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L I B R.A R.Y 














OCTOBER, 1949 


Slipstick Shuffling 

Page 7 

Trusses Across the Rhin 

Page 8 

My Mother 
Was a Phonograph 

Page 10 


Page 12 





just drive straight aheac 
for 37,681 miles ^^ 


THOSE beautiful, wide, straight, smooth roads you've been 
wishing for, are really on their way. The magnificent plan of 
interstate iiighways, greatest road program m U. S. history, is 
already taking form at the rate of 700 million dollars worth of con- 
struction per jear. 

37,681 miles of swell driving , . . direct travel from any part of 
the country to any other part . . . routes north and south, east and 
west, and diagonal routes as well . . . big highways directly serving 
practically all cities of 50,000 population or more . . . 

This is part of the better America that our generation is build- 
ing. It's taking plenty of brains. Plenty of manpower. Lots of 
cement. And lots of steel. 

United States Steel has always played an Important part in 
buildmg the nation's highways. We've supplied steel reinforcing 
bars and wire fabric to make roads stronger, smoother, longer-last- 
ing. We've made the steel for road-building machinery, the steel 
pipe and culverts for proper drainage. We've built bridges to 
carry highways over rivers and canyons. We've furnished steel and 
cement to help drill highway tunnels. 

United States Steel is ready to help with any job the nation 
has in the building of a better America. That's one reason why 
United States Steel is a good place to work. 



U N I 

^'Is this the same ROEBLiNG that 

helped you build the Golden Gate Miridffe? 

'Well, Ted, that's one way to put it ! 
And this sure is the same Roebling. 
Besides making wire and huge 
cables for suspension bridges, 
Roebling weaves wire screens. I've 
seen screens like this in quarries and 
mines all over the country." 


fr -h 

The fact is, ils Brklgc Division is only one 
of Roi'hling's sc\('n major divisions, each 
producing a distinctive line of wire or wire 
products of wide and essential servico 
in industr)-. Importantly too, at the big 
Roebling plants in and near Trenton, New 
Jersey, developments are made constantly 
that bring new efficiency and economy to 
a vast range of industrial operations. 

WIRE nOPE. Roebling wire rope is 
made in a large range of types to assure 
lopflight performance in every application. 
Roebling Preformed "Blue Center" Wire 
Rope is imsurpasscd for ease of handling, 
smooth operation and long life. 


MA«i:VET WIRE. Roebling makes more 
than 60 standard tvpes of electrical wire 
and cable — meets practically every trans- 
mission, distribution and service require- 
ment. Roevar Magnet Wire is a leading 
specification fur higli-.spced winding. 

WO^'EN WIRE F.\RRir. From the 
largest, most rugged Aggregate Screens 
to the most finely woven Filter Cloths, 
there's a fidl line of Roebling industrial 
screens. Wires made of special steels and 
non-ferrous metals assure longer wear and 
corrosion resistance. 


Roebling high carbon wire is a quality 
product and dependably uniform in gauge, 
grain structure and finish. This, of course, 
means that machine stoppages and rejects 
are cut to a minimum, and production 
costs pulled down. 

* ^ fr 
Whatever career you are studying for, 
when vou get on the job \ou will find one 
or more tvpes of Roebling products serv- 
ing there, dependably and at low cost. 
John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Tren- 
ton 2, New Jersey. 

BRANCH OFFICES: Atlanta, 934 Avon .\Te. < 
flaslon, 51 Sleeper Si. * Chicago, 552,i W. Roosevel 
ltd. * Cletrland, 701 Si. Clair Ave., N. E. * Denier 
163S ITlh St. * Houston, 6216 NaviBaliiin Blvd. * lo 
Aneeles. 216 S. Alameda St. * ,\ew York, 19 Reel.. 
St. * Philadelphia, 12 S. 12lh Si. * Pillsburih, 83 
» . North Ave. * Portland, Ore., 1032 N. W. 1 .h Ave 

)CTOBER, 1949 

An automatic flight recorder in the nose of General Electric's B-29 flying 
laboratory is checked by C. L. Beottie, company engineer. (Courtesy of 
General Electric.) 

Automatic Flight Recorder 

A new t\pc lit tliiilir rcconici-, which 
automatically records air roughness, alti- 
tude, and operation of automatic pilot 
and dc-Iciny; on aircraft, has hccii de- 
veloped hy the ( n-iieral Electric com- 

L'se cil flifzht recorders will prtivide 
coniiiiercial airlines increased iiiloriiia- 
tion on their flight operations, and make 
possible greater operational control. 

The actual record is made by a stylus, 
which scratches through a thin coating 
on a slowly-moving strip of paper and 
leaves a black tiace. 

The flight recorder, which makes .-i 
record of flight data from take-ott to 
landing, is so accurate in measuring alti- 
tude that it indicates changes as small 
as ten feet. 

Rocket Power rise.irch on h\dra/ine, the 
fuel of the future, is being done here 
by five scientists under the direction ot 
Prof. Ludwig F. .'\udrieth of the 
chemistry department. 

Hydrazine, A'.,//.,, is a water - clear 

liqiu'd. A derivative of ammonia, it 
burns completely to nitrogen and water 
\apor. These lightweight molecules are 
especially effective for pushing rockets 
in rarefied air or in outer space. With 
hydrogen peroxide supplying oxygen for 
combustion, hydrazine was used by the 
(lermans as fuel for their wartime 

The research promises to hasten the 
day of spaceships by reducing the pric' 
from four dollars to two-bits a pound. 

Ductile Cast Iron 

Slipping into the gap between cast 
iron -And cast steel is ductile cast iron, 
a metal combiiu'ng the process advan- 
tages of fluidity, castability, and ma- 
chinability with such jiroduct eli.iracter- 
istics as high elastic modulus, yield 
strength, and ductility. 

This new metal, developed by Inter- 
national Nickel compan\, has a graphiti- 
sfructuie in the form of spheroids; it is 
free liom gr.ipbite in flake form. A 
small .imount of magnesium or magne- 
sium .illo\ is the effective agent when 
introduced into the molten iron in the 

f/f/ Itiiif lliiiiHvr. 1' *.*0 

rupol.a oi" in ,iu\ other kuid of furnace. 
Its "as-cast" ductilit\ c.ui he increased 
In hear treatment. 

Foul Bowls 

.■\n electriiiuc umpire that can't dodge 
bottles or change decisions has been de- 
x'cloped by ( renei'.il FJectric for calling 
bowling fo\ds. 

Actuated by electric eves mounteil on 
tiie foul line of .any alley, the automatic 
instrument soinids a bell or buzzer and 
Hashes a light to indicate which ot \(i 
.alleys has been "fouled." 

A time delay prevents the hall from 
ringing the gong, but str.ay dogs are 
.■dwa\s caught. 

Mind and Matter 

According to a recent article about 
servomechanisms in the Martin Star, 
"physiologists have recently shown cer- 
t.un interrelations of nerve cells of the 
brain to be quite similar to links in elec- 
tro-mechanical systems. Thus, thought 
processes or their equivalent can, in a 
limited wa\, of course, now be ap- 
[iroached in the laboratory. It is quite 
possible, for example, to design a ma- 
chine to play chess, to choose between 
winning mo\es and losing moves, to ac- 
cumulate experiences by continuous play- 
ing, and thus to become a far better 
player than the man who designs it! 

". . . While we can now at a cost of 
a few thousand dollars duplicate the 
function of a single brain nerve cell, the 
human brain has many billions of these 
cells, whose function would have to be 
iluplicated, built and operated together 
to match its almost infinite choice of 
possible decisions." 

What if two electro-mechanical chess 
players were to play a few friendly 
games ? 

Electroplate Thickness 

A cninenienr, nonilestiucti\e mag- 
netic method for determining the thick- 
ness of composite copper-nickel coatings 
electiodeposited on steel has been de- 
veloped b\' the National Huieau of 

The metho<i involves the measure- 
ment of the attractive force between the 
lil.ited specimen and two permanent 
(Continued on page 38) 



Ray Hauser Editor 

Connie Allniiicli Assoc. Editor 

(7ene Hlanyci- Maicup Editor 

Art Dreshfield Asst. Editor 

Dwight Beard Asst. Editor 

Editoriid Associates 

Hill Si-ilcrMrum 
Henry Kaliii 
Dean Feltoii 
Bob Lawrence 
Joe tiraham 
Luther S. Peters( 
Dick Choronzv 
Dave Cash 

Dan Keefe 
Jack Margolis 
John Huber 
Paul Zachan 
Delois Smith 
Joseph \'ancik 
Edward Finkel 


Fred Seavey Bus. Myr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson ....Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Hill Anderson Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

jaines J. Skarda ..Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Business Associates 

Alfrcda Mallcirey Jo\anne Hlount 
Charles J. Knkura Lew Markow 
Ewing Sharp Jim McCormack 

Ed Brooks Jane Parlee 

Bob (ierzetich 

Eaculty Advisers 

f. A. Henrv 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 



Chairman: John A. Henry 

University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

:innati Cooperative 
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Michigan Technic, Minnesota Technolog, 
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Engineer, Penn State Engineer, Pennsyl- 
vania Triangle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester 
Indicator, Rose Technic, Tech Engineering 
News, Wayne Engineer, and 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Volume 65 

Number 1 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Mu 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Av 
Chicago n. 111. 101 Park Avenue, 
York 17, New York. 

The Tec/i Presents 



Slipstick Shuffling 7 

Trusses Across the Rhine 8 

My Mother was a Phonograph 10 

Opportunities in Metallurgical Engineering 12 

Engineers' Code 20 


New Developments 2 

Navy Pier 13 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies 14 

Personalities 15 

Boneyard Bilge 16 

Technocracks 40 


Our cartoonist, Ed Lozano, gives the Alma Mater statue a 
North Campus twist on this month's cover. The earnest young 
engineer in front is guaranteed not to sit down. 


This king-size needle valve is being assembled for installa- 
tion at the Bureau of Reclamation's Friant Dam near Fresno, 
California. This 60-ton monster will pass almost a million 
gallons of water a minute. (Photo courtesy of Westinghouse.) 


Ufi Hill Stulfrstruni. I'pr.K. 'S2 

This article will deal priniarih with 
the scales on the polyphase duplex slide- 
rule rather than the simple Mannheim 
rule. It will be taken for granted that 
most engineers already know how to 
perform multiplication and di\ision on 
this t\pe of rule. 

For the novice, howe\er. it can be 
pointed out that all numbers on the 
C and D scales are in direct proportion. 
With the C index aligned with an\ 
number, ii, on the D scale, any number, 
//, on the (J scale is in the ratio of 1 : ii 
witii the number, r, opposite it on the /) 
scale. Ihe proportion, 1 : a ^ /> : i\ is 
thus represented. By algebra, this can 
be transformed to /i// = c, giving us the 
principle in\oI\ed in multiplication. 
Likewise, a = r h which is the principle 
in\olved in division. 

CI. Til,- Invnt,d C Saili- 
\ he (J scale is exactly the same as 
the C scale except that the CI scale 
reads from right to left whereas the C 
scale reads from left to right. With the 
indexes of the (] and ('>'/ scales aligned, 
all numbers which are opposite each 
other are reciprocals. When performing 
multiplication and division with the CJ 
and D scales, the processes are reversed. 
This is very useful in finding factors of 
an\ number. Set the index of the (U 
scale at the given number on D. Any 
two numbers on (U and /) which fall 
opposite each other are factois of the 
given number. 

Sqiliircs mil! Sfjii/irc Ranis 

The squares of numbers on the C' and 
/) scales lie opposite these numbers on 
the J and B scales. Likewise, the square 
roots of numbers on the A and B scales 
lie opposite these numbers on the (j and 
D scales. Some confusion is encountered 
here, however, when trying to place the 
decimal point. 

We shall call the left half of the A 
scale A^ and the right half A ^ for sim- 
plification. -■/, may represent 1 to 10, 
and A., 10 to I'OO; or A,, 100 to 
lIKKt, and A,, 1000 to 10000, etc. Like- 
wise, ./, may represent 1 to .1, and A .„ 
.1 to .01 ; or A, mav represent .01 to 
.001, and A,, .001 to .0001, etc. 

Squares of numbers on D may be read 
directly from A and the decimal point 
placed by inspection. 

When finding the square roots of 
numbers greater than one, begin at the 
decimal point and mark off the integers 
in groups of two proceeding to the left. 
If the last group contains one figure, 

use ./,. If it contains two, use A .^. When 
finding the square roots of decimal frac- 
tions, proceed to the right of the decimal 
point marking off the integers in groups 
of two. If the first group that contain;- 
integers other than ciphers contains one 
figure, use .V,. If it contains two, use 
./ .. In either case the square root con- 

This article explains some of the 
less familiar uses of the slide-rule 
that may be valuable timesavers. 
It is assumed that the reader is 
familiar with fundamental uses, 
but hoped that a couple new tricks 
may add to the speed of operation. 

tain> the same number of integers as 
the n u m b e r of groups in the gi\en 

Multiplication and division can be 
performed on A and B as well as C>' and 
D. but greater accuracy is obtained from 
the Cj and D scales. The A and B scales 
can be used with the 6' and D scales 
in problems involving squares and roots, 
such as, irh = c d'- and \l ah = c d. 

(juhis and (hihe Roots 

The cubes of numbers on the D scale 
are found on the K scale, and the cube 
roots of numbers on A' are found on D. 
For simplicit\, we shall call the left 
section of A', A'^, the center section, K.,, 
and the right section A'.,. 

A',. A'„, and A'., mav represent 1 to 10, 
10 to 10(), and 100 to 1000 respectivelv, 
or 1000 to 1()000, 10000 to 100000, 
and 100000 to 1000000, etc. Likewise 
they may represent 1 to .1, .1 to .01, 
and .01 to .001 respectivelv, or .001 to 
.0001, .0001 to .00001. and .00001 to 
.000001, etc. 

For numbers greater than one, begin 
at the decimal point and mark off the 
numbers into groups of three figures 
proceeding toward the left. If the last 
group contains one, two, or three fig- 
ures, use A,, A.,, or A. J respectively. 

If the cube of a nimiber is found on 
A], A.,, A.,, to find the number of fig- 
ures of the cube, multiply the number 
of figures in the given number by three 
and subtract two, one, none respectively. 

If the cube root of a number is found 
from A',. A',, A'.;, to find the number of 
figures of the root, add two, one, none 
respectively to the number of figures in 
the given numhi-r and di\ide by three. 

The A scale may be useil with the C 
scale in problems involving multiplica- 
tion and division of numbers with cubes 
or cube roots of lumibers. Combinations 
of operations with the A', A, B, C, and 
D scales can solve problems involving 
such exponents as 3, 4, 5, 6, etc., 5/3, 
4 3, 5 6, 3 9, etc. Application of the 
rules for exponents will make the opera- 
tions obvious. 

Thr Folded Sra/rs. CF. DF. (AF 

One of the most convenient scales on 
the polyphase duplex slide-rule is the 
folded scale. The folded scales are ex- 
actly the same as the C, D, and ^.V 
scales, but they have been split at r,, 
3.1416, and the indexes placed together. 

All numbers on the C and (^F scales, 
the D and DF scales, and the CI and 
CAF scales are in the ratio of 1 : ~. This 
is most useful in computing the ratio of 
the circumference of a circle with its 
diameter since (j = -d. This ratio may 
be utilizeil in nearly all operations in- 
\'olving -. 

It may be noticed that, when setting 
problems of multiplication and division 
on the C and D scales, some of the lunii- 
bers invohed run off of the scale, and 
the indexes have to be exchanged. The 
primary purpose for the folding scales 
is to avoid such inconvenience. 

In solving the problem 52 X 7-^ 13 
on the C and D scales, it will be noticed 
that such a shift of indexes is necessary. 
If. howe\er, one sets 13 on C opposite 
^2 on D. the answer can be read on DF 
opposite 7 on CF without ha\ ing to shift 

If the same operation is tried on the 
problem 52 yi')^^ 13, however, it will 
be foLuid that even when using the (^F 
and DF scales in this manner a shift 
of inilexes is required. To overcome this, 
set 13 on CF opposite 52 on DF and 
read the answer on D opposite 9 on C. 

Many other uses may be made of 
the combinations of these scales. 

Flic Lot/ Scale 

The L scale has 10 divisions equally 
spaced. By this arrangement the log- 
arithm of any number on the D scale 
can be found opposite it on the L scale 
when the indexes are aligned. 

riic Sine and Tangent Scales 

The sine of the angles which are 
found on the iS' scale can be read on the 
(Continued on page 20) 

OCTOBER, 1949 


frmm Iitiiss the Rhine 

liff t'onnii' .\tinnifh. I'.li. '.11 

This is ifii ihiril miil hist of ii scrus of <ii I'ulis dhaiit mir uiii linn i iii/lin i riiiii 
fHirj/ii/>/iihiniiil.\. Coiniit has viviilly drsirilud suiiif of llu iliff'u nil liiidiii-l'iiUdiiii/ 
fvals ihill iiKuU />rissi/>/c tin lafiiil at i iipntinu of (.iiriiiiiiiy. 

When Patton )i.:\\v his Army I'n^l- 
iu'ci> tlircc weeks tiar to repair M 
bridges across the Rhine for his thrust 
into CKTiiiany — he got what he waiitei]. 
The last bolts on many of these bridges 
were tiglitened and tested as the first 
supply trains and trucks rolled across 
the ri\ei' on Rhine D-Day. 

Miiacle? No, just a daily occurrence 
for the engineers in the E.T.C). Hridges 
such as this, built on less than scratch 
at the rate of one and one-half a day, 
were by no means the most beautiful or 
the most lasting of structures. However, 
for the war days when strength, speed, 
and super-efficiency were the by-words, 
aesthetic design and lasting wear were, 
for the greater part, kicked out. 

After the capture of Cherbourg in 
the early summer of '44, U. S. Army 
f'ngineers began a large scale recon- 
struction program encompassing all of 
the important railroads and their bridges 
that covered the territory from Cher- 
bourg through Normandy and down t(j 
Paris. Most of these "bridges" were 
structures that were built on top of or 
over the wrecked bridges left bv the 

rctrcatnig ( lernian Arnn. Sonic ol these 
were erected from materials tound on 
location; others were constiucted of 
American .ind l'"nglisli prefabricated 

The most generally' used construction 
etpiipment was foiu' t\pes of prefabri- 
cated 15ritish - manufactured beam s. 
These consisted of the LST and HST 
types, light and heavy steel trestling 
columns that came in two weights and 
four lengths up to 12 feet and which 
were used in piers; UCRB, a kind of 
parallel-cord Pratt-truss span known as 
the Unit Construction Railroad Bridge; 
and RSJ's, rolled steel joist spans that 
\^■ere girders made b\' welding together 
two or three I-beams. These construc- 
tion units were handled in sections light 
enough for one man to carry. They 
were easily and speedily assembled at 
the site of building. 

Sftaniiin// the Jlhcrt Ciiniil 

To the north, the large Albert 
in Helgium also became an imjiortant 
link i]i the supply lines. Repairs of its 
locks and broken bridges were also 

A crane tops out the 52-foof tower of Bailey truss panels at the Albert 
Canal just as the launching nose of the bridge arrives. (Courtesy of 

r.'ited as a major engineering oper.ition. 
It was, in fact, o\er this canal one 
of the most extraonlinary examples of 
the famed Hailey bridge was constructed. 
The Hailey bridge, a design of tem- 
porary structure as used by Arm\' Kn- 
gineers in the war, came in lightweight 
truss panels that were put together in 
man\ combinations serving as every- 
thing from piers and decks of bridges 
to construction trestles. 

Credit for the construction of this 
grandpop of all Baileys goes to the 
3()S.3rd Combat Battalion of the Ninth 
Army who turned it out in a new rec- 
ord of 24 hours. The bridge, a "double- 
triple" design (two tiers of three paral- 
lel trusses at either side of the roadway), 
has three span lengths of 151, 152, and 
121 feet; and both superstructure and 
52-foot high piers are composed of 5x10 
Bailey truss panels. 

Existing conditions when the Engi- 
neers moved in to begin operations were 
the 122-foot canal itself, a 10-foot tow- 
path on the east side, a 33-foot road on 
the west, and 60-foot banks with a 2:1 
slope. Construction began with the set- 
ting of timber cribbing foundations fol- 
lowed by pier erections. A cableway laid 
the first three tiers of trusses on the east 
bank, while on top of the same slope, 
the superstructure was being assembled. 
To this fabrication was then attached 
the temporary "launching nose." 

Characteristic of all Bailey bridges, 
this "nose," consisting of several lengths 
of "single-single" makeup (one tier of 
a single truss at either side of the road ) 
was light enough to be pushed over the 
bank, cantile\er style. Here it was tem- 
porarily anchored back on the bank and 
then, from its tip, block and tackle 
lou-ered the two top tiers of the east 
pier into place. Superstructure and nose 
were then cantilevered out over the 
canal to the east bank \\here the pier 
on that side had meanwhile been hoisted 
into place by a crawler crane. The span 
then continued to the top of the west 
bank. Operations were concluded with 
the lowering of the deck into its sup- 
[lorts and jacking it into place. 

Early Difficulties 

In the days that preceded the Rhine 
iinasion, supplies and materials were 
heaped in great dumps along the banks 
of the ri\er that had been cleareii of 
the retreating eneiiu. The Rhine itself 


This 10-mile stretch of the Rhine, 
from Coblenz to Wesel, figured in 
the plans for the D-day assault. 
(Courtesy of McGraw-Hill.) 

was one hiigi' iini(1dlc into which had 
fallen the ruins of e\ery bridge be- 
tween the Netherlands to the north and 
the P'rench city of Coblenz to the .south. 
The eastern bank of the river bristled 
with Nazi encampments; on the west- 
ern hank, the First, Third, and Ninth 
ainiies had ensconced themselves in 
formidable strength. Both forces on 
cither side of the river were, like the 
cat-and-canary parable, waiting for the 
other to make the first move. 

The break finally came and came fast. 
The site was Wesel, a little town of 
originally SO, 0(10 inhabitants, situateil 
plunk in the middle of the Rhine bat- 
tlegrounds. Previous to the Wesel cross- 
ing, an earlier bridgehead had been 
established at Remagen, where one lone 
railroad bridge was foiutd still standing 
vipon which the Engineers Corp had 
founded high hopes. This, however, 
proved a fluke when heavy German 
shell-fire fatalh' se\ered the top choiil 
of the thiee-span tied-arch design. \'i- 
brations set up by gales of wind caused 
buckling and deflections that at last 
finished off the structure. 

Across at If cscl 
Wesel was the only rea;onablc path 
across the Rhine. At the cities ol 
Cologne, Dusseldorf, and Duisbmg, the 
river-bed was glutted with rubbish ot 
their world-famous bridges. South ot 
Coblenz, the river swept through iioiin-, 
and between cliffs that were ill-Miitcil 
for only temporary structures. Tliot' 
mountainous districts w e r e replaced 
further to the north by a widening 
river s\\ee|iing into fertile farmland and 

deep gia\el beds. This, however, was 
tco far down the river for the sake of 

American forces opened the siege at 
Wesel on the night of March 22, 1945, 
with 3,000 bombers kicking up the dust 
around German fortifications on the 
east bank. The next night, the artillery 
shredded up what was left and the fol- 
lowing morning found both engineers 
and troops on the captured banks. 

Once oxer the river, the infantry 
fanned out and advanced several miles 
inland to eliminate all possibility of 
enemy fire while the bridge-building was 
in progress. Right on schedule, floating 
temporary bridges including a treadwa\ , 
a heavy pontoon, and a floating Bailey, 
spanned the river 50 hours after the 
opening assault. In addition, crews had 
already begun work on the now-famous 
Wesel railroad bridge. The 2,215-foot 
bridge, completed in 10 days, was almost 
entirely prefabricated and consisted of 
LST piers set on timber pile founda- 
tions and a deck of 75-meter spans with 
deck sway bracing of timber spreaders 
and steel yokes. 

This arrangement of deck swa\ brac- 
ing was a design detail frequently em- 
|iloyed in these temporary bridging 
operations to eliminate the time-taking 
element of welding of the diaphragms 
and sway bracing to the bridge girders. 
Work on this bridge was sometimes 
carried on in as high as 15 different lo- 
cations along its course. 

And so, it was just 15 days after the 
crossing of the Rhine that the first train 
rolled across the river taking supplies 
to the advancing army spearhead. 

With the subsequent in\asiiin and 
capture of the Fatherland came the task 
of repairing the railroad and highway 
bridges that would make possible the 
lifeline supply of food for vanquished 
and for conquerors. Particularly inter- 
esting were the repairs of the (jerman 
"autobahn" (superhighway) bridges. 

Suspension bridges on the autobahns 
were, of course, completely ruined and 
only their piers could serve as the base 
for new river crossings. Steel bridges, 
it was found, were easily destroyed but 
were as easily repaired if no parts were 
missing. Truss and plate-girder bridges 
were simply repaired providing the dam- 
age had not resulted in excessive twist- 
ing. If sections had fallen down, they 
were hoisted back into place and re- 
placed on temporary supports, which, in 
some cases, amounted to no more than 
a new set of bearings. 

One of the biggest problems encoun- 
tered was the masonry and plain con- 
crete bridges that had been a favorite 
design with the German engineers in 
the absence of steel diverted into arma- 
ment channels. Without steel reinforc- 
ing, many a multiple-arch bridge was 
ruined e\en though only one arch had 
been destroyed. 

Such structures were designed so that 
the horizontal thrust from one of the 
arches was supposed to eliminate the 
equal but opposite horizontal force from 
another arch, the whole bridge then only 
subjecting its piers to vertical loads. 
With one gap in an arch, the horizon- 
tal thrusts from the other arches ac- 
cumulated in the end piers of the gap, 
thus weakening them considerably. 
( Continued on page 22 ) 

The Adolph Hitler bridge at Krefeld-Werdingen combined suspension and 
cantilever action to achieve stability. (Courtesy of McGraw-Hill.) 

OCTOBER, 1949 

Mif, Motke/i uMiA. a PUo-axxyvcupJt 

Uff t'art lUuni/vr. '.11 

\n 1937, after 56 years in the Smith- 
sonian Institute, Alexander (irahani 
Hell's first practical model of a record- 
ing: machine was removed from its niclu-. 
dusted off, and the orij;inai cylindrical 
wax record played back. When this 
irranddaddy of all record players was 
cranked up it spoke approximately thus: 

"The followinfi words and soujkK air 
recordetl upon the c \ I i n d e r of the 
'( Iramophone.' . . . Tlu-re are more 
things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 
than are dreamed of in our philosophy. 
... I am a gramophone and my mother 
was a phonograph." 

Now its greatl\ modified offspring, 
the modern phonograph, is as standard 
a piece of equipment in the average 
American home as the radio, the tele- 
phone, and the family car; it is just 
.mother of the commonplace marvels of 
our technology that the world's music, 
past and present, can be brought into 
our homes under our personal control. 

There are three basic units utilized 
in the recording and reproduction of 
sound ; they are ( 1 ) .a device for the 
transformation of mechanical vibration 
into varying electric voltages (the micro- 
phone in recording and the pickup in 
playback); (2) amplifiers usually in- 
\()l\ing vacuum tubes and associated 
apparatus to build up the tiny amounts 
of power generated bv the microphone 
or pickup; (3) a device for the trans- 
formation of the electrical power furn- 
ished by the amplifier back to mechani- 
cal vibration (the cutter in recording 
and the loudspeaker in reproduction). 

Kxcept in the case of home recording 
enthusiasts the engraving of the sound 
track on records is out of the hands of 
the listener; but in most commercial 
iccords the qua!it\' of the recording is 

This sine wave was photographed 
from an oscilloscope. It is actually 
a picture of familiar 60-cycle hum. 

such that the phonograph on which the 
record is played is the limiting factor 
in the qu.ility of the resulting sound. 

To understand the process one must 
first have some idea of the character of 
sound waves, particularly those pro- 
duced by musical instnunents and the 
luinian voice. The student of phvsics 
knows that s<iuiul consists of so-called 
longitudinal waves in air or other trans- 
mitting media. Sound causes alternate 
compression and raref raction of the air ; 
if the ear drum, or the diaphragm of a 
microphone, is in the path of a soimd 
wave, it will vibrate in time with the 
frequency of the sound wave. A "pure" 
sound wave causes the air to compress 
and decompress smoothly according to 
a mathematical curve (a sine curve, 
formula: y ^ A sin Ml). 

For instance, a sound wave of 4411 
cycles per second (A above middle ('. 
on the piano) causes the air at any given 
point to compress, return to normal, be- 
come rarefied, and again return to nor- 
mal 440 times per second. However, 
most sound waves do not rise and fall 
smoothly, according to the sine curve; 
all soiuid waves of the same basic fre- 
quency repeat themselves at the same 
time interval, but the graph of intensity 
of air compression with time is a highly 
irregular curve. 

W-t even the most complicated wave 
can be broken down into components 
such that each one consists of a sine 
wave, which is usually an integral mul- 
tiple of the basic frequency of the soiuid 
wave (at least in musical tones). These 
individual sound sine waves, of the 
proper amplitude and frequency, when 
added vectorially, "give the original 
soiuid wave. These components are 
called harmonics bv the sound man, and 
overtones by the musician. They give 
(|ualit\ or timbre to the sound, and aie 
the leason for the difference in sounil 
of different musical instruments and 
voices, even when each produces a sound 
of the same basic frequency. 

The human ear can hear sounil waves 
of frequencies between roughly 31) and 
18,000 cycles per second; ;is a person 
ages, the ability to hear very high- 
pitched sounds decreases so that the 
upper limit of hearing may come down 
to 10,000 cycles or lower. Below about 
30 cycles each individual pvdse can be 
"felt" rather than heard; a machine gun 

firing 1,200 rounds a minute (2(1 per 
.second ) produces not a tone, but a series 
of individual pulses which can be felt 
more or less individually. The piano 
produces sound waves of frequencies 
ranging from 27^. cycles per second 
(the lowest note) to 4096 cycles (the 
highest). However, even the lowest note 
produces harmonics with frequencies of 
manv thousands of cycles; electronic ap- 
paratus could probably detect a trace of 
the 100th harmonic (2750 c.p.s.). 

The voice produces sound of basic 
frequencies fiom 100 to 1000 cycles 
per .second, and is very rich in overtones, 
some of which extend to HOOO cycles ; 
vowel sounds have the least harmonics 
(the letter u pronounced "oo" comes 
fairly close to being a pure sine wave), 
while the consonants can hardly be said 
to have .1 basic frequency. They are im- 
pulses rich in harmonics. Whistling pro- 
duces a practically pure high frequency 
sine wave of soimd. 

It is evident that any device intended 
to transmit sound faithfully must, among 
other things, be able to transmit equally 
well sound waves (or their correspond- 
ing electrical waves) of frequencies from 
30 to 18,000 c.p.s. Imagine a musical 
tone of, perhaps, 300 cycles, with over- 
tones up to 3000 ; each overtone has an 
intensity which is a certain definite per- 
centage of the basic tone. If, in trans- 
mitting this composite tone, some of the 
harmonics were diminished, the result- 
ing soimd would be boomy and throaty 
compared to the original tone; if the 
overtones were increased in intensity, in 
proportion to the basic, the result would 
sound tinnv. 

The complex sound wove above is 
the graph of two cycles of a saxo- 
phone note — low "C" on an alto 



Ho\ve\er, if the device is only intend- 
ed to transmit speech, the ohject being 
understandability and not beauty of the 
sound carried ( as in the telephone or 
aircraft radio) the transmission of fre- 
iiuencies from 200 to 2000 or 3000 
c\ cles is enough ; anything beyond con- 
tributes to naturahiess but not conipre- 

In the recording of sound, a micro- 
phone picks up sound waves and changes 
them to corresponding voltages. These 
voltages are increased by amplifiers and 
fed to a cutting head which changes the 
\arving currents to mechanical motion 
of a cutting stylus set into the head. 
This stylus, like a tiny chisel, carves a 
V-shaped groove which spirals toward 
the center from the outside in the sur- 
face of a plastic coated record ; most 
commercial records (not the long- 
playing variety) are cut about 88 
grooves per inch, radially. 

The cutter stylus vibrates in time 
with the sound waves picked up by the 
microphone, and the groove which nor- 
iT.allv is a smooth spiral becomes a wa\\ 
trace. This trace, magnified, would ap- 
pear as a miiu'ature graph of the varia- 
tion of ail' pressure with time, or a 
graph of the sound wave. Commercial 
discs are molded from a metal "nega- 
ti\e" made from the original "master," 
which is never played. 

When the record is played back a 
needle is set into the groove ; as the rec- 
ord spins, the needle follows the groove 
and is mechanically forced to vibrate 
fi'om side to side. The needle may be 
mounted in one of several devices de- 
signed to change this mechanical vibra- 
tion into electrical voltages. These 
\oltages are proportional to the displace- 
ment of the needle in crystal cartridges, 
and to the side-to-side velocity in mag- 
netic units. 

The most popular cartridges use a 
piezo-electrical salt crystal with proper- 
ties such that a mechanical twisting or 
bending of the crystal causes a voltage 
to appear between the contacts on op- 
posite faces of the crystal. If the modu- 
lated groove causes the needle to vibrate 
440 times per second, the crystal pro- 
duces an alternating voltage of 440 
c.p.s. ; if the tone engraved in the groove 
lias 75 assorted overtones, the crystal 
produces 75 harmonics; if the needle 
\ibrates twice as far at one time as an- 
other, the crystal produces twice the \ol- 

A typical crystal will produce about 
one volt between its opposite faces. 
However, the current which can be 
drawn from it is so small that the elec- 
trical power produced is on the order 
of a few millionths of a watt. This is 
barely enough to be audible in a pair of 
headphones. To build this up to a value 
large enough to operate a loudspeaker, 
\ncinim tube amplifiers are used. 

The action of amplifiers is too com- 
plicated to be discussed here; their 
operation can be compared to a \al\e 
in a water pipe. Just as a small force 
on the valve handle will control large 
amounts of water under high pressure, 
a small voltage on the grid of a vacuum 
tube will control relatively large cur- 
rents in the plate circuit and cause 
large variations of voltage there. An al- 
ternating voltage of one volt applied to 
the grid of a typical triode vacuum tube 
might cause an alternating voltage on 
the plate of 60 volts — an amplification 
of 60 times. Certain tubes can be nnde 
to amplify as much as 350 times. Where 

The periodic side-to-side deviation 
of record grooves caused by the 
cutter vibrating under modulation 
ore illustrated in this microphoto- 
graph. The bright spots are high- 
lights from irregularities in the 
bottom of the grooves. 

greater amplification is necessary, sev- 
eral tubes are connected in "cascade" 
so that the output of one is fed into 
the input of the next, and the individual 
gains are multiplied. By this system care- 
fully designed amplifiers can be built 
which will amplify several hundred 
thousand times. 

Special power-hanilling tubes are used 
as the final or output tubes in ampli- 
fiers; their gain is low (about 10 times), 
but fairly large currents can be drawn 
from them so that they are capable of 
delivering several watts of power. At 
normal room volume a phonograph am- 
plifier is driving the speaker with little 
less than one watt. Two or four tubes 
can be used in special circuits ("push- 
pull" or parallel or both) for the final 
amplification stage to produce much 
larger amounts of power; some large 
public-address amplifiers are capable of 
delivering 50 to 100 watts to the 

Vacuum tubes are "high impedance" 
devices — the\- control rather high \ol- 
tages at low currents. On the other 
hand, a speaker is a "low impedance" 
mechanism, requiring only small \ol- 
tages but drawing large currents. There- 
fore a transformer is used to transfer 
the electrical power from the final tube 
or tubes to the speaker and at the same 
time "match" the two highly different 
units. Transformers change voltage and 
current in opposite ratios; if the ratio 

of the turns of wire is such that the 
voltage in the secondary is liahed, the 
current is doubled, and vice versa. No 
increase in power can be made in a 
transformer, but very little is lost; they 
are on the order of 08 per cent efficient, 
one of the most efficient machines ever 

The speaker is a device for changing 
alternating currents to mechanical vibra- 
tions in air — that is, to sound waves. 
When the alternating current originally 
produced by the crystal in the tone arm 
has been suitably amplified, it is fed to 
the speaker's voice coil, which is sus- 
pended in a strong magnetic field. As 
the current changes cyclicly in the voice 
coil in time with the vibrations of the 
needle in the record groo\e, the coil is 
forced back and forth in the magnetic 
field. Since it is rigidly attached to the 
center of the cone of the speaker, th.e 
cone aLso vibrates, compressing and de- 
compressing the air, and causing sound 
waves which are more or less accurate 
replicas of the original sound recorded 
on the record. 

As one might expect, there are many 
chances for imperfect operation in the 
chain. Each separate unit which carries 
the sound, whether as actual sound 
waves or the corresponding alternating 
\oltages, must act linearly; the output 
of it must be in accurate proportion to 
the input no matter at what frequency 
or set of frequencies it is operating. 
With all the possibilities for distortion 
it seems rather remarkable that the 
sound froni an amplifier's speaker is so 
much like that of the original. Consider 
the fact that the paper cone of a i^^.OO 
speaker driven by possibly four little 
tubes must attempt to set up sound 
wa\es corresponding to those producetl 
by perhaps J! 10,000 worth of instruments 
of a 75-piece symphony orchestra. 

Amplifiers themselves can be designed 
with very small distortion; they can be, 
but often aren't. IVIost of the "ampli- 
tude distortion," or departure from strict 
proportionality, of amplifiers occms in 
the final or output tube; and in man\' 
small amplifiers such as are used in 
radios and phonographs the distortion 
runs as high as 12 or 15 per cent. In 
the better quality amplifiers it is around 
5 or as low as 2 per cent. 

Also important, as mentioned before, 
is the ability to amplify equally' all fre- 
quencies o\er a \\'ide range. Since the 
tubes used in ordinary amplifiers will 
work quite well at frequencies as high 
as 20 million cycles per second (and as 
low as zero, or direct cinrent), and 
since circuits almost like the ones in 
phonographs can be made to work from 
below 20 c.p.s. up to 2 or 3 million 
c.p.s., it is obvious that little trouble 
should be experienced in making them 
operate to only 18,000 cycles. 
(Continued on page 26) 

OCTOBER, 1949 


0|i|iiii'liiiiilii's ill Mdiilliiroiciil l^iioiiKH'riiig 

Itfi Itithvrl Itohi. Mvlalliirffivul iinfiiiivt'riiiti Itvparlmvnl 

M(l(i//iiri/y is OIK of the i/ii/<ortiii:l . Inil inui looked fit his of < ni/iiu i i iiu/. I'lu 
follonirif/ is (in tx/^ltiiuilion of the nvcil. nori:. iiiiil tniiniiuj of iih tall uk/u til hkji- 
riiirs, and the fiuilitics available right hue in our onii Ixu k yiinl. 

Ill recent years, graduates of tlic en- 
gineering colleges have enjoyed the .id- 
\antage ot a great demand for their 
services. In all branches of engineering, 
the graduate has been able to choose al- 
most at will the type of work, locality, 
and eniplo\er which he desires. 

Hut the shortage of engineers which 
has fostered this situation is becoming 
satisfied in many fields. Recent surveys 
indicate an actual or impending surplus 
of engineers in main' fields. As a result, 
graduate engineers must again consider 
the possibility of having a difficult time 
to find satisfactory employment. This 
is especially true in the fields of engi- 
neering which have been popularized 
during the war, and in which men were 
trained by the services. 

The men who are freshmen and soph- 
omores in engineering schools now need 
to consider the advice of men such as 
Karl Compton, president of Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, who has 
ad\ised college men to enter the fields 
of mining, metalhu'gy and ceramics, to 
ensure that adequate opportunities will 
be available for employment after grad- 

In this article, some attempt \v\\l be 
made to e\plam the field of nictalluigi- 

cal engineering to those first and second 
\c,ir engineering students who have not 
alreadj' decided their particular field of 
specialization. It has become apparent 
that many young men on the campus 
ha\e little or no idea of what metal- 
lurgical engineers do, that a complete 
curriculum in metallurgical engineering 
is offered at the University of Illinois, 
or that this department enjoys the repu- 
tation of being one of the finest in the 
nation. Employers from all over the 
countr\' have declared their satisfaction 
with the training of men graduated from 
the University of Illinois. 

The facilities of the department at 
the University include the Metallurgy- 
laboratory, and offices and classrooms 
in the Ceramics building. The Metal- 
lurgy laboratory is a two-story building 
located between the Transportation and 
Ceramics buildings, and houses a ma- 
chine shop, offices and classroom, and 
laboratories for welding, electrometal- 
lurgy, heat treatment, casting, ir.etal- 
lography, and research. 

Opportunity Plus 

The enrollment in metallurgical engi- 
neering all over the country is very low 
in comparison to the demand for metal- 
lurgists. This is apparently due to a lack 

(if understanding ni the field by main 
students. Hence, in spite of the great in- 
crease in dem;ind for metallurgists, the 
enrollment of this department is now 
about e<iu;il to the prewar enrollment, 
while some othei' dep.-utineiits base dou- 
bled and tripled their prewar enroll- 

As a consequence of this fact, main 
more job opportunities exist than there 
are graduates to fill them. As an ex- 


Students examine specimens in the metallography laboratory of the 
University of Illinois' well equipped Metallurgy Department. 

These control boards operate the 
furnaces in the heat treatment 

ample, the graduates of the department 
continue to enjoy a large selection of 
employment offers. Industry assures us 
that there is no foreseeable end to this 
under-saturation in the light of present 
enrollments. Figures released by indus- 
try show that the starting salary re- 
cei\-ed by metallurgists is greater than 
that of any other fiehl except chemical 
engineering, with the same trend con- 
tinuing with increased experience. 

Metallurgy as an art has existed for 
centuries, but the science of metallurgy 
has developed within the last genera- 
tion. So it is natural that in such a new 
field, few people are familiar with the 
type of work in which the metallurgist 
is engaged. In order to permit a better 
understanding of the field, let us briefly 
describe metallurgical engineering. 

The field of metallurgical engineer- 
ing can be conveniently divided into two 
categories, process metallurgy and physi- 
cal metallurgy; although some prefer to 
further classify the latter as mechanical 
nu't.illurgy and physical metallurgy. 
(Continued on page 24) 



9^^kueonHe^..MM^ PIER 


By Ed. Pahl, E.E. '53 

The Stuilenr Knginccniig Societies 
Council was organized about one and 
one-half semesters ago, with the pmpose 
of integrating the engineering societies' 
activities. Its first semester of active 
existence was successfully realized with 
the presentation of the St. Pat's Hall 
and with the engineers' Spring Picnic 
( it rained, but a good tmie was hail b\ 

Member societies represented m the 
F.ngineering Coiuicil are chemical engi- 
neers, electrical engineers, civil engi- 
neers, mechanical engineers, aeronautical 
engineers, and the Penaleare society. 
Each of these engineering societies sends 
its vice president and an elected repre- 
sentative to the Council meetings. At 
these meetings the activities of the vari- 
ous societies are discussed, and an effort 
is made in every case to secure coopera- 
tion of all the engineers in the execution 
of these activities. 

The Engineering Council occasion- 
ally sponsors activities, such as the St. 
Pat's Hall, which are enthusiastically 
supported by students in all of the 
school's colleges. If this coming semes- 
ter is as successful for the Council as 
was last semester, there is no doubt that 
this outstanding organization will con- 
tinue to ser\e the students of Na\\' Pier. 
A.I. E.E. 

The A.I.K.K. is cordially in\iting all 
electrical engineering students to its first 
meeting of the semester on (October 3, 
l^H"!, at .■!:()() p. m. There will be a 
movie on the L,ijf of Thoinas E/lisoii. 
followed by a short meeting to start 
planning the semester's activities. 

The activities will include inspection 
tours of different electrical plants 
throughout Chicago, and inspiring lec- 
tures on the professional and technical 
sides of electrical engineering. 

The A.I.K.E. was organized for the 
purpose of the advancement anil dis- 
semination of the knowledge of the 
theory and practice of electrical engi- 
neering, the presentation of a proper 
perspective of engineering work, and the 
opportunity to become acquainted with 
the personnel and activities of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

The A.S.C.E. will elect its new of- 
ficers in the fall. The outgoing presi- 
dent, Mr. Frank Koepke, will call the 
first meeting in October, when officers 
will be elected for 1949-50. 

The society urges you to join as soon 
as po.ssible so that you may take ail- 
vantage of its activities. It offers a 
scholarship to one of its members for 
which all members are eligible. 

The society is planning to have its 
meetings once a month as in the past. A 
number of prominent engineers have 
promised to be speakers, and it shoidd 
have several good and interesting meet- 

The American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, Illinois section, is also going to 
ejitertain the stuilents at a meeting simi- 
lar to the one held last \ear. The meet- 
ing will be held at I.I.T. in November. 

Here's buldmg all new men welcome. 


Rnliert KiriK EJilnr 

Eililorial .Issociuli'S 
OlfS Tcrichow Edj;.nr Tahl 

llushifss ^liiff 
Roliert (^roemling ...liusiiuss Mmuii/ir 

Uusmfss Assotittti's 
I.cuiis Krauczvk Robert Meier 

Mr. O^Acn l.ivennorc, Family I Jrisft 


By Oleg Terichow, Met.E. '51 

One of the better known educators, 
whom e\ery engineer at the Pier even- 
tually meets, is J. S. Kozacka, associate 
professor of mechanical engineering and 
head of the department of shop labora- 

Professor Kozacka is not only well 

known at the University, but is a leader 
in various engineering organizations and 
civic groups in the Chicago area as well. 
His combineil rich store of practical ex- 
perience a n il theoretical knowledge 
serves as an invauable tool in his teach- 
ing to the students in the engineering 

Professor Kozacka was born and re- 
ceived his early education in Tarnow, 
Poland. He arrived in the United States 
in 1904, and has lived here ever since. 
He became a natmalized citizen in 

After serving apprenticeship as ;i ma- 
chinist-toolmaker, he entered Pratt In- 
stitute in Hrooklyn, N. Y., in 1909. 
Upon graduation he was advised to 
study engineering at the University of 

His first outstanding job after his 
completion of studies at Pratt Institute, 
was that of tool and die maker, and 
later as a foreman at the L nited States 
Motor company, now the Chrysler cor- 

He entered the University of Michi- 
gan in 1912, graduating \\ith a H.S. de- 
cree in mechanical engineering in 1916. 
While at Michigan, he participated in 
the intramural sports, wrestling and 
boxing. Also, he served as an assistant 
to a professor in shop management during his .senior year. 

After he graduated, he worked with 
the Packard corporation in production 
and control of materials. He went back 
to the University of Michigan after a 
few years and received his M.S. degree 
(Continued on page 20) 

J. S. Kozacka. (Photo by Robert Groemling.) 

OCTOBER, 1949 


Ik l]iioiiicn'iiio lldiiiii'iirics anil Miim 

Itfl Ifiin Ht'vfv. 4 h.i:. '.10 


Tlu' I'Ji^irR'i'iinfj Council, coiiMStin;: 
of two ii'pii'scntativfs from each of rl\c 
insiiifcn'iig societies plus two delegates 
fioiii the Ttchtiot^niph. has a big job 
ahead of it this >ear. Its main task is 
to coordinate the efforts of the various 
engineering groups in all their mutual 

The program is full of big deals. The 
largest engineering social e\ent of tin- 
year will be St. Pat's Hall, which will 
be near the ^'Great Day for the Kngi- 
neers." Participation in the all-Uiiiver- 
>it\ Career Conference has been planned. 

During week, the combined 
councils of the \arious colleges will 
bring to the campus a large group of 
well known speakers, representing every 
major field of activity, to speak to the 
students in order to aid those who are 
luulecided about their life work. Each 
speaker will make a talk before a group, 
Mtd then private conferences with indi- 
\idual students will be scheduled so that 
each may gain personal considtation. 

A new item on the roster is .-ui ,ill- 
I'ngineering Open House similar to 
those held a few years ago — but bigger 
and better. 

■^'ou'll be getting all the details of 
these activities through your society 
representative, and you'll find the latest 
scoop right here in the I'iih. 

The officers of the Council are Rich- 
ard Wurzburger, president; Ray Hau- 
ser, vice president; William Campbell, 
secretary; and Harold Wilson, tre.isurer. 


At the last meeting of the spring 
semester, the following officers were 
elected by the Institute of 
f ^a^^g l Aeronautical Engineering: 
1 ^^^^ Allen M. Benson, president; 
Edward J. Cenek, vice pres- 
ident ; and \\\\m\ E. Gubbert, secretary- 

There isn't too much news from tin- 
I..'\.S. at this time but if you'll check 
Cloud 3'^ over the Engineering campus 
\ou're certain to find any of the mem- 
bers eager to gi\e out all the latest 
prop wash. 


At their last meeting 
the American Eoundry 
plans for this fall semester. The first 

in the spring, 
Socict\ m.ulc 

e\ent on the schedule ;i tish fr\' 
that was held in conjunction with the 
October meeting. Plans arc ,ilso in the 
making for the annual b:uu|uct which 
will be held ne\t s|)ruig. 

The incumbent officers were Paul 
(in-cn, president; Harold A. Rodbro, 
\ ice iiresident; Keith Van Ness, secrc- 
t.ny: Art Van Sant, treasurer; and 
J.unes Garman, Engineering Council 
representative. ( New officers were elect- 
ed at the first meeting on September 
27.) You may get all the information 
th.-it you want from .Mr. j.imrs Leach, 
f.'iculty adviser. 


This impressive list of letters stands 
for the Student Branch of the American 
Ceramic Society. The society is just as 
impressive as its name. 

Established a few years ago to help 
the students and faculty keep in closer 
contact, the society has become very ac- 
tive. They have frequent talks about 
their profession, and the demonstrations 
accompanying these are really something 
to see. 

The plans for the coming \car 
haven't been released at this time, but 
you may be certain there'll be 
plenty doing. 

Lucas E. Pfeiffenbcrger was elected 
president of the S.B.A.C.S. last spring. 
The other officers for this term .-ne: 
Stephen D. Stoddard, vice president; 
Charles K. Russell, secretary ; Ervin W. 
Schuetze, treasurer; Richard \\. Eul- 
rath, historian ; and Clifton C7. 15ergeron 
and Howard Rapp, representatives to 
the Engineering Council. 


Boasting a new building this fall are 
the chemical engineers. The new Chem- 
istry and Chemical Engi- 
neering building, officially 
named East Chemistry, is at 
the corner of Mathews and 
California and is reputed to 
uniiiue in every sense of the word. 
One of the main events of this vear for 
A.I.Ch.E. will be the dedication of this 
latest addition to the campus. 

Before winding up last year's busi- 
ness with their annual banquet ;md 
picnic (a beer bust for men only), the 
Chem. E.'s made plans to participate 
in the all-Engineering Open House to 
be held later this vear. .Also on the 

agenda are .some movies put out by 
some of the large chemical firms plus 
a talk by Dr. Bailar on job opportuni- 
ties. The fall semester was started with 
a smoker last month at which time Dr. 
Johnstone introduced the staff and wel- 
comed the boys back. 

At a meeting held last spring, Henrv 
Kahn was elected the chief unit opera- 
tor. Ciiving Hank a hand with the work 
are: John Shurtleff, vice president; 
Claude Lucchesi, secretary; Donald En- 
gelbrecht, treasurer; Robert Friedman 
and Dan Keefe, Engineering Council 
representatives. The facultv advisor for 
the A.I.Ch.E. is Dr. James W. 

The dedication of the new E.E. build- 
ing last s|iring has left its mark on the 
electrical and radio engi- 
neers. The ruiiKH' making 
the rounds, not confirmed 
or denied, is that the nvw 
building was put up to 
show their arch-riv als that 
the E.E.'s could do it better. 

Along that line, the E.E.'s plan to 
continue the "friendly" get-togethers 
with that other society; these meetings 
will probablv take the form of mutual 
interest lectures and maybe another quiz 
show. Also on the agenda for the com- 
ing vear is participation in each and 
everv activitv the other engineering 
groups want to h.ive. It was proposed 
that the list include football, basketball, 
bowling, and a few other manly contests 
with no holds barred. 

The seniors are trying to have the 
annual field trip re-established after a 
lapse in this activity during the war. 

.All the latest news can be obtained 
through the WATT M;':TER or the 
following officers: Charles Elet.son, 
chairman; Chuck Green, vice chairman; 
Dick Storer, secretary; Tom Daggett, 
treasurer; Dick Gorozdos, I.R.E. cor- 
responding secretary; Joan Hessler, 
A. I. E.E. corresponding secretary, and 
Vincent McDonald. Engineering Coun- 
cil representative. 


.'\ new organization on c ,1 m p u s, 
est.iblished in 1948, the Illuminating 
Engineers are starting to throw a big 
light out around the north end of the 
campus. The society has the honor of 
(Continued on p.age ?i2) 



9nihO<ltiuU44Xf, . . . 

itfi Ifnvv 1'nsh. Af/.tC. '.11 

and I0an Kvvtv, €'h.E. -50 


All over the enj;i nee ring campus last 
spring the student engineers took a poll 
to iletermine the most effective instruc- 
tor in the various departments. T he 
award in the Department of Mechani- 
cal Engineering went to Prof. Edwin 
D. Luke. 

Professor Luke was born in 10] S in 
Gilmer, down in the Lone Star State 
of Texas. He attended elementary 
school there and spent his high school 
days in Pyote, Texas, where he gradu- 
ated in PXi2. 

In 1933, he entered John Tarleton 
Agricultural College where he sta\ed for 
the next two years. Then, in 1933, he 
transferred to Texas A(S:^L He re- 
ceived his bachelor of science there in 
1937 in the curriculum of mechanical 
engineering. He staged on at 1 exas 
A&M until 1938 when he received his 
master's degree. 


In September, 193S, he came to the 
I Diversity of Illinois and is jiow an as- 
sociate professor of mechanical engi- 

Professor Luke entered the Arnn 
( hdnance department as a 1st lieuten- 
ant in June, 1941. He spent three years 
m the Hawaiian Islands, and after being 
discharged he returned to inacti\e dut> 
in February, 1946, as a lieutenant colo- 
nel of the Ordnance department. 

One of his main interests now is his 
job as a member of the Hoard of Ap- 
|i()intment of Student Membership to 
the American Ordnance Association. 
Each year a certain number of students 
are admitted and Professor Luke, with 
Dean Jordan, aids in the selection. 

Professor Luke is married and has 
one child, a son. He makes his home 
in the northwestern part of Champaign. 

When he entered high school, Mr. 
Sidebottom had no thought of going to 
college. During his senior year a repre- 
sentative of Lincoln Junior College, 
Lincoln, 111., interested him in going to 
school there. Although born and raised 
on a farm near Easton, III., he found 
he liked mathematics more than shuck- 
ing corn. He didn't think he would be 
interested in teaching and so decided to 
take engineering. 

At Lincoln he was aware of onl\' two 
fields of engineering, electrical and me- 
chanical. After trying to read a book on 
electricity he decided upon mechanical 
engineering and came to the University 
of Illinois in 1940. He graduated with 
a bachelor of science in mechanical en- 
gineering in 1942 and was asked if he 
would like to teach. He thought that it 
would be good experience. As he had 
liked the theoretical and applied me- 
chanics courses better than the 

ical engineering courses, he decided he 
would rather teach T.A.M. 

He received his master of science in 
1943 and worked on research under Pro- 
fessor Schrader for four years. In 1947, 
he and Dimitry Morkovin published a 
bulletin, 'I'hc Effect of Nrjii-l' nifuruj 
Distrihiition of Stress an the ) ield 
Strength of Steel. He has instructed 
both full-time and part-time since then 
and is now, with Prof. H. J. Schrader 
and H. R. Wetenkamp, writing a bul- 
letin on car wheel investigation. 

His hobby is fishing; he also likes to 
play bridge and has an interest in pho- 
tograph\'. He bought his first new car, 
.in Oldsmobile, last jinie. He is unmar- 

Mr. Sidebottom is a m e m b e r of 
A.S.M.E., Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi {a 
research fraternity), and Pi Mu Epsi- 
lon (a math honorary). He was voted 
a most effective instructor last spring. 



P'rom a politician in engineering to 
an engineer in politics is the bumpy 
road being traveled by Dick Kanak. 

Parth' explaining Dick's interest in 
traffic engineering is his long associa- 
tion with the problems concerning this 
field. For a year he drove daily the 
Jll-mile trek to Navy Pier from his 
home in l>erw>n. ami he now spends 
week ends dri\ing trucks around the 
Chicago area. Thus he has emphaticalh' 
I'xperienced all kinds of traffic coruli- 

Dick has found that Professor Wiley's 
classes and the I.T.E. are quite valu- 
able in finding methods of correction. 
He has participated in tour local traffic 
surve\s (keeping out of the way of 
speeding cars, bicycles, and pedestrians). 
His participation in the I.T.E. has been 
{Continued on page 28) 

OCTOBER, 1949 


By Dean Felton, C.E. '51 

Tliii is a iHU- ftaturc of tin Tali ihat Uf hnpr you'll like. lis />iir/>ost is 
to hriiu/ to the fore some of the eolor and ehariuteristies of our enyinerrint/ (tuupus. 
If you kiioii' of a boner pulled in lab, an appropriate craek made in class, or have 
a question about some of the north-rampus " maehinery ," let us knuie about it. 

A .Model Model 

Just inside till- swinging doors of Civil 
Kngincering hall is a glass - encased 
bridge with an interesting history. 

This display is a model of a niultiiile 
span, reinforced concrete, arch bridge 
that was built in Talbot lab main' years 
ago. The model, built by Prof. VV. W. 
W'ilson and his research assistants, was 
originally meant to be a simple example 
of the fundamental research carried on 
here. However, detail was added to 
make it a complete display. Before mov- 
ing into C.E.H., it was shown at the 
Century of Progress World's Fair in 
Chicago in 1933. 

The prototype was a reinforced con- 
crete structure consisting of three 27- 
foot spans set upon piers 20 feet high. 
The piers were built on mechanisms de- 
signed to measure the reactions of the 
abutments under varied conditions of 
load. 1 he load, consisting of a concrete 

block of known weight, was applied to 
points on the deck, and changes in re- 
actions and stresses were accurately de- 

In working on these tests. Prof. Wil- 
son aided the promotion of this multiple 
span type of structure, and was awarded 
the Crowe's medal by the A.S.C.E. for 
written reports of his findings. 
■* -» * 

// Happened in Thermo 

Dr. Comings, high pressure man in 
the Ch.E. department, told the follow- 
ing to his victims in thermo last spring. 

One day while making the rounds 
of his ark, Noah was taking census of 
the animals aboard. After finding 17 
rabbits, five squirrels, three giraffes, etc., 
he came upon two lonely snakes — the 
same ones he had brought aboard. 

"Why haven't you multiplied like the 
other animals on the ship?" Xoah asked. 

"We're adders," was the simple reply. 

The Model bridge is a familiar obstacle to anyone entering the front doors 
of Civil Engineering Hall. (Photo by Lou Davidson.) 

As the original B.irnum continued 
his rounds he noticed the shortage of 
furniture for his horde. After summon- 
ing his old friend, P. Hunxan, Xoah 
built some crude-lookiriL' log chairs and 

Three days a f t e r installing them 
aboard the ark, Xoah was suddenly con- 
fronted with a family of five snakes. 
"Hut I thought you couldn't multiply!" 
he blurted. 

Happily papa snake replied, "We used 
your new log tables." 

Flush the Hoxevard 

« * * 

C()X(]RATS to Frank E. Richart, 
research professor of engineering ma- 
terials on his election to the vice presi- 
dency of A.S.T.M. 

New head of the E.E. dep.irtment. 
Dr. John D. Ryder, comes from Iowa 
State college with an impressive list 
of accomplishments, and a welcoming 
smile. The November Teeh will ha\e a 
few words about both. 

Although the new struct u r e at 
Mathews and California says "Chem- 
istry and Chemical Engineering" above 
its entrance, it was named "East Chem- 

As two-fifths of the bin'lding is oc- 
cupied by the bio-chem division, and 
three-fifths by the chem engineers, there 
has been plenty of grumbling by the 
Ch.E.'s about the apparent lack of con- 

^r ^r --^ 

Jl'ho'da Thotit? 

One fine afternoon last spring, a local 
resident was shopping in a campus drug- 
store with his attention-getting two- 
\ear-old son. After selecting his items, 
the man discovered that he had left his 
wallet at home. 

After he explained his predicament to 
the cashier, a stranger nearb>- offered to 
pay the buck. Surprised at the gesture, 
the local resident asked where to repay 
the loan. 

(Continueil on page 22) 


Optional Illusion 

THERE ARE TWO WAYS of regarding 
the valves in any plant. Man- 
afrenient can think of the relatively 
small cost of a single valve, and dis- 
miss it as a minor, "petty cash" 
investment. Or, they can think of 
all valves in the jdant as one valve, 
as piclnrcd, by plioto-magic, in this 
pharmaceutical plant, — and see 
val\ es in proper perspective. 
THEY 1 I\D IT PAYS to take the lat- 
ter view, for in any plant, any 
huihling where fluid control is in- 
volxed, valves, collectively, are as 
important, in terms of investment 
and operating expense, as larger 

plant miits, and should be selected 
with the same sharp eye to quality 
and economy.'* 

ferior valve is insignificant, but 
multiplied by thousands, it is a 
serious drain on operating budgets. 
jENKIiS's BROS, helps to meet tliis 
problem two >vays. First, by build- 
ing extra endurance into Jenkins 
Valves, making them the longest- 
lasting, lowest-upkeep valves that 
money can buy. Sec- 
ond, with advice from .„ 


Jenkins Engineers 
on any question 

of proper selection, installation, or 

That's why, for all new installa- 
tions, for all replacements, so many 
jdants rely on Jenkins quality and 
engineering for lowest valve costs in 
tlie long run. Sold through leading 
Industrial Distributors. 

Jenkins Dros., 80 White ?t.. New York 13; 

Bridgeporl, Conn.; Atlanta; Boston; 

Pliiladclphia; Chicago; San Prancisco. 

Jenkins Bros., Ltd., Montreal. 

/ REE on request. 
It kite Street, New 

\':: I .!" 'TS" is a 32-page 

,:, ..-n>(|-,>).i ,)/ .'5 

, , , rccummcndations 

.,,:.! /. .„ ;: 1" the lines. Tells 

-.vlu-u' f.<r I'l-st performance". 

Write JHNKJNS BROS.. 80 

York IS. N. y. 



Types. Sixei. Presiures, Metals for Every Need 

OCTOBER, 1949 



Associate Editor 


From the Tables 

W'lu'ii takmi: :i new jdh moxinfi to a ik-w 
tiiwii, i-ntcriiii; a \\^\\ schoul, or c\en ictuni- 
ins; to school, one is presented with the proh- 
Icni of adaptation to an unfamiliar cjiviron- 
nient. The method of adaptation and the 
choice of close environment are of extreme 
personal importance, but are often neglected 
in the confusion of transition. 

Especially in the change from high school 
to college is this self-adjustment necessary. 
Graduation ceremonies give one the feeling 
of elated achievement and a new sense of in- 
dependence from the past. "I'm on my own; 
I'm a MAN now!" seems to be the usual 
sensation. The training and influence of the 
home and church, being things of the past, 
are too easily left up in the attic with the 
the model airplanes and high school books. 
The thrills of life at college await! 

Except for possible financial assistance, we 
do achieve a partial independence of home in- 
fluences. We're free to think and plan how, 
and if, we want to. Nobody is going to tell 
us to winiN about right and wrong! We 
can choose our friends or "beer buddies" and 
blindly follow the lights and thrills of col- 
lege if we want to! 

Hut what is to fill the sudden \ acuum of 
love, guidance and inspiration that were, 
of times imconsciously, received at home? 
Are we to blindly grope down the maze of 
dead-end alleys of indecision, or is there some- 
thing that can lead us to a purpose? 

Choices during the first few months of a 
college career lead to habits, which, if not 
deliberately broken, may cause a whole life 
to deteriorate. 

Ho we assume the responsibility of delib- 
erate decisions regarding our purposes and 
goals to be attained here? Do we really know 
why we're here? To get a degree? To learn 

a living? To gain an "education"? To learn 
to LIV'E? 

A nudtitude of experiences may be found 
on the campus, and we should be "choosey" 
about how to make use of them. True, it's 
easier to thoughtlessly follow the crowds to 
the sensuous thrills than to be a little indi- 
vidualistic and strive for personal develop- 
ment. But the difference ten years hence is 
worth the effort now. We should decide 
NOW what kind of a life we want to live; 
and N(^W is the time to start li\ing it! 

With our technical training concentrated 
on the material world, it's so easy to forget 
that the only real worth is the eternal world. 
Religion isn't kid stuff! It isn't to be left in 
the "Jesus Loves Me" Sunday school class. 
Religion can be dynamic; it should grow; it 
is to be lived and shared! 

Here on the campus so many of us tend 
to slight our personal religious development 
e\en though the possibilities of gaining a 
genuine understanding of Man's relation to 
God and to Man are the best we'll probably 
ever know. Almost every church is repre- 
sented on the campus by able and understand- 
ing leaders who are here to serve our needs 
for religious development. 

Not only are the staff members of the 
church foundations and the Y top-notch, but 
also the students who are actively participat- 
ing. They're a grand bunch of kids with the 
same problems as everyone else on the campus, 
but the\'re finding answers in a living fellow- 
ship. Their program of religion in action is 
providing a stabilizing influence that keeps 
one on an even keel, and clear in purpose 
and direction of life. 

There's no such thing as "college life." 
There is \<tin life, and there is my lite; and 
we each ha\e to li\e our own. .And NOW is 
the time to decide how to li\e it! — R.[>.H. 


RCA scientists devclup nuu iliicct-rcculiuf^ Lor.m instrument 
which simplifies proljlems of navigation. 

T^e ^onwin^ j»/^cof9 ooes io seo 

Now science gives the navigator an im- 
proved "homing pigeon instinct," a way 
hv which— without checking sun or stars 
— he can head his ship directly home. 

Already thoroughly proved, Loran equip- 
ment has been simplified through RCA re- 
search and engineering, so that almost any- 
one can learn to use it in a tew minutes. Free 
of human error, readings appear directly on 
the instrument. A quick check gives position. 

Br.iin of this Loran system is a circuit 
developed at RCA Laboratories wliich splits 
seconds into millions of parts— and accurately 
measures the dillcrcncc in the time it takes 
a pair of radio signals to travel from shore 
to ship. 

Gixen this information, the navigator, hun- 
dreds of miles from shore, can dctcnninc liis 

position quickly and accurately. Loran's sim- 
plicity adapts it to every type of vessel from 
merchant ship to yacht. Manufactured by 
l\adiomarine Corporation of America, a serv- 
ice of RCA, it is already being installed in 
U. S. Coast Guard rescue sliips. 

The meaning of RCA research 

RCA's contribution to the development of 
this new direct-reading Loran is another ex- 
ample of the continued leadership in science 
and engineering which adds value beyond 
price to any product or service of RCA. 

The ncuctt advances in telcvifiion, radio, 
and clcrtrotiics can he seen iri action at RCA 
Exhibition Hall. 3(i West 49 St.. N. Y. Admis- 
sion is free. Radio Corporation of America, 
RCA Buihlini^, Radio City, N. Y. 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay— at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\icU>r— urn.- ol Ihi- world's hjremost manu- 
f.iclurcrs of r.ulio ami clritrimic products 
— offers you opixirtunity to ^ain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
\anccment. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
cei\ers ( including broadcast, short vfave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

® Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, ijower, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Write today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

h/or/c/ l-eac/er /n 7^ac//o — T^rsf- /n 'Te/e^/s/'on 

OCTOBER, 1949 


Faith of an Engineer 

1 AM AN l\N'(;iNKKR. In iii.\- profession 1 take ilcip piidc, hut v\irli(iut 
vainglory; to it I owf solemn obligations that I am eager to fulfill. 

As an Engineer, 1 will participate in none but honest enterprises. 'l"o him that has 
engaged my services, as employer or client, I will gi\e the utmost of performance and 

When needed, my skill and knowledge shall be given without reservation for the 
public good. I'roni special capacity springs the obligation to use it well in the service 
of humanity; and 1 accept the challenge that this implies. 

Jealous of the high repute of my calling, I will strive to protect the interests and 
the good name of any engineer that 1 may know to be deserving; but I will not shrink, 
should duty dictate, from disclosing the truth regarding anyone that, by unscrupulous 
act, has shown himself iniworthy of the profession. 

Since the Age of Stone, human progress has been conditioned by the genius of 
my professional forbears. By them have been rendered usable to mankind Nature's 
vast resources of material and energy. By them have been vitalized and turned to 
practical account the principles of science and the revelations of technology. Lxcept 
for this heritage of accomulated experience, my efforts would be feeble. I dedicate 
myself to the dissemination of engineering knowledge, and, especialh' to the instruction 
of younger members of my profession in all its arts and traditions. 

To my fellows I pledge, in the same full measure I ask of them, integrity and fair 
dealing, tolerance and respect, and devotion to the standards and dignity of our profes- 
sion ; with the consciousness, always, that our special expcrtness carries with it the 
obligation to serve humanity with complete sincerity. 

Published by En/jiiiecring News-Record to foster llir j^roiiram iif the 
linr/inerrs Council for Professional Develo/'menl. 

NAVY PIER . . . 

( L'nntinued from page 13 ) 
in education. At Michigan, he had de- 
cided that he could best serve the in- 
teiests of Noimg people by becoming an 
educator. "1 believe that education, 
whether it be in a specialized field such 
as engineering or in studying the liberal 
arts, should be available to all people, 
of all races," he said on luimerous oc- 

Upon receiving his M.S., he was ap- 
pointed an associate professor of me- 
chanical engineering and director of 
shop laboratories at Lewis Institute here 
in Chicago. With the merging of Lewis 
Institute with Armour Institute of 
Technology, he remained in the same 
capacity at that school, until lQ4.i. Dur- 
ing the war, he was in charge of the 
war training courses at I.I.T. in the 
Chicago area. 

Toward the end of the war, he le- 
entered private industry as a develop- 
ment and tool engineer at Vascoloy- 
Ramet corpcnation at Waukegan, HI. 
There he helped in the de\elopment of 
carbide cutting tools. He then came here 
to head the shop lah(natoi ies when the 
Pier branch of the l. ot I. opened in 
I 946. 

Professor Ko-zacka's achievements in 
various organizations are too numerous 

to mention in full detail here. In 1934, 
he was chairman of the local section of 
the A.S.M.E. He was instrumental in 
the formation of the junior section of 
the local Chicago A.S.M.E., and re- 
ceived two honorable recognitions from 
that society for his outstanding contri- 
bution in that field. 

He is an elected member of the Polish 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, and also 
a member of the American Society for 
Engineering Education. He is now 
working on research in the action of 
cutting tools, and had previously ex- 
changed papers and data with a pro- 
fessor at the Warsaw Polytechnic Insti- 
tute prior to the outbreak of the war. 
During the war he wrote a scries of 
articles for the Science ami Ahelinnic 
magazine on precision tools and measme- 
ments. He is co-author of a new book, 
Tune/stcn and Carbide Cutting Tools. 
which will be published soon by the 
Chicago Technical Society. 

In addition to those organizations, 
he is well known in Polish-American 
civic groups. He was married in 1016, 
to the former Wanda Klopocinski, and 
has two sons, Richard and Arthur. Dick 
has already received his degree from 
the I'niversity of Michigan in chemical 
engineering, and is now the technical 
director of a production at the 
.Monsanto Chemical companv, at Mon- 

santo, III. The younger son, Arthur, i - 
currently studying mechamcal engineer- 
ing at the LI. of I. 


(Continued from page 7) 
A scale wdien the indexes are aligned. 
These angles include those from 34' 
to 90". For the sine of any angle mea- 
sured in minutes, set the minutes gage 
point (marked ') to the number of min- 
utes on the A scale and read the sine 
on the A scale at the .S index. For the 
sine of an\' angle measured in seconds, 
set the second gage point (marked ") 
to the number of secontls on the A 
scale and read the sine on the A scale 
at the iS' index. 

The tangent for angles between 5 43' 
and 45° can be foiuid on the D scale 
opposite the angle on the T scale. The 
tangent of angles less than 5 "43' is 
equal to the sine and can be found on 
the 5 scale as described above. The 
tangent of any angle A which is between 
4v and 90' equals the reciprocal of 
(90 -./). 

This completes the scales found on 
the normal polyphase duplex slide-rule. 
Many other scales arc in use, but the 
discussion of them is too lengthy to be 
dealt with here. 



New Fields of 
Research and Achievement 


Rare Gases Now Available iu Quantity Offer 
Challenging Subject for Study 

Anionp tlio loast kno^^■ll of Uic eloiuonli have been tlio rare <iases — Kryi>toii and 
Xenon. Oecurrinj; in tlie ainiospliere in conccnlration of one part per million for 
Krvplon, and one part per twelve million for Xenon, tlicir very scarcity j^ave them 
the status of "scicntilic curiosities" for a long time. 

But now, these gases are available in quantity in refined, compressed form. 
As these gases assume the different role of "new" materials, their individual physi- 
cal and electrical properties are finding interesting uses. 

The increased cfTicicncy of hot cathode ( fluorescent I lights is a direct result 
of using Krypton as the gas filler. The brightest light ever made by man is pro- 
duced bv an electrical discharge through a column of Krypton . . . these lights are 
used to penetrate fog at airports. 

Xenon is replacing mercury vapor in industrial (thyratron) tubes, to avoid 
low temperature condensation troubles. It is Xenon that makes practical the 
"repeater" (gas discharge) photographic flash lamp— the low resistance and good 
spectral range of the gas both being important. In the fast-growing field of atomic 
cncrgv, the rare gases become increasingly important. The use of such gases in 
Geiger Mueller counter tubes is well familiar. 

Chemists and physicists on many types of projects will want to study the 
possible value of these gases in their fields. Others may desire to work with the 
rare gases as such, contributing to further information in this expanding subject. 
Graduate students especially may find rare gases a fascinating, challenging, and 
wide open field for doctoral thesis. 

In whatever connection, scientists who may want more information on Kryp- 
ton, Xenon, Argon, etc., are invite<l to write us fully. Please write Dept. LAP, 
Room 1502, 30 East 42nd St., New \brk 17, N. Y. 

Union Carbide 


3(1 KAST :2ND STREET PT?j N I \. IHKK 17. N. Y. 
Trade-marked Products oj Divisions and Units include 

I.INDE Oxymn • I'REST-O-I.ITE Acetylene • Tyrofax Gas • Syntmf.tic Organk Ciiemicai.s 

ElecTROMET Alloys an.l Metals • Haynes StelUTE Alloys • HakELITE, KreNE, Vinyon, and VlNYLITE Plastics 

National Carbons • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries • AcHESON Electrodes • Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezcs 

OCTOBER, 1949 21 

TRUSSES . . . 

( l^'diitinufil lioin p:ij;i' ') ) 
Such was the case witli tlu- Kaciiip- 
tflbach bridge on the supiMhighwaN be- 
tween Frankfurt and Munich. Origin- 
al l\ a plain-concrete arch bridge span- 
ning a l,2()()-to()t valley, the structure 
Has almost totalN destroyed, except tor 
tliree piers lett intact — one at tlie east- 
ern end of the bridge and two others at 
tile western enil. There also remained 
three pier stubs in the midiile of the 
\alle>' whicii became the bases for piers 
for the new highway bridge that the 
.\rm\' I'ngincers constructed. T o pre- 
\ent failure of the existing piers at the 
ends due to the accumulated luuizontal 
thrust .IS mentioned abo\e, the pier to 
the east was braced with structural steel 
piping and the two piers to the west 
were tied back and anchored with six 
steel cables of 165-ton strength each. 

A great deal of the steel truss bridge 
that w;is constructed as a semiperman- 
I'lit solution to this bridging problem 
was prelabricated from SKR trusses, 
standardized ( lerman railway bridge 
trusses that were simply attached by 
bolting. The three pier stubs in the mid- 
dle of the 672-foot span that had to be 
crossed were leveled off, capped, and 
became the bases for the rocker bents 
that carried the superstructure. The 
truss superstructure itself was assembled 

(ill tile western bank ui the \allcy and 
then was cantile\ ered out to the tirst 
rocker support m the manner of Hadev 
bridge construction. 

I'erhaps the onh components of the 
bridge that were specially manulactuied 
for it weie the top and b<ittom p.nts 
ol the rocker hent hearings that were 
designed ;md made ui a nearb\ steid null. 
.'Ml other materials and machines used 
were bits of construction eepiipment con- 
fiscated from nearby (German army sup- 
ply dumps as in the case of the SKR 
tru.sses, themselves. 

I'liui II Piffii iillits 
( )ne pioblem that presented (|uite a 
danger in the reconstruction ot this and 
other bridges was the usu.-il existence in 
each pier footing of a "blasting cham- 
ber," a niche in which was cached a 
3(K)-lb. live aerial bomb. This was a 
precaution that the (jcrmans took in 
building these autobahn bridges in pre- 
paration for the time that would see 
the retreat of the (lerman army through 
their own land. In an emergeiic\' then, 
a bridge could be easily and efficiently 
ilestro\ed by setting off a main switch 
near the location. These bombs had to 
be located and destroyed before lecon- 
stniction on a bridge could begin. Lo- 
cating them was a ticklish and hazard- 
ous job. Another unseen foe were the 
"duds," bombs dropped by Allied 

planes had failed to go off. .More 
th.ui iiiuc. iiiit<irt\iiiatel\ , these unex- 
ploded homhs weie disco\ered b\' acci- 

These hi'idges ;ind rails and roadways 
that were built by the Arnn Engineers 
ser\e<l their immediate purpose — that of 
wmiiing the war. .Now, in peacetime, 
these stiucturis are being replaced by 
the old familiar designs as fast as the 
hairopean nations can regain their feet 
tinancialK' and materially. 


(Continued from page 16) 
"^Ou'il find me in the Administra- 
tion building. Tiirnei's the name," was 
the nonchalant reph. 

Ha\e \ou ever wondered why those 
huge square screens are on the E.l'!. Re- 
search lab? 

They are used for testing antennas of 
all sizes and shapes. The antennas are 
placed through the windows into the 
square hole at the center of each screen. 
The wire netting acts as a base plate, 
with the same effect as the surface of a 
steel building or an airplane. 

Impedance between the antennas and 
the screens is measured to find the opti- 
mum characteristics of reception and 




50**' birthday of the 

company whose products you know 

by the trade-mark: TIMKEN 


NOBODY likes to buy a "pig in a 
poke". In America you don't have 
to. You're protected by trade-marks like 

Registered as a trade-mark in the 
Ignited States Patent Office,"TIMKEN " 
identities products made by The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company: Timken ta- 
pered roller bearings, Timken alloy 
steels and seamless tubing and Timken 

removable rock bits. 

Experience over the years has shown 
Timken products to be the finest in their 
respective fields. And many thousands of 
men and women are working hard to keep 
them that way. No wonder it has become 
a habit throughout industry to look 
for the trade-mark "TIMKEN". The 
Timken Roller Bearing Company, Canton 
6, Ohio. Cable address: "TIMROSCO ". 

OCTOBER, 1949 



lCi)ntimRnl tioni p;ij:c 1_') 
Prorcxs j\lit<illuit/y 

I'roci-ss iiietalluigy letVrs to tlic pio- 
(lin-fioM (it mct.-ils troin tlu'ir iiics. lii- 
tliulcil in rliis tlcld arc mccliaiiiral or 
clu'inical trcatnifiir of tlu' on- bctoic rlic 
attual winning ot tlu- metal, in addindn 
t(i tlic many ilitfoiciit oporations utilized 
ill the production of metals \nx iiidusti\. 
Most enszineeiiii}; students ieeei\e an 
introduction to this branch of nietallurjiy 
trom early chcmistr\ coinses. 

A present CNample of the need tor 
men trained in process metalluij;\ is 
concerned with current de\clopinents in 
titanium. Tests ha\e shown that this 
metal possesses an excellent \\ci};ht- 
streiigth ratio, a good capacity for woik- 
injz and forminji, and excellent resistance 
to corrosion. All that prevents titanium 
fioni competing with aluminum and 
steel as a constructional material is the 
present expense in obtaining the metal. 
'I'he present status of titaiuum is lenun- 
iscent of the early days of alumiinim, 
when this now common metal was rare 
and expensive. It is hoped and expecte<l 
that metallurgists can do for titanium 
what was accomplished in the case of 

I'hysiiiil Mrtiilliii i/y 

The othei' di\ ision of metallurgical 
engineeiing, physical metallurgy, is a 

much larger field than process metal- 
lurg\, employing ID to !_' times the 
numhei of men as the latter. I'Or this 
reason, the University of Illinois cur- 
lic'ulum emphasizes physical metallurg\'. 

In broad terms, the pb\sic,il metal- 
luigist takes the raw metal from the 
process metallurgist, and by man\' tecb- 
niipies of alloying, beat treatment, and 
f.abrication, con\erts it into useful aiti- 
cles of industry. A convenient di\ision 
between the physical metallurgist and 
other engineers is that the metalluigist 
is concerned with materials, while other 
engineers are concerned with machines. 
It is thus the province of the metal- 
lurgist to pro\iile stionger and better 
mateiials for the designers in other 
fields to work with. This dut\' necessi- 
tates a close cooperation between the 
metallurgist and the designer, and the 
realization of this fact is providing many 
new opportunities for metalhu'gists in 
;ill phases of industr\'. 

T h e undergraduate instruction i n 
physical metallurgy is chiefly concerned 
with acquiring an intimate understand- 
ing of the internal structure of metals, 
the effect of this structure on the proper- 
ties of the metal, and how the structuie 
can be controlled by variations in metal 
composition, heat treatinent, and me- 
chanical treatment. The s t u d e n t is 
taught to use all the equiiiment avail- 

able to metallurgists, and is gi\en prac- 
tical problems in the use of eiiui|iment 
and the design of treatments of metals. 
'I'he required curriculum includes 
courses necessary for the general train- 
ing of metallurgists; .and technical elec- 
tives are available tor moie specialized 
study, such as: the metallingy of weld- 
ing, powder metallurgy, a<lvanced theory 
of the physics of metals, the metallurgy 
of steel castmgs, etc. 

(iraduate study is not a necessit\' in 
metallurgy, but the few men in the 
field with advanced degrees m.ikes grad- 
uate training a distinct ad\antage. .Men 
with the master's degree are offered jobs 
at salaries of $3U-$5{) per month greater 
than for the B.S., with excellent op- 
portunities for rapid advancement. 

The science of metallurgy is new and 
growing fast. A man who has not yet 
chosen his particidar branch of engi- 
neering, who is concerned about the 
surplus of engineers being trained at 
the |iresent time, and who desires to 
enter an active and dexeloping field 
would do well to consider metallurgical 
engineering as a career. 

WITH APC0LO(^,Ii:S to all C.K. 
students. Our stationery was piinted 
last spring before Engineering hall be- 
came Civil. We hope our old-fashioned 

return address doesn't hurt ainhodv's 

ncK- U. .s. Put- Office 




For Exacting 

Professions and 


In the past half-century, many important develop- 
ments of science and industry have been furthered by 
use of Cambridge instruments. From its inception, 
this company has made precision instruments for ex- 
acting professions and industries. There are few indus- 
tries in which Cambridge instruments may not be 
iLsed to advantage. The Cambridge trade-mark is rec- 
ognized throughout the world as the hallmark of fine 
mechanical and electrical precision instruments. 


Moisture Indicators and Recorders, Aoro Mixture Indi- 
cators, pH Meters and Recorders, COz Recorders, Geo- 
physical Seismographs, Electrometers, Voltamographs, 
Galvanometers, Gas Analyzers, Dissolved Oxygen Re- 
corders, Fabric Permeameters, Exhaust GasTesters, 
Surface Pyrometers, Fluxmeters, Vibrographs,Stetho- 
fjraphs, Electrocardiographs and Instruments for Measur- 
ing Radioactive Emission. 

Write for bulletins destrrihing iiixlnitnetils nf interest to ynii. 


3756 Grand Central Terminal New York 17, N. Y. 

I'KtSEKK yt.Wr FACri KKUS OF /'/I'f.V/.S/O.V I \STRrME\Tti 


Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 



Picture a Square^D Field Engineer 

trying to run 


• What he doesn't know about your busi- 
ness would fill a library. But there's one 
thing he does know — electrical distribution 
and control as it applies to any business, 
including yours. 

Square D Field Engineers throughout 
this country, in Canada and Mexico, are 

constantly working with industries of every 
type and size, helping find that "better 
way to do it" — electrically. 

If you have a problem in electrical dis- 
tribution or control, call in the nearby Field 
Engineer. His counsel costs you nothing. 
It may be of substantial value. 


OCTOBER, 1949 



I. iiiitinucil t Kim p;i^;c I 1 ) 
I'or a tact, in most pluuioKiaphs tin- 
.implit'iiT proper is capable of operating 
almost iiorniall\' tor frequencies hifjher 
than the pickup (mostly because of 
inertia) will Ki'"i"'':'te- It would put our 
almost normal amounts of power at fre- 
quencies higher than the output trans- 
former will pass, and higher than the 
fastest rare at which the speaker (also 
for mechanical reasons) will vibrate. 

One of the greatest sources of trouble, 
and one most frequently ignored, is the 
output transformer between the 
tube and the speaker. It takes a big, 
hcaw. and expensive transformer to 
(i|ier,ite lower than 100 cycles and higher SODO c\cles. The economic reason 
for the use of poor quality transformers 
k'-.m be easily understood — a typical 
transformer such as used in orilin,ar\' 
home record pl.-ners costs about $2.00; 
a high (iualit\ unit would cost close to 
j;U).(l(). The ilifference in expense is 
usu.alU- not profitable to the man\ifac- 
turer. Some customers would ne\er 
notice the difference, and most of the 
rest, conditioned to the usual muddled 
blare of marn railios, don't care. 

Perhaps the most troublesome link of 
the whole chain is the speaker. A small 
fi\e-inch speaker such as found in many 
small players just won't operate over a 

wide range of frequencies. The eight- 
inch and larger units found in consoles 
are better; and the dual s\stenrs using 
one large speaker tor the I<jw notes ( the 
"woofer") ami (jne oi- more special 
small ones ("tweeters") foi- the highs, 
arc excellent. But the best speaker will 
not sound good if lying on the floor, 
nor if stuffed into a little |ilastic box 
along with a cubic toot of amplifier, 
loop antenn.a. :ind assorted inits .•md 
bolts. An acoustical l\ designed enclos- 
ure containing no other equipment will 
do wonders for any speaker. 

Practically all home record pla\eis 
are sections of c o m b i ii a t i o n radio- 
phonographs. .'\ll ladios lia\e audio 
(sound) frequency amplifiers following 
the tuner .section; it is a relatively sim- 
ple matter to include a double-throw 
switch at the input of the amplifier to 
allow it to be switched from the tuner, 
or r.idio section, to the pickup. Since 
pr.ictically all A.M. or standard broad- 
cast radio stations limit the frequency 
of the sound they put on the air to 
5000 cycles to allow stations to be 
crowded closer together in the band, 
little effort is made to allow the ampli- 
fier of the radio to operate over a wider 
range of frequency; therefoi^e that limi- 
tation is imposed on the playing of rec- 
ords using the same amplifier. 

A safe generalization might be that 
the response of most table model phono- 

graphs is do\\n, at 150 and .1500 c.p.s. 
(the low anil high ends, respectively), 
to So per cent of its medium frecpiency 
Willie. (This 50 per cent is just about 
.1 decibels, or discernible steps in loud- 
ness; the ear has a logarithmic response 
to volume.) As a crowning touch, prac- 
tically all radios and phonographs are 
eqiii|iped with a so-called tone control, 
which is nothing more, usually, than a 
small filter which cm be effectiveh' 
u.sed to smother treqiiencies above 2000 
or 3000 cycles. 

This tone control is a highh' mis- 
understood piece of apparatus; it is used 
In the listener to give "full, mellow 
tone" to his amplifier. In a way, it does; 
most amplifiers distort high frequencies 
much more than lower or medium fre- 
quencies, and the suppression, to a large 
extent, of higher tones and overtones 
removes a certain amount of this distor- 
tion along with them. However, in so 
doing the crispness and character of the 
tone is sacrificed. Music played with 
the bass notes emphasized and the treble 
suppressed is indeed soothing and mel- 
low (here enters psychology) and makes 
good backgroimd music ; but few people 
will accept that type of sound as any- 
where comparable to "live" music. It is 
the opinion of certain die-hards (in- 
cluding the author) that music coming 
over the air or played from records 
(Continued on page 28) 

U. of I. Drug Store 

Your Campus Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 

in electrical roughing-in materials 

Nationol Electric has a comphte line of wires, coble, 
conduit, rocewoys and fittings for every wiring need. 
Just remember — when you get in a spot where 
you need something good (electrically speaking) but 
fast — the wholesaler who handles National Electric 
products is your safest bet. 

national Electric 





Z E S T O 

Frozen Dessert 


614 East John Street 




"To make traveling more fun. Tlie idea is to give people more to see and do wiiile riding faster and safer. That 
means more passengers for tlie railroads so that they can keep fares down and still add more comfort to long trips." 

"Railroad comfort comes from many 
things, son. Smootli- fitting parts are 
important. Parts like Diesel engine 
crankshafts, pistons and wheels. That's 
why so many railroad shops use 
Norton grinders and Alundum grind- 
ing wheels tu make parts smooth. 

"Take those side rods on steam loco- 
motives. They get farther over on the 
smooth side thanks to Norton internal 
grinding wheels. And parts are fin- 
ished so accurately with Norton 
quality controlled wheels that they 
last for thousands of miles, Paul. 

"Getting back to comfort . . . modern 
trains travel over 60 miles an hour. 
So, they need smooth rail joints. 
Those joints are welded for safety. 
Then, they're ground smooth and 
slotted with Norton grinding and cut- 
ofl' wheels." 

"Hundreds of other parts 
of modern railroad trains and tracks 
also get a hft from the sure touch of 
Norton Products. So does just about 
any other product you can name. 
That's why I'm not boasting when I 
say that Norton makes belter products 
to make other products better." 


Q^akinc^ better products fo make other products better 





OCTOBER, 1949 



t C'liiitiinu-il Irom pagi- 2()) 
>li()ulil sound as much as possible like 
tliat of the original orchestra. 

Another of the problems of reconl 
pla\ini; is noise: noise external to the 
amplifier, from the motor, turntable, 
anil the pickup (incluiliri}; "needle 
talk" — you can usualh' hear the pickup 
arm speak when the volume is turned 
all the way down) ; and the hum, hiss, 
anil cracklinji actually cominfi throii<;h 
the speaker. .Motor and turntable rum- 
i)Ie is reduced b\ fjood mounting; of the 
mii\,ible parts; bu/./.ing and "talk" from 
rile n e e d I e and pickup aim can be 
muffled b\' a solid, more or less sound- 
tii;iit enclosure for these parts. Hum in 
tile amplifier can be made neglifjible b\' 
the use of a certain amount of care in 
the design of the set. .Many commercial 
companies, in the interest of economy, 
are rather skimpy on filters and shield- 
ing, and allow a considerable amount of 
hum, especialK in their smaller sets. 

It is extremely difficult to combat 
noises such as scratch picked up by the 
needle from the surface of records; aged 
records are especially noisy, as everyone 
knows. Noise, like any other .sound, 
musical or otherwise, can be broken 
down into component frequencies, usual- 
l\ very many of them; and there is no 
band of frequencies where noise pre- 

dominates — its components are spread 
over the entire audible spectrum and tai 
beyond. Mut since most of the sound 
ciicigy ill music and voice is concen- 
trated in the medium frequencies and 
it is largeK tin- overtones of low inten- 
sity that i)ccup\ tile higiier end, the 
tone control can be used to eliminate 
these o\ertones and a larger percentage 
of the noise than of the music. 

Well shaped and highly polish e d 
needles produce less scratch than other 
kinds; semi-permanent needles are usual- 
ly better in this respect than the cheaper 
ones. Cactus and needles of similar 
composition reduce scratch in the same 
way as the tone control — b\' their lack 
of response to high frequencies. Keeping 
records free from dust and surface mar- 
ring helps a great deal in eliminating 

After 68 years of progress, the prin- 
ciples of Bell's recording machine are 
still the basis of even the most modern 
transcription methods. .Main of the 
jobs of disk recording are being taken 
over by wire and tape recorders 
of the durability, compactness, and re- 
use characteristics of magnetic media; 
still, the flexibility of selection and ex- 
cellent fidelity capabilities of the disk 
phonograph will guarantee its popularity 
in home musical entertainment for some 


(Cuntiiiued trom page 15) 
marked by an active interest, plenty of 
ability, and some good politicking. 

He is now president of this on-tlie-go 
cirgani/.afion ;iiid is serving ;i second 
term on the l'"ngineering Council. His 
contributions to the latter include work 
on the all-engineering convocation last 

.■\ two-timer from 'wa\' back, Dick 
is also treasurer of the A.S.C.E. 

WHiile cruising the Pacific in a P.C., 
he came close to joining Neptunis Rex 
several times, but didn't quite cross into 
the "you-all" hemisphere. He is a mem- 
ber of the Sacred Order of the (jrand 
Dragon, since he cro.ssed the ISOth 
meridian several times. Although he 
didn't make any catches, Dick did a 
good job of "standing by" on the bottom 
half of air-sea rescue around the Mari- 
anas Islands. 

After leaving the Navy in July, 1046, 
he studied a year at Morton Junior col- 
lege in Cicero. A year there was enough, 
and he carried his books closer to the 
lake — to the Navy Pier branch. At the 
Pier, Dick "engineered" the vice presi- 
dency of the A.S.C.E. 

Part of the summer of '48 was spent 
fishing, sunbathing, and surveying the 
(Continued on page 30) 

6 UP 





Privately-owned power 

companies are keeping ahead of 

America's insatiable appetite for kilowatts 

by providing new steam-electric generating facilities 

at the greatest rate in history. For example, 

dots on the map below represent central stations 

where steam requirements for over 9 million kilowatts 

of new capacity are being supplied 

by B&W Boilers either placed in 

service or ordered since V-J Day. 

Included in these new units are the 

largest capacity central 

station boilers ever designed. 

Nation-wide acceptance of B&W 

Boilers is as old as the central station 

industry itself. 

General Offices: 85 Liberty St., New York 6, N. Y. 
Works: Alliance and Barberton, O.; Augusta, Ga. 




The place to shop for 

a complete line of 




Burr, Patterson & Auld Co. 


Fraternity Jewelry 


On the Campus - 704 S. Sixth 

The TECH is an 


you can still join the staff 

Drop in at 213 C. E. H. 

PROBLEM — You have an aircraft radio receiver. 
To operate it, the band selector and tuning elements 
must be adjusted. You v^ant to arrange it so that 
these adjustments can be made right at the receiver 
or from a remote point. How would you do it? 
THE SIMPLE ANSWER— Use S.S.White remote 
control flexible shafts to connect the tuning dials 
on the receiver to tuning cranks on a remote control 
unit. This arrangement leaves you free to mount the 
control unit anywhere you want, and assures you 
of smooth, sensitive tuning from any distance up 
to 50 feet or more. The shafts can be readily run 
around turns, along walls, under flooring as condi- 
tions in different aircraft may require. Any required 
degree of sensitivity can be obtained by connecting 
the shaft through simple gearing. 

This is just one of hundreds of 
remote control and power drive 
problems to which S.S.White 
flexible shafts provide a simple 
answer. That's why every engi- 
neer should be familiar with the 
range and scope of these "Metal 
Muscles"* for mechanical bodies. 

Here'5 how one 
large manufac- 
turer provided 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for asking. Write today. 




OCTOBER, 1949 

DIPT. C, 10 EA5T «01h $J.. NEW TOllK I», N. T. _ 

Cue oi ^iwUeM A AAA IntOMt'iiai ZHtenpUtM 


Engineering Students 

You will find at the Co-Op Bookstore 
your needs in engineering and art sup- 
plies, stationery, textbooks, and gen- 
eral reading. 

Co-Op Bookstore 

The Bookstore Closest to Engineering Campus 


I L'(intmui-(1 froMi ]-)a}iC 28) 

l,inilM.:i|)c .It tile ci\il fiiiiinecrs' sur\i'y- 
in^ i';iiiip at I5Iack(luck, Minnesota. 

Tin's sumnifi' Dick was employed as 
a junior traffic engineer by the state 
lii}:lnva\ department. The work con- 
sisted of intersection traffic analysis, 
summarization of motor vehicle volume 
counts, and intersection signalization 
planning. (Note — no politics iinolvetl.) 

As far as his lo\e life is concerned, 
Dick and Klaine Dafnis, of Chicago, 
ha\e been keeping company since they 
met on the ila\' he was discharged from 
the Navy. They have plans for the day 
that Dick finishes his education. 

After graduation next February, 
Dick hopes to go to Yale. Research 
work is required for an M.S. at this top 
traffic school. 

After that, it's traffic engineering 
and politics — despite the ad\ice of his 
alderman father. 

Math prof: "Give me an example of 
an imaginary spheroid." 

Student: "A rooster's eL'g." 

Snuff— 20,000 pounds a da\- 
used in these United States. 

NO SLIDE RULE NEEDED to figure the advantage of- 



Additional charge for deposits or checks 
Minimum balance required 
Pass book to bother with 

We designed this economical checking service for YOU. Simply buy a book of 
20 ILLINICHECKS for one dollar and use these checks as long as you have a 
balance in your account. 


Champaign County Bank & Trust Co. 


C. A. WEBBER, President GEORGE I. :\IAXWELL, Vice President 

FRED G. HARRISON, Vice President E. E. LATOVVSKY, Cashier 

ARLAN Mcpherson, Assistant Cashier 



'- '■:j;> 

5^^^BOL OF 85,000 YEARS Of KH© 


If you liad been born 85,000 years an;o antl were 
still alive, think of all vou would know about 
what happened on earth. 

And if vou had devoted all those vears to work- 
ing with one particular material found on earth 
. . . say aluminum . . . think what vou would 
know about that. 

Actually, man has known of aluminum for less 
than 150 vears and didn't really start to use it 
comincrcially until 1888 when Alcoa started pro- 
ducing it. Yet in Alcoa's employ today is a group 
of men and women who possess a total of 85,000 
years of aluminum working knowledge. 

These people. 2,900 of them, proudlv wear tills 
button as members of the Alcoa 25-Year Service 
Club. Many have been in the familv longer than 
25 years. Their jobs range all the way from mill 
hand to president, from engineer to chairman of 
the board. 'I'liey are a fourth of all the employees 

Alcoa had 25 years ago. pretty good indication 
that it's "a good companv to work for". 

But here's the most significant point: Sixty-one 
years ago, when Alcoa started, only five men 
were employed. Today about a million people 
have jobs in the aluminum industrv, an industry 
comprised of: companies who produce aluminum 
from ore; companies who smelt aluminum scrap; 
others who make semi-finished aluminum prod- 
ucts; and hundreds of companies who manufac- 
ture useful articles in which aluminum plays an 
essential part. 

Today the same pioneering spirit that marked 
the founding of this industry is evident in 
Alcoa's laboratories, mills and foundries. Here 
men are developing new uses, new techniques 
that promise even more for the future of alumi- 
num. Aluminum Company of America, Gulf 
Building, Pittsburgh 19, Pennsvlvania. 



OCTOBER, 1949 



I L'ontimicil troni p;i;ii' 14 ) 
Ining; the first stiKlfiit chapti-r chartcied 
In the national I.IC.S. which pmmotcs 
intiTest and fellowship in ilhiniinaring 

The open house held last >ear for 
the Chicafjo hranch proved so successful 
that the invitation may be extended 
ay:ain this year. Also on the program are 
lectures — on the varied applications of 
illuminatinfr engineering — to he j;i\en 
h\ some of the outstanding men in the 

The officers elected for the fall term 
are: Charles Craig, chairman; Joan 
Hessler, secretary-treasurer; Rill To- 
metich, program chairman; Mark l'"sta- 
hrook, publicit)' chairman; and Harold 
Wilson, general program 


Tile aim> of tlu's electrical engineering 
honorar\ are to ativance the electrical 
engineering profession and to 
stimuate and reward scholas- 
^^§^ tic achic\ement. The organ- 
ization has been accomplish- 
ing this on the campus since 
its establishment in 1904. The require- 
ments for admission are not only high 
^cholastic standings but acceptabilit\' to 
tiie other members. 

Professor A. R. Knight advises the 

local .Alpha chapter and the officers for 
this term are: Hob Stone, president; 
Sol .Mann, vice piesident; Dick (loro/,- 
dos, treasurer; lui Kitsch, correspond- 
ing secretary; Hob Lewis, recording sec- 
retary ; and Isaac Xehama, bridge cor- 

Altliiiugh this organization is offi- 
cialh called the American Socict\ of 
Civil Engineers, the gen- 
eral and architectural en- 
gineers are more than wel- 
come to join and take part 
in the activities. 

Finishing up their af- 
fairs last spring was the 
Midwestern conference of the A.S.C.E. 
which many of the inembers of the local 
chapter attended. 

The A.S.C.E. has a system of elect- 
ing officers that has worked out ex- 
tremely well in the past few years. The 
vice president of the organization, upon 
serving one term in that office, takes 
over the presidency. Thus the men lead- 
ing the group have had experience at 
the job and the business is handled 
smoothly at all times. 

Professor M. O. Schmidt is their 
faculty adviser and Don R. Anderson, 
the president. In a vote-by-mail election 
held last spring, William T. Hristow 
was appointed vice president; Charles 

C. Swensen, secretary; Richard Kanak, 
treasurer; Donald Haiikins and Jacob 
Whitlock, Engineering Coiuicil repre- 

All the latest dope can be obtaiiied 
by reading the A.S.C.E. bulletin bo.ird 
opposite the '1\< hnoi/nipli office. 


The purpose of the student chapter of 
the Society of Automotive Engineers is 
to cater to the students' interest in the 
"engineering practices connected with 
the design, construction, and utilization 
of automotive apparatus." 

The meetings of the S.A.E. are de- 
signed to appeal to a variety of inter- 
ests. For one of the first meetings this 
fall it was planned to have that famous 
man of the race track, Mr. Wilbm- 
Shaw, as a guest speaker. This is but 
a sample of the many interesting things 
to be found at the S.A.IC. meetings. 

Prof. William Hull is the honorar\' 
chairman of the S.A.E. Student offi- 
cers are: Wallace Hopper, chairman; 
Roy Morling, vice chairman ; John Cor- 
rigan, recording secretary; William 
(^ibb, corresponding secretary; Robert 
W. Giertz, treasurer; Henry S. Cho- 
dacki, Council representative. 

The executive committee is headed 
by Robert K. Reynolds ; program and 
(Continued on page 34) 


ATION CENTER Succeeds with 

The Mutual Cold Storage Cooperative, 
located between Broadway and Timber- 
Va., serves the prosperous Shenan- 
doah Valley in many ways: makes 50 tons 
of ice daily, stores 2,000 tons, ices trucks 
and railway cars, operates several ice 
routes; quick-freezes 50.000 pounds of 
poultry per day; stores 375,000 bushels of 
apples and I '/2 million pounds of frozen 
foods; processes fresh foods, rents 1.285 
;kers; and provides cooling services to 
three large cooperatives — for fruit, 
poultry and meats — nearby 

For nearly 20 years the Mutual 
plant has used Frick Refrigeration, 
now has 10 Frick machines. Any com- 
munity— YOUR community — could 
profit from a similar Refrigeration 
Center. Let us give you details: write 

riiv t, 

<h (jratliiali' Tratninn Co 
•ralinn and ,4tr Conditwi 

- Y'^.i _l_'MJ_,l ,r-MM , '.'■!□ 

Also BuMcri cl Nwc, fc, 


for efficient milling \ 

There arc Uylcs <ind siir-s of 
own & Sharpc Cutters to 
meet a wide variety of mill- 
ing requirements. Superior 
design, materials and heat 
treatment give them maxi- 
mum cutter life and assure 
lowest cost in the long run. 
Specify Brown & Sharpe 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. 
Providence 1, R. I., U. S. A. 




Glass that you can twist, bend, roll,.. 

This is a ribbon of glass so thin that it 
takes about unc llioiisaml thictinesses of it 
to make a stack an inch high. 

It is so flexible that you can roll it on a 
reel, twist it into a spiral, wrap it around 
your arm. 

If you should test it electrically, as 
Corning scientists have done thousands 
upon thousands of times, you'd find that 
it has superior electrical insulating and 
dielectric properties — equal to high-grade 

One of the first experimental uses of 
Corning ribbon glass has been to alternate 
strips of it with metal foil and fuse them 
together to make electrical capacitors — or 
condensers — similar to those made of 
mica for television, radio, and other elec- 
tronic equipment. 

Ribbon glass capacitors, which can be 
uniformly produced by machine, have al- 
ready shown many advantages over those 
made with other materials. 

Being hermetically sealed, they need no 
enclosing case. They can operate at tem- 
peratures which are too high for other 
capacitors to withstand. They do not de- 
teriorate with age or continued use. Small 
ones can do the job of conventional capac- 
itors of larger size. And for certain instal- 
lations only a ribbon glass capacitor will 

And Corning research indicates that mak- 
ing capacitors is not the only problem that 
ribbon glass may solve. It can be laminated 
with resin and then cut, formed, shaped 
and used for other electrical purposes. 

Because ribbon glass is uniformly thin, 

it has already been considered for such 
other uses as microphone diaphragms and 
windows for Geiger counters that measure 

Glass ribbon is another striking example 
of how Corning, noted for its Pyrex brand 
products, has developed glass into a most 
versatile engineering material. 

That's why we invite you — when you've 
finished school and started work— to call 
in Corning before your product planning 
reaches the blueprint stage. Corning Glass 
Works, Corning, New York. 


means research in glass 

[DCTOBER, 1949 


Factory Authorized 


plus complete assortment of 
new pen and pencil sets 





( C (intiiuR'd trom page 32) 

pubicity, by E. R. Gibbs; ami iiK-mbcr- 
ship by George W. Sawicki. 

Membership in the S.A.E. is open 
to all eiigiiK-ering students. An in\ita- 
rion to brcoinc a nicnibcr is extcniicd to 
all snidcrus, and cspciiall) t(j frcshinen. 


I'i 'l"au Sigma is the narl<inal hon- 

orai'v nicchaniial engineering traternity 

on tile eampus. The local 

Alpha chapter has been with 

us since way back in 1916 

\w7^\ w h e n the fraternity was 

I^^X esfabished. 

The active members are 
chosen from the junior and 
senior classes on the basis of 
personality, scholarship, lead- 
ership, and their probable success in the 
future in technical engineering. 

At the annual spring banquet held 
last semester, 27 new pledges were in- 
itiated and the officers elected for this 
term. President of the local chapter is 
Boubene M. Jaremus. Other officers 
include: Roland J. Benjamin, vice pres- 
ident; Joseph T. Ream, treasurer; 
Thomas C. Jenkins, recording secretary; 
and Donald R. Tarne, corresponding 

(Continued on page 36) 


Is a cable covering flameproof? Will it resist high tem- 
peratures when it comes to actual service? 

Long before a cable is manufactured, questions like 
these are answered in the Okonite laboratories, proving 
ground and in various testing departments of the 
Okonite plants. The picture above shows a flame test. 
The measured current that makes the coils glow makes it 
possible to reproduce test after test without variation. 
The Okonite Company, Passaic, New Jersey. 


insulated wires and cables 



812 S. Sixth St., Champaign 







STRAUCH'S, Fronting Campus 

at 709 So. Wright Street 



BUILD the basic machines 
of an industrial world! 


Superintendent y Tank and Plate Shop 


(Graduate Training Course — 1930) 

f» m 


good deal more technical and compli- 
cated in the last few years. There is a big 
difference between the way we do things 
now and the way we 
did them when I left 
the Allis-Chalmers 
Graduate Training 
Course to work in the 
machineshopin 1930. 
That is \\ liy there are 
more and more op- 
portunities in the 
manufacturing end 
of the business for 
CARL MALMBERo ^^^^„ engineers who 
get a thrill from watching a project grow 
from a roll of blueprints to a big electric 
power installation or machinerv for a 
giant processing plant. 

Close Coordination 

In my section of the shop we specialize in 
fabricating machines and parts from sheet 
and plate steel. We work closely w ith the 
design engineers to develop the most eco- 
nomical way of producing their designs 
and we do much designing on our own. 
We work closely with every other manu- 
facturing department, because more and 
more Allis-Chalmcrs products are being 
designed to replace cast members with 
welded members, and in my work we do 

Machining speed ring for a 55.000 hp turbine on a 40' boring mill, one of 
the largest in the country. Many A-C machines and methods are unique 
because of the tremendous size of worii pieces and wide variety of operations 
required in building the world's greatest range of industrial equipment. 

the welding for the whole plant. 

One recent interesting project was the 
fabrication of stainless steel buckets for 
impulse-type hydraulic turbines to replace 
the old cast-type buckets. Working with 
design engineers and hydraulic engineers, 
our tank and plate specialists developed a 
design and method of manufacturing that 
produced buckets with several times the 
life of the old type. 

Opportunities Everywhere 

New developments in every department 
mean almost endless opportunities for 
young engineers. Right now, the erection 
shop is building a big crusher for process- 
ing taconite in the Mesabi range, and we 
are supplying most of the other ore proc- 
essing equipment for this gigantic plant, 
too. At our Norwood plant, engineers 
have completely rebuilt the production 
system on motors and small pumps for 
greater elTiciency and lower costs. 

In fact, here at Allis-Chalmers there are 
big opportunities for young engineers in 
all phases of engineering work — design, 
research and development, manufactur- 
ing, sales and erection — in nearly any in- 
dustry you can name. For Allis-Chalmers 
builds primary equipment for electric 
power . . . mining and ore processing . . . 
pulp and wood products . . . flour mill- 
ing . . . steel . . . agriculture . . . public 
works . . . for even' basic industry. 

The thing that influenced me most when 
I left the University of Illinois to join 
Allis-Chalmers, was the tremendous 
breadth of opportunity. Some of my 
friends from that GTC class of 1930 are 
sales engineers now, some are design en- 
gineers, some have traveled around the 
world w ith erection crews. I chose manu- 
facturing because I like to see things take 
shape before my eyes. I tried a good many 
things before I made my choice and my 
choice has been good. 

Welding stator yoke on 38.889 kva 
hydraulic lurbinc-driven generator. 

Wrile for details of the Allis-Chalmers Graduate Training Course — requirements, 
salary, advantages. Representatives may visit your school. Watch for date. 

Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin 


OCTOBER, 1949 



November Tech 





and the 




( C'linrinucd from p.-ij^c ,i4) 

A lirrli- to rlu- nmrli ot 'I'oloiio and 
just soutli ot the Inion building \ou'lI 
find the afii'icultural t'liginccrinji build- 
nv/.. It is there that the A.S.A.E.'s abide. 

Anyone Koing by there this semester 
liad best be quick footed as these boys 
really move when there is something to 
be done. You probably saw them lasso- 
ing prospeerive members last month dur- 
ing the registration week. 

'l"he full program foi' tliis fall hasn't 
been announced yet but if you want all 
the straight info, see Errol Rodda who 
was elected president last spring. If you 
can't find Errol, try one of these offi- 
cers: Neil Hogner, vice president ; James 
Andrews, secretary; Howard Wakeland, 
corresponding secretary; Russell Mig- 
liell, treasurer; and Carl Jacobs, Engi- 
neering Council representative. Adxiser 
to the A.S.A.E. is lim Curtis. 

He is happy whose circumstances suit 
his temper, but he is more excellent who 
can suit his temper to any circumstances. 
— David Hume. 

What we anticipate seldom occurs: 
what we least expect generally happens. 
— Disraeli. 



Year by year, month by month, oil industry chemists find new, 
fascinating possibihties in the hydrocarbon molecules that make 
up petroleum. They have learned many ways to convert them into 
new and more valuable molecules. 

One result of this experimentation has been a flexibility that 
permits stepped-up output of whichever petroleum products are 
most urgently required. When the primary need was for vast quan- 
tities of aviation gasohne to help win the war, research showed how 
it could be produced. In a peace-time summer, the great demand 
is for an ocean of automobile gasohne; in winter, less gasohne and 
more fuel oil are needed. Research tells the industry how to make 
petroleum serve the public more efficiently. 

Standard Oil is a leader in petroleum research. Many remark- 
able developments have come from our laboratories; many more 
are sure to come, in the future, if we continue to attract good men, 
furnish them with the most modern equipment, and provide an 
intellectual climate in which they can do their best work. 

We are continuing. 

Standard Oil Company 



OCTOBER, 1949 


\ I / 


Ask for this 

valuable FREE booklet 

at your college 




University Book 


on the Campus 



(C_'oiiriiHic.l liDiii pa;ii- 2) 
magnets of diffcicnt strengrhs. The 
values thus obtained are used, in con- 
junction with a set of previously de- 
teiniined calibration curves for each 
magnet, to obtain the total thickness of 
the coating and the ndatixe thickness of 
the copper and nickel la\ers. 

Composite coatings, nickel over cop- 
per on steel, are used extensively in 
automotive industries for economical 

The thickness of each component 
layer of similar coatings can be mea- 
sured to an accuracy of about 15% with- 
out causing any damage to tlie tested 

Ozone Water Treatment 

The world's largest ( )/()nator water- 
treatment generator unit has been in- 
stalled in a Philadelphia filtration sta- 
tion by the Welsbach Corporation. 

Sparking of glass electrodes creates 
the gas, ozone, which removes taste and 
odor from ordinary water. Treatment 
will require an average of 200 kilowatt 
hours for each million gallons. 

Color Film 

Dul'ont has made a basic improve- 
ment in photographic color film for the 
motion picture industry. 

The result of many years of research, 
this product is an entirely new syn- 
thetic polymer which is also a color 
former. It takes the place of both the 
gelatin binder and the color former 
heretofore used in color films. Combi- 
nation iiitc] a single material results in 
excellent color reproduction and im- 
pro\es image sharpness. This film is for 
the printing of 35mm. positixes for 

New Hydraulic Oil 

For use in h\(liaulicall\ operated ma- 
chine tools that pressure-feed lubricant 
away from the hydraulic system, Sun 
Oil company has introduced a new dual- 
purpose oil. 

Called Lubeway, the new lubricant 
has already been subjected to more than 
a year of exhaustive testing in machine 
tool builders' laboratories and imder 
regular production conditions in indus- 

Ordinary hydraidic oil lacks the film 
strength and metal-wetting properties 
needed for lubrication. These deficien- 
cies caused excessive wear and made 
close tolerances and fine finishes impos- 
sible. The new oil, a blend, gives good 
lubricating as well as hydraulic perform- 


Trouble is usually produced by those 
who don't produce anything else^Suc- 





Research across the U. S. A. 




When you think of Du Pont research, 
you may think first of Wihnington, 
Delaware. Actually, only eight of the 
Company's 36 research groups are 
located there. Du Pont scientists now 
pursue their studies in 11 states scat- 
tered from Connecticut to Texas. 

Each of these laboratories is a self- 
contained operation. It may be de- 
voted in part to fundamental re- 
search and applied research, or to 
investigations looking to the devel- 
opment of new products — sometimes 
a combination of these activities. 

An unusual Du Pont laboratory 
is one opened last year at Newburgh, 
New York. 

Inside the Laboratory 

In the three-story building at New- 
burgh, .scientists have at their dis- 
posal the most modern equipment 
for study of coated fabrics and plas- 
tic sheetings under all sorts of con- 
ditions. For example, a new product 
can be tested in a room maintained 

at a temperature of —20" F. In other 
rooms, the effects of high tempera- 
ture and humidity can be studied. 
Equipment is available for testing 
tensile strength, tear resistance, fad- 
ing, flex and flame resistance, and 
many other characteristics. One of 
Du Pont's 33 Libraries has quarters 
in the building; there is a photo- 
graphic darkroom, as well as offices, 
conference and work rooms. 

The Newburgh Laboratory works 
closely with the adjacent plant, which 
makes "Fabrikoid" pyroxylin coated 
fabrics, "Fabrilite" vinyl resin coated 
fabrics and plastic sheetings, "Ton- 
tine" washable window shade cloth, 
bookbinding materials, and other 
coated and impregnated fabrics and 
plastic sheetings for many uses. 

Research at Du Pont 

Research has long been a major ac- 
tivity at Du Pont, and it flourishes 
in an atmosphere of appreciation, 
encouragement and patience. The 
new products, the new plants, and 
the new and better jobs of the years 
to come will develop from the pains- 
taking research programs being car- 
ried on today in the laboratories. 

r c; ^ 

t Li ■"■*" 

H. A. yan Etien, B. S. Ch., Colgate '42, and 
E. R. Grise, M. S. Ch., Worcentcr Polytechnic 
Institute '48, investigating the properties of 
vinyl compounds used in plastic-coated fabric's. 

K. F. Richards, B. S. Ch. E., Cornell '48, and 
E. K. Holden, M. S. Ch. E., Delaware '48, 
studying "Teflon" tetrafluoroethylene resin 
insulating material with special apparatus at 
the Newburgh Laboratory. 

Choice of Careers 

Each of the Du Pont manufacturing 
departments conducts continuous 
research. They operate much like 
separate companies, with interests 
ranging from heavy chemicals to 
plastics and textile fibers. Each holds 
challenging opportunities for college- 
trained chemists and pliysicists, as 
well as chemical, civil, electrical, in- 
dustrial and mechanical engineers, 
also those speciahzing in production, 
sales and many other fields. 

In this alert, ever-growing organi- 
zation, young graduates can choose 
from a variety of careers the one 
that suits them best as their ability 
and interests develop. 

Newest Du Pont laboratory, i,t \elr/:urL:h. .V. Y., (n/s .,,„■„■■,/ last y,;ir. II is ,lri..l.<l /,, ror.nvh and 
development work in the /leld of coated and impregnated fubrws and allied pruduels. 


EntfTUtmmg. tnformatiye Listen to ''Cavalcade of 
America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 

OCTOBER, 1949 


W'liiit ;in- little girls made of? 

Anioiifi; other things, one girl is made 
of enough glycerin to furnish the burst- 
ing charge for one naval shell ; she has 
enough lime to whitewash a chicken 
coop; enough siilfiu' to rid a dog of 
fleas; and enough chlorine to sanitize 
three swimming pools. 
« * * 

An engineering professor is one who 
passes as an exacting expert on the 
strength of being able to turn out, with 
prolific fortitude, strings of incompre- 
hensible formulae, calculated with mi- 
crometric precision from extremely 
\ague assumptions wdiich are based on 
debatable figures acqvu'red from incon- 
clusive tests and quite incomplete ex- 
periments carried out with instruments 
of problematic accuracy by persons of 
doubtful reliability and of rather dubi- 
ous mentality with the particular an- 
ticipation of disconcerting and annoying 
a group of hopelessly chimerical fa- 
natics described altogether too frequent- 
ly as students. — Jf'dshington Eni/i/iccr 
•* it- * 

"Cheer up, old man. Why don't \'ou 
drown your sorrow?" 

"Sill)' bo>'! She's stronger than I am." 

* * -» 

The manager of a building firm 
stared at the heap of rubble that had 
been a house he was building. 

"What happened?" he asked the fore- 

"Durned if I know," said the straw- 
boss. "We took the scaffolding away, 
and plo|i ! The whole shebang came 

""^'ou idiot! I told \o\\ to lea\e the 
scaffold up until the plumbing and wall- 
paper were put in !" 

"Sam," said Rastus, who was reading 
in the paper of a number of fatal acci- 
dents, "if you was to take your choice 
'twixt one or t'other, which would you 
ruther be in, a collision or an explo- 
sion ?" 

"A collision." 

"How come?" Rastus asked. 

"Why man alive, if you's in a colli- 
sion, thar you is, but if you's in .-m ex- 
plosion, whar is you ?" 
» if * 

He who works with his hands is :i 
laborer. He who works with liis h.uuls 
and head is a craftsman. He who works 
with his hands, head, and heart is an 

And he who works with his hands 
anil his head and his heart and his leet 

is a salesman. 

* * » 

The reason no woman ever married 
the man in the moon is he makes 
only a quarter a week, gets fidl once a 
month, and stays out all night. 

-» -* -* 

The three ages of womanhood .ire: 
20 — Attractive 
30 — Attentive 
40 — Adhesive 

* * » 

She held the diamond between trem- 
bling fingers and stared at the man be- 
fore her. What should she do? Should 
she cast it from her, or would it be 
better to reconsider ? What would he 
say? What might he do? His eyes were 
staring into hers with stony intensity. 

The diamond seemed to burn her fin- 
gers. She felt weak and incompetent — 
incapable of decision. Bright spots 
danced before her e>es ; she shuddered 
and drew a long breath. Yes, she must 
do it; tliere was no escape! Hlind'ry 
she shut her eyes and tossed the dia- 
montl on the table in front of her — it 
was done! 

. . . And then . . . she heard her 
partner's sigh of deep relief as he gath- 
ered up the trick! 

* -» -* 

From a park bench : 
"Do \ou think my eyes are like the 
"And do \ou thijik m\ teeth are 

like peails.-'" 


"And do you think my hair is like 
spun gold in the moonlight?" 


"Oh, joe! You say the most wonder- 
ful things!" 

* ;?- * 

Didj.i know the stork kids the whole 

At that, the life of a bill collector 
isn't full of unpleasantness; practically 
e\eryho(iy asks him to call again. 

Nothing cooks Nour goose quicker 
than ;i boiling temper. 

e 3! * 

Cahin : "Where did you get that 
girl — buck teeth, cross-eyed, how-legged, 
stringy-haired ?" 

Kenneth: "You needn't whisper. She's 

deaf, too." 

-* -* -» 

"(jive me another pound of \oin- ant 
powder," said the man rushing into the 

"I'm glad to see that you like the 
powder," said the clerk. 

"Yes," snapped the customer, "I've 
got one ant unconscious with the first 
pound .ind I figured I'll be able to kill 
him with the second." 
» * -* 

A farmer's wife had become mentally 
deranged. As they carried her out of 
the house in a strait jacket he re- 
marked : "Shore don't know what got 
into her — she ain't been out of the 
kitchen in 25 years." 

* -» * 

Sign on a cross-country truck: "This 
truck stops for all crossroads, railroad 
crossings, blonds, brunettes, and will 
back up 20 feet for a redhead." 

* *- » 

After the visitor had talked all eve- 
ning about the size and fierceness of 
the mosquitoes, the old residenter was 
becoming much annoyed. 

"Just look at them swarm," the guest 
complained. "Why don't you screen the 
porch ?" 

"That, sir," the old man replie<l, 
"would be imsportsmanlike. We use 


* -* * 

A lady called the lioctor: "My hus- 
band has swallowed a mouse." 

"Get back to him," said the doctor, 
"and try waving a piece of cheese in 
front of his mouth. I'll come right o\er." 

When the doctor reached the house, 
the man was lying flat on the floor 
while his hysterical wife was waving 
a piece of salmon close to his mouth. 

"I told \ou to try cheese," cried the 

"I know that," shiilled the womlui, 
"but I've got to get the cat out first!" 





Plastic Family Tree 

Page 7 

Silicones in Review 

Page 8 

Dr. John D. Ryder 

Page 9 

You and the I.S.P.E. 

Page 10 


tZPnPf^SF Ho/ n TVE 

Mtii Hvnrii Kahn. I'h.K. '.»< 

of the final tests on heavy machiner\. 
Machines such as turbines operatinsi at 
maximum efficiency will have a certain 
noise level. If the machine is not operat- 
ing at this efficiency the change in noise, 
though not discernable by the human 
ear, is easily and conveniently indicated 
by this instrument. 

Noise is distracting no matter what 
type of work a person is doing. There- 
fore many employers are beginning to 
use the sound-level check to keep the 
efficiency of their employes at a maxi- 

This IS an aitists conception of the welded steel bridge which won the 
first award of $3,000 in the Lincoln Foundation "Welded Bridges of the 
Future" competition. (Courtesy of James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foun- 

Airplane-Type Bridges 

A "new look" for bridges may result 
from a meeting at the University of 
Illinois last year of Prof. Wilbur M. 
Wilson, internationally known engineer, 
and James F. Lincoln of arc welding 
fame. Professor Wilson conceived the 
idea that welding could be used m 
bridge construction, not just as a re- 
placement method for rivets antl bolts, 
but as an entirely new medium of con- 
struction. He felt that engineers should 
be encouraged to think about entirely 
new methods. As a result of that meet- 
ing, a competition for designs of welded 
bridges of the future was arranged. 

The purpose of the competition was 
to give an opportunity "for determin- 
ing whether structural designers, freed 
from present limitations and restrictions, 
will employ new concepts of economy, 
performances, and beauty so that sub- 
stantial progress will result." 

The result of the bridge competition 
may well be to save weight, material, 
and cost on future spans. Some bril- 
liant new ideas for bridges were pre- 
sented in the 120 designs submitted in 

Decreasing Contamination 

Use of mortars and pestles made of 
Carboloy cemented carbide practically 
eliminates the danger of contaminating 
materials being pulverized or crushed. 
The pestles are tipped with the metal 
and the mortars are solid carbide. 

The carbide mortars and pestles are 
already being used by various industrial 
and pharmaceutical concerns in then- 
laboratories. The solid hard metal mor- 
tar is usually about 3 inches in diameter. 
It can either be mounted in a holder or 
placed flat on a work bench. The pestles 
are made by brazing or soldering a half- 
round or similar tip of carbide metal 
onto a "softer" stainless steel holder of 
ccin\i-nient size. 

New Farm Power 

The track-type tractor to bear 
the John Deere name, the "JMC", is de- 
signed to fill power needs on extreme- 
ly hilly farms, and in orchards, vine- 
vards, woodlands, muckland, bogland. 

the competition, according to Prof. Wil- 
son, who headed the judging committee. 
Prof. Thomas C. Kavanagh of Pennsyl- 
vania State College won the $3,000 
first prize. 

Influence of airplane design is shown 
in the plans for the welded steel bridges 
submitted this year. Like a frame of an 
airplane, the winning design is a solid 
single unit instead of being built-up by 
bolting and riveting. 

More than Meets the Ear 

The popuIarit\ of amateur programs 
judged by audience reaction necessitates 
an analysis of the audience's opinion that 
is independent of human judgment. The 
("i. E. sound-level meter solves this 
problem by giving an impartial, scientific 
indication of noise level. 

A range of 20 to 120 decibels per- 
mits measurement of almpst any noise. 
Even quiet background noises can be 
measured with this meter. Tests with 
the G. E. meter indicate whether noises 
are obnoxious, or if noise reduction 
methods are effective. 

In factories the meter is used as one 

This track-type tractor is the first of 
that type built by the John Deere 
Company. (Courtesy of John Deere) 

and in ain situation \x-here traction and 
stability are a problem. 

The "MC" pulls a 2- or 3-bottom 
plow, handles an S-foot double-action 
disk harrow and similar loads. Engine 
is the same 2-cylinder engine as in the 
John Deere models "M" and "MT" 

Electric starting, battery, four -for- 
ward speeds, adjustable air-cushion seat, 
(Continued on page 31) 



Ray Hauser Editor 

Connie Minnich Assoc. Editor 

Gene Hlanyer Makeup Editor 

Art Dreshfield Asst. Editor 

Dwifjht Heard Asst. Editor 


Editorial Associates 

Hill Soderstrum 
Henry Kahn 
Dean Feltoii 
Boh Lawrence 
Joe Graham 

Dave Cash 
Dan Keefe 
John Huber 
Edward Finkel 
Jack Sitzler 

Luther S. Peterson Jim Ephgrave 
Dick Choronzv 


Fred Seavey Bus. Myr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson ....Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Bill Anderson Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

James J. Slcarda ..Asst. Bus. Myr. 


Business Associates 

Alfreda Mallorey Joyanne Blount 
Charles J. Kukura Lew- Markow 
Ewing Sharp Jane Parlee 

Ed Brooks Don Johnson 

Boh Cer/etich 

Eacu/ty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 


Chairman: Prof. F. J. Check, Jr. 
University of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
nois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit. Kansas Engineer. Kansas State 
Engineer, Kentucky Engii 




Ite Engi- 

e EuK 

neer, 1 Ikla 

iim.a State 



, Pennsvl- 




10, Wayne 


Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year {Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reiirint 
1 rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Volume 65 

Number 2 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicat;,, II, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 

The Tech Presents 



The Plastic Family Tree 7 

Silicones in Review 8 

Head of E.E. Department: Dr. John D. Ryder 9 

You and the I.S.P.E 10 


New Developments 2 

Boneyord Bilge 11 

Engineering Societies 12 

Personalties 13 

Navy Pier 14 

Technocrocks 32 


Electricity is man's most useful servant. Cover cartoonist Ed Lo- 
zano depicts typical scenes from the taming of this Djinn as it is 
done in the E.E. lab. 


This General Electric-built J-47 turbojet, power plant of the North 
American F-86 speed record holder, is being readied for its in- 
itial test. The new engine is rated at 5,000 pounds thrust. 
(Courtesy of General Electric.) 

The Plastic Faiiiilj Tree 

Itii ihin Kwiv. Cli.E. TtO 

"P/tis/ir: from the Greek verb pliisso. 
to form ; . . . capable of being molded 
into various forms . . ." This definition 
from Webster may be a little hard to 
accept for anyone who has had the mis- 
fortune of getting his head caught in 
a three-cushion billiard match. Yet the 
billiard balls are made of a material 
that we may rightfully call plastic, 
though a cue-ball could hardly be mold- 
ed into something else. The word "plas- 
tic" was coined about 1930 and is meant 
to cover a wide range of materials that 
are either entirely synthetic or result 
from a chemical modification of natural- 
ly occurring substances. 

After this very brief introduction, 
a climb through the plastic family tree 
is in order. 

Early Dcvflop/iicnt 

The first generally accepted plastic 
was made in 1865 by a Birmingham, 
England, chemist named Alexander 
Parkes. He based his product on nitro- 
cellulose (or cellulose nitrate) and it 
had a marked resemblance to horn or 
ivory. The name given to the new ma- 
terial was Parkesine and, though it was 
used in England, it was not exploited 
in this country until twelve years later. 

In that interval an American, John 
Wesley Hyatt, working along the same 
lines as Parkes but independent of him, 
discovered a substance almost identical 
with Parkesine. The year of this dis- 
covery was 1869 and Hyatt's product 
is known to everyone under the fa- 
mous name of celluloid. In that same 
year, another investigator, D. W. Spiel, 
made the same discovery that Parkes 
and Hyatt had made; but the honor 
of inventing and naming celluloid be- 
longs solely to Hyatt. 

Two years after the invention by 
Hyatt, the Celluloid ^lanufacturing 
Company was formed ; the basis of the 
process was a gelatinization of nitro- 
cellulose (pyroxylin) with alcohol and 
subsequent heating with camphor. 

While on the subject, it would be 
well to mention that another plastic 
named xylonite, which was similar to 
celluloid, appeared on the market in 
1877. There were, of course, many 
others which were brought out at this 
time; but all of the products were al- 
most identical with the discoveries of 
Hyatt and Parkes. 

In 1890, a German chemical firm 
pioduced a tough, horn-like material 
which was similar to celluloid but was 
made somewhat differently. The French 
made the discovery about the same time 
and the two interests merged to form 
the Compagnie Internationale de la Ga- 
lalith. This new plastic was made by 
treating casein with formaldehyde ; 
and it found wide application in the 
manufacture of buttons, knitting pins, 
brooches, etc. 

The last plastic of this particular era 
which we will mention was called eri- 

It seems that the field of plas- 
tics has grown up pretty much 
like an unpruned tree — in all 
directions at once. However, 
despite the network of roots in 
the "fertile earth of chemistry" 
there is no trunk of unity con- 
necting all the branches to- 

This article describes some of 
the interesting history, proper- 
ties, and everyday uses of the 
most important members of this 
heterogeneous aggregate called 

noid. It was similar to celluloid in its 
physical properties and made its appear- 
ance around the time of the First World 
War in 1914. 

Numerous other plastics belong to the 
early period of investigation, but de- 
tails of their development follow along 
the lines already discussed. It is hoped 
that the brief sketch given above of 
the first plastics will serve to give the 
reader some "new" ideas about the 
"new" field of synthetics. 

Thermosetting Plastics 
The year 1907 saw the first really 
outstanding invention in the field of 
plastics. Dr. L. H. Baekeland, of the 
I nited States, produced the first ther- 
mosetting powder in that year. His name 
is perpetuated in the tradename gi\en 
to his discovery, Bakelite. 

Previously, all attempts to obtain ;i 
thermosetting powder had ended in 
failure in that the product could not 
readily be molded. Dr. Baekeland's proc- 
ess produced a substance that was fluiil 
at the start of its manufacture and 

could therefore be poured into molds, 
or otherwise shaped. Then, when heat- 
ed, the flin'd set to an infusible mass 
that could not be melted when heated 

Bakelite is made by heating formalde- 
hyde with phenol in the presence of 
ammonia; the physical nature of the 
product is dependent upon the catalyst 
and the amount of heating employed. 
Everyone is familiar with Bakelite in 
some form, whether it appears as a 
fountain pen, phonograph record, or one 
of many other equally common items. 

It might be well at this point to ex- 
plain what a thermosetting powder is. 
A good correlation is available to help 
in this illustration. Imagine that the 
molecidcs of the materials used are very 
small links which are hooked together 
in the course of the reaction. Thus long 
molecules are formed which may be 
pictured as chains. In the case in ques- 
tion, these long chains have an oppor- 
tunity of being hooked together (cross- 
linked) by the I'emaining small mole- 
cules. This second step takes place upon 
heating in many cases. The material can 
n(jw be thought of as an extremely com- 
jilicated network which is quite rigid. 
It is eas\', then, to imagine that as this 
process of linking the chains together 
proceeds indefinitely, the product be- 
comes more and more hard. The name 
"thermosetting" then, means just that; 
upon heating the material sets and be- 
comes hard. 


One of the most important plastics 
derived from the use of glycerine is that 
involving phthalic anhydride. The early 
research in this direction resulted in the 
discovery of the glyptal resins which 
were used as bonding materials in mica 
insulators. These resins were all thermo- 
setting as was the case with most of the 
early plastics. 

In the use of ghcerine, the long 
chains were linked together by the re- 
action of the three hydroxyl groups in 
the glycerine molecule. It was recog- 
nized that one of these hydroxyl groups 
would have to be blocked from further 
reaction if a fluid product was desired. 
Eater work in that direction demonstrat- 
ed that this could be accomplished by 
adchrig a small amount of an aliphatic 
(Continued on page 18) 



itif llvnrif Kahn. 1'h.lC. '."iO 

(Information courtesy of Dow-Corning, and General Electric) 

The first orjianic silicon coiiipouruls 
were prepared in the laboratories of 
Friedel, Craft and Ladenbiirg in lS7(t. 
The basis of most of our present knowl- 
edge about organic sihcon chemistry, 
however, stems from Kipping, who 
started his 43 years of research on or- 
ganic silicon compounds in 19(11. 

There are several ways of making 
polymer chains containing silicon atoms. 

One of the most important 
limiting factors in the design of 
equipment has always been the 
selection of proper engineering 

Shortly before the war, steel, 
iron, nickel, chromium and cop- 
per were used almost exclusive- 
ly, but in recent years alu- 
minum and its alloys have 
been used in ever increasing 
amounts. Similarly, silicones 
have become very important en- 
gineering materials. Their uses 
as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, 
mold release agents, and elec- 
trical insulation, to mention a 
few, are due to the many di- 
versified advantages. 

but onh' the siloxane or silicone cliains 
(silicon and oxygen atoms appear in al- 
ternate position ) have become impor- 
tant. Therefore, the other existing 
chains will be briefly summarized : 

1. The silicon-silicon chains are un- 
stable since they are subject to oxida- 
tion, thermal dissociation, and hydroly- 

2. The silicon-carbon chains, such as 
one involving the phenylene radical 
(C^H^), are quite stable; however, ex- 
periment has proved that the chains are 
qvu'te short. Even though this difficulty 
can be overcome by hydrolysis and cross- 
condensation, these polymers have not, 
as yet, been developed. 

There are at the present time two 
important methods of preparing the or- 
ganic silicon monomers (R^.SiCL.) 
which, though they are usually not iso- 
lated, may be considered the starting ma- 
terial for the polymer. From laboratory 
experience the (irignard reaction is a 
very logical method. Silicon tetrachlo- 
ride and a (irignard reagent, such ,is 
methyl magnesium chloride in an inert 
solvent are reacted and recycled luitil 
the product is mostly (CH3)2SiCI_,. 

The (CHJ^SiCl and (CH;,)4Si have 
to be separated from the mixture. 

Direct (.omtyoiinding 
The second important commercial 
method is known as the direct method. 
Here silicon and methyl chloride are 
reacted in the presence of a copper cata- 
lyst. The resulting mixed methylchloro- 
silanes and silicon tetrachloride are then 
separated by fractional distillation. 

The methyl-dichlorosilane, which re- 
sults from both of the above methods, 
is hydrolyzed and then immediately 
forms polymers by a condensation re- 

One of the most important things 
at this point is to get the desired chain 
length. This can be controlled to 

a large extent, by the proportion of 
(CH3)3SiCI; or if cross-linkage is de- 
sired some CH.jSiCl^ might be added. 
The usual controlling factors, such as 
the temperature and viscosity are, of 
course, also very important in determin- 
ing the size of the chain. 

Emphasis has been placed on methyl- 
substituted molecules since aromatic 
groups result in a brittle polymer, while 
a polymer containing alkyl groups high- 
er than methsl is very pliable. 

Oils (ind (iriasrs 
One of the first and the most im- 
portant silicones to be developed was 
methyl silicone oil. The repeating unit 
appears from two to about ten times 
(Continued on page 28) 



:>B&fttmc CULOD-IDe 


. _ .k- Silicon TCXR-AcuLoaioE 

I r— 









-By-paoDuCT fe^SiCijC^Si 




This flov^ sheet illustrates the Grignard reaction method of producing 
organic silicon monomers. Organic polymers manufactured by such 
processes have become important engineering materials. 




Uti IHvli llntmnzfi. 3f.K. *.7# 

Doctor John D. Ryder, formerly of 
Iiiwa State College, is the new head of 
the Electrical Engineering department. 
He has succeeded Dr. W. L. Everitt, 
will) is now dean of the College of En- 

Since his appointment by the board 
of trustees. Dr. Ryder has become rapid- 
ly acquainted with the various duties 
required of his office. And he already 


has become recognizable to many of the 
engineering students on the north cam 

Dr. Ryiler, a personable and relative- 
h' \oung man, was born in Columbus, 
Ohio, in 1907. He received the B.E.E. 
degree in 1928 and, a year later, his 
M.S. degree from (^hio State Univer- 

After earning the latter degree, he 
obtained a position with the (General 
Electric Company ; he specialized in elec- 
tronic work and the development of 
thyratrons under H. C. Steiner. 

In 1931 Dr. Ryder joined the Bailey 
Meter Company of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
supervisor of the electrical and elec- 
tronic section of the Research labora- 
tory. He holds 24 patents on this work, 

covering temperature-recording and au- 
tomatic control applications of electron- 
ics, f'quipment now being manufactured 
inider these patents include the Haile\' 
"Pyratron" group of devices and the 
(icneral Electric and Weston photoelec- 
tric iiotentiometers. 

While still at the Research depart- 
ment of the Bailey Meter Company, he 
furthered his graduate education by 
studying mathematics and atomic physics 
at the Case School of Applied Science. 

In I'Hl Dr. Ryder became an assist- 
ant professor of electrical engineering 
at Iowa State College. He continue.i 
at that position until 1944, when he 
became Professor of Electrical Engineer- 
ing in charge of electronics courses. In 
that same year he was awarded the 
Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering 
by Iowa State College. From September, 
1''44, to April, 1946, he was temporari- 
h professor-in-charge of the Electrical 
Engineering department. 

He became Assistant Director of the 
Iowa Engineering Experiment Station 
in 1947. He continued in that capacity 
until September of this year, when he 
assumed the position he now holds here 
at the University. 

As can be seen from his educational 
and practical experience background. 
Dr. Ryder is exceptionally qualified for 
the work he is doing here. 

He is the author of two text- 
books. Electronic Engineering Principles 
(Prentice-Hall, Inc.), and Nehvork. 
Lines, and Fields (Prentice-Hall, Inc.) ; 
the former is currently being used in 
the course, E.E. 340. He has also writ- 
ten many other authoritative papers on 
D.C. and A.C. motors, vacuum-tube 
voltmeters, network analyzers, and elec- 

Dr. Ryder is a member of many asso- 
ciations and organizations. He is a mem- 
ber of electronics committee, the educa- 
tion committee, and chairman of the 
electronics education subcommittee, all 
of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. He is also a member of the 
American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and numerous honor- 
ary fraternities, some of which are Tau 

Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Xu, and Sigma 

Dr. Ryder was married in 1933. He 
has a 12-year-old daughter, Barbara, 
and a son mcknamed "IVlac" who is 
nine years old. 

He has a very interesting hobby — 
color photography — and owns over 
2,000 of his own Kodachrome photo- 
graphs of western national parks. He 
also was a radio "ham," operating his 
own station, WOVDE. When he can 
find time, he also plays tennis. 

As yet, Dr. Ryder has planned no 
drastic innovations in the department he 
is heading. The many fine improvements 
made by the department in recent years 
makes one believe that it will be diffi- 
cult to add any startling improvements. 

The combination of education and 
interest in activities marks Dr. Ryder 
as one of the more distinguished per- 
sonalities and educators on the campus. 
And if the Electrical Engineering de- 
partment rises to even greater heights, 
to Dr. Rvder will be due the credit. 

This is the kind of Prof he ain't. 

0\er in Africa some of the native 
tribes have the custom of beating the 
ground with clubs and uttering spine- 
chilling cries. Anthropologists call this 
this a form of primitive self-expression. 
Over here in America we call it golf. 


YOU and the I. S. P. E. 

Itfi i'onnit' Minnivh^ t.E. '."il 

Have you heard of: 

A supply engineer? 
A floor engineer? 
A cuisine engineer? 

Ir is not unusual to find these types 
(it "engineering" refer to shipping clerks, 
linoleum layers, and short-order cooks. 

Kngineering as a respected and time- 
honored profession is not uncommonly 
■ ■i used to disguise a run-of-the- 

Ei 3 mill job. The above, how- 
I ever, are only trivial ex- 
I I amples of the misuse of the 
— '.a word "engineer." Far more 
' ■^ serious than these are the 
cases of men who lay out the plans for 
large engineering projects and who sign 
drawings and specifications in the capac- 
ity of qualified engineers. Failures of 
buildings and machines designed b\' "en- 
gineers" leave a dark stigma on the en- 
gineering profession. 

What is done about such individuals 
who, though lacking the practice or 
proper education, assume the responsi- 
bilities, trust, and confidence of an ex- 
perienced engineer? This is one of the 
man\' items on the working agenda of 
the National Society of Professional En- 

"Undoubtedly, students are familiar 
with their own specialized professional 
societies such as the A.S.C.E., A.I.E.E.- 
I.R.E., and A.S.M.E. Perhaps a few, 
having heard of the National Society 
(abbreviated N.S.P.E.) have thought, 
it an engineering society outside of their 
own fields. 

The N.S.P.E. 
N.S.P.E. is not limited to one phase 
of engineering; it is an association that 
is comprised of qualified registered en- 
gineers in all the actual and related 
fields of engineering. Unlike the spe- 
cialized societies, its main function is 
not technological development, but rath- 
er the profession/il, economic, and socidl 
development of the average engineer. To 
the American people, it is the voice of 
all professional engineers "in all mat- 
ters affecting their status as members 
of a profession and concerning the wel- 
fare of the public whom they serve," as 
expressed by one of the Society pam- 

A fairly young organization, N.S.P.E. 
was formed in 1934 by the joint efforts 
of four independent state engineering so- 
cieties wliose emphatic objective was the 


"promotion of the welfare of the engi- 
neer." Since that time membership has 
grown to 22,000 in the .34 state societies. 
To ever>' member, N.S.P.E. has very 
much the same significance that the 
American Medical Association or Amer- 
ican Bar has to members of the medical 
or legal professions. 

Following the general outline of the 
Federal C]overnment, N.S.P.E. is divid- 
ed into three levels: National, State and 
Local. The National group is the gov- 
erning body, it consists of the Hoard of 
Directors, one from each of the State 
societies. From this group the national 
officers are elected. State societies such 
as the Illinois Society of Professional 
Engineers have their own self-governing 
bodies and are further divided into the 
local chapters. The organizational chart 
shown on this page gives some idea of 
these various divisions of the Society. 

And You 

The preceding paragraphs have given 
a rough outline of the N.S.P.E., its 
founding, primary purposes, and organi- 
zational set-up. However, The Tcchno- 
graph, as a student engineering publica- 
tion is naturally interested in this or- 
ganization from the student's point of 

For the sake of convenience, take Pat 
Jones, an average engineering student at 
the University of Illinois. He could be 














(STamo;k& and! 

I cowximts I 


The relationship between individ- 
ual members, the I.S.P.E., and the 
other organizations are illustrated 
in this chart. 

a friend of yours, your roommate, a cas- 
ual acquaintance or even you. 

Pat, having read the preliminary ma- 
terial of this article, scratches his head 
and says, "Well, N.S.P.E. sounds pretty 
good, but it seems to me that oidy prac- 
ticing engineers belong to it. 1 never 
heard of it having student chapters like 
the A.S.A.E. or the A.I.Ch.E." 

Yes, students can become affiliated 
by joining a local chapter of the State 
society, either in the town of their 
school, which in the case of the Uni\er- 
sity of Illinois would be the Cham- 
paign County chapter, or the local chap- 
ter in their home town. Student chapters 

This article is concerned with 
the National Society of Profes- 
sional Engineers, a fairly young 
organization which includes pro- 
fessional men in all phases of 
engineering and which acts as 
the voice of the American Pro- 
fessional Engineer in social and 
economic fields beyond the 
scope of the slipstick world. 

will probably never be organized since 
one of the basic interests of the Society 
is the social intermingling of its mem- 
bers. Thus, students are not segregated 
into their own groups, but are free to 
become acquainted with professional en- 
gineers of all ages and types of experi- 
ence at the monthly chapter meetings. 
"One thing I'd like to know," Pat 
asks, "is what sort of an examination 
I have to take before I can become a 
registered engineer? Does the Society 
have anything to do with this profes- 
sional engineering registration? And 
why do I have to register anyway?" 

Engineer at Targe 

Why registration? As emphasized at 
the beginning of this article, a profes- 
sion is judged by the work of its people. 
Thus, the purpose of this professional 
registration is to draw a dividing line 
between the qualified members of a pro- 
fession and those unqualified to prac- 
tice. As in the case of registered medi- 
cal men and lawyers, so public recogni- 
tion is also granted to those licensed by 
state authority to practice engineering. 

What does N.S.P.E. have to do with 
registration? Contrary to many opinions, 
(Continued on page 22) 


By Dean Felton, C.E. '51 

It is a tributary of the Ohio Ri\er ; 
it has a drainage area of 5.3 square 
miles; it owns a U. S. Geological gage 
station located at Latitude 40° 06' 40" 
and Longitude 88° 13' 40". The iire- 
ceding statement may be used, but the 
engineers of north campus refer to it as 
"The Boneyard." "Beloved Boneyard," 
that is! 

The slow-moving, self-cleaning trash 
barrel of this campus is not always 
placid. The creek reminds one of \LTrk 
Twain's character, "Topsy," in that it 
apparently doesn't have a source, but 
just grows. The main supply of water 
is from rain and "Lake Neil," occa- 
sionally resulting in rampages which 
threaten to wash out most of our en- 
gineering campus. The all-time maxi- 
mum flow was recorded on the after- 
noon of July 15, 1948. At that time 
the discharge recorded at the gage sta- 
tion behind Civil Engineering Hall was 
345 ft.' see. The minimum, however, 
was recorded a short time later, when 
the discharge dropped to 1.0 ft.^ sec. on 
September 27, 1948. 


^ "^^m 




The weir under the E.E. research lab is used for measuring the flow rate 
of the Boneyard. No floating ping pong balls are visible in this shot. 

The Boneyard flow gage shown 
here recorded an all-time high and 
on all-time low discharge rate 
within the short space of two 
months lost year. 

We hear the Ceramic engineers are 
preparing to shift into capacity produc- 
tion of bricks. Apparently the city of 
L rbana is unable to provide the neces- 
sary 2\4\H blocks for repairing the rap- 
idly disintegrating sidewalk along Good- 
win street. The ceramists, who don't 
appreciate walking in muck, are willing 
to furnish the missing bricks if some- 
one will insert same. 

A new release from the University 
of Illinois Press, entitled "History of 
the Development of Building Construc- 
tion in Chicago," will prove to be a 
great boon to structural and foundation 
engineers in or near Chicago. 

The book contains a detailed and pre- 
cise account of the histories of the foun- 
dation and structural work involved in 
the construction of many of Chicago's 
more important buildings. Although cov- 
ering all ground between Chicago's 
founding up until 1948, the book high- 
lights the great building era between 
1871, the year of the Chicago fire, and 
1915; for it was during these years 

that foundation design came into being 
as another major phase of engineering. 
Frank A. Randall, the author, com- 
piled this data from his many years of 
experience as a consulting engineer of 
Chicago. Mr. Randall has often been 
a special lecturer to senior civil engi- 
neering students here at the University. 
» * » 

CONGRATS to C. C. Wiley, pro- 
fessor of Civil engineering, on his fourth 
edition of the Route Surveying textbook. 
Professor Wiley has rewritten the book 
which he wrote with the late G. W. 

The new edition follows the previous 
book closely as to content; howe\er the 
material has been brought up to date 
in methods of usage. Additional mate- 
rial has been written on railroad and 
highway curves, with other necessary 
data on various topics included. 

The frontispiece of the new edition 
tells of its dedication by Professor Wiley 
to (i. W. Pickels, a professor of Civil 
engineering, and a former associate and 
close friend. 

(Cdritinued on page 24) 



The Eiisincfrinif Honorarios and }im\m 

Mtif nan Kv«'ff'. 1 h.E. "SO 


Kngiiu-ciiiifi Opt'ii House! That's tlu- 
main topic being talked over across the 
engineer's round table. The ball is be- 
ginning to roll and it sounds as if this 
will be one of the biggest events on the 
campus this year. 

The show is, at present, scheduled 
tor next spring; but before then there's 
idts to be done and e\ery minute is 
\aluable. As things stand now, each of 
the engineering departments will ex- 
hibit a display representative of their 
field of work. When the big day comes, 
there will be guided tours through the 
\arious engineering buildings and the 
displays will be demonstrated by mem- 
bers of the societies. It will be an excel- 
lent opportum'ty for everyone to become 
acquainted with what the different 
branches of engineering are doing. Doii't 
forget! You're invited and so is anyone 
and everyone ; the more, the merrier. 
(In fact, you can help!) 

.'Ml the latest information on the 
Open House can be read in the Tith 
or can be obtained from your Engi- 
neering Council representative. 

Have you decided what you'd like 
to do after you leave Alma Mater? In 
case you haven't quite made up your 
mind, the Engineering Council, in co- 
operation with other councils on the 
campus, has some news that you'll find 
interesting. Right here we'll mention 
the dates: December 5, 6, 7, and H. 
Don't forget them ! 

Wondering what's so important that 
\()u shoiddn't overlook? It's called the 
Career Conference and that's exactly 
what it's going to be: a conference on 

Some of the most important men in 
industry will come here to the Univer- 
sity' to give informative talks on their 
type of work. One of the major aims 
is to acquaint the students with the va- 
rious fields, and as we said before, if 
you haven't made a choice \"et, this is 
.something you can't afford to miss. 
Everyone will find that one of the 
talks will be something he wants to 

If you're a freshman in Commerce 
or a senior in Engineering, there'll be 
a talk for you ; and if you want to hear 
them all, go ahead — every one of the 
talks will be interesting, clear, and to 
the point. 

There are a few more deals on the 
fire that \ou won't want to pas^ up, 
and we'll give you the straight info as 
soon as possible. 

It's going to be a busy year for the 
Council but they say the engineering 
outfits have thrown out the word iin- 
[^ussihle — no scientific proof to support 
its use. 


Two members of the Illinois Alpha 
Chapter of Pi Tau Sigma, Joseph T. 
Ream and Donald R. Tarne, attended 
the annual national convention of this 
Mechanical Engineering honorary fra- 
ternity which was held this year, Octo- 
ber 20 through 22, at Lehigh Univer- 
sity, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

Representati\es from all 41 different 
chapters throughout the nation were 
present to discuss the past year's activi- 
ties and make plans for the coming 


The Mineral Industries Society start- 
ed the semester this fall with their an- 
nual student-facidty smoker which was 
held last month. 

At another gathering in October, Dr. 
William C. Robb, Assistant Dean of 
the College of Commerce and Business 
Administration, gave a talk on the Taft- 
Hartley law and its repercussions today 
on labor and management. The MIS 
likes to keep pace with the world today. 

The exact line-up for the semester is 
still a little in doubt, but there'll be 
a meeting on the second Wednesday of 
e\ery month. In the way of business, 
the MIS is talking over the plans for 
the Engineering Open House and the 
Career Conference. Mighty Industrious 

A.S.M.E. & S.A.E. 

The ASME and the SAE combined 
their many talents to make a big suc- 
cess of their 'Tirst Xighter." If attend- 
ance at the smoker, October 6, is indica- 
tive, the gears will really be turning 
over this year. 

John Menees, president of the 
ASME, presided and introduced offi- 
cers and advisers of both student chap- 
ters; he also introduced the two guest 
speakers of the evening, N. A. Parker, 
head of the Mechanical Engineering 

department, and Dr. William L. Eve- 
ritt, dean of the College of Engineer- 

Professor Parker, in his talk on "The 
Engineering College Viewpoint of the 
Engineering Council and Societies," 
brought to the fore some of the past 
of the Council. He proposed the form- 
ula: S = AIM -\- E. Literature students 
would better understand this as: Suc- 
cess equals a knowledge of Materials, 
Machines, Methods, and Man. plus En- 

Dean Everitt included a bit of re- 
ligious philosophy, as well as plenty of 
wit, in his talk about "The Importance 
of the Engineering Societies to the En- 
gineering Students and Graduates." 


The electrical and radio engineers 
got under way this fail with a meeting 
on October 4. Dean Everitt, dean of 
the College of Engineering, and Dr. 
Ryder, head of the E.E. 
department, were present 
as guests. Most of the 
business talked over that 
night revolved around St. 
Pat's Ball. A vote was 
taken as to whether the electrical show 
shoidd be held at the same time as the 
Ball, but the results of the poll have 
not been reported. 


If you should happen to see a student 
standing calmly in the middle of Green 
street inviting almost certain death, just 
forget it. It's probably one of ITE's 
boys — a traffic engineer, that is. Any 
time that you can't find a place to park 
your car, give them a call and they'll 
tell \ou all about it. 

At their last meeting on October 24, 
the traffic engineers had Professor 
Wiley, a member of the ITE national 
chapter, and Professor Danner, high- 
way engineer, as guests. Professor 
Wiley gave a talk entitled "Traffic En- 
gineering and the Future," and members 
discussed a survey on parking at the 
University. Along that same line, an- 
other subject of interest was an e\alua- 
tion of the parking lots now in use and 
the possible sites of new ones. 

If you ask them how to get through 
our great little college town safely in 
(Continued on page 24) 



Oi^iJ^odddJcluXf, . 

Bfi ifare Cash. Ag.E. ^3i 

anil .r»hn Mluhi'r. Atf.E. '32 


Charles Jankowsky was born in the 
cement city, Oglesby, IHiiiois, and at- 
tended school in Minonk. Upon gradu- 
ation from high school in 1934, he went 
to work for the CCC at Galva, Illi- 
nois. In 1037, he went to Washington, 
D. C, to spend a year with the Carto- 
graphic unit of the Soil Conservation 
Service. He spent the years between 
1938 and 1942 with the U. S. Engi- 
neers in Little Rock, Arkansas, work- 
ing on soil conservation projects in Ar- 
kansas and Missouri. 

April, 1942, found Jankowsky in 
Uncle Sam's armv. With the 15th Air 


Force in Africa and Italy, he was a 
bombardier on a B-17. Following serv- 
ice, in November, 1945, he went back 
to his job at Little Rock. He soon 
found that he could advance no higher 
among the engineers without a college 
degree, so he decided that the next thing 
would be a college education. 

Jan, as he is often called, entered 
the University of Illinois in September, 
1946. Because of his experience in soil 
conservation, he considered Agricultural 
engineering, but he decided upon petro- 
leum production and later switched to 
Mining engineering, in which he will 
graduate in Februar\'. Charles found 
college a little difficult at first, after 
being out of school for 12 years. How- 
ever, by the second semester, he was 
working 52 hours a week besides going 
to school. 

Jankowsky prefers rolling land to the 


flat plains of Central Illinois. He does 
not have a job yet, but would be inter- 
ested in almost any type of mining. He 
is a member of MIS and a student asso- 
ciate of AIMF. He was married last 


Last year Deane G. Carter, profe.ssor 
of farm structures, received his profes- 
sional degree of Agricultural Engineer, 
awarded by the University of Illinois. 
This was the first and, so far, the only 
degree of this type. 

Born in Missouri, Mr. Carter attend- 
ed Iowa State College, where he re- 
ceived his B.S. degree in 1915. He spent 
about two years with Jamesway, a farm 
building equipment manufacturer, and 
three years on the staff at Iowa State 
College. The next year, 1919, he or- 
ganized a department of Agricultural 
Engineering at North Carolina. Mr. 
Carter was head of the Agricultural 
Engineering department at the L^niver- 
sity of Arkansas from 1922 to 1941. 
He came to Illinois in 1941. 

Professor Carter is a member of Tau 
Beta Pi, Alpha Zeta, Sigma Xi, and 
Gamma Sigma Delta. He has written 
two books. Farm Buildings, with W. A. 
Foster, and Faiiiily Housing, with Keith 
H. Hinchcliff, both of which are ac- 
cepted as standard college texts. 

He has served as a consultant on rural 
construction, building design, and hous- 
ing, and as a collaborator with various 
government agencies. Dr. Carter is 
chairman of the Research committee on 



Farm Housing for the North Central 

His interests in students is shown by 
his work on the graduate program in 
Agricultural engineering, and by his per- 
sonal counseling and aid in the registra- 
tion of students in the Agricultural en- 
gineering cirruculum. 


(lirard (iolden is a man worth meet- 
ing and getting to know well. He is a 
chemical engineer in his last semester. 

Not to be content with a mere B.S. 
degree, he plans to continue his studies 
and obtain a Ph.D. From the looks of 
his 4.5 average he will have no trouble 
in fulfilling this ambition. After that 


he will be interested in the production 
phase of chemical engineering work. 

Back in '44, about two weeks after 
graduating from high school, Girard 
joined the army reserves and went to 
Princeton L^niversity under the A- 12 
plan. F"ollowing a year and a half there 
and five months of regular army duty, 
he attended the North Carolina State 
College for one semester. He was dis- 
charged in October of '46 and came 
to this great institution of learning the 
following February. He was a member 
of the Newman club for a year and is, 
of course, a student member of the 

Girard's father is an insurance and 
real estate salesman in Rochester, N. Y. 
A younger brother has also chosen the 
engineering profession and is studying 
at Alfred University in New York. 

Despite the fact that Girard is an 
engineer and has been in the upper 
three per cent of his class for two years, 
he is not an intellectual bore. Gifted 
with an engaging personality, Girard is 
a very eligible bachelor. 


9n^luieo^ute^..MM^ PIER 


By BOB KING, C.E. '51 


The student chapter of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers had as speak- 
er at its first meeting in October Mr. 
R. Salter, an outstanding engineer, 
working with the city of Chicago. Mr. 
Salter was formerly the .society's repre- 
sentative in the Midwest. He chose as 
his topic, ''Filtered Water for Chi- 

At a business meeting held recentlw 
the following men were elected to of- 
fice : 

President, Stan Cjerut; Secretary, N. 
Harano\ich ; (Outside Representative, R. 
C. King; anil Social Chairman, Dale 

The society also set up a fall program 
of eight meetings for the coming school 
year, in addition to the usual social 

A scholarship of fifty dollars, offered 
last year by the society, was awarded 
to \like Whittington and Bob King. 
The checks were pre.sented to these men 
at camp where the money came in 

Mike Whittington and Bob King 
were at summer surveying camp 
when their A.S.C.E. scholarship 
checks were presented to them. 


Bob King Editor 

Ronald Sak Isst. Editor 

John SoloRio Bus. Mar. 


Clarence Niehow I'd Ba> I 

Mr. Ogden I.ivermore, SpooMir 


The first meeting was held on Sep- 
tember 27, where general business was 
discussed and future plans made. On 
October II the society held its second 
meeting which consisted of a movie and 
general business. Tentatively, four field 
trips to various concerns in the Chicago 
area are being planned by the field trip 

The group of new officers consists of 
Irving H. Hallberg, president; Leon C. 
Hummel, vice-president; J. Roy Wil- 
helm, treasurer. They are planning as 
full a program as the society experienced 
last semester. 

I iicdiit lots and imcant minds iisiiiilly ' 
heioiiic dumping grounds for ruhhish. 

Some men dream of being something; 
others stay awake and are. 

* «- * 

In the footprints on tin snnds nf time, 
some people leave only the marks of a 

A man is never too busy to talk about 
how busv he is. 




This is for YOU! 

On December 5, 6, 7, and 8, the first annual Career Conference will be pre- 
sented at the University of Illinois. The purpose of this Conference is to give 
YOU a complete first-hand account of industrial and professional occupations. 

Speakers from nearly all fields of endeavor, fully representing the University 
colleges and schools, will be on the campus during the Conference week to give 
YOU precise information about vocations that YOU may be interested in. These 
speakers will be the men most capable of informing YOU about careers. They 
have been recommended by the deans of the various colleges and the heads of 
departments. Sixty-four prominent men have been contacted, and many of them 
have responded with interest and a desire to help in this very worth-while 

Each speaker will inform you of the complete career situation in his respective 
field. The following items will be included in his talk: 

1. Job opportunities 

2. Promotional opportunities 

3. Preparatory training 

4. Specialization 

5. On-the-job training programs 

The idea for this Conference was originated about two years ago by Phi Eta 
Sigma, Freshman men's honorary, and the YMCA. It has been in the process of 
development and organization since that time. With the advice of the YMCA 
and the approval of the deans of the colleges, University funds were secured 
for the presentation of the Conference this December. 

The administrative work for the Conference is being done by students of 
the following organizations: 

Engineering Council, College of Engineering 
Commerce Council, College of Commerce 
L.A.S. Council, College of L. A. & S. 
Junior Bar Association, College of Law 
Journalism Forum, College of Journalism 
Education Forum, College of Education 
Agricultural Council, College of Agriculture 
Phi Epsilon Kappa, Physical Education School 

Remember, you slipstick shuffler, you electrician, you grease 

monkey, and you, too, plumber! YOUR career will be better 

because of the Career Conference 









SecuutJ/uuiJ ^Vvd-Aid? 

"The L niversit\' assumes no responsibilit\ 
for accidents that may occur." A sign bearing 
these words of warning gently reminds you 
to be careful around the furnace in the 

Suppose that on the morning of October 
22 you were standing within five feet of this 
sign, but burned a finger despite its warn- 
ings. You would have descended 10 feet of 
stairs, and walked, or ran, at least 60 feet 
to a first-aid box. It is assumed, of course, 
that you knew into which dark corner to look, 
so that vou could go directly to the first- 
aid cabinet. 

After opening the door of the dirty case, 
you found : 

1 bottle — spirits of ammonia 
1 bottle — green soap 
1 bottle — aluminum acetate 
1 bottle — 3% iodine 
1 1 applicator swabs 
1 enameled pan 
1 box cotton 
1 tourinquet 
4 rolls gauze bandage 
6 gauze compresses 

What did you do? Start throwing on bot- 
tles and bandages? Run over to the Health 
Center and wait for treatment? Say "Nuts" 
and go back to work at the furnace? 

Had your intuition worked miraculously 
(or if you were a good Boy Scout), you 
would have used the aluminum acetate solu- 
tion. Then you would have looked for a pic- 
ric acid compress to tape over the burn; and 
you woulii ha\e received proper first-aid treat- 

However, if the aluminum acetate failed 
to jump into your hand when you opened 
the door, you would have received absolutely 
no hint that it was intended for burns like 

The label on the ammonia bottle said, 
"dilute, 1 teaspoon to 10 teaspoons water." 
(\V"ho wants to fuss with teaspoons in an 

emergency?) The iodine was in a clear white 
bottle without the customary POISON greet- 
ing. Of the 11 applicator swabs, four were 
protected and clean, four were open and ex- 
posed to the dirt, and three had been used 
once and were waiting for a second time 
through. The cotton box was open, tape sup- 
ply was insufficient, and the picric acid com- 
presses had recessed. The tourinquet carried 
the dangerous directions, "twist until bleed- 
ing stops." The enameled pan? ... it must 
be pro\ided to keep the blood from dripping 
onto the floor! 

Twenty first-aid boxes throughout the en- 
gineering campus were checked on the event- 
ful day that you binned your finger. All were 
dirty by the "white glove" test. Xo mice ran 
out of the corners, but the cabinets were 
about that sterile! Seven used applicators were 
found contributing to contamination. Prob- 
ably seven ungrateful beneficiaries were re- 
sible. Or did they leave their last testimonials 
in the first-aid cabinets? 

In six first-aid boxes the ammonia bottle 
specified dilution before using. If the Health 
Service supplies a uniform concentration to 
all ammonia bottles, there should be uniform 
labels. And it's a bit foolish to put out any- 
thing that can't be used directly. 

Despite the fact that ultra-violet light in- 
creases the activity of iodine, Dr. Beard, di- 
rector of the Health Center, seems to con- 
sider clear white bottles good enough to con- 
tain the iodine in the first-aid cabinets. Ap- 
parently others ha\e different opinions, be- 
cause it is sold m brown or blue bottles. 

According to Dr. Cireenwood of the Health 
Center, green soap is good for wounds. Sev- 
eral of the bottles say the opposite ; some say 
"for external use only"; some say "poison." 
Maybe the color (green to yellow to red) 
doesn't matter, but the label does! Is it or 
ain't it? 

All bottles that arc poisonous should he 
labeled POISON. One of these days we'll 
hear of someone taking ammonia to cure an 
acid stomach ! 




Associate Editor 



The first-aid boxes are not plainly marked; 
the white cabinets don't stand out from the 
usually yellow walls. In the new IVI. E. build- 
ing there is no distinguishing marking what- 
ever to tell you what lies behind those mir- 
rors in the corridors. A mirror on a first- 
aid cabinet is all in the bathroom, but in 
the corridors, safety, rather than vanity, 
should be the objective. (This is no fault of 
the Mechanical Engineering department. 
They merely requisitioned the Health Cen- 
ter to install the cabinets and did not not 
choose the style.) 

In the new E. E. building the contents 
can be seen, but the cabinets are set back into 
the walls. Thus they can't be easily identified 
from afar. 

Only in Talbot lab was any semblance of 
first-aid instruction found. A small card on 
the door of each cabinet gives specific di- 
rections for using each of the materials inside. 
Most of the equipment was fresh and clean 
— and the green soap \^•as green. 

First-aid treatment for burns seems to be 
particularly lacking in the metal heat treat- 
ment laboratory and the ceramics kiln room. 
Apparently burns are not uncommon in the 
former — the aluminum acetate bottle outside 
the heat treatment lab was empty. It takes 
almost a 100-yard dash from the kiln room 
to get to the butesin picrate in the Ceramics 

And then there is the Chemistry depart- 
ment. Hats off for a first-aid cabinet in every 
student laboratory. But Dr. Roger Adams 
can eat 'em, feathers and all, 'cause the cabi- 
nets are locked. 

Why, Dr. Adams, ichy? Do chemistry stu- 
dents know less about first aid than others? 
Are the key-carrying instructors given spe- 
cial instructions? Would the chem students 

steal the contents? . . . then why isn't the fire 
blanket in 250 Noyes locked up too? Or 
would the first-aid supplies be used up too 
fast if everyone could easily get his own treat- 

Last spring three students went to Mc- 
Kinley hospital from Organic lab, Chem 237. 
Yes, the instructors were on hand when each 
of the accidents happened ; but it would often 
be faster to run down the corridor to the 
"free" first-aid station than to run over to 
Nick's to get the instructor. 

pLirthermore, the Health Center recom- 
mends no locks; and they won't fill the bot- 
tles unless specially requested by the depart- 

The svstem for maintaining the first-aid 
stations is almost a pass-the-buck affair. About 
every two weeks the Health Center sends 
out someone to fill the bottles; standard first- 
aid equipment is used throughout. However, 
each department has to requisition for any 
items that might be missing or that need re- 

Hut how do they know if ,i bottle of iodine 
needs replacing? The\' usualh' don't! Xo bot- 
tles are dated when installed or when filled. 
(They don't even know when to celebrate 
the first anniversary!) It seems that no peri- 
odic check is made on the quality of contents. 
The green soap coidd turn back to green, the 
aluminum acetate could precipitate out, and 
ammonia could blow its top; or "will it take 

The Health Center anil the ilepartments 
shoidd either define the obligation or make 
plans for better cooperation. Let's make the 
first-aid .stations shout! Let's provide correct 
labels and directions for usage, and keep tabs 
on the filling dates! And, please, let's open 
the doors, Roger! — R.L.H. 




( CoiitiiuR'd troin page 7) 
acid to the ghcerine before it was used. 
The result of the investigation produced 
what are called the modified glyptals 
which find wide usage in paints and 

In V:)19 Dr. Fritz I'ollak began a 
detailed investigation of the plastics that 
might be obtained through the use of 
urea and formaldehyde. The real ob- 
ject of his search was a substitute for 
glass but he was unsuccessful in this 

He did show, howe\er, that the plas- 
tic obtained from the reaction could be 
used as a molding powder when suitable 
fillers were employed. The products of 
the reaction were thermosetting and 
some manufacturing of them was started 
in 1924. Dr. Pollak's work showed, 
moreover, that the amino-plasties could 
be used successfully; a few years later, 
another famous man in plastics was to 
show just how successfully. 

'J'lni/iirj/>lfistir Fo/y /Iters 

From the beginning of plastics in 
lSf)5 until 1929, the bulk of the re- 
search carried out produced only ma- 
terials which were thermosetting. It was 
in that dark year of the "Big Crash" 
that a new type of plastic appeared ; 
rather than hardening when heated, it 

remained soft and pliable. This new 
line of research was carried on in (ler- 
many, at first, and a few years later in 
the L'nited States. The subject of the 
investigations was the polymerization of 
styrene which yielded a material called, 
appropriately enough, polystyrene. 

The rciction involves connecting the 
molecules of styrene together; and 
though there are many catalysts that 
may be used, heat alone is sufficient. 
The long chains are formed as in the 
thermosetting compounds, but little or 
no cross-linking occurs. As a result, the 
plastic does not get harder when heated. 
This is a characteristic of the thermo- 
plastic materials. In many cases, the 
high molecular weight compound ma\ 
break down into the individual mole- 
cules when heated. 

A casual glance through most of the 
large circulation magazines will yield 
a number of advertisements for items 
made of polystyrene. Two of the more 
prominent names used commercially are 
Lustrex and Styron. Kitchen utensils, 
wallboard, and toys are among the most 
familiar products molded of polystyrene 
but the list of things made from it is 
growing every day. 

Soon after the work on polystyrene, 
research was conducted on the polymeri- 
zation of methyl methacrylate. The 

tradenames under which this material 
appears on the market are Plexiglas and 
Lucite; and in F'ngland, the same thing 
is called Ferspex. Mentioning the 
things that bear one of those names 
would be stating the obvious. Plexiglas, 
of course, will be remembered as the 
material used in the "windows" of air- 

The polyvinyl compounds were de- 
veloped after plexiglas and are known 
conimnnly under the trade name of Vi- 
nylite. There are, however, many differ- 
ent forms of the tough vinylite plas- 
tics; this is also true for most of the 

The vinyl polymers pop up all over 
the place. That chair in the corner may 
be covered with a vinyl plastic uphol- 
stery material ; one form of vinylite gets 
trampled upon all the time, perhaps 
the lawn hose is made of vinylite ; that 
shower curtain upstairs may well be 
made out of vinyl plastic. It's a job try- 
ing to avoid the stuff and there's a rea- 
son. The plastics hold up better than 
anything else. 

While on this particular group of 
polymers, a word must be said about 
one of the relatively new ones. The 
polyethylene plastics made their debut 
on the market about 1939. One of the 
(Continued on page 20) 



Chrome Clad 
Steel Tape 

This cross section view gives you the "inside story" 
of the most outstanding development in steel tapes in 
years. (1) Hardened steel tape — tough — flexible — 
kink-resistant. (2) Rust resistant coating. (3) Multiple 
coats of electroplating. (4) Hard, smooth, non-glare 
chrome plating. Will not crack, chip or peel. (5) Jet 
black markings — easy to read in any light — bonded to 
steel base — sunk below chrome surface protecting them 
against wear. 

Ask your distributor for them or write for complete 
details on Lufkin Chrome Clad "Super Hi-Way," 
"Pioneer," and "Michigan" Chain Tapes. 

TH E /UFK/N PuLe Po. 




Books and Supplies 

for every engineering need 




W orld's fastest automatic changer— in RCA 45 rpm system- 
changes records in 5 seconds. 

^^/^/^ c/?a/7^e a/t/s6 

Hundreds of thousands are now enjoying 
RCA's thrilling new way of playing rec- 
ords . . . they marvel at its wonderful tone 
. . . and the speed with which it changes 

Prolonged research is behind this achieve- 
ment, research which sought — for the first 
lime in 70 years of phonograph history — a 
record and automatic player designed for 
each other. 

Revolutionary is its record-changing 
principle, with mechanism inside the cen- 
tral spindle post on which records are 
so easily stacked. Result: a simplified 
machine, that automatically changes rec- 
ords in 5 seconds. 

Remarkable, too, are the new records — 
only 6Tb inches in diameter— yet giving the 

playing time of conventional 12-inch rec- 
ords. Unbreakable, these compact vinyl plas- 
tic discs use onlv the distortion-free "quality 
zone". . . for unbelievable beauty of tone. 

\'alue of the research behind RCA's 45 
rpm system — which was started 1 1 years 
ago at RCA Laboratories — is seen in the 
instant acceptance, by the public, of this 
better way of playing records. Music 
lovers may now have both the 45 rpm 
system, and the conventional "78." 

Development of an cntirchj new record-play- 
ing principle is just one of hundreds of ways 
in tchich RCA research works for you. 
Leadership in science and engineering adds 
\alue be\(>nd price to any product of RCA, 
or RCA Victor. 

Continue your education 
with pay— at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor-one ol llie world's foremost nunu- 
facturers of r.idio and electronic products 
— offers yon opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training .and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise; 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

o Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
eqtiipmcnt, relay systems. 

o Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

» Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray. gas and phot<i tubes, 

W'rilc loiliiy to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

tiJlOMO common Jkrt OM <rf JiJW£ttMCM 

IVor/c/ l.^cfc/er //i ^ac//o — T^rsf- in Te/ei^/s/on 




I Coiitiiuiecl from page 18) 

trade names (used in England) is poh- 
thcnc. The material finds use in co-a.\ial 
cables as an insidator and has also bt'en 
used to make wrappers for food that 
is to be kept in refrigeration. 

Syiilhftir Rubbers 

Technically speaking, the synthetic 
rubbers should not be classified as plas- 
tics. They are considered as such, how- 
ever, because of their similarity tliroufili 
the process of polymerization h\ which 
they are made. 

The first reported work done in tlu' 
field was that carried out in 1890 b\ 
a man named Tilden. He obtained a 
rubber-like material by treating isoprene 
with sodium metal but this appears to 
be as far as anvone went with this field 
of research. 

It was not until the first Worhl War 
that (lermany turned her full attention 
to the problem of finding a substitute 
for natural rubber. They were forced 
into this action since the Allies had sev- 
ered the rubber supply route. The stop- 
gap material that was fiiialh obtained 
and used involved the treatment of buta- 
diene with sodium metal. 

The synthetic resulting from the re- 
action was highly unsatisfactory and 

after the war there was apparently no 
extensive research carried out; {Germany 
returned to the use of natural rubber 
when it was once again a\ailable to 

In I ').?(), however, the Ciermans again 
tackleil the problem of synthetic rubber; 
this time they would not be caught off 
guard as they were in the first war. 
The result of this research was Buna 
S which is made by the co-polynieri/,a- 
lion of butadiene and styrene. .Mean- 
while, the I'nited States carried out 
only limited iiuestigations of the prob- 
lem of a natural rubber substitute. 

In I'Hi, we woke up one moijiing 
and found ourselves cut off from the 
rubber suppl\' of the East Indies by the 
Japanese. Work was started at a fever- 
ish pace and through a major chemical 
engineering feat we succeeded in pro- 
ducing 800,000 tons per year before 
the end of the war. 

We now have available a new prod- 
uct called cold rubber that will gi\e 
longer and better wear than natural 


No discussion of plastics would be 
complete without reference to the bril- 
liant work done by Dr. W. H. Ca- 
rothers and his assistants. Dr. Carothers 
began his detailed investigation of ther- 

moplastics in 1927. In the course of his 
research he discovered cold drawing, and 
his fibers were the first truly synthetic 
material e\er produced. The mention of 
his name immediately brings to mind 
the name "nylon." It should be noted 
that the name does not mean that all 
the nylon products are the same thing. 
There are different types of nylon fi- 
bers, depending upon the use to which 
the final product is to be put. 

The list of items made out of some 
form of nylon is practically a book in 
itself, so just a few will be mentioned. 
To the feminine creatures on the cam- 
pus, the name nylon means hose that 
wears and wears and wears; it also 
stands for one of the latest accomplish- 
ments: dresses that can be washed in 
the sink, dried in an hour, and worn 
as .soon as they are dry. There's no 
ironing required even if the dress has 
a lot of pleats! 

Of course the men get something out 
of this amazing material, too. There are 
nylon shirts that dry in little or no time 
and don't need be ironed ; and there are 
socks that wear like iron. Nylon cargo 
nets and tow ropes are in use ; not only 
are they longer lasting but they're 
stronger than steel cables. The Air 
Force used nylon ropes to pick up and 
(Continued on page 22) 

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8 Issues $1.50 



Let's get down to earth . 

Imagine stealing three billion tons of earth every year! 
That's what soil erosion has been doing. And this gigantic 
tlicft has cost farmers billions of dollars. For good earth is 
riol dirt cheap. 

"Stop erosion!" has become the farmers' war cry. Agri- 
cultural agencies have joined the farmers. Together, they 
have turned to the farm machinery makers. They've asked 
for bigger and better bulldozers, tractors, graders for neces- 
sarv ditching and terracing. But to build this super farm 
machinery takes tougher steel, new alloys. 

Here is where UCC enters the allied offensive against 
erosion. Drawing on its vast engineering experience, UCC 
contributes modern metallurgical techniques and alloys. 
This co-operation widi steel manufacturers helps the farm 
machinery makers . . . who then are able to give the farmers 
the equipment they need. 

How is the "war" going? The farmers are winning. Dust 

bowls are vanishing. Sterile lands show signs of life. Yes, the 
farmers are winning their fight against soil erosion with a 
combination of new equipment, revegelation and crop 

Union Carbide is proud of its part in this effort. And the 
people of UCC stand ready to help solve other problems . . . 
wherever better materials and processes are needed. 

FREE : You are intiled la send for the new illus- 
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NEW YORK 17, N . Y. 

Trademnrhed Prodticia of Divisions and t'ni/s include 

Electromet Alloys and Metals • BAKELrrs, Krene, VlNVON, and VlNYLITE Plastics • Havnes STEI.I.ITE Alloys 

LiNDEOxycen • Prest-0-Lite Acetylene • PyROFAX Gas • SYNTHETIC Organic CHEMICALS 

Prestone and Trek Anti Freezes • National Carbons • Eveready Flashlights and Batteries • Acheson Electrodes 




(Continued from page 20) 

tow their glidilcrs, while the Navy used 
a similar cable to tov\' huge dry docks 

Tliose nylon stockings worn by the 
campus cuties are not fragile little 
things. In a newspaper story recentl\ 
there was the tale about a woman who 
got her car mired in the mud. A passing 
motorist stopped, but neither of the two 
cars carried a tow chain or rope. The 
day was saved when the l.uK's stockings 
were used to tie the bumpers together 
and her car was pulled back onto the 

One of the limbs on the tree has 
been purposely avoided because it isn't 
as strong as might be desired. That one, 
of course, would be rayon. There are 
many articles of clothing made out of 
rayon but the material is not too satis- 
f.ictory. Most of the rayon fabrics are 
actually a combination of two or more 
plastics as th<' ad\ertiscnients often say. 
It is. none the less, an important de- 

In the course of the tree-climbing, 
only the more important branches have 
been investigated. There are many, 
manv more that could have been. How- 

ever, it's a very large tree ; and it will 
continue to grow, though not as rapidly 
as it has in the past few years. The 
possibilities in the fielil of plastics are 
almost unlimited. The way things are 
going now, that old commercial saw 
abo\it not accepting a substitute will 
h;i\e to be changed to something like: 
"If it can be made out of plastic, don't 
accept the natural thing." 

A famous company put it in ,i few 
wortls that are an appropriate ending 
to thi> climb: "Better Things foi Bet- 
ter I,i\ing . . . Through Chemistry." 

YOU and I.S.P.E 

(Continued from page 10) 

it is not the administrative power of 
these registration laws for the individ- 
ual states; these registration laws are 
enacted by 47 of the 48 states and come 
under state legislation since public health 
and safety is affected at every turn by 
engineering processes. N.S.P.E. is in- 
strumental, however, through its mem- 
ber societies, in fostering new state reg- 
istration laws and in notifying the 
State's Attorneys of violators of these 
laws. One of the objectives of the 
N.S.P.E. Legislative committee has been 
to bring about a uniformity of these 

laws, which vary widely from state to 
state, through a Model Registration 

Wh.'it does a student do to become 
registered? Man\- states follow the same 
registration code that Illinois has: a the- 
oretical examination given immediately 
after graduation from an accredited en- 
gineering school ; a training period in 
the professional field of four years or 
more; and, finally, a practical examina- 
tion. Examinations are given two times 
a year, in May and December. 

N.S.P.E. is still a very young organi- 
zation; but in time, it is hoped, will in- 
clude nearly all of the nation's engi- 
neers, for it is only in unity that the 
professional engineers will give the 
greatest service to society and receive 
their due public recognition and estee:ii. 

Additional information about the Illi- 
nois Society of Professional Engineers 
and the registration examinations can 
be obtained in the office of Professor 
H. E. Babbit in 204 Ci\il Engineering 

A quartet is where all four think 
the other three can't sing. 

^i giidt advantage in gr owing older 
is that you can sliiiid for iiiorr mid fall 
for less. 



From the headwaters region of the 
Amazon comes Up-River "Fine Para", widely acknowl- 
edged by rubber experts as the highest grade of natural 
rubber. To Okonile researchers and independent experts 
alike, long experience has shown that only this rubber 
provides all the factors needed in top quality insulation 
for electrical wires and cables. 

The Okonite Company obtains a high degree of uni- 
formity in shipment after shipment of this premium 
rubber in "biscuit" form . . . has found that Up-River 
Fine Para assures a long service life . . . uses it exclu- 
sively in all Okonite rubber insulated wires and cables. 
The Okonite Company, Passaic, New Jersey. 


nsulated wires and cables 

U. of I. Drug Store 

Your Campus Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 


Filled the Same Day 

Out of town engineers can depend 
upon prompt service by ordering by 
mail. Describe your needs. 


610 E. Daniel, Champaign 



A nother page for 


New head with a good idea 

Designers of a new milling head had a precision 
problem. They had to give the head a high degree 
of accuracy that would last even under the toughest 
loads. They answered the poser with Timken" 
tapered roller bearings — on spindle, pinion and 
gear shafts. 

Timken bearings keep the shafts rigid and accurate 
under heavy radial, thrust and combination loads, 
eliminate deflection and end-play, reduce wear on 
moving parts. 

TIMKEN bearings do 
9 out of 10 jobs better 

Nine out often bearing applications can be handled 
more efficiently by Timken bearings. Some of the 
reasons why: they carry radial and thrust and com- 
bination loads; line contact between rolls and races 
means greater load capacity; positive roller align- 
ment, true rolling motion, and microscopic accuracy 
make them almost 100^ frictionless; they permit 
pre-loading to any desired degree. 

Want to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems you'll 
face after graduation will involve bearing applica- 
tions. If you'd like to learn more about this phase 
of engineering, we'll be glad to help. For additional 
information about Timken bearings and how engi- 
neers use them, write today to The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And don't for- 
get to clip this page for future reference. 

50th birthday of the 
company whose products 

you know by the 
trade-mark: TIMKEN 







I I'diitinui'ii troni iiajjc 12) 
a car, you'll probably irct rlic .■msurr: 
"It's Tough, Eh?" 


The chemical ciif;iiu'(M>, all dicsscd 
up with a new buiiilini!; that thi-y can't 
ili't into yet, have things prett>' well 
liiieil up tor the fall term. They started 
ott the year with a smoker 
at which the faculty mem- 
lH"r> were introduced. Open 
House business was dis- 
cussed, and a prodigious 
amount of smokes were smoked. At a 
meeting last month, Dr. John Bailar, 
head of the job placement department, 
spoke on employment and what to ex- 
pect when you try to get same. 

On the evening of November 9, Mr. 
M. H. Arveson, technical director of 
the Iniloil Chemical Company, spoke 
cm chemical patents. Mr. Averson's talk especially prepared for presentation 
before young technical men. 

Coming up, on the night of Decem- 
ber 7, are two motion pictures. The first 
features Alan Ladd and Janet Shaw in 
"Unfinished Rainbows," while the sec- 
ond goes under the title of "l\'st T ube 
to Tank Car." 

The latest word from Henr\' Kahn, 

presidetit of the AIChE, is that there 
■.na\' be .a party later in the semester. 
Rumor has it tli.if "appropi'iate refresh- 
ments" will be ,i\ .-ulable in sufficient 
quantities for all. 

Don Engelbrecht, .AlCbf: banker 
this f.all, says that he'll be more than 
glad to see an\(ine who wants to pav 
his dues. Don can be tiiund in ^0 Noyes 
Lab most of the time; and, it you dcjn't 
see him right a\\a\, look into the packed 


The -Americ.ui I'Oundry Society took 
care of their organizing early last 
month, so tlie\ got off to a good >tart. 
This wasn't such a b.ul deal they 
thought, so on the J()th of October 
they held a <linner. Perhaps that e\- 
pl.ains some of the well-ted looks ai"<Mind 

Paul Green, president of AFS, in- 
forms us that the schedule this fall in- 
cludes a field trip, a guest speaker, and 
some movies. The dates of these events 
aren't definite as yet; but if you make 
a practice of reading the Engineering 
bulletin board on the ground floor of 
C. E. H., you'll find out well in ad- 
vance what the plans are. 


( Continued trcjni page 1 1 ) 

A \oung engineer, who incidentally 
w;is not a C.E., was hired b\ the 
W.P.A. to supervise a small project 
which consisted largely of pouring short 
concrete retaining walls to reduce soil g 
erosion. The engineer had virtually no i| 
experience with concrete but due to the 
scaicity of jobs did not care to ad- 
mit it. 


( )ne da>, while the forms were being ^1 
removed, the youngster happened to be J| 
near. The oldtimers were ready for a "reaming out" because the face of 
the new wall was badly pock-marked 
due to an extremeh' poor job of concrete 
placing. The engineer's only comment 
was, "Well, it will be all light when we 
get the second coat on." 

Any fool can criticize, condemn, anil 
complain — and most of them do. — Dale 
( !<ini( i/li . 

Life must be worth living — the cost 
has doubled and still most of us hang 

A man of few words doesn't have 
to take so many of them back. 


Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 


for Complete Stocks 











Strauch Photo Center 

At Campus, 709 S. Wright 











One of the fascinating things about 
nylon is the unhkely sounding raw 
materials that go into it. Popu- 
larly, nylon is said to be made from 
coal, air and water. This is because 
originally, in developing its chemi- 
cal intermediates, chemists used ben- 
zene (from coal), ammonia (from air 
and water), and oxygen (from air). 
But Du Pont is always looking for 
new ways of doing things. After the 
discovery of nylon in 1934, research 
men immediately began looking for 
alternative ways of making the two 
main intermediates — adipic acid and 
hexamethylenediamine. In 1935, 
when nylon was still in the labora- 
tory stage and three years before its 
commercial debut, they started work 
on the possibility of using furfural 
in the process. 

Furfural has been used in the chem- 
ical industry for 25 years, but it is 
little known to the layman. A tan- 
colored liquid with a faint bitter- 
almond odor, it is made from a wide 
variety of agricultural by-products. 
Among these are corncobs and hulls 
ofcottonseed, oats, rice — allavailable 
in practically unlimited quantities 
from America's farms. 

A. G. Sveinbjornsson, Ph.D., Organic Chem- 
istry, University of Kansas, 19-48, and H. B. 
Copelin, M. S., Organic Chemistry, Cornell, 
1941, studying new furfural derivatives. 

C. R. Dewey, B. S. Chem., Niagara Unnvr- 
sity, 1941, and J. M. Estes, B.S. Ch.E., Uni- 
versity of Missouri, 1937, engaged in produc- 
tion of adiponitrile at the Du Pont Electro- 
chemicals plant in Niagara Falls, New York. 

14 Years of Research 
and Development 

It seems a far cry from corncobs to 
nylon, and it was. The development 
from the first small-scale laboratory 
experiments to the present full-scale 
plant cost 14 years of time and about 
five million dollars. But it enabled 
chemists to produce large quantities 
of adiponitrile, the compound from 
which hexamethylenediamine is 
made, by an economical process 
which uses natural materials that 
are in continuous supply. 

In the new process, furfural is con- 
verted by a series of steps to 1,4-di- 
chlorobutane. The next step explains 
in part why Du Pont undertook the 
project in the first place. As pro- 
ducers of cyanides, they had sodium 

Scale model of a part of the Du Pont adiponi- 
trile plant at Niagara Falls. Here furfural, an 
agricultural by-product, is converted into a 
chemical intermediate for making nylon. 

cyanide available for converting the 
1,4-dichlorobutane into adiponitrile. 
The final product, hexamethylene- 
diamine, is then reacted with adipic 
acid to make nylon "salt." Still more 
processing and the salt becomes yarn, 
and the nylon flake used by the 
plastics industry. 

Opportunities at Du Pont 
in many scientific fields 

This is an excellent example of the 
interesting work in industrial organic 
chemistry carried on at Du Pont. It 
required the technical knowledge and 
skill of highly trained research and 
development men, including organic 
and physical chemists; chemical, me- 
chanical, civil and electrical engi- 
neers, and others. 

Only a large company with ample 
resources in men and money could 
afford to engage in research of such 
magnitude. To the young college 
graduate, Du Pont offers the broad- 
est of opportunities in many scientific 
fields, along with the advantages of 
working directly with a small group 
of associates. 

Keynote of Du Pont personnel 
policy is promotion from within on 
a competitive merit basis. A con- 
scientious effort is made not only 
to choose college-trained people of 
promise, but to develop each indi- 
vidual as rapidly as possible. 


Enlertairung, informatiye — Listen to "Cavalcade of 
America" Tueiu<i) Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 






Fresh Flowers . . . 

The Season for Mums 

Cut Flowers 





Chrysanthemum Blooming Plants 

Novelty Green Plants 

Indian Corn and Gourds 

Flowers by Wire 








for Every 


"On the Corner"— 29 Main 

Phone 2929 

PROBLEM — You are designing an automobile 
service car with a crane on the back end. You 
are going to take power from the transmission 
to drive the crane drum. How would you do it? 

power drive flexible shaft. Connect one end to 
a take-off on the transmission and the other end 
to the clutch which operates the crane drum — 
simple, easy to install, good for positive, de- 
pendable operation. 




Here's how one manuloclurer did il on 
a 3'/2-'on capocily crone. Shaft rum 
of engine speed with gear reduction 
at crone end. 

This is just one of hundreds of remote control and 
power drive problems to which S.S.White flexible 
shafts provide a simple answer. Engineers will find 
it helpful to be familiar with the range and scope of 
these useful "Metal Muscles"* for mechanical bodies. 

•Trademark Req. U. S, Pa>. Off. and elsewhere 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours for 
the asking. Write todoy. 






(Coiitiiuieii from p:ij;c S) 
piT molecule. The outstaiidiiiK prop- 
erties of silicone oil are nearly con- 
stant high viscosity over a very wide 
temperature range; resistance to o\icia- 
tion ; and water repeilencN'. 

Damping vibrations has been one (jf 
the most important uses of these oils. 
In this respect, the fluids are used in 
delicate aircraft instruments, in shock 
absorbers and even in the crystal pick- 
ups of phonographs. In the role of h\ • 
draulic fluids these silicones reliably 
transfer pressure to controlling, record- 
ing and measuring devices from objects 
operating over wide temperature range. 
Some of the other important uses are 
as liquid dielectrics; lubricants, especial- 
ly for plastics and rubber which are un- 
stable towards ordinary lubricants ; re- 
lease agents; and as coatings and im- 

(jreases are formed by increasing the 
length of the silicone chain (and hence, 
the \iscosit\). The outstanding property 
of these greases is the nearly constant 
\iscosity throughout a tremendous tem- 
peratine range: from — 10° C to well 
over 200° C. Certain of these greases, 
such as stopcock grease and high vacuum 
grease, find their uses in laboratories. 
Other special greases have been devel- 






.giCI, AND CHjSiClj FOR. 






The direct compounding process is another important commercial method 
for the production of sihcones. 

oped for pressure lubrication, and high 
temperature lubrication (350° F). One 
can be used in bearings operating at 
20,000 rpm at temperatures ranging 
from -95° F to 300° F. 

Diverse Functions 
The development of totally enclosed 
("explosion proof") electric motors 
and transformers is largely due to sili- 
cone greases, and silicone binders and 
varnishes. The introduction of "fiber- 
glass" increased the operating tempera- 
tures of motors, but the organic var- 
nishes which had to be used to bind the 
fibrous glass still limited the operating 
temperatures. The silicone varnishes not 
only overcame this limitation but also 
rendered the motor water-repellent. An- 
other important factor is that a 10 hp 
totally enclosed motor using this type of 
insulation is the same size and weight as 
a regular 3 lip motor. 

There is a wide \ ariety of household 
uses for silicone and silicone-treated ma- 
terials. On every drugstore counter one. 
notices small booklets that brightly : 
nounce that they are "Sightsavers." This 
lens cleaner is a silicone-treated tissue. 

Another silicone material which falls 
into this category- is a silicone com- 
pound known as DC Pan Cjlaze. In 
many bakeries all over the country, DC 
Pan Glaze is now being used in place 
of shortening as a release agent for 
(Continued on page 30) 


Ask for this 

valuable FREE booklet 

at your college 





. ST. lOUIS 




of ^^^'^ Is' service- ^^ 

<^^ ^^^^ ^'^'^7' MAKES IT GO SO FAST? 

It's power that does it, son. Power from its new jet engines. Engines built witii parts made from 
today's strongest, toughest metals . . . parts that fit within one ten-tliousandth of an inch." 

"Those tough parts are shaped by 
tougher tools. Tools sharpened by 
Norton grinding wheels made from 
our 32 Alundum abrasive, the fastest, 
coolest cutting abrasive ever made . . . 
and our famous Diamond Wheels, a 
Norton first in 1930. 

"Yes, Ronnie, Norton 
helps make airplanes 
better. Other products, too. In fact, 
there's hardly anything man makes that 
doesn't get a lift from Norton some- 
where along the line. That's why I'm 
proud of myjob of makingbetterprod- 
ucts to make other products better." 

"Then those engine parts are shaped 
smooth and true by Norton grinding 
wheels. And those parts fit cacli other 
just right. That's because of the sure 
finishing touch of Norton grinding 
wheels and machines. 

fevi,;/:"'''- -'- /;// 1 MMwWA 

"And when that giant lands, it lands 
safely because Norton engineering 
created a special grinding machine that 
helps make die landing gears' odd- 
shaped parts fit true and tight and 


H^akincj beHer products to make other products better 










(ContiiiiR'd from page 28) 

bread, cakes, etc. The pans arc dippiil 
into or sprayed with the silicone and 
tlien dried at 70° F for one to two 
hours to remove the volatile, inflam- 
mable solvent. After thoroughh curinj; 
the silicone coating, the pan can be 
used 100 to 200 times before a new 
coating is necessary. 

Silicone rubber is a material which 
has found extensive use in industr\- be- 
cause of its heat resistance ( — 70° /' to 
.ibove 325° F), chemical stability, elec- 
trical properties, and compression char- 
acteristics. It is used chiefly for gaskets 
and as a heat seal. In this way the rub- 
ber is used on turbo-jet engines, ovens, 
>earchlighrs, chemical process equipment, 
and insuhition for electric wires. 

A silicone which has found extensive 
use in the bottling industries is DC 
Antifoam-.:/. Suppressing foam during 
bottling and many other processes saves 
a great deal of time and material. This 
silicone, though more expensive than 
other foam suppressors, is still economi- 

One of the earliest uses of silicones 
was the direct application of (CH.,).,- 
SiCl.. directly to a surface. The surface 
to be treated is moistened and then 
placed in contact with the gaseous di- 

methyl-dichlorosilane; and within a few 
minutes, the (CH-J.^SiCh. is hydrolyzed 
and polymerized to form a surface of 
high electrical leakage resistance which 
is also water repellent. Many ceramic 
surfaces, steatite parts, vvindshielils and 
cloth have been treated in this wav. 

repel water, but let h\drocarbon oils 

The silicones, though commercially 
available only since 1943 or 1944, have 
definiteh' proved themselves new engi- 
neering materials by performing tasks 
which would have been otherwise im- 


.'« ')l 

Silastic insulation is far more heaf- 
reslstant than organic rubber, as is 
shown by this test. 

Many powdered substances may be 
treated with this gas to change their 
properties. Pigments and fillers after 
treatment are more easily wet by oil. 
Filter papers that have been treated will 

The trouble with Sunday drivers is 
that they're on the highways ever\- day 
in the week. — Iloiinr Plii/lifis. 

Honesty is slill t/ir hrst polity, hut. 
stranijc to say. some /i( o/i/c ful thiy 
ttinnot afford the best. 

Light sure travels at an amazing 
speed until it hits the human mind. 

Flattery is a perfume to be smelled. 
but not siiidloned. 

We've decided that juvenile delin- 
quency is simply the youngsters trying 
to act like their parents. 

Keeping up with the Joneses isn't 
nearly as dangerous as trying to pass 
them on a hill. 

Engineering Students . . . 

You will find at the Co-Op Bookstore your needs 
in engineering and art supplies, stationery, text- 
books, and general reading. 


The Bookstore Closest to Engineering Campus 




( Contimied troin page 2) 
power take-off, fenders, sod-pan, fuel 
filter, oil filtei', nil-bath air cleaner, and 
generator are standard features of this 
new tractor. 

With muffler turned down for orch- 
ard use, the "MC" is only 50.5 inches 
high. Approximate weight is 3,875 

The Playtalk 

Another development is the "Pla\- 
talk," an entirely new type of toy which 
magnetically records and plays back any 
kind of song or chatter children care to 
pour into its combination microphone 
and speaker. The "Playtalk's" eight- 
inch, paper-thin recording disks are coat- 
ed with powdered iron and can be used 
o\er and over again. 

A point-in-favor is the fact that the 
"Playtalk" plays without needles. Also, 
any recording not fit for posterity can 
quickly be erased with a permanent mag- 

Step-Up in Power 

The Boeing XH-47 Stratojet, holder 
of the all-type transcontinental record, 
will soon be equipped with even more 
powerful jet engines. 

General Electric's J-47 turbojet, de- 

scribed as the most powerful jet engine 
in production, will raise the total power 
of the XB-47 more than 25 per cent. 
Top speed is placed by the Air Force 
"in the 600 miles per hour class." 

Off at Crack of Dawn 

New Milford, Comi., has the world's 
first major installation of photo-electri- 
calh' controlled street lights. 

This new system covers an area of 
about one square mile in the New Eng- 
land town, and its 190 G-E Form 110 
luminaires light seven miles of roads ,inil 

The photoelectric cmitrol built into 
the luminaires is set so that the lights 
go on when the prevailing natin\al light 
level wanes to one footcandle. They 
turn themselves off again when the nat- 
vnal light goes above this level. 

Jukebox Television 

Before long, television may join you 
in your own booth at your favorite res- 
taurant. Not long ago. General Elec- 
tric and AMI Incorporated, a nicke- 
lodeon manufactm-er, decided to find 
out whether or not people would pay 
five cents to see three minutes of tele- 
vision at the dinner table. Accordingly, 
two "slave" sets, operated by the restau- 

rant's proprietor from a master receiver, 
were installed in two booths in a New 
Jersey luncheonette, (^nly sound \olum.e 
can be operated on the booth sets, all 
other controls being on the master re- 

Women have a reason for thinking 
a man's got a lot of face. He shaves 
20 squ.ire miles of face during his life- 

,/ ildlliu urtn't ilo fis miith as it used 
to. Do you knoiv of (inyhody irho docsf 
* * ■» 

Many a train of thought turns out 
to be just a string of empties. 

j\l(iniiigc is (I iiiiitiKil prit tin rshifi, in 
uliiih till liitshiiii/l is frrrjiuiitly the 

The absent-minded professor rolled 
under the dresser and waiteil for his 
collar button to fmd him. 

A I'oUcyc cdueeition seldom hurts a 
man if lie's liiUitu/ to letirn a little 
somethituj eifter he ijnidiidtes. 

JF MARCH 3, 1933, AND JULY 12, 1946. 

Of The Illinois Technograph published 
(October, November, December, Januarv 
and May) at Urbana, Illinois, for Octolx 

State of Illinois 1 js 

County of Champaign / 

Before me, a notary public il 
said, personally appeared Ray 

ight times during the year 
February, March, April, 
■ 1, 1949. 

and for the State and County afore- 
L. Hauser, who, having been duly 
and savs that he is the editor of The 

, lin.,iji,i|.li, .,ihl ihr fullM.inrj is, I,, the best of his 

ii;i, -i.iir riM rii ill ihf i.w iH I -liip. management 

, <.i III. .,]..,' .,,i>l iml.l , .in..,! for the date 

( 1 1,1 III,' A, 1 ,,l AuKUSt 24, 1912, 

3, 1933, embodied in section .S37, 

nted on the reverse of this form, 

as amendeil by the Act of Mai 
Postal Laws and Regulations, 

and addresses of the publisher, editor, man- 
managers are: Publisher, lUini Publishing 

1. That the nam 
aging editor, and bu 
Company, 725 South Wright Street, Champaign 

Editor, Ray L. Hauser, Cliampaign, Illinois. 

Business Manager, Frederick R. Seavey, Champaign, 111 

2. That the owner is the Illini Publishing Company, : 
corporation, whose president is C. A. Moyer of Urban; 

Manning D. Seil of Champaign, 

3wn bondholders, mortgagees, and other seen 

holding 1 per cent or more of total amouni 


holders owning o 
Ijonds, mortgages. 
4. That the ti 
owners, stockhoM 
the list of stockh. 
books of the con 
security holde 
or in any othe 

tion for whon_ __ ... „. 

two paragraphs contain statements embracing; affiant's full knowledge 
and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other 
than that of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or corporation has any 
interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities 
than as so stated by him. 

RAV L. HAUSER, Eilitor. 

\\i\ ll.L^.l^l.lph■^ next abo^e, giving the names of the 

II -, .ml -CI inity holders, if any, contain not only 
nMi 1 - .ml -^ cuiity holders as they appear upon the 

III Mil > ''nt aUii. in cases where the stockholder or 
ppears upon the books of the company as trustee 
iduciary relation, the name of the person or corpora- 
uch trustee is acting, is given; also that the 

to and subscribed befori 

this 11th (lay of Octobt 



Air Conditioned with TtMi IMi^^eW^m 

The new building of Mar'/land's 
largest broadcasting and television 
station, at Baltimore, Is air condi- 
gn tioned throughout with three Frlclc 
npressors, each having four 
inders, as shown below. This 
..4^ fine Installation won the 1948 
' ™ Building Trades Award for the 
^ ^ Paul J. Vincent Co., Baltimore DIs- 
? ^ tribufors for Frick Refrigerating, 
Ice-malcing and Air Conditioning 

The Frick Graduate Training 
Course in Refrigeration and Air 
__" Conditioning, operated over 30 
years, offers a career In a grow- 
ing industry. 



First Indian: "L'jili." 
SccoihI Indian : "L gh." 
First Indian : "Ugh." 
Second Indian: "Ugh Ugh." 
First Indian: "Don't change the sub- 

* «- » 

So/iif /iiisiiKss linn ilIid sny /heir mot- 
to is: "II t iiiiii to pUasr." should take 
time off for liiryct f>riuticc. 

Customer: "I'd like 15 cents worth 
of quinine, please. " 

Druggist: "Here you are, sir. " 

Customer (a moment later): "Help, 
I'm poisoned." 

Druggist (looking at the box) : 
"You're right, it's strychnine. That'll 
be 10 cents extra. Pay me quick, that 
stuff works fast." 

On (I siyhl-sciiiKj bus yoiiu/ out Jef- 
ferson iivenue in Detroit, the driver 
Has ealliny out p/aees of interest: "On 
the rii/ht." he announeed . "lit h/ive the 
Dodye home.' 

A youny lady asked. "John Dodyef" 

"No, Horace Dodge." 

(jontinuing out Jefferson. "On the 
right ive have the Ford home." 

"Henry Fordf' 

"No, Edsel Ford." 

Still further out Jefferson. "On the 
left ice have the Christ (Jhureh." Hear- 
iiiy no response, a felloiv passenger 
tapped the youny lady on the shoulder 
and said, "do ahead, lady, you ean't 
he icrony all the time." 

Mary, who was notoriously patient, 
and her husband George, who was no- 
toriously lazy, had lived on an old Ken- 
tucky farm for 45 years. 

Repeatedly over the past ten years, 
Mary had asked her husband to prop 
up the north end of the kitchen floor 

where the supporting timbers had de- 
cayed. Cieorge would always sigh, mut- 
ter something about waiting for warm- 
er weather or cooler, as the case might 
be — and go back to sleep in his chair by 
the kitchen stove. 

But the time came when the floor 
sloped so sharply that even Cieorge's 
flexible old arm chair grew uncomfort- 
able to sit in. Finally, he told his wife 
one day as she was leaving for town that 
he guessed he'd have to fix things up 

When Mary returned, the job \:'as 
done, and George was asleep once more 
in his chair. He looked so comfortable 
she hadn't the heart to wake him. In- 
stead, with characteristic patience, the 
long-suffering Mary swept up the saw- 
dust left strewn on the floor and threw 
into the fire two little inch-long cyl- 
inders of wood that George had care- 
fully sawed from the back legs of his 

» * * 

A youny hoy went to school one 
morning recently with a box under his 
arm. Reaching the schoolyard, he opened 
it and began passiiiy out lollipops to 
his classmates, e.xplnininy . "I'm a hroth- 

Kissing don't last. Cookery do. — 
George iMcrdith. 

* * « 

Tiro sailors had been drifting on a 
raft for days iihen one. losing all hope 
of rescue, knelt in prayer. 

"Oh. Lord." he moaned. "I've led 
(7 ivorthless life. Fve drunk to excess. 
I've been mean to my icife and neg- 
lected my children. But if you save me 
from this. I promise . . ." 

"Hold it. Jess." interrupted his com- 
panion. "Don't proiinse anything dras- 
tic. I think I see land." 

The only thiny thtit can keep on 
grmeiiig ivithout nourishment is an ego. 

Donald and Mary MacTavish decid- 
ed to adopt a child, and asked the or- 
phanage for a little girl. One was pro- 
duced and Mary was about to close the 
bargain when Don.'dd tapped her shoul- 

".Mar\," he whispered, "let's take a 
wee lad. Hae ye forgotten the lad's cap 
we found in the train?" 

Minister (from the pulpit): "Those 
ill tlu habit of putting buttons in the 
loltcition plate wilt please use their oiin 
buttons and not thosi from the cushions 
on the pens." 

Wife (to husband): "I just over- 
heard the best news about the house 
we're having built. One of the car- 
penters told another that the whole 
thing is being constructed with green 
lumber. Isn't that grand? Now we 
W(jn't ha\c to buy all that green paint." 

//; (Very one of our universities, there 
are a number of aggressive, clean-cut 
young men ivho are dilit/ently working 
their dads through college. 

* a-r « 

In fairness, it ought to be conceded 
that the old-fashioned dime novel which 
is now selling for $2.50 is printed on 
better paper. 

Every man should renieiiibcr that it 
is much easier to live iiitliiii an income 
than to live iiithout one. 

Customer: "Will this suit hold its 

Salesman: "Absolutely. Our new 
spring suits are made of pure virgin 

Customer: "I don't care about the 
morals of the sheep. Will it hold its 
shape ?" 

J'he worst thing about football is 
that none of the cheer leaders ever get 

Si -SC- * 

She was one of the British brides, 
and as the liner slowly docked, she 
spotted her husband on the dock al- 
most hidden by the beautiful flowers 
he was holding. She rushed down the 
gangplank, threw her arms around him 
and sobbed: "Darling, you shouldn't 
have bought so many flowers for me." 

"Enough of this; help me sell tliese 
flowers now!" 

Never shift yiur mouth into high 
c/ear until your brain is turning over. 

The weaker the argument the strong- 
er the words. 





Small Homes Council 

Page 8 

Talgo — Super Train 

Page 10 

Engineering Urge 

Page 12 


Page 14 


Making the ^^ juice ^^ that makes life easier! 

DIRECTLY and indirectly, the average 
family in America consumes more 
electricity yearly than families in any 
other country in the world. The demand 
for more "juice" has grown with un- 
helievable rapidity, and it's still grow- 
ing. By 1955, the electrical generating 
capacity of our nation is expected to 
reach 90 million kilowatts! 

Steel is a vital material in the pro- 
duction of electricity. Central power 
stations and great power dams are made 
of steel and concrete. Special steels are 
required for turbines and other genera- 
ting machinery. Steel towers carry 

steel-reinforced transmission lines across 
mountain and prairie alike. 

Helping to meet America's constantly 
growing demands for more "juice" is 
only one of the big jobs ahead for United 
States Steel. There are many others. 
And they all call for the services of 
thousands of carefully-trained, technical 
specialists. For steelmaking today is a 
precision operation, as dependent for 
success on the knowledge of metallurgi- 
cal, mechanical, chemical, electrical, min- 
ing, civil and ceramic engineers, as upon 
the plant workers themselves. 

To assure employees opportunity for 

ma.ximum personal development and 
provide a sound foundation for advance- 
ment in the organization are fundamen- 
tal objectives of U. S. Steel. Employees 
participating in educational activities of 
U. S. Steel comprise a group exceeded 
in size only by the student bodies of a 
few of the nation's largest universities. 
In these educational programs, partic- 
ular attention is given to the develop- 
ment of college graduates and other 
technically trained men. 

For men who can qualify, a career 
with United States Steel offers a prom- 
ising future. 




How many 


has a 


When you measure a name, there are many 
"dimensions" to consider, such as: integrity, 
capacity, vision, strength and skill. These 
qualities constitute a yardstick for professional 
and public recognition. 

There will be many times in your career 
when you can increase the "dimensions" of 
your name by the development of a product, a 
method or through a decision you make. 

Some idea of the dimensions of the name 
Westinghouse, for example, may be gained by 
a few facts about one of its many activities . . . 
building turbines. 

In this field is the Westinghouse J-34 jet 
engine which is setting a new pace in aircraft 
propulsion in the much-discussed Navy "Ban- 
shee" and the Army Lockheed F-90, as well as 
in many other airplanes of both services — as 
yet unannounced. 

Such developments require a rich back- 

ground of experience, technical knowledge 
and creative skill gained through constant 
search for more efficient, economical sources 
for power . . . qualifications needed to attain 
the eminent position the name Westinghouse 
holds as a leading producer of power equip- 
ment for land, sea and air. 

This is but one of many fields in which the 
name Westinghouse has been indelibly written 
over the years. 

In your career you will measure many names 
and products in industry. As you do, you will 
find the name Westinghouse prominently 
identified with practically every one. 

Whether those products are turbines or 
toasters, locomotives or lamps, electric stair- 
ways or x-ray machines, we will welcome the 
opportunity to share our experience . . . our 
sureness in designing and manufacturing that 
adds a new dimension to a name . . . 

G- 10069 


you CAN 6E SURE •• IF ifs Wfestindiouse 

Iti§ •lini liphf/rarv. U.K. '.12 

New Poison Ivy Killer 

Poison ivy, bane of niaii> an cxisri-iKi-, 
is meeting its Waterloo in _',4,^-'r, a 
new hormone-tvpc chemical related to 
2,4-D. This 2,4,5-T, ixhort for 2,4,5- 
trichloiophenoxyacetic acid, kills many 
of the same weeds as 2,4-D but is espe- 
cially effecti\c a<:;n'nst brambles. bi-\ish, 
anil tree stumps which resist 2,4-1). 

Ultra-Violet Microscope 

Designed primarih tor cancer re- 
search, an ultra-violet microscope for 
observing living, mistained body tissues 
is now in production by l^ausch and 

The instrument's revolutionary objec- 
tives not only provide increased resolv- 
ing power but make it possible to photo- 
graph as well as view freshly prepared 
sections of live tissues and tissue cul- 
tures through three different ultra-violet 
wavelengths. The photographs may also 
be projected or reproduced on color film 
through three visual color filters that 
provide densities, contrast and structinal 
detail ne\er before attained. 

Electronic Tempering 

A tempering which heats a surface from room temperature 
to a bright-red. 1.600 degrees Fahren- 
heit, ami cools it again to room temper- 
ature, all within less than five seconds, 
has been developed by (jeneral I'dectric 

The process uses an electromagnet 
which holds the part to be tempered 
within the field of a powerful electronic 

As soon as the part has been heated 
to the proper temperature, an automatic 
timing switch shuts off the electronic 
heatei'. At the same instant the current 
is removed from the electromagnet and 
the part drops into a cooling bath of oil. 

The process is being used to harden 
the toothed surfaces of small ratchet 
wheels for automatic circuit reclosers. 

Bridge Control System 

A powerful electric ilrive and control 
system, which raises a 1,350-ton bridge 
span 100 feet in 105 seconds, has been 
installed in the recently opened Stickel 

The new Bausch and Lomb ultra-violet microscope will be used for the 
further investigation of cancer tissues. (Photo courtesy of Bausch and 
Lomb) Bridge, which crosses the Pas- 
saic River between Newark and Harri- 
son, New Jersey. Power to raise and 
lower the 222-foot vertical lift span is 
supplied by two (^i-E 1 58-horsepower, 
direct current motors, each of which 
moves one side of the span. 

To keep the span level while it is 
being raised or lowered, an "amplidyne 
control system" is employed. In this 
system, .small control units, working 
through a master control device, act to 
vary the speed of the drive motors when- 
ever one end of the span begins to move 
faster than the other. This quickly- 
responsive leveling process begins as soon 
as one end of the span gets a fraction 
of an inch off level. 

Recording Spectro-radiometer 

More cohjrs of light beams than there 
are grains of wheat in Kansas can he 
distinguished by an instrument devel- 
oped by General Electric scientists and 

The color-sensiti\e instrument, known 
as a "recording spectro-radiometer," has 
been designed for use in comparing and 
recording the colors of light sources. It 
breaks up beams being studied into the 
various colors of which they are com- 
posed ; measures the intensities of these 
colors; and makes a permanent record 
of the measurements in the form of a 

The instrument draws a curve show- 
ing the distribution of colors in a given 
light source in less than a minute. Pro- 
duction of such curves by methods used 
in the past required a series of long and 
tedious, point-by-point measurements. 

High-Speed Drones 

The shooting eyes of the U. S. Navy's 
anti-aircraft gunners soon will be put to 
the test by the antics of a pilotless, 
radio-controlled, ram-jet-powered Mar- 
tin KDM-1 target drone darting 
through the skies at speed close to that 
of sound. 

A 2()-inch Marquardt ram-jet engine 
will furnish the power for the air- 
launched KDM-1 target. 

The ram-jet engine, sometimes called 
the "stovepipe," has no moving parts. 
A fuel pump used on earlier engine 
models will be replaced by a pressm-ized 
fuel system, eliminating the single mov- 
ing |iart on the first ram-jets. 

'All Weather' Jet 

l)e\elopment of the nation's first "all 
weather" jet engine for military aircraft 
has been announced by the (General 
Electric Conipan\-. 

An experimental model of the turbo- 
jet already has been built, and its new 
(Continued on Page 24) 



iRay Hauscr Editor 

'Connie Minnich Assoc. Editor 

iGene Blanyer Makeup Editor 

Art Dreshfieki Asst. Editor 

Dwight Heard Asst. Editor 

Dick Ch()ion/,>- Asst. Editor 

Editoritd Associates 

Bill Soderstriim 
Henry Kahii 
Dean Feltoii 
Boh Lawrence 
Toe CIraham 

Oan Keefe 
John Huber 
Edward Finkel 
Jack Sitzler 
Jim Ephgrave 

Luther S. Peterson Tom Tucker 
Dave Cash Jane Parlee 


Fred Seavey Bus. Mgr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson ....Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Bill Anderson Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

James J. Skarda ..^sst. Bus. j\It/r. 


Business Associates 

Alfreda Mallorey Bob Gerzetich 
Charles J. Kukura Joyanne Blount 
Ewing Sharp Lew Markow 

Ed Brooks Don Johnson 


Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 


Chairman: Prof. F. J. Cheek, Jr. 
University of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
; Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
lEngineer. Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
inois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit, Kansas Engineer, Kansas State 
[Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, Louisiana 
iState University Engineer, Marquette Engi- 
|neer, Michigan Technic, Minnesota Techno- 
ilog, Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
|New York University Quadrangle, North 
Dakota Engineer, North Dakota State En- 
gineer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 




Engineer, Pennsyl- 
Engineer, Rochester 
c, Wayne Engineer, 

iPublished Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
'tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
'ary, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
i;lass matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
bf March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
Irights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

[Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
iChicago 11, III. 11)1 Park Avenue, New 
t^ork 17, New York. 

Volume 65 

Number 3 

The Tecfi Presents 


The Abbott Power Plant 7 

Small Homes Council 8 

The Talgo: Train of Tomorrow 10 

The Engineering Urge 12 

Ultrasonics for Nerves 13 

Sunspots 14 



New Developments 2 

Navy Pier 16 

Personalities 17 

Engineering Societies 18 

Boneyard Bilge 19 

Crossword Puzzle 28 

Advertisers' Index 44 

Technocracks 48 


Cartoonist Ed Lozano shows secret pages from the daily lives of 
the civil engineers on this month's cover. These red-blooded 
American boys enjoy the clean, healthful, outdoor living. 


Power, power, and more power! This montage shows modern 
engineering in some of its most impressive phases. (Photo 
courtesy of Westinghouse) 

Dan Keefe is a senior in 


Chemical Engineering and 


a freshmon on the Tcch- 


nograph staff. His main 


interest in the industnol 

^^^^r mj^^^^^i 

line is plastics and he has 

^^K l^^^^l 

hopes of getting into that 

^^B ^^^^1 

field when ho graduates 


next August. 

He was born in Chicago 

in 1927 but has spent the 

most of his life outside 

^^Hlt. ... ^i^^^l 

the city. 

^^^^^ ^ir ^^H 

Dan is an active mem- 

^^^^HhW^ ^^M 

ber of A.I.Ch.E. on cam- 

^^^^v ^ 

pus and represents that 


society on the Engineering 



^V IT ' 

He came to the U, of 1, 

^mw ' 

m the spring of 1947 after 


being discharged from the 

^Kil'.. ^■i . i ^j. 



The liott Power Plant 

Bg Ihin Kvvtf. fli.E. "SO 

A good proi'iiii'r of hc/it and lUcliuity is the Abbott Foiicr Plant. Btsidis 
supplying the University uith plenty of steinn, the facilities make possible a real- 
istic application that is meaningful. Students in the IMechnnical Engineering Ther- 
modynamics laboratory courses run a 24-hour test on the poinr plant's operation. 

Out in the southwest part of our cam- 
pus, where few can see it, is a building 
with a very tall chimney — a building 
that plays a major part in the operation 
f the University. This building is the 
Abbott Power Plant ; it is on Gregory 
Drive next to the Illinois Central tracks. 

From the Old 

In 1936 it became clear that the old 
30wer plant (located near the M. E. 
lab) would not be able to meet the 
requirements of the planned University 
xpansion. The old plant was a two- 
boiler unit when it was put into service 
n 1902. It was enlarged several times 
IS the University grew ; and, in its final 
orni, was a 130-pound operating plant 
lontaining eight longitudinal drum, 
stoker-fired boilers. It had inadequate 
generating capacity and an obsolete 
2,300-volt electrical distribution system. 
As a matter of fact, it had become ne- 
:essary to purchase power from the Illi- 
lois-Iowa Power Company. 

To add to this already unfavorable 
LTondition, the designs for new buildings 
ndicated that there would be a large 
increase in the steam consumption. It 
U'ould have been possible to remodel and 
modernize the old plant, but a survey 
iind report by Sargent Lundy (consult- 
SiiL' engineers) showed this to be inieco- 

I To the Neiv 

I Construction of the present-day plant 
was begun in January, 1940, and was 
I'inipleted in February, 1941. It was 
npiiating, however, in parallel with the 
'iM plant as early as September, 1940. 
j Siinie indication of the success of the 
plant is the fact that the operating costs 
|iiropped about 10 per cent, and that the 
>l niversity began selling its surplus elec- 
riir energy during the winter season to 
rill Illinois-Iowa Power Company. 

I he plant is located, as mentioned 
I'li'iie, next to the Illinois Central 
r lacks. This location has two advan- 
t.i'^o: a railroad siding is readily avail- 
ble for the handling of coal in carload 
lots ; and the plant is in a central posi- 
tion for any further expansion of the 
:ampus, which is expected to be toward 
the south. 

Coal handling in the plant is accom- 
plished by a 12' X 14' track hopper into 
which the coal is fed from side- or bot- 
tom-dumping cars. A reciprocating feed- 
er supplies an apron conveyor, and the 
coal may be taken from this point to be 
crushed, if necessary; or it is raised by 
a vertical bucket conveyor to an over- 
head, cross-conveyor, and then into one 
of four Cnuiite-lined, rectangular coal 
bins of 100-ton capacity each. 

Poiccr Production 

At the presnt time, the plant 


three (jeneral Electric .idOO-Z-fr 


bine-generators to supply power. Two 
of the units are automatic extraction- 
condensing turbines ; and the third is a 
non-condensing unit. All three of the 
turbines operate at 3,bQ0rpin with throt- 
tle steam conditions of 300 psi and up 
to 700 °F total temperature. The three 
generators have the following character- 
istics: 4,160 volts; 3 phases; 60 cycles; 
and 3,000 hv at 0.8 power factor, or 
3,750 kva at unity power factor. 

One condensing unit supplies heating 
steam at extraction pressures up to 70 
jiounds, with exhaust to a 2,500-^?. //. 
."Mlis-Chalmers two-pass surface con- 
denser at 28 in. H g vacuum. The new- 
est condensing unit has a Worthington 
condenser capable of condensing 38,000 
pounds of steam per horn". 

Since the plant is not located on or 
near a plentiful water supply, such as 
a river, the condenser circulating water 
is cooled by induced draft fan cooling 
towers. The water is cooled by the com- 
bined effects of evaporation and direct 
air cooling. Evaporation losses are made 
up from well water which has been pre- 
viously softened by the power plant 
water treating system. 

There are four boilers in the plant. 
Three are Springfield, cross-drum, 
straight tube boilers rated at 80,000 
pounds of steam per hour and a total 
temperature of 700 °F. The other is a 
Babcock-Wilcox, four drum, bent tube 
boiler rated at 80,000 pounds of steam 
per hour, with about the same tempera- 
ture as the Springficlds. It was designed 
for a pressure of 350 psi. and firing is 
accomplished by Habcock-Wilcox chain 
grate stokers. 

One of the plant's biggest operating 

advantages over the old plant is a boiler 

efficiency around 80 per cent. The best 

obtained before was about 65 per cent. 

(Continued on Page 4(1) 




A cross-section through the boiler and turbine rooms shows an 
elevation of the mechanical equipment 


when completed, the Research Center of the Small Homes Council will occupy a four-block area between 
Armory Avenue and Gregory Drive in Champaign. (Photo courtesy of Small Homes Council) 

SiftaU <JtafKei Co444uul 

Bif naro Cash, Aq.K. *.*# 

A hiy joli is heiny done hy the S/iiiill IIo/ius Coiuuil on cam pas: anil their 
ivork is of interest to anyone u'ho icants to make his home more livdhle. Throuyli 
eoo/>eration ivith research departments of the University and industrial organiza- 
tions, they have proposed and assembled mneh useful information about construc- 
tion methods and home desiyn. 

Slightly to the southeast of David 
Kinley Hall stands Mumford House, 
the oldest building on the University of 
Illinois campus and the headquarters of 
the Small Homes Council. Built in 1870 
as a model farmhouse, Mumford house 
reflects the University's early interest 
in architectural research. 

The University of Illinois Sm.iU 
Homes Council was organized in Sep 
tember 1944. Its purpose was to in\ es- 
timate and attempt to solve housing piob 
lems by research into planning and con 
struction methods. The Council was 
founded upon the idea that eventual 
improvement in housing must depend 
upon a general advancement of knowl- 
edge in every type of problem. 

All departments of the University 
whose work is related to housing are 
cooperating in the various projects. To 
these departments, the Council is the 
coordinating agency. 

David Cash is on hi 
fourth ycor of o five-year 
plan In General Agricultun 
and Agricultural Engineer 
ing. He is most interesfet 



focture and design of form 
implements when he grad- 

Dove wos born on o 
farm near Harvard, III., in 
1929, where he has spent 
most of his life. 

He come to Illinois in 
September, 1946, but did 
not become o member of 
the Tcchnograph staff un- 
til this year. He is a 
member of A.S.AE. and 
A.F.S., and is vice presi- 
dent of McKinley Founda- 
tion Student Council. 

The Small Homes Council has been 
headed by William H. Schieck, profes- 
sor of architecture, since its organization. 

Professor Schieck is at present on 
leave from the University to serve as 
the executive director of the newly or- 
ganized Building Research Advisory 

Board. During his absence James T. 
Lend rum, associate professor of engi- 
neering drawing and associate director 
of the Council, is serving as acting di- 

The Council has a three-point pro- 
gram: Research, Information, and Edu- 

In 1946 the Home Research Center 
was established by the Small Homes 
Council. The Center provides facilities 
at one location for intensive research in 
low-cost, family housing units. When 
completed the Research Center will oc- 
cupy a four-block area between Armory 
Avenue and Gregory Drive, west of 
First Street, in Champaign. It will pro- 
vide facilities for all phases of housing 
research and education. 

At present the Home Research Cen- 
ter contains a testing laboratory, two 
research houses, and the Small Homes 
Council Laboratory for planning re- 
search. The completed Center will in- 
clude a main building, or demonstration 
center, a production yard, and research 
and experimental houses. 

The main building will contain a 
large laboratory, shops, exhibition spaces, 
a large lecture room, and offices. The 
production yard west of the main build- 
ing will be used for the study and dem- 
onstration of construction practices. 

The research houses will be construct- 
ed and studied in cooperation with in- 
dustrial organizations. These homes will 
be designed chiefly to carry out experi- 
ments in specific problems of housing 
improvement. Site planning, land,scap- 


iiiL;, and land usage can also be studied 
and demonstrated. 

File first of the two existing research 
houses was built in 1947 to study warni- 
aii heating. Built as a co-operative proj- 
11 r with the National Warm Air Heat- 
iiil: and Air Conditioning Association, 
the 3j^-room one-story house is typical 
of thousands now being built. The Asso- 
ciation has maintained a similar research 
home near the campus for 22 years. The 
new house is completely furnished and 
is occupied by a research associate. Re- 
cently the Association opened Research 
Residence No. 3 in north Champaign. 

The basement of the other research 
home is being used for several other 
heating studies, principally in connection 
with a solid fuel study. Planning and 
ilisign of homes heated by coal or coke 
Is being carried on by the University 
Department of Architecture in coopera- 
tion with Bituminous Coal Research 
Inc., the Anthracite Institute, and the 
American Coke and Coal Chemicals 
Institute. Studies include location of the 
central heating plant and the fuel bin, 
the removal of ashes, and the practical- 
ity of a sloping bottom fuel bin. Also 
being studied is the furnace in the house 
— one of the new Illinois smokeless fur- 
naces, developed by Prof. Julian R. Fel- 
lows of the College of Engineering. 

Sometimes as important as engineering 
facts are family reactions. A three-person 
family is living in this house to deter- 
mine the livability of a one-story house 
with only 768 square feet of floor space. 

In cooperation with the Lumber Deal- 
ers Research Council, the Small Homes 
Council is undertaking a research study 
directed toward giving home-owners 
economy and variety in house design 
through standardized quality construc- 
tion. Time studies previously made on 
the actual construction of 40 engineered 

houses are being used as a basis for the 
research. The project is studying and 
developing a series of standard room 
units which can be arranged easily and 
economically in a number of complete 
house plans. A series of basic plans will 
be distributed to lumber dealers through- 
out the country. 

To advance the technology of small 
house construction and to increase the 
efficiency of the contractor, the Small 
Homes Council conducted a time-study 
of construction and assembly methods 
in cooperation with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce Office of Technical 
Services. This study, conducted in 1947 
and 1948, concerned such factors as or- 
ganization of the construction job, flow 
of materials to the job, handling of ma- 
terials at the site, and construction tech- 
niques used by the contractor and his 
building mechanics. 

Six houses of the same plan and de- 
sign were built. They were constructed 
two at a time — one frame and one brick. 
When one pair was well under way, an- 
other pair was started. Lessons learned 
in the construction of one pair were 
carried over in an attempt to improve 
construction on following pairs. 

These houses, located on Hessel Bou- 
levard in Champaign, were research 
houses only during their construction 
and were turned over to the University 
for staff housing upon their completion. 

A research investigation was done on 
a house built for sale by the Structural 
Clay Products Institute on non-modular 
masonry construction. This consisted of 
a time study to obtain data on construc- 
tion time of those parts of the work 
affected by non-modular masonry. 

A study of the building of concrete 
floors for basementless houses was un- 
dertaken as a project in cooperation with 
the U. S. Department of Commerce Of- 

— ■ ■ — — ___^ 


■Fl^H^ IKiti^?'? 

^ ro.> ,M«. .,„. mm IIIH <^jLi. '* 


■ ,; ;^ ilJpSfc^^^ 

This is a recommended concrete 
floor construction, based on an in- 
vestigation of floor slabs. (Photo 
courtesy of Small Homes Council) 

fice of Technical Services in 1947. A 
windowless testing shed 75 feet long was 
built at the Research Center. This shed 
was divided into a series of rooms, each 
insulated from the adjacent rooms. The 
rooms, or cells, were each heated elec- 
trically ; and each room contained instru- 
ments to measure floor temperatures and 
moisture conditions. The actual investi- 
gations were done by the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Under a $12,000 research grant from 
Hotpoint, Inc., the Council and Agricul- 
tmal Experiment Station's Departments 
of Home Economics and Agricultural 
Engineering made studies of convenience 
(Continued on Page 38) 


One of the main objectives of the Small Homes Council is quick and efficient construction as demonstrated 
by the ease with which the partition in the above pictures is tipped into place. (Photo courtesy of Small 
Homes Council) 


The Taloo . . . Train of Tomorrow 

#/f/ IHvli 1 1ntrnnzii. '.II 

It litis Inen s/iid thai iht liain <if taiiinn ini is d limij u iiy off into tin f iiliii i . 
ll'jlL'VVir, (I "mystery" Irtiui. tin Tdlgo litis lotirnl its U'/iy into /In iniis. Built 
uith (I loic tenter of gratnty, people sittinq in tin trtiin tire no hitjinr than people 
standing up outside the trtiin. (constructed of lii/lil tiliiininiiin tilloy. the ntic tniin 
is capable of uhipping around eiirius iiithoiit sitiekenint/ speed. The folloivini/ 
tirticle presents the development tint! the enijineerintj fetitnres of the I'alijo. 

Oiu'f upon a time a SikuiIsIi aiiin 
engineer nanieil Lieutenant Culonel 
Alejandro Goicoechea Omar, decided 
that railroad equipment must be made 
simpler and lighter. Impatient with com- 
plicated and the heavy standard equip- 
ment, he could see an economic future 
to railroads only if something radical 
was introduced to stop the trend. 

The principle that Goicoechea used 
provided a simple method of guiding 
train wheels to eliminate the weight 
needed as a precaution against derail- 
ment. This was not a new idea by any 
means. The principle has been applied 
to miniature railroads used in aniuse- 
ment parks. 


However, the main difficulty to over- 
come was to utilize the principle and 
yet to provide comfort enjoyed by pas- 
sengers on standard trains today. 

Dick Choronzy was born 
in Chicago, June 15, 1929. 
Too young to have been in 
the service, this is the far- 
thest Dick has been away 
from home. One of the 
Novy Pier ILLINI, he 
was editor of the Techno- 
graph at that school prior 
to coming to Urbana. 


Engineering research, he 
hopes to continue for 
graduate work upon grad- 
uating in 1951. Dick is a 
member of the A.S.M.E., 
and Sigma Phi Delta, one 
of the two social engi- 
neering fraternities on the 

Goecoechea finally solved the problem 
by joining a number of short cars in 
such a manner that they would ride 
as one unit. 

After considerable study of the prin- 
ciples involved, Cjoicoechea contacted 
Mr. Jose Luis de Oriol, an outstand- 

The new ACF-Talgo is an ingenious departure from present-day rail- 
road train construction. (Photo courtesy of American Car and Foundry 

ing Spanish industrialist. There was 
immediate realization on the part of 
Mr. Oriol that the new idea was in- 
tensely important and outmoded the 
older ideas on railway design. I nder 
the leadership of Oriol, Patents T til go 
S A. was incorporated. 

Several two-wheeled short units, built 
by Spanish manufacturers, were em- 
ployed in a trial run in which the motive 
power used was a diesel-powered truck 
loaned by the Spanish National Net- 
work of Railways. The test proved suc- 
cessful, albeit the short units were im- 
properly designed and the moti\e power 
was an unsuitable substitute. 

The speed attained was well over 
80 mph, and the performance around 
the curves was remarkable. It was de- 
cided to go ahead with plans and the 
services of James J. P. Mac-Veigh were 
secured to head the engineering depart- 
ment and to organize the comple.x lay- 
out of engineering problems that had 
to be carefully analyzed and assembled. 

It was realized that to introduce this 
new line of railroad equipment, the cor- 
poration would have to team up with 
manufacturers experienced in this field. 
In december, 1944, (joicoechea and 
Mac-Veigh came to New York to pre- 
sent their plans to the car builders of 
this country. The American Car and 
Foundry Company showed great inter- 
est in the matter from the very begin- 

A contract was signed between the 
two companies on December 8, 1945, 
calling for the development of the ACF- 
Talgo, The term Talgo is derived from 
three Spanish words, tren (train), 
articulado (jointed), ligero (light), and 
the names of the inventor, Goicoechea, 
and the financier, Oriol. 

Work was started in January, 1946, 
and just recently, the ACF-Talgo was 
completed; it was the first of its kind 
e\er to be built. 

The ACF-Talgo represents entirely 
different concepts in construction of rail- 
road passenger cars. Floors are two feet, 
nine inches lower, the weight has been 
reduced 75 per cent, and the overall 
height is four feet lower than other 
streamlined equipment on railroads to- 
day. The center of gravity is two feet 
lower. Already, a Talgo has been 
shipped to Spain, and the tests have 
been succe.ssful in that countr\. 

The American experimental and dem- 



A view of the interior, prior to air-conditioning installation, shows the 
framing details of the ACF-Talgo equipment unit. (Photo courtesy of 
American Car and Foundry Company) 

oiistration Talgo consists of only a 
diesel-elcctn'c locomotive, a baggage unit 
and a coach of five units, one of them 
being for equipment and another serv- 
ing as an observation lounge. The train 
is 168 feet long at this time. Eventually, 
the length is to be tripled for general 
railroad use. 

In order to understand the principles 
of the Talgo, certain concepts in fast 
train operation must be understood. In 
most instances, speeds are restricted by 
curves. Time and time again, stream- 
liners have attained speeds of 80 inl^h, 
only to have the brakes applied for a 
curve. There is also a large centrifugal 
force to overcome, again restricting top 
speed on curves. 

In addition, the flange on present- 
day railroad wheels digs into the inside 
of the outer head of the rail, and the 
downward rub or friction of the flange 
creates a force which tends to lift the 
car and derail it. All of these difficul- 
ties have been time-consumers, with the 
result that the full use of the high- 
quality railroad tracks has not been at- 

The radically different Talgo over- 
comes these difficulties on the basis of 
its design. It is conservatively estimated 
that 25 per cent of travel time (on most 
runs) can be saved through the use of 
this new train. 

aiiidid I r heels 
A conventional train wheel travels in 
the vertical plane of the rail. The fric- 
tion is very small when the wheels con- 
tine on a straight horizontal rail. How- 


e\er, the friction becomes \ery great 
when the wheels begin to travel on a 
curve. It is quite obvious that the force 
created against the rail cannot move the 
latter, therefore, the wheel tries to leap 
the rail. 

The Talgo does away with the posi- 
tive angle of attack on the oviter rail 
as the wheels are led around the CLirve 
through the use of a three-point geom- 
etry of the underframe — like a trailer 
behind a truck-tractor. Each Talgo unit 
is supported in four places: on each of 
the two wheels at the rear of the unit 
and on two horizontal support members 
which fit into corresponding brackets 
on the rear of the unit ahead, about two 
feet above the floor. 

As each unit goes into a curve, it has 
already been turned slightly by the pre- 
ceding imit, which is already in the 
curve. The leading edge of the flange 
is pulled away from the outside rail, 
resulting in a negative angle of ap- 
proach, with the derailing factor elimi- 

In standard railway passenger cars in 
operation today, the car is supported to 
clear the wheels under all curvature 
conditions. With the weight of the car 
centered above the point where its 
weight is transferred to the truck, a car 
will tend to lean outward on a curve 
just like an automobile. This is com- 
pensated for by super-elevation, which 
consists of making the outside rail of 
a curve higher than the inside. 

This solves the problem for high 
speeds, but when other standard equip- 

ment is used on those same rails, such as 
a slow freight train, the pressure on the 
inside rail creates a noticeable drag on 
the locomotive. 

The design of the Talgo solves this 
problem also. Instead of a truck under 
each end of the car with the axles ex- 
tending from wheel to wheel, the car is 
suspended on two stub axles, one on 
each side of the car, so that the pas- 
sengers actually walk hilirtiii the 

(J(ir ('.(jiistriKlinn 

There is considerably less use of ma- 
terials, especially in the undercarriage; 
and as a result, aluminum alloys have 
been used to a large extent in the con- 
struction of the Talgo. The weight of 
five units, which is practically the same 
capacity as that of a standard car, is 
less than one-fourth of the latter. Wind 
resistance is cut down because of the 
lower height of the Talgo, since there 
is a reduction in cross-section area. 

In the underframe, a "U" shaped 
center sill, of aluiuinum alloy forms the 
backbone of the unit. Cross-bearers, 
floor beams and floor stringers are "Z" 
sections while the side sill is actually 
two parallel extrusions. 

An unusual departure in railway car 
construction is the use of combination 
side posts and carlines to form the unit's 
cross-section. There is no break at the 
eaves as the hydraulically-pressed sec- 
tions form one piece from side sill to 
the center line of the room. The chan- 
( Continued on Page 26) 


The first two diagrams show the 
negative and positive angles of 
approach; the third, the use of 
the trailer principle as the Talgo 
rounds a curve. (Photo courtesy 
of American Car and Foundry 


The fiiioineerinff Iroo... 

Itfi II. .!#. WilMun 

Research Professor of Structural Engineering, Emeritus 

Statistics show tliat approximately 
S55f of the aliiinni of the College of 
Eiigiiu-erinu; of the University of Illinois 
arc engaged in some line of engineering 
work. What does this mean? 

Does it mean that most of our engi- 
neering studetits selected engineering he- 
cause they were endowed by nature to 
he engineers? Or does it mean that our 
alumni have persisted in engineering 
work, in spite of inclinations and native 
ahility along other lines, simply because 
they took an engineering course? 

Next to selecting good morals, select- 
ing a proper occupation is the greatest 
decision in a young man's life. Some 
men look upon daylight as a time in 

which to earn money in order to enjoy 
competency in old age. Both are wrong. 
Daylight is a work time and \outh is 
a time to accumulate; but for life to be 
satisfactory the work itself must be a 
pleasure. Eight hours of drudgery paid 
for two hours of pleasure is a bad bar- 

For e\ery man there is some employ- 
ment in which the labor itself is a pleas- 
m'e. Every man owes it to himself to 
find that occupation as early in life as 
possible. This is an obligation that many 
a man overlooks. He does not realize 
that his selection of an occupation may 
determine whether he is to have 40 years 
nf pleasant industry leading to abund- 

ance and success. Yet the choosing ot a 
right or wrong occupation may mean 
ju^t this. 

To Be or Not to Hi 

A college course is sclectetl at a time 
when a man is not in a position to make 
an intelligent choice. Statistics show that 
a very small proportion of our students 
follow the occupation of their fathers. 

Engineering students come from 
farms; students in agriculture come 
from cities; sons of doctors study to be 
lawxcrs: and sons of law\ers stuih to 

Your career and your first job 
are two of the most important de- 
cisions you'll ever make. Yet have 
you made a thorough investigation 
of your field and special type of 
work? Have you given the problem 
due consideration? Have you de- 
cided about research, sales, or pro- 
duction; or possibly personnel or 
public relations? 

This article first appeared in the 
November, 1920 Technograph 
when Mr. Wilson was an associate 
professor. His suggestions are fully 
as valuable today as they were 29 
years ago. Having information 
from the Career Conference still 
in mind, you should find Mr. Wil- 
son's article especially helpful to 
make a wise decision. 

be doctors. Consequenth' the student 
does not have a first-hand everyday ac- 
quaintanceship with his prospective pro- 
fession at the time he selects his college 
course. He does not know the kind of 
ability required ; he does not know the 
environment in which the work will be 
done ; he knows nothing of the tedious 
hours of routine ; nor does he know the 
remuneration which the average man in 
the profession receives. 

The city boy, lured by the high prices 
of produce, the independent simple life, 
and the open air, decides to be a farmer. 
Likewise the country boy, lured by high 
salaries, good clothes, absence of manual 
labor, and the opportunity for social 
pleasure, goes to the city. 

If a boy is handy at fixing door bells, 
his parents and neighbors speak of him 
as a promising electrical engineer, not 
realizing the difference between an elec- 
trician and an engineer. Likewise a boy 
who plays with toy engines, and what 
boy does not, is destined to be a me- 
chanical engineer. That is, the selections 
are based upon incidents and not upon 
fundamental principles. 

If'lifit Do You ICa/it.' 
In selecting an occupation two ques- 
tions are fundamental : What do you 
want to get? What do \ou want to 
become ? 

Life is a long journey. The first step 
in a journey is to select a destination, 
decide where you want to go. Where 
(Continued on Page 30) 




By Luthvr I'eterson, U.K. '.11 

Jl'ilh the aihmncc of a nnv scifiuc. Ultrasonics, many nnv problems hereto- 
fore never diseussed or thouejht of have arisen. One of these prohlents, is the effect 
that ultrasonics has upon nerve tissue. This article hrini/s out the hii/hliyhts of the 
problem . nhich is mainly the development of neic equipment for testing these effects. 

Probably one of the newest fields of 
research in ultrasonics today is its effect 
on nerves. Many people have heard or 
seen pictures of objects being supported 
in mid-air only by this imseen and un- 
heard high frequency sound, yet \er\- 
few people have heard anything about 
it effects on nerve tissue. 

Within the last year, Professor W. j. 
Fry of the Electrical Engineering De- 
partment has undertaken the study of 
ultrasonic irradition of nerves. It is still 
too early to draw any conclusions be- 
cause of the broad scope of the program. 

Because research in this field of ultra- 
sonics is in its early stages of develop- 
ment, new equipment has to be de- 
veloped as the problem advances. As a 
result, the research problem has been 
primarih' that of instrumentation. 

.1 pparatus 
1 he set-up of the apparatus can be 
biiiken into fi\e general groups. They 
aie as follows: (1) sound tank and 
asM)ciated equipment, (2) sound pro- 
jictiir driver, (3) observation equipment 
( iiNid to detect the activity of the 
iui\e tissue), (4) nerve stimulator and 
-diind control circuits, and (5) the 

Pete, a junior in Elcctrj- 
CQl Engmeering, was o 
member of the Techno- 
graph stoff at the Gales- 
burg division before com- 
ing to the Urbano staff. 

He was born on Jon 6, 
1927, in Molinc, lit, but 
has spent the greater part 
of his hfe in Chlcogo. 

After leaving the Army 
he was undecided about 
attending school or going 


work. Hi^ 


about attending college 
was due to the fact that 
he thought the studies 
were too difficult. How- 
ever, offer he tolked to 
several fellows who hod 
offended school, he changed 
his mind and here he is. 


equipment to measure the sound in- 

The sound tank, which uses water as 
the transmitting medium, encloses the 
sound field. The tank, which is also 
insulated to prevent reflections of the 
sound, contains the coordinate systems 
for locating and supporting the nerve 
holder and probe, the ultrasonic pro- 
jector and the focusing mirror anil 

A piezoelectric crystal, contained in 
a housing to protect it from the water, 
comprises the sound projector. The 

sound is projected through a thin dia- 
phgram which separates the crystal from 
the water ; and since only the resonant 
frequency of the crystal produces the 
desired intensity, a different projector 
Is used for each frequency. 

The principle frequency range is from 
700 kc to 1,000 /■(■ with the crystal 
producing about 175 watts of power. 
To focus this sound a six-inch focal 
length aluminum parabolic mirror is 
used ; it can be adjusted by two inde- 
pendent angular movements. In this re- 
spect it is seen that the sound is con- 
trolled somewhat like light. 

Another and very important part of 
the tank is the coordinate system which 
supports the nerve holder; it also pro- 
vides three rectangidar motions and one 
rotational movement for moving the 
probe to obtain field distribution pat- 
terns. The probe itself consists of a 
small piezoelectric crystal and is con- 
structed in such a way to make it very 

The ne.\t and probably the most im- 
portant piece of apparatus is the nerve 
holder. Several holders have been used 
and all contain imbedded electrical stim- 
ulating and receiving electrodes. These 
holders are enclosed in a rigid envelope 
which also contains Ringer's solution 
surrounding the nerve. The electrical 
leads are brought out of the tank and 
(Continued on Page 36) 

The micro-manipulators (left) aid in the dissection of nerve fibers used in the experiments. On the right 
is the water-filled sound tank and associated metering equipment. (Photo by Lou Davidson) 

iDECEMBER, 1949 


Celestial phenomena have fascinatei! 
men since the beginning of time. Sun- 
spots, though one of the smaller features 
of our imiverse, have attracted their 
share of attention. In 1610 (laiileo 
vieweii the sunspots through his home- 
made telescope. He was probably the 
first man to give them much notice for 
even the largest sunspots are barely per- 
ceptible to the naked eye. 

Heinrich Schwabc, a (jerman apothe- 
cary, started in 1826 to make dail\- rec- 
ords of the number of spots visible on 
the sun. After 25 \ears of this routine 
his labors were recognized. He found 
that the number of spots fluctuated in 
about a lO-year cycle. 

This information might have passed 
as inconsequential if it had not been for 
simultaneous records being made in otii- 
er countries on the magnetic needle 
changes, the number of magnetic storms, 
and the frequency of the Aurora Bore- 
aiis displays. 

Comparison of these records revealed 
a startling fact ; the magnitude of these 
recorded conditions fluctuated in almost 
perfect uiuson. This intriguing fact led 
observatories to keep a daily photograpli- 
ical record of the spottedness of the sun 
from 1858 to the present day. 

This lengthy and scientific record re- 
vealed more important information. It 
showed that the sunspot cycle varied 
from 8 to 1 7 years in length ; large 
spots usually lie in pairs with the mem- 
bers of the pair east and west of each 
other; the hydrogen vortices that sur- 
round the sunspots rotate in opposite 
directions in each pair as corresponding 
spots in each hemisphere rotate opposite- 
ly; and corresponding spots in each sep- 
arate cycle rotate oppositely; and sun- 
spots have strong magnetic fields. This 
information served as a basis for the 
theories that were advanced in an effort 
to explain the sunspot phenomenon. 

A Norwegian meteorologist, Professor 
Hjerkes, put forth a theory in 1926 that 
tried to explain most of the main aspects 
of the sunspot cycle. He reasoned that 
all the spots in one hemisphere during 
a given cycle are part of a single tub- 
ular vortex which passes around the sun 


No, They're Not Spots Before Your Eyes, They Are . . . 


Itif 'hthn lliiln'r. Atf.K. '.12 

lliiV( yon ci'cr iiu/nJoc/l iih'iiit tin miisr 
it! Diir .uj/iir sys/ciii/ F.vir siiik CiiUlio first 
Ih'CI! puzzled and have pi(ip(isid tinoiics on 
possible explanation of the e/mse and many inte 

and appearanee of spots on the sun 
observed this phenomena, men have 

the siibjet. The folloiviny gives a 
restini/ faets about these beu'ildering 

John transferred this 
ear from the Golcsburg 
ivision where he was on 
he Tcchnograph staff and 
OS o fcoturc writer tor 
he Galesburg lllini. He 
as a great interest in 
Titjng and hopes to op- 





growing poultry on 
me form near Wil- 
eld. III., carpenter 
and being o 4-H 
r for the past 10 






member of Phi 
□nd A.S.A.E. 

parallel to the sun's equator and just 
below the visible surface. The gases in 
this tube all rotate in one direction 
round and round its walls. Disturbances 
in the sun cause this tube to bend up- 
ward and break out into the open and 
form two oppositely rotating vortices. 

This assumption agrees with the 
known fact that all westerly spots ro- 
tate in the same direction in one hemi- 
sphere and all easterly spots rotate in 
the opposite direction. As this upper 
tubular \ortex travels toward the equa- 
tor an inner or lower vortex is traveling 
from the equator toward the pole. This 
inner vortex is rotating in the opposite 
direction from the outer one so when 
it breaks out at higher latitudes the spots 
it produces have their rotation directions 
reversed from the direction of rotation 
of the first mentioned sunspots. The 


B J£RK£3 ' Th£OR Y 

Bjerkes advanced the theory that sunspots ore port of a tubular vortex 
that passes around the sun's equator. 


first \ortex sinks at the equator and fol- 
lows the path of the second vortex to- 
ward the pole and the process keeps re- 
peating itself. 

This theory agrees with facts but 
doesn't attempt to explain why the sun- 
spots in the two hemispheres behave op- 

After several unsuccessful attempts to 
accurately predict siuispot activity, J. 
Halm advanced the hypothesis that each 
sunspot cycle was a fresh burst of ac- 
tivity and not related to any cycle of 
the past. Stewart added that sunspot 
cycles differed in magnitude but not in 

Sir John Herschel, an English astron- 
omer, reasoned that the spots were the 
dark, solid body of the sun itself laid 
open to view. It was later proved that 
the sun has no dark, solid body so Her- 
schel's idea was discarded. 

Others likened the spots to cyclones 
and said that the bright flares that burst 
over the spots were electrical discharges 
between the magnetic fields of the spots. 
Professor Hale of Mount Wilson Ob- 
servatory said that the spots appeared 
dark because of their relative coolness 
and this coolness was caused by the rapid 
expansion of gases spirally rising from 
the core of the spots. 

The theories advanced, though some 
of them were highly reasonable, haven't 
been accepted as the final word by as- 
tronomers. Astronomers are scientists 
and scientists have an inborn passion for 
facts, thus they haven't paused in their 
search for more and more information 
about sunspots. Thanks to this ceaseless 
stud\' we now have a vast, though not 
complete, story of absolute facts about 
this well known malady of the sun. 

Present knowledge of the sunspots is 
as follows : A spot consists of a dark 
inner portion known as an umbra and 
a lighter surrounding area known as a 
penumbra. A penumbra may enclose sev- 
eral umbrae. A light ring may some- 
times surround a large spot. 

Sunspots range in size from 500 to 
50,000 miles across. Sometimes they 
form in groups that blacken out several 


CycLE B 

Diagrams show the opposite be- 
havior of sun spots on either side 
of the sun's equator. 

billion square miles. These large spots 
nia\ last two or three months while the 
small ones only exist a few days. 

The spots appear dark because they 
arc 1,000 to 1,500 degrees cooler than 
the surrounding gases. (This tempera- 
ture difference was definitely proved by 
two main discoveries brought about by 
spectrum studies. The sunspot spectrum 

revealed lines due to titanium oxide 
which couldn't possibh' exist in the in- 
tense heat of the surrounding surface 
of the sun. The sunspot spectrum closely 
resembles the spectrum of an electric 
arc while the sun's spectrum resembles 
that of an electric spark and it is a dem- 
onstrational fact that an electric spark is 
much hotter than an electric arc.) The 
magnetic field of sunspots has been 
measured as being 8,000 times the 
strength of the earth's magnetic field. 

A sunspot cycle starts with the break- 
ing out of small spots at points about 
43 degrees from the poles of the sun. 
They migrate toward the equator and 
become the largest and most numerous 
when they reach points about 10 degrees 
north and 10 degrees south latitude. 
This is known as sunspot maximum. As 
they move still closer to the equator they 
slowdy die out and a new cycle starts 
at the 45 degree latitudes. Spots very 
rarely occur nearer the equator than 
five degrees but one pair was observed 
that actually straddled the equator. 

These atmospheric disturbances on the 
sun are undoubtedly caused by actions 
in the core of the siui, a place impossible 
to observe. This may make it impossible 
to ever fully explain the cause and na- 
ture of sunspots, but the limits of ob- 
tainable knowledge are boundless; there 
is still a chance of cracking the sunspots' 
closely kept secrets. 

We, on this satellite, are most inter- 
ested in how sunspots affect oiu" environ- 
ment. This knowledge is even more lim- 
ited than that of the spots themselves 
because it is difficult to determine ex- 
actly what is caused by the spots and 

(T , 

what is caused by other celestial dis- 

Some biologists believe that sunspot 
activity has a direct influence on growth. 
They back this assumption by pointing 
out the relati\e size of tree rings as 
var\ing directly as the c\cles of the sun- 

Electrical disturbances caused b\' the 
sunspots are thought of in our elec- 

A high magnification shows two 
of the sunspot vortices. (Photo 
courtesy of Scientific American) 

tronic age as being their most important 
effect. Bright flares often flash out over 
spots and as they do short wave radio 
transmission is blacked out. 

As electrical discharges are emitted 
from the sunspots and bombard our up- 
per atmosphei'e, the well known Aurora 
Borealis displays are produced. These 
beautiful displays are an awe-inspiring 
tribute to the power of the mysterious 
sunspots that are 93,000,000 miles away. 

A telescopic photograph shows a group of sunspots under a high 
magnification. (Photo courtesy of Scientific American) 

World's Lightest Solid 

A solid that will float on a gas, 
Freon 1 13, has been de\eloped by West- 
inghouse. It is a foamed phenolic resin 
that weighs only 0.6 pounds per cubic 

The chief developer of this amazing 
substance, Robert Sterling, prepares it 
by mixing a dark liquid resin. The resin 
is then baked for a few minutes at 180° 
(I, and the result is a hundredfold in- 
crease in volume. 

This foamed resin, which is only one- 
fifteenth the weight of fluffy meringue, 
promises to have widespread applica- 
tions. The most promising of these ap- 
plications seems to be in the insulating 
field. Its extreme porosity and low den- 
sity make it a natural for this field. 
Also it can be shipped as a liquid and 
expanded on site, thus saving tremen- 
dously on shipping space. It is also very 
resistant to moisture absorption. 

Its other applications seem to be lim- 
ited only by the imagination. 



U^lUieo^me^..Mf^^ PIER 


By Clarence Niebow, M.E. '51 

As we pass the ottices ot the Colli-jii' 
of EiiginceriiiK Sciences liere at the Pier, 
we cannot help noticinji a new person- 
ality. He is Prof. Fredrick W. Trezise, 
associate dean of P:ngineering Sciences. 

Professor Trezise came to the Pier 
last lune from Galesburg, after its clos- 
ing. "He succeeded Prof. R. P. Hoel- 
scher, who had returned to Urbana to 
head the (General Engineering Drawing 

Professor Trezise's career in engineer- 
ing has taken him to many parts of the 
globe, from as far south as Mexico to 
die northern parts of Canada. His ca- 
reer as an engineer began at Michigan 
State University, where he received his 
B.S. degree in civil engineering. He 
completed his graduate work at the L'ni- 
versity of Wisconsin where he majored 
in hydraulics; and after World War I 
he attended the University of Bonne, 
Germany. W^hile attending these insti- 
tutions, Mr. Trezise developed an in- 
terest in education, which brought him 
to Lawrence College where he served on 
the faculty for LS years. While serving 
on the faculty, he was called from time 
to time to supervise the construction of 
a number of building projects. 

W'hile at Lawrence College, AL". 
Trezise made exhausted investigations 


!{,>!, King £.///»/• 

Ronald Sak ^Sit- £''''<"■ 

Clarence Niebow Issndatc 

Mr. Ogden Livermore Spmistir 

of the mineral claims in the Sierra 
ALadre Mountains, the Black Hills, and 
the Great Bear Lake region. 

The engineering project in which Wx. 
Trezise is most commonly associated 
with is the TVA. In 1936 he was called 
upon to set up plans for the construc- 
tion of various dams in the Tennessee 
River basin. When the war broke out, 
the TVA was called upon to produce 
more power in order to supply our war 
machine. Professor Trezise was then of- 
fered the position of personnel officer 
for all management services at Knox- 
ville, Tennessee. In order to meet these 
new demands more labor was needed. 
Because of the emergency the employ- 
ment rose to 42,000 and the agency was 
geared to "run around the clock." 

While working with the TVA, Pro- 
fessor Trezise assisted in the purchase 
of the "Kingston Demolition Range," 
which later was to be known as the 
"Atomic City," Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 


Before the .'\rmy took o\er this tract 
of land, it contained the most delapi- 
dated farms in the South. It was then 
developed into the fourth largest city 
in Tennessee. This task required tre- 
mendous power that only the TVA 
could furnish. 

As personnel officer Mr. Trezise was 
able to discover certain qualities that a 
good engineer must possess in order to 
make a success in his field. 

Here at the Pier he expects to create || 
a compulsory orientation course for en- | 
gineers. This orientation course will help 
tiie engineering student get better ac- 
quainted with his chosen field and will 
give him a better perspective on the fu- 

Engineering Societies 

By Ronald Sak . . . Aero. '52 


This society holds its regular monthly 
meeting on Tuesdays at 3 :00 p. m. 

The society's annual smoker was held 
on October 21. A large number of mem- 
bers were present and all had a good 
time. The boys talked camp, basketball, 
and everything but "school." 

The annual scholarship is being of- 
fered this year; also the Sponsor's prize 
will be given to the man with the high- 
est grade. These prizes will be awarded 
next June. 


On October 20 the student chapter 
of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers held an election of officers 
for the 1949 fall semester. The results 
are as follows : 

Chairman Joe Knauff 

Vice chairman Dale Hileman 

Eng. Council Rep. Richard Klensch 

Secretary Marshall Uhl 

Treasurer Robert Andrews 

Dale Hileman presided over the meet- 
ing and election. Program, publicity, and 
membership committees were discussed 
and appointed. 

Among the semester plans ^ of the 
AIEE is a trip to one of Chicago': 
television stations where the electrical 
engineers will have an opportunity to 
inspect its technical side. They will also 
have a chance to talk with T-V engi- 
neers and producers. 

Plans are also being made to bring 
Bell Telephone's technical exhibit and 
demonstrations to the Pier. This will 
be of interest, no doubt, to all engineer 
ing students. 

The electricals intend to sponsor 
(Continued on Page 42) 




Contrary to popular belief, freshman 
lectures do have a purpose. 

Professor Allen became interested in 
ceramics by the influence of a first year 
lecture he attended while working for 
his B.S. at the Missouri School of Mines 
and Metallurgy. From there he went 
to Virginia PoKtechnic Institute to re- 
ceive his M.S. in r»4:. 


From 1942 to 1943 he worked as a 
research engineer at the Harbison- 
Walker Refractories Company in Pitts- 
burgh. As a result of his continued 
interest in this field of ceramics he was 
well qualified for the position of editor 
lit the Rcfrtutfjr'us Division of (Jirti/iiir 
.lhstra,ts. 1948-49. 

In I'U.i he enlisted in the aviation 
iMili'ts and was commissioned as a navi- 
L:;itiir. He then taught navigation until 
rr;msferred to Chanute Field where he 
lircame a rated meteorologist. 

After he was discharged in 1945 Mr. 
Allen came to the University of Illinois 
tn work on the Air Force project con- 
re rning the use of ceramic products for 
C(i;!ting the internal combustion cham- 
ber of jet engines. While working on 
this project he accepted a position on 
the teaching staff here and in 1946 he 
^raited teaching. He received his assist- 
ant professorship the same year. He is 
niiw an associate professor in the Ce- 
ramic Engineering Department, and is 
nnw teaching an introductory course, 
l'\iiimetry. Microscopy, and Refrac- 

Along with his teaching, Professoi' 
Allen is very active in faculty and stu- 
ilrnt organizations. He is a member ot 
rile Engineering College policy and de- 
\(l(ipment committee and also the time 
table committee. 

Professor Allen is a member of 
ACS, Sigma Pi, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma 

94^i^U)<iUuM4Xf, . 

By .Jtu'k Sitzlvr. f'fr.E. "32 

ami 'lohn liubvr. Ag.E. 

Xi, Keramos, American Mineralogical 
Society, Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and the American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials. In the 
ASTM he is a member of committee 
C-8 on Refractory Materials. 


So often it is said that an engineer 
must learn to work with people as well 
as with things to be truly successful. If 
this bit of advice is true, Keith Goodwin 
shouldn't have any trouble. He has been 
working with over 1,000 students as 
chairman of the Block I stunts at foot- 
ball games. 

Keith will graduate next June as an 
electrical engineer with power option. 
He hopes to get a job then with a pub- 
lic utility company in the field of appli- 
cations. His interest in electricity began 
in his grade school days and has in- 
creased with knowledge. 

He is a member of AIEE-IRE and 
was chairman of the student branch 
last year. In 1948 Keith was on the 
Engineering Council and was co-chair- 
man of St. Pat's Ball. Block I has 
had his services for three years. He is 
a member of Phi Eta Sigma, Eta Kappa 
Nu, Tau Beta Pi, and has been award- 
ed a scholarship key. 

Keith spent 1,^ months in the Navy 
as a printer. Photography is his main 

hobby. He was raised in Springfield, 
Illinois, and has a brother who is an 
electrical engineer working for (jood- 
rich Rubber Company. 

The first big step of his career will 
be made next year — he's getting married. 


A successful ci\il engineer signed the 
name of Newlin D. Morgan to a Uni- 
versity of Illinois teaching contract by 
lamplight some 26 years ago in the 
mountains of Colorado. It was in Sep- 
tember of 1924 that he started here as 
an associate. 

His record prior to that time showed 
the development of his interests and 



abilities. He was \aledictorian of the 
North Denver High School class of '06 
and attended the University of Colorado 
on scholarships. It was there that he re- 
ceived his B.S. degree in 1910. 

Professor Morgan's first job after 
graduation was with the American 
Bridge Company in Chicago. He helped 
them organize their branch office in 
(lary in 1912. It was while working 
with this company that he became inter- 
ested in designing. 

This interest was developed during 

the next few years while working for 

the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 

Railroad designing their buildings. This 

(Continued on Page 24) 



The EiiiiiiiciM'iiio lluiioraries and MMm 

ttif Ifiriffht Itt'tirtl. U.K. *.»# 

A.I.E.E.-I.R.E. and A.S.M.E. 

A display of cooperation ami coordi- 
nation that has possibilities for bringing 
some outstanding programs to student 
engineers was evidenced recently by the 
American Societ\- of Mechanical Engi- 
neers and the Institute of Radio Engi- 
neers — American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. These organizations spon- 
sored a joint meeting October 28. 

Bernard G. Hatch of the General 
Electric Company spoke on the latest 
de\ei()pnients of gas turbines. He ex- 
plained the turbines and their applica- 
tions in relation to power plants and 
locomotives. Interesting films, related to 
the subject, were also shown. 

This method of organizations com- 
bining to present programs of general 
interest gives the "wheels" excellent ex- 
perience in working with other groups. 


AS ME officers elected this semester 
include Al Helene, James Eberhardt, 
and Wolfgang Junkel. Their respective 
positions are secretary, assistant treas- 
urer, and junior representative to the 
Engineering Council. 

A rousing discussion concerning the 
methods of electing officers was termi- 
nated by a motion that the 
executive committee study 
the question with the pur- 

MTOPyn pose of proposing amend- 

iMj]^) ments to the constitution. 

November 2, Dean H. 
H. Jordan spoke on "Placement Pro- 
cedures and Prospects." The dean out- 
lined the placement structure employed 
by the University which emphasizes 
decentralization. The University Place- 
ment Service is broken down into func- 
tions of the college offices, which in 
turn are divided into departmental func- 
tions. In the case of the Mechanical 
Engineering Department, placement 
services are handled through the office 
of the Dean by Professor Ryan. He 
contacts the students and handles per- 
sonalized services for the prospective em- 

Of the personal services offered, the 
character rating sheet is of prime impor- 
tance to the student. The Mechanical 
Engineering Department has made up a 
character sheet on which are evaluated 
such qualities as personality, industry, 
and ability to get along with people. 


These are evaluated by each student's 
instrLictors. The results of several rat- 
ings are compiled and distributed to in- 
terviewers to aid them in making em- 
ployment decisions. 

Another fact that Dean Jordan em- 
phasized was the importance of keeping 
in contact with the school after gradua- 
tion. As an illustration, he stated that 
he could recommend jobs that pay from 
#280 to $800 per month to the quali- 
fied engineers, if he only knew of those 
in need. 

Following the talks by Dean Jordan 
and Professor Ryan, a discussion period 
was held to clear up questions which 
had not been answered. Dean Pierce 
was also present and helped to answer 


Charles Drury chose a very interest- 
ing and pertinent subject to bring before 
the foundrymen's club at their Novem- 
ber meeting held in the M. E. building. 
He spoke on the differences between 
classroom instruction and foundry work 
as it is performed in industry. He also 
pointed out the difficulties one encount- 
ers in making the change from school to 

A recent graduate of the University, 
Chuck is now employed by General 
Motors in Danville and his experiences 
in making the change from student to 
worker are still fresh in his mind. 

Membership in the AFS is open to 
all students interested in foimdry work. 
It is a branch of the national Ameiican 
Foundry Society. 

Pi Tau Sigma, the national M. E. 
honorary, held its fall pledging smoker 
on November 8 in the facultv lounge 
of the mini Union. Prof. D. S. Clark 
of Purdue, who is national secretary, 
was scheduled to give a talk, 
but as he was unable to at- 
tend, Henry Funckes of the 
local chapter gave liis talk 
in his stead. 

Some remarks were made 
by Prof. Norman Parker, 
head of the Mechanical En- 
gineering Department; and the history 
of Pi Tau Sigma was related for the 
benefit of the new initiates by Boubene 
Jaremis, president of this chapter. 

Refreshments were then ser\eil to tin- 


!VIu San, municipal and sanitary engi- 
neering honorary fraternity, held its sec- 
ond meeting of the current semester on 
October 26. 

The primary purpose of the meeting 
was the social mingling of old and new 
prospective members. The program con- 
sisted of slide pictures and a lecture 
given by one of the members, Ray Plum- 
mer, on water supply methods for the 
island of St. Croix in the West Indies. 

The date for the formal initiation 
was set for November 9. Plans were 
also made for a field inspection trip to 
the sanitary and water supply districts 
of Springfield on December 3. 


The MIS was indeed fortunate to se- 
cure Dr. Maurice D. Cooper to speak 
at their meeting November 9. Mr. 
Cooper was really well qualified to talk 
on "The Coal Industry and the (Gradu- 
ate Mining Engineer." 

Besides having 25 years of experience 
in mining, he is chairman of the AIME 
committee on student relations. More- 
over, Dr. Cooper is director of voca- 
tional training for the National Coal 

The short business session at this 
meeting included an outline and a dis- 
cussion of the Career Conference, De- 
cember 5, 6, 7, and 8. 

E. E. Senior Inspection Trip 

The senior inspection trip which was 
dropped during the war was again re- 
vived through the efforts of the AIEE- 
IRE. The interest shown in the trip 
this year will undoubtedly warrant a 
required trip in years to come. It seems 
to be a well proven fact that the knowl- 
edge gained on such a trip easily out- 
weighs expenses and mconvenience in- 

Three days, November 9, 10, and 11, 
were taken for the trip this year. Ap- 
proximately 200 students from the elec- 
tronic and power options went on the 
trip. This number was split up into fi\e 
groups in order to facilitate guide serv- 
ice through the plants. Individual itin- 
eraries were set up for each bus so as 
(Continued on Page 34) 


By Dean Felton, C.E. '51 and Bob Lawrence, M.E. '51 

// ortis of Jl isiioiii 
From Professor Alexander of our 
Chemistry Department we quote the fol- 
lowing words which we feel can relate 
to many of our subjects: "Teaching 
Organic Chemistry is like pouring H^O 
into a sieve. The only hope is that it 
will run out slowly enough to last 
through each hour exam." 
* -x- * 

Flush the Boxevard 

«■ « » 

Jloinan Suffrage 

We received word that Tau Beta Pi 
has again been in the throes of allowing 
women to become fidl-fledged members 
of the organization. 

According to the present constitution, 
women are not given full membership, 
but outstanding women in the field of 
engineering may be awarded the Wom- 
an's Badge. This is purely honorary and 
does not award full membership. In the 
past 25 years, 96 women have been so 
honored. Of these, 95 have been award- 
ed for honors in undergraduate work 
and one woman has been honored for her 
attainments in the field of electrical 

At latest reports the men have not 
relented but the women are still trying 
to break into the ranks of the elite engi- 
neering honorary. 

-S! ' S iS- 

Flush the Boxevard 

University Fire Fiyhters 
There is one biulding on our engi- 
neering campus that appears quite inde- 
pendent. It is the fire department 
building, located directly behind Civil 
Engineering Hall. Although this build- 
ing shows very little activity, compared 
to the hustling crowd that pours in and 
out of other buildings, it plays a re- 
sponsible role in the maintenance of 
such a large University as our own. 

Considering its relative responsibili- 
ties, the University of Illinois fire de- 
partment is one of the best equipped 
and most efficient fire departments in 
the state. 

Heading the fire department person- 
nel is the fire chief, F. S. Stateler, who 


is in ciiarge of the fire prevention pro- 
gram. His duties require him to inspect 
all buildings on the campus to determine 
the number of people they may safely 

He also determines any violations of 
the building code. These violations may 
include such items as improper construc- 
tion, improperly placed fire doors, and 
inadequate exit or stairway space. 

The remainder of the personnel is 
divided into two platoons, each consist- 
ing of 11 men and working on a 24- 
hour shift. The captain and first lieu- 
tenant are in charge of one platoon, 
while the assistant chief and second lieu- 
tenant are in charge of the second pla- 
toon. The nine remaining men of each 
platoon are divided into two companies. 
The engine company handles all first 
floor alarms, while the ladder company 
handles alarms of two stories or greater. 

Everyone in the fire department must 
drill once a week to be constantly fa- 
miliar with their equipment and its use. 
They must also have a knowledge of 
fire fighting procedures. 

Their academic training covers nine 
different subjects. They are: (1) minor 
fire extinguisher practice and use; (2) 
ladders; (3) hoses; (4) salvage and 
overhaul; (5) water pressure and fire 
stream; (6) fire apparatus (rolling 
stock only); (7) ventilation; (8) res- 
cue work; and (9) inspection. 

The equipment of the University fire 
department is rated very highly. Its big- 
gest fire truck is known as a "Quin" 
among firemen because it carries five 
types of equipment which include a 65- 
foot aerial ladder, a booster tank, hose, 
a pump capable of delivering 1,200 gal- 
lons per minute, and a rigid ladder as- 
semblage consisting of seven ladders 
ranging from 16 to 45 feet. Another 
truck on hand is known as a "Quad ;" 
it carries a 750 gpm pump, a booster 
tank, hose, and a rigid ladder. The re- 
maining equipment includes a hose wag- 
on, an emergency pick-up truck, life 
nets, life lines, a deluge pump and a 
high-pressure pump. 

The fire alarm control room consists 
(Continued on Page 34) 




000^0 00 




Associate Editor 



Peanuts for Students . . . 

Thi-re are approximately 19,500 students, 
3,054 taeult)', and 2,592 nonacademic per- 
sonnel at the University of Illinois. Each 
group has its various organizations. And each 
group pulls strings, plays politics, and in gen- 
eral proceeds independently and without con- 
sideration of the others. 

An example is the virtual monopoly en- 
joyed (and I do mean enjoyed) by the Civil 
Service Employees Council, the official organ- 
ization of non-academic personnel on campus. 
They receive the profits from 39 candy, Coca 
Cola, and peanut dispensers placed in campus 
buildings. But these profits aren't peanuts! 
Between January 1 and November 15, 1949, 
the net profit from these machines was about 
$2,000. That's not bad — but it isn't right! 
What does the CSEC do with the profits? 
Besides maintaining a running balance of 
about $2,300, they throw a jamboree and a 
picnic each year. 

Aleanwhile, many student organizations 
must perform their educational and Univer- 
sity-promoting functions without adequate 
finances. Practically all student organizations, 
and particularly our engineering societies, are 
supported only by dues from the members. 

Last spring the Commerce Council, badly 
in need of operating funds, petitioned for in- 
stallation and control of vending machines in 
David Kinley Hall. Their petition was ap- 
proved by the Committee on Student Affairs 
and was referred to President Stoddard for 

Despite approval by CSA, its chairman. 
Prof. Harry J. Fuller, and Dean Fretl H. 
Turner then sent Stoddard a letter asking 
for a decision and suggesting that student 
groups not be authorized to control canteens. 
The reason? The CSEC has no other method 
to finance their welfare program; students 
may promote dances and other activities to 
raise money. 

However, instead of buying flowers for 
the sick and the dead (as Dean Tinner 
has said) profits have been used almost ex- 
clusively for entertainment. In fact the State- 

ment of Belief and Intention, the policy of 
which the CSEC obtained authorization, has 
at the top of a list of example expenditures, 
"group, departmental or campus-wide parties, 
picnics, or other social events." Apparently 
Dean Turner didn't know this. 

Objection to the other point? One needs 
only to ask Dean Hampton about the profits 
of recent student dances. ^laybe Turner 
doesn't know this either! 

Maybe Turner would prefer to be dean 
for nonacademic personnel rather than dean 
for students! 

Yet there is a definite need for some kind 
of unifying acti\ity for the nonacademic per- 

Last May the Technografih sent a letter 
to Stoddard asking that the position of 19,000 
students be considered along with that of 
Dean Turner and Professor Fuller. At the 
time of this writing, Stoddard has not made 
a decision. However, the provost, Coleman R. 
Griffith, has proposed a plan involving a joint 
student-faculty-nonacademic board to appor- 
tion profits from vending machines. 

The lUinois Technograph approves this 
proposal if the proposed board will have pro- 
portional representation and if profits are dis- 
tributed fairly. 

Those organizations doing the most un- 
selfish and constructive work should be the 
recipients of the students' share. Most needy 
and most worthy are the college councils that 
made possible the First Annual Career Con- 
ference. Improvement of the L^niversity is 
their main emphasis; student benefit is sec- 

Were it not for action by members of the 
Engineering Council, last spring's Engineering 
Convocation and Effective Instructor award, 
the Dad's Day tours, the Career Conference, 
and the forthcoming engineering open house, 
I SEE, would not be realities. And these are 
all definite services to the L^niversity. 

We students mav be paving for peanuts, 
— R. L. H. 






In safe hands . . . even at 60 below! 

Do YOU REMEMBER when winter meant storing the family 
car till spring;? Not so many years ago, a car owner's fear 
of an ice-shattered motor was a dread reality ... if he didnt 
drain his radiator and store his car once cold weather hit! 

What was needed— acutely— was an automobile anti-freeze 
that would prove always dependable yet economical. One 
that would hold up under any operating temperature. That 
wouldn't foam and boil away. That would resist rust and 
corrosion to the nth degree. 

That's where Union Carbide research entered the picture. 
The result? "Preslone" anti-freeze. Since then this product 
—the first all-winter anti-freeze— has assured millions upon 
millions of motorists of ever-improved driving performance. 

with assured safety . . . throughout the bitterest weather. 

This is but one example of the way the people of Union 
Carbide are helping to better our daily living. And UCC 
stands ready to help solve other problems . . . wherever 
better materials and processes are needed. 

FREE: // you uould like to know more about 
many ttj the thintls you use ei'ery day^ send for 
the illuslraled booklet, "Products and Processes." 
It tells how science and industry use LCC's 
Alloys, Chemicals, Carbons, Vases and Plastics. 
Ifrite Jor free Booklet I. 

Union Carbide 




NEW YORK 17. N. Y. 

Tracle-tnarked Products of Divisions and Units include 

Prestone and Trek Antl-Freezes • NATIONAL Carbons • EvEREADV Flashlights and Batteries 
Synthetic Organic Chemicals • Prest-0-Lite Acetylene • Linde Oxygen 

PresT-0-Lite Acetyle 
Bakelite, Krene, Vinyon, and VlNYLITE Plastics ' Electromet Alloys and Metals 

ArilESON Electroil 

• Pyrofax Gas 
Haynes Stellfte Alloys 




linois Student Engineering Exhibit 

presented by 

Ray Hauser, chairman 


March 10, 1950 

1 2 noon— Engineers excused from classes 

2 p. m.— Engineering Parade (societies and honoraries participating) 
3-10 p. m. — Engineering Exhibits open to the public 

March 11, 1950 

9 a. m. — Engineering Exhibits open 
9 p. m.-St. Pat's Ball 

To plan and present the I SEE will take a little time by a lot of engineers. 
Your help is needed to make it bigger and better than the prewar engineering 

If you want to participate in this great event, see your society or depart- 
mental chairman: 

AFS-Chuck Waters, 6-1894 

AlChE-Bob Gaudlitz, 7-5333 

AIEE-IRE-Cliff Stettler, 7-1785 

ASAE-Jere Castor, 7-3509 

ASME-Vic Swenson, 5847 

ASCE-Harry VonHuben, 6-1847 

lAS-Cliff Felt, 22-4 Ct. C, PGU 

lES-Val McClusky, 9540 

ITE-Tom Fry, 8942 

MIS-Jim Skarda, 6-1907 

SAE-Bob Reynolds, 7-6264 

SBACS-Jerry Schweitzer, 6-2586 

Physics dept.— George Mader, 7-5112 

Arch. E. dept. -Jim Wood, 4689 

If you are interested in the central committees (promotion, program, parade, 
etc.) drop in at 213 C.E.H. These committees will be coordinating the activities 
of all the engineering societies and will be responsible for the success of I SEE. 

Here's your chance to join an activity that engineering 
industry will be watching 



^^Magnet Wire? 
I didn-t even know ROEBLING made it I... 

THIS VISIT to just one of the 
Rocbling works has been an eye- 
opener. Everyone in my line knows 
Roebling wire rope, but I never 
heard that you stack up so big in 
electrical wires and cables." 



Many people are surprised to learn of the 
wide diversity of Roeblinn;'s line of wires 
and wire products. It is often news, too, 
tiiat several different items in tlie Rocbling 
line are used in one and the same field. In 
mines and quarries, for example, Roebling 
Wire Rope, Aggregate Screens and Port- 
able Electrical Cable are all likely to be on 
the job together. Wherever there's industry, 
there are Roebling products that help bring 
highest efficiency and lowest service cost. 

weaves wire screens to meet every sort of 
industrial requirement. From large size 
Aggregate Screens to closely woven Filter 
Clotlis, wires made of special steels and 
non-ferrous metals bring new measvires of 
resistance to abrasion and corrosion. 

WIRE nOI'E. Roebling wire rope is 
made in a complete range of t)pes and 
alwa\s affords a rope that's riglit for every 
application. For easy handhng, smooth 
operation and long life on the job, Roebling 
Preformed "Blue Center" Wire Rope is 

EI.E«'TltirAI. WIKE - < ABLE - 
»1.\«>'ET W'lltE. With more than 60 
standard tvpes, Rocbling's line of electrical 
wire and cable meets practically all trans- 
mission, distribution and service needs . . . 
The insulation of Roevar Magnet Wire is 

10 to 40 times tougher than other t\'pes — 
first choice for high-speed winding. 

■tOI'>'U— FLAT— SHAPE ■> WlltE. 

Manufacturers adopt Roebling high carbon 
wire for its dependable uniformity which 
minimizes machine stoppages and rejects, 
and pulls down production costs. 

* ^ * 

Whatever career you are studying for, 
when you get on the job you will find one 
or more t\pes of Roebling products serv- 
ing there, dependablv and at low cost. 
John A. Rocbling's Sons Co., Trenton 2, N.J. 

BRANCH OFFICES: Atlanta, 931 Avon Ave. * 
nustttn, .SI Sleeper Si. * Chicago, 5525 W. Roosevell 
Rd. * Clexiland, 701 St. Clair Ave.. N. E. * Denver, 
16.1.-. ITIli Sl.*//auslan, 6216 Navigation Blvd.*to« 
Aneeles, 216 S. AlameJa St. * Neiv York, 19 Rector 
SI. * Philadelphia, 12 S. 12th St. * Pittsburgh, 855 W. 
North Av... * Portland, Ore., 1032 N. W. 14th Ave. * 
Son Francisco, 1740 17th St.*Se<illJe,900 First Ave. So. 



Introducing . . . 

( C'ontinurd troin I'agc 17 

work in di-signiii}; defpi-iu'd his growiiif; 
iiitcifst in architi'ctiiri'. 

The years from 1918 to 1923 found 
Professor Morgan back in Colorado. 
This time he was working for the L'. S. 
Bureau of Public Roads. In this posi- 
tion he not only ilesigned bridges but 
had the opportiuiity to supervise the ac- 
tual construction in the field. 

In 1923 the government made him 
district engineer for the Western states. 
It was during this period that he de- 
signed and supcr\iseil the construction 
of the highest two-hinge arch bridge in 
Colorado. He received his professional 
degree from Colorado University in 
1925 on the basis of this achievement. 
His first teaching experience came in 
1923 when Professor Morgan took an 
eniergenc\' leave from his government 
work to fill a vacancy in the Colorado 
University staff. 

Illinois managed to secure his services 
the next year, and he has been here ever 
since. He has been a senior professor 
and on the graduate faculty for the past 
15 years. He received his M.S. here in 

Professor Morgan is a member of the 
American Institute of Architects, the 
American Society of Engineering P"du- 
cation, the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, American Concrete Institute, 
American Association of University Pro- 
fessors, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and 
other honorary societies. 

He was associated with Hardy Cross 
in writing Statically Indeterminate 
Structures, published in 1926, and Con- 
tinuous Frames of Reinforced Concrete. 
published in 1932. The latter book is a 
standard text in use in most of the uni- 
versities and engineering offices through- 
out the country. It has been translated 
into Spanish and is widely used in South 

While attending the University of 
Colorado, Professor Morgan was editor 
of their Engineering Journal. 

Two of his children are professors, 
one is doing graduate work here at Illi- 
nois, and the fourth is in high school. 
Five members of the family are life 
members of the Univei'sit\' Alumni asso- 

Professor Morgan now spends his 
summer months working on a cabin in 
the Medicine Bow National Forest of 
Wyoming with the help of his youngest 

New Developments . . . 

( Continued tKmi Page 2 ) 
features will be incorjiorated into pro- 
duction engines as quickl)' as possible. 
The engine is protected from icing 
conditions by internally heated, hollow 
parts at the nose; this includes inlet 
guide vanes, fairings, and forward fr,-ime 

Versus Cancer 

The atomic pile at ( )ak Ridge Na- 
tional Laboratories Is supplying a potent 
power in the fight against cancer. 

Needles of 53 per cent nickel, 45 per 
cent cobalt are made radioactive by 
exposure to the radiations of the atomic 
pile. The small, easih- fabricated needles 
can then be inserted into diseased tis- 

It would require over a million xolts 
for an X-ray tube to produce gamma 
rays equiwilent to those of the nickel- 
cobalt wires. The gamma radiations are 
similar to those of radium but cover a 
narrower band of frequencies. The half 
life is five years. 

Both the alloy needle and the process 
of making it radioactive are low in cost. 
It is utilized in cancer therapy in the 
same manner as gold needles contain- 
ing radon gas. Moreover the radioacti\e 
needles are about half the size, and can 
be handled and located easily with elec- 
tromagnetic tongs. 

Dr. William Myers of Ohio State 
Universit)' was responsible for develop- 
ing the use of this new needle; and the 
past year of clinical testing at OSU has 
seen the achievement of important gains 
in treating cancer. 

Diesel Switcher 

Lima-Hamilton Corporation's new 
diesel switching locomotive is powered 
by the recently announced Hamilton 
9" by 12" eight-cylinder, supercharged, 
four-cycle vertical diesel engine, which 
provides a full 1,000 brake horsepower 
for traction, utilizing the full capacity 
of the traction motors. The switcher, 
weighing 120 tons, has a maximum 
speed of ()0 miles per hour. 

The 1 .IIIHI-horsepower switcher has a 
diesel engine radically different from 
those ordinarily used in switching loco- 
moti\es. Additional features include its 
operation at HMEP (Brake Mean 
Effective Pressure) of 165 psi. with 
a firing pressure of l,2n(l to l,4(ltl 
pounds. This is far he\ond the pres- 
SLire used in any other engine ot this 
gener;il type. 

Jet Power for Your Car 

Thompson Proilucts, Inc., Cleveland, 
Ohio, is now making a device that will 
provide that extra burst of power need- 
ed for motoring emergencies. It is a 
completely automatic auxiliary carbure- 
tor known as the Vitameter. 

The flange of the Vitameter is in- 
serted between an engine's manifold 
and its carburetor. When the manifold 
vacuum drops, due to the car's gas 
pedal signaling for added speed, a float 
chamber and a metering jet sprays Vi- 
tane, an alcohol-water, tetra-ethyl leail 
solution, into the throat of the main 

This "shot in the arm" caiises the 
gasoline to burn more evenly thus elim- 
inating "ping" and provides an extra 
burst of speed. 

Thompson Products reports that 13 
per cent Vitane in gasoline vapor is 
enough to raise a gasoline's octane rat- 
ing 10 numbers. Enough Vitane for 150 
to 200 miles costs 35 cents and the Vita- 
meter itself costs $}i2 and up, depending 
on size. 

"Mrs. Jones ivas outspoken at our 
club meeting today/" 

"I can't believe it. Jl'ho outspoke 

An American traveling in the Nether- 
lands met a Hollander who, on learning 
the traveler's nationality, said, "Our 
flag is red, white, and blue, too. When 
tax season approaches we begin to feel 
blue, and when we receive our state- 
ments we turn white, and when we |ia\- 
we are red ! " 

"Yes," replied the American, "but in 
the United States we see stars as well." 

(nude: "This castle has stood for bdU 
years. Not a stone has been touched, 
nothing altered, nothing replaced." 

Visitor: "Um, the\' must have the 
same landhud we ha\c." 

A strip-down of the new Lima-Hamilton diesel switching locomotive 
shows the Hamilton 9" x 1 2" diesel engine in place. (Photo courtesy 
of Lima-Hamilton) 



Scicntiitb at lU A L.ilior.itones solve exacting probleir 
wiUiui tlic "notlimgnebi." of vacuum tubu: 

insi€ia x^orx o/' Be/ferle/em/o/^ 

Now television is flashing visual enter- 
tainment, news, and educational material 
to millions of people daily. The "inside 
story" of its rapid growth is the history 
of some remarkable tubes. Inside these 
tubes, electrons are put to work— to per- 
form, for your benefit, the miracle of long- 
distance vision. 

The screen of your direct-view television 
receiver is actually the face of a tube — the 
kinescope developed by Dr. V. K. Zworykin 
and his colleagues of RCA Laboratories — on 
which electrons in motion "'paint" pictures. 
A tube, too, is the "eye" of RCA's Image 
Orthicon television camera, which can "see" 
clearly by the light of a match. 

And since you asked for big-picture tele- 
vision, they developed projection receivers 
—also a way to "weld" glass and metal, thus 

speeding the production of 16-inch direct- 
viewing tubes ... at lower cost. 

To these basic "firsts," RCA scientists 
have added advance after advance, which 
are daily bringing television into the lives 
of more and more people. 

How you profit 

Advanced research in television tubes is 
just one way in which RCA Laboratories 
work in your interest. Their leadership 
in science and engineering adds value 
hetjotid price to any product or service 
of RCA and RCA Victor. 

Examples of the newest advances in radio, 
television, and electronics— in action— mat/ be 
seen at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 49th 
Street, N. Y. Adrnission is free. Radio Corpo- 
ration of America, Radio City, New York 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay— at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Vitlor-one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities lor ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 
o Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Advanced de\elopmcnt and design of 
AM and FM broadcast tr.insmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

o Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods, 
o Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray. gas and photo tubes. 
W'rilc today to National Recruiting Divi- 
.■iian, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

IVor/c/ Leac/er /n 'Rac//o — P/rsf m Te/ei/ishn 



Talgo . . . 

( C'(intliiui-(1 horn I'ngf 1 1 ) 
ncl section side plati-s liolil tlu' side posts 
ill position. 

The two purlines, tliose roof members 
which are parallel to each other the 
length of the car, consist of extruded 
"j" sections. 

The unit ends of the coaches are of 
Plymetl where partitions are required: 
otherwise they are open in order to form 
a continuous coach. The two dia- 
pligragms which are a|iplied between all 

A finished Talgo unit is ready for 
coupling to another unit. {Photo 
courtesy of American Car and 
Foundry Company) 

units provide a smooth exterior and in- 
terior, but are principally for weather 
protection. The diaphgrams are closed 
by specially designed zippers with seal- 
ing lips which will hold through all de- 
grees of tension ; they pressin-e-proof the 
closure and form a dead air space for 

These combined features have cut 
down the initial costs in locomotion. It 
is to be remembered also that there is 
a resultant lower fuel consumption. 

The couplers on the Talgo are en- 
tirely different from those of conven- 
tion cars. When uncoupling a Talgo 
unit, the process is pretty much like un- 
coupling a truck trailer. Two five-inch 
dolly wheels are lowered to the track 
to keep the unit upright since there are 
only two conventional wheels on the 
iHiit. Under ordinary operation, these 
support wheels are folded into the floor 
hidden from sight. 

The entire train is powered from the 
locomotive. This includes electricity for 
the train as well as for traction. Head- 
end generators provide 208/120 volts, 
30 cycle three-phase A (J power to the 
train. A special ACF-designed light- 
weight air-conditioning system provides 
vear-round weather control with freon 


refrigerant for cooling and electric 
heaters for heating. 

Tin- Locfiiiiiitii'C 
The cab structure is all-welded — 
of girder type design to keep deflection 
to a minimum. The latest metallurgical 
processes were used to reduce welding 
distortion and creep in the assembly. 

In the underframc, 12-inch LAHT 
channels are spaced 42 inches apart from 
the center sills and only one cross-bearer 
is used. The exceptionally wide spacing 
was made in order to permit the main 
propulsion engines to be suspended as 
close to the rail as possible. Welding 
was used throughout and the entire un- 
derframe structure is stress-relieved. 

The main propulsion engines consist 
of two Hercules model DNXV8S die- 
sels connected to the traction generators 
through a ventilateil bell housing. Low 
weight per horsepower is obtained in the 
diesels (approximately 13^ Ib/hp) by 
fabricating many of the frame members 
from low-alloy high tensile steel into a 
compact design. 

The exceptionalh' wide r a n g e of 
speed - tractive - effort performance (17 
ml^h to 105 inph without exceeding the 
continuous rating of the traction mo- 
tors) is the result of using two extra 
heavy-duty motors with each of the 405 
hf input generators. This means that 
the locomotive can be used with equal 
facility both in high-speed level opera- 
tion and in heavy grade mountain serv- 

Rubber-in-shear engine mounting 
units, probably the largest ever used in 
locomotives, practically eliminate vibra- 
tions in the structure. This vibration 
elimination should increase the over-all 
life of the vehicle and reduce the main- 
tenance considerably. 

As can be seen from the foregoing de- 
scription, the name Talgo not only sig- 
nifies a train that is lighter and joint- 
unit built, but also stands for a new 

advance in the science of railroading. 
There have been many new designs in- 
troduced within the past 20 years but 
none as spectacular and revolutionarv 
as this. 

The Talgo doesn't look like a con- 
ventional train. Low-slung, it resembles 
a tubular snake as it makes the turns 
without slackening speed whatsoever. 
Doors for entry are spaced every fifth 
car (unit), with the wheels practically 
concealed. It looks exactly what it is — 
a departure from the conventional and 
a change for the better. 

The Talgo is definitely a train of to- 
morrow. And who knows — you may be 
ridinir in it tomorrow. 







-. - -. 



\ ^ 

— ' 

- - 



i ?o To 


The Talgo has a remarkable range 
in its speed-tractive effort perform- 
ance. (Photo courtesy of American 
Car and Foundry Company) 


Type B-B Diesel-electric 

Control SiiiKle End 

Weight, service 135,000 lbs. 

Weight per driving axle 33,750 lbs. 

Length, coupled 43' 5-3/4" 

Height, over horn 12' 6" 

Width, over handrails 10' 7-3/4" 

Horsepower, total 1150 lip 


Propulsion: Two, V Type, 8 cyl. super- 
charged automotive tvpe diesels 

each 40> ///■ 

.'\uxiliary: Two, 6 cyl. -in-line, automo- 
tive type diesels each 170 hp 

Engine Mounting Rubber 

Number of Traction Motors 4 

Speed Geared to 105 mph 

Track Gauge 5' 5-13/16" or 4' 8-l/2'| 

Truck Centers 23' 6" 

Trucks Two, 4-wheel, Cast Steel 

Truck Wheel Base 7' 9" 

Wheel Diamter 33" 

Journal Si?e 5-1/2" x 10" 

Journal Bearings Roller 

Pedestal Openings 9-1/8" 

D.C. Control Voltage 75 f 

Battery 32 Cell. 

A.C. Supply (Train and Loco.) 

208/120 r, 3-phase 

Air Brakes Straight Air 

Speed Governor Axle Gen'r. 

Braking Power 250% at 100 lbs 

Sand Capacity 8-3/4 cu. ft. 

Fuel Oil Capacity 600 tjal. 

Water Capacity (Train Service) .. 300 gal. 
Rear Coupler Special 

Physics Prof : "NoiL\ Smith, what are 
you doing — learning something"?" 

Sinitty: "No, sir, I'm listening to 

Jo: "What is the outstanding contri- 
bution that chemistry has given to the 
world ?" 

Flo: "Blondes." 

s * ■* 

llo/io: "Lady, have yoitsc got iiny old 
cast-off hitsh/tnd's clothing'" 

Lady: "ll'hy. no, icc'rc still living 

Dear folks: Please send $400 at once; 
the school is bankrupt and each student 
has to pay double tuition. Kindly make 
the check out to me. Yovu' son, Elmer." 


Why we know this wax carton will stand up 

Cartons and wrapping papers coated with 
paraffin wax have been used in food packag- 
ing for many years. They must be able to 
withstand rough treatment. Their ability to 
stand up depends largely on the strength and 
sealing qualities of the coating agent. Yet 
until a few months ago, there was no accu- 
rate way to measure these qualities in paraf- 
fin wax. 

Recent experimental work in Standard 
Oil's laboratories has resulted in a new elec- 
trically controlled quantitative test. Ex- 
pressed as Indiana Coating Index, this test 

gives, for the first time, an accurate yard- 
stick of wax qualities which may be corre- 
lated with performance in service. It makes 
possible the production of uniformly high 
quality coating agents. 

The Indiana Coating Index is only one of 
many scientific tests developed in Standard 
Oil laboratories. Standard pioneered in qual- 
ity-testing, as it did in developing many 
petroleum products that have contributed to 
better living. There is no ceiling on what can 
be accomplished by Standard Oil researchers, 
present and future. 

Standard Oil Company 





, His high-fre- 
quency alterna- 
tor made radio 
Metric unit of 
Confcd^ ate 

Unit of angular 

Inventor of a 
wireless tuning- 

. You and me 
. At which time 
. Unit of wire 

. Note of the 

musical scale 
. Bellow 

Units of a storage 

. Inventor of the 

strip proress for 

insulating wire 
, I;-nportant in- 

f:redient of 
. T-shaped pipe 
Garden tool 
In 1871. he trans- 
mitted music by 
Fall behind 

Relating to the , 
century electri- 
cal experimenter 
Young pigeon 
Religious recluse 
Size of shot 
often used in 
Footed vase 
Early form of 
electric battery 
Division of the 

with acid 
Radio-controlled 1 
, Fuss 
Connecting piece 
between fishhook 
and line 

C r o s s >v o r d Puzzle 































27 p8 






w^ 1 m 
















H49 bo 







1 n 





54. Mohammed's 

Metal used 
most magnets 

1. Painting, 
sculpture, etc. 20, 

2. Town in NE New 22, 
Guinea 24, 

3. Printers' measure 

4. Change 25. 

5. Atmospheric gas 
used in some 
electric lights 26. 

6. Animal's home 28. 

7. Rupees: abbr. 

8. Stop by over- 29. 

9. Globe 31. 

0. French Christmas 33. 

1. German scientist 
who founded the 34. 




Movable contact 35 
member of a 

Former ruler of 
Persia 36. 

Hard abrasive 
substance 37 

Carry: colloq. 
Each: Scot. 
uprisings 38. 

Common source 
of energy in 40. 
generating plants „ 
Pile of hay ^'■ 

Unit of electrical 43. 
ni-tempered 45. 


Self 46. 

Thousand dollars: 48. 
slang 50. 

Inventor of the 51. 
electrometer in 53. 
1767 55. 

English inventor 
of an alternating- 
current trans- 
Belong to 19 

Proposed C. G. S. 
unit of momen- 

Another name 
for radon 

The famous 
Game played on 

Popular beverage 
Metric surface 

".M\ worst sin." she sighed, "is van- 
ity I speru] lioiirs every (la\- .'ulniiiinii 
ni\' beauty." 

"That's not vanit\'," her friend re- 
plied ; "that'.s imagination." 

./ iiKin III lh( iiniiiic (nylaiii sal jish- 
iiii/ ijvcr II f/rjut-r hcd. A viiil'ir np- 
pruaihcd, anil ziishini/ In he affa/j/c, 
iiskcd. "Iloic i/i/uiy fi/it'f you <au)/hl.'" 
")oii'i( till iiiiilh." ivtis ihc reply. 

I' or about an hour a man from Den- 
ver had been boasting to an Irishman 
about the majiniticenee of the Rocky 

"You seem might proud o\ tliim 
mountains," the cordial Irishman ob- 

"\ ou bet I am," replied the man 
from Deiuer. "And I ought to be, since 
my ancestors built them." 

The Irishman thought this over for 
a iew minutes and then asked: "Did 
you ever happen to hear ov the Dead 
Sea in — in one ov the old countries?' 

"Yes, indeed," replied the man from 
Denver. "I know all about the Dead 

"Well, did you happen to know that 
me great-grandfather killed the thing?" 

(Answers to puzzle on page 46) 

'Twos the night before Christmas, 

The publishers, too. 

And all 'round the Tech, 

Were slow setting type. 

The staff was still working. 

The time went too quickly. 

Each breaking his neck. 

The fruit's overripe. 

This December issue. 

The editor was slow. 

Was fouled through and through. 

Writing his ditty. 

Pictures were late. 

Trying to blast. 

And stories past due. 

Instead of be witty. 

The deadlines were set, 

But now that it's done. 

But meant not o thing. 

We hope that this issue. 

The gang had exams. 

Will be sent in time. 

Excuses they'd sling. 

So we might all wish you 





New Frontiers of Industry! 

Br EDWIN H. BROWN. Vice PresUleiit. Engineering Devehpment Division 
Allis-Chalmen Manufacturing Company {Graduate Training Course I90S 

WILL IT WORK? Is it prac- 
tical? Is there a heller 
way to do it? If you feel the 
challenge in questions like these 
and get a thrill out of finding 
the answers — perhaps you're 
cut out for research. 

There are a lot of us like that 
hereat Allis-Chalmers. Pio- 
neering beyond the immediate 
frontiers of industry has been one of the 
major factors in the growth of this com- 
pany for over 100 years. Yet today we're 
finding more exciting frontiers to explore 
than ever before. 

My part in this work started back in 
1906 when I joined the Allis-Chalmers 


Measuring cavitation resistance of 

various materials for pumps and hy- 
draulic turbines. Material under test is 
electronically vibrated at a high rate 
while submerged in water. 

G raduate Training Course, from the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. During my two years 
in the course, I spent a good deal of time 
on the test floor. That's the spot where 
original thinking, new designs, and new 
methods pay oft in results. It's a great 
\antage-point from which to watch in- 
dustrial de\elopmcnt at work. 

After completing my GTC, I worked 
as a test engineer ... as development 
and sales engineer on steam turbines . . . 
as a chief engineer and department 
manager . . . and into my present work in 
research and development. 

Unusual Range of Activities 

Research here at A-C covers a 
tremendous range of industrial 
fields. I might point out that 
product de\elopment is con- 
sidered a responsibility of each 
product department, while the 
central research and develop- 
ment organization works with 
the many departments in a statT 
capacity. Since Allis-Chalmers produces 
important machinery for every basic in- 
dustry, you can see that our develop- 
ment work is extremely varied. 

It includes such things as methods of 
burning coal deposits underground, to 
produce power without the intermediate 
steps of mining, processing and transport- 
ing the fuel to power plants. We're de- 
veloping equipment for the application 
of atomic power in naval vessels. Work- 

ing closely with engineers of the Turbo- 
power Development Department, we're 
developing gas turbines for ship propul- 
sion and high-temperature gas turbines 
for locomotive service, burning powder- 
ed coal. 

Other engineers and scientists are en- 
gaged in pure physical research into fac- 
tors that influence power transmission 
oxer long lines. There's constant depart- 
mental research and product develop- 
ment going on in the fields of flour 
milling, ore processing, water condition- 
ing, hydraulic turbine design, electronics, 
new manufacturing methods and tech- 
niques, industrial design. 

Pick Your Spot 

Graduate engineers selected for the Allis- 
Chalmers Graduate Training Course have 
a unique opportunity to explore many 
engineering and industrial fields, and find 
the work that suits them best. Here, you 
help set your own course— may change 
it as you go along and special interests 
develop. 'Vou can gain first-hand expe- 
rience with almost any major industry 
\ou can name— electric power, mining, 
wood products, hydraulics, public works. 
You can work in machine design, re- 
search, manufacturing, sales engineering. 
You can earn advanced degrees in engi- 
neering at the same time. When you 
finish The course, you know where you're 
headed— and you're on your way! 

Write for details of the Allis-Chalmers Graduate Training Course— requirements, 
salary, advantages. Representatives may visit your school. Watch for date. 

Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee I. l\'i\consin 


Experimental Gas Turbine at Annapolis is shown in new building to which it was 
recently moved. After extensive testing at progressively higher temperatures, the U.S. 
Navy unit has now been operated inseveral tests at its design temperature of 1500° F. 



Engineering Urge . . . 

( L'ojitinufd liijiii I'ayc !_' ) 

do you want to eiul lite? Do you want 
to be rich ? Do you want to be famous ? 
Do you want to have power? Do you 
want to render ser\ice? C^r do you want 
to wander and end where you will? 

The man in Chicago who does iint 
know whether he wants to ^o to New 
York or San Francisco is not likeh to 
get to either. Likewise the man w lio 
vacillates between riches and service is 
no more likely to get the one than lie 
is to render the other. Moreo\er, the 
man without a definite goal is likely to 
be a tramp on life's highway, following 
the road of least resistance and arriving 
nowhere. The first question, therefore, 
is, "What will be your principal aim 
in life?" Do you want to be rich, fa- 
mous, or powerful ; or do you want to 
render service? 

Give or Take 

The product of life is character. 
Character forms slowly. It is plastic 
while forming, but once set, it is hard 
and resists change. The characteristics 
of a young man are many and varied, 
but in an old man some one character- 
istic predominates. Benevolence becomes 
a habit through a lifetime of practice. 
Selfishness becomes a fixed trait upon 
continually trying to get the lion's share 
of everything. A bully is defined as a 
person who continually intimidates oth- 
ers by manner or threat. 

Some methods, not all, of getting rich 
require that one disregard the rights of 
others, or even require that one take 
what morally belongs to another. Some 
methods, not all, of attaining power re- 
quire that one bluff and brow-beat his 
associates. Some occupations promise 
great riches, but only through the de- 
struction of character ; other occupations 
are incompatible with wealth yet develop 
characters of the highest type. 

The aim of life has not been fixed 
until, not only a desired acquisition, but 
also the desired character has been se- 
lected. For wealth obtained by sharp 
practice is as far from wealth and be- 
nevolence as plenty is from poverty. If 
you want riches and honesty you must 
not, in your eagerness for riches, do that 
which develops selfishness and dishon- 
esty. Likewise if you want power and 
meekness, and they are often found to- 
gether, you must not, in your eagerness 
for power, become a bully. 

Of the two aims of life, acquisition 
and character, character is the more de- 
sirable. Acquisition is from without, 
whereas character is from within. (Jhar- 
tir/er uithout m quisltirjii iiiiiy he victory, 
but acquisition nt the expense of char- 
acter is defeat. 

Having decided upon the aims to be 
attained, you are in a position to study 

the \ari()us occupations and select tlic 
one which will most easily enable \-ou 
tn attain these aims. Any productive oc- 
cupation industriously and properly 
practiced by a man having ability in 
that occupation will result in a high 
type of character aiul sufficient wealth 
to meet an\ reasonable wants. The prob- 
lem, then, is to select the occupation in 
which one has a sufficient interest to 
be industrious and the occupation for 
whicli he has the peculiar t\pe of abil- 
it\ reciLiired. The solution of this prob- 
lem requires consideration of the fol- 
lowing questions: 

1. What is the nature of the work? 
If you are planning on being a ci\il 
engineer you want to know what a civil 
engineer does. What does a civil engi- 
neer do the first year, the first five 
>ears, and the first ten years after grad- 
uation ? Hy this is meant, not the spec- 
tacular thing which he does once a year, 
but the routine of work which he does 
eight hours a day, six days a week, and 
fifty-two weeks a year. Is this the work 
you can do with interest? If so industry 
will be a pleasure. Or is it work for 
which the pay envelope will contain the 
whole compensation ? 

2. Lender what conditions will the 
work be done? Will it be indoors or 
outdors? Will it permit home life? Will 
location be permanent or will it require 
shifting from place to place? Will it be 
in the city or in the country, in settled 
or desert places? Will there be danger 
or safety? 

3. What compensation may you ex- 
pect the first year out of college? The 
first five years? The first ten years? 
What are the big prizes for the few 
highest men in the profession in money, 
in fame, in power? 

4. What will your personal relation- 
ship to other men be? Will your rela- 
tionship be mutually pleasant? Will you 
have to bulldoze others to get ahead ? 
Will you have to keep others from bull- 
dozing you to keep from getting behind ? 
Will you be called upon to inflict in- 
justice to others? Will you be called 
upon to promote business activities 
which are questionable? 

5. What are the chances for failure? 
Do all men in the profession succeed in 
making at least a living or are some 
compelled to give up and shift to other 
work to make a fair living? 

6. Is the profession looked upon witli 
honor? Does the mere fact that you are 
in the profession give you prestige? 

8. To what extent do you possess the 
required personal attributes? Do you 
have sufficient interest in the profession 
to induce you to overcome any natural 
deficiencies ? 

The first reaction in reading these 
questions is that they are extensive and 

unnecessarily formal. This is because 
they are questions which we have never 
considered — a fact which only increases 
their importance. 

Natural Selection? 

To answer the above questions intel- 
ligently requires an amount of knowl- 
edge and a power of self-analysis not 
possessed by the average freshman. That 
is to say, the average student selects a 
course in college at a time when he is 
wholly unprepared to select the line of 
endeavor in which he should spend his 
whole life. To expect an intelligent se- 
lection at this time is to expect the im- 

To realize the truth of this statement 
it is only necessary to talk with fresh- 
men about the factors which led to the 
selection of their course. It is true that 
some freshmen have pretty definite rea- 
sons for their selection, but in many 
cases the decisions are based upon con- 
ceptions that are preposterous and which 
show a lack of knowleilge of true con- 
ditions which is lamentable. 

It is true that many students do se- 
lect courses preparing them for work 
which they like and in which they are 
successful. This is due in part to the 
fact that a boy's liking for a profession, 
illogical and unanalyzed as it may be, 
develops an industry and application 
which will make him proficient even 
though his greatest native ability may 
be along some other line. Proficiency, 
in turn, breeds interest and enjoyment 
which overcome some slight misfortune 
in the original selection. Good training 
may also overcome considerable lack of 
native ability. 

Although the adaptability of youth 
partly overcomes the misfortune of a 
wrong selection, this fact should not be 
permitted to interfere with a later, and 
more intelligent selection, if the first is 
found to be ill-advised. To persist in 
trying to be a lawyer because one has 
a law degree is to persist in going to 
the wrong city because one has turned 
onto the wrong road. 

It's Not Too Late to Think! 

To senior engineering students the se- 
lection of a permanent occupation is a 
serious matter. Many of you were 
brought up on a farm, but thought you 
would like to be an engineer rather 
than a farmer. The decision may have 
been based upon the idea prevailing 
among youth in most rural communities 
that the city man is in some way su- 
perior to the farmer, and that to be 
ambitious is to go to the city. Or the 
decision may ha\e been based on a real 
and very strong dislike for farm life. 
Or it may have been based upon a real 
longing for the city. But in most cases 
the decision was made without a knowl- 
( Continued on Page 32) 




Expanding Spandrel 

Night and day, winter and summer, vear after 
year, for more than twenty-six years aluminum 
spandrels (the vertical area between mndows in 
skyscrapers) were exposed to the weather . . . and 
nothing happened. 

That was proof enough for the architects. 

Proof that Alcoa Aluminum castings used for 
spandrels stood up in all kinds of weather, resisted 
corrosion, kept up their good appearance, never 
needed maintenance. 

"Aluminum works so well for spandrels," 
reasoned the architects, "why not expand its use 
. . . make entire walls of it?" They came to Alcoa 
with their ideas. Alcoa engineers had kept pace. 
Designs and methods for making complete walls 
were ready. New ways had been found to make 
aliuninum cheaper and more useful. 

Today you will see aliuuiuum-clad buildings 
going up in every part of the country. These 
buildings are quick and inexpensive to build. Their 
aluminiun walls never will need expensive painting 
or repairs. 

This case is typical of the history of Alcoa and 
of the men and women who work for it. While 
aluminiun was proving itself in small applications, 
Alcoa engineers were perfecting the methods for 
large scale production and fabrication Within the 
lifetime of men now living, this companv has 
grown to be one of America's great industries. 
New developments now underway in Alcoa's 
laboratories are pointing the way to even more 
widespread uses for aluminum in the vears ahead. 
Aluminum Company of America, Gulf Bldg., 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania. 





Engineering Urge . . . 

( Contimied from Page 30) 

(.-lific of tlu- nature of the real life and 
work of an engineer. 

Whatever the reasons for your deci- 
sion four years ago, the important ques- 
tion is, "Do these reasons hold?" You 
are face to face with your first job. If 
a careeer is realh planned, instead of 
being permitted to happen, each job 
should be a preparation for the jobs 
which follow. The selection of your first 
job should affect your whole professional 
life. Certainly before such an important 
anil decisive step is taken a man owes 
it to himself to learn the true nature of 
the work which he is about to take up. 

.No problem in mechanics is, to you, 
so important as the problem of your 
career, yet you may have worked all 
night on a problem in mechanics to pass 
a course. Should you not spend a corre- 
spondingly greater time selecting your 
career since it affects the success and 
happiness of \<)in- whole life? 

The college course is selected during 
or before the freshman year, but your 
occupation for life should not be finally 
selected until the senior year or possi- 
blv a >ear or two after graduation. This 
implies that a man nia\' properly take a 
technical or professional course and then 

engage in some other wiiolh unrelated 

It's Sol I'lKj Ltitf lit (Ihanytl 
Can a civil engineer graduate justifx' 
entering the ministry? May a mechani- 
cal engineer go back to the farm without 
being a qiu'tter? Both questions have the 
same answer, yes — under certain condi- 

If, after graduating as a ci\il engi- 
neer, a ni;in is thoroughly convinced 
that the only riling he can do and be 
happy is to preach; if he knows that he 
can preach; and if he can be content 
on a preacher's income, then, I sa\', he 
should be a preacher and not a ci\ il 

Likewise, if after graduating in me- 
chanical engineering, a man is thorough- 
ly convinced that the only thing he can 
do and be happy is to farm; if he knows 
that he can farm; and if he can be con- 
tent in doing a farmer's work and living 
a farmer's life, then, I say, he shoidd 
go back to the farm and not be a me- 
chanical engineer. And no man has a 
right to call him a quitter. 

Vnur \ lars Lostf 
Will not leaving the profession for 
which one's college course has prepared 
him be equivalent to scrapping his col- 
lege work? Even if this were so, it is 

better to throw away four years than to 
spoil the remainder of a lifetime. 

But such a shift does not mean scrap- 
ping a college course. Preparing for a 
particular profession is only one of many 
objectives of a professional or technical 
course. E\er\- college course should teach 
the student to think clearly, to write 
and speak correctly, to learn scientific 
facts and laws, to collect and deduce 
data, and to apply scientific knowledge 
to the solution of problems. These aims 
arc common to all college courses and 
they compose the major part of the prep- 
aration for all professions. 

A civil engineering course that would 
not help a farmer, a banker, a lawyer, 
or a merchant would be of little use to 
a civil engineer. It would be folly to 
argue that to prepare for one profession 
and to follow another curtails no loss; 
but while there is some loss, the loss is 

The danger of advising, or even ad- 
mitting, that it ma\' be proper, under 
certain conditions, to follow one profes- 
sion after having prepared for another, 
is that a man who is really a quitter 
may use the advice to justify jumping 
from one occupation to another. It must 
be clearly understood that a man is ad- 
vised to change from one profession to 
(Continued on Page 34) 

for higher operating 



V Improved wheel spindle 

and Hcadslock 

V 6 table speeds from 

7M" to 100" a minute 

V New "bumping; control 
knob for tabic adjustment 

\ 4 changes of work speed 
\' Automatic lubrication 

V Built-in electrical 


Universal and Tool 
Grinding Machine 

This general-purpose 
No. 13 Universal and 
Tool Grinding Machine 
embodies many outstand- 
ing refinements in design 
and construction for tool- 
room operations — grind- 
ing small and medium- 
sized cylindrical work, 
form grinding, sharpening 
milling cutters, reamers 
and similar tools and mis- 
cellaneous other types of 

For complete specifica- 
tions and description of the 
New Design No. 13, write 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., 
Providence 1, R. I., U.S.A. 


For ihe 



812 S. Sixth St., Champaign 

Read The Tech. 

8 Issues $].50 



Who Invented 
Eli Whitney? 

In 1793 Eli Whitney helped a growing nation take 
another step in the direction of greatness. Inventions 
like his made and keep America great. But what 
does the greatness 'of American inventors and tech- 
nology prove? 

It proves that Americans are better trained than 
other people in the scientific and technical funda- 
mentals so necessary for the continuing progress 
that has kept America the world's greatest nation. 
In America, the finest textbooks ai'e available to all. 
This is the background for the technological ad- 
vances that raise one country above all others. 

Many of the books from which you learn your 
fundamentals bear the McGraw-Hill imprint. 
McGraw-Hill is the world's largest publisher of 
books for technical reference and instruction as well 
as for advanced research and study. 

The discoveries of today are the fundamentals of 
tomorrow. When you finish school, you'U find it 
necessai-y to keep up with the advances in your spe- 
cialty. The McGraw-Hill magazine serving your 
field wUl report all that is new, necessary and 

It is not enough to know that a new process exists, 
or that a new invention has been developed. You 
must know also how it can be made available to you. 
You wiU find the best source for this information in 
the advertising sections of your McGraw-Hill mag- 

Today in school and tomorrow in business, you 
win find that your progress depends on your up-to- 
the-minute knowledge of your field. And, McGraw- 
Hill wiU continue to serve with books and magazines 
designed to provide all that is important and current. 


McGraw-Hill Publications 



330 West 42nd Slree!, New York 18, N. Y. 



Engineering Urge . . . 

( C'i)iiriiuu-(l from Page 32) 

anotluT onh' uiuici' the tollowiiifi: coii- 

1. He lias studied rhc new m'oiipatioii 
and knows that he will be happier in 
the new than in the old. 

1. He knows that he is, or can he- 
come, proficient in the new occupation. 

,1. He has studied the new occupation 
and knows that he \\\\\ be content with 
the remuneration, working conditions, 
en\ironment, and personal relationships 
incident thereto. 

The advice to change is not offered 
to the man who is disgruntled, to the 
man who finds his present work hard 
ami tedious, or to the man who is a fail- 
ure gencralh'. One or more of these dis- 
agreeable features may be due to a poor 
selection of the occupation, but they may 
also be due to the individual. If the lat- 
ter is true, they will follow him wher- 
e\ er he goes. 

What is wanted is not merely a 
change from one occupation to another, 
hut a change from one occupation unfor- 
tunately chosen in ignorance to an occu- 
pation chosen with the full knowledge 
of the occupation and of your own abil- 
it\' and interest. 

There are round holes and round 
pegs; likewise square holes and .square 
pegs. The round pegs should be in the 

round holes and the square pegs should 
he in the square holes. If you are a 
square peg in a round hole you should 

But before you jump out of the round 
hole, be sure that you are reall>' square; 
,uul be sure that the new hole is like- 
wise square. Also remember that a 
square peg often can easily be rounded. 

E. E. Field Trip 

Boneyard Bilge 

(Continued from Page 19) 

of a very modern and entirely automatic 
system. The alarm is set off in a Uni- 
versity building whenever there is a 
sudden increase in temepratin-e, and is 
transmitted through the automatic re- 
corder onto a tape. At the same time, 
the fire department lights are automat- 
icall)' turned on. The control man then 
reads the tape and informs the crew of 
the location of the fire. He also noti- 
fies the Champaign fire department, the 
Urbana fire department, and the water 
company on a four-way generator tele- 
phone. Finally he contacts the police on 
the local station WAGR. During fires, 
the control man maintains a two-way 
radio communication with the trucks. 

The University fire department is 
constantly on the alert to protect the 
personnel and equipment of the Uni- 

(Continued from Page IS 
not to o\erloatl the accommodations of 
the place visited. 

Several of the plants were of interest 
to both options and were on the sched- 
ide of all groups. Among these were 
Allis-Chalmers and General Electric 
X-ray at Milwaukee, and Western Elec- 
tric and a steel mill in Chicago. The 
remaining plants \isited were split ac- 
cording to options. The power option 
visited a power plant and General Mo- 
tors Electromotive Division, while the 
electronics option went to Illinois Bell 
and Motorola. 

Prof. E. A. Reid, assisted by Profes- 
sor Fett, made the preliminar\' arrange- 
ments; members of the AIEE-IRE took 
care of the details. Two members of the 
faculty accompanied each bus. 

Several fellows who live in Chicago 
stayed at home while the others stayed 
at the Palmer House and enjoyed the 
night life of the Loop. 

A car manufactm-er once advertised 
that he could put a car together in seven 
minutes. The next day he got a phone 
call asking if it was true. 

"Of course," he said; "why?" 
"Oh, nothing much," said the voice 
on the phone, "but I think I have that 

Some grad is spreading the word that National 
Electric Is the world's largest single source of supply 
for electrical roughing-in materials. (And he couldn't 
be righter!) 

Since 1905 NE products have set the pace for 
quality. Today the NE complefe line of electrical 
roughing-in materials includes: wires, cables, con- 
duit, raceways and fittings. 

national Clectric 




For Fine Gifts in Jewelry 





Strauch's at Campus 

709 S. Wriqht St. 


Champaign's Largest, 

Most Complete 

Department Store 






^o^Vv<^^ Jigging 

He speaks a Lot of 
Industrial Languages 

He's a Square D Field Engineer. 

He speaks the language of many indus- 
tries because his full-time job is working 
with them . . . helping them find "a better 
way to do it." 

Through a staff of such Field Engineers 
located in more than 50 offices in the 
United States, Canada and Mexico, Square 
D does this three-fold job: Designs and 

builds electrical distribution and control 
equipment in pace with present needs — 
provides sound counsel in the selection of 
the right equipment for any given appli- 
cation — anticipates trends, speeds de- 
velopment of new methods and equipment. 
If you have a problem in electrical dis- 
tribution or control, call in the nearby 
Square D Field Engineer. He makes a lot 
of sense in finding "a better way to do it." 




ultrasonics . . . 

( C'oiitinucd troiii I'ast 13) 

coupled to an amplifier system and an 
oscilloscope. By use of the coordinate 
system the focal point can be located 
at any desired section of the ner\e which 
is contained in the holder. 

The electrical stimulator, iiiciitioncd 
above, is provided to activate the nerve 
so that it reacts to ultrasonic sound and 
sends an electrical impulse into the oscil- 
liscope and is observed by the camera. 
A square wave form output with vari- 
able amplitude and time duration i> 
obtained from the stimulator, and the 
values of pulse duration and repetition 
rate can he ohtained chrectlv' from the 
instrument dials. 

The sound duration is the final thin^ 
taken into consideration and is obtained, 
at present, by manual control onh. 
Duration times are varied from 5 to M^ 
seconds. For shorter intervals automatic 
control is necessary. An automatic sys- 
tem is now being developed whereb\- 
ultrasonic excitation will follow electri- 
cal excitation or vice versa with dehu 
times of 50 microseconds to 1 second. 

The apparatus is quite complicated as 
would be expected of this type of re- 
search. The pictures may help to pro- 
vide an understanding of the physical 


The major aspect of this project is 
the testinji of nerves. Two t\pes of 
ner\es iia\e been used — frog and cra\- 
fish ncr\es. 

Hecause of the unusual fibei- compo- 
sition of the cra\ fish ncr\e it has proved 


H^^ -^ ^ mfK^K^^B^ ^^^^^^^^^^KtSkt 

fesijt * ^^ 

This closeup shows the projector 
box and connecting leads to the 
driver and meters. (Photo by Lou 

to be the most useful. The composition 
of the fiber consists of several larger 
diameter fibers and a great number of 

partners in creating 

K & E drafting instruments, equipment and materials 
have been partners of leading engineers for 81 years 
in shoping the modern world. So extensively are these 
products used by successful men, it is self evident that 
K & E has played a port in the completion of nearly 
every American engineering project of any magnitude. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Froncisco • Los Angeles • Montreol 

smaller diameter fibers. Kxperiments 
have proved that the larger diameter 
fibers are activated by stimulus intesi- 
ties considerably less than what is re- 
quired to stimulate the smaller fibers. 

At this point it might be wondered 
how the fibers are separated. A re- 
markable mechanism, called a micro- 
manipulator, is used by physiologists to 
do this job of dissecting. 

To date only a few experiments have 
been of much value due to the some- 
what crude construction of part of the 
equipment. Yet, despite this disadvan- 
tage, results of tests completed thus far 
have given an insight as to what might 
be expected in the future. 

Nerve Testing 
In one test the leg nerve of the craw- 
fish was stimulated electrically slightly 
above the threshold of the most excit- 
able fiber with a 0.1 millisecond pulse, 
once per second. When the sound was 
first turned on the effect produced was 
a decrease in the latent period. This 
was indicated by the movement of the 
spike (as noted on the oscilliscope) 
to the left. (The latent period is the 
interval of time between the stimulation 
and the reaction of the nerve.) A second 
fiber was also excited because the spike 
height increased and the latent period 
again decreased. When the sound was 
turned off the order of effects was 

In a second test the electrical stimu- 
lator was set slightly below the thresh- 
old of the most excitable fiber — the 
sound intensity remaining the same as 
in the previous tests. The oscilliscope 
indicated that the same general pattern 
as in previous the test was obtained. 

When the electrical stimulator was 
set at a le\el of 75 per cent of the most 
excitable fiber, a single fiber response 
didn't occur until after 8 seconds of 
ultrasonic irradiation ; and no other 
fiber responded during the time of irra- 

Before conclusions can be drawn from 
this last statement more information on 
threshold changes has to be obtained. 
When no electrical excitation was ap- 
plied, the activity of the nerve increased 
greatly when irradiated to sound, and 
decreased when the soiuid was turned 

Fr(j/j Leys 
When the frog sciatic nerves were 
tested somewhat different results were 
obtained. In one test the spike height 
of .5 inches on the oscilliscope was 
obtained by adjusting the electrical stim- 
ulator. The nerve was then irradiated 
and the spike gradually increased. After 
the sound was turned off the spike 
height decreased to the original state. 

The results from these tests on the 
nerves indicate that the return to the 
(Continued on Page 38) 



Another page for WL\ 



How to improve 
a wood hog's appetite 

The wood hog shown here chews up logs for paper 
pulp like a giant pencil sharpener. As they chip away 
at the logs, the revolving cutter knives impose heavy 
shock loads on the bearings. To carry these shock 
loads, engineers specified that the cutter shaft be 
mounted on Timken" tapered roller bearings. Due 
to the line contact between the rolls and races, 
Timken bearings have extra load carrying capacity 
—take the heaviest shock loads. 

Here's how engineers use 

TIMKEN bearings for heavy 

shock loads 

To give extra support to the wood hog's main shaft, 
double-row Timken bearings are used. The tapered 
construction of the rolls and races enables Timken 
bearings to carry both radial and thrust loads in any 
combination. Shafts are held in rigid alignment, end 
movement eliminated. Because Timken bearings 
permit the use of effective closures, lubricant stays 
in and dirt and moisture are kept out. 






r " 

1 - 

1 ' 1 ^— ^ — 1 


1 1 1 1 1 ' — ] — r 








Want to learn more about 
TIMKEN bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems 
you'll face after graduation will involve bearing 
applications. If you'd like to learn more about this 
phase of engineering, we'll be glad to help. For addi- 
tional information about Timken bearings and how 
engineers use them, write today to The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And 
don't forget to clip this page for future reference. 




Small Homes . . . 

(Coiuiiuieil from Page 0) 
ami etticiency, despite space limitations, 
of kitchens in small homes. Investigation 
was done on storage space using factory- 
built cabinets, kitchen design, arrange- 
ment of equipment, and window and 
door locations. 

Another recently concluded project is 
radiant heating of basementless houses. 
The Engineering Experiment Station in 
cooperation with the Institute of Hoilei 
and Radiator .Manufacturers ran test> 
in a basementless prefabricated house 
to obtain operation data about comfort 
characteristics, fuel costs, and cleanliness 
of operation of a ba.seboard radiation 
unit developed by the Institute. A re- 
search home for the purpose of conduct- 
ing other tests has been maintained by 
the Institute of Boiler and Radiator 
Manufacturers at 801 West CIreen 
Street, IJrbana, since 1940. Much re- 
search has also been done on the one-pipe 
forced circulation hot-water system. 

Results of research findings and of 
information gathered through years of 
research into various housing problems 
by departments of the University are 
available in the form of circulars pub- 
lished by the Council. Twenty-four 
circulars have been issued to date: 

Si'lectinij a Lk'able NeigJiborhood 

Seleiting the Home Site 

i'uKiniiny th< llniiii 

Desit/nin/j the lloiiic 

So/fir Oiitiiliition 

Fhiiininy the Kitchen 

Insuliilidii in the I lonie 

CJiinineys anil Firefilnces 

Storm Sash 

Heating the Ihinie 

Fuels and liiirfiers 

Flanning for F.le< Iriiily 

I nterior Decortilion 

llurdnwc for the llonu 

M oisliii e (,'oiidi ii.uition 

Lund Design 

Sef>tie- 'l\inL- Sysli nis 

A Basie Farmhouse I'Inii 

Business Dealings nilli llie .liiliileil 
and the (Jontraetor 

(jouerete Floors for Biisi nu iilless 
I louses 

(j'onstruetion Methods 

(jdhinet Spare for the Kilehen 

1 loans I'lanned for Coal or (loke 

Kitihen Planning Standards 

These circulars are available at 10 
cents each, or a complete set for $2. 
However, students on the Urbana cam- 
pus may purchase these circulars at a 
special educational price of three cents 
per copy. 

The educational program of the Small 
Homes Council includes short courses 
conducted in cooperation with the Divi- 
sion of University Extension. An annual 

course in residential construction is de- 
signed to bring contractors and builders 
up-to-date on the best construction meth- 
ods. Also, in cooperation with the Na- 
tional Retail Lumber Dealers Associa- 
tion, a 30-day short course for lumber 
\ai(l and building material personnel is 

Ultrasonics . . . 

(Continued from Page .^(i) 

original state of excitation depends upon 
the duration of irradiation, .'\notlier 
thing that was noticed was the fact 
that the effect of temperature and pres- 
sure on activity must be considered. 

This research problem is typical of 
the quandary in\olved in tackling 
something new. To design proper test 
equipment, it is necessary to know con- 
siderable information about the expected 
results. C^n a new project, such as this 
one, the growing pains may get on ones 

"Let's play store." s/nd the first child. 
"Fll be the storekeeper and you be my 

"No, prices are too high," replied the 
second little lady. "Let's play radio pro- 
gram, and Fll give aieay a million dol- 




• There is more than mere identification value in the 
ridge you see on Okonite wires and cables. The ridge is 
proof that the insulation has been folded around the con- 
ductor by the well-known Okonite strip insulating process. 
This method permits inspection at all times during the 
application operation. It assures the perfea centering of 
conductors so important to the avoidance of electrical 

The ridge is a permanent mark of an Okonite cable. It is 
still prominent after the final vulcanization in a metal mold 
that insures equal transfer of the heat throughout ever>' 
portion of the insulation. The Okonite Company, Passaic, 
New Jersey. 


insulated wires and cables 

University Bookstore 


on the campus 



U. of I. Drug Store 

Your Campus Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 





"Lots of tilings, Jackie! But mostly brains. The brains of men who know how to make electrons behave in 
tubes. Electrons are tiny particles of electricity. They're boiled out of metal wires by heating units. Much 
the same way as an electric stove boils water. But if the heating unit isn't right, everything goes wrong." 

"The tube people are smart, son. They 
make sure the heatiiic units give oft the 
right heat anil last longer by coating 
them with a fine Norton refractory. 
Alundum 38900 grain, we call it. It's 
so fine that ten grains end to end equal 
the thickness of a piece of paper. 

'Alundum refractory grain is great stuff. 
Its melting point is 2015°C. That's real 
hot! Made into corrugated baffle plates, 
it doubles the efficiency of enameling 
ovens. That's why the surfaces of such 
things as refrigerators and electric stoves 
come so hard and smooth. 

"Some people know Norton only as the 
world's largest maker of grinding wheels 
and machines, Jackie. But refractories 
in many sizes, shapes and materials are 
important Norton products, too. They're 
used in kilns, furnaces and ovens when- 
ever industry wants to get the most out 
of high temperatures . . . safely." 

'So, you see, son, from 
television tubes to re- 
frigerators, Norton Products help make 
all kinds of products better. That's why 
the experienced heads and willing hands 
that make up the Norton team try a little 
harder to make Norton products better." 


iZiakincj better prod acts fo make other products better 



•f J',|i %\ '^ IJL' 

'j'''^!',]'^''""'""^' *'"' !-•'■''"'<: MACHINES ir-j^^LABELING MACHINES JW:: 

"~*~^ ,"Tt-. I, ^ -^ fer- 






Power Plant . . . 

(Contimied from Page 7) 

A pressure aiul temperature reiluciii}; 
station is available to furnish make-up 
steam when the turbine exhaust is not 

sufficient. Here the pressure ma\' be re- 
duced from boiler to steam main pres- 

'l"he steam suppl\ to the liUNcrsitv 
buildings is underjiround tiirough S'.i" 
X I'b" steam distribution tunnels. The 

tuiuiels contain pijies for exhaust steam, 
high pressure process steam, return con- 
densate, and compressed air. Scattered 
con\eniently along the tunnels are com- 
bined entry ways anil ventilators for in- 
spection, repairs, and tunnel \entilation. 

Many of the engineers on campus be- 
come acquainted with the plant via an 
.M.K. course which has an experiment 
requiring each man to be at the plant 
one or two hours for an inspection trip. 
Data are taken on the operation of the 
plant for a 24-hour period and a formal 
report is made. 

The plant steam and electric load has 
grown tremendously since 1941, and it 
is now ready for its second addition. 
The fourth boiler and third turbine- 
generator was added during the 1947- 
49 biemu'um; and a fourth turbine- 
generator will be added in the 1949-51 

The power cycle evolves from the three 3,000-kw turbine generators, 
as shown by this mechanical diagram 

"M/irthn. every time 1 sec yjii hi thiit 
hat I Idiujh." 

"Good — I'll he sure to put it an iihen 
the hill eoiiies in." 

He: "If you'll give me your telephone 
number, I'll call you up some time. " 
She: "It's in the book." 
He: "Fine! And what's your name? " 
She: "That's in the book, too!" 



To keep inflation out of electric power costs 
in the face of steadily rising construction and fuel costs, 
electric utilities are showing a growing preference for one- 
boiler-per-turbine operation when providing additional electric 
generating capacity. 
Success of this type of cost-saving operation calls for an extremely 
reliable supply of steam — boilers that will stay on the line day after 
day, month after month. That B&W Boilers are fully measuring 
up to this exacting requirement of modern central stations is 
indicated by the fact that 79 units for one-boiler-per-turbine installa- 
tions without high-pressure cross connections are now in service or 
on order. Together these boilers supply the steam requirement for 
over 4,000,000 kw. of generating capacity. Operating records show 
that most of these boilers are giving uninterrupted service for eleven 
months or more, being taken out of service only for the required 
annual inspections. 
Dependable performance has been a distinguishing asset of B &W 
boilers for over 80 years. It is a foremost reason why B&W steam is 
still a leading choice for making low-cost power more abundant 
all over America today. 



Corsages . . • 













"Flowers by Wire" 




\Nor ApmiAreo mruANV plowcr shop in urban a 


The place to shop for 

a complete line of 




PROBLEM — You are designing a machine for 
doing finishing operations on the production line, 
such as grinding, polishing, buffing, etc. Your prob- 
lem is to provide a drive that permits the grinding 
or polishing v/heel to be moved around freely v/hile 
it is running. Hov/ would you do it? 

pov/er drive flexible shaft to transmit rotary power 
from a suspended or pedestal-mounted electric 
motor to the handpiece which holds the finishing 
wheel. This gives you a portable unit that permits 
the wheel to be readily manipulated to reach all 

This is just one of hun- 
dreds of power drive and 
remote control problems 
to which S.S.White flex- 
ible shafts are the simple 
answer. That's why every 
engineer should be famil- 
iar with the range and 
scope of these useful 
"Metal Muscles"* for 
mechanical bodies. 

Here's how one monufacfurer 
did If. 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and / ^l^ff't^' 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for asl^ing. Write today. 




HIW TOSK l«, N. T. 



Navy Pier . . . 

( CoiitiniR-il from Page \(i) 

sinokcr-social somctinH- duiint; this sc- 

W'itli the co-operation ot tlic many 
new members, the AIKK is looking 
forward to a successful semester of ac- 

An election was helil at the first meet- 
ing of the 1949-50 school year October 
11. The new officers are as follows: 

President John Pluth 

Vice president V^ito .Mitkus 

Secretary Regina Tarkowski 

Treasurer John Slack 

Plans are being made for a visit to 
the hydrogenation plant of a soap com- 
|iany in Hammond, Indiana. 

On November 1, a film depicting a 
phase of the chemical industry was pre- 

The officers elected at the first meet- 
ing of the Institute of Aeronautical 
Sciences are: 

(."hairman Joseph Cjross 

\'ice chairman Douglas Miller 

Secretary-treasurer Ray Kramer 

Council Rep Donald Riggs 

A film was shown summarizing the\ problems connected with aircraft 
props. It explained the principles and 
theories needed to maintain accurate 

functions of the propeller. The title of 
the film is "Airplane Proiudlers: Prin- 
ciples and T\pes." 

Mr. Zanotti, the sponsor, is ho|iing 
that the plans for a field trip will ma- 

Office Hoy (nervously): "Please, sir. 
I think you're wanted on the phone." 

Kmployer: "You think! What's the 
good of thinking?" 

"Well, sir, the voice at the other end 
said, 'Hello, is that you, you old idiot?" 

"J'liirty iloUiirs lo piiint my i/iirai/f.' 
'I'liiit's oiitrai/Ktiis! I uoii/tl/i't ftiy 
Miilirltint/c/o thut miuli tn paint my 
(jarayi' !" 

"Listtii, yon." mid ihc prd/ihr. "if 
he docs the job for ii/iy /csx. ui'll romf 
and piikil ycr place!" 

* » * 

Boss: "You're 20 minutes late again. 
Don't you know time we start 
work at this factory?" 

\ew Employee: "No, sir, the\'re al- 
ways at it when I get here." 

-:iJ- * * 

One reason uhy talk is cheap is he- 
cause the supply usually exceeds the 

Before you give somehody a pic(C of 
your mind, he sure you can ijet liy leith 
what you have left. 

The hau'/uit lias one in the interest 
of civic improvement. J-.i'ery speaker 
around the table, except one, had adver- 
tised the tonn in fhminij terms. They 
all agreed that had the old home toiin 
been on the coast, it noiild have been 
the ivorld's first city. 

I lie one lone participant at the table 
iiho had not spoken, nas a visitor. Fi- 
nally he teas (ailed on to say a few 

"Gentlc/iK n ," he said, "f am im- 
presssed leith your tinvn as much as you 
are, and I believe I can suggest a nay 
in vehich you can get your iiish. This 
is nhat you should do: Obtain a large 
pipe, run it from your tonn to the 
ocean, and if you can suck as hard as 
you can bloiv, your troubles will all he 
ended — the ocean will soon be idong- 

* * « 

"Your fiance is a charming man. He 
has a certain something." 

"Yes, but I would rather he had 
something certain. " 

Visitor: If your mother gave you tivo 
apples and told you to give one to your 
brother, ivould you give him the little 
one or the big one.' 

Johnny: Do you mean my little broth- 
er or my big onef 

Cranberry Storage 
Cod. M 


^^^I^^^J^^Frick Jftefrigemti^it 

And have used it over thirty 
Cape . 


^^^ Frick equipment serves this in- 
«H dustry in three ways: for short 
mH term storage at 32 F; for long- 
erm storage at -5 F; and for freez- 
ng the berries to be made into 
uices — thus carrying the rich color 
jf the skin throughout the liquid. 

The three cranberry plants on 
Cape Cod use seven big Frick re- 
frigerating machines. 

J T/ic Frkk Crtulual,- Training Course 
n liffrifirralitm and .Air Conditioning. 
Iprralcd Over 30 Years. Offers a 
„r.rr in a Groning Indn^lry. 


Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 







Thanks to high-pressure synthesis^ h now leads a useful life 

To the man on the street, carbon 
monoxide is just a poisonous gas that 
sometimes causes tragic deaths when 
it escapes from the exhaust of an 
automobile or from a poorly tended 

Outside of the chemical field, few 
people are aware that, properly used, 
it is a very real friend of man. In the 
last 25 years, during which catalytic 

A. H. Emery, Jr , ,1/ s Chi- M.I.T. '49 and 
M. J. Ro. ,li I, I'h n Org , Michigan '40 in- 
specting a high-pressure batch reactor taken 
from the shaker tube assembly after a run to 
make 3y5^5-trimethylhexanol. 

and high-pressure chemical tech- 
niques have been highly developed, 
carbon monoxide has become a key- 
stone of industrial synthesis. 

Scientists have found that under 
the proper conditions of high press- 
ure and temperature, carbon mon- 
oxide, in combination with other 
substances, can be converted to a 
variety of useful products. These or 
their derivatives range from an acid 
used in tanning hides to the spar- 
kling plastics in milady's boudoir. 

You'd hardly associate carbon mon- 
oxide with anti-freeze. But at tem- 
peratures from 300 to 450°C. and 
under pressures of 1500 to 15,000 
pounds per square inch, carbon mon- 
oxide and hydrogen unite to form 
methanol — a colorless liquid from 
which is made "Zerone" anti-rust 
anti-freeze for automobiles. From 
methanol and carbon monoxide as 
raw materials, ethylene glycol for 
"Zerex" anti-freeze is produced. 

Plastics and Anti-Freeze 

Methanol is used also to make a 
large number of compounds such as 
formaldehyde and methyl metha- 
crylate. The former goes into urea- 
and phenol-formaldehyde plastics for 
light fixtures, radio cabinets, hard- 
ware, utensils, and electrical equip- 
ment. The latter is the basic mate- 
rial for "Lucite" acryUc resin with 
its many uses. 

The reaction of methanol with 
carbon monoxide leads to acetic acid , 
which is a well-known industrial 
chemical. By the same synthesis but 
substituting ethanol for methanol, 
propionic acid is obtained. From it 
come the "Mycoban" sodium and 
calcium propionates that retard 
mold and rope in bakery products. 

Synthesis in the Future 

Today Du Pont manufactures some 
120 different items that are partly 
or wholly dependent upon elevated 



^' "IImh 






R. L. Sleorns, B.S. Ch.E., Yale '49 and 
H. Peterson, B.S. Ch.E., Northeastern Univ. 
'42 checking a multi-stage carbon monoxide 
compressor used in semi-ivorks operations. 

A. J. Hill, Jr., Ph.D. Org., Yale '44 and F. F. 
Holub, Ph.D. Org., Duke '49 carrying out an 
experiment on a new method for purifying 
carbon monoxide. The large furnace in this 
apparatus operates at 1200^0. 

pressures. However, the possibilities 
have by no means been exhausted. 
Just recently, for example, chemists 
have been learning how to use car- 
bon monoxide in "up-grading" cer- 
tain petroleum hydrocarbons to give 
interesting alcohols. One of these, 
3,5,5-trimethylhexanol, is prepared 
from diisobutylene by reaction with 
carbon monoxide and hydrogen. 

College-trained men and women 
interested in working in this field at 
Du Pont may share in discoveries as 
outstanding as any yet achieved. 

Because of the wide scope of 
Du Font's activities, young graduates 
in many different fields have oppor- 
tunities to select the careers that 
prove to suit them best as their abili- 
ties and interests develop. 


Entertaining, Informative — Listen to "Cavalcade 
of America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 



Ever notice the tympanist tightening up 
the head of his kettledrums hefore a 
concert.' It's leather plus correct tension 
that gives him the tone he wants. 

In power transmission, leather belt 
plus tension control is giving industry 
a drive it wants. The "Uni-PuU " drive 
combines flat leather belting with a 
tension-controlling motor base to keep 
power in tune. It's a modern, compact 
set-up that handles power as no other 
belt drive can. 

;^mtmuv LEATHER BELTING AidOUotlofV 

Headquarters for Authentic Power Transmission Data 


Special Features 

in the 


I.B.M. Machines 

by Bill Soderstrom 

Finagle Factors 

by John Huber 

Engineering Experiment Station 

by Dave Cash 

Illinois Highways 

by Luther Peterson 


Allis-C'halmers Mtg. Co 2'> 

Aluminum Co. of America 31 

American Leather Belting Assn -14 

Babcock & Wilcox +0 

Brown & Sharp Mfg. Co 32 

George Barsch Florist 41 

Campus Barber Shop 32 

Cast Iron Pipe Research Assn 45 

Corning Glass Work 47 

Do«- Chemical Co 3 

E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co 43 

Eastman Kodak Company Cover 

Follett's College Bookstore 46 

Prick Company 42 

(Jeneral Electric Company Cover 

mini Union Bookstore 41 

Jenkins Bros 4 

Keuffel &i Esser Co 36 

McC;ra\v-Hill Publishing Co 33 

National Electric Products Corp 34 

Norton Abrasives Company 39 

Okonite Company 38 

Price Paint Store 42 

Radio Corporation of America 25 

Robeson's Dept. Store 34 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co 23 

S(]uare D. Company 35 

Standard Oil Co. of Indiana 27 

Strauch Photo Center 34 

Timken Roller Bearing Co 37 

r. of I. Drug Store 38 

I'nion Carbide & Carbon Corp 21 

Cnited States Steel Corp Cover 

University Bookstore 38 

Westinghouse 1 

S. S. White Co 41 



J. he ring test, shown above, is a scientific 
method for determining the modulus of rupture 
of pipe. It is not a required acceptance test but one 
of the additional tests made by cast iron pipe manu- 
facturers to ensure that the quality of the pipe 
meets or exceeds standard specifications. 

A ring, cut from random pipe, is subjected to 
progressively increased crushing load until failure 
occurs. Standard 6-inch cast iron pipe, for example, 
withstands a crushing weight of more than 14,000 
lbs. per foot. Such pipe meets severe service re- 
quirements with an ample margin of safety. 

Scientific progress in the laboratoties of our 
members has resulted in higher attainable stand- 
ards of quality in the production processes. By 
metallurgical controls and tests of materials, cast 
iron pipe is produced today with precise knowl- 
edge of the physical characteristics of the iron 
before it is poured into the mold. Constant control 
of cupola operation is maintained by metal analy- 
sis. Rigid tests of the finished product, both ac- 
ceptance tests and routine tests, complete the 
quality control qxle. But with all the remarkable 
improvements in cast iron pipe production, we do 
not forget the achievements of the early pipe 

founders as evidenced by the photograph below of 
cast iron pipe installed in 1664 to supply the town 
and fountains of Versailles, France and still in 
service. Cast iron pipe is the standard matetial for 
water and gas mains and is widely used in sewage 
works construction. Send for booklet, "Facts About 
Cast Iron Pipe." Address Dept. C, Cast Iron Pipe 
Research Association, T. F. Wolfe, Engineer, 
122 So. Michigan Ave.. Chicago 3, Illinois. 










* w 
















^^r ^'"^ 






Section of 285-year-old cast iron water main still 
serving the town and fountains of Versailles, France. 





Ode to an Engineer 

will) is the man that ilfsij^ns mir 
pumps with judgnieiit, skill and can'? 

W^ho is the man that builds 'em and 
keeps them in repair? 

Who has to shut them (lown because 
the \al\e seats disappear? 

The bearing-wearing, {iearing-tearinjj 
mechanical engineer. 

Who buys his juice for halt a cent 
and wants to charge a dime? 

Who, when we have signed tlie con- 
tract, can't deliver half the time? 

Who thinks the loss of 26 per cent is 
nothing queer? 

Tile \()lt-inducing. load-reducing elec- 
trical engineer. 

W'ho takes a transit out to timl a 
sewer to tap ? 

Who then with care extieine locates 
the junction on the map? 

Who is it that goes to dig it up and 
finds it nowhere near? 

The niud-bcspattcred, torn and tat- 
tered ci\il engineer. 

Wiio tiunks without iiis product we 
would all be in a lurch ? 

Who has a heathen idol which he 
designates research? 

Who tints the creeks, perfumes the 
air, and makes the landscape drear? 

The stink-e\()l\ ing, grease-di.ssolving 
chemical engineer. 

Who is the man that will draw a plan 
for everything you desiie? 

From a trans-Atlantic liner to hair- 
pins made of wire. 

With "ifs" and "ands, " "howe'ers" 
and "buts" who m a k e s his meaning 

T h e work-disdaining, fee-retaining 
consulting engineer. 

W^ho builds the roatl for fifty years 
that disappear in two. 

Then changes his identity, so no one's 
left to sue? 

Who covers all the traveled roads 
with filthy, lily smear? 

The bump-providing, rough- o n - 
riding highway engineer. 

— Author IhiknoiLii 

Factory Authorized 


plus complete assortment of 
new pen and pencil sets 




"Can \<)u ser\e company?" asked the 
housewife when she was hiring the maid. 

"Yes, mum; both ways." 

"What do you mean?" asked the puz- 
zled one. 

"So thej'll come again, or stay awa\'." 
* «- * 

Mitk voice over the telephone: "Doe- 
tor, this is Mr. Ilenpeek. My uifc just 
ilisloeated her jaic. If you're out this 
way next iceek or the iieek after, you 
might drop in anil see her." 

A man r\ished into a drugstore and 
asked the pharmacist what to do to stop 
hiccups. His answer was a slap in the 

Shocked and angry, the stranger de- 
manded a reason for the action. 

"Well," said the pharmacist, grin- 
ning, "you don't have any hiccups now, 
do you ?" 

"No," shouted the customer, "but my 
wife out in the car still does." 

// you tell a uiiin that there are 270- 
678.934,341 stars in the universe, he'll 
believe you — hut if a sign says "Fresh 
Faint." that same man has to make a 
personal im'estigation. 

Prisoner: "Judge. I don't know what 
to do." 

Jvidge: "Why, how's that? " 
Prisoner: "I swore to tell the truth, 
but every time I try, some lawyer ob- 

Fndeavoring to rest after an exeeed- 
ingly hard day. poor father ivas being 
bedeviled by an endless stream of unan- 
swerable questions from Willie. 

"If'hata you do doiin at the offieef" 
the youngster asked. 

"Oh. nothing!" shouted father. 

It looked like the youngster had been 
put off for awhile, but not for long. 
For after a thoughtful pause, Willie 
inquired, "Pop, hoiv do you knoiv ivhen 
you're through.'" 

•» !6 * 

"You don't seem to think much of 

"If he had his conscience taken out, 
it would be a minor operation." 

Crossword Answer 

■ a 























































































































































■ g 













These glass eggs make TNT behave 

The traditional way of shooting an oil well 
is to lower cans of nitroglycerin into the hole 
and explode them at the depth where traces 
of oil have been found. 

Now, petroleum engineers, using double- 
ended glass cones made by Corning, can 
shape and direct these explosions to pene- 
trate oil-bearing rock with a rifle-like charge. 

These pointed glass eggs, with shells no 
thicker than a pop bottle, are set in the ends 
of cylinders of TNT and the charges are 
arranged in a case for lowering into the well. 

Miraculous as it may seem, the glass egg — 
as it is liquefied by the explosion — acts as a 
gun barrel to aim the tremendous blast and 
concentrate it in a thin stream. The TNT 
charge — shooting directly outward — rips a 
hole in the rock to let the oil flow. 

And this hole penetrates some sixteen times 
farther than one made by an unshaped 

Because they are sometimes used in wells 
two miles or more deep, these Corning glass 
charge-directors are built to withstand heavy 
subterranean pressures. 

And although the eggs are hollow, they'll 
stand up under a pressure of 20.000 pounds 
per square inch. 

But if that seems strong to you, we'd like 
to point out that a one-inch cube of this 
same glass has a compressive strength of 
250.000 pounds. 

Throughout industry, Coniini,' means re- 
search ill !,'/(;.si because a multitude of Corn- 
ing developments — such as finding ways 
to increase its strength — have helped make 

glass one of today's most versatile engineer- 
ing materials. 

You'll find — when you're out of school 
and concerned with planning new products 
and processes, or changes in old ones — that 
it's a good thing to keep s^Uiss in mind. 

Then, we hope you'll call in Corning be- 
fore your planning reaches the blueprint 
stage — to learn how this material, which has 
so many varied uses, can best serve you. 
Corning Glass Hoiks, Corning, New York. 


means research in glass 



Tiid sii'cct yiiin// thiii(/s uirc tlisi iis- 
sint/ (iffdirs of tin luiirt. "So yiii'vc 
(imptid Ralph.'" stiid otic tiritl/y. "I 
siif'/^osr lie didn't happen to /inntioii 
that he hud pnvioinly propomi to iin .'" 

"Will, not ixiutly." rcpiud the other 
hldiidly. "hat he did confess thiit he'd 
done (I lot of silly thim/s In fore Ik nut 

"Doiiiii some .shoppinsi?" 
"Yes, I'm trying to get something for 
my wife. " 

"Had an)' offers?" 

* s * 

"Do \on know Lincoln's (jett\sburg 
address ?" 

"Xo, but in Washington it was the 
White House." 

-* ^ * 

./ niiiiijhty hoy leiis hroui/lit before 
the prineipiil for tellinij his teiuher to 
hie stnuyht to the hot place. The prin- 
eip/il explained that such language could 
not he tolerated, hut if he leould apolo- 
gize, the teiK her niit/ht give him another 

The hoy nas ohdnrate. hut finally 
agreed to make it right. "Miss Allin- 
son." he conceded, "you don't have to 
go there yet.' 

Teacher: "Johnny, what is wrong 
with this sentence, '(iirls is naturally 
better h)oking than boys'?" 

Johnny: "(lirls is artificially better 
looking than boys." 

"Vou know, dear, John doesn't seem 
to be as well dressed as he was when 
you married him." 

"That's funny. I'm sure it's the same 

Judge: "Coiddn't this case have been 
settled out of court?" 

Defendant: "Yer honor, shine an' 
that is exactly what we wu/ tr\in' to 
do whin a couple av police butted in. " 

Mike: "That's a queer pair of stock- 
ings you have on, Pat — one red and the 
other green." 

Pat: "Yes, and I've got another pair 
like it at home." 

» * * 

Friend, to polieeiii/in jlIio had for- 
merly been a salesman: " 1 1 oie do you 
like the nciv job.''" 

Policeman: "Sivcll — the pay /.v good, 
the hours okay, and the customer is al- 
nays ivrong." 

Fred: "I suppose \ou thmk I'm a per- 
fect idiot?" 

Ned: "Oh, none of us is perfect." 

* * » 

]\lothers "Come here, Johnnie. I have 
some good news for you." 

Johnnie (iciihout enthusiasm) : "Yes. 
I kiKJw: father is home again." 

Mother: "Yes, but how did you 

Johnnie: "]\Iy bank won't rattle any 

"I'm sorry — I forgot your part\' the 
other evening!" 

"Oh, weren't you there?" 

"Look here, ivaiter, is this peach or 
apple pie.'" 

"What does it taste like?" 

"It tastes like glue." 

" I'hen it must be apple pie because 
our peach pie tastes like putty!" 

"This is an ideal spot for a picnic." 
"Yes, it must be. Fifty million in- 
sects can't be wrong." 

Of fine (to man pacing sidiualk at 
.' a. m.) : "II hat an you doing here.''" 

Cientleman : "I fort/ot my key, officer, 
and I'm ivaiting for my children to eoinc 
home and let me in."' 

Some people are like blotters — soak 
it all in, backwards. 

A millionaire, as he climbed into his 
limousine, snarle<l at a newsboy, "No, 
I don't want to bu\' a paper!" 

"Well, keep your shirt on, boss," the 
newsboy answered; "the only difference 
between you and me is that you are 
making your .second million, while I'm 
still on my first." 

// hill Noah sailid the ivaters blue. 
Ik had his troubles same as you. for 
40 days he drove the ark before he found 
a place to park. 

.\ man was filling out an application 
blank for a job, and came to the ques- 
tion : "Have you ever been arrested ?" 
His answer was "No." 

The next question, intended for those 
who answered the preceding question in 
the affirmative, was "Why?" Never- 
theless, the applicant answered it with, 
"Never got caught." 

» * * 

.-I mountaineer took his son to a 
school to enroll him. 

"Aly boys arter learning", ichat dya 
havef" he asked the teacher. 

"If e offer English, trigonometry, 
spelling, etc.." she replied. 

"II ell . give him some of that tliar 
trigcrnormetry : he's til worst shot in 
the family." 

Sign outside a Minnesota cross-road 
town: "Speed limit 30 mph. You can't 
get through here any to fast for us. " 

-*■ * * 

U hen Santa Claus met Joan of Are: 
Ills ear and her car met head on. Both 
drivers got out, and, irith that fine 
courtesy so characteristic of motorists 
nowadays, both began to apologize. 

"I'm so sorry." and the xcoman : "it 
lias all my fault."' 

"\ot at all, madam." the man re- 
sponded liith a g<dlant gesture: "'I zvas 
to blame, myself." 

"But I insist the fault teas mine, I 
ivas on your side of the ro'id.' 

"That may be true. but. my dear 
madam, 1 am responsible for tin colli- 
sion. I saic you coming blocks aieay. and 
had ample opportunity to dart doiiii a 
side street." 

And there was the man who called 
a spade a spade until he stumbled o\er 
one in the dark. 

"Is a ton of coal very miiih. papa.'"" 
"'That depends, my son. on lehcthcr 
you are shoveling or buying it." 

* * Si 

Opportunity doesn't knock these days; 
it rings the phone and asks a silly ques- 

* * * 

//(■ liho parades his virtues seldom 
leads the procession. 



':tiii'jij/!^ / 


JANUARY, 1950 

:-;'.'";.;- ■ ■/'"•Hi 

Boneyard Bilge 

Page 6 

Finagle Factor 

Page 7 

Experiment Station 

Page 8 

Five Year Curriculum? 

Page 9 



Cross a bridge and make a wish 

NEXT time you cut ten or twenty or 
fifty miles off a weekend trip home 
by taking the short way over a bridge- 
give a thought to the days when the 
bridge wasn't there, when people had to 
take the long way around. 

Right then would be a good time to 
make your wish ... a wish that you will 
soon be able to put your engineermg 
knowledge to work in helping to plan and 
build the things that make America great. 

The steel industry offers hundreds of 

possibilities in this direction. From the 
mining of raw ore to the fabrication of 
the finished product, steel-making is di- 
rected by technically-trained men. Spe- 
cialists in every phase of engineering 
play a vital role m the many and varied 
steps in making steel. Thousands of 
other engineers supervise the transfor- 
mation of finished steel into structures 
like this mighty bridge. 

Linited States Steel recognizes the 
need for carefully-trained specialists and 

pays particular attention in its educa- 
tional program to the development of 
college graduates and other technically- 
trained men. This program has as funda- 
mental objectives providing employees 
a sound foundation for advancement and 
assuring them opportunity for maximum 
personal development. 

The training program in United States 
Steel has become the "bridge" to success- 
ful careers for hundreds of capable 
young men. 



Great Names are built on 
Solid Foundations 

Individual reputations, or futures, 
like that of a business, are built on 
solid foundations. So let's examine 
the basis of a solid foundation. 

Suppose you had a problem . . . 
required some kind of power to 
help hurl a jet plane into action 
from a ship. That was a critical 
problem of the Navy in wartime. 

They came to Westinghouse, 
where they knew they would find a 
strong foundation in power equip- 
ment. And Westinghouse engineers 
came up with the answer — a motor 
1,400 feet long that lies perfectly 
flat . . . never turns . . . has no shaft 

. . . that looks like a railroad. And 
it works . . . sends a plane into the 
air at 117 miles per hour. 

This same daring spirit developed 
a 65,000-hp motor to pump rivers 
of water for a vast irrigation project, 
20 percent larger than any motor 
previously built . . . and a motor so 
small that you can hold it in your 
hand, and that runs at the almost 
unbelievable speed of 65,000 rpm 
to do another highly important task. 

This pioneering spirit prevails 
throughout Westinghouse, whether 
it's a need for motors, railway loco- 
motives, gas turbines, steam power, 

elevators, radio, electronic devices, 
x-ray machines, household appli- 
ances, plastics, lamps, lighting, 
atomic power development, or a 
need in any of the hundreds of other 
channels in which Westinghouse 
carves its name with engineering 

Important responsibilities can 
only be placed on strong founda- 
tions. At Westinghouse, programs 
of training and education strengthen 
engineering backgrounds so that 
technical men can assume vital roles 
in a dynamic organization that 
stakes its future on the commitment: 

you CAN 6E SURE •• IF ir^ 



New Develoiiiiieiite 

itii Hviirif Kahn. th.lC.'.lO 


A line (il l(i\v-cost iiiii\crs;il rani-typc 
liydraulic broaching machines priicd far 
below the cost of single-purpose lani- 
r\pe machines has been announced hy 
Colonial Broach Companx. 

The new ram-press machines nia\ he 
used interchangeably for all conventional 
broaching operations, including: 

1. Surface broaching 

2. Internal push-broaching 
,v Slotting 

4. Pr<'ss-w(u-k 

ThcN are available in 4-, (>-, and 10- 
ton capacities and come with 24- and 
,^(i-inch strokes. 

The ram-press is a high quality 
broaching machine throughout. Columns 
arc of heavy steel, using a welded con- 
struction, with hardened and ground 
ways the full length of the column for 
the ram slide. 

The h>ilraulic system provides excess 
capacity for occasional overloads. Cylin- 
der construction is such as to simplify 
maintenance and enable replacement of 
cylinders separately from the ram, if 
this should ever be necessary. 

A simplified hydraulic hook-up also 
eliminates the necessity of cored passages 
leading to the cylinder in the machine. 
Piston rods for operating the rams are 
located in a protected position and are 
never exposed to accumulation of chips 
or foreign matter. This construction fur- 

The new low-cost Colonial hydrau- 
lic broaching machine has a wide 
variety of uses. (Courtesy of Colo- 
nial Broach Co.) 

thei' aids in eliminating chance of leaks 
and provides excellent protection for the 
cylinder packing. Pistons arc of close 
gi;iin cast iron with aut<iniotive t\pe 

The coolant system has its own sepa- 
lateK motorized impeller type pump, 
eliminating belts, pulle>s, etc. Separate 
start and stop controls are provided for 
the coolant and h.vilraulic pumps. Stroke 
adjustments can be made quickly and 
accurately by means of externally lo- 
cated collars on a trip rod located along- 
side of the ram. These controls provide 
automatic stopping of the machine at 
the top and bottom of strokes. 

A large bracket bolted to the ram 
face is designed for use in internal push- 
broaching and for single or multiple 
assembly and press-work, etc. Manual 
operating controls are simple and prac- 
tically foolproof in operation. The ma- 
chine is ideally suitable for shops where 
job runs of parts are to be put through. 

Machines can be furnished with spe- 
cial circuits for operating receding tables 
or fixtures where demanded by certain 
surface broaching operations. Special cir- 
cuits can be furnished for automatic 

Bounce Kills Jounce 

Hoiiiuing |inrt\, now wideh used in 
golt balls and in devices which automa- 
tically level furniture, has been put to 
work in a new job. This time it's pro- 
tecting the delicate instruments of V-2 
rockets fired at White Sands. 

Wrapped in a half-inch coating of 
bouncing putty, motion picture cameras 
hardlv mind the crash of the huge rocket 
after their liiindi ed-niile plunge b.ack to 

This silicone "putty" flows like ordi- 
nary soft glazing putty. Rolled in a ball, 
however, it has a lively bounce. It's so 
bouncy, in fact, that in several instances 
putty-wrapped instruments have survived 
to tell their stories e\en when V-2's 
have come apart 50 miles up. 

Self-Locking Set Screw 

A new self-locking set screw and ad- 
justing screw called Zip-(irip, that does 
not require any lock nuts, wires, imping- 
ing locking screws, or deformed or riv- 
eted threads, is being produced by Set 
Screw t<v: Mfg. Co., Bartlett, Illinois. 

The new Zip-Cirrip set screw is specif- 
icallv designed for applications in which 
excessive vibration is a factor, aiul for 

regulating and adjustment applications 
in which instantaneous locking at a pre- 
cise point is desired. 

Zip-(irip is said to be the first set 
screw to have triple-locking action by a 
combination of interference fit, tension, 
and locking of the .set screw against the 
shaft or other part. As the cutaway illus- 
tration shows, the lower part of the 
Zip-(uip screw (H), which enters the 
hole first, has a standard thread. 

The upper section of the screw (A), 
designated as the "activating area," has 
a larger pitch diameter in the thread 
section; this creates an interference fit 
or expansion effect against the thread 
flanks. This results in a tension or op- 
posed-fmce action, causing the thread 
section of the upper part to be drawn 

The principle of the Zip-Grip self- 
locking set screw is shown in this 
illustration. (Courtesty of Set Screw 
& Mfg. Co.) 

downward and that of the lower part to 
be drawn upward, in the direction of 
the screw's locking action, against the 

Among the advantages claimed for 
Zip-Grip are reduction of production 
costs on tapping operations, as no closer 
fit than Class Two is required, and the 
extra tapping for counter-locking and 
extra set screws is eliminated ; increased 
assembh speed because Zip-Cirip screws 
are quickly inserted and tightened with 
no time taken up by adjusting outside 
locking devices ; and improved perform- 
ance due to the elimination of "creep- 
ing" in \ibration applications and in- 
creased speed of adjustment on regulat- 
ing screw applications. 

The new self-locking screws are avail- 
able in all metals, including soft or hard 
steel, case hardened or heat-treated steel, 
stainless steel, brass, bronze, or alumi- 

For Safer Streets 

Almost two \e.irs ago. General Elec- 
tric scientists set out to develop a street 
lighting fixture which would give both 
efficient and comfortable light. A new 
(Continued on Page 24) 



Ra\' Hauser .... 


Connie Minnich 

Assoc. Editor 

Gene Hlanver ... 

....Makeuf Editor 

Art Dreshfield 

Asst. Editor 

Dui'ght Beard . 

Asst. Editor 

Dick Choronzy.. 

Asst. Editor 



Bill SiidtTstrum 

lane Parlee 

lleTirv Kahn 

Hill Black 

Dean Felton 

Stuart Higgs 

Joe Graham 

Don Horton 

Luther S. Peterson 

Don Rhea 

Dave Cash 

Bill Sanduskv 

Dan Keefe 

Don Sweet 

John Huber 

Chuck Flanders 

Edward Finkel 

Bob CJiffrow 

Jack Sitzler 

Henrv Kalapaca 

Jim Ephgrave 

Tom Tucker 


Fred Seavey Bus. Mgr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson ....Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Bill Anderson Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

James J. Skarda ..Asst. Bus. Mgr. 
Don Johnson ....Asst. Bus. Mt/r. 

Business .Associates 

Alfreda Mallorey Joyanne Blount 
Charles J. Kukura Lew Markow 
Ewing Sharp Jim Roth 

Ed Brooks Dick Kenna 

Bob (lerzetich 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 


Chairman: Prof. F. J. Cheek, Jr. 
LTniversity of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
nois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit, Kansas Engineer, Kansas State 
Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, Louisiana 
State LTniversity Engineer, Marquette Engi- 
neer, Michigan Technic, Minnesota Techno- 
log, Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, North 
Dakota Engineer, North Dakota State En- 
gineer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 
Engineer, Oregon State Technical Record, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester Indica- 
tor, Rose Technic, Wayne Engineer, and 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illiiwis Tcclmograpli. 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11. 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 

Volume 65 

Number 4 

The Tech Presents 



Finagle Factor Functions 7 

Engineering Experiment Station 8 

Should Engineering Be a Five Year Curriculum? 9 


New Developments 2 

Boneyard Bilge 6 

Navy Pier 10 

Personalities 11 

Engineering Societies 12 


Sic semper tyrannisi A salute to M.E.'s (and uncautious lab 
instructors) from cover cartoonist Ed Lozano graces this month's 


By Dan Keefe, Ch.E. '50 

Our erstwhile brethren at the Pier in 
good old Chi-town were greeted with 
some good news the other day. The en- 
gineering and architecture students who 
aie "eligible" to transfer to the L rbana 
campus next semester were preregis- 

Representatives from the main cam- 
IMis went to the Pier on December iS 
to give the students there all the neces- 
sary information about courses, curricu- 
lum, etc., and to assist in the registering. 
1 )ean Tre/.ise, at the Pier, pointed out 
that the new s\stem will enable each 
student to ha\e indiviilual attention and 
consideration so that he will know what 
he's getting into before it's too late. It 
will also help the departments here on 
the campus in that they will know be- 
forehand how many |ieople will be com- 
ing from the Pier. 

.\ total of 120 engineers and .i5 archi- 
tects will be coming liown for the spring 
semester, assuming that they all pass 
the finals! When the\ get here, the 
transfer students will ha\e nothing but 
their study-lists and fees to complete. 

Pie-registration for all other engi- 
neering and architecture students at the 
Pier will he held before the final exam 


Nestled behind the new E. E. lab on 
engine campus is a small plot of ground 
surrounded by a wire fence. No, it's not 
the stockade for those who flunk thermo 
exams. It's a part of the Boneyard h\- 
drologic stud\ dealing with rainfall-run- 
off relations and eva|ioration rates from 
water surfaces. 

The apparatus enclosed b\- that fence 
is something new that is being developed 
here for the determination of evapora- 
tion rates. 

Of primary interest to localities whose 
water supply comes from reseivoirs is 
the rate at which evaporation occurs. 
( )ne method for determining this rate 
is by use of a pan of water equipped 
with a hook gage. Obviously, this means 
will f;nl when the temperature drops 

and ice forms. .Anothei' disadvantage is 
that the effect of air cunents cannot 
be determined. 

Hy the use of equations which are 
beyond the scope of this article, it is 
possible to relate the evaporation rate 
to vapor pressure data. The vapor |ires- 
sure data may be obtained from dew 
point data; this is the pmpose of the 
mast towering above the enclosLire. 

At the top of the mast is a cell which 
is surrounded by a hygroscopic salt 
which is further surroimded by a wire. 
As long as there is no moisture present 
in the salt, there will be no current 
flow in the wire. When there is some 
water absorbed by the salt, a current 
flows in the wire which is proportional 
to the humidity of the air (which may 
further be used to find the dew point 
of the air). Thus it is possible to record 

The cabinet encloses the dew point 
and dry bulb temperature record- 
ers. In the foreground are the 
evaporation pan and the anemom- 
eter. (Photo by Joe Graham) 

the liew point directh' by measuring 
the current. 

This is actLiall)' what is done b\ the 
complete unit atop the mast. .\ thermo- 
couple is placed in the cell such that the 
current caused by the water content of 
the salt will heat the couple. Thus, a 
current is established in the thermo- 
couple leads that is indirecth' related to 
the dew point of the air at the top of 
the mast. The leads from the couple run 
down the mast to a continuous recorder 

which reads directly in dew point tem- 
peratmes. The dry bulb temperature of 
the air at the top of the mast is recorded 
on the same instrument. 

Some difficulty has been met in try- 
ing to record the dew point of the air 
near the base of the mast, but latest 
reports indicate that the work being 
done is proceeding in the right direction. 

The 4' X 10" standard class A weath- 
ci- biu-eau evaporation pan is used at the 
station to compare this new method with 
the old method of determining dew 

A weighing-type rain gage is used to 
measure any and all precipitation. The 
fence was deemed necessary after some 
little boys added their two-cents worth 
of precipitation. This rain gage is super- 
ior to the old tipping-bucket gage since 
ice formation will not affect the deter- 

To calibrate the apparatus at the sta- 
tion, an extremely sensitive microhygro- 
graph is used. This instrument is so 
sensitive it will register the humidity 
change caused by a human breath blown 
toward it. 

The precipitation determinations are 
being used in conjimction with the flow 
measurements made bv the weir in the 
Honeyar.l behind CEH. 

iS » * the Bonev.ard 
» » » 
('Juiincal Engineers in the Nncs 
It was announced recently that the 
Avinner of this year's national student 
pioblcm of the American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers was William Hen- 
derson. Bill will be remembered as a 
straight .-J student in Chem. E. He is 
now doing graduate work at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

At the same time, it was announced 
that third place in the contest was won 
by James W. Crawftud, another V of I 

This is the fourth time that Illijiois 
Chem. E.'s have won the contest out of 
the fifteen times that the problem has 
(Continued on Page 22) 



itif John lluhfr, Aff.K. '.12 

It is painfully apparent that the text- 
bonks in use by this University are lack- 
ing in one very important item — said 
item being a discussion of the finagle 

Every engineer will agree that it is an 
extremely useful little factor and tliat 
everyone should become quite skilled in 
its use. Why, then, have the frustrated 
professors who compose our texts been 
so lax as to forever omit it? Maybe they 
fear the consequences of making the use 
of such a potent tool common knowl- 
edge. The only foreseeable consequence 
is that they might lose their jobs. 

Since we have no jobs to lose, stand 
b\' for finagle factor education. 

With final exams peeking In the 
window, It's time to buckle down 
and learn a few tactics, If not 
techniques, for pulling the points. 
After making a complete survey 
of maneuvers, John has brought 
forth that oft-quoted, but little- 
used item, the finagle factor. 

To completely describe its po- 
tentialities would fill a book, or at 
least this magazine (which might 
not be a bad idea). The subtle 
treatment of this subtle subject 
seemingly strikes some as salva- 
tion from stuffy assignments. 

The first logical step is the determina- 
tion of a suitable symbol to designate 
tile use of the fudge or finagle factor. 
This in itself is no trivial task, for it 
should be a symbol that is easily written 
and just as easily understood. It is also 
liifficult to find a letter or symbol that 
doesn't already have a multitude of 
meanings. F seems to be an obvious let- 
ter to use but it is alread\' greatly o\er- 
worked b>' being used to designate force, 
fine, friction, and many other factors. 
(It is also too close a companion to 
one's alphabetical grade.) 

Through the same incomprehensible 
reasoning that the mathematicians ap- 
parently used in choosing delta to equal 
a change, we could undoubtedly arrive 
at an equally unrelated symbol for fina- 
gle; but for the sake of clarity and for 

While at Galesburg lost 


ycor, John wrote several 


humorous poems for the 


Golesburg lllini. Although 


he hos very mild ond 

^Hp ^1 

reserved manner, he con 

^HL.;. 1 

pull off some whoppin' 

' ^^^''^■■'— iW^T 

good cracks. He was the 

■Brl / 

ideal man to write this 



Even though he is an 

1 ^^^^R!!!!' 

Ag.E., John hos a definite 


interest in writing and 

^^B ^^Hp^ 

hopes to coordinotc this 

^^A. ^i»v ^^ 

interest with his coreer. 


He IS serving as co-cditor 
of the ogricultural engi- 


neering annuel to be pub- 
lished next spring. The 

TECH is proud of his inter- 


est jn technical journalism. 

the want of something better we .shall 
merely incorporate the symbol -^ 

Now to slaughter the main issue. It 
would indeed require too much space to 
iliscuss the varied and sundry applica- 
tions of "^ outside of a book, so I will 
merely try to enumerate the basic funda- 
mentals of usage. 

First, let's make use of -<L_ when we 
aiii\e at a calculated answer that is 
ijh\ ioush' in error. An example might be 
a finding of HA'~> ft as the necessary 

iieight of a bottle of gi\en circumference 
to holil enough beer to keep one engineer 
liaiip\' one evening. This answer, though 
ni;i\'be not so obviously in error, would 
|irobably suit the instructor better if it 
were in different units or had the deci- 
mal point changed. 

It is not necessary to check through 
the calculations to discover the error 
when all one must do is make the 
changes that will render the answer 
more logical and write after it -^ 
Ans. This notation stands, of course, 
for finagled answer. The instructor will 
appreciate yoin' ingenuity and, if he has 
.1 sense of humor, will not mark it incor- 

I'ossibh the next most important use 
(if -^-- is concerned with laboratory re- 
poits. Suppose we are asked to experi- 
mentally substantiate K r o c k ' s Law 
which states that the coefficient of ad- 
hesion between leather and paper is 
.(100137. Hut, after running many tests 
concerning student finances and burning 
out our sliderule bearings, we arrive at 
tile coefficient value of .000042. 

Due to some inborn fanaticism the 
lab instructor will swear by Krock and 
will deem your findings nearly a hun- 
ilred percent in error. Such an error will 
certain!)' do your grade no good so it is 
best to start with a reasonable answer of 
about .000135 and work backwards. H\ 
this method, more appropriate data will 
be discovered. Lab instructors abhor 
erasures so it is best to merely mark one 
line through the erroneous data, insert 
more pertinent values below, and write 
"^^ after the correction. 

Another usage of -^ which more 
closely resembles the realm of what was 
(Continued on Page 20) 

"He says he wants to know where we keep the finage factor." 

JANUARY, 1950 

Giioiiieeriiig G\periiiient Station 

Itfl Iturv I'lish. Afi.lC. '.11 

Rfsi:\kc'h! It's like niajjic. Ri'sc.-irih 
is constantly lengthening man's life span, 
guarding his safety, increasing his con- 
veniences and his comfort, saving his 
money, bettering his health, and en- 
larging his view of the world. 

Here at the University of Illinois the 
Engineering Experiment Station is cer- 
tainly doing its part. Our highways, oiu- 
iiomes, our automobiles, railroad cars, 
and planes, our college education — all 
h,i\e benefited fnirii I iii\eisit\ stu<lies 
and in\estigation>. 

KstdlilhhiiunI 'if ihc Sliitioii 
The need for an experiment station in 
the College of Engineering was recog- 
nized long before its actual establish- 
ment 46 years ago. Investigation and 
studies of engineering, manufacturing, 
railwa\s, mining, and other items of 
industrial interest were badly needed. 

Such a station could also improve 
teaching processes and develop new ma- 
terial for classroom and laboratory. This 
would help to keep the University work 
in step with progress in engineering and 
industry. It could also provide a means 
lor eiiucating and training graduate stu- 
dents in methods of conducting research. 
Much of the credit for the conception 
of the idea and the establishment of the 
station belongs to Professor L. P. Breck- 
inridge, at that time the head of the 
Department of Mechanical Engineering. 
Eor several \ears he had been making 

Dave hos written this 
o r t I c I c to accompany 
"Small Homes Council" in 
the December issue. He is 
interested in some of the 
behind-the-scenes projects 
that often go unnoticed. 

Dave IS o very diversi- 
fied ogriculturol engineer. 
Along with John Huber, he 
is co-editor of the Ag.E. 
annual to be published 
next spring. For the I SEE 
he IS foods chairman in 
charge of all refreshments 
at the open house. 

He recently offended the 
Bonquet of One Hundred, 
given for senio, 



this honor through his 
YMCA membership efforts. 

an effort to secure federal action to 
establish engineering experiment stations 
similar to the agricultural experiment 
stations already in existence. Failing in 
this, he proposed that the University 
establish an Engineering Experiment 
Station with State funds. 

In December, 1902, the Board of 
Trustees of the University of Illinois 
included in their list for legislative ap- 
proval a separate bill requesting funds 
to expand the activities of the College 
of Engineering. Faculty, alumni, and 
manufacturing and construction inter- 
ests joined in the support of the bill. 

In May of the following \ear, the 
(R'lieral Assembly passed a general bill 
providing $15(1,000 for the College of 
Engineering. Of the total, $43,000 was 
allotted for the purchase of land and 



.\rtS- ---Nit ■--•-- 

the erection of two buildings, the me- 
chanical engineering laboratorv' and the 
foundry; $30,000 was to be used for 
the purchase of additional equipment ; 
and the remaining $77, ()(.)() was set asi<le 
to purchase apparatus to be used for 
engineering research to be carried out 
by the regular departments. 

Thus, by an act of the Board of 
Trustees of the University of Illinois, 
the Engineering Experiment Station 
came into existence on December <S, 
1903. This station was the first of its 
kind to be established in an educational 
institution in the United States and has 
served as a pattern for many similar sta- 

Direction of Aclivitiis 

Activities of the Station are coorili- 
nated and managed by the executive 
staff, now composed of Director Wil- 


Our Engineering Experiment 
Station was the first to be founded 
at any university in this eountry. 
Since its birth 46 years ago, re- 
search has been done on innum- 
erable subjects and 385 bulletins 
have been published. 

This article tells some of the 
history and presents the why, 
what, and how of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Experiment Station research attempts to prevent highway blov 
such as this one. 


liam L. Everitt; Associate Dean H. H. 
joi'dan, the heads of the departments in 
the College of Engineering; Professor 
H. F. Johnstone, head of chemical en- 
gineering; and Professor L. A. Rose. 
This staff is responsible, under the Presi- 
dent of the University, for the policies 
governing the work of the Station and 
the ap|iroval of for publica- 

Part of the research is conducted by 
full-time research professors and gradu- 
ate assistants. Those employed for spe- 
cial investigations are engaged for a 
limited time on a single problem. Alem- 
hers of the teaching staff also take part 
in the Station's wide iiwestigation pro- 

Since I'^d'l the director has been the 
dean of the College of Engineering. 
The head of each department is largely 
responsible for the work carried on in 
his ile|i;irtnient. 

(Continued on Page 16) 


Off Vinoent •#. Jtt'l0onulil. E.E. '30 

Before an\- attempt is made to deter- 
mine the time required in engineering 
school, it woidd he well to investigate 
the things that must be accomplished by 
the student in that time. An evaluation 
of engineering education as a whole will 
point out those minimum educational at- 
tainments which the candidate for the 
R.S. degree in engineering must ha\e 
mastered before he is prepared for grad- 

An engineer is a human being and a 
citizen before he is an engineer. As such, 
there are certain fiuidamental studies 
which he must master. 

Of these studies, the one that fills the 
most basic need is the study of commu- 
nications. The engineer, as well as the 
rest of men, must be proficient at read- 
ing, speaking, writing, and equally im- 
portant, listening. This is true not only 
for his own progress and well being, but 
for that of his fellow men, country, and 
world. Before any problem, within or 
without engineering, can be solved or 
e\en grasped, it must be put into some 
mutually understood language. For the 
abo\e reasons then, it is necessary that 
the student be thoroughh' trained in the 
transmission and reception of written 
and verbal information. 

It has been the custom for the 
TECH to publish the first-place 
essay of the Tau Beta Pi pledge 
competition. Writing a non-techni- 
cal, editorial-type paper is one of 
the initiation requirements of this 
all-engineering honorary. 

Vince McDonald's winning essay 
asks a question of considerable 
engineering interest, but it makes 
no attempt at a specific answer. 
Instead, a general explanation of 
the important factors of engineer- 
ing education is presented. Need 
of four or more years is depend- 
ent not only on the school but' on 
the man. 

One section of his education should 
impart a working knowledge of things 
iiistorical. Not only national and world 
history, but also the historical landmarks 
of philosophy, literature, music, and art 
should be known and appreciated. 

Although clear logical thinking is de- 

viNCENT McDonald 

The outhor 

of th 

s se- 

mcster'5 winn 

ng Tou 


Pi essay is 



more promine 


dents. Vince 



was born i n 



no.s, on Apr 

1 21, 


he spent th 

ec yea 

tj in 

the Novy be' 

ore en 


here in 1945. 

Vince is a 


n the 


s optic 

n; he 

may go on to 

do odv 


work otter 



He's on octiv 

e mem 

)er of 

the A 1 E.E.-l. 

\-l-. an 

d be- 

longs to Phi 

Eta ! 


Eto Koppo 

^lu, or 

d of 

course Tou B 

eto Pi. 

sired for everyone, it is essential in engi- 
neering. The engineer must be able to 
think, and he must be trained to think 
efficiently. Undoubtedly, this is the most 
important phase of his technical training. 
The successful analysis and evaluation 
of data cannot be handled by many for- 
mulae and a group of pre-set circum- 
stances; they depend on agility, flexibil- 
ity, and logic in thinking processes. 

For an aid to thinking the engineer 
must be equipped with a sufficient 
background in mathematics. Mathemat- 
ics will not only reduce the labor of his 
thinking, but it will provide an acces- 
sory to thinking, and by means of its 
symbolism, open a new language more 
precise, clearer, and more logical than 

Further, the engineer must be tr;iined 
efficiently to gather and record data. 
He must have a thorough grounding in 
the fundamentals of all engineering with 
an emphasis on his selected field. Finally, 
he must have a real and deep interest in 

Thus, the important qualifications 
ha\e been listed. The more thoroughly 
these qualifications are filled the better, 
but some degree of mastery of them is 
essential before the student is ready for 
his degree. 

So, then, to the question, "Should 
engineering be a five year curriculum?" 
we must answer, "Yes, if it takes that 
long — longer if necessary!" 

However, the student entering an 
engineering school as a freshman should 
already have much of the ground work. 
Actually, education, or engineering edu- 
cation in this case, is started at home, 
begins to be formally directed in grade 
school, and expands in high school. 

Thus, it could be said that "engineer- 

ing school" also encompasses the previ- 
ous twelve years of more or less formal 
education. Certainly, it may be said that 
"engineering training" does include 

If the grade and high schools effici- 
ently perform their work, the task 
awaiting the college is merely a further 
enlargement of previous work, and the 
necessary and desired status could be 
attained in a relatively short period of 
time. But, if previous schooling has been 
weak, or has failed almost completely, 
the college must then fill in the \oids 
to bring the student up to the desired 

The methods and the precise number 
of hours this process will require must 
be determined by the properly trained 
educators. As has been indicated, this 
time will decrease as the effectiveness of 
earlier education increases. However, 
the previoush' mentioned minimum 
standards must be met, regardless of 
the time involved, if the graduate is to 
be considered an engineer in the full 
sense of the word. 

X-Ray Microscope 

An X-ra\ microscope, which makes 
visible the internal details of materials 
through which light cannot pass, has 
been developed by the General Electric 

Future refinements of the .\-ra\ mic- 
roscope, which is at present in the lab- 
oratory stage of development, may re- 
sult in much sharper images and higher 
magnifications than are possible using 
visible light. 

Electron microscopes are the most 
powerful magnifiers in use at the pres- 
ent time. They use a beam of electrons 
rather than light to form an image of 
materials under study. 

The X-ray microscope does not re- 
quire that samples under stud\' be in a 
high vacuum, as does the electron micro- 
scope. Because of this advantage, "it 
may'be possible to examine living mater- 
ials at much higher magnifications than 
ever before." 

Clear, sharp X-ray images, magnified 
10 times have been produced in the lab- 
oratory, and these images have been 
magnified 10 times further by photo- 
graphic enlargement without serious loss 
of detail. 

JANUARY, 1950 

G. E. D. staff members look over the glass-enclosed bulletin boards where 
good student drawings are exhibited for comparison. 

94^ ^Un CoA.4n^&n. . . . 


Drawing at the Pier 

By Clarence Niebow, M.E. '51 

Quitf a few changes have been made 
at the pier since the University opened 
its doors in September, 1946. One of 
the chief changes is noted as one passes 
the offices and drawing labs of the (len- 
eral Engineering Drawing Department. 

When we entered the office of the 
engineering drawing department recent- 
ly, the remodeling of this room was 
just about completed. Each instructor 
\\ ill now have his own office. The pur- 
pose of these individual offices for the 
instructors is to give them a pri\ate 
place to conduct consultations with their 
students without undue distraction. 

In the drawing labs there are con- 
necting doors between the rooms. Also, 
in every lab, is a glass enclosed bulletin 
board. These bulletin boards are used 
to display the work of the students in 
orticr to exhibit what constitutes a good 
thawing. The connecting doors were put 
in the labs because of the overcrowded 
(i.E.D. classes. When an instructor 
finds that he has more students than 
desks, he can send some to the adjacent 

The iih\sical impr()\ements that ha\e 
been mentioned are of tremendous aid 

to the students for two reasons: the stu- 
dents can get more assistance from their 
instructors, and they do not have to 
work too close to each other. 

Along with these physical improve- 
ments, there were a few other items 
which caught the reporter's eye. Among 
these items was the weekh' contest that 
is conducted by the department. P^very 
student enrolled in a G.E.D. course is 
eligible to enter these contests. Four 
plates from each section are chosen 
every week by the instructor for en- 
trance in that week's contest. The names 
of the students are covered with tape, 
so that favoritism will not be shown. 

The Judges for the weekly contests 
are students who are enrolled in a 
( I.E.D. class. The basis upon which 
these plates are judged is the lettering. 


Boll King EJilor 

Ronald Sak hsi. Editor 

Clarence Niebow issocialr 

Mr, (^Kc'eii I.ivermnre .- Spniisny 

the hne. and the general ajipearance of 
the plate. The maximum number of 
points a judge can give a plate is 3(1(1 
points. At the end of the semester the 
student from each (i.E.D. class who has 
the highest number of points is to hi- 
awarded a certificate of merit. The pur- 
pose of these weekly contests is to estab- 
lish a competitive spirit among the stu- 
dents, so that better work ma\ con- 
stanth be produced. 

Engineering Societies 

By Ronald Sak, Aero.E., '53 
A.S. \LK. 

The ASME has been holding its meet- 
ings at regular two-week intervals. The 
activities undertaken broaden the me- 
chanical engineer's muul in his particu- 
lar field. 

W. W. 1 1 wain, a graduate of the 
I . of I., and now an executive in a 
branch of the International Harvester 
Company, was asked to speak at one of 
the M.E.'s meetings. On Oct. 25, he 
spoke of the maintenance and design of 
his company's foundries. 

During the Christmas vacation, four 
plant inspection tovns in the Chicago 
area were held. The downstate chapter 
of the ASME were also invited to at- 
tend these tours. The companies visited 
were the International Harvester Com- 
pany, Michle Printing Press and Mfg. 
Co., Peoples (las. Light and Coke Co., 
and Continental Foundry and Mfg. Co. 


.Movies depicting certain phases of 
aeronautical work and describing the 
problems in this field of engineering, 
are shown at regular meetings. The out- 
standing movie of the month was the 
Boeing Stratocruiser. 

(^n Nov. 23 the group toured 
O'Hara Field, the Air Force Base lo- 
cated at Mannheim Road and Devon 
Street. The group was permitted to 
climb inside a plane and get the feel of 
the controls. Later the group was shown 
the museum which consisted of Ameri- 
can aircraft and captured foreign air- 
craft from World War 11, and Bill 
Odum's V-tailed Beechcraft which were 
awaiting shipment to the Smithsonian 

A base operation officer explained the 
methods of determining weather condi- 
tions in any part of the country and its 
importance to pilots and authorities. The 
machine shop and runway tower were 
also part of the tour. 

On Dec. 2, 1949 the members planned 
and carried out their annual dance. It 
started at 8:30 p. m. The affair was 
held at Keyman's Hall. Music was pro- 
\ ided by Stan (^erut's Downbeats. A 
\ery good time was had by all. 




I'lom the town of Lyndon, Kansas, to 
till- University came W. E. Hanson, 
associate professor in Civil Engineering. 
But Professor Hanson's path was nor 
direct by any means. 

He received his bachelor of science 
from Kansas State College in 1939. He 
then went to the Petty Geophysical 
Engineering Company to do siesmic ex- 
ploration for oil wells in Texas and 
Oklahoma. In 1940 he went to Howard, 
Needles, Tammen, and Bergendoff in 
Kansas Cit\ , Missouri. There he worked 
as a structural detailcr and designer on 

In February of 1942 Professor Han- 
son came to the University in the dual 
role of graduate student and instructor 
in C.E. He was made instructor in 
(j.E.D. in September, 1942, but in 
October of the following year he en- 
listed in the United States Naval Re- 
serve as an ensign. 

W^hile in the Navy, he had eight 
months of radar training at Princeton 
and M.I.T. After this he spent a year 
ami a half with a carrier air group and 
night squadrons in the Pacific. 

After his discharge from the Navy, 
he returned to this campus in February, 
1946, as an assistant professor. The 
next year, 1947, IVIr. Hanson received 
his master's degree. Last September he 
became associate professor of Civil Engi- 

Professor Hanson is a member of 
Sigma Tau, Chi Epsilon, ASCE, and an 
associate member of Triangle. Last 
spring he was voted a most effective 
instructor. He is also a Tcchnoi/raph 
adx isor. 

For the last four years he has written 
the "Structural Engineering Review" 
for the Aiiuriciin 5 larhnk. Last summer 
he taught a refresher coiu'se for engi- 
neers planning to take the examination 

jHinXMUC444Xf, . . . 

Itf/ Ifurv lash. Aif.K. *.*# 

'/avii Sitzl«'r. 1'vr.K. ',72 

anil Tom TufinT. Hi.K. %».*/ 

for registration as professional engi- 
neers. At present he teaches courses in 
structures and foundations. 

Professor W. E. Hanson is married 
and has one daughter four years old. 
He owns his own lionie in Urbana. 


One of the more prominent agricul- 
tural engineering students is William 
Fletcher. Bill has been active in the 
ASAE during his tour \ears at Illinois, 


JANUARY, 1950 


and has also served two semesters on 
the Engineering Council. 

Bill was born on a 16(l-acre dairy 
farm near the village of Herbert, Illi- 
nois, where he has spent most of his life. 
He graduated from Belvidere High 
Scliool in 1943. In November of that 
\ear. Bill went into the Air Force, 
where he became a bombardier. He was 
released from the Air Force in (October, 
1945, a few weeks too late to start the 
fall semester; but he enrolled in the 
L'niversity in February, 1946. 

Bill was secretary of the ASAP' stu- 
dent branch for the fall .semester of 
1947, and \ice president in the spring of 
194S. In the fall of 1949 he was elected 
president of the organization, and is now 
serving as program chairman. He ga\e 
up his bet\\'een-semesters vacation three 
times to work in the annual Farm and 

Home Week lunch stand, opciated by 
the agricultural engineers. 

Bill is very much interested in iiro- 
fessional societies, and adds, "Ever\' en- 
gineer owes it to himself to have at least 
two affiliations: One to his technical 
society and one to his professional soci- 

His main interest, however, is soil 
conservation. He would like to work for 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Soil Conservation Service when he grad- 
uates in February. He has worked one 
summer for the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice. Another summer he worked for a 
canning company, a third with a drain- 
age contractor, and last summer he was 
cmjiloyed by two ci\il engineering con- 

Bill was marrieil in jul\, 194\ while 
still in the Air Force. Mr. and Mrs. 
1' letcher and their three-year-old daugh- 
ter have made a comfortable home in 
I .ist Urbana by enlarging a trailer. Bill 
likes living in a trailer, but doesn't 
I \pect to live in one all his life. 

( )t world wide interest today is the 
subject of nuclear physics and this month 
we salute a prominent American physi- 
cist hard at work on oiu" campus on the 
complex research of particle reactions. 
(Continued on Page 2(1) 



The l*]iioiii(HM'iii!i lloiiorarics and Mi'im 

Miff •tiin Kphfirarv. K.H. '.12 

.\I;my of tlie ;iu;riculrui;il iMijiinccriiig 
stiukMits t'loin all over the country at- 
tcruled tlic coineiition of the American 
Society of Asricultmal 
Knjzineers. It was held at 
the Ste\ens hotel in Chi- 
cago, Decemher 21, 22, 
anil 23. Hetween 2^ and 
.vS student and faculty 
iiicnihers from the University of Illinois 
were in attendance. The\ sa\ there was 
night life in Chicago as well as a con- 
\ ention ! 

Tin- cold, harren third floor of tile 
.Agricultural Kngineering huilding is 
fast becoming a modern agricultural en- 
gineering display room. The facult\ arc 
trying to get the modernization com- 
pleted before Farm and Home Week 
between semesters so that they can show 
it to the Illinois farmers. In the spare 
corners of the third floor, study rooms 
for graduate students are being built. If 
fellow engineers could see these facili- 
ties, our graduate school may rapidly 
become o\ ercrowded. 

ASAK members are working hard to 
ni.ike possible the publication of a stu- 
dent .society annual. It could land the 
l''arm Equipment Institute award for 
this \car. The annual award is given to 
the outstanding student branch of the 
ASAI'" which participates in the contest. 


Dr. Abel Wolman, professor of sani- 
tary- engineering at Johns Hopkins I ni- 
\ersity, was recently initiated into \Iu 
.San, sanitary engineering honorary and 
piofe.ssional fraternity, at a special for- 
mal ceremony held on December 1. Dr. 
Wolman, widely known for his work as 
consultant to the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission and the World Health Organi- 
zation, appeared that day as a special 
lecturer to senior ci\il engineering stu- 

Th()>e whf) were initiated at the regu- 
lar fall formal initiation on November 
'* were: William H. Sands; Norman W. 
Xi'ster : [ohn E. Pearah ; [erome E. 
llMM-h; "lohn E. McLean'; William 
Morse; "I'hilip (J. Sikes; Frank E. 
Blake, jr.; Krist M. Mathisen ; Ren A. 
Zimmer; Hrahm S. Bhalla ; Harold Ber- 
nard ; lames Petrica ; and Foviad Abdul- 
Baki. " 

An extensive field inspection trip, co\ - 
(■ring the water and sanitary districts of 

Springfield and Decatur, completed the 
fraternity's activities for the \ear I'H''. 
The first meeting of the new \ear was 
held January 5. 


The American Foundrymen's Society 
had its December meeting at the (jen- 
eral Motors foundry in Danville. At- 
tending student and faculty members of 
the AFS left the campus at 5 p. m., 
December 12. on two chartered buses. 

The group ate ilinner in the cafeteria 
at the (i.M. plant. After dinner a movie 
was shown and later the group was 
conducted on a tour of the foundry. 
This plant has a reputation in the mid- 
west for its efficiency and production 

An election of officers and a general 
organization meeting is tentatively 
scheduled for the first week in Jaiuiary. 
All members are urged to attend. An\' 
non-member who is interested in the 
foundry industry or foundry work will 
be welcome at this meeting. 

Don R. Anderson and James P. 
Sampson were named winners of the 
104') student awards of the Central 
Illinois section of the 
American Society of Civil 
Engineers. The awards 
were presented to the two 
seniors at a dinner meeting 
on December 6. The meet- 
ing was a joint gathering 
of the Central Illinois section and the 
University student branch of the ASCE. 
The awards are made annually on 
the basis of scholarship, promise, and 
activity in the ASCE. Anderson is in 
civil engineering and Sampson is in 

The speaker at the meeting was A. P. 
Geuss, chief designing engineer of the 
Harza Engineering Company, Chicago, 
who ga\e an illustrated talk on "llie 
l'eten«ell H\ dro-Electric Project." 

Every meeting need not be a business 
meeting. That was shown by the Min- 
eral Industries on December IS when 
a ladies night gathering was held. The 
female guests were not submitted to 
usual dull wrangling about new and old 
business. Instead thev were entertained 

by a mo\ ie on the \ ,ist opeiations of the 
Anaconda Mining Corporation. 

The MIS was instrumental in bring- 
ing two speakers to the University for 
the recent and higlilv successful Career 

The chem engineers are giving the 
local cinemas quite a bit of competition. 
At the December 7 meeting of the 
American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers, they 
presented a double feature 
program equal in entertain- 
ment \alue to many of the 
current popular movies, 
main feature was in technicolor 
and starred Alan Ladd. It was entitled 
"Unfinished Rainbows" and portrayed 
the progress of the aluminum industry 
from Charles Hall to the present. The 
title of the second film was "From Test 
Tube to Tank Car." 

t)n Jan. 4 movies were shown and 
elections for officers were held. The 
following Friday, Jan. 6, a Ch.E. party 
was enjoyed at one of the campus spots. 


The November meeting of the Society 
of Automotive Engineers was held in 
100 Gregory Hall, where the seats are 
a little sofer than those of 319 CEH. 
A dinner for the speaker, officers, fac- 
ulty, and visiting members preceded the 

The speaker was Mr. R. B. Sneed, of 
the Ethyl corporation of Detroit, Michi- 
gan. Mr. Sneed is the technical repre- 
sentative for the Ethyl laboratories and 
acts as liaison officer to the laboratories 
of the various oil companies throughout 
the midwest area. Mr. Sneed gave a 
very interesting and informative talk 
entitled, "The Laboratory and Road 
Knock Testing of Motor Gasolines." 
The talk was accompanied with explana- 
tory slides. The meeting was conducted 
with the speaker first and the business 
last so that non-members could leave 
after the speech. 

During the business session it was 
decided to have election of officers by 
nominating committee and petition — 
with a ballot by mail to consumate the 
election. In this way it is hoped that 
there will be no long dry business meet- 
( Continued on Page 24) 



v\ewsworthy \y^otes 


or r^n 

Mighty Midget 
of Microwaves 

This little electron tube is called the 416A. 
It's the verv heart of the latest radio relav 
repeater equipment for telephone and tele- 
vision transmission over long distances. Bell 
Telephone Laboratories scientists designed 
it — with elements spaced five times closer 
than in anv previous microwave tube — and 
maiie the first samples under laboratory 

Could such a tube ever be factorv-produced 
in quantity.'' It seemed almost impossible — 
but Western Electric engineers tackled the 
ticklish problem. Here's the sort of thing 
they had to deal with. 

Between the grid, which controls the How 
of power in the tube, and the cathode, which 


produces the electrons, must be a space 6 10 
thousandths of an inch. The oxide coating 
on the cathode must be 5 10 thousandths of 
an inch — no more, no less. The grid wires 
^3/10 thousandths of an inch in diameter 
— must be woumi around the grid frame 
one thousand times to an inch! 

The tiny parts woukl have to be made with 
laboratory precision. Much of the work would 
have to be done under microscopes. All parts 
would have to be kept surgicallv clean — for 
a speck of lint or a trace of perspiration could 
mar the efficiencv of such sensitive tubes. New 
machines wouki have to be designed — new 
techniques developed — people trained to as- 
semble the minute parts with utmost accuracy. 

Could it be done? Well, Western Electric 
is making 416A tubes in quantity today — and 
with an amazingly low percentage of rejects. 

This machine winds wire 1 8 the thickness of a humc 
hair around the grid (arrow) — 1000 turns per inch- 
maintains tension of 60% of wire's breaking strength. 

Western Electric 


Engineering problems are many and varied at 
Western Electric, where manufacturing telefthnne 
equipment for the Bell System is the primary jnh. 
Engineers of mcny kinds— electrical, mechanical. 


industrial, chemical, metallurgical— are con- 
stantly working to devise and improve machines 
and processes for production of highest quality 
communications equipment. 

JANUARY, 1950 



Associate Editor 


Pecuie^ 0/1 ooAUt . . . 

"Ht'll, what's the use ot going to school or 
(himg an) thing! Another two years and we'll 

be right back in there fighting the Reds." 

o\erheard in an engineering design class. 

Mi.ster, your sentiments are not uncommon. 
There are other people like you, from down 
in Skid Row up to America's own diplomatic 
corps, who are soundly convinced that war 
with Russia is inevitable. 

Mister, you don't quite know or under- 
stand why you believe this. You might give 
as one reason, "Everyone says so." That's 
true; people are saying so, because they've 
heard everyone else say so; so then it must 
be true that is what you call "mob logic." 

It begins with a friction in the U.N.O. 
between the representatives of two or more 
countries, Russia and the United States, for 
instance; then, one or two key men may 
rashly or intentionally make a few heated 
statements to the press; then someone may 
begin a few rumors that spread rapidly; 
eventually, a whole nation is infested with a 
war-with-Russia idea. 

Another reason that you might gi\e. Mis- 
ter, is that all the newspapers, magazines, and 
commentators are constantly proclaiming sup- 
posed incidents of Russian subterfuge and 
plots. That's right; that's just what Is hap- 
pening. After mob logic has snowballed the 
importance of a U.N.O. disagreement from 
a snowflake to an avalanche, the publications 
carry on the cry of the pack. Even staid old 
publications, such as Li/? and The Saturday 
Evening Post, are guilty of this give-the-pub- 
lic-what-they-want sensationalism. Little need 
be said about the influence of commentators 
such as Pearson and Winchell, who are capa- 
ble of making a national disaster out of a dog- 
and-fireplug incident. 

Still another reason might he, "Weil, look 
how fast Russia and the L nited States are 
fortifying themselves." You are absoluteh 

correct; the old rat-race to arms has begini 
all over again. The goxernnient is following, 
yet promoting, the ever-increasing cry of the 
public, "Arm for war with Russia." 

What is the gist of this rumored Russian- 
United States conflict? Russia and the United 
States are simply two countries with two 

ideals communism and capitalism. Just as 

there are bound to be differences between 
members of the same family, so there are 
going to be conflicting interests in the embry- 
onic U.N.O. World peace cannot come over- 
night; it is a state that can be attained only 
through constant work and a growing luider- 

Understanding between the nations of two 
peoples cannot be brought about by believing 
every wispy rumor, opinion, or bit of sensa- 
tionalism that comes down the gutter. L nder- 
standing comes through faith in one's fellow 

Do you want to know where you come 
in here, Mister? Sure, \oii're just an engineer 
and you're entitled to feel that the business 
of diplomacy and war-waging should be left 
to your tax-supported government. BUT! 
Call it human psychology or what you will, 
it shouldn't be very hard for you to figvue 
out that, if for one week, commentators, news- 
papers, and magazine publications made no 
mention of the possibility of a war with Rus- 
sia, the odds are two to one that T. C. Mits 
(The Common Man In The Street) would 
forget even the existence of such a rumor. 

Mister, if you don't want to go back to 
war, there are two things you and all the rest 
of the engineers can do : ( 1 ) Try to have a 
little more faith in the human race by (2) 
not spreading every sad tiding of a foreign 
crisis that comes your way. If you and the 
rest of the American people help tight this 
sensationalism, the probabilitx of war will 
just die a natm-al death. 

C. W. M. 



In safe hands . . . even at 60 below! 

Do YOU REMEMBER when winter meant storing the family 
car till spring? Not so many years ago, a car owner's fear 
of an ice-shattered motor was a dread reality ... if he didnt 
drain his radiator and store his car once cold weather hit! 

What was needed— acutely— was an automobile anti-freeze 
that would prove always dependable yet economical. One 
that would hold up under any operating temperature. That 
wouldn't foam and boil away. That would resist rust and 
corrosion to the nlh degree. 

That's where Union Carbide research entered the picture. 
The result? "Preslone" anti-freeze. Since then this product 
—the first all-winter anti-freeze— has assured millions upon 
millions of motorists of ever-improved driving performance, 

with assured safety . . . throughout the bitterest weather. 

This is but one example of the way the people of Union 
Carbide are helping to better our daily living. And UCC 
stands ready to help solve other problems . . . wherever 
better materials and processes are needed. 

aliQU t 

FREE: // you unulJ lil.e to Itnou- r. 

many of llie tUmns you use every da- 

ihe illustrated booklet, "I'roducls and I 

It tells how science and industry use L'CC 

Alloys, Cliemicah, Carbons, Cases and Plastic 

Write for Jree liooUet I. 

Union Carbide 



NEW YORK 17. N. Y. 

Trade-marked Prndurts of Divisions and Units include 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • National Carbons • EvEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • AcHESON Electrode 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals • Prest-0-Lite Acetylene • Linde OxyRen • Pyrofax Gas 

Bakelite, Krene, ViNYON, and ViNVLITE Plastics ' Electromet Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys 

JANUARY, 1950 


Experiment Station . . . 

( C'(iiitinuccl fidiii I'agc iS) 

Although the central office of the 
Station is located in Civil Eiigineeiiii}; 
Hall, the experimental wnik is carried 
on wherever equipmenr and facilities 
are available. 

Regular equipment of the I ni\ersit\ 
is used first for instruction puiposes. 
This equipment is generally a\ailable 
for experimental use when not being 
used for class and laboratory. Ho\\e\er, 
in many cases additional equipment is 
required for special projects. Where co- 
operation with industry is involved, some 
of the equipment and materials and 
other facilities are SLipplied by the coop- 
erating agency. For example, in car 
wheel tests, the manufactiu'ers supply 
the wheels ; in locomotive performance 
tests, the carriers come from rolling 

It is sometimes appropriate antl e\en 
necessary to use eqiupment of other 
agencies of the State, facilities of Fed- 
eral Bureaus, and plants of private 
enterprise. The State Geological Survey 
anil the State Water Siu'vey are both 
located on the campus, making coopera- 
tion con\enient. federal Hiueaus include 
the L. S. Bureau of Mines and the 
Bureau of Standards. Railroad lines and 
steel mills are also used. 

From the beginning, it has been the 

policy of the Station to provide sub- 
stantial, high grade, thoroughly \inhiased 

The Station endea\ors to establish 
fundamental principles which can be 
applied to the solution of engineering 
pioblems, not primarih- to carr\' on com- 
mercial tests, and never to collect data 
for propaganda piu'poses. The results 
ha\e been reliable, trustwortin', and 
woithwhile contributions to the science 
of engineering. 

Each engineering department is con- 
ducting research in its various fields. 
These investigations may have had a 
particular appeal to staff members be- of their knowledge and interest 
in the particular subject. The work is 
stimulating to engineering instructors, 
and is generalh' valuable to the engi- 
neering profession and to industry. 
Many stLidies have had a large influ- 
ence on the development of engineering 
science and practice. 


Accounts of inxestigations are pub- 
lished as soon as the information is avail- 
able so that, at the earliest possible date, 
those interested may benefit from the 
experiments and conclusions reached. 
One advantage of University investiga- 
tion is the freedom with which the Uni- 
\ersity can distribute unrestricted re- 
ports of findings. 

Most results are published in the form 

of bidletins, of which .5iS5 have been 
issued since the Station began. These 
bulletins contain the results of investi- 
gations by the Station .staff. Sixty circu- 
lars and 45 reprints have also been pub- 
lished. Circulars present information of 
impoitance compiled in part from Sta- 
tion studies and in part from outside 
sources. Reprints make available to the 
Station's mailing list important articles 
by staff members which first appeared 
in Technical journals, proceedings, and 

Traininij of Men for Research 

An advantage of an experiment sta- 
tion at the University, rather than an 
independent research organization, is the 
training of men in the methods of scien- 
tific research. Thus, the University at- 
tracts many who desire to do graduate 
study and prepare for scientific work. 

The University maintains 
graduate assistantships in the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station. Other assistant- 
ships are maintained by industrial or- 
ganizations. The assistantships are avail- 
able to graduates of approved technical 
schools and universities who are prepared 
to take graduate study in engineering, 
physics, or applied chemistry. No more 
than half of the time of these assistants, 
during 10 months of the year, is re- 
quired in connection with the work of 
the department to which they are as- 
( Continued on Page 18) 

■ L^oiumbus inq only 

MMinil^llil Indl.napoli 

I j I J I I ' J i 1 1^^'°«" fbc 

ji' '<-^i^L I I I, I I « evprv dav 


The world's first large ice-making sys- 
62-Ton Plant of SERV-ICE and Coal tem to be operated by one man, work- 

ing only one shift, was started at 

I^MybUhWdllMMi Indianapolis in February, 1945. This 

above) has made 42 tons of ice 

every day for over 1,500 consecutive 

days — a record, and equal to over a 

billion ice cubes! 

Five other Frick I -man plants have 
since been built, at Muncie, New Al- 
bany, Columbus, Indianapolis, and 
South Bend. The largest of these makes 
108 tons daily. All operate with remark- 
able economy, A 100-ton I -man Frick 
plant is also under construction at El 
Paso, Texas. 

The Frirk Cmdualo Trnmng Course in 
Rrfriprralitm arul Air Conditioning, Oprr- 
aled over W years. Offers a Career in a 
Crntvinc Industry. 

ttik. ■ ■■"■-.■'■ 

South Bend Brewing Co.'s 100-Ton 

Corsages . . 












'Flowers by Wire" 




mrAfmiATCD u/ituany PLoiveR shop in urban a 

Also Builden of Power Farming ond Sawmill Mathinery 






With television, you see far beyond 
the horizon. Radio brings you sounds 
from around the world. Electron mi- 
croscopes peer deep into the world of 
the infinitesimal. 

These, and other "leaves" on our new 
tree of knowledge are rooted in creative 
research — as carried out at RCA Labora- 
tories in Princeton, N. J. Here, scientists 
seek new scientific principles, improve 
old ones, put them to new uses. 

Already on their achievement list are hun- 
dreds of basic developments in electronics, 
television, radio, electron tubes, radar, and 
recorded music. RCA research works con- 
tinually to give you better products. 

Examples now working for you include: 

hnage Orthicon television cameras, tele- 
vision picture tubes, compact portable 
radios made possible by tiny RCA elec- 
tron tubes, the 45-rpm record-playing 
system with the fastest record changer 
ever devised and distortion-free records. 
Research in your behalf: Creative re- 
search into new principles is another way 
in ^\hich RCA Laboratories work to im- 
prove your way of li\ing. Leadership in 
science and engineering adds value be- 
yond price to any product or service of 
RCA and RCA Victor. 
Examples of the newest advances in radio, 
television, and electronics— in action — may 
be seen at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th St., N. Y. Admission is free. Radio Cor- 
poration of America, Radio City, N. Y. 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\'ictor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salar\' with opportimities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of tile many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils. loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

M'rifc today to National Recntiting Divi- 
sipu, RCA Victor, Camden, Nctv Jersctj. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

IVor/c/ l^ac/er /n 7^<7c//o — T^rsf- in 'Te/ey^/s/on 

JANUARY, 1950 


Experiment Station . . . 

( Cuiitiiun'ii from Paj^i.- Id) 

signed; the rcmaiiuler is available for 
graduate study. In addition to their reg- 
ular salary, these assistants are also ex- 
cused from tuition, incidental, and lab- 
oratory fees. 

C.ool>trativc R csc/ircli 

Cooperation between the Engineering 
Experiment Station and individuals, 
firms, corporations, or associations in the 
conduct of engineering research brings 
up investigation of large and important 
problems. In many cases these involve 
expenditures much too large for the Uni- 
versity to provide. 

One project is to determine tlie oper- 
ating characteristics of the radiant base- 
board type of heating. Another concerns 
heating of a prefabricated basementless 
house. In the mechanical engineering lab- 
oratory a project is to determine the bal- 
ance of a forced warm air heating sys- 
tem when the total quantity of air flow- 
ing is reduced. 

The Department of Theoretical and 
Applied Mechanics is making a study of 
cable sheathing. A cooperative project 
between Civil Engineering and TAM 
is a study of highway bridges. A great 
deal of work is being done on railroad 
rails and joint bars. 

The Station is investigating improved 

methods of highway and airport drain- 
age, including some that will apply par- 
ticularly to high-speed superhighways. 
Station engineers are studying storm 
outlets, gutter forms, and the design of 
collecting systems and trunk .sewers. 

The research being carried on in the 
Department of Electrical Engineering 
concerns stLidies of electron tubes, radio 
direction finding systems, antenna char- 
acteristics, and electrical measurements, 
supersonics and infra-red investigations, 
and a survey of electrical insulation 
practice. In conjunction with the Physics 
and Ceramics departments, solid state 
studies are being made. 

A project of vital concern to thou- 
sands is the study of the production of 
drinking water by the use of diatomite 

A stud\' of the cooling power of 
quenching media for steel and recrystal- 
lization studies are being made in metal- 
lurgical research. 

In aviation research, a project is the 
development of theory for analyzing and 
designing supersom'c propellors. As air- 
plane flight speeds approach the speed 
of sound, a portion of the propellor 
blade must operate above the speed of 
soimd. This produces shock waves and 
a consequent reduction in the efficiencN' 
of conventional propellors. 

The Department of Ceramic Engi- 

neering is progressing in the develop- 
ment of a porcelain vacuum tube for the 
betatron and development of special 
ceramic coatings for aircraft exhausts. 
Refractories for smelting low-tempera- 
ture enamels, and standard tests and 
evaluations of kitchen wares are being 

These gi\e a brief view of the wide 
\ariety of the approximateh' 60 proj- 
ects now in progress. Through coopera- 
tion and support of various agencies and 
Illinois citizens, the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station is helping to improve a 
multitude of materials, products, and 
processes, and in this way it is benefiting 
all our citizens. 

"// (■ iiouldn't he in this jii/ii if ii-e 
ivcrcn't in that hed together," said one 
strauherry to another. 

Gruff father to son: "Why don't 
you get out and find a job? Wen I was 
your age I was working for $3 a week 
in a store and at the end of five years 
I owned the store." 

Son: "You can't do that nowadays. 
They have cash registers. " 
* * » 

Boy: "Do you knoii', dad, that in 
some parts of Afriea a man doesn't 
know his ivife until he marries herf" 

Dad: "Why single out Africaf" 




Chrome Clad 
Steel Tape 

This cross section view gives you the "inside story" 
of the most outstanding development in steel tapes in 
years. (1) Hardened steel tape — tough — flexible — 
kink-resistant. (2) Rust resistant coating. (3) Multiple 
coats of electroplating. (4) Hard, smooth, non-glare 
chrome plating. Will not crack, chip or peel. (5) Jet 
black msirkings — easy to read in any light — bonded to 
steel base — sunk below chrome surface protecting them 
against wear. 

Ask your distributor for them or write for complete 
details on Lufkin Chrome Clad "Super Hi-Way," 
"Pioneer," and "Michigan" Chain Tapes. 

Tff £ /UFff/N PUL£ Po. 





Speec/ i.o%\/ Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 







Du Font's Newest Fiber 

Hundreds of smaller businesses will join with Du Pont 
in bringing benefits of Orion''' acrylic fiber to you 

Strong sunlight will damage most 
fibers — but not "Orion" acrylic fiber, 
the latest synthetic yarn to come 
from the Du Pont laboratories. This 
remarkable fiber, which took eight 
yeairs of intensive research to de- 
velop, has a lasting resistance to sun- 
fight, mildew, high temperatures and 
even sulfuric acid. Experts say that 
it is the best fiber yet found for out- 
door use. 

In 1940, Du Pont scientists began 
work on a new fiber that seemed to 

have unusual properties. Develop- 
ment continued during the war when, 
under the name "Fiber A," the out- 
put went for military use in the hot, 
humid South Pacific. Recently the 
Du Pont Company decided to build 
a plant at Camden, South Carofina, 
for full-scale production. This new 
plant will cost about twenty-two 
million dollars. 

While samples of "Orion" fiber are 
now in the hands of knitters, weavers 
and finishers for experimental pur- 

INDUSTRIAL field will be largest initial con- 
sumer. Product's resistance to acids and high 
temperatures is important in items such as 
filter cloths, coveralls, ropes, and work clothes. 

poses, it will probably be late 1950 
before articles made of it will be gen- 
erally available. Then you can expect 
to see it in awnings, convertible auto- 
mobile tops, golf bags, sails, electrical 
insulation, as well as certain articles 
of clothing. 

In developing the uses of "Orion," 
Du Pont will work with hundreds 
of smaller businesses — a "partner- 
ship" that will bring Americans not 
only new and better products, but 
more jobs, more business activity and 
another contribution to better Living. 

SEND FOR the booklet "This 
is Du Pont." It is a 52-page 
picture story of one company's 
contributions to America. For 
your free copy, write to the 
Du Pont Company, 2503 Ne- 
mours Building, Wilmington, 

OUTDOOR uses of "Orion" will include furniture fabric, golf bags, sweaters and swimming suits. 
New fiber stands up extremely well under sun and rain. 


Great Dramatic Entertainment — Tune in "Cavalcade 
of America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 

JANUARY, 1950 


Finagle Factor . . . 

t CoiitliuR-d 1mm Page 7) 

tormerly called cheatiiiK is also very 
helpful. This usage is merely the smug- 
gling of useful bits of information into 
an examination. This is accomplished in 
a multitude of ingenious ways and some 
of the best minds on campus are invent- 
ing i\ew and more foolproof methods at 
this very time. 

Probably one of the best and most 
seemingly apparent methods is the writ- 
ing of pertinent formulas on your slide- 
rule with black India ink. If done care- 
fully it blends with the rest of the gib- 
berish on the calculating timber and will 
pass unnoticed. If, however, an emer- 
gency arises the evidence may be suffi- 
ciently obliterated wirii a ipiick swipe of 
a sweaty palm. 

Another method which I learneil 
straight from an instructor is the use of 
the fingernails as a place to copy infor- 
mation. They are easily hidden and rlie 
e\idence is also easily removed in a 

()ther parts of the anatomy are simi- 
huly incorporated. An engineer of the 
opposite sex was showing me some of her 
more easily revealed finagle factors but 
when I suggested a more thorough 
search she politely refused. As you can 
see, research on this subject can be ex- 
tremely interesting. 

But now let's turn to a use of our 
faithful finagle factor, or adjustment 
coefficient, as it is sometimes lo\ingly 
called, that is not directly connected to 
a numerical or formula answer. I can 
best explain by using an illustration 
gleaned from the experiences enjoyed 
(luring those golden da\s at the (lales- 
burg Division. 

It was always best to be comparati\ el\ 
busy while in chem lab. That ma\ f.r/iiii(l 
eas.\, but is far from it when the experi- 
ments have all been dry-labbed previ- 
ously. This particular fellow escaped the 
issue successfully b\ always starting 
some water to boil at the beginning of 
the period. 

If the instructor came around .ind 
asked him what he was doing he could 
alwa\s answer truthfully, "I'm boiling 
water." This would satisfy the old 
snoop and he would charge off to find 
someone (an extremeU simple task, in 
keeping with his mentality) who didn't 
know what, if anything, he was doing. 

Reflect on your own labs and I'm 
sure you'll think of many ways in which 
this method will apply and be very use- 
ful. Remember that it is the obvious 
that is overlooked. 

No, the finagle factor is not some- 
thing that you can work out on the in- 
verted P or frustrated Z scales. It is an 
extremeh \ariable variable and since it 
has such a wide range of applications it 

partners in creating 


Engineering leaders for the last 81 years 
K & E instruments, drafting equipment and materials 
their partners in creating the great technical achieve- 
ments of America. So nearly universal is the reliance on 
K & E products, it is self-evident that every major engi- 
neering project has been completed with the help of Kg. E. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

should not be tied down to a certain 
formula or number. Therefore, suchas, 
and hencewith, merely learn one cardi 
nal rule concerning its application, ami 
you are sure to pass — sometime. Saul 
rule being: "W'lien in doubt, finagle 

Introducing . . . 

(Continued from Page 11) 

In connection with this he has already 
helped design an oscillator for the cyclo- 

Professor (herald F. Tape, born in 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, received his R.S. 
degree from Michigan State Normal at 
Ypsilanti in 1933. It was there that he 
decided between mathematics, chemis- 
try, or physics for his chosen career. As 
a junior, he taught a freshman lab sec- 
tion in physics. 

After receiving his M.S. at the L iii- 
versity of Michigan, in 1936, he con- 
tinued there to get his Ph.D. in 1940. 

In 1939, Tape was at Cornell in- 
structing a physics cyclotron group on 
nuclear physics. The year 1942 took 
him to the M.I.T. radiation lab to 
work on micro-wave radar. Here he 
completed four projects; helping to de- 
velop an airborne radar system; research 
on a radar relay system (the basis for 
the T. V. relay stations) ; work on de- 
vices for training radar men ; and work 
in field service developing uses for radar. 
In 1946, Mr. Tape became an assist- 
ant professor in physics at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. In 1949 he was awarded 
an associate professorship. 

Besides his contributions on the cyclo- 
tron, he finds time to belong to several 
honoraries: Sigma Xi (research). Phi 
Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi ( Engineer- 
ing), Kappa Delta Pi (Education). 
He also has written several articles (a 
recent one in The Physical Ri'vinc. is 
entitled "Radar Relay") and is cur- 
rently serving on the following commit- 
tees in the Engineering College: policy 
and development committee, committee 
on review of student records, and the 
committee on review of freshman cur- 
riculum, of which he is chairman. 


"My Ji-ifr h/iil a driaiii last nu/ht and 
thouyht she ncis iiianied to a iinlliou- 

""Y oil' re lucky! My " '/'' thinks that 
in the daytime." 

Si •» -» 

Bobby had been to a birthday party, 
and, knowing his weakness, his mother 
looked him straight in the eye and said, 
"I hope you didn't ask for a second 
piece of cake?" 

"No," replied Bobby. "I only asked 
Mrs. Smith for the recipe so you could 
make some like it and she gave me two 
more pieces just of her own accord." 


Books and Supplies 

for every engineering need 





To do a real selling job 
your advertising must 
make the right impres- 
sion. And to do a real 
printing job your engrav- 
ings must make the right 
impression, too. So why 
take a chance when you 
can always . . . 





PROBLEM — Every so often, as the commutator segments 
of large motors wear down, the mica between them must 
be cut down. Your problem is to work out a tool which 
permits the undercutting to be done without removing the 
armatures from the motors. 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER— An S.S.White power drive fJexi- 
ble shaft hooked up to an electric motor gives you the basis 
of a portable power unit for driving small rotary saws. A 
handpiece designed for mounting the saws finishes the tool. 
The illustration below shows such a unit made by the Martin- 
dale Electric Co., of Cleveland, Ohio. 

The time and labor-saving advantages of having an 
easily manipulated power tool which can be brought to 
the work, can be readily appreciated. S.S.White flexible 
shafts make practicab!" the development of such tools for 
many purposes. 

• • • 

This is just one of hun- 
dreds of power drive 
and remote control 
problems to which S.S. 
White flexible shafts 
provide a simple an- 
swer. Engineers will 
find it worth while to 
be familiar with the 
range and scope of 
these hK&\o\ Muscles* 
for mechanical bodies. 


It gives essentiol facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for the asking. Write today. 



Out »i ^iHtnicAt A AAA 1<teCu4tniai ^x&^w^et 

JANUARY, 1950 


Boneyard Bilge 

( C'cintiniicd tioni I'agc 6) 

been issued. This, of course, is a record ! 
The contest involves the solution of a 
problem in plant design which is set up 
by a coninu'ttee of men from industry. 
This year there were 600 sruik-nts fioni 
oJ different schools entered in tiic cun- 

This all K'"'^ t" pro\e that there's 
more truth than poetrv in the oKl song 
about >eiuinii; yoiu' boy to Illuiois. 

Fl.lSIi Till- HONK^ARI) 

* * * 

One of the EE profs here was heard 
to make the following enlightening state- 
ments : 

An LAS student knii\\> nnthing, ami 
he can do nothing. 

A math major knows e\er\thing, but 
he can do nothing. 

An engineer knows nothing, but he 
can do everything. 

Ed. note — A comnierce student 
knows nothing and can d(j nothing, but 
gets paid for it ! 

Pn.f. Fred H. Sce/y Honored 
The Worcester Reed Warner medal 
of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers was awarded on November 

30, 1940. to Prof. Fred B. Seely who is 
head of the IX-p.-irtment of Theoretical 
,ind Applied Mechanics here. 'Jhe pre- 
sentation was made at the a n n u a 1 
ASME banquet held at the Statler 
hotel in New York City. 

The award, which was endowed in 
1020 in the will of W. R. Warner, 
widely known mechanical engineer and 
-ASME member for 49 years, is gi\en 
for an outstanding contribution to per- 
manent engineering literature. 

Profe.s.sor Seely has been a staff mem- 
ber here since 1909 and has been head 
of his department since 1934. In addi- 
tion to teaching, he has conducted ic- 
search in the properties of materials and 
in hydraulics; be has written numerous 
articles and three books. 

The books he has authored are: And- 
lytical IMech/iniis for Engineers (co- 
author with N. E. Ensign), 1021 ; Re- 
sistanec of Mntcrinh. 1025; and Ad- 
vance Meehanirs of Mater'uds, 1032. 
Thes? books, the society said, "by their 
completeness, clarity of presentation, and 
extensive use have helped to set a pat- 
tern of thought and teaching in the 
fields of mechanics and strength of 

After his graduation from Worcester 
Polytechnic Institute, Prof. Seely spent 
two years working in industry. He then 
came to the University as an instructor 

and was appointed a full professor in 

Over and above his man\ duties in 
the University, Prof. Seely has served 
as an Alderman in the Urbana City 
Council, as vice president of the Savings 
and Loan Association, and as vice presi- 
dent of the local council of the Boy 
Scouts. He also holds membership in 
\arious honorary scholastic societies in- 
cluding Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and 
Phi Kappa Phi. He is a member of the 
Champaign-Urbana Kiwanis Club and 
of the Engineers Club of Chicago. 

Hats off to Prof Seely from the 
Illinois engineers! 

^7;( : "Do(sn'l llie //ride loot s/iin- 

lit: "^eiili. iind dot in/ flu i/roo/n 
look itunned .'" 

The scene was the interior of a saloon 
in the Far West, and round the table 
were gathered as tough a gang as could 
be found in the whole of Nevada. The 
game was fast and furious, the stakes 
were high. 

Suddeidy the dealer flung his cards 
on the table, and threateningh' pulled 
his six-gun. 

"Boys," he shouted, "the game ain't 
straight! Slippery Sam ain't playing the 
hand I dealt him." 



From the headwaters region of the 
Amazon comes Up-River "Fine Para", widely acknowl- 
edged by rubber experts as the highest grade of natural 
rubber. To Okonite researchers anil independent experts 
alike, long experience has shown that only this rubber 
provides all the factors needed in top quality insulation 
for electrical wires and cables. 

The Okonite Company obtains a high degree of uni- 
formity in shipment after shipment of this premium 
rubber in "biscuit" form . . . has found that Up-River 
Fine Para assures a long service life . . . uses it exclu- 
sively in all Okonite rubber insulated wires and cables. 
The Okonite Company, Passaic, New Jersey. 


nsulated wires and cables 

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A nother page for 


How to help a coal loader 
throw its weight around! 

The constant pushing, swinging, scooping action 
of a mechanical coal loader places heavy shock 
loads on the bearings. To carry these tough loads, 
engineers for leading mining equipment manufac- 
turers specify Timken- tapered roller bearings. 

Why TIMKEN' bearings can 
take the tough loads 

Due to their tapered design, Timken bearings take 
radial and thrust loads in any combination. Made of 
Timken fine alloy steel, rolls and races are case- 
carburized to give a hard, wear-resistant surface 
with a tough inner core to withstand shock. Because 
the load is carried on a line of contact between rolls 
and races, instead of being concentrated at a single 
point, stress is minimized. 







Like to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems you'll 
face after graduation will involve bearing applica- 
tions. If you'd like to learn more about this phase 
of engineering, we'll be glad to help. For additional 
information about Timken bearings and how en- 
gineers use them, write today to The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And don't for- 
get to clip this page for future reference. 


JANUARY, 1950 


Societies . . . 

(CoiitiiuK-il Irani I'agc 12) 

iiigs. The election of officers for the 
national and sectional offices are con- 
ducted in this manner. The vacancies 
for the fall term were filled hy Art 
VViselogal, assistant treasurer and I 'on 
Savage, junior representative on the 
Engineering Council. 

.Mr. Wilbur Shaw, the incsidi-nt (it 
tlie Indianapolis Speedway, wdi he the 
S.AK guest speaker .-it the March _'_' 
meeting. It is certain that Mr. Shaw- 
will bring a most interesting talk and 
possibly some movies. 

March brings the engineering open 
house, I SEE, along with all the excite- 
ment of St. Pat's Hall. Robert Reynolds 
is now heading the SAE open house 
committee. SAE will have exhibits for 
the open house and will enter a humor- 
ous float in the parade which breaks 
down the doors for the open house. The 
exhibits will be designed to appeal to 
out-of-town \isiti)is and especially to 
high school students. 

Membership in the SAE has reached 
170, an increase of 17% over last year. 
This is mostly due to the fact that the 
stuilents have seen the value of mem- 
bership in a technical society which ca- 
ters to their interests. This society is iiri- 
marily concerned with "engineering 

practices connected with the design, con- 
struction, and utilization of automoti\e 
apparatus." Membership rates tor the 
b.ilance of the year to October l')S(l will 
be reduced 25% January 1. 

Present members of the society can 
watch the Journal for articles about the 
local branch. .A histor\ of the Illinois 
student branch will scjon be a|i|icarnig 
in the journal. 

New Developments . . . 

(Contniued from Page 2) aliunimun fixture, with its 
two eight-foot fluoresci-nt lam|is, was 
the result of the quest. 

And it seems to be the answer, for it 
should be far less glaring than other 
street lights, with particularly good visi- 
bility on wet and icy pavements. Pedes- 
trians should welcome it, too, for its 
added convenience and protection. 

Although this new (i-E street light 
represents what has been called a "sig- 
nificant advance in the quest of more 
comfortable seeing," there are still some 
problems left to be solved — almost all 
of an economic nature. 

In that this new fi.xture is much 
larger than those of conventional design, 
initial cost, mounting, and maintenance 
may have a tendency to discourage its 
early use on a large scale. 

Thermoset Varnish— 
—Corrosion Inhibitor 

A new thermoset \arnish, iircjduced 
by Westinghouse, was intendeil origin- 
ally as an electrical insulation. Hut it 
has found many u.seful applications as 
physical insulation, particularly for pre- 
venting corrosion of steel exposed to salt 
air or water. 

It has been used as protective coating 
on powei-center control cabinets, push- 
button stations, ducts, and pipes that are 
subject to corrosive atmospheres or 

To the list — which inckules a curious 
assortment of devices from torpedoes to 
automobile exhaust pipes — a new one is 
added: railroad spikes on electrified rail- 

House Mother: "Youiiy man, ivc 
turn tin liiihts off nt l():,i()." 

Froslr. "Oh. hoy! that'll he keen." 

The tramp called at a home anil 
asked for food : 

Housewife: "And how would you 
like a nice chop?" 

Tramp: "That all depends, lady — 
is it lamb, pork, or wood?" 



Sometime you II be Y\d(V}f\6 'H ^O^t^ 

looking for some- ^ I _ K I 

thing racy in race- nCH/G t/0*'<N • 

ways. Or you'll want 

asbestos cable that really beats the heat. 
National Electric has all that plus everything else 
you'll want in the way of a complete line of 
electrical roughing-in materials. Everything in the 
field of wires, cables, conduit, raceways and 
electrical fittings. 

Nihai been the symbol of quality 
for more than 45 years, 

national Electric good iame 


PITTSBURGH 30, PA, reiTiember. 

U. of I. Drug Store 

Your Campus Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 


Filled the Same Day 

Out of town engineers con depend 
upon prompt service by ordering by 
mail. Describe your needs. 


610 E. Daniel, Champaign 



Boneyard Bilge 

Page 6 


They Don't Blow 

Page 7 

inois Student 

Page 8 

I. B. M. 
The Easy Way 

Page 10 


How America's ^'Underground'' works for you 

THERE areenoughmilesof oil and nat- 
ural gas pipe lines in the U. S. A. to 
circle the world at the equator 16 times! 

This vast, 402,000-mile network is 
made up of crude oil lines, oil products 
pipe lines and natural gas lines. This 
network has helped to make the benefits 
of gasoline, fuel oil and oil products 
readily available to ever\'body ... it has 
helped to bring gas heating to many 
parts of the countrj'. 

But this constantly-expanding under- 

ground network is far from complete. 
It will require thousands more miles of 
pipe in the near future. To help meet 
this demand. United States Steel will 
put two more large-diameter pipe mills 
into operation in the next few months. 

The steel industry is a growing indus- 
try, not only in terms of physical plants 
and facilities, but in terms of personnel, 
too. At the present time, the number of 
United States Steel employees partici- 
pating in educational programs is ex- 

ceeded in size only by the student bodies 
of a few of our largest universities. 

The fundamental objectives of these 
programs are to assure employees maxi- 
mum opportunity for personal develop- 
ment and to provide them with a sound 
foundation for advancement within the 

The training programs in United 
States Steel have become the "pipe line" 
to successful careers for hundreds of 
capable young men. 



S T E 

Glass that picks fire out of a light beam 

The electric lamps you see between the boxes 
on the table are exactly alike — they generate 
both powerful light and intense heat. 

Ifyou should concentrate the beam of one 
of them with a reflector and plug it into an 
ordinary socket, you'd be practically blinded 
by its glare and your clothes scorched by 
the heat — unless you turned away fast ! 

But look what happens when you put them 
into the fixtures in the foreground, so their 
beams are covered by two different kinds of 
Coming glass. 

The beam from the bulb on the left is 
cooled down so sharply that you can hold a 
wisp of newspaper in it for hours without 
its catching fire. Yet the light is almost as 
dazzling as ever. 

Notice now that no light apparently shines 
from the bulb in the fixture on the right. But 
if you hold a piece of newspaper over it — 

in a matter of seconds you have fire in your 


The explanation is : One of the glass plates 

transmits the comparatively cool, visible rays 

generated by the bulb, blocking off most of 

the invisible heat rays. The other allows only 

the invisible heat rays to pass. 

These pieces of glass are only two of the 
dozens of ray-transmitting or ray-blocking 
glasses that Corning makes — glasses that 
can pick out any segment of the light spec- 
trum and put it where it's needed. 

For example, a lamp shielded with a Com- 
ing glass which transmits only near ultravio- 
let rays lights automobile instrument panels 
without glare. Another kind of Corning glass 
transmits only invisible infrared rays and 
is used in electronically controlled burglar 
alarm systems. 

Throughout industry, Corning means re- 

search inglass — and these ray-blocking, ray- 
transmitting glasses represent only one of a 
multitude of outstanding developments that 
have earned Coming this reputation. 

We hope you'll keep in mind that Coming 
research and technical skill have made glass 
one of the most versatile engineering mate- 
rials there is. 

For when you're out of school and are 
concerned with product and process plan- 
ning, you'll find it to your advantage to call 
on Coming before your plans reach the blue- 
print stage. Corning Glass Works, Corning, 
New York. 


means research in glass 

#!»/ Mtill SotlvrHtnini. f't'r.K. '^2 

Banox— Rust Inhibitor 

A new salt pnxlutt w liich will rend ti) 
pre\eiit rustinj; ot car tcmleis and un- 
ilfrbodies when used to de-ice streets 
and highwavs has been announced by 
officials of the Carey Salt Co. 

Included in its manufacture is a rust- 
inhibitinij chemical, "Banox," a product 
(if Calf^on, Inc., vv'hich forms a colorless, 
in\isible, yet protective film on metal 
surfaces when street slush is splashed 
aj;ainst fenders and auto underbodies. 

Salt is widely used by American cities 
for clearing streets for traffic and pedes- 
trians because it promotes rapid melting 
of snow and ice, does not clog gutters 
or storm sew-ers, and is easy and econ- 
omical to use. Carey officials announced 
the production of this product which 
may be used when municipal engineers, 
service directors, truck, and bus fleet 
operators, and motorists fear the corro- 
si\e effects of the brine that results 
when salt is combined with melting snow 
or ice. 


The new Beechcraft Twin-Bonanza, 
Model 50, is a completely new post-war 
design of an all metal, six-place, medium 
priced, twin-engine airplane. Built into 
tile Twin-Bonanza are all of the flight 

ad\antages of the smaller single-engine 
Beechcraft Bonanza and the large twin- 
engine Beechcraft Model 18 seven-to- 
mrie place Executive Transport, accord- 
ing to Walter H. Beech, president of 
Beech Aircraft Corporation. 

This first Model 50 is powered b\ 
two 2b()-hf> Lycoming engines. With a 
cruising speed estimated at over ISl) 
////>/; and a range of about 1000 miles. 
the manufacturer stated the Twin-Bon- 
anza will have a good single-engine ceil- 
ing under full gross weight conditions. 

Designed primarily as a super room\ 
five-place airplane, this newest Beech- 
craft can legally accomodate six people 
for shorter ranges. The manufacturer's 
present estimates indicate the price of 
this new Beechcraft will be approxi- 
mately ,^30,00(1. 

Pro|ection Welder 

A riiiinipson projection welder, with 
Westmghouse three-phase, low-frequen- 
cy converter, is being used by the Com- 
mercial Filters Corporation of Boston, 
manufacturers of Fulflo filters. 

The welding control contains six igni- 
tron rectifiers that convert the three- 
phase, 60-cycle input into a single-phase 
12-cycle output. Its principal advant- 
ages are distribution of the power re- 

quirements among three phases (there- 
by reducing the peak demand), and high 
power factor (about SO per cent). Fur- 
thermore, an improvement in the prod- 
uct is gained because of the slower rate 
of rise of the low-frequenc\ welding 

Newest look in the Beechcraft series is seen in this sleek Twin-Bonanza, 
Model 50, designed for a cross-country ranging of 1000 miles. (Photo 
courtesy Beech Aircraft Corp.) 

A new combo in the welding in- 
dustry is the Thompson projection 
welder and Wesfinghouse convert- 
er. (Courtesy of Westinghouse.) 


Even the hot scorching flame of a 
blow torch cannot ignite a sheet of 
inflammable newsprint if it has been 
coated with a new fire retardant and 
non-toxic paint now being introduced 
for the first time in Illinois and Indiana. 

The Flame - Seal Corporation an- 
nounces the availability of the new 
paint which "at no time «'ill support 

The new fire retardant coating has 
already been approved and listed by 
L nderwriters' Laboratories, Inc. 

When typical fast-burning lumber or 
highly combustible partition board is 
coated with Flame-Seal, the protected 
surface can withstand the direct attack 
of an intense flame for hours without 
igniting or showing any sign of flame 

When the new paint fights fire it 
undergoes a complete physical transfor- 
mation and forms a crust-like fire-re- 
tardant wall at least eight times the 
thickness of the original coating. 

Flame-Seal is unique because it gives 
off no toxic gases while being applied 
or when exposed to fire. 

The new fire retardant coating comes 
ready to use, requires no mixing of 
special chemicals, and can be applied 
directly from its original container by 
brush or pressure spray gun. Not af- 
fected by humidity, it may be applied 
during any weather conditions and dur- 
ing any season of the year. 



Ray Hauser Editor 

Connie Miiinich Assoc. Editor 

(lene Blanyer Mtikrtip Editor 

Art Dreshtield Asst. Editor 

Dwight Beard Jsst. Editor 

Dick Choronzy Jsst. Editor 

Henry Kahn Asst. Editor 

Dan Keefe ^sst. Editor 



Bill Soderstrum 

Stuart Higgs 

Dean Felton 

Don Horton 

Joe Graham 

Don Rhea 

Dave Cash 

Bill Sanduskv 

John Huber 

Don Sweet 

Edward Finkel 

Chuck Flanders 

Jack Sitzler 

Bob Giffrow 

Jim Ephgrave 

Henrv Kalapaca 

Jane ParJee 

Tom Tucker 

Bill Black 

George Ratz 


Bus. Mgr. 

Dick Smith 

Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson .. 

...Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Rill Anderson .- 

...Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Don Johnson .. 

..Asst. Bus. Mgr. 



Alfreda Mallorev 

lim Roth 

Ed Brooks 

Dick Keiina 

Bob Gerzetich 

James Skarda 

Joyanne Blount 

Charles Kukura 



J. A. 


L. A 

.. Rose 

W. E. 



Chairman: Prof. F. J. Cheek, Jr. 
University of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
nois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit, Kansas Engineer, Kansas State 
Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, Louisiana 
State University Engineer, Marquette Engi- 
neer, Michigan Technic, Minnesota Techno- 
log, Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, North 
Dakota Engineer, North Dakota State En- 
gineer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 
Engineer, Oregon State Technical Record, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester Indica- 
tor, Rose Technic, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January. Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 18;9. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Volume 65 

Number 5 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Murray- 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Avenue, New 
York 17, New York. 

T/ie Tecfi Presents 



They Don't Blow Bubbles 7 

Illinois Student Engineering Exhibit 8 

l.B.M.-The Easy Way 10 


New Developments 2 

Boneyord Bilge 6 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies 12 

Personalities 14 

Navy Pier 16 


Who of us hasn't landed in one of the situations in T.A.M. 
223 lab as portrayed by staff cartoonist Ed Lozano? Maybe 
that fellow about to have his head knocked off has the best 
idea at that. 

By John Huber, Ag.E '52 

Rddtir Traffic (Wtp 
\ In- Illinois Division of Highways 
has loaned the I'niversity traffic engi- 
neers at) Electro-Matic Speed Meter for 
traffic speed studies. Recordings are be- 
ing made of the average speeds of autos 
on Springfield, Prospect, Green and 
other main traveled streets in Cham- 
paign and L rbana. 

This bane to speedsters is a very accu- 
rate radar device that can measure a 
car's speed to within 2 ntph within a 
range of 150 feet. It consists essentialh 
of three parts: antenna unit, indicator 
unit, power unit. The antenna unit is 
beamed at oncoming or receding traffic 
and ma\ be set up near the roadway or 
in a parked car. The indicator unit and 
the power unit may be placed where\er 

It may be operated from a 6-\'olt auto- 
mobile battery or from a 120 volt 50-60 
cycle AC supply (50 watt rating). 

A graphic recorder may be connected 
with the speed meter if a permanent 
record of speed readings is desired. 

It is not known whether or not this 
$900 radar cop will be given regular 
duty on Illinois highways but some of 
the other states are finding it very effec- 
tive. According to C. C. Wiley, profes- 
sor of highway engineering, this instru- 
ment is being used in this area merely to 
determine the actual speed situation and 
not to apprehend speedsters at the pres- 

" Airmen of I ision" 

Alartin Warko and Bob Johnson, 
aeronautical engineers, pooled their de- 
signing talents and received second prize 
in a recent Air Trails' airplane design 

Their creation, a flying wing attack 
fighter, is powered by two turbojet en- 
gines of 5,000 lbs thrust each, has a 

wingspan of 50 feet and can carry 3,000 
Ihs of bombs. It is designed for a speed 

of 650 mph. 

As displayed here with the modern aluminum case in which it travels, 
the Electro-Matic Speed Meter will be one of the many I SEE exhibits 
next March 10-11. 

An IllinI design is this flying wing 
attack fighter. (Courtesy of Air 
Trails Pictorial) 

An encouraging note comes from a 
survey made by Harvey H. Jordan, as- 
sociate dean of engineering. His survey 
shows that of the 1,179 engineers who 
graduated in 1949, only 3.1 per cent are 
still unemployed. 

Of the 962 engineers who got R.S. 
degrees, 122 are continuing their studies 
as master degree candidates in the grad- 
uate colleges. A few of the graduates 
who are employed are doing work which 
isn't exactly engineering and are seeking 
re-employment in fields more suited to 
their training. 

The survey also indicated that there 
are not too many graduates in any of 
the divisions of engineering. 

Flush the Boxe^ard 

Suggestion to a worried engineer from 
an E.E. prof: "If you would stay 
awake long enough after \ou ask a ques- 
tion to hear me explain it, you might get 
along better!" 

Flush the B()XE\ard 

It happened in power plant design: 
Student: "How man\ suction pumps 
should we put on this condensor?" 

Professor: "I don't care how many 
pumps you use — you can use 50 fresh- 
men sucking straws if >ou want to!" 
Contributed by Dick Smith. M.E. '50 


The) Don't Blow Bubbles 

By Hvnry Kahn. I'h.E. 'HO anil Mtan Kvi'liu €'h.ii. '."iO 

Cr/fiss is such a coniinun iiititerial that ii'e seldom a/>/>r(iifi/r its I'tiried proper- 
lies. Xot only is it useful in everydeiy applications, hut it is also an important 
engineering material. 

This nrtielc presents sonu of the hnekground of the i/luss hloiving ernft 
and tells of the important jobs <lont hy i/lass hloiccrs on eiii/ipus. 

There are tnur labs on campus that 
are probably the least known but yet 
among the most important places at the 
University. (One of the labs is in Xoyes 
Laborator\' ; another in the Physics Lab- 
oratory; another in the old Electrical 
Engineering Building; and the fouth in 
the Betatron Building. They are the 
glass labs where technicians carry on a 
skill that goes back thousands of \ears. 

7 he Beginning of (iltiss 
The most common natural glass is 
obsidian which has a volcanic origin. It 
sometimes occurs as transparent blocks 
but it is usualh' black; specimens ha\e 
been found that were green, red, and 
brown. This glass has been traced back 
to the Bronze Age when it became an 
article of commerce. It remained as such 
for thousands of years. 

Just where and when glass manufac- 
ture started has remained a myster\' to 

this day. It is not difficult to imagine 
the glass-making obstacles encountered 
thousands of years ago. For one, a tre- 
mendous amount of heat is needed. 

The tools used by glass-blowers of oin- 
day are, in themselves, witnesses to the 
long history of glassblowing. Nothing 
the blower uses is complicated: a long, 
narrow, hollow tube, a flat board, a 
solid bar of metal several feet long, and 
variously shaped pinchers. These same 
tools have been used in making glass- 
ware since the first glass goblet was 

The oldest known pure glass is a 
moulded amulet of deep lapis lazuli color 
which is thought to date back to 7000 
B.C. At that time and for many hun- 
dreds of years thereafter, glass trinkets 
were used for personal adornment. 

It is interesting to note that glass 
"jewels" were placed in a gold crown 

Don ond Hcnr- 


3 r c two outstanding senior 
chemical engineers. Dan is serving his second 
semester on the Engineering Council and is octivc 
on the physical improvements committee- He is 
looking forward to groduotion and a steady income 
in August. 

Honk hos icolly moved around in the AlChE, 
serving as treasurer, vice president, ond president. 
After June, he expects to go to grad school and 
then to i n d u s t r i o I applications of organic 

Mr. Goodyear of the Chem Departnnent puts some of the precision finishes 
on a three-necked flask held in the grips of a glass lathe. 

of an Egyptian pharoah along with the 
usual cluster of gems. Egypt, as a matter 
of fact, was the chief headquarters of 
the glass makers for 1 ?00 years before 
the Christian Era. 

The first blowpipe is generally 
thought to have been made between 300 
and 20 B.C. by Phoenician glassworkers. 
That pipe was much the same as any 
used today: 4 to .^ feet long with a 
knob at one end and a mouthpiece at 
the other. 

The manufacture of window glass 
appears to be one of the last develop- 
ments in glass making. The first panes 
have been traced back to the Third 
Century which would put it o\er .i()(l 
\ears after the blow-pipe. 

Off-llnnd Class Blouing 
The term "off-hand" indicates that a 
glass piece is made without the use of 
molds. .Most of the good table-ware is 
made by this method. 

In order to m.ike a wine goblet, for 
instance, the blower first dips the knob 
end of the blow-pipe into the vat of 
molten glass and collects what is called 
a "gather." Then, by blowing through 
the pipe, he forms a bulb which is tear- 
drop in shape. By rotating the pipe and 
swinging it, he is able to get the desired 

Another blower has meanwhile col- 
lected another gather which remains as 
a molten mass and is not blown. The 
((Continued on page 22) 


Illinois Student 

TIME: March 10, 1950. 2:00-10:00 p. m. 

March 11, 1950. 9:00 a. m.-6:00 p. m. 

PLACE: University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois 

SETTING: Engineering campus 

SCENE: The big engineering parade has just finished. 
Still laughing about the humorous floats, people 
are pouring through the open doors of engi- 
neering buildings. 
Tin can motors, black light, jet engines, wind tunnel 
experiments, world's first betatron, induction hardening, 
Geiger counters, 3-million pounds stretching a thick steel 
plate till it snaps like a 
rubber band! 

This I SEE at the lllirois 
Student Engineering Exhibit. 
Complete displays are rep- 
resenting all fields of engi- 
neering, their industrial ap- 
plications, and their training 
facilities at the University of 

I'm having loads of fun 
and a real opportunity to 
learn about this interesting 
engineering world. What's 
more, it's all free for the 

In world-famous Talbot 
materials testing laboratory 
I SEE one of the world's 
most powerful testing ma- 
chines. It easily pulls apart 
steel members or exerts 3 
million pounds force com- 
pressing concrete columns 
until they explode and shat- 
ter. These demonstrations of 
brute force are really im- 

In the beautiful new 
Electrical Engineering Build- 
ing I SEE some thrilling elec- 
tronics and lighting exhibits. 
Words, phrases, and even 
my own name are written 
by electrons on the face of 
an oscilloscope by a ghost writer. A suspended tin can 
rotates dizzily, but without any visible mechanism. I'm 
told it is an exciting example of the action of three phase 
rotating fields. 

I SEE a display of weird and thrilling lamps used 
during the past half century. An important engineering 
application of polarized light demonstrates be ;utiful 
color lines that determine stresses in plastic models of 
gears and I-beams. I'm shown how gears lose their only 
set of teeth! 

I SEE a bright and shiny 1941 Oldsmobile chassis 
showing the relation between valve and spark timing. 
In addition, I SEE gasoline tested for octane rating and 
I'm told how compression ratio affects operation of auto- 

mobile engines. Gee, this new Mechanical Engineering 
Building is a beautiful and efficient place! 

The heat treatment lab is operating at full capacity 
to show me how induction, gas, and electric heating are 
used to make better products for everyday use. 

I SEE the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory where 
furnaces are tested; steam engines are operating, and 
air conditioning apparatus is being demonstrated. I sure 
didn't know that air could be dried by spraying water 
through it! I SEE the human environment lab where 
engineers study people as well as machines. 

In the Ceramics Building I learn all about the increas- 
ingly important ceramics industry. I SEE brick machines 
being used, and enameling operations that may mean 
better jet and rocket engines in the near future. 

The traffic engineers show me the latest in traffic 
cops— a radar speed meter. Just set it up on the corner, 
point it at an approaching cor, and read its speed on 
the meter! It does everything except catching the culprit 
and writing the ticket. I SEE how traffic counts of origin 
and destination are used for designing routes and inter- 

I SEE a beautiful exhibit about architectural engi- 
neering. Models of buildings and landscapes and student 
designs demonstrate the important work of making 
structures efficient, lasting, and beautiful. 

The world's first betatron, invented and built by 
Professor D. W. Kerst of the Physics Department, is being 
demonstrated. That 2-million volt electron beam pocks 
plenty of atomic punch. But I'm told that a 300-million 
volt betatron is now being built on campus. 

And speaking of atomic psysics— I SEE Geiger count- 
ers detecting radioactivity all over the place. I'm lousing 
up the works, though, with a vial of radium in my hip 

I SEE agricultural engineers exhibiting a panorama 
of agricultural equipment; they show the difference 

Ghost writers in the sky .... 


Engineering Exhibit 

Electrical Engineering Lab, home of 
the volt, ohm and amp bugs .... 

between a farm that is planned and a farm that just 
happens. Rural electrification and soil conservation 
methods are explained. 

In the chemical engineering building I SEE how 
distillation towers function — how one compound goes 
up while another comes down. 

Metollurgical engineers prove to me that even the 
smoothest metal surfaces are composed of crystals. I SEE 
how invisible cracks inside a bar of metal can be dis- 
covered magnetically. I give one of the engineers my 
only bright shiny penny and he mounts it beautifully in 
lucite for me. 

After stepping into the foundry room, I SEE the big 
cupola pouring forth its mass of molten metal. I pick 
up a hot souvenir, flip it in the air till it cools off, then 
stuff it into the radium pocket to get "hot" again. 

Civil engineers present a display of old surveying 
equipment and models of various types of structures, 
construction jobs, equipment, and materials. Gee, it 
must be interesting work! 

A model shows how reservoirs get filled with silt 
because of density gradients. I SEE the right and wrong 
of plumbing installations and what happens when "live" 
sewage goes the wrong way. 

Mining engineers show me a complete process— 
from original ore extraction through purification meth- 
ods to the pure mineral. 

Aeronautical engineers don't "Blow the Man Down," 
but there is plenty of breeze in the wind tunnel. I SEE 
model airplanes being used for authentic experiments- 
determination of airfoil characteristics and other flying 
factors. In addition I SEE how jet engines get their 
thrust; a small ramjet and a demonstration model turbo- 
jet are operating. 

Freshman engineers have worked together to bring 
me an exhibit of General Engineering Drawing. It helps 
me to understand what the freshman year of engineer- 
ing must be like. 

I SEE all this and more. Lots morel It's all so fascinat- 
ing and I'm learning so much! 

I SEE crowds of people, all kinds of people— engi- 
neers, high school students, industrialists, students from 

other colleges, even economics professors. I'd like to 
know how many are here and what they all are. 

But I do know why they're here! Some have come 
to be entertained and are. Some have come to learn 
more about engineering endeavor, and they'll go home 
with a better understanding and appreciation. 

High school students came by bus-loads from all 
parts of the state. Some came in a group with physics 
and industrial arts instructors; some came individually 
and are staying overnight at the houses of buddies in 
school here. Most of this high school gang have come 
earnestly hoping to learn what engineering is; and each 
is comparing the various fields in an effort to determine 
his particular line of study and work. 

I couldn't help from laughing just a minute ago— 
a kid asked his science teacher how the dynajet engine 
worked. You should have seen the embarrassed prof 
refer the question to one of the aero engineering stu- 
dents at the exhibit! But that's his purpose: answer the 
queries of all who ask. 

After seeing the results of this engineering open 
house, I marvel at the work and enthusiasm of the engi- 
neering students at Illinois. There must have been coop- 
eration from all 3,500 engineers on the campus to work 
up a project like this. And with St. Pat's Ball as the 
climax, it must be quite an Engineers' Weekend. 

I'm certainly glad I come, for now I SEE. 

Stretching a test girder with 3.000,000 
pounds of steel muscle in Talbot Lab 


|]iioiiieeriiio G\|)eriiiieiit Moii 

Itif Ifiiiv I'iihIi. Aff.K. %## 


Research! It's likt- m;i<;n-. RcM-anli 
is constantly k-n.mlu'niiiji man's lite span, 
guanlinj; his safety, increasing his con- 
veniences aiul his comfort, saving his 
money, bettering his health, and en- 
larging his view of the worKi. 

Here at the L'niversit\ of Illinois tlie 
Engineering Experiment Station is cer- 
tainly iloing its part. Our highways, our 
homes, our automobiles, railroad cars. 
and planes, our college education — all 
have benefited from l'n!\ersity studies 
and itnestigations. 

Estahlishiiicnt of the Station 

The need for an experiment station in 
the College of Engineering was recog- 
nized long before its actual establish- 
ment 46 years ago. Investigation and 
studies of engineering, manufacturing, 
railways, mining, and other items of 
industrial interest were badly needed. 

Such a station could also improve 
teaching processes and develop new ma- 
terial for classroom and laboratory. This 
would help to keep the University work 
in step with progress in engineering and 
industry. It could also provide a means 
for educating and training graduate stu- 
dents in methods of conducting research. 

Much of the credit for the conception 
of the idea and the establishment of the 
station belongs to Professor L. P. Breck- 
inridge, at that time the head of the 
Department of Mechanical Engineering. 
For several years he had been making 




ncM" in 
■. He IS 
ot the 


that ottcn go unnoticed 

Dove IS a very diversi- 
fied agricultural engineer. 
Along with John Hubcr, he 
is co-editor ot the Ag.E, 
annuel to be published 
next spring. For the I SEE 
he is foods chairman in 
charge of all refreshments 
at the open house. 

He recently attended the 
Banquet of One Hundred, 
given tor seniors prominent 
in activities. Dove received 
this honor through his 


an effort to secure federal action to 
establish engineering experiment stations 
similar to the agricultural experiment 
stations already in existence. Failing in 
this, he proposed that the University 
establish an Engineering Experiment 
Station with State funds. 

In December, 1902, the Board of 
Trustees of the University of Illinois 
included in their list for legislative ap- 
proval a separate bill requesting funds 
to expand the activities of the College 
of Engineering. Faculty, alumni, and 
manufacturing and construction inter- 
ests joined in the support of the bill. 

In Alay of the following year, the 
(jeneral Assembly passed a general bill 
providing $1 S(),000 for the College of 
Engineering. Of the total, ¥;4.i,00() was 
allotted for the purchase of land and 

Experiment Station 
such as this one. 


to [Dieveiit liighway ljlow-uf5s 

the erection of two buildings, the me- 
chanical engineering laboratory and the 
found r\; S.iO.ddd was to be used for 
rlic iiurchase of additional equipment; 
and the remaining $77,000 was set aside 
to apparatus to be used for 
engineering research to be carried out 
by the regular departments. 

Thus, by an act of the Board of 
I'lustees of the University of Illinois, 
the Engineering Experiment Station 
c.ime into existence on December 8, 
1')(13. This station was the first of its 
kind to be established in an educational 
institution in the United States and has 
served as a pattern for many similar sta- 

Direction of .h tifitics 

Activities of the Station are coordi- 
nated and managed by the executive 
staff, now composed of Director Wil- 


Our Engineering Experiment 
Station was the first to be founded 
at any university in this country. 
Since its birth 46 years ago, re- 
search has been done on innum- 
erable subjects and 385 bulletins 
have been published. 

This article tells some of the 
history and presents the why, 
what, and how of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

liani L. Evcritt; A.ssociate Dean H. H. 
Jordan, the heads of the departments in 
the College of Engineering; Professor 
H. F. Johnstone, head of chemical en- 
gineering; and Professor L. A. Rose. 
lliis staff is responsible, under the Presi- 
dent of the University, for the policies 
governing the work of the Station and 
the approval of material for publica- 

Part of the research is conducted by 
full-time research professors and gradu- 
ate assistants. Those employed for spe- 
cial investigations are engaged for a 
limited time on a single problem. Mem- 
bers of the teaching staff also take part 
in the Station's wide investigation pro- 

Since 1909 the director has been the 
dean of the College of Engineering. 
The head of each department is largely 
responsible for the work carried on in 
his department. 

(Continued on Page 16) 


itif Vinvent •#. .^tfiPitnalil. K.Mi. 'SO 

Before any attempt is made to deter- 
mine the time required in engineering 
school, it wouKi be well to investigate 
the things that must be accomplished b\ 
the student in that time. An evaluation 
of engineering education as a whole will 
point out those minimum educational at- 
tainments which the candidate for the 
U.S. degree in engineering must have 
mastered before he is prepared for grad- 

An engineer is a human being and a 
citizen before he is an engineer. As such, 
there are certain fundamental studies 
which he must master. 

(^f these studies, the one that fills the 
most basic need is the study of commu- 
nications. The engineer, as well as the 
rest of men, must be proficient at read- 
ing, speaking, writing, and equally im- 
portant, listening. This is true not onh' 
j for his own progress and well being, but 
for that of his fellow men, country, and 
world. Before any problem, within or 
without engineering, can be solved or 
even grasped, it must be put into some 
mutually understood language. For the 
above reasons then, it is necessary that 
the student be thoroughly trained in the 
transmission and reception of written 
and verbal information. 

It has been the custom for the 
TECH to publish the first-place 
essay of the Tau Beta Pi pledge 
competition. Writing a nontechni- 
cal, etlitorial-type paper is one of 
the initiation requirements of this 
all-engineering honorary. 

Vinee McDonald's winning essay 
asks a question of considerable 
engineering interest, but it makes 
no attempt at a specific answer. 
Instead, a general explanation of 
the important factors of engineer- 
ing education is presented. Need 
of four or more years is depend- 
ent not only on the school but on 
the man. 

One section of his education should 
impart a woiking knowledge of things 
historical. Not only national and world 
history, but also the historical landmarks 
of philosophy, literature, music, and art 
should be known and appreciated. 

Although clear logical thinking is de- 

JANUARY, 1950 

VINCENT Mcdonald 

The outhor of this se- 
mester's winning Tou Beta 
i essay is one of the 
lore prominent E.E. stu- 

,, on April 21, 1925; 
spent three yeori in 
Navy before enrolling 

; in 1946. 

ince is a senior in the 


moy go on to do advonced 
work after groduation. 
He's on octive member of 
the A. I. E.E. -I. RE,, ond be- 
longs to Phi Eta Sigmo, 
Eta Koppo Nu, and of 
course Tau Beto Pi. 

sired for everyone, it is essential in engi- 
neering. The engineer must be able to 
think, and he must be trained to think 
efficiently. Undoubtedly, this is the most 
important phase of his technical training. 
The successful analysis and evaluation 
of data cannot be handled by many for- 
nudae and a group of pre-set circum- 
stances; they depend on agility, flexibil- 
ity, and logic in thinking processes. 

For an aid to thinking the engineer 
must be equipped with a sufficient 
background in mathematics. Mathemat- 
ics will not only reduce the labor of his 
thinking, but it will provide an acces- 
sory to thinking, and by means of its 
symbolism, open a new language more 
precise, clearer, and more logical than 

Further, the engineer must be trained 
efficiently to gather and record data. 
He must ha\e a thorough grounding in 
the fundamentals of all engineering with 
,111 emphasis on his selected field, finally, 
he must have a real and deep interest in 

Thus, the important qu.'ilifications 
have been listed. The more thoroughh 
these qualifications are filled the better, 
but some degree of mastcr\ of them is 
essential before the student is ready for 
his degree. 

So, then, to the question, "Should 
engineering be a five year curriculum?" 
we must answer, "Yes, if it takes that 
long — longer if necessary!" 

However, the student entering an 
engineering school as a freshman shouhl 
already have much of the ground wcuk. 
Actually, education, or engineering edu- 
cation in this case, is started at home, 
begins to be formally directed in grade 
school, and expands in high school. 

Thus, it could be said that "engineer- 

ing school" also encompasses the previ- 
ous twelve years of more or less formal 
education. Certainly, it may be said that 
"engineering tr.-iining" d o e s include 

If the grade and high schools effici- 
ently perform their work, the task 
awaiting the college is mereh' a further 
enlargement of previous work, and the 
necessary and desired status could be 
attained in a relatively short period of 
time. But, if previous schooling has been 
weak, or has failed almost completeU, 
the college must then fill in the voids 
to bring the student u|i to the desired 

The methods and the precise number 
of hours this process will require must 
be determined b\- the properly trained 
educators. As has been indicated, this 
time will decrease as the effectiveness of 
earlier education increases. Howexer, 
the previously mentioned minimum 
standards must be met, regardless of 
the time involved, if the graduate is to 
be considered an engineer in the full 
sense of the word. 

X-Ray Microscope 

An X-ray microscope, which makes 
visible the internal details of materials 
through which light cannot pass, has 
been developed by the (leneral Electric 

Future refinements of the X-ray mic- 
roscope, which is at present in the lab- 
oratory stage of development, may re- 
sult in much sharper images and higher 
magnifications than are possible using 
visible light. 

Electron microscoiies are the most 
powerful magnifiers in use at the pres- 
ent time. They use a beam of electrons 
rather than light to form an image of 
materials under study. 

The X-ray microscope does not re- 
quire that samples under stud\ be in a 
high vacuum, as does the electron micro- 
scope. Because of this advantage, "it 
ma\ 'be possible to examine living mater- 
ials at much higher magnifications than 
ever before." 

Clear, sharp X-ray images, magnified 
10 times have been produced in the lab- 
oratory, and these images have been 
magnified 10 times further by photo- 
graphic enlargement without serious loss 
of detail. 

"''■" KiioiiieiM'iiio lldiKinii'iPs ii 

lti§ •liin Kpiif/rart: U.K. '."»!£ 


TIh' Kiigine' Council has been moviiii; 
riiilu aloiii; antl is succeeding; with a 
\aiier\' of important actions. 

Dan Keete and Carl Jacobs of the 
physical iniprovenient coiiimittee have 
already chalked up accomplishments. 
There were no bicycle parkinj; racks 
near the new M.E.H. Hikes aiul motor- 
cycles were being leaned into and over 
the struggling young hedges. A word 
from the boys and a result — temporar\- 
bike stands that will suffice till funds are 
a\ailable for permanent installations. 

Keefe and Jacobs are also plainiing to 
pro\ide some suggestion boxes around 
north campus. They would provide a 
direct means of communication with the 

Kl) Note: Until tlmi yon oin hriny 
your ffripes to the 'J'k liiioi/rtil-li office. 
11 ere used to it! 

The Engineering Council is going all- 
out for an instruction improvement and 
faculty rating program. A thorough 
study is being made and all possibilities 
will be considered before any action is 
taken. The Council fully realizes the 
severe results of a poor rating program. 
Working on this committee are Vince 
McDonald, Jim Bienias, Jim (iarman, 
Dick Myers, and Don Savage. 

Council definitely plans to present an- 
other Engineering Convention this 
spring. Dick Myers and Wolfgang 
Junkel, co-chairmen, promise to make it 
a bigger success than the starter last 

What is possibly this year's most am- 
bitious project, I SEE, is taking definite 
form. The last engineering open house 
was held nine years ago, so only a few 
long-lived engineers know the back- 
ground of such an event. Up till that 
time, the traditional engineering show 
supplied considerable enthusiasm and 
spirit to the weekend. Now, however, 
the enthusiasm for preliminary work 
must be .self-excited to insure success. 

Besides the chairmen for each society 
(listed in the December Tech), there is 
an ambitious gang working on the cen- 
tral committees. The following are ef- 
fecti\ely planning solutions for general 
problems: program. Art Dreshfield; 
physical arrangements, Maurice Cobb ; 
promotion, Tom Brown; and parade, 
Connie Miiinich. 

Hob Wiley, an M.E. and former 
member of the Council, has been ap- 

pointed chairman for St. Pat's Hall. lli> 
committee is going strong making plans 
for this climax of the great engineering 
weekend. Connie Minnich is pushing 
publicit\ ; Al Makulec, tickets; Dick 
Swanborg, decorations; Jack Huiidles- 
ton, bids; and Ronald Hoefle, physical 

]?y popular demand, Dick Cisne, the 
St. Pat's Ball dance master of the past 
two years, will once again ring out with 
"St. Patrick Was an Engineer." 

The time: Saturdav exening, March 

The place: Huff gym. 


The December 8 meeting of Synton, 
also known as the Ham Club, featured 
an interesting discussion by Allen Wil- 
son, of the University's electron tube re- 
search lab. He showed some experimen- 
tal tubes and described the method of 
design and construction. 

The code practice machines ha\-e been 
set up in a new location, 41 E.E.B. 
Code practice sessions are still held on 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, and the ma- 
chines are seeing a lot of use. 

A. S. C. E. 

The best laid plans of mice and men 
often go astra\- (translated from the 
Scottish ) . This wise statement was 
clearly brought out at the December 6 
joint dinner meeting of the central Illi- 
nois section and the University student 
branch of the American Society of Civil 

The speaker for the e\ening was A. 
P. Geuss, chief design engineer for the 
Harza Electric Company. He was to 
speak on the "Petenwell Hydroelectric 
Project." However, shortly after begin- 
ning his talk he was taken ill. Fortu- 
nately, E. Montsford Fucik, consultant 
for the same company, was present and 
able to take over in place of Cieuss. 

Continuing on the same subject, 
Fucik, who was here for the Career 
Conference, made use of slide illustra- 
tions of the technical aspects of the 
$9,400,000 private undertaking. 

"The Wisconsin river, on which the 
Petenwell dam is located," he said, "is 
about the hardest working river in the 
country." Petenwell is located north of 
Wisconsin Dells and should be com- 
pleted very soon. 


Formal initiation of pledges to Pi Tau 
Sigma, honorary mechanical engineering 
fraternity, took place in the University 
YMCA on the evening of December 8, 
194*^'. Fifty-eight pledges and three 
honorarv members were initiated at that 

Following tlie cereiiujiiy the uufiation 
banquet \xas held in Latzer Hall with 
Jerome Jacobson presiding as toastmas- 
ter and Dr. R. I. Mehr of the College 
of Commerce as the guest speaker. Dr. 
Mehr spoke on "Economic Illiteracy." 

Professor J. C. ]VIiles, faculty adviser, 
presented the retiring officers with keys, 
tokens of "jobs well done." After this 
an election of officers for the spring se- 
mester was held. The following men 
were elected to various positions : 

President — George Johns 

Vice president — William Eiszner 

Corresponding secretary — Wolfgang 

Recording secretary — Richard Jeffer- 

No election was held for the office of 
Treasurer, held by Joe Ream. 


Formal initiation to Keramos, honor- 
ary and professional fraternity for cer- 
amic engineering, was held on the eve- 
ning of December 19 in the faculty 
lounge, mini Union. 

The new initiates, all of whom are 
outstanding stLidents in ceramic engi- 
neering, are Maynard P. Baideke, Don- 
ald Houltbee, Dudley Johnson, Robert 
Rosendale, Er\in Schuetze, and Stephen 

A. F. S. 

The American Foundrymen's Society 
spent the evening of December 1 profit- 
ably touring the General Motors foun- 
dry in Danville, Illinois. A welcoming 
reception was given to the group by Mr. 
Braun, plant manager, and his adminis- 
trative staff, who acted as guides during 
the trip through the plant. 

After going through the testing and 
control laboratory, where various testing 
machines and supplementary apparatus 
were shown, the group went into the 
main plant. The many operations con- 
ducted in the plant were observed in a 
{Continued on page 30) 



New RCA electron tube gi\ es today's amazing computing macliines an indispensable memory. 

Tuhe y^i-t-ft a memory 


>s ansi^ers on t/, 

So complex are present scientific 
studies — such as in atomic research 
—that working out the "arithmetic" 
could take all of our scientists' time. 

Short cut through this drudgery is 
found in huge electronic computers, able 
to add or multiply numbers as large as a 
thousand billion in millionths of a second. 
But such speed is valueless unless— with 
comparable speed — the results of count- 
less computations can be kept "on file" 
and taken out again. 

Such a "file" now exists in a "memory" 
tube, developed at RCA Laboratories. It re- 
tains figures fed into calculating machines, 
stores them, memorizes new ones — speeds 
solutions through mazes of mathematics. 

Uses of RCA's "memory" tube are many. 
It will help atomic scientists acquire new 
knowledge . . . pro\'ide new information 
on supersonic flight . . . even help make 
rapid weather predictions! It is an in- 
valuable instrument in the scientist's cam- 
paign to penetrate the unknown. 

For your benefit: Development of the 
"memory" tube is another basic ad\ance 
pioneered at RCA Laboratories. Contin- 
ued leadership in science and engineering 
adds value beyond priec to any product 
or service of RCA and RCA Victor. 

Examples of the newest advances in radio, 
television, and electronics — in action — may 
he seen at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th St., N. Y. Admission is free. Radio Cor- 
poration of America, Radio Cittj, N. Y. 20. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

X'ictor— one of the world's toremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and I-'M circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

• Ad\anccd development and design of 
AM and I'M broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of coiiiiionent parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development ;ind design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Wrilc todmj to National RccrtiUing Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 

Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

M/or/af Leac/er /n 'Rac//o — P/rsf- in le/et^/s/'on 



94ii^UMi4C444Xf. . . . 

Mtif Tom Ttu'lu'r. 1'h.K. '."i.'t 

anil ttith liitfrinr. U.K. '."i^ 


Donald Gene Hankins, senior in civil 
engineering, is the ASCE choice tor "In- 

Gene, a native of Effingham, gradu- 
ated from Altamont High School in 
1043. From high school he went to 
Eastern Illinois State Teachers College. 
In his sophomore year he was elected 
vice president of his class and was men- 
tioned in iriio's [f ho in J/iur'utin (Jol- 
lee/es and I ^iiivrrsitics. 

In December, 1944, (lene started an- 
other chapter in his life history by join- 
ing the Xa\y as a radio technician. June, 
1945, found Gene studying electrical 
engineering at Princeton under the 
XROTC plan, but in Jime of '46 the 
\a\y gave him an honorable discharge. 

.After leaving the Navy, the new Mr. 
Donald (i. Hankins worked for Oil Ex- 
ploration Incorporated where he did 
seismic exploration over a period of two 
years. He also spent one simimer as a 
"rough-neck," or derrick-hand for a 
wildcat oil-man. 

In the fall of 1948 Gene entered the 
I'niversity of Illinois as an embryo ci\il 
engineer. He chose this field because he 
had seen many opportunities during the 
past. His present University grade av- 
erages over 4.5. 

Gene plans to work for the Bureau of 
Reclamation after graduation so he can 
gain valuable experience. He is work- 
ing toward a commercial pilot's license 
in the Institute of Aviation because he 

hclicxcs that ll\iiig will be useful in his 

(jcne Hankins is a member of Chi 
Epsilon, Tau Beta Pi, and Sigma Tau 
honorary fraternities. He has also spent 
two semesters on the Engineering Coun- 
cil as a representative of the ASCE. 


"An engineer must be able to express 
himself clearly and concisely in intelli- 
gent engineering reports," said Professor 



Ralph L. Cook, when asked what he 
considered the prime requisite of a good 

This advice might well be heeded by 
future engineers, for it comes from one 
who is well qualified to make such a 
statement. Professor Cook, who holds 
a Ph.D. in engineering, has received a 
liberal education from the school of ex- 

Professor Cook, born in Erie, Pa., in 
1912, accomplished his first goal towards 
becoming an engineer when he graduated 
from Wesleyville High School in 1930. 
He then enrolled in the School of Engi- 
neering at the L niversity of Pittsburgh, 
which he attended for one year. 

Thence to the University of Alabama, 
where he received his B.S. degree in 
1934 from the School of Chemistry, 
Metallurgy, and Ceramics. 

Attesting to his scholastic achieve- 
mnnt was the fact that he received hon- 
ors three vears. 

Mr. Cook was soon employed at the 
General Electric Erie Works Labora- 
tory. His work pertained to the devel- 
opment of porcelain enamel used on re- 

In the fall of 1938 he joined the staff 
of the University of Illinois as an in- 
structor and enrolled as a graduate stu- 
dent. In 1940 he received his M.S. 
degree in ceramics engineering and his 
Ph.D. in engineering. 

In the summer of 1945 he was a 
member of a group of scientists sent by 
Wright Field on a special mission to 
Germany. The purpose of this mission 
was to aid in the evaluation of technical 
documents formerly owned by the Ger- 

After completing this mission, Mr. 
Cook returned to the U. of I. where, in 
1947, he received his full professorship. 
Besides teaching courses in porcelain 
enamels and bodies and glazes, Professor 
Cook also has done research on porcelain 
enamels and whiteware — bodies and 

Proof of the fact that Professor Cook 
"practices what he preaches" is illustrat- 
ed by his several outstanding articles 
published in the Journul of Aiiur'uaii 

Professor Cook is technically well- 
suited to his position. This, coupled 
with a warm, magnetic personality and 
a desire to constantly forge ahead into 
new developments, well qualifies him for 
the title of one of the most effective in- 
structors of the year. 


In 206 Metallurgy Laboratorv', that 
building hidden in the middle of the 
block, works E. J. Eckel, associate pro- 
fessor of metallurgical engineering. 

Mr. Eckel was born in Detroit in 
1909. After leaving the University of 
{Continued on page 26) 




Fingers ofjlame that pierce solid rock 

Yes. through a dramatic new process known as jet-piercing 
. . . holes can now be burned straight and true tlirough 
solid rock ! The harder the rock the more efficient the oper- 
ation! A special combination of oxygen, fuel, and water 
does the job . . . and in a fraction of tlie time required by 
the old drill attack. 

This process is of particular significance to the steel in- 
dustry today. W hy? Because goyernment surveys show that 
Americas reserves of top-grade iron ore— source of steel- 
are fast being reduced. But there remain almost inexhaust- 
ible beds of the once scorned low-grade iron ore called 

The extremely hard and dense nature of taconite makes 
usual mining methods too costly and impractical. But the 
jet-piercing process— 7<';7A 1 ^10 the equipment and at a 
reasonable co^/— will burn holes straight into the solid taco- 
nite so that it can be blasted into lumps of usable size. 

Also, destructive abrasion from the sharp-edged rock on 
loading and crushing erjuipment is being better controlled 

by machine parts made from extra-hard alloy steels. And 
to concentrate the iron content of the ore, new chemical 
processes can flush away much of the "waste" matter— thus 
leaving an ore 30% richer, for more efficient smelting. 

The people of Linion Carbide created the jet-piercing 
flame process as well as many of the alloys, chemicals, and 
other materials essential to today's mining efficiency. And 
I CC stands ready to help solve problems in other fields of 
American enterprise . . . wherever better basic materials 
and better processes are needed. 

FREE: If you uould like to know more about 
many of the tliinfis you use every day, send for 
tlie illustrated booklet "Products and /Voce,sses."' 
/( tells how science and industry use L CC's 
Allovs. Chemicals. Carbons. Cases, and I'laslics. 
Write for free lioohlet J . 

Union Carbide 

3 EAST 4 5 N U S r 11 E E T 


.NEW YORK 17, N . Y. 

Trndp-marked Products of 

LiNDE Oxygen • Prest-0-Lite Acetyl 

Electromet Alloys and Metals • Synthetic Organic Che 

National Carbons • Acheson Electrodes • EvEREADV 

Dirisions and I'nits intlude 



Flashlights and Batteries • Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes 



9n ^lUi QoAj^^e^ . . . 


The IAS at O'Hare 

Ronald Sak, Aero. Enq., '53 

( )m N(]\cnibi'r 2.\ I94Q, a group of 
IAS mfiiibeis attt'iuled a tour of O'Hare 
I'icid locatt'd at Mannheim Road and 
I )c\ on Street. .Most of the field is under 
the supervision of the I'.S. -Air Forces, 
tlie remainder is supervised b\- the Ci\ii 
.Aeronautics authoritx. 

Sergeant I^evries of the reguhu' Air 
Forces conducted the group to all the 
high-lights of the base. 

The first section \isited was the mu- 
seum of the field. Here many world- 
famous aircraft are awaiting shipment 
to the Smithsonian Institute. Each has 
achieved distinction from other aircraft 
by completing its ser\ice in an outstand- 
ing manner. 

In the American section were the fol- 
lowing: one of an early series of B-17's 
( this particular one was used to evacu- 
ate officials from the Philippines), an 
early F-51, Bill Odum's Beechcraft 

Monanza, .Mi.\-.Master nulitary gliders, 
and a few small liaison ciaft. 

In the Japanese group were the Zckc. 
Tony, Zero, Kate, liaka (the suicide 
craft), anil a modern version of the 

'I he (jerman section consisted of the 
first ram-jet flving wing, funker 117, 
Hcinkle 111, Folkc- Wolf '290, and a 
Messerschmidt 109. Planes like these 
are accredited, to a certain extent, for 
their help in making history. 

Outside on one of the landing strips 
the group was shown the /^-29 that 
dropped the first atom bomb over Japan 
— the Enola Gay! 

The members who brought their cam- 
eras with them, were permitted to take 
as many photographs as they pleased — 
pro\iding the\' were taken outside the 
hangars. With this consent, Wayne 
Jackson, one of the members, started 
shooting some angle shots of the aircraft. 
One photo included Mr. Zanotti, the 
group's sponsor, and members. Further 

partners in creating 

•ing p 


For 81 years, leaders of the engine 
hove mode K & E products their partners in creating 
the technical achievements of our age. K & E instru- 
ments, drafting equipment end materials— such as the 
LEROYt Lettering equipment in the picture— have thus 
played o part in virtually every great engineering 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
Son Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

on down the run-way, stood a few 
/■ -.■>/'.! ( Mus/iirii/s) . another target for 
the photogs. 

W'hile this was going on, Ray Kramer 
climbed into the cockpit of an AT-O. 
which was also present in the area. After 
making himself comfortable he acquaint- 
ed himself with the controls and the wa\' 
they would respond. His career was cut 
short when he noticed the group walking 
toward another building. 

Together once again, the group pre- 
pared to learn as much as possible about 
the brains of all air traffic. All con- 
trolling is done from the base operations 
building. In order to avoid confusion, 
two departments are utilized. The first 
one to be considered is the chart room. 
All types of maps and charts are easily 
obtained .-ind us-d. W'eatlu-r conditions 


Bob King Editor 

Ronald Sak 4sst. Editor 

Donald Kelly Business Mt/r. 

Clarence Niebow Associate 

John Hume Assoeialc 

Mr. Ogden I.ivermore S/ionsnr 

and other information concerning other 
parts of the country are available for im- 
mediate or future reference work. 

The second department has the job of 
checking on all flights listed. The fol- 
lowing example illustrates the import- 
ance of this department. 

A pilot takes off at 8:4.^ a. m. and is 
expected to reach his destination at 
12:15 p. m. of the same day, but when 
12:15 comes around, he doesn't arrive. 
The take-off and destination airfields 
work together as they start the search. 
The flight route is the first to be consid- 
ered ; if it is all right, it serves as a sig- 
nal to check with all the small airfields 
and stations the pilot might come in con- 
tact with. Locating the last one they 
begin the air search from that point to- 
ward the next station. Within a few 
short hours the victim of an\' unusual 
circumstance is found. 

Later the group was conducted to a 
large hangar where several (j-46's were 
undergoing repair work and major over- 
hauling. Everyone entered, at one time 
or another, one of these craft and was 
allowed to handle the controls. The in- 
terior has plent\ of cargo room, but in 
the cockpit all available space is used for 
instruments. It was surprising to find 
out how high the cockpit is from the 

Farther down the assembly line stood 

a powerful light bomber — an A-26. The 

inspection of this aircraft went so far as 

to have some members climbing on the 

(Continued on pat/e 26) 



The world is tuned to pipes like these 

Petroleum, as a fuel and as a lubricant, 
has become the basic material of progress 
— and petroleum products could not be 
made available in great quantities at low 
cost if it were not for pipelines. 

Oil transporters pioneered low-cost, 
long-haul methods of handling liquids in 
large quantities. Today the users of oil 
(which includes just about everybody), 
and of many other products as well, live 
better because petroleum research men and 
engineers found ways to get the job done. 

Here at Standard Oil we are developing 
new methods to increase the efficiency and 
economy of pipelines. Externally, our 

lines now have cathodic protection; an 
electric current is imposed on the line to 
prevent dissolving the metal of the pipe 
at points where it is in direct contact with 
soil. Internally, corrosion is inhibited by 
the injection of sodium chromate solutions 
that form a protective film. Both meth- 
ods minimize costly shutdowns of our 
pipelines. Even more improved methods 
are now being sought. 

From their work with pipelines, as from 
their work with all other phases of our 
business. Standard Oil scientists can feel 
the satisfaction of accomplishment and 
the chaUenge of all that remains to be done. 

Standard Oil Company 





AFFORD to use | 


world's finest drawing pencil 

with Genuine IMPORTED 


Why wait unfit you graduate? 
Staff using (he Drawing Pencil 
of the Masters today — smooth, 
freeOowing, grit-free CASTELL, 
accurately graded in 18 un- 
varying tones of b/acic, 7B to 9H. 

because it outlasts other pen- 
cils, hence is more economical. 
In addition, you get the per- 
sona/ satisfaction of superior 
craftsmanship that only 
CASTELl gives. Unlike ordi- 
nary pencils, CASTELL sharp- 
ens to a needlepoint without 

Ask for CASTELL at your book 
store Don't allow yourself to 
be talked into using a substi- 
tute. CASTELL is a tile-time 
habit for up-and-coming Engi- 

I. B. M 

((ionliniud jxun l>iu/i I 1 ) 
lower row of fiiiislics arc known as tin- 
ailiiiiiK brushes. 

Kach of these rows of brushes is elec- 
trically connected to a row of plug hubs 
or openings on the plugboard, a switch- 
board-like arrangement on the machine. 
On this same plugboard there are also 
plug hubs with electrical connections to 
the counters or adding mechanisms of 
the machine. By means of remoxablc 
wires with plugs on either end, any 
brush or group of brushes ma\- be readily 
connected with any counter or group of 
adding mechanisms. 

Cards are fed into the machine \erti- 
cally with the bottom or the "nine" 
position first. As they move through the 
machine, they pass between these rows 
of brushes and opposing brass contact 
rollers. When a hole appears in the card 
at any position, the brushes pass through 
the card, touch the brass contact roller, 
and complete an electric circuit. If the 
appropriate brushes are connected to a 
counter by means of the plugboard, an 
impulse will be given to the comiter 
causing the machine to add the amount 
indicated on the card. 


This adding operation is accompanied 
by means of a series of counter wheels 
mounted on a constantly running shaft 
to which they are connected by means 
of a clutch. The counter wheel is nor- 
mally motionless. When a punched hole 
is reached at any position on the card in 
the column connected to the counter, 
the electrical impulse created by the con- 
tact between the adding brush and the 


1000 O'O' 0000000 

I 2 ! 2 Ji2|: ; 2 ; i 2 i 
: J ; 3 spj J J 3 3 3 ; 
1 i 4 i 4i|u I. n i A i 
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 sj 
> 6 6 6 b|c|t> 6 6 u 6 6 o 
'777 7'7'7 777777 

18 8 3 8 8 3 8 8 8 8 

19 9 9 9|9R 9 9 9 9 9 9 I 


contact roller causes the clutch to be- 
come engaged, and the counter wheel 
re\-olves. The clutch remains in the en- 
gaged position until the zero position on 
the card is reached when it is auto- 
matically disengaged. This is diagram- 
matically indicated in Figure .\ 

A card punched in the number four 
position is shown passing between the 
brush and the roller. Since the card is 
punched in the number four position, 
the clutch will not be engaged until 
flu- mimber four hole reaches the brush. 
WHien the clutch is now engaged, the 
wheel will revolve until the zero posi- 
tion on the card is reached. As the revo- 
lution is in proportion to the number 
of positions passed between the punched 
position on the card and the zero posi- 
tion, the wheel will move four vmits. 

If successive additions cause the coiui- 
ter «'heel to pass the number nine posi- 
tion, in other words, if the total is ten 
or greater, an electric carry-over causes 
the next counter wheel to move the nec- 
essary one unit. 

Counters are permanently attached to 
groups of type bars (print blanks) which 
automatically print the accumulated 
totals when the last card of a given 
group passes through the machine. By 
means of a somewhat intricate system 
which will not be discussed here, the 
machine is also able to print alphabetic 
characters. Through the use of these 
mechanisms, the statements and docu- 
ments previously' mentioned c an be 

Rcflhlnitirin Si/ii/>/ifi(ri/ion 

The installation of sLich IBAI sys- 
tems at the University of Illinois has 
{(Continued on page 20) 





Fig. 3. A card punched in the number four position is shown passing 
between the brush and roller. 


"Super-Sonic Sport Car" dtiigiicd Jiid built 1j> L. J. Fjsiol 


"Well, son, you can be iwxtyour first car will pack more power, ride smoother and cost less to run than today's 
cars. The automobile makers know folks always want improvements, so they make better cars every year." 

"Norton grinding wheels help — and 
they start on the first rough castings. 
Our hones make cyhnder walls smooth 
and long-lasting. Dies and tools are 
manufactured and maintained with 
Norton grinding wheels. 

"Camshafts must he true, or engines 
won't run smoothly. Norton Cam-O- 
Matic grinding machines finish cam 
contours to close precision. In fact, 
these speedy, automatic grinders help 
lower mass production costs. 

"New ears look belter every year. And 
their smoother surfaces for better 
paint jobs come from things like 
Bchr-Manning abrasive discs. Behr- 
Manning, remember, is an important 
member of the Norton family." 

"Of the thousands of parts that make 
up a modern car, nearly all of them 
are made better by the touch of prod- 
ucts made by the Norton family. That 
also applies to just about every other 
industry, large or small. That's why I 
like my job of making better products 
to make other products better." 


(Ziskincj beffer products to make other products better 









1. B. M 

\ (.oiiliniitiJ from payc IS) 

greatly simplified the process of regis- 

At registration each student is gi\en 
a stack of IHM canis. This stack con- 
sists of: \o. I. authorization card; Xo. 

2, dean's program card ; Xo. ?>. record- 
er's information card ; possihly No. 4, a 
veteran's status card ; and se\ eral Xo. 5 
cards, class cards. 

The Xo. 1 card hi-i'n piexiouslv 
punched and contains such \ital infor- 
mation as name. II) number, hours 
earned, hours carried, home town, 
father's occupation, date of birth, church 
preference, college, curriculum, class, 
whether the student is new or has been 
in the I ni\ersit\- before, the high school 
percentage rank, \eteran status, sex, and 
a .sequence number for purposes of alpha- 
betic listing. 

The Xo. 2 card contains the student's 
program for the semester. Xo. 3 contains 
the same information as the Xo. 1 card 
but in a written rather than punched 
form. It is on tiiis card tiiat the stu- 
dent notes an\ ch.inLic in the infoinia- 
riori gi\en on tlie Xo. I caid. 

Cards Xos. 6 and 7 also are used. 
I liese cards also li,i\e been been pre\ i- 
ousiy punched and are gi\'en to the stu- 
dent just prior to the completion of 

registration. Xo. f> is the fees card and 
contains all of the information required 
b\ the bursar's office. Xo. 7 is the II) 

I pon completion of registration, the 
student s stack of cards is sent to a con- 
trol clerk. The control clerk checks all 
of the cards to insure that none are 
missing, checks the II) number on each 
card with the ID number on the Xo. 1 
card to insure that no card is in the 
wrong deck, and checks each class card 
with the program card to insure that a 
class card is present for each class listed. 

The deck is then "gang punched. ' 
That is, the information 0[i the .Xo. 1 
card is punched on the whole deck. This 
is accomplished at the rate of 100 per 

The cards are then sorted into their 
\arious types and counted. This is done 
b\ the sorting machine previously de- 
scribed. To the sorter is attached a 
counting mechanism which counts each 
group as it falls into its respective bin. 
This machine is capable of handling 450 
cards a minute. 

Class cards are next ^ent to an inter- 
pieter, which prints the punched infor- 
mation on the top of each card. The 
cards are next .sent to a sorter where 
they are sorted according to college and 
class. This is done daily during registra- 

Before class cards are .sent to the in- 
structors they are duplicated. The dupli- 
cates are combined with the other cards 
\\hich also have been duplicated and all 
of the cards are combined into one deck 
which is identical with the deck which 
was originally received by the tabula- 
ting office. decks are then placed 
on file at the tabulating office for future 

The dean's program card is then sent 
to the interpreter which prints the in- 
formation on the card in the same man- 
ner as it was printed on the class cards. 
These cards are then filed and held un- 
til the end of registration at which time 
they are sent to the deans of the re- 
specti\e colleges. 

Xext, the recorder's information card 
is put into the interpreter. After the in- 
formation has been printed upon it, the 
card is put on file at the tabulating of- 
fice. This file gives a permanent address 
file from which both local and home ad- 
dresses can be obtained. 

At some point in the operation, the 
cards pass through a tabidator which 
prints all of the information about the 
student, including his program, on slips 
of paper which are called coupons. This 
machine prints six coupons at a time and 
is capable of printing 12 to 15 programs 
a minute. Since the coupons are connect- 
(Continiud on pciye 12) 



The Sixty Foot Tunnel at the Dri 
Canning Co.iConveyor Belt Is Ab 
Push Trucks 


' ". - 




Two big poultry freezing plants, 
equipped with Frick Refrigeration, were 
built at Salisbury and Pocomoke City, 
on Maryland's "Eastern Shore," in 1946. 

Now Shoreland Freezers, Inc., also at 
Salisbury, and the Draper Canning Co., 
at Milton, Del., have Frick-Freezing 
tunnels handling fruits and vegetables. 

The Shoreland tunnel is 45 ft. long, 
the other 60 ft.; each Is equipped with 
both push trucks and a conveyor belt, 
and will handle ANY foods. 

Not far away, at Bridgeton, N. J., 
Frick Refrigeration carries the cooling 
load in the world's largest quick-freez- 
ing plant. 

T/i.. Frirh Gradiialr TrainmR Course in 
lirjrigiralinn and .-lir ('ondilioning. Oper- 
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Growing Industry. 


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Out of town engineers can depend 
upon prompt service by ordering by 
mail. Describe your needs. 


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For the 



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Plastics where plastics belong 

for high dielectric and structural strength, 
light weight and ease of machining 

In the RCA television camera, for example, Synthane was 
selected for coil forms, tubes, flanges and other components 
because of its electrical insulating properties, especially at high 
frequencies and high voltages. Its ease of machining, light 
weight and structural strength were other factors that led 
RCA's design engineers to select Synthane as the best possible 
material for this job. 

Synthane, laminated phenolic plastic, is at its best in appli- 
cations requiring unusual combinations of characteristics. Its 
excellent electrical insulating ability, combined with ease of 
machining, light weight, rigidity and many other properties, 
such as moisture and corrosion resistance, make Synthane a 
valuable material for many industries. 

Synthane Corporation, 1 River Road, Oaks, Pennsylvania 

[Synth ANEl where Synthane belongs 

^ — w — ^ 




I. B. M 

{(.ontiniH'd from page 20) 

pd together in one long strip, they must 
be torn apart. This is accomplished by 
means of a mechanical "bursting" ma- 
chine which separates the copies and 
stacks them. These copies are then dis- 
tributed in the same manner as the old 
study lists were. 

Thus a great deal (it tlie ie|ietiri\e 
writing which the student u'as forced to 
do has been eliminated. Now, instead of 
filling out eight or ten study lists, the 
student needs only to write this infor- 
mation on two or three cards and copy 
his ID number on the rest. Also, this 
new system facilitates the preparation of 
many reports which previously would 
ha\e been too laborious and complicated. 

Aikiiouhdyenient tiii/l yr/ititiidc is 
given to Mr. Ci. R. Beam, Director of 
Statistical Service Unit. Provost's Of- 
fice, for his //cncroiis aid in the ivritiiii/ 
of this article. 

A visitor at the Capitol was accomp- 
anied by his small son. The little boy 
watched from the gallery when the 
House came to order. 

"Why did the minister pray for all 
those men. Pop?" 

"He didn't. He looked them over 
and prayed for the coLintry." 

Bubbles . . . 

{ (innlinm d front l>a</c 7) 

bulb .-uul this mass are now touched to- 
gether and the molten mass strctclu-d to 
form the stem. 

A third blower has in the meantime 
made the flat base which is securel\ 
fastened to the long metal tool men- 
tioned earlier. This base is no\\^ fastened 
to the stem and the blow-pipe is broken 
:iway from the bulb. The glass is still 
very hot and so pliable that it can be 
cut with shears like a piece of paper. 

After being cut to the right size, the 
bulb is shaped and finished. The last 
step consists of a sharp blow which sev- 
ers the metal bar from the base. This 
lea\es the familiar ring which appears 
on the bottom of hand-made glassware. 
This ring and the rounded edges are 
trademarks of hand-blown glass-ware. 

The Biggest Job 

The 20()-inch disk for the Palomar 
Observatory has been called the greatest 
single undertaking in glass manufacture. 
The disk is actually 201 in in diameter, 
is 26 in thick, and weighs 20 tons. The 
glass was of the borosilicate type and 
was poured into a large oven containing 
the molds. The grid structure of the 
disk allows multiple support which is 
very necessary since no deflection caused 

by the weight of the minor can be tol- 

Two disks were made, but the first 
fell victim to an accident in casting. The 
second was perfectly cast and the cooling 
process took 12 months. 

hanif'-U tirkcrs 

1 he most familiar and commonly seen 
type of glass-workers are those in carni- 
vals and such. These people start with 
ready-made glass tubing and cane and 
end up with almost anything imaginable. 
They do their work by heating the 
glass with a small burner on a table as 
is done in Noyes Laboratory where 40 
students spend their class time learning 
a few of the many tricks. 

Che/n (j/ass La// 
The glass lab in Xoyes is run by Mr. 
Leon F. Goodyear, who came to Illinois 
in 1947. He will make about anything 
that can be made from glass but restricts 
his work to chemical equipment. The 
lab itself is reputedly the best equipped 
in the Big Ten. The largest piece of 
equipment on hand is a Hoskins electric 
annealing furnace which has a maximum 
temperature of 2000° C The only other 
large piece of eqiu'pment is a lathe which 
is designed to hold large pieces which 
can not be hand-worked easily. 
{Continued on page 24) 





• There is more than mere identification value in the 
ridge you see on Okonite wires and cables. The ridge is 
proof that the insulation has been folded around the con- 
ductor by the well-known Okonite strip insulating process. 
This method permits inspection at all times during the 
application operation. It assures the perfect centering of 
conductors so important to the avoidance of electrical 

The ridge is a permanent mark of an Okonite cable. It is 
still prominent after the final vulcanization in a metal mold 
that insures equal transfer of the heat throughout every 
portion of the insulation. The Okonite Company, Passaic, 
New Jersey. 

O K O N I T E 4^ 

insulated wires and cables 


Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 






more and better food on the Ameri- 
can table. At the same time, in many 
other fields, Du Pont is helping to 
raise the American standard of living 
with continuous research aimed at 
developing new products and improv- 
ing present ones. 

"MARLATE" 50 kills flies and many olhcr 
insects attacking livestock, vegetables, fruits 
and forage crops. 

BAD MEDICINE for flies 

Research that produced an insecticide safe to spray 
on cows may save millions for American agriculture 

Armed with only a fly-swatter, the 
farmer would get nowhere in ridding 
his dairy barn of disease-carrying in- 
sect pests. But he has to be careful 
in using insecticides around cows. A 
toxic spray may be absorbed through 
the animal's skin and show up in 
meat, milk and butter. 

Next fly-season farmers and 
ranchers will be able to buy a fly- 
kiUer that is both powerful and safe. 
In Du Pont Marlate* 50';, techni- 
cal methoxychlor insecticide they will 
get this combination of properties 
that no single insecticide has ever 
offered before. 

Methoxychlor is a recent Du Pont 
development. Du Pont scientists 
worked for eight years in the labora- 
tory and in the field to develop its 
applications in agriculture. 

A safer insecticide 

"Marlate" 50 is a residual insecti- 
cide and remains an effective killer 
of flies, mosquitoes, fleas and lice for 
several weeks after application .When 
used as directed, this insecticide is 
exceptionally safe to human beings, 
livestock, pets and crops. This has 
led federal experts to recommend it 
not only for spraying in barns, milk 
houses and milk plants, but also on 
the animals themselves. 

Besides its use on hvestock, meth- 
oxychlor kills many insects that at- 
tack vegetables, fruits and forage 
crops. It is offered to flower growers 
as an ingredient in Du Pont Floral 
Dust. It is used in moth-proofing 
compounds so that dry cleaners can 
easily moth-proof woolens while 
cleaning them. Many stores carry 
aerosol bombs containing methoxy- 
chlor for household use. It can be 
used with safety in flour mills, freez- 
ing and canning plants, grain stor- 

THE BITES ,,l // 

spraying of M 

age elevators, cereal manufacturing 
plants — wherever food is processed. 
This development of research can 
bring immediate cash savings of mil- 
hons of dollars to American agricul- 
ture, industry and homes. 

The long fight 

Exciting as the future of "Marlate" 
50 appears, this does not mean that 
the use of other insecticides will not 
continue. Each has its special char- 
acteristics, and each has special uses 
for which it is outstanding. There 
are at least 10,000 kinds of insect 
pests, of more or less importance, in 
North America, and there can be no 
let-up in the scientific fight being 
waged against them. 

Du Pont alone now makes over 
fifty different insecticides.Theknowl- 
ed ge gained in making each one speeds 
the development of the next. By 
backing ideas with funds and facili- 
ties, Du Pont helps the farmer put 

mil as 20 per cent. One 

SEND FOR "Chemistry and 
the Farmer, "an interesting, in- 
formative booklet on the devel- 
opment of pest control, etc. 34 
pages. For your free copy, 
write to the Du Pont Com- 
pany, 2503 Nemours Building, 
Wilmington, Del. 

...THROUGH CHfAi/STRy Drjjnattc EntiTtamment—Tune in "Cavalcade 
of America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 



Bubbles . . . 

((,oti/i/iii(tl from /xiffc 22) 

Most of tin- jobs done by Mr. (Jood- 
ycar arc for research students and fac- 
idty. When subinittiny; a project, it is 
first necessary to see Mr. White across 
rlie hall who irons out details of the 
equipment. A sketch of tiie apparatus is 
made and Mr. White must approve it. 
The storeroom gets a copy of the sketch 
anti the apparatus is checked out throui;h 
tlie storeroom. 

Mr. (iood\ear grew up in tlu- com- 
munity of Corning, N. Y. ; and foUow- 
ing his graduation from high scliool in 
i^),^7, lie was emphned h\ L'oi'ning 
Class Works. 

There he developed "nimble hands" 
and learneil the behavior of various 
t>pes of glass. These, according to him, 
are the piereipusites to good glass blow- 

In 1''41 he enlisted in the Ainu. He 
was stationed with the 1 .■!4th Medical 
Battalion; but due to a punctured ear- 
drum, he was discharged after 7 '/> 
months. He then returned to Corning 
(ilass Works until the University of- 
fered him his present position in ]')47. 

Ml. { loodyear is married and has two 
children. At the present time, the Good- 
year family resides at Stadium Terrace. 

Mr. Wagner of the Electrical Engi- 
neering Department does some 
delicate work on a fancy glass 

E. E. Class Lah 

The electrical engineering glass lab 
is a fundamental part of the E. E. Re- 
search Laboratory since the various spe- 
cial research tubes are made there. 

The glass lab consists of five rooms. 
Ont is used exclusively for chemical 

cleaning of all parts and a second room 
contains a hydrogen atmosphere furnace 
to process and clean metal parts. Since 
absolute cleanliness is necessary for the 
research tubes, the a.ssembled tubes are 
evacuated to 10 "■ ////// llg. This high 
vacuum is achieved by connecting a 
vacuum diffusion pump in series with a 
regular high vacuum pump. 

Though much of the glass blowing 
has to be done manually, some machines 
are now being used. The lab boasts hori- 
zontal and vertical lathes, a glass 
saw, and a vertical tube sealer. A radio 
induction coil welds glass to metal and 
spot or butt welders unite metal poits. 
Stresses are spotted by a polariscope and 
eliminated by an electric .•innealing fur- 

The fabrication supervisor is Robert 
Wagner. Mr. Wagner grew up in 
Champaign and attended the University 
(if Illinois. In 1Q,^9 he started as a glass 
blower in the E. E. lab, and when the 
laboratory was recently e.xpanded he 
was promoted to fabrication supervisor. 
Physics Glass Lah 

The physics glass lab is run by Mr. 
Orrin A. Walker, who previously 
worked in the E. E. lab for 13 months. 
He has been in the physics lab for the 
past 5 months. Mr. Walker came to 
the University after being discharged 
{Continued on page 28) 

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\\\ a good iWnS ^^ 

V , V, He's a Square D Field Engineer. There 
A ,\ are others Hke him in Square D branches 
■iJ'.u jj^ more than 50 principal cities of the United 
States, Canada and Mexico. These men are 
liaison between Square D and industrial 
America. Their full-time job is contacting 
industries of every type and size. It is through 
them that we are able to do our job effec- 
tively. That job is three-fold: To design and 
build electrical distribution and control equip- 
ment in pace with present needs — to provide 
sound counsel in the selection of the right 
equipment for any given application — to an- 
ticipate trends and new methods and speed 
their development. 

If you have a problem in electrical distri- 
bution or control, call in the nearby Square D 
Field Engineer. He makes a lot of sense in 
finding "a better way to do it." 


THIS ONE have appeared regularly In leading business 

magazines. Their primary purpose is to build acceptance 

for Square D Field Engineers, practically all of whom come 

to us from leading engineering schools such as yours. 




Introducing . . . 

[ (^unlniin/i from fitit/c 14) 
Detroit, wlu-rc he split his time between 
the school aiul the Ford Motor Com- 
pany, he worked for four years as a 
commercial fisherman on Lake Superior. 
Then he attended Michigan College of 
Mines and Technology, where he re- 
ceived his H.S. in \9^7'. 

After leaving school Mr. Eckel went 
to work for the Chrysler Motor Com- 
pany in powdered metallurgy. After 
two \ears at Chrysler, he spent six 
months at Carnegie-Illinois Steel. 

In U'.iO he came to the I . ot I. as 
an instructor of metallurg}'. He made 
use of his spare time here by working on 
his M.S., which he received in 194^. In 
1944 Mr. Eckel became E. J. Eckel, as- 
sistant professor of metallurgical engi- 
neering and in 1947 he became associate 

At the present, I'mf. Eckel teaches 
advanced physical metallurgy, ferrous 
and non-ferrous metallography, and a 
course in powdered metallurgy. He has 
been given the responsibility for organ- 
izing this last coiMse. 

His magazine articles include the fol- 
lowing: "Method for Measuring Au- 
stenitic (iirain Size of Steel" and "A 
New Hardibility Test for Shallow- 
Hardening Steel." He has also written 
a University of Illinois bulletin on 

"E\aIuation of Quenching Media." 

Mr. Eckel somehow finds time to 
work in bis garden. Last year he filled 
12 ( 1/ jl of locker space with his home- 
grown fruit. He has been married since 
1942 and has one son four years old. 
His home and garden are on Hcale\ 
Street in Champaign, just in b.ick of 
Steak and Shake. 

Professor Eckel is a member of T.iu 
Heta I'i, Sigma Xi, Alpha Sigma .Mu, 
.ind the .'\merican Society for Metals. 

He attributes his selection as a most 
effective instructor to the fact that he 
teaches "not bow to act when you are 
settled in a job, but how to get and hold 
the first job." 

Navy Pier . . . 

{ddutiniii il fi mil [^(igc 16) 
wings and gun turrets. Jackson, handy 
with his camera, snapped Kramer climb- 
ing out of the cockpit. 

Next in the tour came the machine 
shop. Here, .is the guide explained, 
many modifications and improvements 
are improvised. It is necessary for these 
parts to be made with the same degree 
of accuracy as is required by the manu- 

Some of the men saw the control room 
in the control tower. They were shown 
the method used to direct air traffic and 
avoid confusion. The photogs who went 

up noticed the good view of the whole 
airfield; the result was a \ery good set 
of pictures because of the unusual wa\ 
they were taken. 

When Mr. Zanotti called for Kramer 
and an answer rang back, he knew the 
whole group was present, and it was .-dl 
right to continue to the next point nl 
interest: the F-H4. Jackson, still handx 
with his camera, took two \ery impres- 
sive \iews. 

The feature attractions of the craft 
are the dorsal fins protruding from each 
wing tank. This enables the ship to 
perform at its best during high-speed 
tlights. Another addition was the pilot 
ejector, a safety measure for the pilot. 
A warning had been posted on side 
which stated : "Do Xot Operate Con- 
trols . . . Explosive . . . Detonator on. ' 

Another aircraft inspected was the 
Douglas C-47. It is a compact ship an<l 
is capable of carrying a large amount of 
cargo. It is said to be the transport 
with the most flying time ; thus the name 
given to it was the "Work-Horse of the 
Air Forces." 

This toin- helps one to understand and 
realize that an aircraft is a single 
mechanized unit designed for one pur- 
pose. The successful program achieved 
by earlier aeronautical engineers is great- 
ly appreciated by the up-and-coming en- 
gineers of tomorrow. 

NE has everything 

... in electrical roughing-in materials 

National Electric has a complete line of wires, cable, 
anduit, raceways and fittings for every wiring need. 
Just remember — when you get in a spot where 
Du need something good (electrically speaking) but 

fast— the wholesaler who handles National Electric 

products is your sofest bet. 

national Electric 



3 Good Shows 

by The lllini Theatre Guild 

"The Good Woman of Setzuan" 

By Bertolt Brccht 
MARCH 15-16-17-18 

For the Festival of Contemporarv Art 
(Free to the Public) 

"An Enemy of the People" 

by Ilenrik Ibsen 
APRIL 19-20-21-22 

"The Philadelphia Story" 

l)y Phili]) Barry 
MAY 10-11-12-13 

Tickets $1.20 on Sale at lllini Union Box Office 
One week before the produetion. 



Books and Supplies 

for every engineering need 



Fresh Flowers . . . 

The Season for Mums 

Cut Flowers 




Chrysanthemum Blooming Plants 

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Indian Corn and Gourds 





PROBLEM — You are designing a circular saw. The blade 
must have horizontal, vertical, and angular adjustments. 
Your problem is to work out a drive for the blade that 
permits this three-way adjustment. How would you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER — Use an S.S.White flexible shaft 
to bring power from the counter-shaft or motor to the blade. 
There is no simpler mechanical means than a flexible shaft 
for driving parts which must be adjustable. And simplicity 
In design means economy in production. 

* * * 

This is just one of hundreds of remote control and power 
drive problems to which S.S.White flexible shafts provide 
a simple answer. That's why every engineer should be 
familiar with the range and 
scope of these tireless "Metal 
Muscles"*for mechanical 

•Trademark Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 
and elsewhere 

Here'i one prominent 
manufacturer's solu- 
tion fo this problem. 

Fhoio courttsy of 
FIr.sdiu Mfg. Cc. 
Fort Austin, Michigan 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for asking. Write today. 




OIPT.C, 10 IAS1 40th St., NCW YOUK 16. M. T. 


^KC a^ AiHtnicAi A AAA Oiuiuitual S-Utfo'UaA 


Bubbles . . . 

(C^onliniud from piujc 24) 
froin the st'r\ice. Betoio he got the 
famous greetinj;, he worked in the Fast 
tor Machlett X-Ray Tuhe Coiiipain. 

This lah \\'\\\ tackle any joh for aii\- 
otie. A great deal of Mr. Walker's time 
is spent filling ( leiger counter tubes with 
the appropriate atmospheres. Most of 
the jobs he gets arc for laboratory ap- 
paratus, but he has a greater variety of 
equipment to make than the other cam- 
pus labs. 

There is no annealing furnace here 
at the present time but one has been 

ordered. A large lathe is in the lab for 
handling cumbersome pieces. This lathe 
is used a great deal for ring seals where 
concentricity is an important factor. The 
lab is also equipped with a diamond 
tipped saw that is used to cut glass. 
Polishing and grinding equipment is also 
on hand. A drill press that can be used 
to bore any size hole is used ; the abras- 
ive used with the drill is a mixture of 
water and carborundum. 

The apparatus used to evacuate Geig- 
er counter tubes was made by Mr. 
Walker. With the pump on hand he is 
able to get down to around KM ,//; 

vacuum. A new pump that has been 
ordered will enable him to reach l(h' 
cm or greater. Leaks in the system are 
tested by using a small generator which 
discharges at a pin-point. The point is 
touched to the tubing and the color ob- 
served is an indication of the pressure. 
Small leaks, with which Mr. Walker 
is troubled, cannot be detected with the 

The glass lab at the Betatron build- 
ing was not visited but the labs in gen- 
eral are very much the same. They re- 
ceive little if any notice but it would be 
haid to get along without them. 

Engineers . . . 

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How to help a bread slicer 
carve a name for itself 

Designers of a new, 75-loaves-a-minute bread slicer 
were looking for a way to insure long-term accuracy 
and minimum maintenance. They found the answer 
in Timken" tapered roller bearings. 

Timken bearings keep the knife drum shafts in 
rigid alignment, maintain precision movement of 
parts. They require minimum attention, normally 
last the life of the machine. And they permit tighter 
closures that keep the lubricant on the bearings 
. . . off the bread. 

Why they all look alike 
to a TIMKEN bearing 

Loads from any direction — radial, thrust or combi- 
nations of both — are carried by Timken bearings, 
thanks to their tapered design. Timken tapered 
roller bearings make auxiliary thrust bearings and 
thrust plates unnecessary . . . simplify design, save 
space, cut costs. 



Want to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems you'll 
face after graduation will involve bearing applica- 
tions. If you'd like to learn more about this phase 
of engineering, we'll be glad to help. For additional 
information about Timken bearings and how engi- 
neers use them, write today to The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And don't for- 
get to clip this page for future reference. 




Honoraries and Societies . . . 

((,'oritiniutt froiii put/r \2} 

scqufiiCf paralleling their perforniaiice 
in the making of the finished product. 

W'orkers were seen producing many 
shapes and sizes of cores and placing 
theni on the conveyor to go to the oven 
tor baking. Methods and operations of 
torming molds from sand, e.xpertiv pre- 
pared for specific purposes, were seen. 

before going to the pouring line. e\- 
er\()Me was gi\en the npiiortunity to see 
a cupola being charged with the proper 
amounts of iron, coke, and limestone 
from which the molten iron was being 
transferred to an electric furnace for 

.Mo\ing on to the pouring line, the 
pouring operation was seen; ami after 
sufficient cooling of the metal, shaking 
of the molded product from the mold 
was viewed at the end ot the pouiing 
line. From there, the process of cooling 
the castings to room temperature and 
the procedures of cleaning, grinding, 
sorting, and storing were pointed out as 
e\eryone listened and watched attentive- 
1\'. These operations were seen carried 
out for both grey iron and malleable iron 

Auxiliary operations such as mainten- 
ance, control room operations for regu- 
lating oven temperatures, along with the 

safety, sanitation, and dispensary facili- 
ties were not excluded from the observ- 
ant eye. AH received a general concep- 
tion of the separate operations and their 
effective combin.ation to gi\e a working 

To add to the enjoyment of the eve- 
ning, dinner was served in the compan\- 
cafeteria, and the admiiustrative person- 
nel were introduced to the group. The 
evening was climaxed with a movie of 
the foundry game entitled Tin Moviiu/ 
II 'urid. 

A. 1. Ch. E. 

The chemical engineers pidled a good 
Noting delegation for election of officers 
januar\- 5. The meeting started with a 
nio\ie, Miii/rns'tiiiii Tntisiirr fruiii tin 

Everyone awakened in time to \ote 
for a good crew of unit operators. (Offi- 
cers for the spring semester are: 

President — John H. Shurtleff 

Vice president — Henry Kahn 

Secretary — Dick Bennett 

Treasurer — Art Dreshfield 

Engineering Council — Dan Keefe, 
Jerry Slusser. 

Another movie, (yaravan, was present- 
ed after elections. This completed a 
successful semester of programs using 
visual aids. 

Professor Bailar, head of the chemical 
placement, introduced Mr. J. F. Zim- 
merman, personnel director at Sinclair's 
research and development plant at Har- 
ve\'. 111. He is a big man in more than 
one sense of the word. Before inter- 
viewing job applicants the following da\ , 
Mr. Zimmerman told of job opportuni- 
ties with the Sinclair Refining Comparn. 

S. B. A. C. S. 

The Student Branch of the American 
Ceramic Societ\- helil its regular monthh 
meeting on January 12. After the busi- 
ness meeting Dr. C. L. Thompson, lab- 
oratory manager for Harbison-Walker 
Refractories company, spoke on the ap- 
plication of ceramics to research in re- 

SBACS also has undertaken the pub- 
lication of a yearbook, The Illini (Jer- 
ri/nistj which will appear in May, 1950. 
This is a revival of a publication issued 
by the society before the war. 

On December 6 the student branch 
was honored to have Hobart M. Kraner, 
president of the American Ceramic Soci- 
ety, speak at a special meeting. Kraner, 
who heads the ceramic research depart- 
ment of the Bethlehem Steel company, 
was on campus to represent the ceramic 
industry at the recent Career Confer- 

{Continued on page 32) 




acsiF" builds extra stamina in 
every bearing labeled fflCSlF. 
Unseen but vital plus-factors 
have enabled 3CSIF Bearings 
to set new records for efficiency 
and durability. For acsiF con- 
centrates on not one but eight 
factors for superiority. SCSIF 
IND., INC., PHILA. 32. PA. 



for ¥\ne Gifts in Jewelry 




Strauch's at Campus 

709 S. Wright St. 









The Finest In Diamond Rings, Watches, Gifts 
Visit Our Watch Repair Department 

607 E. Green Street, Champaign 
Serving Illini Since 1931 



What was the key to 
Ben FrankUn's success? 

It wasn't the one on the end of this kite string, you can be sm-e. The key 

to Frankhn's basic contributions to the progress of science and engineering 
in America was his solid gi'ounding in technical fundamentals. In America, 
the finest textbooks ai-e available to everyone. They provide the 
indispensable background in technology that has made and keeps America great. 

Many of the books in wliich you are now studying the fundamentals 

of your specialty beai- the McGraw-Hill imprint. McGraw-Hill is the world's 
largest publisher of books for technical reference and instruction, 
as well as advanced research and study. 

Today's discoveries are tomorrow's fundamentals. 
When you finish college, you will want to keep 
up with the latest advances in your field. TJien, 
McGraw-Hill magazines and books for the practicing 
engineer will report to you on aU that is new, 
necessary and important. And you'll depend on 
the advertising pages of McGraw-Hill publications 
to tell you where the latest equipment is available. 

Today in college, and tomorrow in industry, yom- 

progress depends on how well you keep up 

with yovir field. McGraw-HiU will continue to 

serve you with books and magazines which 

provide all that is important and up to date. 

McGraw-Hill Publications 



330 Wesf v42nd ttreet. New York 18, New York 



Honoraries and Societies . . . 

((IniitiniiCil front fxujf 30) 

A. S. A. E. 

The University of Illinois was well 
represented at the ASAE Conxention 
that was held in the Stevens hotel in 
Chicago. Approximately 45 to 50 stu- 
ilents and faculty niemhers registered at 
rlu" convention. While in Chicago one 
of our student members, Hill Fletcher, 
had the opportunity to speak o\er the 
radio on Hon McXiel's Breakfast show. 
Mill got in a plug for the ASAE there 

Since the AS.AE is going to put out a 
yearbook about the society and depart- 
ment here at the L'niversit\- of Illinois, 
all agricultural engineering students 
should offer their help for this big job. 

I. T. E. 

Many of the student members of the 
Institute of Traffic Engineers attended 
the second Illinois Traffic Engineering 
conference on December 6, 7, and 8. 
More than 100 traffic engineers were 
welcomed at the opening session by Wil- 
liam L. Everitt, dean of the College of 
Engineering, and Charles P. Casey, di- 
rector of the State Department of Public 
W^orks and Buildings. 

Carroll C. Wiley, professor of high- 

wax' engineering, was directoi' of the 
conference which was sponsored b\ the 
L ni\ersity Ci\il Engineering Depart- 
ment, the Illinois Di\ision of Highways, 
Midwest .section of the Institute of 
'Eraffic Engineers, and the Dixision of 
I ni\ crsity E.xtension. 

'Ehe participants in the conference 
were p r e s e n t e d 25 talks on topics 
such as off-street parking, school crossing 
protection, one-way streets, traffic acci- 
dents, speed control, and human be- 
havior in driving. 


A. I. E. E.— I. R. E. 

The fall preliminaries of the technical 
papers on competition were held on De- 
cember 13. Six papers were entered. 
The contestants and their topics were 
as follows: 

Electroencephalography: John Wood. 

Fractional Horsepower Motor Re- 
pair: Charles Eletson. 

How High Is the Moon?: Clifford 

Double Input Oscilloscope: William 

Dimensional Anahsis: Ross Ha\e- 

Color Television Systems: Ken Bor- 

Ehe judges were X. R. Scott, P. K. 
Hudson, and B. J. Wilson of Depart- 
ment of Electrical Engineering, and R. 
H. Brunner and H. W. Van Gerpen of 
the Graduate College. First prize, $15, 
went to John Wood and second prize, 
$10, to Ross Havemann. An unofficial 
third place was mentioned for William 
DeBoice. The two winners will com- 
pete with the spring semester winners 
for the year's championship at an vman- 
nounced date. 

" Tfiish match won't light." 

"JJasha matter with itf" 

"I dunno — it lit alright a minute ago." 

This compact, modern drive controls belt tension con- 
tinuously; keeping it even, despite changes in load. 

In fact, this drive keeps belt pull uniform two ways, 
around and across the pulleys. Here's how it works. 
TEN5I0N-C0NTR011INC J. The tension-controlling motor base maintains uniform 
MOTOR BASE pulling power around the pulleys by automatically com- 
pensating for load changes. 

2. The flat leather belt keeps belt pull uniform across 
the pulleys because it is undivided. No danger of separate, 
uneven tensions. 

Headquarters for Authentic Power Transmission Data 




MARCH, 1950 

fACSs> TO COUtmBAcr -n^ 

* A!/P STAB/JJT}^ D/^^/C Ul-T/f. 

New Look in Concrete 

Page 7 

Blarney Stone 

Page 8 

Blarney from St. Pat 

Page 9 

Orion: New Textile 

Page 10 


How to make 31,000 people happy 

ONE of the biggest single housing de- 
velopments ever undertaken has 
taken its place in the panorama of New 
York City's lower East Side. It is the 
result of cooperation between private 
enterprise, the State, and the City. 

The rise of Peter Cooper Village and 
adjacent Stuyvesant Town has changed 
the face of this 80-acre section of Man- 
hattan . . . has transformed a slum area 
of tenements and factories into modern. 

roomy living quarters for 31,000 people. 

Many similar projects . . . some per- 
haps not so large, some even larger . . . 
must take form before America licks its 
housing problem. And they'll all require 
vast quantities of steel, for steel is the 
backbone of modern construction. 

Today the steel industry is looking 
ahead toward tomorrow's big projects. 
At United States Steel, a vast training 
program is going forward continually, 

preparing men to handle the many 
highly-technical jobs that modern steel- 
making involves. Many of these jobs are 
far removed physicilly from the roaring 
blast furnaces and glowing open hearths 
—at the same time, thev are absolutely es- 
sential to today's precision steelmaking. 
Through its training program. United 
States Steel is laying the foundations for 
promising futures for young men who 
meet its qualifications. 



How to 
Keep a Name 


Names in business can lose strength 
and vigor, even as you and I. Yes . . . 
a business can die, just like people. 
Here are ways business insures 
against this end: 

Research for product improve- 
ment and new development . . . plant 
improvement for more efficient, 
lo\Ner cost operation . . . quality 
control to maintain standards ot 
production . . . student and employee 
training to energize and revitalize 
the mental reservoir. Here's an ex- 
ample of how Research helps keep 
a business vigorous: 

Grand Coulee and other mam- 
mouth hydro projects generating 
tremendous new pools of electrical 
energy, have created new problems 

in transmission. Through the great 
resources of its research depart- 
ment Westinghouse developed a 
new one-piece, oil circuit breaker 
to handle these immense capacities. 

To test it, the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation routed the short-cir- 
cuit output of the six, 108,000-kva 
generators at Grand Coulee Dam 
together with the back feed over 
six, 230-kv transmission lines from 
the Bonneville Power Administra- 
tion system and the Northwest 
Power Pool for a tremendous short- 
circuit test. 

The result: interrupting-capacity 
ceiling raised from 3'/^ million to 
7'/2 million kva. 

Research, plant improvement for 

efficient production and quality 
control are all dependent on another 
basic element . . . training. 

Let's look more closely at that 
element ... as it is handled by 
Westinghouse. Engineering Gradu- 
ates who join us first receive some 
months of basic training ... an 
orientation period with initial work 
assignments and product confer- 
ences. Then further training with 
specialization in engineering, manu- 
facturing, sales or other activities. 
Finally, placement. 

That is one of the ways an or- 
ganization is kept strong. It re- 
quires strength to protect a name 
whose reputation is staked on the 
commitment . . . 

MARCH, 1950 

you CAN 6E SURE.. IF rr^ W^stindiouse 

iw Develiipiiieiits 

f/f/ Itill Stnlvrntriini. t'vr.K. '.12 

New Control Centers 

\c\\ ilcsi,L;n> 111 \\'c>rm<;ll(uisc inotoi- 
I'ontiol centers lia\e greatly impro\i-(l 
rile accessibility for niainteiiaiice ami re- 
pair without sacrificins; any ot the saterv 

IMuji-in connections to the buss pro- 
\iiles a greater degree of safety as well 
as simplifying installation and removal 
of the starter unit. ( niides for the indi- 
\idual starter luiit assure that plug-in 
stabs are aligned with buss connections. 
The starter luiit can also be disconnect- 
ed from the buss without removing it 
from the structure simply by tilting it 
foi'ward in place. This enables the stab- 
in s\stcm to be used as a disconnect 
swircli when desirable. 

The new Westinghouse motor-con- 
trol center has complete baffling 
and plug-in connections to busses. 
(Courtesy of Westinghouse) 

Starter units are baffled on all tour 
sides, but wiring is not complicated. The 
right side of the baffling slides out of 
the starter assembly to facilitate work on 
the wiring runway. Tests recently con- 
ducted indicate that bafHling is an essen- 
tial feature if faults are to be confined 
to the point of origin without bvnning 
out the entire structure o) tlie motor- 
contnil mechanism. 

Fast Photo Flash 

It is possible to photograph missiles 
moving many times faster than sound 
and even to make pictures of sound 
waves themselves. 

Such pictvires are proving imalualile 
in research into the behavior of missiles 
in flight and wind-tunnel models of 
faster-than-sound aircraft. 

The fastest camera shutters can onl\' 
cut exposure time down to one-thous- 
andth of a second, which is enough time 
for a ritle bullet to travel almost two 
feet. Hence, e\|iosures in the nullionth- 
of-a-second range must be made with 
quick flashes of light rather than b\ 
means of fast shutters. 

A special photolight developed bv 
(leneral Electric gives a brilliant flash 
of light lasting only two-millionths of a 
seconil. Pictures of bullets and shells in 
flight are taken with an ordinarv' camera 
and the high-speed photolight. 

Photographing sound waves, which 
move at about 760 miles per hour, re- 
quires a high-speed flash and a special 
optical system, which can cast into shaip 
relief varying densities of air. This 
method is known as "Schlieren tech- 
nique," and iiroduces photographic im- 
ages of sound waves, which are areas of 
high compression in air. 

High-Speed Microtome 

.\ ( ieneral Klectric scientist has nuule is believed to be the thinnest slice 
ever made by man. 

The slice, a piece of metal less than 
two-millionths of an inch thick, was 
cut by a shock-wave which formed in 
the sample ahead of a knife-blade mov- 
ing with the speed of sound. Shock 
waves are areas of extremely high com- 
pression which build Lip in air or solids 
ill front of objects moving at high speeil. 

The slicing device, called "high-speeil 
microtome," was developed by Dr. i;. 
F. Fullaiii of the company's researth 
laboratory. To be examined under the 
electron microscope, a magnifying instru- 
iiieiit roughlv 1(10 times more powerful 
than the best light microscope, samples 
must be sliced with the .abov e-n.imed 

Using a shock-wave instead of .-i cut- 
ting edge to do this slicing, l)i. Fiil- 
lani has been able to make ultra-thin 
specimens of everything from delicate 
animal and plant tissues to teeth and 

X-Roy Spectrogoniometer 

Scientists can ikjw explore unknown 
substances with X-rays, and determine 
in a few minutes what elements the 
substances contain and how the atoms 
in them are arranged, by means of a 

Dr. E. F. Fullam of G. E. operates 
a new microtome capable of slicing 
less than two millionths of an inch 
thick. (Courtesy of General Electric) 

Dr. D. Marker of G. E. studies a 
record of an unknown chemical 
sample drawn automatically by the 
X-ray spectrogoniometer. (Courtesy 
of General Electric) 

new automatic instrument. The device 
was developed by General Electric. 

Called an X-ray spectrogoniometer, 
the instrument makes its analyses by 
means of X-rays, an especially sensitive 
"(jeiger counter," and a system of gears 
machined to the accuracy of these useil 
to guide major astronomical telescopes. 

A sample to be analyzed is mounted 
in the center of a large table. An X-ray 
beam is passed through it, and the ( lei- 
ger counter, moved by precision gea|■^, 
rotates around it slowly, measuring the 
intensity of X-rays scattered by the s.iiii- 
ple at every angle. 

Intensities of the X-rays and the an- 
gles at which thev are scattered are 
rec(U(led aiitomaticallv on a moving 
strip of paper in the form of a graph, 
llie record is marked off in the degrees 
of a circle through which the Geiger 
(Continued on page 28) 



Ray Hauser Editor 

Connie Minnich Assoc. Editor 

Gene Blaiiyer Mnkcup Editor 

Art DreshfieKl Asst. Editor 

Dwight Heard Asst. Editor 

Dick Choronzy Asst. Editor 

Hi'nr\ Kahil Asst. Editor 

Dan Keck" hsi. Editor 

Editorial .issocidtcs 

Bill Soderstruin 
Dean Feltrm 
Dave Cash 
lohn Hubcr 
Edward Finkcl 
Jim Ephgrave 
lane Parlee 
Bill Black 
Don Horton 

Don Rhea 
Bill Sandusky 
Don Sweet 
Chuck Flanders 
Bob c;iff row- 
Henry Kalapaca 
Tom Tucker 
(Jcorge Ratz 
Tack I'llman 


Fred Seavey Bus. Mgr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Lou Davidson ...Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Bill Anderson Asst. Bus. Mgr. 

Don Johnson hst. Bus. Mgr. 

Business Associates' 

Altreda Mallorey 
Ed Brooks 
Bob Gerzetich 
lovanne Blount 
"lini Roth 

Dick Kenna 
James Skarda 
Charles Kukura 
Bill Huber 
Duane Carpenter 

Faculty Advisers 

J. A. Henry 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 


Chairman: Prof. F. J. Cheek, Jr. 
University of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
Technograph. Iowa Engineer, lo 

Transit, Kans.-i. Eni;,,.,-, 

r. Kansas State 

iiuer, Louisiana 

State Univei^^t 1 

Marquette Engi- 

neer, MichiK.m 1 

1 iiniesota Techno- 

log, Missouri M ,:i ; .i., \ 

Inaska Blueprint, 

New York r),:^>l■>n i 

n.i.lrangle. North 

Dakota Engim. i. \. iili 

lakota State En- 

gineer, Ohio St,.i. Ln^im. 

1 , Oklahoma State 

Engineer, OrcKuu .state 

Icchnical Record, 

I'enn State Engineer, 

'cnnsylvania Tri- 

angle, Purdue Engineer, 

Rochester Indica- 

tor. Rose Technic, Wav 

le Engineer, and 

Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary. March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 

Volume 65 

Number 6 

Publisher's Representative— Litlell Mur 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avci 
Chicago 11. 111. 101 Park Avenue, J 
York 17, New York. 

The Tecfi Presents 


New Look in Concrete 7 

Blarney Stone Discovered 8 

Blarney From St. Pat 9 

Orion — Amazing New Textile 10 


New Developments 2 

Boneyard Bilge 11 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies 12 

Personalities '3 

Technocracks 32 


The aero engineers are immortalized on this month's cover 
by cartoonist Ed Lozano. That wind tunnel is one of the bigger 
sources of hot air on North Campus. 


The coal shortage abruptly halted the carefully engineered plans for St. Pat's 
Ball and the I SEE weekend. 

Engineering classes will be dismissed at 12 noon, Friday, March 31, for 
participation in I SEE. Action starts with the parade at 2:00 after the appearance 
of St. Pat at his now-famous geyser. 

Our own St. Pat's Ball will be held in Huff Gym Saturday evening, April 1, 
at 9:00. Music for the semi-formal affair will be provided by Bud Roderick's Bond. 
Tickets are $2.30 and are available at the lllini Union Box Office. No April FoolinI 


J^ew- Jdoak 



JHf/ Vunniv II . ^iinnivh. t'.K. '.11 

The siiniir of in/uritc has (XpttiiiLiI a iiiillioii-f'tld siin i llii fori/iiihiti'iii nf 
the first irjiiiiiKindiiunt of roncriti ilcsii/n. Abnun's Laiv. '/'h( lujc dtvclof'nK tils 
ill this field have turned eonerele into a highly /tlaslie huildini/ material that is 
adaptable to nearly all given eonditions. 

Some of these new developments that have hr'night ahout tlu desiiin revolution. 
sueh as the hit/hly-puhlirized prestressed eonerele and vaeuiim eonerete. are dis- 
eussi il in this artu le. 

Think of coiicreti- and alniosr inmu'- 
diately there hops into mind that all- 
embracing definition of Portland Ce- 
ment, "... a mixture of argillaceous 
and calcareous materials . . ." from the 
ASTM specifications. Since the writ- 
ing of this classic sentence, experimental 
studies have produced new trends in 
concrete construction and manufacture 
that definitely mark the beginning of 
a new building era at the turn of this 

One of the biggest phases of this de- 
velopment has been the increasing use 
of concrete as a decorative as well as 
a structural building material. Serving 
in this capacit}', it is technically known 
as architectural concrete; contrary to 
public opinion, such decorative design 

is no longer specif icalh' designated as 
part of the architect's work. 

The general trend of building engi- 
neering has been back toward one of its 
major origins — the days when bLiilding 
was looked upon as a craft and ci\il 
engineering and architecture had not 
yet gone their ways into different de- 
grees of specialization. Portland Cement 
Association has aptly referred to engi- 
neering as the seienee of building and to 
architecture ;is the art of building. It 
has been onl\ within the past 15 years 
that the two professions have again be- 
gun coordinating their creative work 
to produce structurally sound as well as 
artisticalh' pleasing designs. 

The metamorphosis of the master de- 
signer will not be |iossible foi' years yet 

An example of what is being done to house important municipal functions 
in attractive buildings, this waterw^orks was designed by William Dechant 
& Sons, architects and engineers of Reading, Pa., for Denver, Pa. (Cour- 
tesy of the Portland Cement Association) 

to come, since educational gears have 
not yet been shifted to give the civil 
engineers certain visual arts training, 
and there is little literature a\ailable 
on such architectural design. A gradual 
transition is being effected, however, as 
nian\ municipal and state governments 
are organizing building committees that 
are empowered to approve av reject a 
structure on the merits of its appear- 
ance alone. 

Modirn tinishing Touehes 

Despite the fact that the present-ila\ 
structural engineer has had no school- 
ing on the use of architectural concrete, 
it is possible for him to add a few fine 
finishing touches to his designs or to 






the time is 

8 o'clock i 

1 the morning 

or evening. 

one is olmost 

alwoys sure 

to find Con- 

nie In the 

Tech office. 


editorship of 

this mogoz 

ne, secretory- 

ship of M 

Son, ASCE, 

Illinois Soci 

cty of Protes- 

sionol Engin 

sers ond chair- 

monship of 

thc Parade 


for the 1 SEE 

time beyond studies, 

make provisions for such additions h\ 
the exercise of a few simple rules and 
by a basic knowledge of certain pro- 
cedures required to attain such aesthetic 

For a building to follow some excep- 
tionalK' decorative scheme, the oxerall 
design must be coordinated and roughed 
out by an architect. The modernistic 
approach of the painting and sculptur- 
ing of the concrete within such a build- 
ing comes Linder the interior decorating 
profession. Howe\er, it is necessar\' for 
the engineer to be familiar with the 
fundamental steps of such inteiioi" de- 
sign if he is to make provisions tor such 
liKins in I'.is (i\^n structural details. 

Wall Finishes 

Walls 111 gieat height in monolithic 
concrete follow one or the other ot two 
popular motifs: one requires concrete 
with a perfectly smooth finish, and the 
other calls for a surface with the tex- 
ture of wood. To obtain the latter, the 
forms are constructed of thoroughh- 
wetted, coarsely-cut, undressed lumber. 
The concrete is pioportioned for a high 
degree of plasticity to obtain the hea\\ 
imprints from the wood grains of the 
forms. \'er\ smooth surfaces, on the 
other hand, reqiuic ;i high t|iialit\ ol 
finished lumber for the formwork and 
careful placing of the concrete. 

"Painted" concrete on which appear 
nnn'als, stenciled designs, or art of a 
similar nature, is pretreated by a spe- 
cial iirocess. After setting and a proper 
(Continued on page 16) 

MARCH, 1950 

Blarney Stone Discovered! 

Dean W. L. Everitt displays the original Blarney Stone at the scene of its 
discovery. The Stone was later put away in his office vault for safe-keep- 
ing. (Photo by Bob Hansen) 


URBANA, 111., Feb. 9— (FP)— "Erin 
Go Bragh — Flush ye Boneyard." 

These words of reputed ancient Gaelic 
script were the cause of one of the most 
supernatural incidents that has over oc- 
curred at the University of Illinois. 

Eye-witnesses at the scene of the inci- 
dent .save vivid and stirring accounts of 
the event. According to the general 
version, a series of explosions today 
shattered the quiet of the campus (save 
lor the shuffling feet of registering grad- 
uate students) at 4:00 p. m., C. S. T. 
Coming out of their respective buildings 
onto Burrill Avenue, spectators next 
heard an ominous rumbling emanate 
from the Boneyard Creek between Tal- 
bot Laboratory and the Electrical En- 
gineering Building. Suddenly there ap- 
peared from the Boneyard bed, between 
the pedestrian bridge and the truck 
service bridge into the E. E. Building, 
a tall geyser of spray and water that 
shot 20 feet into the air. 

The geyser, from all accounts, was 
a bright kelly green color that dyed the 
Boneyard as it fell back to the stream 

(For the benefit of the uninitiated, 
the Boneyard is a small stream that 

wends its way through the heart of the 
Engineering College at the University, 
and continues down through the city of 
Urbana in an easterly direction until 
it meets the Vermilion and Wabash 
rivers a number of miles away. Ac- 
cording to recently established bacterio- 
logical and chemical analyses, the Bone- 
yard is reported to be contaminated. 
Steps towards its purification have been 
taken by a joint committee of the towns 
of Urbana and Champaign in hiring en- 
gineering firms to make an estimate and 
survey of the work necessary for com- 
plete sanitation of the creek bed. Lat- 
est reports indicate that engineering 
and construction action will very soon 
give the Boneyard a "New Smell.") 

During the ensuing commotion caused 
by the initial explosions, a large crowd 
of faculty and students gathered on the 
Burrill Avenue bridge for a closer 
glimpse of the unknown phenomena. 
Borrowing hip boots from the E. E. 
Building storeroom, two electrical engi- 
neering graduate students. Bob Bruce 
and Dick Campbell, heroically slid down 
the embankment to investigate the cause 
of the geyser, which, by the time of their 
arrival, had abated to a thin trickle. 

Probing on the creek bottom, they soon 
uncovered and lifted up for the crowd's 
inspection a medium-sized stone with 
an inscription in heiroglyphic letters. 

Dr. W. L. Everitt, Dean of the College 
of Engineering, received the stone after 
their return climb. Closely examining 
the stone, his face registered various 
expressions of increduality, amazement 
and happiness; then he made the start- 
ling announcement that this stone dug 
from the bottom of the Boneyard, was 
none other than the genuine Blarney 
Stone of the good St. Patrick, patron 
saint of all engineers! 

This deduction, he explained, he had 
made from an interpretation of the 
ciphers on the rock face, which were 
of a lost Gaelic tongue characteristic 
of the era 700 to 800 A. D., the approxi- 
mate time of the life of St. Pat. 

An acknowledged authority of ancient 
languages, Dean Everitt translated the 
first part of the inscription, "Erin Go 
Bragh," as "St. Pat was the first engi- 
neer." The second phrase, he explained, 

The St. Pat's geyser sends a twenty 
foot column of green water up in 
the air at the location of the dis- 
covery of the Blarney Stone. (Photo 
by Bob Hansen) 

was written in a form of very earix' 
Anglo-Saxon and needed no translation. 
This, he also claimed, confirmed man.\ 
of the rumors and legends in the Cliani 
paign-Urbana vicinity that the Boncxard 
was contaminated for centuries bcloie 
the discovery and exploration of North 
America. "Flush ye Boneyard" apparent 
ly referred to a cleanup campaign in- 
( Continued on page 22) 


"Faith an' b'gorrv, an' ti's th' da\ o' 
St. I'atrick, th' protector of i\iy son of 
an engineer that ivcr flunked out of a 
Physics 104 final. Aye, 'tis th' day when 
th' fightin' words, "Erin Go Hragh," 
ring out throughout ivry engineerin' 
campus from th' cold state o' Wash- 
ington down to th' tip o' suiun I'"lorida. 

"Tir \ears ha' come .m' gone, an' 
still me leprechaiuis are spreaiiin' th' 
true gospel around th' land. It's been 
a long time since th' engineerin' boys 
at Missouri adopted me for th'r patron 
saint on nie March 17 birthday back in 
th' year 1903. Aye, th' likes o' thim 
adoptin' th' likes o' me! An' as if I 
didn't have enough work to do bein' th' 
patron saint o' th' Shamrock Isle an' 
me Irish people all o\er th' world! 

"Faith, an' I can still see that da\- 
in 1903 as clearly as I see nie curlin' 
n\lon beard (present of a Chem E. that 
1 helped out of Chem 344). A handful 
of student engineers were a'talkin' in 
th' classroom by th'mselves and were 

The followiiip; bit of poetry was written 
ti\ J. S. Craiulell, Professor of Highway En- 
niiieeriiif^ ami first appeared in the April, 
l<);4, Tiihnii(nat<li. 


'7'xfrt.v III Missmiii III iiiiiiiri'ii llii,', 

Oil Si. Fatnik's uiiiii-vnsai y 

That the Enyinecrs iniraciiloiisly jtniiij 

I mystic slonr benealli the iiroiiiid 
.1 lei/end on its face it bore 
That /■tizzleJ scholars by the score. 
i\o fiiiiiJit from L. .1. and S. 
('.iiiilJ make it out, or even (jiiess 
The ineanint; hidden in those <ivords 
Irrational as loijs and surds. 
They made a dozen ijrave faux />as 
Tryinii to translate "Erin Go lirai/h." 

I siiintific ^'olunteer 
lh< i/>hered "Pal ivas an Ene/ineer." 

hid thus the words that seemed so ivild 
Here [<lain la even a P. E. child. 

.Ind yei there lius no one ichn kiieiv 

.lust iilial that stone mas — hoii; it i/reii- 

III old .M issouri's sloneless dirt 

I ' ndecipliered and rjuile inert 

I 'mil that En/jineer found out 

That Pat had been a darned i/ood scout. 

I lid noiL- there's never a buildiiiij boom 
ITilhiiut St. Pat disf>elTinij the i/loom 

That ordinarily falls to the lot 

Of the Enr/ineer ivho surveyed the /'lot. 

Or drained the meadow, or built the bridi/e. 

Or ran the hi/jhway alon/j the ridt/e, 

Or [tiayed with amperes, ohms, or volts. 

Or fii/ured pitches of threads on bolts, 

Or messed around in colloidal clay. 

Or worked out problems for pitiful pay. 

Or married a wife he louldn't phase 

ITilh malhemaliis or calorics. 

Ind now, St. Pat, so well you've done 
That a niche m Heaven you have icon 
The pathway of the student throni/ 
Is rouijh and thorny all alont/ ; 
'Tis oft beset with binks and i/uirks 
In spite of all your noble works. 
The students would be belter off 
If Life's dark blinders they could doff. 

In,! so, St. Pat, I i/ive you now 
This radiant halo for your brow. 
'Twill lit/ht the pathway of our School, 
That Eni/inccrs may bri//htly rule. 

MARCH, 1950 ■ - 

lio4ije4fG/id Buddies., Ue^e'^. the 


As Told by the Old Gent Himself 

resentin' th' world in general and th'i 
studies in pertiklar. One o' th'm, bein' 
a true Irishman, up and sez that seein' 
as how it's me birthda\-, an' seein' as 
how I was such a good engineei- (as 
well as th' first), the\- should adopt 
me f'r th'r patron saint. 

"Hegorrah, if they didn't even dis- 
co\er a blarney stone with th' myste- 
rious heirogloopics, 'Erin Go Bragh.' 
Now they, bein' true Irishmen an' 
good engineers, knew th't these words 
is very easily recognized as meanin' St. 
Put ii/is the first engineer. 

"An so 'twas in me honor th't the\ 
cut classes, burned books, paiaded 
around town, got thoroughly pickled, 
thrown in jail, and just about kicked 
out o' school. Thus began th' first cele- 
bration o' me birthday as Pat, the loyal 
patron saint o' all engineers. 

"Since th't time, the Mizzou engi- 
neers have been carryin' on such shenan- 
igans in th' best o' tradition, but wi' 
a mite less nude kickin' rh'n th' first 

"Th'n it was that I swung me trusty 
shillelagh an' beat th' gospel into th' 
brains o' th' good Badger engineers at 
Wisconsin, th' Iowa slide-rule totin' 
boys, th' Minnesota engineers, an' all 
other colleges an' universities that boast- 
ed engineers. 

"Sure, an' you're a-wonderin' by this 
time whether I -lins th' first engineer? 
Faith, I was! 

"When I first saw th' light o' iia\ 
in 732 A. I)., I little knew th' host o' 
adventures th't awaiteil me upon th' 
emerald shores o' Ireland. When a lad 
o' 16, pirates carrieil nie away from 
bonny Scotland and I was sold into 
sla\er\ ( th' beginnin' o' any engineerin' 
career) in nie foster country where I 
li\ed seven years as a swineherd. 

"Xh'n I began t' realize me destin\ 
was starred f'r somethin' greater th'n 
a porkchop valet. I escaped to Europe, 
rapidly rose in the Church until I be- 
came a bishop, an' returned to Irel.uul 
to continue m\' engineerin' career. 

"Here, upon the complaints of m\' 
foster countr\'men, I kicked out th' 
Diiiids who somewhere had gotten tli' 
idea th't they were better magicians 
than I. Th'n, b'gollw 1 executed m\ 
first engineerin' feat in casting out all 
th' snakes from Ireland with me own 
ingenious unit, me trusf\ 'worm drive' 

"I right soon discovered th't me 20 
fingers an' toes were insufficient f'r 
th' many computations I had to figure; 
so right th'n an' there I tied two o' 
me toothpicks together with a bit o' 
string, uttered th' magic words, 'Fift\ 
nine of th' inverse colog o' th' siiuaie 
root o' minus one to th' twent\-si\t\ 
power,' and presto — th' tirst slide rule. 
"Twas I that thought up th' hantly 
little gadget, th' can opener; for, he- 
gorrah, I got tired o' having me beer 
get warm while I took time t' chisel 
a hole ni th' can wi' me shillelagh. 
'Twas I th't invented th' match stick, 
for me toes get cold in th' long Irish 
winters. Now I sit aroiuul all da\' bliss- 
fulK' givin' meself an' others hot feet. 
Aye, th' list o' me inventions be long 
an' weight)', as testified b\ that song 
writ in me hon(n-, 'St. Patrick wa> an 
'St. Patrick was an engineer, he was, 

he was, 
St. Patrick was an engineer, he was, 

he was. 
Oh, he invented th' electric light 
So the engineer could bone all night, 
Erin ( lO Bragh, St. Patrick was ,-m 


l'"or he unented the c.ilculus 
And handed it down for us to cuss. 

l'"or he suiveyed the Emer,-ild Isle 
(Continued on page 20) 



^Ue Aina^iMKf. Aetu ^e/xiile 

hfi Li/nn Itvlt'tnul. 1'hvni. *.#.7 

Since the ilisc(>\ci\ (it rinoii, iiulusti\ 
li;is been working to tiiui newer and 
better synthetic textile fibers. The new- 
est major ciiscovers of the s\nthetic tibei 
iiulustvy ami p(is>ibiy the most important 
\et is Orhm. 

In l'54.i the employes of the I)u Pont 
C'ompan\- acetate yain plant at Waynes- 
boro. West Virginia, began hearing 
rumors of a strajige new product being 
stiuiied in the laboratories there. As the 
I'esearch team grew, word got around 

Orion lias the public anxiously 
awaiting its entrance into the 
world of fabrics. A synthetic fiber, 
(his polyacrylonitrile will help to 
replace the out-dated rayon. Not 
only are its wearing qualities 
among the best, but also industry 
will find many other uses for this 
extremely resistant fabric. 

This article tells of the develop- 
ment and possible uses of Orion in 
a very casy-to-read manner and 
explains some of the technical 
characteristics of the strong fibers. 

that the product .1 new wondei- 
s\ritlu'tic; it was mysterio\isly referred 
to as "fiber A." Six years after the re- 
search at Waynesboro had started, the 
stage of development was sufficient that 
the new material could be annoimced 
as a textile yarn and named "orlon." 

Du Pont is now building an orlon 
plant at Camden, South Carolina, that 
is schedviled to begin commercial jiro- 
duction late this year. When full-scale 
production is under way, it is estimated, 
the cost of orlon will fall somewhere 
between that of r;i\'on and that of nylon. 
If it lives uji to its laborator\" tests, the 
new fabric will fill the immense price- 
performance gap between rayon and 
n\ Ion. 

This .should do a much-needed service 
to the American public, for rayon, while 
hiw in price, is also low in performance; 
n\lon, high in quality, is also high in 
price. It is understood, howe\Tr, 
(jilon will not t.alcf the of n\lon 
,ind r.i\<in. but will onl\ supplement 

Fritiii lh( Cidiiiiil III tin Xiitllc 

Orion is made of the raw materials 
of nylon — coal, air, and water — plus two 
(ithers, natural gas and limestone. The 

I'nd product, orlon, is a polsnier of 
■ icrylonitrile, the main ingredient of 
Huna-N synthetic rubber. Since great 
quantities of acrylonitrile will be pro- 
duced in the manufacture of orlon, the 
price of acrylonitrile will drop; thus the 
manufacture of orlon may have a good 
effect on the synthetic rubber industr\'. 
A po.ssible process for the mamifac- 
ture of acr\ lonitrile in\ol\es the follow- 
ing steps : 

( 1 ) Limestone is he.ated in a kiln to 
\u-l(l Inne: 

CiCO., -^ CaO -\- CO.: 

(2) Lime and coal are heated red-hot 
in a stream of nitrogen from the air: 

CnO + iC + N., -^ 
CalCN)., + CO: 

(3) The calcium c\anide is hydrohzed 
to produce lime, which can be re-used, 
and hydrocyanic acid: 

Cn(CN)., + II..0 -> 

(4) Hydrocyanic acid and oxygen (from 
air) react with ethylene (from natural 
gas) to form acrylonitrile: 

IICN + CJI, -f O.. -^ 

if,o + CI I, cues. 

The acrylonitrile is then pohnierized. 
Poh'merization is a process in which the 
molecules of a substance are joined to- 
gether (end to end in the orlon process) 
to form large molecules having new 
chemical and physical properties. The 
polyacrylonitrile must be di.s.solved in a 
special solvent (such as a nitrophenol) 
to make a liquid mass. This mass is then 
extruded through spinnerets and is 
drawn as a filament through a solidify- 
ing bath. This smooth thread may be 
used to make a cloth resembling nylon, 
silk, or rayon. 

Another form of orlon, say Du Pont 
scientists, is indistinguishable from the 
finest wool in appearance anil feel. 1 his 
t\pe is produced b\- running the smooth 
orlon thread through a machine which 
puts a series of kinks in it. The thread 
is then cut into one and one-half inch 
lengths. This form, called "staple," can 
be processed h\ st.andard textile fiin'sh- 
ing methods. 

It's Toiif/h 

( )f the\ superior qualities of or- 
lon, perhaps the most important is its 
strength. The tenacity of dr\- orlon is 
4.0 to 4.8 grams per denier. (A denier 
is an expression of the fineness of a fiber 

in terms of grams per nine thousand 
meters length). When wet, orlon de- 
creases in tenacity about (1.4 grams per 

The orlon fiber has high strength at 
high temperatmes. Taking the tenacity 
ot orlon at 2S C; as a basis, Du Pont 
testers found that the ten;icit\ retained 

at a temperature of Kl (^ is 1,?7.5 per 

cent; at 73"6', 83.5 per cent; at 10(1 Y,', 
7.'i.,'i per cent; at \25°(J. 67.(1 per cent; 
and at 1 SO'^";, Sl.O per cent. 

When oilon is dr\ it will elongate 
from U) to 21 per cent under pressure; 
when wet, from 1 T to 20 per cent. 

Orion h,is not only a high stretch 
resistance but also a good elastic recov- 
ery It will recover 100 per cent from 
a two per cent stretch ; OS per cent from 
•a four per cent stretch. 

Closely related to strength are abra- 
sion resistance and flex life. Du Pont 
has conducted research to determine, in 
these aspects, the rating of orlon as com- 
|iared with other textile fibers. Fabrics 
of three and one-half ounces weight 
were tested for abrasion resistance. It 
was found that orlon, while not so re- 
sistant as nylon, is more resistant than 
any other fiber. Nylon and orlon are 
in a class by themselves when flex life 
is under consideration. According to Du 
Pont research, orlon will fail after 
.116,000 flexes; nvlon, after 380,000; 
wool, after 44,000; silk, after 5,000; 
\icose rayon, after 2,500; and acetate 
ra>on, after 200. With these data undei 
consideration, it seems probable that an 
orlon fabric will last, under normal 
wear, about se\en times as long as a 
comparable wool fabric. 

Dcfiiint to Che mil tils 
Exceptionally inert chemically, orlon 
resists degradation by many of the worst 
enemies of fabrics. No known fabric has 
absolute resistance to the action of ultra- 
violet light, a major component of sun- 
light. However, orlon has proved itself 
far superior to any other fabric in re- 
sisting outdoor exposure. 

In a test at Wilmington. Delaware, 
samples of several fabrics were subject- 
ed to constant outdoor exposure for two 
years. At the end of this period orlon lost only 35 per cent of its original 
strength. In comparison, the fiber most 
nearh approaching orlon lost all its 
strength in one and one-half \ears. 

Chemicals of most sorts are remark- 
ably ineffective against orlon. Orion dis- 
plays complete resistance to greases, oils, 
neutral salts, common solvents, and some 
acid salts. Its resistance to mineral acids 
is excellent; to weak alkalis, good. For 
example, .at room temperature hydro- 
chloric acid of 20 per cent concentration 
produces no detectable deterioration of 
orlon for 4*) da\s; 37 per cent concen- 
tration, for 9 (lays. Nitric acid of 20 
|ier cent concentration will start to at- 
( Continued on page 20) 



Tom Tucker, Ch.E. '53 

Hell, here ive arc in the iviiidy iiioiith 
of March. (What do you ivcint to bet 
it rains half the time!' ) If e poor under- 
nourished and insomnia suffering stu- 
dents have been back on Boneyard cam- 
pus for a month. You're reading "Bilge " 
because you hope to find sonK thun/ in- 

If you don't Hie what you're reading 
here's ultat yon can do: Send us any- 
thing that you think is u-orth spreading 
around. If it's printable, li'e'll print it. 
What do ice jrant.' Anything — bright 
sayings, instructors' blunders, achieve- 
ments, and the same kind of stuff yon 
would like to read. 

You may irritc it up or just sind us 
a clue. Either -way, send your name, 
major, and class so ice can give you 
credit. Bring it over or mail it to The 
Illinois Technograph, _'/.' C,'/7';7 Engi- 
neering Hall, Urbana, Illinois. 


111 machine lab, where the clock- 
punching routine is dearly appreciated. 
an M.E. was setting up a thread cutting 
job on a lathe when he discovered the 
lathe was not in operating order. He 
was assigned to another, another, and 
yet another but they were in similar con- 
dition. It wasn't until the fifth lathe 
that he could do the job. 

When one punches a time clock, one 
expects the company to provide machin- 
ery that is at least in operational con- 

* » » 

FiA'SH Ye R()ne\arii 

» » * 
Refreshments , 5 et 
Vanilla wafers with whipped cream 
toppings were served by Professor Au- 
drieth to the students in Chem 107 lec- 
ture. This amazing phenomenon is pos- 
sibly explained by the fact that the 
whipped cream was the product of a 
rather ingenious process. Nitrous oxide 
is compressed in a container with cream 
and when the pressure is released the 
cream conies out ready-whipped. 

This may seem to be a rather new- 
idea but Ci. Frederick Smith, professor 
of chemistry, developed and patented the 
lirocess about 1 5 years ago and it has 
been in general use ever since. 

This little ditty conies from a lab in 
Chem Annex. 

Little Ion 
Little ion in my flask, 
Do you mind much if I ask 
What your name is, little ion? 
Can't you see you've got me cryin'? 
Can't you see me growing weaker 
As you sit there in my beaker? 
Ain't you got no heart at all? 
Don't you care if I flunk qual? 
You could stop my endless tr\in' 
To find your name out, little ion. 
You could end all my confusion 
If you would come out of solution. 
— Anonymous 

Fi.LSH Ye Boxenari) 

Helpful Definitions of Phrases 
(Commonly Eound in Physics Books 

Should be of interest — unnecessar\ 

Beyond the scope of this book — laz\' 

Reasonable definition — explanation of 
an unknown in incomprehensible gibber- 

// is iippiirent that — true for one 
who has taken the course before 

// foUoiL's that — should not preceed, 
but logically might 

II c knoiv that — author has an idea 

It is obvious that — it is clear to the 

// is clear that --.uitUiiv not >ure, but 
it seems right 

One might expect that — inrniducfion 
to anything imaginable 

May readily calculate — onl\ leqnuo 
ten hours of concentration with tiles, 
slide-ride, and librar\- references 

Incidentally — used to introduce use- 
less information added to fill space 

// is readily Seen — author ^,■lW it after 
a few d.'iys 

J little consideration — work on it ;i 
couple of da\s 

In othir uords — utter confusion re- 

I'rivial — a property of .-un thing that 
is unexplainable 

Contributed by 

.lohn llnbcr. .Ig.E., 'i2 

Fi.i SH Ye H()xe\ari) 

Thomas A. Murrell, associate profes- 
sor of electrical engineering, recently re- 
ceived a citation for assisting the Radio 
Technical Commission for Aeronautics. 
He aided in establishing a guide plan 
for the development and implementation 
of a .sy.stem of air navigation and traffic 
control. The plan will facilitate safe and 
unlimited aircraft operations under all 
weather conditions. 

The RTCA, located in Washingtcjn, 
I). C, was awarded the 1448 Collier 
trophy for developing the guide plan. 
.Murrell became interested in the RTCA 
research subject two and one-half years 
ago when he was a consultant in the 
office of the Secretary of War. 

"Looks like rain today," sail! the 
milkman as he poured the ciistoniacy 
quart of milk. 

"It alieays dots." replied tin lioiise- 
uife. e omprcssine/ her lips iiitli eiitil sii/- 
nifii line c. 

"M\' boy," said the businessman to 
his son, "there ;ire two things that are 
\itally necessaiy if \ou are to succee<l 
m business." 

"What are they, dad?" 

"Honesty and sagacity. " 

"What is honesr\ ? " 

"Always — no matter what happens, 
no matter how ad\crsel\ it ma\ affect 
\c)U — al\\a\s keep \(iui word once you 
have gi\en it." 

"Anil sagacity?" 

"Never give Miur word." 

MARCH, 1950 



[lie l^]iioiiien'iiio lloiiiirahcs anil Siiciclics 

^^ — c^ 

hfi Ittm Itln'ti. K.H. *.*.'/ anil Itun llitrltm. livn.K. *.7.7 


This month will see the successful 
results of two of Engineering Council's 
ambitious projects. Close cooperation be- 
tween the I SKK and St. Pat's Hall 
committees insures a terrific weekeml 
with an even greater climax. 

If the usual Chambana weather gives 
way to sunshine, the Boneyard campus 
will be thronged to capacity, (uiests 
Ironi throughout the state may tieplete 
rlie NUjiply of 10,(10(1 printeti programs. 

A couple of publicity bugs have done 
iiang-up jobs for the engineers' own 
weekend. Despite conflicts with final 
e\ams. Hob Friedman, Ch.K. 'SO, ar- 
ranged for personal contacts at 60 state 
liigh schools. I SEE information and 
college bulletins, (larecrs in Engineiriiig. 
were given to engineering students who 
were willing to give personal pep-talks 
.•it home-town higii schools between se- 

Connie .Minmcii, C.E. '51, kept busy 
between semesters making arrangements 
for St. Pat's Hall publicity. Her hard 
work and persistence in surmounting all 
(h'fficuities to carry through an original 
idea mark Connie as a true di.sciple of 
St. Pat. May he look down and 
her slide rule for ever and ever. 

(leorge Reihmer, Arch.E. '50, did a 
swell job of art work for the I SEE 
posters anil program cover. His partici- 
pation tvpifies the whole spirit of the 
I SEE and St. Pat's committees — an 
engineer can do the job and do it right ! 
The originality, far-sighteil planning, 
and hard work — all by the students — 
lia\e been the most inspiring feature of 
all committee work. 

Preparing the I SEE program was no 
small task, but Dick Choronzy, M.E. 
'51, did it admirably. His experience on 
the Til liiiof/raflh was a big help, but in 
addition, Dick acquired a thorough re- 
spect for editorial procedure. 

Directing Council activities this se- 
mester are Dick Myers, president, Don 
Savage, vice president, Jim Bienias, sec- 
retary, and D.ui Keefe, treasurer. 

A. S. C. E. 
This semester's president of the Amer- 
ican Society of Civil Engineers is Wil- 
liam T. Bristow, senior civil engineering 

The other officers of the L niversity's 
student chapter were announced b\' Don 
R. -Anderson, retiring president. They 

are: James W. .Asbury, vice president; 
Charles C. Swenson, secretary; William 
P. (lillespie, Engineering Council repre- 
sentative; and Donald Stewart, repre- 
sentative for architectural engineering. 

1. E. S. 

"All the world is a showroom; and 
all the people in it, salesmen." This was 
the theme of a speech to the student 
chapter by C. L Schneider, sales mana- 
ger of the Electro Manufacturing Cor- 
poration of Chicago. 

One of the points that he emphasized 
was that sales and engineering are one 
and the same. He said, "We need sales- 
wise engineers as well as laboratory-wise 
engineers. " 

Many top ideas and systems used in 
industries today, he said, were conceived 
in the minds of salesmen. The day is 
past when sales jobs were given to men 
who coulii do nothing else. Mr. Schneid- 
er recalled that Napoleon said, "There's 
a major's baton in every private's knap- 
sack," and adapted this to the present 
day with "There's an executive's job in 
every salesman's brief case." 

The out-dated definition of the sales- 
man, one who persuades you to buy 
something you don't want at a price 
too high, he said, has given way to the 
new version of one who provides prod- 
ucts that won't come back from custom- 
ers that will. 

A. F. S. 
-An original float, typifying the found- 
ry industry, will represent the AES in 
the I SEE parade March 31. The plan 
was enthusiastically accepted by AFS 
members at their final meeting last se- 
mester. The following men were elected 
for this semester's offices: 
Chairman — James Garman 
Vice Chairman — Burten Ames 
Senior Council Representative — Fred 

Juiuor Council Representative — Paul 

Corresponding Secretar> — Dale Hest- 

Recording Secretary — John Rice 
Treasurer — William EUenberger 
Assistant Treasurer — David Day 
Program Chairman — Merrill Zinser. 
Merrill Zinser has arranged an im- 
pressive list of speakers for this semester. 
The\ include Mr. (iregg of the Whit- 
ing Corporation; J. \E Dunbeck, na- 

tional secretary of AFS ; Elmer Hraun, 
super\isor of (iM foundry at Dan\ille; 

and Cliet Nass. foundry executive. 

A. S. A. E. 

At the January 10 meeting of the 
ASAE the following men were chosen 
to the various positions: 

President — Harold S. Brandenburg 

Vice President — Edwin J. .Monke 

Secretary — Wayne E. Hartman 

Engineering Council Representative — 
Errol D. Rodda 

Scribe — John R. Huber 

-Arrangements committee chairman — 
David C. Ralston 

Arrangements committee — Donald L. 
Hrakensiek, Donald T. Hemniingsen, 
and Dale J. Henry 

The cold barren third floor of the 
Agricultural Engineering Building was 
transformed into a modern display room 
for Farm and Home Week last month. 
Several of the ambitious ag engineers 
sacrificed part of the semester vacation 
to make the lunch stand a big success. 

In the spare corners of the third floor, 
studv rooms for graduate students are 
being built. If fellow engineers could 
see these rooms our graduate school 
might be overcrowtled. 

The ASAE members are working 
hard on the yearbook because it may 
bring the FEI award for the student 
branch this year. This amuial award is 
gi\en to the outstanding student chapter 
of the -AS.AE b\ the Farm Equipment 


Dean \V. L. Everitt gave an interest- 
ing after-dinner address about television 
at the recent initiation banquet of Chi 
Epsilon, civil engineering honorary fra- 
ternity. The banquet was preceded by 
the formal initiation of 2'^ new mem- 

The banquet was r:itlier unique in 
that the food was good and sufficient in 
amount to appease everyone's appetite. 
Banquets of past experience recall to 
mind the fellow who rushed into Joe's 
Hamburger Emporium one evening in 
full dress suit and said, "Hurry uji, Joe. 
(;i\e me a steak. I'm already late for 
the banquet." 

The Dean's speech was e\en more 
unique in the fact that it was interesting 
enough to keep everyone awake after 
(Continued on page 24) 




( iiiij;ei-ly stepping; o\xt a pipi- wiench, 
a hunch of couplings, a two-foot stack 
ot niaKa/ines anil an oxerturned bench. 
Professor Thomas Haron of the Chemi- 
cal Knsiiiicerinfi Department entered 
21.1 C.K. H. His S:()() p. m. appear- 
ance in answer to a m.-id call made 
for a {leadline interview bclore the 
.March 7Vi7; went to press. 

He patienth waited while one per- 
son made a phone call and another 
swept trash off a nearby desk and two 
chairs. Seated at last for his interview, 
he quietly answered rapid-fire questions 
about his life, profession, and interests. 

Horn February 15, 1921, in Buda- 
pest, Hiuigary, Professor Baron attend- 
ed the Verboczy Ciymnasium until his 
departure for America in 1939. When 
the time came for a decision about his 
future profession, he felt that chemical 
engineering was one of the least special- 
ized fields in which sciences of every 
nature coidd be applied. P^om that 
time, Professor Baron began his climb 
into a thus-far remarkable career of sci- 
entific research and teaching. 

His first step in this direction was 
enrollment at DePaul University, and 
he later switched to the University of 
Illinois, (jraduation with a B.S. in 
chemical engineering in 1943 was fol- 

94d^^lXidi40Uuf. . . . 


loweil b\ a \ear of work for National 
\'arnished Products Compan\-. Then, 
like countless other engineers who trad- 
eil their slide rules for guns for the 
duration of the war, he ser\ed in the 
Chemical Warfare I)i\ision as an in- 
structor in the weapon section. 

Returning to the I'niversitN' for grad- 
uate study in 1946, Professor Baron 
obtained his Ph.D. in two years of heav- 
ily concentrated study. During this 
time, he also held a research assistant- 
ship with the I niversity Experiment 

0f/ Vnnniv Miunivh. t'.K. *.»# 

and Unh Hitfruir. U.K. '."12 

Station, a teaching assistantship, and a 
Standard Oil fellowship. He received 
his assistant professorship in September, 
1949, and is at present teaching stoi- 
chiometry, unit operations, and chemical 
engineering calculations. 

In the short time that he has been on 
the teaching staff, Professor Baron's 
quiet, kind manner, his ready assistance 
to individual students, and his remark- 
able teaching methods have won him 
respect and admiration from his stu- 
dents, which they expressed b\' voting 
him the best chemical engineering in- 
structor in the f^ffectixe Teaching Con- 
test held last April. 

The heaviest part of Dr. Baron's 
present job is the research he is direct- 
ing which, as he explains it, involves 
the study of the "aspects of fluid me- 
chanics which affect the transfer of heat, 
mass, and momentum in turbulent 
fields." Investigation of the behavior of 
jets and the flow of two-phase liquids 
are tvpical of the projects now under- 

Although Dr. Baron's picifessional 
and scientific research have brought him 
membership in Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi, 
Phi Lambda U p s i 1 o n, and AIChE, 
his outside interests run to the cultural 
channels of literature, music, and paint- 
ing, and in his luidergraduate days. 
Cosmopolitan Fraternity. Of great im- 
portance in his life is his family — his 
wife. Marge, and his little daughter, 
Jill, aged 3. 


From Springfield, Illinois, comes 
Howard F. Burnett, an actixe senior 
aeronautical engineer. Howard came to 
the University as a transfer student from 
Western State Teachers College in 
1947, and has since participated in num- 
erous activities. These include the Uni- 
versity of Illinois (ilider Club — of 
which he had the distinction of being 
the first president — and the Institute of 
Aeronautical Sciences. He is also presi- 
dent of Oamma Alpha Rho, an aero- 
nautical honorary societ\. 

Howard's route through college 
been rather devious, however. .Aftei' 
graduation from Waverly High School, 
he attended Western for one semester; 
but he interrupted his college career in 
1043 to serve as a naval fighter pilot. 
Upon his discharge in 1946, he returned 

to Western for one \ear before trans- 
ferring to the University in 1947. 

Howard is putting to good vise the 
experience gained while he was a fighter 
pilot, and is now a part-time flight in- 
structor here at the Uni\ersit\. Looking 
toward his future, he ha^ aLo .ipplicd 


to the NACA — National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Aeronautics — for the position 
of test pilot after graduation from col- 

Shorty, as Howard is called b\ his 
friends, has two hobbies with which he 
spends much of his spare time: tropical 
fish and photograph). 

But a new dixersion has been added! 
.Married in April of 1046, Howard has 
\ery recently become the proud father 
of a baby girl. 


A iirominent general engineering stu- 
dent here is Alan M. Hallene. Al, presi- 
dent of Acacia Fraternity, has been ac- 
ti\el\ involved in many extra-curricular 
activities during his two and one-half 
\cars at the University. During his soph- 
omore year he \\'as president of the sec- 
ond regimental band and was also a 
member of the football band. He is now 
secretary of the ASMF. 

Al was born in Moline, Illinois, where 
he has spent the greater part of his life. 
(Continued on page 24) 

MARCH, 1950 




Associate Editor 



9n tUe SpA/iit o^ SL Pat . 

A rhouj;lu-pro\()kin<i question was recent- 
ly asked in a senior iiesii;n class: "Do the 
open house exhihits directly concern nian\ of 
'us guys?" 

1 he question was well answered h\ the 
instructor but not b\ nian\ ot the students. 
The majority felt that "it won't concern iiie ; 
I'll be too busy with this big design problem 
to woiry about displays for the enjoyment 
and eilucation of others. The only thing that 
ccjncerns me now is getting out in June and 
;:ettm.L' a good job." 

just how pre\alent is this disgustingly self- 
ish and apathetic attitude? Have we no inter- 
est in doing anything be\ond the essential? 
Ha\e we e\en any interest in the essential? 

Our families, friends, and neighbors have 
invested millions in this institution; we're 
here to gain a valuable education ; we'\e hired 
experts to give us instruction. \'et we defy all 
their teaching efforts! 

We're pr(iu<l of our engineering societies, 
lionoraries, and the Engineering Council ; we 
would hate to have any of them disbantled. 
Yet how many of us are actively contributing 
to the constructive programs of these organi- 
zations? Not onh' is om' contribution woeful- 
!\ insufficient, but our mere attendance at 
meetings is lax. After officers of one of our 
larger societies made extensive arrangements 
to accommodate I ^0 members at its first meet- 
ing this semester, only 20 students bothered 
to attend. 

Likewise most ot the members of our lion- 
oraries .ire content to wear their keys and 
nu-ntion the honor on job applications. 

Organization ofticers anil the hngmeenng 
Council aie striving hard to promote interest 
and acti\it>- on the Bone\ard Campus and are 
meeting yawning faces asking, "What's in it 
for me ? " 

'I'hi nnrld is full of uilliiit/ ptfif<li : .u,/iu 
ivillin// til uiiik. athcn icilli/ii/ to l(t tluiii. 

Are we too la/,\ to show a bit of initiative 
and really do things? Will we be two-legged 
animals until we graduate and thereafter or 
can we muster enthusiasm and exert a bit of 
energy? (joethe put it well when he said, 
"Energy will do anything that can be done in 
this world ; and no talents, no circumstances, 
no opportunities will make a two-legged ani- 
mal a man without it." 

That trite expression, "\ ou don't get an\- 
thing out unless you put .something in," ap- 
plies to our educational experience as well as 
many other facets of life. Let's be alive! Let's 
dare to do — and let's do it with a fervent 
spirit! Every production of genius must be 
the product of enthusiasm. 

If we want our dreams to come true, 
we've got to wake up with a determined 
enthusiasm. Rupert Hughes said, "A deter- 
mined soul will do more with a rusty monkey- 
wrench than a loafer will accomplish with all 
the tools in a machine shop." 

Have we not each a hill to climb? 
A path ascending to a place sublime? 
Have we not each a bridge to cross? 
Can faltering souls find ought bvit loss? 

How can weak hearts e'er attain to great 

heights ? 
Can thev advance to the f(ue and put up good 

How can we u-ill wlien the >|iint is weak? 
Shall we \i\\\ dream till destruction is bleak? 

He daring, be brave, there's a job to do! 
The task is e'er calling, the job is for you. 
You've got to wake up, start this and do that. 
.And let's have some action in the Spirit of 
St. Pat. 

— R. L. H. 



i\ewsworthy ]S^otes 

What's the 

$2,500,000 a year! 

Both hands liokl terminations used in tele- 
phone dial switcliing equipment. They look 
pretty much alike — but let's see about that ! 

The termination at left is made by the old 
method. Insulation is stripped off the wire. 
The wire is twisted around the brass terminal, 
then fastened to it with a soldering iron. That 
had to he done on millions and millions of 
connections each year. 

The termination at right is made by a new- 
machine process developed by engineers at 
Western Electric— manufacturing iniit of the 


or LLin 


Bell System. One type of machine separates 
the brass connectors from a "strip" and accu- 
rately positions each on an insulator to which 
groups of 10 are fastened by eyeleting. An- 
other machine places 2(1 wires in the proper 
position on two sets of ID connectors, drives 
two small pyramidal shaped points through 
the insulation into the wire and crimps the 
brass around the wire, making a good, solid 
electrical connection. The whole job now is 
done in one-tenth the time. 

This improvement will add s2. 5(11), (Mill a 
year to the vast amount Western Electric 
engineers are sa\ing the Bell Telephone Sys- 
tem tiirough manufacturing economies. Year 
after year they look for — and find — ways to 
make telephone equipment better and at lower 
ct)st. Their savings help Bell Telephone com- 
panies to keep rates as low as thev are. 

Thi. machine, developed by Western Electric engineers, 
assembles dial switching terminations automatically at the 
rate of 400 per minute. 



Itngineering problems are many and varied at 
Western Electric, where manufacturing telephone 
equipment for the Bell System is the primary job. 
Engineers of many kinds— electrical, mechanical, 


industrial, chemical, metallurgical— are con- 
stantly working to devise and improve machines 
and processes for production of highest quality 
communications equipment. 

MARCH, 1950 



I Liintinucil tiom p;ijii' 7 ) 

ciiiiiig piTiod, till' concrete is thoioujih- 
l\' dried to prevent moisture injury; 
coated «ith zinc sulphate solution to 
neutralize tree lime; pore-filled with a 
primer ot boiled linseed oil ; stained ; 
and then stencilled with the main de- 
sign. Once the stain has dried, the de- 
sign can be tilled in with paints of any 
desired hue. A final thin coat of shellac 
will trive a glazed surface. 

(^i)IUittt For 


.Another new important development 
in architectural concrete is the design 
of the formwork. which has become a 
precise phase of construction detailing. 
The pressure for which the form is de- 
signed is influenced by three principal 
factors: method of placing (hand, vibra- 
tion, etc.); rate of filling forms; and 
temperature of concrete. For general 
use, Douglas fir and longleaf Southern 
yellow pine have been found to be rlic 
best all-around lumber. 

The wood, as it comes to the con- 
tractor, is first graded for form lumber. 
For the especialh' smooth surfaces, four- 
inch tongue-anil-groo\e boards are used. 
For the more orilinar>' surfaces, five- 
inch boards are used ; and where a 
heavy wood imprijit is desired, ten-inch 

boards make joint lines and impressions 
very pronounced by their "cuj'ping 
tendenc\ when they warp. To obtain 
the smoothest surface possible, the in- 
sides of the forms are lined with pl\- 
wood or tempered Presd«'ood nailed in 
place with \er\' fine tacks. Ivlaboratc 
ornamentation in concrete is obtained 
b\ preparing special molds from the 
architect's special wood-trim details. 
These special molds may be of plaster, 
metal, or wood, depending upon the de- 
tail of the ornamentation ;md the locil 

■Co/,!' .hniiluni 
.AnntluT nperation ol great impiirt- 
ance in the [dacing of architectural con- 
crete is the use of construction joints, 
or "cold" joints as they are called. 
Since the success or failure of this con- 
crete depends upon its finished appear- 
ance, random construction joints can 
ruin the face of a monolithic concrete 
wall. These joints are the points at 
w hich the poming of concrete is stopped 
fdi' one day and where it is resumed 
the next. Piovision for these joints can 
he made m two ways: tlie joints may 
b;' made as mconspicious as possible by 
locating them along the natural hori- 
zontal breaks in a building, such as the 
sills and the heads of windows; or they 
may be made prominent and an archi- 

partners in creating 

K & E drafting instruments, equipment ond materials 
have been partners of leading engineers for 81 years 
in shaping the modern world. So extensively ore these 
products used by successful men, it is self evident that 
K & E has played a part in the completion of nearly 
every American engineering project of any magnitude. 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
Son Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

tectural feature of the building, serving 
to break the verticality of the structural 
design. In the latter case, such joints 
m;i\ hi' emphasized b\ deepK-cut 

['s,s of .li.liilnlniul Cninntr 

In pr.ictice, architectuial concrete has 
been e\tensi\ely emplo\ed in the <lesign 
ot many cit\ sewage rind w:iter-works 

Simply supported deck girder spans 
carry Chicago Avenue over Des- 
plaines River in Cook County, III. 
(Courtesy of the Portland Cement 

|il:mts tor its low cost and the impres- 
sion of cleanliness it gi\es to the ob- 
servers. Due to this fact, main munici- 
pal and w:iter supply districts are be- 
coming showplaces for tourists and visi- 
tors who formerh' regarded sanitation as great conveniences but ob- 
noxious sights. The clean lines of these 
]ilants are obtained through a simple 
design of a and smooth concrete 
surface made by mechanical vibration 
and fine rubbing with carborundum 
while still wet. 

In the way of bridge design, the con- 
tinuous reinforced concrete bridge lends 
itself particularh' well to the fine sym- 
metric lines of architectural concrete 
design. It has been only within recent 
years that the design of an indeternu- 
nate structure of this natiuT has been 
facilitated by the use of new diagrams, 
tables, and methods of computation. A 
great reduction in deck depth and great- 
er facilities for future widening render 
tlie continuous span more economical 
as well as more beautiful than the old 
t\'pes of through bridges. 

The design of architectural concrete 

differs in no way from the ordinar\- 

standards of proportioning. However. 

new construction methods, are coming 

(Continued on page 18) 


T^roSkiv: shr/nk i/ie ■^ky/s/or} fu6e. buf-keep i^e p/cfum htgf 

Some rooms accommodate grand 
pianos; a small spinet is right for 
others. Until rcccnth/, mnch the same 
rule held true for television receivers. 
Your choice of screen sizes was largely 
governed by room space. 

Now the space problem has been 
whipped bv RCA scientists, who have 
rlwrtencd the length of 16-inch television 
"picture tubes" more than 20%! All the 
complex inner works — such as the sensi- 
tive electron gun that "paints" pictures on 
the screen — have been redesigned to op- 
erate at shorter focus, wider angle. Even 
a new type of faceplate glass, Filterglass, 

has been developed for RCA's 16-inch 
picture tubes — on principles first investi- 
gated for television by RCA. 

Filterglass, incorporating a light-absorbing 
material, improves picture quality by cut- 
ting down reflected room light . . . and by re- 
ducing reflections inside the glass faceplate 
of the kinescope tube itself. Result: richer, 
deeper black areas and greater contrast in 
the television picture! 

See the nenest advances in radio, fclcvi- 
sinn, and electronics in action at RCA Exhi- 
bition Hall, 36 West 49th St., New York. 
Admission is free. Radio Corporation of 
America, Radio Cilij, N. Y. 

Continue your education 
with pay— at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: ncA 

Vktiir-onc of the wiirld's forcm(,-.t ni.imi- 
fach.rers of radio and cinlninK pmiutls 
— offers you opportunit\ tn u.un \ .iliuihlc. 
well-rounded training .uul r\ptruiuf at 
a good salary' with opportunities tor ad- 
vancement, liere are only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
ceivers ( including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Adviinced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cctliode 
ray. gas and photo tubes. 

Wrilc today lo Natiorwl I{ccruUing Divi- 
sion. BCA Victor, Camden, New Jcrsaj. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical i;ngineer5 and Physicists. 

iVor/c/ Leac/er /n 'Roc//o — F/rs/- in Te/ei^/s/on 

MARCH, 1950 



I l.'ciiitinui-(l Iriim pafji- 16) 

into coininon practice that an- well 
adapted to all types of concrete. 

Pitstrcsscd (Jon net I' 
(^ne of these new practices is tin- 
niuch-talked-ahoiit prestressed concrete. 
It is hard to judge the merits of this 
new type of reinforcing, but experts 
seem to think its potentialities are un- 
limited. I'restressing was incorporated 
in a concrete girder bridge that is now 
under con.struction in Fairmount I'ark 
in Philadelphia, Pa. On this one bridge, 
whose final cost will be >S'1 10,01 HI, a 
saving of ;?3U0,000 was made through 
the use of the prestressed design. Origi- 
nal plans had called for a stone-faced 
arch bridge, the only type of design 
well-adapted to that particular location. 
Calculations on the Philadelphia 
biidge ( the first prestressed bridge in 
the I nited States) indicated that a 
prestressed beam is about four times as 
strong as a regular beam of the same 
size. In the normal reinforced concrete 
beam, horizontal and \ertical shear 
sticsses create diagonal tension that 
must be resisted by shear reinforcing. 
In prestressed reinforced concrete beams, 
the wire reinforcing has been pre\iousl\ 
drawn to a desired stress, so that the 
entire cross-section is in a state of com- 
pression, with all the shear reinforcing 

eliminated. Creilit for this type of de- 
sign is gi\en to Professor (iusta\e .\Iag- 
nel of the I'niversity of (ihent, Hel- 
gium, who mapped the fundamental 
design for the Philadelphia bridge, and 
to the 1' rencll enguieer, I'.ugcnc l're\s- 

Tiu' principal niethml used to pre- 
stress these beams is base<l on the use 
of a thermoplastic material which coats 
and adheres to the reinforcing rods with 
the strength of concrete itself. In the 
first steps, this reinforcing is set and 
placed in the forms and the concrete 
is poured. Before the initial set, the 
rods are heated by passing an electric 
current through them, the bonding ma- 
terial melts, and the rods extend of their 
own accord through expansion. These 
rods arc then anchored and drawn so 
that after the final set, the thermo- 
plastic material has cooled and reestab- 
lished a firm unbreakable bond. 

fact that after a certain amount of ^t, 
excess water that is not needed tnr 
h\(lration is drawn off from the con- 
crete and squeezed out by suction. Bene- 
fits from the use of this method are 
noticeable almost immediateh : the 
three-da\' strength is increased almost 
100^, the fi\e-da\ strength is equi\a- 
lent to that ot normal concrete at 2S 
days, hardi)' ain- shrinkage occurs, and 
the resistance to freezing and thawing 
is increased several times. 

Concrete has thus turned from a 
rather cumbersome construction item 
into a vital, all-purpose building mate- 
rial. In having its plastic qualities so 
highly exploited, it may be possible and 
probable in the near futuie to pour ;i 
bridge out of a bottle. 


.Another construction procedure that 
has been used successfully in conjunc- 
tion with this prestressing method is 
the use of vacuum concrete. Advantages 
of this material, as explained by the ad- 
vertisers, are a high initial strength in 
compression, a high degree of imperme- 
ability, and an extremely smooth finish. 
The proportioning of the concrete pro- 
ceeds in the normal way, except for the 

(iii'C a iLfjinan an inch iind slu thinks 
she is /I ruler. 

Judge: "Does the prisoner wish to 
challenge any of the jur\ ?" 

Prisoner: ■'Well, I think I could 
beat up that little guy on the end." 

There is n nurse iiho is so eonceilcd 
thai ivhen she takes her patient's pulse. 
she subtracts 10 beats for her personal- 

Engineering Students . . . 

You will find at the Co-Op Bookstore your needs 
in engineering and art supplies, stationery, text- 
books, and general reading. 


The Bookstore Closest to Engineering Campus 


A nother page for 


How to help a gearmotor 
take care of its teeth 

To minimize wear on the teeth and to insure 
smooth, quiet operation, reduction gears in motors 
like this must be held in perfect mesh, no matter 
what the load. That's one reason why engineers 
mount the gear shafts on Timken' tapered roller 
bearings. Timken bearings hold the shafts in accu- 
rate alignment. Gears are kept perfectly positioned, 
with each tooth meshing smoothly and carrying 
its full share of the load. 

Gears mesh smoothly, 

wear longer, with shafts 

on TIMKEN bearings 

Here is a typical gear-case countershaft showing 
a common method of mounting Timken bearings. 
Due to the line contact between the rolls and races, 
Timken bearings give the shaft maximum support. 
There's less chance of deflection under load. The 
tapered bearing design takes both radial and thrust 
loads in any combination. End-movement of the 
shaft is kept to a minimum. Gears wear longer- 
work better. 


h^^r— ir- 



' ri 





1 1 



i ■'■'■■■■ 
















^ , 





Want to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems 
you'll face after graduation will involve bearing 
applications. If you'd like to learn more about 
Timken bearings and how engineers use them, 
write today to The Timken Roller Bearing Company, 
Canton 6, Ohio. And don't forget to clip this page 
for future reference. 


MARCH, 1950 


ORLON . . . 

I Cdiiriiiiifil troni p.'if^c 10) 

tack orlon after 56 days; 411 pci icjit 
concentration, after 49 days. 

Hi}ih temperatures must act for uii- 
usualK long periods of time to produce 
any degradation of orlon. Samples of 
orlon were exposed to hot air of various 
temperatures for definite periods of time. 
The tenacities hefore and after exposure 
were recorded. After exposure at lOO"^^ 
and at 123 Y> the tenacities had actually 
been improved. At 150°6' the first de- 
terioration was noticed after four days. 
I)u Pont says that the deterioration 
would be e\en less in a gas more inert air. 

^7/> />(■«/;«// I'roficrtirs 
Many properties of orlon will ,ip|ical 
to rlie domestic consimier. ProbabK the 
most welconie of these properties will be 
its non-wrinkle tendencies. Besides being 
naturally wrinkle-resistant, orlon can be 
heat-set to gi\e it a crease and more 
wrinkle resistance. Prospective users of 
orlon will be glad to learn that it has 
absolute resistance to insects such as 
moths and to microorganisms such as 
mildew-producing fungi. Allergic indi- 
viduals should have no trouble with 
orlon, for exhaListive investigations have 
proven that neither orlon nor the poly- 

acrylonitrile from which it is made cause 
dermatitic or toxicological effects. 
( )ne property of orlon, its ludropho- 
bic tendency, is both desirable and 
troublesome. When orlon is u ater- 
■ibsorption soaked, its moisture pickup 
is onl\ twr) to three per cent. This ipiai- 
ity is favorable in preventing shrinkage 
and dirt pickup. In a water bath at 
100 (^, orlon has a shrinkage of from 
zero to two and one-half per cent. The 
low moisture-absorptiveness prevents 
moist\ire-laden dirt from becoming im- 
bedded in the openings of the fabric. 
This property makes orlon resistant to 
many stains as well as to smoke, soot, 
and dust. Orion's hydrophobic qualitv 
also presents a difficulty — dyeing. Orion 
will not "take" most of the dyes used 
toi' coloring ordinarv' hvclrophilic fibers. 
1 )u Pont reports that standard dyeing 
techniques with some acetate and basic 
colors yield pastel hues having excellent 
wash-fastness and average light-fastness. 
When used with a carrier (dyeing cata- 
lyst, c. tj., mcta-cresol at two per cent 
bath concentration) these dyes may pro- 
duce medium shades. Heavy shades can 
be obtained by dyeing orlon under fif- 
teen to twenty pounds steam pressure. 
Lnder this pressure certain other d\es 
may be used for surface coloring with 
special techniques. 

Printed orlon can be produced by the 
use of basic, acetate, and certain \,it 
colors with ordinarv processes ;ind 
steam-pressure aging. 

Research is constantl) uiuler wa\ ; 
(111 Punt chemists and engineers expect 
to ha\c perfected more satisfactory dye- 
uig processes by the time orlon is in 
commercial production. 

Fihir (jOiiipdris'iii 

.Many distinct types of orlon fabric 
ma\ be made by varied methods of pro- 
duction and processing. All types ot 
orlon. unlike nvlon, have a warm, 
friemih feel. Because of its lightness, 
orlon has a covering power which no 
fabric, with the possible exception of 
nylon, can excel. The following table 
compares orlon's physical characteristics 
of weight and shape with those of other 
Film- Spciifii- Ciiavit\- (Jrrjss Sc( . 

Orion I.IS Dog Bone 

Nxlon 1. 14 Smooth Round 

Wool 1.32 Smooth Round 

.Acetate 1.33 Crenulated 


Cotton 1..S0 Kidney 

Viscose 1.52 Crenulated 

Fiberglass 2.56 Smooth Round 

( )rlon will find man\ important uses 
HI the industrial field. Because of its 
(Continued, on page 22) 


LUFKIN Chrome-Clad 'Super Hi-Way 
and "Michigan" are belter cha' 
chrome plating 
tipic coals of 
smooth, dull, c\ 




EiM for" fa 

Story of Meas 



pver rust-resistar 
electroplating give a ha 
ome-whitc surface that's w. 
;sistant I Jet black figures 
in any light. Write Dept 
ing booklet, "The Amaz 
:mcnt", enclose 10c (no stamp: 
and handling. 


U. of I. Drug Store 

Your QampMS Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 


Soginaw, Mich. • New York Cily • Barrie, Ontario 


Filled the Same Day 

Out of town engineers can tdepentd 
upon prompt service by ordering by 
mail. Describe your needs. 


610 E. Daniel, Champaign 






Miinager, Electronics Section 
General Machinery Division 


(Graduate Training Course 1927) 

SO MANY near-miracles, actual, experi- 
mental or imaginary, are being at- 
tributed to electronics that it's quite the 
glamour girl of the electrical industr). 
, Working closely with 

«this infant prodigy, we 
^i^<^_ find it is indeed fascinat- 

ing and astonishingly 
versatile. We find, too, 
that it is a terrific work- 
er. Applying electronic 
principles to tough, 
matter-of-fact indus- 
trial jobs is the work of 
H. A. BARTLING this scction. 

It rewards us with some really amazing 
success stories, and with abundant oppor- 
tunity. The field has hardly been touched. 

New Field 
This field of industrial electronics was 
completely unknown, of course, when I 
received my degree in Electrical Engi- 
neering from Illinois and entered the 
Graduate Training Course at AUis- 
Chalmers in 1925. During the 2-year 
course I stuck pretty close to electrical 
work — and at its completion, I was on the 
electrical test floor helping run tests on 
some of the first big blooming mill motors 
the company ever built. 

Next, I worked in the Basic Industries 

Hardening 2200 trimmer blades per hour, this Allis-Chalmers Induction Heater 
is stepping up production lor a Southern manufacturer of textile machinery. 

Department on electric mine hoists. In 
1931, I moved back to the Electrical De- 
partment, doing sales application work 
for the Motor and Generator Section. I 
worked, successively, on unit sub-stations, 
had charge of the Mixed Apparatus Sec- 
tion, was in Industrial Sales, handled 
contract negotiations and sales liaison 
work during the war, and in 1947 took 
charge of the company's growing Elec- 
tronics Section. 

Here we develop and apply four main 
classes of industrial electronic equipment : 
Rectifiers, Induction Heaters, Dielectric 
Heaters and Metal Detectors. With the 
exception of Rectifiers, this equipment is 
relatively new to industry. We're turning 
up new uses and applications every day. 
It's an absorbing line of work, and pio- 
neers an entirely new frontier of indus- 
trial methods. 

Wide Choice of Interests 

I've traced this brief personal history to 
illustrate the widely varied opportunities 
a young engineer finds at Allis-Chalmers 
even within a single field such as electricity. 
I never got far from the Electrical De- 
partment, because I found what I wanted 
right there. But I wouldn't be giving a 
true picture of Allis-Chalmers if I didn't 

touch on the other great departments, 
covering just about every major industry. 

Many GTC students find their greatest 
interest and opportunity in the Basic In- 
dustries Department. There they design, 
build and install the machinery for min- 
ing, smelting, cement making, flour mill- 
ing, oil extraction, food and chemical 
processing. Others become interested in 
hydraulic or steam turbines, the com- 
plexities of centrifugal pumps and the 
engineering problems of small motors or 
V-belt drives. 

Some fit into engineering and design. 
Some find themselves most interested in 
manufacturing or in field work such as 
service and erection. Many like selling, 
and find their engineering training pays 
off" best in a District Sales Office. 

Whatever a man may eventually find 
most to his liking and advantage, the 
Allis-Chalmers GraduateTraining Course 
is a wonderful vantage point from which 
to start. It offers contact with all major 
industries, and a chance at many types of 
work : design, manufacture, research, test- 
ing, installation, selling, advertising, ex- 
port. There is no other organization that 
can offer a graduate engineer such a wide 
ranize of activities. 

Massive castings for a 60-inch Superior- 
McCully crusher being assembled in the 
A-C West Allis plant. Machine will reduce 
5-l"oot boulders to crushed rock — handle 
2500 tons of ore per hour! 


Allis-Clmliners Manujacluring Company, Milwaukee 1, lyiscoiisiil 

MARCH, 1950 


ORLON . . . 

( L'ontinuc'd from page 20) 

(.'lu'mical liicitiu'ss orloii inaki-s good 
filter cloths. Orion nets for dyeing ny- 
lon hose are already in experimental 
use. Since the orlon is resistant to the 
d\fs used fur nylon, tlu'sc h.igs .ihsorh 
little of the d\c intended tor tile n\ - 

Orion's great strengtii :nul it^ ni(jil- 
crate price will fit it for such ruggeil as marine cordage, tarpaulins, and 
conveyor belts. The power of orlon to 
resist penetrating dust makes it an ex- 
cellent fabric for dust filter bags. For 
products requiring over-all resistance. 
materials such as electrical insulation, 
orlon should be ideal. 

In the 1 1 (inn 

.Mthougli the uulustrial uses of orlon 
will be most important at first, much 
of the fiber will be used directh in 
consumers' goods. The first \ear's pro- 
duction of orlon will go into the manu- 
facture of drapes and curtains — drapes 
which will not fade or deteriorate in 
sunlight; easily-washable curtains which 
need neither stretching nor ironing. He- 
cause of orlon's wrinkle-resistant, heat- 
setting qualities these curtains and 
drapes can be set permanently to an\ 
crease desireil. Orion's resistance to 
chemicals and heat enables these cur- 

tains and drapes to be washed in hot 
water with any reasonable detergent or 
.soap. Yet there will be few occasions 
for washing these articles because of 
their resistance to dirt, smoke, and soot. 
Orion's strength and its resistance to 
outdoor exposure, ultraviolet light, 
.•ici<ls. heat, ami nu'cro-organisms sug- 
gest use in such articles as sails, long- 
lite awnings, convertible tops which do 
not deteriorate, and fabrics for tropical 

I'lrs'iniil I 'SI'S 

When orlon has proved itself to con- 
sumers, it will move into the clothing 
industry. It is likely to find extensive 
use in water-repellent clothing and 
bathing suits. I)u Pont has sent experi- 
mental orlon overalls to its various 
plants. The overalls are excellent be- 
cause of their resistance to the usual 
industrial plant hazards: acids, alkalis, 
lieat, wear, odor-absorption, and stains. 
N\lon shirts which need no ironing are 
being .sold today, but the price is high. 
In a few years men will have orlon 
shirts which will be considerably cheaper 
and somewhat better. 

The advent of orlon carries with it 
a promise of men's suits that are mod- 
erately priced, moth- and mildew- 
resistant, wrinkle-proof, stain-resistant, 
dirt-resistant, washable, and quick-dry- 
ing. Like the shirts, these suits should 

lujld a perfect crease with no pressing. 
These is another interesting possibilitx 
for orlon in men's clothing: orlon ma\ 
replace the rayon being used for pin- 
stripes in wool suits. While the rayon 
shows dirt easily and wears out faster 
than wool, orlon is dirt-resistant and 
xxould outwear the rest of the suit. 
Women \\ t\\ tmd oilon not only in 
dresses and suits, but also m sheei' ;uui 
tricot lingerie in white or pastels. 

These are just a few of the man\ 
applications which the versatile orlon 
fiber will find m industrial and private 


(Continued from page S) 
itiated by St. Pat 1200 years ago! Sani- 
tary engineering was one of his many 
engineering accomplishments. 

Amidst the hurried questions of re- 
porters and flashing of photographic 
bulbs. Dean Everitt carried the Blarney 
Stone back to his office accompanied 
by a triumphant parade of students. He 
announced that he would keep the stone 
in his office safe until it went on ex- 
hibition during the following days of 
undergraduate registration. 

There's one i/nportcint /hint/ dhunl tlie 
rules for sueeess — they noii't leork un- 
less ice do. 


... for Easter 

Cut Flowers 
Easter Lilies 
Blooming Plants 
Decorative Plants 


Flowers by Wire 





Books and Supplies 

for every engineering need 






"Almost no limit, son, as long as the men who design and build them continue to take 
advantage of scientific progress in all the things that make ships strong, fast and safe. 

"Things like the ship's steel plates. 
They must be just right. Tliat's why 
the powerful rolls that form them in 
steel mills are kept smooth and true 
with big Norton roll grinders and fast- 
cutting Norton grinding wheels. 

"So, you see, Bruce, in these ways and 
many more Norton has a hand in mak- 
ing modern ships bigger and better... 
another proof that I'm not boasting 
when I say 'Norton makes better prod- 
ucts to make other products better'." 

"To give today's floating cities extra 
speed and smoother sailing, propellers 
must have perfect surfaces . . . the kind 
that come from rough-grinding with 
Norton cup-shaped wheels and finish- 
ing with Behr-Manning abrasive discs. 

"Yes, and attention to fine details is the 
sign of the wise ship designer. That's 
why the terrazzo floors in galleys of 
ships like the 'Queen Mary' get lasting, 
non-slip safety from a Norton product 
called Alundum aggregate." 


(i^akincj better products to make other products better 





MARCH, 1950 



( L'lMitiiincil liom page 1.5 ) 

W'liilc ;irri'iiilinj; liifrh school tluii-, he 
woikfil as a fri'c-laiice photogiaplu-i- tor 
till' Muliiic D/ii/y Disl'iitdi. ami. attiT 
loniiiiii to till- I iii\crsit\. lie lapitali/cd 

the tall of the same year he (Miiollcd as 
a tioluiiaii at tlu- I ni\fi>ir\. ami 
plcclj;i"(l Acacia FiatcriiitN. 

Hut Al has not been actuc m organi- 
zations here at the expense of his tirades. 
Diirinfi his first semester his grades en- 
titled him to membership in Phi Kta 
Sii;ma. Last fall he achic\ed member- 
ship in Tail Beta Pi, an en^iineerinfi 
h(jnorar\ . 

Perhaps Al's fjreatest scholastic 
achiexement, ho\\e\er, came last sum- 
mer, w hen he was awarded a scholarship 
In the John Morris Memorial Founda- 
tion. This scholarship is awarded only 
to those students who excel scholastically. 

.Al's hobbies consist of music, athletics, 
.and. ot course, photography. His iiiter- 
i-sts tor ;i career, however, lie in the 
industrial selliiiji field, in which he plans 
to seek ,1 job soon after ;;raduation. 


ipon this experience and ser\ed as the 
Mini I nion ph()fo<;rapher. 

.\\ tiiadiiated as \aledictorian of the 
■lass o't 1^47 of Orion Hi.t;h School. In 

"Oil. George, do you realize it's <il- 
iiiost (I year sinee our honey/noon antl 
ihiil (ihnious day ive spent on tlie xands.^ 
I non<tir lion- jce'll spend /his ime '" 

"On tlie roeksl" 

Little Willie is knocked to the liroiiml 
Whenever he enters the yard ; 

For the little puppy he thought was cute, 
( irew into a St. Bernard. 

So/neluNi s distanee lends eneltnnt- 
niint. hut mil nhen you art out of (/us. 


( Continued troiii p.age I _' ) 

tlu-\ h.iil ac<piired that well-ted feeling 
from the excellent dinner. 

( )n januar\- IS, the week following 
the hamiuet, the chapter met to elect 
officers for this semester. Donalil (]. 
Haiikins was elected president; Donald 
I). Fowler, vice i^resident ; Roger 1]. 
Skinner, treasurer; (ilen H. Sawyer, re- 
cording secretary; and James S. Stein, 
corresponding secretary. 

.New members initiated in Jaruiary 
are the following: Richard W. Arm- 
strong, Earnest A. Boulding, William 
C. Mo\d. Robert F. Brumby, Bristo C. 
Conklin, Robert D. Currie, IVIelvin H. 
Davis, Jackson Decker, Louis J. Eck. 
Albert Frank, Roy W. Hauge, Myron 
F. Oppenheim, John R. Singer, Frank 
A. Turk. James B. Foss, Charles A. 
Furtak, [r., Joseph Vt. (Jraham. Ronald 
A. Hoefie, VVilliam D. Holmes, Donald 
E. Houser, Harry D. Rimbey, Russell 
R. Roellig, Glen H. Sawyer, Bernard 
H. Spinner. John R. Wintenoth, 
Cieorge P. Wright, Jr.. ( n-orge C. Wal- 
lace and J.-imes S. Stein. 

Teaeher: "And iiho invented the 
I tulio.' 

.lohnny: "Paul Revere, lie h,oad,ast 
from one plug!" 

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soap at all! 

Now vou can have a modern cleaner that reninses dirt 
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and to the sheerest fabrics. Modern cleaners carry the dirt 
away with them, and form no ring in the dishpan or tub. 

These new cleaners are made from organic chemicals. 
They are scientificallv prepared to work equally well in 
soft, hard, even salt w^ter. 

For washing dishes or clothes, for housecleaning, for in- 
dustrial uses, better clpaners are here right now— and they 
are improving every dav. 

Today's modern synthetic detergents are not soaps . . . 

they are entirely different chemically, and work in a dif- 
ferent manner. 

The peoj)le of L nion Carbide ha\e a iiiuid iji making 
many of the organic chemicals that go into these modern, 
efficient cleaners. Producing better materials for science and 
industrx— tn aid in meeting the demand for better things 
and better pcrlnrnuince— is the work of Union Carbide. 




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ACHESON Electrodes • Prestone and Trek Anti-Frcezes • El-ECTROMET Alloys and Metals • Haynes Stellite Alloys 

MARCH, 1950 


BLARNEY . . . 

I i.'<iiirinin-il from p.-ij^r ') ) 
And inailc :\ map in neat prntilc, 

I'"()|- lie in\ciitC(l the t;:i-snlmc liack 
BMr()l(l John I), all the jack, 

"So now i\ r\- tinu- nu' liiith(la\ rolK 
arouiul th' calendar, engineers all o\cr 
\'i I nited States pay homage to me 
as th' first and greatest o' th' engineers, 
which I imdouhtedly am. 

"Th' Missouri engineers, who st.iited 
th' grand ol' tradition, spend 'most an 
entire week in a celebration, which in- 
cludes an All-Kngiiieerin' Hamburg 
Show (a strictly stag affair at which 
each Irishman has th' chore o' out- 
blarneyin' th' others), serenades 
to th' coeds' dorms, a campus stunt, an 
engineering open house, a '(Jrand Kow- 
tow' at which I make a miiaculous a|i- 
pearance and perform th' ceremonies 
th't make outstandin' senior engineers 
Knights of th' Order of St. I'atrick, an 
engineerin' (Jreen Tea, ,i b.inquet, an' 
an all-clima.\ing St. Pat's Hall. 

"Me boys up in Wisconsin have for- 
iiu il\ trotted out f'r an annual parade 
th't usually wound up in a fight with th' 
l.iwyers who were jealous of th' engi- 
neerin' claims on me patronage; how- 

e\er. th'\- h:i\e finally settled f'l' an 
open house ;in' an h.ill. 

".Minnesota engineers kick up th' 
dust with th'r knightin' ceremony, pa- 
r.ide, open house, engmeers' piciuc an' 
tir d.mce which tlic\ cill rh'r 
l>ra\x I. 

".M\ Injun Engineers at Illinois are 
whompin' up a stir o' fuss an' feathers 
this year wi' th'r first really big engi- 
neeiing weekend since the war. Faith, 
an' 1 niver saw th' likes o' it. Prepara- 
tions for 15, 000 visitors in one o' th' 
1,-ugesf open houses that 1 i\er laid eyes 
on, ,1 h.ill in me honor, an' a knightin' 
ceiemony t'r them outstanding seniors! 
H'golly, if it's gonna be th't goo<l, 1 
nu'ght even show up me.self! 

"Aye, I've had a right interestin' life! 
Me gift o' hlarne\ hasn't alwa\s profit- 
ed me, hut then who th' disil can be an 
engineer an' a tightm' Irishman an' not 
expect t' we;ir out at least 2(1 wishin' 
sh.amrocks in his lifetime?" 

Sfi/ii hild hrr hiiu/l and she held luz'ii. 

.Iiiil tlnii liny hinit/iil mid 'ivcitt to 
hiz n. 

riicy did not kninv her dtid had nz'n. 

Madder than hops and simply siz'n: 

.hid really 'tiz'n right to liz'n. 

lint Sam ijut hiz'n and ivent nut 

Too many drivers find that just he- 
lanse they see its Iratks n no sujn the 
train has just fiassed. 

* » SI, 

'Tis the night hetore payda\ , and all 
through the jeaiis, I've hiiiite<i in vain 
for the wa\s and the means. Not a 
quarter is stirring, not e\ en ,i hit; the 
greenbacks ha\c left me, the iiennies 
ha\e quit. 

Forward, tuin tcu'waiil, () rime in 
tin flight, and make it tomorrow just 
for tonight! — The Lookout. 

Poverty of person is far more to he 
dreaded than poverty of purse. 

"Don'/ tell //(, that norry doesn't do 
any i/ood." said .Mrs. /■'ret/. "I knoic 
In/ter. The thini/s I norry ahoni don't 
happen!" — 'I'he Lookon/. 

A being is a chap who will s|ilit 
his sides o\er the family album, and then 
looks in the mirror without cracking a 

I lorse sense is that sense ivhieh keeps 
horses from betting on the human raees. 

There are several good wa.\s to 
achieve failure, but never taking a 
chance is the most successful. 

insulated wires and cables 



Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 




Science Makes a Belter Mop 

Cleaning tasks lightened by ne^ 
Du Pont cellulose sponge yarn 

An ordinary mop has a bad habit of 
unraveling. It often leaves a trail of 
lint. And it wears out fast. A man 
who .sold yarn to mop manufacturers 
decided to do something about these 
nuisances. Perhaps some reinforcing 
material might be combined with the 
yarn. He did some experimental work 
of his own but more and more he 
wondered if it might be possible to 
use a cellulose .sponge coating. 


So the man called on Du Pont, the 
company that had introduced the 
cellulose sponge to America in 1936. 
The suggestion of a sponge yarn pre- 
Gented a challenging problem. 

Some way would have to be found 
to extrude a tightly fitting cellulose 
sponge jacket around each strand of 

the yarn. The whole sponge process 
would have to be adjusted for use 
in an especially designed machine. 
Du Pont chemists and engineers 
tackled these problems. 

Even the very first cellulose sponge 
yarn produced experimentally made 
mops that were strong, absorbent 
and durable. But the process had to 
be changed and improved time and 
time again. Then the mops were 
tested in places where they would 
get the hardest usage — railroad sta- 
tions, for example. 

The mops performed so v/ell that 
Du Pont built a pilot plant near 
Buffalo and, under a license from 
the man who had the original idea, 
manufactured the yarn on a small 
.scale. Only after three years of study 
and testing was Du Pont able to 
























CROSS-SECTION of the new mop yarn. Each 
cotton fiber strand is jacketed with cellulose 
sponge material. 

offer mop manufacturers the yam 
in commercial quantities. 


Mops made with cellulose sponge 
yarn pick up and retain so much 
water they need wringing less often. 
You can mop a floor with them in 
far less time than it formerly took. 
They dry quickly, leave no lint. They 
outwear other mops three to five 
times. Best of all, perhaps, they stay 
dirt-free longer than ordinary mops. 
Here is something women will ap- 
preciate — a clean mop! 

The introduction of these new 
cleaning tools is another example of 
how business firms of all sizes depend 
on each other. The Du Pont Com- 
pany had facilities for specialized re- 
search on cellulose sponge. Because 
Du Pont could supply sponge yarn 
economically , some twenty mop man- 
ufacturers today have a better prod- 
uct that saves maintenance people 
and the American housewife time, 
labor and money. 

SEND FOR '•The Story of Cellulose," a 43- 
pagc booklet that tells how wood and cotton 
are transformed into sponges, textile fibers, 
lacquers, plastics, coaled fabrics. Cellophane 
and many other useful products. Illustrated 
with photographs, charts and chemical equa- 
tions. For free copy, write to the Du Pont 
Company, 2503 Nemours Bldg., Wilmington 
98, Delaware. 


Great Dramatic Enlcrlainmenl— Tune in "Cavalcade 
of America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 

MARCH, 1950 



( CinituiiK-il 1 1(1111 |ia^c 

-' ) 

(.ouiitiT moves, and tlic X-ray intciiMrics 
arc iiidicatcd by tin- lu-iglu (it the line 
drawn b\ tin- recorder. 

The technique made possible by the 
new instrument is much faster and 
more accurate tlian tlie |ihot()y;ra|iliic 
inctliod lormerh used. 

docribed as a "low-pass half-wave fil- 
tci, ' which is installed by the ra(h() 
"ham" between his transmitter and an- 
tenna. It has no effect on the funda- 
mental, but harmonics are suppressed, 
liie harmonic at twice normal fre- 
(|iiency is reduced 1260 times, the next 
(),i, ()()() times and the next almost a mil- 
lion times. Those still hijjher arc .ittenu- 
ated c\t-i\ mure. 

or other watcr-miscible solvents, or 
when wcttiiif; agents are used, Dry-Flo 
can be wetted and gelatinized by heat- 

This product is expected to have com- 
mercial application for rubber dusting 
and detackifying, for the prevention of 
sticking of viscous materials to contain- 
er w alls, and for other unexplored possi- 

The Harmoniker 

ro'uliai lien ing-hdiK- markings, visi- 
ble on television receivers and often 
blamed on nearby amateur radio sta- 
tions, may now be eliminated in most 
cases with a new device called the "har- 
moniker." This was developed by tlie 
television division of the General l.lec- 
tric Research Laboratory. 

rhoiigh amateur radio communication 
is only one of many causes of television 
interference, the result can be especially 
.innoying and completely ruin the view- 
er's eniovinent of a program. 

Interference results not from the main 
signal sent out from the amateur station, 
but from its harmonics. Flashing neon 
signs are another source of interference. 

The harmoniker is an arrangement of 
four coils, with a.s.sociated condensers 
;iiid wiring. These are enclo.sed in a 
metal bo.x, which need be no larger than 
3x4.x5 inches in most applications. It is 

Hydrophobic Powder 

A \\ atci -liatiiig ( li\ dr(i|ih(ibic ) dcriv- 
.irivc ot coin starch that may have broad 
commercial possibilities, is now available 
for product research and development. 
It is the latest in a group of starch 
products with unusual properties de- 
veloped ill the National Starch Prod- 
ucts, Inc., laboratories. 

Called Dry-Flo, it is a finely divided 
powder with a silky texture, free-flow- 
ing to the extent that in many ways it 
behaves like a liquid. Because each 
starch granule is united with water- 
repelling hydrocarbon radicals, the prod- 
uct is not wetted by water and cannot 
be gelatinized by beating in water. It 
floats on the surface of water without 

If added to water-immiscible solvents, 
Dry-Flo will remain wetted by the sol- 
vent even after agitation in the presence 
of water. When moistened -with alcohol 

Reflected Radio Waves 

While ciigiiu-crs still haven't fouiiil 
a convenient way to move mountains, 
they claim they've done the next best 
thing. A. A. John.son, of the Westing- 
house Electric Corporation, reports that 
radio weaves are being "bounced" around 
a mountain in Pennsylvania. 

A microwave communication system 
recently installed between a sub-station 
and generating plant of the Pennsyl- 
vania Electric Company at Johnstown 
has shown the reflection principle to be 
both efficient and economical. The sub- 
station and generating plant are 12 
miles apart and the expense of installing 
and maintaining multiple telephone lines 
for control purposes would have been 

Microwaves seemed to offer a solu- 
tion. However, as in television, these 
waves travel only in a straight line ; and 
(Continued on page 30) 


fMok ilcfirigerdtktt 

The M & R Dietetic Labora- 
tories, Inc. will manufacture 
SIMILAC, the well-known baby 
formula, and TEN-B-LOW, a con- 
centrate for making ice cream in 
the home, in their new plant at 
Sturgis, Michigan. 

A complete Frlck refrigerating 
system serves the great plant. 
Temperatures range from 10(jeg. 
below zero to 40 above. Features 
of the cooling system are steam 
drive for two of the compressors, 
a booster compressor for low- 
temperature work, and two cold 
water tanks arranged for storing 
refrigeration by freezing ico on 
the pipe coils. 

Tlii' Frirh Graduate Training Course in 


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In Our Own Store 

PROBLEM — Your company manufactures gas 
burners of varying number and spacing of gas 
ports. You v/ant to develop a drilling machine 
v/hich can be changed over v/ith a minimum of 
time and effort to drill the holes in the different 
burner castings. How would you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER— The illustration shows 
how one manufacturer solved this problem by 
using S.S.White flexible shafts as spindles. 
This arrangement makes possible quick changes 
of spindle groupings to meet different require- 
ments. As here, S.S.White flexible shafts make 
ideal power drives for almost any machine part 
which must be adjustable. 

This is just one of the 
hundreds of remote 
control and power drive 
problems to which S. S. 
White flexible shafts 
provide a simple ans- 
wer. Engineers will find 
it worthwhile to be famil- 
iar with the range and 
scope of these "Metal 
Muscles"* for mechan- 
ical bodies. 

• Trade Mark Reg, U S. Pat. Off and 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. Write for your free 



THE S. S.WHITf PENTAl MFC CO ■ IW B^ ■#^ ■ ■■•^■fc DIVISION 

OIPI.C, 10 lAST 4011. SI . NIW »0«K 

MARCH, 1950 

Ciu 0^ AmeiuMA A AAA ItuOuiHoi S»iv>piiit4 



( CcjiitiiuK-d tiijiii paij;e 2S ) 

.It the Johnstown installation there is 
a lai<;e hill between the sub-station and 
the jjenerating plant. Since the waves 
would not go over this hill or through 
it, tile beam was retleeted around it. 

In opeiation, the niierowa\es are 
beamed at a large aluminum reflector 
sheet placed some two miles from the 
sub-station. This sheet, which measures 
id feet sipiare, is mounted on a 5()-toot 
tower .-uul i> in the "line of sight" of 
both the sub-station and the generating 
plant. Microwaves striking this mirror- 
like reflector are tieflected around the 
side ot the mountaui to the iecci\nig 

1 he t\\()-w,i\ nucrowavc installation 
operates either by voice or electrical im- 
pulse. Se\en voice conversations can be 
>ent simultaneouslv. 

.■iftcr-diiiner speaking is the ml of 
snyirir/ notliiiin /briefly. 

» s * 

The farmer whose pig was killed by 
an automobile was raving mad. 

"Don't worry," said the motorist, try- 
ing to pacify the berea\ed owner. "I'll 
replace your pig." 

"You can't, " growled the farmer, 
"vou ain't fat enough. " 

1st little boy: "How old is \ou ?" 
2nd ditto: "I is five. How old is 

\()U ?" 

1st: "1 dunjio." 

2nd: "Does women affect \ou ? " 

1st: "\o." 

2nd: "Then \()u is four." 

* * * 

'/'//(• ni'iil of n (/ooil joh for iT'i ; v iiiiiii 
is no i/rtitlir tliiiii llii luiil of n i/nud 
iiniii for ri'try joh. 

Sherlock Holmes: "Ah. Watson, I 
see you have on \()ur winter under- 
wear ?" 

Watson: ".\lar\elous. Holmes, mar- 
velous. How did you ever deduce that?" 

Sherlock Holmes: "You forgot to put 
on \()iir trousers. 

Frof: "If in (joing iloicn this iin/inr 
I gain four fn t per scrond. uhal will hi 
my londitinn at thv ind of 25 seconds?' 

Smart Soph: ") Onll he a centipede.' 

"johnny . . . |ohnn\ !" 

"Huh, ma.'" 

"Are you spitting in the fish bowl?" 

"Nope. Hut I'm coming pretty close!" 

Judcje (in dentist's chair): Do yon 
suear that you tcill pull the tooth, thi 
uhoh tooth, and nothing hiil the tooth' 

.\ character overabundanth' fortified 
with alcoholic stimulants staggered up to 
;i food, put a coin in the slot 
;md bugged his e\es in astonishment 
when a piece of cherrv pie came out. He 
gobbled it down and repeated the pro- 
cedure. As he continued to feed coins 
into the machine, he became more and 
more loaded with cherry pie — and more 
and more amazed. 

Finally, a passerb\ nudged him and 
asked: "Don't you think \ou'd better 
stop now ? " 

The drunk waved him away and 
reached for another coin. "What?" he 
demanded indignantlv, "Shtop now — 
while I'm still winnin' ?" 

I'hc professor nho sent his icife to the 
hank and i'i.\S(d his money gooiU/ye ivas 
not ahsent-miiidctl. 

"How could >ou tell whether those 
flies were males or females?" 

"Easy, my dear," he replied. "Three 
were on the sugar and three were on 
the mirror. " 

In the April Issue 

The Tech will present a review of the 


thaf was given last December 

A similar examination for professional engi- 
neering status will be given May 23, 1950. 

Largest selection of gifts 
for everyone at 


Champaign's Largest Department Store 



Z E S T O 

Frozen Dessert 


614 East John Street 



Some journals are technical publications. 
Some journals are the parts of rotating shafts 
that turn in bearings. 

For both kinds of journals, there's good news 
in Standard Oil's performance testing program. 
One result is a new testing device for mill and 
locomotive driving-journal grease that enables 
us to tell more accurately than ever before what 
our greases will do under actual conditions of 
use. That, in turn, enables us to proceed more 
directly with the job of making our greases 
still better. 

Standard Oil took the lead in performance 
testing, and is a leader today. During the war 

our tests furnished information that enabled 
the Army to procure certain products with 
greatly increased reliability of performance. 
Some of our tests have become a part of govern- 
ment specifications. Many users of our prod- 
ucts are benefiting, both from better products 
and from more accurate information. 

As time goes on, we are doing more and more 
performance testing. In some cases, we have to 
develop not only the tests but also the testing 
equipment. But to Standard Oil researchers 
and engineers, any effort is worth while if it 
will help make better, more useful petroleum 

Standard Oil Company 


MARCH, 1950 


Lady customer: "1 want a birtlula\ 
present for my husband. " 

Floorwalker: "How long have you 
been married, madam?" 

Customer: "Twelve years." 

Floorwalker: "Har<;ain basement is 
on the left." 

".I /III nliiit i/iiiiil I III II liiivi ynii ihnu 
hiitiiy'" iiskcil Ihi Si'iiiliimslti. 

"11 'ill." sniil II 'I'diili rfout. "1 sine ii 
mill! Iidi/iiii/ II iliiiikry iiiid I sl'tp/xil 

"Fun." sii'iil llii- Si oulmiistii . "uhiil 
i/iiuil Iridl il'Jis /hill ih'iu/" 

"linilhiilv Invi." ihniiisril ihc iisl 
„j Ihi tiu„l,. 

Krnie: "My unele ean play the piano 
b\ ear." 

(Jurney: "That's nothing. My uiule 
fid<lles with his whiskers." 

(].¥..: "Say. /"il . ivill yau loiiii mi ii 
niikvl.' I nam to mil ii fr'uiui." 

M.K.: "lien's II ill mi . mil nil .V'"" 

» * * 

Boss: "On your way to Smith 5c 
Sons vou will pass a football game." 
Office boy (hopefully): "Yes, sir!" 
Boss: "Well, pass it!" 

Hiily: "Your iwic ovirioat is /<rilty 
loud, isn't it:'" 

Billv: "Yiiih. hill I'm i/onna hiiy n 
miifflir to I/O liith it." 

Mary: "Mother, they are going to 
teach us domestic silence at school now." 

Mother: "Don't \ou mean domestic 

Father: "There is a bare hope that 
our little girl means what she is .saying." 

./ nnvly ncatcd f"M riic'ivcd the 
i/liid lidinffs in a telcyram : 

"lliizil t/avf I'irth to a little i/i'l this 
moniinii: hoth doini/ Tcell. 

On I hi missiu/e uiis a stieker leiidini/: 
"When yon leiinl n hoy. eiill II eslein 
I iiiiiii." 

Prof: "Er — my dear, what's the 
meaning of this vase of flowers on the 
table today?" 

Wife: "Meaning? Why, today is 
your wedding anniversary." 

I'rof: "Indeed! Well, well, do let me 
know when \ours is so 1 nia\' do the 
same for vou." 

"Iliis your son's rollii/e rdnention 
hien of liny value?" 

"Oh. \es : It ruri'd his mother of hriii/- 
ijiiii/ iihoiit him. 

Dorothy (admiring her engagement 
ring): "There's nothing in the world 
harder than a diamond, is there?" 

Howard: "Yes, sweetheart — keeping 
up the installments to pay for it." 

The motorist had just bought a tank- 
ful of gasoline and the station attendant 
was going through his little ritual. 

Attendant: "Check your oil, sir.'" 

.Motorist: "No, it's O.K." 

Attendant: "(lOt enough water in 
\oin' radiator?" 

Motorist: "Yes, filled up." 

Attendant: "Anything else, sir?" 

Motorist: "Yes, would you please 
stick out your tongue .so I can .seal this 

// polilieiil steiiker fraetiired three 
rihs. suffered ii hroken eolliir hone, ijot 
a shattered ankle, iiiii'jor hruises and a 
hashed-iii skull the other day uhile shy- 
ini/ aieiiy from a lie-deteetor miuhine. 

Teacher: "johnny, what's the differ- 
ence between perseverance and obstin- 
acy' ?" 

Johnny: "One is a strong will, and 
the other is a strong won't." 

\iilure ahhors a viieunm. II hen n 
head links hrains. she fills it nith eon- 

The meek little r/ent in the restaurant 
finally s'tijhed and deeided to (five w/i h'ls 
steak. It tvfis toui/her than sole leather, 
lie ealled the nailer and pleaded that 
it he taken haek to the kilehen. The 
icaiter dolefully shook his head and 
said: "Sorry, pal. I ran't take it haek 
noir. You've hent it! 

"How do you like your new boss, 

"Oh, he ain't so bad,, onlv he's 
kinda bigoted." 

"Wliadda y'mean, bigoted? 

"Well, he thinks words can onlv be 
spelled one way." 


Phxllis: "Here you nervous nhen 
Cieort/e proposed!'" 

Mahel: "No. dear, that's nhen I 
stopped heini/ nervous. 

Diner: "Waiter, this soup is odd. 
Bring me some that's hot." 

Waiter: "What do \c)u want me to 
do? Burn mv thumb?" 

(Ihost: llon'd you i/et that hump on 
your head.' 

Felloir i/host: "ll'iis eomim/ Ihroui/h 
a keyhole nhen someone stuek in the 

1st farmer: "Potato bugs ate my 
whole crop in ten days." 

2nd farmer: "They ate mine in two 
da>'s, then roosted in the trees to wait 
\uitil 1 planted some more." 

.M-d farmer: "That's nothing. Right 
now there's a potato bug going through 
my books to see how many plantings I've 
ordereil for next spring." 

I'oliiemiin: "Did yon hreak that nin- 
don- on purpose.'" 

Hoy: "Oh no. sir. I leiis eleanini/ 
m\' dim/shot and it iinidentally went 


New Developments 

Page 2 

The Busy Betatron 

Page 7 

t. Francis Basin 

Page 8 

Engineering Exam 

Page 9 



just drive straight ahead 
for 37,681 miles" 

*i.M<)ST everywhere you trnvel across 
•■ *■ this hinil of ours, you roll over heauti- 
liil wule, straif;ht, smooth roails. A niag- 
iiiticeiit plan of interstate highways, the 
;;reatest road |>rograni in American his- 
tory, is taking form at the rate of 700 
million dollars worth of construction per 

37,6S1 miles of swell driving . . . direct 
travel from any part of the countrv to 
any other part . . . routes north and south, 
east and west, and diagonal routes as well 
. . . big highways directly servmg practi- 
i.illy all cities of 50,000 population or 

rhis is part of the better America that 
nur generation is building. It's taking 
plenty of brains. Plenty of man power. 
Lots of cement. And lots of Steel. 

It's a job that's far from finished, 
though. And it's going to call for an even 
greater supply of each of these commodi- 
ties. Trained engineers must plan and 
build the highways of the future. And the 
talents of countless other skilled men will 
go into the manufacture of the cement 
.ind steel for the job. 

Knowing that progress depends on 
people, United States Steel is looking 
ahead. Promising young men, training for 
careers in the steel industry, are daily 
tackling problems and developing ideas 
which will create new steels and new uses 
of steel for better living. The achieve- 
ments of these young men not only help 
keep United States Steel in the vanguard 
cif the industry but provide opportunit\ 
lor building fundamental qualifications 
lor leadership. 




i/el as CO 



Dy plane, train, truck ... by boat and l)arge ... by 
nearly every type of transportation, Dow chemicals move 
across the nation. There are weed killers for the prairies, 
insecticides for the almond and fruit growers in California, 
epsom salt for the tanneries in Massachusetts, caustic 
soda for the paper mills of Washington and soil fumigaiits 
for the truck gardens of Florida. These are but a few of 
more than five hundred Dow chemicals serving American 
industry and agriculture. 

A well-organized sales and distribution system is required 
to move so varied an output of chemicals into a multitude 
of major industries from coast to coast. At Dow, this com- 
plex distribution problem is solved by strategically locating 
plants, branch offices, and warehouses near the nation's 
production centers. In many instances, the much-needed 
material can be shipped overnight from Dow to processing 
plants in the vicinity. 

This close relationship to industry results from Dow's 
progress througlioul the years in production, sales and 
distribution of chemicals "indispensable to industry and 


New York • Boston • PhHoderphia • Washington • Atlanta • Cleveland • Detroit 




iHew Develo|iiiieiits 

II ml Tarn Tui-ki'r. 1'h.K. ".7.7 



The new pressure shot blasting machine assures adequate cylinder block 
cleaning. (Courtesy of Ford Motor company). 

Cylinder Blocks Blasted 

rhrougli tlu- application of a .special 
process for the internal cleaning of en- 
gine blocks, Ford Motor company has 
practically ruled out the possibility of 
engine trouble due to inadecpiatc block 

The process employs a new shot blast 
cleaning machine that is the first of its 
kind in the automotive industry. It 
guarantees additional protection against 
core sand remaining in the internal 
c\linder block water passages. 

The new pressure blast machine sup- 
plements conventional equipment to re- 
move burnt core and molding sand and 
scale from the interior and exterior sur- 
faces of the motor block casting. 

Possibility of obstructions developing 
in water circulation, thereby creating 
faultv or broken cylinder blocks in 
cars is muiimi/ed. 

The new blasting technique w<irks 
this way: Motor blocks are brought 
b\' conveyor one at a time into the blast 
cabinet. Two work positioning arms, 
one foi' each side of the casting, register 
the block in correct position for apply- 
ing the blast of shot. The blast is blown 
through 16 no//.les under air pressure of 
S^ psi. 

The air-driven shot strikes hidden 

sand or scale, freeing it trom the metal's 
surface. The loosened material then can 
be removed from the block's interior. 

Surfaces of the water jacket, crevices 
and thin sectional openings are blasted 
clean — exposing bright virgin metal to 
the cooling water circulated fioni the 

The material used in the blast proc- 
ess consists of iron or steel shot and 
grit. The air blast eiiuipment operates 
automaticalh', with the blast period con- 
trolled by an automatic timer. 

Gold Container 

I'he "new look " in gold shipments is 
a sturdy, tamper-proof container made 
of transparent Lucite acrylic resin. Util- 
izing the strength and water-clear trans- 
parency of this versatile plastic, the 
new containers are designed to provide 
deliveries which are above question. The 
contents are clearly visible at all times, 
and the enclosed assayer's certificate and 
affidavits may be read directly through 
the plastic. 

The containers are sealeil by means 
of a wire, which passes through the 
sides of the cylinder and through a 
groove in the remo\able top. 1 he base 
is similarly constructed, assuring a tight, 
fool-proof enclosure. Upon deli\cr\, the 

recipietit needs only to note the en- 
closed certificates through the trans- 
parent walls of the container. This elim- 
inates time-consuming inspections. 

Atomic Timepiece 

J he first at(inuc clock, accuiate re- 
gardless of age, temper.-iture and pres- 
sure, and independent of the eaith's mo- 
rion for its method of time-keeping, has 
been developed by the National Hvn'eau 
ot Standards at Washington. 

A ,?()-foot copper tube, filled with 
ammonia gas, is wound around a special 
50-cycle electric clock. The three hydin- 
gen atoms in a molecule of ammoni.i 
form a triangular plane through the 
center of which the nitrogen atom 
swings back and forth. A very-high- 
frequency microwave signal is tuned b\ 
automatic radio devices of extreme sen- 
sitivity to the constant frequency of this 
vibration. The equipment includes a 
quartz-crystal oscillator for generating 
a driving signal at low frequency, a fre- 
quency multiplier which transforms this 
to the microwave signal, a frequency 
discriminator, and a frequency divider. 
The radio waves are shot through the 
copper tube in the proper frequency to 
match the inversion of the nitrogen atom 
in the ammonia. 

( Ciiiifnued on page 2(1) 

This new standard of accuracy in 
timekeeping is controlled by com- 
paring the driving frequency with 
a vibration frequency in the am- 
monia molecule. (Courtesy of Frick 



Ray Hauser Editor 

Connie Minnich Assoc. Editor 

Gene HIanyer Makeiit' Editor 

Art Dreshfield Asst. Editor 

Dwight Beard Asst. Editor 

Dick Clioronzy Asst. E^ditor 

Henr\ Kahn Asst. Editor 

Dan Keefe -tsst. Editor 

Edilori/d .-Associates 

Bill Soilerstriin 
Oean Feltciri 
Pave Cash 
Jnhn Iluher 
lim F.phgrave 
Bill Black 
Ddii Horton 
Hon Rhea 

n.m Sweet 
Chuck Flanders 
Hcib Citfrow 
Henry Kalapaca 
rum Tucker 
(icdrRe Ratz 
lack Cllman 
Clarence Niehcnv 


Fred Seavev Bus. IMyr. 

Dick Smith' Office Myr. 

Bill Anderson Asst. Bus. Myr. 

Don Johnson ....Asst. Bus. Jllyr. 
Alfreda Malhirey PiihUcity 

Volume 65 

Number 7 

Tfie Tech Presenis 

Business Assori/itcs 

Ed Brooks Hick Kenna 

Boll Gerzetich Bill Hulier 

Tovanne Blount Hiiane Carpenter 
Jim Roth 



J. A. 


L. A. 

, Rose 

W. E. 





nan: Prof. F. J. Cheek, 
of Kentucky, Lexington 



Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
nois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit, Kansas Engineer, Kansas State 
Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, Louisiana 
State University Engineer, Marquette Engi- 
neer, Michigan Technic, Minnesota Techno- 
log, Missouri Shamrock, Nebraska Blueprint, 
New York University Quadrangle, North 
Dakota Engineer, North Dakota State En- 
gineer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 
Engineer, Oregon State Technical Record, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester Indica- 
tor, Rose Technic, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana. Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 


The Busy Betatron 7 

St. Francis Basin Project 8 

Professional Engineering Exam 9 


New Developments 2 

Personalities 10 

Boneyard Bilge 12 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies 14 

Meet the Staff 18 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Mur 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Ave. 
Chicago 11, 111. 101 Park Aveiuie, 1 
York 17, New York. 


Pictorial memoirs from the Ceramics Department grace this 
month's cover by the courtesy of cartoonist Ed Lozano. The De- 
partment's science has advanced somewhat from the Early 
American variety. 


Prof. Donald Kerst, designer of the 300 m.e.v. betatron, watches 
finishing touches being put on the magnets of the big atom 


Ittl i'unnif ^linnivh. I'.K. '.11 

I'lm i/i'in/lis rii/ii the Ihiivcrsity of llliiion iti/iic fur lit uilli andthcr of lis 
"fir.fts" ill tin fu Id of .uiiiitific research. The niiv ruldi/ion is lln liin/ist mid most 
poivirfiil iitoiii siiuislur in the liorld — the 300-iiiillion-i'olt betatron. 

Ihii 4(>(>-ton pieic of iiuuhiiiery is expected to open the doors of one of thi 
latest phases of naelear research — investii/atioii of the meson, or liits of "atomic 
(line" as it is commonly called. 

This article explains a fere of the more f iindamental principles of the hetatron 
and the leork of its inventor. I'rof. Donald //". Kerst of the ['. of I. Physics 

There was an almost mandible liLim- 
niing of unseen machinery as a large 
group of spectators waited for the man 
at the control panel to push the but- 
tons. They were waiting to see the evi- 
dence of the creation of cosmic ra>s 
14-billion times more concentrated than 
those showered on the earth from the 
outer universe. 

The day was February 28, 195(t; and 
the place, the Betatron Laborator\ out 
h\ Memorial Stadium. A notable gath- 
ering of L niversity officials and news- 
papermen were present to witness an- 
other great advance into the field of 
atomic science — the brand-new 300- 
million \oIt betatron. The man at the 
control panel was Prof. Donald W. 
Kerst, a member of the Physics De- 
partment and inventor of this world- 
famous atom smasher. 

The field of nuclear research now 
has three powerful methods for piercing 
the secrets of atomic structure. One of 
these, the betatron, as distinguished from 
tile other two, the synchrotron and cy- 
clotron, creates energy by the accelera- 
tion of electrons through the use of 
magnetic flux furnished by a giant mag- 
net. The c\clotron causes proton accel- 
eration with less precise control of iiii 
Iiarted energy than the betatron, but it 
does produce a greater volume of accel- 
erated particles. The synchrotron also 
causes electron acceleration ; but it ac- 
complishes this through a radio-frequen- 
c\ s\stem, rather than the flux magnet 
ot the betatron. 

(iroiiini/ Rapidly 
The L'iant .lOd-million \()lt bet.ition 
i^ I'lotessoi' Keist's fourth in a l(l-\eai 
research period. The first was a 2'.- 
million volt baby "beta" that he fust 
designed and operated in 1940 when he 
joined the University faculty. This first 
machine, no larger than an overnight 
suitcase, is still kept on display at the 
Hetatron building. 

1 he next step a 2ll-inillion \cilt 

edition that was converted into a com- 
mercial machine for arsenals and indus- 
trial use by the combined engineering 
designs of the Universit\- and Allis- 
Chalmers of Milwaukee. 

An SO-million volt pilot model, con- 
structed in 1945-46, was the forerunner 
of the present betatron. The third and 
fourth machines were built on funds 
from the $1,S()(I,1)()0 appropriation that 
the Illinois legislature granted the Ini- 
versity for a nuclear research laborators 
and equipment in 1945. 

Research ivith the Meson 
Three-hundred-niillion volts is quite 
a chunk of betatron, e\ en by present 
research standards whose boundaries ex- 


"For these introductions 


occompanying my articles 


everyone but me has writ- 


ten me up, 1 figure it's 

about time 1 write some- 

I^PP ^rlH 

thing obout myself. 

K <^ 

"However, since every- 

thing about me has al- 

ready been said, little of 

^^Hp ^i^^^^H 

importoncc remains except 

^C-^ '^^^^tl^k 

my obituary which will not 


be written for several yeors 

U hope). 

"However, t h e blank 

space beside this picture 


must be filled up with 

bold-face type no matter 

what the contents of the 

type moy be. Now that 

' f 

this purpose has been oc- 

complished, 1 will sign 



Iiand more rapidl\ than the average 
individual can follow. However, it is 
expected that this machine will give 
the ansv\-ers to many of the questions 
involving the meson, one of the newly 
discovered components of the atom. 
Hideki Yukawa, a Japanese physicist 
(and Nobel Prize recipient of 1949). 
theorized 15 years ago that the nucleus 
of the atom was held or bound together 
by a sort of "atomic glue." The exist- 
ence of the meson, as it was later called. 
Continued on Page 21 ) 

Prof. Donald Kerst examines his two 
is the 2.5-m.e.v. original, and the 
in the rear. 

early betatron models. On the table 
commercial 20-m.e.v. model stands 

APRIL, 1950 

Itfi Itrtin l-'rU»n. I.E. '.11 

In tilteiiifitiiit/ to diSiiiln- the St. l-'inmis liasiii I'rojiit, the author (Iocs not 
try Id firtsciit (ill of the teehnieal ns/>eets of the f>roject hut presents this tis n t>nr- 
tii iilar exainp/e of niiiiieroiis small flood control projects. These projects, althoiii/h 
not uidely piihlieized. are definitely strvint/ nsefnl functions. 

.Much of the data and the ilhistrntions nirc contrihulid for this tirlicl, hy the 
{ . .S'. Corps of Engineers. 

()\crflow ab()\i' tlu- hitinnlc of Witts- 
burg, Arkansas. 

Thf St. Francis ri\cr has been undfr 
irnprovciiicnt tor na\ijiation since 1S71. 
( )pcrations have been limited to re- 
niosal of snags and similar obstructions 
as far as Wappapello, Missouri. Water 
power de\elopment has been investigat- 
ed but has not been found to be eco- 
nomically justified. 

Proposed Flood Control Methods 

The St. Francis Hasin Project pro- 
poses control of the St. F"rancis and 
Little ri\er floods and the passing of 


Seldom does a single engineeruig 
project prove more versatile than a flood 
control operation. It serves the primary 
purpose of relief from damaging floods 
which cause death and wide-spread de- 
struction and the secondary' purpose of 

The Wappapello Dam area is lo- 
cated in southeastern Missouri. 

being an interesting coordination of go\- 
ernmental and local economics to pro- 
vide the life-supply of water to fertile 
regions that once ran the gamut of 
alternate floods and droughts. 

We have all heard of the Tennessee 
Valley Authority and the Columbia Val- 
ley systems; but .still fairly unknown in 
its infancy stage is the St. F'rancis 
Ri\er Basin Project. 

Conditions Before Construction 
The origin of the St. Francis is the 
rugged hill section of Southeastern Mis- 
souri in St. Francois county. The river 
flows in a lazy southerly direction 473 
miles to its junction with the Missis- 
sippi river about 8 miles upstream from 
Helena, Arkansas. Its preseiit total 
drainage area is about S,350 square 
miles. In the hill section north of Wap- 
papello, the runoff is rapid and tin- 

stream is quite flashy. Since the estab- 
lishment of a water gage at Wappapel- 
lo in 1020, the following data extremes 
have been gathered : 

Lowest mean monthh flow — 70 cfs 
(August, 1936). 

Maximum flow stage under natLiral 
conditions — 30.7 feet (Ma\, 1033). 

(This corresponds to a discharge of 
about 82,500 cfs from a drainage area 
of 1,310 square miles.) 

Peak discharge— 85,000 cfs (August, 
1015, and March, 1035). 

Maximum recorded discharges — 30,- 
000 to 60,000 cfs. 

In the past the principal overflow 
damage has been to crops, farm im- 
provements, railroads, highways, and 
public utilities. Prior to the construction 
of the present St. Francis Basin Proj- 
ect, the average annual flood loss was 
about $1,400,000 in the St. F'rancis 

A senior in C,E., Dean 

IS one of the "old" mar- 

ried men on TECH, 

He wos born in the boil- 

er city, Kewanee, Illinois, 


in 1926 and has spent 


most of his lite there. The 


Army disrupted his happy 

home m 1 9-4-» and sent 

Xj^i?" ^~ 


him to China for 19 



Dean entered the U. 


of 1. Galcsburg division in 
the spring of 1947 and 
helped to orgonize the 


TECH staff there. He hos 


enjoyed hts three years of 



TECH octivity. 



ASCE and worked on the 
parade committee for 1 



those flood waters safely into the St. 
Francis area below Wittsburg. Here the 
carrying capacity of the St. Francis 
river is large and the area is normally 
affected by the backwaters of the Mis- 
sissippi river. These improvements are 
being secured by a combination of a res- 
ervoir, levees, channel straightening, and 
other means. The project includes the 
construction of a dam at Wappapello, 
(Continued on page 28) 

-Rood way 

, Va/ley Flo, 

'D' Outlet Tunnel 

Typ.ccl Cr„l-,Kt„n , 

Wappapello Dam 

The above diagram shows a typical cross-section of Wappapello Dam. 
The dam is an important part of the St. Francis River Basin project. 


Professional Eiioiiieerinii Exam 

(Selcrted tlu^ 1 cimian "ILLINOIS LNCilNLER" with |H-nni>si(jn ) 

If liy l>r(if(ssi'jniil rcyistralii>n of iiu/i/ucrs/ Siinc it is 
nil lien f'teil furl lliiit n profession is jiidytd l/y the work of 
its people, the purpose of this registration is to drmv a 
dividinc/ line betneen the qualified nienihers of a profession 
and those iinf/iudified to praetiee. As in the ease of registered 
nieitieal nun and laiiyers. puhlie reeoi/nition is idso granted 
to those lieensed by state authority to praetiee engineering. 

The examination gitH'n for this professional status and 
proi'ided for in the Illinois Professional Engineering Jit is 
f/i'cen regularly at the University. Parts I and II of tlu 
examination will be offered on May 23. 1950. and Part III 
on May 24. 1950. Seniors may take only the first two parts 
ivhile in sehool. and must eomphte four years of praitieal 
training in their field to take the last part. 

.Is a guide for preparation for this examination . a repn- 
sentative sample of the questions asked last Deeemher S. 
194^ , is presented beloic. Only a speeified number of ques- 
tions must be answered. This alloivs eonsiderabte latitude 
in ehoosing familiar material. As may be noted, one of 
the advantages in taking the examination as a student is 
that a large amount of the subjeet matter has been reeently 
studied and it should still be fresh in the student's mind. 
(J( rtain referenee books and hand-hooks are permitted. 

Books of reeent eomplete examinations may be obtained 
at one dollar eaeh from Prof. II. E. Babbitt. 204 (Jivil 
Eni/inei rini/ Ilall. 


1. A tunnel is to be constructeil, the cross-section of 
uhich is to be in the form of a rectangle surmounted by 
a semi-circle as shown in Fig. 1-2. In order to make the 
most effective use of the available lining material, the in- 
side perimeter of the cross-section must be kept at 60 // 
Determine the radius r and the height /; which will gi\e the 
greatest area of cross-section for the given perimeter. 

2. Two towns A and B (Fig. 1-3) are both located on 
the west side of a river from which it is proposed that each 
secure a water supply. Town A is 8 miles from the bank 
while town 5 is 1 5 miles from the bank and 12 miles up- 
stream with respect to town A . The ri\er is straight between 
the towns. It is proposed that a single pumping station 
ser\e both towns. Determine: 

(a) The position of the pumping station on the bank 
that will make the total length of siipph pipe the 

(h) The total length of supply pipe. 

?i. Compute the currents at i, . i... and ;, of Fig. 1-3. 

4. A train traveling at 75 mph recei\es a warning that it 
is approaching a "slow signal" and the engineer immediatelv 
reduces speed at a uniform rate of 1.8 ft. /see.-, so that his 
speed is 15 mph as he reaches the slow signal. The slow 
order covers a stretch of 5 miles of track being reconstructed 
and as soon as he reaches the end of the slow order, the en- 
gineer increases his speed at such a uniform rate that the 
train is tra\eling 85 mph 90 seconds thereafter. 

(a) What length of time elapsed between the warning 
and the beginning of the slow order stretch and what 
distance did the train travel during that time? 

(b) What distance ilul the train tra\el from the end 
of the slow order stretch in attaining its speed of 85 mph.' 

(c) How long will the train have to travel at 85 mph in 
order to make up for the time lost by not running 
continuously at 75 mph? 

5. Fig. 1-9 shows diagrammaticall.\ a pneumatic buffer 
on a lift bridge. As the bridge starts to lower, the buffer 
liiston is in the position .shown and the air in the cyclinder 
is at atmospheric pressure and temperature (60° /•"). Neg- 
lecting heat loss to the atmosphere: 

(a) At what length of piston travel will tlie discharge 
\al\e open ? 

(Continued on page 22} 

A' \^ ' 


^ / ,nimp 

fia. 1-2 

I ^ /2 rrillei j 


I ohm 

-zr i2o\^ 

3 ohms 

□ ^.'^ 



-4- ohm^ 

^7 :: ^4 ohn S 


FiQ. I'S 

Top of Fhlon- -r 

/ Sff/ far looop.s.-i 

-Buffer Cylinder 

Buffer f?ocf 
Seat Pf^^e. 

ricr. 1-9 

Necessary diagrams for test problems are 
grouped above. 

APRIL, 1950 

jninxulUu^Uu^ . . . 

Miff f'hurie Flantlvrtt. E.H. '.12 

anil 1'ltironv*' \i0'hnir. 31. H. '.11 


Every month an outstanding; student 
is chosen from his fellow engineers, 
grilled to a deep brown and then sand- 
wiched between an outstanding profes- 
sor and a fellow outstanding student 
on these pages. 

Seriously though, a great deal of 
thought is given to the selection each 
month of the men considered to be out- 
standing in their fields. This month 
Alfred Makulcc has been chosen b\- the 
lES. As Professor Kraehcnbuel ex- 
pressed it. "There .ire nian\ outstand- 
ing individuals among this semester's 
illunu'nating engineering students, hut 
-Mr. .Makulec is a great activit) man 
.is well as a good student." 

Al admits that he enjoys his extra- 
curricular activities as well as his 


studies. His favorite is the Illini Foren- 
sic Association — a debating group. Al 
has been president of the association 
since .May of 1940. 

Al likes to know what people think 
about his debating, so he recently turned 
inventor. He has designed what he 
terms an audience analyzer for the 
.Speech Department which is in the em 
byro stages of construction at the pres 
ent time. It consists of 12 spotter sta- 
tions at strategic points in the audience 
where the spotter can indicate his im- 
pression of the speaker and his delivery 
by turning a calibrated knob to any 

position from (I to 1 1). Zero indicates 
a poor impression and 10 an excellent 
one. The 12 station impressions are all 
averaged together and the result is reg- 
istered on a dial visible to the speakers. 
Al Makulec is a member of the na- debate honorary, Delta Sigma 
Rho, and Phi Eta Sigma honorary. His 
engineering activities include Engineer- 
ing council and St. Pat's Ball ticket 


One of the most prominent mechani- 
cal engineering students on the campus 
is Chester Gawlik. "Chet," as he is 
known to most of the engineers, is re- 
cording secretary of the SAE. 

Chet was born in Chicago, where 
he spent most of his life except for the 
two and a half years he was in the (ruard. He saw duty in the Euro- 
pean Theater of Operations as a ma- 
chinist mate aboard a destroyer escort. 
I pon his discharge Chet returned to 
Schurz High school to complete his 
high school education. 

In September, I94fi. Chet einoUed 
in the mechanical engineering curricu- 
lum here at the University of Illinois. 
During his first year he became an ac- 
tive member of the Kappa Delta Rho 
fraternitv and in his last vcar he was 

elected ,is a member of Pi Tau Sigma, 
honcirarv fr;iternir_v of the niechanic'd 

In Se|itember, l')4X, juvt before re- 
turning to school, Chet ilecideil that 
he wasn't going to remain a bachelor 
— and so he got married. He and his 
liivciv wife, Loiiisc, and their 7-months- 
old son have made a comfortable home 
iji the Illini Village. Although Chet is 
working while attending school, he still 
finds time to work at his hobbies. 


"I've w.-itched mining grow up 
by rule-of-thumb methods. I've always 
felt that sooner or latei' coal miners 
would need engineeis ami 1 have been 
preparing for that day. In the last few 
\ears the industry has realized this en- 
gineering need and today coal mining 
is a wide open field for the alert engi- 
neer. Why, the known coal deposits 
today constitute 99% of our power re- 
serves while known oil and natural gas 
reserves each constitute .2% of our 




power reserves. Just uiiagine, the coal 
at the mines each vear is more valuable 
than all the gold, silver, copper, lead, 
.•uid zinc mined during the same amount 
of time." 

This quoted enthusiasm fcnnied a 
welcome opening for your Tech re- 
porter, meeting Prof. William R. Ched- 
sey in his office in 308 Ceramics build- 
ing. His zeal for his profession is in- 
terestingly tempered by his dry wit. One 
would never accuse Professor Chedsey 
of being so buiied in his w(uk th;it he 
had forgotten how to laugh ;uul make 
others laugh. 

Perhaps it is his wealth of experi- 
ence in the gold and copper mining 
fields in Colorado and Washington, and 
(Continued on page 32) 



w scintillation counter, 

lectron tube developed 

at RCA Laboratories, gives faster, 

urate measurements of atomic radiations. 

Mafcan Cfoi/ ^ecrr -f/jrouafh an car oiF g^f€rin P 

When agriculturists want to learn 
what nourishment a plant is getting, 
they inject radioactive materials into 
the soil and trace their absorption 
with sensitive instruments. Industry 
and medicine also use this ingenious 
technique to gain needed knowledge. 

Until recently, scientists literally heard 
what was happening, for they followed 
the passage of atomic materials through 
plants or machines, or even the human 
body, with a clicking Geiger counter. 
Now a more sensiti\e instrument — a ncio 
scintillation counter made possible by a 

development of RCA Laboratories — can 
do the jol) more efficiently. 

Heart of this counter is a new multiplier 
phototube, so sensitive tiiat it can react to 
the light of a firefly 250 feet away! In the 
scintillation counter, tiny flashes, set off^ by 
the impact of atomic particles on a fluores- 
cent crystal, are converled into pulses of 
electrical current and multiplied as much as 
a million times by this tube. 

See the newest advances in radio, television, 
and electronic science at RCA Exhibition 
Hall, 36 West 49th Street, New York. Admis- 
sion is free. Radio Corporation of America, 
Radio City, N. Y. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor— (jne of the world's foremost manu- 
facttirers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here arc only five of the many 
projects which offer unusual promise: 
o Development and design of radio re- 
cci\-crs (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations). 

o Adv.anced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
tquipnicnt, relay systems, 
o Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes, 

Wri/c todaii to National RccTuitins Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor. Camden. New Jerseij. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Clicniical Engineers and Physicists, 

M:?r/c/ Leac/er /n 'Rac//o — T^rsf- in le/ei^/s/'on 

APRIL, 1950 



By Don Sweet, E.E. '53 and Don Rhea, E.E. '53 

Tlic ■.piclcr-wcli nctwdiks of wires 
:iti)p tlu- new K. !■'.. Iniililiiiir have 
caused considerable coinnuMit aiiKin^ en- 
gineering students as well as others. 
(There are others, you know.) 

File last intormation receised h\ the 
r<<h «as that the (uld nets are experi- 
mental antennas, put up in the attempt 
to receive television broadcasts from Chi- 
catro and eiiuaih distant stations. 

We can't \oiich tor their degree ot 
success, but it's apparent that they have 
a little trouble keeping the antennas up 
during some of tiie windy nights re- 

Fli SH Ye Hoxev.ard! 

Maybe you've seen the old stone and 
the bronze plaque in front of the old 
E. E. Laboratory. It was put there in 
1929 to commemorate the founding of 
Eta Kappa Nu, the E. E. honorary. 
Eta Kappa Nu was founded at the L . 
of \. in 1904 by the men whose names 
appear on the plaque. 

The master board above controls the University's traffic signals on Green 
Street on campus. It is located in the "basement" of C.E. Hall. (Photo by 
Dick Stone). 


•--r» ft " 

bronzij |ilrjr|UL' i!i iioMt ot tllU 
Research Lab commemorates 
founding of Eta Kappa Nu. 

(Photo by Dick Stone). 

"Doggondest c o n g 1 o in e r at i o n 
of things not to do that you ever saw," 
is Prof. C. C. Wiley's short comment 
about the University-owned and -con- 
tmlled light traffic signals at the cor- 
ners of (jreen and Mathews and Green 
and Wright streets. 

He referred particularly to the mas- 
ter control panel which is located in 
the subterranean depths of Civil Engi- 
neering Hall. This impressive array of 
flashing bulbs and ticking meters is 
the site of daily pilgrimages of many of 
his traffic engineering 

As seen in the accompanyijig picture, 
each set of lights has a separate control 
and a reserve control f(n' mishaps. The 
s\ iichroni/.ation comes from the master 
controller located m the centei' of the 
|ianel board. 

Professor Wiley feels that a purchase 
of a modern control luiit by the Uni- 
versit\' would not oid\' give greater re- 

liabilit\, hut would take much less main- 
tenance. However, to the imlearned eyes 
of his students, the panel board is an 
awe-inspiring symbol of their future 

Flush Ye Hoxeiard! 

Lrt There he Luihl 
L niqiie among campus buildings for 
its lighting control system is Gregory 
Hall. In the home of the Journalism 
School, the lights in all classrooms are 
controlled by a photo-electric cell. The 
cell, which in most of the rooms is 
located on the front wall, controls the 
row of lights nearest the windows. 
W'hen the light switch is turned on, the 
lights ma\ or ma> not go on, depend- 
uig on the .amount ot light coming 
through the windows. 

( Contunied on page ^J" ) 



Today^s News — Today! 

The amazing speed and accuracy with which news comes 
to us are genuine trilmtes to the great newspapers, and the 
news services, to radio and television— and the people who 
staff them. 

Its a story of ronmuiiiieations. Radio flashes words— by 
voice or teletype— across continents and seas with lightning 
speed. Pictures move as fast. And today television and pho- 
tography are used in a jiiethod to transmit instantaneoush 
and reproduce full pages of printed, written, or illustrated 
matter in the on'iiinnl form! 

Electronics is the basis of such speed. Special metals are 
required for the tube electrodes. Plastic insulations keep 
high frequency current in right circuits, ("arlions uni(pic 

electrical and mechanical value is used to control power. 

In supplying these materials, and many needed chemi- 
cals. I CC has a hand in getting the news swiftly to you. The 
people of Union Carbide also produce hundreds of other 
basic materials for the use of science and industry. 

FREE: // voH irould like lo knoic more ahoul 
many of ihe ihinfls you use e.erv thy. send fo, 
iheilluslraled bonlilel" Products and I'locesses." 
It tells lion scirnre and industry use L (X'*j 
Allins.Cheniirals. (:arhons.Gases\and Plastics 
\l rile for},, -.HoolJet IS. 

Union Carbide 



iN I'. W 1 O K K 1 : 

Trftfle-niarked Protliictfi oj Dii'ision 

Electromet Alloys .Tnd Metals • Havnes SxELLITE All 

,i<l I nils 


BAKELrrE, Krene, and ViNYLiTE Plastics • National Carbons 

Prestone and Trek Anti-Freezes • Linde Oxygen 

Synthetic Organic Ciikmicai.s 
EVEREADY Flashlights and Batteries • AcHESON Electrodes 
Prest-0-Lite Acetylene • Pyrofa-X Gas 

APRIL, 1950 


The EiioiiiciM'iiio lloiHirarioN and Mf^ 

hi/ Ituit Hurl on. Imvn.K. '."i.'i 


Some fast work by Council nicmbcis, 
Hob Baird, Krrol ' Rodda, ami Cail 
l\idewell, produced a list of \\ortb\ 
candidates for a new eiigineerinj; honor, 
Tlie Knights of St. Patrick. This order 
was formed to honor those senior engi- 
eers who have been particuhirl> out- 
standing in activities. 

After receiving nominations from tlie 
committee, Engine Council voted for 
the 12 most deser\ing candidates. A 4.0 
average and attendance at the knight- 
ing ceremony at St. Pat's Ball were con- 
sidered requirements for the honor. Ln- 
graved shamrock keys were given to the 
Knights after being dubbed b\ our pa- 
tron saint. 

The Engineering Convocation will 
not include an effective instructor con- 
test this year. Council felt that the 
complications of repetitive w i n n e r s 
would be unfavorable and that this fea- 
ture of the Convocation should be bi- 

The constitution committee has been 
working like mad making revisions for 
a more workable organization. The re- 
sults of their efforts will be presented 
soon for the engineering societies to 
vote upon. Don Savage, SAE, is chair- 
man of this important committee. He is 
being ablv supported by Rav Brown, 
SBACS, and (lerald Slusser, AIChE. 

One change in organization has al- 
ready been made; the job of secretary 
has been split into two parts. Carl Pude- 
well, lES, has been named recording 
secretary, and Jim Bienias, AS ME, is 
corresponding secretary, publicity chair- 
man, and chief coordinator. 

The electrical engineers are making 
effective use of their student lounge 
in E.E.B. The E.E. honorary, Eta 
Kappa Nu, and AIEE- 
IRE have jointly spon- 
Miied coffee hours that 
were both enjoyable anil 

At one of these, Prof. 
Ross Stanger of the Psychology Depart- 
ment spoke on the engineer's adjust- 
ment in industry. At another, Paul N. 
Landis, Professor of English, discussed 
the value of literature to the engineer. 
Culture with the coffee sounds like 
a good idea! 

Not to be frustrated by the crisis, 
the AS.AE held its first meeting this 
semester at the residence of President 
Harold Brandenburg. 

The co-editors, I ),ive 
Ca-h and John lluher, 
(jt the ASAE annual ha\e 
received plenty of co- 
operation so that it is be- 
conu'ng a reality. The annual is known 
as 'J'lir Illinois Ai/riculitiral Engineer 
,ind will be in circulation soon. 

This publication has not only given 
the ag engineers some literary experi- 
ence, but it will serve to inform many 
people of this important field of engi- 
neering. Some copies will be sent to 
high schools and others will be sold on 

The annual will include articles on 
new developments and research, the 
Agricultural Engineering Department, 
Ilm'.mnI and faculty, and other items 
of interest. 

Bob Camp, the business manager, re- 
ports advertising sales have progressed 
satisfactorily. The staff numbers about 
sixteen members and they have received 
much cooperation from the faculty and 
extension staffs in this first journalistic 
effort since 19J57. 


After almost braking to a halt last 
semester, the \TV. has turned on the 
green light and is realh' mo\ing down 
_ the highway. Their effec- 

tive participation in I 
SEE demonstrated a re- 
vived enthusiasm. 

The wheels among the 
traffic engineers this se- 

Tom Young — vice president 
Ed Brooks — secretary-treasurer 
Bob Cox, Tom Young — Engineering 
Council representatives 

All ITE meetings are held on Tues- 
day e\enings. Stop at the stop sign out- 
side of Professor Wiley's office, 203 
C.E.ll., to find out about the next one! 

A. W. Gregg, ot the Whiting Cor- 
poration, Harve\, Illinois, was the fea- 
tured speaker at the February 22 meet- 
ing of AES. His subject was "Ferrous 

Meltnig I'urnaces." Mr. ( iregg opened 
his talk with a brief outline of the t\'pes 
of furnaces used b\- different kinds of 
foundries. Slides enabled him to describe 
the operation of equipment useil through- 
out the foundry industr>-. 

An explanation of the constructioji 
anil operation of the cupola was fol- 
lowed by a description of the air-blast 
control equipment. Several different 
types of mechanical charging machines 
were shown and Mr. (iregg illustrated 
the labor sa\ing economics of each. 
Slides explained the various kinds of 
dust collectors, and the electric, open 
hearth, converter, malleable, and induc- 
tion air furnaces. 

The business meeting consisted of 
naming committees to develop I SEE 
projects, and an explanation of the fi- 
nancial arrangements of the St. Pat's 


Engineering Societies 

Ronald Sak, Aero.E. '53 

Among the activities of the AIEE 
during the fall was a trip to the NBC 
television and FM transmitter studios. 
Another interesting trip was one 
through the gigantic Fisk Generating 
station, the first steam turbine station 
built in the I nited States. The elec- 
tricals also sponsored an inspection trip 
to Illinois Bell's new long-distance toll 

Foremost of this semester's plans was 
an exhibit of electronic phenomena, 
"Words over Waves." It was conducted 
by Illinois Bell Telephone company in 
the Navy Pier auditorium Tuesday, 
March 21. 

One new activity participated in by 
the AIEE at the Pier is the sponsor- 
ship, in cooperation with the Chem 
club and the Pre-Meds, was an inter- 
esting and informative lecture, "How 
the Brain Works," delivered by Dr. 
McCulloch before a capacity audience. 
A similar affair is planned this semester 
featuring a talk on the betatron. 

The members who attended the first 
business meeting, held on Tuesday, Feb- 
ruary 28, heard an interesting talk by 
Professor Klapperich on "Electronics." 
(Continued on page 20) 






Better product . . . better production 

WHEREVER HIGH CARBON WIRE can improve the quality of a manufactured 
product, Roebling wire can be adopted witli complete confidence in results. Roebling 
is one of the world's largest producers of quality Oil-Tempered Spring Wires and Cold 
Rolled Spring Steels . . . furnishes wire with physical properties and finishes for almost 
every purpose under the sun. 

But besides bettering your product, Roebling round, flat and shaped wires, bring 
you better production, too. E%ery inch of these wires is identical in gauge, grain and 
finish. Your machine preparation time is lowered; machine stoppages and rejects cut 
way down . . . Roebling research, special techniques and modern, precision equip- 
ment assure wires with definite ;;/i/s values for e\ery user. 
1HM% WHY... 


%</sy /ts ^oeM^^; 


Atlanta, 934 Avon Ave. * Boston, 51 Slfeper Si. * Chicago, 5523 W. Roo=evell Road * Cincinnati, 3253 FredonU A\c. 
* Cleveland, 701 Si. Clair Ave, N. E. * Denver, 48(J1 Jacksoa St. * UoUiton, 6216 Navigaliou Blvd. * Los Angeles, 
216 S. Alameda Si. * Neu, York, 19 Redor Si. * Philadelphia, /^^j^ 

12 S. Twelllh St. * Portland, 1032 N. W. I411i Ave. * Sail (Caia) 

francisco, l;40 Scvenleenlh Si. *Si>aIlle, 900 Fust Ave. S. * CBNTUKY 0'CONflDENCE\;^^/ 

APRIL, 1950 



Associate Editor 



<Jii(fite^f <Jli(^Ue/i . . . 

riu' purpi 

)t tlu' 



1. To briiif; about closer relationship and 
cooperation among the various profes- 
sional societies. 
_'. 'I'o stimulate the interest of the engi- 
neering student in all engineering ac- 
tivities on campus. 
.V To be responsible for tiie planning and 
carrying out of combined activities of 
the engineering societies; e.g. St. 
Patrick's Hall and the Engineering 
This is Article 1, "Puipose anil Aims," of 
the Engineering Council constitution. It sets 
forth very clearly why the Council was 
formed and what its function should be. 

To what extent is Council effective in 
carrying out its objectives? Is it really carry- 
ing the ball and leading our engineering 
societies and our engineers to greater accomp- 

As far as point .>, coordination of combined 
activities, is concerned, Council has been tops. 
Last year's St. Pat's Ball and the Engineer- 
ing Convocation and this year's ball and 
1 SEE were, without a doubt, great successes 
and credits to the organization, its methods, 
ajul its members. 

Hut points 1 and 1 ha\c been somewhat 
neglected in the past years. The activities 
of Council have indirectly promoted co- 
operation among the societies and stinudated 
interest in engineering activity, but there 
hasn't been any definite concerted action to 
accomplish these specific objectives. 

There are several ways in which Council 
could be of valuable assistance to the pro- 
fessional societies and even, unofficially, the 
honoraries. Activities that will help each so- 
ciety individually will help the College, the 
Council, and the student to feel and be a 
part of the cst"it dr corps that is building up 
on campus. 

Most of our societies elect officers for one- 
semester terms. This rapid turn-over of man- 
power often causes a certain amount of con- 
fusion and lack of clear, definite plans. Prob- 

ably the biggest detriment is the last-minute 
planning of inexperiencetl officers. 

To help provide the wheels of our organi- 
zations with a clearer picture of their obliga- 
tions as officers and the potential accomplish- 
ments which they could easily attain, Council 
coidd and should do something in the way of 
leadership training. At the beginning of every 
semester there should be a get-together of 
all society officers, old and new, to really 
hash over the problems of organization and 
methods. This should be done with the dis- 
cussion guided by someone with plenty of 
experience working with engineers and their 
professional societies. 

To really do the job uji brown, an Illinois 
Engineering Societies Manual could be com- 
piled and made available to all officers and 
staff advisers. Several of the national societies 
have .some kind of informative guidance manu- 
al for use by student chapters. These could 
be effectively combined with local experience 
into a \aluable reference that would pertain 
specifically to engineering societies at Illinois. 

To stinudate the interest of students in 
engineering activities. Council must make use 
of more effective promotion methods. At this 
point, especially, the Ticlinoyral>h can work 
hand-in-hand with Engine Council. Neither 
organization can do the complete task alone. 

The Tech plans to hold a publicity clinic 
for all engineering societies and honoraries 
early next fall. A complete review of effective 
promotion methods will be presented so that 
each meeting may be well publicized through- 
out engineering campus. 

In addition, Tech will make axailable a 
complete report on the what, who, and wh\ 
of our engineering societies and honoraries 
for Council to distribute at registration next 
fall. Cooperation will be necessary for this, 
howexer, so that the information can he com- 

There are many more activities of im- 
portance to each engineering society that 
Council can promote. A little more emphasis 
along this line will insure more life and ac- 
tivitv on engineering campus. — R. L. H. 



Varnish paints a grim picture inside an engine. 
Oxidation of motor oil under operating condi- 
tions is largely responsible for varnish accumu- 
lations which result in sticking rings and valves, 
sluggish pistons, loss of power. 

The varnish problem, however, has been all 
but conquered by Standard Oil lubricants. To- 
day our heavy-duty and premium-type oOs 
contain additives — oxidation inhibitors plus 
detergents that keep engines cleaner, keep them 
running longer and enable them to deliver 
more power. 

We learn about these additives and what they 
will do by subjecting our oils to a variety of 

tests. For example, we devised the Indiana 
Stirring Oxidation Test (wliich is performed on 
the machine in the picture) to provide data 
that would help solve the varnish problem. It 
is helping solve that problem. Other tests are 
leading to other improvements. 

Behind all the tests are the men of Standard 
Oil. It is their obligation never to be satisfied 
— to believe that improvements are not only 
possible but necessary. Thus they maintain 
this company's leadership in research, and help 
provide our customers with products that stead- 
ily increase in quality and usefulness. 

Standard Oil Company sta^ard) 

APRIL, 1950 


I\ni llie Sliil'f 

ilif tmvorffi' Kalz. I'.K. '.12 



The '!',( hiiot/rnfili Office Manager, 
Ditk Smith, experienced four rather ex- 
litiiig \ears prior to enrolhng at the 
I . of I. ill mechanical engineering. Dur- 
ing three \ears of service in the \a\\ 
1)11 Mihniariiie ilut\ he saw action in 
iiian> ilaring iimier-seas operations in- 
cliiiiing the raid into the Japan Sea. 
-After separation, Dick took part in the 
operation of a cross-country taxi com- 
paiu which afforiled an excellent op- 
portunity to see the country profitably. 

Dick, whose home town is Pontiac, 
Illinois, will complete his work here in 
June. Both he and .Mrs. Smith arc 
anxious for an opportunity to utilize 
the work of the past four years in an 
engineering field. 


In December of 1949 the Tirh/irj- 
t/raph was very fortunate in securing the 
services of Don Johnson for the business 
staff as Assistant Business Manager. He 
is in charge of local advertising and is 
showing excellent sales ability. This was 
evidenced by his receipt of the Tech 
"(^lear Stripper's Award" for advertis- 
nient sales totaling two and one-half 
pages for the February issue. 

Don hails from Belleville, Illinois, 


where he was \erv active in activities 
as a high school student. After a hitch 
in the Army at Ft. Lewis, Washington, 
with an Engineer Combat Battalion, 
Don entered the U. of I. He has con- 
tinued his outside activities on the fresh- 
man lllio staff and the Technograph. 
Don is pledged to A.T.O. and is plan- 
ning for a future in engineering sales. 

Books and Supplies 

for every engineering need 






"Chang and Eng" 


This instrument, which follows very closely the original design 
of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, was designed for the 
measurement of fast neutrons emanating from atomic piles. It 
is a self-contained instrument comprising twin ionization cham- 
bers, Lindemann Electrometer and reading microscope, dry bat- 
teries and the necessary controls for charging the chambers and 
providing the requisite voltages for the electrometer plates. 

Other Cambridge Instruments 

Lindemann-Ryerfon Electrometer )nis high sonsitivit.v and good stability. 

Does not require leveling. Wlien reading, the upper end of the needle is 

observed on a scale illuminated through a window in bottom of case. Size 

8.3 X 6.5 X 3.5 cm. 

Pocket Gamma Ray Dosimeter is a personnel monitoring instrument to 

measure cumulative exposure to gamma or x-rays over a given period. 

Contains an ionization chamber, a quartz fibre electrometer and viewing 


Preciilon Ionization Meter (Failla Daiign) a complete instrument for null 

methods of radioactivity measurement where background radiation eftects 

must be eliminated. 

Send for complete information 

Cambridge Instrument Co., Inc. 

375(i Grand Central Terminal, Xew York J7, N. Y. 



He uses % of the earth's elements in his cooking 

If you've always thought of glass simply as a 
substance made of sand, soda, and lime, 
we believe this will surprise you: 

Corning scientists, such as the one you 
see here cooking up a batch of experimental 
glass, have actually made glass using 84 of 
the earth's presently known 96 elements. 

Nearly 3000 of these experimental glass 
compositions are turned out every year, as 
Corning scientists search for new and use- 
ful ways to combine nature's elements. 

Already Corning has developed more 
than 50.000 formulas for glass. Just as al- 
loys make metals more useful, these 50,000 

formulas make glass more useful — enlarg- 
ing its applications in untold and sometimes 
surprising ways. 

Corning makes glass so strong that it can 
be used as piping in a steel mill. Corning 
makes glass so soft that it can be melted 
with a match — and glass so resistant to 
thermal shock that it can be heated to a 
cherry red, then plunged into ice water with- 
out its breaking. 

Today, throughout industry, Corning 
means research in glass — research which, 
along with a multitude of other develop- 
ments, has made glass one of today's most 

versatile engineering materials. 

Corning is constantly turning up new kinds 
of glass, new uses for existing ones. So when 
you're out of college, and concerned with 
product or process improvement, it will pay 
you to call on Corning before your plan- 
ning reaches the blueprint stage. Corning 
Class IVorks, Corning, New York. 


means research in glass 

APRIL, 1950 


New Developments . . . 

(.■(intiiuu-ii Ironi |i.i^c 2) 

Quartz Fibers 

llflnatc libcis 1)1 quai't/., oiih 1 M)th 
tile tlmkiu'ss ot a luinian hair, arc bciii'; 
producfd by (ifiii-ral Electric tor use 
ill sensitive balances aiui \ari()us elec- 
tric ineasuriii}; instruments. 

Some of the fibers produced are so 
fine that more than 10 miles of them 
could be wound on an ordinary-si/e 
spool that hohls onl\' 2^0 \ards of com- 
mon cotton thread. 

.Almost irnisible to the naked eye ami 
looking like the threads of a superfine 
spider web, the fibers are drawn from 
slender rods of quartz heated to \er\ 
hiijh temperatures. The delicate threads 
are drawn from the molten ends ot 
the rods and are attached to a revoi\- 
ing wheel, which winds a continuous 

Quart/ fibers produced in the labo- 
ratory are employed in making sensitise 
balances for use in microcheniistry, in 
which minute weight differences must 
be measured. These micro-balances are 
sensitive enough to show weight differ- 
ences less than 1 30,000,()0() of an 
oimce, yet strong enough to hold weights 
a million times greater. The fibers are 
an ideal material for in measuring 
instruments because they are not affect- 
ed by temperature changes and do not 

lose elasticity even when under con- 
tinued strain. 

Operators nuist wear dark glasses 
when fusing ai\<i drawing the fibers, 
because quartz gi\e> off ultra-violet rays 
at high temperatures. Apparently, this 
is one job where people can work in a 
laboratory and get a siui-tan at the same 

For Flat Spots 

.Accordnig to the winter issue of "hd- 
ucational Kocus," H;iusch and Loiiib 

has brought the interferometer into 
the worksho|i. The paraplane gages 
can measure the flatness of mechanical 
parts to two millionths of an inch with- 
out special laboratory facilities. 

The optical flat was used for this 
purpose before the n e w paraplane 
gages became available. Optical flats 
are easily scratched, however, and can- 
not be used in recessed surfaces. Para- 
plane gages, so simple that anyone can 
operate them after slight training, both 
replace and extend its function. 

The Paraplane Gage will measure 
flatness to two millionths of an 
inch. (Courtesy of Bausch Lomb). 

Honoraries and Societies . . . 

(Continued Irom page 14) 
An election was also held for the future 

Plans are now underway for exhibits 
to be shown at the Open House, the 
IQth and 20th of April; a "ham" sta- 
tion, X-ray, and many other demonstra- 
tions will be shown. 

The first meeting helil by the Aeros 
was of a business nature. An election 
of officers for the .second .semester was 
hehl. Mr. Zanotti, the sponsor, told 
of his plans for a semester packed with 
acti\ity. Cooperation with the members 
should be at its peak to insure more 
field trips. 

the toe"" 
The (^°'''^^ ,. TV^a^ * ?„nancc of 




Pioneers of llic Occp Groove Ball 
Hearing — Spherical Roller Bearing - 
Self-Aligning Ball Bearing. 

Jones Optical 

Specializing in the Fabrication of 
Quality Glasses on Prescription 


"For Information Call" 


120 North Walnut Street 



Betatron . . . 

( L'cintinui'il troni page 7) 
w ;l^ M-rifu'il by delicate instruments two 
\cars later, and synthetic particles of 
the supposed "glue" were produced a 
tew years ago by a ciiclotron here in 
the United States. 

The new betatron has fulfilled high 
expectations in its manufacture of large 
quantities of mesons. In the future, 
mesonic study will comprise the greater 
portion of research done by this niacliine. 

//; So/iltiry Co/if i/u iiinil 

The I S months that went into the 
construction of this giant betatron ha\e 
produced a monstrous machine that, of 
gieat necessity, is housed in its own 
little room. This room is a 60-by-65-foot 
space, three stories high, that is par- 
titioned off from the rest of the Physics 
Research Lab by 20-foot deep compacted 
earth and brick walls. The betatron 
itself is about 12 // high, 23 // long, and 
6 ft wide and weighs 400 tons. 

A resume of statistics in comparing 
the present machine with the original 
bab\- "beta" shows the following: 

Exentually, the speeil of the electrons 
approaches that of light, and at a point 
very near this stage, they are diiected 
,iway from the circular path toward a 
tungsten plate. This plate emits a 
stream of X-rays under the constant 
bombardment of the electrons. It is this 
X-ray stream that is the final force 
evolved by the betatron to he directed 
against the desirt'd target. 

.1 f^p/iinti'/iis for Mtsoin 

In the case of mesonic study, the .\- 
i-,iys hit a graphite bar target placed 
between two lead blocks which are in 
turn placed between groups of photo- 
graphic plates. The high-velocity X-rays 
knock apart carbon atoms, whose lib- 
erated mesons then wander through the 
lead and leave a photographic impression 
on the plates. The high speed imparted 
to the mesons enable them to disrupt 
the structures of other atoms in their 
way. These collisions are also recorded 
on the plates. 

What new facts will the present beta- 
tron uncover in nuclear science? That's 
■a h.-ird question to answer; but Profes- 

300-MlLLIt)N aji-MILLION 

Year in operation 1950 1940 

Energy in volts 300-million ZyS-million 

Products X-r.iys and electron X-rays and srat- 

beam tered electrons 

Flux magnet 

length 23 // 19 in 

height 13 // 10 in 

thickness 614 ft 8 in 

Field magnets 6 (jione, magnet 

provided field ) 

Weight 400 tons 200 pounds 

Diameter of vacuum tube 9 ft 8 ;;; 

Cross-section of tube 10x6 in 1 x2 in 

Electron speed 99.99986""<> of light 98% of light 

Electrons travel 650 miles 60 miles 

Interval of travel 004 sec .0004 ser 

Revolutions made bv electrons 140,000 200,000 

Injector energy 100,000 volts 1,500 volts 

.Average energy gain per turn 3000 volts 25 volts 

Power consumption 150 l/iv 5 kw 

With an impressive compilation of sor Kerst is e.xpecting great results from 
(lata of this sort it is natinal to wonder his invention that he once called a 
how Kllen Electron gets around in this "schwerarbeitbeigollitron" or a "high- 
massive mess of metal. energy-by-golly-tron." 

Betatron Operation 

^rt. 1 . ^ ^u u ^ . J <'"^ "'i' peas U'ith lionev, 

I he electrons enter the betatron room ,. ■'' . ,, ,.,•* 

.II- u .■ J vr done it all iu\< hfc : 

through a wire as common alternatmg , , , • ' 

^ I -r- 1 1 ,/. // makes the peas taste funny, 

cuirent. Large rectifiers change the ,i(, j> ■. , , , ■, 

n/' ■» ■ »u . J • 1 . ""' '' keeps them on my knife. 

to lJ(j ; It IS then stored in large sets , . , 

of condensors. Recurrent pulsations of 

power are sent out by voltage regula- ^ farmer was driving past an insane 

tors and switch banks to the _'75-ton asylum with a load of fertilizer when an 

flux magnet. Meanwhile, a flow of mniate called to him: 

electrons has wended its way into an S- "What are \ou hauling there?" 

foot porcelain, doughnut-shaped tube "Fertilizer," replied the farmer. 

that is enclosed in the magnet. When ^'What are you going to do with it ?" 

the pulsations create a magnetic field .'^'^'"^ '^ "" '">' strawberries." 

arcjund the flux magnet, the electrons "You ought to live here, we get sugai" 

in the tube are spun around and around ^"'^ cn-.m) on ours." 

to a great acceleration b\- the power * * * 

burst. The centrifugal force of the elec- About the only thing that seems to 

trons is overcome by six smaller focusing come down these davs is rain : :uid even 

magnets that surround the flux magnet. that soaks }0u. 

APRIL, 1950 

AFFORD to use H 

world's finest drawing pencil 

with Genuine IMPORTED 

CAsrni lead now! 

Why wait unfit you graduate? 
Start using the Drawing Pencil 
of the Masters today — smooth, 
free-flowing, grit-lreeCASTELL, 
accurately graded in 18 un- 
varying tones of black, 7Bto9H. 

because it outlasts other pen- 
cils, hence is more economical. 
In addition, you gel the per- 
sonal satisfaction of superior 
craftsmanship that only 
CASTELL gives. Unlike ordi- 
nary pencils, CASTELL sharp- 
ens to a needlepoint without 

Ask for CASTELL at your book 
store. Don't allow yourself to 
be talked into using a substi- 
tute. CASTELL is a life-time 
habit for up-and-coming Engi- 



Professional Exam . . . 

( C'lintiniicd trdin |).i;;c '' ) 

( b ) W' WiW he rllr temperature within the ixliiuler 
at tlie instant tile (liscl\ar;:e \al\e opens.'' 

6. Circle the teini that hest completes the statement. 

(a) 'Ihc roasting ot an ore iisiiall\ results in the forma- 
tion ot a metallic (I) carbide (2) carbonate ( ,i ) 
o.xide (4) sulfide. 

(b) Oxygen i.s prepared commercially from ( 1 ) nieicuric 
oxide (2) potassium chlorate ( .i ) liquid air (4) 

(c) Two substances obtained Irom the (iestructi\e distil- 
lation ot soft coal are ( 1 ) coal tar and acetic acid 
(2) Methanol and coal gas ( .? ) coke and ammonia 
(4) acetone and benzene. 

(d) The neutrons in an atom ( 1 ) determine the atomic 
number (2) equal the number of electrons ( ,v) re- 
\olve around the nucleus (4) contribute no charge 
to the atom. 

(e) Ammonia gas is approximatel\ (1) 1.7 (2) 22.4 ( .^ ) 
.37 (4) .94 times as dense as air. 

PART 11 

1. A ti-r shunt motor is rated at 100 ///>, 600 volts, at 
1,200 rfiiii. The field resistance is 400 ohms and the arma- 
ture resistance is 0.22 ohms. The efficiency of the motor at 
its rated load is 90%. At rated load determine: 

(a) Rated line current. 

(b) Field current. 

(c) Counter (//(/. 

(d) Internal power developed. 

(e) Torque at the pulley. 

(f) Internal toripie. 

2. .\ crank d ;/; long lotatcv counter clockwise at a con- 
stant speed of M) I pin. .\ link 24 ;/; lon^ connects the crank 
to a slider at the right of the crank, which operates on a 
horizontal guide 12 in above the center of the crank. Desig- 
nate the extreme left position of the slider as .7 and the ex- 
treme ri^ht position as li. 

(a) What is the length of tra\el ot the slider between 
A and /i? 

(b) How long does it take the slider t(j mo\e troni ./ 
to B? From U to ./ ? 

(c) Where is the slider when it has its maximum vc- 
locit\? Which wa\ is it ni()\ing? What is its velocity 
at that instant? 

.1. .\ small plant takes 4^0 ku- at 2„^00 solts. S phase, 
00 cycles, at a power factor of 0.0 lagging current. .Neg- 
lecting machine losses: 

(a) Determine the kva rating of a synchronous condenser 
necessary to bring the plant power factor to unit\. 

(b) It is desired to replace the s\nchronous condenser 
with a synchronous motor capable of taking an addi- 
tional load of 200 kiv. Determine the kva rating of 
the motor necessary to carry the added load and at 
the same time raise the plant power factor to unity. 

4. A trapezoidal channel to carry irrigation water at the 
rate of 3,500 cjs is to be cut through a sandy soil. The bot- 
tom of the canal is to be 100 // wide and the side slopes are 
to be 1.5 horizontal to 1 \ertical. The watei' is to be 15 
(Continued on page 24) 



€ Serves New Baltimore Plant 
The Seaboard Fish Co. handles up to 
10.000 pounds of seafood per day in \H new 
building located at 3B.42 S. Albemarle Street, 
In the (Maryland metropolis — the population 
of which now oceeds a mlllioni Facilities in- 
elude a wholesale fish marlct. two qulck.freei- 
jrage with capacity for 
300,000 pounds. Three Frlcl. compressors. |one 
a booster for low. temperature work) plus con- 
nd controls, carry the heavy 
refrigerating load. Installation by the Paul J. 
Vincent Co.. Baltimore Distributors (or Frlck 

;/,.. Frirk Graduate Training Curs,- in 
ui Air Cnnditinning, Opvr- 
■ars. nff,-r, a C.arr.r m n 

prick Bootrar C 
S«cond-ilaq» M 

: S*«board Fiih Co. Also Buifdtn el Power farming and Sawmill Machinery 


Says: "Get a Camera Check, and Film, 
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See Us for Complete Camera Service and Stocks 


Strauch's, at Campus 

709 So. Wright, Champaign 

For the 



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PROBLEM — You ore designing an electric clock for auto- 
mobiles. The clock itself is completed. To set the clock, 
the spindle which turns the hands must be pushed in against 
a spring pressure and then turned — and, of course, when 
the clock is installed, this spindle is bock under the dash- 
board. You want to provide a means for pushing and 
turning the spindle from a point that is easy to get at. 
How would you do it' 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER— Use an S.S.White flexible shaft. 
The illustrations show how one manufacturer does It. Re- 
gardless of where the clock is mounted, the flexible shaft, 
available in any length, makes it possible to put the hand- 
set knob in the most convenient spots. 

This IS |ust one of hun- 
dreds of power drive 
and remote control 
problems to which S.S. 
White flexible shafts 
are the simple answer. 
That's why every engi- 
neer should be familiar 
with the range and 
scope of these "Metal 
Muscles'" for mechani- 
cal bodies. 


It gives essential facts and engineer- 
ing data about flexible shafts and 
their application. A copy is yours 
free for the asking. Write today. 



tlW TOK It. 

Ciu <^ /ItHwicat A AAA ^>uUU%uU £Hteit^iU4t* 

APRIL, 1950 


Professional Exam . . , 

I C'diitmiicil trimi p.'ijic 11 ) 

ft ilccp. What will lie the ii'i|inrf(l >l(]pc <]| the water sur- 
face ? 

S. A (liesel engine ot the air-eell ty|H- has a evliiuler bore 
of 4.1^ ill ami a stroke of () ;/;. Assiimmt; flat surfaces toi' 
hoth piston face ami cyliniler head, calculate the distance in 
inches between these two surfaces under tlie followinfi con- 
ditions: pressure at end of compression t(MI fisin: pressure 
at beginning of compression 13.7 />iiii : xolunie between 
piston and head 30% of the total cleaiance \(ilunu-, 70% 
being in the air cell. 

PART 111 

(J ucitinns ill tills part arc scptuiitnl into i/u iifii jiilils nf 
ciidctivoi. All (111/ 1 II if IS aiisnir ",7" r/iu slioiis : " H" is for 
ihiiiiiiiil iiu/iiiiirs: "('," is fur civil: " D" for ilntrinil: 
" F. ' for iin I liiiiiK III. 

A-1. A piece ot untieated tindxr costs $1.2S in place, 
with an expected life of se\ I'li yeais. A treated tiiubri- costs 
S2.1() in place. l'"ind the increase in life which tre.itnient 
must secure to justify its cost if the latc of mrerest is 5%. 

H-2. Cold wiiitei- air at 20 /•', 7(i() //;/// pressure, and 
70% humidity is conditioned by passing through a hank of 
steam-heated coils, through a water spray, and finall\ 
through a second set of steam-heated coils. In passing 
through the first bank of steam-heated coils, the air is heated 
to 7^°F. The water supplied to the spray chamber is ad- 
justed to the wet bulb temperature of the air admitted to 
the chambei', hence the humidifying unit may be assumed 

to operate adiabaticalK . It is reipiiicd that the air emci;^ 
ing from the conditoiiing unit be at 70 /' and 3">'y 

(a) VV' shciidil he the temperature ot the water sup- 
plied to the spia\ cli.unhei- .'' 

(b) In oiilrr to scH'uie .air at the required lui.d condi- 
tions, must be the percentage humidit\ ot the 
air emerging from the spray chamber.'' 

(c) What is the dr\ biilh temperature of the air emerg- 
ing lidiu the s[)ray ch.imber? 

(d) On the b.isis of I ,/i ft of outside air, calculate 
the volume ot each step ot the |iicicess. 

(e) C'alculate the pcninds of water evaporated per rii ft 
of original air. 

C"-.v I'ind the dimensions ot :\ can.d carrying water, with 
the following data given. 1 lie nearest wlio'e number will 
be accepted. 

Quantity of flow = <S00 rfs. 

Velocity = 5 fps. 

Slope = ().()0f)4. 

Side slope of canal = 1.5 : 1. 

Hottom width = 25 // 

Value of /; (coefficient of roughness) = 0.014. 

l.'se Manning's formula, /' ^ ( 1.486/ «)i?-»5"'=. 

Where /? = the hvdraiilic radius. 

= '^r. 

l)-4. The grid of a thyratron tube is so biased that the 
pl.ite circuit will conduct current when the plate i iiif is posi- 
tive and 51) volts or more. If a sinusoidal tiiif of UK) xolts 
(Continued on page 2b) 

Modern power applications call for leather, too 

There was something mighty 
impressive about those old- 
time woodshed sessions with 
Dad's leather razor strop. Dad 
had a very effective way of put- 
ting power to work via leather. 
Here's the modern way to 
transmit power by leather in 
industry. The tension-control 
motor base puts the inherent 
power -carrying advantage of 
leather to work in compact 
space. The base plus the "sin- 
gle-pull" leather belt make a 
drive package that is "right" 
for many vital spots in today's 

Headquarters for Authentic Power Transmission Data 




THIS ONE have appeared regularly in leading 
business magazines. Their primary purpose is 
fo build acceptance for Square D Field Engineers, 
practically all of whom come to us from 
leading engineering schools such as yours. 

A sample from every industry served by Square D 
Field Engineers would make quite a load, indeed. 
For these men serve as liaison between Square D 
and every segment of industrial America. Their 
full-time job is working with industries of every 
kind an d size — helping find that "better woy 
to do it." 

Through these Field Engineers, located in more 
than 50 offices in the United States, Canada and 
Mexico, Square D does its three-fold job: Designs 
and builds electrical distribution and control equip- 
ment in pace with present needs — provides sound 
counsel in the selection of the right equipment for 
any given application — anticipates trends and new 
methods and speeds their development. 

If you have a problem in electrical distribution 
or control, call in the nearby Field Engineer. He'll 
help a lot in finding a "better way to do it." 


APRIL, 1950 


Professional Exam . . . 

I <^'ijntiiun-(l tro.ii pa^i- 24) 

{niis} is applii-il ill sciics uitli a 2(K)-i)lim n>i>toi to the 
plate ciicuit of the tube, calculate the maximum \aiiie ot the 
plate current. Assuire that the arc drop in the tube is con- 
stant at IS \()lts. Sketch tile shape of a c\cle ot the plate- 
current wave ami tile aiKJiie \oita;.ie ot tiie tin ration in rime- 
phase relationsiiip. 

K-5. Define and descrilie tile toiiowin;; metiiods ot iieat 
treatment. List the effect of eacii on ducriiitN, modulus ol 
elasticit\', tensile strengtli, elastic limit, and internal stresses 
when applied to high carbon steel: (a) full annealing (b) 
normalizing, (c) stress relief annealing, (d) iiardening, 
(e) tempering. 

.'\-(). Discuss the advisabilirv of including tile toliowing 
in a construction contract: ( :i ) eipience of wiuk. ( ii ) 
method of performing work, (c) i|uaiit\ i>\ work. 

U-7. Nitric acid is ordiiiai"il\ manut.icturcd trom am- 
monia by rile Ostwald process. 

(a) (live all reactions invol'.ed. 

(b) Describe the catahsr and gi\e its operating teiiiper;i- 
ture and pressure. 

(c) (jive a process flow sheet and indicate the materials 
of construction for each major piece of equipment. 

(tl) List the engineering data you would have to obtain 
before designing the concentrating unit to make Ql)% 

C-8. A high school has a concrete swimming pool, capac- 
ity 60, ()()() f/ti/x. which it operates as a fill-and-draw type 
pool. It has a hopper bottom and the walls are straight, 
vertical from tiie bottom to the edge of the walks wiiich 

Miri(jund the p<iol. Tiu- St.ite lle.iitii department ii.'is waiiied 
the scliooi hoard tiiat tiie p(joi is being operate<i in \ioi.i- 
tion of tile State Swimming Pool Law and that a recircuia- 
rion-filtration s\stem will liave to be provided before tin- 
next school term. The maximum allowable filtration rate 
is .1 fjp/ji per .u/ ft. The recommended backwash rate is 1 S 
iji'iii per .(Y/ //. According to the minimimi sanitary require- 
ment, tlie turnover slioiild not exceed () hours. 

(a) llow much sand filter area siiould be m.ide a\ .■|ii,•lilie 
to meet state requirements.' 
(h) What should be tiie cap,icir\ of tiie recircuiatioii 

pump in <//!//; ? 
(c) Will it be iiecessar\' to supph' another iMini|i t(jr b:K'k- 
\xashiiig purposes? (ii\e computations tor proof. 

1)-'^. All industrial plant has a peak load of S4S kva .it 
74'v Lagging power factor. The power rate schedule in- 
cludes a demand charge of $1.25 per kva per month. How 
maii\ L-vo of capacitance is required to improve the power 
factor to 92% lagging? How much would the capacitator 
reduce the annual demand charges? If capacitators cost 
>1S'.1)() per kva installed, what is the return on the iinest- 
iiieiit ill capacitators? 

K-IO. A centrifugal boiler feed pump is to be selected 
for a unit boiler-turbo-generator plant. Drum pressure is 
OSd psiy. Boiler has rating of 250,000 lb steam per /;;■. .A 
margin of 25% on pressure developed and a 20% margin on 
capacity is necessary. Water is 300° F (sp. gr. 0.04). 

(a) What style of pump would \ou recommend? 

{ b ) Pump speed ? 

(c) Pump rating in ypin'i 

(d) Hrake horsepower if pump efficienc\ is ll'^/c^ 

(e) Allowing a margin of 10%, gi\e nearest commercial 
motor size. 





• There is more than mere identification value in the 
ridge you see on Okonite wires and cables. The ridge is 
proof that the insulation has been folded around the con- 
ductor by the well-known Okonite strip insulating process. 
This method permits inspection at all times during the 
application operation. It assures the perfect centering of 
conductors so important to the avoidance of electrical 

The ridge is a permanent mark of an Okonite cable. It is 
still prominent after the final vulcanization in a metal mold 
that insures equal transfer of the heat throughout every 
portion of the insulation. The Okonite Company, Passaic, 
New Jersey. 


insulated wires and cables 

Quality Store for Men 

Pat /Ci 


202 North Neil 

U. of I. Drug Store 

Vouf Campyjs Drug Store 
and Bus Station 

Corner Wright and Green 



A nother page for 


Crankshafts stay rigid 
• • . foods stay frigid 

Designers of a compressor for refrigeration plants 
were looking for a way to insure smooth, depend- 
able crankshaft operation. They couldn't risk the 
chance of breakdowns — and the food spoilage that 
might result. 

They stopped possible trouble at the design stage 
— by mounting the crankshafts on Timken" tapered 
roller bearings. Timken bearings take the heavy 
radial, thrust and combination loads, prevent shaft 
wobble, insure trouble-free service with minimum 

Q: Short on space? 
A: TIMKEN bearings! 

Because Timken bearings have a tapered design, 
they carry loads from all directions. No separate 
thrust devices needed. Also, Timken bearings have 
line contact between rolls and races. This gives 
them greater load capacity, permits use of smaller 
bearings. The space-saving feature is another reason 
why 9 out of 10 bearing applications can be handled 
more efficiently by Timken bearings. 



Want to learn more 
about bearings? 

Some of the important engineering problems 
you'll face after graduation will involve bearing 
applications. If you'd like to learn more about this 
phase of engineering, we'll be glad to help. For 
additional information about Timken bearings and 
how engineers use them, write today to The Timken 
Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And 
don't forget to clip this page for future reference. 


APRIL, 1950 


St. Francis . . . 

( L"<iiiriniic(l trnni page S ) 

Missouri, ami tlic icIoiatiDii, set-bafk 
and rebuilding ot some ot the existing 
levees and the construction of ne\\' 
levees on both sides of the St. Francis 
river below the dam to the foot of St. 
Francis lake. For navigation purposes 
the project also includes a large siphon 
where the St. Francis river is ilaniined 
by the le\ee about 4 miles 
from Marked Tree. 

The W'appapello liam, which controls 
an area of 1,310 square miles, is located 
near the community of that name in 
Missouri. The dam, which has been 
completed, is a rolled-earth fill structure 
with an outlet conduit in its right abut- 
ment. -An emergenc\ spillwa\' is also lo- 
cated be.Noiui the outlet works in the 
right abutment, and three small dikes 
located beyond the dam in the left abut- 

The earth dam has a crest length 
of about _',70() ft., is 77 ft. above the 
general \alle\' floor, and 109 ft. abo\e 
the stream bed. The crest, at ele\ ation 
420 mean (lulf level, is ,i(l ft. wide and 
contains a roadway 22 ft. wide. Ihc 
base width at elevation .i46 mean Ciulf 
level is about 76S ft. The side slopes 
of the dam very from 1 :2.5 to 1 :8. It 

is constructed entirely of impervious 
earth fill, with the e.xception of riprap 
protection stone on the slopes, and is 
also provided with an adequate toe 
drainage system. It is a homogeneous 
structure containing 2, .?()(), 000 cubic 
>ards of earth fill. The VVappapello dam 
was designed h\ the I nited States Kji- 
gineer department and constructeil In 
contract under the direction of the di^- 
trie engineer, .Memphis, Tennessee, ami 
under the supervision of the president, 
.Mississippi River commission and the 
chief of engineers. Total estiniate<l cost 
of the dam and reservoir rims in tlie 
neighborhood of ^^6,775, 000, ot uhicli 
approximately 5";.?, ^27,000 is for the dam 
and appurtenances and approximateh' 
,<•!, 248,000 for the purchase of lands, 
easements, rights-of-way, clearing res- 
er\()ir area and adjustments to roads 
and gas pipe line affected by the con- 
struction of the Wappapello dam. 

The outlet works are located about 
400 ft. from the dam and consist of 
an approach concrete weir, over which 
the waters from the reservoir pass into 
an open paved transition section and 
thence through a concrete D-shaped tun- 
nel conduit about 22 ft. in diameter that 
contains three control gates. After leav- 
ing the control gates, the discharge 
passes into a 724-ft. outlet structure con- 

sisting of a stilling basin and a discharge 
channel. A spillway is available and is 
designed to discharge 227,000 ifs when 
the pool level is 6 ft. below the top of 
the dam. The spillway is provided pure- 
ly for emergency use as the dam was 
o\eitopped after building ami a pmtion 
was washed out. 

R< SI rj'oii . Sun ijiiniliii// I'litiliiiy 
1 he rescivnir area, entirely encom- 
passed by the ( )zark hills, is of irregu- 
lar outliiu- and, at siiillwa)' crest level, 
has an are.i of 2.^,000 acres. Along the 
main \allc\ the area, at spillway crest 
ele\ation (.'i''^), will approximate a 
mile or more in width and will include 
some 40 miles of the St. Francis ri\er. 
A part of the branch line of the St. 
Louis-San Francisco railroad extending 
from the vicinity of Wappapello for a 
distance of about 1 3 miles was removed 
from the area as were the entire towns 
of (jreenville and Chaoiiia. All buihl- 
ings in the reservoir below elevatioji .I'dl 
were also torn down. 

The M.irked Tree siphon is located 
4 nules iiiistream from its namesake 
at a point where the levee dams the 
St. Francis river. This siphon lifts the 
water from St. Francis lake over the 
levee and makes possible much heavier 
(Continued on page 30) 

Some grad is spreading the word that Notional 
Electric is the world's largest single source of supply 
for electrical roughing-in materials. (And he couldn't 
be tighter!) 

Since 1905 NE products have set the pace for 
quality. Today the NE complete line of electrical 
roughlng-in materials includes: wires, cables, con- 
duit, raceways and fittings. 

notional Electric 




Filled the Same Day 

Out of town engineers can depend 
upon prompt service by ordering by 
mail. Describe your needs. 


610 E. Daniel, Champaign 

Read The Tech 

8 Issues $1.50 



Six million electric ranges. 
37 million radios. 29 million 
electric clocks. 27 million 
electric refrigerators. 17mil- 
lion electric coffee makers. 
23 million toasters... Thirty 
years ago, they were just a 
sparkle in someone's eye. 
Facts like that should hearten you, when you wonder 
about your future in American industry. The oppor- 
tunity's there — as it was there for Alcoa in the early 
days of electrical transmission. 

Today, nearly half the high-tension lines that feed those 
appliances are made of Alcoa Aluminum. Nearly two 
million miles of ACSR (aluminum cable steel reinforced). 
Although it was light, and corrosion resistant, and con- 

ductive, nobody wanted to make aluminum into cable, 
at the beginning. All right, we said — we'd do it. We 
launched a long research project to produce purer metal, 
and made the basic changes in our reduction processes 
that the research finally indicated. We built a cable- 
testing laboratory long enough to mount whole spans of 
cable, and vibrate them as the wind does, to check 
fatigue strength. This was hard, discouraging work, and 
it took most of the lifetimes of a good many Alcoa people. 
But today aluminum high-lines cross the Great Bear in 
Canada, and funnel Grand Coulee's power into millions 
of homes and factories. We think they stand as a pretty 
good monument to this country's way of doing things, 
through research perseverance, stockholders' courage, 
and employees' hard work. Aluminum Company of 
America, 742D Gulf Building, Pittsburgh 19, Penna. 

lAm^/A : 



APRIL, 1950 


St. Francis . . . 

I (.'nntiminl Inini Va^ic 2H ) 

navigation on the ri\cr tor ;ni ;i(l<litioiial 
IS miles. 'I'lils stiuctiiii' Iik-IikIcs .-in 
c.Ncavatcd inlet channel, a leintorced 
concrete isilet lia>in ; tliiee ''-tt. dianieter 
steel siphons; a reinforced concrete out- 
let basin ; an e\ca\ated outlet channel ; 
plus all iu'Cessar\- equipment such as 
pumps, pipes, housings, and footings. 
These footings are reinforced concrete 
set in a compacted earth fill. The siphon 
proper is composed of three electrical h- 
welded steel tubes, each 9 ft. in diam- 
eter :\nd 228 ft. in length with exp.inded 
inlet and outlet transition bells. These 
9-ft. sections are built of .? S in. steel 
and the inlet .ind outlet bells are of 
I 2 in. steel. 

luisiii Disif/ii l^iliiils 

Both the inlet and outlet basins are 
so designed as to utili/e the sheet piling 
cofferdams required in the construction 
of these basins as permanent cells for 
confining the underlying sand founda- 
tion. This feature of design eliminates 
the necessity' for bearing piles in the 
foundation. The inlet basin, immersed at 
.ill times, is not designed to withstand 
uplift: but the masonry is so propor- 
tioned and so reinforced as to be capable 

of suspension without rupture. This sus- 
pension is accomplislu'd b\ fastening the 
masonry to the sheet piluig with dowels. 

'l"he b.i>iii and inlet bells ,ire de- 
signed to eluiini.ate \orte\ action and to 
reduce entrance velocities to a minimum. 
The outlet basin is designed to with- 
stand uplift and is provi\ed with six 
()-in. relief pipes as an .additional safety 
factor. The basin and outlet bells .ire 
so ;nr;uiged to gi\e ,i submerged li\- 
diaulic jump in the basin and to de- 
velop an average velocity of ,>.,'l tt. per 
sec. o\er the sill, thereby pre\i'iiting 
scouring of the outlet channel which 
is riprapped fiu ^(1 ft. 

The siphon is designed for lifts ot 
trom IS to 2<S tt. and for ,a normal 
design flow, using all three pipes, of 
2,6(.)0 rfs with the intake pool at ele\a- 
tion 21,?. 6 (mean (Julf level) and the 
tail water at 20'). 4. The discharges for 
differences m head and tail \\:iter ele- 
vations of from 2 to IS ft. \aiy fnmi 
(lOO to 1,,S()(I r/,(. for a single pipe and 
from l.SIII) to S, 2(1(1 ,fs. for all three 

In operation the siphon is exhausted 
by the h-in. vacuum pump, and the 
prime may be broken by bleeding air 
into the exhaust line or by opening one 
of the <S-in. breaker valves. In most in- 
stances it is unnecessarv to use the pump 

tor completelv exhausting the siphon 
since the |iipcs become self-priming at 
higher velocities. This action becomes 
effective with the pipe flowing less than 
I .? tiill and with .i difference of onlv 
S or ft. between head and t.iil v.ater 
elevations. Tests conducted up to this 
time indicate that the siphon is 
ing in a most efficient manner. 

R'llli/I l-:,i,ll,-r,ll r,' r,/„ /,-„/. 0,7 

niiniig coM^.tiiiction, ext;-n ..'v c coni- 
|iacti():i tests of the rolled fill portion; 
of the dam were made for the purpo;e 
of finding out if the operations were 
providing a satisfactory degree of com- 
paction. Several types of rollers were 
used under varving conditions of mois- 
ture content of the rolled fill. These 
tests indicated that a rigid control of 
the mo'.sture content was necessary to 
get the necessary degrees of cotiipactioi\ 
The tests also showed that a lower mois- 
ture content than that indicated as opti- 
mum by laboratory tests gave consider- 
,ibly greater soil compaction. Hydro- 
static pressure cells and well points 
were installed in the underlying strata 
of the dam base and in the imper\ious 
earth fill for observation purposes. Set- 
tlement plates were installed in the base 
of the dam to ascertain foundation set- 
tlement, if anv. 

External Gaging shown. Equipment also 
liloble for internal gaging. 



The new Brown & Sharpe 
Electronic Measuring 
Equipment enables accu- 
rate gaging to .00001" as 
fast as test-pieces can be 
handled. It features a sep- 
arate amplifier unit which 
isolates heat-producing ele- 
ments and prevents temper- 
ature drift in gaging units. 

Another unique feature is 
the true linear response of 
gaging units which permits 
accurate setting for entire 
scale with only one gage 
block or master. 

Write for illustrated 
Bulletin. Brown & Sharpe 
Mfg. Co., Providence 1, 
R. I., U. S. A. 



Speed Easy Water Paint 
DuPont Wax 


DuPont Duco 4-Hr. Magic Enamel 
DuPont Semi-Gloss Wall Paint 
DuPont Interior Flat Wall Paint 
DuPont No. 40 Outside White 


Wallpaper — Paint — Glass 

Phone 2176 
108 South Neil and 107 South Walnut 





With the development of Neoprene Type W 

Science Igaiii Outpoints latnre 

Motor mountings, 
among possible usi 

and cable, sponge, gaskets, swim caps are 
Du Font's new Neoprene Type W. 

NEOPRENE — the chloroprene rub- 
ber produced by Du Pont research- 
has long outpointed natural rubber 
on many counts. Because of its greater 
resistance to chemicals, flame, heat, 
sunlight, weathering, oxidation, oils, 
grease and abrasion, it is widely used 
in such products as industrial hose, 
conveyor and transmission belts, in- 
sulated wire and cable, hospital sheet- 
ing, gloves and automotive parts. 

Until recently, however, certain 
natural rubber compositions couldn't 
be beaten when it came to "perma- 
nent set" characteristics. Released 
from the pressure of prolonged de- 
formation, they returned more nearly 
to their original shape. 

This recovery factor is important 
to some manufacturers, particularly 
the people who make gaskets, seals, 

diaphragms, sheet packing, soft rolls 
and vibration-dampening devices. 


Much as they wanted to use neo- 
prene because of its other superiori- 
ties, they often needed more resist- 
ance to permanent deformation than 
it afforded. So they used natural rub- 
ber, but were never quite satisfied 
with the way it resisted deteriora- 
tion in severe service. 

Du Pont scientists went to work 
to solve the problem. Skilled research 
chemists, physicists, engineers and 
others pooled their efforts. The re- 
sult was a new polymer named Neo- 
prene Type W. 


Chemically, the new neoprene is 
quite similar to previous types. But 

§ ill 'Wi 

Jackson Laboratory, Deepwater, N. J., one of 
Du Font's laboratories which participated in Ihs 
development of Neoprene Type W. 

its molecular structure has been 
changed so that the mechanical prop- 
erties of its compositions are more 
nearly like those of rubber. With 
Neoprene Type W, it is possible to 
that are not only highly resistant to 
oils, heat, grease and sunlight, but 
recover better than rubber from pro- 
longed pressure. 

Neoprene Type W also provides 
the basis for compositions that have 
a low modulus of elasticity — are easy 
to stretch. More attractive colors are 
possible. Soon it may appear in such 
articles as swim caps, where bright 
colors and head comfort are impor- 
tant. The brighter-colored composi- 
tions should also appeal to makers 
of appliance cords, coasters, sink 
mats, stove mats and toys. 

In developing the uses of Neoprene 
Type W, Du Pont is working with 
hundreds of manufacturers and dis- 
tributors. Once again a "partner- 
ship" of big and small businesses will 
cooperate to give Americans the 
benefits of an advance in science. 

SEND FCR "The Slory of Coal, Air and 
Waler," a 'J8-page illustrated booklet de- 
scribing tbe chemical ingenuity behind the 
development of neoprene, nylon, and other 
products. For your free copy, write to the 
Du Pont Company, 2503 Nemours Bldg., 
Wilmington, Delaware. 


GrcjtDrjmjtic HniejljuuuaU— Tune m "Cavalcade 
oj America" Tuesday Nighls, NBC Coast to Coast 

APRIL, 1950 


Introducing . . . 

( C'diumucd tnim paj:c Ul ) 

his tra\cl> throuj:!! (."usta Riia. (iuatc- 
niala, ami Alaska which f;i\c him an 
advantage that can be gained "tdy 
through practical experience. 

Durinj; his 21 years as professor ot 
Mining at the School of \Iines, Penn- 
sylvania State college, Professor Ched- 
se> had ample opportunity to <)hser\e 
and evaluate the coal mining industry 
and its needs. He accepted the director- 
ship of the Missouri State Mining Kx- 
perinient station, Rolla, Missouri, in 

W'ith the beginning of World War 
11, he became a full time considting 
engineer for the I'. S. Navy at Wash- 
ington, I). C, and in 1944 he joiTied 
the War Manpower commission as 
training director for Region V at Co- 
lumbus and Cleveland, Ohio. In I'Hf), 
Professor Chedsey accepted his present 
position, professor of Mining Kngineer- 
ing at the rniversit\ of Illinois, where 
his humor and anuising anecdotes keep 
him high on the list of student favorites. 

We Americans are so busy doing the 
things that are urgent that \vc don't 
have time to do things that are im- 

Boneyard Bilge . . . 

( CuntiniiccI Ironi page 12) 

(Iregory Hall is the only building on 
the campus so equipped. The lighting 
controls were installed at the time of 
the building's construction. 

.According to I' Diversity electrical en- 
gineer, W. W. Hinshaw, the economy 
of the photo-cells is unknown, 
it is not knou-n hou' nuich .idditional 
energy would have been used it the 
units had not been installed. 

I'll sH Yn Honevard! 

During the first class in Ch.K. .i81, 
(i\er in the new I''ast Chemical Building, 
Heruy Kahn came up with the observa- 
tion that in tlie new unit operation lab. 
steam is available in three pressure 
ranges, low, medium, and high. 

"Yeah," cracked Don Engelbrecht, 
"one, two, and three psi!" — Contribiitcd 
hy Duk llanujcr. Ch.E. '50. 

Ki.isH Ye Honevard! 

Speaking of electric eyes, the lllini 
I'nion bowling alleys have had in opera- 
tion for five months an electronic foul 

The automatic referee incorporates 
a light source on one side of the alley 

and a photo cell on the other. I'crb.ips 
the most ingeiuous thing about the s\s- 
tem is the fact a time dela\ will 

partners in creating 

Engineering leaders for the last 81 years have made 
K & E instruments, drafting equipment and materials 
their partners in creating the great technical achieve- 
ments of America. So nearly universal is the reliance on 
K & E products, it is self-evident that every major engi- 
neering project has been completed with the help of K 8. E. 



Chicago • St Louis • Detroit 
•San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 

The electric eye "referer" automa- 
tically indicates bowli ' j fouls in 
the lllini Union alleys. (Photo, by 
Dick Stone). 

allow the ball to roll in front ot the 
beam, but when the player breaks the 
beam with his toot, .'i bell rings and a 
light shows in which :illey *'e foul was 

This is the same unit that was de- 
scribed on the ".New Developments" 
page of the October Tech. (jeneral 
Electric makes the outfit. 

lujnliiiition is tlic fcclinc/ n wj/ii/iti 
hi:s fur the hiil shi nnnts. Love is nhnl 
II Ill/Ill frds for the nnc he has. 

A chemist, in an effort to start his 
.son's chemical career early, dropped a 
silver dollar into a filled with solu- 
tion, then asked the son if it would dis- 
solve. The following dialogue is report- 
ed \eibatim: 

Son: "No, daddy." 

Daddy: "Why, son?" 

Son: "Because \ou wouldn't do it if 

It would." 

-» *• * 

The Ixiss uho put his picture an the 
el'ut u/isii't exiietly an ego. It stopped 

Tonimv was being chided for his low- 
grades. As an alibi he said, "Well all ot 
the bovs at school got C's and D's too." 

"All of them?" papa questioned. 


"How about little Johnny Jones who 
lives down the street?" 

"Oh, he got high grades," 
admitted. "But you see, he's 
He has bright parents." 


Nmc try reudinij the rest of the uiiii/ti- 
ine : it's good, too. 


MAY, 1950 


Parade and I SEE 

Page 6 

Blarney Stone 

Page 8 

St. Pat's Bal 

Page 10 

Meet the Staff 

Page 22 


6/250,000 in 1949 — another new record 


' I ''HE automobile industry smashed 
records again in 1949 as it produced 
6,250,000 new passenger cars and trucks 
— more than in any other year in history. 
This terrific output of the finest cars ever 
made climaxed a phenomenal rise in 
production that began at the war's end. 
These new cars by the millions are a 
tribute to the American way of life. 
Their production is the result of the de- 
mands of people working under the 
American system of free enterprise, 
which has produced the highest living 
Standard the world has ever known. 

Millions of tons of steel of almost 
every type and form helped America's 
auto makers boost their production so 
amazingly high . . . helped the quality of 
today's automobiles keep pace with the 
quantity. In fact, many new steels have 
been developed just to meet the exacting 
requirements of present-day production. 

In spite of record-breaking production, 
the automobile industry's job is far from 
finished— the average age of the cars on 
America's highways today is 8.4 years. 

Continuing demands for vast quanti- 
ties of steel from the automobile indus- 

try and from countless other sources 
mean a big job for the steel industry in 
coming years . . . mean a promising 
future for men who make steel their 
career. To assure itself management men 
of the highest caliber. United States 
Steel maintains a continuous training 
program that prepares young men with 
suitable backgrounds for places in this 
great industry. 

College engineering courses lay the 
foundation . . . L'nitcd States Steel builds 
a practical knowledge of steelmaking on 
this foundation. 



A Name 


Tomorrow . . . when you start playing for 
keeps . . . names will assume new impor- 
tance. Reputations are built on ability to 
produce . . . effectively . . . efficiently . . . 
economically . . . built on results delivered. 

Since its inception, Westinghouse has 
recognized this principle . . . has been 
guided by this premise in each of the 
thousands of undertakings it has initiated. 

In the university, where your work is 
judged on thoroughness and accuracy, vou 
have learned to relv on Westinghouse 
laboratory equipment. 

As you enter business, you will learn that 
this great name in engineering and industry 
will mean even more to you. 

Whether your success is at stake in the 
college laboratory or in the business world, 
the broad experience and established repu- 
tation for excellence in engineering and 
manufacturing that Westinghouse has built 
through the years will be available to you. 

As you enter industry, you will meet new 
problems that will bring you in contact with 
many types of products, processes and 
methods. Because Westinghouse products 
play a vital role in practically every industry, 
our paths will likely cross many times. We 
will always welcome the opportunity to 
serve vou . . . guided by uncompromising 
principles . . . principles that are required 
to fulfill the commitment . . . 

you CAN BE SURE ••if it's westinghouse 

MAY, 1950 

lew DevelopiiiPiits 

Ui§ llt'iirfi KalapavM. K.I*. '.12 

and Turn Tin-hvr. 4'h.t-:. *.».'/ 

Gas Turbine Locomotive 

Thf nation's tirst gas tuibiiu--electric 
locomotive made its public debut re- 
cently before rail executives assembled 
at the General Electric's Erie, I'a., 
works. _ ,, 

(I. W. Wilson, manager ot ( M. s 
locomotive and car eiiuipment dniMons, 
said the prime objectives of the gas tur- 
bine-electric locomotive designers were 
to develop a prime mover that would : 

1. Hurn low grade fuels, especialK 
coal, economically. 

2. Give higher horsepower output per 
pound and per cubic foot. 

.1. Have greater reliability and lower 
maintenance cost. 

The developmental unit exerts about 
twice as much horse-power at the rails 
as a diesel-electric locomotive of com- 
parable size. It burns low grade bunker 
"C" oil, but Alco-(j.E. spokesmen ex- 
pressed the hope that research may lead 
to a successful means for buriu'ng coal. 

In fuel consumption, the present 
power plant is "much less efficient than 
the diesel engine." 

"Improvement in design and the use 
of better alloys, however, can and will 
increase this basic efficiency." 

Knowledge gained from Cieneral Elec- 
tric's wide experience in the aircraft gas 
turbine field was utilized in the design 
of the power plant. However, the loco- 
motive gas turbine differs from the air- 
craft jet engine in that the gases it pro- 
duces are harnessed within the power 
plant and the resultant power is trans- 
mitted electrically to drive the wheels, 
whereas the aircraft engine provides for- 
ward thrust from the reaction of its 
exhaust stream. 

The locomotive is of single cab con- 
struction with B-B-B-B running gear 

•■Mul an operating station in each end. It 
de\ elops X? horsepower per f o o t of 
length, weighs SOO.OOO pounds and has 
a continuous tractive effort of 68,^00 
pounds at 20^ miles per hour. It is 
S.^ feet, 7j/2 inches long inside of knuck- 
les, 14 feet ZYi inches high over roof 
sheet and 10 feet 7 inches wide over 
hand rails. Geared for 79 in ph. the loco- 
motive carries enough fuel for 12 hours 
of operation at 4,500 horsepower. 

Self-Lubricating Ski 

-Micarta, the same tough plastic used 
in Army helmet liners during the war, 
1U1W promises to enable American *V\ 
champions to set new speed records. 

The Bancroft Racket company is 
making a new self-lubricating ski with 
bottoms made of Micarta — a laminated 
plastic developed and produced by the 
Westinghouse Electric corporation. 

Micarta is as strong as structural 
steel for equal weights of cross-section 
and will add greater strength to the 
natural hickor\ to which it is bonded. 
The plastic is lighter than aluminum 
for equal strength. 

It was the use of Micarta for ship 
propeller shaft bearings that brought 
the ski application to light. Made of 
layers of cloth saturated with a syn- 
thetic resin and pressed under heat, the 
plastic is lubricated by water — which 
means a ski in constant contact with 
snow and moisture becomes self-lubricat- 

This means not only more speed, but 
also no necessity for waxing, except m 
very wet snow conditions where snow 
clings. The Micarta-bottomed skis, be- 
cause of their toughness, need not be 
sanded, regrooved, refinished or re- 
lacquered over years of normal service. 


The new General Electric gas turbine for locomotive use. (Courtesy 
of General Electric.) 

Electronic Torch 

.An "elc-ctrumc torch" has been de- 
veloped by scientists of the General 
Electric Company's research laboratory, 
which is hot enough to cut holes in fire- 
brick and to melt tungsten. 

Dr. J. I). Cobine told the Conlerence 
on Gaseous Electronics of combining 
high-frequency radio signals and certain 
gases to produce temperatures consider- 
ably higher than the melting point ot 
tungsten, which is .^.?70 degrees Centi- 

He emphasized that the electronic 
torch is still at the laboratory stage, and 
that its commercial possibilities have yet 
to be explored. 

Heart of the toich is a tube known a.- 
a "magnetron," which produces radio 
wa\es with the extremely high frequen- 
cy of one billion cycles per second. Lead- 
ing from the tube is an antenna made of 
two short metal cylinders, one within 
the other. If certain gases, among them 
nitrogen and carbon dioxide, are fed 
past the high frequency arc, which forms 
at the end of this antenna the electronic 
jet torch results. 

The molecules of certain gases are 
broken up into atoms by the high-fre- 
quency arc. As these atoms reform into 
molecides on the surfaces placed in the 
torch large amounts of heat are gener- 
ated. The jet itself is not necessarily hot. 

Tracer Photographs 

Scientists stud\ing growth autl deter- 
ioration of body tissue may now locate 
single cells by a process called autora- 
diography. The achievement is expected 
to widen the scope of radioactive tracer 
research in biology and medicine. Ra- 
dioactive tracers enable scientists to 
learn more about the processes of the 
human body. Formerly, however, medi- 
cal researchers were unable to pin down 
tracers to a single cell in a tissue section. 

In an experiment conducted at the 
University of Rochester, a microscopic 
slice from the liver of a rat which had 
been given radioactive carbon was placed 
directly on a photographic plate. Beta 
particles emitted from atoms in the liver 
cells boiuided into the emulsion, de- 
veloped by Kodak Research Labora- 
tories, and exposed tracks of silver bro- 
mide grains. After the plate was de- 
veloped in the usual manner, a pattern 
of black silver grains showed the tracks 
of the beta particles through the emul- 
sion. By examining this pattern under 
a high-power microscope and tracing it 
back to the tissue, it was possible to de- 
termine the cells from which the elec- 
trons started. 

Biologists and medical scientists hope 
to use the new technique to learn the 
effects of organic and inorganic sub- 
stances on individuals to which radio- 
active tracers have been given. 



Ray Mauser Editor 

Connie Minnicli Asso<. Editor 

Gene Blanver Makeup Editor 

Art Dreshfield Asst. Editor 

Dwight Beard Asst. Editor 

Dick Choronz\ Asst. Editor 

Henry Kahn Asst. Editor 

Dan Keete hst. Editor 



Assoi ifitcs 

Bill Snderstriim 

Don Sweet 

Dean Felton 

Chuck Flanders 

Dave Cash 

Bob Ciiffrow 

John Huher 

Henrv Kalapaca 

Jim Ephgrave 

Tom Tucker 

Bill Black 

Ceorse Ratz 

Don Horton 

Tack rilman 

Don Rhea 

Clarence Nicbow 


Fred Seave\ Bus. Mgr. 

Dick Smith Office Mgr. 

Bill Anderson Aat. Bus. Mgr. 

Don Johnson isst. Bus. Mgr. 

Altreiia Mallorey Publicity 

Volume 65 

Number 8 

The Tec/i Presents 



Ed Brooks Dick Kenna 

Bob Ger?etich Bill Hubcr 

Jovanne Blount Ouane Carpenter 
Jim Roth 

Faculty Advisers 

]. A. Henry 

L. A. Rose 

W. E. Hanson 


Chairman: Prof. V. J. Cheek, Jr. 
Ciiiversity of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer. Drexel Technical Journal, Illi- 
nois Technograph, Iowa Engineer, Iowa 
Transit. Kansas Engineer. Kansas State 
Engineer. K'^ntnck;- F.n^incer, Louisiana 
State riii\<i-ii Kr,_]i,'M. Marquette Engi- 
neer. M..ln^,,.: |..ln:>, Minnesota Techno- 
log, M.-,Mi,,, >l,,,i,,,,k. X.l.raska Blueprint. 
New York LniveriUv Ouadrangle, North 
Dakota Engineer, North Dakota State En- 
gineer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 
Engineer. Oregon State Technical Record, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester Indica- 
tor, Rose Technic, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published Eight Times Yearly by 
the Students of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Illinois 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, lanuarv, Febru- 
ary, March. April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October 30. 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 213 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 
per year. Single copy 25 cents. Reprint 
rights reserved by The Illinois Technograph. 


Parade and I SEE 6 

Blarney Stone 8 

St. Pat's Ball 10 



New Developments-- 2 

Engineering Honoraries and Societies 12 

Personalities 14 

Navy Pier 16 

Boneyard Bilge 18 

Publisher's Representative — Littell Mur 
Barnhill, 605 North Michigan Avei 
Chicago n. III. 101 Park Avenue, I 
York 17, New York. 


Cartoonist Ed Lozano depicts the Chemical Engineers busily en- 
gaged in one of their extensive experiments. Rumor has it that 
this project has replaced the heretofore acknowledged but hack- 
neyed standard report on the distillation of alcohol. 

Eiioiiieeriiii! Parade and I M 

The iidwils were niillliif; aiouiid the 
lioiu'vaiil campus — altciriatch looking: 
iioithward aloiij; Huirill A\eiiiic, tlien 
down at till- Hoiieyai'd. The campus 
police were patrolling the area to keep 
the over-anxious out of the street and 
out ot the slimy waters wlicre rile 
much-publicized appearance ot St. Pat- 
rick was to take place. 

Most of the concentrated MttentiOii 
was directed toward the nipple of pipe 
that protruded above the surface of the 
Hone\ard just west of Burrill Avenue 
and behind the Klectrical Engineering 
Building. From this spot the (Jeyser of 
St. Patrick had gushed hourh- up until 
the fateful hour when the HIarne\' Stone 
was stolen from the engineers. Hut now 
the Stone was back in the hands of its 
rightful owners, anil St. Pat was eagerh' 
awaited, since he had promised to be 
among the celebrants on this weekend 
of March 31-April 1. 

The crowds perked up to the sound 
of drums to the north by Illinois Field, 
and in a minute the second regimental 
band, directed by L\man A. Starr, 
turned onto Hurrill Avenue. P'vervone 

took a second look to see that cameras 
were adjusted and then turned again 
toward the oncoming parade. 

A sudden explosion in the Honeyard 
attracted all attention toward the E. E. 
Research Lab. In rapid succession, two 
more explosions followed ; ;uid to the 
west, the green ( ii-\ser of St. I'.itrick 
gushed once more. 

just as the band passed o\er the 
Hone\'ard bridge, another scries of fast 
explosions was heard from the stream 
bed, and a dense cloud of smoke arose. 
When the smoke cleared aw'ay, the 
thousands of celebrants cheered the dra- 
matic appearance of the genial old gent, 
St. Patrick. 

In knee boots and carr\ing a spade 
o\er his shoulder, St. Pat strode up the 
stream and waved to his man\' adnur- 
ers. Dean W. L. E\eritt approached the 
nuirky waters and helped the old gentle- 
man up the bank and then over to St. 
Pat's waiting chariot. 

His chariot was quite appropriate. 
Sitting conspicuously atop the shiny new 
convertible was the beloved Blarne> 
Stone. (In the foin^ fenders rode the 

One beautiful test model plus 5,000 paper napkins yielded a trophy 
to the institute of Aeronautical Sciences for one of the best floats in the 
Engineering Parade that preceded I SEE. (Photo by Felix Ou.) 

nulit.irx guaid, which was assigned to 
guard the valuable momento. And in 
the driver's .seat was Dick Stone, the 
electrical engineer who, with Jim Wins- 
ton, had heroically recovered the Hlar- 
ne\' Stone from the journalism students. 

St. Pat was dressed as an Irish coun- 
rr\ gentleman (of course!) with a black 
silk hat, black suit, and a brilliant red 
beard and wig. 

After St. Pat fondly cuddled his be- 
loved token, the parade accelerated from 
its /,ero velocity and took a tour toward 
south campus. While cameras clicked 
and the co-eds cooed, the typically en- 
gineering floats displayed the subtle 
humor and ingenuity of the "Boneyard 

The parade returned to Green Street 
and passed the reviewing stand in front 
of Civil Engineering Hall. There St. 
Pat alighted and admired the work of 
his inspired engineers as the rest of the 
floats passed by. 

On the reviewing stand were the 
official parade judges: Bob F'itzgibbon, 
editor of the Il/ini; Larry Siegel, editor 
of Shaft: and Chuck Flynn, publicity 
supervisor of the Athletic As.sociation. 

Their decision regarding the floats 
entered b\' members of Engineering 
Council listed the following as the top 
three : 

IAS presented the most beautiful 
float — partly because of the beautiful 
blonde "test model" that rode atop the 
mock-up wind tunnel. Lacking an aero 
engineer with sufficient wind, they had 
a hand bellows supplying the breeze. 
The pilot in a miniature airplane at the 
rear of the float tossed paper airplanes 
and flying saucers to the crowds. Work- 
ing under Cliff Felt, Byron Gabbert 
was in charge of this masterpiece. 

The chem engineers put a bit of their 
new building on wheels and presented 
the U. of 1. chenu'cal plant — replete 
with smoke, slime, ,ind sm . . . per- 

With four ag engineers as the team 
of horses, AS.AE presented a contrast of 
fariuing methods before and after the 
imasion of engineering into the realm 
of agriculture. 

Tops among the floats in the "non- 
member of Engineering Council " com- 
petition were the engineering physics 
students, !VIu-San, and Chi Epsilon. 

1 he physics boys took off — or tried 
( Continued on Page 24 ) 









Wpt ^ j^^ 





Top left: An A.S.E. guide shows a visitor how to operate the mechanism of the driver's reaction testing 
device. Top right: The process of flotation separating is demonstrated by the Mining Engineers to an in- 
terested onlooker. Lower left: A horsepower producer of a bygone era attracts attention in the Mechani- 
cal Engineering Lab. Lower right: Four slightly baffled visitors try to fathom out the distributory system 
on display. (Photos by Howard Wedelstaedt.) 

Left: The Mechanical Engineers crusade power plant testing with their unique float. Right: A sure way to 
get away from it all is demonstrated by the Engineering Physics department. The latest report has it that 
the latter alternative was taken. (Photos by Felix Ou.) 

MAY, 1950 

Story of the Blarney Stone 

With a bit in(iic taiitarc than Moses 
l\.i(l, I was (lisi()\ iTfil among the sliiiu 
nislics of tlu' l?<)nc\aiil at 4 p. m. Feb- 
ruary 10, l''^0. This ;;lori()iis bejiiii- 
ning of ni\ well publici/ed career was 
described in the March 'I'kIi. 

For about a month after m\ crashing; 
tlie news I was placed in solitary con- 
tinement — not for misbehavior, but for 
my own securit>. The cold walls of 
the safe in C. K. H. seemed to feel sorr\ 
for me — such a prodigy without aii\ 
recognition — but their compassion \\as 
little comfort to my heav\- heart. 

Finally on March 13 I was given my 
rightful recognition by my protectors 
and my public. Along with some pic- 
tures of my discovery and a bit of blar- 
ney about coming events, I was placed 
on a beautiful kelly green ( I love that 
color!) pillow in the Illini Union Hook- 
store window. There I winked at all the 
pas.sersby and reminded them of the 
green gevser that sprinkled iiourly from 
what had been m\ resting place for cen- 

Incidentally, 1 don't believe everyone 
understood the purpose of St. Pat's (ley- 
ser. Being the first engineer upon this 
earth, St. I'at had an interest in sani- 
tary engineering as well as some of the 
more prominent fields. My inscription, 
"Flush Ye Honevard," attested to this 

acti\ify of St. Patrick. 'Fwchc cen- 
turies ago he started tlu- campaign to 
clean up the Honevard. As nothing ha<l 
been done about the bilge and the local 
citizens were against a recent proposal 
to clean it up, St. Pat himself brought 
forth his geyser of disinfectant that not 
ordy turned the nuirky mess into an 
enier.ald green, hut piiritied the putrid 
waters as well. 

When l''rid,-i\, March 17, came 
around 1 was particui.arly happ\ , as this 
was the birthdav of the one responsible 
for m\ inception. I didn't ha\e the 
opportunity to celebrate like the rest 
who worship my patron saint, hut I 
ne\ertheless revelled in the ghiry of 
da\s gone by anil those to come. 

About 7 o'clock that e\ening 1 was 
rudel\ shaken from my dreams b\ 
two rough hands lifted me from 
my comfortable resting place. 'Fhe\ 
smoothed out my pillow to leave it 
looking pretty, but I was treated like 
an ordinary rock from the L'niversit\ 
rock gardens on .south campus. These 
two unfamiliar faces that disturbed my 
placid thoughts were brutal and utter- 
ly disrespectful of m\ age and impor- 

The next Tuesday morning, :ifter en- 
gineers had been worrying about ni\ 
whereabouts (and rightly they should 

h;i\e) there .appeared in '/'//( Diiily 
llliiii a stor\ about my sad e\perience 
as a displaced person. 

File mini authorit\. ;i|iparentl\ 
knowing more than I did about the 
awful act said that "the kidnaping of 
the stone was accomplished in full \iew 
of hundreds of pas.sersby. The prank- 
sters, or thie\es, persuaded the janitor 
to remove the 'bit of auld Erin' from 
the window of the bookstore by repre- 
senting themselves as engineers sent to 
get it for a St. Pat's partN." 

Fhe authority went on to sa\ that 
some persons were accusing law students 
or high school students here for the bas- 
ketball tournament that weekend. He 
also inferred that engineers might ha\c 
stolen it themselves in an effort to 
arouse a bit of interest and publicitv. 
True, I am happy in the arms of an 
engineer, but there is no engineer alive 
who would use a sacred token like me 
for such a base purpose as mere pub- 

Just before Engineering Council 
meeting, Thursday, March 23, Dick 
M\ers, Council president, received a 
scroll from his patron saint and my god- 
father. The browned and worn parch- 
ment contained this ominous warning 
from St. Pat: 

Left: St. Pat arises from tlu; Boneyard amidst explosions and smoke to join the parade and reign over the 
I SEE activities. Right: The A.S.A.E. won third place with their float displaying modern and ancient 
farming methods. (Photos by Felix Ou.) 


One of the shamrocks that so 
mysteriously appeared on four of 
the engineering buildings one 
bright Saturday morning. (Photo 
by John Huber.) 

"Know \f, () i'rt-M'dcnt Myers and ye 

That I be displeased \vi' ye 

I'"r allowiii' th' stealin' o' me belo\e<l 
Hhirney Stone! 

V'r thi> act, I \va\e me shillelaf^h slide 

An' hereby decree that th' (ieyser 

Will appear unto \e no more 

I ntil me stone be brought back. 

Know ye that th' stealers o' me stone 

He certain ones among th' law or jour- 
nalism students. 

If ye recover me Blarney Stone, 

1 will appear before ye 

1 ri a right ni\sterious cloud o' smoke. 

An' if ye do not recover it. 

Woe betide th' College o' Engineering, 

I'"r me wrath will know no bounds! 

An' I will haunt this campus wi' me 

liitil \e do get me stone back! 

-Mark ye well my words! 

Signed: St. I'at." 

The world was soon to learn, that 
as well as having infinite mercy, m\ in- 
ceptor can .show infinite wrath. 

St. Pat just barely began his haunt 
of the campus with a Shamrock Scare, 
when those responsible for my displace- 
ment came forth with an admission of 
guilt. The four maiji engineering build- 
ings along Green Street blossomed 
forth with beautiful green 8-foot sham- 
rocks on the Saturday morning of 
March 25. They caused considerable ex- 
citement among engineering and south- 
camp\is students, as well as most of the 

l'ni\ersity police force and the Physi- 
cal plant. (The latter group, which 
supplies the University with power and 
v.ii-lds plenty itself, had the shamrocks 
removed that afternoon.) 

Hut the big accomplishment of the 
Shamrocks was to scare the officers of 
Sigma Delta Chi. "professional" jour- 
nalistic fraternit\', into admitting their 
possession of the beloved token of St. 
Pat. However, in a guilty attempt at 
reconciliation and "to show that jour- 
nalists are tolerant of the bigoted atti- 
tudes of other groups on campus . . . " 
SDX offered to return me to my right- 
ful owners at St. Pat's Ball if certain 
humiliating concessions were made. 

The following Monday evening at a 
group meeting of all engineers working 
on 1 SEE and St. Pat's Hall commit- 
tees, the chairman of the former com- 
mittee proposed a compromise to SDX 
in order to regain my presence for the 
St. Pat's parade the following after- 
noon. Arrangements w-ere made for a 
tug-of-war between 20 journalists and 
2<l engineers with me in the middle — 
the dividing line and finish line for the 
tussle. The winning team (and there's 
no doubt who that would have been ) 
was to carr\ me off triumphanth to 
their halls of learning on north cam- 

Thursda\-, the da\- when the tug-of- 
war was to be pulled off, the /////;/ 
Iirinted the following admission: "Hob 
Roderick, president of Sigma Delta Chi, 
professional journalism fraternity, ad- 
mitted that the stone is no longer in 
SDX's po.sse.ssion. A member of SDX, 

Hill .Muster, had been carrying the 
stone in the luggage compartment of his 
car. Hut it wasn't there when he looked 
yesterday afternoon. " 

The journalists were even a bit more 
lax in guarding me than were the en- 
gineers. Two engineers (and Il/ini pho- 
tographers), Dick Stone and Jim Wins- 
ton, drove to Chicago Tuesday after- 
noon, March 28, to get me from Mrs. 
Hill Muster who, they thought, had me 
in a bureau drawer. 

After Mrs. Muster said that Hill had 
me confined to a grip in the luggage 
compartment of his car, Dick and Jim 
sped back to Chambana to rescue me 
from my claustrophobia. They picked up 
Muster's car keys while he dreamed lui- 
suspectingly, slipped me out of his car, 
and retiu'ned the ke\s to his bedchani- 

After a rousing phone call to Dean 
W. L. Everitt, my heroes drove over to 
his Pennsylvania Avenue residence to 
present him with me. The Dean was as 
happy as I was, so we four got a pic- 
ture taken in front of the grandfather's 
clock at 3 :08 a. m. 

Dean Everitt, Dick Stone, Jim Wins- 
ton, and I then returned to what was 
left of a happ\' night of slumber — a*ter 
I was carefully placed in the house 
safe. And happih there I remained un- 
til that glorious Friday afternoon pa- 
rade and then the Saturday evening 
when I was carried to my pinnacle at 
St. Pat's Ball to bask in the radiation 
of the green spotlights and enjoy the 
fond admiration and awe of ni\ lo\al 
dancing audience. 

Dean Everitt happily accepts the Blarney Stone from Jim Winston and 
Dick Stone who liberated it after its capture by south campus individuals. 

MAY, 1950 


Alrci' tlncc siiincH'riK'kini: \vcfk> ol 
woik, the fii>;iiifcr> tiiuilh said ".Aiucn" 
the ni^lu i)t April 1. 

F()lli)U'iiig wfU - cooidiiiati'il plans, 
(luois closcil on a successful I SEI" at 
():()() p. ni. and dc-slidcrulcd engineers 
and their tlates took off for the annual 
St. Pat's Hall that was held that night 
in Muff ('ivnuiasiuui from ''lOO to 
1J:(M) p. ni. 

Hud Roilerick and orchestra set the 
pace with aniazinglv' fine dance music 
and plenty of Irish waltzes thrown in 
for good measure. Vocalist Jene Fer- 
rell, who made her singing debut with 
Roderick on this night gave song ren- 
ditions that soothed the jangled nerves 
and aching backs of many an engineer 
who had ilriven nails and hauled ma- 
chinery during the last few frantic days 
of prepararion foi- the Kxhibit. 

The legendary Hlarney Stone that 
had set the ke\'note for the spirit of the 
entire weekend, reposed on green velvet 
on a large platform in the middle of 
the dance floor. Behind the bandstand 
at the south end of the gyni, a 25-foot 
shamrock adorned with a large slide 
rule hung against a white back-drop. 
The ceiling of Huff Gym was "low- 
ered" an impressionable 30 feet by a 
false ceiling of green and white crepe 
paper. Finishing touches were seven 
sni;illcr S-foot shamrocks hung from the 

These balcony shamrocks were the 
center of some speculation during the 
e\ening. A general (though unspoken) 
consensus of opinion was that these were 
the famed shamrocks that had made 
mysterious appearances on the fronts of 
the four main engineering buildings 
along Green Street the pre\inus Satur- 
day moriu'ng during the Shamrock 

Couples who tire<l of d.ancing dining 
the evening were interested spectators 
of some of the 1 SFF. displays that had 
been brought down to the (]\ni after 
6:00 p. m. One of the most popular 
participation exhibits was the K. E.s' 
"Kiss-o-meter," that gave shcnt but brit- 
tle ratings of an individual's mastery of 
the art of kissing, with such comments 
as "cold," "luke-warm," and "red-hot." 
For the thirsty, the "Coke-tail" bar op- 

t-raffd full bla^t in the lower regions ol 
the g\ni. 

Internussion at 10:30 p. m. began 
with a short introductioji of Hill Hier- 
b:uim, ( b\ Hill Hierbaum), who car- 
lied the ball as .Master of Ceremonies. 
Hill, now well-known for his M. C. 
wink :it three successive St. Pat's Halls, 
next brought forth the Theta Chi octet 
tor harmoiu/ing on a few Irish bal- 

Hill then turned :ittention toward the 
]51arney Stone where St. Pat, the lo\al 
patron saint of the engineers, now ap- 
peared to dub his faithful eleven as 
Knights of the Order of St. Patrick. 
( Rumor has it in higher engineering 
circles that the patron saint was en- 
acted b\- Prof. John S. Crandell of the 
Ci\il Engineering Department.) 

The Knights were outstanding sen- 
iors who had been selected by Engineer- 
ing Council from 200 nominations on 
a basis of scholarship and outstanding 
work in engineering activities. Those 
receiving this honor were Hank Kahn, 
Hruce Everitt, Al Benson, Gene Han- 
kins, Errol Rodda, Dick Myers, Ra\ 
Hauser, Betty Lou Bailey, Maurice 
Cobb, (lerald Marks, ;uhI Keith Good- 

As his (or her) name was called off, 
each prospecti\e Knight came forward, 
kneeled before St. Pat, was knighted, 
kissed the Blarne\ Stone as a proof of 
lasting devotion, and was then gi\en 
a small gold shamrock charm engraved 
with the words, "Knight of St. Pat, 

I'JSO." (Juite a lew grimaces were seen 
on the faces of the Kiu'ghts as the\' 
kissed the Stone, lor rumor declared 
that shreds of slime aiul filth still coat- 
ed the Stone, that had not been washed 
since its removal from the bed of the 
Boneyard. St. Pat pronounced any idea 
of washing the Blarney Stone a sac- 
rilege, since the slime on the Stone's 
surface only enhanced the Stone's al- 
read\' savor\' glory. 

Dick Myers, president of Engineer- 
ing Council next presented the aw^ards 
to the I SEE Exhibit and Parade win- 
ners. Copping honors for their very 
well-planned illumination show, lES 
took the 1 SEE Exhibit trophy. IAS won 
the P:nade trophy for the best float en- 
tered b\- an Engineering Council mem- 
ber societ), and the Physics Depart- 
ment won in the non-Engineering Coun- 
cil competition. The Parade awards 
were especially-designed engineering tro- 
phies planned and executed under the 
direction of (jeorge Vriend. 

Dean W. L. Everitt woiuid up the 
intermission with a short speech of 
thanks to the committee of I SEE and 
to Dick Stone and Jim Winston, res- 
cuers of the Blarney Stone after its 
theft b\ the journ:dists. 

So another St. Pat's Ball came to a 
close. C^nly one sad note marred the 
evening. The unguarded Blarney Stone 
again disappeared — only this time, it 
will be for safe-keeping until another 
St. Pat's celebration rolls around in 

Upper left: Betty Lou Bailey being knighted during the Knights of St. 
Pat ceremonies. Lower left: The St. Pat's Ball crowds intently watch as 
the trophies are awarded to the engineering societies for the most out- 
standing exhibits and floats. Upper right: Keith Goodwin kisses the 
Blarney Stone as a Knight of St. Pat. (Above photos by Al Augustyn.) 
Center right: Dick Myers, president of Engineering Council, presents the 
trophy for best parade float to Cliff Felt, representative of the I.A.S. 
(Photo by Jim Winston.) Lower right: Sigma Phi Delta, social engineering 
fraternity, display kindly inclinations toward the DAILY ILLINI'S famous 
columnist. (Photo by Felix Ou.) 



MAY, 1950 

The l*]iioiii(Triiiii lliiiioi'iirii's anil Niinclics 

Itfi -ttn' ICiirifl/». ^lin.K. '.12 


One ot tin- bt-st nu-i'tiiijis ol rlic \car 
uas licKI Maich 12. when VVilbur 
Sliaw. tOriiHT Iiulianapolis Spci'd\va\ 
king, spoke bi'fore a full house of 5(1(1 
persons. A movie depicting the leseareh 
and development of the engine of a rac- 
ing car was also shown. 

SAK and ASMl-! held a combined 
meeting March 24 at which .Mr. C 
M. Hently, vice president of Deluxe 
I'lnducrs Corporation, ga\e an illustrat- 
ed talk on oil tilters. .Mr. HciuK st.itcd 
the thc()r\ ot oil breakdown, and the 
effect it has on the engine of your car. 
He then gave a demonstration showing 
the difference between the oil of a car 
that has been dri\en with a filter in 
the engine and one which had no filter. 
He also pointed out that he had dri\en 
his car, which has an ml tdter, 8(1,(1(1(1 
miles, and still hasn't changed the oil. 

.Mr. Ogg, the educational director of 
the Diesel Engines Manufacturing As- 
sociation, spoke on "How Patents Af- 
fect the Engineer" at the April 18 meet- 
ing of the SAE. He stated that the aim 
ol the original patent law was to fur- 
nish an incentive and reward to in- 
\entors by giving them a 17-year mo- 
nopoly on their invention. Mr. Ogg told 
how modern industry handles patents 
by drawing up a patent contract. He 
pointeii out that this philosophy is di- 
rectly opposite to that of the original 
patent law. In explaining the actual 
procedure of obtaining a patent, he told 
of the \alue of a consulting attorne\ 
and of constantl\ keeping your applica- 
tions on file. 

The past couple of months ha\e been 
a period of recuperation foi' the .Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
due to the strain of I SEE. 
However, there was a good 
turnout for the meeting 
\Ia> ,1 to hear .Mr. James 
1'. Farman, president of the 
national chapter of .AlEE 
and \ ice president of the Consolidateil 
I'.dison Comp.-iny. 

On .Ma\ If) the annual Buck Knight 
Trophv competition was held between 
AIEE-IRE and AS.ME. The history of 
this hilarious competition began Novem- 
ber 27, 1927, when at a combined meet- 
ing of the E.E.'s and M.E.'s, it was 

decided that something shoidd be ilone 
to create a closer relationship between 
the two societies. The two parties agreed 
on a quiz program with questions re- 
stricted to material of a non-technical 

Professor .Abner "Duck" Knight ol 
the I',. E. de[iaitment ch'signed .irul con- 
structed the tropin from a thimble. 

The Buck Knight Trophy that is 
awarded to the winning team of 
a non-technical quiz contest be- 
tween the E.E.'s and the M.E.'s. 

symbolizing Industry, a cuti link, sug- 
gesting Eternal Search, and some cop- 
per wire, signifying .Adaptabilitv. The 
wooden base was built by the M.E.'s 
during the time they had possession of 
the trophy. 

Results of the i|ui/ ccimiietition ha\e 
been as follows: 

^ tar II inner 

1941) AIEE-IRE 

1941 AIEE-IRE 

1946 -ASME 

1949 AIEE-IRE 

The Buck Knight competition is fast 
becoming a tradition betv.'een the two 
societies; it furnishes many enjoyable 
surprises, and with Muck Knight as mas- 
ter of ceremonies, anything happens. 


-Activities of the Institute of .Aeronau- 
tical Sciences most of this semester were 
concerned with organizing and .setting 
up some good displavs for 
r^^Pj 1 SEE. Clifford C. Felt was 
1^^^^=J in charge of operations for 
this organization. In the 
St.'s Parade, the IAS float, "engi- 
neered" by Hyron L. Oabbert, copped 
first prize honors. 

At the April meeting, talks were pre- 
.sented by Mr. Gilbert C Moseley, in- 
structor in aircraft maintenance, and 
-Mr. Jesse W. Stonecipher, chief flight 
instructor; both speakers were from the 
U. of I. Institute of Aviation. Their 
topic of discussion was airplane design 
— from the standpoints of maintenance 
and piloting ease. 

The speakers discussed some of the 
inadequacies of pre.sent-day airplanes 
and presented a challenge to I.AS mem- 
bers, as future aeronautical engineers, 
to improxe light airplane utilitN" and 

IAS officers this semester have been : 
Nonnan E. Gowin, chairman ; H\ ron 
L. Gabbert, \ice chairman; Loren An- 
derson, secretary-treasurer; Dick Myers, 
and Hob Johnson, engineering cotuicil 
representatives. The faculty advisor and 
honorary chairman is Prof. John .M. 


.\ student competitive talk was held 

Maich 29 to select representatives to go 

to the National Student Conference of 

the ASME. .Maurice Cobb 

#and Harlan Anderson were 
the winners, and therefore 
they represented Illinois at 
this conference. They were 
accompanied by Professor 
Francis Seyfarth and Gordon Chicoine, 
secretary of the .ASME. The confer- 
ence was held in Louisville, Kentucky, 
and consisted of a series of competitive 
talks on technical subjects by the stu- 
dent representatives of various colleges. 
At the April 12 meeting, Professor 
T. C. Shedd spoke on professional en- 
gineering. He explained how the Illinois 
Engineering Act affects various engi- 
neers and pointed out the advantages of 
obtaining a professional license. Profes- 
.sor Shedd gave a brief history of the 
(Continued on Page 2S) 



lAewsivorthy \\otes 



To improve the accuracy of testing 
Bell telephone switching equipment and 
to speed up tests during manufacture, 
Western Electric engineers designed 
and built a unique test set — known as 
the Tape-O-Matic — which has a paper 
tape "brain." 

Controlled by a narrow paper tape, 
punched with coded information, the 
machine aiitoiiiatically performs compli- 
cated series of tests. If there is a fault in 
the equipment under test, the Tape-O- 


or ii^n 


Matic stops, rings a bell and indicates 
the source of trouble on a lighted panel. 

Some 1200 different tapes, varying in 
length from one to thirty feet, are used 
for testing various assemblies. Formerly 
an operator, in testing an average size 
assembly, had to make 41 individual 
connections. With the Tape-O-Matic, 
one multiple plug connection does the 
job. And 2S preliminary tests, 81 lamp 
observations and 71 key operations are 
replaced by one tape insertion and the 
push of a button. 

The Tape-O-Matic can cut testing 
time as much as SO "o — practically elimi- 
nates the possibility of human error — 
and helps to assure equipment of highest 
quality. It is a good example of the 
ingenuity, skill and thor- 
oughness which Western 
Electric engineers put in- 
to making Bell telephone j^| 

The 1500-pound Tape-O-Matic is oi 
of the largest, most complex and mc 
versatile lest sets that Western Elecli 




Engineering problems are many and I'aried al industrial, chemical, melallitrnical—are con- 
Western Electric, where manufacturing telephone stantly working to devise and improve machines 
equipment for the Bell System is the primary job. and processes for production oj highest Quality 
Engineers of many kinds— electrical, mechanical, communications equipment. 

MAY, 1950 


9nt^V0<iM>U^ . . . 

Bif tivorfiv Kiilz. I.E. '.12 

and 1'lurvnvv \ivlnnr. M.K. *.»# 

Have \nu ex IT sat in a iluik puiul 
to watch a tootliall game? It \(iii aic 
a loyal Ulini, yoii a-nainly have. Prot. 
Ralph Hay, Associate Professor of Soil 
Conservation of the Agricultural Engi- 
neering Department, says that some of 
the oldtimers used to hunt ducks in 
tile fornuM- swamp area where the sta- 
dium stands t()da.\. Manx similar 
swamps that comprise the rich hottoni 
lands of Illinois have long since been 
made available for farming b> the in- 
troduction of engineering districts. 

Agricultural engineering is a relative- 
1\ new field : the methods of engineers 
were not readily accepted by the oldest 
industr\, ami in many places the\- are 



•>^ ^^^^H 



In the fi\e or si.\ leading major engi- 
neering societies for a leport to Presi- 
dent Truman on the state ot the na- 
tion's water resources. 

Pri}fessor Hay's success stems largeK 
fiom a genuine desire to tailoi" his 
teaching to fit the needs of his students. 
Two types of courses are offered b\ the 
Agriculture Engineering Department: 
service courses are offered as practical 
training for agriculture .students, and 
technical courses are offered for engi- 
neers. As the extension agricultural en- 
gineer for the University of Illinois for 
thirteen years, he has an intimate knowl- 
edge of nearly every soil conservation 
and drainage project in the state. His 
classes are greatly enhanced by his abil- 
ity to gi\c examples of class studies that 
ha\e been instituted in each individual's 
home area. 

In January of l^Sl, Professor Hay 
is taking sabbatical leave. He is plan- 
ning to work on the development of 
teaching materials, laboratory tech- 
niques, and equipment for teaching soil 
and water engineering while attending 
Michigan State College. 

Small though the ceramic engineering 
student body may be, its members con- 
duct activities on a scale similar to those 
held by some of the largest engineering 
societies on the campus. Oxv: of the ke\- 
men of this group is Luke Pfeiffen- 
berger, president of the SBACS, which. 


still questioned. There are four major 
fields of study in agricultural engineer- 
ing; rural electrification, farm power 
machines, farm structures, and soil and 
water engineering. Professor Hay heads 
the soil and water engineering depart- 
ment. This department is concerned 
with drainage, erosion, and conserva- 
tion of soils. Since 1946, he has been 
the executive secretary of the State Soil 
Conservation District Board and the 
first engineer to be appointed to this 

In addition to all his other acti\ities, 
he is a member of the Committee on 
Flood Control and Water Flow Re- 
tardation of the Engineers Joint Coun- 
cil, one of the eight committees formed 


in engineering lingo, becomes "See- 
backs," but to outsiders, refers to the 
abhrexiation of the Student Branch (it 
the American Ceramic Society. 

A native of Alton, Illinois, Luke en- 
rolled first in the ceramic engineering 
courses offered at Iowa State College. 
During that period known as "the dura- 
tion," he served in the Army for two 
and one-half years and was a member of 
the famed 20th Armored Division. I'n- 
der a special Army training program, 
he returned to college studies for a short 
time at the L'niversity of Indiana. Aft- 
er receixing his discharge, Luke entered 
the Lnixersitx of Illinois in the fall of 

Besides his presidency of SBACS, 
Luke is also an active member of Ke- 
ramos, ceramic engineering honorarx', 
and of the social fraternity. Delta Tan 
Delta. Outside of the engineering cam- 
pus, nuich of his interest is centered 
aiound .McKiniey I'Dundation, and the 
church choir, and the International Sup- 
per Club sponsored by the YMCA. One 
of bis most recent actixities was com- 
mittee xvork on the engineering open 
house, I SEE. 

Although not too positive on his fu- 
ture plans after graduation, Luke is ex- 
pecting his particvdar field in ceramic 
engineering to be in sales or product 


In his first year on campus, Burton 
.^mos has become one of the most active 
men in AFS, the American Foundry- 
men's Society. He is a sophomore in the 
production option of mechanical engi- 

Burton had a rather soft but inter- 




esting txvo year hitch m the Navy, that 
had its happy ending in August, 1948. 
As an AET\I (aviation electronic tech- 
nician's mate) he attended service school 
(Continued on Page 32) 


New Duo-Cone loudspeaker, developed at KLA Ldburatoncb, acliiL\Ci the lUuiioa of "living presence.' 

/\/lus/C /o^e/s' "it^rn ^iF pien-i-y' 

For years, working toward the ulti- 
mate in sound reproduction, scientists 
ha\e sought for living presence — the 
illusion that a musician or speaker is 
talking, singing, playing in your home. 
Now, with RCA's Duo-Cone loud- 
speaker, the goal is achicxcd. Two sound- 
cones in acoustical alignment reproduce 
sound without distortion, and gi\e you 
every tonal %alue from a frequency of 30 
on to 15,000 cycles. It is in the area above 
a frequency of 4,000— seldom touched 
by conventional speakers— that most of 

the all-important "overtones" lie. RCA's 
Duo-Cone loudspeaker reproduces e\'ery 
o\ertone — to the very peak of a violin's 
range— and faithfully gives you the deep 
low notes of a bass drum! 

In addition, ihe RCA Duo-Cone loud- 
speaker's wide angle of sound pervades every 
comer of a room without sharply directed 
blast or blare. Its response to tones of every 
frequency is smooth, flowing, and even. 

Sec the newest advances of radio, television, and 
electronics at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 W. 4<)th St., 
New York. Admission is free. Radio Corporation of 
, Radio Citij, N. V. 

Continue your education 
with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

Victor— niif of the world's foremost m.nnu- 
facturcrs of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-rounded training and experience at 
a good salary with opportunities for ad- 
vancement. Here are only fne of the many 
projects which offer unusual premise; 

• Development and design of radio re- 
cci\'crs (including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, tc!e%ision, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Advanced development and design of 
AM and FM bro.idcast tr.insmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay s>'stems. 

• Design of component parts such as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• Development and desicn of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tulx-s. 

Write today to National Recruiting Divi- 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New fcrscij. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

IVor/c/ l^ac/er rn 'Rac/io — F/rs/- in 'Te/ei^/s/on 

MAY, 1950 


9n *^Uu . . . 


Opportunities Unlimited 

by Irving H. Hallberg, M.E. '52 
and Richard Hofmeisfer, M.E. '53 

Due to the loi'ation ot the X.i\ \ I'ici 
in Cliicajio in the licart ot the lii(lii>ri iai 
section ot the Middle West, students 
attciulinp; the Pier lia\e the opportunity 
to observe every t\|ie nt iiidustr\ in op- 
eration ranjiinj; troni t()un<lncs to as- 
senibh plants, troni start to tinisii. 

In tile time it would taice to luar a 
lecture, students can visit a factor) and 
observe the actual methods, and .see the 
work being turned out. These opportu- 
nities have not been wasted by the Pier 
engineers. They have taken advantage 
ot these opportunities and e.xplored them 
to the fullest extent. Classes in materials 
casting have visited pattern shops and 
foundry suppliers to see I'.ow the work 
is done, giving them a clear pictme of 
engineering "know-how." Dining the 
Christmas vacation and between semes- 
ters, the student chapter of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers 
at Navy Pier spnnsoi'ed a series of eight 
toin's of [ilants including foundries, a 

steel mill, an assemhl\ plant, machine 
shops, and a gas pLant. 

.A txpieal plant of those visited is the 
Pettibone Midliken Corporation. This 
iirgani/ation falls \\\ the medium si/e 
classification ot industry, having a par- 
ent companv' and several subsidiaries. 
Here the entire process of manufacture 
can be viewed at a glance. The ilesign- 
ing, fabrication, machining, assembK, 
and testing are completeh' handled by 
this one comp,ui\. A brief description 
of the tour through the plant will illus- 
trate this principle. 

The trip through the Pettibone Mul- 
liken Corporation included the Petti- 
bone Mulliken plant, the Beardsley and 
Piper Division plant, which is a sub- 
sidiary of Pettibone Mulliken, ami the 
engineering building. After a brief 
breakfast, the tourists, lumibering about 
T.i engineers from the Pier and from 
the L'rbana campus and eight instruc- 
tors v.ere divided into five groups. Each 
group, consisting of about ten students 
and several instructors, were provided 
with a guide who was a member of the 

Heginning in the forge shop, the 

group obseived one ot the important 
mctho<ls of fabrication. The huge drop 
hammers provided an unusual and awe- 
some sight for the xisitois. From here, 
the to\ir moved to the foundiv where 
the casting pioeess was reviewed. .Mold- 
ing, core-making, melting in electric 
lurnaces, shakeout, and cleaning were 
seen in operation. One of the most in- 
teresting and unusual machines was the 
sandslinger which was developed and is 
manufactured by Heardsley and Piper. 
This machine slings sand into ;i mold 
at the rate of 1600 pounds per minute, 
giving a firmlv rammed mold in one 

The machine shop was next in line to 
be visited. Here the m.ichiiiing of m.iii- 
ganese steel, of which Pettibone and 


R.HKilcl Sak EdUm 

John SdJ!) Rin Us't Ediloi 

Raymniut Lindahl Business Mgr. 

John Nowicki hs'l liusinrss Mrji. 

Alan Anderson Pliritnijraf'lin 

Richard Mcdk-y, Lloyd 

ncniel ...Iss(i( uilr U'nins 

A guide explains the mechanism of the sand slinger to the Pier engi- 
neers at the Pettibone Mulliken Corporation. 

Mulliken is the countrv's largest pro- 
ducer, was seen. (Jang drills in opera- 
tion sparked the interest of the engi- 
neers, as did the grinding of manganese 
steel frogs. Each rail frog is constructed 
to different specifications and therefore 
requires a different pattern. As most of 
these frogs are about fourteen feet in 
length, each job requires a great deal of 
pattern work. 

At noon, the visitors were treated to 
a lunch by the management. Following 
the meal, photographs of the various 
groups were taken by the editor of 5(7- 
/('/■ Methods, a company magazine 
which is widelv' distributed throughout 
the foundrv industry. 

During the afternoon the groups 
toured the Heardsley and Piper Divi- 
sion of the corporation, makers of foun- 
dry equipment such as the Spcedmidlor, 
Sandslinger, and Screenarator. Opera- 
tions in the machining, a.ssembly, and 
painting of these devices were watched 
at this plant. For the benefit of the 
visitors, much of this equipment was 
explained and demonstrated. It could 
be seen that many variations in the 
sizes and tv|ies of a particular device 
are made to suit all possible needs. An 
example of this is the midler which 
ranges from a small wheelbarrow v a- 
iiet\ called the Miilbaro to the large 
Speedmuller which is several feet in 

Following the completion of the tour, 
a question and answer session was held. 
(Continued on Page 32) 



Woyne King, "The Walti King", is ont' of America's 
most popular entertainers. His weekly Standard Oil 

television show is a ildij^ht to see and hear — and it 
makes him one of Standard Oil's best salesmen. 

More than sweet music 

comes from this horn 

Let's assume that Standard Oil researchers and 
engineers have fully developed and tested a new, 
outstandingly improved petroleum product. Let's 
assume that the product has been made and dis- 
tributed to Standard Oil dealer stations. 

What happens then? 

That's where Wayne King and all our other sales- 
men take over. They inform the public about this 
new product. And when the public buys, there's 
work for people to do all down the line: work for the 
service station man, for the refiner, the pipeline 
man, the driller. The more we sell, the more people 

we need to make new products. Our present em- 
ployees become more secure in their jobs, and new 
jobs open up. 

Good salesmanship, you see, is vital to all of us. 
But good salesmen must have good products to sell 
— and that is why research and product engineer- 
ing, as carried on at Standard Oil and other pro- 
gressive companies, is also vital. 

Good products plus good salesmanship are an 
unbeatable combination that helps make our coun- 
try great and the American standard of living the 
highest in the world. 

Standard Oil Company 


MAY, 1950 


Bv Jack USIman, Eng. Phvs. '51 and Don Sweet, E. E. '53 

While liberal arts students now out- 
number engineering students at Illinois, 
this is one of the few schools where the 
engineers got there first, ami the liberal 
artists came in later. 

When the I . of I. i;ot its start in 
liSbiS, it uas know II as llluiois Industrial 
University, and existed ,solely for the 
purpose of producing educated engineers 
and farmers. As such, it was one of the 
first engineering colleges in the country 
and was looked upon with suspicion b\ 
the traditional classical educators. 

That these classical scholars ha<l their 
fingers in Illinois Industrial University 
is shown b\' the entrance requirements 
for 1S68-1869: the stLident had to know 
natural philo.sophy, algebra, geometr\, 
Latin grammar, Caesar, Cicero, X'^irgil's 
(leorgics and the Aeneid. 

Life for the student was rough in 
those days. L'ni\ersity housing consisted 
of a dormitory which also contained all 
of the school's laboratoi ies. A ten-b\ 
fourteen-foot double room in the dorm 
cost only foui- dollars a semester, but 
\ou didn't get much for your four bucks. 
The rooms were unfurnished, and the 
occupants had to provide their own 
stove and beds. The 1868-1869 cata- 
logue stated, "It is recommended for 
health's sake that the occupants sleep in 
separate beds. " 

The student was required to work at 
least an hour a day, usually on the Uni- 
versity buildings that were under con- 
struction. For this work he was paid 
the princeh' sum of eight cents an hour. 

The mechamcal engineers really had 
a rough obi time of it in the beginning. 
When the students of Mechanical 
Science and Art in the Polytechnic De- 
partment (as thc\ were then called) 
went to their first classes, thev disco\- 
ered that the\ weie pioxided with a 
lathe — but the power to run the lathe 
was in the form of a set of castings for 
a lO-hp steam engine. So as a shop pro- 
ject they turned out the castings, ro- 
tating the lathe by hand. 

For man)' years a thesis was required 
of cver\ engineering graduate. In addi- 

tion, the engineers weie reipiired to 
write \acation journals e\ery summer. 
These were supposed to include de- 
scription, with dimensioned drawings, of 
(■\er\' interesting machine the engineer 
s.iw. So \ou think \()u'\e got troubles? 

Flush thr Honr^ard 

* * •» 

In the days when the U. S. Navy con- 
sisted of a frigate and two flat-bottomed 
rowboats, our naval uniforms were 
amazingly ornate things, with gold 
piping on the trousers, gold epaulettes, 
and plumed hats. So it wasn't surprising 
that a British diplomat at a parr\ 
should mistake an Amcrical naval 
officer for a doorman and say to him, 
"Call me a cab." The seaman smiled at 
the I'nglishman and said, "^ ou're a 
cab." Then he looked the o\er 
.111(1 added, "And not a hansom one, 

Flush Ye Boxe^ard 

To the Bone\ard 
Beautiful stream flow on! flow on! 
Thou stream which art the only one 
That through the campus ground ilntli 

Beautiful sric.ini! Mow on! flow on! 
A\e, flow thou on and get thee gone! 
() Boneyard ! flow on! 

This poem is by Lucille Booker, '00, 
and appeared in the lllui of I SOS. 
Which proves that e\eii then people 
wanted to 

Flush Ye Boneyard 

Perha|)s you are curious about \v hat 
goes on at those ph\sics colloquiums 
with the incomprehensible titles. A re- 
port<'r for this column was, and satisfied 
his curiosity by attending one entitled, 
"Angular Correlation in Successi\-e Nu- 
clear Radiations." It turned out to be a 
pleasant, informal affair. 

Festivities began at 4:13 in room 21 J 
in the Ph\sics building. People were met 
at the door by a charming lady plusicist 

who served coffee and cakes. Almost 
e\er\ member of the physics staff and 
most of the graduate students were 
there, standing in little groups and 
talking. (loing from group to group 
our reporter heard conversations about 
university housing, flushing the Bone- 
yard, California politics, and women. 

Later, after everyone had gone down 
to room 100, the full professors sat in 
the front row, associate professors were 
mosth' in the second row, and ,so on. All 
conversation stopped as if a vahe had 
been turned when Dr. (ioldhaber of 
the Physics department got up and stood 
in front of the room. 

Dr. (loldhaber introduced the speak- 
er. Professor D. L. Falkoff of Notre 
Dame. Mr. Falkoff began his talk by 
sa\ing, "I will spend the first half hour 
proving why angular correlation should 
not exist." And this he proceeded to 
do, speaking rapidly and with decision. 
When he had finished his proof, he said, 
"Since angular correlation does exist, 
there is apparently a paradox." He wait- 
ed a moment, and added "But let me 
break the suspense." So he explained the 
paradox — to those who could under- 
stand him. 

During the explanation he had some 
slides to show. The room was darkened 
and an a.ssistant showed the first slide. 
It was upside-down. The assistant took 
it out, fiddled with it, and put it in 
again. It appeared upside-down and 
backwards. The assistant looked be- 
wildered. Dr. Loomis, head of the 
physics department, strode up to the 
projector and in quick motion took the 
slidi- from the assistant and shoved it 
into the machine. It appeared on the 
screen in perfect order. Dr. Loomis 
smiled modestly as everybody applauded. 

After Dr. Falkoff had finished his 
talk, he stood up against a barrage of 
questions. When everyone's curiosity 
was satisfied, Dr. Goldhaber suggested 
that everybody go upstairs for more 
coffee. His suggestion was followed 
with glee. 




"To make traveling more fun. Tiie idea is to give people more to see and do while riding faster and safer. Tiiat 
means more passengers for the railroads so that they can keep fares down and still add more comfort to long trips." 

"Railroad comfort comes from many 
things, son. Smooth-fitting parts are 
important. Parts like Diesel engine 
crankshafts, pistons and wheels. That's 
why so many railroad shops use 
Norton grinders and Ahniduni grind- 
ing wheels to make parts smooth. 

"Take those side rods on steam loco- 
motives. They get farther over on the 
smooth side thanks to Norton internal 
grinding wheels. And parts arc fin- 
ished so accurately with Norton 
quality controlled wheels that they 
last for thousands of miles, Paul. 

"Getting back to comfort . . . modern 
trains travel over 60 miles an hour. 
So, they need smooth rail joints. 
Those joints are welded for safety. 
Then, they're ground smooth and 
slotted with Norton grinding and cut- 

" Hundreds of other parts 
of modern railroad trains and tracks 
also get a lift from the sure touch of 
Norton Products. So does just about 
any other product you can name. 
That's why I'm not boasting when 1 
say that Norton makes better products 
to make other products better." 

— L 


{^akin(j beffer products io make other products better 





MAY, 1950 




Associate Editor 


Came OuUa l/fo44A. SUelL ! 

In a spcfcli class iccriitly. two assignnu-iits 
well' presented by two engineering stiuieiits. 
\\\ coincidence, the speeches took opposite 
\ lews on an unspoken but well-practiced code 
i)t the campus this side of (ireen street. 

One of these had as its general topic, "Win 
engineering students are entitled to remain 
.iloof from outside activities." The author's 
explanations centered aroimd the old assump- 
tion that engineering, as one of the more 
difficult college courses, required a great 
deal moie stud\ and preparation than other 

The other speech set forth reasons why en- 
gineers, in particular, should be active in cam- 
pus affairs. The author of this contention 
was not only an honor student in engineer- 
ing, but was aLso one of the top campus lead- 
ers in extra-curricular activities. 

Isn't it about time that we engineers stop 
hiding behind the college's skirts with the 
lame excuse: "Engineering is too hard; we 
don't have time for anything else"? No en- 
gineering curriculum is so hard that it pro- 
hibits participation i[i activities. 

Isn't if about time that we admit the truth 
i[i recent Dai/y Illini editorials and columns 
criticizing engineers for lack of interest in 
campus affairs outsi<le the classroom? 

"Lack of interest " is an ugh little phrase, 
and one to which we of the dignified engi- 
neering profession are loathe to admit our 

One of the very truthful but painful facts 
that recently stood in the way of obtaining 
Kngineering Council representation in the 
Student Senate w-as the rotten example of 
this "lack of interest" in which a requested 

voting booth was installed on engineering 
campus during campus election da\' last >ear. 
Oi about 3,000 engineering students that 
passed b\ its location on BurriU A\enue, 
only 60 bothered to cast a ballot! This is one 
incident that can't be passed off with the 
"gotta study" routine, since it requires only 
two minutes to \ ote. 

However, the picture is not so murky as 
the first part of this editorial might have it 
seem. Engineering students can and have daiir 
excellent jobs in combining heavy academic 
studies and outside activities. One shining ex- 
ample of this was the recent I SEE and En- 
gineering Weekend. A conservative estimate 
was made that at least 500 engineers devoted 
time to their individual society displays, floats 
for the parade, or general committee work 
iluring this period. We not only surprised 
ourselves and the faculty with the interest 
■ind hard work put into this project, but we 
also proved that only engineering ingenuitv" 
could have produced the fanfare and "Blar- 
ney" that certainh' woke up the campus to 
the fact that "St Pat was an Engineer." 

Of what good are such campus activities? 
Their actual value to the individual far ex- 
ceeds the one purpose of showing a live en- 
gineering interest in campus activities ; the 
reward will lie in the friendships, technical 
contacts, and associations with fellow engi- 
neers that will be worth more than gold in 
the years to come. 

What we do here in college will be the 
beginning of our professional society activi- 
ties which manv' of us will carry on through- 
out our lives. What we do here in college 
will also be the beginning of a broad outlook 
on the greatest of all professions — the P'ngi- 
necring of Life. — C. W, M. 



this one is of major iiiiporfaiice to 
future engineers ... aud businessmen! 

Electricity is so much a part of our lives today 
that a new, lower-cost way of carrying it is 
important to everyone. 

Alcoa E.G.* Aluminum conductor for insu- 
lated electric wire and cable is revising old 
ideas of cable costs. In large size cables, alumi- 
num conductors weigh only one-half as much as 
copper of equivalent current carrying capacity, 
are therefore lower in cost and easier to handle. 
Cost and weight savings are worthwhile in all 
sizes down to No. 6. 

'EUclrual Conduclor Aluminum 

Leading manufacturers of insulated wire and 
cable are making their products available now 
with conductors of Alcoa E.G. Aluminum. Sup- 
pliers of fittings and accessories are producing 
correct types for use with aluminum. If you 
would like further details, toward the day when 
you may be in a position to suggest a saving on 
electric wiring, write today for a copy of the 
illustrated book "Questions and Answers About 
Aluminum Conductors", Aluminum Company 
OF America, 742E Gulf Bldg., Pittsburgh 19, Pa. 





MAY, 1950 


By John Huber, Ag. E. '52 


For tlu- first rime in tlu- I'ldnio- 
ytnfh's staid history of '>^ years, ir lias 
a ffinale fditor-iii-fhiet. Slu- doesn't take 
oftice till next year so we must wait to 
see the VVrA with its feminine touch. It 
will be a year to look forward to ac- 
cording to the editorial critic who, aftei 
reading one of Connie's articles, noteii 
that "you should have more jjirls on 
vour staff." 

The Tcih has felt Conruc's uiflucncc 
for the past three years. 'This year found 
her capably fulfilling the duties of asso- 
ciate editor. She has had some nine 
articles and several features published 
in the Tech. so thar >lie is no sfran-cr 
to its readers. 

The fact is that C'ciiuue is also no 
stranger to most of the people m engi- 
neering circles on campus. Her many 
activities have brought her scores of ac- 
quaintances. She is a student branch 
member of ITE, .'\SCE, and is a mem- 
ber of ISPE. She belongs to Mu San, 
the sanitary engineering honorary, and 


was secretary last fall. She is a member 
of Alpha Lambda Delta and was its 
treasurer last year. The 1 SEE parade 
and much of the publicity for St. Pat's 
Ball was directed by Connie. Her tire- 
less efforts not only contributed a lot in 
themselves but they also proved an in- 
spiration to others working with her. 

partners in creating 


For 81 years, leaders of the engineering pro 
have made K & E products their partners in crealing 
,he technical achievements of our age. K 8. E instro- 
men.s, drafting equipment and materials-such as the 
LEROYt Lettering equipment in the picture-have thus 
played a part in virtually every great engineering 



Chicago • St. Louis • Detroit 
San Francisco • Los Angeles • Montreal 


The TiJi's business maiiat;ei for the 
next year will be Hill Anderson who, 
ironically enough, joined the staff three 
\cars ago because of his interest in en- 
gineering writing. He was assigned to 
the business staff because, as Bill puts 
it, "they had enough peasants on the 
editorial staff." His first year was spent 
performing general duties, but the next 
year found him promoted to the depart- 
ment of national advertising. This 
past Bill has been assistant busi- 
ne>s manager in ch.arge of national ad- 

If we delve into Hill's personal his- 
tory we find that he and a twin-sister 
were born in Jersey City, New Jersey; 
hut he has spent most of his life in 
Neu Rochelle, New York. He graduat- 
ed hnin New Rochelle High School 
ill lime, 1940, with a major in business. 
Five of the next eight years found 
him working in the field of heating, 
\entilating, and air-conditioning as a 
sheet metal mechanic. During the other 
three years he was superintendent of an 
aircraft sheet metal department at a 
sub-depot of the U. S. Army Air Force 


liill then enrolled in the Iniveisity 
,,) Illinois in mechanical engineering. 
His mam interest lies in the perfection 
lit air conditioning systems for small 
homes. After graduation in '^1 he plans 
to become established with a corpora- 
tion concerned with heating, ventilating, 
and air conditioning as engineer and 
manager. His operating territory will 
he Westchester County, New York. 

K nil III ion. 

It's (ihciiys tin- frlloir ycii'il like to 
iomui,'ii,l for ,1 joh iiho ilocs not iirtd 



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PROBLEM — You are designing a machine which 
includes a number of electrical accessories any one 
of which can be turned on by means of a rotary 
switch. For reasons of assembly and wiring this 
switch has to be centrally located inside the machine. 
Your problem is to provide a means of operating the 
switch from a convenient outside point. How would 
you do it? 

THE SIMPLE ANSWER — Use an S.S.White re- 
mote control type flexible shaft to connect the switch 
to its control knob. This arrangement gives you com- 
plete freedom in placing both the switch and the 
control knob anywhere you want them. That's the 
way one manufacturer does it in the view below of 
part of the equipnic;.? whh ccv>3r removed. 

This is just one of hundreds of remote control and power 
drive problems to which S.S.White flexible shafts provide 
a simple answer. That's why every engineer should be 
familiar with these "Metal Muscles'" for mechanical bodies. 

•Trademark Reg. U, S, Pat. Off. and elsewhere 


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0)U 9^ M-tvUicCt A AAA liuiuttrUtU SntfiptiAM 

MAY, 1950 


Parade and I SEE . . . 

( e'cintimifJ 11(1111 I'atii- (i) 

to — with a sign, "\'ciiiin ni Imst." I he 
panel tor tlu-ir Buck Roj;cr> \cnniic 
flashed with colored lijiluv tnim the 
fission of their atomic piles. 

Mii-Saii, nuinicipal ami sanitar\ eii- 
iiineering societ> , left behind a trickle 
of jjreen water, as they traceil the treat- 
ment which water gets before, liiiriiij:, 
and after human use. 

With an eager eye for surveying 
curves as well as straight lines, Chi 
Kpsilon trained a transit on a rather 
,ittracti\e silhouette in a window frame. 
Tin- laudation of these ci\il engineers 
was an\ thing but latescent as they list- 
ed latitude and longituile in the log. 

After the passing of the parade, the 
crowds swarmed into engineering build- 
ings to \iew the exhibits of "engineer- 
ing careers in action." Si.xteen organi- 
zations and departments, under the 

guidance of Engineering Council, coop- 
erated to present an entertaining and 
educational arra_\' of exhibits. 

The exhibits, too, were carefully scru- 
tinized b\' judges for "effective explana- 
tion (to the layman) of the represented 
field of engineering." judges were 11. 
M. Jordan, Associate Dean of the Col- 
lege of Engineering; R. C. Edmund- 
son, of the State Department of Public 
Instruction; Fran Myers, of the W'lvs- 
( Continued on Page 26) 

Left: Teletype operation is explained to visitors of tha Army Communications display in the Electrical En- 
gineering building. Right: Modern architecture applied to a swimming pool makes a popular display. 
(Photos by Howard Wedelstaedt.) 


Sometime you II be 1f\Qme IH VQi^f 

looking for some- ^ 1 _l^ f 

thing racy in race- 110X6 DOOI\ • 

ways. Or you'll want 

asbestos cable that really beats the heat. 
National Electric has all that plus everything else 
you'll want in the way of a complete line of 
electrical roughing-in materials. Everything in the 
field of wires, cables, conduit, raceways and 
electrical fittings. 

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Picture a Square D Field Engineer 
trying to run ^!^ Business 

• What he doesn't know about your busi- 
ness would fill a library. But there's one 
thing he does know — electrical distribution 
and control as it applies to any business, 
including yours. 

Square D Field Engineers throughout 
this country, in Canada and Mexico, are 

constantly working with industries of every 
type and size, helping find that "better 
way to do it" — electrically. 

If you have a problem in electrical dis- 
tribution or control, call in the nearby Field 
Engineer. His counsel costs you nothing. 
It may be of substantial value. 


MAY, 1950 


Parade and I SEE . . . 

I C(Jiitmui-il trom I'ajjc 24 ) 
Linzittc: anil Scott 'IMcr, ot the Coii- 

First place honors went to tlu- lllinni- 
nating Engineering Societ>', wiiose ac- 
tivities were directed by Val McChisky. 
Their presentation was divided into two 
units: a show explaining the field of 
illuinination and its relation to our 
lighting needs, and a walk-around e\- 
iiibit with a tinic-niirror, color-blind 
testing, ajul other audience-participa- 
tion displaxs. 

With an airangenient of driver re- 
action test instruments, the Institute of 

Traffic Kngineers took second place. 

Toni Fry was responsible for organiz- 
ing this effective presentation. 

Kveii though the\ were cramped tor 
space, the American .Societv of Agricul- 
tural Kngineers' panorama of the prog- 
ress and development of agricultural im- 
|ilements rated third place. Ancient and 
modern equipment — from the earl\ 
ste,im-dri\en tractor to the modern 
cub — were presented by jere Castor 
.■uid bis bo\s. 

The total nundier of guests checking 
attendance cards was .^012. The largest 
single group of these was high school 
students with IS.S per cent. However, 
ju<lging by the inunber of guests who 
ignored the checking stations, the two- 
da\ crowd was cons?rvativcl\ cstimat- 
ed'at l(),l)()(). 

1 .SKF, was a tiring but tbiillmg 
\enture to the hundreds of ejigineers 
who actively participated. The spirit of 
enthusiasm, unity, and general csl)nt dc 
< r,r/<s came forth that weekend was 
well \\(i;rb the six months of planning. 

Left: The Aeronautical Engineers demonstrate the operat 
tested to show pressures on the surface. Right: Castings 
(Photos by Howard Wedelstaedt.) 

on of the wind tunnel. An airfoil section is being 
attract considerable attention in the foundry. 




Engineers, on :i II 

t\pes of jol)s. show 

a big prclcrcncc lor 


with llic\e Clnuiui-i.liid 

finish tlial enables ihein to "Sec 

RiRhl — Be Riglu" untlcr any kind 

of light condition. It's the finish 

that won't cliip. cr.ick. peel, or coi- 

rode! I'crnianeiit, casy-to-read black 

markings stand out sharp against the chinnic uliiic I 

ground. 'l'\\c" Ranger" tape is 14-in. wide, sttndy. flexible. 

"Inslanlaneous Readings ". . . is enclosed in a genuine le; 

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Du Pont scientists pursue their studies 
from Buffalo, N. Y., to Orange, Texas 

company. Its many manufactur- 
ing plants are now located from 
Maine to California. Likewise, the 
Company's research activities arc 
spread over a wide area. From the 
Founder's informal scientific experi- 
ments on the Brandywine have 
sprung 42 research and development 
laboratories in ten states. 

Each manufacturing department* 
has its own research director and 
maintains facilities for studies in its 
h'pecialized fields. Thus, research hav- 
ing to do with dyes, neoprene and 
fine chemicals is centered at Deep- 
water, N. J.; research on cellophane 
and other transparent wrapping films 
at Buffalo, N. Y.; research on viscose 
rayon at Richmond, Va.; and re- 
search on coated and impregnated 
fabrics at Newburgh, N. Y. These 

are only a few of the places where 
Du Pont scientists are now at work. 
Each manufacturing department 
does fundamental research as well as 
applied research on new processes 
and products. 

Many types of training 

At any one time, many hundreds of 
different projects are under way in 
these laboratories. Though a rela- 
tively large number of Du Pont tech- 
nical people are chemists and chem- 
ical engineers, other fields of training 
are strongly repre-sented. 

Among the scientists working with 
Du Pont are mechanical, electrical, 
civi], industrial, niining, petroleum, 
textile, architectural and safety en- 
gineers, physicists, metallurgists, bi- 
ologists and mathematicians. About 
30 '^c of these men and women who 

Artist's drawing of the Marshall Laboratory, 
new Du Pont laboratory for research on fin- 
ishes. Under construction at Philadelphia, it 
should be ready for occupancy by late 1950. 

are engaged in technical activities 
at Du Pont hold doctor's degrees. 

Interchange of thinking 

All manufacturing departments may 
draw on the services of the chem- 
ical, engineering and toxicological 
laboratories of the company in Wil- 
mington. In addition, the Chemical 
Department's library at the Wil- 
mington Experimental Station cir- 
culates reference material, conducts 
literature and patent searches and 
issues a weekly abstract of pertinent 
articles found in the important chem- 
ical journals of the world. This sup- 
plements normal work of this kind 
done by the various manufacturing 

No matter where a Du Pont re- 
search man may work, he has every 
opportunity to use his best talents, 
to advance as his abilities develop, 
and to profit by interchange of think- 
ing with scientists whose minds com- 
plement liis own. 

*Thcrc arc ten Du Pont manufaclurini; department!! 
— efieh conducting rcaearch: Elcctroc/icmicah: Explo- 
sives: Fabrics & Finishes; Film :CrasseUiCfiernicats; 
Urfianic Chemicals: Photo Products: Pigments; 
Polychemicals; Rayon. 

SEND FOR "This Is Du Ponl." 52 pages of 
information on Du Font's methods, prod- 
ucts, facilities, geography. Fully illustrated. 
I'or your free copy, write to the Du Pont 
Company, 2,503 Nemours Building, Wil- 
mington, Delaware. 



Great Dramdtic Entertainment— Tttne in "Cavalcade 
cf America" Tuesday Nights, NBC Coast to Coast 

MAY, 1930 


Honoraries and Societies . . . 

( L'ciiirniui'd tidiii I'aLZc 1 J I 
act, roKl why it was passi-d, anil iv\- 
plaiiu'il some ot the tests an eiifiini't-r 
must fact- in ordc-r to iilnain his license. 
This was a combined meetint; ot tlie 
ASME and SAi:. 

In an April election, Professor J. R. 
Fellows, head ot the heatin};, ventilat- 
ing, and air coiuiitionintr dep.irtiiuiit, 
was elected honorary chairman ot tiic 
societ\ tor next \ear. 


Mr. N. J. nimhcck, president nt 
Kastein L'ia\ i'rodiKts Inc., fia\ e an 
interesting talk on clay products at the 
April 18 meeting ot the American Foun- 
dry Societ\. In his talk Mr. Dunbeck 
told about the types of bindings and 
binding materials used. He also pointed 
out the phy.sical properties of different 
types of clays and their effects on mold- 
ing sand. A question and answer pe- 
riod, ui which Mr, Diuibeck answered 
the members' questions pertaining to 
iiis talk, was held at the end. 

There were two meetings of the .AFS 
in Ma\. At the first, Mr. (jeorge Dre- 
hi-r ot the Foundry Education Foimda- 
tion was the guest speaker. He told 
about the help the foundation was giv- 
ing worthy students. This help takes the 

form of scholarships and fellowships for 
research. He also explained the require- 
ments needed to obtain one of these 

The other .May program featured 
a demonstration by the (lencral .Motors' 
fo\indry of Danville. This demonstra- 
tion, which travels all over the country, 
consisted of a floor sho«- depicting the 
before and after of core making. Ma- 
chines which make cores and a movie 
showing old and new methods of core- 
making were shown. This combine<l 
meeting of the AS.VH-:, MIS. AFS, and 
S.AF was also open to the public. 

On May 1 the AFS went on a field 
trip to the Caterpillar Tractor Com- 
pany at Peoiia. They went as guests of 
tile Caterpillar Company and were tak- 
en on conducted tours ot the In 
the evening thev attendeil a meeting 
of tile national Ameiican hound rv So- 
ciety, thus ending ,i very interestmg 
;uui educational day. 


Jlie fiist regular meeting of the 
.\nS was held April 1,^ with Mr. 
Robert Schauss of the Illinois Clay 
Products Company presented ,is guest 
speaker. Mr. Schauss holds a degree in 
metallurgical engineering from the Case 
School of Applied Science ( now the 

Case Institute of Technology). His 
talk on the various opportunities of the 
graduate engineer was both informative 
and enjovable. 

The business meeting that tollnwed 
laid tentative plan^ toi- the annual pic- 
nic to be held on .Mav JH. A high- 
light of the picnic will be the sottball 
contest between the mining and metal- 
lurgical engineers. The faculty of both 
departments will also displav' their tal- 
ents in a horseshoe contest. 

MIS officers that were elected at .a 
previous meeting include the tollowmg: 
Mruce VV. Capek, president; James j. 
Skarda, vice president; Ron Hlack. 
treasurer; James W. Cioodrich, secre- 
tarv ; Robert L. Baird and Donald L. 
Macleary, engineering council ; Eugene 
|. Schwet/, program chairman; Hernt 
(I. IviMson, publicity chairman; John T. 
Keim .iiiil John M. St. John, member- 
ship cliaiiinen. 


Walt Reeder and Don Straznickas 
have been selected as outstanding en- 
gineering students by the local chapter 
of the Illinois Society of Professional 
Engineers, according to Professor \\ . 
J. Putnam, chairman of the awards and 
resolutions committee of the societv . 
(Continued on Page 30) 

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Another page for ^^ 


How to keep a rock crusher 
from minding the grind 

In a hammermill rock crusher, every revolution of 
the rotor shaft puts a heavy shock load on its bear- 
ings. Engineers have solved this problem by using 
Timken " tapered roller bearings. Timken bearings 
take the heaviest loads— both radial and thrust. 
They require a minimum of maintenance and 
normallv last the life of the crusher. 

Why TIMKEN bearings can 
take the tough loads 

In Timken bearings, the load is carried on a line 
of contact between the rolls and races, instead of 
being concentrated at a single point. Made of 
Timken fine alloy steel, rolls and races are case- 
carburized to give a hard, wear-resistant surface 
with a tough inner core to withstand shock. 







Learn more 
about bearings! 

Some of the engineering problems you'll face after 
graduation will involve bearing applications. If 
you'd like to learn more about this phase of engi- 
neering, we'll be glad to help. For additional in- 
formation about Timken bearings and how engi- 
neers use them, write today to The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. And don't 
forget to clip this page for future reference. 


MAY, 1950 


Honoraries and Societies . . . 

I C"(intirun-il I rum l'aj;c JS ) 
Tlu' tuo iiHMi \ww hoiioi-fd at the 
monthly ilimicr iiu'etiiiR ot the Profes- 
sional KiiKiiieers, Thiiisiia\ evening. 
May 4, at the L iiivcrsity Club, when 
they received junior Memberships in 
the society. 

Reeder, an outstanding; student in 
aeronautical enjjineerinj;, has been rec- 
ommended to receive the Consoliilated- 
V'ultee Aircraft Corporation Fellowship 
for graduate study here at the I ni\er- 
sity after his graduation this June. 
Straznickas, a setu'or in mechanical en- 
gineering, expects to enter engineering 
work in his liome town of Rockford, 
following his June graduation. 

The Professional Engineering Society 
awards are made each year to the two 
senior stuilents in the College of Ln- 
gineering deemed to be outstanding b\ 
the Societ\''s awards muI resolutions 

At the _'3th annual Ira C). Baker 
civil engineering convocation May 10, 
(lene Hankins and Hartman Mitchell 
were named the outstaniiing senior civil 
engineering students. These winners 
were chosen for excellence of scholar- 
ship, personal qualities, and professional 
activity. Besides receiving prizes of $75 

and $2S, respectively, they received cer- 
tificates and will have their names en- 
graved on the bronze tablet outside the 
C. K. office in C. E. 11. 

Speaking at the con\ocation was John 
I. Parcel of St. Louis, a nationally- 
known consulting engineer and alunuuis 
of l')(H). He was a •.tiulent unch-r the 
late Protessoi- Baker who endowed the 


Flash! Each uienibei' of the Student 
Branch ot the .American Ceranu'c So- 
ciety received a whole pig at the 25th 
annual banquet held May 8. In case 
\ou're thinking of calling up the nearest 
ceramic engineer for tomor- 
row's bacon, we had better 
inform \(iu that the pig was 
made ot china, and there- 
fore hardly fit for human 
consumption. A real honest-to-goodness 
pig was served at the banquet howeser. 

and afterwards 
.Mr. 1. J. Sve. 

talk was gi\en by 
if Ceramic Industries 

Almost all ot the senior ceramic en- 
gineers attended a meeting of the na- 
tional American Ceramic Societ\' which 
was held April 23-27. 

On April 12 a meeting was held with 
.Mr. Heater and Mr. Reid of the En- 
gineering Experiment Station as guest 

speakers. The subject of their talk was 
"Engineering Report Writing." Mr. 
Heater spoke on the drawing of graph^ 
,in<i flow sheets and how different t\pes 
of graphs are used. Mr. Reid pointed 
out the methods of organizmg a report, 
and the ad\anf;iges of turning In, 
concise reports. 

John J. Brouk, alunuius of Illinois 
and vice president in charge of proiluc- 
tion for the Precast Slab and Tile com- 
pany, spoke at the March meeting of 
the SBACS. His talk was on the prop- 
erties and uses of perlite, a light weight 
derivative of a volcanic ash. Among 
some of its uses, as Mr. Brouk pointed 
out, is the making of cements and 

All members are working on the ll/ini 
Ceramist, the yearbook of the society. 
The yearbook includes individual pic- 
tures of the seniors and group pictures 
of the other classes, along with a sec- 
tion on activities. It is dedicated to C. 
W. Parmelee, former head of the Ce- 
ramic Department. 

A Softball team has been organized 
by the society and it has been compet- 
ing in the intramural games. 

Ihf trouble tilth most ftUrjivs ivho 
boast of bcini/ stlf-iiiailf iiiiri is that 
they went on a strike before they eoiii- 
pleted the job. 

I Througtiou 

New Pharmaceutical 
Laboratories Air 
Conditioned with 

Frtck Itefrigemti^ff 

Baxter Laboratories, which have 
the largest production of intravenous 
■olutions and blood transfusion equip- 
ment in the world today, use two 
Fricli NEW "ECLIPSE" compressors 
for cooling the offices, research de- 
partments, and many work areas in 
their recently completed plant at 
tvlorton Grove, III. This covers 300 
by 400 ft. Frick installation made 
by h/lidwest Engineering and Equip- 
ment Co., Sales Representatives in 

Ihr trick Gradual,- Traming Cmir^, 
in lirfrigfraliun and Air Conditinning. 
Oprralcd uicr .«) Yvan.. Offers a Carr.r 
,„ „ Croump lr^,lmlr^ 

Two Fnclc NEW 'ECLIPSE" Comprcsi 

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Manager, Hydraulic Deparlment 

General Machinery Division 


(Cradiiale Training Coarse 1919) 

YOU HAVE to Start somewhere— and as 
far as 1 know, flagpole painting is the 
only job w here ) ou start at the top. Next 
best thing is to get in where there arc 
many opportunities, 
and many interesting, 
worthwhile paths to fol- 
low — particularly ifyou 
are not entirely sure 
just what type of work 
you want to do. You 
then ha\e a chance to 
try more than one field, 
and eventually find the 
J. F. ROBERTS ^vork that will gi\e you 
the most in satisfaction and success. 

Growth of Hydraulics 

The field I'm best qualified to discuss is 
hydraulic engineering. Crude waterw heels 
were man's first mechanical source of 
power. Today, in highly perfected modern 
form, they're still a major source of abun- 
dant, low-cost electric power. The field is 
constantly expanding and holds a world 
of opportunity. H) draulic power becomes 
increasingly important to the nation as 
the need for low-cost power steadily in- 
creases. Moreo\'er, a hydraulic plant once 
installed produces energy with a mini- 
mum of manpower. There's no fuel to 
mine, prepare, ship, unload and burn — 
small operating personnel is required. 

Right now at Allis-Chalmers we're de- 
signing and building turbines for vast new 
hydro-power projects, not only for the 
U.S.A. and Canada, but also for Mexico, 
South America, Norway, New Zealand 

Kentucky Dam 1\A Field ereclion view of 250-ton gantry crane lowering hy- 
draulic turbine assembly. One of five 44,000 hp, 48-ft. head, Kaplan type turbines. 

and the Philippine Islands. We're also 
restoring many veteran turbines to bet- 
ter-than-original efficiency and capacity 
after long years of faithful performance. 
Hydraulics was a field that 1 hadn't 
seriously considered as an undergraduate 
at the OniNcrsity of Wisconsin. I gradu- 
ated as a Mechanical Engineer in 1918, 
and entered the Allis-Chalmers Graduate 
Training Course in January 1919. It was 
there that I got interested in the big 

My first assignment was in steam tur- 
bine erection. "Then I mo\ed o\er on the 
In draulic turbine test floor. In May 1919 
1 was sent to North Carolina on the ac- 
ceptance tests of a big hydro-electric 
power installation. I continued with hy- 
draulic field work such as tests and trouble 
shooting until 1925, when I went into the 
sales end of the work. Two years later 1 
left the manufacturing side and became 
H)draulic Engineer for the Power Cor- 
poration of Canada, supervising the de- 
sign and installation of some 15 plants. 

In 1936 I became Hydraulic Engineer 
for the U. S. Go\ernment TV.A, inxohing 
12 projects and 30 large units. I returned 
to Allis-Chalmers in 1942 as Manager of 

the Hydraulic Department— and had the 
unique experience of building some of 
the same turbines that 1 had purchased 
for TVA. 

Vantage Point for All Industries 

These personal notes serve to illustrate 
two interesting facts about the Allis- 
Chalmers Graduate Training Course. 
First, it's tailor-made for each student. 
Since 1904, graduate students here have 
been helping plan their own courses — 
making changes as they went along and 
new interests developed. They've had an 
opportunity to divide their time between 
shop and oflnce — follow important 
projects through from drafting board to 

Second, the organization is in close 
contact with virtually all phases of indus- 
try: hydraulic or steam electric power 
plants and utilities; mining, smelting and 
rock products: public works; steel and 
metal working: textiles; food processing; 
flour milling. Allis-Chalmers builds basic 
machinery for all these industries and 
many more. Its engineers, executives, 
salesmen and production experts have a 
ringside seat for industry in action. 

Graduate students conduct pcrforniancc 
tests ol centrifugal pump units. 


Allis-Cltalmers Manufacturing Company, Mihvaukee 1, \l'isconsiii 

MAY, 1950 



( Continued tiniii P.-igc 14) 

lor I I nioiiths at Corpus Cliiisti, 
'IVxas, ,111(1 .Memphis, 'IVnncsscc-. Atrci 
Kiadiiation at .Vlcinphis on ,i I'lidav 
atternoon, Burton started teailiinfi ele- 
iiu'iitar\ transmitter theor\ and prac- 
tice the tollo\\in<: .Monda\ in the same 
school. .Ahoiit his nine months of teaeh- 
ing, lie comments. "It it liad heen an\ 
place but the .\av\ 1 wciuld ha\e en- 
joyed it." 

Burton hails trom "the little cit\ ol 
big music," .\It. Carmel, Illinois. Jie 
worked his own \va> through high 
school as service station attendant, truck 
driver, and welder. Besides these time- 
consuming tasks, he took part in the 
Science club and .\ational Honor .So- 

While getting his first taste of col- 
lege at I'urdue University, Burton 
made the freshman honorary. Phi Kta 
Sigma. Here on the Boneyard campus, 
he has become vice president of AFS 
and was in charge of the sand lab ex- 
hibit for 1 SICK. 

Burton lost his bacheloihood last 
June IS, but hasn't complained about 
the loss. He has a fairly neat and en- 
joyable home in a local trailer. 

In order to pick up some industrial 
experience. Burton hopes to work at the 
(leneral Motors foundry at Danville 
this summer. 

Navy Pier . 

( Continued trom Page Id) 
At this time the guides, who were spe- 
cialists in some paiticular phase of the 
company's operations, answered any 
questions put to them by their guests. 
Here any points not clear at some part 
of the tour was explained to the satis- 
faction of the student or instructor. At 
the close of this review, souvem'r pen- 
cils were distributed to the \isitors 
along with a booklet explaining the 
company's operation. 

From tours such as these, engineer- 
ing students can see how things are done 
industrially as well as become ac- 
quainted with the \arious fields which 
their particular branch of engineering 
covers, l^he students at Navy Pier will 
be informed when the time comes for 
them to seek employment. They have 
the opportunity to see industry in opera- 
tion, and they are taking advantage of 
this opportunity. 

'I'hr mrol/iit we don't enjoy uatchuu/ 
is the fellim- iiho stands on the Consti- 
tution jihile gnnuing at its foundation. 
— 7'(i/(' Li(/hls. 

Many an argument is sound — meiel\ 
sound. — Tampa Daily Times. 


.lero E: "Til fli[, a ,oin. If it's head.'.. 
;;■(■ r/o to the party. If it's lails ne </o lo 
the f/aine. If il stands on edi/e. ire 

When a scoutmaster asked his troop 
whether or not each had done his good 
lU'vd for the da\ . three members admit- 
ted they hadn't . "In that case," the\ 
were told, "leave this meeting ,ind don't 
return until \()u'\e lived up to our niiittn 
of one good deed ;i day." 

A half hour lat;-r the ho\ s r<'tuined, 
dishevelled and Hushed. "I ,|id mv good 
deed, sir," the first scout said. I lielped 
an old lad\ cross the street. " 

".Me, too," added the second. "1 
helped the s.-ime old lad\ cross the 

"So did 1," chimeil in the third mem- 

"Do V'li mean," the scoutmaster de- 
manded, "that It took all three of you to 
help one old lad\' cross the street?" 

The spokesman for the trio lowered 
his head. "Yeah," he replied. "You see, 
sir, the old lady didn't want to cross the 
street in the first place." 

.//; automotive iniun/ion that is i/r(at- 
ly needed is Inakes that leill aiilomati- 
iid/y t/et lii/ht uhen the driver does. 

B.MOC: "Wh\ do the most import- 
ant men on campus alwa\s get the 
prettiest girls?" 

Coed: "Oh, i,ou conceited thing!" 

TiLO small hoys rame into the dentist's 
offiee. One said to the dentist: "I mint 
a tooth out. and I don't leant t/as he- 
eause I'm in a hurry." 

Dentist: "That's a brave little hoy. 
ll'hieh tooth is it.''" 

Little Bo\: "Shou him your teeth, 

Sam: "JJsten heah, boy, jes' what 

kind of life >'ou been li\'in'?" 

Rastus: "Oh, ordinary, jes' ordinar\." 
Sam: "Well, if yo' pulls any mo' 

aces out o' \o' shoe, yo' ordinary life is 

goin' to mature." 

ShiarUe. shtarkle. little luinL 
ll'ho th, heek you are. I think. 
I'm not under the ahofluenee of inko- 


Thout/h some ihinkle pe, p / am. 

It having a good time is all there is to 
life, monkey has man outdistanced com- 
pletely, both in :iniiising others and be- 
ing amused. 

Some fellows stay right in the rut, 
while others head the thi'ong. .All men 
ma\' be born etjual, but they don't sta\ 
that wav long. 

Te:iclier: "It you ha\e ten |iotatoes 
and imist <li\ide them eqiialK among 
three persons, how would xou do it?" 

johnin : "IM mash them." 

Some people use religion lii-e a has. 
I hey ride on it only uhen it is t/om,/ 
their Hay. 

hirst Co(jk : "Sa\-, the garb;ige man is 

Secnd C(iok: "O.K. Tell him to 
leave three cans t<iila\." 

"■\'o man ean do his hest nork while 
hi haihors levimjefiil or iven unfriend- 
ly Ihoiii/hls toieard others." 

—Dr. Marsden. 

Anatomv prof: "What are the names 
of the bones in \oui h.-ind ''" 
Stiiile: "Dice." 

'/'//(• man who wants to do some- 
tliimi finds a leay : the other kind finds 

leacher: "In what h.ittle did ( ien- 
eral Wolfe cry, "1 ,lie happv ?" 
.lohnny: "His last one." 

./ nise man thinks all In says: a fool 
says all he thinks. 

Two men who had been bachelor 
cronies met for the first time in five 

"Tell me, Tom," said one, "did vou 
marry that girl, or do you still darn 
your own socks and do your cooking?" 

"Yes," Tom replied. 

The felloir leho ean't talk without 
suearin,/ must he just plain dumb. 
'There are 45i).000 words in the die- 
tionary: and if he ean't learn enoin/h 
of them to express his ideas nithout 
usinij noises not in the dietionary. there's 
somethint/ wronq with him. 

A chap was arraigned for assault ;uid 
brought before the judge. 

Judge: "What is your name, occupa- 
tion, and what are you charged with?" 

Prisoner: "My name is Sparks; I am 
an electrician, .-ind I'm charged with 

Judge: "Officer, put this gu\ in a 
drv cell." 

■x- * * 

Only people nho do thini/s i/et eriti- 

".Alcohol has little \alue as medicine, 
and it certainly carries distinct dangers 
to those who use it as a drink. 1 ha\e 
never found it necessary to use it for 
medicine." — Dr. If'iltiam ./. Mayo. 




Q D Q Q ^ 1 








november, 1950 

What Happens When 150,000,000 People Say: 





COLONEL Edwin Drake's oil well, drilled in 1859, 
produced only 20 barrels daily . . . 

But it gave people a taste of the benefits of petro- 
leum—and a great industry was off to a flying start! 

The first drilling rigs— first refining equipment- 
were adequate for that early demand. 

But invention of the automobile, airplane, Diesel 
engine and other great machines in turn demanded 
gi'eat invention in oil— and old-fashioned equipment 
gave way to scientific research laboratories, modern 
refineries, pipehnes, tankers and tank cars. 

Eacli year demand made them biRRer and better! 

Today, thousands of oil companies with oil fields, 
refineries, bulk plants, ser\ice stations and cost- 
cutting transportation systems— deliver over 1,840,- 
000,000 barrels of petroleum yearly— meet U.S.A. 's 
demands for value in oil. 

And, today, the responsibilities of Soeony-Vacuum, 
one of the oldest companies in the industry, are con- 
stantly mounting . . . 

Unprecedented demand for petroleum products 
calls for expansion in every phase of our efficient, 
coordinated operation . . . 

46,400 independent "small " businessmen must be 
kept fO)?ipefif!t!e— supplied with what it takes to 
pro\ide a bi<x moiKtj's worth for you— a good li\ing 
for themselves. 

When 150,000,000 Americans say, 
businesses of all sizes to deliver! 

"/ want," it takes 


The Flying Red Horse Companies 




R. E. Sugg, B.S. in M.E., George Washing- 
ton University, 1948, doing mechanical re- 
search to improve machine design. His 
optical-slit microscope measures surface 
scratches as fine as 20 millionths of an inch. 



Studying product development in a rotary dryer 
are: H. J. Kamack, B.S. in Ch.E., Georgia 
Institute of Technology, 1941; and F. A. 
Oluckert, B.S. in Ch.E., Penn State. 1940. 

Checking component for machine used to finish 
rolls to high degree of precision: Donald F. 
Miller, B.S. in M.E., Lehigh, 1950; and Albert 
W.G. Ervine, M.S. in M.E., Michigan, 1950. 

R. L. Stearns, B.S. inCh.E.. Yale, 1949: and H. 
Peterson, B.S. in Ch.E., Northeastern Univer- 
sity, 1942, checking a multi-stage carbon-mon- 
oxide compressor used for making methanol. 

BECAUSE Du Pont is a chemical 
company, you might expect most 
of its technical men to be chemists. 

Actually, there are more engineers 
than chemists at Du Pont. In each of 
the ten manufacturing departments 
there is important work for men 
trained in chemical, mechanical, 
electrical, metallurgical and other 
branches of engineering. 

These departments operate much 
as independent units with their own 
research, development, production 
and sales staffs. In their respective 
fields, they do fundamental and ap- 
plied research on both processes and 
products. Sometimes engineers par- 
ticipate in the early stages of a proj- 
ect. More often, however, they enter 
the picture when the project has 
moved to the point where commer- 
cial production is considered. They 
see it through the pilot plant and 
semi-works stages and assemble data 

necessary for the full-scale plant. 

Even after manufacturing has be- 
gun, development work is continued 
to standardize and improve the proc- 
ess. Normally, engineers whose main 
interest is production and plant op- 
eration take over when the works 
stage is reached. 

Engineers on the technical sales 
staffs help maintain contact between 
Du Pont and its customers. They 
present data on new products and 
guide customers in process develop- 
ment and similar problems. They 
also use their technical knowledge in 
making surveys of possible markets 
for the Company's products. 

In addition to the manufacturing 
groups, the Du Pont Engineering 
Department — a central staff organi- 
zation — requires engineers with many 
types of training. This Department 
carries on its own program of funda- 
mental and applied research. It also 

makes site investigations, lays out 
and designs new plants and labora- 
tories for the manufacturing depart- 
ments. It serves tliem in research on 
process development, on materials 
cf construction and on methods of 
insasurement and control. 

Yes, engineers figure importantly 
r.t Du Pont. Through their teamwork 
vvith chemists, physicists and other 
trained personnel, the Du Pont Com- 
pany produces its "Better Things for 
Better Living. ..through Chemistry." 



Entertaining, Informative — Listen to "Cavalcade ol 
America," Tuesday Nighls. NBC Coast to Coast 

new developments 

vditfti hff •/«<' Knrivlla. 3lin.K. ',!:£ 


-A till l)i)Mi|)ciiliai};cr wliicli will en- 
able pistoii-|i()ueic(l foiiiniercial aii- 
liiicrs to tl\' non-stop fiom Chicafio to 
London with liea\ \ payloads has heeii 
developed li\ (IK. 

I'njiineers described the conipaiativeh 
small but powerful turbo — designated 
the CH9 — as a "significant .-'(Kance in 
our long histor\ of turbosupercharger 

Turbosuperchargers, \\i<lel\ used h\ 
America's fighting planes in Woild 
War II, are the devices which enable 
airplane piston engines to "breathe" in 
the rarefied air of high altitudes. Spun 
by the engine's exhaust, they compress 
the rarefied air to sea level pressures 
before it enters the c\'linders. 

The new turbosupercharger entiieh 
eliminates the conventional geared supei- 
charger, or the impeller, operating off 
the engine shaft. There are no me- 
chanical connections between engine and 
turbo. Development of a direct cylinder 
fuel injection system for the R-43f)() 
eliminated the major need for a geared 
supercharger which is used to insure 
uniform fuel distribution to the cylin- 
ders. Engineers said elimination of the 
geared supercharger not onh' saves up 
to 500 hp, previoush' drawn from the 
piston engine, but also makes possible 
a more efficient method of cooling the 
combustion air going to the cylinders. 

Airliners cipupix-d with >uch power- 

pl.uifs could fl\ n(in-sto|i fruui Chicago 
to London, .'i distance of 4(H)(I miles, 
carr\ing nearh half as many passengers 
as are now loaded for Chicago to New- 
York flights. Commerical transports are 
unable to make SLich flights at present, 
nor can they fly non-stop from New 
York to London with profitable pay- 
loads. The new powerplants non-stop 
trans-Atlantic flights can be made at 
faster speeds and with heavier payloads 
than is now possible by airliners making 
two stops enroute. 

"skylike" illumination 

Silvrav "Sk>like," a new concept of 
electric lighting with all of the advan- 
tage of incandescent plus the modern 
appearance of fluorescent, has been an- 

An adaptation of silvered-bowl in- 
candescent lighting, Skylike is designed 
for commercial use, and the Silvray 
company pointed out that in addition 
to its appeal because of its dramatically 
different and better illumination, it has 
the advantages of simple wiring, light 
weight, fast installation, freedom from 
service call-backs, and lower cost. 

Skylike's high light output includes 
the utmost utilization of reflected light 
■.\nd an even distribution of comfortable 
fedl-spectrum light. There are no sharp 
shadows, the 90-degree shielding pre- 
vents both direct and reflected glare, 
;uid there is a complete absence of flick- 

ering, blinking, and hum. The output 
can be varied from 2,500 to nearh 10,- 
000 lumens per unit by use of ISO-, 
200- or .?0()-watt lamps; the silvered 
reflector is permanently sealed, ami 
there is no light loss from depreciated 
ceilings, because Skylight carries its own 
S7 per cent reflection f.ictor teiling. 


Stressed plastic 

A new plastic that can be made into 
scale models of machine parts and tools, 
now is providing "internal vision" for 
engineers in military, university, and in- 
dustrial laboratories here and abroad, 
and is a new Westinghouse product. 

One ot the niaj(U' applications of the 
new ni.iteiial is in the design of breech 

A plastic model shows the stresses 
to which a nutcracker is subjected. 
(Courtesy, Westinghouse). 

blocks for big guns. To undeistaiul the 
terrific stresses these parts undergo, dur- 
ing firing of the gun, an exact three- 
dimensional model of the block has been 
built and "loaded" to simulate the stress. 

When frozen into the material and 
then viewed through special polarized 
light, the stress pattern appears as a 
series of vari-colored lines that tell the 
scientist where the major stresses are 
located, in which direction they are ac- 
ting, and just how great the\' are. 

Even medical scientists may find the 
new material of great value because e\- 
( I ontiuiii d nil p/igc 30) 

One of the latest developments of the illuminafion field is the "Skylike," an incandescent system 
which throws light into a plastic grid for diffusion. (Courtesy Silvray) 


editorial staff 

CoMiiie Miiiiiirli 

ass'iii'ilf iiiilors 
Ceru' Hlanver 
Richard Choronzy 

iissislani idilors 
Pcaii Felton 

|„hll IlllluT 

makiu[' iiiilor 
Kill Black 

aii rJilnr 

Kd l.c/au.i 


Dave ('a^ll 
Jne EiirietUi 
Bob Hardi[i 
Bob Johnson 
Hank Kalapaca 
(Mareiice Niebcju 
(ieorge Ralz 
Bob Schrader 
Harry Spies 
I^on Sweet 
fom Tucker 
Jack rilman 
Charles Wade 
Bob Lawrence 
Sne Wahlstrotn 

business staff 

husiiiiss manii'/rr 
Bill Anderson 

ttssislani nuuuuirr 
nick Kcnna 


Marvin Ehlers 
Charles Fitzgerald 
nwight Moherg 
F.hvood Schinidi 
nick Spalding 

faculty advisers 

J. A. Henry 
W. E. Hanson 
G. R. Foster 


Chairman: Prof. F. J. Clieek. Jr. 
L'niversity of Kentucky, Lexington 29, Ky. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, Colorado Engineer, Cornell 
Engineer, Denver Engineer, Drexel Tech- 
nical Journal, Illinni. T-rh.,- -rrii'li. I"wa 
Engineer, Iowa Tr.-ni-M I, , I ,,-,„.-,., 

Kansas State Engimri , I 1 ■-un'i, 

Louisiana State t'nu. , • I M.m 

hattan Engineer, M,ii-inr ,,, 1 ,,.;,,,. . ,, \h, h 
igan Techn 




York Unive 
kota Engineer, North Dakotii .state 1-.iiki- 
neer, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma State 
Engineer, Oregon State Techaical Record, 
Penn State Engineer, Pennsylvania Tri- 
angle, Purdue Engineer, Rochester Indica- 
tor, Rose Technic, Wayne Engineer, and 
Wisconsin Engineer. 

Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, Aiiril and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second 
class matter, October .10, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, i.nder the Act 
of March i. 1879. Office 2\} Ei.gineerinR 

Hall, Ur 

bana, Illinois. S 

. Single copy 1 

■•■i/hts re 

■•vv'-il hv The nil 


\ Representative 


lill.i North N 

11, 111. 1(11 Pa 

York 17 

New York. 



Illinois technograph 

volume 66 

number 2 


new developments ^ 

geodetic control ' 

electroencephalography ° 

society news '^ 

phantasy with a bang ^1 

boneyord bilge ' ■^ 

navy pier ' "^ 

1-1 14 


introducing '° 

technocrocks "^^ 

our cover 

John Scholz of the University of Illinois Chemistry Depart- 
ment checks the rotor temperature of the ultra-centrifuge. This 
instrument, one of the few of its kind in the world, is often used 
for finding molecular weights of heavy compounds and for 
separating substances, such as viruses, from mixtures. It has a 
maximum rotation of 60,000 RPM, and at this speed applies an 
acceleration of 260,000 G's. (Photo by Howie Wedelstaedt). 

our frontispiece 

The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey uses these Bilby steel 
triongulation towers to elevate the surveyor and his instrument 
above the station mark so that the lines of sight may clear all 
obstructions. Heights up to 129 feet may be achieved depending 
on the number of sections used in the tower. (Courtesy of U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey). 





the story of large-scale surveying, done by . 

geodetic control 

bif Warren Ml. Uriindt. C.E. '.'i.'t 

Contrasted with p 1 .1 11 c siii\e\ injj, 
"geodetic" sLiiveyiiig is that branch 
where the shape of the earth is taken in- 
to account in the mathematical adjust- 
ment of the field-measured distances and 

The primar\' purposes of geodetic sur- 
veying operations are the establishment 
of fixed monuments or stations, as the\ 
are called, on the ground at some dis- 
tance from one another; whose geo- 
graphic coordinates — latitude and longi- 
tude and elevations — have been deter- 
mined precisely. This data provides ac- 
curate control for topographic maps and 
tor plane surveying operations which 
will be mentioned later. 

I'l uinyiildliun 

By way of explanation, to determine 
trigonometrically the length ot one side 
of a triangle, it is necessary to know 
only two angles and the length of 
one side. In a triangulation tlie length 
of the known side must he measured 
very accuratelv. This side is designated 
the base-line. From it the lengths of all 
other sides in the triangulation system 
are computed. The picture shows a field 
party of the United States Coast and 
(jeodetic Survey measuring the length 
of a base-line in Massachusetts. The 
tape they used is made of an alloy called 
in\ar, ha\ing a low coefficient of ex- 

Instruments for reading angles called 
theodolites, similar to a smveyor's tran- 
sit but capable of work of gieater pre- 
cision, are set over the station monu- 
ments at the termini of the base line. 
The angles between interviewing sta- 
tions are read and entered in the com- 
putation, (^ften structures, trees and ob- 
structions prevent the observation from 
the ground so that the instrument and 
observer must be elevated ovci- the sta 
tion mark. This is done with the use 
of towers. It should be emphasized that 
in a tower of the type pictured there is 
no integral connection between the imier 
tower on which the instrument is placed 
and the outer tower which supports the 
observer. This tower, called the Bilb\ 
triangulation tower, and the theodolite 
were designed by members of the Coast 
and (ieodetic Survey staff. 

I he first primary triangulation (pri- 
mary triangulation later officially desig- 
nated first-order triangulation is work 
of highest precision, work of the next 

lower precision is de.-ignated tlv' second- 
order, etc. ) in the Chicago area was 
made in 1874 under the direction of the 
United States Lake Survey, a branch 
of the Army Engineer Corps, to pro- 

The author, Warren H. 
Brandt, graduated from 
Lane Technical School in 
June, 1942, and worked in 


t h 

surveying po'tics of the 
Chicogo and North West- 
ern Railway during the 
years 1943-47. He was em- 
ployed OS on instrument 
inspector with a prominent 
Chicago consulting engi- 
neer firm before coming 
to Illinois in February, 
1950. He has offended 
Northwestern University and 
Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology and IS a member of 
the American Society of 
Civil Engineers and the 
Western Society of Engi- 


\ide a much needed control for theii' 
charts of the Great Lakes. 

The triangulation net which eventual- 
1\' encompassed Chicago and was ex- 
tended to Lake Erie was commenced in 

ISbl by the accurate measurement of 
a base-line 19,871 feet in length on 
-Minnesota Point, a sand spit in the hai- 
bor of Superior, Wisconsin. 

The original measurement ot the Min- 
nesota Point base was made under the 
supervision of Captain, later General, 
(jeorge C. Meade, the famed Civil W'ar 
hero noted for his victory at ( jcttysburg. 
This base was remeasured in 1870 and 
from it measurements and angles were 
carried through the triangles to Chicago, 
the parties reaching the station at Deer- 
field in August of 1873. 

From the station at Deerfield, lines 
of triangulation were carried around the 
southern end of Lake Michigan in 1874. 

Because of the lack of funds no 
further work was carried on in this 
area until 1877. 

In May of 1877 a site was selected 
between what is now 71st Street and 
Pulaski Road in Chicago and 5Qth 
Street and Archer Avenue in Summit 
for the measurement of a base-line. 

This base measuring apparatus made 
(conthiued on page 20) 

Members of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey take measurements on 
a base line with an invar tape. (Courtesy of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 


The fullowin.!; arliele was a prize- 
uiiiirii'^ i)ai)cr in (lie undcrgradu- 
all' division of tlu' Toclinital Pa- 
pers ('(iiniie(i( (111 at last year's 
AIKK midwesterii convention. 

Electroenceplialojirapliy is t li e 
study of brain waves, the eyclieally 
varying potentials existing in the 
brain. The existence of these phe- 
nomena was not a recent discov- 
ery: but large strides have been 
made recently in investigation and 
application of results because of 
the advances in electronic tecb- 
n-ques made in the last few years. 

This art'c'e gives a lirief sum- 
mitry of the ph>s;ological phenom- 
en.i and describes the equipment 
anil techniques used in this sci- 

The science ot clcctrofiicephalogra|iliy 
(EK(i) is usLiaII\ considered to have 
liad its beginning in the 1 8th centur\ 
with the <h'scover\ of so-callci! "aniniai" 
clectricit\' by (Jalvani. Since that time 
electrical activity of living tissue lias 
been the subject of much experimental 
work. Electrodes ha\e been applied to 
laboratory animals and to all |iarts of 
the human bod\' in the attempt to locate 
new sources of these potentials. 

One of the most easily detected po- 
tentials was found to originate in the 
nuiscles ot the heart. Because of their 
relatively high amplitude and correla- 
tion with the heart beat, these muscle 
\oltages, known as the electrocardio- 
gram when recorded, were the first to 
be studied and applied to medical sci- 
ence. Electrocardiography is n o w a 
standard technique in the diagnosis of 
lu-art disease. 

nbr.iined b\ placing electrodes upon flu- 
scalp (il human subjects. .After these 
\ears ot careful stud\', he published a 
pa|ier in 1929 announcing his conclu- 
sions that the potentials had their origin 
in the brain. Subsequent reports were 
published onh' to be ignored or dis- 
missed as representing nothing bur 
"stray pickup" noise voltages or muscle 
.urifacts. The first serious recognition 
( lerger received was from Adrian, dis- 
tinguished Xobel Laureate in physiology. 
Since time, the field ol KVA] has 
developed rapidl\, \astl\ improved in- 
struments ha\e been deviseti, new tech- 
ni(]ues developed, and man\' brain po- 
tential waveforms corielated with spe- 
cific hiam functions or {lisorders. 
.\(77'( tin// Hniiii (',(11 Ailivity 

All living cells exhibit four basic 
forms of activity. They are, to a varv- 
ing degree, mechanical, theiiu;il, chemi- 
cal, and electrical, and none ca i he con- 
sidered independently of the others. A 
single component of activity gives onh' 
an incomplete picture; but, because of 
the limits of human comprehension and 
the inadequacy of instrumentation, it 
may be the only noticeable manifestation 
of the intricate processes going on with- 
in the cell. 

Since living tissue is a complex mat- 
rix composed of individual cells, each 
filled with an electrolytic fluid, it is a 
good electrical conductor. Therefore, it 
is possible to study electrical activity 
through masses of surrounding tissue. 
This consideration, together with the 
very great sensitivity of electrical tech- 
niques, has caused the electrical activity 
to receive the greatest attention. 

The origin of the potentials is ap- 
|iaieiitlv in the neurons of the ccutex 

waves. In general it mav he said that 
the frecpiency is proportional and the 
magnitude inversely proportional to the 
phvsiological activity. For example, the 
cortical potentials of a rabbit increase m 
in frequency and decrease in niagni 
tilde when the ev'c is strongly illumin 
ated. This might be compared to radic 
ri:insmissio;i of intelligence by frc 
qiicncv iiiodiil.-it.oii and amplitude modii 

fi fffl 







EEG apparatus is connected to six 
vital locations on the human head. 

latioii. Perhaps it is the bodv's method 
of eliminating interference from spurious 
currents of fields. 

The average peak-to-peak voltage ob- 
tained on the scalp of an individual 
is about 50 micro-volts. However, in 



iuppintf the thought irares ot the human brain hif . 


It is easily understood why the ex- 
tremely minute brain potentials were un- 
noticed for so long in view of the crude 
instruments available and the other 
higher amplitude voltages present. Al- 
though several others had made many 
basic observations, Hans Herger, a Ger- 
man psychiatrist, is credited with the 
first iiiip(Ht;uit contributions in this 
field and was truly the "father" of 
EF,(j. He spent more than ten veais 
studying electrical potentials which he 


or outer covering of the brain. Differ- 
ent areas and lobes of the brain exhibit 
characteristic differences, but there is 
no sharp delineation of this activity. 

The periodic nature of the brain po- 
tentials is their most distinguishing 
characteristic. The frequencies encoun- 
tered r;mge from one cycle per second 
to 60 cycles per second or higher. The 
most striking aspect is the relation be- 
tween stimulus or phvsiological activity, 
and the magnitude and frequencj- of the 

epileptic seizures, these peaks may ex- 
ceed 300 micro-volts and are associated 
with violent physiological reactions. 

Ml/hod of Pid-iip 
.Manv different methods of pick-up 
have been used including electrodes 
placed directlv on brain tissue, needles 
piercing the scalp, chemically soaked 
cloth pads, and small lead buttons con- 
taining saline electrode jelly and held 
on with collodian. 0\ these, the latter 


is the most satisfactory and is widely 
used. Obviously brain tissue is not di- 
rectly accessible except during a major 
operation, as tor a brain tumor, for 

There are six standard locations for 
electrodes ordinarily used. T hese art- 
shown in one of the accompanying dia- 
grams. However, when greater localiza- 
tion of certain areas is desired, other 
arrangements are used. 

Of course any potentials must b:- 
measured with reference to some point. 
In the monopolar connection, one lead 
to the amplifier is attached to an in- 
active or neutral area such as the lobe 
of the ear. This is considered inactive 
as it is relatively distant from the brain. 
However, large muscle potentials can 
exist here when, for examph-, the jaws 
are clenched tightly. The other lead to 
th amplifier channel is attached to some 
area on the scalp directly o\er the area 
being studied. 

A second arrangement of input leads 
is called the bipolar connection. In this 
case, both leads are attached to acti\e 
areas. The residting waveform is es- 
sentially the algebraic sum of the po- 
tentials present under each electrode. 

Monopolar leads are used most com- 
monly as the recordings are easier to 
interpret. However, bipolar leads per- 
mit accurate localization of certain dis- 
orders including tumors, abscesses, and 
fractures. All equipment is readily 
operated with either monopolar or bi- 
polar leails. 

I nstru/iK utiitiori 

The earliest work on the detection 

and measurement of brain waves by 

Hans Berger was done with a sensitive 

string galvanometer designed b\- Kin- 


o-i — t — v^A^/^— 






The resistance-capacitance coupled voltage amplifier has proved to be 
the best equipment for the amplification of brain wave potentials. Push- 
pull stages throughout increase stability and minimize stray noise and 
hum pickup. 

terminals may damp the movement to 
such a degree that it will not respond 
to the frequencies being studied. 

C^bviously, the many limitations of 
the galvanometer as a recorder led to 
the development of an electronic ampli- 
fying system. Here there was no prob- 
lem of impedance matching; vacinim 
tubes are inherently high impedance de- 
\ices. They are capable of responding 
to all frequencies present in the EEG 
without any of the damping effect en- 
countered in the galvanometer; and, 
with several stages, the desired sensi- 
tivity can be attained. 

However, the practical design of such 
an amplifier posed many problems at 

necessary to use photographic record- 
ing in order to obtain a continuous rec- 
ord. This is a more serious disadvan- 
tage than might be supposed. Aside 
from higher cost, the record is not seen 
until hours after it has been taken, and 
it is therefore difficult to make corre- 
lations between the behavior of the pa- 
tient and the electrical activity of the 

Because of these difficulties, the elec- 
trocephalograph remained in the lab- 
oratory and had little clinical use. 

In 1934, Gorceau provided the first 
clinical EEG which was both service- 
able and cheap. It was sensitive to all 
frequencies up to 70 cycles per second 

► halography 

thoven for registering the electrocardio- 
gram. However, the brain potentials 
have an amplitude of approximateh 3U 
micro-volts, or 1-100 of that obtained 
from the heart. The impedence or re- 
sistance of the scalp between electrodes 
is about 10,000 ohms. The low im- 
pedance of the galvanometer seriously 
loads such a high impedance circuit, thus 
further aggravating the sensitivity prob- 
lem. Furthermore, this resistance of the 
scalp shunted across the galvanometer 

hii^'luhnrv.\\K'n*nl, K.K. *.»0 

that time. Because of the extremely 
small magnitude of the volt.ages, an 
amplification of approximately 10 mil- 
lion or 140 decibels is necessary. Com- 
ponents then available such as tubes and 
resistors often produced noise voltages 
over 100 microvolts. The desired signal 
was thus completely masked by noise. 
Amplifier circuits were very unstable 
and had to be continually adjusted 
while in operation. Since a reflecting 
galvanometer was still used, it was 

with a sharp drop in response above that 

Amplifier Design 
The resistance-capacity coupled, push- 
pull amplifier has been by far the most 
practical EE(j amplifier and is now 
used in all commercial instruments. The 
direct coupled amplifier has been used 
for LL(i but is not ordinarily desirable 
because of the usual instability, drift, 
difficulty of adjustment and complexitj- 
(lonliiuHil on piige 24) 


society news 

hfi 1'larvnvv \ivhnir. .* *.»# 

The first mcctini; of the Kiiijineeniig 
Coutuil was held on September 2S at 
the lUini Union. At this meeting, a 
publicity committee was formed for the 
purpose of stimulating interest in all 
activities dealing with engineering. This 
semester the council will try to get an 
office for all the engineering societies. 
The officers for this coming school 
year are Krrol Rodda, president ; Al 
Makulec, vice president; Robert John- 
son, secretary; and Hud Hru\, corre- 
sponding secretar\. 

Committee appointments toi the fall 
semester are 13ob Johnson and Bob Cox. 
co-chairmen of the St. Pat's Ball; W^olf- 
gang Junkel and Roger Baker, convo- 
cation; Ray Brown, Corliss Laisure, 
and Ernest Ulm, constitution; Bob Cox 
and Ed Christiansen, physical improve- 
ments; Ervin Schuet/.e, instructor evalu- 
ation; Ray Brown, society calendar; 
Connie Minnich, Wayne Hartnian, 
Cierald Slusser, Ernest \Ioore, publicity; 
Al Makulec, tours; and Elmer Honath 
and Bill Anderson, program. 

The first official meeting of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers-Institute of Radio Engineers 
served as a general intro- 
duction of the society and 
its activities to new mem- 
bers. The branch counsel- 
ors, Prof. E. A. Reid and 
Prof. E. C. Jordan, were 
introduced by the chair- 
man, C. Gene Blanyer, and 
a brief summary of the ac- 
rixitv agenda for the com- 
ing year was presented. 
Dr. John I). Ryder, head of the elec- 
trical engineering department, was in- 
troduced as the speaker of the evening. 
He presented a very interesting and 
timely discussion on the new EE cur- 
ricvdum, emphasizing the fact that a 
marked distinction no longer will be 
made between the different options, but 
that the department will sni\e for 
greater homogenity. 

After the meeting, cider .ind dough- 
nuts were served in the I)\namo Lab 
where the meeting was held. Thirt>- 
new members were signed up, making a 
total of approximately .300 students now 
in the student branch of the AIEE- 

At the next meeting, Mr. Walter 
Wallin, sales engineer for .'\lfred Cross- 
ley and Associates, sales agency of sev- 
eral brands of electronic test equipment, 
will be the guest speaker. 

The first meeting of the ASCE was 
held on October 5 at Latzer Hall. The 
film that was shown, "Rail Steel in the 
World Today," was the 
complete story of the manu- 
facture of new rails and the 
reclamation of used rails to 
produce high strength steel 

The officers elected by ballot last 
spring are Ronald Hoefle, president ; 
Frank Blake, vice president; Dean Fel- 
ton, secretary; and Arnold Sauers, 

At the recent meeting of Chi Epsilon, 
Professor Edward E. Bauer spoke on 
"The Opportunities for a Young Engi- 
neer in Plain Concrete ' 

The main project tor this 
Near will be the publication of 
a monthly newsletter for Ci\il 
Engineering students. 

Brought up as new business 
was the possibility of having a dance in 
combination with all of the honoraries. 
The officers for this semester are 
James Stein, president; Charles Swen- 
son, vice president; Stephen Kostecke, 
secretary; and Roy Peterson, corre- 
sponding secretary. 

Prep;irations are now being made to 
gain national recognition for Mu San, 
sanitary engineering honorary. Recently 
Ken Mendelson was nominated chair- 
man of the constitution committee, with 
Bob Bauman. Other elections were held 
and Professor Dietz and Paul Clinebell 
were nominated for the purpose com- 
mittee; Frank Blake and Paul Cline- 
bell for the membership committee ; and 
Hal Sundin and Don Mullens were 
nominated for installation committee. 

The first meeting of MIS was held in 
the Faculty Lounge of the Union build- 
ing on September 28. This was a smoker 
for the purpose of acquainting new stu- 
dents with the functions of the society. 

The smoker was opened by Bruce 
Capeck, president, who introduced the 
officers of the MIS and the faculty 
members of the representative schools. 
The program chairman, (Jene Swetz, 
gave a brief talk on MIS past activities. 
He also made suggestions for the cur- 
rent semester which are to be taken up 
at a forthcoming business meeting. 


At the last meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Enginceis, Doc- 
tor Voskull of the geology department 
spoke on "Resources of the World and 
Their Implications." 

During this meeting, there was a call 
for petitions from those members desir- 
ing to rim for the offices of assistant 
treasurer, council member, and corre- 
ponding secretary. 

This year's officers of the ASME are 
Gordon B. Chicoine, president; Jim 
Bienias, vice president; and Phil Dol- 
bow, secretary. 

The speakers for the first fall meet- 
ings of the American Society of Agri- 
cultural Engineers were Mr. Leo Hol- 
man from the L'nited States 
Department of Agriculture; 
Professor Frank Andrews, 
assistant professor of agri- 
cultural engineering, who 
spoke on the topic, "Arti- 
ficial Drying of Grain;" and also Pro- 
fessor R. C. Hay who spoke to the 
seniors about the forthcoming senior in- 
spection trip. 

At the spring picnic held last May, 
the officers for this semester were elec- 
ted. They are Jack Leathers, president ; 
Dave Ralston, treasurer; Ray Menke, 
secretary; and Wayne Hartman, coun- 
cil representative. 

The Farmer Equipment Institute 
Trophy Award, which is awarded an- 
nualh', will be one of the society's 
major projects. 


The first meeting of the new semes- 
ter was held at the Foundry Building 
on September 20. This meeting was for 
the purpose of organizing the society's 
functions for the coming year. 

A field trip was discussed for this 
fall; the date and the plants that will 
be visited will be announced as soon as 
the plans are completed. Lawrence Zyl- 
stra managed the AFS activities dur- 
ing the Chicago Day on October 7. 

At the next meeting, Mr. Frank W. 
Shipley will discuss "Problems En- 
countered in a Job Foundr\'." 

The officers for the fall semester 
are Jim Garman, president; John Rice, 
secretary; David Day, treasurer; and 
Roger Boher, council representative. 
(crintintnd on f^tjc 24) 



presenting the science of pyrotechnics, or 

phantasy with a bang 

by Eton Sir f ft. K.E. 'iiit 

In contorniation with the Tech's poli- 
c\' of keeping its articles from getting 
too technical, this article will not pre- 
sent the chemistry of fireworks. If the 
reader wishes this type of information, 
he ma\' consult any of se\eral manuals 
on the chemistry of e\plosi\es. Rather, 
the writer wishes to acquaint his reader 
with what goes on behind the scenes; 
that work which must be done before 

Although only o sopho- 


EE and is an cnthusiostic 
member of AILE-IRE. Lost 
St. Pot's Doy, Don wos on 
the "Explosives Detail" 
During the summer he wos 
heod pyrotechnicion of the 
fireworks display of the 
Chicago Foir of 1950. Thus, 
he is well quolified to 
write such an article. 

the show, iiow the \arious efiects are 
produced, and what takes place in the 
fireworks factory. 

The first use of gunpowder was for 
display purposes rather than for war- 
fare. Roman candles, which, b\ the 
way, are of Chinese origin, not Roman, 
were the first form of chemical war- 
fare. Their effect was largely psycho- 
logical, for they are not a very deadly 
weapon. It is conceivable, howc\er, that 
they may have started some small fires. 

Fireworks displays, especially on the 
Fourth of July, are used to imitate the 
noise, smoke, and flame of warfare. 
Their original use in this country was 
to commemorate the Revolutionary War 
with the "rockets' " red glare and the 
bombs bursting in air." Since that time, 
fireworks have improved, their effects, 
however, still based on devices of war. 

Probably the best place to start a 
paper of this sort is with the fireworks 
display itself. For this purpose, the 
writer will attempt to describe in .some 
detail one of the ten shows held at the 
Illinois state fair during 1940, under 
the direction of the Thearle-Duffield 
Fireworks compaiu'. 

As the audience looks from the grand- 
stand to the darkened infield, the show 
begins with a rain of red and green 
fire from the sky. Cluster after cluster 
of flaming balls burst abo\e the heads 
of awestruck spectators. Hetore the 

splendor dies, the ground is illuminated 
by golden showers of sparks, streams of 
which form crosses and geometrical pat- 
terns. The smoke from these pieces is 
lighted with colored lights, transform- 
ing this once objectionable b\-product 
to a thing of beauty. In between the 
poles which support these devices, fiery 
balls of gold and silver sparks are being 
shot twenty to thirty feet in the air. 

Again the sky is split asunder, this 
time with many different types of fire 
and devices. Explosions which rock the 
grandstand are anticipated by brilliant 
flashes of light high in the sky. Whis- 
tling comets soar to the ground, ap- 
parently right over the heads of the 

Now the ground is alight again, this 
time with brilliant wheels which spin 
around on the top of their supporting 
poles. Following this is a huge pyramid 
or tree of sparks which shower to the 
ground in a gold and siher rain. As the 
tree appears to burn out, the air is split 
with resounding detonations w h i c h 
threaten to break the eardrums of the 
crowd in the grandstand. 

And so the show goes, aerial display 

being intermingled with ground works. 
Small devices which scoot horizontalh' 
over the ground provoke laughter, and 
again the audience is held breathless by 
the white brilliance of a seventy-five- 
foot-long Niagara Falls. 

Flaming portraits of the vice presi- 
dent, the governor, and the majority 
leader bring forth applause from the 
loyal party members in the audience. A 
fift\-by-fifty picture of a field of green 
and \ellow corn changes as it burns to 
a white outline of the state of Illinois. 

"Oh's" and "ah's" of wonder are 
heard as the sky is filled with gold. 
Flowers break in the sky with their 
stems and leaves spreading groundward 
then, at the tip of each stem, a golden 
blossom spreads in a dazzling display of 
beauty. The audience is not given .i 
chance to recover before hell itself 
seems to break loose. 

The show is into the finale. The 
sky is literally filled with red, white, 
and blue flame and resounding salutes. 
On the ground, tremendous explosions 
rend the air and "Old (ilor\ " appears 
in fiery splendor. 

(lontiniii d on piiyc lb) 

A Fourth-of-July skyrocket lights up the night. (Courtesy of Thearle- 
Duffield Fireworks Co.). 




By Tom Tucker, Ch.E. '53; Dave Cash, Ag.E. '51; and Hank Kolapaca, E.Phys. '52 

the art of sleeping in class 

It is a fairly well .iccepted fact that 
engineers get less sleep than any other 
students. To make up for this lack of 
nocturnal bliss, the student must resort 
to some other means. The most practical 
solution is to sleep in class. This method 
is frequently practiced and has thus be- 
come an art. 

The most practical time to sleep is 
during a lecture. It will frequently be 
found advisable to take a seat near the 
rear of the room where you may black 
out unnoticed by the instructor. ( Some 
inconsiderates have definite ideas as to 
seating arrangement.) 

One problem in this particular case 
is that of keeping the notebook or clip- 
board on the desk. The object may 
easily slide to the floor, thus requiring 
an unnecessary amount of energy to re- 
trieve it at the end of the period. Also, 
certain people receive tremendous pleas- 
ure from accidenth' pushing a clipboard 
to the floor. The clipboard lands with 
a resounding clatter, waking both in- 
structor and students. I have found that 

resting either an arm or the head on 
the memorandum usually will help. 

The position to be assumed for nap- 
ping will vary with the type of seat in 
the classroom. I suspect that many chairs 
were designed for the express purpose 
of keeping the student awake. The backs 
of most chairs are so constructed that 
resting the head on the back (of the 
chair) is the best solution. This, how- 
ever, presents the possibility of snoring. 

Sleeping with the arms supporting the 
head may result in disaster. I nearly lost 
my head once. 

In classes where discussion prevails, 
other problems arise. Instructors in such 
classes may object to this state of activ- 
ity. A friend of mine has solved this 
problem by learning to sleep with his 
eyes open, a process which I have not 
yet mastered. 

It may be embarrassing to come to 
just as the instructor is asking you a 
question. Robert Benchley, in an essay 
on "Dozing" suggested a reply of, 
"Well . . . I . . . don't . . . know." In 
the classroom, however, this may be of 
little or no help. 


The "wide-awake" appearance (left) and the "fixed" look (right) have 
proved, through considerable experimentation, fo be the most restful 
class positions. 

M. E.'s and C. E.'s may finii it 
extremely difficult to sleep in drawing 
rooms. The stools are most uncomfor- 
table. It may even be necessary to sleep 
while standing. A roving instructor will 
not help matteVs any. 

For the novice it may be necessary 
to spend a few nights with less than the 
usual ten hours sleep to get into form. 
Pills guaranteed to keep you awake will 
help to induce sleep. Though the art 
may never be fully perfected, one should 
not become discouraged, for even the 
cruder methods will produce the desired 
results of lengthening one's doze period. 

FiA SH Ye Bonevard 


The following ad appeared 
Daily mini last September 2(i. 

"$23.25 K.kY.. Log-log Duplex deci- 
trig slide rule, case, and belt attachment 
— used one week — $16.50." 
He gave up engineering in a hurry, no? 

Flush Ye Boxev.aru 

* * * 

Dean Everitt and John D. Ryder, 
head of the EE's, along with several 
students and staff members of the elec- 
trical engineering department, attended 
the sixth annual National Electronics 
Conference and exhibition in Chicago 
last September. 

Harold D. Webb, assistant professor 
of electrical engineering, presented a 
paper entitled "Selecting Critical Com- 
ponents for Matched Channel Radio 
Systems." Other staff members at the 
conference were Gilbert Felt, and E. C. 
Jordon, professors of electrical engineer- 
ing; Albert Bailey, assistant professor; 
and Carl Skroder, associate professor. 
Mr. Skroder is the treasurer of the 

Fi.i SH Ye Ron'eyard 

Two graduates of the department of 
agricultural engineering have developed 
a new sunflower harvester. Cari Jacobs 
(fniitiiiiicd on page 21) 



the university of illinois at . . . 

navy pier 

by Kuji Linduhl. Arvh. *.7.7 

Professor Josef-Marion Gutnayer 

Assi>tanr I'loti'.ssoi- ( riirnaycr is an 
outstanding nifniber ot the faculty of 
the Navy Pier Architcctin'e (ieijartnient. 

He received his training at the Ecole 
Sf>itialc d' Architecture, where the inter- 
nationally known architect, Auguste 
I'erret, teaches. In the followmg years, 
he carried on a practice in Paris where 
he designed and built, in this period, 
buildings considered as pioneers in the 
field of modern architecture. Mr. Gut- 
nayer considers the environment at the 
.irtistic center of Montparnaiisse in Paris, 
with its world-famous architects aiid 
aitists, as the place where he formulated 
his architectural principles in the art of 
building and design. 

In the short period of his work in 
Poland, Prof. Gutnayer was in charge 
of the design of a gigantic nidustrial 
project for the Warsaw Sewage Dis- 
posal plant. The design of this building 
now under construction expresses a 
noble and dignified character of indus- 

trial architectme in line with the great 
principles of the architecture of the past. 

Since coming to this country, Prof. 
Gutnayer has collaborated on the de- 
sign of immense projects such as the Al- 
bany Municipal airport with the engi- 
neering firm of Brinkenhoff, Hogan, 
and Macl^onald. He worked with Skid- 
more. Owings, and Merrill on the Fort 
Hamilton hospital, and he has also de- 
signed school buildings, a home for the 
aged, an extensive housing project, and 

Since his appointment to the Navy 
Pier branch of the University, he has 
concentrated upon crystallizing his arch- 
itectural principles. His practice and 
teaching is a demonstration of the sensi- 
tivity of the directions toward the de- 
velopment of Contemporary Art and 
Architecture. He believes that "... it 
is mostly by our appreciation ol the arts 
that we differ from the animals." 

At this very moment, an important 
{crjiitinucd on pa^c 28) 

Professor Josef-Marion Gutnayer (left) chats with Auguste Perret, the 
French architect, at the opening of his exhibit at the Navy Pier in 1949. 

navy pier societies 


The officers of the Na\\ Pier stu- 
dent chapter of the AIA for the pres- 
ent semester were announced as fol- 
lows: Ross Parkerson, president; Mai 
Alarkowski, vice president; and Joyce 
Davis, secretary. 

This chapter was the first AIA stu- 
dent chapter in the country. The mem- 
bers have all been invited to attend the 
monthly meetings of the National AIA, 
which are held the first Tuesday of 
every month in the Bismarck hotel. 

The speaker of the October 3, 1950, 
meeting of the parent society was Frank 
Lloyd Wright, who was guest of honor. 

Several Pier students won prizes at 
the National Beaux-Arts Judgment held 
at Navy Pier last June. Francis Piech 
received first prize and David Kurka, 
second prize. Ralph Anderson, Joseph 
Bembenek, Thomas Klausmeyer, and 
(jeorge Watanabe earned first men- 


The American Society of .Mechanical 
Engineers, Navy Pier chapter, held its 
first meeting in the form of an informal 
discussion. Activities planned iiicliule 
lectures, movies, field trips, and the an- 
nual smoker. It was decided to hold the 
field trips during the Christmas vaca- 
tion and between semesters, and to in- 
clude fields of interest for both me- 
chanical and general engineering mem- 

The new officers for the first semes- 
ter are Richard J. Hofmeister, presi- 
dent; Ken Nerius, vice president; and 
John Grimson, treasurer. 


The first meeting of the N'a\y Pier 
chapter, American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, was held Tuesday, October 3, 

The speaker at this meeting was Mr. 
A. W. Irvin of the Rail Steel Corpora- 
tion. The topic of Mr. Irwin's talk was, 
"Uses of Rail Steel in Manufactining 
of Reinforcing Bars." 

All student ASCE members of the 
chapter were invited to attend a lunch- 
eon which is being planned by the Chi- 
cago senior chapter. This is planned as 
a joint meeting of the two chapters. 

The extensive membership drive, con- 
ducted during registration, was ac- 
claimed a wide success. Many new mem- 
bers were acquired through the fine 
spirit shown by all older members of 
the chapter. 


Chief among the acti\ities for the fall 

semester of the AIEE will be se\eral 

field trips to different industries in the 

Chicago area. Some of the propo.sed trips 

{continued on page 23) 



^^ a yLf'lfbZcJz . . . 

... on the face of the universe," was an opt definition once given in an 
English class, concerning this planet. 

The article on electroencephalography in this issue of TECH may be the 
opening to a phase of research for which Man has been seeking for centuries— 
the intangible substance known as "life." Perhaps this probing of the human 
brain and the proving of the theory that every human emotion and thought is an 
electrical impulse, will shortly set down, in one concise mathematical expression, 
the secret of Man's existence. Knowledge of this may lead to the Age of Man 
Creating Man. An even later era may no longer see the "Earth" occupying its 
tiny niche in this corner of the universe. 

We undergraduate engineers lift an eyebrow and grin at such a crackpot 
idea as this. On second thought, though, considering the advancing age in which 
we live, do we any longer have the right to label ANY idea as "crackpot?" 

Engineering principles laid out the design for the electroencphalogrophic 
apparatus. Similarly, engineering devices are laying out for inspection, data 
from the outside universe as well as the secrets of the tiny world of atoms. 

To what objective does this editorial lead? None. 

Except to perhaps stimulate some thought on how the Engineer is molding 
the Future and what his ideologies and philosophy should be with this responsi- 
bility resting on his shoulders. Perhaps through him, this fly-speck need not 
disappear from the heavens.— C.W.M. 



L\ewsworthy lAotes 


How to make 16 

^ ^ ^ 

at the cost of 1 . . . 

These odd looking little gadgets, called "pawls," 
go into high speed telephone dials used by Bell 
System operators. 

Until recently, pawls (like the black one) were 
made of molded rubber with a steel pin for the shaft. 
They did their job well and lasted a long time. But 
Western Electric engineers decided to try to make 
them at a lower shop cost. 

The engineers came up with an idea — mold the 
pawl, pin and all— in one piece of nylon. They made 
some samples — tested them thoroughly — found the 
nylon pawls would last as long and perhaps even 
longer in service. Bell Telephone Laboratories tested 
them— and approved. So Western Electric engineers 
tackled the production problems — designed new 
machinery for molding pawls in one piece. It wasn't 

easy — because all dimensions had to be controlled 
with extreme accuracy. But today the new nylon 
pawls are being made in quantities— j/.v/ee« of them 
for the cost of one of the old type! 

This story of cost reduction— and there are scores 
of others like it — shows one way that Western 
Electric engineers help to keep down the cost of 
equipment produced for Bell Telephone companies 
and, therefore, the cost of service to telephone users. 



Engineering problems are many and varied at 
Western Electric, where manufacturing telephone 
equipment for the Bell System is the primary job. 
Engineers of many kinds — electrical, mechanical, 


industrial, chemical, metallurgical— are con- 
stantly working to dei'ise and improve machines 
and processes for production of highest Quality 
communications equipment. 



Dedicated to 



p m jn pi ir^ 

'N N |M It-i pi 

The new home of the Westinghouse 
Educational Center where new em- 
ployees from engineering colleges 
receive an orientation and training 
program to help them find the kind I 
of work they like to do and are 
likelv to do best. Hundreds of ex- 
perienced professional people help 
carry out this program. A Graduate 
Study Program is also made avail- 
able through which advance- 
degrees may be obtained. 


Building solidly for tomorrow is an important 
phase of modern business . . . building men 
for positions of leadership. 

For more than half a century, Westinghouse 
has placed major emphasis on this activity . . . 
pioneering in student training . . . graduate 
study courses . . . encouragement of scientific 
training through scholarships and fellow- 
ships . . . and in many other ways. 

Now we dedicate an entire new building 
to this purpose — the Westinghouse Educa- 
tional Center— a building devoted to the self- 
improvement of men . . . dedicated to de- 
veloping leadership. 

Here, top students who are recruited at 
leading engineering schools for positions 
in engineering, manufacturing, sales and re- 
search, come for an orientation and training 
course that provides their first intimate view 
of the electrical manufacturing industry . . . 
and the varied opportunities it offers. 

Every facility has been provided to help 
these men get off to a firm, fast start . . . mod- 

ern class rooms equipped for visual education 
... a large auditorium with complete stage 
and projection room facilities . . . and a large, 
comfortable library and study hall. Here an 
intensive course of study is given by engi- 
neers and scientists who are top-ranking men 
in their fields. 

These same facilities are also adequate to 
take care of the needs of post-training-course 
employees who are participating in the 
Graduate Study Program and the many other 
educational activities of Westinghouse. 

For their convenience and comfort, there 
is a cafeteria and generous space for formal 
and informal gatherings. For relaxation and 
recreation, there are hobby, billiard and game 
rooms and outdoor recreation facilities. 

Here, then, is a building dedicated to 
developing leadership . . . that priceless 
asset of a strong organization . . . able 
management and professional leadership 
for tomorrow. Another reason we say with 
confidence . . . G-10116 

you CAN 8E SURE..IF it's westinghouse 

Aided by the most modern facilities, experienced 
professional people provide a panoramic view 
of the research, engineering and manufacturing 
that go into Westinghouse products and the 
techniques used in marketing them. 

In planning the new Educational Center, careful 
thought was given to recreation. A spacious lounge, 
hobby and game rooms, a billiard room, facilities for 
indoor and outdoor sports along with a convenient 
cafeteria — all contribute to a well-rounded program. 

introducing . . . 

by IHvli t'hurunzff. .\t.Bi. '."il 

I'url ltlani§4'r. U.K. '.7/ 

II ml itith hiiirri'ni'i'. .\I.K',7I 

saim- tinu', makes her one of the most 
widely known cnjiineering students. 

Jn was born in Ames, Iowa, and 
ni<)\ed to l-.iwrcnce, Kansas, se\en years 
later. She ;ittended grade and high 
school there, and by skipping grades 
graduated two years ahead of schedule. 
The following fall, at the age of six- 
teen, she enrolled as an engineering 
|ih\sics student at the l'ni\ersit\' of 


Hc'> still known to some a> ( ieorge. 
principally because it was less than 
three \ears ago that he was the editor 
of the Tcchii'jtjraph. Today, it's Mr. 
(ieorge Foster, and the capacity in 
which he serves the 'l'cihni)(/r(iph is that 
of faculty advisor. 

It's a matter of conjecture to some 
who haven't met him before as to 
whether Mr. Foster, who has gained 
in stature, has lost an\ of the campus- 


student traits he possessed tiiat short 
time ago. Those who have made his ac- 
quaintance or who have known him, say 
that he still retains that likable, boyish 
grin he wore during his undergraduate 

-Mr. Foster was born August 2\ 
1921, in Minneapolis, .Miiuiesota. He 
attended some 12 grade schools — from 
a country school in Wisconsin to a 
similar one in Pennsyh ania. In high 
school he was a member of the Na- 
tional Honor Societ\. 

He spent two antl a half \ears in the 
L . S. Navy, and served as an instructor 
during his last year and a half. After 
the war he taught in the New Milford 
grade school in Illinois. 

Late in 1946, he enrolled at the Uni- 

versity of Illinois and subsequently was 
circulation manager, associate editor and 
editor for the lUiiinis 'rcchnogi iif>h. He 
recciveii his bachelor of science degree 
in electrical engineering in 1948. 

Currently, he is assistant editor at 
the Engineering Experiment Station at 
the University. He is aLso studying for 
his master's degree in electrical engineer- 

From l')4S to late this \ear, Mr. Fos- 
ter has been responsible for the editing 
and publishing, and in sonic cases, the 
actual writing of the quarterly or bi- 
monthly progress reports which are re- 
quired under the terms of the various 
.'\rmed Forces contracts for research in 
the electrical engineering department. 

Last year Mr. Foster was responsible 
for writing some of the material and 
publishing the 128-page booklet, "Ca- 
reers in Engineering," which is used 
by the College and University to an- 
swer inquiries from prospective students. 

Since 1948 he has also been teaching 
the senior elective course in Engineer- 
ing Reports, which is handled on a co- 
operatixe basis with Professors Winde- 
sheim and Heater who present the ma- 
terial dealing with oral reports and il- 
lustrations, respectiveh'. 

-Mr. Foster was married June 1, 1947, 
and devotes considerable time to his 
wife, Florence, and their daughter, 
Karen Marie who is two years old. 
Though not a philatelist, he collects 
stamps — any kind, any year. He also 
bowls and plays golf. 

Mr. Foster is deeply interested in 
technical writing and publishing as a 
future profession. It is his belief that 
this field is wide open to engineers who 
are interested in technical writing. It 
usualh' takes five to ten years for a 
non-engineer to acquaint himself with 
the technical field, but an engineer can 
easily fill a position of this type if he 
has an aptitude for writing. 


As oiu- of the i^-w women in the 
College of Engineering and the onl\ 
one m the electrical curriculum, Joan 
Hessler, a luneteen-year-old senior, oc- 
cupies a unique position at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. That, coupled with her 
natural inclination to do man\' things 
outside of classwork, preferably at the 


Kansas. After finishing her Ireshman 
year there she attended summer school 
at Colorado University, and then in the 
fall of 1948 came to the University of 
Illinois. Here she switched to electrical 
engineering, taking the illumination op- 

During her first year on this campus 
she was appointed office manager of the 
AIEE-IRE Student Branch, and pub- 
licity chairman of the St. Pat's Ball 
committee. Jo accomplished this while 
carrying a twenty-hour academic load 
including calculus and both semesters of 

But she was only warming up. Dur- 
ing her junior year she edited the AIEEl- 
IRE newsletter, the What Miiir; acted 
as national AIEE corresponding secre- 
tary; Illuminating Engineering Societ\' 
secretary - treasurer; a n d attendance 
chairman of Block I. In her spare time 
she took fhing lessons at the Uni\ersit\ 

Jo's interest in electrical engineering 
may be attributed to a lifelong exposure 
to her father's profession ; Dr. V. P. 
Hessler is a professor in the E. E. De- 
partment. She has a wide range of 
talents and other interests. She can arc- 
weld and do wood turning, is a good 
amateur photographer and a competent 
cook. She is conversant on, among other 
(( ontiniicd on p/iiic 28) 



'Snug Harbor 


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seas, there are protective coatings today that guard them 
against sleet, snow, salt spray— and other damaging forces. 

There is a plastic coating for ships' hulls that eases the 
age-old problem of barnacles and rust, ^essels stay in serv- 
ice twice as long between costly lay-ups in drvdock for 
cleaning and painting. Top-side and below, there are long- 
wearing coalings to keep the modern craft ship-shape. 

Tankers at sea— and tanks ashore— get double protection, 
inside and out, from plastic coatings. Contents stay clean 
and pure, never touching the tank wall. The tank itself is 
safe from attack by water, acids, alkalies, or other chemicals. 

These sea-going coatings are made of the same kinds of 
jilastics that serve us so well in industry and in our h<imes. 

In a triumph of synthetic chemistry, these ever-useful basic 
materials are produced for us from organic chemicals. 

The plastics and chemicals for these improved coatings 
are but a few of the hundreds of better materials sujiplied 
by the people of I nion Carbide to serve shipping and many 
other industries. 

FREE: I/yoii uoulil hke in know more about many 
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{ I iiiiliniu // jt'iiii [>,ii/, 1 ) 

tor the Lake Sur\c\ by Rcpsold of (Ici- 
niaiiy, consisted ot two parallel metal 
bars of zinc and steel approximately 4 
meters in length and fastened firmly 
together at their centers; the whole as- 
sembly placed in a tube supported abo\e 
the ground by tripods at each end. 

The procedure with this type of ap- 
paratus is to center one end of the tube 
ii\er the station mark at either terminus 
of the base-line, by means ot an intri- 
cate microscopic device. The opposite 
end of the tube is fixed and the micro- 
scope at that end is brought o\er the 
end of the bars, the microscope is 
clamped and the tube is raised off its 
tripod and carried forward to place the 
rear end of the bars under the former 
front microscope. The front end of the 
tube is placed on another tripod on the 
line of the base and the microscope at 
that end is brought over the ends of the 
bars as before. 

Measuring the Chicago base-line in 
both directions with this apparatus re- 
quired S4 days. The average distance 
measured per day was 958 teet, the 
greatest distance measured in one day 
being 1,640 feet. Total length of the 
Chicago base-line was 24,6,^ S feet. A 
base measured near Fond du Lac, Wis- 
consin was used in computing geographic 
positions between it and the Chicago 
base. The length of the Chicago base 
computed through 29 triangles or 150 
miles from the Fond du Lac base was 
found to be ±0.275 feet different from 
the actual measured length ! 

Certain of the stations established b\- 
the Lake Survey in 1874-77 were 
utilized by the Corps of Engineers in 

executing a triangulation along the .Ship 
Canal and Illinois Ri\er in 101(1, 

This triangulation, designated as the 
Illinois River Survey, was under the 
direction of J. F. VVocrman, an engi- 
neer of the Corps, and pro\ ided the 
necessary control for maps for the im- 
pr()\ement of the Illinois waterway 
which has now been completed. 

The stations of the Illinois River Sur- 
vey are in rather close proximity to 
one another, being only 4 or 5 miles 

A theodolite Is used for the preci- 
sion work required for geodetic 
surveying. (Courtesy, U.S.C.G.S.). 

apart to give a close check on the ac- 
curacy of the large scale plans tlrawn 
for the waterway. 

Several stations of the Lake Survey 
which could be recovered, were occu- 

pied by a field party of the U. S. Coast 
and ( "leodetic Survey in 1944 to de- 
termine distances between selected points 
for the U. S. Army Air F'orce. 

A few new stations were established 
at this time and as man\- of the Lake 
Survey monuments as could be found 
70 >ears later were reset with concrete 
posts and tablets explaining the pur- 
poses of the mark. The l.ifest year that 
a triangulation p,irt\' opei.iteil in this 
area was 1944. 

Summarizing, a triangulation pro- 
vides the basic framework for maps of 
even minor accuracy, since its existence 
or the lack of it means the difference 
in maps of great value or worthless for 
engineering applications. The Chicago 
area has been inadequately covered by 
triangulation by reason of the great dis 
tance between the stations. Were it not 
for supplementary stations established 
by other methods of survey, adequate ac- 
curate control of this area would not 

I'Jp'jgrafihic flapping 

The first topographic mapping in this 
area was b\- the United States Cieologi- 
cal Survey in 1889, using reconnaissance 
methods based on a \ery few control 
points. The region was also mapped 
geologically at this time and the results 
printed in an interesting report show- 
ing the surficial geology of the region. 

By 1925 the rapid growth of the 
city had made the old 1889 maps obso- 
lete, also the sparsely located control 
monuments made it difficult for local 
surveyors to determine the location or 
elevation in relation to a fixed point. 
Accordingly an agreement was entered 
into by the Illinois State Geological 
Survey and the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey to map Cook County on a 
(continued on page 22) 

OF MARCH 3, 19,U, AND JULY 2, 1946 (Title 39, United States 
Code. Section 233) 

Of The Illinois Technograpli piihlislied January, Febi 
April, May, October, November, December, at Urijan.i 
October I, 1950. 



of tlie piiblishc 


1 . The names and addresst 
editor, and b'lsincss managers are: 

Publisher, IMini PublishinK Company, ChampaiRn, Illinois; 

Editor, C. W. Minnich, Urbana, Illinois; 

Business manager, VVilliam Anderson, ChampaiRn. Illinois. 

2. The owner is: the Illini Publishing Ccmipany, a non prolii 

3. The known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security huklci ^ 
owning or holding 1 iier cent or more of total anmunt of boiuis. 
mortgages, or other securities are: none. 

4. Paragraphs 2 and 3 include, in cases where ihe stockholder 
or security holder appear.s upon the books of the company as trustee 
or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corpora- 
tion for whom such trustee is acting; also the statements in the two 
paragraphs show the affiant's full knowledge and belief as to tlic 
circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and securit\ 
holders who do not appear upon the bcoks of the company as trustee 

hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a Ih 


id subscribed befon 

Anderson, Business Manager, 
e this 9lh day of October, 195ii 

.Margaret E. Cain 
.m expires December 21, 195n. 


in the December issue: 

. . . 0\\ of the Future 

. . . Perpetual Motion 

. . . Color Television 

. . . Report on Senior 
Inspection Trips 

. . . The Flying Saucer Saga 



me new insitvcfor ge(s 3 fiearbj we/co/ve 

You've read, in both newspapers and 
magazines, about the powerful elec- 
tron microscope. Now this amazing 
"instructor" of scientists, physicians, 
and engineers becomes even more 
useful— in more research fields. 

Through principles uncovered at RCA 
Laboratories, RCA engineers have devel- 
oped a compact "table model" electron 
microscope, at a price which makes it 
practical for use in an increased number 
of universities, industries, hospitals, clin- 
ics. So simplified is the new instrument 

that even a high school student or im- 
skilled laboratoiy technician can quickly 
learn to use it ! 

Magnifications of 6000 times can be ob- 
tained directly in RCA's portable electron mi- 
croscope — four times that of ordinary light 
microscopes — and photography lifts this to 
30,000! A new "instructor," yes — and one 
that gets a very hearty welcome. 

See the latest wonders of radio, television and etec~ 
tronics in action at RCA Exhibition Hall, 36 West 
49th Street, New York. Admission is free. Radio 
Corporation of America, RCA Building, Radio Cittj, 
Netc York 20, New York. 

Continue your education 

with pay — at RCA 

Graduate Electrical Engineers: RCA 

\'ictor— one of the world's foremost manu- 
facturers of radio and electronic products 
— offers you opportunity to gain valuable, 
well-roimded training and experience at 
a good salar\' with opportxmities for ad- 
vantenient. Here are only five of the many 
projects which offer imusual promise: 

• Development and design of radio re- 
cei\'ers l including broadcast, short wave 
and FM circuits, television, and phono- 
graph combinations ) . 

• Ad\'anced development and design of 
AM and FM broadcast transmitters, R-F 
induction heating, mobile communications 
equipment, relay systems. 

• Design of component parts sucli as 
coils, loudspeakers, capacitors. 

• De\'elopment and design of new re- 
cording and producing methods. 

• Design of receiving, power, cathode 
ray, gas and photo tubes. 

Write today to National Recruiting Divi' 
sion, RCA Victor, Camden, New Jersey. 
Also many opportunities for Mechanical 
and Chemical Engineers and Physicists. 

IVor/c/ Leac/er /n 7^oc//o — T^rsf- in Te/^i/ision 




( tdiiliiiiii d jioi.i pdji- _'(!) 

scale ut 1" to 2000 feet ( 1 :24,{)()() ). 

It was ik'termiiieii that the lumiber ot 
control points necessary to furnish ac- 
curacy to the proper degree for the maps 
on the selected scale could onl\ be pro- 
\ided b\ an extended traverse net cov- 
ering; the entire county. 

The methods of runninii a traverse 
are similar to a triangulation with se\- 
eral notable exceptions. A traverse is 
run entirely on the ground with dis- 
tances betv\een stations of only a few 
hundred feet. All distances are mea- 
sured with a steel tape and angles from 
station to station are read with a tran- 
sit. Third-order accuracy in llus work 
is acceptable. 

Checking a traverse pro\ides for 
lines to be run in a grid pattern, each 
line beginning and ending at a point 
whose geographic coordinates have been 
determined. Further checks are made by 
connecting a traverse line to be an exist- 
ing triangulation station. 

In Cook County lines of traverse 
were run on many of the major high- 
ways and the geographic coordinates of 
section corners, road intersections, prom- 
inent landmarks, etc., were determined. 
Railroad trunk lines were also utilized 
for this purpose, the traverses extending 

almost to the doors of the depots in 
downtown Chicago! 

The total length of traverse lines run 
to control the Chicagoland topograjihic 
maps was 493 miles. 

Later plane-table p a r t i e s utilized 
many of the traverse stations as check 
jioints in their field drafting of critical 
portions of the county. Not all ot the 
county had to be mapped by plane-table 
as aerial photography provided tin- re- 
maining cultural information. 

Levi hill/ 

Upon completion of traverse work, 
level parties took to the field, determin- 
ing elevations abo\e mean sea le\el for 
all of the monuments set during the tra- 
\-erse in addition to many supplementary 

I'Or vertical control of topographic 
maps, third-order accuracy is specified 
by the U. S. Cieological Survey and this 
is accomplished with an engineer's w\e 
level. Elevations are determined to the 
nearest .001 foot. 

Lines of accuracy greater than third- 
order were run by the Corps of Engi- 
neers along the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal in 1903, and by the Coast and 
(Geodetic Survey on the Milwaukee 
Railroad from Savanna to Chicago in 
18iS3. The latter survey also ran a line 
of levels on the Rock Island and New 
York Central Railroads into Indiana 

in 1916. Parties of the Geological Sur- 
vey tied their level circuits into these 
lines of greater accuracy to bring the 
entire survey into the National level net. 

Thus the Geological Survey after run- 
m'ng 464 nu'les of levels adequately con- 
trolled their maps of Chicago and vicin- 
ity. Permanent monuments were set at 
convenient places and their elevations 
were determined to a sufficient accuracy 
to make them useful for future work. 

While not being geodetic in nature, 
permanent monuments set by the Rureau 
of Sewers of the City of Chicago are 
worth\ of notice. These bench marks — 
monuments whose primary purpose is 
to provide elevations rather than geo- 
graphic coordinates — are set by the Bu- 
reau to third-order or greater accuracy. 
The work has been in progress for about 
50 years and the elevations have been 
checked and rechecked with federal 
monuments so that for all purposes it 
may be said that these marks are of geo- 
detic accuracy. 

During the latter period of the na- 
tional depression in 1934 and 1935, the 
federally constituted Civil Works Ad- 
ministration undertook an extension of 
the vertical control lines in Northern Il- 
linois. These level parties were under 
the supervision of personnel of the 
Coast and Geodetic Survev with the 
party being made up of local unem- 

Gigantic Underground Storage Uses 

Originally d limestone quarry, the Natural Cooler Storage of the 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture near Atchison, Kansas, Is one of the largest 
refrigerated warehouses in the world, having capacity for 3,000 carloads. 
A temperature of 32 degrees F. is held in the great cave by two Frick 
4-cylinder compressors, driven by 
motors totaling 600 horsepower. 

For that important cooling job 
of yours, specify Frick air condi- 
tioning, refrigerating, ice-making 
or quick-freezing equipment. 

Thv Frick Graduate Training 

Ctnirsr in Hrfripi-rafitjn and Air Ctin- 
^ d.ti.ninf^. nprrat.d ,ncr 30 year., 
' ofJer.a, prnHu,gim{,.s,rs. 


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Drafting Room Supplies 

Counters — Map Measures — Conture Pens 

Jackknife Pens — Proportional Dividers 

Sliding Parallel Rules — Scales — Wrico Pens 

All Leroy Pens and Templates — Graph Papers 

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Read the Tech. 

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pliiyi-ci iiu'ii with Mn\ey experieiicf. 

Lines run by the C. W. A. at this 
time included a releveling of the 1883 
Coast and Geodetic Survey line on the 
Milwaukee Railroad from Savanna to 
Chicago. Many of the old monuments been destroyed and this survey re- 
placed them. A new second-order line 
trom Chicago to Milwaukee on the 
North Western and Milwaukee Rail- 
roads was also run by this party. Con- 
siderable work was done in the Fox 
River valle\- and westward, bringing 
formerly uncontrolled areas into the na- 
tional level net. 

At the present time the Cook County 
Highway Department is executing a 
precise level survey around the country 
and outside the city of Chicago. This 
work is under the supervision of an em- 
plo\ee of the Highway Department who 
has trained with Coast and (jeodetic 
Survey personnel. The instruments and 
methods used in surveying are compar- 
able to federal first-order work. 

The plans of the Highway Depart- 
ment call for a bench mark each ■/) mile 
on the township lines and additional 
marks on the routes of the projected 
superhighways. About 300 miles of lev- 
els have been run up to this time, some 
with federal assistance. 

The Coast and (leodetic Suivey will 
compute and publish the elevations for 
the monuments set by the Highway De- 
partment insuring geodetic accuracy for 
each mark. 

In summary, extension of the original 
Lake Survey horizontal control was ac- 
complished by traverse primarily intend- 
ed to provide accurate data for the Chi- 
cago topographic map. In addition, 
many miles of levels were run through- 
out the area so that adequate vertical 
control can now be said to exist. 

J />/>/iciilions of Giodctir Data 

As stated previously the primary pur- 
poses of a geodetic survey is to provide 
geographic coordinates and elevations of 
known points for the construction of 
accurate maps and charts. 

How may this data be utilized by the 
engineer who is familiar with plane 
surveying but not so familiar with geo- 
detic operations? 

For one thing, the geographic coordin- 
ates for all triangulation stations have 
,ilso been given in terms of plane co- 
ordinates on a definite state-wide grid 
system. The use of plane coordinates in 
reference property corners is increasing. 
Referencing a piece of property to a 
triangulation station is literally putting 
that piece of property on the map. 

The engineer can run a simple tra- 
verse from the triangulation station to 
the corners of the property in question. 
Then, on forms provided by the Coast 
;uid (Geodetic Survey, he may compute 

the plane coordinates for each corner. 
If desired, the coordinates which are on 
an .V and Y system may be expressed 
in terms of latitude and longitude. 

The uses of bench marks are numer- 
ous. Any work which requires a refer- 
ence to a point of known evaluation 
must have accurate vertical control 
monuments. Such projects as highway 
and railroad construction all involve 
the setting of grades. Often these proj- 
ects are of such magnitude that the 
only method of checking the accuracy 
of the engineer's work is to refer the 
termini of the project to a gcodetically 
determined bench-mark. In fact, all pro- 
files submitted by railroads to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission in com- 
pliance with the valuation order must 
have a reference to sea level elevation. 

In general, results of geodetic opera- 
tions are published by the department 
that executed the survey. All the engi- 
neer need do is to write the department 
stating the extent of his requirements 
and the full descriptions, geographic co- 
ordinates, or elevations for monuments 
in his vicinity will be furnished him. 

The increasing uses of geodetic sta- 
tions and the accuracy of information 
about them bind the engineer to use 
every care in preserving these moiui- 
ments. They represent not only time and 
effort, but the considerable funds (usual- 
ly taxpayers') spent to establish them. 
Often persons ignorant of the purposes 
of these monuments have destroyed their 
usefulness in the quest of souvenirs, or 
for some other reason. When a survey 
monument is lost the effects are not 
immediately noticed. But when an engi- 
neer comes to use the monument and 
finds it destroyed its value becomes ap- 

There is a federal law prescribing 
fines and punishment for persons mali- 
ciously destroying government survey 
monuments; however, it is far better to 
acquaint all persons with the purposes 
of these marks so that their usefulness 
and value may be appreciated. 


((Ont'uniid fniiii lufj,c 1 .1 ) 

are to the new Commonwealth Fdison 
Ridgeland A\eiuie Station and to one 
of the television stations. Many other 
fine activities such as lectures and 
movies are included in the schedule. 

At the October 5, 1950 meeting 
Mr. Blaine D. Wickline, television en- 
gineer for the Illinois Bell 1 elephone 
Company, gave an illustrated lecture 
dealing with the problems involved in 
transcontinental television. 

The officers for the fall semester are 
Gordon Peterson, chairman; Henry 
Musal, \ice chairman ; and Joseph Rush, 

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ELECTRO . . . 

(Kjiilintiid from ptujc 0) 
encouiitiMcd in this type of ciicuit. Al- 
though imperative in some phases of 
bio-electric work, frequency response 
from one cycle per second down to di- 
rect current is of little interest in the 
usual encephalojiram. 

Transformer coupling is feasible but 
design would be difficult because of 
stray magnetic pickup in the low level 
transformers, and core saturation at tin- 
low frequencies. 

The unusually low frequency re- 
sponse required necessitates a time con- 
stant of at least .5 second. The advan- 
tages of using push-pull in early stages 
are : ( 1 ) avoidance of extraneous pick- 
up, (2) freedom from interference be- 
tween channels and. (3) improved 
amplifier stabilitv. 

The operation of the push-pull cir- 
cuit is such that a differential (out of 
phase) signal must be applied to the 
input grids for amplification to occur. 
All voltages applied in phase will pro- 
duce the same change in plate current 
in each tube. If the circuit is balanced 
and the tube characteristics are identi- 
cal, the net change in voltage between 
plates will be zero; and there will be 
no signal output. However, a change 
in grid voltage (ej applied as an in- 
crease to one grid and a decrease to the 
other, will cause a relative plate vol- 
tage proportional to ke^: where k is the 
stage gain. 

Since neither side of the input circuit 
must be grounded in the push-pull cir- 
cuit, most extraneous pick-up will occur 
as in-phase voltage on the input. By 
proper design, balancing can be made 
so nearly perfect that no more than 
1/50,000 part of the unwanted signal 
between ground and the tvA-o grids is 
amplified. The tapped resistor is usual- 
ly provided to obtain optimum balance. 
The use of the dual triode constructed 
with both units around a common cath- 
ode such as the 6SC7 reduces the effect 
of variation of tube characteristics. 

The other important advantage of 
push-pull is that it allows two or more 
channels to be operated independently 
of each other, making it possible to ob- 
serve waveforms from several areas of 
the brain simultaneously with inter- 
reaction. For this reason the use of a 
single ended amplifier design is unde- 
sirable since the coupling occurring by 
virtue of a common ground effectively 
connects half of the electrodes in use 

Inverse feetlback is used to further 
discriminate against in-phase potentials. 
A simple feedback scheme is to connect 
the input grid return to the common 
cathode resistor in stage two. In-phase 
potentials increase the total current 
flow through the cathode resistor of 
the second stage. The voltage thus gen- 


crated by this increased current flow is 
180° out of phase with the in-phase 
potentials on the input grids. 

Oiill^iit Stage /mil Rerordiiu/ Sysh in 
As the recording system is usually a 
magnetic drive linked to a syphon pen, 
power is required for its operation. The 
triode is more satisfactory as a power 
amiilifier since a lower plate resistance 
simplifies the problem of impedence 
matcliing. It is interesting to note that 







The above are EEG recordings of 
various types of brain v^aves. 

design of an output transformer cap- 
able of operating down to one cycle 
per second would be difficult due to core 
saturation at this low frequency. One 
satisfactory recorder was constructed 
using a permanent magnet field yoke, 
a 300 ohm voice coil, a simple lever 
system, and length of hypodermic tub- 
ing for the pen. In this case, the power 
loss due to the miss-match from the 
tubes to the 300 ohm coil was con- 
siderable but was preferred to frequen- 
cy discrimination and distortion had a 
transformer been used. 

The piezoelectric effect was applied 
to the inkwriter problem by Offner in 
1936. Disadvantages of the Rochelle 
salt crystal unit are an increase in sensi- 
tivity with temperature and hysteresis ; 
i.e., a given signal may cause an up- 
ward deflection of "i lum and a down- 
ward deflection of 4' _.//(/;;. 


In practice, wire wound resistors 
must be used in low level circuits as 
the carbon type produce too much 
noise. Likewise, oil filled condensers 
are desirable to reduce leakage to a 
minimum. The value of plate resistors 
in the first stage is critical with re- 
spect to noise and should be kept as 
low as feasible. 

Freedom from mechanical vibration 
of the low .stages is essential. This 

may be achieved by shock mounting 
and isolation of the preamplifier unit. 
Due to the very low input level, the 
intensity of ()(l c\cle fields in most 
buildings, and the nearness of 60 cycle 
frequencN to that of brain waxes, com- 
plete shielding is absolutely necessary. 
The patient must be placed in a scieen 
cage carefully bonded together and 
grounded at a single point. Nearby 
motors, power cables, and teliplione 
lines must also be shielded. 

Resonant filter circuits are often 
used to effect a 30 decibels decrease 
in 60 c\cle interference. However, the 
frequenc\- response of the amplifier is 
then flat to only 45 cycles per second 
or lower. 

The waveforms recorded probably 
consist of many separate w aveforms, 
each originating from some particular 
locality in the brain and supermiposed 
upon each other. The difficulty in lo- 
calizing the source of the potentials is 
of course aggravated by the necessity of 
attaching the pickup electrodes extern- 
ally and not to the specific areas of the 
brain being studied. Perhaps it will be 
possible to isolate these poter.tials and 
correlate them with specific actioii or