the "Pier II- 
lini Productions," a student newspaper, 
the "Pier Illini," intramural athletics, 
;ind numerous activities for individual 
participation; such as, reading in the 
10,000 volume embryo library, study of 
the indefinite loan of sculpture from the 
.Art Institute, special exhibits at the 
.Museum of Science and Industry, and 
most important of all a chance to join 
the student branch of the particular en- 
gineering society of your field. To those 
men and women who are interested in 
writing or applied business training, as 
well as a number of good times with 
a group of active engineering students, 
we extend our invitation to you to con- 
tact Mr. Ogden Livermore and initiate 
a branch of the "Illinois Tcchnogruph," 
engineering student publication on cam- 
pus, there at your dixision of the Uni- 
\ersity of Illinois. 

Among the Pier men who have come 
south to Urbana, are such GMOCs 
(growing men on campus) as the first 
editor of the "Pier Illini" newspaper, 
Bernard Weinstein, a new writer on the 
Irchnograph. Donald Johnson, and 
from what we hear 'Muriel Locke,' di- 
minuitive, typical Navy Pier coed who 
.'uinounced her arrival at Urbana 'due 
to the adversity of the male Pier popu- 
lation' ! 

OCTOBER, 1947 

Industrial (leraiiiirs (irows Up 

Itfi Hurl HilfivniUtrf. K.E. ' tH 

The ceramics industry has made 
astonishing advances in the past few- 
years. The glass industiT in 1939 was 
worth 13 billion dollars. Cilass prod- 
ucts are as vital as any products the 
country produces — millions of light 
bulbs, X-ray tubes, lenses for micro- 
scopes, make glass important to scien- 
tific progress and industrial deveiop- 

(ilass can withstand abrasion better 
than any metal. A colliery in Pennsyl- 
vania uses thick plate glass coal chutes 
in mines. Glass aircraft windows re- 
placed plastics since pressure differential 
at high altitudes made plastic materials 
bend and pop out of their frames. Plas- 
tics offer no protection against ultravio- 
let rays. 

The manufacture of glass is as ancient 
as civilization. The Egyptians, thousands 
of years ago, knew the secret of making 
emerald and cobalt glass, the Phoeni- 
cians were adept at blowing glass, and 
the Romans made the discovery of trans- 
parent glass. In 1900 an industrialist 
predicted that glass, as much as steel, 
would revolutionize the 20th century. 

Foam glass — glass baked with carbon 
dust — is buoyant in water and can be 
used for life rafts. Fibrous glass in the 
form of glass wool insulation, continu- 
ous fibres for textiles, and non-inflam- 
mable drapes, were used by the Army 
and Navy. 

Jet planes operate at temperatures of 
2000° F and rise off the ground in 30 
seconds. Special ceramic coatings make 
parts heat resistant. In planes, uncoated 
materials must be replaced in 50 hours. 
With ceramic coatings the lifetime of 
the metal was over 100 hours. Ceramic 
coatings are useful in coating turbo- 
supercharger parts. 

Glass is unaffected by moisture and 
most acids. It can be made heavier than 
iron and lighter than aluminum. It was 
used in making the 200-inch reflector at 
Mt. Palomar observator\' and has been 
drawn into fibres .023 inch thick. It can 
be as unbreakable as quartz and fragile 
as a Christmas tree ornament. There are 
300,001) different ways of making it. 

During the war the treasury depart- 
ment seriously considered making pen- 
nies of glass instead of hard-to-get cop- 

The United States is today the leader 
in the quality and quantity of glassware 


Ceramics is one of tlie oldest 
arts in the history of niunkind. 
Although some phases liave been 
shifting from the arts into indus- 
try, the nar created one of the 
largest industrial applications yet 
found. This article deals witli the 
application of ceramics to some 
of these war-created preblems. 

and in the \ariet\ produced. With new- 
uses of ceramics being discovered daily 
— from the textile industry to the build- 
ing trades — the ceraniics industry prom- 
ises to grow by leaps and bounds. 

Wartime Needs 

Early in the war in I^urope our in- 
telligence department reported that 
flight paths of American bon-ibers sw-eep- 
ing into Germany wxre being plotted 
by means of infra-red radiation detec- 
tors and anti-aircraft fire w-as being 
directed by similar apparatus. The infra- 
red rays emitted by the hot engines of 
our bomb laden Flying Fortresses and 
Liberators w-ere a dead give-away as to 
the position of flying squadrons. 

In July, 1943, Army Air corps offi- 
cials from Wright field, Dayton, rep- 
resenting the Air Materiel command, 
dropped into the Ceramics building at 
the University of Illinois and asked Dr. 
A. I. Andrews: "Can you develop a 
ceramic material which will suppress 
infra-red radiation from the hot metal 
parts of oin- planes? Every plane gives 
away its location long before it reaches 
its target." Dr. Andrews' response w-as 
in the affirmative. He felt that ceramic 
materials could be found to solve this 
critical problem. 

The laboratory in\estigation for spe- 
cial ceramic coatings which w-ere to be 
applied to aircraft parts, such as collec- 
tor rings and exhaust stacks, actually 
had a double purpose. The first was, of 
course, to suppress infra-red radiation. 
The second, equally important, w-as to 
unearth ceramic coatings which would 
protect metals from the rapid deteriora- 
tion that they undergo in extremes of 

During the following year, a critical 
review was made of ceramic materials 
available and tests were made on them 
continuall\-. The tests determined heat 
resistance, thermal shock resistance, 

>trength, radiation-suppressing qualities, 
and other factors. 

It was found that an\ metal w-ith 
a ceramic coating of the proper kind 
can be operated at temperatures higher 
than normal. In the tests on coatings 
placed betw-een the flame and metal in 
exhaust stacks and jet engine flame 
tubes, it was found that the useful op- 
erating life of the metal part w-as in- 
creased several times. One specimen of 
steel w-as heated 450 hours at 1500° F. 
w-ith no visible sign of corrosion. 

Dr. R. D. Bennett, director of re- 
search in the ceramics department, was 
placed in charge of the project. L nder 
him, R. K. Jursh planned and devel- 
oped procedures and apparatus and, witli 
the cooperation of the physics depart- 
ment, prepared test specimens. 

Typical heat-corrosion in an 
unprotected pipe 


The immediate result of the research 
was that metals had increased operating 
life, and due to this protection by a 
coat of ceramic material, cheaper metals 
could be substituted for more expensive 
metals. High grade steels were in de- 
mand by every branch of the armed 
forces; substitution of less critical ma- 
terials proved a boon at a time when 
war production was at its peak. 

Dr. Bennett says in a report: "VV^ith 
dense, relatively glassy coats serving to 
seal off metal from high temperature 
corrosion, the additional application of 
the more porous, relatively crystalline 
top coatings served to provide thermal 
insulation, radiation reflection, and 
radiation suppression. The net result 
was either a metal operating at a lower 
temperature or, often more important, 
a higher combustion temperatin-e with 
the metal temperature no higher than 

The approach was to heat the speci- 
men coated with various kinds of ce- 
ramic material and then evaluate the 
results through graphs. The Stefan- 
Boltzmann law shows how radiation 
and temperature are related. It is: 

where P is power radiated per unit 
area, T is the temperature in degrees 
Kelvin, E is the total radiation emis- 
sivity, and A" is the Stefan-Boltzmann 
constant in watts per degree Kelvin per 
unit area. Planck's radiation formula 
gives the distribution of energy among 
the various wavelengths. It is : 

A=(2AfvV) {he t^^T-')-' 
where JX is the radiation intensity at 
wavelength /, 
h is Planck's constant 
<• is the velocity of light 
h is Boltzmann's constant 
and T is the temperature in degrees 
The Bouquer-Lambert law of absorption 
demonstrates that the ability of a body 
to transmit radiation is independent of 
the intensitv of the radiation. It is: 

where J'l„ is the radiation intensit\- at 

surface toward the source 
J\ is the radiation intensity at a 

distance x 
X is the distance from the surface 
toward the source along the radi- 
ation path 
and k is the absorption coefficient of 
I the transmitting medium 

I As a direct corollary of the Bouquer- 
Lambert law, it can be seen that each 
unit thickness of a homogenous medium 
1 reduces the intensiti,- of the beam in the 
same ratio. 

' The Test Equipment 

I A tiny, specimen furnace, large 
j enough to hold a 4 by 4 inch metal plate 
had a pyrex glass window to keep out 
I convective air and was operated in con- 
I nection with a variac which regulated 

h! OCTOBER. 1947 

The laboratory arrangement of the equipment used to measure 
the relative emissivity of coated materials 

the energy output. A Chromel-alumel 
thermometer was imbedded in the speci- 
men metal and connected to a potentio- 

A photoelectric cell, sensitive to radi- 
ation up to 1.2 microns, changed radia- 
tion to electrical energy which was meas- 
ured through a reflecting galvanometer. 
Deflections on an attached focused scale 
gave a direct measure of radiant energy. 

Two types of filters were used. A 
Corning, black glass filter, which cut 
off infra-red emission wave lengths be- 
low 0.75 micron, and a glass filter cell 
(with CuCl.^.2H.,0J, which was open 
to radiation below .7 micron, were sat- 

Preliminary tests indicated that all 
grades of steel showed the same abso- 
lute emissivity over a given temperature 
scale. As the temperature is raised, oxi- 
dized steel reaches a total emissivity of 
95%. Stainless steel was selected as the 
test specimen in all remaining work of 
the investigation. Readings of the radi- 
ant energy from the coated steel were 
taken at 50° intervals over two main 
temperature ranges — 800-1000° F. in 
the infra-red band and 1100-1800° F. 
in the visible and invisible radiation 

A number of variables were consid- 
ered: particle size, coat thickness, firing 
time, temperature, and types of bonding 
glasses. Bonding glasses with different 
capacity to transmit radiations were cor- 
related to the other variables. The per 
cent of bonding glass was kept low to 
keep the coat thickness down as much 
as possible. Each first coating 14 mils 
thick was fired on the steel plates be- 
fore the test metal received its coating 
of the ceramic material tested. 

Nineteen representative mate- 
rials, among which were diaspore, uver- 
ite. feldspar, lepidolite, cobalt dioxide. 

manganese dioxide, and olivine vv-ere 
tested with filters over the 800-1600° F. 
range to determine the amount of emis- 

The following is the formulation for 
base coat No. 32-16 at 4 mils thickness: 

Quartz 24.3% 

Potash feldspar 34.8 

Borax 23.8 

Sodium carbonate 6.5 

Sodium nitrate 4.2 

Fluospar 3.7 

Cobalt dioxide 0.5 

Nickel oxide 0.5 

Manganese dioxide 1.5 

A mill batch of the above frit nvuii- 
ber 32 was made up as follows : 

Frit number 32 65 

First grade diaspore 35 

Borax 0.75 

Water 50.00 

The frit materials were mixed and 
melted to quiet fusion and the melt was 
then quenched in water and dried. After 
the mill batch was ground, a 100 gram 
slip sample was passed through a 200 
mesh screen and 4 grams of residue re- 
mained. The remaining slip was applied 
to the annealed metal specimen by dip- 
ping, and then fired for 10 minutes at 
1750° F. 

Testing Procedure 
The specimen was placed in the fur- 
nace with a top coating facing the photo- 
electric cell, and the temperature was 
raised gradually to 1600° F., slowly 
lowered to 800° F., and then raised 
again at the rate of 10° a minute to 
1100° F. with readings taken every 
50°. At 1100° the sensitivity of the 
galvanometer was reduced to keep the 
deflection on scale and filters were 
changed. Additional readings were taken 
up to 1600° F. 

Analysis revealed that in the low tem- 
( Continued on Page 28) 


Iiidiistrv's Wateli M 

hif 'Ivrrii 3l€ithvirH. .\I.K. '17 

Tlu- projiicss ot accuracy in machiii- 
ini; has increased iifonietrically in inipi)i- 
tance since the hef^inninj; of the machine 
age and alon": with it has grown the re- 
sponsibility of making machines whicli 
can produce parts within \er\ narrow 
limits. It is not uncommon to see manu- 
factured parts with a tolerance of 
.OODOUh in. It would be economically 
impossible to discard machines which, 
after normal wear, fail to produce the 
accuracy demanded. Consequenth , the 
practical method is to measure the parts 
as they come off the machine, discard 
those beyond the limits, and if neces- 
sary, shut down the machine for read- 
justments when it consistently fails to 
produce parts within the specified limit. 
At best this system, if not wasteful of 
material, slows down production — a vi- 
olation of one of the ten commandments 
of a business enterprise. 

It took two world wars and a Uni- 
versity of Illinois graduate to partially 
solve this problem through "quality con- 
trol." At least a good attempt is being 
made by many companies to utilize tlie 
method of quality control to cope with 
the dilemma posed by the need for ra- 
pid production along with accurac>'. 

rhiciplcs /{xftlaituul 

The Federal Products corporation, a 
manufacturer of precision measuring in- 
struments, has published a "primer" ex- 
plaining the theory of quality control in 
the layman's language. The following 
is a condensation of this explanation of 
the principles of quality control. 

"If SO pieces are taken from the work 
of a machine where the o.d. has been 
turned and if the pieces are measured 
individually with an indicating gage for 
this outside diameter and then cla.ssified 
by actual dimension (a sort of selective 
assembly operation), in other words laid 
out in rows by actual dimension, a re- 
sult similar to th;it shown in Fig. 1 
will be obtained. 

"A group of pieces dimensionally clas- 
sified in this manner make what is 
known as a Frequency Distribution, il- 
lustrating the frequency of occurrence of 
certain dimensions and their distribution 
among the whole. The curve itself is 
called a Frequency Distribution curve. 

"It is characteristic of pieces classified 


A relative newcomer to indus- 
try, the field of quality control is 
the subject of this article. Devel- 
oped by means of statistical mathe- 
matics, quality control is proving 
itself to be as effective as 100 per 
cent inspection and yet is much 
less expensive and troublesome. 

and distributed accoriling to their di- 
mensions that the largest group would 
fall close to the mathematical average 
of the entire assembly. 

"Furthermore, it has been found that 
a Frequency Distribution can be divided 
into six zones mathematically equal in 
width. Thus a practical use of the Fre- 
quency Distribution becomes available 
because it has been determined that the 
number of pieces ordinarily lodging 
within each of the strips represents per- 
centages of the total. Carried to an ex- 
treme, the Frequency Distribution pro- 
cedure could resemble or equal 100% 

"In the actual application a sampling 
procedure is adopted and a chart sys- 
tem replaces the frequency distribution. 
Rather than sort over the entire 50 
pieces, small samples, such as five pieces 
.-it a time, are taken more or less regu- 
larly from the work as it progresses, and 

rm utk 

mill* tilt 

Figure 1 
A Frequency Distribution Curve 

critain resulting observations are piur- 
ted on a control chart, as shown in 
I'igs. 2 and .1 

"In Older to determine the \aiue ol 
M, mathematicians have developed for- 
mulae by which the .35 value can be cal- 
culated from a quantity known ;in 
"range" is the difference between the 
greatest and smallest dimensions observ- 
ed in each sample taken. Fig. .? shows 
a chart on which the 3 readings from 
each of the samples are plotted in pro 
per position. It illustrates for each sam- 
|ile taken the highest and lowest readin;: 
and the spread, or range, between them, 
as well as the variation in range from 
sample to sample." 

7 he A pplica/ioii of Theory 

From the foregoing principles qualit\ 
control has come into existence. To sec 
how these principles are put into actual 
practice, consider the following example. 

Usually five pieces are selected at ran- 
dom during definite intervals by an in- 
spector or operator right at the machine. 
Kach piece is measured and the meas- 
ured value recorded. An average of the 
fixe readings, called X, is recorded along 
with the largest and smallest readings. 
The difference between the largest and 
smallest readings is called the range ami 
represented b\ R. Generally between 10 
and 23 such samples are taken from 
which the overall averages of X and R 
are obtained. From these values it is then 
possible to calculate the control limits 
by means of the following formula: 

c.l.=X—AJi and X-{-J.7R 
where A . is obtained from the table 

No. Pieces 5 8 10 12 13 

A„ .377 .373 .308 .266 .223 

To obtain the control limits for the 
range, the following formula is used : 

Uffcr c.1.=:D^ Loivcr ,-./.=D,^ 
where /) ; and D^ are found from the 
table below : 

8 10 12 13 
.S()4 1.777 1.717 1.6S2 
.1.^6 .Hi .284 .348 

With the control limits set up then, 
the process of measuring fi\e pieces of 
work periodically is continued .ind the 
averages of X and R are plotted on a 
control chart. When either of these av- 
erages falls outside the established limit, 
it means that that particular sub-group 
of five has gone "ovit of control" ; and 
either a readjustment of the machine or 
a recalibration of the measuring instru- 
ment is necessary. At least it is known 
that something has gone "haywire" with 
the process and that it's time to make a 
check. It also means that a 100% in- 
spection of all the parts produced after 
the preceding sub-group is necessary. 

That the speed and quality of pro- 
duction is directly dependent upon the 
method of inspection is not difficult to 


\o. Pieces 3 
/), 2.114 

see. It should also be apparent that the 
quality control method of inspection 
based on the principles of Frequency 
Distribution permits a considerably 
greater production speed than the lOO^f 
inspection method. In actual practise the 
inspection method adopted is a compro- 
mise between the required accuracy and 
economical operating speed. For exam- 
ple, in a process with fairly large limits 
a 10 or 15% inspection method may be 
adopted with reasonable accuracy which 

"_r^"-[_^^__ ! 

c il [(.01 ciiu i 
Figure 2 

also permits the process to be operated 
at a speed consistent with economy. As 
the limits of the process become smaller, 
the method of inspection must, of neces- 
sity, become correspondingly larger to 
insure the qualit\' of the product. For 
limits smaller than a certain value a 
l(lf)% inspection method is mandatory, 
because the increased production speed 
gained by any lesser method is more 
than offset by the number of defective 
parts which are undetected. By the use 
of the principles of quality control the 
necessity for 100% inspection is elimi- 
nated and at the same time the accuracy 
of the work is maintained. Of course 
this is the big selling point of quality 
control — "accurate guess work." With 
the formulae and constants developed by 
mathematicians for the quality control 
method, however, the guess work is re- 
duced to about a 99.99% calculated 

Mathematical Angle 

One of the more prominent mathema- 
ticians responsible for the development 
of quality control is Dr. Walter A. 
Shwart of the Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories. Mr. Shwart was graduated from 
the University of Illinois in 1913 and 
received his Master's degree here in 
1914. He completed his work for a 
Ph.D. at the Uni\ersitv of California 
in 1917. 

It is very likely that Mr. Shwart be- 
came interested in the subject of quality 
control through his work with Bell Tel- 
ephone, for in 1918 it became his duty 
to establish head sizes for aviation radio 
helmets. In 1924 he actually began 
studying sampling plans to be used in 
the inspection of quality. His problem 
then was — how large a sample should be 
taken in order to justify the acceptance 
or rejection of a given production lot 
on the basis of these samples? The sta- 
tistical control chart, described previ- 
ously, was introduced for this determi- 
nation and is now used both here and 
abroad by many corporations. 

OCTOBER, 1947 

The British have added a new section 
to the Royal Statistical society concerned 
entirely with quality control. In the 
L nited States the war department dur- 
ing World War II requested the Amer- 
ican Standards association to organize a 
committee for the purpose of sponsoring 
the application of statistics to quality 
control. It was this action that has been 
largely responsible for the present day 
interest and popularity. As a further 
supplement to the original training of- 
fered h\ the war production board, a 
series of papers called "Quality Control 
Reports" were also published in which 
were shown many illustrations of the 
application of quality control. 

Quality Control Succeeds 

In one report the John Deere com- 
pany published an interesting account 
of the direct application of quality con- 
trol to a production problem arising in 
their shops. In the maiuifacture of piston 
pins the three final operations in the 
production procedure consisted of: 

sidered absolutely necessary because of 
the inertia in getting the operators to 
change over from the old procedure to 
the new one. 

After the system had been set up, 
it was found that the plunge centerless 
grinder was turning out the pins on the 
high side of the tolerance; and as a 
result a number of them were oversize. 
By proper adjustment of the machine 
the average size was brought down 
closer to the mean dimension, but the 
range still continued at an unsatisfac- 
tory level. A control chart placed on 
the preceding, rough centerless grinders 
indicated that this operation was not 
functioning properly, and a check-up re- 
vealed that the operator was not making 
the prescribed number of passes through 
the grinder. After correcting this condi- 
tion and making a few machine adjust- 
ments, the operator was then able to 
easily turn out the pins according to 
specifications with only sub-group check- 

As a check on the accuracy of the 

Figure 3 
A sub-group control chart shown in actual use on the machine floor 

1. rough centerle;.;. grinding 

1. plunge (or stop) centerless grind- 
ing and lap 

3. polishing. 

It was found that after leaving the 
rough centerless grinding operation con- 
siderable trouble had arisen with uneven 
flow of parts and scrap work. To cor- 
rect this trouble, it was decided to uti- 
lize the principles of quality control ; and 
to do this, necessitated a conference with 
the superintendent and supervisors. 

Next it was necessary to select and 
train individuals for patrol inspection 
and thoroughly acquaint everyone in- 
volved with the procedure required to 
carry out the quality control method. 
This preliminary preparation was con- 

quality control method, 1800 pieces 
were given 100% inspection and found 
to all fall within the specified tolerance. 
The control charts, however, showed 
that four points fell below the lower 
control limit for averages. This down- 
ward trend in the averages indicated 
that even though all of the pieces were 
within the tolerance, some operation was 
still "out of control." When that par- 
ticular trouble was located and correct- 
ed, complete control was maintained for 
the rest of the run ; and all of the pieces 
produced were found to fall more closely 
to the mean specification. 

From the foregoing discussion it can 
readily be seen that the advantage of 
(Continued on Page 26) 



Do yoii know that tin- iiumbi-r ot 
small air bubbles in concii-tc (k'tfiiiiini's 
tlu- durability of that coiicn-te? Con- 
crete with less than a certain amount 
of air weathers badly. Concrete with 
greater amounts of air resists frost ac- 
tion, but its strength is decreased. A 
problem is raised — how to get enough 
air into the concrete without getting too 
much. Putting the air into the concrete 
is simple. Controlling the amount of air 
is tricky. Uefore you can control it, you 
have to measure it. That is the assign- 
ment Mr. Carl Menzel, research engi- 
neer of the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion, received. 

After my discharge from the Army, 
I went to work for the Portland Ce- 
ment .'\ssociation. That was when I met 
Mr. Menzel — I became his assistant. In 
the next few days I learned a great deal 
about air-entrained concrete. I learned 
that between three and five per cent of 
air is best for durability and strength. 
I learned that it is easy to adjust the 
amount of air in concrete by adjusting 
the mix. I also learned to qualify that 
last sentence — it's easy to adjust the 
amount of air in concrete, if we know 
how much air was in the last batch 
mixed. Then I learned that measuring 
the amount of air in the concrete was 
hard, and that our job was to devise a 
"Practical Field Method for the Deter- 
mination of the Air Content of Fresh 

Initial Difficulties 

Theic were three general metiiods in 
use a year ago for measuring the air 
content of fresh concrete. In one, the 
"gravimetric" method, the weight of a 
cubic foot of the fresh concrete was ob- 
tained and compared with the theoreti- 
cal air-free unit weight of the same 
concrete. This comparison gave an "air 
content." In another method the air was 
removed from the concrete by "wash- 
ing," and the loss of volume in the 
process represented the air content. In 
the third method the concrete was put 
luider pressure, and through measure- 
ment of the volume change under that 
pressure, the air content of the concrete 
could be found. 

Serious objections to each method 
were made, the most serious of these 
being inaccuracy. An experienced man 
could judge air content more accurately 
"by guess and by gosh" than by any of 
the three. 

For instance, with tiie most higliK 
approved method, the most "exact" 
method — the gravimetric — the weight of 
an accurately measured volume of fresh 
concrete was needeii. To be fairly cer- 
tain of the amount fair, an accuracy of 
about 3 in 10,000 was needed — ^ an 
accuracy common in the laboratory, but 
impossible in the field where the test 
was to be used. 

Mr. Menzel sat down and diil some 
thinking. First he listed the disadvan- 
tages of each method (at that time there 
were few advantages for any of them). 
Then he started devising ways of re- 
moving the faults. 

The almuni department, IllinJ 
in Action, has been devoted this 
time to the story of one man, Carl 
Menzel '17. This story deals with 
the problems he encountered in 
handling an assignment he re- 
ceived as a research engineer for 
the Portland Cement Association. 
The outcome of his work — a pres- 
sure testing unit for detennining 
the air content of concrete — was 
reported in the May 1947 issue of 
the Technograph. This story is the 
saga of headwork, elbow-grease, 
and grief behind its development. 

The gravimetric method was discard- 
ed at the start. The composition of each 
tested batch had to be known — the exact 
amounts of water, sand, cement and 
gravel in the batch had to be known 
with an accuracy that is impossible on a 
road job where conditions seem to 
change without apparent reason. The 
gravimetric method also involves compu- 
tations which are too lengthy for the 
field, where test results are needed "im- 
mediately" if not sooner. 

'Washing' Method Cumbersome 

Now let's follow his reasoning with 
one of the other methods, the "washing" 
method. The accepted technique of the 
washing type of test was devised by Mr. 
Henham of the Indiana Highway de- 
partment. It consisted of measuring the 
weight of a cubic foot of fresh concrete 
and then immersing the sample in a 
large amount of water. The concrete 
was stirred around until the mortar 
from the fresh concrete became so thin 
and diluted with water that it couldn't 
hold any of the air, and the air escaped. 

Since the air was released, the volume 
of water and concrete decreased. With 
a careful volume measurement and an- 
other weighing, sufficient data had been 
gathered to determine the air content. 
After about fifteen or twenty minutes 
ot pencil work (slide rule isn't accurate 
enough), the inspector might be able to 
ralculate the air content. 

In all, three weighings and three vol- 
ume measurements are needed with the 
"Indiana" method. The scales must be 
rugged enough to take the abuse found 
on a construction job. Scales rugged 
enough to withstand the hard usage are 
not accurate enough to be used with this 
test. Two of the volume measurements 
are on a water surface with a hook- 
gage. The last of these measurements is 
always confused by the presence of a 
thick scummy foam composed of cement 
particles and the air-entraining agent 
used. Combining the inherent inaccura- 
cies of the hook-gage and the scales with 
the probable errors in calculations, the 
Indiana method was little better than 
guess work. 

The Plot Thickens 

Carl Menzel considered the difficul- 
ties and their solution. The scales led 
to inaccuracies. Discard it. The hook- 
gage gave incorrect answers. Discard it. 
The scum caused difficulties. Remove it. 
Mixing the concrete and w^ater was 
hard physical labor — labor the average 
inspector might shirk. Lessen it. Compu- 
tations were difficult. Eliminate them. 

The general solutions of the problems 
were easy. The details of the problems 
were not. Easy to say "remove the 
scum." But how? Well, the thing that 
held the scum and foam together was 
the air-entraining agent. There must be 
something to dissolve it. Scores of sol- 
vents were tried. Finally one was found 
that almost "ate it up." There w-as a 
problem solved after only a month or 
so. At the same time others were being 
investigated and whipped. Finally the 
"rolling method" was e\olved. There 
was little resemblance left between the 
rolling method and the Indiana method. 

While research was proceeding on the 
"washing" type of test, the "pressure" 
method was taking shape. Boyle's law- 
gave a relation which should easily tell 
the air content of the fresh concrete if 
its change in volume under a pressure 
change was measured. Boyle's law seem- 
ed to be incorrect in this case — at least 
there seemed to be no correlation. The 
sand and gravel used in making con- 
crete is full of small pores. These pores 
are usually filled with air — air which 
has no affect on the durability, but 
which has a varying affect upon the 
indicated air content of the concrete. 
After a "porosity correction" factor was 
determined and applied, the pressure 
method became a possibility. 

(Continued on Page 30) 



a TELEPHONE engineer 

Here we see his tools — 

His head 

And his hands. 

He may have emphasized electronics or mechanics 

Or some oilier of the manv engineering specialties. 

But. more imjtortanl. 

He knows his mathematics and science. 

He has the engineer's > iewpoint and approach — 

The ahilitv to see things through. 

He's a lot of engineers rolled into one. 

OCTOBER, 1947 

He's hap]>v in his work 
And his future looks good. 
He's a telephone engineer. 







Tlu- amiiial spring picnic was lu-ld 
on May 16 at Hessel park in Cham- 
paign. Rain kept the attendance down 
to 40 members, wives and girl-friends, 
but tailed to dampen the spirits and ap- 
petites. Baseball was the main form of 
recreation. Following the game, a pic- 
nic supper was served. 

The officers elected for tiie summer 
semester were: Jack McCnnre, presi- 
dent ; Louis Cirlover, vice-president ; and 
Paul Klevatt, secretary-treasurer. Prof. 
R. W. McCloy is the faculty adviser. 

The first meeting of the summer was 
held July _' on Diamond No. 3. A base- 
hall game was the main topic and Paid 
Klevatt's team outpointeil Prof. Mc- 
Cloy "s team. Refreshments were ser\ed 
following the game and a short business 
meeting was held. The following men 
were named to the meetings committee: 
l.oLu's ("ilo\er, chairman; Ralph Fidler, 
R. S. Chubb, and Robert Kelly. 

The second meeting was held August 
6. Prof. H. S. Stillwell, head of the 
department of aeronautical engineering, 
spoke on the topic, "The Aircraft In- 
dustry." He pointed out that the air- 
craft industry reached the low point of 
employment in 1947 due to cut backs on 
government appropriations and small 
commercial requirements. Even so, there 
will be enough jobs for all who want 
them. Next year points to an increase 
in employment. He also discussed the 
new training facilities to be inaugurated 
at the U. of I. These include a super- 
sonic wind tunnel, an engines lab, a 
structures lab, and a graduate program, 
all to be in operation soon. 

The third meeting was held August 
20 on Diamond No. 3. The sole object 
was baseball. Ed Spuhler's team downed 
Paul Klevatt's team by a score of 1 1 to 
ill — the game ending in darkness. 

The last meeting of the summer was 
held Sept. 10 with movies and election 
of officers for the fall semester. At that 
time the points of the proposed Engi- 
neering Council was brought out. 


With plans under way to hold a 
membership drive right after registra- 
tion, the Mineral Industry Society will 
have their first meeting for this purpose 
during the first week of school. Al- 
though inactive during the summer, the 
society plans to start off the fall pro- 
gram at the first meeting with a dis- 
cussion of plans to send as many mem- 
bers as desire to the National Metals 


l!\hibini)n ami Congll•^^ iii C'lm.i;;ii on 
( )ctober 11 and li. 

The activities of the society will In- 
guided by the following officers who 
were elected at the last meeting of the 
spring: Leland House, president; Lynn 
Row ells, vice president; Margaret 
O'Donnell, secretary; and W. W. 
Berkey, treasurer. 


"The (iolden Ciate Bridge" wa> the 
title of the movie shown on June 19, 
at the first meeting of the summer term. 
The film portrayed some of the con- 
struction and maintenance problems of 
the bridge. 

A smoker was held at Latzer Hall 
on July 17. Prof. Babbitt gave a short 
talk and introduced the faculty. Jim 
Keith, president, then introduced our 
guest speaker, Frank M. Amsbary, who 
spoke on the advantages of belonging 
to a professional society. 

Prof. Shedd gave an explanatory lec- 
ture in connection with the film "The 
Tacoma Narrows Bridge," at a meet- 
ing in Gregory Hall on August 7. The 
movie was very spectacular and almost 
unbelievable. As Prof. Shedd comment- 
ed at the begiiming of the meeting, "I've 
seen this film over 30 times and I still 
can't believe it possible." 

On September 17, the student chap- 
ter and the central section of the 
A.S.C.E. held a joint meeting at a din- 
ner banquet in Latzer Hall. Air. Hast- 
ings, president of the parent societ\ , was 
the guest speaker. 

The officers for the summer term 
were James IVL Keith, president; James 
M. Wolfe, vice president; Barbara 
Schmidt, secretar\ ; .-uui Robeit K. 
Kronst, treasurer. 


The combined student branches of 
the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers and the Institute of Radio Engi- 
neers will open the fall activities with 
an orientation program. All sophomore, 
junior, and senior electrical engineers 
are cordially invited to attend this meet- 
ing to familiarize themselves with these 
organizations. Dr. William L. Everitt, 
head of the electrical engineering depart- 
ment, will address this meeting on the 
importance and advantages of member- 
ship in technical societies. 

Past experience has shown that elec- 
trical engineering students often have 
not become acti\e in the A.LE.E.-LR.E. 
imtil late in their junior or senior year. 

ThiN ijiirntatKin piograin will attempt 
to >tiniulare interest at an earlier time 
so that uiulerclassmen will a\ail them- 
selves of the opportunities offered b\- an 
extra-curricular engineering activity. 

Eta Kappa Nu, electrical engineering 
honorar\ fraternity, will participate in 
the program by presenting an award for 
scholastic achievement to the highest 
ranking, first-semester junior in the de- 
partment. The purpose and function of 
Eta Kappa Nu will also be explained 
to ac(iuaint students with the opportuni- 
ties of association with this group. 

During this past summer the com- 
bined A.LE.E.-LR.E. sponsored several 
events. A pre-war custom was revived 
when over two hundred students and 
faculty attended a department picnic. 
Highlighting the afternoon's activities 
was the traditional student-faculty soft- 
ball game. The winner was awarded 
the A.LE.E.-LR.E. trophy which is now 
on display in the electrical engineering 
laboratory. The awarding of this trophy 
will be an annual event at the depart- 
ment picnic each spring. 

Another open program sponsored by 
the A.LE.E.-LR.E. was the "Previews 
of Progress" demonstration given by 
(jeneral Motors corporation in the 
(jregory hall theater on July 24. Over 
four hundred students, faculty, and 
guests attended the show which demon- 
strated examples of current scientific re- 

Programs planned for the fall semes- 
ter include speakers from technical or- 
ganizations such as the General Electric 
company. Bell Telephone company, and 
others. In addition A.LE.E.-LR.E. 
members will travel to Chicago early 
in November to attend the A.I.E.E. and 
electronics conferences. Several social ac- 
ti\ities have also been proposed for the 
semester but are not yet scheduled. 


Since the summer enrollment did not 
warrant an\ meetings, the student 
brancii of the American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers remained inactive. 
The final meeting last spring was the 
annual picnic held on May 10 at the 
County Fair grounds. At this meeting 
the officers elected for the 1947-48 
school year were Donald Hornbeck, 
president; John R. Mitchell, vice presi- 
dent; Dale Glass, secretary; and Edwin 
F. Dyer, treasurer. 

During registration a membership 
drive will be conducted among the stu- 
( Continued on Page 39) 



2. The tower was timber-cribbed and floated, to wed 
up New York Harbor and the Hudson River, across 
New York State by canal. A tug took over the tow- 
ing job through Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, 
riding out a storm en route. Then the tower was 
loaded on a barge to complete its journey via tiie 
Illinois, Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. This win- 
ter at Sugar Creek, the cat cracker of which this 
tower is part goes on stream, joining similar units 
already operating at other Standard refineries. It 
has a charging capacity of 25,000 barrels a day! 

3. Like our Burton Stills in 1913 and continuous 
units of 1932, catalytic crackers are milestones in 
petroleum progress. Today at Standard, the indus- 
try's ablest engineers and research men are develop- 
ing new . . . and better processes and products. Men 
of the same type are coming from leading colleges of 
science and engineering to start work at Standard. 
Here they find unexcelled technical facilities for re- 
search and design. If you want a career with splen- 
did opportunities to advance and make real contri- 
butions, you should get to know Standard better. 

Standard Oil Company 




OCTOBER, 1947 


Olii^U^JUuMiJCf, . . . 


L'p three flifihts of stairs in Talbot 
laborat<)r>-, the name Worley can be 
ff)unci on the door of room 32 la. Inside 
sits quiet, sandy-haired Will j. Worley. 
an instructor of T.A..M. 1, 2, 3, and 
bi. He seems to be right at home with 
a testing lab down the hall, a slide rule 
in his hand, and the sound of machines 
at work. 

.\Ir. WorU'\ is a native of Illinois, 
being born in (jibson City, August 2, 
1919. After spending eight year? in a 
country school and one year at Drum- 
mer Township High School in Gibson 
City, he came to Champaign. Finishing 
higii school here, he enrolled in the L ni- 
versity in mechanical engineering and 
graduated in 1943. He received his 
M.S. in Theoretical and Applied Me- 
chanics in 1945. At the present he is 
working for his doctor's degree in engi- 
neering while teaching. 

Outsitle of his regular work, he is 
interested in radio circuits and also in 
the application of electrical and elec- 
tronic equipment to industrial control. 
He devotes the rest of his spare time to 
hunting and a stamp collection. 

-Mr. Worley is now helping with tests 
of plastics and plastic laminated mate- 
rial. He has spent the last two years on 
steel, making tests of static tension, high 
velocity impact, impact tension, etc. The 
purpose of these tests is to determine the 
effects of temperature, rate of straining, 
strain aging, stress concentration, and 
state of stress in producing brittle frac- 
ture of steel. 

His most recent development in the 
field of testing devices is an adoption of 
the Baldwin Southwark portable strain 
indicator to dynamic tests. Mr. Worley 
explains, "This adaptation was devel- 
oped to obtain an easily available com- 
mercial unit for repeated dynamic strain 


hif 'iithn Shurllt'tf 

measurements. The procedme involves 
the use of a standard Baldwin South- 
wark portable strain indicator and a 
cathode-ray oscilloscope. The oscillo- 
scope is \ised in the circuit as a null 
bnl.mce indicating device." 

Mr. Worley is a member of I'i Tau 
Sigma, Sigma Xi, Pi Mu Epsilon, the 
American Society of Mechanical I'ngi- 
neers, the American Society for Testing 
Materials, the Society for Experimental 
Stress Analysis, and the American So- 
ciety for Engineering Education. 

When asked for some comment on 
his teaching, he replied, "I alwa\s rec- 
ommend to my students that they read 
an article called 'The Unwritten Laws 
of Engineering' by W. J. King. Every 
prospective engineer will get something 
out of it." He also stated that his favor- 
ite subject from the standpoint of teach- 
ing is T.A.AL 2. 

Well liked by his students and fellow 
engineers, Mr. Worley is making some 
leally fine contributions to the field of 

(Graduated from New Canton High 
School, Mrs. Welch spent most of her 
married life in Rockport near New 
Canton. After the death of her hus- 
band, she attended the Illinois Business 
College at Springfield and worked a 
little in Springfield after graduating. 

Coming to Champaign-L'rbana in De- 
cember, 1940, Mrs. Welch worked in 
Dr. Bailar's office until August, 1943, 
on the records of freshmen chemistry 
stiulents. She then began her present po- 
sition as senior record clerk for the 
College of Engineering. Although an 
occasional engineer uses "damn" or 
"hell," they impress her as being well- 
mannered and knowing what they want 
out of school. 

Mrs. Welch h;is played quite a bit 
of bridge, but for relaxation she enjoys 
reading most of all, with gardening 
running a close second. But we are sure 
if you ever go into 300 Engineering 
hall, you will agree that Mrs. Welch's 
graciousness shows an intense interest in 
people too. 


"When the other boys wanted to be 
firemen. I wanted to be an engineer . . . 
always did," quietly stated Wilbur Tug- 
gle. As a junior in civil engineering, 
Wilbur is rapidly approaching his boy- 
hood goal. 

He came to the University of Illinois 
because he belie\es that it is one of the 
finest engineering schools in the countr\ 
and because it is far enough awa\' and 
still close enough to his home town, 

After graduating from Wendell Phil- 
lips High School in February of 1941. 
Wilbur worked for a year to finance 
his education. However, Uncle Sam had 
other ideas for him, and after complet- 
ing his freshman year, he left for serv- 
ice. The next thirty-one months found 
Wilbur in the Pacific Transportation 
Corps, stationed in New Guinea, the 
Philippines, and Japan. After his re- 
( Continued on Page 32) 


There is probably not a single stu- 
dent in the College of Engineering who 
has not looked many times across the 
desk in 300 Engineering hall at Mrs. 
Welch's smiling face. And across this 
desk she is asked any conceivable ques- 
tion on engineering. 

While waiting just a few minutes to 
see her, we heard a student ask whether 
he had enough hours to register with 
sophomores or juniors; another needed 
her help in making out his study list 
for the following term; yes, even a tele- 
phone caller wanted to know if he was 
still on probation. Only part of the in- 
quiries, however, need the use of her 
complete files on each student's scholas- 
tic record. 


Ultrasensitive RCA Telccision camera tube cuts itudio light requirements 90% 

Television finds drama in tite daric 

— witit new RCA studio camera 

Now television becomes even more 
exciting as lights are dimmed, and 
the camera reaches deep inside stu- 
dio shadows to capture action as dra- 
matic as any on stage or screen . . . 

A new studio television camera — 
de\eloped bv RCA scientists and en- 
gineers—needs only 1 10th the usual 
amount of light. 

The super-scnsiti\ e eve of the new 
camera is an improved Image Orthi- 
con Tube ... of the type once used 
only outdoors. With it, studio broad- 
casts are sharper, clearer — and since 

so little illumination is needed, heat 
in the studio is sharply reduced. No 
more blazing lights! 

Such improvements come regu- 
larly from research at RCA Labora- 
tories, and apply to all branches of 
radio, television, electronics, and re- 
cording. These improvements are 
part of any product bearing the name 
RCA or RCA \'ictor. 

\\lien in Radio City, .\>w York, be sure to see the 
radio and electronic wonders at RC.\ Exhibition 
Hall, id West 49th St. Free admission. Radio 
t'oriwnition of America, RCA Buildiiig, Radio 
( it;. \cw York 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\'ictor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to yain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Advanceil development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile cumniunicatioiis 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudsi>eakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

M'rite today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camdcit, \cu: Icrseij. 
Also many opportunities loi Meihanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Fhysie.'sts. 


! OCTOBER, 1947 



Ass't Editor 

Ass't Editor 



Do yoii rcmeiiiber how many laborious 
hours you haw spent from time to time try- 
ing to decide on what kind of a job you 
want? The process started 'way back when 
you were in knee pants and insisted that the 
life of the corner poh'cenian directing traffic 
was the one for >ou. Since then it probabh 
has run through quite a gammut of jobs until, 
as you grew older, \our taste in type of work 
finally settled into a more practical field. 

Of coLuse, some people never reach a final 
decision, and others do not decide definitely 
until after they graduate and start hunting for 
jobs, but in any event most people have at 
least a general idea as to the type of work 
they want. Having made this momentous de- 
cision the average person then sits back with 
a self-administered pat on the back and be- 
gins to prepare himself for the job by going 
to school. Since the item of deciding on the 
appropriate technical preparation has already 
been considered in planning the \arious cur- 
ricula, the average student is fortunateh 
spared the necessity of deciding what technical 
courses his education should include. Instead, 
most people promptly pitch into four years of 
hard work and equally promptly become lost 
in a maze of details relating to their particu- 
lar line of study. An occasional few may even 
be far-sighted enough to realize the value of 
the experience to be gained from participation 
in e.xtra-curricular activities. 

In any event it is indeed rare that a stu- 
dent will have even considered — let alone 
reached a decision — on the third great prob- 
lem which visually rears its surprising head 
about the last half of the senior year; i. e., 
"Whom shall I go to work for when I\e 
finished school ? " 

Whether the student decides that he wants 
to work for himself or someone else is, in 

itself, unimportant. What is important is that 
the student should not leave this problem for 
a last-minute decision based solely on the con- 
sideration of remuneration. The answer to the 
question is, of course, up to each individual, 
but happiness and satisfactory performance in 
one's job is not achieved unless all the factors 
affecting the choice are considered. 

To try to cover all the phases of future 
job prospects and point out all of the criteria 
used in making a sensible selection of em- 
ployer is a pretty tough order, but the Tci h- 
noi/idph is going to attempt to tackle part 
of it. Since the larger, nation-wide companies 
are not onh well known to most students, 
but also well publicized in our pages, it is 
going to be our additional aim in this year's 
issues to publicize a hitherto little-used and 
less well-known field of employers — the local 
manufacturers located throughout the State 
of Illinois. 

It is true that many men eventualh work 
into these smaller industries, but as yet, very 
little has been done to establish contact be- 
tween them and the graduating engineer. It 
is felt that the student, in considering all the 
possibilities in selecting a suitable employer, 
is overlooking a fairly large, potential field 
just through lack of knowledge and publicit\. 
To accomplish this purpose, the Teiknogra/'li 
is planning a series of articles about several 
representative industries designed to acquaint 
the student with the type of work found in 
smaller organizations. 

It is sincerely hoped that this series will 
not only open up a new field to you, but will 
also help to overcome mental inertia so that 
vou will begin to consider this svibject with 
more than just a passing thought and will 
be able to walk into an interview with other 
questions on your tongue than "How much 
will \ou pay me?" 



Du Poiit Digest 

Items of Interest to Students of Science and Engineering 

Fundamental Engineering Studies 

B. S. Chei 

IN A company like Du Pont 
the diversity of chemical 
operations is great and the 
investment in equipment is 
high. In addition to the en- 
gineering work done in the 
ten industrial departments, 
the responsibility for design 
and construction of manu- 
facturing plants is under- 
taken by the central engi- 
neering department, which 
also maintains an engineer- 
ing research laboratory. 
This laboratory is staffed 
by chemical, metallurgical 
and mechanical engineers, 
and physicists, whose func- 
tion is to carry on funda- 
mental and pioneering-ap- 
plied research to develop 
new methods of processing 
and equipment designs; im- 
prove equipment, materials 
of construction, and method.s of meas- 
urement and control; and establish fun- 
damental relationships in unit opera- 
tions and unit processes. 

For example, a broad project was 
undertaken to study the fundamentals 
of rotary drying. A principal objective 
of the study was to learn the effect of 
the operating variables on the volu- 
metric heat transfer coefficient. Of the 
numerous variables that affect the dry- 
ing rate of such a dryer, the more im- 
portant ones studied were: (1) feed rate, 
(2) dryer rotation rate, (3) air rate, (4) air 
temperature, (5) number of flights, (6) 
direction of airflow, and (,7) dryer slope. 

Studies on a Laboratory Scale 

Fundamental studies of heat transfer 
and mass transfer were made in a lab- 
oratory scale rotary dryer, 1 ft. in di- 
ameter by 6 ft. long. To determine the 
true heat transfer coefficient, special 
methods were devised to measure the 
material temperature along the length 
of the dryer and to measure continu- 
ou.sly the temperature of the rotating 
shell. These determinations permitted 
an analysis of all the heat transfer ef- 
fects in the dryer; namely, from air to 
solid, from shell to solid, and from air 
to shell. 

From a knowledge of the material 

product development in on experi 
B. S. Chemical Engineering, Georgii 
nical Engineering, Penn State '40. 

temperature along the dryer, it was 
possible to calculate the air tempera- 
ture at each point in the dryer and 
thereby to determine point values of 
the heat transfer coefficient. This pro- 
cedure permits the calculation of a more 
accurate average temperature differ- 
ence, which gives more accurate heat 
transfer coefficients than can be ob- 
tained from terminal conditions only. 

During the course of the study, every 
opportunity was taken to obtain heat 
transfer data on large-scale plant dryers 
in order to establish scale-up factors. 
This procedure permitted the correla- 
tion of heat transfer coefficients from a 
1 ft. diameter dryer with those of full 
plant size. 

Paralleling the work on the funda- 
mentals of rotary drying operation, 
problems involved in product and proc- 
ess development received continuous 
attention. These usually require an in- 
vestigation of the important auxiliary 
problemsof: (1) materialhandlingtoand 
from the dryer, (2) removal of dust from 
the air, (3) sealing the space between 
the rotating shell and stationary breech- 
ing, and (4) corrosion of the dryer shell. 

How the Results are Applied 

The findings of the effect of holdup on 
dryer capacity were applied to an 8 ft. 
standard rotary dryer producing 300 


Inspecting the interior of experi- 
mental spray dryer after a run. 


rotary dryer. H. J. 

W. R. Marshall, Jr., Ph.D. Chem- 


•41; F. A. Gluckert, 

ical Engineering, Wisconsin Ml; 
R. L. Pigford, Ph.D. Chemical 
Engineering, Illinois *41. 

Ib.'hr. of granulated material. The in- 
formation obtained on this factor alone 
permitted an increase in capacity of 75 to 
100 "^ ; . This meant an increase of over a 
million pounds annually. Further, one 
dryer could now handle the load of two, 
releasing second dryer for other work. 
The information developed in such 
fundamental studies permits more ac- 
curate design of equipment for future 
operations resulting in lower cost of 
manufacture and lower investment. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 


All new employees receive on-the-job 
training. Men who .Tre engaged in re- 
search, development or engineering 
have the opportunity to add continu- 
ally to their knowledge and experience 
in specific fields. This practical train- 
ing is supplemented at many Du Pont 
plants and laboratories by training 
courses and lectures. Write for booklet, 
"The Du Pont Company and the Col- 
lege Graduate," 2.')21 Nemours Build- 
ing, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 

More facts about Du Pont— l\sim to "Cavalcade of America," Motidays, 8 P.M. EST, on NBC 

OCTOBER, 1947 


LOOK ... 

(Coiuiiuicii trom Page 1) 
job ill till" locality where his services are 

Of course, the question of remuner- 
ation is an important one at all times. 
It would be advisable for the student to 
consider this in its broadest aspect. 

In its truest sense, remuneration 
means more than just a pay check. With 
our present advances in group insurance 
and health benefits it would be well to 
have an understanding of these matters. 
Many companies, through the group in- 
surance policy, provide health, accident, 
and life insurance. This should certainly 
be of interest to any prospective em- 

Do you, the employe, e.vpect to have 
a vacation with pay? If .so, it would be 
a good idea to inquire as to the coni- 
pan\ s policy regarding vacations and 
also overtime work. These arc both 
important questions and the student 
would do well to get a clear cut answer 
to both of them. 

Whenever it becomes necessary to 
work closeh' with other persons, the 
problem of personnel relations is sure 
to crop up. W^hat, if any, social obliga- 
tions will fall to the new employe? If 
there are an\ , will the\ be an added 
financial burden upon that person's in- 
dividual income or will the company 

provide an expense account? To what 
extent will the work itself require con- 
tact with different people and different 
situations? These questions should all 
be answered to the satisfaction of the 
individual seeking emploNinent. Some 
people enjoy traveling anil entertaining, 
others do not. Some people are good 
salesmen, and again, others are not. 
Therefore, failure to get these answers 
at the interview may lead to an unpleas- 
.int or difficult situation after employ- 

It is not the purpose of this article 
to attempt to discuss the pros and cons 
of labor unions. However, since almost 
everybody has his own opinions on this 
matter, it would be a very wise thing 
to become acquainted with the vmion 
and labor policy of the company. 

Every compan\', with a few excep- 
tions, has a very definite policy regard- 
ing advancements of position and in- 
creases of salary. A knowledge of these 
facts should be a good indicator to the 
prospective employe of what his future 
should hold. Not that he can necessarily 
better himself otherwise, but when a 
definite plan of advancement is follow- 
ed, it affords a partial basis for planning 
his life. 

Lasth', and most important, is the 
type of work that will be required of 
the employe. Some persons want to do 

design work, others production manage- 
ment, and still others desire outside con- 
tact work such as selling or mainten- 
ance. For the neophyte engineer the 
opportunities are somewhat limited in 
so far as original design work is con- 
cerned. The great majority of work is 
merely the re-design of proven items or 
the making of detailed drawings that 
the older engineers have already sketch- 
ed ovit. This system of apprenticeship 
is an old and well established custom; 
and there are few men who can circum- 
vent it. 

In the field of production manage- 
ment there is also an apprentice period 
in which the engineer works in the 
plant. Usually this process takes several 
years and carries to all parts, depart- 
ments, and phases of the work of the 

Selling and maintenance require train- 
ing which is provided by the company. 
Sometimes this requires six to twelve 
months after which the employe is as- 
signed to a territory of his own or one 
with another more experienced man. 

Unfortunately, too few persons are 
able to decide beforehand, exactly what 
kind of work they desire. 

Due to their financial resources, the 
large, well established companies, and 
the governmental agencies, have, up to 
( Continued on Page 24 

Jay it oil tint (m 



SINCf 1880 

VjcpJilli odmoAp unm. 
HIGGinS L\h CUJM. aUi^gS 

Fresh Flowers 

with Personal Attention 

in our shop . . . Every order, large or 
small, receives extra care in handling 
. . . For Quality, Freshness, Packaging, 
and Prompt Delivery. 

Flowers by Wire 








Plasties where plasties belong 

for resistance to moistttre and trear 


— , -^ STRENGTH 


STA8U 0«R ' 



Synthane where Synthane belongs 

It's Synthane — this outboard motor pivot bearing ... re- 
quires no lubrication . . . resists both salt and fresh water, 
wears long and well. It's a good example of the use of plastics 
where plastics belong and Synthane where Synthane belongs. 

Synthane (our tvpe of plastics) is also light, dense, strong, 
easily and quickly machined, an excellent insulator, a ma- 
terial for fighting corrosion. 

These and many other properties — combined — make Syn- 
thane adaptable to countless applications. Synthane Corpora- 
tion (Key Address) Oaks, Pennsyhania. 

«4Hy MORI PRl)«RTiTS-C0«81«E^ 



OCTOBER, 1947 


Nine-cent miracle 

You ARE looking at a 9-cent piece 
of the hardest metal made by man. 

It is Carboloy Cemented Carbide. 

And this particular piece . . . one of 
a large number of standard blanks 
which sell for less than $1.00 . . . when 
used as the cutting edge of a metal- 
working tool, performs miracles in 
helping to speed up production, 
increase quality and cut costs of 
machined parts. 

Carboloy costs steadily down 
While this is only one of hundreds of 
Carboloy forms that range in use from 
tools and dies to masonry drills and 
wear-resistant parts, it dramatizes the 
long downivard trend in the price of 
this miraculous metal. 

For today, its low cost and remark- 
able hardness are taking Carboloy into 
many broad new fields. Housewives, 
hobbyists, home-owners and craftsmen 
are all experiencing the qualities of 
Carboloy at low cost. 

That's great news for industrialists, 

It means that all the extra benefits 
of Carboloy tools, dies and wear-resist- 
ant parts can be had at costs compar- 
able to ordinary materials. And, consid- 
ered by authorities to be "one of the 
ten most significant industrial develop- 
ments of the past decade," Carboloy is 
rapidly becoming the standard where- 
ever a versatile, hard metal is required. 

An odd$-on chance 
The odds are 10 to 1 that Carboloy — 
the amazing metal of many uses — can 
be put to work by our engineers to 
give your products higher quality at 
lower cost. Why not call us in for 

FREE SOUND MOVIE, "Everyday Mir- 
acles," available for business dubs, 
industrial groups, technical societies 
and vocational schools. Write to 
reserve your date for this dramatic 
2'i-minute, 16 mm. Iilm. 

Carboloy Company, Inc., Detroit 32, Mich. 





LOOK . . . 

(Continued from Page- 22) 
the picsent time, been the only ruipli]\- 
cr^ who have provided personal inter- 
viewing service for the students. 

It is true that these large orgaru'za- 
tions have heavy requirements and that 
they go to a great expense and trouhh- 
to get high caliber personnel, hut the\ 
ilo not eniploN' a majorit)' of engineers 
when one bases the figures upon the to- 
tal numbers of employes of all grades, 
skills, and classes. 

For the most part, the smaller busi- 
ness organizations do not have an\ di- 
rect contact with the students. The col- 
lege office receives many letters of job 
requirements from the smaller organ- 
izations but the written word can hard- 
ly supplant an oral interview. 

There are a great many men who 
would be able to find the type of work 
they desire with smaller companies were 
they given the opportunity to find out 
more about them. 

Personal Interviews Encouraged 

It is for this reason, and in the inter- 
ests of the students of the College of 
Engineering, that the 'J'i( hrioyr/iph is 
this year conducting a campaign among 
the small industrial organizations of the 
state to interest them in the opportuni- 
ties that would accrue to them, as well 
as to the students, if they would pro- 
vide personal interview service in tin- 
same manner that the large organiza- 
tions do. 

The smaller businesses have organ- 
ized themselves along the lines of their 
particular interests, so that if the\- were 
to provide interviewers, they woidd rep- 
resent particular types of work. This 
would be a great aid to the student who 
is looking for the right job. 

Along with publishing the latest tech- 
nical developments from the large and 
well-publicized companies, the Tcditio- 
yrap\\ is going to run a series of articles 
about the smaller, less well-known in- 
dustries ; so that the students may know 
something of the kinds of engineers they 
employ and the kind of work required 
for the job. 

At the present time, the engineering 
schools of the United States and Can- 
ada are heavily overcrowded. Naturally 
this tremendous influx of men and 
women into the various fields of engi- 
neering is going to affect the employ- 
ment situation. 

The American Society for Engineer- 
ing Education, has seen fit to make a 
survey of the supply and demand situa- 
tion in the near future. 

With the assistance of Mr. H. H. 
Jordan, associate dean of the College of 
Engineering, the following material 
from the "Interim Report by the Man- 
power Committee of the A.S.E.E." was 
(Coiitin\ied on Page 26) 



^^ '^fl' <' 

«eat Processes 

When you need heat for drying, for metal-melting, 
for process steam, for any of the production-line 
heating requirements you need GAS and modern 
Gas Equipment. 

And for proof of the many successful applications 
of the productive flames of GAS in modern in- 
dustrial practice you need only look at the experi- 
ence records of A. C. Gilbert Company, famed 
producer of miniature trains, scientific toys, motor- 
driven appliances. 

In its modern New Haven, Connecticut, plant 
the company's production engineers have applied 
GAS to heating processes such as: 

• Pre-melting furnaces for metal used in 


• Mohen-metal reservoirs of die-casting machines 

• Remelt furnaces for reclaiming scrap metal 

• Salt bath for gear hardening 

• Boilers supplying steam for bakelite 


• Continuous cycle and convection drying and 

enameling ovens 

Some popular items in the list of A. C. Gilbert Company products 

These varied examples demonstrate the applica- 
bility of GAS to the widest range of production-line 
processes. The growing use of GAS in modern pro- 
ductioneering is a constant challenge to engineers 
and manufacturers of heat treating equipment. 


NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 

Gas-fired traveling conveyor oven where 
Erector set parts ore coated and dried 

OCTOBER, 1947 


LOOK . . . 

(Coiitinufil from Page 24) 

made availabk-. Tht- siinTV was mailc 
aiul the material was acciimulateil 
through the cooperation of the various 
colleges of engineering, the U. S. Office 
of Kducation, and various cooperating 

The breakdown into six major groups 
was made on a basis of the comparison 
of present supply and demand and an 
educated guess as to when the suppK 
woidd catch up with the demand. 

.lironattticnl Engineering: This is a 
relatively small group which is now 
overproducing at the rate of 400 gradu- 
ates per year. 

Chemical Enyineciing: In this field 
there is a very heavy demand. In pros- 
pect, there will be no suipiiis ot man- 
power until about 1950. 

Civil Engineering: At the present 
there is a very slight oxerproduction in 
this field but not of serious si/e. The 
demand should remain steady until 
about 1950 when there will be a sur- 

Electrical Engineering: The supph' 
should catch up with the demand in 
about 1949. After that, there will be 
heavy overproduction and surplus. 

Mechanical Engineering: At present 

this is the largest group of students but 
also the group with the largest demand. 
\\\ 19SII tlieie siiould be some surplus. 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer- 
ing: This is alwa\s a relatively small 
group and never seems to show an\' o\ er- 

The Time Is Now 

At the present time, it seems as 
though every school of engineering in 
the country has started out upon an ex- 
pansion program, but there will be a 
graiiual decline in the number of engi- 
neering students, the same as in other 
fields in a few years. 

Xow, let us assume that we ha\e ac- 
complisheil our objecti\e and that the 
interviewers have arrived from both the 
large and small organizations. Our stu- 
dent must now make his choice of jobs. 

It is not W'ise to try to speak to too 
man\ interviewers because this will only 
lead to great mental confusion. Rather, 
having decided upon the kind of work 
desired, arrange to be interviewed by 
men from both the large and small busi- 
nesses, that can offer the desired work. 

Remember, do not waste the inter- 
\iewer's time. Have all pertinent ques- 
tions in mind beforehand. If necessary, 

write them down, and ask them cleail\ 
and concisely. When you are asked ques- 
tions by the interviewer, try to answer 
them in the same manner. 

Having once made up \cjur mind, 
stick to it and go through with \our 
agreed program. Nothing looks worse 
than a man who cannot make up his 

So, if \ou look before you leap, the 
chances are that you will wind up with 
the job you wanted and pl.inned (in 


(Continued tiuni Page 1.3) 

the quality control system o\er the 
100% inspection method is not only to 
speed up production, in itself a great 
improvement, but also by maintaining 
continuous control right at the opera- 
tion to increase the number of pieces 
falling on or near the specified dimen- 
sion. Although most manufacturers will 
tend to hesitate about adopting the qual- 
it\' control methods simply because of 
the difficulty in making the transition 
from one system to another, the superi- 
ority of the quality control system will 
more than economically justify the cost 
and problems of transition. 




Coal, gas, and oil (firod singly or in romhinatinn) 
are regular items on today's menu for B&\\ boilers. 
Occasional entrees include: grain hulls, wood chips, 
asphalt, sewage sludge, by-products of paper mills, 
steel plants and sugar mills... just about anything 
that burns. So Bc^W builds boilers and combustion 
equipment that burn what's available today . . . 
likely to be available tomorrow ... at top efTiciency. 
Helping power plants to get the most from avail- 

able fuels is only one of the things long years have 
taught B&W to do well. Industry oilers examples 
of many others — proof of the imaginative engineer- 
ing at B&W. 

Through this policy of continuous development 
and research, B&^\ offers excellent career oppor- 
tunities to lechnical graduates .. .in diversified fields 
of manufacturing, engineering, sales and research. 





SVa" X 23A" X lYt,"; Weight iVi oz. 

Lindemann Electrometer 

This instrument was originally designed for use in 
connection with photo-electric measurements of light in 
astronomical work. It is now used extensively for the 
determination of radioactive emission. Compact and 
stable, it has high sensitivity, stable zero, and does not 
require levelling. The capacitance of the instrument is less 
than 2 cm. For general use, the instrument is placed upon 
a microscope stand and the upper end of the needle ob- 
served, illumination being obtained in the usual way 
through a window in the electrometer case. 

Write for descriptive literature 


Pioneer Manufacturers of Precision Instruments 
3756 Grand Central Terminal, New York 17 

Galvanometers, Ga 


At Okonite regular d.c. tests pick out imperfections in 
insulated wires and cables not detected by conventional 
methods. These d.c. tests, at 4 times the a.c. values, are in 
addition to the routine high voltage tests. 

"Something extra" is typical of Okonite production tech- 
niques and research procedures. That something extra, multi- 
plied many times spells leadership . . . reflects Okonite's 
engineering background as pioneers in electrical wires and 
cables. The Okonite Company, Passaic, New Jersey. 

pH Meters and Red 
Goi Testers, Surf 

Instruments f< 



Electrical ar 
Industry and Medii 


insulated wires and cables 


All Engineering Supplies . . . 


No more fruitless hunts for hard to find items. 
We have supplies for every engineering need. 
Just come to the UNIVERSITY BOOK STORE, ask 
for vy^hatever you need, and walk out, five min- 
utes later, completely satisfied. We will be glad 
to help you. 



OCTOBER, 1947 


PROBLEM — You are designing a circular saw. The blade must 
have horizontal, vertical, and angular adjustments. Your prob- 
lem is to work out a drive for the blade that permits this three- 
way adjustment. How would you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER — Use an S.S.White flexible shaft 
to bring power from the counter-shaft or motor to the blade. 
There is no simpler me- 
chanical means than a 
flexible shaft for driving 
parts which must be ad- 
justable. And simplicity in 
design means economy in 

This is just one of hundreds 
of remote control and 
power drive problems to 
which S. S. White flexible 
shafts provide a simple 
answer. That's why every 
engineer should be famil- 
iar with the range and 
scope of these tireless 
"Metal Muscles" for me- 
chanical bodies. 


( C()MtiiuR-(i from Page 1 1 ) 

pciatuic range, lepidolite hail greater 
emissivit\ than stainless steel while uve- 
rite showed least einisslvit>'. In the vis- 
ible range (800 -1100°) uverite, which 
is closer to a true black body than an\ 
of the ceramic materials, showed less 
than \^)'/f of the einissivitv of stainless 

In the group consisting of lepidolite, 
oli\ine, quartz, and kyamite, their high 
relative emissi\ it\' indicated that they 
were desirable for coating metals for 
protection only. They were excellent 
where uninterrupted heat flow was de- 
sired. In the group showing lowest 
curves of emissivity, uverite, manganese 
oxide, and zirconium oxide indicated 
that such coatings would retain heat and 
cut off radiation. 







•■ ; 



"^^^^^=^^iJc^^;^;zr:^ ;'; 


^~"~~~~- ■?. 



In analyzing coat thickness, graphs 
clearly demonstrated that first elements 
of coating produce rapid decrease in ra- 
diation, but the curve of coat thickness 
\ersus radiation quickly levels off. The 
sharp bend in the curve was in the re- 
gion of 5 mils 

Any small amount of zirconium oxide 
added to the ceramic mixture decreased 
radiation by 11%, whereas a chromic 
oxide film enhanced emission of radia- 
tion by 29% (from 43 to 72%). 

urteiy of 
Mil. Co. 
Port Austin, Michigan 


It gives essential facts and engineering data 
about flexible shafts and their application. 
Write for your free copy. 

• 7fod«marlt Deg. U.S. Pal. Off. odd IhtwUrt. 



THI S.V WHITE DENTAl MFG. CO. »*W«^«^i^ ■ ■m»i^«» DIVISION 
.DlfT. C, 10 tAST 40lh ST.. NiW TOIK l«. N. T.^ 

^«« «^ /ImmieoA A AAA lnduAMat $ttte/tjin^4€>t 

■ f 





Bonding glasses were important fac- 
tors in suppressing heat energy. Just 5% 
of vanadium oxide {J'..0-), when sub- 
stituted for XiO. decreases emissivit) 


by 32%. The propert) of coatings which seals in heat, shius 
metal corrosion, and doubles useful operating life of metal 
parts is that of inhibiting fatigue cracks and offering protec- 
tion against decarborization. Dr. Bennett said that a certain 
amount of metal oxide is necessary to promote a good coat- 
ing bond, but that must be noted so that further oxide the 
time at which coating was applied formation is prevented. 

Knowledge from the tests was quickly put into practice. 
During the fighting in the Pacific, our pilots reported that 
Jap suicide pilots could spot our night flying squadrons by 
the reddish glow from overheated exhaust pipes and collector 
rings and would simply aim their planes at the glow. A 
black paint which cut off all \isible rays regardless of the 
temperature and which would not crack was quickly de\el- 
oped before V-J day. Paint was sprayed on the plane be- 
fore takeoff time and was dried by engine heat. 

Since engines, particularh jet engines, operate effici- 
ently at higher temperatures, use of ceramic coatings is now 
known to be indispensable to our faster-than-sound, jet- 
propelled planes which will operate at temperatures greater 
than 2000" F. Techniques learned in the laboratory will be 
applied to commercial and military uses, since high speed 
planes and rockets will de\elop temperatures approaching 
the melting point of steel. 

The research program included these luiixersities and 
colleges: Rutgers, Armour, Penn State, Alfred university 
(X.Y. ), and Battelle State college. 

During the joint Army-Xavy sxinposium held last Feb- 
ruary in Washington to the future of heat resistant 
ceramics for the armed forces, it was decided that ceramic 
research should be speeded in \iew of the rapid development 
of jet propulsion. 

Ira© MDILtS for Every Job 

• Spirol End Milli 

• Two lipped Spiral 
End Mills - 
Smoll Helix Angle 

• Two Lipped Spiral 
End Mills 

• long Spiral End Mills 

• Long Two Lipped 
Spiral End Mills 

"CROM THE extensive Brown & Sharpe line select the 
end mill that meets your particular needs — a fast, 
free cutting end mill that will give you maximum 
production. There's a style and size for every job. 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., Providence 1, R, 1. 


Welcome Back . . . 

Whether you rested or worked this last summer, 
another semester is starting and you NEED more 
books and supplies. Why not get them the easy 
way, at the bookstore CLOSEST to engineering 
campus where you can BE SURE of finding what 
you need. 


The Booksfore C/osesf to Engineering Campus 

OCTOBER, 1947 



wiih. ALrasives 




andling tho high temperatures used 
by modern industry is a tough job 
— it requires materials with rugged 
physical and thermal properties. 
Norton has such materials in Alundum 
ond Crystolon abrasives. Their creation 
in electric furnaces at temperatures of 
3700° and 4000° Fahrenheit gives then 
valuable refractory properties as well 
as abrasive qualities. And supplement- 
ing these two materials there are several 
Norton electric furnace products which 
are produced especially for their unique 
refractory properties. 

These various refractory materials are 
put to effective use in Norton cements, 
tubes, bricks, plates, tiles and other 
shapes for 




There's also a line of Alundum refrac- 
tory laboratory ware such as crucibles, 
cones, dishes, discs, thimbles and com- 
bustion boats for ignition, Incineration 
and filtration. 




(Continued trorii Page 14) 
'I'he pressure change to vise was ini- 
piirtant. Pressures from 0.5 p.s.i.g. to 
tiiirty tried. With the low pressures un- 
desirable "hydration" effects w^xc no- 
ticed — the chemical action between the 
cement and water cau.sed minute unpre- 
dictable changes in volume, serious 
enough to disturb the extremely precise 
readings needed. This hydration effect 
became less noticeable as the pressure 
used was increased and volume changes 
became greater. The porosity correction 
remained constant over the whole range 
and did not influence the choice of pres- 
sure. As the pressure used increased, 
more work was involved (a hand air 
pump is used ) . To decrease distortion 
of the equipment itself meant thicker, 
heavier, and more expensive parts. A 
moderate pressure change was indicated 
and used. 

The two pieces of equipment — rolling 
and pressure — were ready to be cali- 
brated. Most data on air-entrained con- 
crete, so far, had been obtained with 
the gravimetric method. Several states 
were using the Indiana method. Carl 
Menzel had developed a stirring meth- 
od — a cross between the rolling and In- 
diana methods. He had also devised a 
"modified rolling method" — same the- 
ory as the rolling method but with 
slightly different equipment and tech- 
nique. A testing schedule was drafted. 
All of the methods were to be tested 
simultaneously on identical samples. Six 
times a day, five or six separate tests 
were performed. Those people using the 
Indiana method could adjust their data 
to compare with any of the others. All 
of the methods could be correlated with 
the gravimetric method. 

Is It Practical? 

These tests went on for weeks. We 
reached the point where we could look 
at the concrete as it came from the 
mixer, smell it, and guess its air content 
closely. The tests still went on. Finally 
everyone was satisfied. Both the pres- 
sure method and the rolling method 
gave results, and the results correlated 
much more closely than we had dared 

Still, all of this work had been done 
in the laboratory. These tests were sup- 
posed to be practical field tests. They 
had to be tried under the same condi- 
tions in which they would be used. 

The pressure method and the modi- 
fied rolling method were apparently the 
two best qualified for field use. In the 
laboratory they would give results check- 
ing each other within a few hundredths 
of a per cent. For various reasons, the 
other methods were out of the running. 

We visited one road-paving job after 
another. Every part of the equipment 
was checked and checked again to make 
(Continued on Page 32) 





When you admire a beauty ... or visit a farm . . . 

ride on a ferry or order some coke . . . 

fu t-K' 

swallow an aspirin .... or turn on the light . . . 

the cliauces ore, you ore coming in contact 
with Koppers engineering or chemical skills. 

1. Koppers chemicals for use in cosmetics. 2. Farm structures 
made of lumber pressure-treated by Koppers for long life. 3. Koppers 
American Hammered Piston Rings for marine engines. 4. Coke from 
Koppers-built ovens. 5. Koppers chemicals for use in medicines. 
6. Koppers Fast's self-aligning couplings, widely used in power 
plants. All these are Koppers products ... as well as scores of others 
that help to increase our comfort, guard our health, enrich our lives. 
All bear the Koppers trade-mark, the symbol of a many-sided service 
. . . and of high quality. Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 


OCTOBER, 1947 



(ContiiiucJ from Pajjc 30) 
it as efficient as possible. Everyone — 
laborers, engineers, truck-drivers — sug- 
gested modifications. The pressure meth- 
od pro\ed most adaptable to field con- 

The construction season passed. Tlic 
pressure method was chosen as the easi- 
est, most reliable, and most accurate 
method of determining the air content 
of fresh concrete in the field. A big 
nu'xer would place a batch of more than 
two tons of concrete on the road bed. 
F"ive minutes later an inspector could 
say, "The air content of this concrete 
is within specifications," or he could say. 
"This concrete doesn't have enough air." 
A few minutes later the inspector could 
be testing another batch. It was now 
possible to maintain a continuous accur- 
ate control over the concrete that went 
into the road. Now there would be no 
more long sections of concrete without 
the proper amount of air. An error in 
proportions could be corrected almost 

All of this was possible except for one 
thing, there was only one piece of 
equipment for the pressure method 

It was a wieid-looking apparatus. As 
improvements had been made, they had 
been added any place they would fit. 

1 he equipiiu-nt to be redesigned. 
Clamps held the equipment together. 
Were they of the best design possible? 
Would another design be better? A dif- 
ferent type of closure might cut seconds 
from the testing time. Hooks on artil- 
ler\' were consulted — some type of 
ipiick-acting breech lock might be adapt- 
ed to the purpose. Cutlery departments 
of stores were visited — the clamping ac- 
tion of a pressure cooker might yield 
an idea. A pump is used — what size 
should it be? Where could the pump 
be placed when not in use? Many ques- 
tions were asked. Many weeks were 
spent in getting the answers. 

This spring the job was finished ; over 
a year had been spent, but a simple, re- 
liable, speedy test was e\ol\ed. That is 
the story behind the paper "Determina- 
tion of Air Content," published by Mr. 
C. A. Menzel in the May, 1947, issue 
of the Journal of the American Con- 
crete Institute. 

A local option election was being 
held in a county inhabited by sturdy 
( lermans, who loved the foaming brew. 

The teller called out, 

"V^et, vet, vet, vet," then he frowned 
and said, "Dry-y-y." Continuing he call- 
ed, "Vet, vet, vet, vet," and frowning 
again, he exclaimed, "Some son of a gun 
\oted twice." 


(Continued from Page 18) 
lease from service, he returned to Illi- 
nois to continue with the aid of rlic (il 

Wilbur's hobbies include hunting and 
fishing, but in his words, "An engineei- 
ing curriculum doesn't give much time 
for outside activities." Although he doe- 
most of his hunting in Michigan, he 
found time for some no\el game shoot- 
ing while stationed in Hollandia. New 
( juinea. 

He also enjoys swimming and was a 
member of various swimming teams in 
Chicago during high school. 

football takes first place for his en- 
tertainment as a spectator. His favorite 
team is, naturally, Illinois, and he be- 
lieves that the Fighting Illim' are right 
in line for another championship this 

As for the future, he hopes to spe- 
cialize in bridge construction and de- 
sign, spending a year in South America 
after graduating. Then it's a case of 
"California, here I come," since W^ilbur 
likes the spaciousness and opportunities 
offered bv the west coast. 

Lawyer: "Now if \ou want my hon- 
est opinion — ." 

Client: "I don't. I want your profes- 
sional advice." 


Why.' Because Thermoid concen- 
trates on a restricted line of prod- 
ucts, related in manufacture and 
in use, and maintains those prod- 
ucts at top quahty level. 

Thermoid, as a firm, is large enough to 
be thoroughly dependable, yet small 
enough to be sensitive to the day- 
to-day problems of its customers. 

Engineers depend on Thermoid to 
always furnish well made INDUS- 

If catalogs on any of these lines 
would be helpful inyour studies, 
we'll be glad to furnish them. 







Over 73 Years 




ALL THE KINGS MEN Nov. 12-13-14-15 

THE DUCHESS OF MALFI Jan. 14-15-16-17 

ANNA SOPHIE HEDVIG _ March 17-18-19-20 

THE CHERRY ORCHARD April 14-15-16-17 

PYGMALION May 19-20-21-22 

OCT. 1 TO NOV. 1 

lllini Union Box Office 9 to 12 and 1 to 4 

Student-Faculty Season Books $4.20 

(Good Wednesday and Thursday.) 

General Season Books $5.10 

(Good any performance.) 

Single Admissions $1.20 

All prices quoted Include the Federal Tax 

ni Theatre Guild 









Sold nationally through electrical wholesalers 

Notionol Electric 

Products Corporofion 
Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 




A Campus Tradition 



BZ7fcft5T eyfclL 


PHQWE 8134. 


OCTOBER, 1947 



To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
moke the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance when you 
can always . . . 







Note Books 
Drawing Sets 
Writing Materials 

Fluorescent Lamps 
I.E.S. Lamps 
Laundry Cases 
College Stationery 



Photo Art House 
At Campus — 709 S. Wright 


We feature Gifts, Greetings and a wide variety 
of Photo Supplies 

The Spot to Shop 


mini Union Book Store 

715 S.Wright Street 





Clue: 31,700 would cover a pinhead 

It is part of the wing surface ... an area so niiero- 
sropie that 31,700 spots like this would barely 
cover a pinhead. 

You are looking at aluminum through an electron 
microscope, the way Alcoa Research scientists look 
at aluminum alloys in our laboratories. They get 
down to aluminum's really fine points . . . explore 
among the atoms. 

Studying structures like this is one of the ways 
Alcoa metallurgists learn how to improve aluminum 
alloys and how to make new ones. By scientific 
experimentation they combine with aluminum the 
riiihl amounts of the rifiht metals to produce the 


results thev want . . . alloys as strong or stronger 
than structural steel, at one-third the weight . . . 
allovs that make better castings, forgings, extrusions 
. . . allovs for innumerable uses 

You wouldn't hear half, not even a hundredth as 
much about aluminum today if it weren't for these 
allovs that Alcoa Research has produced. Alumi- 
num's great and growing usefulness springs directly 
from their development. Nature made aluminum 
light. Alcoa has made it strong and versatile and 
low in cost. Aluminum Company of Amkrica, Gull 
Building. Pittsburgh 10. Pennsylvania. 
MORE people want more aluminum lor more uses than ever 


OCTOBER, 1947 



(Continufd from Page 8) 

ot torque, and the rate of precession are 
all at their niaximunis; therefore preees- 
sion will continue ahout the vertical 
axis. However, as the rotor crosses the 
meridian, the rotation of the earth will 
cause a gradual decrease of the angle 
of tilt initil the rotor reaches a level 
position again. 

The eccentric pin is offset 1"^ for a 
specific purpose. If it were placed direct- 
ly in line with the perpendicular, the 
consequent torque would act on the 
horizontal axis of the rotor only, and 
the rotor axis would oscillate from east 
to west to cast continualh. Hy offset- 
ting the pin 1 " in the proper <iirection, 
an imbalanced condition of the mercury 
tanks would cause a slight torque to act 
about the vertical axis; the residtant 
action about the horizontal axis oppos- 
ing the tilting effect caused by the 
earth's rotation. From this, it can be 
seen that the amount of tilt will be 
dampened with each oscillation of the 
rotor wheel and eventually the rotor 
will, for all practical purposes, come 
to rest in the plane of a meridian. This 
takes about 2j/ oscillations or i'/j hours 
at the most. 

It can be seen that if the weight of 
the mercury ballistic tanks rested on the 

rotor case, movement about the liori- 
zontal axis wouKl be restricted. Since 
Dr. Sperry depended on complete free- 
dom of the rotor for tiie desired results, 
lie liaii to de\ise a \\a\ to vupport the 
mercury tanks and \et keep iheiii in tile 
proper position relative to the rotor. He 
accomplished this b> designing what he 
called the "phantom element. " This con- 
sists of a metallic, circular ring that 
is kept in line with the movements of 
the rotor about its vertical axis by 
means of a 3 coil transformer, and elec- 
tronic follow-up system, a little direct 
current motor, and appropriate gearing. 
Roughly, the system operates in this 
manner. The 3 coil transformer, con- 
sisting of a primary, energized by single 
pliase, 21(1 cycle .-dternating current, and 
a secondary on either side, is mounted 
on the phantom ring and a little arma- 
tuic is attached to the rotor case. If 
the rotor moves relative to the phan- 
tom ring, a signal is sent from one of 
the secondary coils to the electronic fol- 
low-up system. This system consists of 
an amplifier tube and two rectifier 
tubes 90 degrees out of phase with each 
other. The signal is amplified, rectified 
to direct current, and piped to the little 
d.c. motor which, through proper gear- 
ing, turns the phantom ring back in 
line with the rotor case. Because it is 
alwa\s in step with the rotor case, the 

phantom ring is an ideal location ior 
mounting the compass card, and is used 
as such. 

Because it is necessary to have accu- 
rate compass readings at various sec- 
tions of a ship, a system of repeater com- 
passes is used. The compass cards on 
the repeaters are kept in synchronism 
with the master gyro-readings by either 
a d.c. step-by-step system or an a.c. sel- 
syn system, l.'sing either of these meth- 
ods, any desired number of remote bear- 
ing indicators may be operated. 

Somewhat after the installation of the 
first Sperry gyro-compass, (L. S. S. 
Delaware, 1911), a different type of was developed by the 
Arma Engineering companv. L tilizing 
two, non-parallel rotors for stabiliza- 
tion, its overall efficiency is comparable 
to the Sperry product. Arma compasses 
employ a pendulum and oil tank sys- 
tem for their north-seeking and north- 
remaining properties. 

During the recent war, gyro-com- 
passes were indispensable to fighting 
ships. They were essential, not only 
for taking bearings and keeping ships 
on course, but to automatic course 
recorders, automatic steering, (Gyro- 
Pilot), radar, and fire control. 

Special compact types of gyro-com- 
passes have been developed for use in 
(Continued on Page 38) 

Typical Aisle 

Room, which has 1673 Con 


Georgia Community 
Refrigeration Center 
Makes Remarkaltle Growth 

The City Ice Company of Galnes- 
tarted in 1929 with a 20-ton 
ice plant. Today It provides complete 
refrigeration services and operates 
eight additional plants throughout 
Georgia, all being developed into 
Community Refrigeration Centers. 

The original plant now makes 72 
tons of ice daily; rents 1675 lockers; 
provides food processing and pork 
curing; operates extensive cold stor- 
ages: quick-freezes up to 30,000 lb. 
of poultry per day; ices railroad 
cars and trucks- and sells refrigerators 
and appliances. The first Frick ma- 
chine is still in continuous operation. 
six more have been added in this 
plant, and 15 more in the other 

The frick CraJuatc T tain lug Comse 
ill Refrigeration and Air ConJitioiiing. 
KOW III its Slst xenr. ts apf*rovcd under 
the G. J. Bin of Rights. 



808 S. Sixth St. 
Laundry Service and Dry Cleaning 

Todd's Restaurant 

Good Food and Quick Service 


Corner Fifth and Green Streets 
champaign— Dial 6-1643 



He Can Be 
a Valuable Player 

On Your 
Cost-Reduction Team 

• Your head electrical man — don't 
overlook his counsel in your cost-reduc- 
tion huddles. Here's why — 

During recent years, thousands of elec- 
trical systems have been operating under 
abnormal stress. They have become over- 
loaded and unreliable . . . poorly located 
or improperly applied in relation to pres- 
ent needs. They have increased produc- 
tion costs — plenty. 

Check with your head electrical man. 
If he finds such electrical weaknesses, a 
Square D Field Engineer will be glad to 
help him analyze the problem and select 
corrective power distribution and electric 
motor control equipment. 

The counsel of experienced Square D 
Field Engineers is available, without obli- 
gation, through Square D offices in prin- 
cipal U. S., Canadian and Mexican cities. 


OCTOBER, 1947 




Know what is happening in your field. The 
TECHNOGRAPH is as essential for this familiarity 
as your slide-rule for your more immediate 

Here is complete coverage of the Engineering field 
at home and abroad! 

$1.50 8 Issues $1.50 




(Continued from Page 36) 
iiiiplaiics and small, speedy ships and 
boats. The most commonly used of these 
is called the (i\io-Flu\ (rate S\stem an<l 
was de\eloped recently by the Hendix 
Aviation corporaricjn. This system con- 
sists of an earth ijuiiictor compass sta- 
bilized beneath a gyro-scope and con- 
tains a transmitting unit, a remote man- 
ual caging unit, an amplifier, a master 
indicator, and a repeater indicator. The 
power supph' (115 volts, 4(JI) cycle 
a.c. ) , is provided by an inverter, operat- 
ing from a 24 \iilt t\.i\ input. The gyrn- 
wheel is the rotor of a 2 phase induc- 
tion motor supplied b\ single phase, 1 1^ 
volt, 400 cycle a.c. The 90 degree phase 
shift for the motor's second phase is 
provided by a series of condensers. The 
rotor develops a speed of approximate- 
ly 10,500 r.p.m. 

Mechanical uses for the g\ ro-scope. 
other than emplo\nient in compasses, 
are too numerous to mention here. Cjyro- 
statics has taken great strides forward 
since Foucault built his classic gyro- 
scope in 1851, and with private capital 
exploiting its possibilities, the applica- 
tions promise to become even more 
varied than now. 

He: "Do you believe in free love?" 
She: "I haven't sent vou a bill, have 




C711 South Wright 












(Continued from Page 16) 
ili-nts in chemical engineering, and as 
soon thereafter as possible a meeting will 
bo held for the same purpose. 


The student branch of the American 
(."(■ramie Society has been inactive dur- 
iiil; the summer session, but has a full 
pro^^ram laid out for the fall term. This 
jirogram is to be started off by an in- 
tense drive for 100 per cent student 

.At the final meeting last spring an 
flection of society officers for the fall 
xinester was held. The men elected 
were Walter F. Stuenkel, president; 
Flo\d M. Maupiii, vice president; Allen 
P. Wherr\-, secretary; and Arthur C. 
Hi)iienkerk, treasurer. 


Due to the accelerated program, the 
A.S.M.E. chapter has been inactive dur- 
ing this summer. The first meeting of 
the fall term will be devoted to a mem- 
bership drive. The exact date of this 
meeting will be announced later and all 
students in the mechanical engineering 
curriculum are cordially invited and en- 
couraged to attend this meeting. The 
new officers for the fall semester will 
also be elected at this meeting. 

partners in creating 

K & E drafting instruments, equipment and materials 
have been partners of leading engineers for 80 years 
in shaping the modern world. So extensively ore these 
products used by successful men, it Is self evident that 
K & E has played a part in the completion of nearly 
every American engineering project of any magnitude. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco * Los Angeles * Montreal 

You may have this file of . . . 



BINDER {6V4 X 33/4) 


Write today for complete information and Index. A postcard will do. 

i — ~; 

Special Offer to Technograph Readers 

Your name in Gold, FREE, stamped on the 
front of any one binder with your first order 
for $5.00 or more. Be sure to PRINT your 
name exactly as you want it stamped on the 
binder, and Mark the order "Technograph." 
This offer expires December 31, 1947. 


P.O. Box No. 1, University Station 

Please send me. Free, a copy of the 48 page 
LEFAX Data Index and complete information 
about the LEFAX Library for Engineers. 

Name .. 


OCTOBER. 1947 


Crossword \ns' /er 

HIoiulc chorus ^irl: "Coiifiiatulare 
nu', girls, I've just made a tortunc." 

Hrunetti" chorus girl: "Yes, whose 
was it?" 

-:s- » * 

A collegiate chap asks: "It all the 
coeds in the world that didn't neck were 
crowded into one room, what would we 
do with her?" 

Simp: "It it wasn't for one of my 
father's discoveries I wouldn't he here 
today. " 

(ilimp: "What was that? " 

Simp: "M\' mother." 

jack: "Sav, do you know that \()ur 
wife is telling everyone that \ou can't 
keep her in clothes?" 

Geo,: "That's nothing. I bought her 
a home and I can't keep her in that 

Sergeant: "What'd you get drunk 
for, in the first place? " 

Private: "It wasn't the first place. 
Sarge, it was the last." 

Claude: "-My brother-in-law swal- 
lowed a box of fire crackers. " 
Maude: "Is he all right now?" 
Claude: "I don't know. I haven't 
heard the last report." 

» « ii! 

A diplomat is a man who can make 
his wife believe that she looks fat in a 

mink coat. 

* » » 

Mrs. A: "My daughter is takin' a 

course in domestic science. " 

.Mrs. B: "How is she makin' out?" 
Mrs. A: "OK, I guess. She writes 

that she has made the scrub team." 

» * ;> 

Kitty: "Whenever I'm down in the 
dumps, I get a new hat." 

Katty: "So that's where you got 

New Bride: "Hone\, I've a confes- 
sion to make, I've got a cedar chest." 

(irooni: "I'm glad to hear that — I 
was wondering what \ou would sa\ 
when vou learned that I have a wooden 

Biology teacher: "Tell me, Jimniie, 
why do women live longer than men?" 

Jimmie: "I don't know, teacher, un- 
less it's because paint is such a good 
preservative. " 

Absent-minded professor: "Lail\, 
what are vou doing in mv bed?" 

She: '"VVell, I like your bed, I like 
your neighborhood, and I like your 
house. And furthermore, it's about time 
that you remember that I'm your wife." 



























■ t 




















U R 























E D 
























A R 











S f 





























V 1 












"And now, with Mr. Riley's permis- 
sion, we'll return to the anatomy of 
a frog." 

The aw kward age : Too old to cr\ , 
and too young to swear. 

LAS student: "(Joing aromul with 
girls keeps me voung." 

E.E.: "How?" 

LAS student: "I started going around 
with them four \ears ago when I was 
a freshman, and I'm still a freshman." 
» « * 

Mama mosquito: "If you children are 
good, I'll take yovi to the nudist camp 
tonite. " 

Mrs. A: "Oh! I'm so happy. M\ 
husband is taking up anthropology." 
Mrs. B: "How did you find out?" 
Mrs. A: "Oh, I found some little 
red tickets in his pocket saying — Mud — 
horse 15 to 1. When I asked him about 
them, he said the\ were the relics of a 
lost race. " 

Johiuiy: "Mr. Jones, daddy wants 
to borrow your cork screw." 

Mr. Jones: "All right sonny," said 
Jones reaching for his coat. "Run along 
home — I'll bring it over." 
» * * 

Son: "Dad, when you were a kid, 
what was your greatest ambition?" 

Father: "To wear long pants. I've 
had my wish. I haven't met anyone who 
wears his pants longer than I do." 
s -* * 

Teacher: "George, yoiu' theme, en- 
titled 'M\ Mother', is just the same 
as \()ur brother's. " 

Cjeorge: "I know. We ha\e the same 

You can't tell — ma> be a fish goes 
home and lies about the size of the bait 

that got awav. 

■ * * » 

At breakfast one morning I was read- 
ing in the paper that a couple in North 
Dakota were buried in a snow drift for 
18 hours, and I said to the waitress: 
"How would you like to be buried in 
a snow drift for IS hours with your 

"Say," she replied, "If me and m\ 
sweetie was buried in a snow drift, we'd 
be swimmin' in 1 "> minutes." 



Because photography can condense . . . 

TixY AS IT IS, that little rectangle "stage center" 
is this ad . . . condensed by microfilming's magic. 
Condensed vet all there — ready to he brought back 
to original size. Photography can reduce — tremen- 
dously— without losing a detail. 

As a business or professional man. you can utilize 
photography's reducing ability in important ways. 

You can utilize it to save space ... to speed refer- 
ence. With Recordak microfilming. \ou can "de- 
bulk" files 98% . . . keep the film records at hand 
for cjuick viewing, full-size, in a Recordak Reader. 

Functional Photography 

You can utilize it to make sales presentations more 
complete, more resultful. With motion pictures, you 
can "pack" a plow, a plant, a whole process into a 
small can of film . . . trav el it where you will . . . show 
it ofiE "large as life" and much more dramatically. 
Only a suggestion . . . this ... of what photography 
can do because it can condense. For a better picture 
of the applicational possibilities that stem from this 
and other unique characteristics of photography, 
write for "Functional Fliotographw" 

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester 4, N.Y. 

is advancing business and 
industrial technics. 



War took a six-yeor cut out of Frank lewis' 
career plans. He's making a new start with G.E. 

Struggling to become airborne in the teeth of an 
Aleutian gale, the B-25 in which Frank Lewis was 
serving as co-pilot spun down into a fiery crash. Frank 
took the long wav home. Badlv burned about the face 
and shoulders, he spent two years in Army hospitals. 

When he came back to work at General Electric this 
spring he had been away exactly six years. He had 
forgotten a lot, changed a lot since the days when, fresh 
out of the State College of Washington, he had worked 
on "Test" with G.E. 

He took naturally, therefore, to the G-E Rotating 
Engineering Plan — especially set up to give the veteran 
a period of familiarization and general orientation. 

"The idea worked fine," Frank says. "Any depart- 
ment I was interested in was ready to open its doors for 
me so I could come in and look it over. When I found a 
groove that suited me, that's where I would stick." 

Frank stayed in the orientation program from March 
till August, considering what type of engineering assign- 
ments most interested him and best suited his abilities. 
For his actual work during this period he went back to 
something familiar — industrial control. He had worked 
in control before the war had, in fact, become head of 
the Control Test group. Now, in the circuit development 
laboratory of the Control Divisions, he renewed old 

He decided he wanted to be an application engineer. 
His work proved he was capable of it. On August 1, 
Frank Lewis took over a desk in G.E.'s big, brick office 
building in Schenectady and drew the first important 
assignment of his new career. 

For your copy of "Careers in the Electrical Industry," 
write to Department 237-6, General Electric Company, 
Scheneaady, N. Y. 

To help pay his way through college, Frank worked 
summers installing G-E refrigerators in Spokane, Washing- 
ton. He graduated in electrical engineering in 1939. 

Critically injured in a plane crash, Fronk spent two years 
in Army hospitals. He's now back with G.E., shaping up 
o career as an application engineer. 




Joveniber, 1947 • 25 Cents 



"—mountains are leveled and oceans bounded by the slender force of human beings"— samvel johmson 

JVhy communications get better all the time 

Your voice girdles the globe in one-seventh of a second. 

It travels at lo6,000 miles per second— the speed of light 
— thanks to the telephone and radio. And by television, so 
do tlie pictures of any event as it occurs. 

\^ hat has made this blinding speed possible? \\ hat has 
given us these '"ringside seats" ... to see, to hear, to share 
in the headline news of the day? 

The answer: Greater knowledge of electronic waves and 
better materials to harness them. For example, the vac- 
uum tube— heart of radio or television— depends upon the 
greatest possible absence of air or other gases— a high vac- 
uum. Most of the air is pumped out before the tube is sealed. 
Then a tiny bit of barium, called a "barium getter" is 
flashed inside of it by electricity. This captures the remain- 
ing air and gives a nearly perfect \ acuum. 

Unending research and engineering ha\e also provided 
liner jilastics for insulation, purer graphite and carbon for 
electronic devices . . . and a host of other basic materials 
that help shave the speed of communications t:p the tiniot 
splinter of a second. 

Producing these heller innlerials and many others— jor 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of man- 
kind—is the ivork of the people of V!\'lO\ CARRinK. 

FREE: You are invited to send for the illustrated booklet. "Products 
and Processes," which describes the nays in which indnstrv uses 
I C.C.'s Alloys. Carbons. Chernirals, Gases and Plnslirs. 

Union Carbide 




.NEW YORK 1 : 

Products of Divisions and Units include 


Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Electromet Alloys and Metals • H.wnes STELLriE Alloys • Synthetic Organic Che.micals 

There's a 

future for you 


at Westinghouse 


This is but one of the many op- 
portunities open in the electrical 
field. There are many others — in 
sales, research and engineerinji at 
\^ estinghouse. Begin plans for 
your future by sending today for 
your free copy of "Finding Your 
Place in Industry". 



Wherever there's manufacturing, there 
are jobs for engineers. \X estinghonse is 
one of the largest electrieal mamifae- 
tiirers in the world — its proflucts are 
as diversified as industry itself! There's 
a job and a future for you here. For 
example, Westinghoiise needs: 


to show production people how to turn out the 
proilucl after it has been designed. 


to improve cHicicncv in methods of production. 


to get the right tnatcrials at the right place at 
the right time. 


to supervise inspection of materials and work- 
manship at every step in the process of manu- 
facture, and help develop the highest standards. 


to see that correct and uniform methods are 
applied in testing apparatus to assure compli- 
ance with the customer's specilications. 


to plan installation of new manufacturing facili- 
ties or revamping ol the old. 

Here's a challenge for your future. The field is 
limited only by the initiative and resourcefulness 
of the engineer himself. G-10002 

To obtain copy of "Finding Your Place in Industry," consult 
Placement Officer of your university, or mail this coupon to: 

77i<' District Educational Coordinator 
II cstinffhousf* Electrir Corporation 
20 .\. If acker Drive, P.O. Box B, Zone 90 
ClUcago 6, Illinois 




lew Dpvi^lupiiients 

Itfl .lull It IHvli. K.H.'tft 

New Vacuum Tube for 
High Altitudes 

A iK'w vacuum tube ilesigiied for usi- 
at altitudes up to 60,000 feet has been 
amiouiiced by Anipeiex Electronic Cor- 
poration. The (iexelopnieiit work was 
sponsored by the Air Material Com- 
mand of the U. S. Army Air forces. 
The tube is especially important in con- 
trol circuits of guided missiles. 

Tile base of the tube, of glass, is 
tapered and ground to fit the socket 
like a glass bottle stopper. This con- 
struction keeps the air arounil the socket 
terminals at atmospheric pressure, even 
when it is used at high altitudes — an 
operating condition which frequently re- 
sults in flash-over between the termi- 

The tube socket is the exact coiuiter- 
part of the tubes, insofar as the taper is 
concerned. The taper angle is chosen 
large enough to avoid trapping of air 
when the tube is plugged into the 
socket. The socket is made of Mycale.x, 
a bonded glass-mica composition, which 
will not carbonize in the event of an 
electrical breakdown. Alycalex is also 
impervious to moisture, retains its di- 
mensions inider extreme conditions of 
temperature, and can be molded to \ery 
close tolerances. 

The original tube designed for the 
L. S. Army Air forces is a high-vacu- 
um, half-wave rectifier rated at 14,000 
volts peak It can deliver an 
average plate current of 125 ma and a 
peak plate current of 750 ma. Although 
rated at only 14,000 volts peak, this 
tube and socket combination will lian- 
dle voltages as high as 35. 001 1 volts 

This new design is applicable to .ill 
t\pes of lu'gh-voltage vacuum tubes 
which may be subjected to similar high- 
altitude cotiditions. When used in areas 
which are strongly radioactive, tubes of 
this type will not break down externalh 
due to ionizing action. 

In addition it can be used in equip- 
ment which must be used in areas sub- 
ject to strong radioactivit> . Xormally, 
the ionizing action caused by such radio- 
activity would limit the permi.ssible op- 
erating voltage to a relatively low value 
— something less than the flash-over po- 
tential. With this glass-seal construc- 
tion, however, the full rating of the tube 
mav he safelv used. 

Chimes Without Bells 

.\ new nietiiod of proiiuciiig the 
sound of church bells h\ the use of a 
two-ounce Alnico permanent magnet 
made by (General Electric compan\, has 
been devised by Liberty Carillons, Inc., 
of New York. 

Designed to capture the inaudible vi- 
bration of the bell tones when they are 
created bv the blow of a small metal 

Photo of high altitude vacuum 

tube showing socket arrange- 


clapper upon the belltone bar, the sin- 
tered Alnico No. 5 magnet helps pro- 
duce a greater electrical impidse for a 
given amplitude of vibrations and thus 
feeds a greater signal into the amplifier. 
These vibrations are then sent through 
an extra high fidelity amplifier system 
from which they are transmitted to 
super-powered belfry stentors and then 
exploded with the realism of a great 
bell being struck. 

I lie Cjeneral Electric >ub-assenibi\ 
used, consists of an Alnico No. S per- 
manent magnet one-eighth of an inch 
in diameter and fi\e-eighths of an inch 
long, magnetized by approximately ^<l 
turns of copper wire. This magnet is 
inserted in a nickel-plated brass tube and 
the tube filled with a plastic compound. 

This sub-assembly, located just below 
the point of the blow of the metal clap- 
per, lifts the initially inaudible vibra- 
tions from the tone bars and passes the 
electrical impuLses along to the ampli- 
fiers. From 12 to 60 of these sub-assem- 
blies are used, depending on the size of 
the instrument. 

Ultra-High Speed Camera 

.\ camera with a speed ot one-mil- 
lionth of a second, which produces a 
finished photographic projection within 
thirty seconds after the picture has been 
taken, has been developed by (jeneral 
Electrics General Engineering and 
Consulting laboratorv at Schenectady, 
\. Y. 

The camera, being two feet in length 
and one foot in height and depth, is 
not portable and is not intended for 
use by the camera fan. Fully automatic 
with the press of a button, it is part of 
equipment developed for the rapid test- 
ing, by means of electric power surges, 
of apparatus used in the generation and 
transmission of electric power. Such 
tests are made to determine insidation 
characteristics of new designs, and to 
make sure that equipment under pro- 
duction meets performance specifica- 

Used in combination with a cathode- 
ray oscilloscope, the camera photographs 
the visual indication which appears on 
the screen when a surge of high voltage 
electric power is applied to the equip- 
ment under test. Since the total diuation 
of the recorded voltage \\ave may be as 
short as one-millionth of a second, the 
camera speed must be equalh' fast. 

As soon as the photograph is taken, 
the operator pushes a button, thereby 
setting into action the automatic devel- 
oping equipment biu'lt into the camera. 
The development cycle is finished in 24 
seconds, and the film is mo\ed into an- 
other compartment in which a projec- 
tor reproduces the negative, enlarged 
about ten times, upon a groiuid glass 
screen at one side of the camera. This 
picture gives the operator an accurate 


ifcorj of the pertormance of the equip- 
ment during the apph'eation of the 

It is pointed out that the time saved 
h\ the high speed camera is significant 
because of the Large iinestinent involved 
in the equipment being tested, the oscil- 
ograph, and the associated test set — a 
gi-iierator which produces surges up to 
!?. 01)0, 0(10 volts. With this new equip- 
ment, testing of electrical apparatus will 
be speeded up as much as ten times. 

Photographic Film Shows 
Atomic Fission 

The Eastman Kodak company an- 
nounces that special photographic plates 
made m its laboratories are bemg used 
b\ scientists to picture actual atomic fis- 
sion and to study action of highly charg- 
ed nuclear particles. 

These plates, recognized as valuable 
new tools for research in nuclear phys- 
ics, are known as "nuclear track" plates 
from their special use in recording the 
paths of the particles. 

The characteristics of the new plates 
are markedly different from those of or- 
dinary photographic materials. The 
plates are super-sensitive to the electri- 
cal charges carried by atomic particles. 

At the same time the\' are relativeh" 
insensitive to light — which affects ordi- 
nary film — and to X-rays. The silver 
grains in the emulsions of the nuclear 
track plates are unusuallv close-packed. 
It is these silver grains, suspended in 
the gelatin enndsion, that are particu- 
larly, sensitive to the charged particles. 

When a highly charged particle speeds 
into the emulsion, a dotted line of af- 
fected silver grains is produced. These 
grains, when the plate is developed, 
make an identifiable track. From the 
length and curvature of the track and 
the grain spacing along it, information 
is obtained of the particles' speed, ener- 
gy, and other characteristics. Thus it 
can be identified as a proton, alpha par- 
ticle, or heavily charged nucleus. 

Actual fission was recorded when one 
of the plates, first bathed in uranium 
nitrate, was exposed to slow neutrons 
from a radium-beryllium source. A neu- 
tron, striking a uranium atom in the 
emulsion, brought about the fission 
which was recorded on the plate as the 
track of two new atoms. 

The nevv plates are designed to re- 
cord tracks of individual nuclear par- 
ticles, rather than to record density due 
to overall exposure to radioactivity. For 
this reason the especially fine grained 

emulsions not only give the characteris- 
tic track of a particle, but also make 
little record of the "background" radio- 
activity. Thus the track stands out clear- 
ly in the emulsion. 

Special advantages of the nucleai' 
track plates are that they are continu- 
ously sensitive and can record perma- 
nently isolated acts of particles over a 
period of time. They also provide for 
recording of a great deal of scientific 
data with a simple, ine\pensi\e appara- 

It is beliexed that a photographic 
plate that could perform all the func- 
tions of a cloud chamber, in addition to 
having the higher stopping power and 
the permanent record of the photograph- 
ic enndsion, would make one of the 
most \aluable aids to work of nuclear 

A wolf lounging in a New York ho- 
tel lobby perked up when an attractive 
young lady passed by. When his stand- 
ard come-on, "how-de-do," brought 
nothing more than a frigid glance, he 
sarcasmed, "Pardon me, I thought you 
were my mother." 

"I couldn't be," she iced. "I'm mar- 



&very kind of wealher but fair is manufactured in this 
Weatheromeier which is used regularly in testing sections 
of Okoniie Cable. For example, repeated cycles of water 
spray and ultra violet light are combined with freezing in a 
refrigerator. The result: a rapid succession of violently con- 
trasting effects which tests the cable more drastically than 
could years of actual exposure. 

This is one of a series of continuing tests in which Okonite 
puts modern equipment and engineering personnel to work 
pre-testing and establishing the life expectancy of its electrical 
wires and cables. The Okonite Company, Passaic, N. J. 


insulated wires and cables 



Every busy engineering stu- 
dent needs a Tape-Rule for 
his vest pocket — where it's 
handy and ready for those 
dozens oi little measuring jobs 
that come up every day. 
There's no need wasting time 
in search of a tape or in try- 
ing to guess the measurement. 
Just reach in your pocket for 
your "Mezurall" or "Wizard." 
Your dealer can help you 



I06 L>lay«tl< St 





What Every Student Engineer 
Should Know About Bearing Functions 

TRACTOR FRONT WHEEL in which both thrust 
and radial loads are carried on single row Timken 
Bearings. From whichever way the load may come, 
it will be handled with minimum friction and wear. 

APPLICATION of Timken Bearings on the worm 
shaft of a worm gear drive. The load on the worm 
shaft bearings, due to the operation of the worm, is 
primarily thrust. There is considerable radial load 
however, arising from the separating force of the 
gears and also possibly from overhung driving loads. 
This is another application for which the tapered 
roller bearing is ideal. 





Practically every bearing application in equip- 
ment of all kinds involves the carrying of radial 
and thrust loads in varying degrees. These draw- 
ings show how Timken Tapered Roller Bearings 
effectively perform both functions. 

Because it is a roller bearing, the Timken 
Bearing can carry the heaviest loads. Because 
it is a tapered roller bearing it can carry both 
radial and thrust loads — separately or in any 

From whichever direction loads may come, its 
tapered design enables the Timken Bearing to 
carry them all with full efficiency and safety. 
The cost and complication of a separate type 
of bearing for each kind of load are eliminated. 
Bearing housings and mountings are simplified 
— with savings in cost, weight and space. 

The more you learn about Timken Bearings 
now, the better prepared you will be to solve 
any bearing problems you may encounter in 
the future. 


TAPim Toller Wabihcs 




George R. Foster Editor 

Francis C^irfen Assistant Editor 

Va\ W'itort .hsist/int Editor 

Barbara Si.linil<lt ...l/c(/-c«/> Editor 


Ri ftortiiu/ 



.\l Rust 



Phil n,.ii 


lUi lohnsnii 

Ronald lohnsnn 



Herbert Mazer 


h l.eiulli.f; 

Melvin Reiter 



John Shurtleff 


till Sahatli 

Arthur Welcher 



Shirlev Smith 


■ Fisher 

Sam Jefferies 

II.- 1-1 

t-rt lao.hv.n 

(;ienn Massie 



tienrge Ricker 



u-tli McDwaii 
it- MiiiTiii-k 

Huke Silvestrini 




( "iCI 

f R(ibiii>oii,///«y//7;//'y/;.< Editor 

IV, 1 


i;,,hVan Winkle 


X Woo 

laek Stiiinpf 


a 1,1 K. Junes 




iTt A. Johnson Bus. Mgr. 



..Ass't Bus. Mgr. 


lies lanseii. 

..Jss't Bus. Mar. 


Ilk Mitch.... 

.Ass't Bus. Mt/r. 



Fred Seavev 


X \erKara 

Robert C ox 


rue Kvitek 

(lerrv Thompson 


lell Cassiiiv 

Robert Levin 


aril I.eek 

William Anderson 


i-^ Chapman 

Stanley Diamond 



J. A. 



A. R 



L. A 


Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
t-e Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Dre.xel Technical Journal, Illinois 
Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa Transit, 
k,. s.s Engineer, Kansas State Engineer, 
K ' Kky Engineer, Marquette Engineer, 
'1 ';:^,^-ln Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
M -. .iiri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, Ohio 

I State Engineer. Oklahoma State Engineer, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rose Technic, Tech 
Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
; gineering. University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December. January, Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
i Publishing (Zompany. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1921,, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscription, $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The lUhiois Tcchnograph. 

Publisher Representative — Littell Murr.ay- 
I Barnhill, (i05 North Michigan Avenue, 
'Chicago 11, III. 101 Park Avenue, New 

York 17, New York. 


Vanishing Resotirces 7 

Don llornhcrk. Ch.E. '4S 

.Mining and Metalhirgy ^i 

R/i/ph Lending. E.E. '4S rind Francis dreen. E.E. '4H 

The Betatron 9 

Industrial Sightseeing — A. O. Smith 10 

Aeronautical Engineering Laboratories 12 

Don Johnson. E.E. '4^) 

Cemented Carbides 1 -I- 


New Developments 2 

John Diek. E.E. '49 

Introilucing - to 

John Shurtleff 

Illini In .'\ction LS 

Don Johnson. E.E. '49 

Etlitorial ■-■■■ 20 


An(d still the construction continues. This time it's the new me- 
chanical engineering laboratory on the corner of Green and 
Mathews streets.— Gene Robinson. 


This startling ecJifice is the home of A.O.Smith's engineering and 
research departments at Milwaukee. Built over fifteen years ago, 
its ultra-modern lines defy time. (Courtesy of A. O. Smith Co.) 

itil Iton HnrMln>i-h: f'h.E. ^tS 

I .li 


()ui' natural resources, once thouy;ht 
he \irtuall\- inexhaustible, have he- 
me depleted to the extent that some 
nur most common metals, metals for 
iich we may ne\er find satisfactory 
ll^titutes, will run out within the life- 
iie of today's college student. The 
iiited States, great as was its pioneer 
neral wealth, has had to import the 
Ik of its manganese, chromium, nickel, 
1 1 tin supplies for years. Now, since 
r end of the recent war, we note with 
ic concern that this war cost us large 
nentages of our waning mineral 
■,ilth, e.g., during the years of 1941- 
, one-fourth of our present proved 
tidleum reserves, 20% of our com- 
rcial copper reserves, and more than 
|] one-fourth of the nation's lead and zinc 
were consumed. A total of five billion 
tons of American-mined minerals were 
thrown into the war effort. 

Although a small fraction of the com- 
mercial iron reserve was consumed dur- 
ing the war years, we are now faced 
with having to mine ore of lesser qual- 
ity; for experts are predicting that the 
Mesabi range, noted for its high-grade, 
low-cost ore, may begin to play out in 
another ten years — others predict that 
the red hematite of those mammoth sur- 
face mines of Duluth will be exhausted 
within 17 years. However, we have 
ample iron ore in other localities, prob- 

ably more than enough for our needs. 
The total proved reserves will last 
through the year 2050, with an addi- 
tional amount of lower-grade, but usa- 
ble, ore sufficient to last 400 years be- 
yond that date. Further, there are vast 
amounts of nearby Canadian ores which 
lie buried rather deep beneath the 
the ground, too deep for economical re- 
covery at the present time. 

Native copper supplies have been in- 
adequate for several years, necessitating 

This Shell Oil company derrick 
is the tallest in the world 

Two "tong men" breaking the 

drill-stem joint to add another 

section on the stem 

importation of one-half of the required 
ore. The Anaconda mines, mainstay of 
the home copper mining industry, are 
nearing the outer limits of their copper- 
producing veins; and no large discov- 
eries are expected by the geologists. At 
the present rate of consumption of a 
million tons annually, our resources may 
last i?) years, or until about 1980. Since 
the U. S. has the greatest production 
and reserves of copper, lead, and zinc, 
it appears that our foreign sources may 
not be able to support American indus- 
try for any extended period of time. 

Lead and zinc mines have been work- 
ed quite completely — our remaining na- 
tive supply being enough to last only 
about 11 and 18 years, respectively. As 
it is, the mines are down to producing 
about one-half of the quantity of ore 

In this article will be found 
some rather startling revelations 
on the limitations of our suppos- 
edly unlimited natural resources. 
Easily read in a short time, the 
article points out several interest- 
ing facts with which every engi- 
neer, present and future, should 
bestir himself to become ac- 

that was produceii twenty years ago. 
The most noticeable effect of the lead 
scarcity will be in the scarcity of good 
paint, lower quality gasoline, and in the 
higher prices of household goods. 

Many metals have been largely im- 
ported for many years. U. S. mines furn- 
ish only slightly more than one-half of 
our aluminum, cadmium, mercury, and 
potash, and somewhat less than half of 
our antimony, manganese, asbestos, mica, 
platinum, and tungsten needs. For years 
we have imported nearly all of our tin, 
nickel, chromium, graphite, industrial 
diamonds, and quartz. In less than 20 
years, our native supplies of nearly 20 
essential minerals will be exhausted. 

Since sulfur is one of the most abund- 
ant of our adequate non-metallic re- 
sources, agriculture will not want for 
sulfate fertilizers. The agricultural 
wealth is probably the only resource of 
a nation capable of being increased. 
With sulfate and phosphate fertilizers 
a\ailable, a vast supply of potash avail- 
able in New Mexico, nitrates being 
made synthetically, and with improved 
erosion control methods and greater 
knowledge concerning optimum care of 
soil through crop rotation and fertilizer 
application, the overall fertility of the 
nation's food-proilucing medium is slow- 
ly increasing. 

In the days of the early pioneer set- 
tlers, 800 million acres of this country's 
1 ,903 million acres were covered by for- 
ests, containing 4,760 billion board feet 
of lumber. Today, 630 million acres of 
woodlands remain, 460 million acres be- 
ing of a commercial nature. At present 
there is an annual cut of 48 billion board 
feet, this amount exceeding the annual 
growth by 16 billion. Most of this de- 
pletion is in the Northwest forests of 
softwoods. In the Northeast, the growth 
equals the small annual cut. With effi- 
cient management, this country could 
have lumber sufficient to meet its needs. 

The future of our natural fuel supply 
is somewhat brighter. While our 2(1 bil- 
lion barrels of petroleum may not last 
much beyond 1975, we will not want 
for gasolines and oils since we have am- 
ple coal, from which they can be made 
synthetically. Last December, the U.S. 
Bureau of Mines predicted an average 
daily consumption of 5,500,000 barrels 
of petroleinn products. In April, the 
(Continued on Page 22) 


Miiiiiio ami lIHalliiroy ll|)|i(ii'liiiiilii's 
I iirmiilcil 

lti§ Ital/th l.i'iiilinfi. K.K. ' tH ami Fruin-is Urot'ii. li.H' lit 

In the far iiorthcastcrn part of our 
campus lifs the department of luim'iii; 
anil metallurjiical engineering. The de- 
partment was originally created in 18(i7 
and consequently is one of the oldest 
departments in the University. It was 
discontinued in 1893 due to lack of in- 
terest among the student hody, but was 
re-created in 19(18 because of the neces- 
sity for having a scientific study of min- 
ing and men able to conduct this stud\. 
Although originally only mining was 
taught, in 1934 metallurgy became a 
part of the department, and e\entuall\ 
tlie major part of it. 

I'crhaps because \ou tinkered witli old 

automobiles, \ou ileculeil to become a 
mechanical engineer; or perhaps you 
built radios and decided to become an 
electrical engineer, but there is no such 
attraction to the field of mctallurg). 
You see a cake pan or perhaps a car 
gear and accept them. The composition 
of the material, its hardness, and other 
pro|U'ities are extremely important to 
our present da\ civilization and our 
progress, and yet we have too few men 
entering this very important field. 

The present head of the departmeiit, 
Professor H. L. Walker, has been very 
active in this field and has a nationwide 
reputation. At the moment he is the 
active head of the Illinois State Depait- 
ment of Mines. 

Duruig the war m;ui\ funis had con- 
tracts with the government for armor 
piercing projectiles. The specifications 

In this day and age of high- 
powered electronics and atomic 
bombs the average student regards 
the subjects of mining and metal- 
lurgy with something only slightly 
more than disinterest. For those 
students, and also students who 
are as yet undecided on the type 
of work they want, this article is 
strongly recommended. It deals 
with several of the more salient 
features in the two fields of work 
and clearly points out (hat the ro- 
mance of research and develop- 
ment is by no means restricted 
to nuclear fission. 

required that so mail) inches of steel 
of a certain grade be pierced by these 
|irojectilcs. Several of the firms had dif- 
ficult) in filling the specifications re- 
cjuired by the go\ernment. In order to 
obtain the required qualit\' of produc- 
tion. Professor Walker was calle<l in as 
a consultant by these firms; and with 
his aid an<l atlvice they were able to 
pass the war department specifications 
for armor piercing projectiles that tbe\ 
were manufacturing. The job ot the 
metallurgist during the war was ex- 
tremely important in enabling our gov- 
ernment to outproduce and outfight the 
enemy. Professor Walker went to (]er- 
main in 1945 to e\aluate the (lernian 
metallurgical research and developir.ents 
for our government. He reported that 
the visit was most disappointing in that 
the (jermans had produced nothing 
which could be of value to American 
industry, and as a whole they seemed 
to be far behind us in their metallurgical 

Research on Queuchini; Agents 

The metallurgical department is now 
working on a study of quenching agents 
tor steels. When metals are heated to 
a high temperature and then cooleu ab- 
ruptly, their outer surface is hardened. 
The department is now stud\ ing the dif- 
ferences among oils, and the effects of 
the different oils on the hardenability 
of steel. The study of why brine cools 
faster than water, and other similar ef- 
fects observed in the quenchant test 
could be of great importance to the field 
of metallurgy as well as to the entire 
field of engineering. The department 
hopes that from their work they will 
gain a better understanding of quench- 
ants and that they will be able to use 
them more effectively. 

Among the projects of the department 
is the determination of the Austenite 
grain size of steel, as it fixes the physical 
tire steel industr\' and thus the entire 
Austenite grains are formed when the 
(Continued on Page 34) 

Left: Flotation separator used to segregate ore by agitation. Right: Wilfley 
shaker table used for gravitational separation of ores 


A f^etuewd GMa P^ieAueAAjii. 

From A. IS. \\'ilcllia;£eii 

Although the betatron and its 
inventor. Professor Donald Kerst 
of tlie University of Illinois, have 
been given much space in these 
pages, the Technograph presents 
this article on the new 300.000,000 
volt betatron which will be housed 
in the recently completed betatron 
laboratory on the south campus. 
Along with a description of the 
new machine, the article also in- 
cludes a resume of what has been 
accomplished to dat? as well as a 
discussion on future prospects. 

I'ldfessor DoiKild \V. Kcrst of the 
ii\xrsit\ ot Illinois built aiul put the 
irld's first betatron into operation at 

■ University July 15, 1940. Since 
ir time rapid progress in design and 
u-lopment and e\tensi\e application 
^ been made of the machine that ac- 
e rates electrons bv use of a magnetic 

1 n making the betatron. Professor 
r->t succeeded where scientists of both 
lurica and Europe had failed. He 
Kei\ed his successful idea when only 
\ears old. A commercial laboratory 
rned it down. 

1 he L ni\ersity of Illinois ga\e its 
ung physicist encouragement and sup- 
it. He spent one year designing the 

■ trument ; and a second year building 

It worked at the first application 

1' rom the beginning. Dr. Kerst forc- 
.\ three uses for the betatron : 
1 — For industry, a powerful source of 
ia\s of 2(1- to 3(1-million \olts energy. 
_' — For medicine, a source of x-rays or 
a beam of free electrons at 2(1- to .i^- 
llion volts energv to be used again^t 

3 — For science, a powerful source of 
\-rays or of free electrons, with precision 
control, and with energies going well be- 
\ond the 230-milIion volts range neces- 
sary to produce cosmic ray phenomena. 

The industrial promise of the betatron 
was brought to success during the war, 
in the secret development by scientists of 
the L niversit>' and engineers of the Al- 
lis-Chaliners Manufacturing company of 
a 2((-million volt industrial betatron used 
for \-ra\ purposes in arsenals. 

The medical application, held up b\' 
war work, came closer to realization in 
July, 1Q46, when University of Illinois 
scientists brought a beam of free elec- 
trons out of the University's 22-million 
\olt betatron. This promises spectacular 
value for cancer treatment but the forces 
involved are so powerful and little- 
known that three to five years of careful 
laboratory study must precede any clin- 
ical use of this device on patients. 

The scientific application is the great- 
est of all, giving opportunity to study 
the inside of the atom, the behavior of 
electrons, artificial radioactivit\-. and the 
mysteries of the cosmic raw 

New Betatron Laboratory 
The University of Illinois is now 
building a betatron of .?()()-niillion volts 
energy which will open entirely new- 

doors to science b\' producing cosmic 
rays in the laboratory. The new betatron 
will be 23 feet long. 13 feet high, and 
6'/2 feet thick. The hollow "donut " 
vacuum tube in which electrons will be 
accelerated to the speed of light will be 
9 feet in diameter. The instrument will 
weigh more than 400 tons. 

A new research laboratory in which it 
and the L niversity's other smaller beta- 
trons are housed has been built on south 
campus. A special appropriation of 
:?!. 500,000 was provided for the build- 
ing, the new instrument, and associated 

Professor Kerst is heading work on 
the new 3(H)-million volt machine. His 
first betatron had an output of 2'/2-mil- 
lion volts. A second betatron, ha\ing an 
output of 20-miIIion volts, was complet- 
ed in 1941. Now increased to 22-mil- 
lion volts, it is the prototype of commer- 
cial betatrons being built for industrial 
x-ray use. 

A 70-million \olt betatron is under 
construction as "pilot model " to try out 
new ideas for the big machine. The 
University also was the scene of war- 
time development of a 4-nullion volt, 
portable "baby betatron." 

All of these instruments are housed in 
( Continued on Page 28 ) 

Development of the Betatron 

Year Developed _ 1940 1044 

Power in volts 2'/2-million 22-million 

Size: Length 19 inches 5 feet 

Height 10 inches 3 feet 

Thickness 8 inches 2 feet 

Weight 200 pounds 4 tons 

Diameter of vacuum tube 8 inches 19 inches 

Electrons travel (>() miles 250 miles 

Power consumption ^ kw 30 kw 



2}i feet 

13 feet 

6>4 feet 

400 tons 

9 feet 

700 miles 

1=^0 kw 


Iiidiistriiil Siiilitseeiiiii 

, . . /J, 6, S4fUUt G(Ufl/pXuH4^ 

From miili .ti.LE.y. fuhlivi/if IHrvvtitr 

A ^'iS.OOU.OOt) postwar iiuliistrial plant 
is in full swii)}! these clays at Kankakee, 
III., turning out approximately 1,3011 
water heaters daily and giving employ- 
ment to more than 1,500 persons. Less 
than two years ago the site of this iww 
industry was a cornfield a mile south 
of the city on Highway 49. 

The heaters are one of the postwar 
products of the A. O. Smith Corp., of 
Milwaukee, Wis. They are distinguish- 
eil from other water heaters by an inner 
lining of tough glass which is fused to 
steel. A container is thus formed which 
is practically impervious to the corid- 
sive effect of hot water and in which 
the water cannot be contaminated b\ 
rust or any other impurity. 

The company is nearly 75 years old. 
It has branch plants in Houston, Texas, 
and Los Angeles, Calif., and it has dis- 
trict administrators in New York, Chi- 
cago, Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles 
and Seattle. It also has an International 
division which supervises foreign sales. 

A. (). Smith's primary functions are 
the fabricating and welding of steel 
products. The latter include pressed 
steel automobile frames, of which the 
company was the pioneer manufacturer; 
large diameter welded steel pipe for the 
transmission of petroleum products and 
natural gas; pressure vessels for the oil 
refining, chemical and paper industries; 
domestic coal stokers; glass-lined bever- 
age storage tanks; and welding elec- 
trodes and equipment. The companv did 
about ,^60,000,000 of business in 1946. 

Growth of an Idea 
The .story of how the company got 
into the water heater business will be 
of particular interest to students of the 
University of Illinois. In the late 1920's 
A. O. Smith was seeking a new way to 
protect steel pipe against corrosion. The 
search led into the field of ceramics 
and a method was evolved of literally 
fusing a very thin coating of true glass 
onto steel. It was not worked out, how- 
ever, until much consulting had been 
done with Dr, Andrew I. Andrews, 
head of the ceramics department at the 
College of Engineering, University of 
Illinois. Dr. Andrews' a.ssistance was of 
incalculable value and he is still active 
in the work which the company's Ce- 
ramics Research department is doing. 
The ceramics department is now headed 
by Wayne A. Deringer, who graduated 
from Illinois in 19.?2. Other Illinois 

men who are on his staff include A. (.'. 
Harzdukas '40; AL K. Hlanchard '.^S 
( Ph.D. in 1942); I.. K. Hree/e '40; 
(). K. Mulvane '28; E. \\ .Murphv, jr. 

.After the glass-fused-to-steel method 
was perfected, the company began to 
seek other uses for it. One of the first 
successful applications was the glass- 
lining of large steel tanks for storing 
beer. In the late .lO's the company's 
research engineers turned their attention 
to domestic water heaters and by 1940 
the company was ready to enter the 
field on an extensive basis. The plans 
were interrupted by the war, although 
the government asked the company to 
manufacture a limited number through 
the war years. When V-J day came, 
however, plans were already well fomi- 
ulated for an intensive effort in the 
water heater field. 

A water heater has been described la- 
conically as one tin can inside another 
with insulation between the two. And 
that described with some accuracy the 
methods used by a good many small 
manufacturers of heaters. It is a far cry, 
however, from the research, engineering 
and quality control that has gone into 
the making of the heaters in the new 
Kankakee plant. 

A steel especially adapted to the glass- 
fusing process is used for the inner tank 
of the heater. It is rolled into a cvlin- 

In this article the Teehnograph 
presents the second in a series de- 
signed to stimulate in the student 
an active thinking on the subject 
of employment and work. Al- 
though last month's article dealt 
quantitatively with the subject of 
job-seeking, this is the first to 
cover a specific company. The 
companies which have been se- 
lected for this series were picked 
with a view towards variety not 
only in location throughout the 
state, but also in type of work 

der and automatically flash welded. The 
cylinder, and the stamped out top and 
bottom heads and flues, are sprayed or 
slushed with finely ground glass mixed 
in water and clay. The parts go into a 
furnace especially designed for the job. 
These furnaces are the result of the 
combined work of mechanical, ceramics, 
electrical and metallurgical engineers. 
The furnaces combine such features as 
roller hearth, radiant heating and at- 
mosphere control and, through an intri- 
cate electrical control system, are vir- 
tually automatic in operation. 

After going through the furnace, the 
inner cylinder and parts move to an au- 
tomatic welding operation where top 
and bottom heads and flues are welded 

Kankakee Plant of A. O. Smith Company 



Left: Heat treating furnace used for sealing glass liners to the metal case. Right: 
View of the overhead conveyor system for moving parts through the plant 

into position. The resulting assembly is 
then tested under 300 pounds air pres- 
sure and is then ready for final assem- 

Meanwhile the other parts of the 
heater, outer shell, skirts, tops, etc., have 
gone through a bonderising operation 
and spray painting, and move to the as- 
^sembly line on overhead conveyors. Final 
assembly consists of six lines which give 
flexibility in assembling various types 
and sizes of heaters at the same time. 
All unloading of raw materials and 
loading of finished heaters is done in- 
side the plant. 

Plant Located for Efficiency 

So much for the process. Why did 
A. (). Smith pick Kankakee? The com- 
pany approached that problem from an 
engineering standpoint. Every move was 
directed toward the most efficient plant 
of its kind in the world. When the 
plant was thrown open for inspection 
earh' in 1Q47, the event \vas covered by 
Life magazine. In its issue of last Feb. 
3, Life described the plant as "the most 
efficient factory of its kind in the 

But the manufacture and sale of 
water heaters entail more than an effi- 
cient plant and process. The flow of raw 
materials to the plant must be constant 
and as economical as possible. Shipment 
of finished heaters must be flexible and 
fast. So the company sought a location 
which would be as close as feasible to 
the principle raw ttiaterial, steel. Kanka- 
kakee satisfied that requirement. Rail 
facilities were important. Kankakee is 
ser\ed by both the Illinois Central and 
the Hig P'our. Cjood highways would 
mean the opportunity of using trucks. 
Kankakee is on Highways 45, 49 and 
54. The State of Illinois has developed 
plans for a superhighway which will 
run within 800 yards of the plant. 

Efficient operation would depend also 
on a labor market of sufficient size and 
stability. This tended to rule out large 
cities where the demand for labor was 
high. Kankakee, however, is in the cen- 
ter of a large farming community. It is 
at least 50 miles from a city of any 
size. The area is stable and well equip- 
ped with good roads, so that the plant 
would be able to draw on a wide area 
for employes. The problem of so-called 
"transient" labor would be reduced to a 
minimum in such an area. 

Stable Area Promotes Opportunity 

In considering the stability of Kanka- 
kee, A. C). Smith engineers took a long 
look at the character of the city itself. 
What did they find? Here was a com- 
munity of 22,000 people, the great ma- 
jority of whom owned their own homes. 
The engineers noted the neatness of the 
homes and the way yards and shrubbery 
were tended. They found a very low 
crime rate. They counted the number of 
churches and took a look at the Kanka- 
kee country club. They visited other 
manufacturing plants in the city — Flor- 
ence Sto\e Co., Hear Brand Hosiery, 
Bradley Alanufacturing Co., and others. 
They found an alert Chamber of Com- 
merce whose members were actively pro- 
moting the welfare of Kankakee. The 
city has a daily newspaper and its own 
radio station. Here was a community 
that was alert. The judgment of the en- 
gineers was vindicated recently by fig- 
ures showing that there is more home 
building per capita in Kankakee right 
now than in any other city in Illinois. 

To the young engineer this new plant 
offers many interesting opportunities 
and challenges. It is a new staff of 
young men that has put together the 
present organization and that is engaged 
now in perfecting all its details. It of- 
fers opportunities to the chemical engi- 

neer and to the engineer in the fields of 
electricity, mechanics, metallurgy and 
welding. Its present engineering staff 
number about 30 people. There are also 
opportunities for the engineer in the va- 
rious manufacturing departments them- 
selves, and in the elaborate quality con- 
trol organization that has been set up. 
Incidentally, quality control at the plant 
is under the direction of another Uni- 
versity of Illinois engineering graduate, 
Waldo W. Higgins '30. The manager 
of the plant is Harold F. Detrick. 

(^f further interest, perhaps, is the 
fact that back of this plant is an organ- 
ization with a profound conviction that 
the principles of engineering provide the 
most intelligent approach to the solution 
of an\' problem, mechanical or human. 
Indeed, it was once said of A. O. Smith 
that its principle "product" was engi- 
neering. Automobile frames, steel pipe, 
pressure vessels, water heaters, these 
were simply by-products. It was not by 
chance that A. O. Smith, when it built 
a "home" for its engineering staff in 
Milwaukee, spent more than $2,000,000 
on a glass and steel seven-story structure 
that has no counterpart anywhere. It 
was built more than 15 years ago, but 
the startling beauty of its clean straight 
lines still evokes expressions of awe and 
admiration from visitors. 

Upper-cla.s.smen may not be distin- 
guishable from each other, that is, sopho- 
mores, juniors, and seniors all fill the 
same mold — but you can always tell a 
freshman, (.'\lthough you can't tell him 
much ). 

* * * 

Mother (After delivering a long talk 
on waywardness to her daughter) : 
"Now tell me, Mary, where do bad 
little girls go?" 

Marv ( Winsomeh) : "Everywhere." 



Left: Tension beam under stress showing electrical strain indicating patches in po- 
sition. Right: Torque box showing hydraulic pump and jack used to apply stress 

PJew. JlaJfO^aian^^e^ ^a^ the . . . 

leronautical Engineering Department 

The acroiiiiutical fiifiinecriiifj depart- 
iiR-nt has. Hijurativeh' .speakiiij;, foimd its 
"sugar (hidd)'." With the surplus air- 
craft equipment offered at bargain base- 
ment prices by the War Assets Adminis- 
tration, the department, under the direc- 
tion of I'rofessor Stilhvell, has set out 
on a large program of improvements. 

In the structures laboratory with 
I'rofessor F. R. Steinbacher in charge, 
the most striking addition is a large piece 
of equipment which re.sembles a struc- 
tural steel guillotine. It is a drop-test 
rig for the dynanu'c testing of landing 
gears. It consists of a large frame on 
which the landing gears with attached 
weights may be raised for a drop of 
about five feet. To accurately determine 
the position of the landing gear at an\ 
instant of time during the drop, a mo- 
tion picture is taken of its fall. This 
camera, which is now being constructed 
in the laboratory, consists essentially ot 
a rotating drum aroiuid which is at- 
tached the film. A timed shutter per- 
mits light to enter the camera and there- 
by expose the film at predetermined time 
intervals. Small lights attached to the 
landing gear provide the necessary light 
source to expose the film. The exposed 
film then provides a space-time record ot 
the drop test from which \elocities and 
accelerations which occurred during the 
drop may be detcrnu'ned graphically. A 
dark room has been constructed in th ■ 
structures laboratory to process the film. 

Although the drop test rig and most 
of the camera parts have been construct 
111 in the lahoratorv from new m.iterials. 

Itif Ihm •Inhnson. K.H. 'lit 

the landing gear, the quick release mech- 
anism on the drop test rig, and the de\ice 
for hoisting the gear and its attacheii 
weights were all obtained from surplus 

In the structures laboratoiy there are 
several test beams designed to provide 
laboratory demonstration of lecture 
courses, (^ne example of these test umts 
is a cantilever aluminum tension-field 
beam. The load is applied to the free 
end of the beam by means of a hydraidic 
cylinder. Strains at various points on 
the beam are determined by means of 
electric strain gages. From these strains 
the stresses in the beam ma\ be calcu- 

Another example of these sample test 
structures is represented by a torque box 
constructed of various thicknesses of 
alinninum alloy sheet. The box is rect- 
.angular in cross section and each one of 
the four sides has a different thickness 
(it aluminum sheet. A h\draulic cvlindcr 

Housed in the old railroad sliops 
just north of the Mining and Me- 
tallurgy building is the new Aero- 
nautieal Engineering Laboratory 
which is the topic of this article. 
Besides discussing several Cypes of 
experiments handled in this lab- 
oratory, the article also deals with 
(he prospective modifications for 
the aircraft engines laboratory 
which is located at the University 

ap|ihes a torsional load to the box and 
strains in the box are obtained through 
the use of electric strain gages. Last 
semester, in an experiment conducted by 
members of one of the classes, it was 
found that the torque box with cross 
sectional dimensions of 8 7 16" by 11" 
was thirty times as strong in torsion as 
a 12" structural steel I-beam, even 
though the weight of the torque box is 
only a fraction of that of the I-beam. 
The students could hardl\- believe that 
the torque box was not filled with steel 

Electronic Test A pptiratiis 

Electronic equipment for the measure- 
ment of vibration in aircraft structures 
has recently been purchased by the aero- 
nautical department. This equipment 
provides for picking up vibrations by 
means of a piezoelectric crystal pickup. 
The excitation is amplified and finally 
recorded on cathode-ray oscilloscope 
where it can either be photographed with 
.1 high speed motion picture camera or 
read directh' from the oscilloscope screen. 

This same apparatus, with only minor 
modifications, may be adapted for the 
pin'pose of determining pressures in in- 
ternal combustion engine cylinders or the 
combustion chambers of various jet en- 
gines. Consequently, the equipment will 
be used for both the structures and pow- 
er plant laboratories. 

.A new test designed to apply a large 
number of concentrated loads along the 
span and across the chord of the stabil- 
izer is being prepareil for student labo- 



ratoiy instruction, usin"; the stabilizer 
and elevator assembly of a Japanese 
fighter airplane. These loads are pro- 
duced by a lever system which is actuat- 
ed by a hydraulic cylinder. Since the 
loads must be applied to an aluminum 
skin covering the stabilizer, a tension 
patch which is glued to the skin has been 
developed. This tension patch consists 
of a thick rubber plate glued to the skin 
on one side and to a steel plate on the 
other side. A bicycle spoke is attached 
to the steel plate on one end and to the 
load applying lever system on the other 

Aircraft Engines 

In the power plant laboratory, under 
the direction of Prof. R. W. \IcCloy, 
several new facilities are being construct- 
ed. A torque type test stand for recipro- 
cating engines is being installed at the 
University Airport. This t\pe of test 
stand is to be used for both performance 
testing of complete aircraft engines and 
for research on individual components of 
reciprocating engines. 

In order to study the design and op- 
erational characteristics of jet engine 
CGUibustion chambers, a boot-strap luiit 
is being constructed in the laboratory. It 
consists essentially of a (General Electric 
CH-5 turbo supercharger which supplies 
the compressed air to support combustion 
in the combustion chamber. This unit 
provides only sufficient power to run it- 
self. A duct system from the super- 
charger leads into the combustion cham- 
ber and the exhaust gases are then re- 
turned to the turbine side of the turbo- 
supercharger thus driving the turbine 
and thereby turning the centrifugal su- 
percharger to provide the compressed air 
required for combustion. The unit is 
designed so that various sizes and types 
of combustion chambers may be installed 
and tests may be run under controlled 

The New Airport Wind Tunnel 

The largest laboratory development 
project in the department at the present 
time is the planning of an airflow labo- 
ratory at the L'niversity Airport. A 4(1' 
by 120' building has been erected at 
the airport for the purpose of housin<; 
the equipment for this laboratory. 

Although all plans for the equipment 
are still in the tentative stage, the units 
will consist of essentially the following 
items : 

A supersonic wind tunnel is to be con- 
structed which will have a velocity in 
the test section of approximately four 
times the speed of sound. At sea level 
atmospheric conditions, this is approxi- 
mately 3000 miles per hour as contrasted 
with a velocity of 130 miles per hour in 
the present subsonic wind tunnel. The 
cross-sectional area of the test section of 
the supersonic wind tunnel will be ap- 
proximately one-half a square foot. Op- 

tical methods for stud\ing the flow of 
air o\er models are being planned. 

In addition to the wind tunnel test 
section the high-velocity supply can be 
diverted to provide for testing combus- 
tion chambers for turbo and ram jets. 
Compressed air to start the models will 
be provided through a supply line run- 
ning the length of the building. The 
combustion chamber inlets branch from 
this supply line and the outlets are con- 
nected to an exhaust line which will run 
the full length of the opposite side of 
the building. Thus the products of com- 
bustion are vented from the combustion 
chamber through an exhaust line where 
they are cooled and expelled from the 
building. In addition to tests of com- 
bustion chambers under controlled con- 
ditions, these facilities will provide hot 
exhaust gases which may be used for tur- 
bine testing and for thermal shock tests. 

According to present calculations ap- 
proximateh- 20 pounds of air per second 
at a pressure of 140 pounds per square 
inch will be required from the compres- 
sors. A number of different methods for 
developing compressors which will pro- 
\:de this performance is being consid- 
ered. One s\stem, which has met the 
interest of both military and civilian 
groups, consists of compressors and driv- 
ing engines which may be constructed 
entirely from surplus aircraft equipment. 
This system makes use of a surplus Pratt 
i5c Whitney R-2800 aircraft engine. The 
engine could be converted from a four- 
stroke cycle to a two-stroke cycle engine 
by means of changing the valve timing. 
This engine would then act as a com- 
pressor and power would be provided b\ 
a surplus Allison V-1710 or a Rolls 
Ro\ce Merlin. Air at atmospheric pies- 
sure would be taken into the gear-driven 
supercharger of the R-2800 where the 
pressure would be increased to two at- 

mospheres. It then enters the cvliiulers 
of the R-280() engine where it would be 
further compressed to 10 atmospheres. 
Three such units of this type when par- 
alleled into one system will provide the 
quantitN' and pressure of air required. 

Due to the complexity of the mechan- 
ical conversion of the engines, studies are 
now being made to convert the centrifu- 
gal compressors from surplus (jeneral 
Electric 1-16 turbo-jet engines to provide 
the air required. However, in the pres- 
ent stage of the design studies, the 
R-2800 conversions appear the most 

The purpose of this new laboratory is 
three-fold. It is primarily for educa- 
tional use in undergraduate and gradu- 
ate courses. However, since the main 
items of equipment will be developed 
from surplus property and the cost will 
be held to a minimum, it is considered 
that the laboratory may provide for a 
pattern for the development of low cost 
laboratories for other universities requir- 
ing relatively large quantities of com- 
pressed air. A third purpose of the lab- 
oratory will be to conduct experimental 
investigations relating to research proj- 
ects being undertaken by the department. 

A portion of the building will be oc- 
cupied by the chemical engineering de- 
partment for projects they are undertak- 
ing in fiields which are related to Huid 
mechanics. It is Professor Stillwell's 
opinion that if the laboratory can be de- 
veloped along the lines now planneil, 
there will be several departments in the 
College of Engineering which will find 
use for the facilities. 


A burlesque show — a stage ]iniiluc- 
tion in which the actresses assume that 
everyb<idv is from Missouri. 

View of the aeronautical structures laboratory 


lii'iiiiiliiil III' Pouiler IIHiillum . . . {\w\M (aiiiides 


fiMiiii •isiiiioK n. i^<»ii^\v«'ii 

IHrvt'lin' of Itvsvurrh iinil linffiiU'vrinf/. 0'iirh»htii 0'». 

Although "synthetic" metals ii;i\e 
played an iinportaiit part in eiigineeiiii<; 
in the past, there is one particular group 
which promises to play an increasingh 
important role in the future. Tliis 
group, unique in many ways, is the 
super-hard "carbide metals." They are 
true synthetic metals, being unlike any- 
thing that occurs in nature. They are 
twice as stiff as steel, nearly as hard as 
the diamond, and under ordinary condi- 
tions it is almost impossible to wear 
them out. Some of them are also he.i\ ier 
than lead. 

In addition, these carbide metals, 
being produced by powder metallurgy, 
possess all the acKantages to be derived 
from this form of fabrication. They 
have an unusual degree of purity, there 
is little waste in their manufacture, and 
their composition of different grades can 
easily be controlled. 

Even though most of their uses arc 
new, metal carbides, of course, are not. 
In fact it was in 1896 that a French — Henri Moissan — quite acci- 
dentally produced particles of hard 
tungsten carbide while trying to create 
a temperature equal to that of the sun 
in his newly in\entcd electric furnace. 
.Moissan tossed aside the hard carbide 
particles as worthless and grieved be- 
cause he had not equalled the tempera- 
ture of the sun. 

The first commercial use of tungsten 
carbide came during World War I 
when the hard-pressed (jerman industry 
hit upon the idea of "cementing" to- 
gether the individual particles. The re- 
sultant blocks of solid metal were used 
as substitutes for the diamond dies so 
badly needed at that time for drawing 
filament wire to be used in electric 

About a decade after World War I 
large bars of solid cemented carbide 
were imported into the United States. 
A few manufacturers tried to make cut- 
ting tools out of the metal, but the car- 
bide was so hard and difficult to work 
that application's were e.xtremely limit- 
ed. In fact, the results were heart-break- 
ing to those who had expected much 
from these super-hard metals. It was not 
until 1928 when the engineers of the 
Carboloy company hit upon the idea of 
forming the metal in smaller pieces, 
close to the exact shape retpiired, that 

carbuies became commercially practical 
in the cutting tool field. Today it is 
estimated that carbide tools are used for 
substantial part of all metal removal. 

Process of Mannfacttire 

The basic ingredient of "cemented" 
carbide is tungsten carbide. Supplement- 
ary ingredients, titaiuLim and tantalum, 
are added when it is desired to provide 
additional basic properties. The tungsten 
carbiile is prepared by firing a mixture 
of pure tungsten powder and lampblack 

Photo showing the different 

shapes of cemented carbide 

parts produced by extrusion 

at a temperature of 2S()I) ' to 2700" F. 
Tantalum and titanium carbides are pre- 
pared by heating the oxides of those ele- 
ments with carbon at even higher tem- 
peratures. These carbides are then mixed 
with a relatively soft binder material 
which is usuall)' cobalt. The resultant 
powder may then be formed into the 
desired shape by either cold pressing, 
hot pressing, or extrusion. 

In the cold pressing process, the pow- 
der is packed into a mold and "pre-shap- 
ed" pieces of flat, round, or cylindrical 
shape are formed on automatic pill 
presses. In this same way flat, round, 
and cylindrical "ingots" are also formed. 
These ingots can later be converted into 
their final shapes. 

The pre-shaped pieces of carbide are 
pre-heated at a relatively low tempera- 
ture and then given a final heat treat- 
ment (sintered) at 2630" F. A neutral 
or reducing atmosphere, usually hydro- 
gen, is used in this process to prevent 
decarborization. Sintering causes the 
product to become ;i coherent, solid mass 

although the temperature used is below 
the actual fusion point of the material. 
The cobalt, however, flows to fill in 
the cavities between the carbide parti- 
cles ; and when the piece cools, the co- 
balt freezes in this new position and 
cements the hard tungsten carbide par- 
ticles together. Blanks will shrink as 
much as 40% in volume during sinter- 
ing. The density of pre-sintered material 
is about 9 ; that of the finished product 
runs as high as 15. 

Ingots and slabs of carbide from 
which special shapes will later be form- 
ed are pre-sintered to give the ingots 
sufficient strength to be machined. The 
special, machined shapes are then finish- 
hardened by sintering. 

In recent years there has been steady 
progress towards hot-pressing the pow- 
der compacts to replace the cold-press- 
ing and sintering operations. Hot-press- 
ing incorporates into one, single opera- 
tion the three separate operations of 
cold-pressing-pressing, pre-sintering, and 

The hot-pressing method is used for 
long, thin, or hollow pieces and also for 
pieces which are too large to be accom- 
modated in existing sintering furnaces. 
In the hot-pressing process the powder 
is placed in an enclosed mold which is 
usually made of graphite-base composi- 
tion. The mold and its contents are 
heated to sintering temperature while 
sufficient pressure is exerted simultan- 
eously to properly form the piece. 

Finally, the extrusion method is used 
mainly for forming standard round, 
square, or special shaped rods. Several 
\arieties of rod and tubular section can 
and have been made in this way. Ex- 
truded, solid rods are used extensively 
for small, solid, precision boring tools 
and "wear" parts. 

Structure and Grades of (Carbides 

The hard carbide metal produced by 
any of processes is a "cemented" 
material in the strictest sense of the 
word. Its composition is characterized 
b\ a granular structure in which the 
finely divided particles of carbide are 
held in a matrix of the relati\ely softer 
and less refractory binder material. The 
structure of the material, therefore, is 
somewhat comparable to that of a brick 
wall. The particles of tungsten, tanta- 



luiii ami titanium carbide comprise the 
bricks while the cobalt, or other binder 
material, can be compared to the cement 
which holds the bricks firmly in place. 

To best meet the widely varying con- 
ditions under which carbides are being 
employed, the cemented carbide is man- 
ufactured by the Carboloy company in 
variety of different "grades." Each of 
these grades possesses a distinctive com- 
bination of hardness, toughness, abrasion 
resistance, and other characteristics. 

Properties of Cemented Carbides 

Although powder metals as a class 
usually suffer from such disadvantages 
as relatively low tensile and impact 
strength, this is not true of the carbide 
powder metals. Carbide powder metals 
offer physical properties — such as high 
hardness at elevated temperatures and 
high mechanical strength — that are in 
many ways superior to those obtainable 
from any other materials regardless of 
the method of its manufacture. 

The hardness of the carbide metals at 
room temperature makes them stand 
apart from all other currently available 
engineering metals, since carbides are 
the hardest metals commercially avail- 
able. The hardness of carbide metals 
surpasses that of such abrasive grains as 
aluminuxn oxide, and in some cases may 
even equal the hardness of silicon car- 

As a residt, the carbides possess ex- 
treme resistance to penetration and 
scratching. Commercial grades of Car- 
boloy cemented carbide have a Rockwell 
hardness { read on the "C" scale with 
a lighter load ) of 85-93. The material 
retains a high degree of its hardness 
when at red heat. When cooled again, 
the material should be just as hard as 
before heating. Carbides are far superior 

to any other known metal in these re- 
spects. They may be heated and cooled 
repeatedly without any appreciable loss 
in hardness. When heated to 1550" F., 
carbides are still as hard as high carbon 
tool steel is at 650° F., and as high 
speed steel is at only 825° F. These 
characteristics are largely responsible for 
the effectiveness with which carbide 
tools cut metals at high speeds. 

Cemented tungsten carbides possess a 
modulus of elasticity more than double 
that of steel, ranging upwards from 
about 7.1,000,000 psi. This compares 

Dealing with one of the most 
important applications of powder 
metallurgy, this article on cement- 
ed carbides is so interesting and 
timely that the Technograph has 
departed from its usual custom of 
student written articles to include 
it in this month's presentation. The 
editor wishes to thank the Carbo- 
loy company for the material and 
illustrations for this article. 

with a modulus of around 30,000,000 
psi for tool steel. The strength of tung- 
sten carbide depends to quite an extent 
on the amount of cobalt used as a bind- 
er. The average grade of carbide metal, 
however, has a tensile strength which is 
in excess of that required for most nor- 
mal operations, being about one-half 
that possessed by tempered tool steel. In 
addition, the carbides have a compres- 
sive strength which is materially greater 
than the compressive strength of a good 
grade of heat treated alloy steel. 

Despite the fact that the structure of 
the hard metal carbides is that of pow- 
der metals, parts made of this material 

easily can be ground and lapped to a 
surface smoothness of 1 2 micro-inch 
(1 80,000 of an inch). 

Extreme degree of resistance to wear 
is possessed by cemented carbides wheth- 
er the wear is caused by rubbing or fric- 
tion or by the abrading and gouging 
action of grit and other abrasives. This 
qualit\ is indicated by the comparative 
shot blast tests in which steel shot No. 
72 at 100 poiuids pressure was directed 
at five test bars of different materials. 

Inasmuch as great hardness is gener- 
ally associated with weakness and brit- 
tleness, it is not unnatural to assume 
that cemented carbides might possibly 
have a relativeh' low impact resistance. 
Repeated tests and applications have 
demonstrated, however, that the impact 
resistance of carbides is higher than is 
commonly believed. The highly success- 
ful use of carbides for blanking and 
punching dies and punches attests to 
their ability to resist impact. 

The rate of thermal expansion of car- 
bide metal averages about one-half the 
amount of the expansion of steel in the 
range of 20° C. to 700° C. 

The density of a cemented carbide 
varies with its composition inasmuch as 
both tungsten and tantalum carbides are 
much heavier than the binders generally 
used. This a typical cemented carbide 
containing 20% of cobalt binder and 
the remainder tungsten carbide shows 
an average density of 13.55. A carbide 
having, say, 3% cobalt binder and 97% 
tungsten carbide has an average density 
of 15.25. 

AH magnetic properties possessed by 
carbides are due entirely to the presence 
of the cobalt binder, hence carbides are 
magnetic to only a very slight degree. 
(Continued on Page 30) 

I I TEHF£I|TDR£ (l^kriikiit){ | ' I 

80 ZOO 400 «00 MO 1000 UOO 1400 

This chart compares the hardness oi Carholoq at various 
temperatures with the hardness of other cutting materials 

Left: Formation of carbide ports by hot pressing, a single operation which 

combines the three distinct processes of pressing, pre-sintering, and sintering. 

Right: A chart showing the relative hardness of three common tool materials 

as a function of temperature 



O^^in^iuclinjCf. . . . 

Uif .l»hn Shurllvft 


A iK-\vi()iiicr in the aeronauticiil 
cngiiifiTiiig ik-partmcnt is Profi'ssor 
Jacque Hauspr, who arrived at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois this summer. Intro- 
ductions are in order, and perhaps this 
interview will serve the purpose. 

"1 received my B.S. from the Ala- 
bama Polytechnic Institute in 1941," he 
began with an unmistakeablc drawl. In 
fact, during the interview he was called 
to the telephone and did not appear 
again for some length of time. Finally 
returning, he explained that his relatives 
had called from Alabama to inform him 
that they had weathered the hurricane 
without too much trouble. "It was ne- 
cessary to talk to all of my relatives 
from the biggest to the smallest ; and 
since I have quite a few, it required a 
little time," he apologized. 

After graduating from A. IM., he 
went on to the Lniversity of Michigan 
to receive his M.S. in 1943. He stayed 
at .Michigan for two more years in a 
teaciiing position. 

For the next two years he was em- 
ployed by the Hoeing Aircraft company 
in Seattle, Washington. The first fif- 
teen months were spent as an assistant 
group leader. His job was to do the 
paper work and write reports on the 
performance tests of such planes as the 
stratocruiser, the B-50, the R-29, and 
the C-97. He worked for the other nine 
months in aerodynamics research on 
boundary air control and supersonics. 

He then accepted his present position 
at tile Lniversity of Illinois. Aero. E. 1, 
(Continued on Page 26) 



jim Matt, senior in E.E., has his 
e\'es set on next February. That's the 
date when he hopes to have his degree. 
A little older than most students, Jim 
long ago recognized the value of a col- 
lege education and is looking forward 
to his work after graduating. 

But let's start at the beginning. As 
Jim puts it, "I was born back in the 
stone ages . . . October 10, 1915, to 
be exact." Until he was nine years old 
he lived in La Crosse, Wisconsin, and 
then moved to Chicago, which he names 
as his official home town. 

He attendeil Morton high sciiool in 
Cicero, Illinois. After school hours he 
worked as a printer's devil and spent 
the rest of his time with dramatics, foot- 
ball, and radio club. 

(graduating from high school, Jim 
went into the radio business. He was 
married in September, 1940, and then 
deciding upon a college education, he 
entered the U'niversit\' of Chicago in 
October of 1941. 

Then in May, 1942, he enlisted in 
the Signal Corps and went into an elec- 
tronics training group at Northwestern 
university. His training continued at 
Camp Crowder and was finished in 
O.C.S. at Fort Monmouth, N. J., 
where he received his commission. 

Released from service on June 14, 
194(i, he was back in school again two 
weeks later, this time at the University 
of Illinois, to continue his course in 
electrical engineering. At the present 
time he is engaged in work on research 
of high frequency equipment under the 
guidance of Doctor Samuel of the elec- 
trical engineering department. 

Jim is a member of Sigma Tau and 
(Continued on Page 26) 


A man with whom engineers become 
acquainted at some time in their college 
career is the assistant dean of the Col- 
lege of lOngineering, Stanley H. Pierce. 
He handles ever\ thing from students on 
probation to the placement of seniors; 
not to mention a hea\ \ of paper 
work in between. 

After iecei\ing his H.S. degree in 
railway electrical engineering at the 
University of Illinois in 1932, he was 
employed as an engineer in the shop 
depaitment of the Chicago Rapid Tran- 
sit compan\', testing equipment and do- 
ing design work. Then in September ot 
l')36, he returnee! to the University as 
an instructor in general engineering 
(hawing and obtained his M.S. degree 
in electrical engineering in June of 

He remained at the Uni\ersit\- until 
Ma\' of 1944 when he enlisted in the 
navy. After attending radar schools at 
the Princeton Institute of Technology 
,ind the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, he was commissioned as a 
radar officer on an electronic repair 
ship. His overseas duty was spent in the 
Pacific and in Japan. 

Among his unforgettable experiences 
in the navy, he recalled the ducking he 
received on the way home. "I was on 
the weather deck during some rough 
weather when a wave caught me by 
surprise. Luckily, I was close enough to 
the safety rail so that I could hold on 
to it instead of going overboard." 

During his term in the ser\ice, his 
wife and daughter remained at their 
residence, 1307 South Race street, Ur- 

(Continued on Page 28) 





for Engineers 

^Speedway for new telephones 

Here you see the "wind-up" of nenrlv two miles of 
overhead conveyor lines designed by \V estern Electric 
engineers for their vast new telephone-making shop 
m Chicago. As finished telephone sets near the end of 
the assembly and inspection line, an electronic 
selector unerringly sorts out six different types, 
directs each type down the right one of the six differ- 
ent chutes for packing and shipping. Not one second 
is wasted. This conveyor system is capable of han- 
dling 20,tKXJ telephones per day. 

Faster way to dry cable 1^ 

Before getting its protective lead sheath, telephone 
cable must have every bit of moisture removed from 
pulp insulation and paper covering. To gain greater 
efficiency than the horizontal steam drying method, 
which used to take 24 hours. Western Electric en- 
gineers de.signed a battery of cylindrical vacuum 
ovens which are lowered over reels of cable. Electric 
current is then passed directly through the wires ot 
the cable, heating it to 270°F. As much as 6 gallons 
of water is driven out of the insulation in just an 
hour and a half! 

EiifSineerinj* problems are many and varied at U estern Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to dei'ise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Electric 


.NOVEMBER, 1947 

X y y 


/////// in Action . 

hff Ihtn •InhitHun. K.K. ' lU 

JA.MKS K1..\U) SMITH. C.E. (W. Rapid Transit company as a lineman 
has nian_\ accomplishments to his credit: helper, and later became a lineman, 
two inventions, long service as a U. of draftsman, power supervisor and assist- 
I. civil engineering instructor, several ant electrical engineer. He was chief 
terms as mayor of Urbana, when he electrical engineer from 1926 to 1937 
helped to bviild up the southeast sec- and was assistant to the executive offi- 
tion of the town. He came to the I'ni- cer when he entered service in World 
vcrsit)' in 1907, after being assistant and War H. At the end of the war, he 
resident engineer with three different became assistant to the executive offi- 
railroads. In 1919, be became the sec- cer of the North Shore Line, later was 
ond facultyman to be elected mayor of assistant to the president. He was made 
I'rbana. Earlier, he had assisted in the acting general manager when the late 
engineering work of the construction of Samuel A. Harrison, who died in April, 
Cbatuite field and designed the sewage became ill. 
disposal plant there. He invented a new 
protractor of benefit to civil engineers, 
mathematicians, and landscape garden- 
ers, and a paring knife which saved its 
owners money by turning out a uni- 
form sized peel. After retiring from poli- 
tics. Mr. Smith became a civil engineer 
for the University physical plant. He 
still holds the position, although be is 
past the retirement age. 

Prof. E. F. l^RUHN '23 has been 
named head of the School of Aeronau- 
tics at Purdue. He taught at Colorado 
School of Mines for five years and 
worked with leading airplane companies 
for 1 1 years before joining the Purdue 
faculty in 1941. 

Prof. NILES H. BARNARD '28, 
M.S. '30, became acting chairman of the 
University of Nebraska mechanical en- 

A recent speaker on campus before 
the Urbana division of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers and the 
Institute of Radio Engineers was EV- 
ERETT S. LEE '13, engineer in 
charge of the (j.E. consulting laboratory 
at Schenectady. He talked on "European 
Improvements in New Developments in 
Engijieering and Science." He visited 
Europe in 1939, and had an oppor- 
tunity to observe the post-war scene 
last year when he was in Paris as an 
A.I.E.E. representative at the sixth in- 
ternational congress. WILLIAM A. 
SOCK '19 of the Chicago office were 
among other Cj.E. men who joined him 
on campus to discuss job opportunities 
with seniors in electrical engineering. 

R. E. GOULD '23, M.S. '29. chief 

gineering department September 1. For engineer for the Aeroproducts di 

the year he has been associate di- 
rector of lay activities for the Methodist 
Church of America, a job be took when 
he resigned from the Nebraska faculty 
after 10 years of service. 

One of the speakers at the summer 
Flying Farmers' field day at the Uni- 
versity was FRED E. WEICK '22, 
vice president of the Engineering and 
Research corporation. Riverside, Md. 
Born in Chicago at the time the Wright 
brothers w'ere inventing the airplane. 
Weick has grown up with American 
aviation, devoting his life to aero- 
nautical research and development of a 
plane safe enough for novice aviators 
to fly without experiencing the two chief 
dangers, spinning and stalling. His spin- 
proof, light plane is better known as 
the Ercoupe. 

widely known electrical engineer and 
veteran of both wars, has been appointed 
general manager of the Chicago North 
Shore and Milwaukee Railway com- 
pany. Immediately after his graduation. 
Smith started work for the Chicago 

01 General Motors, has been advanced 

to factorv managei'. He joined the Aero- 
products organization jaiuiar\- 1, 194\ 
after 1 S \ears in various engineering 
capacities with the Frigidaire division 
of G.V.. 

At one time the commander of a 
chemical mortar battalion with the mIi 
Army in Italy. Lt. Col. Rl'SSKL E. 
McMIRRAV '26 now is military gov- 
ernor of Kagoshima Ken on the Japanese 
island of Kyushu. A chemical engineer 
as a civilian, Colonel McMurray en- 
tered service in August, 1942, at Edge- 
wood Arsenal. Md. He participated in 
the Salerno and Anzio landings, was 
awarded the Pvn-ple Heart and Silver 

ROBERT BURNS '37. who was a 
major in the Engineering corps during 
the war. has been made sales manager 
in the St. Louis area for the Bethlehem 
Steel corporation. He is a graduate in 
civil engineering, and formerly' lived in 

After a brilliant career, much of it 
on the editorial staff of Railway En- 
gineering IVIaintenance. GEORCjE E. 
B(WD '96 has retired. Famous for bis 
"What's the Answer?," he started his 
career with the Illinois Central and 
then went to Lackauarma and West- 

JOHN H. MILLER '15 has been 
made vice-president and chief engineer 
for the Western Electric Instrument 
corporation. He has had broad ex- 
perience as an engineer, holds 30 im- 
portant patents, is chairman of the 
committee drafting revisions of the pres- 
ent measuring instrument standard of 
American Standards Association. 

A ceramic engineer. WILLIA!VI H. 
FELLOWS '41, has been named an 
(Continued on Page 38) 



Your enjoyment climbs to new altitudoi lliruugli radio and fe/cui.vioii achievements of RCA Laboratories. 

RCA LABORATORIES -your"magic carpet" 
to ney^ vifonders of radio and television 

More and more people will go sight- 
seeing bv television as the number of 
stations and home receivers increases. 
Evc!ituallv, television networks will 
ser\e homes from coast to coast . . . 
bringing von the news as it happens 
. . . sports events . . . drama . . . vaude- 

Many of the advances which have 
made possible these extended serv- 
ices of radio-electronics, in sound and 
::ight, originated in research conducted 
by RCA Laboratories. 

Recent RCA "firsts" include: idtra- 
sensitive television cameras that gi\e 

startling claritv to all-electronic tele- 
\ision . . . tiny tubes for compact, light- 
weight portable radios . . . "picture 
tube" screens for brilliant television 

In other fields of radio-electronics, 
RCA has pioneered major achieve- 
ments—including the electron micro- 
scope. Research bv RCA Laboratories 
goes into everv product bearing the 
name RC.\ or RCA N'ictor. 

When in Radio Cit\% New York, be sure to see the 
radio and electronic wonders at RCA Exhibition 
Hall. 36 West 49th St. Free admission. fl.ndio 
Corporation of America, RCA Building, Radio 
Cit'j. New York 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio .ind electronic products 
—offers you opportunity' to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here arc only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combin.ations ) . 

» .'\d\.nHr,l i!(\ tlnpment and design of 
AM .111.1 I \l I l...L.l^,l^t transmitters, R-F 
intUictioii In .itiiiu. iiiubile communications 
equipment, rcl.i> s> stems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Wrilc today to National Rccrttiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, Neiv Jersey. 

.\ho many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 







Ass't Editor 

Ass't Editor 

Mif laa^d . 

licini; :iblc to liaiulic rlie "kiii^s" Eng- 
lish" is a subject which can never be o\er- 
■itressed nor regarded too seriously by either 
the prospective or incumbent engineer, busi- 
ness tycoon, or what have you. 

The business man or sales engineer soon 
learns, through the necessity of constanth 
dealing with a \ariet\' of people, that a good, 
more-than-adequate vocabulary is his most 
\aluable asset. The research or design engi- 
neer, on the other hand, too frequently com- 
pletely overlooks the \alue of interesting 
speech because the people he works with 
every day, learn how to interpret what he 
says. Where this lack of clear expression may 
not necessarih' cause a man to lose his job, 
it is frequently the answer to the age old 
(juestion, "I bonder wh\' Hill got that pro- 
motion instead of me?" 

In addition to furthering a man in his 
hne of work, a good, working vocab\ilar\' is 
largely responsible for getting him into the 
job in the first place. If you were sitting on 
the employer's side of the table at a job inter- 
view, it's a sure bet that the student who 
stammers and verbally falls all over himself 
wouldn't e\en get \our second thought. The 
man who would get \our job wouKl be the 
tellow who can say exactly what he means 
in a clear and interesting manner. 

The reason for this choice lies in the fact 
that a person's vocabulary constitutes a part 
of that intangible quality known as personal- 
ity. It's quite true that the personality of an 
individual includes such important items 
as: the manner of presentation, and alert and 
wide-awake attitude, and a natural or culti- 
vated — but at least sincere — interest in the 
things other people are doing. Without a vo- 
cabulary to go along with the above items. 
the individual has absolutely no means of 
expressing himself and is really worse off 
than a ship without a rudder. 


Although the subject of how to build a 
vocabulary has been sufficiently publicized, 
the problem of maintaining and expanding 
that vocabulary has not been stressed so 
much. A professor once said that words can 
be divided roughly into three classes: A, B, 
anti C. Class A words are those with which 
the person is familiar and uses all the time. 
Class B words are those with which the per- 
son is acquainted but is not on speaking terms. 
Class C words are those he's never even 
heai'd. The process of expanding the vocabu- 
lary consists of moving Class B into Class A 
and at least part of Class C into Class B. 
I nfortunately the process, like some chemi- 
cal equations, is reversible. This frequently 
comes about through lack of interest and 
disuse and must be constantly guarded 

As a parting shot, it should be pointed 
out that a super-vocabulary all by itself is 
just as detrimental to the individual as none 
at all. A lack of knowledge on how to use 
the words effectiveh too often backfires like 
a charge of uncontrolled gunpowder. The 
speaker must learn how to gauge the audience 
or person with whom he's talking, and select 
his words accordingly. An unbridled vocabu- 
lary does not result so much in the incorrect 
use of words as it does in the improper choice 
of words. This phase of harnessing the vo- 
cabulary and choosing the proper words is 
especially important to engineers who have 
a special vocabulary peculiar to their profes- 
sion, and who, in order to give clear explana- 
tions, must constanth" be on their guard to 
select words which are appropriate to the 
occ.-ision. If \()u don't believe this statement, 
just think back to that classroom in which 
the instructor, momentarily forgetting that 
he was talking to students not so familiar 
with the terms as he, launched into a beauti- 
ful technical explanation — for someone on 
his own level. 



This af'rf can beat 3^0 
monks to a stana/sti'/f 

g\/o\vhere in the world are elc\a- 
' Y tors as luxurious — efficient — and 
safe — as in America. Nowhere are such 
ingenious improvements made so con- 
sistently ... so rapidly. 

The ancestor of elevators — a crude 
basket attached to the end of frayed 
rope — still is in daily use— the only 
access to some monasteries in Greece. 
Powered by monks, fifty of whom 
could not do what a little slip of a 
girl does with one hand, these "ele- 

vators" try the nerves ot brave men. 

.American ingenuity, born of in- 
dividual enterprise, and nurtured by 
free competition, not only gave us the 
world's best elevators, it gave us a 
great industry employing thousands of 
men and using the products of a score 
of other industries. 

The wire rope industry is not among 
the least of these. 

Roebling engineers have kept pace 
with the designers of ''lifts " ever since 

the first American elevator was in- 
stalled WMth a Roebling elevator rope 
—back in the early I860's. 

Today, Roebling Special Traction 
Steel Elevator Rope enjoys the well- 
earned confidence of hoisting engineers 
the world over. 



in Principal Ciliej 




(Continued from Page 7) 

Industrial Petroleum Association viewed 
the unprecedented rate at which these 
fuels were beinj^ used and revised the 
estimate upward 5%. This figure is 
26% above the 1941 consumption level. 
Reasons for this unprecedented con- 
sumption rate appear to be ( 1 ) niore 
cars on the road than were foreseen 
from pre-war travel, (2) the 1,54S.()(K) 
tractors on farms prior to the war now 
number 2,422,000, an increase of 37%, 

(3) honiebuilders prefer oil heat 175,- 

000 oil-burners were installed last year 
and they are continuing to be installed 
at the rate of 50,000 per month, and 

(4) many industries have found that 
shutdowns caused by coal strikes are too 
expensive, and so are switching to li- 
quid fuels to protect themselves. Rail- 
roads are rapidly changing to more ef- 
ficient Diesel locomotion, .\inety-five 
per cent of the railroads' recent locomo- 
tive orders have been for the Diesel- 
powered type. Tractors, home oil-burn- 
ers, and Dies-.-l engines ail require a spe- 
cific cut from the petroleum oil, thereby 
leaving a smaller portion to be pro- 
cessed into high-octane gasoline. 

At the present time a 92 billion bar- 
rel "oil shale" source of oil is being in- 
vestigated at Rifle, Colorado. If pilot 
plant operations indicate that the ex- 

traction of this crude, called kerogen, 
from the shale proves economically feas- 
ible a supply equal to 4.5 times our pres- 
ent reserves will be available. 

The strain on petroleum supplies will 
be relieved greatly by the advent of syn- 
thetic fuels. The raw materials neces- 
sary for synthesizing liquid hydrocarbon 
fuels, namely natural gas and coal, re- 
spectively, are to be found in abundance. 

Recent estimates place the natural gas 
reserve at 1()I trillion cubic feet, enough 
to produce IS. 5 billion barrels of liquid 
fuels. Two plants for the conversion of 
natural gas to oil are now being built, 
one in the Hugoton gas field in western 
Kansas, the other at Brownsville, Texas. 
The latter will process 64,000,000 cubic 
feet of gas daily to produce 7,nO(l bar- 
rels of oil per day b\ tiie Fisher-Tropsch 
process, which was named after the two 
{ ierman chemists who discovered it. Ky 
building the plant near gas fields where 
gas can be obtained for as little as 5c 
per 1000 cubic feet, it is thought that 
gasoline can be produced for 5c per 
gallon, thereby competing favorably 
with the present cost of producing ami 
refining petroleum. 

Coal is by far the most abundant of 
our expendable resources. The depths 
beneath continental L nited States hold 
an estimated 5.2 trillion tons, thought to 
be about one-half of the world's reserve 
of all ranks of coal. This would be suf- 
ficient to last 6,000 years if we were to 
continue use at om" present rate of con- 
sumption of 500,000,000 tons annualh'. 
However, with the approaching deple- 
tion of our petroleum reserve, and with 
the increased use of coal as a raw ma- 
terial for certain synthetic polymers, this 
black gold will be used at a greater 

(Continued on Page 24) 

Engineering Students . . . 

You will find at the Co-Op Bookstore your needs 
in engineering and art supplies, stationery, text- 
books, and general reading. 


The Bookstore Closest to Engineering Campus 



You hired him as 
an £• £• but 
he's a mighty 
good C« R« too 


Electrical Expert. He's a Cost Reducer, 
too. And right now is a particularly good 
time to let him prove it. Here's why — 

During the tremendously increased 
production of recent years, there has been 
a sharp increase in the amount of power 
required for automatic machinery. Most 
electrical systems have been operating 
under abnormal stress. They are over- 
loaded, unreliable and poorly located or 
inflexible with respect to present machine 

locations. Excessive "down time" and 
higher production costs are certainties. 

Check with your head electrical man. 
If he has a problem, a Square D Field 
Engineer will be glad to help him analyze 
it and select corrective power distribution 
and electric motor control equipment. 

The counsel of experienced Square D 
Field Engineers is available, without ob- 
ligation, through Square D offices located 
in 50 principal U. S., Canadian and 
Mexican cities. 





(Coiitiniifil from Page 22) 
The major portion of the fuel that 
the Nazis used to energize their imple- 
ments of air, land, and sea warfare was 
produced synthetically from coal b\ tlie 
well-known Hergius process, likewi^e, a 
(Jermaii imiovation. During the \c:ir 
1944, they made 27,()0(),(H)() barrels of 
oil by this process and a lesser 4 million 
barrels by the Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. 
The former process, requiring pressures 
approaching 10, ()()() pounds will prob- 
ahl\' not become as common in this coun- 
tr\ as the Fisher-Tropsch process. Many 
of the minor coal seams of eithei' insuf- 
ficient purit\ or iiunntity will he ex- 
ploited b\ burning the underground 
seam with insufficient o\\gen, adnu'tted 
to the seam through a controlling de- 
vice, thereby controlling the compo'ition 
of the combustion products. Some of 
these gases can then be used in the syn- 
thetic production of liquid fuels, ;ill of 
this being accomplished without the high 
coit of mining the coal. Further, the 
great of shipment will be re- 
duced since 4.4 barrels (1360 pounds) 
of oil is equivalent in heating value to 
one ton of coal. Railroads now consume 
nearly one-quarter of the nation's entire 
coal production, one-fourth of this bf- 
ing used to haul coal itself. With the 
advent of the 25% efficient Diesel loco- 

motive pulling tewer trains of s\nthi'tic 
fuel (much will be sent by pipelines) it 
is possible that our required coal pro- 
duction will not be greatly increased 
over the present, in which we have 
steam locomotives a quarter of a centur\ 
old with a grate to driver efficiency of 
.ibout 5% pulling longer trains of coal. 
In summary, it appears that there are 
no grounds for fears that we shall run 
out of fuel for heat or power for man\ 
generations to come. Howe\er, there is 
cause for concern of t!ie longevity of our 
metallic resources, m.uiy of which will 
expire in this century. Secretary ol In- 
terior Krug has suggested a billion dol- 
lar survey to determine the exact extent 
of our resources. This could be a \er\' 
reasonable price for policies aiding the 
conservation and reclamation of our 
rapidh disappearing resources, resources 
which ma\ be the \ei\' life-blood of 
coming generations. 

Frosh : "1 hear you've given that girl 
a wonderful present. " 

Senior: "You're wrong. l'\e gixen her 
a wonderful past. " 

1st drunk: "l.i'f's sleep in the gutter.' 
2nd drunk: "Why?" 
1st drunk: "There's plenty of roon 
and runnin' water." 

Airborne Radar 

l\.i(l;ir for pl.uies will soon become 
e\eii more pr;tcticai with the produc- 
tion ol a new, lightweight radar in 
(ieneral Klectric's Klectronics Depart- 
ment. Weighing about 100 lbs., this 
small, simplified radar will he compact 
enough for the average commercial or 
military transport plane. 

An outstanding feature of this new 
airborne radar is its gyroscopically sta- 
bilized antenna. The device allows pres- 
entation to the pilot of the radar picture 
unaffected b\' banking, climbing, or div- 
ing of the plane. 

This new r.idar is designed to help 
remove some of the hazards of flying 
in darkness, fog, or storm, and to in- 
crease the efficiency of "all-weather" air- 
lines operations. It is not expected to be 
a cure-all for visibilit\' hazards, but it 
is another step forward in the national 
air safety program. 

Stout woman: "Do these slacks come 
in odd sizes?" 

Clerk: "No, madam, the\' get that 
wa\' after they've been worn." 

' 3S * » 

A hiccough is a message from depart- 
ed spirits. 

The most eloquent lines are not writ- 
ten or spoken — they're worn. 



' Serves Southcentral Georgia 

The Thomasville Ice and Mfg. 
Co. produces 130 tons of ice 
daily, ices many railway cars and 
trucks; stores great quantities of 
pecans, one-half million pounds of 
peanuts, quantities of pimento pep- 
pers, blueberries, pears, olira, tung 
oil nuts, and lupin seeds; rents 475 
froicn-food loclters; conducts home 
economics demonstrations; will soon 
install bullc quiclc-freezers. 

Its two plants at Thomasville give 
Southern Georgia and Northern 
Florida an invaluable service. 

This firm Hi:: used Fricl Refrigera- 
tion and ice-making equipment ex- 
clusively for 35 years. 

The Frick Graduate Trainina Course 
ill RefruH-rntion and Air Condilioninq. 
iin-.i.' ill its .'/.!( Vi'Ui-, i',t approved under 
the G. I. Bill of Rights. 





Illinois Stationery Drawing Sets 

Pens and Pen Repair Graph Papers 

Note Books and Fillers Greeting Cards 

Photo Supplies and Service Photo Books 

Cameras and Cases Study Lamps 



Photo Art House 

709 S. Wright, Champaign 



YES. Certain manufacturing processes which 
effect a change in the state of matter from 
raw to finished product, frequently produce 
yields such as this. 

However, Standard Oil does it daily . . . with- 
out changing the state of matter! 

It happens in the huge Whiting, Indiana, 
refinery shown above. Certain crackers in this 
vast 1,100 acre "apparatus" yield 102 volume 
units of liquid petroleum products for each 100 
volume units of crude oil processed. It is the 

result of cracking heavy, dense hydrocarbons 
into lighter more valuable ones whose volume 
is greater than the original charge. 

This surprising yield is not considered par- 
ticularly significant in itself. It is indicative, 
however, of our constant effort to develop new 
products and processes and to improve old 
ones. This is the collective accomplishment of 
chemists and engineers . . . men who, like you, 
studied at America's leading colleges of science 
and engineering. 

Standard Oil Company 






( CoiitiiHitd from Pagi- \()) 
11, ami 62 arc the courses wliuli I'ki- 
tcssor HausiT is teachinji, and in adiii- 
tioii he is engaged in research on a su- 
personic propeller. So far, the propeller 
is still in the theoretical stage so tliat 
no further comment could be made. 

Following his chosen field, he picks 
flying and model airplanes as hobbies. 
However, he also likes to repair and 
reactivate old watches, a hobby that 
should require a great amount of pa- 
tience. "The older the watch, the bet- 
ter," he says. "The greatest difficult) is 
in obtaining parts." 

He is a member of the Institute of 

Aeronautical Sciences and the Societ\ 
for F.xpcrimental Stress .'\nai\sis. 

When asked how long he expected to 
remain at the L niversity, he replied, "1 
hope to make my permanent home luie. 
-After roaming around quite a bit. Ini 
read\- to settle down." The aero engi- 
neers will certainly benefit from his 
ti,ii[iing an<l experience. 

"Do you realh' expect to find the 
perfect girl ?" 

"(losh no, but it's a lot of fun find- 
ing the niies that aren't." 

Two pints makes on cavort. 

JIM MATT . . . 

(Continued from Page 16) 
Kta Kappa Nu, in which he held the 
office of secretary-treasurer. He is also 
iliairman of .'\.1.E.E.-I.R.K. which oc- 
cupies most of his spare time. For sports 
Jnn likes horseb.ick riding, bowling, 
golf, and tennis. 

.'\fter graduating be hopes to go into 
the electronics industry and the devel- 
opment and distribution of electronic 

Professor, during a quiz : "Were you 
copying his answer?" 

Bright student: "No, sir, I was only 
looking to see if he had mine right." 




617 E. Green — Champaign 
Phone 8302 

Fresh Flowers 

with Personal Attention 

in our shop . . . Every order, large or 
small, receives extra care in handling 
. . . For Quality, Freshness, Packaging, 
and Prompt Delivery. 

Flowers by Wire 







808 S. Sixth St. 
Laundry Service and Dry Cleaning 





Over 73 Years 




Du Pont Digest 

Items of Interest to Students of Science and Engineering 

Industrial Organic Applications 
of Metallic Sodium 



Sodium for organic reactions is shipped in 80,000-lb. quantities, (t i 
fied by cooling and melted by hot oil for removal. 

There would seem to be a consider- 
able gap between the electrolysis of 
salt to make sodium, and research in 
the field of organic chemistry. How- 
ever, at Du Pont as much emphasis 
is placed on organic research to de- 
velop outlets for sodium as on its in- 
organic uses. 

For more than 15 years, intensive 
work on industrial uses for sodium 
has been carried on in Du Pont lab- 
oratories and plants by chemists, 
physicists, chemical, mechanical and 
electrical engineers. 

In the organic field, this research 
has contributed a number of impor- 
tant uses for sodium such as the re- 
duction of fatty esters, particularly 
of natural glycerides, to alcohols. 

Du Pont organic chemists have 
found that sodium with selected sec- 
ondary alcohols, such as methyl amyl 
alcohol, in the presence of toluene or 

xylene, eliminates shortcomings of 
the classical method involving ethyl 
alcohol and sodium . Practically quan- 
titative yields of the higher molec- 
ular weight alcohols are obtained. 

This new method is especially use- 
ful in preparing unsaturated alcohols 
not easily made by catalytic hydro- 
genation. The process can be carried 
out at atmospheric pressure and 
compares favorably with catalytic 
hydrogenation of saturated, higher 
fatty esters because of the simpUcity 
of operation and equipment. 

The discovery of the new reaction 
conditions has led to the use of mil- 
lions of pounds of sodium annually 
for manufacture of long-chain alco- 
hols for wetting and emulsifying 
agents and synthetic detergents. 

Other important processes devel- 
oped by Du Pont organic research 
include the of sodium for reduc- 
tion of fatty esters to corresponding 
long-chain acyloins, and reduction 
of nitriles to primary amines. 

Du Pont has also contributed to 
the development of many other uses 
for sodium and its simple derivatives, 
such as in the manufacture of tetra- 
cthyllead, used in high-grade motor 
fuels, dyestufifs synthesis, and de- 
scaling of alloy steels. In the form of 
sodium hydride or sodium alkoxides, 
sodium is a catalyst for many Claisen 
condensations, useful in the manu- 
facture of barbiturates, sulfa drugs, 
vitamins, keto-acids and diketones. 

Preparing to carry out an organic condensation 
reaction involving the use ot sodium, R. B. 
Clark, B.S., West Virginia University '42, and 
W. J. Hilts, M.S., Syracuse '36. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 


For certain types of work, particularly 
research and development, a higher de- 
gree is a distinct advantage and about 
a third of the men engaged in this 
work are Ph.D's. However, the major- 
ity of our technically trained men are 
Bachelors or Masters. Every effort is 
made to recognize a man's training as 
well as his special experience and apti- 
tudes. Write for a copy of the new 
booklet. "The Du Pont Company and 
the College Graduate," 2521 Ne 
Building. Wilmington 98, Delaw 


More facts about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade of America," Mondays, 8 P.M. EST, on NBC 






Galvanized (zinc-coaud) Sheets 
Stay Stronger Longer 

nn 34 YEARS . . . Erected m 19 1 3, and 
i Vi covered with heavy-gauge galva- 
nized sheets, this Tennessee con- 
centrating plant of the A/Z Company, 
is still in excellent condition after more 
than 3 decades of service. Painted 
with Gray Metallic Zinc Pamt in 1932. 

In building for the future, look 
to the past for proof of a build- 
ing material's strength . . . du- 
rability . . . service. With gal- 
vanized (zinc-coated) roofing 
and siding, you get the strength 
of steel . . . the rust protection 
of Zinc. So for low-cost, long- 
time service, choose the build- 
ing material that's proved by 
TIME itself . . . galvanized 
sheets. Send coupon for infor- 
mation about Zinc and how it 
can help keep your buildings 
and equipment stronger longer. 

"Seal ol Quality" is 

ying galvanized sheets, 
ins they carry at least 
ol Zinc per sq ft. 


2634 • 35 E Wacker Dr. Chicago 1, III. 


Send me without cost or obligation the 
illustrated booklets I have checked. 

□ Repair Manual on Galvanized Roof- 

ing and Siding 

□ Facts about Galvanized Sheets 

□ Use of Metallic Zinc Paint to Protect 

Metal Surfaces 






( L'liiitiiuiccl t'roni Pafji- 9) 
the iic\\ lalioratoiN. The original Ix'tat- 
lon is a scienrific exhibit. The 4-, 22-. 
and 7()-millioii voh in.strunu-iits will be 
used for research along with the 200- 
miliion volt betatron. The smaller in- 
struments are useful tor many projects 
not requiring the great energ\ of the 
large machine. 

-A betatron can not oiih produce great 
energies, but also provide precise control 
of them, an important feature. The en- 
ergy output can be controlled by steps of 
less than 1 -million volts. A betatron can 
produce either a high-energy beam of 
tree electrons or an equally high-energy 
\-ra\' beam. 

Hut the most spectacular scientific pos- 
sibilities lie in great energies such as the 
.^OO-niillion volts to be produced by the 
new Illinois machine. The energ\' im- 
parted to each electron b\' it will be 
greater than that resulting from split- 
ting a uranium atom. 

Cosmic ray production in the labora- 
tory will enable scientists to make funda- 
mental studies which may provide clues 
to the nature of nuclear energy and 
nuclear forces, and actually to learn 
what holds the atom together. The big 
machine is expected to produce meso- 
trons, a little-known and mysterious part 
of cosmis rays. 


(Coiuiiuieil from Page ICi) 

He was released to inactive duty in 
.March of 1946 and was appointed by 
the L niversity as assistant protestor in 
general engineering drawing and assist- 
ant dean of the College of Engineering; 
in September, a year ago this fall. 

Dean Pierce is an amateur radio oper- 
ator aiuf held a class A license in Chi- 
cago and Champaign for some time. 

.Another of his hobbies is sailing, 
about which he reminisced, "I can re- 
member when 1 put a Ford motor into 
a salvaged hull and had a boat that 
actually ran." While convalescing from 
rheumatic fever this last summer, he 
extended his hobbies to the field of 
model airplanes. 

He is a member of Phi Eta Sigma, 
Tau Heta Pi. Phi Kappa Phi, Sigma 
Tau, A.I.E.E., and Syiiton, and an as- 
sociate member of Sigma Xi. For seven 
years he was president of the board of 
trustees of .Alpha Kappa Lambda fra- 

His knowledge of engineering and his 
likeable personality together with an un- 
derstanding of student problems make 
him the ideal man for being in direct 
contact with the students. For an engi- 
neer with a problem, Dean Pierce !> 
the man to see. 

partners in creating 

For 80 years, ieaderj of the engineering profession 
hove mode K 8. E products their partners in creating 
Ihe lechniccl achieyements of our oge. K & E instru- 
ments, drcfting equipment and materials— such as the 
LEROYt Lcttorina equipment in the picture-have thus 
played o pert i.i virtuol'y evary great engineering 
p.oject in Ameiica. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
Son Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

Reg. U.S. Pal. Off. 




8' X 16' Hearth Nitnding Furnace. 
Photo by; Commercial Steel Treating 
Corporation, Detroit, Michigan. 

Process: nitriding engine blocks 

Requirements: accurate temperature control 
uniform heat distribution 

Result: no rejects 

low maintenance costs 
clean manufacturing plant 


Capacity and 
product specifications for 
the GAS-fired furnace include: 

Commercial Steel Treating Corporation demands accurate tem- 
perature control and uniform heat throughout the chamber of 
its heavy-duty nitriding furnace. GAS fulhlls these require- 
ments; five years of successful operation supply the proof. 

• Temperature 975 degrees F. 

• Allowable Variation +5 degrees F. 

• Process Time 96 hours 

• Case Depth 0.025 inches 

• Atmosphere Supply Ammonia 

• Production Rate 200 Tons per Month 

GAS, dependable fuel for industrial processing operations, 
meets the most exacting control and heating requirements. 
Low maintenance costs and cleanliness characterize GAS- 
fired installations. 

Vast new fields for phvsical and chemical research have. 

been opened by demands in the metal working industry 

for more extensive use of controlled atmospheres for 

changing internal and surface characteristics of metals. 

GAS has become firmly established as the ideal fuel 

for controlled atmosphere processing. 

Visit the A.G.A. Combined Exhibit of 


Grand Central Palace • New York City ■ December 2-7 









(Continued from Page 15) 
Carbide Cutting Tools 

Cutting tools are still, at present, the 
greatest single use of carbides. Tools for 
cutting are generally made with the ce- 
mented carbide portion in the form of 
a cutting "tip" brazed to a soft steel 
shank or cutter body. Hesides conserving 
material, a tipped tool has the advantage 
of extra strength since the tough steel 
portion of the tool backs up the carbide 
by absorbing any shocks incident to ma- 
chining. Because of the construction, 
carbide tools cost just about the same 
as steel tools. 

Carbide tools are being used commer- 
cially to cut the entire range of steels, 
cast irons, and malleable irons up to 
550 Brinell hardness. In addition, they 
are used for practically all of the com- 
monly used non-ferrous metals and such 
non-metallic and abrasive materials as 
hard rubber, "Bakelite," celluloid, "Lu- 
cite," and other plastics. They will cut 
metals that are so hard that steel tools 
will not touch them. 

Carbide tools by their nature can re- 
move more cubic inches of metal per 
minute than other tools. They can hold 
closer tolerances over long production 
runs. They give longer tool life and 
produce a better finish on the work 

(liece. Thus, they greatly speed proiiuc- 
tion while relieving the machine ripera- 
tor of the necessity of continually hav- 
ing to re-sharpen and re-set this tool. 

Carbide tools may be run .it cutting 
speeds considerably in excess of the best 
speeds obtainable with high speed steel 
cutting tools. Aluminum, for instance, 
is being carbide milled at speeds as high 
as S.ddO and 15,1)00 surface feet per 
minute. Higher cutting speeds mean tre- 
mendous increases in productivity of la- 
bor with a resultant lowering of manu- 
facturing costs — an even more important 
consideration today than usual. 

Since carbide tools cut so much fast- 
er, they generate more heat than do 
other types of tools. Coolants are there- 
fore used frequently with carbides to 
remove this heat and keep the work 
cool so that it will not distort. When 
cutting steel, the coolant also quenches 
the hot chip, stiffening it and making it 
easier to break. Chip-breaking is more 
important when using carbide tools due 
to the increased speed at which the chips 
leave the work. When coolants are used 
with carbides, they must be applied in 
large \olunie, at a fairly high \elocit\ , 
and directly to the cutting edge of the 
tool so to carry away the heat fast 
enough to keep the temperature from 
becoming excessive. 

When milling witii carbide tipped 

cutters, it is frequently found advan- 
tageous to have a negative rake angle on 
the cutting tips. This puts the engage- 
ment of the tool with the work just 
slightly behind the cutting edge where 
the tip is better supported and stronger 
than it is right on the cutting edge. In 
some applications it has been found that 
milling machines equipped with carbide 
tools may require a flywheel to be 
mounted on the spindle. The flywheel 
thus mounted helps to give a smooth, 
flat cut; adds to the cutter life; and 
greatly helps to reduce the effect of 
shock loads. 

Carbide Dies 

The original use of carbide metal, as 
a die metal for drawing round wire, con- 
tinues to be such an important applica- 
tion that today carbide dies are standard 
equipment throughout the entire wire 
drawing industry. Carbide dies last 
many times longer than did the for- 
merly-used cast iron and steel dies, per- 
mit working to closer tolerances, give a 
better finish on the wire, and have made 
possible greatly increased speeds of wire 
drawing. In addition, bars, tubing, and 
many special shapes which previously 
had to be machined are now drawn to 
size through carbide dies. 

Of greater importance, perhaps, is the 
(Continued on Page 32) 






\I)1A I\K 


Now available with 

Cork and Plastic 
Quill Stopper 


Perfected Rubber 
Dropper Stopper 

Both type itoppers 

available on 

waterproof black only 

Cork and plastic 

quill stopper is 

standard etiuipment 

on colored inks. 


271 .\7.\TH STREET, BROOKLVA 15, A. V. 

Giigiiieeriiig Facts 


In a file on your desk 
or a binder in your 
pocket you may have 
for instant reference 
your choice of 10,400 
pages of useful data. 
Write today for your 
FREE copy of the 
LEFAX Data Index. 


t^S^'^ Box 1, University Station, Urbana, 

Special Offer to Technograph Readers 

Your name in Gold, FREE, stamped on the 
front of any one binder with your first order 
for $5.00 or more. Be sure to PRINT your 
name exactly as you want it stamped on the 
binder, and mark the order "Technograph." 
This offer expires December 31, 1947. 




^ 7 

To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
make the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance when you 
can always . . . 











Notionol Electric 

Products Corporation 
Pittsburgh 30. Pa. 

All Engineering Supplies . . . 


No more fruitless hunts for hard to find items. 
We have supplies for every engineering need. 
Just come to the UNIVERSITY BOOK STORE, ask 
for whatever you need, and walk out, five min- 
utes later, completely satisfied. We will be glad 
to help you. 






( Cuntiiuicil from Page jU) 
I'viT-iiicrfasiii^ use of carbidi" dies in: 
rlie blaiikiii}:, pii'rciiifj, forniiii};. ami 
<lci'|i-(|ia\\inf; of many kiiids of sheer 
metals. I'laiii steels, alloy steels, stain- 
less steels, brasses bronzes, aluminum 
and tin arc all being deep-drawn on .1 
production basis in carbide dies. Sucli 
dies will frequently' outlast from 20 to 
100 similar dies made of hardened tf)ol 
steel. In size n;odern carbide dies ranjie 
up to l3'/2 in. inside diameter and are 
capable of handling sheet steel up to 
-> 32 in. Some of the typical part; 
which are being produced by carbide dies 
include lipstick cases, cofiee pots, pressiuc 
cookers, steel cylinders for high pressure 
gas storage, and various aut()moti\e anil 
radio parts. 

The field of application for carbide 
punches and dies for blanking is also 
steadih increasing. To date, excellent 
peiformance has been obtained on the 
blanking of steels and other metals. 
Development work is also progressing on 
the punching and blanking of more and 
more complicated shapes. On present 
punching and blanking jobs, averages of 
1 Yz to 2 million punches are being ob- 
tained with carbide punches between re- 
grinds, as compared to an average of 
50,000 operations for steel punches and 
dies of a similar design. A typical job 

Use of a coolant with carbide 
cutting tools requires high pres- 
sure and direct flow onto the 
cutting edge 

on which carhuie |iunches anil dies ha\e 
proved their worth is in punching lami- 
nations out of abrasive silicon .steel sheet 
in the manufacture of stators for elec- 
tric motors. 

Carbide W eur-Resistinij Parts 
Predictions by the manufacturer ;iiid 
users indicate that the use of cemented 
carbide for wear-resisting parts will 
eventually exceed even the tremendous 
volume now consumed for tools and dies. 

\\ lii-n it is realized that carbides, even 
under conditions of extreme abrasive 
uear, often stand up 1(111 or more times 
longer than other metals, the reasr)n for 
this prediction becomes clear. 

Today, carbides are already being used 
— both in the form of shaped in.scrts and 
complete parts — where undue wear h\ 
rubbing and abrasion is a problem. Sonv- 
of the more t\pical applications of ce- 
mented carbide parts for this purpose are 
liners for molds making drugs, powder 
metals, and bricks; for fish rod guides; 
in the form of guide rings, bushings, 
etc. ; for lathe and grinder rests and 
other machine parts; for ring and plug 
gages; for nozzles for fire hoses, de-h\- 
d rating, or spray painting and for ma- 
chine wa\s and gibs. 


The (lc\ il was ieNpi)ii>ible for the 
nanu'ng of nickel. The Saxon miners of 
the ISth centur\' blamed him for cast- 
ing a spell over their ores. When they 
attempted to smelt an ore resembling 
one of copper, the\ obtained a «hite 
metal too hard and tough for them tn 
work, due to its nickel content. In 
christening the metal "Kupfer-Xickel." 
or "Old Nick's Copper," they gave the 
minerologist, Cronstedt, a precedent for 
calling it "Nickel' when he discovered 
the element. 

The Spot to Shop 


mini Union Book Store 

715 S. Wright Street 




Chemistry gives lumber 
longer life • • • 

ir.,.„l speiim,-,,!. nhicli sinni the i-A,rlle„l prr^eri,„i,c 
tiuiditirs uj Pt-nliuhhrfthfiml. Tin- tiiii piccf^ an the 
ri/thl nx-re impn'Unnleil with thi}, prutettion anainst 
decay. All four pieces tcere buried undergruund for 
six years in a Ditw test plot. 

Crowing trees can fight their own battles against many common 
(li-structive forces. Nature has seen to that. But power poles, fence 
posts and structural lumlier are dead wood and suffer greatlv from 
insect attack and the conditions that create decav. Here's where the 
chemist steps in and takes over natures job to give lumber longer life. 

During the past decade, notable progress has been made in developing 
])reservative treatments for the protection of wood. Studies under- 
taken bv !)<>« technicians have resulted in a new preservative known 
as IVntachlorphenol which is being used successfullv without the 
alicndant disadvantages of the older conimonlv used materials. 
I'cniaihlorphcnol gives everv assurance of greatly extending the 
useful life of lumber. 

Development of chemicals for treating lumber is onlv one phase of 
llie work that is constantly underway at Dow. Our interests range 
Irom ultra-light magnesium to chemicals that promote the health of 
the Nation and the progress of every industry. 

The scientific mind and the scientific method are of first iiii[>(irtan(e 
to Dow. 


New York • Boston • PhUodolphi. 
Chicago • St. louii • Houiton 





PROBLEM — You're designing a radio broadcast transmitter. The circuit 
includes condensers and other variable elements which must be ad- 
justed by the operator. You want to place these elements for optimum 
circuit efficiency and where they will be easy to assemble, wire, and 
service. At the same time, you want to centralize the control knobs at a 
point convenient to the operator. How would you do it? 


Use S.S.White remote control type 
flexible shafts to couple the variable 
elements to their control knobs. This 
leaves you free to place both the 
elements and the knobs anywhere you 
want them. And you get control that is 
as smooth and sensitive as a direct 
connection because S.S.White remote 
control flexible shafts are engineered 
expressly for this kind of service. 

• * • 
This is just one of hundreds of remote 
control and power drive problems to 
which S.S.White flexible shafts pro- 
vide a simple answer. That's why every 
engineer should be familiar with the 
range and scope of these "Metal 
Muscles" for mechanical bodies. 


It gives essential facts 
and engineering data 
about flexible shafts 
ond their application. 
A copy is yours for the 
asking. Write today. 




-OtPT. C, 10 (AST 40th ST.. NEW YORK 16. N. T..^ 

Cne o^ /4tMnicM A AAA ^ndiutncid S'^tenfftiMA 


(Cuntinueil troiu l^age <S ) 

stei"! is at a \ery high temperature. It 
it were possible to determine the Aus- 
tenite grain size of steel before purchase 
this would be a fool-proof method of 
bu\ing the proper type. It is bclicsfd 
that the presence of copper inhibits, 
somewhat, the grain growth. 

Much of the research done b\ tlie 
department is done by graduate stu- 
dents. In addition to contributing to the 
knowledge in the field of metallurgy, 
these men gain valuable experience. Be- 
cause the field of metallurgy is rela- 
tively une.xplored, the contributions of 
any one man could revolutionize the en- 
tire steel industry and this the entire 
industrial economy of the country. Al- 
though the study of metals is one of the 
oldest phases of engineering, because of 
constant discoveries and the many new 
paths that each discovery brings forth, 
this field represents one of the best op- 
portunities for the engineer who wishes 
to explore the unknown. A former L ni- 
versity of Illinois instructor got his start 
by investigating processes for the selec- 
tive floatation of zinc and lead. He now 
heads a company that is engaged in that 

The method of teaching students in 
the department of metallurgy differs 
from that in the other departments due 
to the fact that metallurgy is a constant- 
ly changing science, there are fewer stu- 
dents in this work, and there are not 
many textbooks covering metallurgy. 
The student must get much of his in- 
formation from periodicals and bulle- 
tins. Because of the great number of 
variables in any metallurgical process 
and the fact that the field is to a great 
extent unexplored, mathematical treat- 
ment is extremely difficidt. In addition 
a knowledge of chemistry is one of the 
important basic parts of the field of 

Graduates of the department usually 
work for the large companies in the 
metals industry. They can work in 
research, or they may be in charge of 
foundry. In general, the field of metal- 
lurgy is one of the few pioneering fields 
left in engineering. They may work for 
a company that is a large consumer of 
metallic products, such as the automo- 
bile industry. While working for a con- 
sumer industry they may investigate 
defects or failures in metallic parts. 

A Golden Oppartuuity- Mining 

Public consensus of opinion seems to 
be that all prospective students of min- 
ing engineering will fare best by going 
to such schools as Missouri School of 
Mines, or Colorado School of Mines; 
and therefore, many young men inter- 
ested in this field head there either di- 
( Continued on Page 36) 



ywa /kiARCH o^ sc/SA/ce 

Heating a piece oF/viErAu 




WeAT By INDUCTION) seemed 




t^mazing production tool rectifies ordinary 60" 
cvcle current them steps it up to h50,000 cvcles. 
a magnetic field of high density is set up in work 
coil and when metal is introduced into this field, 
passage of current causes power losses which pro- 
duce heat within the metal with incredible swiftness. 
Big benefits: complete, selective control 
of heat penetration . . . exact unifor/viitv. . . 
greatly increased production.' 






tlECTROMIC Heater is one more example OF HOW 



Of^£ OF rh/E BfG 3 /A/ eCECr/R/C F>O^V£R £qU/PA1£A/r 





( Coiitinmil troiii Page .i4 ) 

ri'ctly or immcdiatfly followinj^ a |iii- 
mary >(.'ar at thi-ir stati- univiTsity. It 
is not realized by many people that first- 
rate training; iiiulcr the best teachinj; 
staff available is offered in all courses 
of study right here at the I ni\erslty 
ol Illinois. Many U. of I. graduates of 
the past have achieved top rank in the 
mining engineering world. All too often 
a man goes to ;i school of mines and 
acquires a traiie education, whereas he 
could profit most by attending such a 
school as the I', of I. and obtain a 
liberal research or administrative educa- 
tion. Mining companies arc now in great 
need of graduate engineers with just 
this background. 

Judging from the emplosinent-ile- 
mand figures, described in the 'I'lilnio- 
f/rriph last month, a student in the engi- 
neering college would do well to in- 
vestigate the opportunities ottered in 
mining or metallurgy — greater emplo\- 
ment liemand, less competition, rapid 
advancement to higher than average sal- 
aries for engineers in general, unlimited 
opportum'ty for research and develop- 
ment, and work in a \ital industry 
w hicli is becoming more and more a key 
t(i our n.-itional economy. 

Let us glance at some of the main 

positKjns .isailahle Icir which the basic 
work is covered in the nuning depart- 
ment. The industry resolves itself prin- 
cipallv into two divisions, metal mining 
and minnig. In the first division, 
there is .1 due nee<l tor engineering and 
development in prospecting methods tor 
the location of deep-seated deposits of 
copper, manganese, and other metals 
whose reseive supply have become cii- 
tically small. Also both types of indus- 

Night photo of a 50-foot oil well 

blast produced by a shaped 

charge of explosive 

tr\ have telt the acute need for more 
trained technical men, because indus- 
trial leaders realize that a college grad- 
uate is a more valuable adtlition to their 
technical staff than an untrained worker 
from the ranks. So many demands were 
made of the mining department last \ear 
that several positions open for mining 
engineers at veiy gooil startijig salaries 
had to be referred to other departments 
ill the school of engineering to be filled. 
I' or the student interested in research, 
this is the fulfillment of his life ambi- 
tion : the fields of development in ex- 
plosives, ventilation, extraction methods, 
and possible future underground living 
in this atomic age are hut a few of 
the subjects no more touched b\ 

Well versed and well known men in 
the fields of mathematics, chemistrv, 
metallurgy, and mining are here await- 
ing your signal to share the wealth of 
basic knowledge prerequisite to your fu- 
ture Such men as Professor H. 
L. Walker, already mentioned, and 
Profe.s.sor William R. Chedsey are in- 
ternationally known for their work in 
the fields of metallurgy and mining. In 
choosing mining or metallurgical engi- 
neering as yOLir profession, there are few- 
better places in the world to acquire the 
education upon which to build youi' fu- 
ture than the Iniveisitv of Illinois. 




A Campus Tradition 









Plasnf*s trtifrp plasties hplonq^ 

tisiiitf insuluting and printing qualities 

OVR TYPE of plastics, Synthane, has a combination of mechanical, 
chemical, and electrical properties that fit it for a host of useful 
applications. It is corrosion and moisture resistant, dense, structurally 
strong, and may be easily worked. An excellent electrical insulator, 
Synthane is extremely light (about '2 the weight of aluminum). 

A food example of the use of laminated plastics is this timing device 
which uses Synthane for the cams in the timer. Heart of an automatic 
system, the Cam Timer is designed to control the flow of exhaust 
gases to a stack. 

Aside from its outstanding insulating qualities, letters, numerals, 
and symbols may be easily and clearly printed on Synthane by our 
Synthographic process. Synthane Corporation, Oaks, Pennsylvania. 

^ — w — ^ 


S()\ EMBER. 1947 37 

It's NORBIDE^ • . 

A Norton development that's 
mighty useful to industry 

A product of Norton research, its unique characteristics 
make it very helpful in three entirely different ways 

— as an abrasive for lapping superhard materials — in 
molded form where extreme resistance to wear is de- 
sired—or for metallurgical use as an alloying agent. 

Norbide is the trade-mark for Norton Boron Carbide, a 
material produced by fusing two commonplace materials, 
boric acid and petroleum coke, in the electric furnace at 
terrific temperatures. It is harder than any material ex- 
cept the diamond. 

Not only is Norbide* extremely useful as an abrasive but 
because it is self-bonding under high pressure at high 
temperatures, it can be molded into a variety of products 
that are finding wide application for their exceptional 
resistance to wear and other unique properties. 

The fascinating story of Norbide products and fheir many 
interesiing applicaiions is described in catalog 378-CP. 
Every engineering student will want a copy. Write today 

— no obligation. 


Behr-Manning, Troy, N. Y. is a Norton Division 

'Registered trade-mark for Norton Boron Corbido 




(Continued from l',ij;f IS) 
ahrasivf engineer for the Hay State 
.^hrasivc company of Westhoro, Mass. 
He will ser\e Chicago and the midwest. 
.After graduation he went with the 
I'hoeiiix (Ilass compan\-, then became 
assistant ceramic engineer in the clay 
and silicate division of the National 
Hureau of Standards in Washington. 
\lo:,t recently he has been connected 
with the sale and manufacture of 
foundry snagging wheels. 

.At a recent family night party at 
Western Electric's Hawthorne plant 
LOUIS A. STAP^F '42, a W.K. en- 
gineer, received the Distinguished Serv- 
ice Cross for his heroism in battle 
against the Germans. 

.Mr. Staff's heroism was exhibited be- 
tween .April 7 and 9, 1945, while serv- 
ing as a forward observer for a platoon 
of chemical mortars. When his party 
was pinned down by heavy enemy fire, 
Staff, a lieutenant, waited until dark, 
Tiid then evacuated his men to a nearby 
wood where he evaded enemy patrols 
, all night. The following morning, he 
[ re-established radio contact with the 
supporting artillery and at great per- 
sonal risk, adjusted artillery fire on 
vital enemy emplacements. He then 
brought his men back through enemy 
lines, capturing numerous prisoners on 
the way. 

assistant general superintendent of the 
Hibbing-Chisholm (.Minnesota) district 
of the ()li\er Iron Mining company, 
has been elected a vice president in the 
firm. He joined the Oliver organization 
soon after graduation, working first as 
a mining engineer in the Canisteo dis- 
trict. In 1930, he was transferred to 
the Virginia district. He was made gen- 
eral crusher plant foreman at the Vir- 
ginia-Eveleth crushing plant in 1934, 
was promoted to assistant superintendent 
of the Hibbing-Chisholm district in 
1942, became superintendent of the 
Hartle\-Frazer mine in 1943, and in 
September. 1946, was appointed assist- 
ant general superintendent of the Hib- 
bing-Chisholm area. .A native of Chi- 
cago, Machamer attended Oberlin col- 
lege from 1912 to 1914. .After serving 
in the .Air corps during World W^ar I, 
he entered the U. of I. to study mining 

Washington, D. C, an expert consult- 
ant in the field of radar for the War 
department, has been named an assistant 
professor of electrical engineering in the 
University of Illinois. 

Rorn in Lebanon, Kentucky, he at- 
tended the L niversity of Louisville, 
graduating in electrical engineering in 
(Continued on Page 40) 



What do these things have in common? 

^^Jm ' *-^ -:-::.- "11 

A children's playground '. . . . a private pleasure plane . . . 

An inter urban bus a battery of coke ovens . . 

An oil well in the ocean 

They\'e all been made more efficient by the 
engineering or chemical skill of Koppers 

HERE'S HOW: 1. Koppers durable Tarmac surfacing for play- 
grounds, roads, airports. 2. Koppers Aeromatic, variable-pitch 
propellers. 3. Koppers American Hammered Piston Rings. 
4. Koppers-designed and Koppers-built coke plants. 5. Koppers 
pressure-treated timber for underwater structures that must resist 
marine-borers. 6. Koppers chemicals from coal for use in insecti- 
cides. All these, and many more, are Koppers products. All bear the 
Koppers trade-mark... the symbol of a many-sided service. \A^herever 
you see it, it means top quality. Koppers Co., Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 

sOVEMBER. 1947 

and a deadly insecticide? 



(Continucil trom I'agc 38) 

l')J6, .'11111 the L iiiversit>' of Wisconsin, 
vvht'iT he received the doctorate degree 
in ph\sics in 1941. Hetore jioing to 
Wisconsin he had spent a year as en- 
gineer with the Louisville (jas and Elec- 
tric company. He taught as an under- 
graduate assistant at Louisville and as a 
graduate assistant at Wisconsin. 

In 1941, he became a member of 
the radiation laborator\' at NLissachu- 
setts Listitute of Technology, aiding the 
de\elopment of radar systems, and being 
project engineer for the production of 
airborne radar. In 1944, he became an 
expert consultant in the office of the 
secretary, being sent with special groups 
to England and to the Philippines. 

At MIT, he was a member of a radai' 
de\ei()pment group headed b\- Profes- 
sor LOUIS N. RIDKNOrR, now 
dean of the (Graduate school at the Ini- 
vcrsity of Illinois. 

M.S. '.^4, and JOHN C. MILES, M.S. 

'4(1, both of the mechanical engineering 
staff, ha\e invented the Illini down-draft 
furnace, which burns coal smokelessiy. 
The L . of I. Foundation holds furnace 
patent. A model is being manufactured 
b\ the Lennox Furnace company and 

will in- le.idv loi' general s.ile before 
next >ear. 

The first draft of "A Histor\ of rlie 
College of Engineering of the Uni\er- 
sitv of Illinois, 1868-194S," bv IRA O. 
M.AKER '74 and EVERETT E. 
KIN(j of the ci\il engineering depart- 
ment is ready for revision. The late 
Professor Halcer was one of the college's 
best known men and was in the field 
of civil engineering. Professor l'"meritus 
King retired two \ears ago and has 
done a great deal of work on the book 
since then. Professor Haker carried for- 
ward to 1920. Not a great many copies 
will be printed, since the main purpose, 
as Mr. King describes it, will be to have 
a college reference book for engineer- 
ing facidty men. A limited number of 
copies will be available for aluniiu ami 

More than 4ll new faculty members 
have been appointed to the College of 
Engineering, including one of the sci- 
entists who helped establish radar con- 
tact with the moon. He is HAROLD 
D. WEBB who will be an assistant 
professor of electrical engineering. A 
new professor in theoretical and applied 
mechanics is NELS O. MIKLESTAD, 
who, during the war, served as consult- 
ant for the California Institute of Tech- 
nology on research problems in dynamics, 
vibration and stress analysis. ALFRED 

.M. FREUDENTHAL oi the Univer- 
sity of Haifa, Palestine, will be visit- 
ing professor of T. and A. .M. for 
1947-48 and will devote part of his 
time to research projects on the fatigue 
of metals. 

This year DR. R.AY L. SWEKIERT 
'20 took over his new work as dean of 
the Division of (Iraduate Studies at 
(leorgia School of Technology, Atlanta. 
He has been on the staff there since 
1929, serving as professor of mechanical 
engineering, director of engineering, sci- 
ence and management, war training 
and co-director of the Institute of Cit- 
izenship. He did special work for the 
Navy on its turbine design and for 
Pratt & Whitney and United .Aircraft 
durmg the war. 

When CURT TALBOT '36 went to 
(leneral Electric right after graduation, 
he kept on studying electrical engineer- 
ing, this time in the company's general 
and commercial coin'ses. Between hours 
of work and study he went out to the 
Schenectady airport to practic flying, 
piling up 500 hours and getting his com- 
mercial license. By stud\ing in both 
these fields, Curt was, unknowingly, 
giving himself the best possible prepara- 
tion for his present job — that of man- 
ager of the new Cieneral Electric Flight 
Test laboratory 






711 South Wright 


engineering supplies 







is graphic... 


'own go the curtains. Off go the lights. 
And as the fihn begins, the chiss becomes alert, at- 
tentive, absorbed. Photography is graphic . . . 

Because it's graphic, educators use films to bring 
the breath of life into the classroom ... to give new 
meaning to the teaching of history, science, mathe- 
matics, and other school subjects. 

Because it's graphic, industry uses films to remove 

employee relations fiom the realm of the abstract . . . 
to give vivid impact to health and safety campaigns 
... to explain clearly the "hows and whys" in train- 
ing programs. 

ISccause it's graphic, advertisers use films to bring 
out a product's allure ... to pictiue its promise in 
true-to-life detail ... to arouse and hold their pros- 
pect's interest. 

This characteristic— with others equally unique— 
gives photography broad applicational scope. For an 
introduction to some of its most important functional 
applications, write for "Functional Photography.'' 
It is free, of course. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 

Functional Photography 

is advancing business and industrial technics 


... a great name in research with a big future in CHEMISTRY 


Increasing Uses Found 

for Amazing 
Organosilicon Products 

A suiliicc fiiiiNli thai sets new standards 
in tluial)ilily? Stove and heater finishes 
tliat ivitlistand iiigh temperatures with- 
out cracking or discoloration? An oil 
that flows at 120 below zero and does 
not i<^nite at 575 V'c These are just a 
few of the possibilities— and realities— 
of silicone chemistry. 

dominant, while the undesirable char- 
.i<ieiisti(s are retessive or <am])letelv 


Organosilicon chcmistrv dates back 
almost a century. lUn only in recent 
years did General Electric begin investi- 
gating silicones for industrial uses. With 
the war. the amazing heat- and cold- 
resistant properties ol silicone products 
lountl several important applications 
(like silicone rubber gaskets for super- 
chargers). .-\nd now. with a new plant 
completed at VVaterford, N. Y., General 
Electric silicones can begin to flow in 
quaiuity to many types of industries. 


Just what are silicones? General Ele( ti ic 
silifones are products of research- 
highly versatile synthetics derived by 
"ciossing" organic and inorganic sid)- 
stances. The combination results in an 
entirely new and prolific family, in 
which the virtues of each parent are 

A siiitone's basic chemical sirnclurc 
is a silicon-oxygen molecule derived 
liom sand. The insertion of organic 
groups into this purely inorganic sili- 
con-oxygen combination endows it with 
plasticity, flexibility, and workability, 
without appreciably lessening its in- 
herent virtues of heat, chemical and 
weather stability. 


Where can these products of G-E sili- 
cfine research be applied? Here is a list- 
ing whi(h indicates some uses, bv 

1. SILICONE GREASES: Filling com 
pounds, dielectrics, ball-bearing and 
slope oc k hdnicanis, and vacuum-sealing 

2. SILICONE OILS: Aircraft hydraulic 
svstcnis, brakes, fluid couplings, manom- 

eters: tl.imping li(|uids: dielectric heat 
liansfer mediums: diffusion pump li(|- 
iiids: and mold rele:ise agents. 

3. SILICONE RESINS: lieoii.;.! iiisnl..- 
lion: paints, iriaincis :uul siiTiil:n pio- 
te<ti\e and decorative fluislies; plastics, 
:Mid adhesi\es. 

4. SILICONE RUBBER: Gaskets for oven 
doors, scan blights, \acuinii chambers, 
refrigerators. cap;icitor bushings; coated 
cloth for diaphragms atul insulating 
lapes, :ind clc-icirig applications. 


Li(]uid com|>ositions tor treating paper, 
(loth, plastics, asbestos, glass, ceramics, 
powders. :nid leather. 

• .Vt (ieneral Electric the doors to 
silitone research have been swtnig wide. 
Possibilities for further development are 
virtually unlimited— awaiting oidy the 
imagination, knowledge, and skill of 
today's and tomorrow's chemists. For 
more information write Chemical Dc- 
pnrtmeiil .(icneral Electric Compnny. 
I'ills/ield. Mnssacli usetls. 

A mexsaije to stiiitents uj chemistry and cheitiival eiKjiiiferiiiij jrnni 


Head of Chemistry Division 

General Electric Research Laboratory 

The pr() made in the Held of orKaiiosilicoii oheniistry is only 
a prelude to that which can he expected in tlie near future. 
YouuH technical men of' today— and those seeking a fascinating 
branch of chemistry toward which to direct their studies for 
tomorrow's research- will do well to investigate thoroughly the 
opportunities I'nr endca\'or offered by organosilicon chemistry. 






•> • 


DefemTier. i!l47^ 25 Ce 


"—Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge ivill be increased" -danki^xu, 4. 

Why transportation gets better all the time 

Over six IITINDRED miles an hour in the air, four hun- 
dred on land, one hundred on water— these are the speeds 
that are telescoping time and space today. 

The world shrinks and shrinks . . . Distances that were 
once days, weeks, months away are now a matter of hours. 
What things behind the scenes have iirouglu these whirl- 
wind developments in transportation? 

There's chromium, for one. Ilasis of stainless steel, it 
toughens planes, cars, trains . . . insures added safety . . . 
yet makes them lighter throughout. 

There are special carbon brushes necessary to the opera- 
tion of some thirty motors and generators used in the con- 
trol apparatus of modern transport planes. These brushes 
must be built to stand up under tlie pressures of high alti- 
tude flying. 

Colorful plastics, too, lend their lightness, give their 
strength, safety and serviceability. 

And gasoline now gives more power— has more get-up- 
and-go— takes you farther at less cost . . . thanks to new 
vitalizing chemicals. 

Producing these betlcr materials and many others— for 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of mankind 
—is the work of the people of Union Cariiide. 

FREE: You are invited to send lor the illiistraled linolilet, "Products 
and Processes," which describes the ways in which industry uses 
VC.C's Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases and Plastics. 

Union Carbide 


30 EAST 42ND STREET |im NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 

Products oj Divisions and Units include 

LiNDE Oxygen • Prest-0-Lite Acetylene • Pvrofax Gas • BAKELrrt, Krene, Vinyon, and Vinylite Plastics 

National Carbons • F.veready Flashlights and Battkrii s . Acheson Electrodes 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys • Synthetic Organic Chemicals 


What Every Student Engineer 
Should Knovir About Bearing Functions 




MILLING MACHINE SPINDLE mounted on double 
flanged bearings front and rear. Rear bearings are carried 
in floating sleeve. Bearings are adjusted by means of 
double lock nuts and tongued washer. 

MILLING MACHINE SPINDLE using single flanged 
bearings front and rear, the flanged bearings being used 
to permit through boring of the housing. 


TAPdio Toller Warimgs 

losl+lve and permanent shaft 
alignment is a vital factor in many 
machines. Whether you get it or not 
depends on the bearings on which 
the shafts are mounted. 

You can be sure of getting it by 
using Timken Tapered Roller Bearings 
as shown In the drawings, because of 
their tapered design; line contact of 
rolls and races; and precision adjust- 
ability to compensate for wear. 

Furthermore, by the use of Timken 
Flanged Type Bearings, counterbor- 
ing of bearing housings is unneces- 
sary, because no internal backing for 
the bearings Is required. The hous- 
ings are bored straight through and 
the ends faced to receive the flanged 
bearing cups. Since it is much easier 
to face this external surface accu- 
rately than to keep the faces of 
counterbored shoulders absolutely 
square with the center line of the 
housing, there Is no danger of the 
bearing being cocked and the shaft 
out of line. Manufacturing costs are 
cut, too. 

The more you know about Timken 
Bearings when you graduate, the 
better prepared you will be for your 
engineering career. 


iw Developments 

#/r/ ./«lf/f IHvh. K.K. 'tit 

anil Herh ytazvr. U.K. '.TO 


liifiuihcation ot wholi' niok'ciilcs iil 
chi'inical siibstaiia-s may be inailo with 
a inicro-wavi- spectroscope, using radar 
waves from 1.2 to 1.6 centimeters in 
length. In this way complicated mole- 
cules such as the hydrocarbons can be 
analyzed. When micro-waves are beamed 
through the vapor of the substance to be 
anaKzed, certain wa\e lengths are ab- 
sorbetl by the molecules. Thus, for each 
substance, there is a characteristic pat- 
tern of absorption lines which, when pro- 
jected electronically on a scieen. arc 
easil\' identihed. 

Basic elements of the spectroscope de- 
veloped at the Westinghouse Research 
Laboratories arc an oscillator ( reflex 
klystron ) wave guide, crystal detector, 
oscillo.scope, and sweep generator as 
shown in the photograph. Micro-waves 
emitted h\ the oscillator are directed 
through the wave guide which contains 
the .sample vapor to be analyzed. The 
waves are picked up at the other end by 
the detector which transmits the impulse 
to the oscilloscope. The wave guide is 
the long slender tube extending out at 
the lower left side of the photograph. 
Compounds which have been identified 
are ammonia, water vapor, acetone, cy- 
anogen bromide, and carbonyl sulfide. 
The instrument promises to be a val- 
uable tool in tiie study of molecular and 
•itomic nuclei. 

An electronic spectroscope for identifying molecules of gases 

This 6-inch long cathode ray tube 
is designed for small, lightweight 

Miniature CR Tube 
For Small Testers 

A newly developed NORELCC) 
cathoile ra\' tube (type 3QPI) for oscil- 
loscope use is very short, has a Hat face, 
and provides improved electron-optical 
characteristics, particularly at the screen 
edge. The tube has improved cross-talk 
characteristics between deflection-plate 
pairs and is especially suited to the de- 
sign of the imusually small, lightweight 
service equipment needed in television 
installation and maintenance work. 
(Cross-talk is the distortion on one set 
of dellection plates caused by the action 
of a signal on the other set.) 

The overall length of the 3QPI is 
only 6 l,/8 inches and the face diameter 
is 2 3/4 inches. The tube utilizes PI 
( green ) phosphor and has electrostatic 
focus and deflection. Rated heater drain 
is 0.3 amps, at 6.3 volts. Capacity be- 
tween terminals varies from 2 to 9 


Under typical comlitions, operating 
potentials compare favorably with those 
of the usual cathode ray tube ; second 
anode voltage Eb., is 800 volts DC, 
anode E,„ is 300" VDC, grid cut oflf 
voltage is -¥:> VDC. A voltage of 168 
volts between deflection plates D, and 
D.^ produces a beam deflection of one 
inch while 105 volts between plates D^ 
and D, produce a deflection of one inch. 



Some day you are going to want to know something that 
you won't have learned in college. And won't find in books. 

You are going to consider using aluminum for some 
purpose where the engineering isn't all spelled out for 
you. You'll want facts about aluminum that you can 
apply to your problem; and guidance in using them. 

When that happens, remember to call on the brains 
that have stored up more knowledge of aluminum than 
you can find anywhere else. For 59 years this brain has 
been gathering facts and experience in making aluminum 
useful in thousands of ways. 

We are talking about the cumulative corporate brain 
of ALCOA . . . Aluminum Company of America. When 
it goes to work on your problem, the particular kind of 
knowledge needed is sure to be found in one or more of 
this brain's many parts ... in the minds of the scien- 
tists, engineers, plant men and salesmen who make up 
this corporate brain of ours. 

Their metallurgical experience, their counsel on 
design, their intimate knowledge of aluminum fabrica- 
tion and finishes ... all yours for the asking. Aluminum 
Company of America, Gulf Bldg., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 

MORE people want MORE aluminum for MORE uses than ever 





Ill the electrical iiiamifacturing 
iiitlustrv, it takes an engineer to 
sell. He must he prepared not 
onlv to explain the features, con- 
struction and design of his prod- 
uct, hut must he ahle to apply 
it as well. He should foresee 
operating prohlems of his cus- 
tomer and he ahle to explain 
how the apparatus works under 
every condition. 

For example, at Westinghouse: 

APPARATUS SALESMEN ... are responsihle for the sales of 

all Westinghouse products to a group of regular customers. 

PRODUCT SPECIALISTS . . . are experts on specific 
t\pes of equipment; thev know and can demonstrate 
how the motor, switchgear or other apparatus works. 

DIVISION SALES ENGINEERS ... are specialists cover- 
ing broad lines of products such as steam equipment, 

radio apparatus and arc experts in its application. 
INDUSTRY SALESMEN . . . keep ahreast of changing 
developments in speeihc industries, such as textile, 
steel, petroleiun . . . and i'orniuiale plans to maintain 
the advance position of \\ estinghouse in these fields. 
Your sales o|(|M(rtunities with Westinghouse are as 
hroad as industry itself. Wherever power is applied, 
there's need for Westinghouse equipment. g-ioo(u 

This is hut onp of the many oppor- 
tunities open in the electrical field. 
There are many others — in enpineer- 
inj;, research and manufacturing at 
^ eslinfjhouse. Bepin plans for your 
future hy sending today for your free 
ropy of "Finding Your Place in 



To ohiain cop\ of "Finding Your Place in Industry", consult Place- 
nienl Olliccr of your uniyersity, or mail this coupon to: 

The District Educational Coordinator 

If estinghouse Electric Corporation 

20 /\. l\ ncher Drive, P.O. Box B, Zone 90 

Chicago 6. Illinois 





Ijeorge R. Foster Editor 

Francis Green Assistant Editor 

Ed VVitort Assistant Editor 

Barbara Schmidt. ..l/ci/'cw/i Editor 


John Dick 
Don Hornbeck 
Donald Johnson 
Karl HilRendort 
Ralph Lending 
Tom Moore 
Martin Sahath 
C'.irl Sonnenschein 
(.fiie Fisher 
1 Irrhert Jacobson 
nil k Hammack 
Kenneth McOwan 
('■mriie Minnick 

Al Rust 
Phil Doll 
Ronald Johnson 
Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
John Shurtleff 
Arthur Welcher 
Shirley Smith 
Sam Jefferies 
(ilenn Massie 
CJeorge Ricker 
Duke Silvestrini 

(ieiie Robinson, Illustrations Editor 

led Sohn 
Will V Woo 
Willard E. Jnne 

BobVan Winkle 
Jack Stumpf 


Knhert A. Johnson.. Bus. JMgr. 

Sranley Diamond ../:/m7 Bus. Mgr. 
Charles ]a.nscn....Ass't Bus. ]\lgr. 

Richard Leek .Ass't Bus. Mgr. 

Frfd Seavey Ass't Bus. Algr. 

Jnhn Bogatta Robert Cox 

Rmlv \'ergara CSerry Thompson 

( it-iirge Kvitek Robert Levin 

Mil hell Cassidy William Anderson 

Junes Chapman Harold Wilson 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 

Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drcxel Technical Journal, Illinois 
Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa Transit, 
' Kansas Engineer, Kansas State Engineer, 
' Kentucky Engineer, Marquette Engineer, 
Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, Ohio 
State Engineer, Oklahoma State Engineer, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rose Technic, Tech 
Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
[gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1921,, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana. Illinois. Subscription, $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Publisher Representative — Litlell Murray- 
BarnhiU, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 



Volume 63 

Number 3 

T/ie lech Presents 


Agricultural Machinery Design 7 

Al Rust. Ag.E. '4S 

Machine Tool Developments 8 

Ronald Johnson. Com/ii. '4S 

Industrial Sightseeing 10 

West Meets East 14 

Carl Sonnensihein . iM.E. '4S 


\e\v De\elopments 2 

John Dick. E.E. 'JS. and Ilerh Mazer. E.E. '50 

Engineering Societies 12 

John Shurtleff. Ch.E. '50. and Dick Hammack. G. E. '4S 

Introducing 18 

Mel Reiter. Arch.E. '49. and Ken McOuan. M.E. '49 
Connie Minnich. C.E. '51 

Editorial 20 

Crossword Puzzle 16 


This hole in the ground at the southeast corner of California 
street and Mathews avenue is the first phase in the construction 
of the new chemistry building. (Gene Robinson). 


The stethoscope, believe it or not, is not limited to the medi- 
cal profession. Here it is shown being used for the inspection 
of time switches. (Courtesy of Sangamo Electric company). 


Resign of Igriciiltiiral Mmx] 

"Weeii-taiiH-r," "plin\-jockey," hay- 
shaker" or whatexer \ou prefer to call 
him, the farmer is one of the largest 
users of the steel output from the foun- 
dries in this countr\' toilay. According 
to the 1945 census report by the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, there were 
5,800,000 f a r m operators utilizing 
$5,150,000,000 worth of farm imple- 
ments and machinery. This means that 
nearly one-third of the total income of 
the farmer has been invested in farm 
machinery, excluding automobiles. The 
farm equipment industry then is defi- 
nitely not in its infancy and its size indi- 
cates that employment for many an aspir- 
ing agricultural engineer can be assiued 
in this occupation. 

The mbanite needs to go no further 
than his own city limits before he visual- 
izes the farmer in action surrounded by 
a group of implements which have been 
designed and produced after several de- 
cades of modification and refinements. 
He might exclaim "Farming is really a 
soft life with all these new modern 
labor-saving devices," and "push-button 
farming is practically here!" Needless 
to say, both statements are rather inac- 
curate. However, it is true that the 
design and production of farm machin- 
ery has kept pace and will continue to 
keep pace with rapid advances in other 

Bu .M It us/. Aff.K. 'tn 

What is the basis for farm machine 
design? How is an implement designed 
and built? For the answers to these 
questions the engineer must go through a 
logical thought process before he can 
establish an idea on paper. 

What job must the machine do? How 
must it perform under various field con- 
ditions? What must be its capacity? 
How much can the company afford to 
spend on the machine in design and engi- 

Concurrent with the record out- 
put of foodstuffs in tliis country 
is the approaching maturity of the 
farm machinery industry. Sparked 
vvitli an expanding outlook toward 
the information gained by recent 
research and development engi- 
neering, the industry is rapidly 
working toward the ultimate goal 
of functional design. This article 
deals with a few of these design 
problems of which many have been 
demonstrated by the experience of 
the farmers themselves. 

neering? For the answers to some of 
these questions the farm implement de- 
signer must be a combination engineer, 
agriculturist and prophet. What he must 
keep in mind is that there may be any- 
where from 5 to 50 other manufacturers 

working on a design for the same type of 
implement. The field is highly competi- 
ti\e. If the designer comes through with 
an idea that is patentable, there is al- 
ways the necessity of checking through 
files for infringement on someone else's 
patent rights. A system of cross license 
of patents is used in the farm equipment 
industry. For example, this makes it 
possible for the John Deere Company to 
use International Harvester Company 
patents for the price that International 
asks. These prices are usually not ex- 
cessive since there may be a mutual prop- 
osition between companies for use of 
other patents. Once the manufacturer 
sees a clear covnse outlined he turns his 
engineering "blood-hounds" loose on 
turning out an experimental machine. 

Designing and building a modern 
farm machine goes through somewhat the 
same procedure before production that 
an automobile might. Ideas for a new 
machine or an improvement in an exist- 
ing design may be conceived almost any- 
where — agricultural experiment stations, 
the U. S. D. A., and the farmers them- 
selves. The latter is probably the most 
prolific source since one farmer or a 
group of farmers often experiment with 
an idea and use their own machine shops. 
The manufacturer receives the idea from 
the farmer through the local farm imple- 
( Continued on Page 28 ) 

Of the agricultural design features adopted by industry, many originate with 
the farmer, himself. Shown here are (left) a homemade power take-off and 
(right) a hoist attachment for loading dirt, manure, and limestone. 


I.00kl\(i 1111(11) . . . Miidiiiii' Tool Dmiopiiioiits 

#/f/ lt»ntil*l 'lahnHwn. 1'oniiii. ' ttt 

Cdiistaiit lU'W ili'siyns ami iniproNC- 
mcnts in inacliiiu'iv and machine tools in 
nioilfrn industry arc tlu- basis for Anui 
ica's hijj:h k-vcl ot production. Throujih 
thfsc iniprovenicnts we are able to "out 
do" the rest of the world in producing 
superior equipment. 

An entireh new concept in the field 
of horizontal enj;ine lathes has been de- 
\eloped. It is designed primarily for be- 
tween center work on shaft and chuck- 
ing jobs where turning, grooving, facing 
and angle turning operations are re- 
quired. This machine, having three 
spindles with identical tooling for each 
spindle, produces three pieces of finished 
work for each complete cycle of func- 
tions. This lathe makes possible rough 
and finish cuts with single point tooling 
for the majority of machining operations 
with attendant savings in tooling costs. 
However when operations such as groo\- 
ing or nicking for grinding are required, 
a multiple-tool block is used which works 
in conjunction with single point tools 
and is controlled and operated b> an 
automatic control unit <as a single func- 
tion in the machining cycle. 

Departing from the usual engine lathe 
design, this new horizontal lathe olifers 
the following advantages never before 
incorporated in horizontal lathes: 

1 . An innovation for greater opera- 
tor's coinenience is the location of the 
head stock and the .\Ian-Au-Control 
Unit with all the machine operating 
controls on the right-hand side of the 

.\t llie Maehine Tool Conferenec 
held in ChieaRo this fall, the exhi- 
bitions were keynoted with ma- 
ehinery which was designed to 
revoliitioni/.e methods and acceler- 
ate the production of parts. Exem- 
plifying this type of maehine are 
the horizontal lathe and the gear 
and worm shaper which are the 
subjects of this article. 

_'. Three spnuiles produce three pieces 
in less time than normally required for 

^. All three spindles are equipped 
with hydraulically - operated centering 
type lever gripping chucks. These chucks 
perform two functions: first, to extend 
the center which picks up the work, and 
second, two hydraulicalh -operated le\ers 
grip the work, thereby eliminating the 
use of driving dogs. 

4. Each hydraulic chuck is individ- 
ually foot treadle operated. This gives 
the operator unrestricted use of both 

5. Both saddle and tool slide are 
mounted in the vertical plane, and travel 
horizontally on vertical bearing ways. 
Because of this vertical construction, 
chips fall freely into the chip receiver 
without any accumulation around the 
work or the machine operating parts. 

6. An automatic feed interrupter 
breaks the chips to convenient lengths 
for removal from the chip receiver. 

7. The woik and tools are ;dways 
\ isible and casiK' accessible to the oper- 
ator without reaching across the tools 
the tool slide. 

Any setup is easily and quickly 
changed to meet requirements of another 
job. Since it is not cam operated, its 
\ersatility in change over from one job 
to another makes it practical and efficient 
on short or long runs. The availability 
lit either manual or automatic operation 
to suit conditions makes it a practical 
machine for extremely short runs. In 
niaiuial operations, functions are per- 
formed faster than with most types of 
manually-operated engine lathes. After 
speeds and feeds are once set for a given 
job, these are automatically selected at 
the proper time, even when in manual 

The control and feed unit will control 
the head through 39 different and en- 
tirely unrelated functions in any se- 
quence. With this unit the machine is 
cutting almost continuously. There are 
no stops while the operator measures the 
piece or changes the feeds or speeds and 
other customary operations. The ma- 
chine is set up for a fixed maximum pro- 
duction. There is no loss of time due to 
the operators indecisions or the element 
of fatigue. 

The automatic control vmit returns 
the tool carrying head to the starting 
position by the shortest path. Since it is 
not necessary to retrace the cutting path, 
scoring the work is eliminated. It also 
eliminates trial cuts on each piece, re- 

Left: A Bullard horizontal engine lathe equipped to handle three pieces of 
work simultaneously. Right: Diagram of a typical piece of work handled by 
the lathe. 


suiting in a greater degree of accuracy 
and uniformity of finished woriv. 

The control and feed unit is flexible 
— it has no predetermined sequence of 
operating functions, except when it is not 
set for a given job. An\- of the 39 func- 
tions may be quickly changed without 
disturbing other settings. This is inval- 
uable where change of work design af- 
fects a few dimensions of the total setup. 

P'lexibility of control permits the op- 
erator during the machine's automatic 
cycle to instantly change from automatic 
to manual operations by simply moving 
one lever. When this is done, the head 
is controlled manually and can be mo\ed 
to any position desired by the operator. 
The machine may be restarted in an\ 
position of the automatic cycle by mov- 
ing the same lever back to the automatic 
position. This is a tremendous advan- 
tage in the event of tool breakage during 
a cut or for the removal of a part before 
it is completeh finished. 

Flexibility of feed and traverse strokes 
from .005 in. to the capacity of the ma- 
chine greatly reduces the machine setup 
time and minimizes setup operations. 

Automatic changes of feeds and speeds 
while the machine is cutting enables the 
machuie to use modern cutting tools to 
their maximum capacity' and provides a 
high degree of production efficiency. 

Figure 1 is an example of the high 
level production methods used by this 

Thread Generator 

Another advancement in tlie field of 
machine tools is the Fellows 4-T thread 
generator. This machine works on the 
molding-generating principle and uses a 
helical-type gear shaper cutter. The 
principle of operation can be clearh' vis- 
ualized if one considers threads as rack 
teeth that are wrapped around a cylin- 

Front view of the Fellows 4T thread generator 

der in a helical path. In generating 
these threads the work rotates upon its 
axis at right angles to the axis of the 
cutter. The cutter also rotates in har- 
mony with the w-ork — that is, cutter and 
work are geared together in relation to 
their respective numbers of teeth and 

The cutter is carried on a spindle ro- 
tatively mounted in a head, the latter 
being held on a slide that is moved along 
a parallel to the axis of the work. It 
produces threads by molding-generating 
process. Figure 2 shows a close view 
of the cutter at work cutting a double- 
threaded worm, and illustrates the prin- 
ciple of operation of this machine. 

Nature of the (Cutting Action 

Some idea of the production possibili- 
ties of this method of cutting worms and 
threads can be obtained from a study of 
the cutting action illustrated diagramati- 
cally in Fig. 2. The cutting action is 
analogous to that of using a rotary circ- 
ular cutting tool in the lathe, with the 
exception that instead of the cutting edge 
becoming a continuous circle, it is inter- 
rupted by teeth. The tooth spaces pre- 
vent the transmission of heat, and act as 
chip breakers. With the circular cutting 
tool, the action is that of turning, where- 
as, with the gear shaper cutter it is turn- 
ing and shaving combined. 

(Continued on Page 22) 

Left: A close-up view of the differential change gears which keep the teeth 
on the cutter in step with the threads on the work. Right: Bar-type of cam con- 
trol for operating the cutter head when it cannot be started at full depth. 


. . . Sat^XfCi4Pto- (^lecin4c Go-. 

l-'rum I'lihlivilfi Uvimrtmviil. Saiifinmu Kh-t-triv 1'om§ninif 

'J'lu- Sang a 111 o Electric Compain , 
with its main offices and factory located 
in Springtielil, Illinois, has established a 
world-wide reputation for the inanufac- 
ture of electrical meters and other re- 
lated products. The historv of the com- 
pany dates back almost fift\ >ears to the 
period during which the first crude de- 
signs of the induction type watthour 
meter were being originally developed. 
The long, painstaking research in which 
the company shared during the evokition 
of modern watthour meters has provided 
a rich background of electrical engineer- 
ing experience and scientific advance- 
ment. The significant contributions 
which the Sangamo Electric Company 
has made to the basic progress of electric 
metering have gained imiversal recogni- 
tion throughout the electric power indus- 
try. Today, more than ever, the com- 
pany's emphasis is on engineered designs 
and methods. 


The high standards of scientific devel- 
opment work, the precision manufactur- 
ing methods and the exceptional record 
of industrial relations at Sangamo Elec- 
tric Company have attracted executive 
and professional personnel of unusual 
ability and character. A brief summary 
of the backgrounds of the company's ex- 

In the attempt to bring to the 
attention of the engineering stu- 
dent the fiehl of small businesses 
as an additional possibility to eon- 
sider when he is job hunting, the 
Teehnograph presents in this, the 
third artiele, the story behind the 
nationally-knoun Sangamo Eleetrie 
Company of Springfield, Illinois. 

ccuti\es is gi\en in the outline whicli 



Crraduate of "Vale University (1917) 
Accepted position with Sangamo Elec- 
tric Conipain- as secretary to the 
Directs company finances and in\est- 
ments; coordinates the activities of 
the vice-presidents. 
Vice-President (In charge of manufac- 
turing and eniplo\-ee relations), 
(jraduate of Sheffield School of Elec- 
trical Engineering at Yale L iii\er- 
sity (1927). 
First position with Sangamo Electric 
in office of Factory Superintendent. 
Appointed director of company in 
charge of manufacturing at the 
British Sangamo plant in Enfield, 

An aerial view of the Sangamo Electric company plant at Springfield, Illinois 

Returned to Springfield in \'KV) as 
\'ice-Prcsident (In charge of de\elop- 
nient and sales) 

(Jraduate (cum laude) of Sheffield 
School of Electrical Engineering at 
Yale University (1931). 

Began work with Sangamo in the En- 
gineering Department. Became as- 
sistant to the (leneral Superinten- 
dent and later assistant to the Pres- 

Elected Vice-President in l*'4(i. 

Active in Navy development work un- 
dertaken by the c(>mpan\-. 

V^ice-President ( In charge of En- 

Graduate Electrical Engineer of the 
University of Nebraska (191.'i). 

First job with the General Electric 
Company. Later returned to the 
University of Nebraska as associate 
professor of electrical engineering. 
Entered employment of Sangamo 
Electric as chief engineer (1919). 
Recently received doctor's degree 
from his university. 

Coordinates the work of the various 
branches of the engineering depart- 
Vice President (In charge of Produc- 

Employed by the Racine-Sattley Com- 
pany before coming to Sangamo 

Exceptional abilit\ in pioneering mod- 
ern production methods in the man- 
ufacture of electrical instruments. 

Graduate of the University of Illinois 
with B.A. in Accounting (19.U). 

Received C. P. A. rating in 1935; be- 
gan work with Sangamo the same 

Elected controller of the companx in 
1942 and Secretarv-Treasurer in 

Eii'iineeiin^ l)e put tin cut 

The functions and responsibilities of 
the engineering department extend 
throughout the Sangamo plant organiza- 
tion. The more important activities can, 
however, be divided into three general 
categories: research, design development 
and quality control. The details in each 
section are supervised by senior engineers 
and their staffs. 

The research section works closeh 
with the company's sales division in an- 
ticipating the requirements of the elec- 


Left: Machines for winding paper tubular capacitors. Right: A test bench for the Tachographs 

trie industry. New uses for electricit)' 
and ever-increasing loads create prob- 
lems with respect to their effect upon 
distribution systems and the cost of sup- 
plying electric energy. The functions of 
the research section are to develop means 
of metering factors entering into the cost 
of service, so that such costs may be most 
equitably allocated among the customers, 
and to siniplif) and improve existing in- 
struments through the application of new 
and improved materials. Patent investi- 
gations are conducted, as well as study 
of domestic and foreign competitive de- 

The design development section works 
out the actual details of projects insti- 
tuted by the research engineers. This 
work progresses to the point at which 
complete working models can be as- 
sembled and subjected to test. From the 
experimental tests specific information is 
obtained which can be compared with 
the requirements established by the re- 
search group. 

The third general section of the engi- 
neering department is devoted to quality 
control and is in reality an engineering 
testing laboratory. Part of its duties in- 
volve the checking of accuracy and per- 
formance of production line samples, 
selected at random each day. Other func- 
tions are the testing of purchased mate- 
rials and parts, the establishment of in- 
spection standards for the manufacturing 
process, the field testing of Sangamo 
products, and the investigation of unus- 
ual service difficulties. 

Operation Depurtnient 

File primary function of this depart- 
ment is to coordinate into a master pat- 
tern a great number of individual ma- 
chining operations, assembly operations 
and supplementary activities contributing 
to the effectiveness of factory production. 

When a model of a new product is 
completed by the engineering depart- 
ment, it is turned over to the operating 
department for study as to manufactur- 

ing possibilities. Alterations are made, 
if necessary, to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned and the model is sent to the draft- 
ing room, where a complete set of trac- 
ings is made. When these drawings are 
returned to the operating department, a 
complete breakdown of the project is 
made in relation to the machines, opera- 
tions and materials required. The vari- 
ous parts are assigned to specific depart- 
ments for fabrication, or specifications 
are given the purchasing department in 
order to obtain the items from an out- 
side source. Quantities are estimated and 
time studies made so that data can be 
compiled on manufacturing capacity and 
costs. The inspection department is in- 
formed of the standards which have been 
established by the engineering depart- 
ment, so that accinacy can be checked at 
each step in the manufacturing process. 

Sangamo Products 

The Sangamo Electric Company is 
engaged in the manufacture of an exten- 
sive line of meters for integrating elec- 
tric energy for use on both alternating 
and direct current systems. Other prod- 
ucts of the company are time switches, 
capacitors and tachographs. 

Alternating current watthour meters 
are made for use on all types of distribu- 
tion circiu'ts, single or polyphase. De- 
mand meters of the block interval and 
thermal type are included in the line of 
alternating cm'rent meters, the latter 
available in both the indicating and 
graphic forms. As an accessory to the 
alternating current meters, the compan\ 
produces instrument transformers foi- 
loads too large to be metered on self- 
contained units. 

While direct current distribution sys- 
tems have become nearly extinct, there 
are numerous industrial applications, 
such as the production of aluminum and 
magnesium, which require direct current 
watthour meters. In these industries, 
large currents arc often employed, and 
metering shunts up to 60, 000 amperes 

( and one for 70,000 amperes ) ha\e been 
built. Direct current amperehour meters 
are built for the control of batteries, 
showing the state of charge or discharge 
at all times. These meters are compen- 
sated for the inherent losses in battery 
operation. A special application of this 
type of meter is in the electroplating in- 
dustry, where it is used to indicate the 
quantity of metal deposited dining the 
plating operation. 

Sangamo electrically - operated t i m e 
switches are made for use on both direct 
and alternating current. Three general 
types are included in the line: the elec- 
trically-wound clock type, the synchron- 
ous motor type with electrically-woimd 
clock which fimctions during current 
interruptions, aiid the synchronous motor 

Specially-designed time switches are 
used by utility companies to turn off 
electric water heaters and other loads 
during on-peak hoins. The remainder of 
the time switch market lies in the auto- 
matic operation of electrical signs, flood- 
lights, window lights, and in the heating 
and air-conditioning fields. 

In 1924 Sangamo introduced the first 
bakelite model mica capacitator, entering 
this specialized field only to a limited ex- 
tent. During the recent war, increased 
activity in this line of manufacturing re- 
sulted in the decision to expand the ca- 
pacitator division to the extent that it 
has now become a competitive force in 
the industry. Plastic-molded paper type 
capacitors have been added to the line, 
and production has already begun on ca- 
pacitors of the electrolytic type, giving 
the comp.uiy a complete range of cover- 

To secure adequate space for the man- 
ufacture of the capacitor line, the entire 
capacitor division was recently moved to 
a new plant in Marion, Illinois. 

Probably one of the most luiusual anil 
interesting instruments manufactured by 
the Sangamo Electric Company is the 
(Continued on Page .S6) 



""'(' l<]iioiii('(M'iiio lliiiionirics \ 

Itff ./aim Shiirlh'ff. * h.K. \10 ami Ith-li Uammtu-li. ti.K. 'lit 


r mcctlni: nt the - 



was held on October _'.\ 1047. The 
tneetiiig was called to order b\ the chair- 
man, James G. Matt, who introduced 
Murray L. Rabcock. Mr. Habcock dis- 
cussed the entrance require- 
ments and functions of Eta 
Kappa \u, the honorary 
electrical engineering frater- 
nity. He presented an en- 
graved h a n d book and a national 
membership to Richard Johnston for 
being the junior electrical engineer with 
the best scholastic aserage. This is to 
be an annual presentation. 

Harry Robbins, instructor in the il- 
lumination department, di.scussed the 
Illumination Engineering Society. He is 
working to organize the first student 
branch of the I.E.S. 

Dr. William Everitt. heail of the 
electrical engineering department, who 
was the main speaker for the evening, 
welcomed all of the fellows to the first 
meeting of the school year. He pointed 
out that the engineering school's func- 
tion is not to fill the student's head full 
of facts, but to develop the ability to 
learn and reason for one's self after 
leaving school. He stated that it is im- 
portant to develop self assurance when 
entering the big world of industry. 

Dr. Everitt considers the engineering 
societies as a fundamental medium for 
both the student and the professional 
men. He suggested that the student 
branch take a poll of all the electrical 
engineering students as to complaints, 
suggestions, and recommendations to the 

The student officers for this year 
were presented to the assembly. They 
are the following: James G. Matt, 
chairman; Edwin C. Edwards, vice 
chairman; Donald E. Steeper, secretary; 
Kenneth E. Gerler, treasurer; Harry A. 
Davis, corresponding secretary for the 
A.I.E.E. ; and Charles W. Steele, cor- 
responding secretary for the I.R.K. 

A senior job placement meeting was 
conducted by Professor Faucett on Oc- 
tober 30. The annual senior-faculty 
banquet of electrical engineers was dis- 
cussed at that time and it will be held 
some time in January. 

On November 4, about 1 0(1 electrical 
engineers attended the national confer- 
ence of A.I.E.E., I.R.E., and I.E.S. in 
Chicago. Many interesting speeches w'ere 

given AwA demonstrations and exhibits 
\\ere observeil. Those who attended had 
an interesting and educational time. 

The Hell Telephone laboratories sent 
men to give a talk and demonstr.ition 
on "Mobile Telephone Systems " for the 
meeting of N'o\eniber 13. An automobile 
transmitter in Chicago was pickeil up 
from the receiver on the stage in Greg- 
ory Hall. 

As of October 24, there are 213 
members in the combined student branch 
of the A.I.E.E.-I.R.E. The goal is to 
make the membership 1(10 per cent of 
the soiihoniores. juniors, and seniors. 



liate the Illinois student chapter 

of the A.S.C.E. is the only society to 
have a local division. A subsidiary chap- 
ter has been started at Navy Pier, and 
it now has 73 members. 

On (October 21^ a smoker was held 
at which George A. Ek- 
blow, geologist with the 
State (Geological Survey, 
delivered an address on the 
"Services Rendered by the 
State (leological Survey." 
The following are the 
new officers of the A.S.C.E. : Robert 
Wright, president; Frank Anderson, 
\ice president; Charles L. Jansen, secre- 
tary; and John O. Lewis, treasurer. 


Recognizing that traffic is a major 
problem throughout the country today 
and will become an even greater prob- 
lem in the future, 21 University stu- 
dents have organized the "Lniversity of 
Illinois Society of Traffic Engineers." 

Upon official recognition by the In- 
stitute of Traffic Engineers, this organ- 
ization will become the second student 
chapter in the country. The first chap- 
ter was organized by the Bureau of 
Traffic Research at Yale University 
earh' this year. 

This chapter hopes to promote the 
ad\ancement of traffic engineering: b\' 
fostering the closer association of stu- 
dents with the traffic engineering pro- 
fession ; by studying local traffic 
problems and cooperating with inter- 
ested agencies in their solution ; by 
encouraging the expansion of facilities 
for traffic engineering study at the 
University; and by stimulating general 
interest in traffic engineering. 

Membership is open to all students 
with a sincere interest in traffic engi- 
neering. All persons interested in the 
solution of local traffic problems are 
cordially invited to participate in any 
meetings of the organization. 

The following officers were elected 
at the first meeting on October 2S : 
Thomas A. Wiley, president; James H. 
Runyens, vice president; Robert J. 
Allen, secretary-treasurer. The facult\ 
adviser is C. C. Wiley, professor of 
civil engineering at the Universit\. 

After accepting the constitution and 
b\-laws of the Institute of Traffic Engi- 
neers, it was decided to apply for official 
recognition as a student branch of that 
organization. Plans were made to hold 
meetings at 7 p. m. in Engineering Hall 
in the first and third Wednesdays of 
each month. 

Professor Wiley gave a short talk on 
the general aspects of traffic engineer- 
ing at the meeting held on No\ember 
3. Several of the graduate members then 
gave summaries of the individual traf- 
fic problems which they are investigat- 
ing, and the meeting was opened for 
discussion on the problems mentioned. 

By meetings such as these, it is hoped 
that graduate and undergraduate mem- 
bers will find a common level for dis- 
cussions. Most of the meetings will be 
held along the line of an open discussion 
of traffic engineering and its problems 
rath e r than confining the activities 
solely to lectures. 


Although not active during the sum- 
mer, Chi Epsilon, civil engineering 
honorary, started a busy fall semester 
with an officer's meeting on October 
14 to discuss plans and acti\ities. This 
was followed by a meeting 
of actives on Xo\ember 3 to 
\ote on eligible candidates, 
who were later entertained at 
a "get acquainted" smoker. 
(Officers of the organiza- 
■~Tra "'' tion, which was founded in 
ll 1922 to further the profes- 

11 sion of civil engineering as 

an instrument of social betterment, are 
Ray Wente, president; Bob Wright, 
vice president ; Ken McCjann, recording 
secretary; Wayne Welge, corresponding 
secretary; and Ernie Kuncicky, treas- 
urer. The faculr\ ad\isei' is Professor 
M. A. Oliver. 




The Illinois student chapter of the 
American Institute of Chemical Engi- 
neers opened the 1947-48 year with a 
smoker held in the faculty lounge of 
the Union Building on Wednesday e\e- 
ning, October 8. I'all membership indi- 
cates that this will be a banner year 
for the Ch.E.s. 

After the preliminary bull sessions, 
intermixed with the nibbling of the 
cookie-coke-nuts refreshments, an infor- 
mal meeting was opened by Don Horn- 
beck, president, who outlined the exten- 
sive plans for the coming term. 

The four chapter meetings of the fall 
term will feature such prominent speak- 
ers as (justav Egloff, author and direc- 
tor of research for Universal Oil 
Products; V. C. Williams, head of the 
chemical engineering department at 
Northwestern University; S. D. Kirk- 
patrick, editor of the McGraw-Hill 
chemical engineering magazine; and J. 
Henry Rushton, head of the Illinois 
Institute of Technology. 

Inasmuch as several of these meetings 
will be of general interest to all engi- 
neers, other societies may be invited. 

The president then introduced Pro- 
fessor H. F. Johnstone and the other 
faculty members of the chemical engi- 
neering department. John Mitchell, vice 
president, and Edwin Dyer, treasiuer, 
who were elected last May, were also 

Herb Schultz, of Evanston, was elect- 
ed secretary of the organization, and 
Robert Chilenskas, of Chicago, was 
elected chemical engineering representa- 
tive to the Engineering Council. John 
Mitchell as vice president is an ex 
officio representative. 

Prior to the election, (leorge Foster 
had outlined the principles of the Engi- 
neering Council and had outlined the 
main points of the new constitution of 
the organization. Without further dis- 
cussion, the group ratified the consti- 
tution as proposed. 

Eighty-five members of the A.I.Ch.E. 
assembled in front of the Illini Union 
a half hour before the Army-Illinois 
football game to pose for a picture suit- 
able for publication in the Illio of 1948. 

The society met on October 30 in 
room 112 of Chemistry Annex to hear 
Dr. Bailar discuss the facilities of the 
chemistry department for job placement 
and summer employment. The meeting 
was of special interest to those gradu- 
ating in February or June of this school 

More than 300 persons, chapter mem- 
bers, faculty, and members of fellow- 
professional organizations, attended the 
meeting of November 19. V. C. Wil- 
liams, professor and chairman of the 
chemical engineering department at 
Northwestern University, presented a 
most interesting and informative discus- 

sion of "Liquid Air Production and Air 
Separation." Mr. Williams has done 
consultant and engineering work for 
Linde Air Products, incorporated. Since 
many heavy industries are considering 
the use of 90 per cent pure oxygen 
instead of less reactive and more vol- 
uminous air, the topic was one of cur- 
rent technical interest. 


In 1915, a group of upperclassmen 
in mechanical engineering at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois formed the first chap- 
ter of Pi Tau Sigma, now a national 
honoraiy fraternity for mechanical engi- 
neers, "To foster the high 
ideals of the engineering pro- 
fession, to stimidate interest 
^I^N^ in co-ordinating department- 
^s^^r^ al activities, and to promote 
the welfare of its members." 
(The Story of Pi Tau Sig- 
ma). The chapter has proven 
its worth over the years by encouraging 
high scholastic ideals, and cooperating 
with the department in student activ- 

At the first meeting of the group on 
October 22, Joe Mazer .was elected 
president, Charles Spaeth, vice president, 
Martin Sabath, corresponding secretary, 
(lerald (jeraldson, recording secretary, 
and Jerome Fox, treasurer. 

Activities for November included at- 
tendance at the national convention held 
at Purdue University from November 
20 to November 22. Delegates from 
here were Bryce Alberty, Martin Sab- 
ath, and Lee Sullivan. 


The 1947-48 edition of the student 
branch of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers got off to a flying 
start with an open house and business 
meeting on the evening of October lb. 
outgoing honorary chairman ; and Prof. 
N. A. Parker, head of the department 
of engineering; Prof. K. J. Trigger, 
outgoing honorary chairman ; and Prof. 
Francis Seyfarth, incoming honorary 

Elections were held for the society's 
officers and the men elected are as 
follows; Robert S. Smith, chairman; 
William E. McCarthy, vice chairman ; 
William M. Alexander, secretary ; and 
Carl W. Falk, assistant treasurer. Rich- 
ard (j. Love, the incumbent treasurer, 
is now serving his second year in that 

A strictly business meeting was held 
on October 30, for the purpose of vot- 
ing upon the ratification of the pro- 
posed Engineering Council. The council 
was approved unanimously. Prior to 
adjom'nment, two committees were set 
up for the duration of the first semester. 
These were the publicity and program 

On Tuesda\', November 11, Professor 
Hull, a newcomer to the department of 
engineering, addressed the society on 
the subject of "Tomorrow in Automo- 
tive Engineering." Professor Hull's 
principal interests lie in the field of 
internal combustion engines and his talk 
was very illuminating and interesting. 
The principal points of interest were 
those which dealt with the Tucker car 
and the plans for three-wheeled cars 
of the future. 

The program committee has only been 
able to schedule one meeting for Decem- 
ber due to the beginning of Christmas 
vacation. The meeting will be held on 
December 9 in room 319 Engineering 
Hall. The speaker at that time will be 
]VIr. James W. May, head of the re- 
search department of the American Air 
Filter company. Mr. May, who for- 
merl\- was a member of the faculty of 
the L^niversity of Kentucky, will have 
for his subject, "Electric Precipitation 
and Dry Filters in Heating, Ventilating, 
and Air Conditioning." 


Plans for the junior and senior stu- 
dents of the metallurgy department to 
attend the National Metals Congress 
and Exposition in Chicago were dis- 
cussed at the meeting of October 13. 
Juniors and seniors were excused from 
classes on October 22 and October 23 
in order to attend the congress. 

Approximately 35 students and all of 
the faculty went to Chicago to spend 
an informative two days. 

Over 350 exhibits were on display 
by companies of the metal industries at 
the International Amphitheater. At these 
exhibits the students were able to wit- 
ness actual demonstrations of some of 
the latest developments in equipment for 
the processing of metallic materials. 

The biggest attractions weie the 
Tucker automobile and the beautiful 
girls employed by the various exhibitors 
to hand out free souvenirs or literature. 
(Their attire was exceedingly attractive 
even though the skirts were long). 

The exhibits gave the student an ex- 
cellent idea as to what the outstanding 
companies of the metal industry actually 
produce for the commercial market. The 
exhibits also gave the student a chance 
to see what field of metallurgical engi- 
neering he might wish to enter after 
completing his undergraduate or gradu- 
ate studies. Some of the senior students 
made contacts at the convention which 
will lead to interviews concerning their 
employment after graduation. 

"Current Research Developments in 
the Steel Industry" was the topic talked 
on by Dr. E. I. Martin at the meeting 
of November 21 at 7 p. m. in room 
218 of the Ceramics building. Dr. Mar- 
( Continued on Page 38) 



Wed Meeti i^CuU . . . 

hii 1'arl SunnviiHvhvin. 31. §C. ' l/t 

It this wvvi: a tra\t-lo^uf, tin- Oiiccit 
would be bi-aiititul, t;lainoioiis, and m>s- 
terious. rnfortunatfly, to my knowl- 
edge, it is seliiom it e\cr an\ of these 
things. 1 greath doubt it I shall ever 
get the "smell" of the Orient out of ni\ 
nostrils, or forget the squalor and filth 
in which the great majoritv of people 

It seems strange that a place wiiieh 
offers so little in the way of a standard 
of living to its people coidd at the same 
time be capable of great engineering ac- 
complishments, yet that is tile case in 
Korea and particular!) in Japan. 

illcctric Pdit'cr 

The -American people, as a whole, take 
the existence of electric power pretty 
much for granted. However, there are 
large regions of this country in which 
there are no public service companies and 
others in which the only source of power 
are small, privately owned, gasoline en- 
gine generator sets. 

It is said of Japan that e\er\ home 
and hovel has an electric light. True, 
there is only one fixture and a 15 watt 
bulb, but it is there. It is my personal 
experience in both the large cities and 
rural areas to have never seen anything 
to disprove the above statement. 

Wherever one travels in Japan, or 
Korea, the high-lines are always much in 
evidence. The lines are much the same 
as those in this country and the occasion- 
al sub-stations are quite similar. 

Japan has always been very short of 
coal, and this is responsible for the high 
percentage of potential water power 
which has been developed. 

The Japanese Imperial Railroads op- 
erate all over the three main islands of 
Kyushu, Honshu, and Hokkaido. If 
possible, the trains on some of the divi- 
sions operate at greater speeds than do 
.'\merican trains. 

Almost all of the Japanese railwaxs 
are electrified, to some extent, if not 
wholly, and many of them maintain op- 
erating speeds of 60 miles per hour or 

A note of interest is the ages of many 
of the operating personnel of these 
trains. I once rode several hundred 
miles at a very high speed and found out 
later that the engineer was only 13 years 
old, an unheard of thing in this country. 

A person need only see what is left of 
the Mitsubishi shipyards at Yokohama 

to realize tiiat tile Jaiianese are tulh 
capable of buililing ocean going vessels 
of all sorts. It was at these yards that 
one of the two giant ^O.OdO ton Japa- 
nese battleships was built. 

Japan possessed, prior to and during 
the war, a highly dispersed manufactur- 
ing system. Hiroshima and .Nagasaki il- 
lustrate the claim that every home in 
those cities in reality a war plant. 
This claim was later fully substantiated 
anil 1 lia\e seen homes in which the full 
equipment, such as it was, for the man- 
ufactvn'e of \arious war materials had 
been installed. 

The great majority of the manufac- 
turing in Japan is crude by American 
standards. Due to the tremendous sup- 
ply of very cheap labor, very few ma- 
chines have been installed unless they 
were absolutely necessary. 

True, there are large plants which 
have .some very fine machine tools, most 
of which were imported from the U. S. 
These plants are the ones which are be- 
ing used for war reparations. Many have 
already been disassembled and shipped to 
China, Java, the Philippines and other 
areas which were ravaged by the Japa- 

Autiqutiteil Roads 

Highways are practically non-existant 
in either Japan or Korea. True there 
are many dirt roads but I refer specifi- 
cally to either concrete or asphalt sur- 
faces. Whether this condition was due 
to shortage of material and manpower 
dining the war I do not know. 

In the larger cities, such as Seoul, the 
capital of Korea, Tokyo, Yokohama, 
Osaka, etc., many of the streets are four 
and six lanes wide and are surfaced with 
either concrete or asphalt. 

However, when one enters the ordi- 
nary residential districts of these cities 
the streets are either cobble stones or 
good old fashioned dirt. 

The contrasts between the age-old and 
the modern are startling. I recall one 
dirt road, dusty and deeply rutted which 
suddenly turned a corner and there was 
a midtiple span, four lane bridge with a 
concrete roadway. The over-all length 
of the bridge and its approaches must 
have been better than a mile. After 
crossing the bridge, I was again almost 
blinded by the dust. 

I wondered then and still do, why 
they built a bridge of those proportions 
on a road which was not important 

The persons used to a high stand- 
ard of living in the western world 
will find in this urtiele a deserip- 
lion of the strange eontrasts to be 
found in the recently reopened 
countries of Korea and .lapan. The 
engineering viewpoint is applied 
to this firsthand account of the 
customs and pattern of life in the 
Far East. 

enough to e\ en be giaded occasionalh . 

When our outfit first went into Korea 
we were (juartered in a part of a wire- 
rope factory. We were informed that 
this was the largest plant of its kind in 
either Japan or Korea and during the 
war had had top priorities on materials 
from the Japanese government. 

W'ith all of this very impressive infor- 
mation in mind I was quite anxious to 
have a look at the inside of the shop. 
The main building was, in itself, quite 
impressive being o\er two city blocks 
long. I've never been so disappointed 
in my life. 

The materials were all manually 
moved about and the equipment was of 
the vintage of about 1910. I do not re- 
call what the rate of production was but 
I'm sure that it could not have compared 
fa\'orably with any American plant man- 
ufacturing the same item. 

Poor Sanitation 

Most American communities take 
great pride in their municipal water and 
sewage disposal facilities. This does not 
only apply to the large metropolitan 
areas but also to the smaller towns and 

In Japan, with the exception of a very 
few of the largest cities, sanitary facili- 
ties are an unknown thing. In Seoul 
human excrement as well as all garbage 
was thrown into a two or three foot deep 
ditch along the street. In some of the 
better class of homes, there were cess- 
pools which were cleaned out about once 
a month by the city department of sani- 

In the Orient, human fecal matter is 
of great commercial value because of the 
scarcity of fertilizers. Chemical fertiliz- 
ers are unknown and there are not 
enough animals to provide manure. 
Hence, the sewage is hauled directly 
from the city out to the farmer where it 
is spread in the fields. 

The water supply is inadequate and 
definitely impure. No facilities are pro- 
vided for chlorinating or aerating the 
water supply. The pressure maintained 
in the mains is always very low and 
often fails completely. As a result of 
this condition, when a fire starts the fire 
department can seldom extinguish it be- 
cause of faihu'e of the water supply. As 
a result of the poor sanitation, typhoid 
(Continued on Page 16) 






\'( alk into this new aoonstir test room at Bell Telcplione 
Laboratories and all you'll hear is silence. 

It's about the quietest place on earth. 

This non-reverberant chamber was ingeniously designed 
by telephone engineers so that acoustic development and 
research could be carried on under the best possible 
conditions. It's another aid in a continuing program lo 
improve communications. 

This is telephone engineering at work. 





(Continued from Page 14) 
and other such diseases are very iire\a- 

So tar as was apparent, aut()nioti\e 
transportation was more ot a public haz- 
ard than a blessing. The aNcrage orien- 
tal seems to go quite berserk as soon as 
lie gets his hands on a steering wheel. 

The cars and trucks, which formerly 
had been army or na\ \ property, vised 
gasoline as a fuel, but tlie vehicles that 
were civilian owneti were another story. 

Due to the shortage of gasoline, the 
nati\es had been forced to use various 
substitutes such as charcoal burners in 
their trucks and cars. Naturally, these 
vehicles had very little power and it was 
the usual thing to see everybody disem- 
bark to push wlu-nc\er a liill was en- 

Crowded Transportation 

All)- vehicle which would normally 
carry, let us say, five passengers, was not 
considered properly loaded until there 
were at least a dozen persons crammed 
into and hanging on the outside of it. 

The Japs had some three wheeled mo- 
torcycles which were quite fast, but even 
these used to be loaded with as many as 
six or seven persons hanging on to one 

After being around for a short while, 
it became quite commonplace to see a 
vehicle come to an abrupt stop with a 
consequent spraying of the landscape of 
its unseated occupants. 

The Japs have a small automobile 
which in appearance and performance 
compares very favorably with the Aus- 
tins which were being sold in this coun- 
try a few years ago. This car seems to 
have been the favorite of the few people 
who could afford to own one. The 
only people who rode around in large 
cars were government officials and mem- 
bers of the ruling classes. 

As an illustration of crowded condi- 
tions, the New York subways have for 
years been considered to be the acme of 
compressed living conditions. I believe 
that there exists a worthy contender for 
that questionable distinction. 

The street cars of the Orient are for 
the most part narrow gauge and very 
unstable. Again the question of safe op- 
erating speeds does not enter into the 
pictuic. The people in Japan and Korea 
seem to swarm, not only into, but all 
over the cars and although threatened 
with sudden death at any instant, they 
are very calm about the whole thing. 

There are many western style build- 
ings in the larger cities of the Orient. 
In Tokyo, General MacArthur's head- 
quarters is one of the finest looking build- 
ings that I saw. There are many other 
such structures but the\ were mostly 

built \v itli foreign capital and designed 
by toreign ;nchitects. 

The most notable example ol the tiu- 
cign influence is probably the Impeiial 
Hotel which was built after the great 
eartluiuake in the '2()s. This building 
was supposed to be earthquake proof and 
was designed b\ the famous American 
architect, .\Ir. Frank Llo\d Wright. 

The Japanese Imperial Palace and 
other governmental edifices, both in 
Japan proper and Korea, are magnificent 
structures which were built by the na- 
tives. These are usually massi\e stone 
structures and are very ornate. 

Anybody who would deny the archi- 
tectural beauty or the fine craftsmanship 
of the many temples would be foolish. 
These structures are built without the of nails or glue. The entire fasten- 
ing together of the component parts of 
the structures is done by careful litting 
.iiui dowelling of the pieces. 

The engineering methods by which the 
ancient Egyptians raised the Obelisks is 
no more of a mystery than how the an- 
cestral Japs erected many of their fa- 
mous Buddhas. 

Many of these tremendous figures are 
made of different types of stone so clev- 
erly fitted together that only very close 

m^pectH)n w ill cIiscIdm- the joints. 

.Many times the statement has been 
ni.ide that Japs are the greatest copiei^ 
in the world, and 1 believe it. 

In various shopping streets, in the \a- 
rious cities, I was offered German cam- 
eras, Swiss watches, genuine imported 
Scotch, Irish lacework, and innumerable 
other items. All of the above mentioned 
pieces of merchandise were in realit> 
very clever copies made and produced i 
Japan with absolutely no regard for ii 
ternational patent agreements or misrei 
resentation of merchandise. Howe\e 
this is not a new storv. 

Little Ingenuity 

Apparently', due to a great shortage ni 
imagination and inventive genius of their 
own, the Japs were forced to take other 
people's inventiveness and steal it for 
their own gains. L. iidoubtedly the Ori- 
ent has produced many fine engineers 
but their existence was hardly noticeable 
in either Japan or Korea. 

Perhaps some day the peoples of the 
Last will enjo>' the same standard of 
living that we do, but it will take a lot 
of work and will require a great deal of 
money, time, and well-educated engi- 
neering and scientific personnel. 

1. Corridor 

(] r o s s w o 1 




5. Chief Just :e ol 

California, sent 

first transconti- 













nental telegraph 



message to Pres- 
ident Lincoln 




in 1861 

10. Joker 

13 Great Lake 




14. Allan Pit 


21 1 ^^ 


great AmencL,. 


15. Epoch 

16. Depart 

18. Parcel of la:;i 


25 BB|26 







19. Group of ek< 




trons. protL: 





and neutrons 
20. Electrical 



— p 





22. Search 


24. Exclamatioi. 







_JM _ 


26. Box cover 



H^ I 


27. Branch wire> 
in telephone 




■ ^ 





28. Musical note 



30, Individuals 






32. Produced by 
most electric 

34. .'^t a subsequent 






26. Edge 



9, Physician's 


Prepare for 

37. Irish physicist 


title: abbr. 


who gave the 


Relating to the 

10, A unit ot elec- 



electron its 

argest continent 

trical power 


name, in 1891 

62. 1 


11, In the past 

inventor of a 

39. An.ateur radio 

63. \ 

Jnit of weight 

12, Precious stone 

visual telegraph 

fan: slang 


nventor of the 

17, First name of 


40. Kind of sheer 


the inventor of 



linen fabric 

urrent induc- 

the cotton gin 


. An electric 

42. Lightning 

ion motor 

19, Handle of a vast 

alarm clock 




21, Mine entrance 

will you 

43. Citizens of the 

23, Hideous 



U. S. S. R. 


25, Free negative 


Easily magnet- 

44. Metal used In 


jerman scient- 

atom, in an 

ized metal 

dry cells: clieni 

st. one of the 



. Lead wafer used 


ounders of the 

27, Kind of cotton 

to protect a 

45. 4.840 square 

aw of the con- 


meter against 


servation of 

28 Wires connect- 


47. Wrath 


ing a motor. 


. Parent 

49. City thorough 


Metric surface 

etc. to the 


. Drill used wi'h 

fare: abbr. 


current source 

a brace 

50. Preposition 



29, Inventor of the 


. Fuss 

51. Philatelist's 


Makes hori- 



. Sister's 



rodyne radio 


53. Uninsulated. 


Metal used in 



. Member o, i 


31, Finial atop a 


55. Consume, as 

chem, symbol 



electric power 



33, Center of a 


- By 

57. Victor Borge 





. Continent hav- 

plays it. among 



35, Article 

ing the most 







s gr 





: ab 




Year after year, the Square D Company em- 
phasizes to industrial executives, the impor- 
tance of their electrical men. 

Advertisements such as tliis one appear 
regularly in leading business magazines. We believe 
they perform a three-ivay job. They give top manage- 
ment a worthwhile idea. They enhance the standing of 
today's and tomorrow's electrical men. They build 
acceptance for Square D Field Engineers, practi- 
cally all of uhom come to us from leading 
engineering schools such as yours. 

Don't turn around, 

Jim • • • we want to talk behind 
your bacic • • • and to your Boss, too 

We want to tell him how valuable his 
head electrical man can be in any huddles 
that have to do with cost reduction. 

We want to point out the sharp increase 
in power required for automatic machinery 
during recent years. Most electrical sys- 
tems have been operating under abnormal 
stress — are overloaded, unreliable, poorly 
located or inflexible in the light of present 
machine locations. Excessive "down time" 
and high production costs are certainties. 

We want to suggest that he check these 
possibilities with you. And we'd hke to re- 
mind you that your nearest Square D 
Field Engineer wUl be glad to work with 
you in analyzing any electrical problem and 
selecting corrective power distribution and 
electric motor control equipment. Field 
Engineering Counsel is available through 
Square D offices in 50 principal U. S., 
Canadian and Mexican cities. There is no 





hil Mvl Iti'itvr. .Xrvh.K. ' l» 

Kvn .'fl^'ltimn. ^I.H. ' tU ami I'tmniv .Minnivh. I'.li. '.11 


DiffCtino; haml of one of tlic lim-^t 
olu-mical engineering departments in the 
eountry is Dr. Henry F. Johnstone, na- 
tionally known for his extensive research 
anil developments in the chemical engi- 
neering held. 

Dr. Johnstone's research and develop- 
ments have all been along the line of 
gases, aerosols and fumes. As a matter 
of fact, he holds many patents and has 
published numerous articles in technical 
magazines on these subjects. In l'H.> 
his published articles for that year won 
him the annual Walker medal, gi\cn h\ 
the American Institute of Chcinir:d Kn- 

When Dr. Johnstone came to the I'ni- 
\ersit>- of Illinois in l')28 to take the job 
as research assistant in the Engineering 
Experiment station, he worked on sulfur 
compounds in stack gases and their effect 
on health and vegetation. He also 
worked on the corrosion caused by these 
gaseous sulfur compounds. 

After two \ears on this project he 
began a study of the methods of elimina- 
tion of these sulfur compounds from 
stack gases. Almost $200,000 was spent 
on this project from 1930 to 1'142 by 
the University and cooperating in(his- 

Just before Pearl Harbor, Dr. John- 
stone and others began working on gas 
masks vmder a contract with the Nation- 
al Research Committee in charge of an- 
other contract on the development of 
munitions for the Chemical Warfare 
Service. New devises for dispersing 
sinakes, gases and insecticides were in- 
( Continued on Page 24) 


lla\ing her nflice right (i\cr Hiiiie\aiil 
L'lcek is a iiniciue, hut n(Jt too pleasant 
pioposition in the eyes of Mrs. Marcii 
Peterman, secretary of the electrical eii 
gineering department. Although room 
212 in the E. E. Lab is the onl\' office 
(in the campus that can boast this "dis- 
tinction," Mrs. Peterman will be very 
happy and proud next suniiiici' when she 
can nio\e her files ;uid secretarial pos- 



sessions into the more spacious rooms in 
the new electrical engineering building 
now luider construction. Although the 
view from her window is nice, she says 
that this does not compensate for the 
odors and mosquitoes that trooped in for 
regular visits last summer. 

However, one glance into her small, 
neat office will tell anyone that neither 
the Boneyard nor an atomic explosion 
can interrupt her work. Mrs. Peterman's 
duties include e\erything from filing stu- 
dent and Alumni records and segregat- 
ing reports of the E. E. Research Di- 
vision to giving directions and informa- 
tion to new students and attempting to 
keep up with all business affairs con- 
nected with her rapidly expanding de- 

A native of Har\artl. Illinois, Mrs. 
Peterman graduated from Capron High 
School in 1928 and then enrolled at 
(Continued on Page 26) 


Robert (Bob) Stephens will be the 
only graduate of the mining school this 
semester. This will mark the end of a 
very long trail for him dating back to 
his high school days when he thought 
that he might like to be an electrical 

Bob had just graduated from high 
school and was playing his clarinet with 
local dance bands around his home town 
when he got an opportunity to enter the 
University of Illinois under a scholar- 
ship from the Illinois Mining Institute. 
It might be said at this point that his 
grades in high school were of a type that 
made people want to ofier him scholar- 
ships in almost anything that he might 
ha\e chosen. This was not a case of 
choosing, however, for Bob had been 
noticed by the head of our mining and 
metallurgical department. Professor 
Harold L. Walker, and offered this aid 
because it appeared as if he might be 
well suited to the profession. 

Bob appeared on campus in the fall of 
1942 and began his studies. He had the 
usual amount of trouble getting started 
but by the beginning of his second year 
he was really starting to hit his stride. 
( He could be found at a certain sorority 
house almost any week night.) The 
Army stepped in at this point and 
claimed him for two long years. His 
travels carried him to the North Caro- 
lina State College in Raleigh, North 
Carolina. He studied civil engineering 
and after graduation was assigned to the 
18th Combat Battalion of the Army En- 

Bob was back on campus in 1946 to 
continue his studies. This he has done 
with more than the usual amount of 

Being the only graduate this semester 
in the mining curriculum is a great mys- 
tery to Bob. He says that there is a 
backlog of about eight years for graduate 
mining engineers. This has caused the 
rate of pay for such men to levels far 
above the av-erage for both beginners and 
experienced men. 

The University of Illinois has the best 
mining curriculum available, according 
(Continued on Page 34) 



Exploration of ocean depths is made possible by RCA Image Orthicon television camera. 

The ocean fs a "goldfish bowl" 

to RCA Televlslonl 

Another "first" for RCA Laboratories, 
undersea television cameras equipped 
with the sensitive RCA Image Orthi- 
con tube were used to study effects of 
the atom blast at Bikini . . . 

There may come a day when fisher- 
men will be able to drop a television 
eye over the side to locate schools of 
fish and oyster beds . . . Explorers will 
scan marine life and the geology of the 
ocean floor . . . Undersea wrecks will 
be observed from the decks of ships 
without endangering clivers. 

\\'ith the new television camera, 
long-hidden mysteries of the ocean 

depths may soon be as easy to observe 
as a goldfish bowl— in armchair com- 
fort and perfect safety. 

Exciting as something out of Jules 
\'erne, this new application of tele- 
\ ision is typical of research at RCA 
Laboratories. Advanced scientific 
thinking is part of any product bear- 
ing the name RCA, or RCA Victor. 

When in Radio City, New York, be 
sure to see the radio and electronic 
wonders at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 
West 49th Street. Free admission. 
Radio Coipoiation of America, RCA 
Building, Radio City, Neio York 20. 


Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
—offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile commtinications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

"Wriie today to National RccruUmg Divi- 
sioiiy RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 

Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 




Ass't Editor 

Ass't Editor 



The "Bud" Kiiiolit Trophy 

Why ilo the students of the \an'ous ile- 
paitmeiits of engineering, so meticulously 
a\oid one another? Is it a disgrace for an 
electrical engineer to be caught reading or 
discussing a subject pertaining to mechanical 
or chemical engineering? Must the student 
of mining and metallurgy refuse to look at 
the new construction, which is going up on 
the campus, because that type of work lies in 
the province of the civil engineer? Now you 
may say that this attitude is ridiculous and 
doesn't exist here, but such is the case. 

Surely it would be for the greater good 
if the men interested in the various fields 
were to associate with one another and thus 
be able to exchange information and ideas. 

Let us consider the purely social aspects 
of the situation. The social life in and about 
the engineering campus is about as spectacular 
as a fountain pen that has just run out of ink. 
However, there was a time when things were 
somewhat different. 

It would indeed be a great surprise if 
more than five per cent of the student body 
of the College of Engineering had ever heard 
of the "Ruck" Knight Trophy. At one time 
the Trophy was the center of a really impor- 
tant social event in the college — important 
because it brought together the two largest 
groups in engineering, the mechanical and 
electrical engineers. 

A "Battle of Wits" was fought annually 
to see whether the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers or the American Society of 

Mechanical Engineers would have possession 
of the trophy for the following year. The 
trophy was originally made and presented to 
the two societies by Professor A. R. Knight 
of the department of electrical engineering. 

The trophy itself is quite significant and 
typifies several well chosen qualities. Made 
in the form of a loving cup, little more than 
an inch high, the component parts are as fol- 
lows: the base is a collar button which sym- 
bolizes the eternal search for knowledge, the 
bowl is a sewing thimble which denotes in- 
dustry, and the handles are fully annealed 14 
gage copper wire which connotes adaptability. 
All of the above are fiuidamental and impor- 
tant qualities in the make-up of anybody, 
whether he is an engineer or not. 

To get back to the "Battle of Wits," the 
last meeting was held in February of 1946, 
when the A.S.M.E. retained the cup for the 
third successive year. Since then nothing more 
has been heard of the contest. An activity 
of this t\'pe is essential to the social inter- 
mingling of the students, and all that is re- 
quired will be for the EEs to issue a challenge 
to the MEs. 

There you have a \ery real example of 
what can go on in this college. For the good 
of the school, but especially for the betterment 
of the individual student, it is about time 
that the students of the College of Engineer- 
ing quit their moaning and griping about 
an\'thing and everything and begin to do some- 
thing constructive to better themselves and the 
communities in which they will somedav li\e. 



H&f com pact passed 
65 screef? tests 

c it made of gold, silver or 
"brass", a compact has to pass 
a lot of ''screen tests" on its way 
from the earth to its user. 

Ore is screened a score of times 
before it becomes metal. Silica goes 
through a battery of screens to be- 
come a mirror. And talcum is 
forced through a long series of finc- 
mesh screens before it acquires that 
caressing smoothness that is de- 

manded by our exacting fair sex. 

Yet, because this is America, 
compacts, which are beyond the 
means of women living in countries 
that decry our free enterprise sys- 
tem, are sold in dime stores, avail- 
able to millions. 

Roebling products play a leading 
|)art in this mass production. 
Roebling wire screens meet all ma- 
terials under all conditions. In one 

case they pass rocks as big as 
melons. In another they reject dust 
as fine as pollen. 

Made of steel rods as thick as 
your thumb, or woven of stainless 
as fine as hair, Roebling screens 
serve industry in a hun(ire<i ways — 
on a thousand jobs. 


Branchej ond Worehouici in Principal Cllies 







(Coiuiinieil trom Pagi- 9) 
The following t'xanipk- will sc-rvi- to 
illustrate the hish-piodmtioii possibilities 
of this method of ciittinji worm tlireads. 
Assume that the worm to be cut has a 
triple thread of 0.525 inch linear pitch, 
and is 2.100 inches outside diameter; 
that the cutter is approximateh 3.5 
inches pitch diameter. 21 teeth; that the 
worm is rotated at W)0 R.P.M. and the 
cutter at H^.7 R.1'..M. At a work speed 
of 600 R.P.M., the cutter would be op- 
eratinj; at 330 feet per nunute at the 
outside diameter of riie work. No por- 
tion of the cutter teeth woulii remain 
continuoush in contact with the work 
for more than 1 30 second, and ISOO 
cutting teeth would be presented to the 
work every minute. 

If one compares these cutting speeds 
with those used for milling and turiu'ng, 
it will be seen that speeds from three to 
/i\e times as great can be employed, with 
a corresponding mcrease ui production. 

(,' luiHfle ami Feed Gears 

The principle of thread generation, as 
brief!)' outlined, indicates that a harmo- 
nious relation must be maintained be- 
tween the cutter and work. In addition 
to keeping the cutter and \\ork in step 
with each other, the cutter is also tra- 
versed across the work. This motion is 
effected by a lead screw and feed gears. 

These gears are so compounded as to 
advance the cutter a definite rate of teed 
cutter across the work. 

The axial travel of the cutter upsets 
the harmonious relation effected by the 
work change gears, and necessitates the 
introduction of a differential mecharu'>m. 
The gears A, B, C", awA I), shown in 
Fig, 3, increase or decrease, as necessit) 
demands, the relative speeds of the cutter 
and work, and thus compensates for the 
axial movement of the tlire;iil generating 
cutter across the work. 

In some cases, it may be necessary to 
change the traverse of the slide from the 
conventional direction for the "hand" in 
ipiestion. and cut in the opposite direc- 
tion without changing the direction of 
rotation of the cutter. When this is 
done it is necessary to insert idler gear 
M between differential gears C and I), 
shown m Fig. 3. 

Quick-Return Mechanism 

'Fhe thread generator is arranged so 
that it will cut both right and left-hand 
threads, and the cutter-slide can be tra- 
versed by power feed in either direction. 
In practice, this is effected as follows: 
in cutting a right-hand thread, the cutter 
travels from right to left under power 
feed, and when it reaches the end of the 
cut, the machine stops automatically. 
The operator then removes the work 
and engages the clutch operating the 

(luick-return mechanism, which returns 
the cutter slide to the starting point at 
high speed. An uncut piece of work is 
then inserted, the feed engaged and the 
cutter again brought into operation. 

Depth of Cut Controls 

'Jlie head that carries the generating 
cutter is provided with trunions, which 
<ire mounted in suitable bearings on the 
cutter-slide. The head can be swivelle<l 
on these trunions to raise and lower the 
cutter relative to the work. The opera- 
tion of the head is effected by a cam lo- 
cated at the rear of the slide where it is 
held in a semi-circular seat. The con- 
ventional type of cam is shown in I'ig. 4. 
This type of cam is made with different 
lengths of "dwell" to suit the length of 
thread to be cut, and with different an- 
gles of "rise" to lower and withdraw the 
cutter at the required rate of feed. 

This cam can be u.sed in two different 
ways : when the cutter is to be held at 
full depth of thread for the required 
length, the pliuiger is located on the 
"dwell" portion of the cam, and the nuts 
are released so that the cam will travel 
with the slide. 

When a thread must be cut in the 
center of a bar requiring that the cutter 
be fed to depth as the slide travels, the 
nuts are tightened against the ends of 
the cam as shown in Fig. 4. In this case, 
(Continued on Page 24) 

Electronics Positions Available 

Airplane Division 

We have a number of excellent positions available in our Research Department 
for men with Master's or Doctor's Degrees in Electrical Engineering or Physics, 
or engineers or physicists with a Bachelor's Degree plus experience in the design 
or development of electrical and or mechanical computers, integrators, compara- 
tors, gyromechonisms or servomechanisms. 

Salary commensurate with ability 
Excellent working conditions 

Call in person or write: 


4300 East Fifth Avenue, Columbus 16, Ohio 



"Our Safety Is Our Speed" 

World War II proved the truth of Emer- 
son's words; post-war America will not 
forget them. Millions of dollars and man- 
hours spent in research are providing the 
groundwork to keep us first in the air. 

The picture above was taken in a Stand- 
ard Oil laboratory devoted entirely to 
experiments with combustion in jet en- 
gines. New fuels are tested, their per- 
formances analyzed. These experiments 
will provide information that will help 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson 

Standard contribute to the vast develop- 
ment of jet propulsion, which has already 
resulted in speeds greater than those of 
the fastest wartime planes. 

In all of Standard's activities, strong 
emphasis is placed on pioneering, on re- 
search conducted by able graduates of 
America's leading schools of science and 
engineering. Throughout our company 
there are unlimited opportunities for the 
finest theoretical and practical skills. 

Standard Oil Company 






( Contiiuii'd troni Page 18) 

\cnti'(l. One of these was for ilispcisiiit; 
DDT over beach-heads and camps. At 
present the Navy has a contract in the 
Kiiflineering Experiment station umler 
the direction of Dr. Johnstone and oth- 
ers for the investigation of the ini\in}j 
of Huid steams. This work is of im- 
portance for the development of jet en- 
gines. Several of the graduate research 
theses in the department are on investi- 
gations of smokes and fumes. 

Dr. Johnstone doesn't spend ail his 
time on research. He said that "ahout 
one third of his time is spent in teaching, 
one third in administration of the chem- 
ical engineering division, and the remain- 
ing one third on research, both in chem- 
ical engineering and the Engineering 
Experiment station." 

One naturally wonders how a man 
who is foremost in his field as Dr. John- 
stone is, got started in it. He was born 
in South Carolina in 1902, and grew up 
on a farm near Lexington, Kentucky. 
-And we bet the farm gave him his six- 
foot, 210-poinid stature. Any of you 
raised on a farm know that it doesn't 
leave much time for other activities in 
high school. Ne\ertheless this Phi Beta 
Kappa member found time to be etlitor 

of the school paper and to play footb.dl 
in his senior \ear, but according to him 
"Tlie) aren't worth mentioning. " Dr. 
Johnstone majored in chemistr\- at the 
I niversity of the South in Sewanee, 
Tennessee, because he found he could 
finish in three years. After grailuation 
there in l')2.?, he proceeded to the I ni- 
\ersit>' of Iowa to receive his Ph.D. in 
!')26 at the age of twenty-three. 

When asked what his plans were for 
the future, Dr. Johnstone laughed and 
said, "There's no place better than Illi- 
nois. It's like working with a manu- 
facturer in that one can develop new 
processes and materials. Here one can 
develop tilings from the fundamentals on 
to the finished product, rather than just 
one phase of a research project. Further- 
more, here one works with young men, 
which is always an inspiration." He feels 
that his teaching entails much more work 
and requires more time than work in in- 
dustry, but far more interesting. 

Diner: 'T)o you serve crabs here?" 
Waiter: "We serve anyone, sit 
down. " 

"Do gentlemen prefer blondes?" asks 
a writer. 

That's what many a girl is dye-ing 
to find out. 


(Continued from Page 22) 
the cam does not travel with the slide, 
but is held in a fixed position. Hence, 
when the plunger proceeds up the "in- 
cline" the cutter is fed to the required 
depth of thread, then "dwells" at depth 
until the plunger reaches the end of the 
"dwell" portion of the cam. When the 
plimger moves down the incline, the head 
is raised by a weight, removing the cut- 
ter from the completed thread. 

Psychologist: "Are >ou troubled with 
improper thoughts?" 

.M. E. : "Why no, I rather like them." 

Many a young engineer is spending 
a lot of time tinkering with the misses 
in their motors. 
























































■ l 












































B A 























































The Cambridge Recording Gas Analyzer continu- 
ously analyzes and records as many as six 
constituents, simultaneously. It makes possible 
substantial savings in the operation of l<ilns, pro- 
duction of inert gases, and in metallurgical, 
petroleum, and other chemical processes. Single 
point and multipoint instruments are available for 
a wide variety of applications. 

Send for Literature 

Cambridge olso makes pH Meiers and pH 
Recorders both single and multipoint sampling; 
Voltomographs for polorographic analysis and 
many other mechanical and electrical instruments 
of precision. Send us details of your instrument 
problem for our recommendation. 



3756 Grand Central Terminal, New York 17, N. Y. 

Pioneer Manufacturers of 





And for good reasons: Thermoid is 
geared to meet the day to day prob- 
lems of the users of its products. By 
limiting itself to a restricted number 
of items, related in manufacture and 
use, Thermoid is able to keep abreast 
of difficulties encountered in the field 
and thus constantly maintain top 

The Thermoid line is a quality line. 
Remember Thermoid for BRAKE 
Remember, too, that Thermoid makes 
a complete line of belting, brake lin- 
ings and hose for industrial 
and oil field use. 

you in 

us if 

catalogs on any of 
would be useful to 
engineering studies. 






For Students of Science and f 


/ Engineering 

Development of dyes requires 
both physical and organic chemistry 

ducibility and storage stability. A sig- 
nificant Du Pont contribution to the 
production of vat dyes in optimum 
physical form is called "turbulent flow 
drowning." In this procedure, the color 
is dissolved in strong H2SO4 and then 
diluted by a large volume of water in a 
constricted tube. High turbulence is 
maintained during dilution and pro- 
duces uniform dye particles. 

In this development the work of 
physical chemists and physicists, aided 
by electron microscopy, ultra-centri- 
fuging, infrared and ultra-violet spec- 
trometry and other modern techniques, 
was of major importance. 

The synthesis of a new dye in the labo- 
ratory or even the development of a 
manufacturing process from that syn- 
thesis may still be a long way from the 
realization of the full potentialities of 
the new compound as a coloring mate- 
rial. This is illustrated by the commer- 
cial, history of the exceedingly fast 
bright blue dye indanthrone and its 
halogen derivatives. 

Indanthrone was the first known an- 
thraquinone vat dye and has led ton- 
nage sales of vat dyes in the U.S. since 
its introduction, despite the commer- 
cial use of well over 200 types. In 1901 , 
Bohn first synthesized indanthrone by 
KOH fusion of 2-aminoanthraquinone, 
but the yields obtained were in the 
range of only 25-30 per cent. Because 
of the industrial importance of indan- 
throne, and the low commercial yields 
obtained by the original fusion pro- 
cedure, a great deal of research time 
has been spent in its study. 

Several U.S. patents record the fact 
that Du Pont organic chemists have 
made outstanding contributions in this 

field, particularly by developing the 
intercondensation of 2 moles of 1,3-di- 
bromo-2-aminoanthraquinone and re- 
placing the bromine by chlorination to 
give 3:3'-dichloroindanthrone ("Pon- 
sol" Blue). 


This fixes the chlorine in the desired 
positions to give a product with greater 
bleach-fastness than indanthrone and 
minimizes extraneous substitution that 
always accompanies direct chlorination 
of indanthrone. The commercial yields 
of 3:3'-dichloroindanthrone now being 
obtained by Du Pont are markedly 
greater than those obtained by Bohn 
and his workers. 

It is just as important, however, that 
a water-soluble dye be made in a phys- 
ical form that gives optimum shade and 
working qualities, such as perfect dis- 
persion, freedom from specks, rapid re- 

One of the three wings of the Jackson Labora- 
tory, where a large portion of the basic research 
on dyes is carried on. The new $1,000,000 ad- 
dition on the right is nearing completion. 

The conversion of laboratory findings 
to a plant operation often presents 
unique and difficult problems that re- 
quire unusual ingenuity on the part of 
chemists, chemical, mechanical and 
electrical engineers. The work on the 
indanthrones was no exception. The 
outstanding commercial success of 
"Ponsol" vat colors, typified by "Pon- 
sol" Blue is one example of the results 
achieved through cooperation of Du 
Pont scientists. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 

W. R. Remington, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1944, and S. N. Boyd, Ph.D., University of Illinois, 
1945, working on a dye research problem. 


The organization of Du Pont is unique in 
that each of its ten manufacturing depart- 
ments and two technical staff departments 
is responsible for its own operation. Further- 
more, new chemists and engineers work in 
small groups under experienced supervisors. 
Du Font's group system assures men of in- 
teresting and friendly working conditions 
plus the broad avenues of promotion that go 
with size. Write for the new booklet, "Tlie 
Du Pont Company and the College Gradu- 
.Tte," 2521 Nemours Building, Wilmington 
98, Delaware. 







Galvanized (zinc-coated) Sheets 
Stay Stronger Longer 

nn 34 YEARS .. . Erected in 1 9 1 3, and 
i Vi covered with heavy-gauge galva- 
nized sheets, this Tennessee con- 
centrating plant ot the A/Z Company, 
is still in excellent condition alter more 
than 3 decades of service. Painted 
with Gray Metallic Zinc Paint in 1932. 

In building for the future, look 
to the past for proof of a build- 
ing material's strength . . . du- 
rability . . . service. With gal- 
vanized (zinc-coated) roofing 
and siding, you get the strength 
of steel . . . the rust protection 
of Zinc. So for low-cost, long- 
time service, choose the build- 
ing material that's proved by 
TIME itself . . . galvanized 
sheets. Send coupon for infor- 
mation about Zinc and how it 
can help keep your buildings 
and equipment stronger longer. 


; 2634 • 35 E Watker Dr. Chicogo I, III. 


Send me without cost or obligation the 
illustrated booklets I have checked. 

□ Repair Manual on Galvanized Root- 

ing and Siding 

□ Facts about Galvanized Sheets 

□ Use of Metallic Zinc Paint to Protect 

Metal Surfaces 





((."ontiiiiicd trom Pa^c IS) 

Kocktord Colli'gi' to major in nui.sic. 
Arrival here in Chambana ri-siilted in 
her marriage and her present position 
which she has held for the past sixteen 
years. Her favorite ainiisenients include 
all kinds of sports, listening to nuisic, or 
plaviiifi her favorite instrument, the sa\- 
opiione. The "woman's touch" is appar- 
ent ill her office with a small China dog 
sitting on the files, a vase of flowers on 
iicr desk ,111(1 bright c.-ilendars on the 


I'roud of tile rapid growtli of tlie elec- 
trical engineering department, its staff 
and students, Mrs. I'etermaii states that, 
"The I . 1. engineers ;ire more well- 
rounded individuals and on a higher 
le\el th;iii those of ten or twelve years 
ago." She attributes this to the stimulus 
brought on by the war. 

Traffic cop bawling out an unassum- 
ing lad\ motorist: "Don't sou know 1 mean when 1 hold up ni\' hand?" 

She, meekly: "1 ought to. I've been 
a school teacher for 25 years. " 

He: "Every time 1 kiss you it makes 
me a better man." 

She: "Well you don't have to try to 
get to heaven in one night." 

A divinity student named Tvveedle 
Once wouldn't accept a degree — 
'Cause it's tough enough to be Tweedle, 
Without being Tweedle I). 1). 

-}■ « » 

Sm:ill bo\' (looking at elephant I : 
"Ciee, Ma, ain't that a hell of a big 
animal ?" 

Proud Mama: "How man\ times 
must 1 tell you not to say 'ain't'?" 

Unlike other wild animals, coeds can 
be tamed by petting. 

partners in creating 

Engineering leaders for the last 80 years have made 
K & E instruments, drafting equipment and materials 
their partners in creating the great technical achieve- 
ments of America. So nearly universal is the reliance on 
K & E products, it is self-evident that every major engi- 
neering project has been completed virith the help of K& E. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 



Testing a Crystal 
frequency calibrator 
at 76" below zero 
in the Frick Re- 
frigerated Laboratory 
of Bendix Ra<U.', 
Tou'son. Md. 

WKm^HrtsA^ssa^j^^-^iL. .^^^..i^fs&j. 


Hold Any Temperature You Want with 


"Cold" down to 130 degrees be 
research and test work. Pen 
quiclt-froien at minus 30 to 

This installation is among the 
thousands of stores, restaurants 
clubs, theatres, offices, industrial 
plants, etc., which find Frick Air 
Conditioning indispensible. 

o t-. IS now comnnon in 
Is dried at minus 75. Foods are 
60; are stored at zero to minus 
20. Ice is frozen commercially 
in brine at 16. Fresh toods are 
held at 34 to 36. Drinking 
water is cooled to 45. Air con- 
ditioning, at 70 to 85, tops the 
scale of refrigerating loads. 
• Whatever the temperature 
wanted, you can hold it most 
dependably with Frick Refrig- 
eration. Sixty-five years' ex- 
perience says so! 

TO . 




National Electric 

Products Corporation 

Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

Engineering Students . . . 

You will find at the Co-Op Bookstore your needs 
in engineering and art supplies, stationery, text- 
books, and general reading. 


The Bookstore Closest to Engineering Campus 




(Contiiuieil troin Page 7) 
nicnt tli-alers. A tanner might approach 
his di-aler with a qui'stion liki- "Why 
doesn't my new forage liarvester require 
less power? I only ha\e a t\\<) plow 
tractor and with most ot the power re- 
quired in tile power take-oft' shaft (re- 
ferred to as the FIX)), there isn't 
enough left to move the tractor unless I 
travel in low gear." The local dealer 
transfers the ideas or suggestions ilirectly 
to the manufacturer who at this point 
compiles any other suggestions and de- 
livers them to liis engineering depart- 

The ilesign of faiiu maciiiner\ is con- 
trolled first bi,- economic considerations. 
Farm machinery must be produced at 
low cost since the actual ser\icc life or 
time in operation is usually very low in 
comparison with industrial machinery. 
Farm machinery becomes out moded 
more quickly. New ideas and new crop 
handling methods demand new machines 
so that even though a machine can be 
designed to last a life time, it often be- 
comes outdated and worthless in several 
years time, even though its component 
parts might .still contain many years of 
service. An 8 to 10 year service life is 
usually used for a design basis. A mini- 
mum of 400 hours in a corn planter to 
8,000 hours for a farm tractor shows a 

This device made with old parts 
and ingenuity, trims weeds close to 

wide \ariation in design life and of 
course directly affects the cost and sell- 
ing price. Repair costs are not consid- 
ered in the design life. 

Of the two types of costs, engineering 
and production costs, engineering costs 
represent from 3 to 4% of the finished 
product selling price. Engineering costs 
involve all development costs from de- 
sign through construction and acceptance 

lit an cxpeiimenral niachinc, which, for a 
new t\pe of machine such as an auto- 
ui.itic wire-tying hay baler, might ap- 
proach a ;>5(),000 figure. To show how- 
important cost is to the implement man- 
ufacturer, we have onh to look at his 
"dead blueprint" files and the machinery 
"grave yard". The "grave yard" is that 
• Ilea within the close confines of the 
manufacturing plan which contains all 
the finished experimental machines which 
h.i\c nc\er been pl.'iccd into production 
because thc\ were either not economical 
to piiiiiucc or they were outmoded be- 
lurc |iro(lu('tiori exen got under wa\'. 

Kven though the cost of the machine 
IS low, it must be dependable during its 
designed life. Bearings must be designed 
to give dependable service during the 
design life and the frame must be built 
to withstand repeated vibrations, not 
only from moving parts but from the 
constant jarring over rough terrain. 
Rubber tired implements have done 
much to reduce frame size by absorbing 
more of the shock of impact when wheels 
strike rocks, clods, and ditches. 

The machine must be designed for 
maximum possible safety. Equipment 
manufacturers have tackled the problem 
of making present machines safer but 
there is still a lot to be done. There is 
a movement on foot at present to design 
(Continued on Page 30) 

5AmA^ov>X. D.nx3iitMvU/ia. 

short facts about long-lived cable 


This new, attractive bottle 
base combined with the 
famous Higgins color card. 
A natural for use right on 
your drawing board. Ask 
for it at your Higgins Ink 


If dealer does not carry f/iem, write direct: 

Hicnins iJVK CO., /JVC. 

371 -MMH Sr/ltET, KnOUKlVJN 15. JV. V. 

• Foot-by-foot inspection is given every strip of insu- 
lation applied to an Okonite-engineered wire or 
cable. The Okonite Company, Passaic, New Jersey. 

look for the 
single ^^^^ ridge 


insulated wires and cables 
for every electrical use 




ENDIX is essentially a great creative engineer- 
ing and manufacturing organization — unlike 
any other existing in America. U Despite 
the fact of its modern manufacturing plants 
and its demonstrated productive capacities, 
the essence of Bendix greatness lies in its ten research lab- 
oratories and in the integrated knowledge its many engi- 
neers have jointly acquired in the fields of electronics, 
magnetics, optics, ceramics, electro-mechanics, hydraulics, 
pneumatics, injection-carburetion, aerological physics and 
metallurgy. ^ Bendix is constantly exploring the ^videst 
possible application of all these sciences to all manner of indus- 
trial, commercial, domestic and human problems. If By virtue 
of this, wherever machinery replaces human effort, there you 
will find Bendix instruments and controls lightening the load 
on human minds and removing the strain from human backs 
and hands. H The searchlight of Bendix creative engineering 
is alw^ays pointed to a bright and better tomorro'w. K When you 
see the name Bendix Ax'iation Corporation, on any product, you 
can buy it with the definite knowledge that it is first in crea- 
tive engineering design and the last word in quality. 

ON the walls of tlie great Bendix laboratories ... in 
the offices of the huge Bendix engineering staff . . . 
over the desks of executives in Bendix plants the 
country over, there hangs an exact copy of the credo 
pictured above. It hangs there because it is a ivorking 
credo — an authentic statement of Bendix aims, aspira- 
tions and accomplishments. The results of this whole- 
hearted preoccupation with a finer future for you are 

everywhere apparent. Radio, meteorology, all forms of 
transportation aloft, afloat and ashore are better be- 
cause of Bendix, and new products of basic importance 
to industry and individuals are constantly added. "To a 
bright and better tomorrow." Every Bcnthx Resource 
is dedicated to this purpose. . . . Look to Bendix for your 
future. In research, engineering and manufacturing, it's 
one of America's most versatile industrial organizations. 

BENDIX* PRODUCTS: oulomofiVe broles, carburetors, landing gear • BfNDIX RADIO*: rodio, radar, lehyhlon 
CCUPSl* MACHINE: ilorler drives, bicyde brakes • MAKSHAU ECUPSE*: brake lining • ZENITH*, zarburelors 
STROMBERG* aircraft carburetors, fuel in/eclion • FRtlZ*: weather instruments and controls • PIONEER* ll/ghl 
instruments • fCllPSE* aviation occessorles • SCINTIUA*: aircrall rgnilron, diesel fuel iniection • PACIFIC*: hydroulic 
systems • RED BANK*: dynomotors, inverters • BEND/X INTERNArlONAl: 30 Rockefeller PI020, New York 20, N. Y., 

Cable "lendixcorp" New york. © 11c! BENDIX AVIATION CORPORAIIOK. DEIROII 1. MICH. *1«A0EMA«KS 




PROBLEM — You're designing a taxi-cab meter. You have worked out 
the mechanism that clocks waiting time and mileage and totals the 
charges. Your problem now is to provide a drive for the meter from some 
operating part of the cab — bearing in mind that the meter must be 
located where the driver can read it and work the flag. How would 
you do it? 


Use an S.S.White power drive flexible shaft. Connect one end to a 
take-off on the transmission and the other to the meter. It's as simple ai 
that— a single mechanical element that is easy to install and will 
operate dependably regardless of vibration and tough usage. That's 
the way a leading taximeter manufacturer does it as shown below. 

• • • 
This is just one of hundreds of power drive and remote control prob- 
lems to which S.S.White flexible shafts are the simple answer. 
That's why every engineer should be familiar with the range and 
scope of these "Metal Muscles" for me- 
chanical bodies. 


It gives essential facts and engineering 
data about flexible shafts and their appli- 
cation. A copy is yours for the asking. 
Write today. 



PtPT. C, 10 EAST 40tli ST.. NEW TORK 16. N. T.^ 

Cmc 0^ /iiMfUoM A AAA ItuUuetUU SHXenputt^ 


( C"iiiitinin-il trom Page 28) 
sat('t\ >hicl(is on iievv' machines integral 
with the machine so that they cannot be 
remo\eii by careless farmers. As yet, 
however, there are still too man\ uncov- 
ered chains and shafts. 

Having determined that an idea has 
some merit and might be adopted into a 
production machine, a sales sur\e\ i^ 
made. H\ anal\/ing farmers' desires aixl 
purchasing power, it is determined it 
there is a sufficient market for produc- 
tion. The volume of production, being 
a variable factor, is directly related to 
the future potential market. If a pro- 
posed machine still passes all financi.d 
estimates, a program for dexelopment i^ 

I'u uctio nal Specif icatio ns 

The engineer for a particular farm 
implement receives a set of functional 
specifications which are requirements 
that the machine must possess in order to 
make it perform at a certain rate luider 
certain working conditions. Three fac- 
tors influence these working conditions 
under which a machine will operate and 
their effect on design can be summed up 
as follows: 

1. The soil : Sand to clay conditions. 
dry to wet types. Soil conditions deter- 
mine the speed at which the implement 
can be towed through the field and 
power required. Frame design is also 
affected by soil conditions to a certain 

2. The crop: High or low in ph\si- 
cal height, standing or badly beaten 
down by the elements. Physical dimen- 
sions of the crop determine the intake or 
amount of crop which can be processed 
per hoiu'. The amount of crop which 
can be processed is closely related with 
the economics of owning the machine by 
the farmer in his crop management plan. 

3. The weather: Hot or cold cli- 
mates, winds, and humidity. Climatic 
conditions directly affect design in that 
provisions for enclosed lubrication are 
necessary in windy, dust-blown areas. It 
is true, however, that in hot, dry areas 
lubrication of moving parts is very im- 
portant, whereas in dusty areas non- 
lubrication means longer wear, less 
abrasion. In addition to provision for 
lubrication, special adaptations must be 
designed for special conditions. A par- 
ticular example is that of a self-propelled 
combine where track laying wheels have 
replaced rubber tired wheels for harvest- 
ing of rice under the swampy conditions 
encoimtered in Louisiana. 

Mechanical Specifications 
In addition to functional specifications, 
the engineer determines certain mechani- 
cal .specifications. He estimates the ap- 
proximate loadings on the main working 
parts of the machine. If a machine is 
conipleteh new, the engineer uses "scien- 
( Continued on Page 32) 



ON January 26, 1946, newspapers 
carried front page stories about the 
new and amazing 100 million volt 
"betatron". The heart of this instrument 
that enables scientists to peer more 
deeply into steel castings to discover 
flaws, is a giant hollow glass "doughnut." 
With the betatron, men in the field of 
nuclear research have already made start- 
ling discoveries in the investigation of 
atomic energy. 

The making of this giant glass tube called 
for glass research knowledge and glass- 
making skill of the highest degree. And 
Corning was ready with the right com- 
bination of both. Each of those "dough- 
nut" sections you see in the picture had 
to be built to the most exacting dimen- 
sional tolerances. 

Science and industry have learned to 
expect Corning to come through with 
the answer to any glass problem. For 
instance. Corning produced the world's 
largest piece of cast glass . . . the 200" 
telescope mirror for famed Mt. Palomar. 
And when all othermaterials failed to do 
the job of hrndling hot corrosive acids. 
Corning made glass pipe and glass pumps 
that work without a hitch or replace- 
ment for years. Thermometer tubing 
. . . miles and miles of it . . . with a bore 
only 1/8 the diameter of a human hair is 
just an everyday job at Corning. 
With more than 50,000 different glas 
formulae to draw on. Corning scien- 
tists and glass workers have adapted 
glass to thousands of different jobs 
...some simple, some as complicated 

as the betatron. But in every instance 
glass is used because it does the job best. 
And you'll find after graduation that a 
knowledge of glass may help you do a 
better job. So why not keep Corning in 
mind. We'll be ready to help you all we 
can. Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 




Research in Glass 







at Annual Party 

ON December 6 over 1300 Norton men and women 
were company guests in Worcester's Municipal 
Auditorium for the 26th annual presentation of Service 

212 — 10 years service 

47 — 15 years service 

59 — 25 years service 

29 — 35 years service 

Approximately 70% of a// Norton employees 
have been with the company 25 years or more. 

These figures attest to the truth of the phrase so often 
heard in Worcester, "Norton's is a good place to work" 



(Coiitiiiuc-ii trom Pane 3U) 
tific fjucss work" to (ietcniiinc sizes ot 
soiiK- parts. I'rom tlu- outset, howuvcr, 
it Is to be noted that riii fxfxriiiu nltil 
/ii/uliiiic is mually designed for ftii/iirc 
at s'liiic cnlicid siclian. 1 he loads oo 
farm machine parts are iiiiknowii and 
variable so that theoretical design is sel- 
dom satisfactory. In contrast, a steam 
turbine which is very expensive to buiiil 
and test, must be designed to closer lim- 
its and with more complete stress analy- 
sis. After failure in trial runs, this crit- 
ical section is built up to the point wheie 
the section does not \ield after strenuous 
tests. Necessity ma)' dictate that a heat 
treating process be introduced on a high- 
er strength steel be used but in the ma- 
jority of cases the original steel as it 
came from the mill will be strengthened 
by an appreciable change in or bmlding 
up the original section. 

A wide variety of steels may be used 
in agricultural machinery from low car- 
bon 1025 steels to higher carbon or alloy 
steels. The most common plain carbon 
steels used are those of the 1045 variet\- 
while most alloy steels are of approxi- 
mately 2345 composition. Unless the 
volume of production warrants, the ten- 
dency in present day farm machine de- 
sign points to the elimination of as many 
castings as possible and substitution of 
more electric arc welded construction. 
Arc welding makes possible the use of 
lower carbon steels. 

Frame Design 

Some of the biggest problems the en- 
gineer encounters in a particular machine 
occur in frame design. If there are many 
rotating parts, they may throw an exces- 
sive strain on the frame which will af- 
fect misalignment of gears and sprockets. 
V-belts and V-belt pulleys are used in 
some cases where this occurs. The recent 
introduction of stress coat paints and 
strain gages has eliminated much of the 
guesswork in frame design. Since most 
moving parts are mounted on the frame, 
part failures are often difficult to anah ze 
and here again the element of "scientific 
guesswork" may play a major role. With 
the introduction of the oscilloscope and 
strain gauges, stresses in shafts, univer- 
sal joints and other moving parts can 
now be determined fairly accurately. 

After an experimental machine has 
been built from detail drawings it still 
contains many "bugs" which must be re- 
moved by a combination of old fashioned 
horse sense and ingenuity. The shop 
mechanic very often has the answer to a 
certain problem, but where the trouble 
cannot visibly be detected, high speed 
movies and stroboscopes are a helpful aid 
to the engineer and designer. 

General Conclusions 
The |irobIem of apphing the princi- 
ples (it mechanics and machine design 
(Continued on Page 34) 



for CHRISTMAS send 






Stop in today and see the new 1947 designs. 
All you need to do is select the card you want 
—we'll do the rest. Prompt, reasonably priced 







111 N. Walnut St. Champaign, III. 


Radio parts must he accurate. Speed, to provide 
economy, is essential, too. "Behind" the radio you will 
find a LUtell Feed which has supplied a stamping press 
with strip metal, properly straightened and precisely 
indexed, at a speed which contributes importantly 
toward low cost of the final product. 





The Spot to Shop 


mini Union Book Store 

715 S. Wright Street 





(Contiiuictl troni I'age 32) 
take on a new lifjht when applicil to 
farm machine design. The ahih't\ to ap- 
ply the tormulae for beam stren<:th, and 
to use equations for torsion, bending, 
tension and compression, all might be 
used in any one machine but it is said 
that the "horse sense" factor weighs 
luM\il> in any computation. It should 
be noted that onl\ about 5 to 1(1^ of 
the ideas which are investigated for new 
types of machines e\er reach the fmal 
production stage. 

At the present time, the farmer is still 
demanding machinery at almost any cost 

which me;uis that in spite of labor strife, 
the m:iiiufacturer, if he is to remain in 
tiie field, nuist produce equipment. Since 
design, building, and testing of an ex- 
perimental machine requires almost two 
years time prior to production, many of 
the new machines promised for post war 
production are just beginning to appear. 
Many are still being tested in the field. 
Howe\er, many of those promiseil ma- 
chines may never be produced because of 
an expected beginning of the "bu\er's 
market" in 1Q48. 

Time is the thing that keeps 
things from happening at once. 


(Continued from I'age IS) 
to Hob's way of thinking. This opinion 
has sound reason behind it. In contrast 
to most mining schools « hicli hiy empha- 
sis on teaching the technological phases, 
the department here at tiie I'niversity 
stresses the economic and engineering 
aspects of mining. It is believed b\ 
some that this latter method of teaching 
better trains young engineers for work 
in the industry. 

Hob is a member of A.I..M.E., M.I.S. 
and Sigma Phi Delta, professional and 
social fraternity. 

Satisfy All Your Photo Needs at 


Cameras and Film — Dark Room Supplies 

Enlargers — Exposure Meters 

Still and Movie Projectors — Screens 

Portrait and Salon Mounts 

Photo and Greeting Cards — Camera Cases 

Field and Sports Glasses 

Strauch's 709 So. Wright, C. 



808 S. Sixth St. 
Laundry Service and Dry Cleaning 

For 17 Years 


of the 


has been your 

Official Fraternity Jeweler 






Over 73 Years 



Roller hearth radiant tube heated furnace using 
prepared atmosphere for bright annealing* 

Atmosphere generating equipment used with 
bright annealing furnace. 

Here are the 

Customers of Phosphor Bronze Smelting Company, 
2200 Washington Ave., Philadelphia, started the 
whole thing — they demanded more Elephant Brand 
Phos phor Bronze products than the company could 
produce by former methods of heat treating. 

So company production engineers, already familiar 
with GAS and Gas Equipment, specified the modern 
method of heat treating — with continuous, auto- 
matically-controlled. Gas Furnaces, with integral 
prepared atmospheres. 

Process — *Homogenizing — a method of heat 
treating to develop uniform grain structure in 
phosphor bronze billets prior to rolling, 
while relieving casting strains. 

Temperature — 1200° F. 

Cycle — 6 hours 

Furnace Capacity — 2000 lbs. per hour 

Process — Annealing of bars and sheets in a 
prepared-atmosphere furnace to retain bright- 
ness while relieving stresses set up during 
rolling or drawing operations. 

Temperature— 1200° F. 

Cycle — (0 minutes to 3 hours, varying with stock size 

Furnace Copacity — 5000 Ibs. per hour 

Here ore the 

1. Pickling process eliminated 

2. Production increased 80% 

3. Uniformity of heat treatment assured by 
automatic control 

4. Annealing and homogenizing costs reduced over 50% 
6. Working conditions improved 



Throughout industry modern Gas Equipment 
has established cost-cutting and time-saving 
records wherever GAS heat treating methods 
and machinery have been integrated in pro- 
duction-line processes. 



A guide for fishermen. •• 
and factory heads 

FISHING rod guides (like tlie one 
above) and bearing surfaces in reels 
can now wear virtually forever. 

Why? Because the hardest metal 
made by man is adaptable for use at 
the wear points. This super-hard metal 
is Carboloy Cemented Carbide. 

And the same, almost incredible 
wear-resisting qualities of Carboloy are 
equally effective in thousands of manu- 
facturing applications and product 
parts throughout industry. Take textile 
plants, for example: 

Textile parts last years longer 

la one mill, Carboloy nylon guides 
have lasted three years and are still in 
use! Steel guides lasted only two 
months. And so it is with slitter knives, 
carding pins, needles, jute and yarn 
guides ... all tough spots for ordinary 
metals but duck soup for Carboloy. 

Vital to all industries 

Carboloy is held by authorities to be 
one of the ten most important indus- 
trial developtnents of the past decade 
... a guide to cost-minded factory 
heads everywhere . . . because: 

1. Carboloy commonly triples 
the output of both men and 

2. Regularly increases the qual- 
ity of products, and 

3. Cuts, forms or draws all 
alloys with accuracy and 
speed previously unknown. 

A challenge to you 

The odds are 10 to 1 that Carboloy — 
the amazing metal of many uses — can 
be put to work profitably in your plant 
by our engineers. Write 

Carboloy Company, Inc., Detroit 32, Mich. 





( C'i)iirmuc-ii troni I'agi' 11) 
Tachojjrapli. This device is a ^c■^■l)^(hn^ 
speedometer for automobiles and trucks, 
which provides the driver with a visual 
speed iiidieator, a total mileajje intiicatnr, 
a time eloek, and a red warning lifilit 
whicli tlashes wiicii sate driving; speeds 
are beinsi exceeded. In addition to the 
\isual functions, all movements of the 
\ehicle are recorded on a chart which is 
locked inside the instrument. This chart 
shows graphically when the engine is 
started, the time idled, the time mo\ing. 
the speed moving, and when stopped. 
These features help drivers eliminate 
costly driving habits, lost time, excessive 
fuel consumption, the necessity of fre- 
quent repairs, and tire and brake re- 

The Tachograph has won wide accept- 
ance and acclaim from fleet owners, 
truck operators, bus transportation com- 
panies, drivers of trucks, insurance com- 
panies and many others, who have 
learned that they can depend fully on 
the record as provided by the instrument, 
and that this record can help them in 
the promotion of safety and more eco- 
nomical operation of their vehicles. 

Personnel Management 

A formalized industrial and labor re- 
lations department is an important part 
of the company organization. Following 
through an employee relations program 
instituted by its founder, the compan\ 
was one of the pioneers in the establish- 
ment of improved working conditions. 
Details of the program in brief, are as 

Modern facilities are provided for the 
employees, such as a modern, well- 
equipped medical department, two 
cafeteria, smoking areas, ladies' 
I o u n g e s, refreshment dispensers. 
Rest periods total 3(1 minutes per 
da\. Plant-wide music is provided 
on the public address system 15 
nu'nutes out of each hour. An ex- 
ceptionally active athletic program 
has been in effect for a number of 
years. There are also numerous in- 
ter-factory clubs, such as the camera 
club, the supervisors' club and oth- 
ers. The .?5 year service club has 
37 members, the 25 year club has 
104 members and the 1^ \ear club 
has 23(1 members. 
A complete welfare program is also in 
operation with a retirement plan, 
hospitalization plan, credit luiion, 
ami a vacation with pay plan. 
An active safety committee has been 
effective in establishing high standards 
of safety throughout the plant ; the ex- 
cellent records attained ha\ e been award- 
ed national recognition. 

The compain maintains an open shop 
contract with independent organizations 
for hourlv workers. 




When you admire a beauty ... or visit a farm . . . 

ride on a ferry or order some coke . . . 

3 6 

swallow an aspirin .... or turn on the light . . . 

the chances ore, you are coming in contact 
with Koppers engineering or chemical skills. 

1. Koppers chemicals for use in cosmetics. 2. Farm structures 
made of lumber pressure-treated by Koppers for long life. 3. Koppers 
American Hammered Piston Rings for marine engines. 4- Coke from 
Koppers-built ovens. 5. Koppers chemicals for use in medicines. 
6. Koppers Fast's self-aligning couplings, widely used in power 
plants. All these are Koppers products ... as well as scores of others 
that help to increase our comfort, guard our health, enrich our lives. 
All bear the Koppers trade-mark, the symbol of a many-sided service 
. . . and of high quality. Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 





(Cimtiiuicd troiii I'am- 1.^) 
tin is assistant nianagt-r of metallurgical 
research for the Inland Steel company 
of p]ast Chicago, liul. 


New members of the student brancli 
were aci|uainted with the purposes, aims. 
and functions of the organization at the 
meeting of (October IS. 

In addition to this orientation, \ari- 
ous members of the faculty in the col- 
lege of engineering ami the tlepartnu-iit 
of aeronautical engineering expiamed 
the machinations of the college ami the 
department and their endeavors in sup- 
plying the aeronautical engineering stu- 
dent with a .sound, academic, technical 
foundation on which he will be able 
to build his professional career. 

Close co-ordination between facult\ 
and students w;ls stressed, and all new 
freshmen were uiged to seek the advice 
of the faculty and the senior engineer- 
ing students. 

Tlie speakers were the following: H. 
H. Jonlan, associate dean of the Col- 
lege of Engineering; Jesse W. Stone- 
cipher of the University of Illinois Insti- 
tute of Aeronautics; Henry S. Stihvell. 
heat! of the aeronautical engineering 
department ; Robert W. McCloy, pro- 
fessor in the aeronautical engineering 

.At the next meeting on October 2^', 
.M. Zbigniew Kr/\blocki. associate pro- 
fessor of aeronautical engineering, gave 
an interesting talk on the technical his- 
tory and development of the rocket, 
stressing the necessity of rocket research. 

A short business meeting ilirected by 
Robert S. Chubb, student ch.iirman, 
followed the talk by .Mr. Krzyblocki. 
The proposed constitution of the Kngi- 
neering Council was read by Jack Mc- 
(luire and was ratified by the assembh. 
A date was set aside for the taking of 
the organization's lllio picture. 

"Your Job (Opportunities in A\ ia- 
tion" was the title of the talk given b\ 
K. |. .Anderson at the meeting of No- 
\ ember 1'). .Mr. Anderson is assistant 
district sales manager for Capitol Air 
Lines, and his advice for the graduating 
student seeking a job in aviation was 
greatly appreciated. 


The student branch of the American 
Ceramic Societ\' held its first business 
meeting on Thursday evening, October 
16. The main topic of discu.ssion was 
the Engineering Council, which was 
ratified b)' a unanimous vote. Frank 
Reckny and Floyd Maupin will repre- 
sent the S.B.A.C.S. on the council. 

Dr. Cook, faculty adviser for the 
society, was present. He announced part 
of the organization's fall schedule which 

includes a lecture h\ Robert 'Fwehes. 
a graduate of the I niversitv of Illinois 
and a representative of Auto I-ight. Tin- 
time of this lecture is December 1''. 

The second meeting of the fall term 
was held in the Ceramics Huilding at 
7 p. m. November 13. John D. Sullivan 
of the Hattelle .Memorial Institute, Col- 
umbus, Ohio, and national president ot 
the American Ceramic Society, was the 

Walter Stuenkel, president of the 
student branch, presided at a short busi- 
ness meeting immediately following Mr, 
Sidlivan's talk. It was decided to have 
the annual I'ig Roast in May at the 
L rbana-Lincoln hotel. It was also de- 
cided to reserve a half-page in the Illio 
for the group picture and general infor- 
mation concerning the organization and 
its activities. 

"Raw Materials, " the student publi- 
cation, is in the making. Roger West- 
lake and James Young will be the ones 
responsible for its composition and dis- 
tribution. Its purpose is to furnish mem- 
bers of the ceramics department, or any 
others who are interested, with current 
information concerning the doings of 
various ceramists. Any slip, by word of 
mouth or by action, will be duly re- 
corded therein ; and the editors reserve 
the right to make any distortions in the 
facts if they so see fit. It should prove 
to be quite interesting to most readers. 


^ y^X...Ymh^ie44iVft 


To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
make the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance v^hen you 
can always . . . 







Z E S T O 

frozen dessert 



Hamburgers — Chill — Light Lunch 


Burr, Patterson & Auld Co. 





A Large Selection of 

Christmas Gifts 

On the Campus 

704 So. Sixth 




hot enough 

to melt bricks 


Hiver see a brick melt in air — 
melt like a block of butter in a warm 
room? Probably not. For air around the 
ordinary brick building just doesn't 
get that hot... over 2000°F. Yet raising ^^ 

the temperature of air until it's hot enough to 
melt a brick — and a lot hotter — is now possible 
with the Pebble Heat Exchanger developed by 
B&W. It heats gases far above the temperature 
limits of metallic heat exchangers. 

Development of the Pebble Heat Exchanger is 
further evidence that B&W— old in experience. 

pioneer of many advances in divergent fields — is 
still young enough to have new ideas. 

B&W offers excellent career opportunities to 
technical graduates in diversified phases of manu- 
facturing, engineering, research, and sales. 


NEW YORK 6, N. Y. 

All Engineering Supplies . . . 


No more fruitless hunts for hard to find items. 
We have supplies for every engineering need. 
Just come to the UNIVERSITY BOOK STORE, ask 
for whatever you need, and walk out, five min- 
utes later, completely satisfied. We will be glad 
to help you. 



^jl DECEMBER, 1947 


0002" TOlERAMtt 


-this is No. 5*s stated 
performance on grindiae 
^ ^^ drum shafts - one of the 

^^^'' ' most vital parts of a pre- 

cision bombsighi - pro- 
duced in lots of 2000. 


No. 5 Plain Grind- 
inj! Machine — made 
in two siiei-yx\2' 
or 3"xI8". Work 
speeds and table 
speeds are designed 
for diameters up to 
about 1". 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. 

Providonca 1, R. I., U.S.A. 



Why not give a Lefax 
for Christmas? 


Post Office Box Number 1 
University Station 




A Campus Tradition 


Bg7gA5T G 






Because photography can be so inexpensive 

AS these youngsters can tell you ... as you yourself 
jTi. know ... it doesn't much to take pictures for 
pleasure. Only a few cents for a snapshot . . . 

It costs even less — much less — to take many of the 
"pictures" business and industry want, because in 
these functional applications photography is often- 
times almost entirely automatic. 

Good example of this inexpensiyeness is Recordak. 
Reproducing automatically ... on economically mi- 
nute areas of microfilm ... it copies checks, waybills, 
and other similar documents for a fraction of a cent 

Second example . . . photographic recordings. Auto- 

matically made, they reduce to a minimum the cost 
of "reading" the fluctuations of gauges, instruments, 
production control equipment. 

Third example . . . Transfax Process . . . inexpensive 
in another way, since, unlike any other process, it 
reproduces complex drawings, charts, layouts \\'ith 
photographic accuracy and completeness directly on 
metal in a matter of minutes. 

These are only three of the ways in which photog- 
raphy can save time and money. In our new booklet— 
"Functional Photography"— \ou'll find others. Write 
for \()ur free c()p\'. 

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 


Functional Photography 

. . . a great name in research with a big future in METALLURGY 

AND B-29'S 

Nursery tovs niul Super-Fortresses have 
something in common. It's their use o[ 
General F.lectric permanent 'magnets. 
.\ncl there are thousands of other prod- 
ucts in many and varied industries 
which employ these remarkable uiagiiets 
to exceptional advantage. 

What is it that makes G-E permanent 
magnets so readily adaptable to the 
needs of motors and generators, control 
devices, games and novelties, radio and 
communication equipment, meters and 
instruments, and mechanical appli- 
ances? The answer is G-E .Mnico. one ol 
the most powerful magnet materials in 
the world. .Special .Mnico assemblies 
have been dcsioncd to lift as much as 

|..|5() limes the weight of ihe Alnito 
permanent magnet. 

G-E .Alnico as originally discoveretl 
was a modification of an alloy designed 
to resist scaling at high temperatures. 
It consisted of aluminum, nickel, and 
inm. The magnetic properties of this 
alloy proveil njorc interesting than 
its chemical properties, however. Rec- 
ognizing these properties as probably 

originating Ikimi ihe solution and |)re- 
cipitalion of .MNi compound in iron. 
the alloy was modified and heat-treated 
accordingly. The result was the scries ol 
])ernianent magnet alloys which are now 
called the .Mnicos. 

G-E Alnico permanent magnets arc 
maiiufactureil by sand-casting, precision- 
casting, and sintering. Sand-cast .Mnico 
is most economical and is generally u.sed 
for magnets weighing over 15 grams, 
unless the magnetic or physical proper- 
ties of sintered Alnico are reeiuired. 

Sintered .Mnico is best adapted for mass 
production of smaller magnets, or for 
s])ecial applications needing more uni- 
form flux distribiuion and higher phy- 
sical strength. For shapes that are im- 
practical or impossible to sand-cast or 
sinter, the precision-casting method may 
be used to advantage. 

But regardless of the method of pro- 
duction, the end is the same . . . shaped 
|)ieces of ferromagnetic material which 
I )ncc having been magnetized, show defi- 


^^ " Jl 


iv'^i. ^ 



nite resistance to external demagnetiz- 
ing forces. Unlike quenched steel mag- 
nets, G-E Alnico permanent magnets 
will retain their magnetizing force for 
very long periods of time . . . actually hir 
centuries with normal use! Truly G-E 
Alnico magnets are permanent magnets. 
In the comparatively short time that 
these powerful G-E magnets have been 
available, an ever-increasing field for 
their use lias opened up. Today the 
total production of Alnico in this coun- 
try surpasses 6,000,000 pounds annually. 
Tomorrow this figure may be greatly in- 
creased as young engineers of vision pro- 
ceed iir research and development of 
this family of alloys. 



.1 iiirs.\ui/e to students of metallurgy and nietalhiryical 

engineering, from 


Vice President of the General Electric Company and 

General Manager of the Chemical Department 

There are many opportunities for further metallurgical research 
in the highly important field of permanent magnets. We are en- 
gaged in the de\elopnient of better and less costly permanent 
magnet materials. You who plan a career in metallurgy or chem- 
istry will find the po.ssibilities at General Electric unusual anil 









JUN 2 9 ir.'ifi 


January, 1948 • 25 Cents 


'Intellectual improvement arises from leisure" —samvei. johnson 

Why housekeeping gets ''lighter'' all the time 

". . . ^'i Oman's work is never done." 

True enough. But today's hoinemaker — aidt-d hv her 
modern refrigerator, range, water heater. \a(uuni cleaner 
and other appliances finds more time for family and for 

And what helps these ''automatic servants' operate so 
dependahly? Belter materials for one thing. 

Materials on the inside— the unseen working parts of 
household standhvs. Such as alloy steels, new plasties, rar- 
lion brushes in motors . . . lighter, more eonipacl materials 
ihal make appliances stand up longer and handle with ease. 

Materials, too. that you can see ... as those stainless steel 
surfaces so easy to clean. Or the chemicals in more enduring 
waxes and polishes, varnishes and plastic finishes. 

Yes. today's housewife enjoys new leisure, new freedom 
from drudgery . . . thanks to better materials. 

Producinci. these better materials and mnnv nllirrs — fnr 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of mankind 
—is the work of the people of U^'IO^' CARBIDE. 

FREE: )oii arc invited to send jor tlie illustrated booklet, ^'Products 
iind l^roeessesS^ which describes the niays in ivhich industry uses 
I (:(''s Alloys. Chemicals, Carbons. Gases and Plastics. 

Union Carbide 




I'roiliiels <»/ Dhisioiis and I'liils inrlutir 


EvEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • Acheson Electrodes 

LiNDE Oxygen 

National Carbons 
Prestone and Trek Anti-Kreezes • Electromet .Alloys and Metals 

Haynes Stellite Alloys • Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

There's a future for you m 


at Westinghouse 

Today, research is one of the most 
important of engineering functions. 
The field is broad and of absorbing interest. In 
the Westinghouse Research Laboratories, entire 
departments are devoted to research in the follow- 
ing fields: Chemistry, Metallurgy, Mechanics, 
Electrophvsics, Electromechanics, Electronics, 
Magnetics, Insulation. 

The opportunities offered to engineering gradu- 
ates lie in two spheres of activity: 

Pure Research — investigation of physical laws 
\-,ilh llic aim of extending purely scientific knowl- 
edge, without the specific practical application 
of that knowledge in mind. 

Applied Research — solution of specific manu- 
facturing problems, development of new appa- 
ratus, discovery of new and better materials for 
which there is a need. G-ioois 

Here are opportunities limited ^k 
only by your own iniajiiination r 
and aliilitv. To learn more 
about these and the many other 
opportunities at Weslinghouse, get 
your copy of the booklet, "Finding 
Your Place in Industry". 



To obtain copy of "Finding Your Place in Industry," consult 
the Placement Officer of your university, or mail this coupon to: 

T/ic District Educational Coordinator 
n cstinglwuse Electric Corporation 
20 iS. yX acker Drive, P. O. Box B, Zone 90 
Chicago 6, Illinois 




lew Developments 

#/f/ .hthn IHvli. E.K. ' i» 
Hvrh Mnzor. K.E. '."iO 

H.VII .MvOiriin. M.K. '.»# 

Electron Diffraction 

'J'hi- Cii-ni'ial Ek-ctric company took a 
sti'p forward in the field of structural 
analysis by developing an electron dif- 
fraction instrument. The theory of 
operation of this instrument is relatively 
simple. An electron "gun" fires a beam 
of electrons in a high vacuum compart- 
ment. These electrons are accelerated 
by an electrostatic field of 4(),()()() volts 
and focused by a magnetic field. Hitting 
the specimen being examined, they re- 
bound and form a diffraction pattern 
that is characteristic of the crystalline 
structure of the material under examina- 
tion. The pattern is k corded on a photo- 
graphic plate after a S second exposure 
and provides information which is not 
available with the use of the con\en- 
tional x-ray and electron microscope. 

The commercial possibilities of the 
electron diffraction instrument aic 
numerous, since it can detect chemical 
changes before they are detectable by 
any other method. This property can be 
utilized for combating corrosion in 
various alloys besides use in the study 
of catalysts, surface deposits, graphite, 
pigments for paints, inks, dyes, and in 
metallurgical investigations. 

Liquid Level Gage 

An improved liquid ]e\el gage was 
recentlv produced b\ the Boston Auto 
(rage company of Pittsfield, Mass. De- 
signed to accurately indicate the level 
of the insulating fluid in transformers, 
the gage utilizes a float inside the trans- 
former tank to transmit the motion of 
the liquid to one of two similar alnico 
permanent magnets. The motion causes 

Electron diffraction instrument has innumerable possibilities 

Special gage designed to indicate 
level of insulating fluid in trans- 

a flux variation in the magnet which 
is in turn transmitted to the second mag- 
net. The second magnet is attached to 
a dial indicator needle which, with a 
properly calibrated scale, gives highh 
accurate readings. 

It can be seen that leak-proof, mag- 
netic coupling is neces^sary for accurate 
indication. This is obtained with use of 
two (jeneral Electric sintered, alnico 
permanent magnets separated by an 
aluminum diaphragm. The aluminum 
diaphragm is pressure tight to a min- 
imum of 30 P.S.L, effecting a pemia- 
nent seal between the liquid and the 
gage proper. The gage flange is mounted 
with four studs to the side of the tank, 
(usually below the maximum oil le\el K 
and is then sealed with a "hy-car" 

Sonigage Detects 
Flaws in Metals 

Sounds pitched too high for the hu- 
man ear to hear have been put to work 
to improve motor vehicles. Harnessed 
in an inspection device, called an auto- 
matic sonigage, such sounds give auto- 
motive engineers new knowledge for con- 

trol of materials that go into cars and 

Similar to wartime radar where dis- 
tances were measured by the bounce of 
radio waves, idtra-sound waves travel 
through metals and reverberate to meas- 
ure thicknesses and detect structural 

Elapsed time for sounds to echo from 
interior surfaces provides a measure of 
thickness. Variable tones reveal air 
pockets, cracks and other flaws. Sound 
frequencies of over a megacycle must 
be used since sound travels through 
steel at about 250,000 inches per second 
and some sections of steel to be meas- 
ured are only an eighth of an inch thick. 

The field of ultrasonics is compara- 
tively new and virtually unexplored. 
But experiments thus far indicate there 
may be many practical applications. 
Ultrasonic experiments in automotive 
research laboratories began during the 
war when measurements of wall thick- 
nesses of hollow airplane propeller 
blades were needed. The improved soni- 
gage is one result of continuous experi- 
ments in peacetime. The device provides 
engineers with much improved controls 
of m.Mterials. 


At RCA Exlubitiun Halt, radio, television, and electronics arc on parade in fascinating new exJiihits 

^World's Fair"of radio-electronic wonders,., 

RCA Exitibition Hall 

100,000 visitors every month — that's 

how people have responded to the ex- 
citing new RCA Exhibition Hall in 
Radio City. 

Like a "Worlds Fair," tliis is a place 
where you can watch, and e\"en oper- 
ate, many recent developments of RC.\ 
Laboratories. Television, radio, loran, 
the electron microscope, and other 
scientific achievements . . . vou'll find 
them 'on show," fully explained, and 
thrilling to see. 

For instance: step on a platform and 
tele\ise yourself, see yourself in action 
on a real television screen. Watch 

radio waves heat steel red-hot in a jiftv. 
Hear the newest RCA Mctor record- 
ings. Take home a souvenir message 
from globe-encircling RCA Communi- 
cations—see Radiomarine's radar and 
learn exactlv how the NBC Network 
operates to bring its "Parade of Stars" 
to \'Our home. 

Con\enientlv located in the heart of 
Radio Cit\-at 40 ^^'est 49th Street- 
RCA Exhibition Hall is open 11 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. dailv; evervone is welcome, 
there is no admission charge. Radio 
Corporation of America, RCA Biiild- 
iii's. Radio City, New York 20, N. Y. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\'ictor — one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic prodvicts 
—offers you opportimit>' to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Di \i III III nt iiul design of new re- 
cortiiii I I ] I hu ing methods. 

• Di -i^ii i I i^iug, power, catliode 
ray, gui .iiid i>liutu tubes. 

Write today to Xational Rccrtiiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 


I many opportunities for Mechanical 
Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 


JANUARY. 1948 


A Profilograph trace, good commercially ground finish. 5000i vertical, 30x horizontal 
B Prolilograph trace, limken finish. SOOIlx vertical, 30x horizontal 

Answers the question — 
^^Hovf rough is smooth?^^ 

ONE of the reasons Timken 
Tapered Roller Bearings per- 
form with such frictionless, wear- 
free ease is the amazingly smooth 
surface finish on the rolls and races 
— the finest known to modern bear- 
ing science. 

Now, when you talk about fin- 
ishes like this, you're talking about 
surface irregularities of only a few 
millionths of an inch — irregulari- 
ties which are impossible to detect 
by any ordinary means. So, when 
Timken first began to develop this 
finish, one of the biggest obstacles 
was the absence of an accurate 
method of measuring the roughness 
of an apparently smooth surface. 

The profilograph pictured above 
was the answer. Developed by 

Timken in 1928 and steadily im- 
proved since then, the profilograph 
determines surface irregularities to 
within one-millionth of an inch. 
Equipped with this measuring stick, 
Timken engineers were able to de- 
velop new finishing methods and 
machines, which have resulted in 
the microscopic surface accuracy of 
the Timken Bearings you use today. 

Every factor in the efficiency of a 
bearing is approached at Timken 

in this same scientific manner. For 
example, Timken makes its own 
steel to assure constant quality. And 
Timken is the acknowledged lead- 
er in: 1. advanced design; 2. preci- 
sion manufacture; 3. rigid quality 
control; 4. special analysis steels. 
No wonder you can always be sure 
of uniformly top quality and per- 
formance in the Timken Bear- 
ings you use. The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 






George R. Foster Editor 

Francis Cireen Jsst. Erii/or 

Ed Witort -■/.«/. Editor 

Barbara Schmidt. .j1/c(/-(7//> Editor 


John Dick 
Don Hornbeck 
Donald Johnson 
Karl Hilgcndorf 
Ralph Lending 
Tom Moore 
Carl Sonnenschein 
Gene Fisher 
Herbert Jacobson 
Dick Hammack 
Kenneth McOwan 
Connie Minnick 

Al Rust 
Phil Doll 
Ronald Johnson 
Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
John Shurtleff 
Arthur Wclcher 
Shirley Smith 
Sam Jefteries 
Olenn Massie 
(Jeorge Ricker 
Duke Silvestrini 

Volume 63 

Number 4 


(lene Robinson, ///;«/^c;//o;;.y Editor 

Ted Sohn Jack Stumpf 

Willard E. Jones 



Robert A. Johnson Bus. Mgr. 

Stanley Diamond.. ^7 .«/. Bus. Mgr. 

Charles Jansen Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Richard Leek Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Fred Seavey.--- 

John Bogatta 
Rudy Vergara 
(George Kvitek 
Michell Cassidy 
James Chapman 

.Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Robert Cox 
C5erry Thompson 
Robert Levin 
William Anderson 
Harold Wilson 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 

Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illinois 
Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa Transit, 
Kansas Engineer, Kansas State Engineer, 
Kentucky Engineer, Marquette Engineer, 
Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, Ohio 
State Engineer, Oklahoma State Engineer, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rose Technic, Tech 
Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Puhlished eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1921,, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscription, $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Publisher Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 

Tfie Tech PresenH 


Const ruction Practices 7 

Bar/uira Srh/iiidt, (j.E. '48 and (Charles .fanst'u, C.E. '4S 

Industrial Sightseeing — Woodward (Governor 8 

Don Johnson, E.E. '-/y 

Something New 10 

Martin Sahath. M.E. '4H 


New Developments 2 

John Duk. E.E. '4'^ — Herb Mazer. E.E. '50 
Ken MeOuan. M.E. '49 

Crossword Puzzle 1 

Introducing 11 

Art It'eleher. E.E. '48 — Shirley Smith. Eng.Ph. '50 
(Bonnie Minnieh, C.E. '51 

Navy Pier - 12 

Engineering Societies 14 

John Shurtleff. Ch.E. '50 — Dick Ilainuiack. (,'.£. '48 

Editorial 16 


Introducing this month's modification in the cover design 
is a picture of the plane, shown returning with the football 
team from the Army game this fall. 


This picture of the main machine shop floor of Woodward 
Governor company shows the large area covered by the in- 
dividually powered equipment. 


Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 

hy ttnrhnra Svhinidt, i\K.'IH nnd Iharlt's 'lansvn. 4\E. 'iH 

Designed to show the relation- 
ship between theory and practice, 
this article describes some of the 
practices used in the construction 
of the new mechanical engineering 
laboratory and, more important, 
some of the reasons behind these 

The authors wish ot thank Mr. 
F. J. Wilcox, the architect's repre- 
sentative, for his time and patience 
in answering the many "whys" t-hat 
were presented to him. 

Main' questions which arise in the 
classroom about various construction de- 
tails can best be answered by an on-the- 
spot investigation of any one of the build- 
ings being constructed on campus. Al- 
though these buildings are all being 
erected within a half-mile of the Admin- 
istration building, the foundations of 
each vary considerably. 

The Electrical Engineering laboratory 
is constructed entireh' on pile footings 
driven to an average depth of 18 feet; 
whereas the Mechanical Engineering 
laboratory utilizes pile, cantilever, con- 
tinuous, and single footings of varying 
dimensions. Both buildings used shell 
piles filled with concrete and were driven 
according to the Engineering News for- 
mula. The E. E. laboratory piles rest 
upon a gravel strata and were given 54 
blows for the last 3 inches while the 
M. E. laboratory piles are supported by 
a strata of blue clay and were given 48 
blows for the last 3 inches. 

The footings at the north end of the 
M. E. laboratory are poured on top of 
piles, while the south end of the building 
is supported by individual spread foot- 
ings. For this reason there might be a 
difference in settlement between the 
north and south ends ; therefore the 
building is divided into two sections and 
connected by an expansion joint. The 
columns along the expansion joint are 
placed on cantilever footings so that the 
two sections can act as individual units 
and settle independently of each other. 
The purpose of the large steel girder in 
the M. E. laboratory, which has un- 
doubtedh' caused comment among the 
student engineers, is to provide a connec- 
tion for further building additions. 

Steel pans, nailed to l"x6" wooden 

planks, constitute the form work for the 
joists and floor slabs of the M. E. labo- 
ratory. Wooden shoring supports the 
forms (see fig. 1 ). The joist elevation 
is obtained by driving wooden wedges 
under the shoring until all the joists are 
level. This procedure also facilitates the 
removal of the shoring. A plank placed 
between the floor and the shoring struts 
prevents any possible damage to the 
wearing surface that might be caused 
when driving the wedges. 

After the forms have been erected, the 
temperature steel and reinforcing bars 
are laid in place. The temperature steel 
is laid at right angles to the reinforcing 

steel and takes the stresses introduced by 
the contraction and expansion of the slab 
due to temperature changes. 

Other construction features, such as 
using reinforced concrete instead of steel, 
and joist pans instead of joist tiles, were 
simply designer's choice influenced by 
frugalit)'. Although standard sized re- 
inforcing bars are emphasized in design 
courses, on the actual job a round bar 
may replace one of the specified square 
bars as the steel company might not have 
had any square bars in stock. The com- 
puted bending moment will be safely re- 
sisted h\ the steel as long as the area 
(Continued on Page 18) 


Drawn by C. L, Jansen Jr. 
for the Technograph 

JANUARY, 1948 

Woodward Governor Company plant at Rockford, Illinois 

. . . 7i/aadLua^d Qaoe^uta^ Co., 

Hi§ iton •lohnnon, K.E. '49 

An airplane is in level flight with the 
control set for an engine speed ot 2(10(1 
revolutions per minute. The pilot pulls 
the plane into a climb, forcing the engine 
speed to momentarily decrease, but al- 
most instantaneously the constant speed 
control reduces the pitch of the propel- 
lers, the engine speed returns to normal, 
and the plane contiinies to climb at a re- 
duced airspeed due to the power required 
to increase the altitude. 

In the same way, then the pilot levels 
off, the engine load will be momentarily 
decreased, causing the engine speed to 
tend to" increase, but again, almost in- 
stantaneously, the blade pitch is increased 
automatically to that position necessary 
to absorb the engine power output at 
that engine speed and throttle setting, 
and the plane proceeds in level flight at 
an increased airspeed. 

If while in level flight the pilot de- 
sires to increase the speed of his plane, 
he has only to increase the throttle open- 
ing. As the engine momentarily acceler- 
ates, the governor increases the blade 
pitch, absorbing the increased power and 
returning the engine speed to normal. 
Thus, the engine speed remains constant, 
while the forward speed of the plane is 
increa.sed because of the engine's greater 
power output. 

Airplane governors providing automat- 
ically controlled adjustable pitch propel- 

lers are essential for satisfactor\' per- 
formance of modern aircraft. 

The first company to develop a prac- 
tical airplane governor was the Wood- 
ward Governor company of Rockford, 
Illinois. Its governing devices have been 
installed in the majority of America's 
great dams, and in installations through- 
out the world, including the Soviet Un- 
ion's historic Dnieprostroy Dam, which 
was destroyed in the face of Nazi in- 
vasion. Its Diesel governors are found 
aboard submarines, patrol-torpedo boats, 
sub chasers, destroyers, cruisers, battle- 
ships, tugs, merchantmen, streamlined 
trains, and in stationary electric plants. 
These governors range in work capacity 
from 6 inch pounds to 60,000 foot 
pounds and in weight from the l^/j 
pounds airplane goxernor to the 75,000 
pound twin cabinet actuator for the L . S. 
War Department's Bonneville Dam. 

Amos Woodward, a Rockford ma- 
chinist, received on May 31, 1870, a 
patent on the first practical friction-type 
waterwheel governor and, in 1872, 
opened up his own general pattern and 
machine shop in a small two story frame 
building. In 1899, two years before the 
Woodward Governor company was in- 
corporated, his son, Elmer Woodward, 
developed the first mechanical compen- 
sating-type governor which decreased the 
time required to operate the gates over 

full travel. After assuming the presi- 
dency in 1919, Elmer Woodward devel- 
oped the first successful hydraulic Diesel 
engine governor and, in 1934, the first 
satisfactory governor for controlling the 
pitch of airplane propellers. 

During this time the company's physi- 
cal plant had also been growing. Leav- 
ing their original two story frame build- 
ing in 1893, the Woodward (jovernor 
company remodeled and occupied the \. 
C. Thompson's Reaper Works building, 
and a five story steel and concrete struc- 
tine was completed for them in 1909. 

During the lifetime of the two Wood- 
wards, their company became the oldest 
and largest manufacturers of hydraulic 
governors for prime movers. 

Devoted to the manufacture of pre- 
cision governing equipment and associ- 
ated auxiliary devices for all prime mov- 
ers exclusively, the company has never 
expanded except where absolutely neces- 
sary. However, shortly after Pearl Har- 
bor, it completed and occupied a new 
and beautifid plant, which they said was 
"probably the most completely equipped 
industrial plant in the world. " Although 
conservative in expansion, the company 
showed unusual progressiveness in the 
design of their plant. 

The exterior of this building is buff 
brick and Lannon stone with Bedford 
trim, and is entirely windowless except 



for three small areas of tjlass block. 
Rasic construction is reenforced concrete 
aiul steel. All ceilings are acoustically 
treated so that even in the machine shop 
the sound level is such that conversation 
in normal tones is easily heard and all 
lighting is white fluorescent with fixtures 
flush mounted. The entire building, in- 
cluding the shop, is air conditioned. All 
incoming air is heated or cooled, humiili- 
hed or dehumidified as required and fil- 
tered through self-cleaning electric pre- 
cipitation type filters. Because of low 
building losses, cooling is required under 
normal load conditions for outside tem- 
peratures as low as 3' to b° below zero 
for the office area and 45° below for the 
shop. Contrast this with so many plants 
today where the workers must work in 
T-shirts all summer and in jackets all 
winter. Throughout the building are 
flush mounted ceiling loudspeakers carry- 
ing general paging, announcements, and 
music during rest periods. 

At the time of completion, the main 
machine shop in the Woodward (jn\- 
ernor company's modern plant ranked 
second to none in the world. Compris- 
ing a floor area of approximately 35,()()U 
square feet devoted to machining opera- 
tions, the entire area is clear from floor 
to ceiling except for ceramic tile enclosed 
steel columns for roof support. All ma- 
chines, 98% of which were less than five 
years old at the time of dedication of the 
new building, are equipped with individ- 
ual drives, eliminating line shafting and 
belts, and all electrical and compressed 
air services to the machines are brought 
up through the floor. 

Above the suspended shop ceiling is all 
necessary wiring and ventilating duct- 
work, making it possible to service the 
lighting and air conditioning from above 
without disrupting shop operation. 

The shop floor is terrazo with alun- 
dum chips in the filler to prevent slip- 
ping, the ceiling is perforated metal 
acoustic tile, and the walls are ceramic 
tile in restful colors of green and buff. 
The fluorescent lights flushed into the 

ceiling pro\ide approximateh' 50 foot- 
candles at the work level. 

In this shop are performed all machine 
operations on airplane, Diesel, and water- 
wheel governors. Parts produced range 
from a few ounces to several thousand 
pounds and tolerances of two ten-thou- 
sandths are not unusual. 

The engineering department is sound- 
proofed with rubber floor and acoustic 
ceiling, and lighted b\- flush mounted 

The subject of the fourth article 
on local industries is the Wood- 
ward Governor company of Rock- 
ford, Illinois. Getting its start over 
75 years ago, this company is typi- 
cal of the many businesses which 
were started modestly by one man, 
developed into successful concerns 
by himself and his family, and 
finally, by incorporation, were 
transformed into large organiza- 
tions without loss of purpose or 
principles upon which they were 

fluorescent lights which pro\ide approxi- 
mately 140 foot-candles on the drawing 

The experimental department consists 
of the general laboratory, the chemistr\' 
laboratory, the engine test room, the hy- 
draulic laboratory, the photographic lab- 
oratory, and the model shop where first 
models for experimental units are con- 
structed. The stratosphere chamber, also 
a part of the experimental laboratory', 
one of the largest units of its type ever 
built, duplicates conditions of tempera- 
ture and pressure encountered by aircraft 
at altitudes up to 70,000 feet. Temper- 
ature within the chamber can be con- 
trolled from — 95" F. to -|-175- F., and 
pressure ranging from atmosphere to one 
inch of mercury. 

Probably the most outstanding of all 
this plant's construction is its facilities 
for its employees. 

The cafeteria, in the basement of the 
ofHce section, is operated on a non-profit 
basis by the Primary committee of Mul- 
tiple Management. ( More will be told 
about Multiple Management later.) 

The auditorium seats over 500 people, 
in chairs which can be removed for 
dances and similar gatherings, and is 
a\ailable to all members for meetings 
and social functions. It is used for gen- 
eial meetings, schools of instruction for 
members, and the biennial Woodward 
(lovernor schools, at which purchasers 
and users of Woodward governors ex- 
change information and receive instruc- 
tion in governor theory, operation, and 
maintenance. It is eqiu'pped with sound- 
movie equipment and a parabolic reflec- 
tor microphone to pick up audience ques- 

The personnel department gives each 
prospective employee written general and 
specific intelligence examinations and 
manual dexterity test designed to deter- 
mine their qualifications for various jobs 
in the organization. The vocational test 
room is equipped with booths for the 
tests reqiuring concentration and suitable 
apparatus for measuring the applicant's 
mechanical aptitudes and dexterity. 
Many people assign this rigid employ- 
ment selection as one of the main rea- 
sons for the company's success. 

Provided for the employees is a park- 
ing lot which is patrolled by guards and 
floodlighted at night; twenty-two show- 
ers; and locker rooms in which each 
locker is ventilated to keep clothing 

C^pen constantly is the shop hospital. 
In addition to the available first aid 
service, each member is given complete 
physical, foot, and dental X-ray exami- 
nations once each year, the results of 
which are given to a physician and dentist 
of his choice. Since the purpose of these 
examinations is to maintain proper physi- 
cal fitness, it is obligator)- that corrective 
measures be taken. 

The plant boasts a treatment room 
(Continued on Page 2f> ) 






-r-i'* . 



smm^ -^ 

Left: View of the shop cafeteria during noon lunch. Right; Shown being used for a 
meeting, the auditorium is also available for dances and recreation 

JANUARY, 1948 

Sdiiietliiiii! lew . . . 

Itii Martin Siilmlh. M.K. ' /« 

All eiifiineeiing students niis'it 
well examine this liberal metamor- 
phosis of the study program for 
the prospective methanital engi- 
neering student. The changes in 
existing courses and the addition 
of many new courses described in 
this article have been made with 
the idea of helning the student in 
the choice and expansion of his 

-A new curriculum in mechanical engi- 
neering went into effect in October. 

Only freshmen and first semester 
sophomores are affected by it. The cur- 
riculum will be activated semester by 
semester as these sophomores profjress 
through their four years. Other stu- 
dents in mechanical engineering will con- 
tinue to follow the old curriculum, but 
will benefit by having a wider selection 
of electives to choose from. 

Mechanical engineering has the widest 
application of an\' branch of engineering. 
It can be roughly di\ided into three 
main fields, each of which can be further 
divided into specialized branches. These 
fields are heat power, mechanical engi- 
neering design, and production. The cur- 
ricidum has been designed to give the 
student a Working knowledge in all these 
fields, and in addition he can concentrate 
on subjects in his chosen field of special- 
ization, if he has one. 

The new curriculum was presented 
before a meeting of the ASME last 
spring by Professor X. A. Parker, head 
of the department of Mechanical Kngi- 
neering, after considerable study and dis- 
cussion by members of the department. 

A total of nine options are offered in 
the department. These options, and the 
percentage of enrollment expected in 
each are as follows : 

1. Design option, 24% : 'l"hi> oinion 
provides for specialization in mechanical 
engineering design. 

1. Design option, 24%: The option 
is for those students whose interests lie 
in the field of steam and gas power. 

3. Production option, 26% : This op- 
tion provides emphasis on the production 
engineering aspects of mechanical engi- 
neering to meet the needs of those stu- 
dents planning on a career in the manu- 
facturing industry. 

4. Research option, 3% : A highly 

technical course for students interested 
HI research and de\el()|iment. 

"i. -Aeronautical option, 3% : This 
option is designed for mechanical 
engineering students who may be inter- 
ested in the aircraft industry. This op- 
tion is given with the cooperation of the 
Department of Aeronautical Engineer- 

6. .•\n' conditionuig ;in(i refrigeration 
option, 14% : This option provides foi- 
those interested in heating, ventilating, 
air conditioning, and refrigeration. 

7. Petroleimi production option, 6% : 
This option is designed for stu- 
dents interested in the mechanical engi- 
neering aspects of petroleum production. 

8. Railway option, 1%: This option 
permits specialization in railway mechan- 
ical engineering. 

9. General option, 13% : This op- 
tion permits selection of courses to meet 
the needs of students whose interests dif- 

fer from those who clioose special op- 

The basic differences between the new 
curriculum and the old one ma\ bi' said 
to be: 

1. Credit is cut from certain tech- 
nical courses required for all. Additional 
special courses arc provided in the op- 
tions. Some of the new courses now of- 
fered or to be offered in the near future 

Combustion engines and turbines lab- 

Heat transfer. 

(las turbines. 

Advanced heating and ventilating de- 

Production control. 

Industrial qualit\' control. 

Tool engineering. 

Motion and time study. 

hxperimental investigations. 

2. Several options are listed which 
show how a sequence of courses may he 
selected to effect an emphasis on one or 
another phase of mechanical engineering. 
A student may thus have an incentive to 
do a better job in his particular field of 

3. A general option is included which 
permits a selection of courses which cut 
across the other options, or which may 

(Continued on Page 20) 

to an induction 

9. Healtll resorl 

12. Earlv form ot 
electric batter.v 

13. Grave robber 

14. Turn to the left 

15. Moves a switch 
to interrupt a 

17. Chess pieces 

18. Inventor o£ the 
automatic block 
system for rail- 

19. Openings for in- 
sertion of coins m 
coin telephones 

21. What the use of 
electricity con- 
tinues to do 

23. Unit of germ 

25. Organ helped by 
proper use of 

26. Old name for 

27. Scandium: 
chem. symbol 

29. Easter tiowei 
31. Likely 
33. Inventor ot 
12 Across 

35. Card game 

36. Inventor of 
neon lights 

38. Conger 

39. Tool for straight- 
ening borders 

41. Well Known 
South African 

42. Not electrified, 
as a circuit 

43. Tellurium: 
chem. symbol 

44. Be foolishly fond 
46. Essay 

48. Common unit of 
electricity: abbr. 

49. Popular radio 

50. Situated 

52. Metric unit o! 

54. Crafty 
56. Trite 

58. Belonging to us 

59. Watchful 

61. Limy clay 

62. Kind of pipe 

63 Vermont inven- 

Cr OSS word Puzzle 












MB 13 



























37] gg|38 
















i 1 















3. English elec- 
trician, devised 
an electroscope 
in 1771 

4. Metric weight, 
about 2.2 lbs. 

5. Units of elec- 
trical resistance 

6. Fish eggs 

7. Some of these 
plants are 
destructive to 
wooden poles 

8. Gas allied to 
chlorine: abbr. 

9 Famous dram- 
atist, once 
worked in first 
London tele- 

phone e.\change 

10. Chum 

11. Shoemaker's 
boring tool 

12 Introduced his 
sine galvano- • 
meter in 1837 

16 Kind of Chinese 

grown here 
18. Genus of human 

20. Small short- 
necked river 
22. Talk deliriously 
24. Two element 
vacuum tube 

26. Knock out 

27. Cut of meat 

28. Member of first 
Federal Radio 
Commission. 1927 

30. Ship's record 

32. American phys- 
icist, invented a 
"galvanic mul- 

tiplier" in 1837 
34. Dr. DeForest's 
first name 

36. Cut short 

37. Obligation 

40. Ancient country 
SE of Palestine 

42. Electric 

45 Inventor of the 
modern alternat- 
ing current in- 
duction motor 

47. Curved bone 

49. Designed 
copper a 




50. Ancient musical 

51. Growl, as a dog 

52. Obtained 
.53. Regret 

55. Bulgarian coin 

57. Skill 

59. Our present 



Ol^i^UMUClkUf. b„ 

Art n'elvher. E.E. 'i» 
Shirlvif Smith, K.I*. '.lO ami f'onnU' 3tinnit'h. t'.K. '.11 


"St.'iiting at rij;ht j^uard tor Illinois, 
Dick Foley, number '^)." These words 
will echo throughout Huff gym in a few 
weeks as the Illini ()|X'n another cam- 
paign in quest of the Big Nine basket- 
ball title. One of the stalwarts upon 
whom Illinois is depending to again 
bring home the glory won by the re- 
nowned Whiz Kids, is Dick Foley who 
was sidelined a whole season in the 
shadow of these same Whiz Kids. 

Leading Illinois scorers in his fresh- 
man year, Foley, along with a host of 
other potential first string men, was rele- 
gated to the bench to watch the return- 
ing Whiz Kids — Menke, Phillip, V^ance 
and Smiley — carr\' the brunt of the Illi- 
nois attack. Despite a mediocre per- 
formance all season, former coach, Doug 
]VIills, perhaps influenced more by expe- 
rimental reasons than by good hard bas- 
ketball sese, let the Whiz Kids corner 
the spotlight and allowed a possibh' bet- 
ter combination sit nut most of the 

This year, however, the Whiz Kids 
are gone and stellar performers like Jack 
l?in'master, Dwight Humphrey and espe- 
cially Dick Foley will be given the 
chance to again prove themselves worthy 
of the Orange and Blue. 

Dick Foley, who started his basketball 
career in Paris, Illinois, high school, be- 
gan working toward an engineering de- 
gree at the same time. He decided to 
become a chemical cjigineer, but, after 
2S months in the Signal Corps, he de- 
cided to change his major to covil engi- 

Dick is now a junior in civil engineer- 
( Continued on Page 24) 


In l')20 when professor Wheeler 
Loomis came to Illinois as the newly ap- 
pointed head of the physics department, 
the research divisions of universities and 
colleges throughout the United States 
were beginning to make important dis- 
coveries in some comparatively new fields 



of physics that have now introduced us 
to a new era which we call the Atomic 
Age. Under his direction, the Univer- 
sity has today become one of the leading 
institutions in the world of ph^'sics with 
a tremendous amount of fundamental 
physics, war-time research, and the in- 
vention and development of the now- 
famous betatron to its credit. 

Dr. Loomis has behind him a long rec- 
ord of research, teaching, and admin- 
istration in physics. Born at Parkers- 
burg, West Virginia, he determined to be 
a physicist when a senior in high school. 
He graduated from Harvard university 
in 1910 with a bachelor of arts degree 
and continued there with his graduate 
work, taking a master's in 19L^ and a 
doctorate of philosophy in 1917. During 
World War I, he serveti as a captain in 
the ordnance department in charge of 
anti-aircraft ballistics at the Aberdeen 
proving ground in Maryland. Resum- 
ing his career, he held the position of 
research physicist with the Westinghouse 
Lamp company until 1920 when he be- 
came successively assistant professor and 
associate professor in the phj'sics depart- 
( Continued on Page 24) 


For 22 years Mr. W. B. McDevitt 
has worked at the University amid the 
white clay dust and intricate halls of the 
Ceramics building. "Mac" is a potter, 
an expert in his trade. 

Mr. McDevitt was born on a farm 
near Hamilton, Mi.s.souri, but in 1S96 
his family moved to East Liverpool, 
Ohio, where he began his five year ap- 
prenticeship in ceramics. Then, as a 
journeyman, he continued to work in 
East Liverpool for 8 years. Part of this 
time was spent in sanitary work. From 
there, Mr. McDevitt went to Mannig- 
ton. West Virginia, where he was em- 
ployed for two and a half years by the 
Bowers Pottery company. 

In 1925, "Mac" joined the Univer- 
sity stafif as general utility man and store- 
keeper for the ceramics department. He 
also supervised "a class in pottery from 
raw clay to finished products consisting 
of bowls, vases, ash trays, and lamp 

In the past he has made many cer- 
amics pieces of special shapes and uses 
for other departments of the University. 
Fhese included crucibles, molds, and 
cases for a variety of objects. 

In 1941 Mr. McDevitt began work- 
ing with the physics department in the 
development of porcelain tubes for the 
betatron. At present, he is retired from 
his job in the ceramics department, but 
he IS continuing to work part-time with 
the ph>sics department to complete the 
latest betatron accessory, a doughnut- 
shaped tube made in sections and meas- 
uring ninety inches in diameter. In ad- 
dition, he continues to supervise the in- 
struction of a few classes. 

Besides being an expert in the field of 
ceramics, "\Iac ' has another passion. As 
he says, "I'm nuts about fishing!" He 
makes a point of fishing at Danville 
whenexer he has time, and in the sum- 
(C(jntinued on Page 30) 

JANUARY, 1948 


U^luieo^i^,^..MM^ PIER 

Just Between Us 

by Siegmund Deutscher, A.E. '50 

SiiK'c this is tlu- first i>mii- in wIikIi 
the Navy Pier branch of the L'iiiveisit\' 
is represented, we woulil like to acquaint 
the reader with the lECIlSO- 

^ The TE(:iI\OaR.ll'll is pnbhshcd 
8 times durini; the \ear (October 
through May) at L'rbana, Illinois, by 
students in the College of Engineering. 

The undergraduate division will be 
represented by t\\-o pages in every issue 
and a number of feature articles through- 
out the issues. In cooperation with the 
downstate staff, we shall try our best to 
present the reader with the newest de- 
\elopments in the engineering industries, 
the latest news of our engineering de- 
partments and to acquaint our subscrib- 
ers with the engineering field in general. 

In our two assigned pages we shall 
attempt to acquaint you with the Col- 
lege of Engineering at Xavy Pier. This 
is to be accomplished by an interview 
with a staff member, an interview with 
a student, an article on our equipment 
and a report on the local engineering 

It is also fitting, at this time, to ex- 
press our thanks and appreciation to 
Professor Randolph P. Hoelsher, associ- 
ate dean of engineering science at Xavy 
Pier, for his valuable help and effort in 
organizing t h e rECHNOGRJPI I 

staff here ;nul in securing our office 
(ic)oni .v^4-I ) and equipment. 

H\' no means can our appreciation stop 
at tin's point, for Mr. Ogden Liverniore, 
instructor in the department of physics 
and our faculty adviser, has given us 
much of his time and effort in advising 
,ind organizing our present staff. 

In addition to the above, we wish to 
extend our thanks to (ieorge R. Foster 
;ind Robert .A. Johnson, editor and busi- 
ness manager of t h e TECIIXO- 
(iR.I/'ll . respectively. Hoth have come 
to Xa\\' Pier to give us their personal 
guidance and instructions and have given 
us all the help they could at our incep- 
tion. We are proud to be members of 
the same publication staff. 


The Technograph Staff 

by Richard Choronzy, M.E. '51 

(-)n Xuxember ,5, 1947, ten applicants 
were chosen and assigned to their respec- 
tive positions on the newlv formed 
TECIINOGRAPEI staff at Navy Pier. 
The following is a brief sketch of each 
member of our staff. 

I p in room .iS4-I, you can locate 
Siegmund Deutscher every da\- between 
two and five in the afternoon. Siegmund, 
by \irtue of his past experience in writ- 

ing and editing in \;irious school news- 
papers, was appointed assistant editor of 
our branch staff. His life story reads 
like a fiction novel. In 1939, at the age 
of 111, he arrived in the United States 
from ,i trip abroad in which he visited 
m,in\ countries. He was born in Austria 
and still remembers the schools at which 
he studied in X'ienna. .-^11 told, he has 
attended 27 schools including those in 
the United States and Austria. Siegmund 
is a sophomore in aeronautical engineer- 
ing and his chief hobbies are photographx 
and writing. 

Our assistant business manager is 
Joan Burns who has the distinction of 
being the only girl on our staff'. Joan 
graduated from Lakeview high school, 
Chicago, in 1945. Like Siegmund, she 
is a sophomore in aeronautical engineer- 
ing. Her major recreation is golf. 

Four young men comprise our report- 
ing staff. The first, John Fijolek, spent 
over five years in the army signal corps, 
from which he drew his present knowl- 
edge of electricit)-. He belongs to the 
A.I.E.E. and various other organizations 
on the Pier campus. John is a freshman 
in electrical engineering. 

Our second writer is Norbert Ellman, 
who graduated from Schurz high school, 
Chicago, in 1944. After 26 months in 
the navy, he enrolled at Navy Pier and 
is now a freshman. Xorbert belongs to 
the A.S.M.E. and his favorite pastime 
is basketball. 

Our third member of the reporting 

Standing, left to right: Norbert Ellman, John Kaufman, John Fijolek, 
John Cedarholm, Clarence Niebow, Leonard Cohen, Richard Choronzy. 
Seated: Joan Burns, Siegmund Deutscher, Not present: Ronald Wessel. 

Siegmund Deutscher Assl. Editor 

Ri p'jrti/it/ 

John Fijolek Xorbert Ellman 

Richard Choronz) 

Clarence Xiebow 


Joan Burns -Isst. Bii.f. Myr. 

lohn Cedarholm 
lolin K.iufman 

Leonard Cohen 
Ronald Wessel 



Left: Unidentified student checks a piece of finished work with a dial indicator from 
the inspection department of the machine shop. Right: Another student, also unidenti- 
fied, operates a Milwaukee milling machine which is a part of the shop equipment 

staff is Clarence Xiebow, who also 
handles the photography. Clarence is a 
freshman in chemical engineering, having 
just graduated from Lane Technical 
high school last June. His hobby, obvi- 
ously, is photography. 

The other writer on this staff is yours 
truly, Richard Choronzy. I graduated 
from Harrison high school, Chicago, in 
June, 1947, and am now a freshman in 
mechanical engineering. I belong to the 
A.S.M.E. and the Classics club. 

The remaining four members make up 
our business staff. John Cedarholm, the 
lad with the boyish grin, is a sophomore 
in engineering physics. After graduating 
from York high school, Elmhurst, in 
1945, he served in the navy for one year. 
John is a member of the honorary fra- 
ternity, Phi Eta Sigma. 

John Kaufman, sidekick of Cedar- 
holm, is a sophomore in engineering 
physics and is also a member of Phi Eta 
Sigma. John served two years in the 
navy and is a graduate of Lane Techni- 
cal high school in Chicago. 

Leonard Cohen hails from Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. In 1946, he left 
that city to come here to Chicago's Navy 
Pier. He was in the navy for two years 
and is now a sophomore in electrical en- 

Last and certainly not least is Ronald 
Wessel, who is majoring in metallurgical 
engineering. Ronald graduated from 
Palatine Township high school and 
served in the army for M) months. His 
fraternity is also Phi Eta Sigma. 

Lnder the heading "Gas Overcomes 
(jirl While Taking Bath," the follow- 
ing appears in a local paper: 

"^Lss Cecelia ^L Jones owes her 
lite to the watchfulness of Joel Colley, 
elevator boy, and Rufus Bacon, janitor." 
* it ^ 

She was only a T.A.\L instructor's 
daughter, but she had her moments. 

Shop Talk 

by John Fijoiek, E.E. '51 

In the center of Navy Pier's long jut- 
ting arm, 264 students of aeronautical 
and mechanical engineering are enjoying 
practice with the tools of their sciences 
this semester under the dierction of Pro- 
fessor J. S. Kozacka and his staff. New 
equipment installed by the University 
has made available four new shop courses 
at the Chicago branch. 

In one of the most completely 
equipped shops of its kind in this section 

With this issue the Illinois Tech- 
nograph takes great pride in an- 
nouncing to its readers the addition 
of this department prepared by our 
branch staff at Navy Pier. We 
would also like to welcome our new 
staff and readers at the pier. 

of the country, students in \l.E. 87 
(machine tool laboratory — three hoiu' 
course) are given experience in opera- 
ting many and varied types of machines 
of latest make and model. For example, 
the equipment of the shop includes: 19 
lathe s — precision machines by Pratt- 
Whitney, Monarch, and Handy; 2 tur- 
ret lathes; 10 milling machines — hori- 
zontal and vertical types ; 4 shapers ; 1 
planer — hydraulically operated; 2 gear 
shapers for cutting internal and external 
gears; 7 drill presses; 9 grinding ma- 
chines of different types; 5 tool grind- 
ers and various other machines. 

On this page is a photograph showing 
some of the equipment in use by the 
students. Also shown is a well-equipped 
inspection department maintained for 
checking the work of the students. Here 
are found fine measuring instruments, 
gauges and gauge blocks, comparators, a 

projecting comparator, hardness testing 
machines, and optical flats for measuring 
to millionths of an inch. 

In addition to the above there is a 
large tool crib which contains a great 
variety of tools for the operation of all 
the machines and for use in metal cut- 
ting. Not for want of a nail can a grade 
be lost! 

Demonstrations are given in M.E. 82 
(machine tool production methods — one 
hour) in the use of machines, tools, jigs, 
and fixtures. Students operate various 
machines and make simple jobs on mill- 
ing, regular gear cutting, and special gear 
cutting machines. Occasionally movies 
are shown of current industrial practice. 

To assist the students in their work 
and answer their questions, the machine 
shop has four staff personnel. Of these, 
two are instructors, one is a seiu'or 
mechanic and the other is a junior me- 

The other two new shops will be cov- 
ered on these pages in a later issue. 

Personable George, "What d'ya wan- 
na buy, I'll sell it to ya cheaper than 
you can get it anj'where else," Zanotti 
can, without a doubt, claim undisputed 
possession of the BMOC (busiest) title 
this semester. In addition to teaching 
classes in G.E.D., sitting in on a 
T.A.M. 2 class to help prepare him 
for his teaching position at the Navy 
Pier branch next spring, tutoring in 
M.E., math., physics, aerodynamics, 
(r.E.D., T.A.M., and other subjects 
relative to engineering, (see his secretary 
for appointments) counsel in personal 
problems, and lastly, trying to get his 
degree in aeronautical engineering, is 
a weekly commutor to Chicago. His 
wife, Theresa, was expecting about 
Christmas time and this issue went to 
press before the happy event. You can 
contact him for latest residts and cigars. 

JANUARY, 1948 


The l^]iii|iii(H'i'iiio lliiiioram's ami Mif^ 

Itff .hthn Shiirlh'ff. t h.i:. TtO ami IHvli Uammtn-li. ii.K. ' tH 


Tlu- (irst official nift-tiiig of the I'.nj;i- 
lu'criiij; Council was called to order In 
(leorge Foster, teniporar\' chairman, on 
December 2, 1947. at 7:00 p. m. in 207 
K. H. l.A.S. had ratified the constitu- 
tion on condition that the limit on the 
treasury be increased. The opening dis- 
cussion was one of attempting to effect 
a compromise on that point. According 
to the constitution, l.A.S. could prevent 
the distribution of the money in the 
treasury by one vote. The other alter- 
native would be for the society to keep 
any money received from the Council in 
a separate account. The l.A.S. repre- 
sentative felt that a solution agreeable to 
all would be worked out b\- the time of 
the next meeting of the Council on De- 
cember 16. 

Before the Council could elect officers 
for the year, it had to be decided how 
long the representatives would remain on 
the Council. V^ice-presidents elected on 
a semester basis would be replaced in 
February. The elected delegates are 
supposed to .serve a year starting with 
the spring semester. This will result in 
a large turnover in the middle of the 
school year. It was tentatively decided 
that the present elected representatives 
on the coiuicil would serve until June, 
194H, and gradually turn over their du- 
ties to the representatives to be elected 
next year. 

The new officers are Murray Forth, 
A.S.A.E., president; Floyd Maupin, 
S.R.A.C.S., vice-president; Harbara 
Schmidt, A.S.C.E., secrctar\-; and Allen 
Henson, I.A.S., treasurer. 

By unanimous vote, it was decideii to 
have two standing committees. Murra\ 
Forth appointed Keith (^loodwin, 
A.I.E.F..-I.R.F,., chairman of the Steer- 
ing and Program committee. The pur- 
pose of this committee will be to direct 
and arrange business to be brought be- 
fore the Council. F"loyd Maupin was ap- 
pointed chairman of the Coordinating 
and Publicity committee. This commit- 
tee will keep the societies informed on 
events of interest and will arrange tor 
publication of news to the public. In 
order to make the work of the Publicit\ 
committee effective, it was strongly rec- 
ommended that every society appoint a 
publicity chairman and or committee 
who will be specifically responsible for 
preparing news releases on all activities, 
meetings, etc., of the society and who 

will work Ml close contact with the i'uh- 
licit\ committee of the Council. 

The St. Patrick's b.ill committee v\ill 
be he a d e d b \ Robert Chilenskas, 
A.S.Ch.E., and John Prodan, EA.S. 
This committee will make all the neces- 
sary arrangements for the ball such as 
tickets, publicity, arrangements for the 
band and location, decorations, etc. They 
will submit a budget at the next meeting 
and will have made all the preliminary 
arrangements before Christmas vacation. 


The evening of January l.\ 1948, 
will mark the renewal of the "Puck" 
Knight Trophy competition. The stu- 
tient branch of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, the present hold- 
ers of the trophy, have received and ac- 
cepted a challenge from the stuiient 
branch of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. 

The subject matter of the competition 
is limited to non-engineering subjects and 
onh' those which are regularly discussed 
in newspapers and radio broadcasts. 

Each of the competing societies will be 
represented by a panel of four men. 1 he 
judging will be handled b\' men who are 
in no way connected with the College ol 

The winner of this contest will be 
obligated to accept ch.-illenges from an\ 

;nul all ot the other se\en student briuuli 
scjcieties, or else f(n-feit the trophy. 

The contest will be held in room 1 12, 
Ciregory hall, at 7 :.3() p. m. Everybody 
is invited including the wives and girl 
friends. This should prove to be one of 
the most enjoyable social events of the 
school year, and it is hoped that an en- 
thusiastic aiidiejice will be present. 


Following a study of the I''ngineering 
Council's constitution by James Chand- 
ler, Barbara Schmidt, Charles L. Jansen 
Jr., Hill Miller, and Frank Anderson, 
the Engineering Council was adopted by 
the A.S.C.E. at a short business meeting 
held in room 319, Engineering Hall, on 
October 29. 

"Special Problems in Drainage on the 
Congress Street Superhighway " was pre- 
sented by Mr. John C. (luillou, special 
research associate in the CE department, 
who illustrated his talk with slides show- 
ing the location and details of the super- 
highway at the November 18 meeting of 
the chapter. 

The Illinois division of highways has 
allocated $25,000 per year to the Civil 
Engineering department which is con- 
ducting all research for the state and 
federal government. The mone\' will 
be well spent since the cost of drainage 
for the completed highway will be $500,- 
000 per mile of road. The highway is 
designed for 2,000 cars per hour per lane 
at a speed of 60 m.p.h. The .lOO-foot 
right of way is made up of eight 12-foot 
highway lanes, four in each direction ; 
four train tracks, two in each direction ; 
road shoulders; and drainage ditches. 

At a combined A.S.C.E. meeting and 
CE 93 lecture on November 19, Mr. 
Craig P. Hazelet, consulting engineer 
from Louisville, Kentucky, spoke on the 
general subject, "Aspects of a Profes- 
sional Career." He urged that student 
engineers become proficient as public 
speakers at A.S.C.E. meetings and at 
every other possible opportunity. Mr. 
Hazelet, who is on the administrative 
committee for student chapters, also em- 
lihasized the importance of writing for 
technical publications as a means of de- 
\eloping the engineers literary skill. 


On t)ctober 20, the Illinois student 
branch called its first meeting of the 
semester with approximately 50 old and 
new prospective members in attendance. 



President A. E. Rust introduced Pro- 
fessor E. W. Lehniann, head of the de- 
partment of agricultural engineering, 
who dehvered an enthusiastic welcome 
to all and introduced other members of 
the faculty. 

The first meeting was characterized 
by the presentation of an ambitious pro- 
gram of branch activities for the coming 
year. A lengthy report was given by 
each Illinois delegate to the national con- 
vention of the A.S.A.E. in June. 

C^n November 3, the machinery began 
rolling for the development of the 
branch's activities, and committees were 
set up to plan programs for each meet- 
ing, publicize meetings, secure refresh- 
ments, and take care of the journalistic 
work in connection with the societ\' and 
individual members. 

The annual fall picnic was held Sun- 
day afternoon, November 9, in an atmos- 
phere familiar to all agricultural engi- 
neers. In the tractor and fann machin- 
ery lab, some 40 students and faculty 
members gathered to cook weiners, eat 
apples, drink cider, play badminton and 
touch football. Originally scheduled 
for the city park, the weather man forced 
the use of the tractor lab as the alternate 
scene of action. 

On November 24, a meeting was de- 
voted to the technical problems iinolved 
in agricultural engineering. Mr. T. R. 
Wire and Mr. D. O. Keairn, agricul- 
tural engineers employed in the Soil 
Conservation service working out of 
Milwaukee, presented an hour's discus- 
sion on "Soil Conservation as It Affects 
the Agricultural Engineer." It was 
stated that soil runoff, the impact of 
rain drops on the soil, and mechanical 
practices in erosion control are all prob- 
lems confronting the agricultural engi- 
neer; and therefore, an engineering back- 
ground is almost mandatory to solve 
many soil conservation problems. 


Six student members attended the for- 
tieth annual convention of the American 
Institute of Chemical Engineers in De- 
troit, Michigan, at the Statler hotel. 
They were Don Hornbeck, Jack Besper- 
ka, Bob Chilenskas, Ernest Waggoner, 
Karl Franson, Robert Toomey, and 
Tom Baron. The students attended the 
regular programs of the institute and 
also an inspection trip through the de- 
velopment laboratories of the Chrysler 

The student meetings were held on 
November 12 and 13 at the Rackham 
Memorial Institute. Dr. Comings, 
professor of chemical engineering 
at the University of Illinois and national 
chairman of the committee on student 
chapters, presided. Several talks were 
given at this symposium. 

On Wednesday evening, November 
12, a student banquet was held at the 
Prince Edward hotel in W^indsor, Can- 

ada. Mr. Sidney D. Kirkpatrick, editor 
of Chemical Engineering magazine and 
an Illinois alumnus, gave the principal 
address of the evening, entitled "Chem- 
ical Engineering Opportunities and 
Achievements." He was introduced by 
Albert B. Newman, vice-president of the 
A. I. Ch. E. 

The winning solution of the student 
contest problem was also on display. The 
problem is sponsored by A. I. Ch. E. and 
is given in the spring of each year. 

Attending these meetings affords the 
student chemical engineer the opportu- 
nit\ of meeting successful and progres- 
sive men in the field, making valuable 
contacts, developing a "feeling" for the 
profession, meeting students from other 
universities, and obtaining and sharing 
experiences and information with other 
engineers. In addition, it gives him a 
feeling of "belonging to the profession," 
and puts him in a more receptive frame 
of mind toward developments in his pro- 


The University of Illinois student 
chapter of the Institute of Traffic Engi- 
neers is now the second student chapter 
in the nation, having received official ap- 
proval of the Institute on November 7. 
They have been holding meetings every 
two weeks and have begun work on their 
first major project. 

This project involves the stud\- of 
the immediate campus area in an attempt 
to find solutions to some of the traffic 
congestion problems. Traffic surveys 
were conducted on November 12 and 19, 
from 7:45 a. m. to 10:43 a. ni., in the 
area bounded by Springfield avenue on 
the north, Gregory drive on the south. 
Sixth street on the west, and Mathews 
avenue on the east. All intersections 
along the bounding streets and within 
the area were checked, making a total of 
24 stations. The actual field work was 
done by members of the chapter and by 
students in the C. E. 20 and 23 classes. 

On the first Wednesday, a count was 
made of all vehicles entering and leaving 
the area and their movement within the 
area. A survey of all cars parked within 
the area was made the same day by 
checking cars b\' location and license 
numbers in the morning and again in 
the afternoon to determine the use made 
of the present parking capacity and the 
number of all day parkers. 

On the following Wednesday, a count 
was made of all pedestrians crossing the 
most congested streets within the area. 
Another parking survey was also made, 
this time checking the cars at twenty 
minute intervals to determine the length 
of time parked. 

It is hoped that upon analysis of the 
compiled field data, the I. T. E. will be 
able to find some of the answers to pres- 
ent traffic problems. There may be a 
need for the development of more ade- 

quate off-street parking facilities, a 
change in present time limits on park- 
ing, a s\stem of one way streets, retim- 
ing of the present traffic signals, special 
pedestrian control signals or the use of 
some painted lines on the streets to guide 
the movement of both vehicles and pe- 
destrians, and better enforcement of the 
existing traffic ordinances. 

Whatever m a y be the solutions 
reached, they will be presented to local 
agencies interested in these problems; 
and, with their cooperation, to the prop- 
er authorities for study. 


At the first meeting of Keramos, the 
national professional ceramic engineering 
society, the following officers were elect- 
ed : James F. Essenpreiss, president; H. 
(j. Sowman, vice-president ; C. Roger 
Westlake, treasurer; James F. Young, 
secretary; Roger F. Fellows, herald. 

A short business meeting was then 
held to outline plans for the semester. 

After the business session two movies 
were shown to the group. The first 
movie dealt with the manufacture of a 
structural clay product, and the second 
showed performances of the University 
band during the 1946 football season. 

The non-business portion of the No- 
vember meeting was devoted to a discus- 
sion of the problems confronting the 
young engineer. 


At a recent meeting of Pi Tau Sigma, 
Lee Sullivan and Martin Sabath re- 
ported on the national con- 
vention which they attended 
at Purdue on November 20, 
^A^^ 21, and 22. At the conven- 
^^^^-) tion, Sullivan served on the 
finance committee, and Sa- 
bath worked on the commit- 
tee for expansion. 
New pledges met the actives at a 
smoker held shortly before Christmas va- 
cation. These men will be initiated at a 
banquet to be held soon after the return 
to classes. 


Thirty-five men were selected as 
pledges by the active members of Chi 
Lpsilon, civil engineering honorary, at 
the meeting held on Novem- 
ber 3. These men met the 
members at a rushing smoker 
held on November 12, and 
were initiated during the 
week of December 12, which 
was climaxed by an initiation 
banquet. Dr. Nathan M. 
Newmark, lesearch profes- 
sor in civil engineering, was 
made an honorary member at that time. 
Following is a list of the new pledges: 
R. A. Anderson, F. A. Bassett, C. W. 
Browning, H. H. Connolly, E. Cabezas, 
(Continued on Page 26) 

JANU.4RY, 1948 



Asst. Editor 

Asst. Editor 



We HAVE an Engineering Council 

Last smiimci- on the 2Srli of June and 
e\ei\' Monilax' nijj:hr rlifrcafter throujjhour tin- 
entire U) weeks ot siinuner school a committee 
of ten people met to draft a constitution for 
the Engineering Council. The committee con- 
sisted of at least one representative from each 
of the eight professional engineering societies 
and the editor and business manager of the 
lUinois Tcihnot/ral'h. The work of the com- 
nuttee, needless to say, was laborious and final- 
ly resulted in the finished constitution which 
was acted upon during the first few weeks of 
this semester and ratified by each of the eight 
participating societies. 

This action authorized the organization of 
the Engineering Council which consists of two 
representati\es from each of the professional 
societies and the editor and business manager 
of the rcrlinnr/rtifili. In the words of the 
constitution: "The piupose of the Engineer- 
ing Council is: 

1. "To bring about closer relationship 
and cooperation among the \aiious professional 

2. "To stimulate the interest of the engi- 
neering student ui all engineering activities on 

3. "To be responsible for the planning 
and carrying-out of combined activities of the 
engineering societies: e.g., St. Pat's Ball and 
the Engineering Show." 

These statements of purpose are merely 
that, but do not indicate in any way the rea- 
sons for their inclusion in the constitution. 

Certainly, the practicing engineer knows, 
or soon finds out, that his everyday work fre- 
quently brings him in contact vv'ith engineering 
fields by no means restricted to his own. He 
continually meets and works with men in other 
engineering lines and usually becomes associ- 
ated with several professional societies related 
to his work. As a means of impressing this 
fact upon the student engineer, it is felt that 
the Engineering Council can foster a closer 
relationship among the members of the socie- 

The intermingling of ideas brought about 
by this closer relation.ship was not considered 
sufficient; however, unless these ideas were at- 
tracted to maturity by an active cooperation 

among the societies. In the past the eight so- 
cieties ha\e been less effective than the lowly 
octopus, because this creature does have, at 
least, a brain with which to occasionally di- 
rect its eight legs towards a common goal. 
With the formation of the Engineering Coim- 
cil there exists the agency which can help to 
plan and coordinate the activities of the so- 
cieties to prevent overlapping and, in general, 
increase the benefits offered by these activities. 
Although it is not in any sense the intent nor, 
since the Council derives its authority only 
from the consent of participating societies, is 
it possible for the Council to interfere with 
the existing functions and aims of the indi- 
vidual societies. It is certainly to be hoped that 
the truly active cooperation on the part of the 
societies will manifest itself in very serious 
consideration of all Council actions and re- 

Ry this cooperative action it is felt that the 
activities offered and sponsored by the Council 
will greatly benefit the individual societ\ mem- 
ber since it will be he who is taking the acti\ e 
part in carrying out these functions. That all 
the engineering students should receive the 
benefits of the Council's services is a foregone 
conclusion, but the mere fact that the societies, 
through the Council, have made these activities 
available should do much to stimulate their 
interest and encourage them to affiliate them- 
selves with the professional societv in their 

Finally, the means by which the Council 
can provide these benefits to all engineering 
students is to plan and execute a variety of 
functions in which the student can actively 
participate. Passive participation, such as list- 
ening to speakers, has its place in any organiza- 
tional program but should be complemented b\ 
activities in which the participants can realK 
"pitch in." The Engineering Council can and 
will sponsor these and other functions. At the 
present time it has already gone to work on 
St. Pat's Ball, and the possibilities for the fu- 
ture are practically inilimited. It remains now 
only for every student to contribute his ideas 
through his Council representative to form the 
blueprint of a better and more interesting 
campus life and later to devote his energies to 
make that blueprint a reality. 




for Engineers 

Winding wire 
^ on a "wedding ring" 

1 his is the "Sea Breeze," a machine developed by 
\\ estern Electric engineers. It solves the problem of 
winding wire half the thickness of a human hair on a 
toroidal core the size of a wedding ring. Compressed 
air drives the flyer which maintains the wire under 
positive tension at all times, winding as many as 
40,000 turns of #46 wire on the core. It winds finer 
wire than any previous machine, lays turns more uni- 
formly, winds a wider range of wire sizes, increases 
efficiency m utilization of winding space and permits 
the manufacture of coils half the size of those previ- 
ously possible. 

Metal welding 
that saves millions ^ 

Here, palladium and nickel tape are welded together 
at the rate of 400 feet an hour. Tiny bars are later 
snipped from this bi-metal tape and used to replace the 
precious pinhead-size platinum rivets once used as 
contacts in Bell System relays. These contacts, which 
minimize noise in telephone conversation, are used bv 
the billions in relays that perform switching opera- 
tions. The use of this bi-metal tape . . . devised by Bell 
Telephone Laboratories scientists and produced on 
machines developed by Western Electric engineers 
. . . saves millions of dollars a year in the cost of 
producing telephone equipment. 

Engineering problems are many and varied at Western Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to devise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Electric 


JANU.ARY, 1948 17 


(Continued from I'lifji- 7) 

tiirnisheil is equal to, or greater than, the 
area of the specified square bars. 

Fastened to the inside of the forms 
for the wall beams is a spam! re! anj;le 
insert which is held fast by the linisiied 
concrete beam. This insert provides a 
means of attaching angles which support 
the outer masonry construction, allowing 
the load of the wall itself to be trans- 
ferred to the wall beams. 

FIG. 2 


High temperatures, resultmg from 
lire, woulii weaken the reinforcing steel 
and cause the structure to fail ; therefore 
it is standard practice to enclose all re- 
inforcing bars with a layer of concrete. 
A concrete cover of 1 '/j inches is used on 
beams and girders to resist a fire of foui' 
hours duration, while floor slabs utilize 
a ;54 ni'^h covering for a fire of the same 
duration. The device which pro\ides 
the proper amount of fire cover for the 
reinforcing bars is known as a chair. 
1 hese chairs arc usually gage wire or 
small bars bent into shape. The chairs 
are placeil on the forms and the reinforc- 
ing bars rest upon them, allowing the 
concrete to completely encase the bars. 
'Jhe estimator does not include these 
chairs in his estimate because it is stand- 
ard practice for the steel company to 
furnish the proper number needed when 
filling an order for the reinforcing bars. 

The structural designer usually does 
not take into account the ordinary open- 
ings for plumbing and ventilating pipes 
ami electrical conduits in the design of 
the floor construction because his archi- 
tectural plans are not complete. Where 
these openings are comparatively small, 
their final location is decided by the con- 
tractors on the job. The actual location 
of plumbing and heating inserts must be 
accurateh' determined because of the dif- 
ficulty and extra expense that would re- 

sult in pl.icing bends in the pipes. The 
insert mentioned above is a section of 
steel pipe with welded lugs which is 
placed on the pans in the desired loca- 
tion, and is held in place by the finished 
slab. This results in an opening thiough 
uhich the sub-contr.-ictor m;i\ run his 
pipe or conduit. Heciuse the electrical 
conduits are easier to bend foi- relocation, 
the heating and plumbing contractors are 
usually gi\en preference over the electri- 
(C'nntinucd on I'age 20) 

FIG. 3 







Attention '48 Engineers 

Here's a Real Saving for You — If You Act Now 

The Alumni Association offers you a special membership rote of $1, instead 
of the regular price of $3, for your first year as an alumnus. This offer is good 
only while you are still on the campus. 

You will be entitled to all the services of the Association, including the 
ILLINOIS ALUMNI NEWS which will be sent to you nine times a year. 

Join the active family of 17,000 alumni members and identify yourself as 
a loyal lllini. 






1AST YEAR a Michigan truck- 
-i gardener planted part of his 
acreage in carrots. The carrots 
came up but so did the weeds — 
so thick and fast that it looked as 
if he would have to re-plow and 

Then he discovered one of 
Standard's new selective petro- 
leum weed-kUlers. He sprayed it 
on. The weeds died and the car- 
rots thrived. He sold the carrots 
for $5,000, more than 50 times 
the cost of the weed-kUler. 

Right now, in Standard's labo- 
ratories, research is increasing the 
murderous efficiency of these 
herbicides. Eventually there may 
be a Standard petroleum product 

that will mean sure death for all 
harmful weeds. 

Hundreds of other products are 
also under development by Stand- 
ardresearch men.We already make 
more than 2,000 petroleum prod- 
ucts, but new vistas are opening 
up which will lead to many more. 

Standard's research expendi- 
tures increase year by year. 
Throughout our company, the 
Unknown is under attack on aU 
fronts. Results are good; prog- 
ress is being made. 

Every year recruits from col- 
leges of science and engineering 
join the veterans at Standard, 
and new objectives are won. This 
wUl be true again in 1948. 

Standard Oil Company 



JANUARY, 1948 



(Continued from P;if;i' IS) 

cal contractors when both parties desire 
the same location for inserts. 

When an electrical junction box, 
which is desired for the room below is 
deeper than the floor slab, but is not lo- 
cated at a joist, it is necessary to provide 
a {jreater depth of concrete than is fur- 
nished by the slab. To accomplish tlus 
the pans are telescoped a few inches in 
the ilirection of the joists and fitted with 
ends which permit the formation of an 
auxiliary joist at right angles to tlie r(<;- 
ular joist. 

Dovetail anchor slots are channel sec- 
tions of sheet iron which are nailed in 
place vertically to the column forms ,ind 
which are filled with felt in ordei to 
keep the concrete out during pouring. 
These anchor slots are approximately ^ 
inch wide and l^j inches deep. When 
the forms are taken from the columns, 
the felt is removed and these slots are 
utilized in anchoring the walls to the 
colunms. When all chairs, stirrups ( L - 
shaped bars used to take the shear in 
beams), reinforcing bars, spandrel angle 
inserts, plumbing, heating inserts, and 
dovetail anchor slots have been placed, 
the steel mesh is then laid. After all 
debris has been blown off the section by 
compressed air, the read\-mixcd concrete 
is poured and vibrated into place. The 

M. 1'.. laboiatory specifications call lor 
iM)() p.s.i. concrete, and samples are sent 
to an independent laboratory in Chicago 
for analysis. As a rule all form work is 
kept in place at least 7 to 10 days, or 
longer as needed. With the coming of 
cold weather, tarpaulins and salamanders 
are being used to raise the temperatine 
to insure proper curing. 

"Rats!" said the contractor as the 
building collapsed, "I told those carpen- 
ters not to take tiowii the shoring until 
the walls were plastered." 

"Now that I've told you my past, do 
you still want to marr\' me?" 

"Ws, beloved." 

"1 suppose \ou will expect me to live 
it down." 

"No, I e.xpect you to live up to it." 


(C<intinue(i from Page 10) 

be in non-technical subjects or in com- 

4. A minimum of nine credit hours 
of non-technical subjects are required in 
every option. If Rhetoric is included. 
this becomes fifteen credit hours. As 
many as thirty hours of non-technical 
courses ma\ be taken in the general op- 

The reason for the gradual transition 
to the new curriculum is the liniiteil 
ca|iacity of the physical plant and staff. 
Some courses have been shifted to a dif- 
ferent semester in the curriculum. To 
have a complete change at once would 
overtax the capacities of the electrical 
engineering department and of the T. 
^' A. M. department. 

The staff is being enlarged to bring 
in some outstanding men. This is a pro- 
cess which takes considerable time. 

Some of the new courses cannot be 
offered until facilities are completed in 
the new Mechanical Engineering build- 
ing, now under construction. 

The new curriculum is part ot the 
inerall improvement program which will 
make it possible for a student to select 
any specialized field of mechanical engi- 
neering at the University of Illinois, and 
have the finest facilities and facultv pos- 

NO SLIDE RULE NEEDED to figure the advantage of- 

''Illinicheck '' 


Additional charge for deposits or checks 
Minimum balance required 
Pass book to bother with 

We designed this economical checking service for YOU. Simply buy a book of 
20 ILLINICHECKS for one dollar and use these checks as long as you have a 
balance in your account. 


Champaign County Bank & Trust Co. 


C. A. WEBBER, President GEORGE I. MAXWELL, Vice President 

FRED G. HARRISON, Vice President E. E. LATOWSKY, Cashier 

ARLAN Mcpherson, Assistant Cashier 







Kiggins non-tip rubber base keeps your 
Higgins American Waterproof India Ink 
upright. . . . Ask your dealer for both. 

HlGGinS IJ\K CO., IM.' 

27/ JV/^TH ST., BROOKLYJV 15, J\. Y., U.S.A. 


Svery kind of weather but fair is manufactured in this 
Weaiherometer which is used regularly in testing sections 
of Okonite Cable. For example, repeated cycles of water 
spray and ultra violet light are combined with freezing in a 
refrigerator. The result: a rapid succession of violently con- 
trasting effects which tests the cable more drastically than 
could years of actual exposure. 

This is one of a series of continuing tests in which Okonite 
puts modern equipment and engineering personnel to work 
pre-testing and establishing the life expectancy of its electrical 
wires and cables. The Okonite Company, Passaic, N. J. 


insulated wires and cables 

SINCE 1878 

Engineers . . . 




Around the Corner on Green Street 

JANUARY, 1948 


PROBLEM — Your company manufactures gas 
burners of varying number and spacing of gas 
ports. You want to develop a drilling machine 
which can be changed over with a minimum of 
time and effort to drill the holes in the different 
burner castings. How would you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER — The illustration shows 
how one manufacturer solved this problem by 
using S.S.White flexible shafts as spindles. 
This arrangement makes possible quick changes 
of spindle groupings to meet different require- 
ments. As here, S.S.White flexible shafts make 
ideal power drives for almost any machine part 
which must be adjustable. 

This is just one of the 
hundreds of remote 
control and power drive 
problems to which S. S. 
White flexible shafts 
provide a simple ans- 
wer. Engineers will find 
it worthwhile to be famil- 
iar with the range and 
scope of these "Metal 
Muscles"* for mechan- 
ical bodies. 

• Trade Mark Reg. U. S. Pat. 0(f. and 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. Write for your free 

■t»»i itiiiiiilW 



• EAST 401 

Ont a^ /i,KCVMi A AAA 1><duitii<U StUnpniHii 


To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
make the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance when you 
can always . . . 






Visit the 



Asfc about fhe man\/ 


it offers 

41 E. University Ave. 







Write for Book No. 6085, 

outlming A-C'» Grodoote 

Training Course. 

Allis-Cholmers Mfg. Co., 
oukee 1, Wisco 

JANUARY, 1948 



( Coiitiiuifd trom I'age II) 
niciit of New York iiiiiversit.\. In l''_'S- 
29, Dr. Looinis hek! a Ciugficiiiu-im 
Memorial tfllowship to study at (]('ittiii- 
fH'ii, (rfrmaiiy, and at Zfirich, Swit/xr- 
laiul. It was followiiifj his ri-turn tiiat 
hf accepted his present position here at 
the University. 

A year before I'earl llarhor. I'l. 
Loomis took a leave of absence to ser\e 
as the associate director of the radiation 
laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute 
of TeehnoIoKN from which he returned 
to Illinois in l')46. The microwave 
radar which this laboratory developed 
for our army, navy, and air forces was 
the decisive factor in the defeat of (Ger- 
man submarines, brouy;ht down 95% of 
the \'-l rockets, guided our air forces in 
the bombing of Europe through overcast, 
and affected the outcome of naval bat- 
tles. The laboratory employed nearh' 
4000 people and spent about :>5(l,- 

His small ofHce in 203 Physics build- 
ing is generally a hubbub of business 
throughout the day. Dr. Loomis' many 
duties include directing the large depart- 
ment staff of 165, and giving demonstra- 
tion lectures to large sophomore classes 
in physics. His specialty is the study of 
molecular spectra, in which field he is 
known for his discovery of the isotope 

effect and fur iii> woik on absorptKjn 
.ind fluorescence spectra of molecules. 

At that time of the year when the 
majoritv of f.iculty and students are 
finding some relief from the past year's 
work, the sea holds a strong attraction 
for Dr. r.oomis, and any visitors to his 
summer home in Massachusetts would 
priib.ibh find him s.ailing in his boat on 
tin- w.iters of Martha's V'ine\ard. 

Besides his work here at the L ni\ er- 
sity. Dr. Loomis is also active as a Fel- 
low of the American Physical society, the 
Optical society, the .Association of Phys- 
ics Teachers, and the .American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. He 
is .ilso a member of the board of gov- 
eiiiors .uul of the council of the Argonne 
National laboratory and a consultant to 
the [ . .S. Atomic Energy commission. 


(Continued from Page I!) 
ing ,ind lanies IS .semester hours includ- 
ing rluec latior.itory courses. A scheihile 
like that is tough on anyone, but besides 
that, he attends basketball practice from 
4 to 6 every afternoon. He explains that 
very few people get any serious work 
done in the l.ate a fternoon hours, so 
when other fellows are loafing around, 
he practices his b.asketball. He admits 
that ".\Luiy evenings after practice I've 
felt like throwing the books out the win- 
dow and just taking it easy. Then 1 
remember that I simply can't afford to 
get behind. You've got to stay on the 
hall ! " Dick's study habits must be good 
because he has better than a 4 point, all- 
uni\ersit\' a\erage. 

. . I- ■ A reducing exercise — move the head 

Voice from passing auto: ' Lngme ^j^^^.j^. f^^^, ^jj^ ^^ ^-^^ „.j,e„ „tf^,ca 

trouble, bud? a second helping. 

* -sj ^ 

She: "Xow what are we stopping 


He: "I've lost my bearings." 

She: "Well, at least that's original. 

Most fellows run out of gas." 
•» * * 

Wife: "Now that I have an electric 
ice box dear, I expect you to get a me- 
chanical stenographer." 

V^oice from parked car: "Nope." 
I'irst \oice: "Tire down?" 
Second voice: "Didn't have to." 

i: » * 

She: "Can \()u direct me to the ladies' 
room ? " 

Bellhop: "It's just around the cor- 

She: "rm looku^g lor relief, not 
prosperity ."" 

Since 1905- 

National Electric has been a symbol 
of Quality on Wiring jnsiS^nESm 
Systems and Fittings llM|]jgf 
for every conceivable 

Today ^5^ 



Notional Electric 

Products Corporation 

Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

A 17th Century Tragedy 

Staged As It Was 
In Shakespeare's Day 


The Duchess 
of Malfi 


JANUARY 14, 15, 16 & 17 

Admission: $1.20 (tax incl.) 
Tickets on Sale at the lllini Union Box Office 

lllini Theater Guild 




Plastics— a growing field for the young technician 

Interest in the use of plasties grows apace. Products in great 
variety for the revived consumer's market show their influence 
— their special utihtarian vahie — their ready adaptahihty 
to ideas in design — their distinctive beauty. 

Plastic materials are custom made in the laboratory for modern 
living. Dow chemists have developed manv new plastics 
among which is Styron, a material that rose to a leading place 
during the war years. It is a remarkable combination of 
brilliant beauty and properties of a strictly utilitarian nature. 
Today, Styron is in demand for products that range from 
toys and costume jewelry to batteries and automobile parts. 
Many lop-rate refrigerator makers use it in ice compartment 
doors, shelves and other parts. 

Other Dow plastics are: Saran for colorful fabrics that can 
he cleaned with a damp cloth, non-rusting window screen or 
corrosion-resistant pipe and tubing; Saran Film and Ethocei 
Sheeting for better packaging; and Elhocel for durable molded 

Development, testing and production of these plastic materials 
are carried on by technical men with special training. It is 
a great and growing field for voung men who can turn their 
college training in tins direction. 




Philadelphia • Waihington 

i Angel«» 

JANUARY, 1948 


Abrasive Products 

yT — -s. Grinding wheels of ALUNDUM", 

/ ,;=>-X,^ CRYSTOLON* and diamond abra- 
sives, discs and segments, bricl<s, sticks 
and hones, mounted points, abrasives 
for polishing, lapping, tumbling and 
pressure blasting, pulpstones. 


Grinding and Lapping 

A varied line of machines for pro- 
duction-precision grinding and lapping 
and for the tool room — including 
special machines for crankshofts, cam- 
shafts, rolls and car wheels. 


Here's What 

Makes . . . 

*7a BeAAje 

in Ma4Uf ^iMi 

High temperoture refractories 

groin, cement, bricks, plates, tile, tubes 
— for metal melting, heat treating 
and enameling; for ceramic kilns, for 
boiler furnaces and gas generators,- 
for chemical processes; refractory lab- 
oratory ware; catalyst carriers, porous 
plates and tubes. 


Trade-mark for Norton Boron Carbide 
— the hardest material made by man. 
Available as on abrasive for grinding 
and lopping; in molded products for 
extreme resistance to wear — espe- 
cially effective for precision gage 
anvils and contact points; and for 
metallurgical use. 

Norton Floors 


ALUNDUM* Floor and Stair Tile, 
ALUNDUM' Ceramic Mosaic Tile and 
ALUNDUM' Aggregates to provide 
permanently non-slip (wet or dry) 
and extremely wear-resisting floor 
and stair surfaces. 


Labeling Machines 

Single and duplex automatic labeling 
^^?^ machines for applying labels and foil 
■^ to beverage bottles and food, cosmetic 
ond drug containers. 

Oilstones and Coated 

Sharpening stones and abrasive 
papers and cloth for every use of 
industry and the home craftsman. 
Products of the Norton Behr-Manning 
Division, Troy, New York. 


(Continued troin I'afif IS) 
j. H. (ialllvaii, K. W. Habricht, W. D. 
Ha\s, R. H. liimaii. H. ( i. Cagges, C. 
II. t'l.nnt/, |. (). Lewis, K. L. Moll- 
man, W. C. Ree.i, !). j. Schertz, C. F. 
Zitv.ow, L. A. Cuii/,, C. K. Anderson, 
R. A. Briscoe, I). Q. Brown, R. H. 
Brown, M. H. Fisher, A. R. (loodman, 
I.. M. Gulledge, E. R. Healy, (1 A. 
Kouros, (j. E. .N'eher, C. R. Nowacki, 
1.. W. Piussow, E. O/.gor, H. I. I'elc, 
J. W. Powers, I). Principali, I). V. 
Sartore, and j. (i. Roberts. 


This year's officers ot Sigma Tan, 
.ill-engineering honorary, are: Philip A. 
De Camp, president ; Thomas 
E. Kiirtzer, vice-president; Stu- 
art J. Johnson, treasurer; Bur- 
ton L. Cordry, recording sec- 
retary; Charles W. Studt, cor- 
responding secretary ; Professor 
J. S. Crandell, faculty advisor. 
Sigma Tau has thirty active members 
this semester, and plans to initiate sev- 
eral new pledges soon. A smoker was 
held for these men shortly before Christ- 
mas vacation. Pledges are selected on 
the basis of scholarship, ability to apply 
knowledge to a practical problem, and 


Tau Beta Pi, the Phi Beta Kappa of 
the engineers, held its first meeting on 
October 21. The main topic 
of the meeting was a report 
by president E. P. Shapland 
on the national convention, 
to which he was a delegate. 
The convention was held at 
the Hotel New Yorker, New 
W York, on October 9, 10, and 

llj 1 1. On December 9, a meet- 

ing was held, and new 
pledges were elected. These men met 
the actives at a smoker held December 
lb, to discuss pledging. 


Eta Kappa Nu is the electrical engi- 
neering honorary on the campus. The 
Alpha chapter, founded here 
in 1904, is the parent chapter 
of the national organization. 
At present there are 20 mem- 
bers in the Alpha chapter. 
The officers are: Murray L. 
Babcock, president; Edward 
C. Fensholt, vice-president; Orville R. 
Pomeroy, treasurer; Charles W. Studt, 
corresponding secretary; Harold D. 
(juy, recording secretary. 

The first meeting of the semester 
was held November 11, at the Chi Phi 
house. At this meeting plans were form- 
ulated for a pledge smoker and an initi- 
ation banquet. Since there are 73 men 
eligible for pledging this semester, mem- 
bership is expected to hit an all-time 

:\"^ 'ky\ 




In modern heat-treating, adaptability of equipment and 
flexibility of fuel are primary influences in any cost-per- 
piece analysis. As a typical example of the flexibility of 
the productive flames of GAS, this Conjecto-Fired GAS 
Furnace is used for a variety of operations without any 
change other than regulation of the fuel-mix and tem- 
perature controls. 

Atwood Vacuum Machine Company, Rockford, Illi- 
nois, is equipped to heat-treat pieces ranging from 1 
ounce to 1000 pounds, in volume up to 15,000 pounds 
daily. Their modern Gas-fired Equipment is adapted for 
annealing, carburizing, drawing, hardening, normaliz- 
ing, malleableizing, stress relieving, under rigid metal- 
lurgical specifications. 

Experienced heat-treating specialists like At\vood 
Vacuum Machine Company use GAS because this 
flexible, controllable, rapid-heating fuel is so readily 
adaptable to all types of processing at any required 
temperature. The productive flames of GAS are so 
flexible that they can be used for any production-line 
heating operation, under the most exacting conditions. 



Data and Photos by SURFACE 
TION, Toledo, Ohio, Manu- 
facturers of Gas Heat-Treating 

Surface Conjecto-Fired GAS «m 

Furnace used for a variety of ^ 

heat-treating operations includ- 

ng Malleableizing, Pacit Carburizing, 

Annealing in a temperature range 

from 600° F. to 1 800° F. 

ANNEALING — station wagon body hinge 

Material: SAE 1020 

Temperature: 1600° F. 

Time Cycle: 36 hours 

Net charge: 6400 lbs. 

PACK CARBURIZING— Brake Trunnions 

Material: Hot rolled SAE 1010 

Temperature: 1650° F. 

Time Cycle: 8 hours 

Case: .040 

Net charge: 1500 lbs. 

MALLEABLEIZING— Irailer Jock Screws 

Material: Malleable Iron 

Temperature: 1750° F. 

Time Cycle: 72 hours 

Net charge: 10,000 lbs. 

J.ANUARY. 1948 



(Continued tioni Pago 9) 
and a solarium. The facilities of the 
treatment room, including a treatmcnr 
table and infra-red heat cabinet, aic 
available to all members as required to 
alleviate minor aches and pains. In op- 
eration durint; the winter months to re- 
place the beneficial effects of the summer 
sun, the eight ultra-violet ray lamps in 
the solarium, or "sun-room," pro\ide in 
one minute the same benefits as one 
hour's summer exposure. Kach membei 
is urged to take three one-minute treat- 
ments per week. 

Kquipment in the public-address con- 
trol room broadcasts music at inter\ais, 
reaches every part of the plant with 
paging and general aimouncements, and 
can be set to bring all members radio 
programs of general interest or impor- 
tance at the time of actual broadcast or 
at any time thereafter, for dances and 
social gatherings in the auditorium this 
equipment is equally well suited. 

Also available for members' use are a 
pistol and rifle range where the pistol 
and rifle clubs meet in regular practice 
and competition, two concrete tennis 
courts which are designed for flooding 
for ice-skating in the winter, and ample 
space for gardening flowers antl \ege- 

Largely responsible for the exemplary 

Mechanical aptitude test shown 
here is a part of the examination 
given to appMcants for employment. 

lUMsonnel polic\' in the Woodward ( io\- 
eiiior compan\' is a plan, known formally 
as Multiple Management, which was 
placed in operation in 1939. Mr. Irl C. 
Martin, president and general manager, 
belie\es the company, in reality, is a bus- 
iness organization of men and women 
who have freely associated themselves to 
accomplish collectively what it would be 
impossible to accomplish individually. 
He believes the business is made up of 

three groups: the stock-holders, the man- 
agement, and the workers; (ill of which 
are responsible for the success of the 
company anil all of which should share 
in its management, hence, the name, 
.Multiple Management. That is the rea- 
son why, in the course of this article, the 
employees have been referred to as mem- 
bers. K\ery employee is actually consid- 
ered as a member of the firm. 

.As practiced in this company, .Multi- 
ple .Management is composed of three 
committees; the Senior committee made 
up of the officers and seniors supervisors 
( representing the stockholder members) ; 
the jimior committee, made up of 15 
members of the junior executive and su- 
pervisory personnel (representing the 
management members) ; and the Prima- 
ry committee, made up of 25 members 
not included in the above two classifica- 
tions ( representing the worker mem- 

Membership in the Primary and Jun- 
ior committees is elective and rotative to 
provide as many members as possible 
with experience in company management. 

Each committee has the power, and in 
fact, the responsibility of recommending 
beneficial policies, but the Senior com- 
mittee has the final responsibilit\' of ac- 
ceptance or rejection. 

Any member of the company may have 
(Continued on Page 30) 


l.tjt Sa, rs I.ahor on 
he Tank. 

Three of the Six Big Frick 


Td Make BQQ Tons 

of Ice a Day for 
California Shippers 

That's the projected output at 
Salinas, where the Shippers Develop- 
ment Co. has built a $1,400,000 
plant to ice vegetables. Five big 
growers and packers use the 
product for icing thousands of rail- 
way cars and trucks. The Associated 
Refrigerating Engineers, of Los 
Angeles, selected Frick equipment 
for this important job. You, too. 
will find Frick refrigerating, ice-mak- 
ing, and air conditioning systems 
most reliable and profitable. 

The Friik Graduate Training Course 
in Refrigeration and Air Conditioninft. 
»o7i' in its Slst year, is afrroved under 
the C. I. lUils 'of KinUts. 





Over 73 Years 



Start the 
New Year 
Off Right 

Take your notes in a Lefax. For a free 
copy of facts about notetaking write to 


Post Office Box Number 1 

University Station 







^ojt oi/ifABturir 

f .' The Lufkin "Anchor" 

/ Chrome Clod Steel Tape 

is the best for student as 
well OS professional use. The 
chrome plated steel line is ex- 
tra durable— stands up under 
rough usage. Coated with 
smooth, rust-resistant chrome, it 
will not crack, chip, or peel. 
Accurate, jet black mark- 
ings are easy to read, 
they're recessed so they 
can't wear out. For 
k free catalog write THE 


rV New York City. 

A Campus Tradition that all 
Engineers Recognize . . . 

ini Union Bookstore 

On the Campus 


JANUARY, 1948 


partners in creating 

K & E drofting instruments, equipment ond materials 
hove been partners of leading engineers for 80 years 
in shoping the modern world. So extensively are these 
products used by successful men, it is self evident that 
K & E has played a port in the completion of nearly 
every American engineering project of any magnitude. 


(Continued from Page 28) 
a voice in the nianafienicnt through the 
form of a suggestion to the Primary com- 
mittee, and each member is encouraged 
to do so. 

A good example of Multiple Manage- 
ment is the fact that the employees, as 
well as the stockholders and the man- 
agement, were consulted before the de- 
cision to erect the present plant was 
made. The operation of plant protection 
and the plant cafeteria are a few other 
examples. Multiple Management has 
fostered emplo\er-employee relationships 
to such an extent that there has never 
been the necessity for forming a union in 
the company. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
Son Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 


I Coiitmued troni Page 1 1 ) 
mer, he takes more extensive trips north. 
While his fishing may benefit by his 
approaching retirement from the Liii- 
\ersity, the ceramics department will 
miss the atmosphere of friendliness 
around "Mac" — the slight figure with 
white hair, a quick smile, blue work 
clothes, and a white apron. "Mac" — 
whose hands and shoes show the white- 
ness of clay dust — while being inter- 
viewed, looked perfectly at home sitting 
on an up-turned "flower pot." 


Where can you have your scholastic bill of 
materials filled out to your most complete 



Phone 5720 



,1 Jpor'o'-e of their elecnco '^^n^ ,„,,, ,-„ ,.„,/,„, business 

Advertisements such as ... o ne ,^ ,,,, j,,,,. ,„hance ,hc 

,na?o-Jnes. Te beheve they P'^J'' ' "'i^„j ,„;„,. They build acceplanee 
s,^,,lin, of.,!..ys - l;:^^ Sv a» of .ho. to us fro., 
(^r Snuurc D I tela niiginm^- / 
tdHi^cn^ineeriu^sehools such as. ours. 





I I 



A good place to get 



Your head electrical man is a good source 
of workable, cost-reducing suggestions. 
And right now is a particularly good 
time to let him prove it. 

During the tremendously increased 
production of recent years, there has 
been a sharp increase in the amount of 
power used per employee. Most electrical 
systems have been operating under ab- 
normal stress. Many are overloaded, un- 
reliable and poorly located or inflexible 
with respect to present machine loca- 
tions. Excessive "down time" and higher 

production costs are certainties. 

Check with your head electrical man 
for possible cost-reducing opportunities 
in your plant. A Square D Field Engi- 
neer vdll be glad to work with him in 
analyzing any electrical problem and 
selecting corrective power distribution 
and electric motor control equipment. 

Field Engineering Counsel is available, 
without obligation, through Square D 
offices located in 50 principal U. S., 
Canadian and Mexican cities. 


JANUARY, 1948 


Hill (Jail aiui Miss jean Lt-minon ot 
Chicago were mariit-il on December 27. 
The lucky man {jiaduates in Mechanical 
KiigineeriiiK in Febniaiy. 

A wealthy client insuicii lier valuable 
wardrobe while traveliii;; in luuope. 
I.'pon reaching Paris she touiul an article 
missing and immediately called her 
broker in New York: "(Jown lifted in 
Paris. " Her broker replied, after due 
deliberation: "VV'hat do uiu tiiink voiii' 
policy covers?" 

» * IS 

"Who \ou shovin?" 

"Uunno, what's your name?" 







K O 











G H 





















T S 








1 Dl 
L 1 L 

























































L Y 1 

lY 1 B 
























Then there's the story about the fresh- 
man who was told that T.A.M. 5 was 
a pipe course. 

The difference between a pretty i;irl 
and an old maid is that the prett.v girl 
always has a lot of handsome men m 
iier wnke while the old maid only has 
liu-ni in lu-r sleep. 

» » «• 

The sailor boy had missed his ship. 
It was majestically steaming through the 
( lolden (late. With his arms about his 
girl's waist and a gloomy look on his 
face he muttered: "Now. honey, we're 
both in trouble !" 

^ ^ ^ 

Some girls are like roads, lots of 
curves, soft shoulders, and you can't tell 
where they lead you. 

For the drug store that's 

beyond compare, it's . . . 


617 E. Green -C- Dial 8072 



808 S. Sixth St. 
Laundry Service and Dry Cleaning 

New Engineers . . . 

The upperclassmen can tell you about the Excep- 
tional Service of the bookstore on the corner of 
Wright and Green, but you've got to see it for 
yourself to really know the 




i'lill'llil'l'i'l'li'l llp 

!! if 


■Jl/^ ^ H ^ IV*- 


Picture of a bridge ^toaning under load 

. . . photographic stress analysis is one of 
many industrial uses for light-sensitive Kodak 
recording materials. 

By cementing strain gauges smaller than postage 
stamps to external surfaces, test engineers can 
find out about structural behavior deep inside the 
material under stress ... so sensitive is the re- 
sponse of these little devices to vibration and 

An important contribution to such sensitivity 
in instruments of this type is the wide latitude of 
Kodak photographic recording materials that are 
available. These may be had in all sizes and 
speeds for nearly every type of instrument. 

Instrument Recording 

another important function of photography 

Kodak is continually developing new record- 
ing products, and is glad to discuss them with 
you — so your new instruments may take full ad- 
vantage of the finest in photographic recording. 

Why not utilize the greater sensitivity and 
speed of photographic recording for your instru- 
ments? Why not find out how well the new Kodak 
high speed recording papers will work in your 
equipment? Just write to 


Industrial Photographic Division 

Rochester 4, N. Y. 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Industrial Photographic Division 

Rochester 4, N. Y. 

Q Please send me your book "Recording 

Q Please send information on your new 

high speed recording papers. 







After keeping up with Patton, John Engstrom 
enjoys his G-E job of tracking "met" balloons 

In February, 1946, after he had happily allowed himselt 
to become "inactive" in the files or the Reserve Army 
Signal Corps, John Engstrom — a family man with two 
kids went looking for his first career-size job. 

He was able to rely on the help of an old friend his 
knowledge of electronics. 

Ever since he started tinkering with radio sets in his 
teens, John had been doing things in electronics — and 
electronics had been doing things for him. 

.At the University of Minnesota he had earned' part of 
his expenses by servicing radios between hours of studying 
for a degree in electrical engineering. 

Going directly into the Army after his graduation in 
1942, John had received further training in electronics at 
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, and had been sent on a 
seven-month electronics assignment to South America. 
Later he had been assigned to a Signal Corps communica- 
tion team and had helped provide General George Patton's 
headquarters with communication during the final vic- 
torious drive into Germany. And after \'-E Day he had 
been flown back to the States to head up an investigation 
team to study the propagation of microwaves in low level 
ducts over tropical waters. 

John Engstrom found his career-size job at General 
KIcctric. Reporting to Electronics Park in Syracuse, N. Y., 
he sj-ient a year in developmental engineering. Today, as 
project engineer for the Army-Navy Meteorological Pro- 
gram, he is in charge of developing meteorological track- 
ing and measuring equipment a solid foothold in an 
electronics future. 

For your copy of "Careers in the Electrical Industry," 
write to Dept. 237-6, General Electric Company, 

Schenectady, N. Y 

John Engstrom admits ttiot his attention perks up when he be 
to think about electronics. He paid part of his college expense 
Minnesota servicing radios. 

In the Army Signal Corps, he continued his work in electronics. 
His radio communications team helped keep channels open to 
Patton during the drive into Germany. 



February, 194S • 25 Cents 


"'The outward forms the intvard man reveals"— Ohiy eh. wendeix holmes 

H )V\^ 


Why fabrics get better all the time 

31 CHEMICALS helped iiuike lluit shirt! 

And lliose chemicals — plus many others — bring you 
brand-new fabrics of finest quality. They create new color 
effects and radiant "conibination"' tones and patterns in 
modern clothing . . . rugs . . . draperies . . . blankets. These 
better fabrics are made possible by belter materials. 

Chemically made fibers, for example, that challenge 
nature's best in wear and appearance. Better chemicals, too. 
in wetting agents. . .shrink-proofing treatments. . .solvents 
for dyes . . . and other "musts ' that arc a part of modi-rn 
textile manufacturing. 

Also in the picture arc slaiidess slecis for dyeing \ als 
that are easy to clean and resistant to corrosive acids and 
alkalies. Plastics for bol>l)ins, pins, levers, control handles 

and for many anuthcr tool part. And c\en such ticw and 
better materials as svnthetic sapphire for the tlK)Usands of 
thread guides on huge textile machines. 

Producing these better materials and many others—for 
the use of science and industry and the benefit of mankind 
—is the work of the people of Vnion Carbidi-:. 

FREE: Yini iirc united to send jor the illuslrated buoljet. "t'luducls 
and Processes" wliicll describes llie ways in ivliicli indnslry uses 
i (^(^s Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, Gases and Plastics. 

Union Carbide 


30 EAST 42iVD STREt;T 


NEW YORK 17. N. Y. 

Products iij Divisions and Units include 

I.iNDE Oxygen • Prest-O-Lue Acetylene • Pvroiax Gas • Bakelite, Krene, \invon, and \ iNYrirt Pla 
National Carbons • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries . Achi son Ei ectrcdi s 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellme Alloys 

SvNTHtin; Organic Chemicals 

There's a future for jou 


Yesterday it was sufficient to call voiirself simplv 
an Electrical. Mechanical or Chemical Kngineer. 
But today we think in terms of specific functions 
performed . . . such as research, design, develop- 
ment or application engineering. For example, 
\^ estinghouse employs: 


to investigate physical laws to extend scientific 
knowledge — or applied research to solve specific 
manufacturing problems, develop new apparatus. 


to design all types of electrical apparatus to meet 
new or specialized requirements. Such work involves 
not onlv the writing of mechanical and electrical 
specifications but the selection of materials, manu- 
facturing processes and many other functions. 


to evolve the desired product in phvsical form; to 
steer the product through infanev until it is a 


to analyze new projects, recommend needed equip- 
ment; and to decide what type of apparatus will do 
the best job for the customer. 


to direct installation and repair at the customer's 
plants; to handle emergency breakdowns. c-iuoos 


These are but a few of the many oppor- 
tunities for engineers in the electrical fielil. 
There are nianv others — in sales or nianu- 
facturing at Vt estin*{house. Begin plans for 
your future by sending today for your free 
copy of "Finding Your Place in Industry." 



To ohiuin ropy of Finding Your I'la 
J'laceitienl Officer of voiir universilv. 

in Imlnstry. v< 
mail ihis ri>ii]>i 

The District Educational Coordinator 

If estinfihousc Electric Corporation 

I'O \. II acker Drirc, P.O. Box li, /.one 90 

Chicago 6, Illinois 

IV a 




«f/ .#«/»« iHvii. li.ii.-in 

Hvrh Maz0'r. U.K. '.TO 


The Heat Pump 

The heat pump is in the piihhc eve 
today more than c\er as a possihle source 
of heat for (iuellings. Contrary to the 
opinion of many, the heat pump or "the 
Kelvin heating engine" was first con- 
eeixeii in 1.S52 by Lord Kehin. 

At present this process is being used 
as a heating and cooh'ng device in a few 
t)fHce buildings. Home use has been im- 
practical up to now because of low effi- 
ciency. In the last few years three com- 
panies have been experimenting with 
this process with home use as an ob- 
jective. Two of these companies are 
offering ready-built units at present. 

Much work is being done to increase 
the efficiency of these machines. At pres- 
ent, these units are capable of producing 
heat at a c.o.p. of about 2.5 ; that is, 
the ratio of heat ab.sorbed to the work 
needed to absorb it was 2.5. The heat 
rejected would be equal to one plus this 
number. Thus, if one unit of electrical 
energy was used over a certain period, 
the system would eject 3.5 units in the 
form of heat. This is a very small num- 
ber in the light of present-day fuels, 
provided one remembers that when elec- 
trical energy is generated only one- 
fourth of the chemical energy is utlized. 
Since these imits depend upon electrical 
energy for their operation, the original 
loss in the generation of the power must 
be considered along with the losses of 
the system itself. 

CO._D AIR , 

I'or operation, these ni.icluries utilize 
the surrounding air for a source of heat 
in nHJd climates and the constant tem- 
perature below the surface of the earth 
in the less temperature regions. In the 
latter case, the unit consists of a long 
|iipc which has water flowing through 
it, imbedded in the ground to a depth 
of about .?00 feet. The heat from the 
ground is transferred to the cooler medi- 
um of the water in the |iipe. The watei 
carries the heat up to the compressor 
where it is transferred to a still cooler 
lluid in the compressor. From this point 
the \uiit operates like a home refrigeratoi 
in rexerse. In the summertime, the ma- 
chine may be rexersed to pin\ide cool- 

A simplified drawing of the unit is 
shown in the accompanying figure. 

Automatic Rectifier For 
Photo Mapping 

An automatic focus rectifier for mo- 
saic map making, the first to be pro- 
duced in America, has been delivered 
to the aini\' corps of engineers by the 
Bausch and Lomb Optical company. 
The new photogrammetric instrument 
will be of paramount significance in 
planning national highways, soil ero- 
sion stLidies, flood control, and ;ierial 
reconnaissance work. 

Resembling an o r d i n a r \ photo- 
enlarger, this instiument simultaneously 




vWAieh; radiator 


APPROX. 300 

The rectifier corrects distortion 
in aerial photos 

enlarges, prints, and automatically re- 
duces aerial photographs to a common 
scale and level, correcting the tilt en- 
countered as a residt of the plane's varia- 
tion in angle and le\el at the time the 
photographs are taken. Planes equipped 
with the most modern stabilizers can 
maintain a constant level only to within 
one-quarter degree accuracy, making the 
rectifier vitally necessary in the produc- 
tion of precise aerial photo maps. 

The automatic instrument, equipped 
with push button controls, can be oper- 
ated by a photographer to turn out rec- 
tified prints on a production line basis 
at the rate of one every five miiuites. 
Previous non-automatic rectifiers re- 
quired tedious, involved mathematical 
calculations for each individual photo- 

Mathematics, mechanical design, and 
many features of the new engineering 
instrument were worked out by John V^. 
Sharp and Olin W. Houghton, Hausch 
and Lomb scientists, while optical solu- 
tions were contributed by Dr. Konstan- 
tin Pestrecov and Harr\- C Ott, also 
of the firm's research ;uid engineering 

This instrument will be a\ailable for 
commercial use this \ear. It is small 
enough to be mounted on a trailer truck 
for use in field work. It also has fluor- 
escent illumination, an enlarging lens of 
high optical resolution, and is construct- 
ed to maintain constantly the proper 
alignment between the negatives and 
printing easel. 

(Continued on Page .^8) 


1^ #*#«*/##*« whore plastics botoiiff 

for E'csistance to tnoisiure ami Mvear 

Synthane where Synthane belongs 

IT'S SYNTHANE— this outboard motor pivot bearing ... re- 
quires no lubrication . . . resists both salt and fresh water, 
wears long and well. It's a good example of the use of 
plastics where plastics belong and Synthane where Syn- 
thane belongs. 

Synthane (our type of plastics) is also light, dense, 
strong, easily and quickly machined, an excellent insulator, 
a material for fighting corrosion. 

These and many other properties— combined— make 
Synthane adaptable to countless applications. Synthane 
Corporation, Oaks, Pennsylvania. 

[ SyntTiane ] 


FEBRUARY , 1948 

Get off to a better start 
in engineering . ♦ . . 



TAPEREO Toller 'rearihgs 

A. good start is half the race. The more you know when 
you graduate, the better your opportunity for success. 

Your professors have your best interests at heart, but what you 
learn outside the classroom will be a plus advantage of great value 
when you toe the mark for the start of your career. 

Take bearings for example. No form of mechanical equipment with 
rotating parts can operate without them. By acquiring now a thor- 
ough knowledge of Timken Tapered Roller Bearings — their design, 
application and possibilities — you will be in position to meet and 
beat any bearing problem you ever may encounter. 

For Timken Bearings have proved their ability to serve in machin- 
ery throughout all industries and have received the universal ac 
ceptance and preference of engineers everywhere. They are the 
bearings experienced engineers specify more than any others. 

Our engineers will help you to become a bearing specialist. Write 
us today and tell us what course you are studying. The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



George R. Foster Editor 

Ed Witort .-Issoi. Editor 

\m Dick .^sst. Editor 

Pliil Doll .hst. Editor 

Barbara Schniiilr...l/rt/-(7//) Editor 


Don Hiiniheck 
nonalil Johnson 
t'arl Soiincnschcin 
Herbert Jacohson 
nick Hammack 
Kenneth McOwan 
Connie Minnick 
Al Rust 
Ronald Johnson 

Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
John Shurtletf 
Arthur Welcher 
Shirley Smith 
Sam Jefteries 
Clenn Massie 
(lenrge Ricker 
Onke Silvestrini 

Volume 63 

Number 5 


Teil Sohn 
Willard E. Jones 

Jack Stiimpf 

The Tecfi Presents 


Robert A. Johnson Bin. Mi/r. 

Stanley Diamond. ..Vm/. Bus. Mt/r. 

Charles Jansen L>:st. Bus. M</r. 

Richard Leek .^sst. Bus. Mi/r. 

Fred Seavey.... 

John Uogatta 
Rudy Vergara 
Cleorge Kvitek 
James Chapman 

...Asst. Bus. Mi/r 

Robert Cox 
Robert Levin 
Frank Mitch 
William Anderson 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 


J., In 


/vhaiM. 111. 
iiati Cuoperat 
r, Cornell En 
Olirnal, Illin 
-, Iowa Traill 
State Engine 

sity of Illii 
IS Engineer, Cini 
Colorado Engin 
neer, Drexel Technical 
Technograph, Iowa Engini 
Kansas Engineer, Kansa: 
Kentucky Engineer, Marquette Engii 
Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, North 
IJakota State Engineer, Ohio State Engi- 
neer, Oklahoma State Engineer, Penn State 
Engineer, Pennsylvania Triangle, Purdue 
Engineer, Rochester Indicator, Rose Technic, 
Tech Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, 
and Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, Alarch, April, and May) by The lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1921,, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscription, $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, III. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 


See the Light 7 

Ted Sohn. E. '4S 

Argonne National Laboratories 8 

Fr/meis (ireen. E.E. '4S 

Post-War japan Id 

Phi/ Doll. M.E. yy 

Protect Yourself! 1 1 

(Jarl Sonnensehein. JM.E. '48 


New Developments 2 

John Dirk. E.E. VV. Iferh Mazer. E.E. '.iO 
and Ken MeOivan. M.E. '4'-' 

Navy Pier 12 

mini in Action 14 

Herbert .laeohson, M.E. '50 

Introducing 16 

Shirley Smith. E.E. '.^0. Connie Minnieh. C.E. '51 
and To/n Moore. C.E. '50 

Engineering Societies 18 

John Shurtleff. Ch.E. '50—D'iek llaniniaek. C.E. '4S 

Editorial 21) 


This night scene of the lllini Union building is typical of what 
the amateur photographer can do if he sets his mind to it.— 
(Ted Sohn). 


A scene near White Heath, Illinois, showing the method of 
contour plowing and terracing to prevent erosion. 



?'r 'W^-i, 













In the Dark? ... See the Light 

ttfi Tfifi Sohn. K. • l» 

Vi) the niajoritx of camera enthusi- 
asts their hobby subjects begin ami set 
with the sun. However, at dusk miUions 
ot lights appear one by one to illuminate 
the scene. Each one renders to nearby 
objects a particular kind of glamour that 
was mi.ssing during the day. Whether 
the downtown shopping district, one's 
neighborhood, or a college campus, the 
complexion of all things is changed. The 
distracting details that had earlier been 
so noticeable are now hidden in deep 
rich shadows. 

For once, the photographer can ap- 
proach his subject material with a mini- 
mum of equipment, the rudiments of 
which are any camera, a watch with a 
second hand, a lens shade, a tripod, and 
jierhaps an exposure meter. Whether or 
not it will be possible to use a meter 
will depend upon the intensity' of illumi- 
nation. A llashlight is an aid in setting 
the shutter ami diaphram, but it \y\\\ do 
little better than a few matches. The 
tripod could be dispen.sed with provided 
a substitute is used. For exposures of 
more than one-fiftieth of a second, it is 
generalh' recommended that the camera 
be supported solidly instead of held in 
one's hands. The lens shade should be 
considered as a necessity since it will 
minimize the streaks caused b\" light 
striking the lens. 

The illustrations accompanying this 
article were made on panchromatic iilm 
with exposures ranging from 10 to 1211 
seconds near f-16. This diaphram open- 
ing represents a compromise between 
what would mean an excessive exposure 
and a loss in the depth of focus. Since 
the depth of focus and to a var\ing de- 

gree the clarity of the subject is deter- 
mined by the diaphram opening, it is to 
the advantage of the photographer to 
stop down to at least f-11 or f-16. This 
increases the length of exposure but the 
extension of patience in one's endeavors 
will be rewarded accordingly. Select film 
for these shots that is fairly fast. Pan 
chromatic films are preferable since they 
ha\e the greatest latitvide and also re- 
duce the exposure considerably. Artifi- 
cial light consists principally of the 
longer wave lengths of light, that is, 
near the red and yellow light bands to 
which pan film is almost equally sensa- 

llie real problem in night photogra- 
phy is in exposure. At best, a meter will 
only duplicate what a good calculated 
guess would do. To arrive at an expos- 
ure, the type of light, film, subject, and 
so forth must be considered. The expos- 
ures appear to have three ranges and the 
first step is to determine m which one 

Some helpful hints on type of 
film, time ot exposure, lens open- 
ings, and other suggestions for 
night photography are included in 
this article. Easily accomplished, 
these suggestions should greatly 
improve the quality of pictures 
taken at night by amateur pho- 

Side entrance of Union building 

)our subject is 1(1. The\- are o[ie-tenth to 
one second, 10 to 30 secomls, ami 
exposm'es from 43 to 120 seconds, 
using pan film with the diaphram at 
f-16. It is best for the beginner to find 
this range by use of a photographic ex- 
posure meter, but if one is not available 
the exposure selections made by others 
for similar subjects will have to be used. 
After some experience has been gained 
one can rely on this for the so-called 
calculated guess. At best, there does not 
seem to be any simple solution for an 
accurate determination. 

Once the range has been selected, 
either extreme. To illustrate, if the 
center of the range and two others at 
either extreme. To illustrate it, the 
meter indicates an exposure of seventy' 
seconds at f-16, take the first picture at 
this, and two others at SO and 90 sec- 

Because films h;i\e a limited latitude 
much smaller th.-m th;it of human \ ision. 

Terrace entrance of Union 

a compromise must be made with every 
subject. It is not enough that the mate- 
rial being photographed is interesting, 
but the print must be of high qualit\. 
It is difficult to keep all the highlights 
and still keep some of the objects from 
becoming hidden in thee shadows. The 
solution is in selecting that part of the 
scene most important and exposing for it. 

After mastering simple scenes and 
.acquiring a fair degree in the judgment 
of exposure, a few tricks can be tried. 
One is a purposeful double exposure 
which is accomplished by photographing 
the subject at dusk and again when it 
is lighted b\- artificial light. The first 
time, deliberateh miderexpose, and 
lighted, rephotograph it at normal ex- 
posiu'e, being sure that the camera is 
rigidly held so it will not move. The 
effect is to bring out some of the detail 
of the building that would ordinarily be 
lost and at the same time keeping to a 
minimum the effect of halation. These 
results can be duplicated in part by 
using a small flash bulb covered with a 
handkerchief so that some of the detail 
can be sa\ed by the supplementary light. 
Reflection in water puddles or just the 
fact that it has rained previously will 
aid in making many pictures addition- 
ally- interesting, each reflection adding 
to the effect. This is especially' true of 
wet pa\ements. It should not be forgot- 
ten that under these conditions that a 
reduction in exposure should be made 
because of the reflections. 

Not all night shots are enhanced b\ 
(Continued on Page .ih ) 


kmm \iili()iial Laboratories 


L'luicr the terms ot tlic Atomic V.u- 
crgy Act the I . S. Atomic Kni'r<;\ Com- 
mission is charged with keeping America 
on top ill the field of atomic weapons. 
Hilt its work in making available to the 
nation as a whole the benefits of atomic 
energy — thereby adding to the country's 
economic and industrial potential — is 
sometimes obscured b\' the technicalitv 
of these benefits and by the secrec\ at- 
tending progress of a military nature. 

Significant events leading up to the 
conception of the Argonne National 
Laboratory occurred in 1939 when Dr. 
Einstein wrote a letter to the President 
which resulted in the appointment of a 
liaison officer and a committee. NO 
satisfactory results were achieved until 
Dr. Kinstein wrote a second letter in 
the spring of 1940. In .Ma\, President 
Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development under Dr. 
Vannevar Bush, which took over the 
atomic project. At this point was found- 
ed the research project which ultimately 
became the parent organization of the 
Argonne National Laboratories. 

The research and development work 
done in connection with the first suc- 
cessful atomic pile or reactor ami the 
plutonium production problem was car- 
ried out largely at the University of 
Chicago in the cr\ptically named 
"Metallurgical Laboratorv." (ilrowth of 

Itif l-'ruiifis liri'vn. li.lC. 'Hi 

Intil this nionu'iit, the Techno- 
graph has been unusually silent on 
the new and faseinating subjeet of 
the most prophetic invention in re- 
cent history — atomic energy. Ini- 
tiated here is a series of articles 
designed to cover the more exciting 
and interesting aspects of the de- 
velopment, application, and cultural 
consequences of peacetime atomic 
energy research in the United 
States. First, read the conception 
and development of the Argonne 
National Laboratory, an organiza- 
tion hailing you from our very 
doorstep to show you dreams come 
true and advancements soon to 
gain fruition. 

the research facilities sponsored b\ the 
L ni\ersity of Chicago, and responsible 
to the Manhattan District during the 
war, produced offices in Ryerson Phys- 
ics laboratory, Eckhard ALithematics 
building, Rosenwald Museum, and part 
of the Chemistry laboratory on the 
campus, and offices in the new building 
set up for special purposes on the Ingle- 
side avenue tennis courts, and in the 
Cottage Grove avenue Armory. Re- 
search areas off campus were given 'site' 
designations. Site A was the Argonne 
Forest section out in Palos Park, Illi- 

Research institutions working with Argonne National Laboratories 

nois, and Site H was a brewer\- and ice 
house near 6.ud street, Chicago, used 
tor biological studies associated with the 

The most important spot in the 
dramatic wartime de\elopment of atomic 
energy has not \et been mentioned — 
namely, the squash courts under the west 
stands of the L Diversity of Chicago 
stadium! It was here that on December 
2, 1942 Dr. Fermi and a number of 
scientists gathered to witness the first 
daring demonstration of an atomic chain 
reaction, releasing atomic power in an 
amount limited only by the controlling 
hand of the operator. Most of these 
buildings and areas eventually became 
a part of the present Argonne Natioiial 
Laboratory physical plant. 

The U. of C Laboratories Get 
a New Name 

( )n Juh' 1. 1946, the name of the 
Metallurgical laboratory was changed to 
Argonne National Laboratory, after the 
Cook Comity forest preserve in which 
one branch of the laboratory has been 
located since 1943. The idea of a 
regional national laboratory operated by 
the L'niversity of Chicago for the 
Atomic Energy Commission was first 
proposed by an advisory committee on 
research and development appointed by 
Major General Leslie R. Groves, coni- 
nianding general, Manhattan Engineer 
district, late in 1943. Dr. Arthiir Comp- 
ton, who was in charge of the de\elop- 
nient of the first successful chain re- 
actor, was chairman of this committee. 

The purpose of the national labora- 
tory program is to provide for the re- 
search institutions of the country the 
costh' facilities for atomic research, 
facilities too costly for any single insti- 
tution to provide for itself. Tools of 
modern nuclear work — piles, accelera- 
tors, and the like — are far beyond the 
resources of most colleges. In the last 
year or two, it has become the fashion 
for any school which wants to build a 
strong physics department to dream up 
an appealing research program, sell it 
to the Army, Navy, or Manhattan dis- 
trict, and get government financing. 

Negotiations are now in progress be- 
tween A.E.C. and the military services 
to change that. A.E.C. wants future 
government-owned equipment central- 
ized at the laboratories, where it will be 
widely available, rather than at in<li\i- 
dual institutions. 

Because of the \ital role played b\ 


tlic ML-ralluriiical laboratciiN in tlu' ilc- 
\ i.l()|inK'nt of atomic energy, because a 
hi<;hly qualified and experienced stafi 
was already at work in Chicago, and 
because Chicago is the logical center for 
bringing together the research talents of 
the entire midwest, the decision was 
made to build one ot the laboratories 

Two other laboratories ha\e been 
organized and are working along similar 
lines — Brookhaven laboratories at 
Camp L pton. Long Island, and Clinton 
laboratories, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 
Each laboratory has been assigned prob- 
lems in special fields in atomic energy 

The Argonne National Laboratory at 
present occupies several locations other 
than those at the L niversity of Chicago 
and at Palos Park. Included are a 39th 
street, Chicago, warehouse and a new 
six-square-mile a r e a in the southeast 
corner of DuPage county, just north 
of the town of Lemont. This latter area 
offers a number of ad\antages. Its 
underlying strata of rock is good, its 
drainage is good, its accessibilit\' is good, 
and it does not contain extensive land 
improvements. It is only five-minutes 
distance from the Palos Park pile facili- 
ties, making possible continued operation 
while the new facilities are under con- 

Layout of Laboratory 

The new facilities just mentioned will 
be divided into two areas, one, the public 
area consisting of auditorium, guest, and 
medical b\iildings, and two, the larger 
restricted area which at present stage 
of planning consists of six major research 
buildings. On June 2,\ 1*147, the Lni- 
\ersity of Chicago announ -ed retention 
of I'Onl, Hacon and Davis, Inc. of Chi- 

Worklng with radioactive materials without getting any nearer than the 
six-inch-thick lead-brick wall of the "Hot Room" allows 

cago and Xew York, as architect-engi- 
neer-construction manager of the pro- 
posed new home of the Argonne Na- 
tional Laboratory. 

Dr. Walter H. Zinn had been di- 
rector of the Palos Park Argonne 
laboratory and with the inception of 
the new national laboratory, became di- 
rector of that organization. In addition 
to the director, administrative organs 
are a Council of Participating Institu- 
tions, representatives of 29 universities 
and technical schools, and a board of 

governors. ( )ther institutions which, be- 
cause of research interests, qualified per- 
sonnel and geographical location, find 
it possible and to their advantage to 
participate in the cooperative program 
of the Laboratory may be considered as 
possible future participants. 

T he board of governors is elected bv' 
the Coiuicil. The first board of gover- 
nors consisted of : 

Professor Farrington Daniels, chair- 
man — L niversity of Wisconsin 
(Continued on Page 22) 

Left: The instrument panel of the pulse analyzer which determines the amount of radiation 
from different materials which may be in a mixture. Center: The elaborate vacuum system 
used to measure the vapor pressure of the radioactive materials. Right: Making precise tem- 
perature measurements of the crucible used to evaporate various new elements 


Post -War Japan... 

Last Mimnu'i (liiiiii}; jul\ :iiitl Aujiu>t 
till- National Acailcniy ot Scii'iui-s, 
Washiiifitoii, I). C. at the lequi-st ot the 
war (icpartnicMit, sponsoicil a six-maji 
committee on a trip to japan. Tlie mem- 
bers ot the committee iruiiided : chair- 
man, Dr. Roger Adams, ot the de- 
partment of chemist r\ , I iii\ersit\ ot Ill- 
inois; Dr. William D. Cooliilge, director 
of research (Emeritus), ( leneral Elec- 
tric company; Dr. Royal W. Sorensen, 
professor of electrical engineering, Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology; Dr. 
William V'. Houston, president, Rice in- 
stitute; Dr. Merrill K. Bennett, execu- 
tive director. Food Research institute 
and dean of the social sciences at Stan- 
ford university; and Dr. William J. 
Robbins, director, New York Botanical 
(lardens. The purposes of the trip, a> 
stated by Dr. Frank B. Jewett, president 
of the National Academy of Science, 
were as follows: "(I) To review with 
the American Military Ciovernment and 
the Japanese the plans which have been 
formulated for the peacetime organiza- 
tion and development of Japanese science 
and technology along democratic lines; 
(2) to give such aid to the Ameiican 
Military Government and the Japanese 
as the experience of the committee may 
suggest; and (3) by your presence as 
representatives of the Academy to sho\\- 
the Japanese that American scientists 
are interested in the re-establishment of 
their science along lines which will be 
permanently beneficial both to them .Lud 
to the world at large." 

During its forty-day mission to Japan 
to accomplish these pvnposes, the Ad- 
visory Group visited industries m the 
principal cities of Japan, discussed prob- 
lems with the Military Go\ernment and 
the Japanese, and visited sexeral prom- 
inent Japanese universities. 

Japanese UniiH'rsities 

Main mti'iesfing sidelights on iinixcr- 
sity life and teaching methods in Jap.m 
were observed. A complete university 
has seven "faculties," including law, lit- 
erature, economics, science, engineering, 
agriculture, and medicine. Not all fac- 
ulties are represented in all universities, 
but one university may have more than 
one faculty of the same kind. There are 
both government and private uni\ersi- 
ties. The private universities on the 
average are older, account ft)r about half 
of the miiversity graduates, and have 
speciali/eil more in the cultural sciences. 

«f/ ritil /toll. M.K. •!» 

Dr. Ad.ims s,-|\s about the gincrn- 
ment. or Imperial. uni\ ersities : "In ex- 
ternal torm the Imperial uni\ eisities ,ire 
similar to .American and European insti- 
tutions. The emph.isis on the scholarl\' 
acti\"it\ ot the tacult\ and on graduate 
wiiik, and the n.'ituie ot the work ic- 
i|uned suggest a strong ( inllii- 
ence." The unit ot the Imperial univer- 
sities appears to be the "chair," consist- 

Herein you can read of (he first- 
hand experiences and observations 
of Dr. Roger Adams, head of the 
department of chemistry, set down 
during his recent travels through 
,Iapan. He and his committee made 
a survey and study of education 
conditions and practice and re- 
search facilities in order to advise 
the reconstruction program for that 
country. See for yourself some of 
the amazing forces and effects 
which shape the oriental mind and 
his actions. 

ing ot a |irotessor, an assistant professor, 
and one or more assistants. All mem- 
bers of the staff of any Imperial uni\cr- 
sity are government employees. However, 
the internal administration appears to be 
quite democratic. The deans are elected 
by the professors, and the president either 
by all the professors or by represcnta- 
ti\cs of the various faculties. This de- 
mocracy is probably more apparent than 
real, since the government Ministry of 
I'ducation has the final word on e\eiy- 

The .\Iinistr\ ot I'ducation also est;ib- 
lishes regulations concerning private uni- 
versities; hence they may be called pri- 
vate largely because they are self- 
financed. Dr. Adams says of the private 
\mi\ersities: "They seem to represent a 
more liberal and democratic spirit than 
do the Imperial universities." 

Following the German tradition, there 
is a high degree of specialization in a 
Japanese university. A student is con- 
fined to a single faculty, and all general 
education is obtained before entering. A 
graduate student is attached to one pro- 
fessor and works under his guidance. 
Being in such close contact, there is a 
strong transfer of loyalt\' to the profes- 
sor. This probably exerts an undue in- 
fluence on the thinking and activities of 
many scientific men, leading to concen- 

tr.ition ol activit) in \ei\ narrow fields 
;mil a lack ot breadth in training and 
interest. It also leads to competition 
among .scientists and .scientific institutions 
rather than cooperation, and pinh.ilily 
hiiidcis the general development and 
spread ot scientific attitudes. 

( )n the whole, all salaries are low, and 
members of the teaching staff must sup- 
plement their incomes in an\ wa\ pos- 
sible, such as teaching in other institu- 
tions and doing consultant work. 

Scientific Research 

Scientific research in Japan todav is 
carried out in three ways; by universit\ 
professors, by government and independ- 
ent research institutions, and by research 
laboratories closely associated with in- organizations. 

Escry university professor is expected 
to carr\ on research in his field ; how- 
e\er, as Dr. Adams points out, "Much 
uiii\ersity research is somewhat esoteric 
in character. Mathematicians prefer such 
things as number theory to analysis or 
tn work in applied mathematics." The 
idea of proving to the rest of the world 
that Japan has a superior culture is the 
dominating idea in too main uni\ersit\ 
minds, and sometimes blots out research 
ot a practical nature. The research 
equipment seems fairly good, but much 
ot it is not in use at present. Also, the 
ccjuipment is rather poorly maintained 
which is probably partly due to the men- preoccvipation of the reseach assist- 
ants with supplementing their low wages. 

\ here is also a number ot research in- 
stitutions which are either supported by 
the government or supported independ- 
ently. The Ministry of Agriculture su- 
pervises a laboratory which, on the 
whole, does worth - while work and 
makes the results available to farmers. 
The Ministry of Communications has a 
laboratory for electrical standards. A 
number of other laboratories working on 
specific problems related to industr\ are 
maintained by the Ministry of Com- 
merce and Industry. The problems in- 
clude work in such industries as ceram- 
ics, mining, and textiles. 

The self-supporting laboratories are 
few in number and quite large. The\ 
are skillfully managed, however, and 
even develop their own products and 
manufacture them. Few research labo- 
ratories run b\' industrial organizations 
attempt any pilot-plant operations in de- 
\clopiiig new processes as is done in this 
counti\. The staffs in these laboratories 
often dexote much of their time ami 
energy to testing and control. 

The government and independent lab- 
oratories work in contact with the 
university laboratories. Indeed, they are 
staffed by a large percentage of univer- 
sit\- graduates, and employ professors as 
part-time research men. On the other 
hand, the industiial laboratories have 
(Continued on Page ?iA) 



WliMr (•n;;iiu-fn'n<z; stucicnt li;is not at 
sonic time ilreanied of pioduciiif; a 
world sliakiiig invention? The answer 
is, ob\ioLisly, that there are quite a few. 
How- many in\entors have lost the eco- 
nomic pri\ile}ies which should ha\e ac- 
crued to them from theii- in\entions? 
Here, unfoitunatelx , the answer is tliat 
there lia\e been nian\. 

The pmpose of this article is not to 
outline a plan for a potential inventor 
to follow for production of an invention 
which will earn for him a million dollars. 
Rather, our purpose shall be to outline 
the type of procedure which should be 
followed so that the inventor may be 
sure to reserve to himself the benefits 
and earniiifis from his iinention. 

-Most people are acquainted with the 
fact that there exists at Washington, 
I). C, an orsain'zation known as the 
I nited States patent office. The patent 
office is a part of the United States 
ilepartment of commerce and is housed 
in a building known as the United 
States Patent (Office building. 

History of Patent Office 

The present United States patent sys- 
tem came into existence as the result of 
an act of Congress which was passed 
m 1834. The first patents were granted 
ni IHjfi, and since then there have been 
J,4ll( ),()()() patents granted by the patent 

To go back just a little farther in 
our national histor\, we can call to mind 
article 1, section S of the Constitution 
which says: 

"The Congress shall ha\e power 
... to promote the Progress of Sci- 
ence .-ind useful Arts by securing for 
limited Times to Authors and In- 
\ enters the exclusive Right to theii" 
respective Writings and Discoveries." 

It was on the strength of this Con- 
stitutional authorization that the act of 
I.S,i4 was legal. Clearly, the men who 
wrote the Constitution realized the im- 
portance of inventors and their work in 
the national economy. 

Xow, you may ask. what does the 
■let of 1834 guarantee to the imentor 
ari<l in what ways does it protect him? 
1 he act provided for the granting of 
patents for a period of seventeen years, 
with the provision that renewal could 
only he .iccomplished by an act of Con- 

riie imentor is guaranteed the full 
control o\er his iinention ; he can pre- 
vent ainone from making, using, or 
selling his invention. On the other hand, 
the inventor can lease manufacturing 
rights or may do his own manufactming 
ot the item on which he holds a patent. 

The government reserves the right to 
lefusc patents if the item in question 
can be considered deleterious to the pub- 
lic welfare, or if it appears to infringe 
upiin the prior patent rights of another 
inventor. By the same standards, it must 


PixUeot y<uin^iell 

hii t'arl Sonnvntn-hvin. .M.E. ' IH 

be a iisetul item and must be a iio\elt\. 

Supposing that .\ou have, or think >oii 
have invented an item that is worth be- 
ing patented. There are several ver\ 
essential and important steps which must 
be taken in order that you may obtain 
vour legal rights regarding Mmv brain- 

Were a business man to attempt to 
run his business without keeping proper 
records he would be regarded very poor- 
ly by the people associated with him. 
Such is also the case with inventors. 
The imentor should be just as s\ste- 

All engineers, as potential in 
ventors. will be interested in this 
straightforward article which con- 
tains valuable data about patents. 
Certain procedures and records 
are mandatorv in realizing the 
worth of your idea or invention. 

matic about his business as is the suc- 
cessful businessman. 

Complete records of all correspond- 
ence, notes, and experimental data 
should be kept and carefully dated. 
W h e r e \ e r |iossible. important dates 
should be attested to b\ the signature 
or knowledge of a responsible part\. 
1 his will become more apparent as 
we proceed. 

Hack-tracking a bit, we recall 
there must ha\e been a time when a 
realization of a need for the item was 
first conceixed. Possibh not at this date 
but at a subsequent one, an idea was 
forthcoming as to the means of fulfilling 
this need. Perhaps preliminary sketches 
were made and miscellaneous notes scrib- 
bled on scratch paper; all of these pa- 
pers should have been kept and carefully 
dated for further reference. 

As soon as the fundamental ideas had 
crystallized, a .set of working drawings 
should have been made up, with accom- 
panying descriptive material. These 
drawings need not have been to an ac- 
curate scale, but they should have pos- 
sessed all of the necessary dimensions. 
The drawings should have been clearh" 
explained with numbers referring to the 
specific parts of the mechanism. At such 
a time, it would have been a good idea 
to write down what the invention was 
supposed to accomplish and what bad 
features of other machines or mechan- 
isms it would o\-ercome. 

Hiietly. and in summ.-iry, these |ire- 
liminar\ drawings should ha\e told what 
the invention was related to, what its 
object was, what the \arious drawings 
were intended to show, how the mech- 
anism would be constiiicted, and lasth 
and most important how it was expected 
to work. 

I'or our purposes, we will assume 
that you have successfully fulfilled all 
of these preliminary requirements and 
that now you want to proceed with the 
formal part of obtaining your patent. 

The first step would be to take the 
preliminary drawings and statements, 
which you have made, to a iiotar\' pub- 
lic and have him attest them and attach 
his seal to them. Of, there are 
other ways of establishing the date of 
inception ; such as having the papers 
signed, each one individually, by at least 
two qualified witnesses, or by mailing 
the papers to oneself through the gov- 
erninent mails. If the latter mentioned 
system is used, the seal on the envelope 
should not be broken unless the papers 
are needed at some later date as evi- 
dence in court due to litigation arising 
from >our patent claims. This action 
will definiteh' establish \our claims as 
to chronological inception of the ideas 
pertinent to >(iur invention. 

Obtaining a Patent 

In addition to the notarizing of the 
papers themseUes, the following infor- 
mation should be attached to the tech- 
nical papers and should also be notarized. 

(a) The original date when you first 
thought of this invention. 

(b) The date when >ou first tohl 
anybody else about your ideas or iinen- 

(c) The d;ite when \ou lirst st.irted 
to work out the practical consitlerations 
subsequent to being able to construct a 
working model. 

Having proceeded this far, it is now 
wise to obtain the .services of a good 
patent attorney. Onl\- certain men are 
allowed by the patent office to practice 
patent law. Strange as it may seem, a 
patent attorney need not be an attorney- 
at-law. Many of the successful patent 
attorne3s are engineers who ha\e been 
able to satisfy the patent office as to 
their qualifications and have thus been 
permitted to practice patent \;\\x. 

After you have contacted your attor- 
ne\, you must then be ready to put full 
trust and confidence in him. The reason 
(Continued on P.ige ,?(!) 


!}H^UueoA*te^..MM^ PIER 


By John Fijoiek, E.E. '51 

111 a li il i t i () 11 to the iiiacliiiR- >li(iii 
courses described in a previous issue, two 
other shops have been in operation at 
the Chicago branch since September, 
1947. These shops have been a welcome 
addition to the engineering students of 
sophomore Stan d i n g for whom the 
courses are limited. 

Aeronautical engineering students in 
M.E. 81 (foundry and welding labora- 
tory — two hour course) are divided into 
two groups at the beginning of the se- 
mester. One group begins the study of 
molding principles while the other is 
trained in light welding principles. The 
two groups change their stud\ of each 
subject around the middle of the se- 

In the welding laboratorx seven as- 
bestos-lined booths each contain a weld- 
ing bench and an a.c. welding machine. 
These booths occupy one side of a large 
room which also contains a spot welder 
and seven gas welding stations. Light 
welding with ferrous and aluminum ma- 
terials is emphasized. Practice makes the 
study more interesting as can be evi- 
denced from the photographs showing 
some of the equipment being operated 
by the students. 

The foundry group is gi\en practice 
as well as theory in melting of metals, 
testing of castings, and testing of sand 
so that a good knowledge of the pro- involved is obtained. 

More time is spent on foundry prin- 
ciples in M.E. 85 (pattern and foundry 
laboratory — two hour course). Pattern 

disign IS taught, and, as in all of the 
courses described abo\e, the emphasis is 
placed not so much on manual work skill 
a-i (in tlif knowleilge of the processes 
iiuid\C(l and the testing of the product 
and materials used. 

Movies and slides supplement the lab- 
oratory work which is carried on in a 
shop well-equipped with benches, con- 
\eyor, molding machines, a core room, a 
sand testing laboratory, and melting 
equipment including an electric aic 

Professor Ko/ack.-i's staff in the foun- 
dr\ consists of one superxising instruc- 
tor, two instructors and one mechanic. 
1 he welding shop, which has the small- 
est number of students at one time, has 
one instructor to supervise all opera- 

Engineering Societies 

By Clarence Niebow, Ch.E. '51 

Although the Xa\'\ Pier branch is 
onh a little o\er a year old, its engi- 
neering societies are w-ell organized. 
They are sponsored by competent men 
with good engineering background. All 
the societies here at Navy Pier function 
through the College of Engineering ex- 
cept the Chemical Engineering society 
which is activated through the College 
of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The fol- 
lowing items will give you a summary 
of the progress and future plans of the 


1 he Mechanical Engineering society 
is sponsored by Mr. C. T. McDonald 
of the general engineering drawing de- 
partment. The society has affiliated it- 

self with the student chapter of the 
A.S..\LE. Sf) far the group has had 
quite a few speakers, the first one being 
Dr. Norman Parker, head of the me- 
chanical engineering department at L'r- 
bana. He spoke on the subject, "Cur- 
ricula of the Junior and Senior Year 
in Mechanical Engineering." They have 
had one field trip to the Carnegie Mill 
of the United States Steel corporation. 
.\i\ all-day field t r i p is now being 
planned to the tractor works of the In- 
ternational Har\ester company, where 
the group will be especiall\' interested 
in the forge shop, the die-casting shop, 
and the machine shop. The officers are 
joe L. McCaffery, president; Gerald 
Lerman, vice president; Edward Har- 
per, treasurer; and Lambert Kilbo>', sec- 

The sponsor of the Electrical Engi- 
neering society is Mr. W. K. LeHold. 
They have affiliated themselves with the 
student chapter of the A.I.E.E. and have 
had Dr. [. E. Hobson, director of the 
Armour Research foundation, talk to 
them on, "The A.I.E.E. and the Pro- 
fessional Registration of Electrical En- 
gineers." Also Dr. W. L. Everitt, head 
of the electrical engineering department, 
at the University of Illinois spoke on 
"Electrical Engineering and Options." 
Mr. LeHold hopes to get speakers on 
communications, radio, and illumination. 
The group has not elected its officers 
as yet; but the acting secretary is R. 
Petersen who is also chairman of the 
nominating committee. 


The ci\il engineers are headed by Mr. 
J. C. Chaderton of the mechanical 
engineering department. This group has 


Left: Students applying their knowledge of welding principles 
Right; Pouring a casting in the foundry laboratory 



affiliated it^^■lf with the >tuilfnt chap- 
ter of the A.S.C.E. Mr. (ieorfie Salter, 
midwest iTpresentative of the A.S.C.E., 
addressed the group on, "The Functions 
of the A.S.C.E." The society hopes to 
have a speaker e\ery month. The offi- 
cers of the club are: William Linf^o, 
president; (rary Cass, secretarx ; and 
James Swendsen, treasurer. 


This group is sponsored by Dr. Meloy 
who is also head of the chemistry de- 
partment here at the Pier. This group 
has not affiliated itself yet, but is now 
negotiating with the chapter downstate 
for membership into the A.LCh.E. Mr. 
Wassel of the American Can company 
recently addressed the group on the, 
"Thermal Processing of Food." The 
next speaker is going to be Mr. A. L 
Kegan, a lawyer, who will speak on 
some interesting facts about patents. Re- 
cently the chemical engineers went on 
a field trip to the Standard Oil com- 
pany where they inspected the research 
laboratories. The recently elected offi- 
cers of the group are: Claude Lucchesi, 
jiresident; George Duwel, vice presi- 
dent; Neal Smith, .secretary; and Her- 
man Petsch, treasurer. 


By Norbert W. Ellmann, M.E. '51 


In passing through the lounge adja- 
cent to the lunchroom, one may happen 
to glance in a southerly direction and 
notice a white sign just above an office 
door. The sign reads "Associate Dean of 
Engineering Sciences." This is the office 
in which Rupert M. Price, M.A., as- 
sistant to the associate dean of engineer- 
ing, conducts some of the many duties 
falling to him in the post. Mr. Price 
is also an assistant professor of physics, 
and a staff counselor in the student 
personnel bm'eau. 

Horn in 19()h at Wa\ iiesville, Illinois, 

Siegmund Deutscher. ./:/.«/. Etlilnr 


John Fijolek Norbeit I^llman 

Richard Choroir/.v 


Clarence Xu-bow 


Joan Hmns Jsst. Bi/s. M//r. 

John Cedarholm Leonard Cohen 
John Kaufman Ronald Wessel 

IVIr. Price completed grade school and 
high school in Waynesville and went 
on to Eureka college at Eureka, Illinois. 
Later he received his master's degree 
at the University of Illinois. 

For twelve years Mr. Price coached 
basketball, baseball, and track for the 
Atlanta, Illinois, high school. He then 
became the high school principal at New 
Holland, Illinois, a position which he 
held for five \ears. For two more years 
he held the position of principal at the 
WashbLnn, Illinois, high school, dining 
which time he spent the summers teach- 
ing mathematics at the University of 

Ml'. Price's hobbies are hunting and 
fishing. That he is a true sportsman is 
evidenced by the fact that he uses arch- 
ery equipment instead of a gun to do 
his hunting. This is far from being a 
handicap, however, because Mr. Price 
usually returns from his hunting trips 
with a line catch of rabbits and pheas- 

Mr. Price married a school teacher 
and has three children, two girls 7 and 
1,\ and a boy years old. 

Rhet Instructor: "John, take this 
sentence: 'I led a cow from the pasture.' 
What mood?" 

P.E. : "The cow, sir. " 


Last \ear's graduating electrical engi- 
neers have learned how to apph their 
knowledge in a practical wa\'. The\' are 
now using the "right hand rule" to 
ciht.iin transportation. 


Mar\ bought a "New-Look" dress. 
The style was very dare-\. 
The dress, it doesn't show the diit, 
l?ut WOW! It sure shows Marv . . . 

Dorothy Plummer . . . Heie's \<)ur 
name in print. N(^W will you buy a 
subscription ? 

By Richard Choronzy, M.E. '51 


Twenty-fi\e miles is a long way for 
a person to go to and from school each 
day. That is the distance Taylor Brown 
tra\e!s from his suburban home to Navy 
Pier, and furthermore, he likes it. "Edu- 
cation is worth its time in travel and 
study. If I had to travel 100 miles, I'd 
stil do it." These words were stated by 
the quiet, unassuming freshman at his 
drawing desk in room 13S. 

Taylor, a civil engineering student, 
hopes to continue with his education 
until he receives his Ph.D. Apparently, 
he is trying to folow in his dad's foot- 
steps because the elder Brown is chief 
engineer of the highway and bridge con- 
struction di\ision of tlic state in the 
Chicago area. 

Taylor Duane Brown was born in 
Kankakee, Illinois, on May 28, 1929. 
When he was (> years old, his family 
moved to Downers (jroxe, Illinois, 
where he lives at present. During his 
high .school years he playeil the clarinet 
in the school band and was gradu- 
ated from Downers Ciro\e high school 
last June. The few months between high 
school and college life he spent with his 
father studying the various kinds of jobs 
performed by a civil engineer. His 
choice of civil engineering as a career 
resulted largely from his liking for the 
work his father does. 

His chief hobb\ is hunting and his 
favorite sport is boxing, at which he is 
quite adept. Taylor has a girl friend, 
Helen Smith, with whom he has made 
future engagement plans. He pl.ins to 
specialize in bridge constiiiction work 
after graduation. 




f/f/ llorhiTl 'fuvohson. .M.K. '.lO 

'l\\(j more };railii;in-s of tlir fn<;iiH-c-r- 
iiij; (IcpartmiMit ot the I nivtMsIt) ot 
Illinois were awanlcd honors. uluMi 
A. I'OST, both of the class of '.i(), 
wore presented the Eta Kappa Nu 
award by the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers at its winter meet- 
iiijr January 26. This award is pre- 
sented annually to the engineer selected 
as the most outstandiiif; yoinif; electrical 
engineer on the basis of his technical 
achie\ements and on his civic, social, and 
cultural activities. These two nien were 
both given honorary mention citations 
for the year 1945. 

Starting to work with I nitcd Air 
Lines in 1936 as a radio engineer for 
the design and supervision ot construc- 
tion of aircraft radio equipment, Mr. 
Post was soon promoted to the position 
of assistant supervisor and acting radio 
engineer, a position he still holds today 
along with that of superintendent of 
navigation aids. During the war he .it- 
tained the rank of lieutenant colonel 
and was chief of systems at the Aircraft 
Radio laboratory at Wright field where 
he had direction of the installation and 
Hight testing of all prototype radio, ra- 
dar, and counter measure equipment in 
army air force aircraft. A member of 
A.LE.K., I.R.K.. and Tau Beta Pi, 
Edgar Post is a member of the \'H1' 
Ra<lio Ranges and Radio Instrumenta- 
tion committee of the Radio Technical 
Commission for Aerounautics. At pres- 
ent, he is a recognized authority on 
automatic flight control, airways traffic 
control, and aircraft instrumentation. 

The other alumnus presented the Eta 
Kappa Xu award, Wallace A. Depp, 
H. S. '.?6, ALS. '37, is a graduate with 
high honors. He is a member of 
A.I.E.E., Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and 
the American Federation of Scientists. 
After graduation, he was employed by 
the Hell Telephone laboratories in New 
York where he designed cold-cathode 
tubes, thyratrons and spark gap tubes 
for radar, and thyratrons for the prox- 
imity fuze. At the present time he is in 
charge of basic development of gas-filled 
tubes for Bell Telephone laboratories. 
Wallace Depp has been granted se\eral 
patents and has a few peiuling now. 
The author of several publications, he 
is very active today in radar and cold- 
cathodc tube research. 

The Eta Kappa Nu award, suspended 
during the war, was resumed by the 
A.l.E.E. at its winter meeing in Pitts- 
burgh. An award was presented for each 

of the years from 1942 to 1947. Out ot 
ninet\-(ive candidates, two of the win- 
ners were L'niversity of Illinois alumni. 
The award is onl\ given to engineers 
less than thirty-five years of age who 
have been graduates for not more than 
ten \ears. 

section head of the ( ieneral Electric re- 
search laborator\-, has been appointed 
chairman of the .'\merican Institute of 
Electrical Engineers' therapeutics com- 
mittee for 1947-4S. Born on December 
17, 1S90, at Meriden, Iowa, Mr. Charl- 
ton received his bachelor of arts degree 
in 1913 from (jrinnell college. He ob- 
tained his master of science and doctor 
of philosophy degrees in 1915 and 1916, 
respectively, from the Univecsity of Illi- 
nois, and was awarded a doctor of sci- 
ence degree in 1945 by (jrinnell college. 
He has been empIo\eii by (jeneral Elec- 
tric company since 1920 during which 
time he has engaged in research activity. 
Mr. Charlton served on the therapeutics 
committee during 1946-47. 

associate professor of electrical engineer- 
ing, Yale university, has been appointed 
1947-48 chairman of the American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers' commit- 
tee on award of institute prizes and of 
the technical program committee. Born 
in HiUsboro, Illinois, July 20, 1882, Mr. 
Turner received the degrees of bachelor 
of science (1910) and master of science 
(1915) from the University of Illinois, 
antl was instructor here from 1910 to 
1912. He joined the faculty of the Uni- 
\ersit\ of Michigan as instructor in elec- 
trical engineering in 1912 and in 1918 
became assistant professor of Yale uni- 
versity. He was appointed associate pro- 
fes.sor in 1926. Mr. Turner has been 
chairman of the institute committee on 
communication and has served on the 
committee on instruments and measure- 
ments. He holds a number of patents 
and is the author of numerous technical 
papers. He also is a member of the In- 
stitute of Radio Engineers, International 
Scientific Union, the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, 
Franklin Institute, American Society for 
Engineering Education, Eta Kappa Nu, 
and Sigma Xi. 

'09, received the John Deere medal of 
the American Society of Agricultinal 
Engineers for special in\estigation and 
drainage research conducted for the Soil 
Conservation Service of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. Recently, the 

I .S.l)..\. engineer was honored again 
u lun hi> bulletin, "Prevention of Ero- 
sion ot Farm Lands b\ Terracing," first 
issued in 1917, was listeil as one of the 
outstanding scientific publications by 
U.S.D.A. research workers. 

E. T. BLIX '20, who was chief en- 
gineer on the project to build the Sky- 
Ride for the 1933 World's Fair, now is 
manager of the Melrose Park plant of 
the .Mississippi Valley Structural Steel 
company, a firm he has been with .since 
graduation. He started as a detailcr in 
the Decatur plant, worked into sales, 
an<l was in the Kansas City and Chi- 
cago offices. In 1929, he was made chief 
engineer of the Melrose Park plant, a 
|K)sition he held until his promotion. 

ROBERT C. LEWIS '36 has joined 
the staff of the Aero-Elastic Research 
laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. Formerly chief engineer of 
the vibration division of M.B. Manu- 
facturing company, he will continue to 
ser\e M.B. as a technical consultant 
and will practice as a consulting en- 
gineer. He previously was associated 
w ifh the Crane company research labor- 
atories and later was head of the vibra- 
tion department of Vega Airplane com- 

PHILIP STEELE, M.E. '89, Chi- 
cago, secretary of his class and one of the 
most noted of the older Illini (older in 
point of years only), recently was the 
guest of honor at a dinner celebrating 
his 50 years of service with the Munici- 
pal Employes Insurance association of 
which he is president. 

(iuests included many old friends and 
members of various unions, repre.senting 
some 20,000 employes. Former mayor 
of Chicago, Edward J. Kelly sent a per- 
sonal letter commending and thanking 
Mr. Steele for his "long years of faith- 
ful and capable public service and for 
the contributions made to the welfare of 
. . . fellow employes ..." 

The monthly bulletin of the Miniici- 
pal Employes society carries a summary 
of his career of duty: 1. Entered the 
Civil Service of Chicago in 1895; was 
later promoted to chief engineer of the 
Springfield Avenue Pumping station, 
and now is rounding out fifty years in 
the service. 2. Was one of the founders 
of the Chicago Civil Service league, 
which was organized in 1901 to protect 
and promote the interests of civil service 
employes of the City of Chicago. 3. 
Was instrumental, along with Bernard 
McMahon, John P. Dillon, and others, 
in the founding of the Municipal Em- 
plo\es Pension fund. 4. One of the or- 
ganizers and first president of the Muni- 
cipal Employes society, which has pro- 
tected and promoted the interests of con- 
tributors to the Pension fund since 1912. 
5. One of the organizers of Local 556- 
556A, International Union of (Operating 
(Continued on Page 40) 






THIS tower reflects great strides in 
communications. It's one of the seven 
new radio relay towers that link New 
York City and Boston. 

This new path for Long Distance com- 
munication uses microwaves . . . free 
from static and most man-made inter- 
ference. But, because microwaves shoot 
off into space instead of hugging the 
earth's curve, we've had to build relay 
stations within line of sight to guide 
the waves between the two cities. Atop 
each tower, metal lenses gather these 
waves and, after amplification, relay 
them to the next tower. The lenses focus 
and direct the radio waves like a search- 
light beam. 

This new system for transmitting Long 
Distance telephone calls, radio and tele- 
vision programs is but one phase in the 
Bell System's program for improving 
this country's communication service; 
a never ending program of growth and 
development in which many telephone 
engineers will participate, and whose 
careers will develop with it. There's a 
future in telephony. 


A cut-away view of a typical radio 
relay station. Emergency power equip- 
ment and storage batteries are on the 
first floor, radio equipment on the second 
floor, and the special microwave anten- 
nas which receive and beam the com- 
munication signals are on the roof. 




htf Turn Mintri'. I'.hl. *.»0 
ShiHvti Smith. K.l*. *.»0 iintl 4onni4' .Miniiivh. I.E. '.11 


In 1937 the College of Enj;iiieering 
atided another full professor to its staff 
— Jamison V'awter, professor of c\\\\ 

Mr. V^awter, the son of a doctor, was 
born April 21, 188Q, in Arkansas City, 
Kansas. His family moved at various 
times to Kentuck\ , Oklahoma, and Mis- 
souri, but the>' returned to Arkansas 
City, where Mr. Vawter .spent the last 
three years of his high school career and 
graduated in 1Q08. In l')I6 he receised 
his H. S. and C.K. degrees from the 
l'ni\ersity of Kansas. Mr. V'awter com- 
mented with a smile, "It didn't take 
me those eight intervening \ears just to 
go through college." He later received 
his M.S. from Illinois. 

In World War I, Mr. \'a\\ ter spent 
two and a half \ears uitii tlie arnn in 
France, and then served in the arnn ot 
occupation in (ierman\ in 191 S and 
1919. Before joining the I ni\ersity 
staff, he worked six yeais for the Santa 
Fe railroad and instructed at the L ni- 
versity of Kansas another two \ears. 

Then, in the fall of 1922, Mr. Vaw- 
ter accepted the position of assistant pro- 
fessor at Illinois. In 1931, he hecame 
an associate professor. 

Now, at Illinois, Mr. \'a\\ ter in- 
structs graduates and ad\anced under- 
graduates in civil engineering, but his 
principal problem is taking care of irreg- 
ular engineering students and keeping 
C.E.s properly registered. He remarked 
that since the beginning of the war he 
has had little time for vacationing or 
his favorite sport, fishing. 

Mr. \a\\ter is one of the joint au- 
th<)i> <if the book, "Theory ot Simple 
Structures," and he is, of coin^se, a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Ci\il 
Engineers. Along with the A.S.C.E., 
lie holds membership in several other 
honoraries and societies: Theta Tau, 
Sigma Psi, Tau Beta Pi, Chi Epsilon, 
Tau Nu Tau, American Railroad Engi- 
nesre association, American Society for 
Engineering Education, and Scabbard 
and Blade. 

When asked if he had an\ iiarticular 
inspiration or guidance toward a ci\ il 
engineering career, he thought a bit and 
then, smiling, said, "No, I did what the 
V.MCA says not to do. I just drifted 

If you engineers who ha\e no direct 
contact with Professor Vawter will pass 
room 307 Engineering hall a little slow- 
er than usual, you will probabK see him 


at the opposite end of the room turning 
between a table and roll-top desk h\ 
means of a swivel chair. If he isn't in. 
\(ni'll recognize his office by the u(nk 
piled around his secretary- and the vol- 
umes (it the "Transactions of .American 
Societ\ lit C'i\il I'ngineei's" which line 
the north wall. 


Sitting astride his high drawing >to(ii 
and comfortably propping one elbow on 
the drafting boanl, Elmer F. Heater, 
research assistant profes.sor for the Engi- 
neering Hxperiment station, summed up 
his interest in his work in four short 
words, "I'm cracked on drawings." 

For nearly thirty years he has worked 
with all kinds of drawings in his leis- 
ure time as well as in his regular work. 
A native of this communitv, he was 


born near Thomasboro, Illinois, and at- 
tended Champaign high school. During 
his college career as an electrical engi- 
neering student, he became a member 
of Eta Kappa Xu. After graduating 
fiom the University with a B.S. degree 
in 1911, he was employed by the (len- 
eral Electric company in Harrison, .\ew 
Jersey. This job was succeeded by a 
position with the Public Service Coni- 
panv of Northern Illinois from 1912 to 
191 S. The next two years found him 
with the Westiiighouse companv, and 
then lie returned to I'rbana to become 
a drattvman with the liiiversit\ Engi- 

neering Experiment station. This finally 
lesulted in his present position as le 
search assistant professoi'. 

Producing a number of gra>-bound 
publications which read, "The L'niver- 
Mt> of Illinois Engineering Experiment 
Station Bulletin," he thumbeil through 
one of them, displacing a few of the 
nian\- diagrams, illustrations, and charts. 
He explained that the report on any one 
of the many station research projects 
is first submitted to the station staff. 
If accepted for publication as a bulletin. 
It is given to the editorial offices to be 
prepared for the printer. The editor 
and Mr. Heater first make a prelim- 
inary estimate of illustration sizes and 
arrangements. .Mr. Heater then checks 
the drawings with the manuscript for 
notes, captions, and references. Finally 
he prepares the drawings so that cuts, 
at the size desired, may be made by the 
engraver. Photographs for half-tones 
are marked for size, screen, and finish. 
After a final check by the author, the 
"copy" is ready for the engraver and 
Mr. Heater's work on another bulletin 
is finished. These station bulletins are 
usually published at the rate of one a 
month and deal with ever\thing fioni 
domestic heating to many industrial 
problems. One of the publication's main 
tasks, he stated, "Is to keep scientific 
research down to human appeal." 

Reminiscing over his past work, he 
recalled one incident in which the direc- 
tor of the station came into his office 
to discuss the reproduction of a portion 
of a geological map. The director was 
sure that the only safe method was by 
a half-tone and refused to believe that 
it could be done by a line-etching, as 
Mr. Heater had suggested. To prove 
his point, Mr. Heater had both the 
half-tone and the line-etching made. Aft- 
er he had examined the results, the di- 
lector admitted the line-etching was the 
better of the two. 

In his hobby of stamp collecting, Mr. 
Heater has gone beyond the "ordinary 
squirrel stage of collecting" and has 
written papers on his latest specializa- 
tion, the classification of some of the 
I lilted States envelopes. Another one 
of his favorite pastimes, fishing trips in 
Wisconsin, was interreupted by the war. 
Readers of the station bulletins can 
appreciate the work and detailed check- 
ing done by Mr. Heater, who is to be 
commended for his fine record. 


In June, 1945, Joe Cook set a record 
at the L niversity by completing his un- 
dergraduate requirements in five and 
one-half semesters. As an undergraduate. 
Joe was enrolled in engineering physics, 
but to get into graduate school earh , 
he transferred to the Division of Special 
Services for War Veterans. 

(Continued on Page 26) 


can you tell if 
an idea's good? 

That's a question you can't 
answer w/f/i a slip-stick . . . 

The best way to find out is to get the 
opinions of people who are competent to 
judge. That's easy to do at Standard Oil. Here, 
even the work and ideas of the newest man are ap- 
praised by scientists who understand him and his point of 
view. Research flourishes in a large technical group where able 
chemists and engineers, in the light of their broad experience, evalu- 
ate the ideas of the younger men. Under such favorable conditions, 
capable technologists combine their efforts and convert good ideas into 
practical achievements. The vast, progressive petroleum industry is jam packed 
with possibilities for men with ideas. 

Standard Oil Company 






"'"'r Kiioiiieriiiio lliiiioriiiies i 


Iti) .lohn Shiirllvn. ##«.#•;. *.*« uiiil IHvli llaniiiiin-h. #>.#•;. */// 

i: lA KAPPA M 

AlpliM <li:ipti'r of Eta Kappa Nu asso- 
(.■iatiiiii, rhf honorary socict.\ tor elec- 
trical en<;ineers, began its fall aeti\itie> 
the presentation of its annual 
to Richard A. Campbell ot Mt. 
Sterling, Illinois, tor acliie\ - 
ing the highest scholastic 
a\erage in electrical engi- 
neering at the end of the 
^ sophomore year. Min"ra\ I,. 

y H.ibcock, Alpha chapter pies- 

ident, ni ,i d e the presentation at an 
l.R.K.-A.l.K.K. meeting held October 
2,\ l')47. 

jainiar\ 7, 1"'4S, was the ilate of iiii- 
ti.ation for t\\ent\-f()ur senicns and (it- 
teen juniors. Seniors were Lawrence I,. 
Hrennan, (teorge L. Clark, Hurton 1.. 
Cordry, John M. Del Vento, Joseph 
J. l)ii Rapau, Richard J. Fahnestock, 
John E. Farley, Francis P. (ireen, 
Howard L. Johnson, Robert (I. 
Knowles, Robert L. Jones, Thomas 1^. 
Kurtzer, Robert G. Lakin, Robert E. 
Lepic, Edward Lovick, John R. Mas- 
sey, .Maurice R. McCrary, A. C. Peifer, 
William E. Powers, Charles M. Rieck- 
er, Joseph A. Saloom, Robert C. Schnei- 
der, Lenix H. Swango, and Norman H. 

Juniors who were initiateil are Del- 
mond C. Hangert, Kenneth R. Hruiui, 
Robert H. Hrunner, Glenn \l. Bnrg- 
wald, Edmond E. Connor, Frank J. 
Dill, Flovd Dunn, Milton L. Embiee, 
Edward VV. Ernst, Frank J. Ocnaschek, 
Willard A. Schaaf, Donald K. Schaeve, 
James H. Schussele, Harohl H. Scott, 
and Lynn E. Wolaver. 


Mr. Slinger of Cieneral Electric was 
the speaker for the meeting of Dec. 12. 
Speaking on the subject of power trans- 
mission, he discussed the electiical, me- 
chanical, financial, legal, and ecojiomi- 
cal aspects of power distribu- 
tion lines. He stated that tor 
e\er\- dollar spent for power 
generation, f i f t y cents is 
spent for transmission. It is 
estimated that the amount of 
power generation will increase .^00 per- 
cent in the next fifteen years. 

."Xt this meeting, the St. Patrick's 
Hall, to be held in \Lirch, was \oted 
upon and approved. 

The A.LE.E.-LR.E. is at the iireseiit 
time distributing ijuestionnaires to all 

l■^gnl^(•l^ \i\ the electrical eiigiiicci mil: 
department to obtain the students' i c- 
.ictions to present teaching practices and 
p(dicie^. It is hoped that many constriic- 
ri\e criticisms, comments, and approvals 
will be made. The program has the 
toll cooperation of the electrical engi- 
ni-eiing department, and is conducted 
undei the policx t(i make the Univer- 
sir\ lit llliiKiis the best school in the 

I he annual electrical engineering 
senior-facult\' banquet was held at the 
I'lbana-Lincoln hotel on Jan. IS, 1048. 
I his is the students' chance to poke fun 
at the instructors, and a \er\ good time 
was enjoyed by all. 

The I'lick Knight trophy contest be- 
tween the A.S.\LE. and this ,societ\' 
was hehl on Jan. 13. F"our contestants 
from each group met and had a quiz 
program on non-engineering problems. 

R.C.A. furnished the program for the 
meeting of Jan. 22. The topic was, 
"How to Get a Job in Industry." IVLany 
helpful hints were given on how to get 
the most out of job opportunities, and 
the desirable features of a company were 


The student chapter of the Institute 
of Traffic Engineers has been hard at 
work lately. The results of the recent 
campus traffic studies ha\e been com- 
liled and are in the process of being 
analyzed in an attempt to reach solu- 
tions to some of the traffic problems. 

A resolution was sent to the Cham- 
p.iign city council recommending that 
it enforce the present traffic ordinances, 
p.i\ing particular attention to the sec- 
tions on the traffic commi.ssion and its 
assigned duties. It was suggested that 
other articles be revised to meet present- 
day conditions. It was also recommended the commission establish a indgram 
of traffic improvements, to provide f(n- 
correction of traffic hazards, as well as 
to review the street construction pro- 
gram for traffic design and coordination 
with cit\ planning. It was also recom- 
mended that a definite traffic financing 
pl.m, utilizing parking meters and other 
t(uins of revenue, be formulated. A sug- 
gested list of major items to be consid- 
ered in this plan was included. 

A letter was received by tile chainei 
tidiii the Champaign cit>' engineer on 
beli.ill of the traffic commi.ssion, thank- 
ing it tor Its reconimeiulatiiiii aiiil saving an\ turther siiggrstKnis wciuM be 
kindly received. 

.A resolution to I ni\ersit> officials 
is now being drawn up by the chapter 
to give its recommendation on the need 
for more adequate parking facilities in 
the campus area. This problem has been 
under study by the chapter with .several 
parking studies having been made. These 
studies showed that a great portion of 
the available parking spaces are being 
occupied by all-day parkers. This re- 
duces the facilities available to the 
"short-time" parker, for whom street 
parking is theoretically planned. 

The last meeting of the semester w-as 
held January 21. Everyone is welcome 
at any of the regular meetings held every 
second Wednesday in the evening. The 
meetings are normally round-table dis- 
cussions b\ the members on local traffic 
problems and their solutions. Any new 
ideas are always welcomed, so watch for 
the red flag outside Professor Wiley's 
office announcing a meeting. 


On Wednesdav, December 18, Tau 
Heta Pi, all-engineering honorary, enter- 
tained at an informal meeting, fifty- 
seven men selected from all phases of 
engineering on the basis of distinguished 
scholarship and exemplary 
character. These men were 
introduced to the history and 
purposes of Tau Beta Pi by 
Professor W. \. Espy of the 
department of mechanical 

Those invited to pledge- 
ship are Bryce E. Albert)', 
Henry O. Barton, Ralph W. 
Hehler. Albert W. Berg, Lawrence E. 
Hrennan, Robert H. Brunner, Edmond 
Brown, Donald Q. Brown, .Maurice L. 
Burgener, Roger W. Caputo, Richard 
A. Coderre, Edmond E. Connor, Burton 
L. Cordry, George T. Dellert, Charles 
E. Drury, Floyd Dunn, Arthur X. 
Fleming, Jerome L. Fox, Gerald Ger- 
ald.son, Edward W. Ernst, Walter D. 
Hays, James L. Hoimold, William G. 
James, Harry (i. Kabbes, Alfred W. 
Kcllington, Otho Kile, Robert G. 
Knowles, Stafford W. Kulcinski, Rich- 
ard (i. Love, Joe L. Mazer, Kenneth 
I". McCjann, and Don C. Miller. 

.Also invited were Jo.seph H. Morri- 
s(in, l''iank Ocnaschek, |ohn J. Perry, 
Joseph Pechloff, Orville R. Pomeroy, 
( Continued on Page 28 ) 



This a/'rf can beat ^0 
monks to a stancTstf// d 

/l/oulicie In tlic uoilJ are clc\a- 
f IT tors as luMirious — efficient — and 
safe — as mi America. N'owhere are such 
ingenious inipro\enients niaJe so con- 
sistently ... so raplillv. 

The ancestor of elevators — a cruile 
basket attached to the end of frayed 
rope — ilill is in daily use — the only 
access to some monastcnes m Greece. 
Powered by monks, filty of whom 
could not do what a little slip of a 
girl does with one hand, these "ele- 

\a(ors" try the nerves of brave men. 

American ingenuity, born of in- 
dividual enterprise, and nurtured by 
free competition, not only gave us the 
world's best elevators, it gave us a 
great industry employing thousands of 
men and using the products of a score 
of other industries. 

The wiie rope industry is not among 
the least of these. 

Roebling engineers have kept pace 
with the designers ot "lifts" ever since 

the first .'\nierican elevator was in- 
stalled with a Roebling elevator rope 
— b.ick in theearlv ISbO's. 

Today, Roebling Special Traction 
Steel Elevator Rope enjoys the well- 
earned confidence of hoisting engineers 
the world over. 


in Pnncipal Cities 

A CfNrUty OF CQMmiHCi 





Assoc. Editor 


FF and ON 

This editorial is licsigiu-il to jar wju (lut 
nf an attitude of complacent li;n(iranc;_'. It 
isn't goin}; to be pretty; so it you are easih 
offended, quit readinf; it now. 

Deviatinu; from my usual practice of writ- 
ing in an impersonal manner, 1 intend to dis- 
cuss the subject of living, in such a way that 
there will be no iloubt as to whose opinion 
IS being expiessed. That it is high time to 
talk about this subject is e\idenced by the 
fact that in the coiu'se of my few years of 
experience around thrs campus, I have been 
appaled by the "don't-gi\e-a-damn " attitude 
of the average student who calls himself an 
educated human being. Although it is true 
that he is receiving training in a certain field, 
he certainly has no right to consider himself 
educated until he has learned — and practiced 
— at least some of the rudimentary principles 
of decent li\ing. 

Believe it or n(jt, gentlemen, whether >()ur 
specific endeavor is conducted in the business 
world, in the game of politics, or in the field 
of engineering, you are still mainly concerned 
with the business of living. Now this term 
is admittedh' broad, hut in my own definition 
it means that if you consider yourself a 
Christian — if xour philosophy embraces a con- 
tinuit)' or divine purpose of all life — you can't 
liossibh' sit through your life in the apathetic 
fashion of the average stiulent here and feel 
that \()u are contributing anything worth 
while t(j an\()ne, least of all yourself. 

It certainly looks to me as if there is a 
crying need for each of us to devote a portion 
of our lives to the improvement and benefit 
of other people. When we fail in this task, 
we not only become Inpocrites in the eyes of 
our own philosopin, but also contribute to a 
world seeniingh bent on self-destruction. 

Many of you will temporarily ease your 
conscience by rationalizing that yQu are too 
busy studying right now to divert any of 
your energy into other channels. After spend- 
ing three or four years in procrastination, you 

will eilucate \ourseIf negati\cl\ to the extern when \(m graduate and go to work \ou 
will argue that you are still too busy to help 
arnone else. Only by positive action started 
right now in school can you become positiveh 
educated. It is probably a little redundant to 
add here, a frequently expressed idea, that 
only by contributing unselfishly of vour own 
efforts are you able to educate and improve 

In the last issue ot thv'I'i i li/io//nif'li was 
printed ;ui .innouncement ot the "Buck" 
Knight Trophy competition which was to be 
held on January 13. Less than two weeks 
before the event, designed to provide an en- 
tertaining and relaxing evening, the men who 
had devoted their efforts towards its reactiva- 
tion were forced to cancel the att.iir Just be- 
cause of lack of interest. 

1 he Illinois 'richnoi/niph . the one extra- 
curricular acti\it\' designed specifically for 
engineers, has an amazingly low percentage 
of subscribers among the student engineers. 
In addition, it has frequently been forced to 
operate with a skeleton staff simply because 
the student was not interested. 

(jentlemen, I believe the time has arrived 
for a sharp word of caution. In order to 
maintain the proper perspective towards life 
it is absoluteh' essential to lean back in your 
chair, take ten slow breaths, and re-e\aluate 
yoiii' own [ihilosophy. If, after you've done 
this, you still aren't interested in helping to 
participate in those activities which make cam- 
pus life a little more enjoyable and pleasant 
for everyone, then you may as well go home; 
you're wasting your money. If enough engi- 
neering students come up with the same dis- 
interest, then we may as well quit publishing 
the 'I'd liiirji/rri/ili , fold up the Engineering 
Council, and disband the societies. Before you 
decide too conclusiveh' in favor of the selfish, 
compl.icent attitude, however, I should like 
to renimd xou, as if anxone needed reminding, 
that "War is Hell!" ' 



"C)(// Aniciictin concept of lailio i.\ lliiit il i\ of the jHnpIc and for the people 

Freedom to LISTEN - Freedom to LOOK 

As the world grows smaller, the ([ues- 
tion of international communications 
and world understanding grows larger. 
The most important phase of this prob- 
lem is Freedom to List-en and Freedom 
to Look — ioT all peoples of the world. 

Radio, by its \ ery natine, is a medium 
of mass communication; it is a carrier of 
intelligence. It delivers ideas with an 
impact that is powerful ... Its essence 
is freedom— liberty of thought and of 

Radio should make a prisoner of no 
man and it shoukl make no man its 
slave. No one should be forced to listen 

and no one compelled to refrain from 
listening. Alwavs and everywhere, it 
siiould be the prerogative of e\ erv lis- 
tener to turn his receiver on or off, of his 
own Iree will. 

The principle of Freedom to Liaten 
should be established for all peoples 
without restriction or fear. This is as 
important as Freedom of Speech and 
Freedom of the Press. 

Television is on the wav and mo\ ing 
steadily forward. Television fires the 
imagination, and the day is foreseen 
when we shall look around the earth 
irom city to city, and nation to nation. 

as easily as we now listen to global 
broadcasts. Therefore, Freedom to Look 
is as important as Freedom to Listen, for 
the combination of these will be the 
radio of the futiue. 

The "\'oice of Peace" must speak- 
around this planet and be heard bv all 
people c\ery where, no matter what their 
race, or creed, or political philosophies." 


"E.xcerpts: from (in aclihess before the United 
Stales National Commission for UNESCO. 


rKCEDOM IS EvcnrBoors business 



ARGONNE . . . 

( Coiitiiuicil trom I'aj^c '' ) 
Dean O. W. Kshbach — Northwi'srcni 

Chancellor R. (I. (Iusta\son — I ni- 

\iTsir\' of Nfbiaska 
Cliaiurl'lor A. 11. Coiiiptoi, Wasli- 

m<jton univcisitN 
I'rok'ssoi' I'. W. IdiHius I iii\ci>ii\ 

ot Illinois 
Dean j. A. 'late I iii\rrsit\ iit 

i'lotcssor I''. 11. Spcdciinj; Inw.i 

Stati' coUojii' 
Dr. Paul; of Xorrhwotcni 
iiniver.sity and Dr. 1-. .A. Tiiiner of rlu- 
L'niversity of Iowa were selectiii to 
replace Dean Eshbach and Chancellor 
Coinpron on Jul\ I, 1047. The diiector 
is assisted by Dr. Norman HilberiN and 
Dr. Harvard L. Hull, associate di- 
rectors. Dr. W. M. ManninfT is director 
of the chemistry division. The director 
and the scientific staff of the Laboratory 
have full responsibilit\' for the formula- 
tion of the research proirr.!;n. 

The scientific staii is uiadi' up of 
re<;ular and temporary staff members. 
Temporary members fall ii'to two cate- 
gories; the first includes those who 
are on leave of absence from their insti- 
tutions and are on the full-time staff of 
the Laboratory for the duration of their 
leave. These members will be engaged 

upon research |iro;:rams sponsoreil In 
the Laboratoiy or being carried out at 
the suggestion of the go\ernment. The 
second category includes those members 
who are carrying on research programs 
lor their own institutions but make ef- 
tecfi\-e usi' of the facilities axailahle at 
the Laboratorx. 

Temporary staff membership is not 
limited to the staff members of the par- 
ticipating institutions. The director may 
a|ipomt au\- (pialified scientist to this 
position. The Laboratorv may cooperate 
with other institutions b\ making spe- 
cial facilities available for investigations 
at the Argonne National iyaboratory, 
hv providing special materials for use 
,it the participating institutions, by ad- 
vice and assistance in the construction 
of apparatus, or occasionally by 
the loan of special materials authorized 
by the government. 

Security requirements at the Labora- 
tory are in accord with government 
policy. Reports detailing the results of 
research investigations are made availa- 
ble to other government laboratories and 
contractors working under its sponsor- 
ship in the same field. Any member 
of the staff is at liberty to publish re- 
sults properly certified by the A.E.C. 
as unclassified in any accepted scientific 
journal and in such form as such jour- 
nals may require. 

Rather than the usual Civil Service 

wage scale on projects under govern- 
ment sponsorship, industrial wage scales 
are tollowed thereby making some posi- 
tions open to research men unusually 

AN I. Research Projects 

I he research programs ot tlie Labora- 
toiv include h(jth tundamental research 
anil development work. Work in nuclear 
physics and chemistry and in related 
phases of the physical, biological and 
engineering sciences is stressed. 

It is intended that the research pro- 
gram emphasize the training of scientific 
personnel. Botanists, biologists, chemists, 
engineers, physicians, and physicists work 
iiulependently and in groups. In many 
cases, training there will constitute prin- 
cipally a stepping-stone from college to 
industry. Aside from on-the-spot train- 
ing there are already being given lectme 
classes on underlying phases of both the 
research and applications elements of 
many departments. I'niversity graduates 
who have shown promise of finding or 
actually have found methods of approach 
to problems that are not easily solved 
by conventional methods are in great 
demand by the Laboratory. 

The research program includes study 

of the properties of elements and of 

atomic nuclei and radiations; of fission 

pidilucts and their separation; of the 

(Continued on Page 24) 

't Be Left Behind 

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Office Hours 1-5 p.m., Monday thru Friday 

10-12 Saturday 

For Quality Entertainment 

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A Russian masterpiece Apr. 14,15,16,17 


Gilbert and Sullivan opera Apr. 30, May 1, 7, 8 


Brilliant British satire May 19,20,21,22 

and The Laboratory Theatre's 
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A story heightened by the dance form^Apr. 2, 3 


Directed by graduate students Apr. 23, 24 


Directed bv undergraduate students May 4, 5 



Lots of people like to plav jaek rab})it. Still, as a wav of 
goitig to work everv* morning, we don't see niueh of a 
future for Pogo Sticks. Not even nliimiriiim Pogo Sticks. 

But mention anv other means of locomotion or trans- 
portation and our aluminum "Imagineers" get a gleam 
in their eves. After all, what is more logical than 
vehicles matle of alianinum? Less weight to move. 
More pavload. 

We turned our imagination loose on that idea vears 

ago . . . then engineered our thinking into trains, trucks, 

planes, siiips. Alcoa's Development Division has a staff 

^masineers" who think of nothing else hut better 

wavs to transport people, products, and materials hy 
using aluminum. Actually, we have /o//r separate staffs 
of transportation engineers, one each on railroads, high- 
wav vehicles, ships and aircraft. 

Whatever you do after college, you'll benefit from 
that. If you go into transportation, these Alcoa engi- 
neers will be working with vou to cut costs, speed 
schedules, improve facilities. Or if you choose some 
field of production, thev'll be helping to transport 
vour materials and finished goods cheaper and faster. 
Vlumimim Company of America, Gulf Building, 
Pittsburgh IQ, Pennsvlvania. 

Passenger streamliners, refriger 
ator cars, hopper cars and tan' 
cars built of Alcoa Aluminum or' 
serving American railroads. 


nd more uses in buses, trucks 
nd trailers. Yes, in passenger 
□ r manufacture, too. 


Newest thing in shipbuilding 
the aluminum superstructure, d< 
■,'eloped by Alcoa with morir 
architects and engineers. 


r since Kitty Hawk, Alcoa ha 
Iced with the aircraft indus 
in developing better alumi 
for better plones. 

FEBRU.A.RY, 1948 


ARGONNE . . . 

( Coiitiiuifil from Page 22 ) 

I'ftVcts of neutrons and radiations on 
the properties of material and ot livinj^ 
orjianisms; of the application of ratho- 
active isotopes and tracer techniques to 
the study of hioh)f;ical processes, ot 
diemical reactions, of metallurgical plic- 
nomena, and industrial processes, llu- 
metallurgy of uranium itself, so little 
studied before the war that not even 
the melting point of metallic uranium 
was known with any precision, is now 
well uiulerstooii and its constants pre- 
cisel\' found. 

The use ot tiaccr> are now being 
Used in the stud\ ot |ihotos\nthesis for 
the ultimate goal of actual food synthesis 
by laboratory methods, and of cancer for 
the eventual control of malignant dis- 
eases. Specifically, good results have al- 
ready been obtained by using newh-dis- 
covcred materials which arc sold by the 
Isotopes Branch of the Atomic Energ\ 
Commission at Oak Ritlge, Tennessee. 
Two materials in addition to the radio- 
isotopes are being allocated \inder strin- 
gent rules to research labcnatones : 
Heavy water — also a tracer but more 
useful in regard to organic matter; and 
boron 10 — used in the manufacture of 
radiation detection instruments. These 
are not radioactive. 

I'niversity of Illinois personnel acti\e 

in .Aigoiine Natioii.-il 1 ,ab(jrat(jr\ work 
are Dr. .\I(uit/. (ioldhabei, of the ph>s- 
ics department, who is in charge of the 
neutron piiysics research group. Profes- 
sor Kugene Kabinowitch, of the botatn 
department, who is an expert in the field 
of photos\nthesis and now is editor of 
the "Huilctin of the .'\fomic Scientists", 
.ind llaii\ P;ilevsk\ of the |ibysics de- 
|i,Mtnienr, associated with in>tiuiiieiit de- 
\ elopment. 

.■\ii e\aiiipK- ol a recent press release 
to iiulustiy on an advance in basic re- 
search illustrates the cooperative trend 
activel) emplo\ed among all the national 
Laboratories. "Dr. Inghram, Mr. Hess 
;ind Ml. H.i\(len of the Argonne Xa- 
tion.d l-aborator\ lia\e di.scovered that 
a faint isotope of an unusual type occurs 
naturalh in the r.are earth element lan- 
thanum. Its nucleus contains S7 protons 
;uid Si neutrons, iiotli odd numbers. 
()nly two such stable nuclei are known, 
in lithium and nitrogen; two others oc- 
cur in nature but are r.idioactive. The 
new isotope appears to be stable. About 
one-tenth of one percent of the nuclei 
of lanthanum are of this ty|ie, the great 
majority ha\ ing S7 protons and S2 neu- 

Another central theme at Argonne is 
the design of atomic piles — at a level 
somewhat more fundamental than the 
engineering approach involved in (i. E.'s 
power-production program at Knolls 

l;ihor.itor\ in Schenectad) , New ^ (uk. 
.A staff of about 25 scimtists here and 
o\ei .^(l scientists and engineers at Clin- 
ton l.ibfuatory are at present engaged 
in this sfud\. 

The big problem to<lay is to work 
out the teatures of piles which run hot 
enough to produce electric power eco- 
nomicall\. calls for temperatures 
in the neighhorhooil of the OOO-degree 
le\el ol nioilern steam plants. This is 
a considerable jump from the six now 
in existence which run hardly more than 
warm, either because, like the two re- 
search piles at Chicago, they have low- 
energy output; or because, as at Han- 
ford, Washington, they are elaborately 
cooled. Along with this program Ar- 
gonne has done considerable work on 
the design of electrom'c counters, so 
necessar\' at e\ery stage of the synthesis 
■Ant\ transformation of radioacti\e ma- 

As now coticeived, atomic energy 
merely substitutes an atomic pile for a 
coiuentional steam plant in developing 
heat required to generate power. Hut 
atomic energy itself is an electrical force. 
Some ilay a means may be found to 
harness this force directl\, instead of 
using it to generate heat which must 
be reconverted into power. 

Hefore the conclusion of this article, 
the newly formed Atomic Club should 
(Continued on Page 2fi) 

NO SLIDE RULE NEEDED to figure the advantage of- 



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FRED G. HARRISON, Viee President E. E. LATOWSKY, ( ashier 

ARLAN Mcpherson. Assistant Cashier 



THE techno(;k.aph 

Science Advances 
on Many Fronts at 
Procter & Gamble 

Leadership . . . 

Leadership in one form of science is based on 
teamwork in many. 

That's why Procter & Gamble, long a leader in the 
chemical industry, also is making important advances 
in mechanical, electrical and industrial engineering. 

At P AND G, every step forward in chemical re- 

search and development calls for corresponding prog- 
ress in processing, equipment design, and production 

Long-range research leads naturally and logically 
into practical production applications. 

So now, as through 1 10 years of progress, the key- 
note at P AND G is scientific teamwork — close coopera- 
tion for continued progress. 

Procter & Gamble 




ARGONNE . . . 

I L'uiitniufd tioni l';i;;c 24) 
he nu-iitioiif(l. It is uiuloubtedh the 
most expensive anil most exilusi\e iluli 
ill the world. The idea was iiiaujjiirated 
by Chancellor Robert M. Hiitchins last 
year and appr()\e4l by the rni\ersit\ of 
Chieaj;" board ot trustees. Membeiship 
is limited to ^d industrial orijanizations 
interested in research in atomic power. 
The dues? They are $S(),()(){) a year. To 
date, five members ha\e joined, .ill oil 

This is the saga of .AN I,. Some of 
the residts will be significant and \alu- 
able to the military, .some of value m 
connection with national defense, bur no 
weapon development work will be car- 
ried on at the ArKonne National Labora- 
tory. If a satisfactor\ control of ato:iiic 
energy can be achieved, unprecedented 
constructive advance in biology, chemis- 
tr\, physics, and medicine will eventual- 
ly be credited to the .Ai;:onne National 

Daffynition: An electron is a dot 
of electricity that speeds ver\ fast back- 
wards from the direction tiiat electricity 
actually goes. 

Webster says taut means tiglit. Theie 
are plenty of people who ha\e been 
taut quite a bit in college. 

JOE COOK . . . 

I L'cJiitiiun-d Irom l'a;;e l() j 

Let us start with Joe's freshman year 
on campus, l')4l. .-Vt that time joe co- 
ca|irairu-d the trcshnian wrcsthng tcnii 
and \\in\ lus numi'r.ils. 1 o prci\c untrue 
the old adage about athletes not being 
scholars, wrestler Cook made the Hon- 
ors da\ celebi.ition with his 4.S average. 

During ills sopiioiiiore \ear Joe re- 
ceived one houi- ot H. Tliis has been 
tlie only grade below .A that he has ever 
received since. 

Joe's college career was interrupted 
in February of 194.i when In- enlisted 
in the armv' air corps. ( )ne incident 
that st.'uids out ill his iiiemory is the 
celebration of the h'oiirrli ot July on 
a ship just oil the coast ot Kngland. 
On October 7, 1044, Joe was shot 
down over Kassel, (iermany, and spent 
the remainder of the war in a prison 
camp a little noitii of Herlin. 

While in camp he won a ^1(10 bet bv 
w.ilking 100 miles in five days, on a 
tract he laid ofi in the enclosure. 

January of l')4() found Joe back on 
the Illinois campus, again bringing down 
top grades. This fall Joe was presented 
with the Interfraternity Scholarship 
cup which is awarded each semester to 
the fraternitv' man who turns in the 
greatest number of A's. 

As an extracurricular activity he 

spends :i considerable amount of his 
time with the I niversirv chess club. 
"1 o iiii|irov e game techniques," he is 
plaviiig tv\elve correspondence games at 

Joe is ;in active member of Acacia 
fraternitv', and for several semesters he 
served as chapter rcpoirer tor .Acacia's 
national magazine. The i'Hf) Hron/.e 
I ablet contains Joe's name and he also 
holds the scholarship key given for mak- 
ing Honors (hiv for three consecutive 

In June, Joe will receive his mas- 
ter's degree in mathematics. |-"or the 
reason that he needs "the tools ot the 

After completing his eilucation. Joe 
plans to devote his time to jiure research. 
He is not interested in industrial re- 
search, but vv(juld be interested in align- 
ing himself with a uiiiversitv. 

And then there was the girl who was 
so lazy she wouldn't even exercise dis- 

Harrister (for motor accident vic- 
tim) : (jentlemen of the jury, the driver 
of the car stated he was going only four 
miles an hour. Think of it! The long 
agonv of my poor, unfortunate client, 
the victim, as the car drove slowly over 
his bodv. 

Pipe line . • • 

to the Stratosphere 

Up in a stratosphoro piano yoii*<l hrealln' oxyjien 
from a lank. . .oxyiieii oxt ra<"l«'<l from litiiii'fied air. 
I'rooossinj; eipiipniont in which the oxlraclioii 
lakos |)la<-e calls for something exlraortlinary ill 
the way of t tilting. 

Ordinary st<-«'l tiihos get hazardously brittle in 
the .■5l.'j-l»elow-zero lempcralurc the extraction 
|>roeess demands — crack like a crisp carrol. Belter, 
safer, tnhes were iiee«led. Industry got ihcni — 
I'rom 11^ \^ — IiiIk's ina<I«- of new iiickel-alh>y siccls. 

KWV calls llics<- new luh«'s Nicloys. In refriger- 
ation, in making s\ntheti<: riihbcr, in handling 
natural gas and slronglv corrosive crude oils, in 

paper mills, industry is finding that Nieloy tubes 
answer many lough ])ro!»U-nis. 

Developnienl of Nieloy tubing is anolhcr 
nianifestalion thai, for all ils years, B&W has 
never lost the habit of having new ideas for aLL 

To leehnical gratluales. B&W offers excellent 
career opporlunilies in diversified phases of manu- 
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Over 73 Years 

PROBLEM — You ore designing an electric clocl< for auto- 
mobiles. The clock itself is completed. To set the clock, 
Ihe spindle which turns the hands must be pushed in against 
a spring pressure and then turned — and, of course, when 
the clock is installed, this spindle is back under the dash- 
board. You want to provide a means for pushing and 
turning the spindle from a point that is easy to get at. 
How would you do if 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER— Use on S.S.White flexible shaft. 
The illustrations show how one manufacturer does it. Re- 
gardless of where the clock is mounted, the flexible shaft, 
available in any length, makes it possible to put the hand- 
set knob in the most convsn-eif spots. 

• • • 

This is |usf one of hun- 
dreds of power drive 
and remote control 
problems to which S.S. 
White flexible shafts 
are the simple answer. 
That's why every engi- 
neer should be familiar 
with the range and 
scope of these "Metal 
Muscles "* for mechani- 
cal bodies. 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for the asking. Write today. 



Out «/ /4tKfUcAi A AAA ')M(M4ttuit £HUnfinitc4 



partners in creating 

For 80 years, badcrs of the engineering profession 
have made K 8. E products iheir partners in creating 
the technical achievements of our age. K & E instru- 
ments, drafting equipment and materials— such as the 
lEROYi Lettering equipment in the picture— have thus 
ployed a port in virtually every great engineering 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

1Recj. U.S. Pat. Off. 


( (.'(mlmiic.l tiiiiii I'.-i^'t- 18) 
John I'lod.iM, Robt-rt N. Rasmus, Hilly 
C Ricii, jnim ("i. Ri-pliiiger, Leslie K. 
R()li\, Lail (1. Riiesch, Donald K. 
Schaeve, Robert K. Scharnier, Robert 
(.". Schneider, I'red L. Siegrist, Charles 
VV. Studt, Robert |. Wagner, Harlan 
V. White, William C. Wiley, Richard 
1'. Williamson, Robert S. Wiseman, 
.ind ( leorge S. Ziles. 

William A. Brooks, (iilbert ( i. 
kamm, and Jack I,. I'ihl were elected 
as honor students. 


( )n 1 hursday evening, December I'), 
.Alpha chapter of Pi Tau Sigma enter- 
^^ tained prospective pledges at 

W a smoker held at Hillel 

S4^\ foundation. Professor D. (J. 

^!^NA R\,in outlined the early his- 
^^A-^Ji tory of the organization, 
which w.'is founded at Illi- 
nois in I'M S. 

President Joe Ma/er was 
in charge of the meeting. 


Sigma Tau held a pledge smoker on 
Thursday, Januar\ '). Initiation was 
held during the week preceding finals 
and was chm.'ixed b\ an uiitiation ban- 
tpiet held at the Iiuuan hotel. 

Senior Engineers i 


If you want to guide a freshman right, 
guide him to . . . 




Rubber accelerators lead the way 
to new agricultural fjingicides 

Vulcanization accelerators for rubber 
and agricultural fungicides would seem 
to have little in common. But the wide 
variety of interests of men in the Du 
Pont organization sometimes result in 
outstanding developments from such 
apparently unrelated products. 

A rubber chemist suggested to a plant 
pathologist that derivatives of dithio- 
carbamic acid, NH.-CiSiSH, parent 
.substance of a well-known group of rub- 
heraccelerators, be tested as insecticides. 
His suggestion was based on the possi- 
bility that sulfur combined in this forni 
might be more effective than free sulfur, 
a recognized insecticide. 

Entomologists and plant pathologists 
investigated the fungicidal as well as 
the insecticidal properties of this 
group. One of the first compounds test- 
ed, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamatc, 
(CHjj^N-CtSiSNa, even in dilutions 
of 1:30,000, was found to be a powerful 
fungicide, but somewhat injurious to 
plant life. 

This led to a systematic program of 
research including other metallic .salts, 
the ethyl, propyl, butyl, phenyl, and 
other aryl derivatives of the dithiocar- 
bamates and thiuram mono- and di- 
sulfides, and the related compounds 

made from ethylenediamine and mor- 
pholine. In this phase of the work, or- 
ganic chemists played an important 
role by suggesting various derivatives 
and preparing them for tests. Later, in 
cases where proper dispersion and ad- 
herence of the compounds to plants were 
important, the skill of physical chemists 
was called upon. 

In general, the compounds of greater 
chemical stability were found to be less 
effective. Fungicidal efficiency dimin- 
ished with increase in size of alkyl radi- 
cal, and as aryl radicals were substituted 
for alkyl. Thus the unusual situation 
developed that with the exception of 
the bisethylene fdithiocarbamates), the 
first and simplest products tested, the 
methyl derivatives, proved to be the 
best fungicides. 

Iron and zinc dimethyldithiocarbam- 
ates, (CH,),NCiS)-S-M-S-(S)CN 
(CH,).', are now sold as "Fermate" fun- 
gicide and "Zerlate" fungicide respec- 
tively, for control of fungous diseases of 
many fruit and vegetable crops, to- 
bacco, flowers and other ornamentals. 
Zinc ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate), 
marketed as "Parzate" fungicide, has 
specific action in the control of late 

Field testing of promising fungicides, including "Parzate" formulations, for control of tomato late blight. 

% si 

B. L. Richards, Jr. Ph.D., Cornell '44, end A. H. 
Goddin, M.S., University of West Virginia '32, 
test efficiency of "Parzate" fungicide in control 
of tomato late blight and bean rust. Equipment 
is specially designed laboratory spray chamber. 

blight on potatoes and tomatoes. Tetra- 
methylthiuram disulfide, {CH.,)..NC 
(S)-S-S-C(S)N(CH.,),, is used in two 
compositions, as "Arasan" disinfectant 
for seeds and "Tersan" fungicide for 
turf diseases. 

Overall, the derivatives of these 
groups of compounds proved to be out- 
standing as fungicides, rather than as 
insecticides. Although a marked degree 
of specificity for different pests was 
characteristic of the members of this 
series, it is interesting to note that all 
three were highly effective. This work 
offers still another example of how the 
breadth of interest in a company like 
Du Pont can lead to worthwhile de- 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 

What are the opportunities 
for research men? 

Men ciualified for fundamenl al or applied re- 
search are offered unusual opportunities in 
facilities and funds. Investigations in the 
fields of organic, inorganic and physical 
chemistry, biology, parasitology, plant path- 
olog.v and engineering suggest the wide range 
of activities. Write for booklet, "The Du 
Pont Company and the College Graduate," 
2521-A Nemours Building, Wilmington 98, 


More facti about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of Anienca." Mondayi. S P.M.. EST on NBC 



PATENTS . . . 

( L'niitinurii tKJin l';i;:r 1 1 ) 
tor tliK IS tliat iinl\ lie ran j^Min ciitrv 
rci the rccoiils iit the patent orticc and 
thus \ciif\ wln'tlicr or not thcii- an- 
al rcadv prioi' claims icjiistcred whicli 
wiiidd prcNcnt Nour liciiij; !:ranrc<l a 

In (jider tof the att()irie\ tn do this 
liaekt;round work, lie will ha\e to ^o 
to W'ashinfiton, and ynii will he pa\in^ 
the bill. This is a liood tiling to renieni- 
bei so that you will not he hotherin^ 
either the patent offiee or an attorney 
iinlevs \oii lioiu-stK helie\c that \oii ha\e 
sonietliin^ \\ urthu hile. 

After \our attorney has returned from 
Washiiifiton and reported to you that he 
believes that there is a very >;oo(l ehaiue 
that the patent can be obtained, your 
work will really bejiiii. 

The p.ateiit applicatujii iiiiisr be sidi- 
initted u|ion special patent paper which 
can be obtained from the patent ofHce 
or the i;overninent printinj; office. 1 here 
is also a particular technique b\ which 
the drawings must be made. Usually it 
will be wisest to let the attorney take 
care of the drawings as they usually 
ha\e in their employ men who have been 
making patent application drawings for 

Twenty ('laiiiis I' rev 

When you submit your application 
you will ha\e to make certain claims 
for your invention. The patent office 
will allow you to make twenty claims 
free. If you wish to make more than 
twenty claims, it will cost you ^'il per 

These claims must be \ery carefully 
drawn and must be worded in the pe- 
culiar language which is a part of the 
standardized patent procedure. Here 
again the attorney, whom \ou ha\e re- 
tained, will prove his worth. 

Any series of claims must be, ulti- 
mately, the basis upon which the patent 
will be granted. Let us suppose that you 
fail to recognize one very valuable abil- 
ity of your invention. L nder these cir- 
cumstances, another person can enter a 
claim on your patent and thereby make 
use of your patented invention due to 
your own carelessness or negligence. At 
the time when the claims are being pre- 
pared, the very greatest care should be 
taken to make sure that all of the pos- 
sible applications of the invention have 
been investigated and fully discussed. 

In your patent application you must 
st.ite who you are, your age, place of 
birth, ,ind nationalit\. Failure to give 
complete and truthful answers to these 
questions will ultimately result in revo- 
cation of your patent rights. 

At the time that the application is 
filed, it is sometimes necessary to sub- 
mit either a full sized specimen of the 
( Continued on Page 32) 



u'e a good thmg ^^ 

'* Aress ior ever>| 
doesnt dress* 

He's a Square D Field Engineer. There 
are others like him in Square D branches 
in more than 50 principal cities of the United 
States, Canada and Mexico. These men are 
liaison between Square D and industrial 
America. Their full-time job is contacting 
industries of every type and size. It is through 
them that we are able to do our job effec- 
tively. That job is three-fold: To design and 
build electrical distribution and control equip- 
ment in pace with present needs — to provide 
sound counsel in the selection of the right 
equipment for any given application — to an- 
ticipate trends and new methods and speed 
their development. 

If you have a problem in electrical distri- 
bution or control, call in the nearby Square D 
Field Engineer. He makes a lot of sense in 
finding "a better way to do it." 


THIS ONE have appeared regularly in leading business 

magazines. Their primary purpose is fo build acceptance 

for Square D Field Engineers, practically all of whom come 

to us from leading engineering schools such as yours. 




PATENTS . . . 

I L'untiiuK'il from l';igc .^1') 
item or, in the event that this is inad- 
visable due to size, a workinj; model. 
(ircat care should be exercised in the 
construction of the model so that it will 
exactly conform to the specifications a^ 
set forth in the patent application. 

Many an inventor h;is been able to 
brin^ his invention up to the point where 
lie needs financial backing in order to be 
able to pa\ attorney fees and finally to 
start manufacturing the item. This is 
always a difficult problem as the people 
who are williiiij; to give financial back- 
in"; to inventors are few and far be- 
tween. Usually, the person with money 
must first be convinced ot the wiirrli ot 
the invention and then he will usually 
want to obtain a controlling interest in 
the invention in retuiii for his financial 
aid. Ibis seems rather unfair but it is 
the usual practice. The only thing that 
can be said is that it \ei\ definitely lie- 
hooves the nneiUor to attempt to do 
business, if at all possible, with .1 man 
whose integrit.\' is beyond question. 

Following arc a icw of the stand.ird 
fees which are charged by the patent 
office and which are payable in advance: 

(^n filing each original appli- 
cation S.^O.dO 

Each claim over 20 l.UO 

( )n i s s u i n g each original 

patent ■id.HO 

On issuing each claim over 

20 l.Hd 

These are the most important and 
most often encountered feCN but tliere 
are many moie rangmg t rom 1(1 cents 
for certified copies of patents to );'il.30 
per hour for assistance to attorneys on 
the examination of publications and ma- 
terials in the scientific library ot the 
patent office. 

After all ol the nccc>s,-u \ papers ami 
drawings liaxe been piepared tliex are 
sent to the commi-isioner ot |i;itents, at 
the patent office. This is known ,is filing 
an application for patent. 

.Sometime following the receipt of the 
.application, the patent office will make 
an examination of the prior patent 
grants and will decide whether or not, 
in its opinion, the inventor is entitled 
to a iKitent. 

Should the patent office decide tliat 
\()ui' unention is not patentable, the\ 
W)ll inform you of their reasons for so 
belie\ing. Ff)llowiiig receipt of this let- 
ter, you, the iinentor, or your attorney 
ha\e six months in which to ask for a 
hearing at which time you or he can 
personally argue the case. 

The average length of time required 
to procure a patent runs well over two 
yeans, and therefore it is advisable that 

the iinentor have some other means of 
suppmt in the interim. The cause for 
this dela\ is the tremendous amount of 
research work which must be done by 
the staff of the patent office in connec- 
tion wnh each and e\er\ patent appli- 

The manner in which the application 
is examined is qiute thorough. The ap- 
plication division determines: a) wheth- 
er or not the application is complete; 
b) whether or not the proper patent 
office |iiocedure has been folowed ; and 
c ) to which class of inventions the ap- 
plication belongs. The examination di\i- 
sion reviews the application to deter- 
mine: a) whether the subject of the 
application is patentable under the laws 
of the United States; b) whether the 
item meets the basic requirements of 
eligibility; and c) whether the appli- 
cation conflicts with any patent that has 
already been granted or is pending. 

It might be well, in passing, to note the patent office receives on an aver- 
age about 1,200 patent applications per 
week. L iider these circumstances it is 
easy to understand why there is such a 
great delay in the processing and grant- 
ing of patents. 

If, and when \our patent has been 
granted, you will be .so notified by the 
commi.ssioner of patents. L pon receipt 
(Continued on Page 34) 

TO 1)0 in SIXESS 

Why? Because Thermoid concen- 
trates on a restricted line of prod- 
ucts, related in manufacture and 
in use, and maintains those prod- 
ucts at top quality level. 

Thermoid, as a firm, is large enough to 
be thoroughly dependable, yet small 
enough to be sensitive to the day- 
to-day problems of its customers. 

Engineers depend on Thermoid to 
always furnish well made INDUS- 

If catalogs on any of these lines 
would be helpful in your studies, 
we'll he glad to furnish them. 






\Helpful Snapsltoi Advice/ 

We have a comp/efe Vine of 






We have a complete line in 


111 No. Walnut Champaign, III. 



You May Still Subscribe 

to the last 4 issues of the year 

for only 75c 





808 S. Sixth St. 
Laundry Service and Dry Cleaning 


Engineers are aware of the tremendous mechanical 
problems involved in the manufacture of even such 
a commonplace thing as the telephone. "Behind" many 
of its intricate parts, you will find a Littell Reel, 
efficiently playing its part in helping provide 
accurate, economical stampings. 




A Campus Tradition that all 
Engineers Recognize . . . 

ini Union Bookstore 

On the Campus 


FHRRU.AKY, 1948 


PATENTS . . . 

( Cimtimicil from l':i}jf32) 
ot this iiitormatioii, you will possess icr- 
tain rights as to tax fxi-inptioiis upon 
your iiivciitioii, and other legal items, 
which will not be discussed here. How- 
ever, it would be a very wise move tor 
you to make yourself acquainted with 
the purely legal aspects of your rights 
and obligations as owner of a patent. 
At such a time, unless your patent attor- 
ney is also an attorney-at-law, it would 
be adviseable to avail yourself of the 
services of a good lawver so that yoLi 
may enjoy riie rewards of your in\cnti\c 

"An engineer got pretty fresh \vitii 

me last night." 

"Did you get the upper h.ind ?" 
"Yes, but I couldn't do a thing with 

the one on my knee." 

Patient (Coming out from under the 
ether) : "Doctor! Why are the blinds 
drawn ?" 

Dnctdi': "'riiere is a big fiie next 
door, and 1 ihdn't \ou to come to 
aiul think that tlie o|ierarion wasn't suc- 
cessful 1" 

Harmaid : "( )h yes, 1 married a m.iii 
in the village fire ilepartment." 
Soldier: "A volunteer?" 
Barmaid: "Nope, shotgun." 

JAPAN . . . 

( (.'nntinued trom Page III) 
little contact with the universities, in 
direct contiast to .American organi/a- 
tions of a similar nature, tew of the 
Japanese industrial research men h.i\c 
advanced degrees. The students with 
ad\a]iced training seem to feel there is a 
stigma attachetl to this type of work. 
1 he situation resembles that \\hich ex- 
isted in the I'nited States prior to 191 S. 
In addition to this handicap, most of the 
industrial laboratories operate in secrecy 
because the present patent laws do not 
guarantee them contrcj! cncr the fruits 
of their labors. 

With regard to world trade, japan at 
piesent is in no condition to resume im- 
mediately her former place. Her exports 
and imports are far below those of pre- 
war years. Manufacturing establish- 
ments of all kinds ha\e been damaged to 
varying degrees. Imports of food, fuel, 
fertilizer, and raw materials have shrunk 
extensively, and exports of manufactured 
goods have declined proportionately. 
Agriculture alone remains substantialh- 
intact, but is seriously handicapped by a 
shortage of fertilizer. These conditions 
have brought about the inevitable result, 
a lower standard of living in terms of 
food, clothing, shelter, and iiiHation. 

Kle\ation of this standard of living 
will be the result of recovery and recon- 
struction. Possibly this may be brought 

•about by increase in farm output, \icld 
from available fisheries, ami mine ,uid 
forest output. However, bef(ne the war 
these home-island resources had been so 
^kilhullv exploited that a further in- 
crease in iiutiMit could cciiiie only very 
slowlv. The onl\ vv.iv to appreciably 
increase the general level of living (the 
forcible conquest of territory failed in 
this respect, as it always does) will be 
through the development of manufactur- 
ing industries for export and through the 
sales of services, as in the tourist tr.ule 
and shipping. 

Dr. Adams goes on to say, "It is with 
reference to the recovery, reconstruction, 
and development of the export trade in 
manufactured goods, and in a very wide 
range of these, that the progress of sci- 
ence and technology in japan ( using the 
word "science" with emphasis upon the 
natural sciences) assumes particular im- 
portance. The products of industry com- 
petitiveh salable by any country on the 
world market are constantly changing 
both in character and in uiut cost. The 
most efficient nations must and do invent 
new products, creating new markets, and 
at the same time thev devise cost-reduc- 
ing processes applicable to older prod- 

In comparison with the products of 
L nited States aiul European industries, 
the manufactmed products of japan 
(Continued on Page 3ft) 

''There is NO royal road to learning!'' 

BUT you can make the traveling on that road 
much easier by starting out right and being prop- 
erly equipped. Choose your school equipment 
from our complete stock. 





There's Truth in this "Tall Story" 

IF YOU THINK of all valvvs in this 
])l;int as one valve, you'll see the 
truth iu this trick, photo. Valves, 
I'ollectively, represent one of the 
hiflgcst investments in ecpiipnient 
in any plant. 

\\ ith \vag:es and material costs 
highest ever, it is just as important 
for management to keep a sharp eye 
on valve maintenance as it is on 
operatini; costs of larger plant units. 

Excessive maintenance of one 
inferior valve is insignificant, hut. 

serious drain on operating hudgets. 

Jenkins Bisos. helps manage- 
ment meet tliis prohlem two ways. 
First, hy huilding extra endurance 
into Jenkins \ alves, making them 
tlie longest -lasting, lowest - upkeep 
valves that monov can huy. Second, 
witli advice from Jenkins Engineers 
on anv question of proper selection, 
installation, or maiu- 

That's why, for all 
new installations, for 

management relies on Jenkins qual- 
itv and engineering service for low- 
est valve costs in the long run. Sold 
through loading Industrial Distrib- 
utors evorytchcrc. 

Jenkins Bros., 80 White St., New York 13; 

liridgeport. Conn.; Atlanta; Boston; 

I'liiladelphia; Chicago; San Francisco. 

Jenkins Bros., Ltd., Montreal. 


multiplied by thousands, it is a all replacements, alert 

■PREl'EXT lALlE FAILURE" is a lH-fagi- umdr l„ 
vake economy, fully illustrated, villi case histories of ral-,e 
damage, and recommendations fur its prevention hy proper 
selection, installation, inspeelinn. and maintenance. FREE 
0.1 reiiiiest. Write JE^^KI^S BROS., SO 11 kite St., Aew 
York 13, N. Y. 


Types. Sizes. Pressures. .Metals forEtery Need 



JAPAN . . . 

I C'liMtliiucil Irom l'ay;i'.>4) 
liavc, in {iciicral, come to bo rctranled as 
of poor quality. The application ot sci- 
entific research to their development :uu\ 
niamitacture would brinji about a better 
proiiuct and remove this stigma. 'I'his 
lias not been done tor several reasons. In 
addition to the tact that few Japanese 
.scientists are willing to accept positions 
in commercial laboratories and that the 
patent laws contain loopholes as men- 
tioned above, constant betterment of 
product was always retarded by artificial 
price fixing by trade a.ssociations. How- 
ever, price fixing groups have now 
been dissolved. 

A renewal committee composed ot 
Japanese .scientists is at present working 
on this problem of the reorganization of 
Japanese administration of science and 
technology. The committee, composed 
of 108 scientists elected by scientific soci- 
eties throughout Japan, was just getting 
under way as the Scientific Advisory 
(Iroup left Japan, and it is to be hoped 
that an intelligent, effective reorganiza- 
tion on Japanese initiative will result. 

The formation of more nation-wide 
professional or scientific societies would aid the development of science and 
technology, and indeed higher education 
generally, in Japan. The niani aim of 

such a society is to further the science 
which it represents, and does so through 
published matter, by bringing together 
for discussion different groups of scient- 
ists, and by encouraging research .ind 
thought. It gives experienced men a 
chance to pass on their knowledge tn tiic 

llo\\c\er, reorgani/.ition nl the nat- 
ural sciences sliould not proceed down a 
narrow alley at the expense iit the social 
sciences. .As Di'. .Ad.ims points out: 
"The reconstruction ot Japan and her 
rehabilitation in the e>es of the world 
call equally for leadership and advance- 
iiient of thought in the social, economic, 
and cultural fields, and for change in 
the attitude of the people as well. Ma- 
terial arul spiritual reconstruction must 
move forward on a common front. Prog- 
ress depends not alone upon the scientists 
but upon the collaboration of scientific 
and political leaders. Their joint efforts 
to visualize the new Constitution and to 
restore the econoni> of Japan will be 
watched throughout the world." 

"Certainly I respect yoiu" ad\ice, .Mr. 
Hell, but what good is alimorn on a 
cold night?" 

Sign in Librar\ : "Thinking allowed 
— but not aloud!" 


( CuiitiiuH-il tiom I'age 7 ) 
the addition ot the human figure, but 
ui the m.ijority ot cases more interest 
will usualK be secured. There is sonie- 
thuig to this, perhaps because human 
interest arouses the curiositN ot those 
\ lewing the picture. Slight mo\ ements 
ot the model or models used in the pic- 
ture will register as a blur so that it 
is best to place them leaning comfortably 
against a building or rail. 

The greatest dilemma occurs in night 
photography when people walk into the 
scene or cars drive by. Should a person 
appear or an auto drive by, simply cover 
the lens with a dark card until the in- 
truder is past and continue the expos- 
ure. This can be done as often as neces- 
sary, but with short exposures some 
difficulty is encountered in the timing. 
If the camera shutter is clo.sed at these 
times there is a good chance that it may 
he mined. If the setting is made at 
"H," or Bulb, and the shutter does not 
ha\e to be cocked it may be opened and 
closed safely by a cable release. 

The results of a successful evening 
will be manifest in a negative that is 
of normal range that can be printed on 
No. 2 paper. The pleasing response of 
those seeing the print is the reward. 

Jay ilt OTL tint -fcn^- 


SINCE 1880 

TABLES . . . 

Get LEFAX Data Sheets 

Send coupon for information on how to obtain 
these Data Sheets, punched to fit your Pocket 

Write Today! 


University Station, Box One 
Urbana, Illinois 

Please send me. without obligation, information 
on LEFAX Data Sheets. 












Sold nationally through electrical wholesalers 


Nationol Electric 

Products Corporation 
Pittsburgh 3Qt Pa. 

Processing 24,000 
Chickens Daily with 


They do It in the new plant of 
the Southern States Eastern Shore 
Marketing Cooperative, at Salis- 
bury, Md. • Here 56,000 birds are 
kept on hand; the entire dally pack 
is cooled to 35 F, and half the 
chickens are quick-frozen at minus 
35^. One of the storages is kept 
at 32', the other at minus 5 : 
each holds 200,000 lb. of poultry 
Up to 25 tons of ice are made per 
day, for precooling and shipping 
purposes. • Frick Refrigeration 
handles all the cooling work. If you 
want to be "in the know" on the 
latest quick-freezing methods, write 
for Frick Bulletin 147-B. 




Points to the Nen 


imth hopes of 

success for our 





610 East Daniel Street, 


- Phone 5726 

M-:BRU.\RY, 1948 



( CoritmiK-cl 1 1 Clin I'a-i- _' ) 
The first push-button operates a de- 
vice which compensates tor the tilt oi 
the plane, and can correct tor tilts as 
high as twenty dejirees. 

A second button regulates nia>inilica- 
tion, automaticalK' brinfjing photos takcfi 
at varyin;; elevations to the desired map 
scale. The remaining button controls 
swing, re-establishing in tiie instrument 
the plane's angle of dexiation from its 
true course. 

Photographs of terrain printed w itii 
the new rectifier are so sharpl\ deliiud 
they give an almost three-dimensional 

Fluorescence Analysis 
Of Minerals 

.■\ Norelco fluorescence analysis umt 
which utilizes a new X-ray diffraction 
technique and makes possible rapid quan- 
titative metal anahsis has been announc- 
ed by the North .American Philips com- 

It was exhibited and demonstrated 
for the first time at the National .Metals 
KxiOTsition in Chicago on October 18-24. 
The new unit determines quantitati\ely 
the purity of metals or the percentages 
of alloying components, and the quanti- 
ties of metallic elements dispersed in 
non-metallic carriers. 

Fluorescent analysis unit used 
for metal analysis and control 

1 he riuoiescence anahsis unit con- 
sists of an x-ray generator, a rotating 
indexing holder for four specimens, a 
special collimating system, a crystal 
(usually sodium chloride), a goniometer 
having a scale graduated from 0° to 
•^0 , and a Geiger counter. The crystal 

and Geiger counter are mounted on, and 
positioned by, arms which traverse the 
goniometer arc. 

The apparatus serves for determina- 
tions on elements ranging from atomic 
numbers 20 to 41 when a rock salt 
crystal is employed. For the elements 
42 to So, a calcium liuoride crystal ma\ 
he used. 

The use of the appar.-itus is best ex- 
plained b\- discussing a t\pical problem. 
To determine the cobalt, nickel, and 
chromium content of an unknown alloy, 
a specimen of the alloy is placed in the 
four-unit holder along with the stan- 
dardizing specimens containing known 
percentages of the aliening elements. 

.Assume that the cobalt content of the 
unknown alloy is to be determined first. 
From tables of reflection angles in which 
settings for various metals are listed, 
we find that for cobalt the (leiger coun- 
ter should be set at the .56.8° mark on 
the goniometer scale. Next, the sodium 
chloride crystal position is adjusted to 
one-half the (Geiger counter angle or 
18.4°. By rotating the specimen holder, 
readings are taken first on one or more 
of the cobalt standardizing samples and 
then on the unknown. By comparing the 
readings and referring to a calibration 
chart, the percentages of cobalt may be 

The technique employed with the new 
(Continued on Page 4(1) 







< ombination Squares 

Ikvel Protractors 

Straight Edges 


\'ernier Tools 


Dial Test Indicator.s 

Speed Indicators 

V Blocks 

Calipers and Dividers 



To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
make the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance when you 
can always . . . 







Valve — for 

handling Huids 

at high pressures and 

temperatures — one of the 

multitude of Homestead Valves 

for all types of applications. 


Foundry modernization is a continuing project 
at Homestead Valve Manufacturing Companv, 
Inc., Coraopolis, Pa., because Homestead engin- 
eers have since 1892 kept their sights set on mod- 
ern productioneering equipment and methods. 
And, in their research, these engineers have 
investigated fuels and combustion techniques 
as they apply to foundry practice. As a result 
the productive flames of GAS are increasingly 



Gas-fired " SKLENAR" 
Furnace for high- 

Sjm speed melting of fer- 

^T rous metals. 

Sectional Gas-fired 
core-drying oven. 

important and more extensivclv used in Home- 
stead's production lines. 

Modern Gas-fircd Foundry Equipment, such 
as the "SKLENAR" furnaces for ferrous metal- 
melting, utilize the special characteristics of 
GAS — flexibility, controllability, speed. This 
saves equipment space, melting time, and lining 
maintenance. Operating at 2700° F. these fur- 
naces have a capacity of one ton heat per hour, 
and 160 heats per lining — evidence that modern 
Gas Equipment is really productioneering 

But this is not the only GAS application 
in the manufacture of Homestead valves. 
Core ovens, annealing furnaces, and non- 
ferrous crucible furnaces are all heated by 
the productive flames of GAS. In modern 
foundry practice GAS is the logical fuel for 
all heating and heat-treating operations. 




( (.'iHiliniK-.l tioni I'atic .^S ) 
lliioicsii'iKf analysis unit niaki-s a\ail- 
ablf an i-ntircl\' new approach to many 
of iruliisti\'s problems of metal analysis 
anil control. The x-ray niethoii permits 
analyses to be made without ilestroyinfj 
the specimetis used for the purpose. This 
method also permits a rapid determina- 
tion of the percentage of a component 
present in large or small proportions. 

Gas Turbine 

.\ British concerji is now building 
two ships with closed cycle gas turbines 
as power units. This will be a new thing 
in the Hell! of marine power plants. The 
units used will develop 6,()()() siiaft 
horsepower. Future plans call for build- 
ing some units with a shaft horsepower 
of 50,000. These installations will take 
onl\ about one-(ifth as much space as 
equivalent steam or diesel propelling 
units. 1?\- using the closed cycle type of 
turbines, the blades and other parts will 
come into contact with pure air onh' and 
thereby prevent impurities from fouling 
the fine blades and other parts. It is 
expected that the units will ha\ e a life 
of around iOO.OOl) hour>. 

Variable pitch blades will also bv 
used, thereby eliminating the need for 
gear reducers and increasing the general 
efficiency of these plants. 


( C'linnnucd lioiii Page 14 ) 
Engineers, and now is serving as chair- 
man of the Kxecutive Committee of this 
local. 6. Ilngaged in fraternal activities 
quite widely and for many years was 
president of the Chicago Fraternal Life 
association. 7. Participated in institut- 
ing the insurance :ictivity of the Mimici- 
pal Fmployes society in 1027. <S. Was 
line of the organizers ami first vice pres- 
ident of the Municipal Fmployes Insur- 
ance association founded in 1937. 9. Suc- 
ceeded to the presidenc\- of the Insurance 
association in 194.^. 

Beginning September I, bunting and 
fishing became the principal interests of 
mont, Colorado, who has announced his 
retirement from a distinguished engineer- 
ing career. He has been engaged for the 
past 10 \ears as project engineer of the 
Colorado-Hig Thompson project, L . S. 
Bureau of Reclamation, one of the mon- 
umental feats of American engineering, 
and construction engineer of the Conti- 
nental Divide (Alva B. Adams) tunnel. 
This 13-mile tunnel, the longest in the 
world to he built from two headings, 
\\ ill divert water from the western slope 
(it the Continental Divide and Rocky 
Mountain National Park to the eastern 
slope. The Big Thompson project pro- 
vides for the diversion of surplus water 

fro[n bcadw.iters of the Colorado river 
on the western slope of the Continental 
Di\iile to lands on the eastern slope in 
northeastern Colorado to supplement 
present inadequate irrigation supph and 
provide opportuiuties for ile\elopment of 
Indroelectric powei . 

At Kagoshima on Japan's l\\ushu 
island, Lt.-Col. RUSSFLL L. Mc- 
MIRRAY '26 serves as military gov- 
iTiuir. A chemical engineer in ci\ilian 
life, he was commander of a chemical 
mortar battalion on the Fifth army front 
in Italy, fought at Salerno and An/.io 
and won the Purple Heart and Silver 
Star. He is a native of Peoria, is mar- 
ried and has a daughter and two sons. 

FFNC. C. LINC, '21 states: '.My 
M. F., F.F. and C.F. courses are still 
most useful to me." Since the end of 
the war he has had charge of two rail- 
way lines in his province. He is repair- 
ing the war-damaged section of one 
which connects Indochina with the south. 

In the reorganization of the General 
Electric company into integrated depart- 
ments October "l, W. C. HECKMAN 
'20, M.E. '26, was appointed manager 
of the aeronautic and ordinance systems 
division. In his new position he will 
have entire charge and direction of man- 
ufacture, design, and commercial activity 
in this class and field of products. 

Short facts about long-lived cable 

University Placement Service 

A private employment service devoted to 
finding the right job for the right person 


ROOM 204 
625 S. Wright St.. Champaign, Illinois 

No Registration 

Engineering Positions 
Now Available 

look for Dm 
slngU ^^^^^ ridgo 


insulated wires and cables 
for every electrical use 

Burr, Patterson 

& Auld Co. 





Gifts for Valentine's Day 

On the Campus 

704 S. Sixth 







bhow a jury photographic evidence . . . 
the\ "re pretty sure to recognize its authen- 
ticit\-. The camera, they know, records 
exactly what it "sees"— no more, no less . . . 
reports impersonalh', without prejudice. 

Because this is so, photography is called 
upon to authenticate throughout business 
and industry. 

In business, Recordak microfilming verifies 
banking transactions . . . authenticates billing 

In tlie laboratory, high speed movies confiim 
working theories. 

In advertising, photographic illustrations 
attest products' beauty and utility. 

In selling, motion pictures convincingly 
demonstrate product and product-promise. 

In engineering, Kodagraph papers repro- 
duce drawings — no matter how detailed— 
with photographic accuracy and completeness. 

In the foundry, radiographv establishes the 
soundness of castings, of weldments. 

And your business—? Whv not make sure it 
too is taking full ad\antage of the things 
photographv can do because it authenticates 
. . . because of its other special abilities? To 
check up, write for "Fiuictional Photographv"; 
it's free, of course. 

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester 4, N. Y. 

FuiKtional Photography 

is advancing business and industrial technics 

. . . a great name in research with a big future in CHEMISTRY 


II you were to \ isit the Chemical DciJai i- 
nicMl ol the {;iMicral KIcctric Conipain 
ai I'iiisficld. Mass.. voii could walrh 
sotiitihiiin new ill the pioduciion of 
phenol. It's a conliiuious operation 
process developed by G-E chemists and 
nif;liieeis. With the completion of this 
plant. CJencial Electric becomes the only 
(iiinpany in the United States to .start 
with the production of chemicals . . . con- 
\crt them into resin . . . then molding 
powder or \arnish . . . and finally fabri- 
latc them into a long list of finished 
molded or laminated |)n)ducts. 

I'hcnolic compounds are among the 
most useful molding poivders. Since 
phenol is so important in the fast-grow- 
iTig plastics industrv. its processing 
should be of interest to every voimg 
chemist and student of chemistry. 

How is phenol made? The basic in- 
gredients used at Pittsfield arc ben/ol. 
chlorine, and caustic soda. 

Caustic effluent from ekxtiolyiii <ills is 
evaporated to 20 per cent aiul the salt 
crystals .separated. Caustic is dihned to 
H) per cent for Itydrolyzing llie mono- 
(lilorbenzol. Chlorine leaving the cells 
at 180 V. is cooled to 55. The gas is 

compressed 10 20 lb. and goes to 
the chlorinator. Here it meets 
with benzol and monochlorbenzol 
is formed. leave from the 
lop ol the chlorinator. The hydro- 
chloric acid is recovered to be used 
later in neutralizing sotlium 
phcncilate to release |)licnol. The li(|uid 
leaving the chlorinator is composed 
ol unreacted benzol, monochlorbenzol. 
and dichlorbcnzols. It is nciuralized and 
the components are separated. 

The monochlorbenzol, caustic, and 
diphenyl ether are then mixed and the 
mixture is compressed to 4,000 lb. per 
sq. in. The temperature is raised to 



e, high fempe 

500 E. The feed next enters the radiant 
section of the tubular reactor and is 
brought up to reaction temperature. In 
the convection section the mixture is 
held at high temperature luuil the re- 
action is complete. Substantially all 
monochlor is reacted to sodium phcno- 
late. diphenyl ether, or high boiling 
residues. The mixture is cooled and the 
pressure reduced. In a decanter the 
(liphen\l ether is separated. Phenolate 

is neutralized with hydrochloric acid 
forming a brine layer and a phenol- 
waici layer. The phenol is recovered by 

Control panel for hydrolysis and distillation. 

tlistillation and sent to Mnr.i^r in 1,111k 
cars, ready to be shipped to plants re- 
(juiring this vital compound. 

I his ingenious and elficieiu ])rocess 
is another example of what G-E chemists 
and engineers do to aid in the develop- 
iiKiit of a great many industries and in- 
dustrial projects. Today the dcmatids of 
the users of chemical products are 
extremely varied. General Electric, 
through its chemists and chemical engi- 
neers of today— and tomorrow— will con- 
tinue to meet those demands. Chemical 
Drparlment. Genera} Electric ComlJaiiy. 
Pittsfield, Masm( hiisriis. 

!W oSu 

Tanks storing phenol and intermediate products. 

W^ J 

.■1 iiivssuqc <<> sii„li;if« r)f rhcmUtn/ iind chemical 

cnu:nceri„a jrom 


Manager. Chciiiicul En<jiiiccri)iii Division 

General Electric Chemical Deimrtment 

The future of the ])lastics industry presents a rhalleiiKe to evcr.N 
.student of chemistrv and chemical ensineeriiiK. Here at Oeneial 
I^leolrii'— where plastics were pioneered and inan.v other chemical 
and metallurgical processes and products developed— .vou niav 
Iind exactl.v the facilities and environment ,von are seeking to 
carrv on .vour work after sradnalion. 



March, 1948 • 2H«nt$ 


One mail -Nerving all jjim: 
-um vdiir liiiir 

I'orinorc tlian Iwriilv \ cars (larliiilc ami 
( iarliiiii (:ii)-iiii('al> Corporation lias iiiaiit- 
laincd a slalT of Icrliiiicallx Iraincd rcprc- 
-i'iila(i\i'> to serve its fiisUmuTs lliroii<;hoiit 
llic coiintrx. Now. inorc (liail ever, this 
|Milic\ iiirans liiiK' and fllorl savcil lor von. 

I'.verv ( iarliidf rcprcsi-nlalivi- is a gradn- 
alf clu'misl or <'li*-nii('al rn^incrr. This 
liasic technical knowledge, pins research 
evperience in onr laboratories, special 
trainin<; in onr home office, and practical 
knowledge gained in ihe field, gives onr 
representative the haekground n<-eded to 
he of assistance to all three, the men in 
voiir plant, \oiir lah<>ralor>, and your 
pnrchasing department. 

^ hen von have problems involving the 
use. development, or purchase orcheniicals, 
call onr nearest office and discuss them 
with a Carbide representative. And if yon 
would like a copy of onr catalog. "Syn- 
llietie C)rganic Chemicals." please address 
I )epartment ''A." 


Unit of Unkm Carbidt and Carbon Corporation 

30 East 42niJ Street ES Mew York 17. N. Y. 












! i 


in Pri 

ncipal Cities 

In Car 



and Carb 



, Limited, Toronto 

Laboratory curiosity— Now a COLOSSUS 

Chemists and Engineers Team Up 
for Progress at Pa.\d G 

From basic chemical research, science 
moves forward into many different fields 
at Procter & Gamble. Here's an example: 

A major synthetic detergent is made by 
the sulfation and neutralization of fatty 
alcohols. These alcohols are prepared by 
the sodium reduction of long-chain esters. 

The Dicture left shows a reduction of a 

triglyceride to an alcohol by the classic 
Bouveault-Blanc process, in one of the re- 
search laboratories. For years this was a 
laboratory curiosity. Recent research, 
however, increased yields and brought 
the possibility of commercial use. 

The picture right shows the colossus 
that has grown out of this research. It"s a 

new P AND G plant, now using sodium in 
tank car lots to produce fatty alcohols. 

Between the two lies the whole story 
of science at P and G— of chemists and 
engineers working together to create new 
products and new processes and to de- 
sign, build, and operate new equipment 
and new factories. 

This is scientific teamwork at its best 
—teamwork tiiat leads to progress. 

Procter & Gamble 

Cincinnati 17, Ohio 

Hfi .Iwhn nivli. K.K. ' l» 
Hvrh Mtizvr. '.10 

Ken Mi'Oiran. M.K. ' i» 

Torque Converter 

ConsiiliTftl Dill- (it the ii\it>taiKtinsr 
automotive fiij;inccrint; (IcNclopim-iits 
siiKT the war, Hiiick's lu-w Dynaflow 
transmission, introduced for 1948 on 
Roa<imastiT cars, multiplies cnjjine 
torque and transmits power to the rear 
\\heels throu<rh an oil pump turbine and 
stator combination instead ot throuKb 
coiuentional gears. This combination is 
called a torque converter. The clutch 
pedal and conventional clutch are ehm- 
inated as are all sliding gears. Instead, 
the power plant, through the torque 
converter, does what gears used to do, 
transmitting a smooth How of oil cush- 
ioned po\\er as needed from a standing 
start to cruising speeds. Planetary gears, 
operated b\ the converter are provided 
for reverse and extreme load conditions 
and extreme grades, or for "rocking" 
the car. (^nly accelerator and brake 
pedal are needed in the driver's com- 
partment. A selector lever mounted 
\mder the steering wheel chooses the 
driving range and direction and provides 
for parking and neutral positions. 
Shown above is a cutawav view of the 

Man-Made Rain 

The dry-ice or silver iodide methods 
of producing rain from super-cooled 
clouds have been supplemented and per- 
haps by-passed by a new method for pro- 
ducing "man-made" rain. Recently dis- 
closed by Dr. Irving Langmuir, associate 
director of the General Electric com- 
pany's research laboratory, the method 
consists of dispensing small quantities of 
ordinary water into actively growing 
cumulus clouds. clouds must have 
certain characteristics including an up- 
ward wind current of at least five miles 
per hour, fully grown cloud water drop- 
lets, a high clo\id water content, and a 
cloud thickness of several thousand feet. 
These characteristics are evident in most 
of the active cumulus cloud formations. 

According to the theory behind the 
method, the small quantity of water in- 
jected into the cumlus cloud will begin 
to fall in the form of ordinarv' water 
drops. .As they fall, they will collect the 
tiny cloud water droplets in their paths. 
Thus, the drops will be continuously 
growing as they fall. 

When the water droplets reacli tluir 
critical si/e, (about .^ 16 of an inch in 

Dynaflow transmission replaces conventional gears 

diameter), they will begin to shed water 
particles. These particles, too little in 
weight to resist the upward wind cm- 
rents in the cloud, will be driven up- 
ward. However, they too, will collect 
the smaller cloud droplets in their paths 
until a weight is accumulated that is 
sufficient to overcome the upward force 
of the wind ; thus the drops will begin to 
fall. In this maiuier, according to Dr. 
Langmuir, a chain reaction will progress 
throughout the cloud. 

Hy use of this method, a self-propagat- 
ing rainstorm may be stimulated. Since 
the loss of cloud droplets lowers the 
density of the cloud, the upward wind 
currents could cause the cloud to grow 
to much greater heights. If this occurs, 
the cloud will probably draw in addi- 
tional moisture from the atmosphere and 
thus continue the chain reaction rainfall. 

Operating Costs 

.'\ long st.mduig cause nf increased 
operating costs is (inally on the vva\' out 
thanks to the Illinois Central Railroad. 

This railroad has just completed con- 
struction of five new hopper cars that 
weigh only four-fifths as much as cars 
now used for similar work. 

The use of such equipment means 
more pay load for the railroads. The 
savings that could be realized by a wide- 
spread development and use of light- 
weight cars might well be the long 
sought-after means of actively compet- 
ing with the truck lines that have caused 
the railroads much concern in recent 
years due to their lower operating costs 
and resultant lower tariffs. 

Temperature Control 

A new development of an old idea 
has resulted in the manufacture of a 
set of controls that insure uniform tem- 
perature through the entire area of 
furnaces where variations are not allow- 
able. This device is coupled both with 
the heat-producing elements and a 
recording thermometer. Readings of 
temperature are possible over a large 
area within the furnace and adjustments 
are possible over any part of this area. 
It is possible also to keep one part of 
the furnace at a slightly lower temper- 
ature than that of the surrounding 
areas. This device has filled a great need 
in the pottery industrv' where tempera- 
ture control is of prime importance for 
the piiiduction of a uniform product. 


To be patentable, a technical contribu- 
tion must be both new and useful. At 
Standard Oil (Indiana) there exists a 
stimulating atmosphere in which our tech- 
nical men continuously contribute to 
progress with new, useful inventions. 

The work of all our research men is re- 
viewed by trained patent advisors. When 
a researcher conceives a new solution to a 
problem, he is encouraged to submit it in 
tlie form of a disclosure. A careful search 
is made on his behalf by Standard Oil 

library research experts and patent attor- 
neys. Their findings and the results of 
laboratory tests go with the disclosure to 
an application committee. On the aver- 
age, one patent application is filed for 
every seven disclosures submitted. 

This procedure gets results for Stand- 
ard Oil and Standard men. We believe it 
compares most favorably with the patent 
practices of other industries — and few in- 
deed can match Standard's record for 
technological progress. 

Standard Oil Company 


910 S. Michigan Av 

Chicago, Illinois 


MARCH, 1948 

There's a 

future ior you 



at Westinghouse 

This is but one of the many op- 
portunities open in the electrical 
field. There are many others — in 
Bales, research and engineering at 
Vt estinghouse. Begin plans for 
your future by sending today for 
your free copy of "Finding Your 
Place in Industry". 



\\ hfrevcr there's manufarturing, there 
are johs for engineers. Westinghoiise is 
one of tlie largest electrical manufac- 
turers in the world — its prorliiets are 
as «liversified as industry itself! There's 
a joh and a future for you here. For 
- ~ ~ -"— cxaniple. \\ estinghouse needs: 


to siiow |iroduelion people how to turn out the 
proiiuct afl<'r it has heen designed. 


to iinpro\e eflieienev in nx'tiiods of production. 


to get the right materials at the right place at 
the right time. 


to supervise inspection of materials and work- 
manship at every step in the pnx'css of manu- 
facture, and help develop the highest standards. 


to see that correct and uniform methods are 
applied in testing apparatus to assure compli- 
ance with the <-ustonier"s specifications. 


to plan installation of new manufacturing facili- 
ties or revamping of the old. 

Here's a challenge for your future. The held is 
limited onlv hv the initiative and resourcefulness 
of the engineer himself. (.-itoiol' 

To obtain copy of "Finding Your Place in Industry," consult 
Placement Officer of your university, or mail this coupon to: 

'I'hr Dislrirt hAttiratiotud ('ttonlinaliir 

If rstinfihottsf Klrvtric Corpiiratitm 

20 ;\. If arkrr Driiv, P.O. liu.x II. /.iitic 90 

Chicago 0, Illinois 






George R. Foster Editor 

Ed Witort Assoc. Editor 

John Dick Asst. Editor 

Phil Doll 4sst. Editor 

Barbara Schmidt ..J/ci/6('«/> Editor 


Donald Johnson John Shurtleff 
Carl Sonnenschein Shirley Smith 
Herbert Jacobson Sam Jefferie 
Kenneth McOw; 
Connie Minnick 

Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
Charle^ Straus 
CJeorge Bailev 
Averv Heves'h 

Glenn Massie 
George Ricker 
Duke Silvestrini 
Ronald Johnson 
Rav Mauser 
Orville Wunderlii 

Ted Sohn 
Willard E. Jone 


Jack Stumpf 




Volume 63 

Number 6 

The Tech Presents 


Robert A. Johnson.. Bus. Mgr. 

Stanley Diamond. .Asst. Bus. RIgr. 
Mitchell Cnsf.\A\..Asst. Bus. iMgr. 

Richard Leek Asst. Bus. Jllgr. 

Fred Seavey Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

John Bogatta 
Rudy Vergara 
George Kvitek 
James Chapman 
Robert Cox 
Robert Levin 
Frank Mitch 
William Anderson 
Don Hornbcck 

Dick Ames 
Clem Marley 
Ira Evans 
Bob Golden 
Adam Pientka 
Ra\' Harris 
Bob Dodds 
Stan Burnham 
Dick Hammack 


Ind\istrial Sightseeing 7 

Ronald Johnson, Com. '4S 

Protected by Plastics 8 

Don Ilornht'ik. Ch. E. '4S 

E. E. Curriculum 9 

(.;ienn Mnssie. E. E. '4^ 

Faculty Advisers 
J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 

Chairman: John A. Henry 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Cooperative 
Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illinois 
Technograph, lnwa KiiL^iiiLcr, Iowa Transit, 
K.Lii-,L^ State Engineer, 
M.tri|uctte Engineer, 
Miinu-snta Technolog, 
Ntlira^ka Blueprint, 
^it% I liKiilrangle, North 
Dakota State Knuim-ir, I )hio State Engi- 
neer, Oklahoma State EnKineer, Penn State 
Engineer, Pennsylvania Triangle, Purdue 
Engineer, Rochester Indicator, Rose Technic, 
Tech Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, 
and Wisconsin Engineer. 

Kentucky t 
Michigan 1 
Missouri S 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter. October .U). 1921, at llu |.M,t ,,frm- 
of Crbana, Illinois, by act mI (,,„l.,,,s 
March .1, 1879. Office Jl! 1mii;ii,h r niu 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subs. 
per year. Single copy 25 c 
rights reserved by The IllinoU 

ription, $1.50 
■nts. Kepnnt 

Publisher's Representative— Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 


New Developments 2 

John Dick. E. E. '4^. Ilerh Mazer. E. E. '50. 
and Ken McOiran. M. E. '4'^ 

Engineering Societies 10 

John Shurtleff. (A,. E. '50. and Tom Moore. E. E. '.50 

Navy Pier 12 

Introducing 14 

Dick Ilammaek. G. E. '4S. Shirley Smith, E. P. '.^0. 
and Ilerh Jacohson, M. E. '50 

Editorial 16 


A familiar sight wherever structural steel framing is used in 
building is the man who heats the rivets and fosses them up to 
the riveting crew. In this case, the picture was taken on the site 
of the new chemical engineering building on the University of 
Illinois campus. 


One of the many well designed and engineered buildings 
constructed by John J. Felmley Company is the United States 
Tobacco Company factory in Richmond, Va. 


nmnr'^ nil! 

iiiiini .:nH 

miiM 'nm 



■Hiimmiuii ■.jiii: 


Industrial Sinlitseeinflf 

^oiui /. ^eUvUif Ca. 

Itff KunuUI •Inhnson, 1'onini. */// 

The John Kelniley company, with its 
main offices in Hioominjiton, Illinois, 
has established a high reputation in Illi- 
nois, Tennessee, and Virginia for its 
general and heavy construction work. 
The history of the company dates back 
almost thirteen \ears, at which time a 
small group of men under the direction 
of John Felmley made plans for organ- 
izing a heavy construction company. 
During the years that followed, the 
company did most of its work in Cen- 
tral Illinois. The company is licensed 
in both the states of Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia and has operated there in the past. 

The high standards of construction 
work performed is the responsibility of 
highly trained and highly experienced 
executives and professional men. A 
brief summary of the backgrounds of 
the company's executives is gi\en in the 
outline which follows: 

President: John Felmley, graduate of 
the L'ni\ersit> of Illinois (1925) in 
architectviral engineering. He has had 
thirty years of experience in the general 
building construction and contracting 

Vice-president and (General Superin- 
tendent: R. C. Dickerson, graduate of 
Purdue University in civil engineering, 
has had twenty years' experience in con- 
struction work, most of this time as a 
superintendent. He is in charge of the 
two buildings being constructed here on 

Vice-president and (leneral Superin- 

tendent: (X R. Callbeck, originally a 
carpenter, served his apprenticeship from 
1014 to 1917. He has had thirty years 
of experience, twenty-five of which were 
in the capacity of carpenter foreman and 
general superintendent in charge of 
large construction projects. 

Secretary and Auditor: C. V. (Juiett 
has been in the accounting end of the 
construction business for twenty years. 

Treasurer and Estimator: A. IVl. Al- 
Ivn attended the University of Illinois 

This article about tlie Jolin J. 
Felmley Co. of Bloomington, Illi- 
nois, is the sixth in a series on 
local industries. The purpose of 
the series is to stimulate thinking 
on the part of prospective engi- 
neers on the subject of employ- 
ment and work. Numbering several 
Illinois men among its' executives, 
this company is an excellent exam- 
ple of opportunity in the construc- 
tion business. 

three years in architectural engineering. 
He has had thirty years' experience in 

Chief Engineer: T. S. Blackmail, 
graduate of the University of (leorgia 
(1925) in civil engineering, has had 
twenty-two years of experience in engi- 
neering and construction work. 

(leneral Superintendent: D. L. Cjard, 
graduate of the I'niversitv of Minne- 

sota (1924) in civil engineering has had 
twenty-three years' experience in gen- 
eral construction and engineering. 

Assistant Superintendent and Engi- 
neer: James B. Meek, graduate of the 
I'niversity of Illinois (1942) in civil 
engineering. Mr. Meek is in charge of 
construction on the Chemistry and 
Chemical Engineering building on cam- 

The company, employing 100% un- 
ion mechanics and laborers, handles all 
types of general and heavy construction 
including school buildings, office build- 
ings, hotels, apartment buildings, banks, 
factories, power houses, sewage disposal 
plants, water works, etc. Some of the 
principal projects that were constructed 
ui the past twelve years consist of: 

State Farm Insurance companv office 
building in Bloomington. Illinois. 

Dormitories and Union building, Illi- 
nois Wesleyan university, Bloomington, 

Library, Illinois State Normal uni- 
\ersity. Normal, Illinois. 

Factory for Sylvania Electric com- 
pany, Bloomington, Illinois. 

Memorial hospital, Springfield, Illi- 

Power plant for the cit\ of Spring- 
iield, Illinois. 

Terminal buildings and hangars at 
the Springfield Public airport, Spring- 
field, Illinois. 

(Continued on page 24) 

At left is the municipal power plant for Springfield, III., built by the John J. Felmley Company. 
At right is the same building during construction 

MARCH, 1948 

Protected by Plastics 

liH Ifoii lloriilH'vli. 1 h.K. •/» 

Denlins; with one of the lesser- 
known applications of plastics, this 
article covers the use of plastics 
for protective coatings on finished 
metal parts, and some of tlie prob- 
lems involved in this field. 

Alrliou^li today's plastics wcic pi- 
oiu-crcd ()\er 100 years ago, they re- 
mained merely the interest of the small 
inimher of men working; on the crude 
resins which appeared, usually unintcn- 
tionall\-, in the test ruhes ot lesearch 
chemists. Three of our most useful syn- 
thetic resins, polystyrene, polyviinl 
chloride, and poly\inylidene chloride had 
been prepared before 1S40. These curi- 
ous resins were reported in the literature 
as they were discovered, but little 
thought was given to them as a material 
for the manufacture of the myriad of 
household and industrial items we now 

While the 19th century literature 
contains frequent reports of studies made 
of the phenomena of polymerization and 
condensation of these resinous materials, 
it remained for Dr. L. H. Haekeland. 
a young Belgian chenu'st at work in an 
American laboratory in 1909, to recog- 
nize the merits of a phenol-aldehyde 
resin which he had prepared and to 

ajiply industrial practices tn the com- 
mercial production of this early plastic. 
The original Hakelite company was or- 
gam'zed in 1910, ;uid it is at present 
a iiart of tlu C.ubide and Carbon Chem- 
icals corporation. .As the opportunities in 
this Held of manufactme of organic 
resins became known, other enterprising 
gentlemen orgaru'zed sinu'lar companies. 

Since an adequate co\erage of the 
Held of plastics would require several 
\()lumes, we shall limit ourselves here to 
the single sub-ilivision concerning the 
use of plastic coatings on the surface 
of metals. Certain resins have been 
found to be particularly adaptable to 
use in covering metallic surfaces. The 
|iarticidar properties required are largely 
dependent upon the service in which the 
material will be used. A listing of some 
of these properties would include ineit- 
ness to the action of heat, light or \ari- 
ous solvents, ease of fabrication, hard- 
ness, transparenc)', adhesive qualities, 
and non-inflammability. 

The two general objectives for the 
application of organic coatings on metal 
are to protect the metal from corrosion 
and to pro\ide a pleasing appearance. 
These coatings may take the various 
forms of lacquers, varnishes, paints, oi' 
enamels to be applied by brush, spra\, 
or dip. Many special finishes, such as 
wrinkle coating, ma\ be used for ilec- 

A wartime packaging development is the use of certain resins to pre- 
serve and protect metal parts in storage or shipment. 

orative effects. The constant aim of 
the plastics industry is to develop ma- 
terials that will permit greater ease of 
application and wider fields of usage. 
Further, tluse coatings shall be more 
ie>istanr to solvent.'', chenu'cals, water, 
weather, and othei' factors which cause 
premature failure of present-day pro- 
tective coatuigs. 

Temporary protection of mechanical 
equipment while being transported to 
\ arious theaters of war demanded the 
de\elopment of a coating resistant to 
mild abrasion and to corrosive atmo.s- 
pheres. This temporary surface had to 
be readily strippable from the metal to 
facilitate on-the-spot replacement of, for 
example, truck parts. Researchers de- 
veloped a plastic containing 25% ethyl 
cellulose, 25% resin plasticizer, 50' J 
mineral oil and wax, and \'', stabilizer 
and inhibitor to insure the stability of 
the plastic to eft'ects of light, heat, and 
oxygen. Ethyl cellulose is the ether of 
cellulose and ethyl alcohol, made by the 
reaction of ethyl chloride upon alkali 
cellulose, which is prepared from wood 
pulp. The plasticizer imparts the con- 
trollable properties of flexibility, tough- 
ness, and impact strength. 

The metal to be coated was dipped 
into a kettle containing this ethyl cel- 
lulose mixture at a temperature of 350 — 
.?75 F. A "double-dipping" procedure 
has been recommended. The combined 
thickness of the two dips should be be- 
tween 60 and 100 thousandths of an inch 
in thickness. The material upon cooling, 
forms a tough skin-tight protective layer 
which thoroughly protects the metal and 
at the same time is easily removed by 
simply slitting aiid peeling off. It is 
abrasion-resistant to a marked degree. 
The protective qualities of this material 
called "Stripcoat" are retained from 
— 30' to 150' F., and it will withstand 
lOO't relative humidity at 120' F. It is 
water- and corrosion-proof, and also 
higly resistant to salt solutions. Aside 
from the protection which this package 
gives, manufacturers using it report a 
saving of from 60 to 95' ( in packaging 
time tlepending upon the t\pe of part 
being dipped. 

Various lacquers were formulated for 
brushing and spraying in addition to the 
above-mentioned dipping process, which- 
ever process appeared to be most prac- 
tical for the individual application. 

Certain types of parts: e.g., bearing 
assemblies, were packed with the grease 
required in operation and then given 
their overall coating. Recent industrial 
applications have included the use of 
this temporary coating to protect metal 
parts while in the course of intei-plant 
shipment, in transit to sub-contractors, 
and in protecting export products being 
shipped to or through zones of unfavor- 
able climatic conditions. 

(Continued on page 20) 


Here are the changes inaugu- 
rated in the electrical engineering 
curriculum. They will eliminate 
overlapping, but will mostly intro- 
duce new material, especially in 
illumination, where a new option 
has been added. 


By fmlenn Jfasftie. E.E. '40 

The electrical engiiieering department 
put into effect a new curriculum last 
spring, atter having waited until most 
of the students whose education was 
interrupted by the war had returned to 
the campus. Even as early as 1940, de- 
partment committees were making a 
thorough study of the curriculum for 
means of improving the course offerings 
from the point of view of the student. 
It was felt that it was necessary to 
eliminate overlapping of some courses 
and to introduce new material where a 
need had been indicated. However, the 
activation of the new curriculum had 
to be postponed during the war years. 
The electrical engineering curriculum 
starts with the sophomore year. Several 
major changes were made in this and 
the junior year. A course in Effective 
Speaking was added to help the engineer 
learn how to present his ideas in a clear 
and forceful manner. Two courses, Pat- 
tern and Foundry Laboratory, and Hy- 
draulics, were taken from the required 
h'st, but may still be taken as electives. 
The study of Statics and Dynamics, 
which previously required five hours, is 
now covered in a combined four-hour 
course. Basic electrical theory, previously 
included in Introduction to Circuit 
Analysis during the first half of the 
junior year, is now incorporated in In- 
troduction to Electrodynamics and is 
taken during the last semester of the 
sophomore year. The great importance 
of a thorough mathematical background 
to the electrical engineer was indicated 
by the additional hour given to Differ- 
ential Equations and Drthogonal Func- 
tions, now a three- instead of a two-hour 

Prior to the change of curriculum, all 
electrical engineering students, whether 
interested primarily in communications, 
power, or illumination, had taken the 
same courses through to the end of the 
junior year. However, specialization 
now starts with the second semester of 
the junior year. This has made it pos- 
sible to gi\e separate introductory cours- 
es in electronics and electrical machines 
and illumination, with the theory and 
problems being directed toward the par- 
ticular option. A new course. Measure- 
ments in Electrical Engineering, taught 
by the electrical engineering staff, has 
been substituted for Electrical and Mag- 
netic Measurements, which was taught 
b\ the physics department. 

A large portion of the electrical engi- 

neering ad\ances made during the last 
war was in the communications field, 
and this has been recognized by the reor- 
ganization of the various communication 
courses. The major difference is the 
renumbering of courses and the inclu- 
sion of new material. The same is true 
to a lesser degree of the power option, 
where the reorganization of course ma- 
terial had already been accomplished. 

The importance of making the engi- 
neering curriculum as broad as possible, 
in order to graduate a good citizen as 
well as a good engineer, was acknowl- 
edged by the addition of six hours to 
the previous allowatice of six non- 
technical elective credit hours. These 
twelve hours are included in the junior 
and senior years, for it was felt that 
the junior or senior, having attended the 
University for several \ears, would have 
decided which course in other colleges 
would best help him. 

Illumination Option Added 

The importance of illiunination as an 
engineering problem was recognized by 
the addition of illumination to commu- 
nications and power as an electrical engi- 
neering option. At the present time the 
University of Illinois is the only insti- 
tution in the country offering such an 
option. Courses in illumination and 
photometry have been offered here and 
elsewhere for over fifty years, but the 
new option is designed to develop light- 
ing engineers for manufacturing con- 
cerns, scientific and research laboratories, 
and the utilities. A new pamphlet titled 
"To The Prospective Electrical Engi- 
neer," soon to be released by the elec- 
trical engineering department, describes 
the work of the illumination engineer 
in these terms: 

"In this profession the individual will 
find positions ranging from abstract re- 
search into the behavior of human beings 
luider the influence of light, to positions 
in the sales divisions of jobbers and 
manufacturers of lighting equipment. 
In the utilities the illumination engineer 
acts either as a consultant or an appli- 
cation engineer, specifying the required 
illumination and designing both com- 
mercial and industrial lighting systems. 
In the development laboratories, the 
requirements may range from research 
in fundamental principles to the devel- 
opment of new sources and the inves- 
tigation of lighting applications. The 
manufacturer requires an engineer who 
can design equipment, test it, and follow 
through to the actual application in the 

As with communicatio[is and power, 
the illuminating option begins with the 
second semester of the junior year. The 
illuminating engineer takes the electronic 
courses required for the power group 
and the electrical machine comses re- 
quired for the communications group. 
Other technical courses include Illumi- 
nation Engineering, Measurement in 
Electrical Engineering, and Illumination 
Design Economics. Physiology of Vision 
and Ps>cholog}' of Vision are included 
in the illumination curriculum in order 
that the physical function of the eye 
and the behavior of the human being 
toward light ma\ be better understood. 
Inasmuch as lighting and architectural 
design are closely allied, two courses in 
History of Architecture are also pro- 
vided. Several credit hours are devoted 
to Salesmanship and Sales Administra- 
tion, for the illumination engineer must 
also be an effective salesman. 

It is not expected that the illumina- 
tion branch will graduate more than 
twenty to twenty-five men a year for 
some time to come as the value of tech- 
nically-trained men is not yet fully 
appreciated by the illumination industry. 
It should be noted, though, that the 
illumination engineer is still primarily 
an electrical engineer and can compete 
in either the communication or power 

The new curriculum is less elective 
than the old, but the alert student still 
has an opportunity to receive a broad 
electrical engineering education. The 
new plan guarantees that the student 
takes the courses in which he has "to 
dig in and then work himself out." As 
in the past, it is the department's aim 
that each electrical engineering gradu- 
ate shall be first a good, well-roimded 
citizen, a capable electrical engineer in 
any option, and a specialist in one option. 

"Pardon me, Mrs. Astor, but that 
would never have happened if you 
hadn't stepped between me and that 


* « » 

Dean (to coed) — ''Are you writing 
that letter to a man?" 

Co-ed — "It's to a former roommate 
of mine. " 

Dean — "Answer my question. " 

It's all right to compliment her on 
her ankles but don't compliment her too 

M.\RCH, 1948 

""'I' l^liiiiiiH'criiio lliiiiiinirics anil T 

«!/ 'hthn Shurih'ff. 1 h.l':. :iO and Turn MtHtrv. '.10 

engim:i:kin(; council 

St. Pat's Hall will be held on March 
12, 1948. This was the decision of the 
Kiigincering; Council members at their 
second nieetinj;, called to order by Floyd 
Maiipiii on December 16 in Room 21^ 
mini I iiion. 

Candidates for the queen of the ball 
may be entered by any enjiineer b\ 
submitting pictures to the Technofiraph 
office. The Queen must be the date of 
an engineer at the dance. Wives of 
engineers are, of course, eligible to com- 
pete. The (leadline for submitting pic- 
tures will be February 2(1. Soon after 
this date the candidates will be elim- 
inated to nine girls by a committee of 
faculty members or professional photog- 
raphers. The Queen will be elected at 
the dance, the other girls being her court 
and representing the eight societies. 

In entering candidates for St. Patrick, 
each societN will choose one engineer 
to represent the societ\. This choice 
must also be turned in to the Techno- 
graph office by February 20. St. Pat 
will be selected at the dance by an 
applause meter. 

The meeting of January 6 was calleil 
to order by Murra\' Forth. 

Hob Chileiiskas, co-chairman of the 
St. Pat's Ball committee, repojteil on 
the progress of the comnu'ttee. Bob 
Scharmer, A.I.Ch.F., was appointed to 
head the contest arrangements. Frank 
Recny, S.B.A.C.S., was named ticket 
chairman ; he will work out the method 
of ticket distribution and make up the 
list of people who are to receive com- 
plimentary tickets. It was recommended 
that ticket sales be restricted to society 
members for the first week that they 
are on sale. 

The Buck Kmght Trophy contest 
was postponed. The council was asked 
to take over and sponsor the contest in 
the future. 

A suggestion was made to i n \ i t e 
several representatixes from the Inter- 
national Harvester company to the 
L niversity to meet with an eight society 
panel. All societies are to let the coun- 
cil know, through their representatives, 
how they would like such a meeting. 

The St. Pat's Ball committee reported 
at the meeting of January 20 that the 
dance and the contests for St. Patrick 
and St. Patricia had been approved. 
Frank Recny gave a report on the list 
of patrons and those who woidd receive 
complimentary tickets. The elected dele- 

gates on the coiuicil will receive the 
allotted number of tickets for their soci- 
ety. Fifty per cent of the profits from 
the dance will be distributed equally 
among the societies and the rest accord- 
ing to the membership of each society. 
John Prodaii resigned as co-chairman 
.ind will be leplaced by Keith (loodwin. 

Mr. S. T. Waidelich of the Austin 
conipanv will be her on .March 10 to 
talk on "Industrial Plants — Who De- 
signs Them?" All societies are urged to 
publicize this program to their members 
because it should he of interest to ;ill 

Henceforth, men who are working 
with the two standing committees and 
are not official representatives of their 
respective societies will be known as 
non-voting members of the council. 


An election of officers at the meeting 
of January 22 produced the following 
result: Orville R. Pomeroy, president; 
Robert (). Duncan, vice-president ; Ar- 
thur R. Jones, secretary; and James 
Stew a r t, treasurer. Don 
Richardson and John Farley 
were appointed correspond- 
ing secretaries. 

(jeorge D. Lobinier, su- 
perintendent of the student recruitment 
department of Westinghouse, addressed 
the members on the proper technique 
for a student to use when being inter- 
viewed for a job. His advice was to 
examine the resources and backgroiuid 
of a company before applying for a job. 
A report on the latest plans for the 
St. Pat's Ball was given by Keith (llood- 
wiii, one of the Institute's representa- 
ti\es on the Engineering Council. 


I he members of the American Insti- 
tute of Chemical Engineers met on 
January- 7 to hear a talk given by Pro- 
fessor W. E. Chalmers of the Institute 
of Labor and Industrial Relations. 
Xominations were made at this meet- 
ing for the selection of a candidate to 
represent the chapter in the election of 
St. Patrick at the annual St. Pat's Ball. 
A business meeting was held on Jan- 
uary 27, at which time officers were 
elected for the second semester. Don 
Hornbeck was re-elected president of 
the chapter by the unanimous consent 
of those piesent. Also re-elected was 
Herb Schult/, secretary The other offi- 

cers electeil were the following: Bob 
Chilenskas, vice-president ; R. W. Fish- 
er, treasurer; and Richard A. Coderre, 
representative to the engineering coun- 
cil. Coderre also received the honor of 
being elected as the chapter's nominee 
for St. Patrick. 

Appointments made were Jack Rose 
as chairman of the .social committee and 
Ray Harris as chairman of the program 

Dr. L. F. Audrieth, piofessor of 
inorganic chemistry was elected 
hiinoraiy member of the chapter in 
recognition of his interest in chemical 

The revised constitution was ratified 
at this meeting, and one of the amend 
ments will allow students of the Uni 
versity branches at Navy Pier and 
Cialesburg to become members of a 


The student branch of the American 
Societ\' of Agricultural Engineers elect- 
ed officers for the second semester at a 
meeting held on Monday, January 27, 
1948. They are as follows: president 
Harlan Baker, Mt. Morris, Illinois; 
\ice-presideiit, William Fletcher, Kings- 
ton, Illinois; secretary, f]arl Moss, Mc- 
Leansboro, Illinois; scribe, Lawrence 
Bitterman, Wilmington, Illinois. 


The student chapter of the Institute 
of Traffic Engineers completed their 
first semester since being activated with 
the publishing of a report on the cam- 
pus area's traffic problems and some 
possible solutions. This report was 
based on actual facts obtained in sev- 
eral large scale traffic surveys taken by 
the group in November, 1947. The 
recommendations called for an imme- 
diate and a long range plan of action 
to be taken by the L ni\eisit\ and the 
twifi communities. 

This report was sent to President 
Stoddard and other I niversity and city 
officials. It is hoped that some consid- 
eration will be given to these recom- 
mendations by the officials concerned. 

Several recommendations were given 
for the immediate program of action. 
One was the establishment of a s\stem 
of one-way streets with the following 
streets being set up for one-way traffic 
in the direction indicated: Daniel, west; 
Ch.ilmers. east; Illinois, east; Cali- 



t'oniia. west; Oregon, east; Nevada, 
west; Sixth, south; and Fifth, north. 
This action woidd permit parking on 
both sides of the street. Also recom- 
mended was the restriction of parking 
to one side only along the east side of 
Mathews, the east side of Romine from 
Springfield to Main, and the south side 
of Springfield from Wright to Math- 
ews. Other suggestions for the immedi- 
ate program were as follows: The 
restriction of parking along the streets 
within twenty feet of all cross-walks; 
the changing of the position of the stop 
signs at Wright and Springfield, mak- 
ing Springfield the through street ; and 
the establishment of m ore off-street 
parking facilities. 

The long range program contained 
the following suggestions: widen Green 
street to a four-lane divided thorough- 
fare from Wright to Goodwin ; widen 
Gregory drive; widen Springfield from 
Wright to Goodwin ; and the establish- 
ment of still more off-street parking 

An interesting talk on Traffic Safety 
and Elducation was gi\en to the chapter 
on January 28 by Mr. ^Vlathew Sielski, 
director of the Safet\' and Traffic Engi- 
neering department of the Chicago Mo- 
tor club. A dinner was held in the lUini 
Union for Mr. Sielski and those mem- 
bers who were able to attend. 


The University of Illinois Electronics 
club is the newest technical organiza- 
tion on the campus. It was formed last 
spring by a group of students and fac- 
ulty members who are interested in the 
practical side of electrical engineering 
and electronics. The purpose of the 
club is to provide power, laboratory 
space and instruments for the use of 
any interested student or faculty mem- 
ber of any department of any college 
in the University. Work on personal 
projects is encouraged and, whenever 
possible, technical assistance is supplied. 
Occasionally, program meetings are pre- 
sented which feat u r e one or more 
speakers who talk about subjects not 
ordinarily taught in the regular classes. 

The originators of the idea were \lr. 
Milton R. Crothers, an instructor in 
electrical engineering, and Mr. Ernest 
E. Overby, a senior in the communica- 
tion option of electrical engineering. 
Mr. Crother is the faculty sponsor and 
adviser. Mr. Overby was the first presi- 
dent of the club. 

The club has met several times dur- 
ing the summer session and the fall 
semester of 1947 on a trial basis to 
determine the interest of the student 
body. Since interest has been sustained 
and attendance has increased, a petition 
for recognition and approxal has been 

Anyone, student or faculty member. 

who has an amateur interest in things 
electric or electronic is welcome to at- 
tend. There are no dues, involuntary 
assessments or expenses except for hand 
tools, parts and supplies which each 
person must supply for his own use. 
Meetings are planned for Tuesda\' eve- 
nings from 7:00 p. m. to 10:00 p. m. 


The semi-annual initiation and 
banquet of Eta Kappa Nu, electrical 
engineering honorary, was held on the 
evening of January 7, 1948. The fol- 
lowing thirty-nine men were admitted 

to membership: D. G. Ban- 

gert, L. E. Brennan, K. R. 

Brunn, R. H. Brunner, (i. 

M. Burgwald, G. L. Clark, 
j^ E. K. Conner, B. L. Cordrv, 

Y J. M. Del Vento, F. J. Dill, 

F. Dunn, (. y. Du Rapau, 
^L L. Embree, E. W. Ernst, R. J. 
Fahnestock, J. E. Farley, F. P. Green, 
H. L. Johnson, R. L. Jones, R. G. 
Knowles, T. E. Kurtzer, R. G. Lakin, 
R. E. Lepic, Ed Lovick, T- R. Ma.ssev, 
M. R. McCrarv, F. J. Ocnaschek, A. 
G. Peifer, W. E. Powers, C. M. Rieker, 
J. A. Saloom, W. A. Schaaf, D. K. 
Schaeve, R. C. Schneider, J. H. Schus- 
sele, H. B. Scott, L. H. Swange, N. H. 
Tarnoff, and L. E. Wolaver. 

The guest speaker at the banquet was 
Paul N. Landis, professor of English, 
who discussed his views of the "Human- 
ities" in an engineering education. Fol- 
lowing the speech, the next semester's 
officers were elected and installed. 

The new officers are: CJranville G. 
Kemp, president; James H. Schussele, 
vice-president ; Edward W. Ernst, re- 
cording secretary; Charles W. Studt, 
treasurer; Edward Lo\ick, Jr., 
"Bridge" correspondent. 


Twent\-nine seniors and twenty- 
eight juniors were initiated into Pi Tan 
Sigma, national honorary fraternit\' for 
mechanical engineers. They were hon- 
ored at a banquet at the 
I niversit\' cUib following 
fc:^\ the initiation, Januarv 21, 
|^\ 1948. 

Seniors initiated were: 
James C. Adair, Henry S. 
Bieniecki, Roy K. Cannon, 
Richard L. Davis, Kenneth A. Ebi, 
Harold J. Farrar, Charles F. Fry, Wil- 
liam K. Haebich, James G. Haller, 
Thomas B. Harker, Carl P. Hendrick- 
son, Richard F. Johnson, Alfred L. 
Kellington, Ivan J. Law, Gordon E. 
Martin, Robert C. Menken, Walter 
H. Merker, Lawrence S. Monroe, Rob- 
ert S. Plumb, Daniel W. Porter, Homer 
R. Ri/iier, John O. Roeser, Earl Ci. 
Ruescli, Robert S. Smith, Elmer R. 
Steiner, Walter R. Stiles, Mar\in L. 

Tratner, Robert E. Wilson, and Erwin 
E. Ziemann. 

Juniors initiated were: (jeorge A. 
Becker, William A. Berg, Harold I. 
Blotner, Clarence L. Brown, Charles 
L. Carll, John R. Cushman, Frederic 
T. Fariss, Joseph A. Grimmer, Morris 
Henderson, Leon R. Henry, John C. 
Hug. Richard R. Hunter, Robert L. 
Hunter, Stuart J. Johnson, Charles A. 
Lessing, Richard Ling, Lloyd M. Lund- 
quist, Wilbert H. Morgan, John J. 
Parry, Bernard A. Peskin, Chester M. 
Peterson, Joe J. Poczatek, Leslie E. 
Roby, Donald E. Taylor, George P. 
Taylor, James R. Tucker, Renso J. 
Vannelli, and Robert J. Wagner. 

Officers elected for the spring se- 
mester are: (jerald Geraldson, Jr., 
president; Robert C. Menken, vice- 
president; Charles A. Lessing, corre- 
sponding secretary; Robert S. Plumb, 
recording secretary; Jerome L. Fox, 

Following the banquet. Dr. Harry 
J. Fuller of the LTniversity botany de- 
partment gave a talk on Peru and 
Bolivia. He illustrated his talk with 
colored slides. 


On the e\ening of January 13, 1948, 

the University chapter of Sigma Tau, 

all-engineering honorary, held a smoker 

at McKinley foundation to which fort_\'- 

six prospective pledges were 


John S. Crandell, professor 
of highway engineering and 
faculty adviser of Sigma Tau, 
told the rushees some interest- 
ing facts about the history of 
the organization. The initiation banquet 
was held on the evening of January 27, 
1948, in the Inman hotel. H. E. Bab- 
bitt, professor of sanitary engineering, 
was the guest speaker. 


Have you seen alcohol? 
Kerosene him last night, 
But he ain't benezene since. 
Gasolined against a lamp post and took 
a naptha. 


Another item tor the "'Fime Brings 
All Things" department: For the infor- 
mation of all concerned, word got 
around that The Illinois Technograph 
had a Women's Page Fashion News 
Editor. It was news to us, too, but for 
the benefit of all our married readers 
and women engineers who are interested 
we will keep on file the news release 
about modern kiu'tting, that our "Wom- 
en's Page Fashion Xews Editor" 

MARCH, 1948 


U^luieo^iH^..MM^ PIER 

Electric arc furnace just installed at Navy Pier 


by John Fijoiek, E.E. '51 

Modern industry in the shape of 
molten metal being poured from an elec- 
tric arc furnace has invaded the Pier 
campus. Engineering students in the 
foundry laboratories have welcomed the 
invasion and now regard the ne\\'Iy in- 
stalled Pittsburgh Lectromelt furnace 
as one of their prize possessions. 

The furnace ni question is pictured 
on this page and is one of the three- 
phase arc type with each arc being indi- 
vidually controlled. The furnace has a 
melting capacity of 250-300 poiuids for 
each melt and has an acid lining. The 
walls are of high-refractory silica brick. 
It is used for pouring acid steel products 
and to cast iron. Another furnace, which 
is gas-fired, is used for non-ferrous 

Shown in the iilu^rrations are the 
three electrodes each of which is con- 
nected to one phase of a three-phase 
current and lowered into the bath in 
such a manner that an arc is formed 
between the slag and each electrode. 
The heat is generated by electric cur- 
rent passing through the air separating 
the electrodes from the bath. Automatic 

control of this air distance is provided 
for with the new furnace. 

A separate room houses the ele\eii- 
ton transformer which has a maximum 
capacity of .?()0 KVA. Normal opera- 
tion is at 55 volts and SdO amperes. 
Iron is poured at temperatures ranging 
from 2500 to 2700° F. with steel tem- 
peratures going higher to about 2800". 

The outside furnace wall is water 
cooled. Another safety device is a mer- 
cury control for tripping the circuit 
breaker when the furnace is tilted for 

The fin'nace may start with a cold 
charge requiring one to two hours foi' 
melting, and the steel made in this way 
is spoken of as cold-melt electric-furnace 
steel to distinguish it from that result- 
ing from the practice of using a hot or 
molten charge previoush' melted in an 
open hearth furnace and transferred to 
the electric furnace. In the manufacture 
of high-grade steel for tools, the slower 
and more expensive cold-melt method 
is almost always used. 

Instructors R. E. Keruie(i\, secretary 
emeritus of the American FoLuidrymen's 
association, and R. W. Schroeder, super- 
vise the various engineering groups who 
use the furnace in their studies of con- 
trol of materials and processes in making 
castings for construction purposes. 

Let's Do Our Share 

By Siegmund Deutscher, A.E. '50 

East week one iit the Ti t hiiiii/nit'h 
reporters approached the officers of the 
\arious engineering societies for news 
items. The only repl\' he received was 
that there was no news. Yes, for a 
whole month none of the societies had 
any news. The following month was 
taken up by fuial examinations and reg- 
istration which in all probability will 
prohibit any further meetings. The be- 
giiuiing of the new semester will no 
doubt draw out the unacti\ity period 
for a few more weeks. 

Is this how we want to operate at the 
Pier? To start organizations and then 
forget about them? I doubt \ery much 
if that was the idea of those who startetl 

Does lack of student interest cause 
this situation? If so, wh\ ? Inuring the 
past semester a number of students, who 
showed considerable interest, approached 
nie and asked me how they could join 
their \arious organizations. The only 
advice I could give them was to see the 
various officers. 

The advice was next to impossible 
to follow. None of the organizations 
have even attempted to use the office 
space appropriated for them. Yes, they 
do have office space. In fact, they are 
supposed to share the Trchnot/rafili office 
with us. 

I still remember the many difficulties 
Dean Hoelsher went through to get this 
space for us. The executive faculty only 
wanted to allow us to use one-half of 
the space we asked for but Dean Hoel- 
sher pressed for more space, explaining 
that all the engineering societies woidd 
be using the office. But now that we do 
have the space, the Techtiograph is the 
only organization that has used the 
office. In fact, the other organizations 
(Continued on puage 28) 


Siegmund Deutscher, Assl. Kili/oi 
Naomi Sulowav, ,/.va7. Bus. Mt/r. 

iliM rijnlek Niirlicrt Ellmaii 

iiliard ('liciniii/\ l.eonarcl C'liheii 

Onik'ii I.ivermdre. Faiully .Idvi 




for En^neers 

"Merry-go-round" speeds 
telephone dial governors 

Most production lines in Western Electric plants 
follow standard practices, but often it is advan- 
tageous to custom-tailor an assembly line to do 
a specific job better. To control the mass pro- 
duction of delicate telephone dial governors to 
exactmg standards, Western Electric engineers 
designed this "merry-go-round" conveyor with 
its ingenious assembly fixtures. It both simplifies 
tile operation and reduces the time of assemblv. 

Cable at the "Cross Roads" 1^ 

This "Cross Roads" guide plate through which 
pulp-insulated wires are rushing, keeps the wires 
in their proper relative position while being 
twisted into units of 101 pairs before being fash- 
ioned into a telephone cable. The wires passing 
through the guide plate to the flyer strander are 
kept at a uniform tension by means of a torque 
motor and a very sensitive control device at each 
of the 101 supply reels. Designed by Western 
Electric engineers, this mechanism prevents de- 
fects by keeping the wires from being stretched 
as they move along. 

Engineering problems are many and varied at Jf'eslern Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to devise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Electric 


MARCH, 194« 



hi§ IHfh- llunimiivli. li.E. 'tit 
Shirh'ii Smith. #•;.#*. ',10 and lit'rh -Itu-uhHtm. *.»© 

KA1 MOND N. McDonald 

Since practically all ciigiTieering stu- 
dents sooner or later find the letters 
"M.F.." tolloueil by an appropriate niini- 
ber, on tbeir schedule, it seems wise to 
introduce at this time one of the new- 
comers to the department of mechanical 
engineering. Professor Ra\nionil Neil! 
McDonalil is the man. 

"Horn in Denver, Coloiado, in . . . 
well, maybe we'd better not mention just 
when," he began in modest tones. "1 
graduated from the University of Colo- 
rado in 1936, with a R.S. in mechanical 

.After graduation he applied his knowl- 
edge for the (Jates Rubber compan\, in 
their Denver office. The work consisted 
of designing V-belt drives. 

Then, in September of 1936, he went 
to work for the Gulf Oil corporation at 
Port Arthur, Texas. After a year in the 
Lone Star state, he was transferred to 
the company's Cincinnati, Ohio, plant, 
where he was assistant to the plant engi- 
neer for four and one-half \ears. His 
work tiiere was in the maintenance .iiui 
construction division ot the refinerw 

In 1941 he went back to Denver to 
work in the mechanical engineering de- 
sign department of the United States 
Hureau of Reclamation. Through this 
department passed the designs for the 
piping .ind other mechanical equipment 
whicli went into such projects as the 
Parker dam, and the Colorado Big 
Thompson dam. 

When September of 1941 rolled 

aroimd, professor McDonald went back 

to school, but this time on the other side 

of the desk, at Vanderbiit iini\ersit\ in 

(Continued on page IS ) 

FR.\NK \NDF^i:W 

()ut cm the south end ot the campus 
amidst the scattered buildings stands the 
.Agriculture Engineerijig Huilding. Not 
a large percentage ot the students ha\e 
e\ er seen it and fewer yet have ever been 
inside, 'litis building, where "ag" engi- 
neers stud\- how to increase farm prodtu 
tion and improve farm life, also hous(•^ 
the extension agriculture engineers of the 
Iriiversity of Illinois Engineering De- 
liartment. At the mention of the exten- 
sion engineers most "ag" engineers think 

K.VYMONi) McDonald 


of one of the busiest and most well- 
known extension workers, Frank An- 
drew. Seldotii found in his office, he 
spends most of his time flying over the 
state giving lectures and demonstrations 
to Illinois farmers. A graduate of the 
College of Agriculture in 1938 and the 
College of Agricultural Engineering in 
1947, he is a recognized authorit\' on 
rural electrification besides being well 
\ersed on farm equipment. 

Horn in 1914, Frank was brought up 
in Palmyra, Illinois, graduated from the 
Palmyra Comnumity High School, at- 
tended Hlackbinn College in Carlinville, 
and returned to his home aftei' graduat- 
ing from the L'niversity of Illinois in 
193S. It was during his high school 
days thta he acquired his interest in 
e(pii|iment and electrification when he 
used to hook up a gasoline engine so that 
it would nm the washing machine, but- 
( Continued on page IS) 



"Well, >'es, somewhere in the back of 
my mind I always have hoped to get my 
doctor's degree." And right now, Jim 
has a pretty fair start. 

"Jim" is James Honnold, 24 \ears old, 
senior, chem engineering. He will grad- 
uate in June and then begin the real 
ilrive toward the fulfillment of his ambi- 
tion at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. He hopes to acquire an 
assistantship for part-time teaching be- 
ginning next fall. 

From his all-University average of 
4.7. one could justly accuse Jim of much 
hard study, but, somewhere between 
pages of flow sheets and hours of lab, he 
manages an active membership in the 
A. I. Ch. E. Along with that, he be- 
longs to the Y. M. C. A., University 
band, and Wesley foundation. 

Such industry might well be just a 
natural continuation of his busy high 
school days. His full four years of high 
school were spent at Kansas, Illinois, 
where he was a member of the track 
team and played the sousaphone in the 
band. This is in addition to helping 
around the family grain and livestock 
farm and belonging to the 4-H and 
Future Farmers of America. 

During the war, Jim was enrolled in 
the University of Pennsylvania (which, 
incidentally, he didn't like as well as Ill- 
inois) under the A. S. T. P. He served 
nearly three years as a T 5 in Europe 
and was awarded the Hronze Star as 
well as the Combat Infantryman's 

He said he doesn't have much time for 
hobbies — that is, except to go home and 
see "the best little brunette that ever 
was." She is herself a home economics 
graduate from Illinois, and they intend 
to be married during the summer. 

To the wedding, then, w-e send our 
congratulations; to the coming Ph.D., 
our high esteem; and to his success in 
finding an apartment in Massachusetts, 
our rabbit's foot. 


Horizons of Chemistry 

constantly becicon • • 

Dow is deeply interested in colleges and terlniiral schools and maintains 
close ties with them. The very nature of our hnsiness makes this a logical 
course for us to pursue. 

We are producers of chemicals essenlial to industry and apiculture. We 
are developers of plastic materials. We are the pioneer producers of mag- 
nesium, recovering this lightest of all slruclural nielals from ocean waler. 
We are developers of magnesium alloys and methods for their fabrication. 

To carry on this work, research is a necessity and a considerable porlion 
of our efforts and resources are devoted to it as an undevialing poUcy. 

All these activities require trained men — scientists and technicians — 
clieniists and chemical engineers — metallurgists, biologists, physicists, 
entomologists. Dow employs such men in large numbers — keeps an eye on 
them as they emerge from their academic training — gives many of I hem 
special schooling at the Dow plants, according to the jobs they are slated 
to do. 

In peace as well as in war, chemistry is an essential occupation because it 
deals with materials essential to industry and to the health of the nation. 
It is a developing business with horizons that constantly beckon — a 
profession to intrigue any ambitious young man with an eye to the future. 


New York 

SI. Louis 

• Philadelphic 

• Houston • 
Ctiemicat of Con 

, Limited, Toronto, Co 

Typical of its labnratnrv artirillr^, Dow 
recently derrh>f>cd this direct-reading 
speclrtimcler ihnt electronically measures 
concentration uj elements in alloys — auto- 
matically records analyses in 4() seconds. 



M.A.RCH. 1948 



Assoc. Editor 




( )iK- III the fircatest advaiicenieiits towards 
making tlic Collcf^c of Engineering at the 
I niversir\ ot Illinois one of the finest in the 
t()untr\ was put into effect recently. I'ni re- 
ferring, of course, to the questionnaire filled 
out last semester hy all engineers enrolled ni 
electrical enginneering courses. Oddly enough, 
the system was devised solely by electrical en- 
gineering students, and after several revi- 
sions by the head of the electrical engineering 
department, professors, and students in elec- 
trical engineering, it was given the stamp of 
appro\ al and put into use last semester. 

The purpose of the questionnaire was to 
improve the teaching methods used by the de- 
partments, and to make the methods efficient 
and efficacious. This was accomplished by 
.isking questions concerning the ability of the 
professor; asking for comments on text used; 
and \arious other questions. 

I'rofes.sors' and students' attitudes towards 
the questiomiaire were very favorable. The 
students had a chance to really blow their top 
at the professor, text, laboratory procedure 
and assignments. Many profes.sors took a 
great personal interest by tabulating the com- 
ments into favorable and unfavorable cate- 
gories and proceeded to give the results to 
their pre.sent-semester students. It might be 
looked upon as a game with all participants 
emerging as winners. 

The great need for such a system is proven 
by the fact that results of last semester's sur- 
\ey, which were probably compiled no more 
than three weeks ago, were directly respon- 
sible for many improvements, already notice- 
able, in electrical engineering courses. The 
attitude of the instructor has changed; courses 
have been set up with a definite aim in view; 
and, in general, the courses are better or- 

The survey's first opportunity has brought 
about these improvements. It might be well 
to bring to the surface the fact that there are 
bound to be a few inherent flaws in the ques- 

tionnaire. It is, no doubt, not as efficient as 
it could be ; some students, when filling it 
out, thought it was a farce and, not realizing 
its value, proceeded to be facetious in their 
answers. However, suceeding surveys will un- 
doubtedly have cast out many of these evils 
and, as a result, the plan will be running 
smoothing and effectively. Regardless of the 
weaknesses of the questionnaire, the fact re- 
mains that it has brought about improvements 
in the electrical engineering department after 
its first chance. 

Now, if the EE's can do it, why can't the 
ME's, CE's, etc.? There is no reason why 
they can't! The system has shown its worth, 
and as can be seen, its potentialities are al- 
most unlimited. All that remains to be done 
is for the remainder of the engineering stu- 
dent societies to organize, do a little research, 
and promulgate one of their own question- 
naires to be used by the respective depart- 

At present, there are a great number of 
veterans in the College of Engineering. As a 
result, the average age of the engineering stu- 
dent is somewhat higher than at normal times. 
This fact should not be o\erlooked by the 
indi\idual societies contemplating putting the 
plan into effect. The comments and sugges- 
tions received will be those of a more mature 
individvial. (Generally speaking, the average 
student is earnestly seeking an education. 
Comments from students with this attitude 
are invaluable. You will probably find that a 
greater number of students have this per- 
spective now, than in normal times. This 
means the plan should be put into effect by 
all the engineering departments as .soon as 

The worth of the sur\ey has been pioven. 
A gold medal and our hats off to the fore- 
sighted students of the AIEE-IRE, for this 
was the society that sponsored the first sinvey. 
To the other societies that as yet have not in- 
stalled the plan in their respective depart- 
ments, we say: "Do it noii' John Dickerson ! " 



Plastics where plastics belong 

Because of a unique combinafion of chemical, eleclncal, 
and mechanical qualifies, Synfhane laminated plastics can 
be applied to an endless number of practical purposes. 
Moisture and corrosion resistant, light-weight and struc- 
turally strong, Synthane has many collective advantages 
not readily found in any other material. One of the best 
electrical insulators known, Synthane is hard, dense, dur- 
able . . . quickly and easily machined. 
Among the interesting occupations of our type of tech- 
nical plastics are the redraw bobbin and chuck (below) 
used in winding fine denier nylon for women's hosiery. 

Fine nylon filaments can be wound without pulling and 
sticking because of the smoothness of the bobbin. Light 
weight of bobbin and chuck o//ows the spindle to be started 
and stopped faster and with less effort. Greater crushing 
strength of fube permits larger amounts of nylon to be 
wound. This is an appropriate job for Synthane, an inter-, 
esting example of using plastics where plastics belong. 
Synthane Corporation, 1 River Road, Oaks, Pa. 

[ Sl^NtTlAlVE ] 

where Synthane belongs 




Galvanized (zinc-coated) Sheets 
Stay Stronger Longer 

rji 34 YEARS . . . Erected in 1 9 1 3, and 
i\\ covered with heavy-gauge galva- 
nized sheets, this Tennessee con- 
centrating plant of the A/Z Company, 
is still in excellent condition after more 
than 3 decades of service. Painted 
with Gray Metallic Zinc Paint in 1932. 

In building for the future, look 
to the past for proof of a build- 
ing material's strength . . . du- 
rability . . . service. With gal- 
vanized (zinc-coated) roofing 
and siding, you get the strength 
of steel . . . the rust protection 
of Zinc. So for low-cost, long- 
time service, choose the build- 
ing material that's proved by 
TIME itself . . . galvanized 
sheets. Send coupon for infor- 
mation about Zinc and how it 
can help keep your buildings 
and equipment stronger longer. 

•Seal ol Quality" lo 
luide to economy in 


: 2634' 35 E VKocker Dr Chicago 1, lU 


Send me without cost or obligation the 
illustrated booklets I have checked. 

Q Repair Manual on Galvanized Root- 
ing and Siding 
r~l Facts about Galvanized Sheets 

□ Use of Metalhc Zinc Paint to Protect 
Metal Surfaces 



Town State 


( Continued tiiini p.(;zi' 14 ) 

tcr ihuin, tci-il ;;rinilcr. anil f;rinilsti>ni'. 

In l')4(l, till- tarnuTs ot the midwest 
were ralkiiif; about the .spiral farmer ot 
I'alnura, Illinois. That was Frank An- 
il icw. The automatic tractor and con- 
trols on which Frank holds patents 
farmed the old home farm in circles. 
The sii;ht of the tractor operatin;; day 
and night without a driver as the O.O.U 
inch stainless steel control wire guided 
it around the field was commonplace to 
his neighbors. The fact that his spiral 
corn rows were 40 miles long alwa\s 
gave room for neighborly comment. 
Frank operated the J.^O-aci'e configma- 
tion grain and livestock farm until his 
leturn to uni\ersitv work in the fall of 

Recently acti\e ii\ promoting the 
mow curing of hay. mechanical drying 
of corn in cribs, and the use of the silo 
vmloader, he was the first extension 
worker to use the airplane for traveling 
between his lectures. In the past ye.Tr he 
has traveled about 400 hours by private 
plane. He is a member of the American 
Society of Agricultural Engineers. 

RAY McDonald . . . 

( Continued from page 14 ) 

Naslnille. Tennessee. During his sta\ 
theie he was kept rather busy. He taught 
courses in physics, mathematics, and en- 
gineering drawing for the A.S.T.P. : 
thermodynamics, machine design, kine- 
matics, kinetics, internal combustion en- 
gines, and aircraft engines to civilian ami 
V-12 students. In addition, he taught 
basic engineering courses to civilians in 
essential industries in and near \ash- 
\ille, and was head of the mechanical 
engineering laboratory for three years. 

In June of 1047, he resigned as asso- 
ciate professor of mechanical engineering 
at V'anderbilt to come to the heat-power 
di\ision of the mechanical engineering 
department here. 

Professor McDonald is a member of 
the A.S.M.E., the American Society for 
Engineering Education, and Pi Tau 

"I used to like to hunt," he said, 
there hasn't been enough time for 
for quite a while." 


Before I could tell him 1 wasn't that 
rt of a girl, I was. 


I waited for this year 
My heart was filled with fear 
I chose my words, rehearsed 
And then he asked me first. 

— from S. G. Moore. 

Textbooks — Slide Rules 
Drawing Instruments 
Engineering Supplies 

They're all to be found 




L)0 you know that over 90% of all modern bearing requirements can be 
met adequately with the Timken Tapered Roller Bearing? That in this one pre- 
cision mechanism is contained a multiplicity of abilities which when fully ap- 
preciated and properly applied can overcome any bearing condition you ever 
may encounter? 

L)0 you know that the Timken Roller Bearing is more than an anti-frictioa 
bearing; more than a radial load bearing? That it is an all-load bearing — can 
carry, all at once, radial loads, thrust loads, and any combination of them with 
full efficiency and certainty? 

JL/O you know that the Timken Bearing was introduced nearly 50 years 
ago and has undergone constant engineering development and refinement ever 
since? That the Timken-developed process of Generated Unit Assembly produces 
true spherical (convex-concave) contact between the large ends of the rolls and 
the rib or flange of the cone thereby reducing friction and initial wear to a 

minimum; assuring correct alignment of 
the rolls with respect to the races; help- 
ing to distribute the loads evenly through- 
out the bearing; decreasing operating 
temperatures; producing quieter running; 
and last, but not least, assuring that 
when the bearing is properly mounted 
no further adjustment is required? 

Do you know that the special alloy 
steel from which Timken Bearings are 
made was developed in our own metal- 
lurgical laboratories and is produced in 
our own steel plant? That the Timken 
Bearing is the only bearing manufactured 
under one roof from raw material to 
finished product? 

Would you like to know more about 
the Timken Bearing, particularly how 
it can help you in your engineering 
career? Write us. The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio, 

MARCH, 1948 



: (^"ontinucd trnm pa^'' •'^ ) 

ill- tor a compli'tt'ly I'xpi'iula- 

ble beer can has pri-scnted several prob- 
lems. First, the metal that would be in 
contact with the beer must be surfaced 
with some material that would prevent 
rusting of the metal. The beverage, to 
be sure, had the properties that would 
favor metallic oxidation — mois'ure and 
absorbed oxygen. Secondh', the met;,l 
would corrupt the distinguishing Ha\or 
that was so essential to the continued 
sale <if the product. The desired coating 
nuist have the properties of low water 
absorption, non-combustibility, non-tox- 
icity, stability under the action of a 
3.2' i alcohol solution, and still remain 
odorless and tasteless. Polyvinyl chloride, 
one of the earliest plastic materials ob- 
served, was found to possess these re- 
quired physical and chemical properties. 
A thin layer of a gl\ptal alkyti lesin 
(made from glycerine and phthalic an- 
hydride) is applied to the plane surface 
of the steel which will be used to form 
the cylindrical container. This resin 
forms a base to which the vinyl chloride 
resin will adhere. The plastic layer is 
then painted on o\er the base coat and 
baked at an elevated temperature. The 
coated metal sheet is then rolled into 
cylindrical shape and the seams soldered. 

The coating can easily be re- 
moved by slitting and stripping 
the part. 

The metal then witlistaiuls the haid 
knocks of handling while the pohvinyl 
chloride plastic coating (called Keg-lin- 
ing) assures the enduring quality of the 

Polyvinyl chloride is prepared from 
the raw materials of acetslene and 
hydrochloric acid (HCl). An elevated 
temperature in the presence of a catalyst 
is required for the first part of the 
reaction. An equal number of molecules 

of acetylene and h\(irochloric acid an- 
reacted to produce the desired vin\l 
chloride. If excess acid Were present, this 
excess would react with the vin\l chlm 
ide, adding anotlier molecule of IK'I to 
form vinylidene chloride, CH, — CHCI,, 
which is unreactive and will not polymer 
i/.e. The vinyl chloride however, will 
polymerize in the presence of a catahst. 
The number of molecules which will 
enter into the chain, depends upon tin- 
concentration and temperature of the re- 
action, and is variable. The polyvinxl 
chloride molecule has a molecular weight 
ot approximately 12,000— 25,000. 

Plastics ha\e found another in 
the protection of the ice tray of modern 
refrigerators. Since the air inside of a 
refrigerator is always saturated with 
water vapor and the inner surfaces ot 
the trays are in contact with water the 
metal is subjected to conditions highly 
favorable to corrosion. This was former- 
h overcome by plating the iron frame 
b\' dipping it in a hot tin solution. This 
old tray has long been unsatisfactory 
due to the development of cracks and 
scratches, which, combined with the in- 
herent pores and pits of the tin coating, 
permitted the steel framework to rust 
through the coating. Zinc covered the 
foundation more completely, but the 
dull finish was unattractive. 

(Continued on page 22) 






Nafionol Electric 

Products Corporation 
Pittsburgh 30. Po. 

After classes or before the night's 
session with the books, stop in at 







Open 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. 


7-9 11-1:30 5-7 



Succciiful Iclccuits of sK/gic-u/ operations sliow value of television to medical education. 

"Step up beside the surgeon -and watch' 

Not long ago, a radio beam flashed 
across the New York sky — and "car- 
ried" more than 7000 surgeons into 
a small operating room . . . 

Impossible? It was done by television, 
when RCA demonstrated — to a congress 
of surgeons — how effective this medium 
can be in teaching surgery. 

In a New York hospital, above an op- 
crating table, a supersensitive RCA Image 
Orthicon television camera televised a series 
of operations. Lighting was normal. Images 
were transmitted on a narrow, line-of-sight 
beam ... As the pictures were seen the 
operating surgeons «crc heard explaining 
their technitpics . . . 

Said a prominent surgeon: "Television 
as a way of teaching surgery surpasses 
anything we have ever had ... I never 
imagined it could be so effective until I 
actually saw it ... " 

Use of television in many fields — and sur- 
gical education is only one — grows naturally 
from advanced scientific thinking at RCA 
Laboratories. Progressive research is part of 
every instniment bearing the names RCA or 
RCA \ ictor. 

Wlien in Radio City, New York, be sure 
to see tlie radio and electronic wonders on 
display at RCA Exliihition Ilall, 36 West 
49tli Street. Free admi.ssion to all. Radio 
Corporal ion of America, RCA Building, New 
York 20, N. Y. 

Continue your educatioii 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
\-ancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
griiph combinations ) . 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Write todmj to National Rccniitini- Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden. New Jcrscij. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 


MARCH, 1948 



(Continued tioiii pagi- 20) 

Orif iiianufacturcT devoted five years 
ot research to the development of a 
phistic coatiii}; wliicli would adhere to 
the metallic frame and fii\e long cor- 
rosionless service. His recently developed 
product is also resistant to ahrasion and 
at the same time emhoilies a neater ap- 
pearance in the ice-tray compartment. 
Hy apphinfi two coats of this resin o\cr 
a honderite film (which prepares the 
0.4 — 0.8 mil thickness zinc initial coat 
for adhesion to the resin) the manufac- 
turer is assured that no moisture will 
reach the welded steel frame to cause 
unsightly and unsanitary corrosion. 

( )ne of the most recent and most 
interesting additions to the plastic coat- 
ing fanu'l\' is a polymer that is complete- 
ly unaffected by any known acid, base 
or metal (except molten metal and chlor- 
ine under special conditions). Du Pont 
has given this product the trade name of 
Teflon, a contraction of the chemical 
name tetrafluoroeth\lene. Instead of the 
usual carbon-hydrogen bond. Teflon is 
built of carbon-flourine linkages. The 
pohnier never becomes sticky when 
heated to temperatures as high as 700 
degrees Fahrenheit, at which tempera- 
ture the polymer breaks down to the 

uig an entire reaction \ (•>>el out of 
Tclloii IS entirely )irohibiti\e. 

( )nc of its uses as a /coating has been 
reported. In this application the plastic 
was used as a dielectric for electric 
cables exposed to corrosive conditions. 
A glass jacket was applied to the cable 
to form a base to which Teflon has been 
Icjund to adhere. This aiiplication is 
limited to service in which the product 
will not be subjected to anv rough hand- 

In \ iew of the .iiipiiiachiiig shortage 
of most of our common metals, the fu- 
tine use of plastics appears very great 
inileed. Already they are able to use 
plastics in many of the services once 
thought to require only the best of 

First operation of double dip- 
ping process is to immerse half 
of the part. 

This inert plastic found w.'utime ap- 
plication as material for gaskets and cor- 
rosion-proof vaKcs. DifHculty has been 
encountered in attempting to bond Tef- 
lon to metal. Since the material now 
costs $15 per pound, and is estimated to 
drop to one-third of this cost in two 
years, it is obvious that some means of 
making the plastic adhere to metals must 
be discovered. The expense of construct- 


".\Ia\' 1 piint a kiss on yoin' lips?" I 

She nodded her sweet permission. 
So we went to press and I rather guess 
We printed a large edition ! 
* -* -* 

She: When we get married I'm going 
to cook, sew, darn your socks and lay 
out your pipe and slippers. What more 
can any man ask than that? 

He: Nothing, unless he is evil minded. 




^konite research includes 
subjecting short lengths of 
electrical cable to torsion 
tests (pic(urcd above), twist- 
ing them ihrough a spiral arc 
(i( 180° under a heavy load. 

Bending tests, impact tests, 
tests of wear-resistance by 
abrasion — these arc a few of 
die mechanical tests which, 
along with electrical, chemical 
and weather-exposure tests, 
complete an integrated pro- 
gram of performance checks. 
Irom its results comes infor- 
mation which Okonite engi- 
neers translate again and 
a^ain into wire and cable 
improvements that mark 
major advances in the field. 
The Okonite Company, 
Passaic, New Jersey. 

^ ^ ^^ 5INCE 1878 

insulated wires and cables 

See . . . 

Kjeld Abells 

Anna Sophie Hedvig 

MARCH 17-18-19-20 

It's filled with all the popular qualities of a 
thrilling {letcetivc laic, tinged with humor 







Thousands of faniiiies say 
their next coffee-nuiker will 
be ghiss. Why? Because they 
Hke their coffee just right! 
Glass lets you sec and control the strength 
of the brew. Glass never alters flavor, even 
when coffee stands and is reheated through- 
out the day in your home or in a restaurant. 
And you can see at a glance when a glass 
coffee-maker is clean... so your next brew 
will be as rich and amber-clear as the first. 
There are five excellent glass coffee- 

makers on the market today. And everyone 
of them uses Pyrex brand glass |)arts made 
by Corning. The reason? Because Corning 
makes these glass parts to close tolerances, 
with proper sidevvall thickness, of uniform 
high quality. And Corning makes glass that 
can stand heat and cold without breaking. 
Everybody benefits today from Coming's 
knowledge of glass. You get a better cup of 
coffee. Better food cooked in Pyrex ware. 
Better soup processed in Corning glass pip- 
ing. Better vitamins e-xtracted with Corning 

laboratory ware. Better light from bulbs and 
luminous tubes made from Coming's glass. 
In all. Corning makes about 37,000 items 
in glass. Many of them have been applied in 
fields once held by other materials. Glass 
gets into new jobs because Corning uses it 
as a material of imbounded possibilities. 
Perhaps some day, in the business you select, 
glass will be able to cut costs, improve pro- 
cesses, or add to the saleability of your 
product. That's the time to remember us. 
Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 



Research in Glass 

MARCH, 1948 


floviding U/a/kmq Safety 
WITH abrasives/ .a 

Non-slip... /K?/o/-2Vy 

I HE same cHaractemttes of hardness and toughnsM 
which make Alundum abrasive so useful In grinding wheels, 
also give H valuable properties as a wear-resistant and 
non-slip flooring material. 

Alundum Stair and Floor Tiles, for example, provide a 
flat, smooth surface that is non-slip even when wet. And 
they will not wear slippery from foot traffic. There are 
also Alundum Mosaics for use where small tiles are desired 
and Alundum Aggregates to add safety and durability to 
terraijo and cement floors and stairs. 

You will Tnd NORTON FLOORS providing safe walk- 
ways in thousands of buildings the country over Including 
many in leading colleges. Catalog 1935-CP gives the 
full story including sizes and colors. 

NORTON FLOORS are iust another evidence of Norton 
leadership and ingenuity in the field of abrasives. 


Be/if-Manning, Troy. N. V., iJ a Norton Division 











( Coiitiiiucd troni page 1) 

Library, MacMiirray college, jai.k- 
sonville, Illinois. 

Power house, I . .S. Tobacco com- 
paii\', .Nash\ille. 'I'emiessee. 

Factory building ami power iioiise, 
V. S. Tobacco company, Richmond, 
\' \\]iw\\:\. 

|)uiinj; the «ar, the i.onipan\ coii- 
Nti luteil numerous buildings at the ( );ik 
( )r(lnance plant in llliopolis, Illinois; 
at Camp Ellis, and at the (Iranite Cit\ 
engineering depot. The carpenter work 
at the Victory Ordnance plant in 1 )e- 
c.-itur, Illinois, was also handled by the 

I p until the war, the companv had 
an average annual volume of business 
of approximately two million dollars, 
and .since 1942 it has a\eraged from 
three to four million dollars annual vol- 
ume of contracts, all in Central Illinois. 
.Approximately 9i)^/f of all their work 
during the past twelve years has been 
on a firm contract bid basis. 

At the present time the John Fehnley 
company is responsible for two of the 
three new additions to our campus, 
namely the construction of the Elec- 
trical Engineering building and the 
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 
building. Both of these buildings are of 
steel frame construction with reinforced 
slabs and exterior face brick walls, with 
mostly exposed Haydite partitions. The\ 
perform almost all of the items clas.sed 
as "general work" with their own 
forces, including excavation, forms, con- 
crete, masonry, structural steel, and 
carpentry work. Such special skills as 
plastering, terrazzo, glazing, painting, 
and mechanical trades are sublet to 
firms specializing in this type of work. 

The company's standard practice is 
to carry about one young graduate engi- 
neer for development into a job engineer 
or superintendent ; a new man is em- 
ployed usually about every two to three 


Connect 20.<H)0 volts across a pint. 
If the current jumps it, the whiske\ is 

If the current causes a precipitate of 
lye, tin, arsenic, iron slag, and alum, 
the whiskey is fair. 

If the liquor chases the current back 
to the generator, vou'vc got (lood 

-» « « 

"How did you puncture that tire?" 
"Ran over a milk bottle." 
"Couldn't \ou see it?" 
"No, the little runt had it under his 



BRIGHT FINISHING was the problem — and engineers 
ot Crown Cork and Seal Company, Inc., Baltimore, 
adopted a high - temperature method for fusing 
tin to low-carbon strip, with resultant high-polish 
surface, in a continuous production mill. 

Then, to obtain the high temperatures necessary 
for heat-processing, these engineers selected GAS 
and modern Gas Equipment. By directing the heat 
of radiant GAS burners over a concentrated area of 
the freshly-plated strip it was readily possible to 
coordinate the fusing action with the plating 
process to accomplish continuous high-speed pro- 
duction of bright finished strip. 

This typical installation demonstrates the flexi- 
bility of GAS and the applicability of modern Gas 
Equipment for continuous, production-line heat 
processing. Compared with available fuels GAS 
is most readily controlled by simple automatic 
devices; Gas Equipment can be adapted for use 

with existing machinery or incorporated in new 
machinery without radical design changes, or ex- 
pensive supplemental apparatus. 

Manufacturers of Gas Equipment and the American 
Gas Association support continuing programs of 
research designed to assure the most efficient use 
of GAS for every heat-processing requirement. 







MARCH. 1948 


partners in creating 

Engineering leaders for the last 80 years have made 
K & E instruments, drafting equipment and materials 
their partners in erecting the great technical achieve- 
ments of America. So nearly universal is the reliance on 
K & E products, it is self-evident thot every major engi- 
neering project hos been completed with the help of K & E. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

Chemical Analysis of Woman 


ATOMIC WKIOHT — 120 (ap- 


1. Can be t (I u n il \\lu'if\ cr man 

2. ScldDin tijiin<l ill tri-c ami natural 

I'ln SIC.M. rkOI'KRTlKS 
I . .All colors and sizes. 
J. .Always appears in a disguised 

.1. Hdils at niithintr, freezes at any 


4. .Melts when properly heated. 

^. Very bitter if not used correctlw 


1. LxtrenieK aeti\e in the presence 
of man. 

2. ( Treat affinity for gold, silver, and 
other p r e c i o u s metals and precious 

i. Able to absorb expensive food at 
any time. 

4. I ndissolved by liquids, but acti\- 
it.\ is greatly increased with a spirit 

.">. Sometimes \ields to pressure. 

6. Turns green when replaced by a 
better specimen. 

7. Ages rapidly — the fresher \ariet\- 
has a greater attraction. 

8. Highly dangerous and explosive in 
inexperienced hands. 

You Engineers . . . yes, you men of slide-rule distinction. If you multiply 
your supply needs by that constant, "Q" for Quality, what is the reading 
under the hair line? . . . It's 610! 


And what does this mean? Why, of course, that's the location of 


It's the right answer every time. You can't go wrong with equipment and 

supplies from here 




Research simplifies print making 
with development of " Varigam" Paper 

Chemists and physicists make 
important contributions 

Photographic film that has been over- 
exposed or overdeveloped usually means 
a "hard" or "contrasty" negative — too 
much silver is deposited on the high- 
lights in comparison with that in the 
shadows. The opposite effect, a "soft" 
or "thin" negative, results from under- 
exposure or underdevelopment. At one 
time photographers had to stock four or 
five grades of enlarging paper to correct 
for these conditions and get the right 
degree of contrast. 

To eliminate this expensive, unwieldy 
situation, scientists developed "Vari- 
gam" variable contrast photographic 
paper. With "Varigam," the whole 
procedure of getting different degrees 
of contrast is reversed. Instead of using 
several grades of paper, the photog- 
rapher uses only one. He gets variation 
in contrast by of filters that control 
the wave lengths of light reaching the 
paper, thereby getting finer degrees of 
contrast than are otherwise possible. 

The action of "Varigam" depends 
on the ability of certain dyes to extend 
the sensitivity of silver halide emulsions 
beyond the blue and blue-green regions. 
This effect was well known to scientists. 
But "Varigam" has an added feature 
— it gives high contrast in the blue por- 

tion of the spectrum and is also sensi- 
tive to light in the green region, with 
low contrast. 

"Varigam" the work of many men 

The first job was one for the physical 
chemists. Silver halide emulsions, nor- 
mally sensitive to blue light, had to be 
made to give maximum contrast when 
exposed to light in this region. 

It was known that certain dyes would 
extend the sensitivity of the emulsion 
over as far as the infra-red. But they 
were not practical for photographic pa- 
per, being affected by the red safety 
light used in the darkroom. Research by 
chemists showed that certain dyes such 
as l:l'-diethylthiopseudocyanine iodide 
extended the light sensitivity only to 
the green region. And, most important, 
they produced low contrast when used 
in lower-than-normal concentrations. 
When such a dye was combined with 
high-contrast cilver halide emulsion, 
the result was an emulsion that gave 
high-contrast prints when exposed to 
blue light, and low-contrast prints when 
exposed to f;rcc:i light. 

Physieisis Develop Filters 

Physicists made this contrast control a 
reality by preparing sharp-cutting fil- 
ters that allow the user to control his 
printing light selectively. These filters. 

which are attached to the lens of the en- 
larger, range from blue for high con- 
trast to yellow, which cuts out the blue 
almost entirely and gives low contrast. 
In between are eight grades of filters 
with intermediate degrees of blue and 
yellow light transmission. All of the fil- 
ters are made in such a way that neither 
light nor printing time needs to be 
varied as filters are changed, except the 
last two on the blue end. These require 
approximately twice the time of the 

In "Varigam," made by Du Pont, 
chemical science has given the photog- 
rapher new economy and convenience 
in printing, and a degree of contrast 
control more precise than is po.ssible 
with any combination of commercial 

Questions College Men ask 
about working with Du Pont 

What types of training are needed? 

The majority of openings for college graduates at 
Du Pont are in technical work and are usually in 
chemical, physical, or biological research; chemi- 
cal, mechanical, civil, electrical, or industrial 
engineering. Openings are available from time to 
time in other fields, including architecture, ceram- 
ics, metallurgy, mining, petroleum and textile 
engineering, geology, mathematics, accounting. 
law, economics, and journalism. Write for booklet, 
"The Du Pont Company and the College CJradu- 
ate." 2521-C Nemours Building, Wilmington 98. 


More facts about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of America." Mondays, 8 P.M., EST on NBC 

Normal print (center) can be obtained from either a "soft" negative {'uU) cr a "he: 
negative (right), using "Varigam" variable contrast paper. 

M.ARCH, 1948 


NAVY PIER . . . 

(Coiuinui'tl from pagi- \2) 

liavf not even borhficd to pick up tluir 
assigned keys. 

The preceediofr paiafiiapli liriiifis out 
the tact that the iinacti\ity is b.\ no 
means caused by uncooperation of the 
faculty. It is useless and unnecessary to 
try and put tlie blame on anyone. In- 
stead, let us tr\- to remedy the situation. 

In my opinion the best way of doing 
the latter is to t o i ni an engineering 
council similar to that now in progress 
at the I'rbana campus. This will not 
onl.\' help to organize the indi\idual or- 
ganizations, but also bring tlu-m closer 
to each other. To do this I suggest that 
the officers of the various organizations 
come up to our office (Room 354-1) 
and make up a time of meeting. 

Let us not relv entirely on the facult\ 
for our organization. Let us do our 



.•\ Ilea and a t1\- in .-i Hue were 

Said the Hea: "Let us H\." 

Said the Hv: "Let us tlee." 

So thf\ llew tlirough a flaw in the Ifue. 

"W'iiar kind ot noise anno\s an 

"A noisy noise annoys an oyster." 


by Norbert W. Ellmann, M.E. '51 

The Pier staff ot The Illinois Tech- 
nograph is just growing out of its in- 
fancy. We celebrate our third issue b\' 
introducing a man whom we think 
should be mentioned at this time. He- 
cause of his splendid efforts in our 
behalf we were able to form .1 working 
organization and thus begin what we 
hope will be an interesting and instrvic- 
tive section of The Illinois Techno- 
graph. This man is Mr. Ogden Liver- 
more, .M.A., faculty adviser to the Pier 
branch of The Illinois Technograph. 
-\L. l.i\ermore was born in Wellesley 
Hills, Massachusetts. He finished grade 
school and first vear high school in 
Wellesley Hills. His last three years of 
high school were spent at Nicholes Senn 
high school in Chicago. While at Senn, 
Mr. Livermore won first prize for hav- 
ing the best garden of the year. He was 
also assistant business manager of the 
Senn News. Mr. Livermore then went 
to the L'liiversity of Illinois, where he 
received his B.S. degree. After this, Mr. 
Livermore attended evening school at 

Aiiuour Institute (now Illinois Insti- 
tute of Technology) where he took a 
course in welding. He then enrolled in 
,1 business course at .Northwestern I ni- 
\ersity, also in the evening. After com- 
pleting evening school, be enrolled in 
da\' school at Northwestern and received 
his .M.A. degree. 

The first position .Mr. Livermore 
held was in the field of chemistry. He 
then worked in real estate management 
with the Chicago Title and Trust com- 
pany .After that he went on to teaching 
at I'rancis W. Parker school, where he 
taught mathematics, drawing, and gen- 
eial shop. 

During the war .Mi'. Livermore went 
back to chemical work. He worked on 
fluxes for war alloys. He then became 
business manager and instructor at 
North Shore Count\' Dewey school after 
which he accepted his present positiori 
at Navy Pier as an instructor in the 
department of physics. 

Mr. Livermore's most loved hobby is 
working in his garden. He also likes to 
work on machinery and fix odds and 
ends around the house. 

There are no children in the Liver- 
more famih' although Mr. and .Mrs. 
Livermore would like to ha\e about 
three sets of triplets. 

(Continued on page 30) 

Trucks Loading 
Frozen Foods. 

World's Largo.«< ^iii«'k-frerxer Uses 

r I'lVte 0/ the Great Plant 
Bridgcton. N. J. 

Sesbrook Farms— Deerfleld Paclcing Corp. are breaking all records 

'- - for quick-freeiing foods at their 

■ ^.-''^2^*^ff^' ' '"~^^ - gigantic plant near Bridgeton, 

tf^" ^"^^^^^£^5^^" ?*' ^- ■'• '^^^'^ "^ processing as much 
^tfB .^>;,; j'>^'^^^^-r> as a million pounds of vegetables 
li^ ^\<f'^f^' ^t^-*' ■ and fruits a day, 85':'f of which 
t ,^^;--— ^^^^^ -- ' are promptly froien. 

P^S;:::;^--- .^, . *- Their precoollng. qulck-freeiing 

^^wCll'.^^V'^HS^^r.^^BSfe' ' and cold storage operations are 
all handled with Frick Refrigera- 
♦ ion. Storage capacity is over 50 
million pounds. Twelve big Frick 
ammonia compressors, driven by 
motors totaling 3825 horsepower, 
carry the cooling load with de- 

The Frick Graduate Training Course 
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning now 
Its 31st year is approved under the 
. Bill of RioMs. 

rTcc' ■ '" '^"wv' lll j^ r '5'2^g 

Six of Nine Friek 4-Cyl I f| » 1 f %k ^ #R4 W %^ 

Amm. Compressors. F ^# , # \.^9 * ^4*^. ^k».i 

LUFKIN "Peerless" Chrome Clad 
Steel Tapes 

Rough, tough measuring 
work can't hurt the Lufkin 
"Peerless" Chrome Clad Steel 
Tape. Jet black morkings ore 
always easy to read. Sturdy steel 
line is covered with satin smooth 
chrome that resists rust and will not 
crack, chip, or peel. For free catalog 
MICH., New York City. 

roj9 AccunAeir 



He's a Square D Field Engineer. . . 

his full-time job is working with industries of 
every kind and size in finding "a better way 
to do it." He talks less about theory, more 
about proven practice. He has a tremendous 
amount of actual experience to back him up. 

Through a staff of such Field Engineers 
located in more than 50 offices in the United 

States, Canada and Mexico, Square D does 
this three-fold job: Designs and builds elec- 
trical distribution and control equipment in 
pace with present needs — provides sound 
counsel in the selection of the right equipment 
for any given application — anticipates trends, 
speeds development of new methods and 

If you have a problem in electrical dis- 
tribution or control, call in the nearby 
Square D Field Engineer. He makes a lot of 
sense in finding "a better v/ay to do it." 

For many years ADVERTISEMENTS SUCH AS THIS ONE have appeared regularly in leading business 
magazines. Their primary purpose is to build acceptance for Square D Field Engineers, practically 
all of whom come to us from leading engineering schools such as yours. 


M.ARCH, 1948 


NAVY PIER . . . 

(Coiitimii-il trom page 28) 
The I'iiT staff nuMiibers of thi- 1 ccli- 
noKiaph have come to know Mr. Lixt-r- 
inori- as a personal trlciid. W'e lia\e 
found him willing to help \\hene\er 
help was needed. At this time we would 
like to express our gratitude and appre- 
ciation to Mr. Liverniore for his inval- 
uable counsel and assistance in helping 
us tret starteil. 


by Richard Choronzy, M.E. '51 

Take it from Russell Pabst, there's 
no place like good old Chicago. Russ 
can testify to that, as he spent a year 
overseas in Japan while ui the Army 
Air Corps. 

"The thing I missed most of all was 
the sight of our beautiful Chicago wom- 
en. Japan just can't compare with Chi- 
cago." That was all he would say on 
the subject of Japan. From there on, it 
was all engineering. 

Russ first began to think of engineer- 
ing as a career in his freshman year at 
Harrison high school. After graduating 
in Januar\-, 1944, he decided to go to 
work, meanwhile going to school during 
evenings. He attended Illinois Institute 

ot Technolog) for :\ slioi't penoil ol 
time; however, the Arnn had otlui 
plans lor him. He entered the Armv 
carK in I94S, and after his basic train- 
nig, left the states for Japan. Russ was 
discharged in December, 1946, after 
spending twenty months in the Army. 

In l""ebruar\, 1947, just two months 
after his discharge, he enr(dled in gen- 
eral engineering at .\a\y Pier. Cur- 
rently' he is a sophomore in mechanical 
cniiineering, having changed his course 
this semester. He is \ery much inter- 
ested in designing and intends to work 
in that field after he graduates. 

Russ has many outside interests in 
addition to his school work. His out- 
standing hobbies are stamp collecting, 
photograph},', and writing poetr\'. He 
enjins listening to classical music and 
has a large collection of Wagner record- 
ings. He also is an a\id baseball fan, 
football expert, and boxing authorit\ 
(all this and engineering, too!). If 
worse comes to worse, Russ can alwa\s 
write poetry. 

Father — "When I was your age I 
used to go to bed with the chickens. " 

Son — "Well, dad, times haven't 
changed much. " 

Here's to the girl who gives, 
And does not sell. 
Here's to the boy who takes. 
And does not tell. 

Silent Switches- 
No More Clicks 

1 II cool and i|uench the arc of a new 
lO-ampere, silent light switch, there is 
hydrogen gas in the "button." This also 
prevents oxidation of the mercury when 
the circuit is broken. 

The mercury in these switches is con- 
tained in a metal enclosure, which con- 
sists of mercury to mercury contacts en- 
closed in two special alloy disks 
that are glass-sealed nn .i ciT,imic l)ar- 

The new mercur\' switch recently de- 
veloped by the (ieneral Electric Com- 
pany, assures its users of silent, smooth 
operation for an extremely long time. It 
has been tested for a half-million "makes 
and breaks." 

The little child was sitting ilemurely 
on the couch, watching her mother 
smoking a cigarette. Her little nose was 
wrinkled and in her pale blue eyes there 
\\as an expression of childish disillusion- 
ment. Finally unable to stand it any 
longer, she burst out in her quavering 
falsetto, "Mother, when in hell are \ou 
going to learn to inhale?" 

"Thish match won't light." 
"Washa matter with it?" 
"I don't know. It lit all right a mi 
ute ago. " 

— Jester 






The CO-OP 

Green and Wright 

Phone 6-1369 



Tapping a Waterfall 





Design anil Ijuilil a liydro-tur- 
ne to meet exacting demands of 
capacity, head and horsepower . . . 
that's just one of thousands of ab- 
sorbing problems tackled and solved 
by Ailis-Chalmers engineers. 

A-C probes every phase of 
science and industry — electronics, 
hydraulics, processing, metallurgy 
. . . contributes important new ma- 
chine advancements to almost every 
)asic industry. 

What better place couiil you 
find to develop your engineering 
talents! What better chance to grow 
in vour chosen field. 






Write for Book No. 60aS, 

outlining A-C'( Groduot* 

Training Course. 

Allis-Cholmeri Mfg. Co., 
Milwaukee 1,Wi>con<in 

MARCH, 194S 


PROBLEM — You are designing a machine which 
includes a number of electrical accessories any one 
of which can be turned on by means of a rotary 
switch. For reasons of assembly and wiring this 
switch has to be centrally located inside the machine. 
Your problem is to provide a means of operating the 
switch from a convenient outside point. How would 
you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER — Use on S.S.White re- 
mote control type flexible shaft to connect the switch 
to its control knob. This arrangement gives you com- 
plete freedom in placing both the switch and the 
control knob anywhere you want them. That's the 
way one manufacturer does it in the view below of 
port of the equipment with cover removed. 

This is just one of hundreds of remote control and power 
drive problems to which S.S.White flexible shafts provide 
a simple answer. That's why every engineer should be 
familiar with these "Metal Muscles'" for mechanical bodies. 

•Trademark Req. U. S Pat. Off. and elsewhere 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for asking. Write today. 



DIPT. C, 10 lAST 40lh ST.. NCW TORK 16. N. T. 


0>it 0^ /liHVtCyii A AAA 1iuCu4t^ia( S»tcnfiti.iM 

^ I .\ I I.M l-.\ I 111 rill'. (lU .M.K.vllll'. \lA\Ai.l \II-..N r, 

ik( ri..\ ri().\, KTi'., KKoriuKU in' the .\( t.s (if con- 
.i;k,s.s ok ai'(;lst 24, i9u. a.vd m.\r(ii 3, i9,!.i. 

for October I, 1947. 

(. ouiity 01 I hanipaiKU j 

Ik-fore nie, .'l iiol.'irv imlilic in and for the State anri County afcn'c- 
s.iiil. personally appeared Koljert Johnson, who, havinK been duly 
-worn according to law, deiioscs and says that he is the business 
manager of the Illinois Tecnnonraph, and that the followins is, to 
the best of his knowledKe an<l belief, a true statement of the owner- 
ship, niananenieiit anil the circulation, etc., of the aforesaid publica- 
tiiin for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of 
■ViiKiisl J4. 1912. as anientled by the Act of .March I, i9.i.i, embodied 
111 s<rtH-ii .S.?7, Postal Laws and Regulations, priiited on the reverse 
i.t thiv Inrrn, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, man- 
aKing editor, and business nianaKers are: Publisher, Illini PublishiuK 
Company, 725 South Wrikdit Street, Champaign, Illinois: 

Editor, (leorge Toster, Crliana, Illinois. 

Business Manager, Robert Johnson, I'rbana. llliiii.iv 

1. That the owner is the Illini Publishing C.inii..iMv. ., ,„.u|.infil 
.Miporation, whose president is C. A. .Moycr of L', Illni.a-, :ui.l 
whose secretary is .Manning 1). .Seil of Champaign, IlUnois. 

.1. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other .sccurily 
h^-lders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of 
lionds, mortgages, or other securities are none. 

4. That the two |..Li.,« luxi .il.ove, giving the names of the 
itwiiers, stockholiU-rs. .mil ~<-(init\, if any, contain not only 
the list of stockhol.l. t s .iml s.^uiiiv ln.Mers as they appear upon the 
liiioks of the coni|i.iii> Imt al-n, ni i,i-es where the stockholder or 
vecurity holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee 
or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corpora- 
tion for whom such trustee is acting, is given: also that the said 
two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge 
and lielief as to the cii-cumstances an<l conditions under which stock- 
holders ;ind security holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
cninpaiu as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other 
than that of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no rea.son to 
ln-lieve that any other person, association, or corporation has any 
interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities 
tlian as so stated by him. 

ROBERT A. JOHNSON, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this .10th day of January, 194X. 

MARCJAKliT E. CAIN, Notary Publii 


for the finest gifts 
beautifully gift wrapped 

You May Still Subscribe 

to the last 4 issues of the year 

for only 75c 






lasts . . . 

for 48 years photography has preserved this passing scene . 

Yet today, as a record, it's as complete and accurate as ever. 
Photography lasts . . . and because it lasts, has great usefulness to 
business, industiy, and the professions: 

Demonstrate a product, tell a sales story, in motion pictm-es— its 
appeal and showmanship stav fresh, its delivery always "letter perfect." 

Reproduce a blueprint, a specification sheet, a production chart on 
Kodagraph Paper— its definition stays crisp, its nsefidness is prolonged. 

Photograph an accident scene, an operation, a constniction project— 
eveiy detail remains accurately, lastingly fixed. 

File contracts, correspondence, cancelled checks on Recordak microfilm — 
they "stay put" in fixed order, and cannot be altered without detection. 

All this vou can bring about because photography lasts. Because it 
docs . . . because of its other usefid characteristics . . . vou can do even 
more. For examples, write for "Functional Photography." It's free. 

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 

TlicocJorc RnoKcvcIt on tour durinn the 1900 Presidential campaign. 

Functional Photography 

is advancing business and industrial technics 



for each. Genera/ Electric has assignments to his liking 

Cmrral Electric is vol one Inisiness, but a/i or^mtzatimi in C J itlaiits in 16 states. Graduates of American colleges 

of many businesses, ranging from the building of giant and universities are finding that General Electric offers 

turbines at Schenectady to the molding of plastics in opportunities to all degrees of specialists, all sorts of 

Pittsfield. The 16^.000 people of General Electric ivork enthusiasms, all kinds of careers. 


As the result of its research in nucleonics, General Electric 
was asked by the Government in 1946 to take over operation 
of the giant Hanford Works, one of the major units of the Man- 
hattan Project. With this development, and with the construction 
ot both a new Atomic Power Laboratory and a new Research 
Laboratory at Schenectady, opportunities in all phases of nuclear 
research have increased enormously. Herbert C. Pollock (left), 
one of the first scientists to isolate U-235, works now with 
such electron accelerators as the Betatron and S\ nchrotron. 


General Electric is the largest molder of finished plastics 
parts in the world. It has also played a large part in the 
development of silicones, new chemical compounds from which 
a whole new industry is springing. Developments like these 
have meant unprecedented opportunities for chemists and 
chemical engineers at General Electric. Dr. J. J. P\ Ic, graduate 
in chemistry at British Columbia and McGill, became director 
of the G-E Plastics Lalxiratories at the age of 29. 


For good reason. General Electric Electronics Park has been 
called the "Greatest Electronics Center in the World." Its 155 
acres look like a campus. Its laboratories, shops and production 
lines are the most modern of their kind. It's a Mecca for men 
whose attentions perk up at the sight of a circuit diagram — 
men like Dick Longfellow, who has worked his way up through 
television and high-frequency assignments and is today section 
engineer in charge of ground radar equipment. 




JUN 29 1948 





Ipiil, l!)fr^25 Cents 



3Modern Medicine Men 

Tlie iiKiilrrn lrf-alm<-iit oC <Ji:^<-a.*e involves inan> factors — 
among wliir-li clicniolliciapy hfcoriies more vital everv day. 
Ill the treatiiD-iit r)f disease and disahling alleri;ies. medicines s\ntliesized Ironi organic clu-micals 
ha\e replaced many of the less s|iecilic medicinal agents of |iast gen<-ralions. 

Sncli ineili<'inals as (he sulfotiamides. penicillin, streptomvein. anli-liislaminc^ and aspirin, 
either comfort the patient or itiakc the control of his illness far more ccrlain and effective. In eacli 
ease the liroaci a\ailaliilil> of these drugs has hi-en made 
possible liy the d<'\elo|imenl of s\nthetic organic chemicals 
\vhi<-h are necessarx to their manufacture. 

(larhide and (larlxin ( Ihemicals has pioiiccn-d in s\ nllie- 
si/ing and producing, on a large scale, depeiidalile organic 
cliemicals. Our technical representatives are well ipialilied 
to help vou make the liest use of theiri in the de\ el(>|imeMl 
of your prixluot. 



.1 ftarlinl list nf our rliriniinis, noiv ronsiilrrrtl linsir In llir plmnnn- 
rriitiiiil hiiliislrs. iiuhiilrx tlii'iilmhnlx: ini'thannl. ftliiiiitil. iiml isii/irn/iriiii'h 
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iKi'iiiiir: rllivh'ni' ilii hlnriilr: "( .iiili<tii<i.\" iimiiiniinils: iiri'tixiirlii- fstrr>: 
iinil llir rthiinoldiiiinrs for s/inijii iiifdrniiiliim mi any nf lliixr inulirinls. 
llii'ir rliriiiiinl iinil physiriil prnprrtifs. anil llirir rriii lirilv. rail nr iirilr 
our nfiirisl nfficr/iir ''Svnthrlir Or/tanic Chcmiials," hmikli't li. 

Unit of Union Carbidm and Carbon Corporation 

30 East 42nil Street QS New York 17. N. Y. 

k c.fC.& c.c.c. 

No . . . there never was a valve this 
hig. But if all valves in this 
refinery were one valve, this picture 
would be no great exaggeration. 

Today, with wages and material 
i-osts the highest ever, it pays 
management to think about valves 
collectively, and keep the same 
sharp eye on valve maintenance 
costs that they do on large unit 


valve is insignificant, but multiplied 

by thousands, it is a serious drain 
on oj)erating budgets. 

JENKINS BROS, helps management 
meet this problem. First, by build- 
ing extra endurance into Jenkins 
Valves, making them the longest- 
lasting, lowest-upkeep valves that 
money can buy. Second, with advice 
from Jenkins Engineers 
on any question of 
proper selection, instal- 
lation, or maintenance. 

That's why, for new 

installations or replacements, alert 
management relics on Jenkins qual- 
ity and engineering for lowest valve 
costs in the long run. Sold tlirouglt 
leading Indiislrial Dislribulors. 

Jenkins Bros., 80 White St.. New York 13; Bridfcporl, 

Conn.; Allania; Boston; Philadelphia; Chicago; Sao 

Francisco. Jenkins Bros,, Ltd.. Montreal. 



iiiiig diagrams aad descrif 

s a .;.'/■ 

ions v\ 


/'If ^ J,- '■! ' HI 

layouts with complete rccoi 


'11 < 

It - r ■ , • 

lection and location in the 

liiiK. r 


V ;i -../Mr/r -.alve U'lu-rc for best fi 

rf,., iiiain 


request. Write JENKINS 



White Strc 

t, NcM York IS, N. Y. 




Types, Sizes, Pressures, Metals tor Every Need 


Tape Recorder 

Itii •l»hn IHrli. K.K. ' l» 
Uvrh Miiz«-r. K.K. '.lO 

Kvii Mflfiran. M.K. '!» 

The ili-M-ldpiiH'iit aiul pciti-ctioii of a 
\()icc-ai:ti\ atcil instantaneous start-stop 
clutch nicchanisni, now available as op- 
tional equipmriit on aru .Mat;nctapc 
Recorder*, has been announccil h\ the 
Magnephone Division of Anipliliei' Cor- 
poration of America. 

Activated by the voice of the speaker, 
singer, or other preselected sounds, the 
voice-clutch equipped Magnetape Re- 
corder continues to record as long as 
the sound is maintained, and for ap- 
proximately five seconds thereafter — to 
compensate for any pause. Actually, the 
time the recorder will operate after the 
sound has ceased depends on the length 
of time the speech or music has been 
going on, and on its volume. Thus, the 
instrument's period of expectation in- 
creases with the increased possibility of 
additional sounds following. 

Operating on the principle of sound 
being con\erted into electrical impulses 
through the microphone, which is then 
amplified and fed into a rectifier, the 
voice activated a special control circuit 
which operates through a special clutch 
arrangement to provide instantaneous 
control of tape movement. 

The sensitivity of the voice-clutch 
may be manually regulated by manipu- 
lation of the instrument's recording vol- 
ume control to match the normal vol- 
ume of anv voice. This also serves to 

pre\ent activation of the .Magnetape 
Recorder by extraneous room noises. 

The addition of the clutch mechan- 
ism on a Magnetape Recoider results 
in a highly convenient automatic dictat- 
ing machine. It tremendously increases 
the recording period of a reel of mag- 
netic tape, since the recorder operates 
only while the sound continues. .And 
reels of magnetic tape ma\- be used over 
and over through a unique erasing proc- 
ess which completely erases previoush 
recorded material while the new record- 
ing is being made. Transcribing of dic- 
tated material by a typist is simplified 
by a remote control switch for instan- 
taneous start and stop. 

Instantaneous voice activation of the 
Magnetape Recorder makes the instru- 
ment ideally suited for any regular, 
occasional, or intermittent sound record- 
ing requirement. Application as widely 
diversified as telephone monitoring, con- 
fession recording, studies of animal and 
nature sounds, etc., will find this voice- 
activated start-stop recorder the perfect 

Air Fuel Ratio Controller 

Complete temperature and combustion 
control systems for large industrial fur- 
naces now include a new air-fuel ratio 
controller. This device can control air- 
fuel ratios to any pre-set proportions. 
The main new feature of this device is 
that it operates through electronic cir- 
cuits and thereby eliminates the use of 
costly hydraulic pipe systems. The ratio 
may be pre-set to vary with \oliMne or 
any other standard such as time, pres- 
sure, etc. 

Tape recorders can be equipped 
with sound-activated start-stop 

Phase Contrast Microscopy 

.A new, simplified method of phase 
contrast microscop\' was recently demon- 
strated at the National Cancer Institute 
in Washinngtonu, D. C, where it was 
generally agreed to be one of the most 
important developments in the field of 
microscopy in over 50 years. Developed 
b\- the Hausch and Lomb Optical com- 
pany, Rochester, New York, it consists 
of optical and mechanical accessories that 
can be fitted to the standard laboratory 
microscope as well as to the more com- 
plex models. 

Contrast nucroscojiy in itself is not 
new but previous methods of application 
necessitated either killing or distorting 
the action of the specimen with stain or 
having onh' black and \vhite contrast. 

The phase contrast method, however, 
eliminates any treatment that may hin- 
der the action of the specimen ami pro- 
vides all of the tone gr;iduation in the 
contrast range. 

Phase contrast microscopy optically 
utilizes the differences in speed at which 
light travels through substances of vari- 
ous densities in the specimen by trans- 
forming the resulting phase shifts in the 
light wa\e fronts into differences of 
briglitness. The \arious tone gradua- 
tions of the structure are brought to 
focus by a lens system which produces a 
sharply defined magnified image that can 
be reproduced on a photographic plate. 

The new accessories used consist of a 
special condenser as.sembly, a series of 
objective lenses ranging from 10 to 97 
power magnification, and a miniature 
auxiliary telescope. The condenser as- 
sembly contains a rotary mechanism 
housing several annular stops that con- 
trol illumination on the specimen. The 
objectives are mounted in a rotatable 
turret to provide rapid change from low- 
est to highest magnification power and 
are fitted with a ring-like elevation that 
correspond to the diaphragm stops in the 
condenser. This eliminates partially dis- 
assembling the microscope to increase or 
decrease magnification power. 

For centering the patterns, a small 
auxiliary microscope is used in the micro- 
scope's draw tube in place of the regu- 
lar eye piece. 

The development of phase contrast 
microscopy is a definite step forward in 
the field of microscopv. According to 
Dr. Kurt J. Heinicke, Rausch and Lomb 
scientists, its scope and probable effect on 
health, nutrition and industrial processes 
is practically unlimited for it will prove 
of distinct value in microscopic studies 
ranging from sewage disposal to atomic 
radiation research. 

Spectrophotometer Aids 

The recording spectrophotometer has 
been put to use as an aid in locating hit 
and run drivers. It can easily distin- 
guish 2,000,000 different colors." Exam- 
ination of a suspect's car and comparison 
with paint spots left on the scene lead 
to positive identification of the guilty 

The FBI maintains a standard file to 
aid in identification of the make of car 
involved. Weathering and other corro- 
sive factors also determine the final an- 


PATTERNS in Soap set this Pattern in STEEL . . . 

Chemists and Engineers 
Team-Up for Progress 

at P AND G 

Here's an example of research tliat led to the engi- 
neering development of a new factory process. 

The properties of a finished bar of soap depend on the 
polymorphic form or forms in which the soap molecules 
have crystallized. For instance, the comparison of the 
x-ray diffraction powder diagrams to the left illustrates 
that one soap can be prepared in at least four different 
polymorphic forms or phases. These different forms vary 
in physical properties such as plasticity, rale of solution in 
water, and ease of lathering. 

Thus, to make a bar of soap with desirable properties. 

it is necessary to control both the phase composition anJ 
the chemical composition of the final product. 

Research findings of this kind at Procter & Gamble 
are translated into designs for large-scale factory proc- 
esses. The picture at the right shows a new type of factory 
process in which conditions are controlled to produce bars 
of soap of the desired crystalline form or phase. 

Design, development and construction of this me- 
chanical equipment called for close cooperation between 
chemists and engineers — scientific teamwork that sets a 
pattern for progress. 


Cincinnati 17, Ohio 

\PRIL. I94S 

In the electriral inanufarturing 
iiidiistrv, it tak<-s an cntiinccr to 
sell, lie must lie prcpan'il not 
onh lo explain tlic IValiirrs. ron- 
sliuction and <lcsii,Mi of liis pro( 
net, l)nt must l>c able lo apply 
it as well. He should foresee 
operating prohlenis of his cus- 
tomer and be able to explain 
how the apparatus works under 
every condition. 

For example, at West inghouse: 

APPARATUS SALESMEN... are responsible for the sales of 

all \\ estinghuusfproduetstoagroupofregulareustoniers. 

PRODUCT SPECIALISTS . . . are experts on specific 
iNpes of equipnienl; they know and can demonstrate 
how the motor, switchgear or other apparatus works. 

DIVISION SALES ENGINEERS . . . are specialists cover- 
ing broad lines of prodiiels such as steam equi|)inenl. 

radio apparatus and are experts in its application. 

INDUSTRY SALESMEN . . . keep abreast of changing 
developments in specific industries, such as textile, 
steel, petroleum . . . and formulate plans to maintain 
the advance position of Westinghouse in these fields. 
Your sales opportunities with Westinghouse are as 
broad as industry itself. Wherever power is applied, 
there's need for Westinghouse equipment. G10004 

This is lull one of llii- in.Tiiy oppor- 
tunities open in tin* rlrrtrieal firUl. 
There are many others — in on^ineer- 
inj;. research and rnainifaeluriiip; at 
\\ eslin^honse. He^in phins for your 
fiiluir liv seiuhn^ today for your free 
copy of "rinding Your Place in 



To ohtain copy of "Finchng Your I'hiee in 
nient Olticer of your university, or mail llii 

The Distrirl Educntiimiil i'.oordinahir 
If estinghiiuse Elnlrii- ('orporation 
20 N. U nrker Drive, P. <>. Box B. Zone W 
Chicafio 6, Illinois 

iduslry", consult I'lace- 
I'oupon to: 






George R. Foster Editor 

Ed Witoit Assoc. Editor 

John Dick Asst. Editor 

Phil Doll Assl. Editor 

Barbara Schmidt> Editor 


Donald Johnson John Shurtleff 
Carl Sonnenschein Shirley Smith 
Herbert Jacohson Sam Jefferies 
Kenneth McOwan Glenn Massie 
Connie Minnick (George Ricke 
Herbert Mazer 
Melvin Reiter 
Charles Straus 
Cieorge Haile\' 
Averv Hevesii 

Duke Silvestrini 
Ronald Johnson 
Rav Hauser 
Orville Wuriderlich 


Ted Sohn 
Arthur Dreshti 
Knlpli Fisher 

Russel Sanden 

rl Weymeuller 

Jack Stumpf 


Robert A. Johnson Bus. Mgr. 

Stanley Diamond. ./:/«/. Bus. Mgr. 
Mitchell Ci\&s\AY..Asst. Bus. Myr. 

Richard Leek Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Fred Seavey Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

John Bogatta 

Dick Ames 

Rudy Vergara 

Clem Marlev 

George Kvitek 

Ira Evans 

James Chapman 

Boh Golden 

Robert Cox 

Adam Pientka 

Robert Levin 

Rav Harris 

Frank Mitch 

Bob Dodds 

William Anderson 

Stan Burnham 

Don H.irnheck 

Dick Hammack 



J. A. 


A. R. 


L. A. 


Technograph, Ii 
Kansas Engine 
Kcntncky Ent; 

Tech K 
and \Vi 

al J. 


isas State Engineer, 
Mar(|uette Engineer, 
hinasuta Technolog, 
\.l,i.,,ka Blueprint, 
I hKhlrangle, North 
1. I liii.j State Engi- 
l-jiLinier, Penn State 
.1 liKingle, Purdue 
ilH.iini. Rose Technic, 
i^, Wavne Engineer, 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May) by The Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
ni.itter, October 30, 1921, at the post office 
of Urbana, Illinois, bv act of Cunurcss 
.March i. 1X79. Office _'l.! EngineeiinK 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscription, $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 


! Representative — Littell Murrav- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 




Volume 63 

Number 7 

Tfie Tec/i PtesenH 


RcNoliition in Water Filtration 7 

(lonnif Miiiiiirh, (J. E. '51 

St. Pat's Ball Tops Them All 8 

Shirley S/iiith. E. P. '50 

Industrial Sijihtseeing — Old Ben Coal Company 10 

Glenn Massie. E. E. '-/V 

.\Ici(li'rn Design Reaches the Farm 12 

(jeorge Riekcr. Aero. E. V'/ 

A Mechani/.ec! l'"arnistead \?i 

Randall Beasley. Ag. E. '4S 

Broadening the Engineering Outlook 18 

Robert Rasmus, (Jen. E. '48 


New De\ eliipments 2 

John Duk. E. E. '49, Herb Mazer. E. E. '50. 
and Ken McOivnn. M. E. '49 

Navy Pier 14 

Richard Choronzy. M. E. '51 . Norbert Ellnian. M. E. '51 . 
and John I'ljolek. E. E. '51 

Introducing the Galesburg Division 1.5 

Robert J act man. E. P. '50 

Introducing 16 

/)/'(/• llammack . Gen. E. '48, Ilcrbert Jacohson. M. E. '51 , 
Connie JMinnich, (J. E. '51 

Engineering Societies 22 

Ray Hauser, Ch. E. '50 


Alvina Sorzickas is crowned queen of the St. Pat's Ball, given 
by the Engineering Council. (Photo by Jack Stumpf, M. E. '50.) 


Coal briquettes are moulded in these "waffle iron" rolls by the 
Old Ben Coal company. 


Water Filtration 

tty Vonniv ^linnivh. V.K. '.11 

A few sanitary engineers in the 
L nited States do not need a crystal ball 
to visualize a revolutionary method of 
water treatment that may be installed 
in many purification plants in the world 
of tomorrow. If experimentation with 
this new process pro\es successful, the 
engineering world will soon find repos- 
ing in its lap a little gadget called the 
diatomite filter. This newly-developed 
filtration system may prove to be the 
aspirin for many industrial headaches 
caused by bottlenecks in existing water 
purification systems. 

Although still in the experimental 
stage, the potential qualities of the 
diatomite filter have already been rec- 
ognized by many of the country's lead- 
ing industries. It is, for example, a type 
of filter that can be installed in .small 
compact units that occupy less space and 
weigh far less than rapid sand filters 
with the same capacity; it has proven 
successful in the complete elimination 
of some bacteria and organisms and the 
partial elimination of others that cannot 
be wholly controlled by the use of 
chlorine and other chemical purifying 
means ; it is superior to other methods 
in faster filtration, more effective re- 
moval of tastes and odors, and a lower 
installation cost. 

Although recognized as a capable 
filter for many years, the actual story 
of the diatomite filter in the field of 
water treatment began with Army re- 
search in 1938. The underlying prin- 
ciple is based upon the remarkable fil- 
tering properties of diatomaceous earth. 
This diatomaceous earth, also known as 
kieselguhr. diatomaceous silicia, or sim- 
ply diatomite, is a fine white powder 
composed of billions of tiny skeletons of 
diatoms, minute acquatic plants. During 
their brief lives, these small pre-historic 
organisms formed shells or skeletons 
around themselves through the absorp- 
tion of silica from the surrounding wa- 
ter. Upon death all that remained was 
oil and these shells which settled in 
abundant deposits principally in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon. These particles are 
so tiny that one cubic inch may contain 
as many as 50,000,000 skeletons of more 
than 10,000 known species, which vary 
in size from microscopic conical cylin- 
ders and frustules to the barely-visible 
discs and boat-shaped particles. 

The raw powder is mined in a black- 

streaked impme state. This is refined 
and processed by various methods which 
generally include calcining ( removal of 
the water by heating), sizing, and the 
addition of small amounts of alkaline 
rtu.x, which causes an increase in poros- 
ity by the agglomeration of larger par- 
ticles. The finished product is very light, 
weighing from 7 to 13 pounds per cubic 
foot. It is soft, friable, amorphous in 
character and extremely porous. Its 
chemical composition of silica, clay, sand 
and other impurities, remains neutral 
and has no effect on the pH of the 
filtered water. 

Need for Devehipnieut 

1 hese remarkable properties of iliato- 
mite had been known for some time, but 
the Army began actual experimentation 
only when pressed by the necessity of 
inventing a new filter. The existing con- 
ditions in the field and on the battle- 
ground called for a system of water 
purification that could remove the cysta 
of water-borne dysentery, a particularly 
\irulent strain of amoeba found among 
the natives in the Pacific and India- 
Burma-China theaters as well as in the 
United States. Chlorine used in the 
customary rapid sand filters failed to 
kill these organisms whereas the use of 
diatomite residted in the almost perfect 
removal of them, according to studies 
conducted through the combined efforts 
of the Engineer Board, the Surgeon 
(General's office, and the Xational Insti- 

tute of Public Health. Further studies 
showed that diatomite also removed 
chlorine-resistant Chironomus, a blood- 
worm larvae, and the cercarie of Schis- 
tosoma blood-fluke. 

In addition to the removal of such 
scourges, the Army also needed a light, 
portable unit of water purification that 
could supplant the heavy and rather 
cumbersome sand filters. Here again 
diatomite came to the rescue, since it 
coidd easily be used in a small unit. 
Army field tests showed that of various 
types of filter-aid, diatomite had the 
least bulk and the least weight of filter- 
media per square foot of filter area. 
Cither advantages, not, however, as im- 
portant as those before mentioned, were 

A discussion of the present state 
of development of a filter more 
effective than the rapid sand filter, 
this article describes the uses, ad- 
vantages, and disadvantages of 
diatomite. Although the remark- 
able properties of diatomite had 
been known for some time, actual 
experimentation was started only 
when the Army needed a filter 
capable of removing certain organ- 
isms encountered principally in 
the Pacific and China-Burma-India 

Diagram of a simple diatomite 

a marked absorption of oil from con- 
densate and a reduction in tastes and 

In collaborative studies with various 
manufacturing concerns, the Army final- 
ly developed two filter units : one, a 
small pack filter with a capacity of 15 
g.p.m. and a larger motor-transported 
filter with a capacity of 50 g.p.m. These 
mobile units have only between 5% and 
18% of the weight of sand filters with 
corresponding capacities. The units each 
consist of a gasoline-driven pump, a 
diatomite feeder, a filter shell with at- 
tached porous filter elements and all 
necessary connecting hose and piping. A 
calcium hypo-chlorite feeder is also in- 
cluded in each apparatus and serves as 
a double-check on the filtered water, 
removing chemically any matter that 
finds passage through the diatomite 
cake. This, however, will be omitted 
from the following discussion, since it 
is not connected with the actual diato- 
mite filtration process. 

Flow Diagram 
The accompanying diagram of a fil- 
ter developed by the Refinite company 
of Omaha, Nebraska, shows a relatively 
simple system. Assuming that the filter 
is in steady operation, one finds that 
there is a cycle of three processes: pre- 
coating, filtering and backwash. In the 
pre-coat process, diatomite powder is 
released in a suspension of water from 
(Continued on page 38) 

APRIL, 1948 

St. Piit's Itiill Tons Tlii^iii 111 

Itfi Shirh'ii Smith. K.l'. '.10 

.hid so, St. Pill. I (/ivf you iiou 
This nidiiiiit halo for your hron . 
"rui/t light the ptithuay of our Si hool. 
That F.nginiers iiuiy brightly rule. 

This is a parr ot thf orijiinal |iocm 
with which Protcssor J. S. Craiuii-U 
crowned the first St. Pat on March 17. 
19.U. The dance was estabHshed as an 
annual affair tor the eni;ineers, and re- 

vised last \ear .itter the war's inter- 

An.l so. on March !_', \')4H. n) the 
lllirn I nion ballroom, anothei' St. Pat 
was chosen by popular applanse. In keep- 
ini; with the times, the settin;; was 
clianjjed slightly and the candidates were 
introduced with Dick Cisne and his 
orchestra singing a novelty, "St. Patrick 
W'as An Engineer." 

The Ceramic society exhibited samples of various ceramic products 
and materials. 

No one could have disputed the re- 
sults ot the audiometer when it regis- 
tered high tor Hob Plumb. "St. Pat" 
i'lumb is a senior in mechanical engi- 
neering and represented the A. S. M. L. 

Miss Alvina Sorzickas was chosen St. 
Patricia by ballot from the nine finalists 
in the queen contest, and was crowned 
by St. Pat. Miss Sorzickas is a .sopho- 
more in pre-journalism. She was escorted 
by Albert Chilenskas, a chemical engi- 

The crown was, as always, something 
that could have come onl\- from north 
campus. It's brighter features included 
two light bulbs which guided St. Pa- 
tricia around the ballroom throughout 
the latter half of the dance. The pro- 
grams featured the traditional green 
shamrock on white. Exhibits sponsored 
b\ the various engineering societies were 
set up in a side room near the main 
ballroom. Each exhibit attempted to 
show some phase of the studies under- 
taken by the societies. The civil engi- 
neers' well-trained transit seemed to 
draw the largest crowd. 

The ball was sponsored by the Engi- 
neering Council and the Engineering .so- 
cieties. Bob Chilenskas and Keith (lood- 
wiii were general chairmen, and (leorge 
Becker made the crown. 

The civil engineers transit is momentarily diverted from the "paper doll across the street to a 
"real live girl," while on the right the agricultural engineers exhibit absorbs quite a bit of in- 


Miss Sorzickas is about to be 
crowned queen by Bob Plumb. 
Miss Marilyn Fiedler is in the 

About 400 couples danced from 9 o'clock to midnight to the music of Dick Cisne and his or- 

APRIL, 1948 

Industrial Siiilitseeiiio 

Old lien. Goal Ga. 

Itij liU'itn Massif. F..K. ' tU 

A inininy; company of profjri-ssivc 
thinkiiij; and action is the Old Hi-n Coal 
company, ot southi-rn Illinois. It is proof 
of the success of mechanized coal mines. 

Of the 120 companies which operate 
Ibb mines in Illinois and employ 33,00(1 
persons, by far the largest independent 
company is the Old Hen Coal compan\, 
which owns S4,300 acres of coal lands, 
besides 12,000 acres of timber and farm 

The company's five mines are located 
in Franklin county in .southern Illinois. 
-Although Illinois has 77% of its area 
underlaid by one or more of six known 
layers of coal, the Herriii, or No. h bed, 
is the most important. The Herrin bed 
has its greatest purity, as well as its 
greatest thickness, in the counties of 
Franklin and Williamson. Twenty-five 
per cent of the state's total production 
is mined in F'ranklin county. An aver- 
age analysis of Franklin county coal 
taken from 23 mines showed tiiese char- 

Moisture 9.3% 

Volatile matter 33.7% 

Fixed carbon 48.4% 8.6%r 

Sulphur 1.5% 

Htu per pound 11,830 

Fusion temp, of ash 
in °F 1920-2650 

Coal from Xo. 6 bed is bright and 
shiny in appearance and is harder than 
most Midwestern coals; hence, it will 
stand handling, sizing, and storage bet- 
ter. These qualities, the free-burning, 
relatively-high ash-fusion temperature, 
and the relatively-low sulphur content 
have caused wide usage — not only in 
locomotives and electric-power genera- 
tion, but also for metallurgical and do- 
mestic coke, water-gas generation, the 
making of brick, tile and cement, and 
for conditions where there is need to 
avoid soot. 

The Old Ben Coal company, named 
after Benjamin Franklin, is by far the 
largest producer of coal in Franklin 
county. Headquarters for the organiza- 
tion are located at 230 South Clark 
street in Chicago, center of the southern 
Illinois coal marketing area and in itself 
the world's greatest coal-consuming 
metropolis. The operation of the com- 
pany's mines in southern Illinois, as well 
as those of allied companies in sovithcrn 
West Virginia, Virginia, and eastern 
Kentucky, are directed by means of a 


Interested in minin>; or ma- 
chinery? Here is another in (hi- 
series of articles designed to pre- 
sent job opportunities for engi- 
neers in industries in the state of 
Illinois. The Old Ben Coal com 
pany, largest independent coal 
company in Illinois, is proof of 
the success of mechanized coal 
mines. Each mine is completely 
electrified and employs mechani- 
cal cutting and loading devices, 
some of which have been built in 
the Old Ben shons. \ pioneer in 
the use of safety devices, the com- 
pany uses compressed air for blast- 

teletype network. Telet\pe is also used 
to connect sales offices and field staff, 
scattered from the Atlantic seaboard to 
Omaha, Neb., with the home office. 

The original forerunner of the com- 
pany was the Wilmington Star Mining 
company, operating in the vicinity of 
Coal City, Grundy county, Illinois. The 
vast Old Ben operations of today are a 
far cry from the "longwall" mines of 
northern Illinois of the 1870's, in which 
the pick miner lay on his side to hew 
coal from a 24- to 36-inch seam. The 
five southern Illinois mines now operat- 
ing (formerly there were twehc, but 
the others have been worked out or 
consolidated as mechanization increased) 
are all shaft mines ranging in depth 

from 400 to 750 feet. Daily production 
.It the \arious mines ranges from 4.000 
to 6,000 tons, for a combined total of 
about 25,000 tons. Over 5,00(1,000 tons 
of coal were produced in 1947. 

Mechanised Methods 
Kach mine is completely electrified, 
tKim the coal "face" to the railroad 
car, and employs mechanical cutting and 
loading. Typical of the present trend 
in mining practice is No. 9 mine at 
West Frankfort, 111. Old No. 9 was 
shut down in the depression years of 
the late 1920's but the wartime need 
for coal caused its reopening in a spec- 
tacular fashion. A pair of new shafts 
was sunk in a virgin area over a mile 
south of the old main shaft, and the 
new workings connected to the old 
workings to the north. The mine is laid 
out on the "panel " system, development 
being driven ahead by a system of main, 
cross, and panel entries. From the latter, 
rooms are driven through to the next 
panel, pillars being robbed to the great- 
est degree consistent with safe roof con- 
trol before abandonment of the individ- 
ual panels. 

The first step in the actual mining is 
undercutting. This is accomplished with 
universal shortwall mining machines, 
which are self-propelled and nioimtcd on 
rubber tires. These use rotating toothed 
chains to undermine the seam so that the 
force of the blast can be directed both 
downwards and outwards; this insines 
larger chunks of coal and less coal dust 

Here's a view of the topside of a typical Old Ben mine 


after blastinsj;. Xe\t ;i "liiill-mcihilf" 
electi'icall}- drills the necessary holes in 
the "face" of the coal seam to be 
woikeil, for blasting: the coal down for 
loadinjr. rhis "drill-mobile," created in 
the Old Hen shops on a standard Chev- 
rolet chassis, is a jeeplike car, also self- 
propelled and rubber-tire mounted. 

After drilling, the coal is blasted with 
Airdox. The company is pioneering this 
new method of blasting. It previously 
used Cardox, which in\olved placing a 
tank containing carbon dioxide at very 
high pressure, in the hole drilled in the 
"face," and releasing the gas by remote 
electrical control. This method had the 
great advantage of increased safety for 
the miners and so could be used "on 
the shift" — that is, while the miners are 
in the mine. Conventional explosives can 
be touched off only when the miners 
are out of the workings and is generally 
done during the night. Airdox substi- 
tutes compressed air for the carbon di- 
oxide. The air is compressed above- 
ground, then led down into the mine 
through heavy rubber hose to a valve at 
the "face." A thick copper tube is fixed 
into the hole drilled in the "face," with 
the other end of the tube connected to 
the \alve. When the valve is opened, 
the compressed air at 5, 000-10, OUO psi 
effectively blasts down the coal. 

The loosened coal is loaded mechani- 
cally by crawler-mounted mobile loading 
machines into one of the newer "Rube 
Goldberg" mechanical mining monsters 
— the shuttle car. This, too, rolls on 
rubber, being a self-propelled, seven-ton, 
con\'e\or-bottom buggy. Two of these 
shuttle back and forth from each load- 
ing machine to the "parting," that is, 
the closest mine sidetrack on the mine 
haulage system. When the shuttle car 
arrives at the parting, the clutch is 
thrown in on the convevor bottom and 

the load is automatical!)' transferred to 
a waiting seven-ton, all steel, roller- 
bearing mine car. Eight-ton electric lo- 
comotives haul trips of these loaded 
cars to the shaft bottom where the cars 
are dumped by a rotary car dump into 
vast underground bins. The secret of 
success in this mechanized cycle — from 
the blasting to bringing the coal to the 
shaft bottom — is careful timing ; the 
same clockwork precision is employed 
as is required in a factory and for the 
same reason : the tremendous investment 
in machiner\ which must not stand idle. 
The coal is drawn off by gravity from 
the underground bins and hoisted by 14- 
ton capacity skips or buckets working in 
pairs. And so, the coal arrives at the 
surface. The coal is screened, picked, 
and broken to sizes less than six inches 
and then transported over a company 
highway by jvton, high speed, trailer 
bottom-dump diesel trucks, to the main 
preparation plant for processing. 


At the pieparation plant, the coal is 
sized by great shaking screens, washed 
in either water or calcium chloride jigs 
or dry cleaned on pneumatic tables, 
blended or mixed with other types of 
coals if so desired, oil treated, and 
lowered gently into waiting railroad 
cars for the trip to market. 

The adoption of new mechanized 
mining techniques by this company and 
other leaders in the coal industry has 
meant that the percentage price increase 
of coal in the last two years has been 
less than for most other items. Mechani- 
zation h<as also meant that Old Ben 
mine employes are younger, mechani- 
cally-trained specialists — each an expert 
in his own field, carefully selected and 
thoroughly trained for his |iosition in 
a mass-production team. 

1 he pi'incipal marketmg inno\ation 
introduced by the company is the posi- 
tive identification of its product by 
color-marking it with a special green 
pigment. The Old Ben slogan is "A 
glance identifies Green Marked Coal." 
The consumer is guided in his purchases, 
just as packaged, branded merchandise 
guides the housewife in her grocery pur- 
chases, (^ver 1800 retail coal merchants 
handle Green Marked coal. 

An allied company. Coal Processing 
corporation, operates a briquetting plant 
in conjunction with Old Ben No. 14 
mine, producing smokeless-burning bri- 
quettes known as "Fireballs," which are 
marketed in communities such as St. 
Louis where rigid smoke ordinances are 
in force. 

The Old Ben Coal company is proud 
of its record of pioneering in safety 
progress. Its mines were among the first 
to employ exclusively electric safety cap- 
lamps. It was first in Illinois to employ 
Cardox shooting and to discard danger- 
ous conventional explosives. It now uses 
Airdox, an even safer blasting method. 
Rockdusting for the prevention and con- 
trol of mine explosions was first exten- 
sively used in the United States by Old 
Ben, which developed and patented the 
first machine for the application of 
rockdust. The patent rights were dedi- 
cated to the people of the United States 
so that they could be used without pay- 
ment of royalty. A bag-type rockdust 
installation is tripped by the shock wave 
of a mine explosion, the cloud of inert 
dust released helps snuff out the ex- 
plosion. Bags of rockdust are scattered 
at many points in the mines to help 
control the headline-making, disastrous 
mine explosions, which although often 
the outgrowth of a local gas explosion, 
arc imariably propagateil b\' coal dust 
rather than gas. 

On the left is an undercutting machine. A "trip" coming into the bottom of Old Ben No. 9 
the right; the pre-cast concrete lagging of the ceiling is an Old Ben invention. 

APRIL, 1948 


Modern Desiiiii Mdm the Farm 

Itif Imvuri/v Itivlivr. ' tU 

Old iiK'i-t.v in-w (Ml the i.;imi)u> ajiuiii! 
Miimtord house, i-iTCtcd as a iiiodcl 
tarmhoiisc in 1870, now houses its suc- 
cessor, the Small Homes council, whicli 
is an agency created to stvidy low-cost 
homes. The council, working with the 
College of Agriculture, has recently de- 
\eloped a new type of farmhouse that is 
huilt ui luuts. 

Muinford house when first erected 
was occupied by the University's "head 
farmer," who was in charge of the field 
and farm work connected with the house. 
It is named after Dean Mumford, pio- 
fessor of agriculture, whose famih was 
the last to occupy the house. In 1939, 
it became the studio of Dale Nichols, 
first Carnegie visiting professor of ,irt, 
and was the home of his successors. 1 n 
1944 Mumford house was turned oxer 
to tiie neul\' organizeii Small 1 Ionics 

At the time Mumford house was built, 
a revolutionary idea was incorporated 
into it. This idea was the addition of a 
business office for the farmer. The room 
that was set aside for this purpose in 
Mumford house is now the librar\' of 
the Small Homes council. 

The purpose of the council is three- 
Idld : to spread information, conduct ed- 
ucation, and do research on the construc- 
tion, equipment, and maintenance of low- 
cost houses. It is a coordinating agency 
working with all the L ni\ersit\' depart- 

A new tyne of farmhmise de- 
veloped by the .Small Homes eouii- 
eil and the College of Agrieulturc 
is described in this article. The 
basic design consists of two rec- 
tangular sections, the arrangement 
of which may be varied to suit 
the owner and the site conditions. 
Additional units may be added as 
desired. The design is specifically 
adapted to farm houses, but may 
also be used for small homes 

nients that ilo research relating to hous- 
ing: architecture, economics, engineer- 
ing, home economics, and sociology. The 
most important informational activities 
of the council arc the non-technical cir- 
culars that are distributed to home own- 
ers and professional people of the build- 
ing industry. These circulars are well 
illustrated and easy to read and under- 
stand. The subjects covered all phases 
of home construction and maintenance. 

The educational program is comprised 
of three .series of short courses. One of 
the series is a course designed to bring 
contractors and builders up to date on 
the latest construction practices. Another 
of the series is a .iD-day session conducted 
for lumber yanis and building material 
personnel. The third of the series, insti- 

Especially adapted to conditions and requirements of farms 
Central States is this house plan. 

the North 

tilted 111; cam|Mis last July., is ;i course 
tor mortgage officers. 

.Although the educational .iiid iiilor- 
mational activities have been far-reach- 
ing and very efiPective, it is the research 
program which promises to contribute 
the most to the improvement of the low- 
cost house. The Home Research center, 
established by the council, occupies a 
four-block site on the campus. A demon- 
stration center, a produceiton yard, and 
three blocks of research homes will 
eventually be built upon this site. Four 
buildings, including two research resi- 
dences, have already been constructed. 

Development of Design 

One of the projects which the council 
and the College of Agriculture have just 
completed is the development of a new 
farmhouse plan. The problem, as it was 
presented, was to design a farmhouse 
which would be adaptable to the t\pical 
requirements and living conditions on 
owner-operated farms in the North Cen- 
tral States. surveys showed that 
the farmers prefer a one-story house 
with a partial basement, this type of 
plan was chosen. It is well suited to the 
generous house sites available on farms. 
The house was also required to be flexi- 
ble in size and in cost of the initial 
building, because main' buildeis wish to 
start out with one bedroom and add 
others as desired. 

Alost of the planning for this farm- 
house was based on five factors distinc- 
ti\e to farms and farm life. The first 
consideration was the farmstead and the 
arrangement of the with re- 
spect to the other farm buildings. The 
house has to be properly related to the 
other buildings both in location and 
room arrangement. The arrangement of 
the rooms is also determined by the di- 
rection of the sunlight and the prevailing 
winds. The second consideration was the 
natural assets of the site. The farmhouse 
should be planned to take ad\antage of 
the generous home sites offered in the 

Another thing distinctive to farm life 
is the work room. A well-planned \\ork 
room should be built in a convenient lo- 
cation to be used for activities too often 
restricted to the basement or the wood- 
shed. The fourth on the list is a farm- 
er's office. The business dealings of 
farmers requires a place to file records 
and business letters. Tlie fifth major 
(Continued on page i4 ) 



A Mechanized Farmstead 

Itfi Itantlult Itvaslvii. Ai/.E. '43 

The ad\aiiceineiit in farm mechaniz- 
ation in the past thirty years has re- 
duced the labor requirement in field 
crop production to about one-third of 
that required at the end of World War 
I. Rural electrification now promises to 
do for farmstead chores what tractors 
and power machinery have done for 
field work. 

One of the newest developments for 
saving time and labor is the mechanical 
dairy barn cleaner. By the mere flip of 
a switch this mechanism can do, in only 
a few minutes, the farmer's most disa- 
greeable job. This is in contrast to the 

.\ description of 

a motor-driven 

dairy barn cleaner 

is included 


this article, with a 



count of the problems involved 


its installation in a 



Illinois dairy barn. 

conventional shovel method requiring 
an hour or more of hard work for a 
twenty cow herd. 

One of these machines has been in- 
stalled in a twenty cow barn on a L ni- 
\ersity of Illinois farm for experimental 
purposes. Its operating characteristics 
are being studied and its efficiency and 
power consumption are being deter- 
mined. Studies are also being made to 
determine the effect of the use of rust 
inhibitors on the drag chain. 

It has been discovered that after re- 
maining stationary for only a few hours, 
enough rust will have formed to hinder 
the starting of the machine. Since most 
ilairymen keep their cows in the barn a 
large per cent of the time, it has been 
thought that running the machine inter- 
mittently b\' use of a time clock switch 
about five minutes out of e\ery half 
hour will keep rust from forming and 
will thus increase the life of the ma- 

It must be realized that the barns 
into which these cleaners are to be in- 
stalled are already laid out and. there- 
fore, the type of cleaner used must be 
specially designed for the barn. In the 
L niversity of Illinois barn, a continuous 
chain type cleaner is being used. 

With this type of cleaner, a contin- 
uous gutter is necessary so that the chain 
drag will always move in the same 
direction of rotation. Accurate concrete 
construction is a necessity, especially at 

the corners where sprockets must be 
installed to change the direction of 
travel of the chain. 

Creosoted wood slats are attached to 
the drag chain to form a continuous con- 
veyor. From the method of attachment 
of these slats to the drag chain and the 
way in which the load acts on them, 
they may be considered as uniformly 
loaded cantilever beams. The conveyor 
is powered by a one horsepower, 220 
volt single-phase, 1750 r.p.m., capacity 
motor. The ratio of the motor speed to 
the conveyor sprocket speed is 4t)0 to 1. 
To appreciate the magnitude of the load 
developed on the conveyor by the motor 
use, use the h.p. equation and solve for 
the load P, thus: 

h.p. = P X D, 33()00EP = 33000 X 
1 X .800/10 = 2640 lbs. 

Where P = load on the conveyor 
chain. D = distance traveled by the 
conveyor per minute, h.p. ^= horsepower 
of the motor, and E = efficiency of gear 

At one end of the barn is an ele\ator 
into which the manure drops as the con- 
veyor passes over it. This elevator ex- 
tends through the end of the barn and 
drops the manure into a wagon or 
spreader where it can be hauled directh' 
to the field. The drag in the elevator 
travels at a speed of 50 feet per minute, 
this speed being necessary to elevate the 
liquid manure. 

The drag of the elevator is powered 
by the same type and size motor as is 

A drag line runs the entire length 
of the gutter. 

used on the conveyor. Even though the 
load travels a shorter distance, it must 
move up an incline in the same length 
of time. 

The problem of corrosion of the chain 
and rivets, aliginiient, chain tension, and 
cleaning of the wood slats, are \et to 
be satisfactorily solved. 

Other cleaners besides the continuous 
chain type in use today are the recip- 
rocating type with a hinged paddle to 
move the manure and a drag and cable 
type. The latter two do not require a 
continuous gutter and may be preferred 
where there is only one row of cows. 
Since these gutter cleaners are still in 
the early stages of development, the 
cost, as may be surmised, is still quite 
(Continued on page ?i2) 

The driving mechanism of the gutter drag line. 

.\PRIL, 1948 


9H^ltUeo^ute^..MM^ PIER 


By Richard Choronzy, M.E. '51 

"Why anyone from the Tcihnoyrapli 
would want to interview nie is a mys- 
tery, " said Hill (lillespie when we ap- 
proached him, intent on getting; his lite 
history. Yet, out of a number of pros- 
pective interviewees, he li:ul the most in- 
teresting story to offer. 

He was born in Chicago, August 6, 
1926. He went through grammar school 
grathiating with the highest honors. "1 
still diiln't know what I wanted to be. 
even after graduating from high school," 
he said, when we asked if he had already 
deciiled on his future plans then. He 
graduated from St. Patrick academy in 
June, 1944. Five months later, he was 
inducted into the Army. Hill spent 14 
months in the Philippine Islands as a 
staff sergeant in the infantr\-. After he 
was honorabl>- discharged in December, 
1946, he began attending Del'aul uni- 
versity in the evenings. During the day 
he worked at the Inland Steel company 
in the accoimting department. It was 
there that he decided to study engineer- 
ing. He transferred his credits to the 
University of Illinois and entered Navy 
Pier in September, 1947. Undoubtedly 
he chose the curricula most suited for 
him because he received grades of A in 
all his subjects except drawing (in 
which his mark was a B). 

He is an excellent dancer and is fre- 
quently seen at all his favorite dance 
spots. His fa\orite past-times are fish- 

ing and horseback riding. His chief 
hobbies are stamp-collecting and numis- 
matics, but other minor ones are pho- 
tdgr.iphy, model airplane-making, and 
collecting and reading good books. Hill's 
favorite haunt is the University library 
where he can usually be found every 
late afternoon reading reference material 
or something by Shakespeare. 



By Norbert W. Ellmann, M.E. '51 

The staff of the Kngineering Draw- 
ing department is a well organized 
group of men who are qualified for the 
positions which they hold. To augment 
this statement I would like to intro- 
duce IVIr. Clarence Carlson, B.S., asso- 
ciate professor of general engineering 
drawing and chairman of the CJeneral 
Engineering Drawing department. 
Through a brief review of his life it 
may well be seen that Mr. Carlson has 
the experience and knowledge to justify 
the position which he holds. 

Mr. Carlson was born on Chicago's 
far south side on December 21, 1897. 
His education was extensive. After first 
attending Madison and Paul Revier 
grade school Mr. Carlson was ready 
to choose the profession for which he 
was best suited. Deciding upon engi- 
neering he attended Armour Institute of 
Technology (now Illinois Institute of 
Technology). Here Mr. Carlson re- 
ceived his B.S. degree in mechanical 
engineering. Northwestern university 
was the school which Mr. Carlson next 
attended. He also atended Iowa State, 
the University of Illinois and Indian,! 

As one would suspect, the vast store 
of knowledge which Air. Carlson 
achieved during his long years of study 
put him in demand by a great many in- 
dustries and the experience gained by 
practicing engineering in these indus- 
tries certainly qualifies him as an edu- 
cator of the men who are to follow his 
chosen profession. 

Mr. Carlson first accepted a position 
with the Pullman Car Works as test- 
ing engineer. He then took a position 
with the Howe Scale company as de- 
signing engineer. After this he went to 
the American Well Works and was en- 
gaged in the designing department. The 
Love Brothers foundry department was 
the next firm with which Mr. Carlson 
was associated, and here he was con- 
nected with the drafting department. 
The Batavian Metal Products com- 

pany then engaged Mr. Carlson as chief 

In tuining to the field of reaching 
experience we find that .Mi-. Carlson qualifies here. The first teaching 
position which Mr. Carlson held was at 
Kast high school of Aurora where he 
taught drafting. Pullman high school 
was his next teaching position and he 
also taught drafting there. Mr. Carlson 
then went back to Armour Institute, 
where he first began his engineering 
career. Finally coming to the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Mr. Carlson taught ex- 
tension work in engineering drawing 
and then took over his present position 
at the Pier. 

One would liardh' o\erlook the state- 
1\ appeaiance which Mr. Carlson pre- 
sents. It is our pride to have such a 
distinguished man among the facult\' of 
om' school. 


By John Fljolek, E.E. '51 

Almost as much the traiiemark of an 
engineer as a T-sqLiare or triangle is the 
sight of a blueprint. Wherever you find 
an engineer, there you will find blue- 
piints. And so, since we have engineers 
and would-be engineers at the Pier, we 
ha\e not only blueprints but the means 
for making them. 

In Professor Carlson's Ci.E.D. depart- 
ment various reproduction processes are 
coordinated and put into use by Mr. J. 
E. Findlay. The reproduction equip- 
( Continued on page 28) 




Iiitroducino the Iniversitv tialesbiira Division 

hif Kithvrt •Itifkninn. K.I*. '."HP 

A famous man once said: "These arc 
the times that try men's souls." If he 
could visit the universities of this coun- 
try today he would probably conclude 
that these were the times that try stu- 
dents' souls because of the miles of walk- 
ing through rain and snow storms re- 
quired on most campuses. It is a rare 
occasion when a student will enroll in 
a university and find not only dormito- 
ries, study halls, classrooms and labora- 
tories but also a hospital, bookstore, din- 
ing rooms, barber shop and all the other 
necessities of life, all imder one roof. 
Such a students' Utopia is the Galesburg 
L ndergraduates Division of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

t^riginally the army's Mayo General 
hospital, these red brick buildings and 
grounds, covering an area of 156 acres 
and costing over $5,00(1,000, were, in 
U)45, declared as war surplus and taken 
over by the State of Illinois. In Septem- 
ber, 1946, it was turned over to the Uni- 
versity of Illinois for conversion into an 
undergraduate school to meet the educa- 
tional demand caused by new students 
antl the return of veterans. The old 
army hospital received its honorable dis- 
charge, and on October 21, just 30 days 
after being acquired from the state, it 
donned its civilian clothes and became a 
college. Since its establishment, this 
"30-day university" has seen its enroll- 
ment soar from 432 studfents to the 
near-capacity registration of 1702. To 
keep pace, the instructional staff has been 
increased from 34 faculty members to 
the 106 now handling teaching assign- 

Advantageously situated l(t3 miles 
from Chicago and 45 miles from Peoria, 
the Galesburg Division offers its stu- 
dents many convenient facilities to in- 
sure that their stay will be not only edu- 
cational but also enjoyable. The univer- 
sity itself is a mile and a half from the 
center of town and is readily served by 
a city bus line. Athletic facilities include 
a large swimming pool that becomes very 
popular during the warm months, a gym- 
nasium with basketball and handball 
courts, four football fields and five base- 
ball diamonds. Recreational and social 
activities consist of frequent dormitory 
parties, dances, and the various meetings 
of the 20 or more clubs and organiza- 
tions on the campus. The movie going 
student can enjoy the latest films at the 
UniversitN theater three times a week. 

Because these facilities are all under one'^ested in further study. The physics de- 

roof the school is occasionally referred to 
as the "University City." 

The engineering department is headed 
by Mr. Fredrick W. Trezise who 
worked for six years on the TVA proj- 
ect. He has proven to be very capable 
in this position and also as a counselor 
and friend of the engineering students. 
Mr. Trezise heads a staff" of instructors 
who have had considerable experience in 
the various fields of engineering en- 
deavor. Notable among these is Mr. 
Shrode, an instructor in engineering 
physics, who participated in the activities 
concerning the atomic bomb experiment 
at Bikini and also accompanied Admiral 
Byrd as a member of his recent Antarctic 

Within our "Uni\ersity City" are 
three laboratories which are available to 
all engineers. They are the engineering 
geolog\' laboratory, the physics labora- 
tory and the chemistry laboratory. The 
geology laboratory, which contains nu- 
merous exhibits such as various rocks and 
their formations, has a maximum capaci- 
ty of 30 students. 

This laboratory is open evenings for 
the convenience of those who are inter- 

partment has two laboratories which are 
capable of holding 20 students each. The 
equipment contained in these two labora- 
tories is sufficient to suit the demands of 
undergraduate study. The department 
has just recently obtained some new vrar 
surplus equipment such as an oscilloscope 
and other electronic devices, which will 
prove beneficial for demonstration pur- 
poses. The two chemistry laboratories 
are possibly the greatest asset to the en- 
gineering students. They are capable of 
serving 160 students at one time. Both 
contain AC and DC power facilities 
and also a considerable amount of new 
equipment which will aid the student in 
his study of chemistry. 

The combination of these three labo- 
ratories and the excellent facidty in the 
engineering department proves to be an 
unbeatable team for the instructioii of 
the students of engineering. 

Dopey Porter: "Did you 
train, sir?" 

Enraged Traveler: "Xo, I 
its looks, so I chased it out ( 

liiln't like 
if the sta- 

Aerial view of the Galesburg branch of the University of Illinois. 

APRIL, 1948 



Hvrh »lur»hM»n. .M.H. '.lO atitl 1'unni*' .^linnivh. t'.iC. 


Many ot the i-li-ctrical enjiinccis on 
tlie campus, especially those taking Elec- 
tronics 40a and 62a, have become ac- 
quainted with one of the newer mem- 
bers ot the electrical engineering depart- 
ment staff, Assistant Professor T. A. 
Murreil. Mr. Murrell joined the staff 
last fall after working on radar for the 
war ilepartmcnt. 

During the war Mr. Murrell luld 
several ver\' interesting and important 
positions. In 1941 he became associated 
with the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development and, as a member of 
the Radiations laborator\' at Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, began re- 
.search on the development of radar. He 
was soon promoted to production engi- 
neer for all air-borne radar systems. 
While at M. I. T. he worked under 
Louis Ridenour, now dean of the (jrad- 
uate school at the University of Illinois. 
In 1944 he became an expert consultant 
in the office of the secretary of war 
and was sent to England as the techni- 
cal adviser on radar operations with the 
Eighth -Air Force under General Doo- 
little. He was concerned principally 
with briefing operations preparatory to 
blind bombing by radar. After V day 
he was sent to the Pacific where he be- 
came a member of the three-man Ad- 
vi.sory Specialists group while on the 
staff of the Far Eastern Air Force un- 
der General Keniie\. The group was 
concerned with all new scientific de- 
( Continued on page 32) 



Leaning back in his chair, Harry 
Kabbes modestly explained his college 
c.-.reer. "1 didn't do much. My favor- 
ite pastime is the sack, you know." 

Hut let the record speak for itself. 
Harry was born in Mattoon, Illinois, 
back in September of 1924. He attended 
grade and high schools in ]VIattoon, then 
came to the University of Illinois in the 
fall of 1942. After a short stay of one 
semester, the air corps called in Febru- 
ary, 1943. In fact it called Harry right 
to the University of Chicago to study 
meteorology for a year. 

When orders came for Harry to go to 
Alaska, the University of Chicago asked 
him to come back for a year some other 
time, by means of a scholarship. 

But after a year and a half in Alaska 
as a weather observer, he decided that 
Illinois was the place for him. The 
Army let go its hold in March of 1946, 
and Harry returned to the books the 
following September. 

Since then he has been going to school 
full time. In June he will recei\e his 
bachelor's degree in civil engineering, 
with a structures option. "My father is 
a contractor, and I'\e been arouml 
buildings all m\' life. " 

Harr\' is a member of the student 
branch of A. S. C. E., and a member ot 
Tau Beta Pi, and Sigma Tau, engineer- 
ing honoraries, and Chi Epsilon, civil 
engineering honorary. 

"I used to do a bit of photograph), 
but most of the fun was in developing 
the films, and the men's residence hall 
doesn't lia\e a darkroom. Lately I seem 
to like the sack best of all." 

Looking at Harry's record, it seems as 
though more rest might be a good idea 
for (|iiite a ii-w engineering students. 


All was quiet on the northern front of 
room 201 , Engineering hall. Ha! Now 
w ,is the time — a quiet and peaceful time 

til capture Mrs. Kathryn C. Jordon, 
>ccretaiy of the civil engineering depart- 
ment for an interview with J'iiIukj- 
i/rri/ili. The trip from the Tech office 
across the hall was uneventful, for the 
time was exactly 1 :20 p. m., one of the 
rare minutes at which the halls of Illi- 
nuis I . sleep peacefulh' from the rush 
and hustle that occur every ten minutes 
to the hour. 

All remained tranquil while Mrs. 
Jordon answered a bombardment of the 
uMial questions. Rorn on (October 20, 
1910, she grew up in Mount Carmel, 
Illinois, and attended the high school 
there, taking a commercial course and 
outside activities such as (jlee club, sen- 
i(n- plays and the school operetta. She 
attended Chillicothe Business college in 
Chillicothe, Missouri, and then worked 
for a short time for a bonding house in 
Chicago. Her return home resulteil in 
a position with a 

Did we say it was peaceful? Did we 
sa\' it was quiet? A moment ago the 
office had been vacant, but now people 
seemed to be swarming in and out of the 
door like ants. Mrs. Jordon smiled her 
nicest, and quietly and efhciently as- 
sumed command in the sudden onslaught 
of people. "Yes, you can pick up a C.E. 
60 notebook in the office," to an inquir- 
ing student; "Isn't this grand weather 
we've been having?" to the mailman; 
"Yes, go right in," to a person who 
wanted to see Professor Huntington; 
"Hi, Bill, can I help you?" to another 
inspecting the bulletin board ; "Colonel 
Hiatt, here is your letter that Jean typed 
for you, " handing a page to one man ; 
(Continued on page 30) 








iWl "HER" wi«e! 

illC**' . _ ..,uv> hundreds - 



T^^ ^^^^ ICSd engineers. T-be^^,,,,a^^ 

occupies tna^^.tgned- C^^^ ^^.^Sves must be ex- 
fiprsmustbedesig ^. g themsei . ^.^ aiul 

">-' "i" TeSu„S"-"*I>S'*e"oTce travel. 

a future in teiep 

^^:%v ..^KiP SYSTE^A 


' V 

APRIL, 1948 


Broadening the Engineering Outlook 

hfl Kuhvrl HuHiniiH. Hvn.H. ' IH 

Much has been said recently about tlic 
need for the engineerinfj profession to 
take a broader and more responsible part 
ill the world of human affairs, both po- 
litical and social. It is said that engi- 
neers, as a professional group, have been 
short-sighted and narrow in their inter- 
ests and activities and have been reluc- 
tant to emerge from the technical realm 
of machines and materials into the great 
arena of world and national affairs where 
the problems of international relations 
and the atomic bomb, of national politics 
and social justice, are being decided. It 
is said that of all the professions, engi- 
neering has the least social and political 
consciousness; statistics are presented to 
show, for example, that in the local, 
state, and national legislative bodies the 
legal profession has wide representation 
while the engineering profession has al- 
most none. It is not my' purpose to go 
into a thorough and intensive discussion 
on this matter except to say, that to my 
mind, it is wrong to expect the engineer- 
ing profession, as a profession, to enter 
into fields for which it has neither the 
professional concern nor the professional 
competence. This is not to sa\' that en- 
gineers, as individuals and citizens, are 
to isolate themselves from these affairs; 
nor is it to say that there is anything 
wrong with engineers leaving the pro- 
fession entirely and entering into these 
fields if, as individuals, they have the 
desire and the proper abilities. However, 
I believe it is folly for the profession, as 
such, to attempt to become articulate in, 
and identify itself with, fields which are 
properly the domain of the politician, 
the lawyer, the economist, or the social 
scientists. Ultimately, the question re- 
solves itself into distinguishing between 
the profession and the indi\idual; once 
this is clearly understood it becomes e\ i- 
dent where the profession should stand. 

Most engineers imderstand this in- 
stincti\elv, but what they forget, many 
times, is that it is one thing for the pro- 
fession to remain objectively within its 
proper boundaries and it is another for 
its members, as private individuals, to 
remain parochial and short-sighted in 
their attitudes. So to the claim that en- 
gineers, as individuals, are narrow and 
limited in their undertaking and activi- 
ties, I think there is sometimes much jus- 
tification, and I think it is with this that 
the profession should rightly concern 
itself. It is one thing, for instance, for 

the profession to provide leadership in 
n.itional politics and it is quite another 
that individual engineers should be able 
to think and speak anil act intelligenth 
as citizens in connection with national 
politics. Certainly a good part of the 
standing of a profession in the eyes of 
the public depends on the intelligent at- 
titudes which its members would take as 
citizens and members of society in virtu- 
ally every field of human interest. 

But of even more importance than 
these general aspects in connection with 
engineers as citizens and members of so- 
ciety, is the problem of engineers often 
times being serioush' limited in their un- 
derstanding and abilit\ in matters which. 

Engineers! Here is an article of 
vital importance — read it and take 
heed. Arise from your soft easy 
chairs of procrastination and step 
from beliind your walls of lethar- 

while not strictly tcchiu'cal in nature, 
are continually being met in the day to 
day course of a professional career. It is 
here where the profession has some of its 
most serious shortcomings. I speak now 
of such matters as engineers commonly 
being unable to speak lucidly and articu- 
lately before individuals or groups, pro- 
fessional or non-professional ; of being 
unable to write reports that are clear 
and understandable and are adapted to 
the particular groups that will read 
them. I speak of too many engineers 
being unable to understand the business 
or economic considerations which must 
be made in connection with engineering 
or productive enterprises; and of the 
failure of many engineers in industry to 
understand fully all the ramifications of 
labor-management relations, thereby los- 
ing great opportiuiities to benefit both 
groups and society. I am thinking of 
the naivete with which some engineers 
look on business and financial procedures 
which management must follow for the 
successfid execution of business. I think 
of the lack of knowledge which many- 
engineers have concerning the legal and 
political implications of the industrial or 
public enterprises for which they are la- 
boring. It Is shortcomings of this kind 
that many times continue to keep the 
engineer in a position of a mere techni- 

cal servant rather than a full-Hedged 
partner in enterprises,, both public and 
private. Sooner or later engineers ha\e 
got to realize that unless they supple- 
ment their technical knowledge and abil- 
ity with greater competence in self-ex- 
pression and broader and more intelli- 
gent understanding and attitudes toward 
other groups and fields with which they 
are constantly in contact throughout 
their professional careers, the engineer- 
ing profession will never achieve the 
standing which it should ha\e. 

Much improvement can be made along 
these lines by supplementing the present 
engineering curricuhuii in the colleges 
and universities with more courses in 
English and composition, effective speak- 
ing, business law, economics, psychology, 
labor problems, and government. If this 
means adding another year to the usual 
four-year program it will be well worth 
it. Hut equally important with broad- 
ened education is broadened attitude; it 
is here that the greatest and most last- 
ing gains can be made. Engineers have 
got to get over the attitude that there is 
some special virtue in engineering merely 
because it deals with tangibles instead of 
intangibles. The feeling that account- 
ants and lawyers, business executives and 
politicians because they are not "produc- 
tive," are therefore not valuable, has got 
to go. \o longer should we hear some 
engineers speak of the liberal arts and 
the humanities as being worthless. No 
one expects that engineers should become 
scholars in Elizabethan drama or the 
philosophy of Descartes, but it may be 
justifiably expected that engineers will 
at least not maintain intolerant and 
scoffing attitudes toward the fields of 
culture and liberal learning. Engineers 
have got to realize the importance of, 
and be able to cope with, human rela- 
tionships as well as mechanical relation- 
ships; engineers must reach out beyond 
their technical provincialism and under- 
stand that in this modern society there 
are a multitude of facets, of which engi- 
neering is only one. 

Thus far in its history the engineering 
profession has gained the grateful re- 
spect of society, and rightly so. But 
once the membership of the profession 
has acquired the attitude of looking and 
thinking beyond the confines of that 
which is pvirely technical in engineering, 
the profession will reach e\en greater 
heights of prestige and service. 



THIS xs ^endi^ 

„o? of ^\ 

LINES «f„^pIl,OTS. -~-* 

-rr;i.0D^CTl0y\3 MOl^THS BB 


BEND/X On^/S/ONS-Bendix Product, • Friez I 
Zenith Carburetor -k Eclipse-Pioneer * Pacific 6i> 

APRIL, 1948 



few highlight* 



Assoc. Editor 



Better Years Ahead 

I'lic huge success of this year's St. Pat's 
Hall was readily apparent minutes after the 
(lance ended. Practically every one present 
agreed that, truly, it was one of the finest 
affairs ever presented to the students. The 
success was largely due to the fact that there 
was a variety of entertainment: The displays 
featured by each of the engineering societies; 
the danceable music; and the climax of the 
evening's enjoyment, the selection of St. Pat 
and crowning of St. Patricia. 

There is just one sad part about the whole 
story. The demand for tickets to the ball 
was much greater than the supply. There are 
approximately 3,(10(1 engineers on the campus. 

There were exactly 4(10 tickets available. 

These were distributed pro rata to the vari- 
ous societies. After the mad rush for tickets 
was over, it was estimated that at least twice 
this number of tickets could have been sold. 
This means that there were a large number 
of tlisappointed engineers. 

Hid the Engineering Council, when plan- 
ning the dance, mean it to be for a select 
lew? Not exactly. At most, the Council could 
be accused of veiual negligence. As you prob- 
ably know, this is the Council's first year of 
operation after six years of inactivity due to 
the war. The plans for the dance were started 
\ery shorth' after the Council, and its new 
constitution, received its official recognition 
from the College of Engineering and the 
engineering societies. An attempt was made to 
procure Huff gymnasium for the dance, but 
at this late date, the Tiiion ballroom, with 
a maximum capacity of 400 couples, was .ill 
that was available. 

I^ooking again .it the outcome of the dance, 
it can he seen that the Council did a com- 

mendable job in presenting it to the engineer- 
ing students. It was ideal except for the one 
una\oidable error mentioned above. 

With the facts before you, it is hardly 
conceivable that >ou can look with disap- 
proval at the Council. Rather, you should 
give the Council a hearty slap on the back 
for the admirable work it has performed so 
far this year, for, again, it was the Council 
that arranged for the representatives of the 
Austin company to gi\e the enlightening talk 
on "Industrial Plants." 

Next year should be a banner year for the 
engineering students. Most of the new engi- 
neering buildings should be completed by 
that time. The Council will be well estab- 
lished, and with a group of men as capable 
as the present representatixes of the Council, 
plans for St. Pat's Ball will be started early 
enough to obtain accommodations for as many 
as want to attend. Mention should be given 
to the fact that an Engineering show, normal- 
h' gi\en on odd numbered years, and various 
other important items, shoidd be on the 
agenda of the Council. 

For these reasons \ou should be unanmious 
in \i)ur voice of approval of, and encourage- 
ment to, the Council. Let the members of 
the Coinicil know you are behind them. 
When, as a member of an engineering so- 
ciety, you are called upon to cast \our ballot 
for a Council representative, keep in mind 
the responsibilities that the man elected will 
have. Ciive a little forethought to the matter 
and make certain that the honor of repre- 
senting your society goes to the most capable 
man. Thei^, and only then, will the Council 
be able to work and plan as effectively, effi- 
cienth, and on as big a plane as it should. 





WE mKEN' TApmo 




we're saying it good and loud because it explains 
one of the basic reasons why 9 out of 10 bearing 
applications can be handled more efficiently 
with Timken tapered roller bearings. 
As an engineer you'll run into many important 

problems involving bearing applications. If 
you'd like to learn more about this phase of en- 
gineering we'll be glad to help. Don't forget to 
clip this page for future reference — and, for addi- 
tional information write today to The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 

APRIL, 1948 


Engineering Societies 

itif It an UauHt'i: 1 '.70 


Alpli.i diapn-r, the parent oigani/a- 
tion ot Kta Kappa Nii, electrical engi- 
iieeriti!,' honorary trateriiity, granted a 
charter to a new chapter at 
the I iii\ersitv of Kcntuck\', 
^^ on February 24, 104S. 
^^KS' At the installation and ini- 

tiation of Beta Tail chapter 
at Northwestern TechTiologi- 
cal Institute the local chapter was repre- 
sented by John E. Farley. Mr. Zerb\, 
executive secretary, Mr. Hibshnian, na- 
tional president, and Mr. Williams, na- 
tional \ ice-presitlent, were present at this 
installation, which took place January 
24. Dr. Jesse Hobson, director of re- 
search. Armour research foundation, was 
the principal speaker. 


Preparations are now being made to 
initiate \?i new Ceramic engineers into 
Keramos. The initiation will be fol- 
lowed by a banquet to be held at the 
McKiiilev YMCA on the e\ening of 
March 11. 

(luests at a get-;u(|u,unte(l siunkci- and 
movie at the lllini I nion, janu,u\ I ~i, 
were: II. L. Anderson, F. K. [ensen, 
F. .\F Maupin, 1. Wuellncr, R. \. 
Ames, R. S. Degenkolb, R. I). Fenitv, 
J. K. (H-iffin, Jr., C. E. Janke, R. C. 
Kraft, Chun Lee, R. F. Bickelhaupt, D. 
I). R.i-sner, ,-iiid F. II. Schneider. 


campus chapter of Sigma 'Fai 

formal initiation at the Inman 
Hotel January 27. Forty men joined this 
all-engineering honorary fraternity at 
that time. Pledges honored 
were: W. A. Brooks, Jr., R. 
11. Chilenskas, R. A. Coderre, 
J. R. Cushman, Floyd Dunn, 
"X. J. FUiott, M. L. Embree, 
(r. L. Engelhart, J. W. Eric- 
son, E. W. Ernst, "G. T. Gore, 
R. W. Harris, J. L. Hnnnold, R. R. 
Hunter, H. (L Kabbes, Gtho Kile, B. 
D. Kirkwood, R. G. Kraft, A. S. Le- 
vine, Richard Ling, R. (i. Love. 

R. E. Lovett, J. L. Mazer, J. B. 
Morrison, J. J. Parry, B. A. Peskin, 

lohn Pro.lan, O. 'F. Purl, L. F. Robv, 
j. II. .Schussele, C. H. Sechrest, L. IL 
.SliMnin, H. I). Smith, [r., |. M. V'ene, 
R. j. Wagner, R. B. Weil, W. C. 
Wili-y, R. D. Williamson, R. B. 
man, and F. L. Zeisler were also initiat- 
ed at this time. 


.\hiin event of the recent Tau Beta 
Pi activities on campus was the formal 
iruri.ition and banquet on January 22. 
The pledge group consisted 
of 52 men, the largest num- 
ber ever to be taken into the 
campus chapter of this all- 
engi nee ring honorary. 

Banijuet toastmaster tor 
this event, held at the Hotel 
Tilden Hall, was Professor 
A. R. "Buck" Knight. Chap- 
ter president. Earl Shapland, 
Jr., welcomed all newcomers and Rich- 
ard Williamson replied for the pledges. 
Leslie A. Bryan, director of the local 
histitute of Aeronautics, delivered the 
address for the evening, reflecting his 
own genuine interest in aeronautics. 


The chemical engineers held a smoker, 
their first social function of the second 
semester, on ]VIonday evening, January 
(Continued on page 34) 

short facts about long-lived cable 

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Plastics whei'c plastics belong 

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Here's Synthane at work in a channel selector turret . . . 
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Synthane is employed for a number of the intricate parts to 
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Synthane ... a timely example of plastics where plastics belong. 

In addition, Synthane is moisture and corrosion resistant, 
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APRIL, 1948 23 


(Continued from pa^c IJ) 

factor considered as vital to the tanii- 
house was the clean-up facilities. To 
avoid bringing dirt and nuid into the 
house, a place should be proN'ided near 
the rear entrance for workers to dean up 
as they come in from the fields. 

The basic house plan consists of t\Mi 
rectangular units which can be arranged 
in a number of ways. The flexibility of 
the arrangement of the rectangular unit 
and the variability of the length of the 
unit make it possible to meet the require- 
ments of many fanu'lies and their farm- 
stead arrangements. One of the rectan- 
gular units includes the living, dining, 
and homemaking areas, plus the storage 
space which should go with rooms; 
the other unit contains the bedroom and 
the bathroom, llach unit is 16 feet wide ; 
the length of the unit depends upon the 
size and number of rooms desired. The 
location of the entrance has been thought- 
fully arranged .so that no guest will en- 
ter through the back door and no worker 
will track thiough the front iloor. This 
will do awa\ witii the housewife's com- 
plaint that workers walk through the 
living room and \isitors enter through 
the kitchen. 

The dri\ewa\ witiens near the house 
to provide a small parking space for 
guests. There is a walk leading from the 

parking space to the tront entrance; the 
front door opens into an enti\\\a\ in 
which there is a small closet to hang 
coats. The entryway leads into the li\- 
ing and dining areas. The back door 
opens into the work room. The stairs 
to tile b.isemcnt are located just inside 

the dooj. making it con\enient for the 
tainier to get to his office space or for 
tile workers to get to the basement to 
discard muddy clothes and clean up. 
Other entrances can be made where de- 
sired but two recommended doorways 
(Continued on page 26) 

Models of the farmstead in various orientations were constructed. 
the house is parallel to the road. 




3%" X 2ys" X 1%"; Weight 3]/^ oz. 

Lindemann Electrometer 

This instrument was originally designed for use in 
connection with photo-electric measurements of light in 
astronomical work. It is now used extensively for the 
determination of radioactive emission. Compact and 
stable, it has high sensitivity, stable zero, and does not 
require levelling. The capacitance of the instrument is less 
than 2 cm. For general use, the instrument is placed upon 
a microscope stand and the upper end of the needle ob- 
served, illumination being obtained in the usual way 
through a window in the electrometer case. 

Write for descriptive literature 


Pioneer Manufacturers of Precision /nsfromenfs 
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pH Meters and Reiotdets, Golvanomelers, Cos Analyzers, Fluxmelers, E<hausl 

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Industry pnd Medi( 




AFTER April 16, Standard OU's great new 
xV research laboratory at Whiting, Indiana, 
will be open to the public. Technical men will be 
especially interested in these splendid new build- 
ings and their equipment. Most interested of 
all will probably be young men like yourselves, 
for here at Whiting you can see facilities so 
modern in every respect that they are likely to 
serve as a model for similar industrial develop- 
ments for many years to come. 

It may well be that you will spend part of your 
professional career in surroundings patterned 
after these well-planned new buildings at 
Whiting. In any case, you cannot fail to find 
the new Standard Oil laboratory a present ac- 
complishment and a promise for the future. 
Here is one of the places where the world of 
tomorrow will be shaped by the skill of men 
trained, as you are, to the exacting, rewarding 
tasks of scientific research. 

Standard Oil Company 

910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 

APRIL, 1948 



(Continued troiii paj^i- 24) 

arc those leaiiinjj tiom the dininfr room 
and hedroom sections onto tlie hack tei- 

Since the lionieconiinji aiea is tlie "con- 
trol center of tlie tariii," the kitchen ami 
workiooni shoidd he placed so as to gi\e 
a view ot the approach from the high- 
way and of the farm yard itself.. I'he 
workroom division of the homeniaking 
area is directly connected to the kitchen. 
The farmer's office, with space for a 
desk and file, is located in one corner of 
the workroom. Provisions for washing 
machines and movable laundry trays are 
located in the laundry alcove diagonally 
across the room from the office. A wash- 
up space is located in a third corner. 
The work room may also be used to pro- 
cess food and prepare produce for the 

The moilern, compact kitchen has re- 
frigerator, sink, range, cabinet, and work 
counters in a U-shaped placement to in- 
sure greater efficiency. A breakfast table 
is located across the room from the sink. 
Just a few feet from the breakfast table 
in the eating nook is a sewing cabinet 
which provides space for a sewing ma- 
chine and a full-length mirror. 

Tile plan makes provisions for three 
bedrooms, but more can be added as de- 

sired. V.:\v\\ bedroom is separated from 
the other b\ closet space. The bathroom 
is located between two of the bedrooms. 
Together the bedrooms and bathroom 
form a self-contained unit, making up 
one of tile two rectangles. 

The stairs to the basement are located 
just inside the grade entrance. The base- 
ment contains a heating unit, storage 
place for the fuel, and a shower. The 
basement also contains an all-purpose 
room which c;m be used fcu' such things 
as storage and a pl:ue to hand clothes 
on a rain\ day. 

The construction of the house achieves 
simplicity by use of the modidar plan. 
All of the dimensions are divisible b\ 
four, which leads to a minimum of cut- 
ting and waste of material. The house 
can be built of a wide variety of mate- 
rials. The exterior can be easily fin- 
ished with stone, brick, shingles, or pl\- 
\\ood and with any approved methoil of 
appl\ing that material. 

The house is designed with the first 
floor level several steps above the ground 
line to provide ample space for basement 
windows and to reduce the depth of ex- 
ca\ ation and simplify the drainage. The 
gable roof is built \\'ith overhanging 
eaves, which provide shade from the sliii 
and shelter the windows from rain and 
snow. Since there is a trend toward 
more glass area todaw the windows are 

larger than usual. l'"or comfort and to 
save fuel, the l.uge windows are double 

The farmhtjuse plan is the first com- 
pleted research project that has directly 
residted in a circular. However, it is not 
to be the last. The Small Homes coun- 
cil now has nian\' low-cost housing proj- 
ects under way. Research is being car- 
ried out on baseboard radiation for base- 
ment-less houses, the planning of houses 
to be heated with solid fuel, a kitchen- 
laundrv' project, site fabrication, and 
concrete slab floors. 

The problem of low-cost bousing has 
become a \ery serious problem of this 
era. The research and experiments of 
the Small Homes council will be of great 
service in helping Illinoisans and others 
obtain their "Home Sweet Homes." 

"Where'd y'all git thet derb\?" 
"It's a sooprise funi mah wife." 
"A sooprise?" 

"Ah cums home de odder night, un- 
expected like, an' foun' it on de table." 

If it's fiuiny enough to tell, it's been 
told ; if it hasn't been told, it's too 
clean ; and if it's dirty enough to inter- 
est an engineer, the editor gets kicked 
out of school. 

TO , 

/S y^hen selecting machines 




Notionol Electric 

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Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 


Extra "dividends" can be 
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These "dividends" show 
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Brown & Sliarpe hne, as in 
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^lany unique features 
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THIS ONE have appeared regularly in leading 
business magazines. Their primary purpose is 
to build acceptance for Square D Field Engineers, 
practically all of whom come fo us from 
leading engineering schools such as yours 



as he made his rounds 

A sample from every industry served by Square D 
Field Engineers would make quite a load, indeed. 
For these men serve as liaison between Square D 
and every segment of industrial America. Their 
full-time job is working with industries of every 
kind and size — helping find that "better way 
to do it." 

Through these Field Engineers, located in more 
than 50 offices in the United States, Canada and 
Mexico, Square D does its three-fold job: Designs 
and builds electrical distribution and control equip- 
ment in pace with present needs — provides sound 
counsel in the selection of the right equipment for 
any given application — anticipates trends and new 
methods and speeds their development. 

If you have a problem in electrical distribution 
or control, call in the nearby Field Engineer. He'll 
help a lot in finding a "better way to do it." 


APRIL, 1948 


NAVY PIER . . . 

(Coiitimii'd from pajjc 14) 

iiieiit is so modern ;iiul complete rli:it it 
is doubted tliat more than a tew ot the 
schools ill the country can match the 
Pier ill the qiiahty and ca|iabiht\ ot it> 
facilities in this respect. 

The eipiipment selecteil was installed 
w'nU not only the idea of reproduction 
in mind, but the demonstration of pro- 
ceilures involved, mi, in eii'ect, util- 
ity and instruction are coineniently com- 
bined. Hecause of the variety of equip- 
ment on hand, reproduction is achieved 
by the blueprint process, by the Ozalid 
method, b\ photostatinij;, and b\ use ot 
a vacuum printer. 

For blueprint work, the department 
has a three carbon arc Pease "1 1" I'rint- 
er. This 42-inch printer directs printing 
in both the blueprint and Ozalid pro- 
cesses. Four larj;e vats used for devel- 
opiiiu; the blueprint while a 42-iiich 
Pease Senior Dryer turns out the fin- 
ished product. 

Reproduction b\ the Ozalid process 
involves the use of the Pease printer al- 
ready mentioned and a 54-inch Ozacoup- 
ler in which ammonia fumes develop the 
print in a dry process that avoids paper 
shrinkiii};. In this manner, one can make 
prinr> which ha\e black, blue, red, or 

sepia lines on either a white paper back- 
{^rouiul or on cloth, foil, or film. 

The Number 1 photostat is made by a 
subsidiary of Koilak. This photostat ma- 
i lune takes pictures up to 1 1 inches by 
1 4 inches. Photostats can be obtained in 
an\ size between 40 per cent and 200 
per cent of the orisinal size. The ma- 
chine includes an engineering board, a 
book holder, a filter for color work, and 
has its developing tank and fixer directly 
attached. Two mercury vapor lamps are 
used for lighting the object to be pho- 

In the adjacent d.iik room is a Rem- 
ington Rami \.icuum printer called a 
Portagraph. This is a contact printer for 
general photostatic work but has in ad- 
ilition a \acuum pump which is very ben- 
elicial for reflex work. The printer is 
c.ipable of handling work up to 30 inches 
h\ 4(1 inches. Hy using photact papers 
and cloth on this machine, the originals 
ma\ be preserved, restored, and dupli- 

One of the chief advantages ot the 
\acuum printer is its ability to make 
transparencies. Irrespective of the kind 
of paper on which the original drawing 
is made, a neg.iti\e can be made from 
which a positi\e transparency is made on 
either paper or cloth which is a visible 
improvement o\er any pencil original. 
I'lnally, the photact jirint now serves as 

the m.ister from which further reproduc- 
tions may be made on the Pease printer. 

In straight photographic work, a 35 
millimeter camera is used for the making 
of film strips and slides which are used 
as visual aids to education. A four by 
five press camera and a four by five view 
camera belonging to the physics depart- 
ment supplement the above ecjuipment. 
In addition, there is in the dark room 
a Dejur Professional four b\ five en- 

Although this ei|uipment was set up 
piimaiily for the Kngineering colleges, 
it is used for University work such as 
de\elopiiig registration photos and in 
supplying reproductions for by in- 
structors and departments in the other 

Siegmund Deutscher, Jsst. Editor 
Naomi Suloway, Asit. Bus. Alijr. 

Re pat ting 
John Fijolek Norbert Ellmaii 

Richard Choronzv 

Leonard Cohen 

OH(U-n Livermore- Family .IJvi 


Refrigerators mean little but ice cubes, vegetables 

and cold cuts to the average user. Engineers, however, 

know the intricate production problems each unit involves. 

They know that "behind" the many sheet metal parts 

that contrilnite to the whole mechanism is a Littell 

Feed that dependably feeds and straightens the 

metal fioni uhidi ihosr )),iits .irr fashioned. 







\nelpful Snaps not Advice. 

We have a complete line of 






We have a complete line in 


111 No. Walnut Champaign, 111. 



fox, Students o£ Science and 

Experimental research results in better 
Vitamin D source for poultry industry 

Fifteen years of work by Du Pont 
chemists, biochemists, physicists, 
and engineers behind develop- 
ment of "DELSTEROL" 

In 1922, it was shown that vitamin D 
controls the utihzation of calcium and 
phosphorus in the body, especially in 
the bones of growing animals. This led 
to the discovery that leg weakness in 
chicks, poor production, low hatchability 
of eggs, and other disturbances were 
caused by a deficiency of this vitamin. 

that year, Du Pont research men — who 
had been studying the chemistry and 
biochemistry of vitamin D for almost 
four years — announced that the pro- 
vitamin in animal cholesterol was not 
ergosterol. They showed that the acti- 
vated provitamin in cholesterol gave a 
vitamin D much more effective foi- 
chicks than that of irradiated ergos- 
terol. This fact was based on many 
comparative assays of irradiated choles- 
terol, irradiated ergosterol, and irradi- 
ated mixtures of these substances on 
rats and chicks. 

L. Fullharl, Ph.D. 1946 in organic chemistry, lowo Stale College and W. F. Marlow, chemist, B.S. 1941, 
George Washington University, preparing to examine a sterol product for quality and yield. 

Scientists subsequently discovered 
that vitamin D could be made by irradi- 
ating plant or animal tissues with ultra- 
violet light. This reaction has since been 
shown to consist of transforming cer- 
tain provitamins from the group known 
as sterols, into vitamin D. The final re- 
sult of these discoveries was the present 
large-scale commercial production of the 
vitamin by a series of complex chemical 
and photo-chemical reactions which re- 
quire careful control by chemists, bio- 
chemists, physicists, and engineers. In 
this development, Du Pont scientists 
played an important part. 

Ergosterol once the only source 

For years before 1934 it was assumed 
that ergosterol, a sterol first isolated 
from vegetable sources, was the only 
provitamin that yielded vitamin D. l.i 

APRIL, 194S 

Synthesis from Cholesterol developed 

Other investigators showed that the 
provitamin in cholesterol was 7-dehy- 
drocholesterol by developing its syn- 
thesis from cholesterol. The relationship 
between cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholes- 
terol, and vitamin Dj is shown by the 
following formulas: 

1 / 



I / 




Bones at top, from birds fed no vitamin D, ore 
shorter, poorly developed, and fragile, com- 
pared with bones at bottom from birds fed 
Du Pont "D'!lst9rol." 

CH; CH, 


Z Z 2 


Du Pont chemists and engineers car- 
ried this forward by devising a success- 
ful commercial process for making 7-de- 
hydrocholesterol and irradiating it to 
vitamin D,i. Several forms of vitamin D 
are now manufactured by Du Pont, 
ranging from oil and dry powder con- 
centrates — used by the poultry trado 
under the trademark "Delsterol" — to 
vitamin D3 crystals of the highest 

Today's chickens are healthier, and 
the average annual egg yield over the 
last eight years has increased from 134 
to 159 per bird. To a considerable de- 
gree, this is a result of the fifteen years 
of research devoted by Du Pont scien- 
tists to the development of "Delsterol" 
"D"-activated animal sterol. 

Questions College Men ask 
about working witii Du Pont 

what are the opportunities in sales? 

Separate sales staffs are maintained by eaclx 
of Du Font's ten manufacturing depart- 
ments. Training in chemistry or chemical 
engineering is a prerequisite for some sales 
positions, which may be in one of three 
fields: technical sales, sales development, or 
direct selling. New employees usually ac- 
quire technical background by first working 
in a control laboratory or in production. 
Write for booklet, "The Du Pont Company 
and the College Graduate," 2518 Nemours 
Building, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 


More facts about Du Pont — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of Amenca," Mondays, 8 P.M., EST on NBC 




Galvanized (zinc-coated) Sheets 
Stay Stronger Longer 

nn 34 YEARS. . .Erected in 1913, and 
j_ij covered with heavy-gauge galva- 
nized sheets, this Tennessee con- 
centrating plant ol the A/Z Company, 
is still in excellent condition after more 
than 3 decades of service. Painted 
with Gray Metallic Zinc Paint in 1932. 

In building for the future, look 
to the past for proof of a build- 
ing material's strength . . . du- 
rability . . . service. With gal- 
vanized (zinc-coated) roofing 
and siding, you get the strengtli 
of steel . . . the rust protection 
of Zinc. So for low-cost, long- 
time service, choose the build- 
ing material that's proved by 
TIME itself . . . galvanized 
sheets. Send coupon for infor- 
mation about Zinc and how it 
can help keep your buildings 
and equipment stronger longer. 


2634 • 35 E Wackor Dr. Chicago 1, fll. 


Send me without cost or obligation the 
illustrated booklets I have checked. 

□ Repair Manual on Galvanized Roc!- 

ing and Siding 
Q] Facts about Galvanized Sheets 
n Use of Metallic Zinc Paint to Protect 

Metal Surfaces 



MRS. JORDAN . . . 

( C'njitiniicil (11)111 page 16) 
"^ cs, write \oiir picscnr address lu-ri-," 
to a Ix-wildcrcd studcnr. 

So it was for the rest ot tite luiur. l'"ijr 
.1 tew moments the otfiee would be as 
silent as .1 mori;ue e.\cept tor the .sohtarv' 
tick-ticking of the otlice typewriters and 
the tar-away drone of a professor's voice. 
riien the room would suddenly become 
,ili\e with people and Mrs. Jordon 
would quickly be prepared to answer all 
.sorts of questions and gi\e instructions 
and directions. In between rushes she 
gave the rest of the account of her life. 
.As we had st;irteil to sa\' — 

Her return tiom Chicago resulted in 
a position with a town law\er and her 
marriage in 19.^4. In 19,^6 she and her 
husband came to Chambana, and two 
ye.iis later she accepted a secretarial job 
here on campus. The last six and one- 
half years have been spent in secretarial 
work for Professor W. C Huntington, 
head of the civil engineering department, 
.iiul sii|iei\ isioii of department work 
w hich she passes on to the desks of the 
other girls: Jeanne Pancoast, her "right- 
hand man" ; Patricia Peterson and 
Doyne Proudfit. 

Her outside interests include golf "in 
golfing weather, of course," movies, her 
home, and her dog Ginger, a special 

hreeil called a Skipperke. a sort of "fo\- 
taced terrier with the bod\- of a black 
s|iit/. dog." She also said that she lo\es 
to go fishing with her husband up in 
Wisconsin diiiing the summer. 

At 1 :S() p. m. when we left, Mrs. 
Jordon was still fresh and smiling, glad- 
ly helping all and sundry who cami' 
into her office, and still prepared for any 
emergency. We, meanwhile, tired and 
worn from the barrages of \isitors, 
scratched our heads and wdiuleicil, 
"How docs she do it?" 

Judge: "Who was dn\ ing when you 
collided with that car?" 

Drunk (' trium|ihaiitl\ ) : ".None of us. 
We were in the back seat." 

A certai'i brewer sent a sample of his 
beer to a lab to be analyzed. A few 
days later he received this report from 
the chemist: 

"Dear Sir: Yawv horse has diabetes." 

KE: "Could I try on that blue tweed 
suit in the window?" 

Clerk: "We'd rather you'd use the 
dressing room." 

partners in creating 

K & E drafting instruments, equipment and materials 
hove been partners of leading engineers for 80 years 
in shaping the modern world. So extensively ore these 
products used by successful men, it is self evident that 
K & E has played a port in the completion of nearly 
every American engineering project of any magnitude. 




. Louis • Detroit 

35 Angeles • Montreal 



Surface Conjecto-Fired GAS '<*« 

Furnace used for a variety of ^ 
heat-treating operations includ- 
ing Malleableizing, Pacl< Carburizing, 
Annealing in a temperature range 
from 600° F. to 1800° F. 


In modern heat-treating, adaptability of equipment and 
flexibility of fuel are primary influences in any cost-per- 
piece analysis. As a typical example of the flexibility of 
the productiye flames of GAS, this Conjecto-Fired GAS 
Furnace is used for a yanety of operations without any 
change other than regulation of the fuel-mix and tem- 
perature controls. 

Atwood Vacuum Machine Company, Rockford, Illi- 
nois, is equipped to heat-treat pieces ranging from 1 
ounce to 1000 pounds, in volume up to 15,000 pounds 
daily. Their modern Gas-fired Equipment is adapted for 
annealing, carburizing, drawing, hardening, normaliz- 
ing, malleableizing, stress relieving, under rigid metal- 
lurgical specifications. 

Experienced heat-treating specialists like Atwood 
Vacuum Machine Company use GAS because this 
flexible, controllable, rapid-heating fuel is so readily 
adaptable to all types of processing at any required 
temperature. The productive flames of GAS are so 
flexible that they can be used for any production-line 
heating operation, under the most exacting conditions. 


ANNEALING— Station wagon body hinge 

Material: SAE 1020 

Temperature: 1600° F. 

Time Cycle: 36 hours 

Net charge: 6400 lbs. 


—Broke Trunnions 

Time Cycle: 

Net charge: 


rolled SAE 1010 
1650^ F. 
8 hours 
1500 lbs. 


Data and Photos by SURFACE 
TION, Toledo, Ohio, Manu- 
jiictimrs of Gas Heat-Treatin/^ 


MAltFABtEIZING— Troiler Jock Screws 


Malleable Iron 


17 50" F. 

Time Cycle: 

72 hours 

Net charge: 

10.000 ibs. 

APRIL, 1948 


Producing ALUNDUM 

the world's moft widely used abrasive 

IN these unique, arc-type furnaces at the Norton electric 
furnace plant near Niagara Falls is produced ALUNDUM 
abrasive — fused at 3700° F. from the mineral, bauxite. 

Introduced to industry by Norton in 1901 this first electric- 
furnace-made aluminum oxide abrasive revolutionized 
the grinding of steels because of its combination of hard- 
ness, sharpness and toughness. 

Subsequent Norton developments were designated as 
38 ALUNDUM and 57 ALUNDUM— and then in 1946 
came the sensational 32 ALUNDUM abrasive. 

Today ALUNDUM abrasive in ifs various forms 
is fhe world's most widely used abrasive. 





( Coiuiniicil troiii pa^c 1.?) 

liifjli. A luinibcr of faiiiicrs have made 
units of their own in order to reduce 
the investment. Howe\er, several com- 
panies are now m tlie held and as oper- 
arin;: dlrticulnO are worked out. the 
liarn cleaner ma\ become as standard a 

For ease in loading spreaders, the 
end of the conveyor is elevated. 

piece ot ilair\ barn oiuipment as the 
milkinij machine. 

The Agricultural Engineering depart- 
ment at the University of Illinois is 
presently studying efficiency of design 
and power requirements for se\eral oth- 
er new dair}' production machines. All 
these studies have as their ultimate 
objective the reduction of time and la- 
bor consumed b\ the farmer m the dair\' 



( Conriiuied from page l()) 

\ices, including radar. Mr. Murrell re- 
turned to the United States in October, 
1945, and worked in Washington for 
the w-ar department on problems of air 
navigation and traffic control until he 
came to the University last fall. 

Hoiii in Lebanon, Kentucky, on Feb- 
ruary 18, 1914, he was educated in Lou- 
is\ille, Kentucky. He received his Hach- 
elor of Science degree in electrical engi- 
neering from the University of Louis- 
\ille in 1936. Mr. Murrell worked for 
some time as an engineer for the Louis- 
\ille ( .111(1 Electric company. He 
went to the L iiiversity of Wisconsin in 
I''.i7 as a graduate research assistant for 
the Physics department. He received his 
(Continued on page .^6) 



Fro:;cn Foods. 

World's Largest ^iiiek-treezer Uses 


Seabrook Farms — Dcerfield Packing Corp. are breali 
^^^p!r. for quick-freezing f 

ig all 


roods at their 
„ gigantic plant near Bridgeton. 
N. J. They are processing as much 
as a million pounds of vegetables 
and fruits a day, SS'Tr of which 
* are promptly frozen. 
j Their precooling, quick-freezing 
-' and cold storage operations are 
all handled with Frick Refrlgera- 
tion. Storage capacity is over 50 
million pounds. Twelve big Frick 
ammonia compressors, driven by 
motors totaling 3825 horsepower, 
carry the cooling load with de- 

The Frick Graduate Training Course 
Refrioeration and Air Condilioninj now 
its 31st year is approved under the 
. Bill of Rights. 






^' i «i 

Now available with 

Cork and Curved 
Quill Stopper 


Perfected Rubber 
Dropper Stopper 


Both type stoppers 

available on 

waterproof black. 

When ordering from 

your dealer, specify 

the type stopper 



271 .\i,\TH STREET, BROOKLYA 15. A". Y. 






The CO-OP 

Green and Wright 

Phone 6-1369 

APRIL, 1948 



(Cuntiiuii-il troin page 22) 

2.iril. It was held in the Illini Union 
in an attempt to remove it troin the 
aroma ala organic chemistr\, rhcichx 
estabhshing an environment coiuliuixe to 
better sociahzing. 

The climax of the evening's entertain- 
ment was the presentation ot an honor- 
ary membership to one of the most pop- 
ular professors of the chemistry depart- 
ment. Dr. L. F. Audrieth. He was also 
made an honorary life member of the 
Illinois student chapter of the A. I. Ch. 
1']., all "in recognition of his continued 

interest in the profession and social train- 
ing of chemical engineering students. " 

Dr. Coinings introduced the Ch. E. 
faculty and spoke at length on the "new 
building" being constructed immediateh 
east of the chemistry annex. The soci- 
ety officers were introduced b\ the pres- 

.Approximate!) 100 chenu'cal engineers 
and chemists assembled on the evening of 
March 1st to hear Dr. Hailar, professor 
of inorgaiu'c chemistry and secretary of 
the chemistry department, discuss the re- 
lationship between a student's aptitudes 
and the t\pe of job that he was best 
fitted for. He mentioned the "job in- 

ter\iew" and what to expect from an 
industrial organization. 

1 he office of the secretary is very ac- 
tive in assisting Noyes laboratory grad- 
uates in the procurement of the right 
job. Any chemical engineer or chenu'st 
should talk to Dr. Hailar and fill out an 
application blank to be placed in l)i. 
Hailar's permanent file. 

".So you deceived \(nir husband," sai 
tile judge graveK'. 

"On the contrarv, your honor, he dt 
ceived me. He said he was going out o 
town, and he didn't go." 

Burr, Patterson 

& Auld Co. 








On the Campus 

704 S. Sixth 


for the finest Mother's Day gifts 
beautifully gift wrapped 

A Campus Tradition that all 
Engineers Recognize . . . 

ini Union Bookstore 

On the Campus 




The man who cooled 
a m/f/ion hotheads 

^ome women can fix anything 
^ with a bent hairpin. But it 
took a man to solve a problem that 
had stumped the hairpin experts 
for generations. 

He solved the irritating problem 
of opening and shutting stubborn 
windows without benefit of crow- 
bars, by means of an ingenious, 
automatic sash-balance, which 
enables you to perform that opera- 
tion with one finger. 

The principal member of this 
new temper-saver is a length of 
high carbon, sash-balance spring 
steel made by Roebling.The manu- 
facturers have such confidence in 
this Roebling product that they 

guarantee their sash balance for 
the entire life of the building in 
which it is installed. 

Roebling flat spring steel is one 
of the most widely used of the 
hundreds of Roebling products, 
vet it is the least known. Few men 
think of umbrella stays, clock 
.'iprings, feeler gauges, measuring 
rules and tapes, and thousands of 
other articles, in terms of flat 
spring steel. 

On the other hand, when enter- 
prising inventors create knotty 
design problems, when competition 
dictates re-design of a product in 
order to lower costs, engineers 
invariably look to these Roebling 

products for at least part of the 

Born of free enterprise . . . the 
system that creates demands for 
thousands of articles that are un- 
known to the citizens of other 
countries . . . flat wire and flat 
spring steel point the way to other 
undreamt of developments and 

Roebling flat wire and spring 
steel have earned the confidence of 
designers and engineers throughout 
industry . . . the world over. 


Bronc/ies and Warehouses in Principal Cities 



APRIL, 194,S 


Textbooks — Slide Rules 
Drawing Instruments 
Engineering Supplies 

They're all to be found 


( C'lintinui'cl troni |);ijrf M) 

I'll. I). ilct;i('c in pliNsics there in l')41. 
VVliile instructinfi in electrical engi- 
ni-eiin)^ Mr. Miirrell still maintains an 
.11 five interest in the field ot physics. Al- 
th()u}!;h not activelv engajied in any spe- 

II lie research at the present time, he is 
phmninji to enter part time research in 
the near future. 

.Mrs. Murrell is the former Miss 
Clare Hall, also a graduate of the L iii- 
\ersity of Illinois. She received her de- 
uree from the College of Liberal Arts 

III l'f41. Mr. and Mrs. Murrell met in 
1-iigland in 1944 where she was an of- 
ficer in the WAC. They met again in 
the Philippine Islands for a few months 
attei the war. They were married in 
January, 1947, after both had returned 
to the United tSates. Mrs. Murrell is 
now in graduate school working on her 
master's degree in P2nglish Literature. 

A member of IRE, the Physical soci- 
ety, and Sigma Xi, Mr. Murrell is at 
present on special call with the Research 
and Dexelopment board in Washington. 

I crept upstairs, my shoes in hand, 
just as the night took wing 
And saw my wife, four steps above 
Diimg the same damned thing. 

Headifuartors for Authentic Power Transmission Data 






These Famous Brands 







G. E. 






1 RC 






and many others 



jkimmiAnc uu 



Since its first production by the Mos- 
cow Art Theatre in 1904, THE CHERRY 
ORCHARD has steadily held its place 
as the master work of the modern 
theatre. The first appeal of the play 
rises from its characters, each of which 
is an exquisite realization of some form 
of human folly and misdirection. Chek- 
hov ridicules them for the futility of 
their lives, but his ridicule is so gentle 
that they become most pathetic when 
most comical. 


April 14-15-16-17 
Admission $1.20 

PROBLEM — You are designing a cabinet-type oil 
heater. The oil and air metering valve has to be 
placed at the bottom. You now v/ant to provide a 
manual control for the valve located on the cabinet 
front v/here it is easy to see and to operate. How 
would you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER— Use an S.S.White remote 
control flexible shaft to connect the dial to the valve 
or to a rod running to the valve. The latter method 
was used in the heater illustrated below. The flexible 
shaft will provide smooth, sensitive control and will 
allow you to put the dial anywhere you want it. 

This is just one of hun- 
dreds of power drive and 
remote control problems 
to which S.S.White flex- 
ible shafts are the simple 
answer. That's why every 
engineer should be fa- 
miliar with the range and 
scope of these "Metal 
Muscles"* for mechani- 
cal bodies. 

Photo «,„..iy o/ 

Sujlcrr M/s. Co., Chicago, III. 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for asking. Write today. 



APRIL. 194S 

Oitc 0^ )4mt%CcCt A AAA IntUt^tuU StUn^titUe* 



( L'oiitlniicd trom |);ij;i- 7 ) 

till- slun\ tank ( ISj. 'I'lic mixture circ- 
ulates through the connecting piping 
and valves (as indicated by arrow direc- 
tion) to the lower compartment ot the 
filter (6) where it passes out the top 
tindugh a number of elements (7). 
These elements consist of cylindrical 
septums of porous refractory materials 
or septums of helically-wound wire 
upon which the diatomite gathers in ;i 
uiu'form pre-coat, .()() to .09 inches in 
tiiickness. The water then passes 
tiirough the lilter etHuent line (9) and 
\:d\c (4). .\t \ai\e (10), however. It 
lilies iKit tdildw tiic route shown but l^ 
diverted ilowii to (!_') and back to its 
origin in (IM. In test filter runs, the 
best initial |)re-coat of this kind was 
formed by the addition of 10 to IS 
pounds of filter-aid per 100 .square feet 
ot >urt.KC area on the filter elements. 
In the .second process, the actual fil- 
tering, the water, usuall\' pre-treated b\ 
coagulation and settling, enters the in- 
fluent line (1) and follows the same 
route as the pre-coat slurry. While pass- 
ing through the septums (7), the diato- 
mite coats filter out the suspended mat- 
ter, slag, and bacteria of the water 
which accumulates in additional layers 
around them. The filtered water then 
continues through the efHuent line (9) 

and (II) and <jut ul the apparatus. lonj;ci period In retarding the loss of 

l)uiing this filteiing operati(jn tliere is head piessure that draws the water 

a contiiHial feed of diatomite slurry through the apparatus. However, this 

from the body feeder (not shown) body feed is not to be confused with the 

which mixes with tlie water to be fil- uutial pre-coat of diatomite; this slurry 

tered and builds up a growing coat on ted In during the filtering process is an 

the already pre-coated filter elements. additional amount. 
This maintains the coat's porosity for a ( (."oiitlnued an page 40) 

Mr. Bowman of the Sanitary Engineering laboratory displays a model of 
the 15 g.p.m. diatomite filter pack unit developed by the Army. 

You Engineers . . . yes, you men of slide-rule distinction. If you multiply 
your supply needs by that constant, "Q" for Quality, what is the reading 
under the hair line? . . . It's 610! 


And what does this mean? Why, of course, that's the location of 


It's the right answer every time. You can't go wrong with equipment and 

supplies from here 




RCA Laboratories' "Chamber of Silence"— proving ground of tonal quality in radio and television instrument',. 

Ever hear SILENCE ? 

You walk into an eerie room. The door 
swings shut and youre wrapped in a 
silence so complete that it's an effort to 
listen. Sound in this vault-like cavern is 
reduced to the minimum of hearing. 

But c\cn silence lias a sound of its own. 
Faintly you hear a subdued hiss; sometimes 
a soft hum. Scientists have suggested tliis 
may be the "noise" of molecules hitting the 
cardnmis. Others wonder if it is caused by 
tlic coursing of the body's blood stream. 

AVTien acoustic scientists at RCA Labora- 
tories want to study the actual voice of an 
instnmient, they fake it to this room. What 
fliey hear then is the instrument itself— and 
only the instnmient. They get a true meas- 
ure of performance. 

Infomiation gained here is part of such ad- 
\ances as: Tlie "Golden Throat ' tone system 
found only in RC.\ Victor radios and Victrola 
radio-phonographs . . . superb sound sys- 
tems for television . . . tlie true-to-life quality 
of RC.\ \'ictor records . . . high-fidelity mi- 
crt)pIiones, clear \oices for motion pictures, 
public address systems, and interoffice com- 

Research at RCA Laboratories moves 
along many paths. Advanced scientific think- 
ing is part of any product bearing the names 
RCA, or RCA N ictor. 

When in Radio City, New York, he sure 
to see the radio, telc\ision and electronic 
wonders at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th Street. Free admission. Radio Corp. of 
Anwrica, RCA Building, Radio Cittj, N. V. 20. 

Continue your education 

with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RC.\ 

Victor— one of llie world's foremost miliui- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
—offers yon opportunity to Rain valuable, 
well - roimded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
\ancenient. Here are only five of tlie many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Ad\'anced development and design of 
AM .and FM broadcast transmitters. R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay s>'stems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• De\'elopment and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
r.iy, gas and photo tubes. 

Write today to National Rccrttitiiig Divi- 
iion, RCA Victor, Camden, New jcrscij. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 


-APRIL, 1948 



(Contimifd trom page .vS ) 

The suspeiulfil matter and slag be- 
fore mentioned soon aciumulatcs to 
form a thick coating that is rcmnvcd 
by a backwash process, uhicli lasts about 
30 seconds. The water llow is reversed 
at valve (4) and passes up (')) and 
down through the top of the filter ( S ) 
and its elements. This discharge, cair\- 
ing away the coat of sludge and diato- 
mite, is then diverted through (S) and 
valves (4), (10). and (12) to the 
waste tank or sump. 

Rfsi'arch in Profircss 

Field filters ol the kind described 
were used successtidh: during the war, 
although it is agreed that the possibili- 
ties of the diatomite (iltei- ha\e not >et 
been entirely developed. I'dr this rea- 
son, present research in this t\ pe of 
filtration is being coiulucted at ti\e 
American institutions: New York, Har- 
vard, Johns Hopkins, California, and 
Illinois universities. The rt\e factors in- 
volved in this investigation are filter 
septums, filter-aid, pre-treatment of wa- 
ter, corrosion of filter units, and various 
methods of sterilization. The I niver- 
sity research conducted at the Sanitary 
Engineering laboratory deals for the 
greater part with the first of these, the 

testing of about M) kinds of diffeicnt 
septums. This research program, spon- 
sored bv a governmental appropriation 
of :5S0,()I)(), began June I. 1047, for the 
designated length of ;i \ear and will be 
conriinied if further expeiiinentiition is 
thought nece'sarv. 

.'\bout the onh disadvantage ol the 
tliatomite filter is its cost. The filter-.iid 
\;iries trom three to five cents pei' 
pound, .-ind till' amount used \aiies tor 
waters of different characteristics. In 
this respect diatomite filtration is more 
expensixe than the rapid sand filters 
despite the lower installation cost of the 

In practical application the diatomite 
filter has found a definite niche in the 
purification processes used in the treat- 
ment of swimming-pool water. The us- 
ual swimming-pool tvu'bidity (occur- 
rence of sediment and other foreign 
matter) is in the ratio (jf two or three 
|iarts per million. This requires a com- 
p.iiatively low consumption of filter-aid, 
about .04 pounds per 1000 gallons of 
filtered water. Financially speaking, this 
filtration would then cost one-fifth of a 
cent per 1000 gallons, if the cost of the 
diatomite is figured at S cents per 

Another application of the fdter 
would be for temporary water treatment 
by campers. Dilc to its ability to pro- 

duce ,1 filtrate ot \cr\ low turbidity it 
could also be used in industrial mechan- 
isms which require water free from sus- 
pended solids. To date, no information 
is available concerning the possible 
large-scale treatment ot municipal water 

The future of the <liatomite filter 
holds unlimited horizons, but until fur- 
ther studies and statistics are compiled, 
it cannot be used in wide industrial 

\Vh\ didn't the ram turn before he 
ran off the cliff? 

He didn't see the ewe tuiii. 

I stood on the bridge at midnight, 

A simple Pratts-truss span. 
And my fingers were held fixed ended 

In the clasp of my lo\e . . . dear Ann. 
And I sighed as I there surveyed her. 

My love passing fair. 
While a sportive wind load sudden 

Caused tensile stress in her hair. 
"Ann, wilt thou walk beside me 

Along life's hard surfaced road?" 
On my ribs spiral reinforcement 

My heart set up an impact load. 
"Oh, Ann, beam thou upon my life; 

I pra\ thee do not dim it." 
And m\ j()\, when she softh whispered. 

Exceeded the elastic limit. 




Coal, gas, and oil (fired singly or in rombinalion) 
are regular items on today's menu for F)iS.\\ boilers. 
Occasional entrees include: grain hidls, wood chips, 
asphalt, sewage sludge, by-products of paper mills, 
steel plants and sugar mills... just about anything 
that burns. So B&W builds boilers and combuslion 
equipment that burn what's available today . . . 
likely to be availabl(> tomorrow ... at top efficiency. 
Helping power plants to gel the most from avail- 

able fuels is only one of the things long years have 
taught ]}&\V to do well. Industry offers examples 
of many others — proof of the imaginative engineer- 
ing at B&W. 

Through this policy of continuous development 
and research, B&W offers excellent career oppor- 
tunities to technical graduates .. .in diversified fields 
of manufacturing, engineering, sales and research. 






Argon "timer" on Kodak 
High Speed Camera puts 
edge marks on film, as 
shown below, for externally 
fed rectangular pulses. 

Milling cutter bit 
caught in the act of 
breaking. Edge marks 
on film give the exact 
relative time and speed 
of any phase of 
high speed action. 

The Kodak High Speed Camera ... a precision 
instrument that gives you exact visual answers 
to complex industrial time-motion problems. 

T7I TTIEN high speed machinery doesn't work as it 
* ^ should or wears out too soon . . . when you need 
to know how fast-moving liquids behave . . . when 
any complex time-motion problem confronts you . . . 
try motion analysis with the Kodak High Speed 

By taking pictures up to 3000 frames a second and 
showing them at regular speeds . . . \ou \isuall\ 
slow down action almost 200 times ! And flash marks 
which the camera puts along the film edge time any 
phase of action in fractions of milliseconds. 

Bv using this precision instrument in your labora- 
tor\ or plant, you can track down and measure almost 
any problem in flexure, inertia, waste motion . . . ana- 
lyze chemical and electrical phenomena for perma- 
nent record . . . for study . . . for group discussion. 

Send the coupon for a cop\' of the booklet "Magni- 
fying Time." It will tell vou how this instrument is 
bemg used advantageouslv in manv industries. 

Industrial Photographic Division, Rochester 4, N. Y. 

High SpeedlhoN'm 

. . . another important function of photography 

Mail this 
new FREE 

coupon for 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester 4, N. Y. 

Please send me D your new, free booklet on the 

Speed Camera; D your 16mm. demonstration r 

pies of high speed movies. 

Kodak High 
L'cl of exam- 


IX pt. 


. . . a great name in research with a big future in CHEMISTRY 


I (II \c.ii> .ii;ii tin- inhmt |)laslii>> iiulii'. 
Ii\ \\;is tcclliiii;;. Il li;is since iii>Ir(I 
llimu};li :i picKU ii)us ( liildlimxl ;iml 
!;rii\\ii III ^1 \i<^i)r(iiis ;in(l iiiipn"<si\i' iiij 
lulilx. loil.iv llic |il;lMi(s iiulustiv is 
.1 niiihiiinllloiKhill.ii liiisiiu'ss. I'u'o 
ihiiils 111 .ill \tiii-ii(Mn liKliiiies use 
pl.isiiis III. nil I. lis in ihi'ii ni:iiiiil:ii liii 
iiij; opcinlions. 

Ol cinilNC, pl.isiiis were iii)t new icii 
yf;irs a<;o. In l.ui. hatk in 1S94 Geiifial 
r.k'( trie \\:is inakinj; lamp carbons out 
III an cailv |)lasli( — lani)il)lafk-imprc}>- 
iialcd p.illn's day. 

New Materials Encourage Growth 

r.iil llir i.ipiil ;^HP\\lli 111 the plastiis 
indiistiv (iiiii in ilu' late 19;i0's when 
new iiiaiiiials anil improved molding; 

Synchrolron ring, molded by G. E. for Univ. of 
California's new betatron atom-smasfier. 

ie( liiii(ju(s encouraj^ed its expansion. 
I III n. wiili World War II, plasticsmann- 
l.iiiiiilii;4 .u ( ricialed ircmendoirsly. 

(.<•nei.ll Kieiliic's position in tin 
plastics Held is iniiijiie in that G. K. is 
llie world's larj^est mannlacturer ol 
liilislied plastics piiidiuts and also a 
nianida( tinei of molding powders. 

(ieneral Kleclric oilers a compleii- 
plastics service. Il has facilities for ilc 

\cloping special com 
pounds and for design- 
mil;. iMigineering, and 
inoldint; plastics prod 
III IS III meet individual 
I iisloMieis' tcijuireiiienls. 
riir vaiinv ol p.irts 
.111(1 piiidiK Is nil lied (Mil 
lp\ (.eiieral ll((lii('s I'lastiis Division 
is slai iliiig—.iiid il illiisiiales ilie dixei 
silv of applicalidiis tli.ii arc hciiij; loiiiiil 
lor plastics in llic posiwar world. 

For Rowboats and Radios 

lake, lor example, llic plastics dinu|i\. 

This is a lour-pa.sseii';er boat molded ol 
laminated plastics by Cieneral Electric 
loi a .New tngland boat maniifactiirer. 

riien llieic is the svnchrolron rill" for 

This plastics 

dinghy was molded by 

General Electric for the Beetle Boot Comoony. 

the University of California's new 
betatron atom-smasher. It"s the largest 
single part ever molded by d. K. Less 
spectacular, perliaps, but still impor- 
tant, are the hundreds of more familiar 
plastics products like clock cases, com- 
pacts, radio cabinets, camera cases, pack- 

ages ol all sorts, lextolite surfacing 
iiiaierial, ]>laslics parts lor automobiles, 
lelrigerators, and other appliances- 
ex en plastics < ups for milking machines. 
Since 1(120, {;<iicial Kleclric has man 
lilac lured molding powders lor its own 
use. Recenilv. a svniliclic phenol plain 
ivas ((inipleled in Pillsfield. As a resiill 
ol this increasc'd production capacin. 
(.. I . can now provide high qualii\ 
phenolic compounds lo oilier molders 

New GE Phenol ploni ol Pillsfield, Moss., show- 
ing froclionoling towers on distillolion building. 

General tleciric's plastics activities are 
just one phase of the operations of the 
Chemical Department, where research 
is opening new doors to progress. In the 
lascinating new field of silicone chem- 
istry, in resins, in insulating varnishes, 
in permanent magnets. General Electric 
is making contributions to chemical 
knowledge. Eor more information on 
any of these activities, write Cheritinil 
Definrltnenl .Gi'iieral F.lrrlric Company, 
Pittsfiehl. Mnssdihusett.s. 

HP ^7/ 

Ikf Hi 

.1 «(«.«»;;.• to stuileiits of chi-inixfn/ from 
1)1! .1 .1 I'YLE 

Ihrcrtor. Cnirral I'Irrlrir I'hn-tirs I.alwrntnr,, 

llic licld iif plastics is surcl.v a stiiiuiliiliiiK one- aiicl one that 
■ iVcr^ niaii\ ip|>|)(irliiiiitics and llic iiliiiost in cliallcnpc to 
-railiialc clicniisis and cliciiiical cii).'iiic-crs. .\l (iciicnil Elcc- 
Irlc. plastics research is presenting new possibilities in this 
l:iscinatiiis field thai .should prove exceplionally interesting 
lo yoiliif;- Icchniciil men 




Mil. 1948 • 25fents 


RCA scientists— pioneers in radio-electronics— apply the "radio 
tube" to communications, science, industry, entertainment, and transportation. 

This "magic lamp" malces Aladdin's look laxy 

You will ivnifinhfr the fabulous lamp- 
iuid liow it scnt'd its master, Aladdin. 
Serving vou. todav, is a real "magic lamp" 
. . . the electron tube. 

Vou are familiar with tliese tubes in your 
radio, X'ictrola radio-piionograph or television 
set . . but that is only a small part of the 
work they do. Using radio tubes, RC:A Lab- 
oratories ha\e helped to develop nianv new 
servants for man. 

A partial list ineiudes: all-eleetroi:ic tele- 
vision, F.\l radio, portable radios, the elee- 
tron microscope, radio-heat, radar. Slioran, 
Teleran, and countless special "tools ' for 
science, communications and conuncrec. 

The electron microscope, helping in the 
fight against disease, magnifies bacteria more 

than 100.000 diameters, radar sees through 
fog and darkness, all-electronic television 
shows events taking place at a distance, 
radio-heat "glues" wood or plastics. Shoran 
locates points on the earth's surface with 
unbelievable accuracv, Teleran adds to tlu' 
safety of air tra\el. 

Constant advances in radio-electronics are 
a major objective at RC).\ Laboratories. 
Fully developed, these progressive develop- 
ments are part of the instruments bearing 
the name RCA, or RCA N'ietor. 

When in Radio City, New York, be sure 
to see the radio, television and electronic 
wonders at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th Street. Free admission. Radio Corp of 
America. RCA Building, Radio City, N. Y. 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\'itt()r — one of the world's foremost manii- 
fiictnrers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a cnod salary' with opportunities for ad- 
\ .UK nntut. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• ne\elopment and design of radio re- 
(•ci\ers ( including broadcast, short wa\'e 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
mduction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such iis 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Dc\'elopment and design of new re- 
cording and reproducing methods. 

• Design of receivijig. power, cathode 
r.iy. gas and photo tubes. 

WnVf today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion. RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 


He Can Be 
a Valuable Player 
On Your 

Cost-Reduction Team 

• Your head electrical man — don't 
overlook his counsel in your cost-reduc- 
tion huddles. Here's why — 

During recent years, thousands of elec- 
trical systems have been operating under 
abnormal stress. They have become over- 
loaded and unreliable . . . poorly located 
or improperly applied in relation to pres- 
ent needs. They have increased produc- 
tion costs — plenty. 

Check with your head electrical man. 
If he finds such electrical weaknesses, a 
Square D Field Engineer will be glad to 
help him analyze the problem and select 
corrective power distribution and electric 
motor control equipment. 

The counsel of experienced Square D 
Field Engineers is available, without obli- 
gation, through Square D offices in prin- 
cipal U. S., Canadian and Mexican cities. 


\m hw^wmU 

Itfi .lohn IHvli. E.E. ' /» 

Kvn MvOuan. M.E. 't» 

Gas, Key to Progress in 
Research and Manufacture 

(i;is, as we all too ottcii lliiiik (jt it, 
is not an "it:" it is a "thcni." 'I'licri' arc 
main' gases usi'il in imlustiv ami re- 
search. The more important ones in- 
cliiile hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, ilhjni- 
inating, acetylene, helium, argon, kryp- 
ton, neon, ammonia, ami chlorine. These 
are not mere laboratory curios but are 
piped into many buildings and labora- 
tories much as one would pipe water 
into his home. 

The uses of gas are \ariecl. It is em- 
ployed in furnaces, glass blowing, cop- 
per brazing, annealing, sintering, weld- 
ing, cutting steel, as a refrigerant, .is ,i 
pressurizing agent, as a filling for \,icu- 
um tubes and light bulbs, and foi' niaii\ 
other purposes. 

Among the most interesting uses of 
gas is that of glass blowing. A mixture 
of various gases is used to obtain the 
proper size and shape of flame for each 
operation. One of the new machines for 
this highh' interesting work, is shown 
in the incluiled picture. 

New Core Binder 

I hf (icneiid llectric compan\ has 
(lc\el()ped a \ariation of the mass spec- 
nolic resHi to bnid sand cores used in 
the I'asting of metals. 

The new core hinder imparts enough 
dr\ ^tle^gtll to the cure material to 
allow the core to be handled while still 
warm. With a nunimum of baking time 
and temperatuie, it imparts sufficient 
strength to the core to withstand pour- 
ing temperatures of _'73l)° F. It pos- 
sesses a low hot strength, and excellent 
green strength. The phenolic resin 
e\()l\es very little gas during pouring 
and will not injure the properties of 
the core material after shake-down. 

New Standards Adopted 

The ASTM has adopted a number of 
\v:\\ standards that are luiique. One of 
these standards is a method of testing 
steel for sulfur content by direct com- 
bustion. The use of this method will 
cut down testing time as well as costs. 

Mass Spectrometer 

1 he general Idectric lompanv has de- 
\eloped a \ariation of the mass spec- 
trometer to make gas analysis easier and 
more accurate. 

'1 he ne\\' machine will seek nut and 
record traces of a gas c\en it it be 
jiresent in as small a quantity as one 
|iait in loo, 000 parts of other gases. 

To quote its creator: "For hydro- 
carbon analysis of synthetic rubber, gaso- 
line, and other petroleum products, the 
analytical mass spectrometer requires 
but one-tenth the time needed by ordi- 
nary methods of chemical analysis." 
These were the words of Mr. C. M. 
Fdust. the engineer in charge of de- 
veloping the new machine. It seems that 
he is not stretching the point if one can 
remember the time spent in a chemical 
lahoratoiy in search of just one ele- 

The new machine is constructed so 
that an inexperienced and untrained per- 
son can operate it after an original 
analysis has been made by a technically 
trained supervisor. 

A glass blowing machine is on the left. On the right is a mass spectrometer used in gas analysis. 


Another page for 

How to make a machine tool 
cut out the chatter 

Engineers who design machine tools know that if 
they eliminate "chatter" — or vibration — they will be 
paving the way for faster, more precise machining. 
That's why you'll find the great majority of machine 
tools equipped with Timken tapered roller bearings. 

Tim ken bearings assure a smooth flow of power from 
initial drive to spindle nose. Gears are kept in precise 
mesh and alignment, the entire spindle assembly is 
rigid and free from vibration. And with Timken bear- 
ings, machine tools retain their precise, chatter-free 
performance even after many years of hard service. 

There's no secret to keeping 
shafts in rigid alignment 

Here's an engineer's rough sketch of a typical trans- 
mission countershaft equipped with Timken bearings. 
Due to the line contact between rolls and races, you get 
maximum load carrying capacity with no chance for 
shaft deflection or misalignment. 

And because the tapered design takes thrust as well 
as radial loads, end-movement of the shaft is eliminated. 
Positive shaft alignment is another big reason why 9 
out of 10 bearing applications can be handled more 
efficiently with Timken bearings. 

> .£^t^.-77un/e*t<,£'€(y" 



Want to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems you'll 
face after graduation will involve bearing applications. 
If you'd like to learn more about this phase of engineer- 
ing, we'd be glad to help. For additional information 
about Timken bearings and how engineers use them, 
write today to The Timken Roller Bearing Company, 
Canton 6, Ohio. And don't forget to clip this page for 
future reference. 


MAY, 194S 





Are you going to hang up a lot of useful habits along with 
it . . . OR . . . are you going to use those habits to give you 
a flying start on your career? 

There's the habit, for example, of reaching for an author- 
itative McGraw-Hill book to answer the toughest problems 
they can throw at you in an engineering course. Tliat's one 
you can use to good advantage for the rest of your business 
life. To it, add the habit of reaching for the latest McGraw- 
Hill magazine, edited especially for your industry, to keep 
abreast of up-to-the-minute trends anil developments. 

For years, the keenest technical minds in industry have 
funneled their best thinking into McGraw-Hill books and 
magazines, building up a reservoir of useful information 
larger than any one business could ever acquire for itself. 
That's why McGraw-Hill is known as "Head<[uarters for 
Industrial Information." 

It will pay you to keep the McGrau-llill habit. 






George R. Foster Editor 

Ed Witort Assoc. Editor 

(nhn Dick Asst. Editor 

Phil Doll Assl. Editor 

I5;irb:u;i Schmidt ...l/f//-i7//> Editor 


Donald Johnson Jim locca 
Carl Sonnenschein Shirley Smith 
Herbert Jacobson Sam Jefferies 
Keimeth McOwan 
Connie Minnich 
Melvin Reiter 
John Shurtleff 
Aver\' Hevesh 

Glenn Massie 
tieorge Ricker 
Huke Silvestrini 
Ray Hau>er 
Arthur DreshfieUI 


Ted Sohn 
Ralph rixhc 

Rnssel Sanden 
Carl \\'c\meuller 
L-k Stumpt 

Volume 63 

Number 8 


Robert A. Johnson Bus. Mijr. 

Stanley Diamond-. /:/.«/. Bus. Mgr. 
Mitchell Cassidv-^^/w/. Bus. Myr. 

Richard Leek Asst. Bus. Mijr. 

Fred Seavev Asst. Bus. Me/r. 

John Bogatta 
Rudy \'ergara 
Cieorge Kvilek 
lames Chapman 
Robert Cox 
Robert Levin 
Frank Mitch 
William Anderson 
Onn Hornbeck 

Dick Ames 
Clem Marley 
Ira livans 
Bob CJolden 
Rav Harris 
Boil Dodds 
Stan Bnriiham 
Dick Ilammack 

Eaculty Advisers 
J. A. Henry 
A. R. Knight 
L. A. Rose 

Chairman : John 



i Cooperati\ 
■oinell Eng 
nal, Illino: 

University of Illii 
Arkansas Engineer, Cin 
Engineer, Colorado Engin 
near, Drexel Technical 
Technograph, Iowa Engin 
Kansas Engineer, Kansas t»tate Engnieer, 
Kentucky Engineer, Marquette Engineer, 
Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, North 
Dakota State Engineer, Ohio State Engi- 
neer, Oklahoma State Engineer, Penn State 
Engineer, Pennsylvania Triangle, Purdue 
Engineer, Rochester Indicator, Rose Technic, 
Tech Engineering News, Wayne Engineer, 
aTirt \V ■ - ■ 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Tfie Tecfi Presents 


(Opportunities in Mining Engineering 7 

George Clark. Asst. Prof, of Miii. Eny. 

Inland Steel Company S 

Sam Jeffries. E.E. '4S 

Production of the Illinois Technograph 10 

(ieorye Rieker. Aero.E. '40. and Sam .leffries. E.E. '4S 

New Vacinim Tuhe Laboratory 12 

Phil Doll. ALE. '49 


New Developments 2 

Ken MeOwan, M.E. V'A and .folin Diek. E.E. '49 

Under Cover at (ialesburg 14 

In I his Corner . . . Navy Pier 15 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies If) 

Ray I lauser, Chem. E. '50. .1 olin Shurtleff. CAiem. Em/. '50 
and A I mar l/'idi,/er. Chem. Eng. '4S 

Introducing IS 

Connie Minnieh. C.E. '51 , Ilerh Jaeohson. M.E. '50 
Don Johnson, E.E. '49, and Jim locca, C.E. '50 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Fehru- 
ary. March, April and May) by the Illini 
Puhlishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $l..=;n 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 


This recent picture of Engineering Hall shows the new, im- 
proved landscaping, just after the job was completed. (Photo 
by Russ Sanden) 


Molten iron, produced in Inland blast furnaces, is being poured 
into an open hearth furnace. 





Opportunities in Mining Engineering 

Ry t»ooi*;K4' I lark 

Aftsistant l*roffHs«tr »/ .^iinint/ Enffint't'rinff 

Tochu , mnre tliaii at :i\\\ otiu'i- tinic 
in the history of tlic profession, tliere is 
great need for more technically trained 
men of high caliber in mining engineer- 
ing. If yoii feel that your capabilities 
and desires equip you to work in an\' of 
the branches of mining described below, 
you woulii do yourself and the mining 
industry a service by in\estigating the 
possibility of entering this very essential 
branch of engineering. 

Before describing the various careers 
in mining we might discuss some of the 
fallacies concerning the dangers con- 
nected with underground mining, par- 
ticularly underground coal mining. A 
recent issue of Mechanization carried 
an article which showed that there were 
l.,i fatalities per million man-hours 
winked in coal mines in one year. Dur- 
ing that same period the rate for per- 
sons riding in automobiles was 1.0 fa- 
talities per million man-hours of riding 
time. It is only slightly more dangerous 
for a man to work day after day in a 
coal mine than it is for you or me to 
drive day after day in an automobile. 

Several branches of mining offer ex- 
tensive opportunities to graduate engi- 
neers. They might well be divided into 
the following categories. 

Coal Mining 
Coal is one of the most important of 
our natural resources. Its production has 
a profound effect upon the national 
economy. Though some might be in- 
clined to steer clear of mining due to 
its slightly higher accident rate, to the 
rlear-thinking person it offers a chal- 
lenge. The relatively greater number of 
bazards which are present in this most 
vital of industries show clearly the great 
■.'eed for research into the cause and 
prevention of accidents. IVIost of the fac- 
tors which cause explosions are already 
known. It has been well established that 
mi.xtures of methane ( the explosive gas 
found ill some coal mines) and air are 
explosive only in certain well defined 
ratios; what is needed is to apply the 
knowledge that we pos.sess. Contrary to 
a common belief, however, explosions 
cause only a small part of the total acci- 
dents which occur each year. "Fall of 
roof and face" are responsible for three 
to four times as many fatalities as ex- 
plosions. Here, too, is an acute prob- 

lem that will reijuire real energy, in- 
itiatixe and ingenuit\' to solve. 

An interesting sidelight is the puzzle 
of appraising the human element in any 
formula for safety in underground pro- 
duction of coal. Can \ou sohe it? 

Salaries for graduate engineers in 
coal mining vary at present from about 
$250 to $350 per month. The Um'ver- 
sity of Illinois has not been able to fill 
even a small part of the requests that 
have been made for mining engineers 
in this field since the war. 

Metallics and Non-Metullics 
Within a radius of 500 miles of the 
University' we find a large number of 
this type of mines. Many of them have 
engineering and operating problems 
which, like a number in coal mining, 
have not been satisfactorily solved. In 
the min^s of a large Missouri company 
we find an excellent example: The min- 
ing of flat, undergroiuid, bedded de- 
posits of lead ore has required the leav- 
ing of large pillars of ore to support 
the roof of the excavations. There are 
many millions of pounds of valuable 
lead in the pillars of these mines. Yet 
it is impossible at the present time to 
know which pillars may be extracted, 
how many may be removed with safety, 
and how long the remainder will sup- 
port the roof. Here is a challenge to 
the alert engineer. 

There is also the very urgent prob- 
lem of finding new ore bodies. Many 
of our vital reserves of metals and non- 
metals are becoming depleted at an 
alarming rate. No completely satisfac- 
tory method has \et been devised to 
"see" into the earth in older to locate 
new ore bodies, (ieophysical prospect- 
ing in its present stage is onh' a minor 
part of the answer to the problem. It 
needs much more development. 


IVIining has been perhaps one of the 
slowest of all industries in developing 
and applying scientific principles to its 
use. Consequently, many of the broad 
fields of research have just been 
scratched on the surface. We have a 
tremendous amount yet to learn about 
explosives, the physical properties of 
rocks, the reason for "rock bursts" in 
some mines and, as mentioned above. 

safet\ iiroblems in uiulergrouiul coal 
mining. There are man\' others; these 
will serve to illustrate. 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines offers 
good starting salaries for junior engi- 
neers. Many universities, including our 
own, have openings for part-time as- 
sistants in research. The new Illinois 
State Department of Mines and Min- 
erals Analytical laboratory in the Min- 
ing laboratory building on our campus 
is directly concerned with analytical 
work which employs results of exten- 
sive research done by the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines anil other agencies. 


Closely akin to research is the teach- 
ing of principles of mining engineering. 
Instructors m this |irofession are in very 
high demand. Opportunities for gradu- 
ates \ar\- from part-time .-issistantships 

Here is a field with a great need 
for technically trained men — min- 
ing engineering. As described in 
this article, there are great oppor- 
tunities for accomplishing worth- 
while things and getting ahead in 
the mining industry. 

to full-time instructorships. Salaries for 
beginmng instructors range from $,\()(K1 
and up for nine to ten months of teach- 
ing at \arious mining schools in this 

Salaries for part time, which permits 
work toward advanced degrees, are 
$1,200 at the University of Illinois. 
Scholarships of $200 per year are of- 
fered for undergraduates and $750 per 
year for graduate students by the De- 
partment of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineering on our campus. 

For those students, then, who have 
not definitely decided which branch of 
engineering they want, mining offers 
many advantages. The state, the nation, 
and the world needs mining engineers. 
Production, consulting, teaching, re- 
search — all have openings for trained 
men. Pay is good. Initiative is rewarded. 
Professional advancement and a satisfy- 
ing career await those men who like to 
face the challenge and stimulus of prac- 
tical problems. 

MW\ 194S 

iai Siolilseeiiio 

. . . 9*tland Stee.1 Go-. 

Itfi Slim .li-lli'i-ii'H. li.i:. ' IH 

Steel making is one of the laif;est in- 
ilustries in the woiKl and probably tlu- 
most important maiuifacturiiig process 
ever created. Without steel in the vast 
quantities in which it is produced, mod- 
ern civilization would not ha\e been 
built. Few, if any, modern industries 
could exist without steel. Yet, despite 
its importance, steel is the world's cheap- 
est metal. You can buy finished steel for 
about three cents a pound. 

In 1947 the American steel industr\- 
produced over 84,()0«,(H)0 tons. That is 
more than all of the rest of the nations 
of the world produce even in normal 
times. It is estimated that more than a 
biilidM tons of steel are currently in use 
in the I nited States. That amounts to 
about 17,500 pounds for every man, 
woman and child in the country — nearly 
seven times as much as in 1900. 

The Inland Steel company started 
business in 1893 as a re-rolling mill for 
steel rails. Since then the company has 
continued to expand, and today it is the 
seventh largest steel producer in the 
country and a prime supplier of steel 
for the Midwest. In the first year of its 
operation, the company produced 6,000 
tons of steel. By 1910 it was producing 
300,000 tons of steel a year; and bv 
1947, 3,300,000 tons a year. The opera- 
tions of the concern have been expand- 
ed to include iron ore mines, coal mines, 
fluorespar mines, limestone quarries, and 
a fleet of boats. The company strength- 
ened its marketing position by acquiring 
the Milcor Steel company (now called 
the Inland Steel Products company), 
the Wilson and Bennett .Manufacturing 
company (now known as Inland Steel 
Container compain ) and Joseph T. Ry- 
erson and Son, Inc., the largest steel 
jobber in the countr\. lliere are 22,- 
000 men and women working with this 
concern and its subsidiaries. 

The history of this company shows 
a policy of careful planning and expan- 
sion with new and modern equipment. 
Particular emphasis is placed on metal- 
lurgical research and continuous im- 
provement in steel making and process- 
ing methods. 

Principal raw materials used in steel 
making are iron ore, coal, and lime- 
stone. A large portion of these raw ma- 
terials is carried from the subsidiarv 

nune> and ijuarries In the c<mip;in\ 's 
lake \essels. The steehnaking plant i^ 
located at Indiana Harbor at the south- 
ern tip of Lake .Michigan. This loca- 
tion offers cheap transportation of raw 
materials and a central location in the 
middle western market for steel prod- 

The size of a steel is tremen- 
dous. K\en with caretul plannini; and 

Another in the series on job op- 
portunities for engineering gradu- 
ates in nearby industries, this 
article tells about the Inland Steel 
company, located at the southern 
tip of Lake Michigan. -Steel is a 
vital part of our civilization, and 
hence production facilities are con- 
stantly being expanded. Emphasis 
is placed on research and continu- 
ous improvement. 

economic utilization of space, the blast 
furnaces, coke ovens, open hearths, and 
rolling mills of the Indiana Harbor 
plant occupy an area of 630 acres. A 
complete railroad system with over 1^0 
miles of track and 45 locomotives is re- 
quired just for operations within the 
plant. Every month about 18,500 rail- 
road cars move into or out of the plant. 
The eight blast furnaces and 36 open 
hearth furnaces of this plant operate 
24 hours a day, turning out thousands 
of tons of high quality steel. The plant 
is so well integrated that molten iron 
from the blast fLtrnaces may be processed 
through the open hearths and the rolling 
mills without ever cooling. Cold rolling 
mills which put special temper and fin- 
ish on the steel operate almost continu- 
ously to supply the tremendous middle 
western demand for cold rolled steel 
]iroducts. At every step in the steel- 
making and rolling operations metallur- 
gical laboratories maintain a continuous 
check on the quality of the steel. The 
specifications for steel are so rigid that 
if housewi\es had to make cakes with 
the same relative care which the steel- 
men must use, they would ha\e to 
measure the ingredients of their cakes 
not by teaspoonfulls, but by ten-thous- 
.indths of an ounce. In addition to main- 
taining careful control over the qualit>' 
of steel, the metallurgical laboratories 
are continuously searching for and pro- 

ducing better steel and steelm.iking pro- 

Almost all of this steel is produced 
for middle western customers. Sheet 
steel goes into automobiles, refrigerators, 
washing machines, and thousands of 
other manufactured items. The company 
produces large quantities of both elec- 
trolytic and hot dipped tin plate for 
niamifacturers of tin cans. Large ton- 
nages of bars, structural shapes, sheet 
piling, reinforcing bars, and floor plates 
are sold to the construction industry. 
This company is one of the major sup- 
id iers of heavy steel rails for American 
railroads. The metallurgists have devel- 
oped many new alloys to meet special 
maching, drawing, and other technical 
problems of customers. 

-A portion of the steel produced goes 
to the subsidiaries. The Inland Steel 
Products company manufactures a wide 
\ariety of sheet metal products in its 
plants in Milwaukee. Cleveland, and 
Baltimore. These products are used in 
the building industry, and include such 
items as expanded metal lath, interior 
metal trim, steel roofing, and ventila- 
tors. This subsidiary also makes such 
products as furnace pipes and fittings, 
stove pipe, and airtight wood-burning 
heaters. The Inland Steel Container 
company, with plants in Chicago, Jersey 
City, and New Orleans, makes steel 
pails and drums in all sizes and shapes 

A steel sample is being given 
an impact test in the laboratory. 



On the left is seen two of Inland's eight blast furnaces. Right: Inland's fleet of ore boats 
haul raw materials to the Indiana Harbor works from the company-owned mining and quar- 
rying operations in the Great Lakes area. 

and t(ir ,ill piirpuscs. jost-ph T. Rycrson 
aiui Son, Inc., the coniparn's largest 
subsidiary and America's largest steel 
jobber, handles thousands of sizes, 
shapes, and descriptions of steel in its 
many warehouses located throughout the 
United States. The Inland Lime and 
Stone company produces metallurgical 
stone for companies in the steel industr\' 
and provides a considerable quantity, of 
sized and crushed stone for construction 
and agricultural purposes. 

Industrial Relations 

Industrial relations policies lia\e al- 
ways been ad\anced and far-sighted. 
Throughout the years great emphasis 
has been placed on the individual work- 
er, his right of self-determination, and 
his right to get ahead. I'nion member- 
ship has always been a matter of free 
choice for the individual worker. About 
311 per cent of the employes in the com- 
pany and its subsidiaries are members 
of unions. The company deals with 10 
unions and 26 bargaining units in its 
various operations. For the most |iair 
labor relations are peaceful, but the 
company has never been willing to give 
wa\- to coercion in the face of unsound 
or unreasonable demands. Job e\al na- 
tion plans have been installed in many 
operations with considerable success. 
Such job evaluation programs are aimed 
in establishing wage rates on every job 
which are fair and correct in relation 
to every other job. The average pay for 
this company's steel workers for 1047 
was $1.64 per hour. Wage earners in 
the steel industry as a whole made an 
average of $1.51 per hour during 1047 
and workers in all manufacturing indus- 
tries as a whole received an average of 
only $1.22 an hour. Incentives for extra 
production are pnnided on all jobs 
whene\er possible so that extra effort 

and initiati\e will be rewarded with 
extra pay. 

Personnel policies ha\e always been 
progressive. For example, as long ago 
as 1919 this company pioneered the 
eight-hour day in the steel industry. Va- 
cations with pay have long been a tradi- 
tion at Inland. All employes with at 
least one year of service are entitled 
to a \acation with pay. The company 
has one of the most complete low cost 
group insurance plans in American in- 
dustry. In 1947 about 91 per cent of 
all eligible emplo\es subscribed to the 
plan. The company pays part of the 
cost of this insurance. The insurance 
plan covers life, accidental death and 
dismemberment, accident and sickness, 
hospital expense insurance, and surgical 
benefits for employes and their de- 

Retirement income is important to 
employes because many of those who 
come into the steel business as young 
men fiiul steady jobs and lifetime ca- 
rers in the industry. The retirement 
plan is on a voluntary basis with both 
the compain' and the individual em- 
plo\e contributing to the retirement 

The compaiu' is particularly proud of 
its medical and health program, and 
demonstrates that it is one of the finest 
in American industry. This program 
provides for physical examinations, con- 
sultation service, health education, 
health information, and medical re- 
search. In addition, the Department of 
Industrial Hygiene spends its full time 
searching for and correcting health 
hazards on e\ery job and in every cor- 
ner of the plants. The safety depart- 
ment dates back to 1911. According to 
accident statistics, employes are twice as 
safe inside the plant gates as they arc in 
their own homes. 

Employment has always been stable, 
in good times and bad. This has been 
true primarily this company is a 
prosperous and efficient steel producer. 
The company is strong financialh' and 
turns in a healthy profit from its large 
volume of sales. 

Opportunities for young men for ca- 
reers in steel-making are excellent. This 
is true both for engineers and non-engi- 
neers. Because of the nature of the busi- 
ness, there are many opportunities for 
men with technical training. More op- 
portunities are available today than at 
any time in the past. The company to- 
day has a backlog shortage of technical- 
ly trained young men because of ex|ian- 
sion during the war and the fact that 
sufficient trained engineers were not 
a\ ailable. 

Training Programs 

There .ire currently a number of 
training programs which are designeil 
for graduate engineers or men with sim- 
ilar technical training, (iraduate train- 
ing programs are divided into four ma- 
jor groups. There is a program tor those 
interested in sales, one for those inter- 
ested in mill operation, and another for 
those interested in general administra- 
tion. Each training program extends 
o\er a period of nine months. 

For men who are interested in steel- 
making, the metallurgical department 
has set up a rather elaborate program 
in which trainees have an opportunity 
to observe and work under expert guid- 
ance in the various divisions of the steel 
plant and the metallurgical department. 
At the end of his training period the 
trainee has the opportunity to go into 
either research work or into control 
work in the various operating depart- 
ments. Trainees who go into control 
(Continued on page 24) 

MAY, 1948 


#/f/ iivurffv llivlivr. Avrn.K. ' lU and Sam 'Ifffrrit's. ' /it 

Photos by Jack Stumpf, M.E. '50 

This article, like all oilu-r aiticlc> in 
this magazine, was in its first staj^e i)t 
preparation tweKc weeks a^i). Since 
then, it has seen ail the different phases 
of editing b\- stiulents ; composition of 
the complete magazine from the articles, 
short items, illustrations, and advertise- 
ments; printing by the Illini Publishing 
company; and distribution by the busi- 
ness staff, composed entirely of students. 
In fact, that is what this .irticle is 
about — its own preparation. 

The Technograph staff" is composed 
of engineering students who are inter- 
ested in writing and editing or in tlie 
business procedures of publishing and 
distributing a maga/inc. These activities 
are .in absorbing hobby to the student, 
and the student gains \aluable experi- 
ence by his participation. 

The preparation and writing of an 
article, and the development to its final 
form are the duties of the editorial 
staff, which is directed by the editor. 
The editor and the assistant editors de- 
cide upon the articles and illustrations 
which will appear in each issue. 

After the articles and illustrations for 
the issue have been chosen, the assistant 
editors make the a.ssignments to the 
reporters. Usually one or sometimes two 
reporters are a.ssigned to a feature or 
department, and generally have about 
four weeks to meet the deadline. 


wonder \ 

hat had 

to be 

(lone in 

order to 

publish a 


/inc. This article 

will give 

you a 


picture ( 

f how tlu 



i s p u t 




from the 

day the 


nients are made 

to the day the 1 


magazine reaches the | 



For the initial preparation the report- 
er determines the scope of his subject 
and gathers general information. He 
then ni.'ikes a rough outhne of the sub- 
ject .ind selects the will 
be ccj\cred. He investigates all sources 
of information. The business of getting 
first-hand and up-to-date news on the 
subject is an interesting part of the 
reporter's work. This includes inter- 
viewing, investigation, and obtaining 
contemporary literature on the subject. 
All this work is preliminary to the 
actual \\'riting of the article. 

While the reporters are gathering 
information and writuig the articles, 
the make-up editor determines the types 
of pictures to accommodate the articles 
and makes assignments to the staff of 
photographers. The photographers ha\e 
the job of getting pictures that are not 
only technically illustrative, but that 
also show good photographic composi- 

rion. l'hotograph\' is an .art in itsell, 
,ind is a hobb\' to these men. Certani 
t\pcs of pictures, like commercial prod- 
ucts, are obtained directly from their 
Miurce. The make-up editor must meet 
tile same deadline as the reporters. 

After all copy has been turned into 
the office by the rejiorters, the articles 
are edited. The\ are re\ lewed nDi] re- 
vised, .uul necessary changes are m;u\v 
to ini|irove the form and composition 
and to conform to the particular st\le 
use<l by the magazine. Each assistant 
editor checks o\er the material turned 
in h\ tlie reporters under his supervi- 
sion, and tile editiu' then re\ lews all the 
copy. The edited copy is then taken h\- 
the editor to the Illini Publishing coni- 
pan\' for processing. 

At the same time that the copy is 
being edited in the office of the Tech- 
nograph, the make-up editor and the 
editor are marking up the illustrations 
for size. These photographs are then 
taken to G. R. Cirubb and Company to 
be engraved. The production of a metal 
plate suitable for printing the \arying 
tones of a photograph is an interesting 

The first step in eiigi.i\ing is the jiro- 
duction of a "half-tone" negatixe. The 
illustration is "shot" through a half- 
tone screen by taking a photograph of 
the illustration with a half-tone screen 

Staff members performing a few of the many small tasks necessary to put out the maga- 
zine. Left: Herb Jacobson and Ed Witort work together to check galley proof against the 
original copy for typographical errors. Right: Dick Leek sorts advertising cuts while George 
Kvitek checks advertising page proof. 



In the basement of lllini Hall. Left: Two printers, Ralph Broderick and Clyde Hall assem- 
ble the body type, headlines, and cuts into page forms. Right: The printing press in action, 
operated by Leo Klockner. At this stage, the magazine is near completion. After the press run 
the sheets are cut and bound into magazine form and are then ready to be mailed. 

piaccil Li|ion the negative. The half-tone 
.'crecn consists of two plates of glass, 
each striated by a diamond cutter, placed 
one upon the other so that the unit is 
cross-hatched. The striatioiis are \ery 
fine grooves which are filled with a 
black pigincnt. The half-tone screens 
used in making plates for this magazine 
have 120 grooves to the inch, and there- 
fore 120 times 120 squares to the square 
inch. When the light from the picture 
passes through this screen to the nega- 
tive in the camera, the light is refracted 
so that the square is reduced in size on 
the negative. These squares on the neg- 
ative are larger for greater intensity of 
light, which corresponds to a lighter 
tone of gray. The resultant negative 
of minute squares is called a half-tone 

The half-tone negative is next printed 
onto a metal plate covered with a photo- 
sensitive enamel. This plate is developed, 
and a half-tone print of enamel is left 
on the metal. The plate is now etched, 
so that the parts not coated with enamel 
become the depressed portion of the en- 
graved plate, or cut. The metal plate 
from which the cut is made is usually 
a /.mc or copper plate, and brass is some- 
times used to produce a tough plate. 
Copper is etched with hydrochloric acid, 
zinc is etched with perchloride of iron, 
;uid brass is usually electrically etched. 
Fiom (i. R. (irubb's finishing depart- 
ment the cuts go to the lllini Publish- 
ing company. 

The lllini Publishing company is a 
non-profit organization which was estab- 
lished in 1911 to print and distribute 
The Daily lllini and other student pub- 
lications of the University of Illinois, 
and to do a general printing and publi- 
cation business. All proceeds from the 
business of this non-profit organization 

go back into the reserves of the compan\' 
and are used to further improve the 
publications. This company is subject to 
the general authority of the president 
of the University. The Technograph, 
The Daily lllini, the Illio, the Agricul- 
turist and the Tempo are all published 
by the lllini Publishing company. 

At this point, the edited copy is ready 
to be marked up in the printing shop of 
the lllini Publishing company. In the 
margins of the copy are marked the type 
face, size of type, and measure of the 
width of the column to giu'de the setting 
of the copy by the operator of the line 
casting machine. The line casting ma- 
chines used by the lllini Publishing 
company are Intertypes. 

There are two main steps in compo- 
sition, or setting copy. The first is the 
line casting on the Intertype. Wheit the 
operator presses a key on the keyboard 
of the Intertype, a mold for casting a 
letter, called a matrix or "mat," is 
released and drops into line. The t>pe 
metal, which is a mixture of zinc, tin, 
lead, copper, and antimony, is kept in 
a molten state, ready to be cast into a 
line of type, or slug. When a line of 
mats is ready for the casting of the 
slug, the molten type metal is forced 
against the mats and into the depressed 
letters in the face of the mats. When it 
cools, a line of type, or slug, is ejected 
from the machine. The second step in 
setting copy is the assembling of the 
slugs into columns of type. Such a col- 
umn of type is called a galley. 

Proofs must now be pulled from the 
galleys on a proof press. To do this 
the galley of type is placed on the proof 
press, the type is inked, the paper placed 
directly on the t\pe, and a roller moved 
o\er the paper. Two pioofs of each 
galley are pulled and sent to the Tech- 

nograph office for correction and for 
making up the magazine dummy. 

One copy of each galley proof is 
checked and corrected first by a mem- 
ber of the editorial staff, then by an 
assistant editor, and then by the editor. 
This proof reading requires approxi- 
mately three days after which the proofs 
are sent back to the typesetter for cor- 
rection. At the same time, the other set 
of galley proofs is being used to make 
up the magazine dummy. The dummy 
is a rough assembly of the entire maga- 
zine, formed by cutting parts from the 
galley proofs and pasting them along 
with the illustrations and headlines on 
the pages of an old magazine. This 
work, which requires approximately a 
week, is done by the make-up editoi', 
assisted by the editor. The com]ileted 
dummy is then turned o\er to the piint- 
er for make-up of the pages of t\pe. 

After the typesetter has corrected the 
galleys, and the headlines have been 
set either on a Ludlow line casting 
machine or by hand, the printer assem- 
bles the body type, headlines, and cuts 
(engraved illustrations) into page 
forms, according to the pages of the 
magazine dummy. In the printing shop 
this operation is called make-up. One 
proof of each page is then pulletl and 
returned to the Technograph office for 
correction. These proofs are checked and 
corrected first by the editorial staff and 
then by the editor assisted by the make- 
up editor, and are then returned to the 
printing shop. In the printing shop, col- 
lections are made on the page by sub- 
stitution and by resetting type. The 
pages are then locked up in forms, or 
chases, of eight pages each, constituting 
what is known as a printing signature. 
There are forty-four pages in this mag- 
( Continued on page .34) 

M.A.^ , 1948 


Left: This research man is evacuating a klystron tube. The pressure inside the tube will 
be about .001 mm. of mercury when he is finished. Right: Inside view of the circuit labo- 
ratory. Note modernistic ceiling lights and orderly arrangement of apparatus. 

lew liuiiiiiiii Tiilie labonitory 

iiij I'hil ItoH. .»/./•;. '/» 

I ill' Nacuuin tube re.scarch group of 
the department of electrical engiiieer- 
ing has moved into the new laboratories 
which have recently been completed. 
The new laboratories occupy 4,80(1 
.square feet in the south wing of the 
present Electrical Engineering labora- 
tory, supplemented by 4,()()0 square feet 
below the main rooms. Completed at 
a cost of $142,000, the facilities are 
among the best in the United States. 

Research in vacuum tubes is an im- 
portant part of the University's $500,- 
000-a-year electrical engineering inves- 
tigation program. Present sponsorship 
includes nine contracts with the Army, 
three with the Navy, two commercial 
ones, and three projects sponsoreil by 
the Graduate school. In addition, ti\e 
new Army contracts are pending. 

Working conditions in the larobatory 
are excellent. Half the main tube area 
is air conditioned, and the entire labo- 
ratory is floinescent-lighted. The flou- 
rescent tubes are sunk into long ceiling 
troffers and the light is diffused througii 
frosted glass. The air conditioning 
equipment includes a 30-ton air com- 
pressor complete with precipitron and 
humidity control. The walls of all the 
rooms are painted a restful green, and 
the floors covered with asphalt tile. 
Acoustical ceiling tile is used through- 
out. Exhaust hoods arc located where- 
ever necessary. An interesting feature 
of the tube assembly benches is the inter- 
changeability of the tops. The tops are 

renunable, so that different colored 
working surfaces may be used, depend- 
ing on the job. 

Familiar in radio and television sets, 
\acuum tubes also find many other im- 
portant uses. They are \ital parts of 
telephone s\stenis and radar, and ;ire 

The recently completed vacuum 
tube research laboratory here is 
among the best in the United 
States. In this article are described 
(he scope of its work and some of 
its new and unusual facilities. 

The author wishes to thank Dr. 
H. L. Van Velzer for his help in 
preparing this article. 

used in airplane na\ igation. Vacuum 
tubes are finding increasing utility in 
the operation of machine tools as well 
as in the transmission of electrical 

The trend of developments in the 
field of vacuum tubes has been toward 
higher and higher frequencies, through 
short wa\es, high frequency, very high 
frequency, idtra-high frequency, micro- 
waves, and centimeter waves. The most 
important types of micro-wave tubes, 
the klystron, magnetron, and the tra\el- 
ing-wave tube, are now under investi- 
gation. Each is represented by a project 
in the vacinim tube laboratories. It is 
to the development of new tube types 
that the work of the laboratory is spe- 

cifically directetl. .Most of the work 
which is being done in the field of 
vacuum tube research is in the design 
of circuits for their operation rather 
than the design of new tube t\pes, as is 
done here. 

Precision work is a necessity, both in 
forming and assembling the parts, which 
ma\ be as small as a match head or as 
large as a half-dollar. The thousands 
of items of materials and equipment in- 
clude a great variety — metals from fine 
wire to four-inch billets, special glasses, 
chemicals, machine tools, and costly test- 
ing apparatus. 

Different operations are segregated 
into different rooms to avoid confusion 
and interference. Located next to the 
director's office, near the entrance, is 
the grinding room. It is farthest from 
the clean air conditioned assembly and 
glass-blowing rooms because of the 
metal dust produced in grinding. The 
machines include a power saw, univer- 
sal grinder, and surface grinder. 

Next to the grinding room is the 
parts preparation room. Precision lathes, 
milling machines, shapers, drill presses, 
and an hydraulic press are used here. 
The machines are of all sizes, from ;i 
big toolroom lathe to a tiny watcli- 
maker's lathe which could be put in 
a coat pocket. 

Several interesting methods of stamp- 
ing and forming sheet metal parts are 
used with the hydraulic press, which 
has a 20-ton capacity. The form of the 



part to be iiiaile, say a shallow cup, is 
first m.K'liiucii in a block of brass or 
steel. ( )ii the block is built a sandwich 
— first, the sheet metal to be formed, 
then a thick sheet of rubber, and lastly, 
a second block of metal. The sandwich 
is then placed in the press, and pres- 
sure is applied to make the metal sheet 
conform to the shape in the metal block. 
This method eliminates expensive, hard- 
ened dies. 

.Another process employing the hy- 
draulic press is used with soft materials 
like copper, where sections are to be 
made up with odd, often intricately 
sliaped, holes. A stem of hardened steel 
having the shape of the required hole 
is pressed into the copper block. After 
ren;o\al of the stem, sections of the 
block may be sliced off to any desired 

The next room, the heat-treating 
room, contains several furnaces. Some 
of these furnaces are used for harden- 
ing such tools as steel punches and dies. 
The hydrogen furnace is the largest; in 
its interior an atmosphere of hydrogen 
is maintained. Parts are placed inside 
and heated to bright redness by glo- 
bar elements; the hydrogen reduces the 
oxides and the parts emerge clean and 
blight. W'hen used for brazing with sil- 
\er solilers, no flux is necessary. 

Beyond the heat treating room is the 
cleaning room. Here all traces of grease 
are removed by exposing the tube parts 
to boiling cleaning fluid. In addition to 
the de-greaser, facilities are provided for 
electroplating tube parts and other ob- 
jects with copper, silver, gold, or chro- 
mium as may be required. Electroplat- 
ing techniques may be extended to elec- 
troforming, the building up of metal 
tvibe parts and wa\eguide junctions, 
making possible a high degree of accu- 

In the coating room special coatings 
of oxides are applied to cathodes to in- 
crease the electron emission. The oxides 
are powdered in ball mills ( rotating 
jars containing marbles), mixed with 
liquid binder, and sprayed on to the 
surface like paint with an air gun. The 
thickness of the coating is controlled 
by meaiis of sensitive balances. Traces of 
impurities will ruin the properties of 
the coating; an air conditioned atmos- 
phere is essential. 

The assembly room and glass-working 
room are located in the heart of the air 
conditioned region. Here the tube parts 
are put together. Metal parts which 
have been formed, cleaned, and plated 
or coated are joined to each other, to 
glass, or ceramic. The metal to which 
the glass is to be joined is first carefully 
heated to give a coating of oxide around 
the contact area. This oxide must be 
of just the right thickness to diffuse 
into the glass when the two are heated 
and brought together. The metal and 

M.\\\ 194S 

glass are sealed together by the diffu- 
sion of the oxide. 

In the assembh' room small brazing 
operations are performed in a hydrogen- 
filled glass bell. The parts are clamped 
together and heat is supplied by an in- 
duction coil. 

A small precision spot-welder is also 
used. Two pieces to be joined are 
placed together between two pencil-like 
metal jaws. A surge of accurately con- 
trolled current heats the parts, which 
are forced together by the pressure of 
the jaws. The tiny parts are inspected 
in an optical comparator. Two microm- 
eter heads permit accurate measurement 
of size and alignment. 

Eight different kinds of glass are 
stocked, as well as a great variety of 
glass tubing sizes. Each tube is careful- 
ly marked with a label for identifica- 
tion. Joining two different kinds of 
glass together will residt in breakage 
upon cooling, due to different coeffi- 
cients of expansion. In assembling the 
parts, metal and glass of similar coeffi- 
cients of expansion are joined, reducing 
the stresses set up by temperature varia- 

The glass-working room is equipped 
for both hand and machine fabrication 
of glass parts. Intricate shapes, requir- 
ing a lot of skill and patience, are made 
here, (jlass lathes are used whenever 
possible for working glass or joining two 
pieces of tubing. One piece is held in 
a chuck or wooden collet in the head- 
stock, and the other is similarly held in 
the tailstock. Hoth headstock and tail- 
stock spindles revolve at the same speed ; 
the tubing is heated at the proper sec- 

tions by a set of movable gas jets. When 
the ends of the two tubes are hot, the 
tailstock tube is moved up and joined 
with the headstock tube. Blowing may 
be done by compressed air introduced 
through a hollow spindle, and the work 
may be pushed to shape by paddles. The 
type of flame, area heated, and the air 
pressure are controlled by levers, knobs, 
anil foot-pedals. 

When the gla,ss parts cool, stresses are 
set up. The distribution is studied 
by means of polarized light, under 
which the stress distribution shows up 
as vivid bands of color. The bands arc 
examined to determine the magnitude of 
the stresses. 

Emerging from the assembly and 
glass-working rooms, the vacuum tubes 
nuist still be evacuated. In the pump 
room, a vacuum of .000001 mm. of mer- 
cmy is produced, which leaves only one 
out of every ten billion air molecules in 
the tube. Dining the evacuation, the 
glass is heated almost to its softening 
temperature, and the metal parts are 
heated b\' an induction furnace to an 
even higher temperature; this brings 
out any gas molecules hidden in the 
pores of the material. Most of the air, 
down to about .001 mm. of mercury, 
is removed by a rotary vacuum pump. 
Beyond this, a diffusion pump is operat- 
ed with the rotary pump. After the 
tube has been sealed and cooled, other 
operations are necessary to acti\ate the 
sprayed cathode. 

The result of all these operations, 
the finished tube, is now sent to the test- 
ing laboratory. Here the experimental 
(Continued on page 26) 


^ P t 


-. a 







A detailed view of the numerous ports 
needed to assemble a K-1 klystron. 


l^^uk/vc<we^ at. . . GALESBURG 


By Robert Jackman, E.P. '50 

Ik-cause this is thf first issue in which 
the Cialesburg Division of the I iii\ei- 
sity is formally lepicsenteil, ami the 
final issue for this school year, we hope 
that these pages will help to familiarize 
the Technograph reader with some of 
the engineering acti\ities going on here, 
and with a few of the people that make 
these activities possible. 

During the earl\ weeks of this semes- 
ter the Division of Engineering Sci- 
ences, headed by Prof. F. W. Tre/.ise, 
sponsored two important programs. 

The first was the Home Planning In- 
stitute, which lasted from February lit 
to March 6, and consisted of six lec- 
tures on the various phases of home 
building and planning. The speakers 
were from the Small Homes Covuicil of 
the University of Illinois, and created so 
much interest that over 450 people from 
the campus and the city of (lalesburg 
attended the final lecture. 

The second project was the forma- 
tion of the Engineering Council made 
up of members of the faculty and promi- 
nent engineering students. The purpose 
of the council is to bring about closer 
understanding among the students and 
faculty, to stimulate the interest of the 
engineering student in all engineering 
activities on the campus; and to sponsor 
activities of a professional and social 
nature. Plans are being made to pro 
vide students with periodic movies anil 
talks on various phases of engineering, 
conduct field trips to seevral industrial 
plants in Illinois, and maintain an en- 
gineering lounge supplied with current 
publications. When this council begins 
to function, it will become a great asset 
to the engineering student, so we of 
the Technograph staff want to wish 
them the best of luck in their enter- 

Next September many of the engi- 
neering programs that are now on the 
drafting board will be put into opera- 
tion and should provide a source of in- 
teresting articles. We hope that the 
reader will find this to be true. 


By Rov Johnson, C.E. '51 

A good example of the cooperation 
and interest shown by the students of 
engineering and their faculty is the for- 
mation of the Technograpii staff here 
at Cialesburg. Shortly before the close 
of last semester, a group of students 
selected by the faculty, met to discuss 
the formation of the (lalesbmg staff. 


Knlnit W. Jaikman Asst. Kilitm 

l.iilluT I'l-ti-iMiii lUiner LcicIidw 
llcaii R. Fcltdii Kdward A. Hrooks 
Stanlcv Riiiivoii Homer KipliiiK 
il. Rov Johnson 

Ili-rln-rt Moon- John L. Mi/c 


Hilly K. Marr .Assistant Manager 

{'arol lohiison lack Parlier 

Tril Hohlak buisht R. Hraril 

I.aii\ Cirecn Hill Carr 

T)ar\l H, (;aumt-r 

Eighteen of these students showed active 
interest, and although this number ex- 
ceeded the requirements, they were re- 
tained to serve as a nucleus for future 
engineering activities. Because space does 
not permit an introduction of each mem- 
ber, a discussion of each division of the 
staff will be made. 

The editorial staff is headed by 
Robert W. Jackman, who has contribut- 
ed much of his spare time in organizing 
the staff and aiding in the preparation 
of articles submitted thus far. He was 
a member of the Army Air Forces for 
two vears and was active overseas in 

the tnrmation of tile { lerman V Outh Ai - 
tuities program. Another phase of hl^ 
work in the ETO was the preparation 
of base histories which has aided him in 
his journalistic attempts here at ( iales- 
burg. The staff is presently engaged in 
inter\iewing the engineering faculty and 
prominent students whose personal ex- 
periences are of particular interest tn 
the engineer. It is also interested in the 
acti\ities of the newly created Engineer- 
ing Council and will report on their 
progress in future issues. 

The first function of the businc- 
staff was the selling of subscriptimi- 
during registration. Under the leader- 
ship of the assistant business manager, 
Hilly E. Marr, the drive was a com 
plete success. Bill, who served with tin- 
Army in !VIanila, has proven to be com- 
petent in this position, and with the 
assistance of his staff, also assumes the 
responsibility of publicizing the maga- 
zine on this campus. 

We would like to take this opportu- 
nity to thank (jeorge R. Foster and 
Robert A. Johnson for their valuable 
assistance in eliminating many of the 
problems that confronted us in our first 
stages of organization. We would also 
like to thank our sponsor, Mr. Omar C. 
Estes, and Professor Trezise for their 

Standing left to right; Stanley Runyon, Bayard L. Wright, William J. 
Carr, Billy E. Marr, Daryl Gaumer, Dean R. Felton, Lowell J. Green, Jock 
Parlier, Luther S. Peterson, Herbert Moore, Dwight R. Beard, and Ted 
Boblak. Sitting, left to right; H. Roy Johnson, Elmer Lochow, Carol John- 
son, Edward A. Brooks, Homer Kipling, and Robert W. Jackman. Not 
present is John L. Mize. 



efforts in obtaining our offices and other 
facilities that we now enjoy. 

It is the sincere hope of the Techno- 
graph staff that the articles appearing 
on these pages and in future issues will 
be acceptable to the reader and tliat ue 
may continue to serve as a legular jiart 
of the Illinois Technograph. 



Bv Dean Felton, C.E. '51 
and Luther Peterson, E.E. '51 

Probably one of the most outstanding 
impressions one gets when visiting the 
(ialesburg Di\ision is the close relation- 
ship existing between the students and 
faculty. This is especially true in the di- 
\ision of engineering sciences, where its 
chairman, Professor F. W. Trezise, has. 
since his arrival here in September, 
I '^47, gained the respect of the engi- 
neering students, not only as a capable 
instructor and practical engineer, but 
also as a good friend and counselor. 

Mr. Trezise's career in engineering 
may be compared to a novel by Jack 
London, for his travels have taken him 
across the North American continent 
from Mexico to the Arctic Circle. His 
study of engineering began at Michigan 
State College where he received a B.S. 
in ci\il engineering and later the pro- 


fessional C.E. degree. He also obtained 
an \l.S. degree at the University of 
Wisconsin, majoring in hydraulics and 
business administration, and in 1919 he 
attended the University of Bonne, Ger- 
many. His interests in education led 
him to Lawrence College, where he 
taught for 15 years. During this time 
he super\ised construction of a number 
of concrete mill buildings and obtained 

material as basis for a thesis on "Unit 
Costs and Time Labor Units." 

Also while at Lawrence, Mr. Trezise 
gained a practical knowledge of engi- 
neering geology by investigating and 
tracing mineral claims in the Black 
Hills region of South Daokta and Wyo- 
ming. His other investigations of min- 
eral deposits inciudetl work in the Sierra 
.\Luire Mountains of Mexico, and in 
the Cireat Bear Lake region beyond the 
Arctic Circle where lies one of our 
largest sources of uranium-\ ielding 

Perhaps the engineering project with 
which Mr. Trezise is most commonly 
associated is the Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority. In 1936, along with a number 
of other hydraulic engineers, he was ap- 
pointed to set up preliminary plans and 
make investigations of flood control fac- 
tors in the construction of the various 
dams in the Tennessee River Basin. He 
spent four summers and one year's leave 
of absence from Lawrence College on 
this work. When the war broke out, 
ajid the TVA was called upon for more 
power, Mr. Trezise was offered the po- 
sition of personnel officer for all man- 
agement services at Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee. The pressure of the emergency 
raised the employment to over 42,000 
anil the agency was soon on a 24-hour 
basis. All available man power was put 
(Continued on page 22) 

9n^lUieonMe^..MM^ PIER 


Bv Richard Choronzy, M.E. '51 

It is seldom that you find a girl en- 
rolled in the engineering college. Our 
newly appointed assistant business man- 
ager is one of only ten girls enjoying 
that unique position here at Navy Pier. 
She is Naomi Sidney Suloway, better 
known to her friends as "Sully." 

"Sully" was born on October 24, 1927. 
From the beginning, she took an interest 
in anything that pertained to flying. She 
began flying at the early age of 13, when 
she joined the Civil Air Patrol in 1941. 
For two years practically all of her time 
was occupied with high school and flying. 
Finally, deciding that she was more in- 
terested in the latter, she left high school 
at the age of 15. 

She went to work during the war at 
Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. It was there 
that she began receiving the practical 


experience and knowledge of airplanes, 
which was wanted. Her position was that 
of an engineering aid. The various jobs 
"Sully" had were "taking planes up," 
testing hydraulic equipment, wind tunnel 
maintenance, and working mathematical 
computations. In short, she learned 
everything about aircraft from props to 
bolts. At Wright Field she also learned 
the essentials of mathematics, drawing, 
and physics. 

After the war "Sully" decided to study 
aeronautical engineering. She crammed 
and studied day and night, and finally 
completed entrance examinations in 
every high school course in 15 months. 

"Sully" entered Navy Pier in February, 
1947. and is now the only girl enrolled in 
her chosen curriculum. As a means of 
better recognition, the ten girls in the 
engineering college, with the help of Mrs. 
Holladay, G.E.D. instructor, have formed 
the "Technae Illinae." a club for girl 
engineers at Navy Pier. "Sully" is pres- 
( Continued on page ,?2 ) 

MAY, 1948 



oiiiiTriiio iKiiionirii's i 

Mr/ Itaif lliinHvi: I'h.K.'.'tO. .Miliar Whliiior.'IU 
anil .iahn Shiirllvn. 1 *.»« 


Si^ma Tail held its first sclu'dulcd 
mci'tiiisi of the sprin"; semester on the 
eveninsiof March 11, 1948, in the E. K. 
Illumination laboratory. HiKhlifihtinii 
the business taken up was tiv,' 
distribution of keys and shingles 
to the new members. Sigma 
Tau is proud of its 41 new 
nu-nibers, one ot the largest 
groups c\er initiated nito the 
organization at one time. 
After necessary business was complet- 
ed the meeting was turned over to the 
program committee which presented two 
films of engineering interest, "Exploring 
with X-Rays," and "Diesels for Mod- 
ern Power." The films were ver\ ui- 
teresting and were well received b\ all 
present. President Phil He Camp dis- 
cussed some of the activities coming up 
during the rest of the semester before 
closing the meeting. 


A business meeting of the Electrical 
Engineering honorary, Eta Kappa Nu, 
was held in the Illini Union on March 
_'4. It was decided to inaugurate pe- 
riodic luncheon meetings for 
the pm-pose of promoting in- 
terest and closer contact be- 
tween the members. '1 here is 
.1 short, informal program at 
each meeting. The first of 
these luncheons was held on Thursday, 
April 8, in the University Y. M. C. A. 
All faculty, graduate and student 
members of Eta Kappa Xu are urged 
to attend these functions which will be 
amiounced by notices on the bulletin 
board in the Electrical Engineering lab- 
orator v. 


New officers elected at the second 
meeting of the Electronics club were 1. 
G. Evans, president; M. L. Embree, 
vice-president; and Ci. W. Hoy<l, secre- 

The aim of the Electronics club i^ 
to provide technical practice, instruc- 
tion, and facilities for students and fac- 
ulty members of the University who 
are interested in electronics and allied 
fields. University facilities and equip- 
ment will be available for the use of 
members interested in construction ot 
electronic equipment. 

Meetings are held on alternate Satur- 
da\s in rofim .lOI) i'lcctrical Engineer- 
ing laboratory from I t<j ^ p. m. Meet- 
ing notices are posted on the bulletin 
boai'd next to room 212. lntere>ted stu- 
dents and faculty members are invited 
to attend the meetings of the club. Eur- 
tliei- intormation nia\ be obtained trom 
the secretary, ( i. M. l!o\d, l.UI-2 
South Thin! street, Parade { iroiind 
I nits, Champaign. 


Noteworth\- event of this semester's 
activities by Keramos was the initiation 
banquet held at McKinley Y. M. C. A. 
on March II. In a short but impressive 
ceremcjiiy Dr. Ralph Early (Jrim, pe- 
tiographer, Illinois State (Geological 
Survey, was made an honorary member 
of the fraternity. Initiated at this time 
were l.-i undergraduate ceramic engi- 
neers: H. L. Anderson, E. K. Jensen, 
E. M. .Maupin, J. E. Wuellner, R. \. 
Ames, R. S. Degenkolb, R. D. Fenit\, 
I. E. (Griffin, C. E. Janke, R. G. Kraft, 
Chun Lee, D. D. Rassner, and L. H. 

After the banquet the aforementioned 
Dr. (trim spoke on "Non-Ceramic Use> 
of Clays." President James E. Essen- 
preis closed the ceremony in a gay man- 
ner by leading the group in a medle\ 
of "Oskee - wow - wow," "Reniendier 
Pearl Harbor," and "Come on and 
Knock Me a Kiss." 


The officers elected for 
the spring semester were ( ). 
R. Pomeroy, chairman ; R. 
O. Duncan, vice-chairman; 
A. R. Jones, secretary ; J. 
corresponding secretary for 
and D. D. Richardson, 
secretarv for the A. 1. 

At the regular monthly meeting on 
February 26, Dean .M. L. Enger spoke 
on "The Power Age," in which he ga\e 
the history of some of the (•.•ul\ methods 
of producing power. 

A special meeting was held March S 
at which Mr. Meacham of Hell labo- 
ratories gave a lecture and demonstra- 
tion on pulse code modulation, tlie new- 
est method for the transmission ot in- 
telligence. In fact, it is still in the de- 
velopment stage and the society was 
verv fortunate in having Mr. Meacham, 

who is directing the (le\ elopment wurk, 
speak to them on the subject. 

Mr. Hrooks H. Short, director of re- 
search at the Delco-Remy division of 
General Motors spoke on "Recent De- 
velopments in Automotive Electrical 
E(pnpment" on .March 12. He gave a 
brief sunuiiary ot nev\' electrical equip- 
ment to be expected on the new auto- 
mobiles and explained why ceitain items, 
.ibout which there ha\e been rumors, 
will not appear on the new cars. Mr. 
Short stated that safety devices operat- 
ing on radar principles probably will 
not appear on automobiles for some 
time, since it costs about 50 cents more 
to equip the car with this <levice than 
the cost of the car itself. 

(^n March 30 Mr. Blake D. Hull, 
chief engineer of Southwestern Bell 
Telephone company and national presi- 
dent of A. I. E. E., addressed the stu- 
dent branch and the Urbana section 
of the A. I. E. E. His subject was "Ceil- 
ing Unlimited," in which he discu.ssed 
the future of electrical engineering. 

Mr. F. A. F.iville, who is chairman 
ot the civic responsibilities committee 
i}f the A. S. M. E., president of the 
Fa\ille EeValh corporation, and presi- 
dent of the Lincoln Engineering com- 
pany, spoke on "The Part of Engi- 
neers in Bettering Community Under- 
standing," at the April 12 meeting. 


The first meeting of the second se- 
mester was held February 24. The 
speaker for the evening was Mr. M. F. 
Varotosky, division superintendent of 
steel production, Carnegie-Illinois Steel 
corporation. Mr. Yarotsky's splendid 
talk on "Developments in the Use of 
Basic Refractories in an (^pen- Hearth 
Furnace was illustrated by slides. 

The next meeting of M. I. S. was 
held on April 6, 1948. Officers for the 
school year 1948-1949 were elected. 
Plans for the Chicago section of A. I. 
.M. E. field trip to the University of 
Illinois were discussed. The main events 
of the evening were movies entitled 
"Dislocation Movement in Lattice-Soap 
Bubble Analogy" and "Metal Crystals." 

On .April 24 the Chicago section of 
the A. I. .M. E. made a field trip to 
the L'niversity of Illinois under the aus- 
pices of the M. I. S. Welcomed by 
Professor H. L. Walker and Dean M'. 



L. F'niziT, the \i;.lt()rs wfie iiivitfii U> 
\ie\v a Rockwell Kent painting s\ni- 
bcili/in<i the "Lincolns of Tomorrow." 
The painting was presented to the I'ni- 
\ersity of Illinois by the Bituminous 
Coal association. The ilay was concludeil 
b\- inspection trips to the mining and 
Metallurgy labcnatory, the geological 
survey, and the betatron. 

The final social event of the year toi- 
the M. I. S. will be their annual picnic 
lield near the end of \Ir\. 


At the A.I.Ch.K. meeting .March 22 
a short business session was conducted 
by Donald Hornbeck, president; and 
then Mr. S. IX Kirkpatrick, editor of 
"Chemical Engineering," was intro- 
duced as guest speaker for the evening. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick presented a very in- 
teresting and entertaining talk on "The 
New Look in Chemical Kngineering." 
According to Mr. Kirkpatrick, a defini- 
tion of chemical engineering given in 
the 16th century is not greatly differ- 
ent fiom our modern definition. His 
liberal definition of chemical engineer- 
ing defines it as a mathematical applica- 
tion of chemistry and physics with an 
eye on the almighty dollar sign. Furthei' 
liighlights in his talk were the new in- 
dustrial fields which are now offering 
increased oportunities to the chemical 

The newh <ngani/ed A.I.Ch.I'". 
bowling team has alreaih "plowed un- 
der" the Ag.K.'s, but were luiable to 
see the king pin which, unfortunately, 
was clouded by steam emitted from the 
leaky seams of the M.E.'s, leaving the 
team with a .5(10 a\erage for their first 

The outstaniling feature of the ex- 
hibits at the St. Pat's Ball was a nusti- 
f>nig bit of plumbing displayed by the 
chemical engineers. A stream of dark 
liquid was seen to jet continuously from 
a water faucet suspended in mid-air 
«'ith no visible water connections. The 
more clever of the engineers, those who 
were able to detect the fraud, devised 
innumerable explanations of the phe- 
nomena to fmther bewilder their re- 
spective dates. For a complete thermo- 
dynamic explanation reference is made 
to a >et to be published \olume, "V^iola- 
tions of the Law of Conservation of 
ALiss," by Chilenskas, Schultz, and 

Lickided in the plans for the re- 
mainder of the semester are a talk b\- 
Dr. (lustav Egloff, director of research, 
L'niversal 0\\ Products, and social ac- 
tivities comprised of a banquet and the 
annual A.LCh.E. 

general plan of the meeting is to have 
a focal point of interest, usually avail- 
able films on the latest developments in 
the aircraft field and, when possible, 
a speaker active in the industry to talk 
on de\elopments and opportunities in 
the field. 

Two films weie shown at the tiist 
meeting, one showing the preparation 
and execution of a typical airline flight, 
and the other giving an interesting in- 
sight into the methods used during the 
last war to teach aircraft identifica- 

Plans for the f\itLn-e? They're big, as 
befits an up-and-coming organization, 
but help is needed to make them mate- 
rialize. Aero engineers, it's up to you ! 


The Student Branch of the American 
Ceramic Societ\' held a meeting on 
Wednesday, \Larch 3. Thomas C. 
Shedd, professor in structural engineer- 
ing, was the guest speaker. He spoke 
on the need for engineers to take the 
necessary examinations to become reg- 
istered professional engineers in their 

President Walter Stuenkel presided 
at a short business meeting immediately 
following the talk. Plans were made for 
the annual Pig Roast to be held in ^Lay, 
and committees were appointed to make 
final arrangements. Dick Ames was 
elected to succeed Art Bovenkerk as 
treasin'er and was also elected as rep- 
resentative to the Engineering Covuicil. 


The first meeting of the semester, an 
informal affair, was arranged primarily 
to acquaint the new students with the 
organization and with one another. I he 

MAY, 1948 


The charter members of the Illumi- 
nating Engineering club recently gained 
recognition as the newest engineering 
society on campus. The first open meet- 
ing of the LE.C. introduced the stu- 
dents and faculty members present to 
the local organization and to the na- 
tional Illuminating Engineering Society. 

The program was opened with an 
amusing demonstration of "black light" 
conducted by Professor Horn of the 
illumination department. The audience, 
consisting chiefly of men interested in 
the lighting field, was then given the 
story of the development of the LE.C. 
by (7.T. Nelson. An invitation was ex- 
tended to those interested in the organi- 
zation to become members. The speaker 
for the evening was Profes.sor J. D. 
Ki aehenbuehl, who talked on the na- 
tional I.E.S. and the illumination op- 

The idea of organizing the l.K.C. 
came with the first group of men to 
pursue the illumination curriculum of 
electrical engineering. A committee of 
three began studying the problems of 
organization and writing a constitution. 
With L'niversity approval the Illumi- 
nating Engineering club became an offi- 
cial society in February, 194S. 

The puijKises of the Ll'^.C. are three- 

fold. The organization is founded first, 
to promote fellowship among the illumi- 
nation option and the faculty ; second, to 
bring together men in training for the 
same profession for the exchange of in- 
formation, new ideas, and to learn of 
new de\ elopments in the lighting field ; 
and finally, the LE.C. is founded in 
cooperation with the national I.E.S. 
for the promotion of better lighting in 
the commercial, industrial and domestic 
fields in America. It is the sincere hope 
of the LE.C. that in the near future 
this campus .society will affiliate with 
the I.E.S. as the first student branch 
of that organization. 

Those interested in this new field of 
engineering should contact Professor 
Kraehenbuehl or any members of the 
LE.C. for information on the club and 
the ilhniiination option. 


The acti\ities of the Student Hianch 
of the Agricultural Engineers v\Tre 
limited to an exhibit at the St. Pat's 
Ball arranged under the supervision of 
William J. Fletcher, and the regular 
meeting on March 22. The speakers 
at the meeting were Mr. Tha\er Clea- 
\er, who spoke on the opportunities in 
the L . S. Department of Agriculture, 
and Mr. Leo Holman, who presented 
a talk with slides on a typical engineer- 
ing project that was carried out by the 
I . S. De|iartment of Agriculture. 


The Student Branch of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers has 
had two very interesting meetings dur- 
ing the month of March. On .March Id. 
Mr. V. (i. Swanson, education ami 
training director for the Inikistrial 
Power Division of International Har- 
vester company, spoke on the possibili- 
ties that men with engineering back- 
grounds have in other fields than en- 
gineering. Mr. Swanson also gave some 
valuable suggestions for interviewing. 

A short business meeting was held 
on March 24 at which interesting ac- 
tivities were discussed. A kodochromc 
movie, "Steam Progress," sponsored by 
"Combustion Engineering" magazine, 
was shown. Announcement was made of 
the annual student regional conferences 
of the A.S.M.E. .soon to be held. Each 
university in a region is usually repre- 
sented by a student who reads a paper. 
The papers are written on any subject 
of interest to the author or a group of 
fellow engineers. On April 7 the paiiers 
were presented to the local branch from 
which the best paper will be sent on to 
the regional conference at the L'niver- 
sity of Iowa. Besides glory for the L'ni- 
versity of Illinois and the winner, there 
is also a fifty dollar prize. Plans were 
made for a picnic to be held later in 
the spring after the rains abate. 



, .jg^. ''f/ "«« 'hthnson. 'tit 
^f^ •lini Itnuui. 1 \IC. '.10 
Hrrh .lai-»hMini. '.lO ami tonnif Minnirh. I'.K. '.11 


A pleasant voice with a sligint English 
accent said, "Hello, won't you come in?" 
as we entered 119 Architecture building. 

Alan Kemp Laing, professor of Archi- 
tecture, is a tall, neatly-dressed man with 
blue eyes and sandy hair and mustache 
— the type of person with whom you 
might discuss Parliament's labor policies 
over a cup of tea in some select London 
coffee house. We sat down — fully pre- 
pared to hear about his life in England. 

But no — contrary to what we had ex- 
pected — he was born, not in England, but 
in Gladstone. Michigan. He spent his 
boyhood in Denver, Colorado, and at- 
tended the Manual Training high school 
there. He entered the University of 
Denver as a chemical engineering stu- 
dent, but, as he expressed it, "chemistry 
didn't live up to my expectations," with 
the result that he changed to L.A.S., ma- 
joring in history and sociology. In 1923. 
following his graduation from there with 
a B.A. degree, he worked for a short 
time in an architectural office and be- 
came a member of the Denver Atelier, a 
studio group of artists and interior deco- 
rators affiliated with the Beaux Institute 
of Design in New York. 

Professor Laing then attended Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology and took 
courses at Harvard during the interven- 
ing summers. He graduated from M.I.T. 
in 1926 with a B.S. degree in architecture 
and was a co-winner of the Desloge Prize 
in senior design. He held positions with 
the University of Cincinnati as assistant, 
associate professor, and professor of the 
(Continued on Page 34) 


\ I. /i 

WILLIAM E. McCarthy 

If, as the>' say, hard work is tlu- 
secret of success, Bill McCarthy, |iiesi- 
lieiit of the student branch of tiie 
American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, is sure to get ahead in the engi- 
Tieerinfj world. 

"Mac," now J,i, urailiiated tKini 
Amuiiiiseii high school in Chicago, his 
birthplace, six years ago, where he ac- 
quired letters in wrestling and soccer. 

Working for the Crane Packing com- 
pany, he advanced from machinist, to 
draftsman, to testing engineer. He also 
pia\'e(l on the company's bowling league 
and industrial league baseball team. 

It was during this time that he be- 
came interested in engineering and, in 
October of 1Q44, he matriculated at 
tlie Univeisit\'. Although he had had 
no physics, chemistry, mechanical draw- 
ing, geometry, or trigonometry in high 
school, he plunged right in witii 2(1 
hours his first semester. To get back 
to his study habits, he began writing 
30 jiage reports for his l:iborator\ 
courses. "Some of the fellows tluiuglit 
1 was eager when 1 started handing In 
those reports," Hill says, "but I don't 
like a teacher unless he a.ssigns a lot 
ot lioniework." To catch up with those 
who a better technical background 
than he did, he began to do a tremen- 
dous amount of reading. He reads about 
10 books a semester, such as "Inside 
U. S.A.," "The ^L^le Hormone," "Mic- 
robe Hunters," "Surgeons' World," 
"I)e\ils, Drugs, ,ind Doctois," "The 
Roosc\('lt I knew," Fundanicnt.ils of 
(Continued on page _'S ) 


"Hey, I'rof: I'm conducting experi- 
ment nine, and I need one of those 'gim- 
micks' that are used to distil water." 
.Seconds later a tall, portly man appears 
at the dispensing window with the de- 
sired "gimmick." "Hey, Prof! Do you 
have change for a dime. I need some 
nickels for the candy machine." 

If you should over have the occasion 
to wander over to the Chemistry Annex 
and pass by Room 4, you are more than 
likely to see Mr. R. J. Hales busily doling 
out "gimmicks" to Chemistry 1, 2, and 
3 students. 

Mr. Hales was born in Prophetstown, 
Illinois, on September 14, 1883. He set 
some sort of record by attending thirteen 
different elementary schools before grad- 
uating. Not that he was a dull boy, but 
his father was a minister, and the family 
traveled extensively throughout the mid- 

After he graduated from high school, 
his family moved to Minnesota where he 
began teaching in the rural schools. It 
was while teaching in the rural schools 
that he acquired the nickname of "Prof!" 
and the name remained with him to this 
day. In 1906 Prof entered the College 
of Law at the University of Illinois. He 
remained at the University until 1907, 
after which he returned to his former 
profession — teaching. Prof recalled the 
times he played tennis with Professor 
Thatcher Guild, then an instructor in the 
English department, but now well re- 
membered by all mini as the composer 
of the "Illinois Loyalty Song." 

In 1922 Mr. Hales accepted the posi- 
tion of principal of Sadorus high school. 
In addition to running the affairs of the 
school, he was an instructor, a coach, and 
the director of athletics. While at Sado- 
rus. he introduced the sport of basket- 
( Continued on Page 30) 





for En^neers 

How to make handset 
^ handles twice as fast! 

To meet the tremendous postwar demand for tele- 
phones, Western Electric engineers were faced with 
the problem of molding 50% more plastic handset 
handles per day than ever before. Calling on their 
wartime experience, the engineers turned to electronic 
prt-heating, which raises the temperature of the phe- 
nol plastic from room temperature to 275 degrees 
Fahrenheit in just 30 seconds. In this way they cut 
press time m half, doubled production, improved the 
finish and increased the strength of the handset han- 
dles through more uniform heating. 

Laboratory precision 

in mass production ^ 

This line amplifier looks like something made in a 
laboratory— and destined to spend its life there. Actu- 
ally, the amplifiers are mass-produced to lead rugged 
lives up poles, down manholes, or in remote repeater 
stations along coaxial telephone cable routes. Each 
amplifier must boost the volume of as many as 600 
voice channels, ranging from 64 kc to 3,096 kc, with 
closely controlled characteristics over long periods 
without attention. Working out manufacturing 
methods and controls that assure uniform perform- 
ance of laboratory precision in telephone equipment 
is always an interesting project to Western Electric 

Engineering problems are many and varied at Western Electric, where 
manufacturing telephone and radio apparatus for the Bell System is the primary 
job. Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical, 
metallurgical — are constantly working to devise and improve machines and proc- 
esses for mass production of highest quality communications equipment. 

Western Etectric 


MAY, 1948 19 


Assoc. Editor 



Information Please 

"'riuTc's ;i 1 w n \ > >onR- Munnijian' who 
ilocsn't fict tin- word. Who doesn't rciiicmhcr 
this taiiiiliar phrase which was too frequently 
.•ip|ilied to the hapless "swab jockey" who just 
h.ippcru-d to be getting in a little "sack time" 
w hen tile P. A. system blasted out its raucous 
"Now hear this?" Used also in the plural, 
little concern was expressed about whether 
the iinli\iduals or the system was at fault, 
because the "word" got around fairh' well 
by the "scuttlebutt" route and resulted in the 
appearance of a successful system. In fact, it 
was so "reliable" that a vast number of men 
became "Missourians" overnight. 

Funilamentally, the problem of communi- 
cations arises from the fact that men must 
work together. In any situation where one 
man must work with another, the need im- 
niediatel)- arises for a means of communicating 
ideas between the two. Basically, this trans- 
fer of thoughts is carried out through the 
senses of sight and hearing, although the 
skunk imparts information quite effectively 
through the olfactory nerve. For small groups 
\erbal communication is adequate, but as the 
group increases in size, so does the need for 
extending the media employed. 

The increase in size of the group to be 
reached also increases the pioblem of design- 
ing an cfjectwc communication system. With 
a large group the greatest effectiveness can be 
realized when the information is repeated 
several times. To analyze the effectiveness of 
the system, however, the criterion should not 
be the percentage of the total group receiv- 
ing the information but tlie number of indi- 
viduals who did not receive the information. 

.All this leads iq) to the fact that the com- 
munications system here at Illinois, as applied 
directly to the dissemination of infoiniation 
to the students, is badlv in need of analysis 
anil re-design. \Vhether this information be 

of a current nature applving to college activi- 
ties and official information, or whether it 
applies to longer range information regarding 
scholastic advisorship and information about 
such advisory system, is immaterial from 
the standpoint of designing an effective means 
of communicating this news to all students. 

(Operation on the present theory that the 
student should have sufficient interest in his 
own welfare to seek the needed information 
is a fine theoretical idea if he knows who to 
contact, but completely misses the more prac- 
tical, human approach. Consider, for example, 
the extreme case of the iw\\- student who, in 
his lack of experience with the existing sys- 
tem and his attempt to obtain information, 
contacts people with no more idea of what 
he is hunting for than he has. In an organi- 
zation of this size, that is quite easy to do, 
and it leads to utter confusion and discourage- 
ment. Later, as the individual becomes more 
experienced, but equallv unintormed, the situ- 
ation breeds anything but respect. 

The finding of a complete answer to the 
problem is not an easy task, but certainlv it 
should not be too much to expect at least a 
step or two towards improvement. A system 
could hardly be called effective that relies on 
passing out important information only on an 
easily overlooked notice on a stuffed bulletin 
board or on a notice read in one class. If 
every student knew positively what was going 
on, it's a safe bet that the gain in everyone's 
opinion would be evidenced bv' an improved 
"esprit de corps." 

Although the engineer's viewpoint is too 
often based on percentage of hits, how about 
seeking a partial answer from the student's 
viewpoint, through the Engineeri?ig Council, 
on the basis of the individuals missed? It's 
certainly worth a try to see how manv' "dun- 
nii:an^" there rcalh are. 



No illustrations can do more than suggest the wealth of facilities 
at Standard Oil's new research laboratory at Whiting, Indiana. 
Here, in one of the largest projects of its kind in the world, there 
are provided the many types of equipment needed and desired 
for up-to-the minute petroleum research. 

Tlie caliber of the men who work here is high. For many years. 
Standard Oil has looked for and has found researchers and en- 
gineers of high professional competence. Further, the company 
has created for these men an intellectual climate which stimulates 
them to do their finest work. 

And there is nothing new about the idea that motivates 
Standard Oil research. It is simply that our responsibility to the 
public and to ourselves makes it imperative to keep moving steadily 
forward. Standard Oil has always been a leader in the field of in- 
dustrial research ; the new Whiting laboratory is proof of our 
intention to remain in the front rank. 

Standard Oil Company 

910 S. Michigc 

M.W, 1948 



(Coiitimii-d trom page 15) 

to work on the production of i-k-ctric 
energy required in the nianufacturiii},' 
of nlumituim, phosphates, nitrates and 
other necessities of war. 

One of the more interesting pliases 
of his work with the TV'A was his 
assistance in the original purchase of 
the "Kingston Deniohtion Range," later 
to be known as Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 
"the atomic center of the world." When 
this area was taken over b\' the Man- 
hattan District of the Arnu' Engineers, 
it was developed from one of the poorest 
regions of run-down farms in the Soutli, 
into the fourth largest city in Ten- 
nessee, and the hub of atomic research. 
This task required the tremendous pow- 
er that only the TV'A could furnish. 

Mr. Trezise's work in the personnel 
field gave him an opportunity to lea in 
just what industry is looking for when 
hiring college graduates. He discovered 
that certain elements of leadership, co- 
operativeness, character, and common 
.sense were wanted as well as high scho- 
lastic achievement. Here at Galesburg 
he is using his knowledge and practical 
engineering experience to give the stu- 
dents a better understanding of the pro- 
fession they wish to enter, and to aid 
them as the\ pass through their green 


By Elmer Lochow, E.E. '51, 
and Stanley Runyon, E.E. '51 

( )rie lit the in()>t interesting extra- 
curricular acti\ities at the (lalesburg di- 
vision is the operation and maintenance 
of the radio transmitter, property of 
tile radio club. 

This club a \ ery humble begin-