(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Technograph"

I 



ii 






liiiri'! 




L I B RA RY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

Of ILLINOIS 



TH 
V.T5 
cop. "2, 



REMOTE STef^G^ 



October • 25f 



Sllinois ^ 

TECHNOGRAPH 




I 






I 



I' 



# 



^ 






■■J„.:_..- 



T^.-. 



in 
I I 



sin DF llUNOiS 

iOV 5 195£ 

LlBRkv 



-f - 




The shape of flight 

The shapes of things that fly have always been 
determined by the materials they are made of. 
Feathers form wings that are basically 
alike for all birds— and membrane forms an 
entirely different wing for insects. It takes 
thousands of years, but nature improves its 
materials and shapes, just as technology 
improves the materials and shapes of aircraft. 
But here, the improvements in materials are so 
rapid that designs become obsolete almost as 
soon as they are functional. 

Today, our aeronautical designers and missile 
experts work with types of materials that 
didn't exist just a few short years ago. 
Steels are probably the most important examples: 
United States Steel has just 
developed five new types of steel for the 
missile program. They are called "exotic" 
steels because they have the almost unbelievable 
qualities necessary for unearthly flights. 

The shape and the success of our space birds 
depend on steel. If you would like to get facts 
about the wide range of career possibilities 
in the steel industry, write to United States Steel, 
Personnel Division, Room 2316, 525 William 
Penn Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania. 

USS is a registered trademark 



United States Steel 







Editor 

Dave Ponniman 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 

Asst. — Chuck Kerr 

Editorial Staff 

George Carruthers 
Grenville King 
Jeff R. Colin 
Bill Andrews 
Ron Kurtz 
Mark Weston 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 

Production Staff 

George Venorsky 
Jack Pazdera 

Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan, Director 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 

Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



THE ILLINOIS 



MEMUEUS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCUATED 

Chairman: Stanley Stynes 
Wayne State L^niversity, Detroit, Michigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer. Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Jonrnal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer. 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louis- 
iana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Kn^'inLer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan T^-ln i. , Mni 
riesota Technolog, Missouri SI i. : . ' \. 
braska Blueprint, New ^M,, i ,, . : t^ 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Kii'-' m' ' i , \. ili 
westeni Engineer. Notre Dame 1 echnical 
Review. Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper. Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPl Engineer, Rochester Indicatn,. 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic, S.aitlMiti Khl;,- 
neer. Spartan Engineer, Texa^ A \ M Kn.:t- 
neer, Washington Engineer. \\ S( l.-di 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, ami W iscnnsm 



TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 1 



October, 1959 



IcMe of Contents 

ARTICLES: 

Helicopter Control Edward Rollo 18 

Relative Dru Simms 20 

Printed Circuit Techniques Irvin McKitfrick 22 

The Scientist as a Person Samuel Lenher 28 

Virtues of a Professional Man Charles D. Grigg 39 

Get the Best from Your Mechanic Precis 46 

Used But Not Gone Olgo Ercegovac 49 

Invisible Pov^er Gerald Wheeler 52 

Standardization 59 

FEATURES: 

From the Editor's Desk 17 

Science in Action Jerry Hill 25 

Technocutie Photos by George Knoblock 34 

Skimming Industrial Headlines Edited by Paul Cliff 44 

Navy Pier Page 48 

Brain Teasers Edited by Steve Dilts 57 

Begged, Borrowed, and . . Edited by Jack Fortner 64 



Cover 

Barb Polan, our cover artist for this year, gives a hint of 
things to come when helicopters will replace cars as the every- 
day vehicle. For an insight into the control of such vehicles see 
page 1 8. 

Copyright, 1959, by Illini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Feljruary, March, April and May) by the Ilbni 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved liy The Illinois Tcchnooraph. Hulibsher's Kepresentativc - I,ittell-Murray- 
Barnhill, Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 



o 




pportunities 
in the 

Petroleum Industry 
with 
Phillips 





New brochure describes career 
opportunities at Phillips 



PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Bartlesville, Oklahoma 



This new booklet describes the un- 
usually fine career opportunities at 
Phillips Petroleum Company — a 
growth leader among America's in- 
tegrated oil companies. New projects 
and expansion programs at Phillips 
have created many attractive open- 
ings for young men in practically 
every phase of the petroleum industry. 

At Phillips, the production of crude 
oil, the refining and marketing of auto- 
motive and aircraft fuels and lubri- 
cants continue to grow. Phillips is also 
in the forefront of the great boom in 
petrochemicals, sparked by a constant 
stream of new developments in syn- 
thetic rubber, plastics, carbon black, 
fertilizers and other chemical products 
originating in Phillips research labs. 
Less publicized Phillips projects in- 
clude research, development and pro- 
duction programs in atomic energy 
... as well as uranium mining and 
processing. Phillips is also the number 
one producer-marketer of liquefied 
petroleum gas in the nation. 

Phillips Petroleum Company's pol- 
icy of promotion and transfers from 
within is creating opportunities for 
young engineers and scientists who will 
be the key men of tomorrow. 

Write today to our Technical Man- 
power Division for your copy of this 
new brochure . . . and when the Phillips 
representative visits your campus, be 
sure to arrange for an interview 
through your Placement Office. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




OPPORTUNITIES 



DEPTH 





Tlirdrnnah„utto1>, y„l.m,r,j,,l 
cqiiipini'iit divcliipnl hi/ liniilix 



,■ (III "underwater sound source" . It transmits sotind waves beneath the sea and is part of the research 
liisiarch Laboratories Division for use in the Bendix program of undersea acoustics research. 



Bendix, America's most diversified engineering organi- 
zation, offers challenging job opportunities in every 
area of man's scientific and engineering accomplish- 
ment — under the sea, on land, in the air and in 
outer space! 

Take, for example, the urgent problem of defense 
against enemy submarines. Bendix — pioneer in sonar 
research development, and supplier of this equipment 
to our government for many years — was selected to 
develop new techniques to increase sonar capabilities. 

Another important Bendix anti-submarine device is 
"dunked" sonar, lowered from helicopter into the sea 
to detect enemy submarines. 

The spectacular "TV eye", which enabled the crew 
of the nuclear-powered submarine "Skate" to observe 
the underside of the Polar ice pack and locate areas 



A thousand products 




for safe surfacing, was likewise a Bendix development. 

The real "depth" of job opportunities at Bendix can 
best be measured by the many and diverse scientific 
fields in which Bendix is engaged. 

For example — career opportunities are available in 
such fields as electronics, electromechanics, ultra- 
sonics, computers, automation, radar, nucleonics, 
combustion, air navigation, hydraulics, instrumenta- 
tion, propulsion, metallurgy, communications, carbu- 
retion, solid state physics, aerophysics and structures. 

At Bendix there is truly OpportuuiUj in Depth for 
outstanding young engineers and scientists. See your 
placement director for information about campus 
interview dates, or write to Director of University 
and Scientific Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpora- 
tion, 1108 Fisher Building, Detroit 2, Michigan. 



a million ideas 



OCTOBER, 1959 




Shooting for the moon 
...and beyond 

General Motors positions are now available in these fields for men 
holding Bachelor's, Master's and Doctor's degrees: Mechanical Engineering 
Electrical Engineering • Industrial Engineering • Metallurgical Engineering 
Chemical Engineering • Aeronautical Engineering • Ceramic Engineering 
Mathematics • Industrial Design • Physics • Chemistry • Engineering Mechanics 




The High Capacity Static Inverter, latest 
electronic achievement from General Motors, 
proviiles exceptionally stabli- and precise 
freqneney control for poner ami guidance 
requirements of missiles and rockets. 

The minds of inquiring scientists and 
engineers are tlie spark that brings the 
wonders of tomorrow to the threshold of 
today. At General Motors the sky is the 
limit for men who work in these and other 
highly specialized fields. 

If you're looking for a place to develop 
your talent . . . and let your imagination 
soar, consider the opportunities in science 
and engineering at General Motors, 
working on products such as electronic 
components, automobiles, astronautics, 
diesels, inertial guidance systems, air- 
craft engines and equipment. 

You can grow vertically and laterally 
in your career at GM . . . vertically 
through the Division where you work, 
and laterally through the other Divisions 
of the Corporation. In addition, GM 
offers financial assistance to employees 
who wish to enter or progress in post- 
graduate studies. 

Step into a job with a real future. See 
your Placement Officer or write to 
General Motors, Salaried Personnel 
Placement, Personnel Staff, Detroit 2, 
Michigan. 

GENEli\L MOTORS 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• A missile's main engine runs only for a few 
seconds. To supply electric and hydraulic power for 
control during the entire flight a second power plant 
is necessary. The AiResearch APU (accessory power 
unit) which answers this problem is a compact, non 

EXCITING FIELD 

FOR GRADUATI 

Diversity and strength in a company offer the 
engineer a key opportunity, for with broad knowl- 
edge and background your chances for responsibil- 
ity and advancement are greater. 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch 
Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its 
diversification, which you will experience through 
an orientation program lasting over a period of 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your 
most profitable area of interest. 

Other major fields of interest include: 
•Aircraft Flight and Electronic Systems — pioneer and 
major supplier of centralized flight data systems 



air-breathing, high speed turbine engine. The unit 
pictured above develops 50 horsepower and weighs 
30 pounds. The acknowledged leader in the field, 
AiResearch has designed, developed and delivered 
more accessory power units than any other source. 

S OF INTEREST 
E ENGINEERS 

and also other electronic controls and instruments. 

• Gas Turbine Engines — world's largest producer of 
small gas turbine engines, with more than 8,500 
delivered ranging from 30 to 850 horsepower. 

•Environmental Control Systems — pioneer, leading 
developer and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air 
conditioning and pressurization systems. 

Should you be interested in a career with The 
Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 
Corporation and Career Opportunities" at your 
College placement office. For further information 
write to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley... 



THE 




AiResearch Manufacturing Division 



Los Angeles 45, Calijornia 

Systems, Packages and Components for: aircraft, missile, nuclear and industrial applications 



OCTOBER, 1959 



SANDIA LABORATORY RECRUITS WITH THE BELL SYSTEM 



^r 



Sandia Corporation is a laborato) 
which was established in 1949 to 
design atomic and nuclear weapons. 
It now has over 7,000 people, of 
whom 2,000 are professional staff, 
at its $ti(),n00.00() laboratory in 
Ibutiuorquf, iNew Mexico, and its 
expanding branch laboratory in 
Livermore, California. 
If you are a graduating engineer 
(mechanical, electrical, electronic, 
industrial or quality control), or if 
you are graduating in mathematics 
or the physical sciences, Sandia has 
an opportunity for you in one of 
many fields. We do research, design 
and development, test engineering, 
standards engineering, manufactur- 
ing relations engineering and quality 
control engineering. 

Our modern, well-equipped labora- 
tories, model shops, and offices com- 
bine w^ith liberal benefits — including 
our graduate educational aid pro- 
gram, life insurance, sickness 
benefits, retirement plan, and gener- 
ous vacations and holidays— to make 
Sandia an exceptionally attractive 
place to work. 

Albuquerque (a city of more than 
200,000) with its exceptional climate 
and cosmopolitan blend of ancient 
and modern cultures, provides a re- 
laxed, informal environment for 
pleasant living. The location of our 
branch laboratory at Livermore 
offers the advantages of suburban 
living plus all the attractions of the 
SaiLFranciscQ Bay area. . '^^j^j^^f"^^^ 
Our illustrated brochure will give/ 
you more complete information on 
Sandia Corporation, its background,;'!^ 
work, and the cities ih which it ia '' 
located. Write for your copy to Staff 
Employment SeCtic 




New 
Horizons 

FOR GRADUATING 
ENGINEERS 
AND SCIENTISTS 






ORPC/l^ATION 



■ VTi'^ 



This photograph depicts the view from 10,800 feet above sea level at the crest of the Sandia Mountains, 
looking westward across the Rio Grande Valley and the northern limits of the city of Albuquerque. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Raytheon Gi;aduate Program 



FOR STUDY AT HARVARD 
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
AND CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
IN 1960-61 





MASs.uHrsims imstitltic of TIU lL\OLUaY 




The Raytheon Graduate Program has been established 

to contribute to the technical development of scientists 
and engineers at Raytheon. It provides the opportunity 
to selected persons employed by Raytheon, who are 
accepted as graduate students by Harvard University, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and California 
Institute of Technology, to pursue at Raytheon's ex- 
pense, regular courses of study leading to a master's 
or doctor's degree in science or engineering in the institu- 
tion of their choice. 

The Program requires, in general, two or three semesters 
of study, depending on circumstances, with the summer 
months spent in the Company's research, engineering, or 
manufacturing divisions. It includes full tuition, fees, 
book allowances and a salary while at school. Students 
are eligible for health, accident, retirement and life insur- 
ance benefits, annual vacation and other privileges of 
full-time Raytheon employees. 

To be considered for the Program, applicants must have 
a bachelor's degree in science or engineering, and should 
have outstanding student records, show technical prom- 
ise, and possess mature personal characteristics. They 
may apply for admission to the Program in anticipation 
of becoming employees of Raytheon. 

YOU ARE INVITED TO ADDRESS YOUR INQUIRY 
to Dr. Ivan A. Getting, Vice President, Engineering 
and Research, outlining your technical background, 
academic record, school preference, and field of interest, 
prior to December 1, 1959. 



RAYTHEON COMPANY, Waltham 54, Mass. 



CALIFORNIA h\'^lin II OF TECHNOLOGY 



Excellence in Electronics 



RAYTHEON 



OCTOBER, 1959 



REVOLUTIONARY NEW MARS-LUMOGRAPH LEAD HOLDER! 




RETAIL PRICE H^^i^ It's MARS-LUMOGRAPH quality! 

It loads from the rear or from the front! H It has a lightweight plastic barrel! 
It has the new super-knurled MARS finger grip! 
It's simple and sturdy! 



PRECISION QUALITY AT AN AMAZING PRICE! 

See this handsome drafting instrument 
at your College bookstore today H 



J. S. STA E DT L E R. INC. 



NEW JERSEY 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




DOUGHNUTS YOU CAN'T DUNK 



These bizarre-looking underpinnings have 
taken a lot of the risk out of ticklish over- 
water helicopter operations. Tough and 
lightweight, they can be inflated in a few 
seconds. They're made of neoprene-coated 
nylon fabric. 

This year nylon, product of Du Pont re- 
search, is 20 years old. Since its discovery, 
hundreds of new jobs have been created. To 
improve it in the laboratory. To make it in 
the plant. To find new uses. To advertise 
it across the nation. To sell it in world 
markets. These new jobs range from trainee 
to administrator. 

At Du Pont, our business is to discover 
the undiscovered. We don't find a nylon 
every year, but we come out with new prod- 
ucts often exciting in their degree of im- 
provement over the old. New plastics like 
"Teflon"* fluorocarbon resins, new fin- 
ishes like "Lucite"* acrylic automotive 
finishes, new families of products like the 
polvesters — '"Dacron"* polyester fiber, 
"Mylar"* polyester fihn, "Cronar"'* poly- 
ester film base. 



How does all this affect you? 

When you join Du Pont you and your 
future are backed by research, and its prom- 
ise of growth. Each year more jobs are cre- 
ated, all the way to the top. 

At the bottom rung of the technical grad- 
uate's ladder, you are given an actual proj- 
ect assignment almost at once and begin to 
learn your job by doing it. All training is 
personalized — tailored to your background 
and interests. It permits periodic evalua- 
tion of your performance. Our promotion 
policies are based on the conviction that you 
should work at the top of your ability. It 
stands to reason, then, that the better your 
training, the more rapid your rise is likely 
to be . . . and the brighter your future. 

If you would like to know more about 
career opportunities where growth through 
research has been ihe history and continues 
as the objective, see your placement officer 
for literature, or write E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Co (Inc.), 2420 Nemours Build- 
ing, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 

* Registered Du Pont Trademarks 



WM 



Better Things for Better Living . . . fhrough Chemistry 



OCTOBER, 1959 




LONG GERMANIUM DENDRITES, grown by a new technique developed In the Westinghouse 
Solid State Physics Laboratory, are here inspected by Dr. A. I. Bennett, research physicist. 

The Solid State Lab helps you when 
your idea needs a new semiconductor 



The Solid State Physics Laboratory helps Westinghouse 
engineers exploit the rich phenomena of the solid state. 
Problems are solved in low temperature and semicon- 
ductor physics, and magnetic and ferroelectric materials. 
If an engineer's idea requires a new kind of sernicon- 
ductor, this group may be able to develop it for him. 

This laboratory is staffed by 27 Ph.D.'s, 4 M.S.'s, 
and 7 B.S. junior engineers. Here's one way it ties in 
with work at operating divisions: 

The Air Arm Division is now developing super- 
miniaturized electronic systems 

Our Youngwood plant is designing the new devices 
needed for these systems 

The Solid State Physics Lab is perfecting a method 

for growing the dendritic material needed to make 

these devices 

The young engineer at Westinghouse isn't expected to 

know all of the answers. Our work is often too advanced 



10 



for that. Each man's work is backed up by specialists- 
like the men in this Solid State Physics Lab. Even tough 
problems are easier to solve with this kind of help. 

If you've ambition and real abiUty, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportunities 
for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write to Mr. L. H. Noggle, 
Westinghouse Educational Dept., Ardmore & Brinton 
Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pa. 

you CAN BE SURE... IF ITS 

^^^stinghouse 

WATCH WESTINGHOUSE LUCILLE BALL-DESl ARNAZ SHOWS 
CBS-TV FRIDAYS 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



He's an 

Allis-Chalmers 

Engineer 



He has confidence born of knowing where he's going and how he's 
going to get there. The graduate training program at Allis-Chalmers 
helped him decide on a specific career — and he had a choice of many. 
He knows his future is bright because Allis-Chalmers serves the growth 
industries of the world . . . produces the widest range of industrial 
equipment. He is confident of success because he is following a suc- 
cessful pattern set by Allis-Chalmers management. 



Here is a partial list of the 
unsurpassed variety of ca- 
reer opportunities at Allis- 
Chalmers: 

Types of jobs 

Research 

Design 

Developmeni 

Manufoctufing 

Application 



Industries 

Agriculture 
Cement 



Che 



Construction 
Electric Power 
Nuclear Power 
Paper 
Petroleum 
Steel 



ALLIS-CHALMERS 





fftCl 



Equipment 

Steam Turbines 
Hydraulic Turbines 
Switchgeor 
Transformers 
Electronics 
Reactors 
Kilns 
Crushers 
Tractors 
Earth Movers 
Motors 
Control 
Pumps 
Engines 
Diesel 



Fields 

Metallurgy 

Stress Analysis 

Process Engineering 

Mechanical Design 

High Voltage Phenomena 

Nucleonics 

Electronics 

Hydraulics 

Insulation, Electrical 

Thermodynamics 



from GTC to "VIP" 

The graduate training course 
helps you decide on your "Very 
Important Position," by giving 
you up to two years of theoretical 
and practical training. This course 
has helped set the pattern of ex- 
ecutive progress since 1904. For 
details write to Allis-Chalmers, 
Graduate Training Section, Mil- 
waukee 1, Wisconsin. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



11 




A RESUME IS A TWO-PARTY AFFAIR 



Throughout your engineering career, the name 
of the first employer appearing on your resume 
can be as significant as your education. But, in 
selecting that first employer, you should also 
consider his resume. 

ITT is the largest American-owned world-wide 
electronic and telecommunication enterprise. 
To give you an idea of the breadth of our 
activity . . . there are 80 research and manu- 
facturing units and 14 operating companies in 
the ITT System playing a vital role in projects 
of great national significance in electronics 
and telecommunications research, development, 
production, service and operation. 
The scope and volume of work entrusted to us 
by industry and the government opens a broad 
range of highly diversified engineering and 



technical positions in all areas of our work . . . 
from tiny diodes to complex digital computer 
systems and a massive network of global 
communications. 

In addition to the opportunities for work and 
association with distinguished engineers and 
scientists, our graduate education tuition re- 
fund program encourages engineers to continue 
their formal training . . . and the facilities 
for graduate work near ITT locations are 
superior. 

This is an all too brief resume. It would be 
hard to associate yourself with a company that 
offers the engineer greater choice of assign- 
ment. Write us about your interests — or see 
our representatives when they visit your 
campus. 



INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH CORPORATION 
67 Broad Street, New York 4, N. Y. 



TTl 



FEDERAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • ITT COMPONENTS 
DIVISION • ITT FEDERAL DIVISION • ITT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS DIVISION • ITT LABORATORIES • 
INTELEX SYSTEMS, INC. • INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ELECTRIC CORPORATION • ITT KELLOGG 
DIVISION • ROYAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • AMERICAN CABLE AND RADIO CORPORATION • 
LABORATORIES AND MANUFACTURING PLANTS IN 20 FREE-WORLD COUNTRIES 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




MOBIL OIL CO., MOBIL INTERNATIONAL OIL CO. 
Divisions of SOCONY MOBIL OIL CO., INC. 

AFFILIATED COMPANIES: General Petroleum Corp., Magnolia Petroleum Co. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



13 




Examples of numerical systems reading clockwise 
from bottom left: Babylonian Sexagesimal Sys- 
tem, Mayan Vigesimal System, Chinese-Japanese 
Numeral System, Egyptian Hieroglyphic System 



undetermined Oniultipliers 

Ideas never go begging at Sylvania. They are taken up in 22 laboratories and 45 plants, examined 
rigorously and put to test. Should they fail, they fail for lack of merit and not from neglect. ^ >}; 
In our organization, a vast fund of ideas build up — ideas on electroluminescence, on information 
theory and data transmission for space flight application, on the properties of matter that will extend 
semiconductor device operational parameters, and tlie ultimate conductivity of alloys in supercold 
environments. These are our undetermined multipliers — theories and methods which, when proved 
and put to use, multiply man's capabilities and leisure. H^ H^ If you would work in this algebra 
of human creativeness — in areas that may hold promise of fruition for future generations, as well 
as in fields where goals are much nearer — if you would do this, focus on Sylvania, now embarking 
on new programs of expansion enhanced by its recent merger with General Telephone Corporation. 



Graduates at all degree levels in science & engineering 
will discover Administration, Research, Development, 
Manufacturing and Marketing careers at Sylvania in: 
LIGHTING • RADIO • TELEVISION . HI-FI • ECM 

• ELECTRONICS . SEMICONDUCTORS • PLASTICS 

• PHOTOGRAPHY . AIRBORNE DEFENSE • RADAR 

• COMMUNICATIONS & NAVIGATION SYSTEMS • 
MISSILES . COMPUTERS « CHEMICALS • METALS 
& WIRE . PHOSPHORS 



LIGHTING . TELEVISION-RADIO • ELECTRONICS 



Sylvania's laboratories and plants are situ- 
ated in 13 states across the nation. Salaries are 
excellent, benefits are intelligently broad and 
include wide opportunity for advanced schooling. 

To learn more about these opportunities, see 
your College Placement Officer or write us for a 
copy of "Today & Tomorrow with Sylvania." 

^SYLVANIA 

Subsidiary of ('ceneraT) 

GENERAL TELEPHONE & ELECTRONICS \*S*7 

730 Third Avenue -New York 17. N. Y. 
PHOTOGRAPHY • CHEMISTRY . METALLURGY 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, underthe direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



YOUR TASK FOR THE FUTURE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of Inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL Is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



"We do these ibings because of the unquenchable curiosity of 
Man, The scientist is continually asking himself questions and 
then setting out to find the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
have sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who can tell what we will find when we get to the planets ? 



Who 



at this present time, 
to man exisi in this enterpn 
racy what we will find as v 
first with instruments, then 



on predict what potential benefits 
e ? No one con say with any occu- 
? fly farther away from the earth, 
vith man. It seems to me that we 



are obligated to do these things, as human beings^ 
DR. W. H. PICKERING, Dii 



dor, JPL 



CALIFORMIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Research Facility opcralecJ for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 
STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for our immediate consideration. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or at the Laboratory. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



15 




Rene Descartes... on tne li^nt of reason 



Hence we must believe that all the sciences are 
so interconnected, that it is much easier to study 
them all together than to isolate one from all the 
others. Therefore, if anyone wishes to search out 
the truth of things in earnest, he should not select 
any one special science ; for all the sciences are con- 



joined with each other and interdependent: let 
him think only about how to increase the natural 
light of reason, not in order to solve this or that 
difficulty of a scholastic nature, but that his under- 
standing may direct his will to its proper choice in 
every contingency of life. 

-— Rcgu/fp ad Direclionem Ingenii, 1629 



THE RAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit organization engaged in research on problems related to national security and the public interest 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Editor's Desk 



Take It From Click . . . 



Picture Prof. Glick buried amid a maze of wiring and expensive equipment. He has a 
stack of notes and data sheets, a two-day growth of beard, and a budget of $200 thousand for 
his research project. 

Halfway through one of the most intricate steps of procedure in synchronizing his ap- 
paratus, Glick is tapped on the shoulder by a little guy with horn-rimmed glasses and a note- 
book. Glick jumps in surprise and his setting is lost. At least an hour has been wasted. Hold- 
ing his temper as best he can, Glick gently removes the villian from the premises. 

A week later the episode is forgotten; however, the repercussions have not yet begun. 
It isn't until a year later that Glick gets his come-upponce. His budget for research is cut to such 
a figure that little work con be done and his project is terminated. 

With a certainty that the gods are against him, he goes to his director and discovers 
that the budget was cut due to a lack of sponsors. 

This little episode could go on, however, it would be best to stop and go back a way. 
Remember the little guy, with the glasses and the sneaky way about him? He was an engineer- 
ing writer and it was his job to publicize Glick's project. Although his method of approach was 
not the best, his purpose was, for with publicity, funds can be acquired for further projects. Why 
is he necessary? Because most people in research are too busy in their lab to take time to tell 
others about their work. 

While this provides a livelihood for engineers who ghost-write, it speaks poorly for those 
who do the actual research. For the man with the clearest knowledge of a specific project is the 
research director himself. If he would not limit himself to the lab alone but include the field of 
writing, his reports as well as publicity releases would be of wider scope and interest. 

All this centers around one point. Being an engineer or scientist does not exempt an indi- 
vidual from the necessity of expressing himself in written form. We may joke all we like about 
Advanced Remedial Writing for Experts, (Rhetoric 200); however, in the final analysis the pen 
and the typewriter must be used to complement the slide rule. 



OCTOBER, 1959 17 



HELICOPTER 

CONTROL 



By Edward Rollo 



Tlu' purpose of tin's report is to ex- 
plain, in a basic and general way, the 
accomplishment of successful helicopter 
flight. Hy successful flight is meant the 
unlimited ability of the helicopter to 
maneuver under ail practical flight re- 
quirements. This must, of course, lead 
to an explanation of the physical con- 
trol methods in the three planes of mo- 
rion, and to an explanation of how the 
prime nio\er, the rotor, is controlled to 
accomplish stable motion in these di- 
rections. Since the aerodynamics and 
mathematics of rotor blade theory are 
rather complicated, it is the purpose of 
this report to present this material in a 
manner readily \uiderstandable to the 
layman. The proper references for those 
interesteii in a more detailed anahsis are 
included in the reference section. 

The general requirements of a heli- 
copter are much the same as in con- 
ventional aircraft. This is, it nuist be 
able to produce thrust and lift and con- 
trol these forces in six directions. The 
operator must be able to control the 
helicopter in a vertical, directional, lat- 
eral, and longitudinal maneuver along 
with combinations of these. 

Vertical control or lift control is 
probably the easiest to accomplish since 
this can be obtained by throttle adiust- 
ments and pitch movements of the rotor 
blade much the same as thrust is con- 
trolled in a conventional aircraft pro- 
peller. Since the rotor blades are air- 
foils much the same as a conventional 
wing increasing the pitch is merely in- 
creasing the angle of attack of the blade 
which in turn increases the lift of the 
blade. Coupled with this increase or de- 
crease in pitch there must be a propor- 
tional increase or decrease in rotor rpm. 
The increased angle of attack of the 
blades causes greater blade resistance 
tending to reduce the rpm thereb\ hold- 
ing the lift force constant. (See Fig. 1.) 

Vertical control immediately intro- 
duces directional control. The turning 
rotor, which is rather large in compari- 
son to the fuselage, creates a large 
torque on the drive shaft. This is in 
turn transmitted to the fuselage in a 
manner tending to rotate the whole 



fuselage in a direction opposite that of 
the rotation of the rotor. (See Fig. II.) 
This is in accordance with Newton's 
third law of motion, which states "for 
every action there is an equal and op- 
posite reaction." Several methods of con- 
trol have been developed, and four of 



medium pitcii the fu.selage remains sta- 
tionary', and in high pitch the fuselage 
turns in the direction of the rotor. This 
is similar to the yawing condition in 
conventional winged aircraft. See Fig. 
IV^. ) The anti-torque tail rotor coidd 
be operated independently of the main 




Figure I. As the angle of attack increases, the drag increases tending to 
slow down the rotor. Therefore, additional power must be applied to pro- 
duce constant rpm and increase lift. 



the most common are as follows : ( 1 ) 
mounting two counter-rotating rotors 
on the same axis (coaxial), (2) install- 
ing a vane in the slipstream, (3) tan- 
dem-type double mounting with coun- 
ter-rotating rotors, and (4) the anti- 
torque rotor. These are all illustrated ui 
Fig. III. 

By far the most common method, par- 
ticularly on small helicopters, is to 



rotor, but the simplest method is to 
drive it through a power take-off in the 
transmission of the main rotor at some 
fixed ratio of speed to the main rotor. 

In order to complete the picture of 
directional control, it must be pointed 
out that although the tail rotor counter- 
acts the torque of the main rotor, it also 
produces an unbalaced thrust force, 
which in turn is ofifset by a slight tilt of 




Figure II 



mount a small rotating anti-torque pro- 
peller perpendicular to the plane of the 
rotor, at a given distance from the cen- 
ter of gravity, and precalculated to 
cause a moment equalizing the rotor 
torque. Directional control is then 
achieved by varying the tail propeller 
pitch. In low pitch the tail swings as if 
there were no counteracting moment, in 



the main rotor. (See Fig. V.) 

Rotor tilt on a small single-rotor type 
helicopter is necessary for lateral con- 
trol and this motion is similar to the roll- 
ing condition on conventional winged 
aircraft. On a side-by-side type heli- 
copter the thrust of either or both rotors 
can be adjusted to produce a pure mo- 
ment in a lateral direction, (See Fig. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



VI.) wliere as on a si njjlc- rotor t\ pr 
helicopter both a moment and side force 
are produced. This side force is not 
necessarily a hindrance since wfneralh' 
a lateral motion or roll proceeds motion 
intended in the direction of roll. 

Lonjiitudinal control is similar to 
pitch control in the conventional winged 
aircraft and is attained much the same 
way as lateral control. Fig. VII illus- 
trates several methods of longitudinal 
control for tandem-and single-rotor heli- 
copters. In (a) either the thrust of each 



stick. \i\ the direction he wishes to go 
and the main rotor tilts in that direc- 
tion. Rudder pedals are also provided in 
a helicopter for directional control. The 
pilot pushes the right pedal to go right 
and the left pedal to turn left. Pushing 
of the pedals increases and decreases the 
pitch of the anti-torque rotor, thereby 
allowing the helicopter to swing in the 
direction desired. The pitch le\er or 
thrust control lever is operated by one 
hand while the control stick is operated 
b\- the other. Moving the pitch control 




Figure III 



rotor is adjusted or the rotors are tilted. 
In (b) rotor pitch is periodically in- 
creased at some part of the rotor path 
to create greater lift on one side of the 
rotor than the other. In (c) rotor tilt 
is the main control mechanism. In (d) 
the anti-torque rotor produces the pitch- 
ing moment. In (e) a combination of 




Figure IV 

rotor thrust and offset flopping hinges 
jiroduce longitudinal control. 

The ability to control the helicopter 
in each of the previous discussed 
maneuvers and directions must be put 
in the pilot's hands through some sort 
of control mechanism. A relatively sim- 
ple illustration of the control mechan- 
ism linking the pilot and the helicopter 
is shown in Fig. VIII. The most coor- 
dinating and effective method of control 
is that found in a conventional aircraft, 
and for this reason they are adapted as 
closely as possible in a helicopter. As 
in a conventional aircraft, the control 
stick is located in front of the pilot and 
is used to control lateral and longitudin- 
al motion. Tile pilot merely pushes the 



up or down changes the pitch of the 
rotor blade, and upward motion of the 
stick produces increased lift and \ertical 
ascent, whereas pushing the pitch con- 
trol stick down produces decreased lift 
or vertical descent. A throttle coiitrol 
mechanism is located near the pitch con- 
trol lever or is mounted on the pitch 
lever and is controlled by twisting the 
grip much the same as a motorcycle 
throttle control. In some helicopters the 
pilot merely controls either the pitch or 
the throttle and the other control is 
automatically adjusted for by rotor 
governors in order to maintain constant 
rotor speed. 

In order to make the helicopter go 
in the direction desired, a force must 
somehow be produced in that direction. 
(On other \ehicles of motion such as the 
airplane, automobile, and the boat, a 
way is provided by having a propeller 
in that direction, friction transmitting 
force in the desired direction, or ;igain a 
propeller transmitting force in the di- 
rection desired. The famous "Juan De 
La Cierva" autogyro produced thrust 
in a forward direction with a separate 
propeller and engine provided for this 
function alone. But under these condi- 
tions, the aircraft becomes bulky and 
impractical in view of the competition 
from winged airciaft. 

In a helicopter, in order to keep it 
,is light and as simple as possible, a di- 
rectional force must somehow be ac- 
quired from the lifting rotor. The best 
way to accomplish this is to tilt the path 
of the rotor blade tips (referred to 
hereafter as tip-path plane) and acquire 
a component of the thrust in the direc- 
tion it is wished to go (See Fig. IX.) 



This invohes the controlling of ini^een 
forces and moments and leads to an 
explanation of how the rotor itself is 
controlled. 

Ill order that the helicopter be stable 
under all flying conditions and ma- 
neuvers, the rotor must be a very ver- 
satile piece of equipment and must be 
able to compensate for changing con- 
ditions. It must be controllable when 
tilted, in a cro.ss wind, in forward flight, 
etc. Por this reason the first thing to be 
controlled is the lift of the individual 
blades themselves. An example is as fol- 
lows: suppose the rotor is operating at 
some counter clockwise constant speed 
and it is wished to go forward. Assume 
that so far no adequate way has been 
provided to do this, and the rotor and 
shaft must be tipped together. When 
the rotor is tipped forward from the 
pilot's .seat, the blades coming into the 
left side have an increasing angle of 
attack and the blades on the right have 
a decreasing angle of attack. This causes 
a force greater on the left than on the 
right tending to roll the craft over. 

This effect is also present in a cross 
wind where the blades approaching head 
on into the wind have greater lift than 
those retreating with the wind, and this 
same effect is also very noticeable in 
forward flight. 

There are two basic w.iys to oxer- 
come this effect and allow control of the 
rotor. These were both mentioned ear- 
lier when lateral and longitudinal con- 
trol were discussed. One wa>' is to be 
able to periodically control the pitch 
of the blades and the other is to allow 
the blades to flap. Both methods have 
been adequateh' de\eloped, but by far 
the more common method is to hinue the 




Figure V 

bl.i.lcs either at the shaft Inib or .it 
some short distance from the hub and 
allow them to flap. A hinged blade in 
rotation is in balance by the action of 
the centrifugal force and the lift of the 
blade. Since the blade is hinged ( no 
moments can be transferred through a 
hinge) unequal lift forces cannot be 
transmitted to the helicopter body itself. 
This therefore eliminates the rolling 
effect due to tilting and wind conditions. 
((Jon/iniiiv! nn Ptuic 41) 



OCTOBER, 1959 



19 




Relative . . . 



By Dru Simms 



Lane switched the railio-transmitter 
buttoii oft. 

"Still no sound," he said to Clark, 
the other half of the rocket's crew. They 
exchanged grim looks. 

A landing without contact with an 
earth base would be almost impossible. 
It seemed ironical that after their year 
i)f orbit around that now-far-distant 
dog-star, Sirius. the\ should come so 
close and yet fail. 

Lane's thoughts turned to Clail, his 
girl — a year ago. He wondered if he 
woidd ever see her again. Or, if they 
did make if down, woidd she be wait- 
ing' , 

As it was planned, their trip — the 
first into another galaxy — was to have 
lasted six months. But, as they ap- 
proached Sirius, something went hay- 
wire. All their instruments jammed. 
Their velocity meter registered the un- 
believable speed of 03,(HH) miles per sec- 
ond, one-half the speed of light. At first 
they panicked but everything went 
smoothly. Time seemed to stand still. 
And since there was so much to be ob- 
served at this frontier of speed and 
space, they decided to extend their or- 
bital journey to a \ear. There was no 



fuel problem as their sleek ship was 
powereil by an inexhaustible source — 
nuclear power. 

And now, back in the earth's atmos- 
phere, every instrument was functioning 
properly except the radio. 

They went through the deceleration 
process mechanically, knowing it was 
probably hopeless. Lane was again let- 
ting his mind wander to Gail when he 
heard a sputtering from the radio. 

"Earth base Number Sixty to un- 
known rocket, altitude 81 miles, speed 
25,110 mph. Please identify yourself. 
Over." 

Lane looked at Clark, and grinned. 
They explained their situation as brief- 
ly as possible, then requested landing 
instructions. The earth-bound radiomen 
seemed confused but, after placing sev- 
eral calls, agreed to wait for further 
explanation until the ship landed. 

Ten minutes before their scheduled 
landing, with their speed down to 4,S(K) 
miles per hour, everything was going 
well. From there on in it was routine. 

A huge crowd was gathered by the 
time the tuo men crawled out of the 
hatch. Standing a little apart were sev- 



eral men in uniform, all strangers to 
Lane, and . . . 

"Gail!" He ran toward her, but stop- 
ped short when she extended a hand 
and said politely, 

"^L■. Roth! You look exactly like 
the pictures. You haven't aged a bit! 
Congratulations on making quite a stu- 
pendous space voyage'" 

Lane looked at her blankly. 

"Gail . . ." He began again. 

"Mr. Roth, are you all right? I'm 
not Gail." She laughed lightly, "Lm 
sorry. Of course, you wouldn't know. 
I'm Jane, Jane Williams, Gail's daugh- 
ter." 

The impact of the words staggered 
Lane a step backwards. 

"Daughter!" He echoed the word. 

A frown puckered the girl's hiow 
and she looked at him intently. 

"^L-. Roth, how long do you think 
\()u've been up there in space?" 

Lane looked up at the sky, then back 
at the girl. His answer came hesitating- 
ly. 

"One year." He straightened his 
shoulders. "How long . . .?" 

She answered his unfinished question. 

"Twentv-three vears." 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Problem: how to have fun while 

doing something constructive 
in your limited spare time 

Solution: 

Join Technograph! 



Whatever your interests, there's a place for you 
with The Tech, including: 



Writing 
Taking photos 
Drawing cartoons 
Designing the layout 
Handling correspondence 



Working with ad agencies 

Copy-rewriting 

Preparing covers 

Proofreading 

Skimming industrial releases 



Stop by our office .... 215 Civil Eng. Hall 



OCTOBER, 1959 



PRINTED CIRCUIT 
TECHNIQUES 



Introduction 

Ihcic is :i L'onuniiji myth among 
many technicians anil some engineers 
that printed circuits are nothing but a 
weh ot troubles hoKling components to- 
gether. This is the result of coming in 
contact only with the problems and 
never with the processes. There have 
been considerable discussions between 
major electronic companies regarding 
the merits ot printed circuit techniques. 
The contro\ersy regards the problems 
encountered in servicing printed circuits 
after manufacture. I was recenth' in- 
volved in the production of a telephone 
nudtiplex equipment system which used 
printed circuits throughout. When test- 
ting and trouble shooting this system, 
which in\'olved the use of over 1,000 
printeil circuit boards, I failed to find 
that 1 could agree with many of the 
'omplaints about servicing. For exam- 
ple, I foiuid it much easier to check 
M)lder connections on the surface of a 
board rather than dig through a maze 
i)t wires, circuit tracing was obvious 
loUowing conductors on the board, com- 
ponents w-ere not hidden or hanging in 
air between ternu'nal strips waiting to 
shake loose. In order to dispel this myth 



<^ 



i 



By Irvin McKittrick 



of troubles, let us look at some of the 
significant advantages of printed circuits 
and how the.se circuits are produced. 

Engineering faces circuit problems in 
certain areas which no other system but 
the printed techniques can ,^olve. How 
else can we reduce the size and weight 
of missile, satellite, and space-vehicle as- 
semblies? What other system allows us 
e\'en to approach the automatic assem- 
bly of equipment into rejilaceable units? 

What a Printed Circuit is 

These are some of the far-reaching 
possibilities of printed circuits, which re- 
place conventional hand-soldered wiring 
with condLicting strips of copper bonded 
to a Hat sheet of insulating base ma- 
terial, with conductors on one side and 
components mounted on the other. Actu- 
ally the conductors are obtained by 
etching or eating away undesired sec- 
tions of a foil coating which originally 
covered the board. Although silver and 
ahiminum foils might be useable from 
a conductivity standpoint, copper is 
move readily available, lower in cost, 
and easier to solder. The component 
leads are passed through hole-; in the 
hoard and ;ire all sohlercd .it once b\ 



lightly dippling the conductor surface 
of the board into molten solder. 

The term "printed circuit" is some- 
times u.sed to include both components 
and conductors, whereas printed wiring 
applies to conductors only. In this article 
it refers primarily to the wiring, with 
which components such as resistors, 
coils, ami capacitors are connected. Once 
we have decided to design a given elec- 
tronic circuit for printed production, the 
requirements for the circuit must be 
consiilered. Information on environmen- 
tal conditions in which the unit will 
operate, maintenance requirements, and 
physical size of the equipment must be 
considered. Knowledge of these condi- 
tions will define design req\iirenients. 

Methods of Manufacture 

There are two general systems of 
producing printed circiutry today. One 
adds metal to an insulated base, and 
the other removes a portion of a thin 
metal layer which has been bonded to 
the base. Current methods of the first 
system are vacuum processing, chemical 
deposition, die stamping, or molding. 
.All of these additive methods require 
a considerable set-up cost and are ad- 





(3) 



FIGURE 1 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



\antageous for particular applications to 
circuit problems. The removal, or sub- 
tractive process, is accomplished b\' etch- 
ing; unwanted material in an acid bath. 
The etched circuit is probably the most 
widely used form of printed wiring 
today. The circuit process is flexible, re- 
liable, and easily produced, with new 
techniques adding to its present popular- 
ity. In order to produce an etched cir- 
cuit board, three basic problems must 
be considered: circuit design, base ma- 
terial selection, and process selection. 

Circuit Design 

First, the circuit must be designed for 
printed conductors. Since every printed 
circuit board is different in all electri- 
cal and mechanical problems, a stead- 
fast rule of layout cannot be given. For 
example, compare a board which is to 
be used in aircraft systems subject to 
vibration, temperature, and pressure 
clianges with a stationary computer ap- 
plication which is temperature and hu- 
midity controlled. Therefore, each board 
must be designed to meet the particular 
requirements of the circuit involved. 
From the schematic diagram of the cir- 
cuit, the components must be laid out on 
the board. Rather than actual compo- 
nents, plastic replicas of standard com- 
ponents are used. 

Various arrangements of circuit com- 
ponents are then tried until the desired 
comiections can be made with the mini- 
mum of crossed leads. This is largely a 
trial and error process, and each circuit 
design will pose new problems in cross- 
oxer minimization. Ordinarily, cross 
over of conductors is necessary to pro- 
duce the desired circvn't. Sometimes this 
can be accomplished by using compo- 
nents, otherwise a wire strap is used on 
the component side of the board to make 
the necessary connections. The layout 
is done on tracing paper which is placed 
over an expanded underlay grid pattern 
of ten squares to the inch. This pattern 
may originally be two to seven times 
oversized, and is later reduced by pho- 
tographic means. To allow uniform lay- 
out and a board which can be assem- 
bled by automatic machinery, all com- 
ponent mounting holes, except clustered 
ones such as tube sockets, are placed to 
fall on intersections of the grid pattern. 
The use of slotted or oblong holes for 
component or hardware moimting should 
be avoided if possible to reduce die cost. 
Xon-circular holes can be used, but 
where there is a choice, cost considera- 
tions point toward round holes. 

After the hole layout is decided upon 
and connections are sketched in, exter- 
nal circuit connections such as ground- 
ing systems and shielding can be added. 

A complete ground system is neces- 
sary, since the usual metal chassis which 
often serves as a common ground has 
been eliminated. The ground system 



connecting such hardware as tube sock- 
ets and shields, also serves as shielding 
between conductors to reduce stra\- pick- 
up. ^ 

Conductor width and spacing are de- 
pendent on current loads and break- 
down voltage respectively. A 1/16" 
spacing, usually considered a minimum, 
is necessary for a SOOV DC working 
level. 

Figure ( 1 ) shows some of the layout 
principles which are used. When mak- 
ing 90° turns, the conductor should fol- 
low a smooth curve as in (A) to re- 
duce the possibility of conductor damage 
in handling and provide a smoother 
solder flow path during soldering. The 
terminal connection or "land" need not 
be completed if spacing requirements 
are critical, as shown in the same figure. 
If a large area of shielding is required 
as in (B), a bar grid technique should 
he used to prevent blisteriiv: of copper 
during soldering. 



cal strength plus e.xxellent moisture and 
insulation qualities. The Teflon glass 
grade is excellent electrically but very 
expensive ; it is used primarily in low- 
loss microwave applications. 

Along with the electrical character- 
istics of these base materials, we must 
consider the demands of fabrication. Be- 
fore final assembly, the board may have 
to be pierced, drilled, milled, routed, 
or sheared. The majority of the [ihe- 
nolic-base laminates are hot-punching 
materials, which means that the ma- 
terial must be raised above room tem- 
perature in order to be punched or 
sheared without cracking or chipping. 
Some cold-punch phenolics are avail- 
able, but they are more susceptible to 
heat and sometimes warp under dip sol- 
dering. The glass-base materials nresent 
less of a problem in fabrication, in that 
they do not easil\- chip or crack, but are 
abrasi\e and cause higher tool wear 
than the phenolic-base materials. The 



TABLE 1 



\E]VIA 

Grade 


Moisture 
Resistance 


Insulation 
Resistance 


Tool 
Wear 


Mechanical 
Strength 


Punch 
Ability 


Cost 

Factor 

XXXP=1 


P 


Poor 


Fair 


Excellent 


Good 


Good 


.7 


XXXP 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Fair 


1 


EPOXY 

GLASS 


Very good 


Excellent 


Poor 


Good 


Fair 


4 


TEFLON 
GLASS 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Poor 


Good 


Cjood 


13 



After the sketched layout is complete, 
it is usually traced on glass cloth and 
the conductor pattern is inked in. A 
tape system can be used instead of ink- 
ing, but is less stable dimensionally and 
is ordinarily not used where close toler- 
ances are desired. The tracing repre- 
sents a master art work which can be 
photographically scaled to the reqiu'red 
size, and then negatives can be pro- 
duced to he used for one of the various 
proce.s.ses of etching. 

Base Material 

The printed circuit base material is 
a special problem in itself. The laminate 
may be a paper or cloth-base phenolic, 
or one of various fiber-glass combination 
laminates, as shown in Table 1. 

The NEMA type XXXP is the 
most widely used grade of material, 
having high insulation resistance and 
low dielectric losses. It is mechanically 
strong and low in cost. The low cost 
t\pe P is used in models or prototype 
circuitry where good electrical proper- 
ties and long life are not so important. 

When lower moisture ab.sorption and 
increased insulation qualities are need- 
ed, a glass base material is necessary, of 
which Epo.xy glass is the most widely 
used. This laminate has good mechani- 



copper foil may be obtained in .several 
thicknesses, of which .00135 or .0027 
inch are the most common. The thick- 
ness used is dependent on current ca- 
pacity, which is decided upon when the 
circuit is designed. The foil is bonded 
to the base with heat and pressure. The 
bond strength or force in poiuids re- 
quired to pull back a 1" wide strip of 
the foil varies slightly with the differ- 
ent base materials. Most reputable man- 
ufacturers provide necessary information 
on the bond strength of their products. 
Standard tests are proposed by RET- 
MA for adhesion of printed wiring if 
theie is any question of qualitx' or dur- 
ability. 

Process Selection 

After the circuit has been designed 
and the base material selected, the final 
step is to select the process to be used 
in etching away the unwanted material. 
One popular procedure for etched cir- 
cuitry involves a photo-resist system such 
as would be used by a photo engraver. 
Because it is expensive, this system is 
used principally for short runs or sam- 
ple production. Normally, fifty boards 
would be considered an economical 
upper limit of this process. For produc- 
tion quantities in the thousands, an off- 



OCTOBER, 1959 



23 



COPPER CLAD LAMINATE 



SCREENED 



ETCHED 



INK REMOVED 




, H B , 



INK 

I I INSULATED BASE 
■■ CONDUCTOR 



FIGURE 2 



set piintinj: procedure can he used wirli 
considerable economy. The large gap be- 
tween the short run and full-scale pro- 
duction techniques is filled by the silk 
screen process. This will be explained in 
detail, as it covers the widest range of 



1 


U H ■ 






'W/^ 




1 







usage at the present time. First, for any 
process it is necessary to clean the board 
to obtain a bright surface. This can be 
done b\- using water, a good cleansing 
liowder, and a rotary brush. The board 
is then rinsed and completely dried. To 
prevent warpage, the use of hot water 
in cleaning or warm air drying should 
ne\er raise the board temperature abo\e 
IS()°F. The board is now ready to be 
printed with an acid resistant ink. Fig- 
ure (2) shows a surface buildup view 
of the various steps in the silk screen 
process. 

The circuit pattern to be used must 
be a negative, allowing the resist ink to 
cover the circuit conductor areas, while 
all other parts of the board are unpio- 
tected. The construction of a dimension- 
ally adjustable silk screen is slunxn in 
Figure (3). 

The screws on the sides allow the 
circuit pattern to be adjusted for cor- 
rect position on the board. When the 
board is screened it must be held per- 
fectly flat, usually by means of a vacu- 



um jilate specially designed for this inn- 
pose. The silk screen must be carefulh 
handled to avoid damage. Even a pin 
hole in the wrong place can cause trou- 
ble. After screening, the board is ready 
for etching by ferric chloride or other 
bath. This will remove all copper not 
protected by the ink. Carefid control of 
the time the board is in the etchant is 
important to pre\ent over oi' under 
etch. After the board has been etched, 
it must at once be thoroughly cleaned 
to halt the etching process. The cleaning 
procedure consists of a water rinse, a 
solvent rinse to remove the screening 
ink, and neutralization. The board is 
then dried and visually inspected before 
release for production. 

Conclusion 

A recent sur\ey by the Institute of 
Printed Circuits found that the chief 
complaint about printed circuit boards 
in radio and television equipment was 
difHcidty in pinpointing component fail- 
ures. Other complaints were about ac- 
cessibility and conductor lift during 
servicing. 

In general, such service complaints 
have been the thorns in the side of print- 
ed circuits. Personal experience in the 
inspection, test, and repair of hundreds 
of bo.irds used in multiplexing equip- 
iiK-iit leads one to believe this is largely 
a problem of education. 

Although technicians are not prone to 
immediately accept changes in service 
techniques, the electronics industry is 
spending large sums of money on train- 
ing. There is no doubt that care and 
common sense are still required in serv- 
icing printed circ\iits, though in the fu- 
ture disposable modules are likely, which 
would eliminate the need for repair. 
1 he ncirness of this time will be de- 
termined (jnly hy how rapidU the art 
of printed circuitry can be advanced. 
Fhe funue holds many prospects for 
printed circuitry, but let us also con- 
sider the advantages over con\entional 
wiring which it provides today. 



Advantages 

By use of printed circuits, metal cha>- 
is, brackets, terminal strips, and other 
hardware can be reduced if not com- 
pletely eliminated. The RETMA Sym- 
posium on Printed Circuits mentions 
one radio which was re-designed to use 
printed circuit techniques. Hardware 
was reduced from 55 to 33 pieces, 21 of 
which were the same as used in the con- 
ventional receiver. 

A mention of size reduction in the 
Symposium relates an assembly consist- 
ing of IS tubes, 150 components, and 
associated hardware in a 50 Cu. inch 
package. Another example is that of a 
four tube amplifier compacted to 1" bv 
2" by 3". 

In his book on printed circuits. Lytel 
describes a printed circuit microwave re- 
ceiver, the weight of which was reduced 
from 32 to 5 pounds. At the same time, 
costs were also reduced. 

There are definitely important sav- 
ings in the direct labor required to build 
a printed unit. As.sembly and soldering 
can be done automatically, eliminating 
80% of the hand labor involved. 

The less evident savings come in 
other areas. Inspection and test pro- 
cedures may cost 40' J to bO'^c less. The 
drawing required is often reduced 50'~f 
over conventional wired circuits. 

As an engineer, the next circuit de- 
vice you produce, consider the three fac- 
tors : cost, size, and weight. Consider 
them carefully and then consider the 
printed circuit. 

REFERENCES 

.Anderson, K. W., et al. cds. Iloiv In Di- 
iiijn and Specify Printed Circuits. Chicago: 
The Institute of Printed Circuits, 1958. 

DcRose, R. Ed. Printed Circuits Informa- 
tion and Practices. Chicago; Kellogg Switch- 
ho.ird and Supply, 1957. 

Lytel, .Allan. Printed Circuitry. Pittsburgh: 
Instruments Publishing Company, 1957. 

Swiggett, Robert I,. Introduction to Printed 
Circuits. New York: John F. Rider, 1956. 

Symposium on Printed Circuits. New York: 
Engineering Publishers, 1955. 

E. C. McClintock, Technical .Assistance. 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



THE NEXT TWO 



PAGES ARE PRESENTED 



FOR THE BENEFIT 



OF THOSE INTERESTED 



IN APPLIED SCIENCE 



THE STAFF 



OCTOBER, 1959 25 

11 







fLO»0 
VEIOCITY changes" 



^NJo T^O OBJK75(^M OCCUPY TM£ 




26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



♦Action.'/ 



A6ODYlMM0T»0NTeM0sT0 
ACT]POOf»Of4 BYsoHf 




Equilibrium- 
two exACTivopPQiire 

PUtf AT TM€ tA^^e- TfNft^^ 



OCTOBER, 1959 



27 





e 



m 



t * 



V 






The Scientist as a Person 



By Samuel Lenher 



Editor's \'()t(: Mr. Liiilur is via- 
l>nsidcnt and director of E. I. diiFont 
dr S^c/iiours and (^o/iipiiny. 



The attention of the public recentl)' 
has been directed, in an unusual degree, 
toward the American scientist. The 
launching of a Russian sputnik ahead 
of our own satellite has raised a ques- 
tion whether the Ignited States may lag 
beliind the Communists in research and 
technology. This in turn has led to an 
examination of our educational system, 
and w^e find issues in the political arena 
which previously had only been debated 
within the cloisters, relatively speaking, 
of education and industry. 

Those of us who for some years have 
been occupied with the theme of this 
conference — research administration — 
have participated in an intensive search 
for an answer to the question of what 
kind of person, and what kind of train- 
ing, will make a good scientist. It seems 
to me the time has come, now that the 
spotlight of public and political atten- 
tion has been focused upon research, to 
reverse the field and examine what the 
scientist is like as a person. 

The reason 1 think this nught be 



timely is perfectly simple. We have con- 
siderable reason — for the most part em- 
pirical, it is true — to believe there is 
widespread misunderstanding of the sci- 
entist as a person. As a former chemist 
now engaged in management responsi- 
bilities, I of course recognize there is 
no litmus test to disclose exact shades 
of public opinion, nor have any scales 
been devised to weigh precisely what 
may be burdening the human mind. The 
evidence, however, of public confusion 
over the true nature of the scientist 
seems to me sulTlciently strong to con- 
vince an average American jury, and 
that is enough to be alarming. I would 
like to cite some of this evidence. 

In our modern society, the newspaper 
or magazine cartoon frequently is a re- 
vealing indication of what many Ameri- 
cans may be thinking. A popular maga- 
zine which has one of the largest nation- 
al circulations published a cartoon a few 
weeks ago which is to the point. It por- 
trayed a cocktail party with two guests 
in the foreground. The feminine guest 
was a type all too frequently encount- 
ered at such an occasion. Obviously 
she had just been introduced to a be- 
wildered-looking individual with a mus- 
tache and goatee, a bald head wifli Mow- 



ing locks below the neckline, wearing 
a string bow tie and wing collar, as well 
as a pince-nez. The lady was saying, 
"Oh, you're a scientist. I've always 
vcanted to meet a genuine fathead." 

Of course no one but a cartoon char- 
acter would mistake an egghead for a 
fathead. But more seriously, a widely 
published article by a top writer for the 
Associated Press reports that "in the 
potboilers of movies and television, the 
basic research scientist almost invari- 
ably is: single-tracked, unworldly, mis- 
understood, ridiculed by everyone (ex- 
cept his faithful, tiptoeing wife who 
keeps tiying to get him to eat a sand- 
wich), self-sacrificing, a dedicated saint 
who was born with a vision only he can 
see, suffers hell pm'suing it and — Eure- 
ka! — in the last two reels finally finds 
a cure for the monstrous plague, just 
when he was down to his last two test 
tubes." 

Now I should add, of course, that the 
Associated Press did its commendable 
best to dispel such an impression of 
the scientist by giving the facts about 
a living, breathing, and intensely human 
and likeable research chemist at Yale 
l'niversit\-. Nevertheless, the fact that 
this great news vcrvice saw reader inter- 



OCTOBER, 1959 



29 



est ill MH'li ;i >t(ir\ Iciuls cc)n>iilfrahlc 
wfiglit ti) tui) ai.;i(lc'iiiic suivt-ys whicli 
indicate tlu' public's image of the scien- 
tist, especially among young people, is 
alariningl\' distorted. 

.-\ poll ot high school students by 
I'urdue L'niversit\- in I'^'^h found that 
14 per cent thought there was some- 
thing evil about scientists; IQ per cent 
said scientists are more likely than other 
people to be mentally ill ; 20 per cent 
thoiight scientists h;i\c little regard for 
humanity; .?4 per cent believed scien- 
tists cannot have a normal family life; 
.?8 per cent thought scientists are will- 
ing to sacrifice the welfare of others to 
further their own interests; and 78 per 
cent felt science had its place but there 
are many thiiiijs which can never be 
understood by the human mind. 

No doubt man\ of you are also fa- 
miliar with the stud\' coiiducteil bv I^rs. 
Margaret Mead and Rhola Metra\i\ 
for the American Association for the 
.Advancement of Science, entitled "The 
Image of the Scientist .Among High 
School Students." Here students in more 
than 120 high schools were asked to 
write essays on what they thought about 
science and scientists. Out of this came 
what the authors described as tliree 
images — the shared, the positive, and 
the negative. If only the first two had 
emerged, there would be no necessity 
for niy discussion, but Drs. Alead and 
Metrau.v concluded that "this image in 
all its aspects, the shared, the positive, 
and the negative, is one which is likely 
to invoke a negative attitude as far as 
personal career or marriage choice is 
concerned." 

As might be expected, there have been 
challenges to the validity of this con- 
clusion. I have neither desire nor com- 
petence to enter that controversy, but 
1 do feel very strongly that the nega- 
tive image, and the extent to which it 
discourages young people from seeking 
scientific careers, is of very serious con- 
cern to all of us. and indeed, to the 
future welfare of the United States. 

It may be true, as some authorities 
maintain, that our national problem to- 
day is not a shortage of scientists and 
engineers, but a lack of sufficiently good 
scientists and engineers. While this too 
may be debatable, there can be no argu- 
ment that if we are to have true na- 
tional security, and if we are to main- 
tain and improve our standard of living 
in the face of population growth, de- 
pletion of natural resources, and indus- 
trialization of countries which hitherto 
have been agrarian, our technological 
progress will require a vast increase in 
the number of technically trained peo- 
ple in the generations just ahead. Kqual- 
h important is the development of a 
wholesome popular attitude toward sci- 
ence and scientists. 

For this reason, I think it is import- 



ant til HHitc the iu-gati\e unage which 
Drs. .\Ieail and .Metraiix tcel uill dis- 
courage young men and uomen from 
entering science. ;uul 1 quote it in full: 

"The scientist is a brain. He spends 
his days indoors, sitting in a laboratory, 
pouring things from one test tube into 
another. His work is um'nteresting, dull, 
monotonous, tedious, time consuming, 
and though he works for years, he may 
see no results or may fail, and he is 
likel\ to receive neither adequate re- 
compense nor recognition. He may live 
in ;i cold-water H.it ; lu's laboratory may 
be ding\. 

"If he woiks b\ himself, he is alone 
and has heavy expenses. If he works 
for a big company, he has to do as he 
is told, anil his discoveries must be 
turned n\cr to the company and may 
not be used ; he is just a cog in a ma- 
chine. If he works for the government, 
he has to keep dangerous secrets ; he is 
endangered by what he does and by 
constant surveillance and by continual 
iinestigations. If he loses touch with 
people, he may lose the public's confi- 
dence — as did Oppenheimer. If he works 
for mone\' or self-glory, he may take 
credit for the work of others — as some 
tried to do to Salk. He may e\en sell 
secrets to the enemy. 

"His work may he dangerous. Chemi- 
cals may explode. He may be hurt by 
radiation, or may die. If he does medi- 
cal research, he may bring home di.sease, 
or may u.se himself as a guinea pig, or 
may even accidentally kill someone. 

"He may not believe in (lod, or may 
lose his religion. His belief that man is 
descended from animals is disgusting. 

"He is a brain; he is so involved in 
his work that he doesn't know what is 
going on in the world. He has no other 
interests and neglects his body for his 
mind. He can only talk, eat, breathe 
;ind sleep science. 

"He neglects his familv — pa\s no at- 
tention to his wife, never plays with 
his children. He has no social life, no 
other intellectual interest, no hobbies or 
relaxations. He bores his wife, his chil- 
dren and their friends — for he has no 
friends of his own or knows only other 
scientists — with incessant talk that no 
one can understand ; or el.se he pays no 
attention or has secrets he cannot share. 
He is never home. He is always read- 
ing a book. He brings home work and 
also bugs and creepy things. He is al- 
ways running off to his laboratory. He 
may force his children to become scien- 
tists also. 

"A scientist should not m.iir\. No 
one wants to be such a scieiuist or to 
marry him. " 

To call such an image unpleasant 
would onl\' he redundancN'. I might at- 
tempt to shatter it by licscribing some 
of m\- neighbors and former laboratorx 



associates in Wilniiiigton, hut I'm afraid 
that would not be enough. So in an 
efiort to get the facts about the scien- 
tist as a person, a personal research unit 
conducted a sociological study of about 
half of the 2,401) technically trained peo- 
ple who are engaged in research for 
the Du Pont Company. 

A questionnaire asked them to list 
their family status, educational qualifi- 
cations, and non-scientific activities in 
high school, college, and after leaving 
college. The anonymity of their replies 
was guaranteed, and the response was 
remarkable as such things go. More than 
75 per cent of the questionnaires were 
answered and returned, contrar\' to the 
expectations of some of our research 
administrators. An analysis showed the 
responding group was typical of the 
company's scientific population as to age 
distribution and company service, al- 
though by chance we had a slightly 
higher representation of Ph.D.'s. There 
was no attempt to distinguish between 
those engaged in basic and applied re- 
search . 

In the realm of \ital statistics, 23 
per cent are between the ages of 21 and 
29; 61 per cent are between 30 and 
44, and 14 per cent are between 45 and 
65. They come from 44 of the 48 
states, the District of Columbia, and 25 
foreign countries. Thirty-four per cent 
come from the Midwest, 31 per cent 
from the Atlantic seaboard, and seven 
per cent from the Northeast. States with 
the highest representation are New 
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, 
Massachusetts, and Minnesota. (It is 
significant, in this connection, to note 
that the most recent census shows New 
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Texas, 
Ohio, Michigan, California, Missouri, 
and Massachusetts as the leading birth- 
lilaces for our population as a whole.) 

The scientists received their educa- 
tion at 258 colleges and universities in 
the I'nited States and 34 foreign insti- 
tutions, with Illinois, Wisconsin, Mass- 
achusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio 
State, Cornell, Purdue, Minnesota, Del- 
aware, and Michigan mentioned most 
frequently. Sixty-eight per cent have 
doctorate degrees, eight out of 10 in 
chemistry, as might be expected. Chemi- 
cal engineering was next, with other 
fields of specialization including physics, 
other types of engineering, bacteriology, 
and biochemistry. 

It is interesting to note that P) per 
cent of them earned all their college 
expenses as undergraduates, while 69 
per cent earned all their expenses for 
graduate work. Sixty-two per cent of 
the undergraduates and 89 per cent of 
the graduates earned more than half of 
their college expenses. The main source 
of income for the graduate students was 
from teaching, research, or both. 

Now let's return to some aspects of 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



the iinafif reported by Drs. Mead and 
Metraiix. 

"A scientist should not marry. No 
one wants to be such a scientist or to 
marry him." 

In all 88 per cent of our scientists 
are married, compared to 85 per cent 
of the general adult population as re- 
ported by the census. Seventy-three per 
cent of their wives attended college. Al- 
though 15 per cent do not have chil- 
dren, the avera-je number of children 
per famih' is slightly more than two, 
compared to one and one-half for the 
average American family. Three happv 
scientists who obviously don't spend all 
their time in the Du Pont laboratories 
are each blessed with seven children. 

"His work may be dangerous. Chemi- 
cals may explode. He may be hurt b\- 
radiation, or may die." 

Research deals with chemicals. The 
companv operated the Hanford atomic 
materials plant during the Second 
World War, and now is operating at 
Savannah River plant for the produc- 
tion of atomic fusion and fission ma- 
terials. Emphnees at all compain re- 
search laboratories e-tablished an injury 
frequency rate of only one man injured 
in three million exposure hours during 
the last five vears, which is 23 per cent 
lower than the over-all company rate in 
the same period. The latest available 
frequenc\ rate for all American indus- 
try is one man injvu'ed in 160,000 ex- 
posure hours. 

"He mav not believe in (lod, or may 
lose his religion." 

Our survey did not inquire whether 
scientists were church members, but ap- 
proximately 75 per cent mentioned 
church in listing their activities. The 
latest Census lists only 61 per cent of 
the general population as church mem- 
bers. Whereas a survey of Protestant 
churches generally showed only one out 
of four members took an active part in 
church affairs beyond membership or 
attendance, 57 per cent, or more than 
one out of two, scientists reported such 
activit\-. Twenty-three per cent men- 
tioned Sunday School teaching or su- 
pervision, 18 per cent church offices such 
as trustee or elder, 16 per cent member- 
ship in men's clubs, 16 per cent mem- 
bership on church committees, nine per 
cent choir singing, and five per cent as- 
sistance to youth groups. 

"He is a brain; he is so involved 
in his work that he doesn't know what 
is going on in the world. He has no 
other interests and neglects his body for 

his mind He has no social life, 

no other intellectual interest, no hob- 
bies or relaxations." 

The survey showed 37 per cent of 
our scientists participated in 64 differ- 
ent civic activities. Nineteen per cent 
mentioned membership in community 
coimcils or associations, and seven per 



cent were in fund-raising groups. They 
hold or have held 136 positions of re- 
sponsibility, such as president, vice presi- 
dent, board of governors, chairmen of 
committees, team captains, etc. 

Only two per cent of the general 
population in the Wilmington area has 
participated in civil defense work com- 
pared to seven per cent of the scien- 
tists. Other points of comparison were 
unavailable, but there is reason to be- 
lieve the participation of scientists in 
civic activities is considerably higher 
than that of other groups in the com- 
munity. 

When it comes to educational activi- 
ties, about one-third of the scientists 
participate in the work of Parent-Teach- 
er Associations. This is slightlv higher 
than the figmes for the general popula- 
tion in the Wilmington area. Twenty- 
two of the scientists surveyed were in- 
vol\ed in district, state, or national 
PTA groups, while nine were members 
of Board of Educafon. About one in 
five is active in Hov Scout work, com- 
pared to one in 20 adults in the Del- 
marva Peninsula which includes Wil- 
mington. Others are active in YMCA 
work. Twenty-one per cent are active 
members of fraternal organizations. 

It is worth noting that an analysis 
of 600 completed questionnaires showed 
that 47 of the group participate in poli- 
tics, 51 in military organizations, 20 in 
dramatics, 76 in purely social organiza- 
tions, and 112 in miscellaneous groups 
such as stamp and camera clubs, an or- 
chid societ\-, the Delaware Society for 
Natural History, the American Associ- 
ation for the United Nations, etc. 

When it comes to music, the scientists 
listed 54 different activities with 22 per 
cent participating in either vocal or in- 
strumental groups both within and out- 
side the companv. I might interject here 
a personal recollection of a lively Dixie- 
land jazz band known as "The Rhythm 
Doctors" because its members were 
Ph.D.'s engaged in research. 

Few scientists can be said to neglect 
their bodies for their minds. Seventy 
per cent of them engage actively in 42 
different sports, as anyone who visited 
a golf course in Delaware woidd quick- 
ly discover. Naturally — to the surprise 
of some of my tennis-playing friends — 
golf is the most popular, with bowling 
second. Teiuiis is third, followed by 
fishing, Softball, swimming, hunting, 
basketball, and sailing. 

Other favored leisure-time pursuits in- 
clude gardening, woodworking, pho- 
tography, bridge, dancing, and organ- 
ized reading in some 34 different fields. 
The variety of such activities is amaz- 
ing. To give you a sample of the va- 
riety of interests reported by various 
scientists, their returns mentioned cook- 
ing, collecting Civil War items, knit- 
ting, bird watching, archaeology field 



work, painting, sewing, tutoring, tele- 
scope building, writing, rocket design, 
music theory, sports cars, antique re- 
finishing, electronics, hi-fi, chess, and 
learning languages. 

Perhaps some of you may be wonder- 
ing whether the collaterial interests of 
scientists leave them much time for re- 
search. If so, let me quickly assure you 
they usually spend an eight-hour, five- 
day week in the laboratory, and do a 
lot of thinking about their work at 
home. Moreover, 72 per cent of them 
have published at least one paper in 
scientific journals, while 57 per cent 
have presented at least one paper before 
technical audiences. 

"His work is uninteresting, dull mo- 
notonous, tedious, time consuming, and, 
though he works for years, he may see 
no results or may fail, and he is likely 
to receive neither adequate recompense 
nor recognition. He may live in a cold- 
water flat ; his laboratory may be dingy." 
Research is time-consuming, but few 
scientists find it dull. As one of them 
wrote on his questionnaire, "Most peo- 
ple don't appreciate the fact that sci- 
ence is a way of life. Frequently re- 
search problems become so engrossing 
that one can think of nothing else." 
Another said of his colleagues, "These 
scientists are among the most stimulat- 
ing people in the world. They continual- 
ly seek to discover something new, to 
improve something already invented, to 
learn the 'why' of various phenomena — 
always seeking, always learning. One 
must admire this attitude." 

One out of four scientists decided 
upon his career before reaching the age 
of 15. The reasons included a strong 
personal interest in the field, courses in 
elementary or high schools, influence 
and encouragement of teachers or mem- 
bers of the family — and this may be a 
surprise — experience with home or toy 
chemistry sets. 

The scientists were not asked whether 
they felt their salaries were adequate, 
but 43 per cent said they decided to go 
into industry because of its financial re- 
wards. It is almost unnecessary to add 
that starting salaries, at least, for sci- 
tentists in industry are much higher 
than those fov young people who start 
life in other jobs. I know of no scien- 
tist around Wilmington who lives in 
a cold-water flat; in fact, one of the 
favorite sales arguments of the real 
estate agents is to mention that "this 
house was owned by a chemist — or en- 
gineer — so you know it is in good 
shape." 

"If he works by himself, he is alone 
and has heavy expenses. If he works for 
a big company, he has to do as he is told, 
and his discoveries must be turned over 
to the company and may not be used ; 
he is just a cog in a machine." 

(Continued on Page 43) 



OCTOBER, 1959 



31 



Checking Einstein ivith 





Purilx \'\u\- llir^'hes Proilucts Division engineer checks 
seiniconducwr materials to insure purity. 



Exit cones capable of wit/islanding temperatures of 6000° F. 
represent one example of advanced engineering being performed 
by the Hughes Plastics Laboratory. 



an atomic clock in orbit 



To test Einstein's general theory of relativity, scien- 
tists at the Hughes research laboratories are devel- 
oping a thirty pound atomic maser clock (see photo 
at left) under contract to the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. Orbiting in a satellite, 
a maser clock would be compared with another 
on the ground to check Einstein's proposition that 
time flows faster as gravitational pull decreases. 

Working from the new research center in Malibu, 
California. Hughes engineers will develop a MASER 
(Microwave Amplification through Stimulated 
Emission of Radiation) clock so accurate that it 
will neither gain nor lose a single second in 1000 
years. This clock, one of three types contracted 
for by NASA, will measure time directly from the 
vibrations of the atoms in ammonia molecules. 

Before launching, an atomic clock will be syn- 
chronized with another on the ground. Each 
clock would generate a highly stable current with 
a frequency of billions of cycles per second. Elec- 
tronic circuitry would reduce the rapid oscillations 
to a slower rate in order to make precise laboratory 
measurements. The time "ticks" from the orbiting 
clock would then be transmitted by radio to com- 
pare with the time of the clock on earth. By meas- 
uring the difference, scientists will be able to check 
Einstein's theories. 

In other engineering activities at Hughes, research 
and development work is being performed on such 



projects as advanced airborne systems, advanced 
data handling and display systems, global and spa- 
tial communications systems, nuclear electronics, 
advanced radar systems, infrared devices, ballistic 
missile systems... just to name a few. 

The rapid growth of Hughes reflects the continuous 
advance in Hughes capabilities — providing an ideal 
environment for the engineer or physicist, whatever 
his field of interest. 



Members of our staff will conduct 

CAMPUS INTERVIEWS 

NOVEMBER 10 and 11 

For interview appointment or informational 
literature consult your College Placement Director. 



HUGHES AM 



M=T COMPANY 



The West's leader in advanced ELECTRONICS 
I 

HUGHES 

I 

I J 

HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY 

Culver City, El Segundo, Fullerton, Newport Beach 
Malibu and Los Angeles, California; 
Tucson, Arizona 




Photos by George Knoblock 



JUDY 



STEPHENSON 



T 

E 

C 

H 

N 

O 

C 

U 

T 

I 

E 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Engineers, take note! 

"All eligible bachelors are hid- 
ing out in engineering." October 
Technocutie, Judy Stephenson, 
has the engineers on campus 
pegged in this manner. 

The 18-year-old, 5'2" sopho- 
more in elementary education 
has definite ideas on men in her 
life. Judy thinks manners are 
one important requisite. She 
doesn't limit herself to one type 
of man; she likes varied person- 
alities. 

Judy's ideas on a nice date 
are dancing, movies or parties; 
but she definitely prefers lemon- 
ade to beer. 

Originally from Lockport, Judy 
now lives at the Delta Gamma 
house on campus. 

A thinking beauty, Judy made 
Alpha Lambda Delta last year 
as well as Star & Scroll Queen, 
lllio beauty, and the Sports Car 
Queen finals. 

She likes waterskiing, bowl- 
ing, sports cars, the Kingston 
Trio, chocolate ice cream and 
steak. 

The best part, and the most 
profitable for all engineers is 
that Judy is open for dotes. All 
eligible bachelors, coll at the 
DG house. 




- • • * « >^ ^\ 

• •I* .•«••'•■' «' 

• •••«, tti»"M» 







^m.^y'^^^Mju^^'^^'^m^-^ 



*-i.. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



35 




W.E. DEFENSE PROJECTS ENGINEERS are often faced with challenging assign- 
ments such as systems testing for the SAGE continental air defense network. 



ENGINEERS explore exciting frontiers 
at Western Electric 



It guided missiles, electronic switching systems and 
telephones of the future sound like exciting fields 
to you, a career at Western Electric may be just 
what you're after. 

Western Electric handles both telephone work 
and defense assignments . . . and engineers are 
right in the thick of it. Defense projects include the 
Nike and Terrier guided missile systems . . . 
advanced air, sea and land radar . . . the SAGE 
continental air defense system . . . DEW Line and 
White Alice in the Arctic. These and other defense 
jobs offer wide-ranging opportunities for all kinds 
of engineers. 

In our main job as manufacturing and supply 
unit of the Bell System, Western Electric engineers 
discover an even wider range of opportunity. Here 
they flourish in such new and growing fields as 
electronic switching, microwave radio relay, min- 
iaturization. They engineer the installation of tele- 
phone central offices, plan the distribution of equip- 
ment and supplies . . . and enjoy, with their defense 
teammates, the rewards that spring from an engi- 
neering career with Western Electric. 

Western Electric technical fields include me- 
chanical, electrical, chemical, civil and industrial 
engineering, plus the physical sciences. For more 
detailed information pick up a copy of "Consider a 
Career at Western Electric" from your Placement 
Officer. Or write College Relations. Room 200D, 



Western Electric Company, 195 Broadway. New 
York 7, N. Y. And sign up for a Western Electric 
interview when the Bell System Interviewing Team 
visits your campus. 




MANUFACTUR 



UNIT Of THE 



Principal manufacturing locations at Chicago, III.; Kearny. N J.; Baltimore. Md.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Allentown and Laureldale. Pa.; 
Burlington, Greensboro and Winston-Salem, N. C; Buffalo, N. Y.; North Andover, Mass.; Lincoln and Omaha Neb.; Kansas City, Mo.; 
Columbus, Ohio; Oklahoma City, Okla.; Teletype Corporation, Chicago, III. and Little Rock, Ark. Also Western Electric 
Distribution Centers in 32 cities and Installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



37 



C: 



A DOOR IS OPEN AT ALLIED CHEMICAL TO 



Opportunities for professional recognition 



If you feel, as we do, that the publication of technical 
papers adds to the professional stature of the individual 
employee and his worth to his company, you will see why 
Allied encourages its people to put their tindings in print. 
Some recent contributions from our technical statf are 
shown below. 

It's interesting to speculate on what you might publish 
as a chemist at one of our 12 research laboratories and 
development centers. The possibilities are virtually limit- 



less, because Allied makes over 3,000 products— chemi- 
cals, plastics, fibers— products that offer careers with a 
future for chemists, chemistry majors and engineers. 

Why not write today for a newly revised copy of "Your 
Future in Allied Chemical." Or ask our interviewer 
about Allied when he next visits your campus. Your 
placement office can tell you when he'll be there. 

Allied Chemical, Department 109-R2 
61 Broadway, New York 6, New York 



SOME RECENT TECHNICAL PAPERS AND TALKS BY ALLIED CHEMICAL PEOPLE 



"What is a Foam?" 

Donald S. Otto, National Aniline Division 

American Management Association Seminar on Polymeric 
Packaging Materials 

"Electrically Insulating, Flexible Inorganic Coatings on 
Metal Produced by Gaseous Fluorine Reactions" 
Dr. Robert W. Mason, General Chemical Research 

Laboratory 

American Ceramic Society Meeting, Electronic Division 

"Gas Chromatographic Separations of Closing Boiling 
Isomers" 

Dr. A. R. Paterson. Central Research Laboratory 

Second International Symposium on Gas Chromatography 
at Michigan State University 

"Correlation of Structure and Coating Properties of 
Polyurethane Copolymers" 

Dr. Maurice E. Bailey, G. C. Toone, G. S. Wooster, 
National Aniline Division; E. G. Bobaiek, Case In- 
stitute of Technology and Consultant on Organic 
Coatings 

Gordon Research Conference on Organic Coatings 

"Corrosion of Metals by Chromic Acid Solutions" 
Ted M. Swain, Solvay Process Division 

Annual Conference of tlie National Association of 
Corrosion Engineers 

"Use of Polyethylene Emulsions in Textile Applications" "Sulfur Hexafluoride" 



"Isocyanate Resins" 

Leslie M. Faichney, National Aniline Division 

Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 

"Concentration of Sulphide Ore by Air Float Tables- 
Gossan Mines" 

R. H. Dickinson, Wilbert J. Trepp, J. O. Nichols, 
General Chemical Division 

Engineering and Mining Journal 

"Urethane Foams" 



Dr. Maurice E. Bailey, National Aniline Division 

For publication in a hook on modern plastics by 
Herbert R. Simonds 

"The Booming Polyesters" 

James E. Sayre and Paul A. Elias, Plastics and Coal 

Chemicals Division 

Chemical & Engineering News 

"T, 2', 4'— Trimethoxyflavone" 

Dr. Sydney M. Spatz and Dr. Marvin Koral, Na- 
tional Aniline Division 

Journal of Organic Chemistry 

"Physical Properties of Perfluoropropane" 

James A. Brown, General Chemical Research Lab- 
oratory 

Journal of Physical Chemistry 



Robert Rosenbaum, Semet-Solvay Division 

D. D. Gagliardi, Gagliardi Research Corporation 

American Association of Textile Colorists & Chemists 



Dr. Whitney H. Mears, General Chemical Research 
Laboratory 



Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 



BASIC TO 
AMERICA'S 
PROGRESS 



DIVISIONS: BARRETT • GENERAL CHEMICAL • NATIONAL ANILINE • NITROGEN • 
PLASTICS AND COAL CHEMICALS • SEMET-SOLVAY- SOLVAY PROCESS ■INTERNATIONAL 




38 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tau Beta Pi Essay 



THE VIRTUES OF A 

PROFESSIONAL MAN 



By Charles D. Grigg 



Most >'oung men of today e\Tntnally 
come to a crossroads or intersection, 
better known as high school graduation. 
Then they must carefully choose the di- 
rection in which to travel. Faced with 
this decision, the young man must ex- 
amine a multitude of options; to con- 
tinue his education, to begin in some 
type of emploii'ment, to join the armed 
forces, and numerous other choices all 
beckon to him. 

What causes a young man to choose 
a field where professional performance 
is a necessity? In doing so, he must be 
well acquainted with the basic require- 
ments that differentiate the routine 
worker and technician from the profes- 
sional man. The essential criteria of the 
profession will allow a young man to 
decide whether he wants to work at a 
level of employment where professional 
performance is demanded. 

The first criterion of professional per- 
formance is that it usually reflects a 
formal and somewhat standardized 
training. This does not mean that the 
profession can be entered only via special 
college training. However, it does mean 
that complete understanding of certain 
fields of knowledge is to be regarded as 
essential to the successful practitioner. 

A large area of widely accepted stand- 
ard practice is implied by professional 
performance. This means that certain 
techniques, measures, and methods have 
achieved widespread approval and ac- 
ceptance. 

The regular and formalized exchange 
of information and experience among 
practitioners is usually presumed in pro- 
fessional performance. These exchanges 
are facilitated in the professions by sev- 
eral methods. Professional associations 
and conferences, on local, regional, and 
national levels are utilized by partici- 
|iants in exchanging information and 
learning of new developments. Special- 
ized periodic literature is used in which 
leports of research, experiment, and ex- 
perience are spread throughout the field. 
This attitude of free exchange con- 
trasts greatly with the old philosophy of 
patented procedures. 

The most essential feature in facili- 
tating this free exchange of professional 



information is undoubtedly the profes- 
sional association. These associations are 
composed of individual practitioners and 
are controlled democratically by the 
members. The association prescribes 
standards of training, knowledge, ex- 
perience, and skill which must be met 
by those who are admitted to member- 
sliip. 

Professional performance implies the 
knowledge of and familiarity with a 
continually growing field of professional 
literature. Such literature includes 
standard texts and specialized periodical 
publications, supported and maintained 
by members of the profession and pro- 
viding a means of reporting research, ex- 
periment, and experience. 

Continued research is always reflect- 
ed by professional performance. Profes- 




sional fields show continual change in 
theory and practice as a direct result of 
this research and the incorporation of 
research into current knowledge. This 
research receives from practitioners their 
active cooperation and participation as 
well as their continued moral and fi- 
nancial support. 

Professional performance is guided by 
an accepted systef of profe.ssional ethics 
and a strong sense of public responsibil- 
ity. The special responsibility arising 
out of their advisory and consultative 
function must be recognized by profes- 
sional men. They can afiford to be per- 
sistent in their concern for ethical con- 
siderations and the public interest, be- 
cause their special knowledge insures a 
maximum degree of independence and 
security. They are employed for what 
they know. Therefore, the professional 
man can afford to be a "no man," rather 
than a "yes man," to a degree that is 
not to be expected of a non-professional 
employee. 

The most important distinctive char- 
acteristic of the professional man is that 
suggested by the designation of "learn- 
ed professions" — a continuing attitude 
of learning. The professional continual- 
ly searches for new knowledge and a 
greater and more penetrating under- 
>tanding in a lifetime spent in study 
and learning. His training is designed to 
urge upon him habits of continuous edu- 
cation. From this never-ending drive 
arises his interest in research, his par- 
ticipation in professional associations and 
conferences, his study of current liter- 
ature, and his overall striving to im- 
pnne his profession. This attitude of 
learning is the very essence of the truly 
professional man. 

These are the basic criteria of pro- 
fessional performance, the creed of the 
professional man. It was earlier asked 
what causes a young man to choose a 
professional career. The basic purpose 
of a man's life — to leave the world a 
better place in which to live than when 
he entered it — is well supported by 
these criteria of the professional. There 
is little question that the professional 
man is an essential element in the con- 
tinual enhancement of society. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



39 



Best mdmdual effort. . . 




i 



Nv'V.'t:^?"', 




•iSilPULSION 



STRUCTURES & WTS. 



OPERATIONS RES. >» -y ff 

. . . best combinafton of meas 



At Convair-Fort Worth, you'll find a new 
outlook ... a new perspective in the engi- 
neering organization . . . one whose objective 
is to provide a framework from which each 
engineer can contribute his best individual 
effort toward achieving the best combination 
of ideas. 

This is one reason why so many experienced, 
well-trained men with creative ability and 
inquiring minds are taking a close look at 
the advantages of joining a team whose 
advanced thinking is so vividly portrayed 



by the all-new B-58, America's first and 
fastest supersonic bomber. 
Living in Fort Worth has its advantages, too. 
There is no state income or sales tax, ade- 
quate housing in all price ranges, no com- 
muting problem. Descriptive literature will be 
supplied on request, or send a complete res- 
ume' of your training and experience for care- 
ful evaluation by engineers in the areas best 
suited to your qualifications. To be assured 
of prompt attention and strict confidence, 
address your inquiry to P. O. Box 748C. 



CONVAIR-FORT WORTH 

A DIVISION OF 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 



40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



HELICOPTER CONTROL 

(Continiud jioin Page l^) 

This means that the blades merely flap 
up and down to always maintain a zero 
niomeiit about the hinges. This flapping 
due to an unbalance of the lift and cen- 
trifugal forces also always tends to align 
the tip path plane perpendicidar to the 
control axis when a tilt of the blades is 
desired. Since this balance tends to lag 
the tilt momentarily, a lag in the di- 



rection of motion is momentarily 
noticed. 

One might conclude then that the 
problem of control of the rotor is 
soKed. Hut if the helicopter were de- 
veloped with vertical flapping hinges 
alone, during flight testing it would be 
observed that either the flapping motion 
was retarded or that forces were acting 
tending to snap off the blades in the 
in-plane direction. To the pilot this 
might remain a great mystery, but to 




Figure VI 




Figure VII 



'Collective pilch sleeve 
(moves up and down while 
rololing with shaft) 




Flopping axis 
Blade thrust bearing 



Lower swash plate (mounted on gimbals 
which allow it 10 hit but not to rotate 
or to move vertically) 

Gear case fphonton\l fixed to fuselage 



Upper link (adjustable for tracking blades) 

Rotating rocker arm (upper links move up together when 

I ,_, center of rocker arms is moved up 

Lower link ^ ,, '. , .. , v 

by collechv&pitch sleeve, and move 

cyclically when swash plates are tilted^ 

; Pilot's collective pitch lever 
Throttle twist grip 



the mathematician or engineer this ac- 
tion must remain an inherent part of the 
system as long as the blades are designed 
to flap \crtically onh'. To vmderstand 
this action a little knowledge of angular 
momentum is required. Angular mo- 
mentum is a product of the mass of the 
blades M, the radius of the center of 
gravity squared R-, and the angular 
velocity W. In other words it is 
MR-'W. This product always tends to 
remain constant, but as the blades flap 
up and down the distance from the 
blade center of gravity to the axis of 
rotation changes and something else 
must change to hold the MR-'W con- 
stant. Since the mass cannot change the 
angular velocity of the blades must 
cliange, and since the blades are rigidly 
mounted in the in-plane direction, this 
results in a whipping action on the 
blades with a tendency to prevent verti- 
cal flapping. It therefore becomes ob\i- 
ous that something else must be done to 
o\ercome this, and the answer lies in 
hinging the blades in the in-plane direc- 
tion also. 

Now as the blades flap up and down 
tliey can also speed up and slow ilown 




Figure IX 

to hold the angular momentum con- 
stant and the problem is solved. This 
is known as a full-flapping universally- 
movuited rotor. 

1 his explanation was based essential- 
ly on a single-rotor type helicopter and 
examples of other variations were intro- 
duced. The basic control methods in- 
volved are best illustrated by the single 
rotor, with an anti torque rotor, but 
they are applicable to all helicopters. 
The main control requirements are 
therefore, (1) directional control, (2) 
pilot control and (3) rotor control; and 
these are essentially accomplished b\' ( 1 ) 
rotor tilt and anti-torque devises, (2) 
mechanical controls similar to those 
in conventional aircraft with an added 
pitch stick, and (3) the full-flapping 
universally-mounted rotoi'. 

1 



Figure VIII 



Weekend Chores Eased 

Saturday afternoon is a good time 
for a game of golf, or pottering around 
the house, but it was not always that 
wa\. Hack in 1924, a Pittsburgh oil 
company published a booklet in which 
it told the car r)wner what he would 
have to do every weekend to keep his 
car in shape and listed parts that must 
be oiled or greased by hand. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



41 



SPACE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES, INC. 

FELLOWSHIPS 

FOR 

Doctoral & Postdoctoral Study 

AT THE CALIPORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
OR THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 




*\W\\\1A\\\\\\\\%W\\%\\\VW\\\W\\\\\\\\\\\\1.\\\\\WV 



SPACE TF.CHNOLOGY Fellowships have been estab- 
lished in recognition of the great scarcity of scientists 
and engineers who have the very special qualifications 
required for work in Systems Engineering, and of the 
rapidly increasing national need for such individuals. 
Recipients of these Fellowships will have an oppor- 
tunity to pursue a broad course of graduate study in 
the fundamental mathematics, physics, and engineering 
required for careers in these fields, and will also have 
an opportunity to associate and work with experienced 
engineers and scientists. 

Systems Engineering encompasses difficult advanced 
design problems of the type which involve interactions, 
compromises, and a high degree of optimization 
between portions of complex complete systems. This 
includes taking into account the characteristics of hu- 
man beings who must operate and other\vise interact 
with the systems. 

The program for each Fellow covers approximately 
a Uselve-month period, part of which is spent at Space 
Technology Laboratories, and the remainder at the 
California Institute of Technology or the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology working toward the Doc- 
tor's degree, or in post-doctoral study. Fellows in good 



standing may apply for renewal of the Fellowship for a 
second year. 

ELIGIBILITY The general requirements for eligibility 
are that the candidate be an American citizen who has 
completed one or more years of graduate study in 
mathematics, engineering or science before July, 1960, 
The Fellowships will also be open to persons who have 
already received a Doctor's degree and who wish to 
undertake an additional year of study focused specifi- 
cally on Systems Engineering. 

AWARDS The awards for each Fellowship granted will 
consist of three portions. The first will be an educa- 
tional grant disbursed through the Institute attended 
of not less than $2,000, with possible upward adjust- 
ment for candidates with family responsibilities. The 
second portion will be the salary paid to the Fellow for 
summer and part-time work at Space Technology Lab- 
oratories. The salary will depicnd upon his age and 
experience and the amount of time worked, but will 
normally be approximately $2,000. The third portion 
will be a grant of $2, 100 to the school to cover tuition 
and research expenses. 



APPLICATION PROCEDURE For a dacriptive 
booklet and application forms, write to Space 
Tcchnolofly Laboratories Fellowship Committee. 
Completed applications together with reference 
forms and a transcript of undcrciradiiate and 
graduate courses and (\radcs must be transmitted 
to the Committee not later than ]an. 20, 1960. 



SPACE 

TECHNOLOGY 
LABORATORIES, INC. 

P.O. BO.X 95004 

LOS ANGELES 45, CALIFORNIA 



® 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Scientist as a Person 



( ('.0}iliiiiH d from Piigr .'/j 



1 can't spi'ak for the scientist who 
works alone, and certainly one of the 
major [iroblenis in our society today is 
to preserve the individuah'ty and initia- 
tive of those who contribute toward a 
<:roup effort. It is equally true that a 
scientist who is paid by a big company 
to do research and who makes a discov- 
ery is expected to give the compan\' the 
benefit of that discovery. But let me 
add quickly — if the discovery provides 
a commercial opportunity for the com- 
pany, the scientist shares commensurate- 
1\' in the rewards throup;h a bonus sys- 
tem. 

I ha\e been hearing rumors and have 
read stories for years of inventions being 
suppressed or kept in a deep freeze b\ 
business firms because development 
might injure an existing business. No 
authentic proof of this has ever come to 
m\ attention. Certainly the intensity of 
competition today would make such a 
step unthinkable in the chemical indus- 
try In our company, for example, ny'on 
was developed and put on the market as 
soon as possible after its discovery al- 
though we knew it v.'ould hurt our 
rayon business. Further, we now have 
in addition "Orion" acrylic fiber and 
"Dacron" polyester fiber which compete 
with n\lon in manv markets. 



It i> worth noting here that among 
those who have risen to top manage- 
ment, those who began in a research lab- 
oratory constitute 23 per cent of the 
members of the Executive Committ?e, 
45 per cent of the general managers, 33 
per cent of the assistant general mana- 
gers, 54 per cent of the directors of 
production. 38 per cent of the assistant 
directors of production, 33 per cent of 
the directors of sales, and 27 per cent 
of the assistant directors of sales. In 
numbers, 43 of the 118 top posts are 
held by men who began as research sci- 
entists. In addition, all 24 of the direc- 
tors and assistant directors of research 
in our various departments — posts 
which rank on the organization chart 
with the directors and assistant directors 
of production and sales — are of course 
scientists. 

It seems to me these facts demonstrate 
the scientist is a most desirable citizen 
engaged in an essential and rewarding 
profession. Instead of being "squares" 
or hermits, they have about the same in- 
terests as other Americans. Perhaps be- 
cause of their intellectual training, man\' 
scientists accept an even greater respon- 
sibility for civic and social obligations. 

Above all, they are proud and inde- 
pendent individual:. Four out of 111 of 



those who responded to our question- 
naire took advantage of an invitation to 
express themselves on what, if anything, 
should be done to alter the distorted con- 
cept of the research scientist. Their com- 
ments reflected opinions and personali- 
ties ranging all o\er the spectrum. Per- 
haps the extremes were these: 

"Scientists are concerned with life, 
government, the arts. etc.. outside their 
occupations. They are not necessarily 
mental giants, nor is their work at all 
mysterious. They want to participate in 
the commvinity. Their opinions warrant 
more consideration in the fields of go\- 
ernment and social affairs." And on the 
other side : 

"I feel verv stronglv that it is a g'eat 
disservice to both science and the public 
to try to picture scientists as 'just plain 
folks" who happen to do research in- 
stead of selling soap. Practically all of 
the scientists I have known have been 
more or less peculiar — in general, the 
better the scientist, the odder the man." 

A final comment, it seemed to me, 
was an articulate expression of the way 
the scientist himself would like to be 
regarded. This one urged : 

"Present true, creative scientists as 
they are: different from the ordinary 
people; all creative people are different 
from the ordinary public — it is what 
makes them creative. They should be 
respected because the\' are different, and 
thus contribute to the imderstanding of 
the v.orld around us." 



SEE PAGE 57 

For An Important Bulletin 



OCTOBER, 1959 



43 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by Paul Cliff 



Steel-Shod Russians 

There was a time when Russians 
actually wore shoes with steel soles, 
American Machinist comments. This 
was in the 13th century, and the wear- 
ers were tribesmen w-ho inhabited the 
lower Central Ural Mountains. The 
soles were an inch thick, and were 
grooved to prevent slipping. Being abso- 
lutely rigid, they had no give, and prob- 
ably were uncomfortable. But they 
were economical. The shoes were passed 
from generation to generation, and 
never wore nut. 

Lockheed's F-104 Starfighter 

How much flight is there in the thin, 
short and sharp wings of Lockheed's 
F-in4 Starf^ghter? 

Knough to carry it successfully 
through about 40 years of normal serv- 
ice. 

California Di\ision of Lockheed Air- 
craft Corp. put the sharp, thin wing 
through nearly 11,000 successive, 2- 
hour combat flights simulated during a 
grueling 3j/-year-long fatigue test pro- 
gram. 

In such tests, powerful hydraulic 
jacks repeatedly bend and twist the part 
to torture it and try to make it break. 

In contra.st to conventional methods 
which applied an unvarying pattern of 
forces in such tests, Lockheed for the 
lirst time employed a new flight-by- 
Hight loading concept. 

Simulating the rapidly changing pres- 
sures encountered by a combat P"-104 
from takeoff run through all phases of 
flight and back to landing, loads were 



applied in the sequence expected during 
each complete flight. 

Researchers used two groups of spe- 
cial hydraulic jacks in the tests to cre- 
ate the load conditions identified with 
both subsonic and supersonic flight ma- 
neuvers. 

The first structural failure occurred 
(finallv) after 10,793 "flights" involv- 
ing more than 1,000,000 flight-like load 
applications duplicating all phases of an 
actual operational mission. 

Further, the engineers reported they 
foiuid that even with 60 per cent of the 
wing-fuselage attachment rendered in- 
operable the wing continued to carry 
its design load. 

World's Highest Dam 

The Vaiont Dam across the deep, 
narrow gorge of the Pia\'e Ri\er in 
Northern Italy will be the highest in the 
world when completed next year. The 
arched concrete structure, only 623 feet 
wide at the top will rise 870 feet from 
the river bed — o\er 100 feet taller than 
Mauvoisin Dam in Switzerland and 144 
feet higher than Hoover Dam in Col- 
orado. 

Radio Station For $25 

.\ tm\ portahlf KM radio transmit- 
ter can be built from commercial parts 
costing only S25. The microphone- 
transmitter, powered by a standard 
transister radio battery, is about the 
size of a deck of bridge cards and has 
a range of about 200 feet — just right to 
serve as a portable public address micro- 
phone. 



Tiny Screws Provide Headaches 

Tiny .screws have been providing 
king-sized headaches for space engineers 
and scientists. Thinner than a fine 
needle, they are \ital components of the 
delicate instruments and controls in mis- 
siles and rockets. 

Until recently, there were no stand- 
ard screw sizes at those Lilliputian di- 
mensions, and engineers had to design 
their own screws for every nvw instru- 
ment. 

Now. a solution has been reached. 
-A publication called "American Stand- 
ard Uru'fied Minature Screw Threads," 
has been approved by the American 
Standards Association. It establishes a 
new thread series that will go a long 
way towards simplifying design of 
space-age instruments, as well as watches 
and other more down-to-earth miniature 
mechanisms. 

The new publication establishes four- 
teen standard screw thread sizes, with 
a standard design that covers all of 
them. 

Screws covered by this standard are 
so tiny that 75.000 of the smallest of 
them would fit in a thimble. The 
threads on these are invisible to the 
naked e>e. The diameters of the screws 
range from one-hundredth (0.01) inch 
to six one-hundredths (0.06) of an 
inch. 

Closed-Circuit Auction 

The Armv will auction a billion and 
a half dollars worth of surplus equip- 
ment this fall over a clo.sed-circuit tele- 
vision network. \Iachinery. tools and 
supplies stored at depots all over the 
East will be put before bidders at large- 
screen TV setups in New York City, 
Boston, Philadelphia, Columbus, Chi- 
cago and St. Louis. Bids will be made 
and accepted via two way radio. 

Burglar's Apprentice 

The "jimmy," a short crowbar often 
used by burglars, was invented in the 
Middle Ages and got its name from 
burglars' apprentices, who were all 
called "James. " When a bright crook 
invented the handy tool, he named his 
new helper after his old one, and the 
name stuck. 

Moth Fighter 

Compounds that are colorless, odor- 
less and harmless to humans now protect 
textiles from attack by insects. Called 
metabolites, the compounds — differing 
only slightl\' in chemical structure from 
vitamins — up.set the digestive system of 
larvae b\ causing embryonic starvation. 
Full-grown insects, however, recognize 
the difference between the compounds 
and real vitanuii-bearing materials and 
make no attempt to approach fabrics 
treated \M'th them. 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



New Source of Electrons 

Klectrnnic tubes of the future may 
some dav be "transistorized," according 
to Westin^house Electric Corporation 
scientists. It all depends on whetlier 
tliey can !"a've practical use of an effect 
plusicists have discovered recently by 
which it is possible to obtain a constant 
How of electrons dirccth' out of t' e 
surface of certain se!iiiconductor ma- 
terials. 

The latest semiconductor to yield this 
unique flow of electrons is silicon car- 
bide — a hard, crystalline solid best 
Irvii-.-n for its widespread use in impure 
'nrm as a'l abrasive in grinding: wheels. 
Th" density of the electron flow o" 
"emission" they find, is equal to that in 
the average electronic tube. 

"In recent years, transistors and re- 
lated devices have replaced convention-' 
electronic tubes in a wide van'pf nt 
■^■rlern e'ectroni'' equipn-'ent." Dr. 
'^la'-euc Zener, director of W-stin<T- 
house research, ^-aid in disclosing the 
new discovery. "Bv removing the most 
serious limitation of the ordinary elec- 
tronic tube this discovery in semicon- 
ductors mi<^ht reverse this trend and 
bring a new lease on life to the very 
de\ice which semi-conductors seem des- 
tined to outmode." 

An electronic tube functions bv reg- 
vdating the flow of a stream of elec- 
trons across a vacuum inside it. Con- 
ventionally, these electrons are obtained 
by boiling them out of a coated metal 
wire, or cathode, at high temperatures. 
Considerable electric power is required 
to supply the necessary heat, which then 
must be dissipated to prevent overheat- 
ing of the tube itself. 

"Applied successfully to a vacuum 
tube, this new method of electron emis- 
sion from semiconductors would do 
away with this whole inefficient proc- 
ess," Dr. Zener declared. "One can 
visualize a tube in which the usual heat- 
ed cathode is replaced by a small semi- 
conductor crystal having a built-in 
'junction' like that in a transistor. The 
cr\stal would consume a negligble 
amount of power and would yield elec- 
trons instantly and indefinitely when a 
small electric voltage is applied across 
it. 

"Such a device would, in effect, com- 
bine into a single operating unit many 
of the inherent advantages of both semi- 
conductors and vacuum tubes. It would 
result in what might be called a 'solid 
state' electronic tube." 

The escape of electrons from silicon 
carbide accompanies the emission of vis- 
ible light from the crystal. This visible 
light is a form of electroluminescence, 
and occurs when enough voltage is ap- 
plied across the junction to cause break- 
down, that is, loss of the junction's nor- 
mal electrical resistance. 




When breakdown occurs, small blue 
spots of light appear in the cr\stal in 
the region of the junction. Electrons 
escape from these bright, light-emitting 
spots, especially from those located near- 
est the surface of the crystal. The spots 
are small, only about 50 millionths of an 
inch in diameter. From the spots the 
Westinghouse scientists have measured 
cmrents up to one millionth of an am- 
pere, which indicates that the density 
of the electron flow is quite comparable 
to that from the cathode of a typical 
vacuum tube. 

Although a millionth of an ampere is 
a small current by everyday standards, 
many of the more sophisticated elec- 
tronic tubes of today, such as beam- 
t\'pe camera and display tubes used in 
television and military electronic sys- 
tems, may use considerably less current 
than this. It is particularly interesting 
that this perfectly adequate flow of elec- 
trons originates from a tiny, pin-point 
soiuce. Such a source would have many 
advantages in the construction of com- 
plicated tubes. It would simplify focus- 
ing of the electron beam and eliminate 
much of the complicated tube construc- 
tion now employed for this purpose. 

In view of the present-day emphasis 
upon minaturization of electronic equip- 
ment, elemination of the large, hot, 
power - consuming cathode would be a 
major advance in electronic tube devel- 
opment. The potential advantages of 
such a "solid state" have stimulated at 
the Westinghouse research laboratories 
further research on the electron emis- 
sion from silicon carbide as well as a 
program aimed at making eventual use 
of the phenomenon in working devices, 
the Westinghouse scientists reported. 



A possible electronic tube of the 
future being constructed and tested 
by Westinghouse. 

Boon For Motorists 

Motorists in Tulsa will no longer 
have to stand around and stare at grease 
racks while waiting for their cars to be 
repaired. A soon-to-open Oklahoma 
service station will feature an air-con- 
ditioned lounge equipped with television 
for its cvistomers. 

Ultrafast Acting Anesthetic 

Heinrich Gruber of Berlin, Ger- 
many, has been granted a patent for an 
ultrafast acting, short-term liquid an- 
esthetic for intravenous injection based 
on a derivative of barbituric acid. (U.S. 
2,839,447). By the addition of a suit- 
able quantity of glycerine, the stupor 
usually induced by a barbituric drug is 
overcome and a patient is in full com- 
mand of his faculties immediately on 
awakening and is "fit" after only thirty 
minutes. Presence of diethylether in the 
anesthetic formulation stimulates 
breathing and metabolism, thus expedit- 
ing the decomposition of the drug in 
the body. The anesthetic is recommend- 
ed for localized operations requiring a 
short period of time. 

Five-Purpose Lamppost 

\ew \'iuk Cit\ pl.ins to replace its 
12(t,0()U lampposts with a five-purpose 
fiixture. The new lampposts, now in the 
design stage, will provide street light- 
fire alarm boxes and street signs in a 
single installation. New York hopes 
ebentually to replace all of its 64 dif- 
ferent types of oinamental lampposts 
with the new model. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



45 



FROM YOUR MECHANIC 
GET THE BEST 



Precis 



There are two ways to keep your i':u 
in perfect shape. One is to put it in 
(leaii storage. The other is to (iiul a 
i;ooil mechanic and to stick with him. 

The (irst solution doesn't make much 
sense. The reason we hu\' a car is to 
use it: for business, errands, tim. The 
only way to be sure that it will be 
ready to use when it's needed is to see 
that it gets consistent, expert care. And 
that's eas>' to do if \(iu go about it the 
right way. 

Unless you've worked with cars most 
of your life, you should trust your auto- 
mobile to the professional of the busi- 
ness — your neighborhood mechanic. If 
you're not an expert, resist the tempta- 
tion to sa\e a couple of dollars by doing 
it \()urself. One slip of the hand can 
ruin an expensive part. Poor adjust- 
ment of a vital function such as igni- 
tion timing can cost you money in poor 
performance, high gasoline consumption 
and reduced engine life. 

Pick a mechanic with a reputation for 
fair liealing and good work, and then 
stick with him. He's had rigorous train- 
ing for his job. If he specializes in a 
particular make of car, he's probably 
attended training courses run by the 
manufacturer. If he repairs all makes, 



there's a good chance that he has had 
formal mechanical training in addition 
to a lifetime of working with cars, first 
as a teen-age hobbv and later .-i^ his 
livelihood. 

\'iiu'll find that most top mechanics 
keeji u)! with the latest developments in 
the field b\ attending clinics run by 
liart-- and equipment manufacturers, 
such as American Brakeblok's famous 
brake service clinics. Other manufactur- 
ers keep them supplied with literature 
and service manuals covering every com- 
|ionent of your automobile. In service 
stations these days you'll find such ex- 
otic equipment as oscilloscopes, exhaust 
gas analyzers and electronic dwell me- 
ters. They're a sure sign that today's me- 
chanic is a specialist in a specialized 
job — keeping your complex automobile 
in perfect condition. 

What can you do to get the most 
from your mechanic at the least cost? 
A number of things. First, tell him the 
symptoms, but don't try to do the diag- 
nosis yourself. Give your mechanic the 
same credit for knowing cars that you 
gi\e your doctor for knowing medicine. 
Let him do the diagnosis and treatment. 

Ignoring this piece of advice can make 
it expensive for you. Take the case of 




the guy who was having trouble get- 
ting his late model \'-.S to accelerate. It 
would hesitate .ind then lurch forward. 
( )ur friend had rcail an article on auto- 
m.itic transmissions, telling how a worn 
or slipning transmission band could 
cuise that kind of trouble. So he In- 
structed his mechanic to adju-t the 
transmission and I'eplace any worn 
hands. Smce he was a "uy that knew 
e\:ictly what he wanted — ami soundeil 
like he knew what he was talking about 
— the mechanic followed instructions. 

Two days later our hero got a healthy 
bill for parts and labor, and a guarantee 
th;it the transmission was now in top 
shape. Rut when he got out In traffic 
his car -till hesitated and lurched. So 
h<' \'ent to another mechanic. Hut this 
time he let the auto man do the trouble- 
shooting. Trouble: dirty c-rburetor. 
Cure: a thorough cleaning. Bill: a frac- 
tion of the cost of the transmission 
work. The unfortunate part of the 
story is that our friend is somehow cnn- 
\inced that the first mechanic was a 
sharp operator who took him fo'- the 
price of an imnecessary transmission 
job. 

Once you've foiuid a mechanic \ou 
trust, keep him up to date on any symp- 
toms of trouble. Let him listen to the 
engine, perhaps give the car a short road 
test whenever you have a tune-up or 
grease iob done. His trained eyes and 
ears will probably spot impending trou- 
ble long before it becomes serious, or 
expensive. He'll be glad to discuss your 
car with you and to recommend pre- 
ventive maintenance that will keep your 
auto's condition up, and your repair 
costs down. 

What about his charges? How do 
you know you're not being taken? Will 
he stand behind his work? 

Relax. Although the automotive 
trade has a fringe of unethical opera- 
tors — just as any other business does — 
the vast majority of mechanics and serv- 
ice station owners are honest. They're 
interested in building a following of 
regular customers, not in making a fast 
buck one step ahead of the Better Busi- 
ness Bureau. 

Ask for an estimate on any job that's 
bigger than a tune-up. Most of the 
time you'll get a firm bid you can rely 
on. Occasionally, your mechanic will re- 
fuse a binding estimate until he's dug 
into the car. This perfectly legitimate ; 
a lot of unexpected troubles can be hid- 
den under the cylinder heads and oil 
p.m. Just ask your mechanic to check 
with >'ou before he does anything that 
will run into money. 

Here's a money-saving tip. Whenever 
\ou ha\e a repair job done, ask what 
other jobs can be combined with it. For 
example, a ring job, bearing replace- 
ment, ami valve job can all be done 
together ;it a fraction of the cost of 



46 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



doing them separately. Ask your me- 
chanic what else your car needs and 
whether it would he cheaper to have 
it all done together. There's not much 
satisfaction in having the engine torn 
down for one job, only to have it torn 
down again a few weeics later for some- 
thing else. 

Not satisfied with the results of your 
mechanic's work? do back to him in- 
stead of trotting off to another service- 
man. Talk it over. If he goofed, chances 
are he'll make it good. Rut remember 
that today's automobile is a complicated 
organism. E\cn if it has been put in 
top condition, an unforeseen breakdown 
can happen at any time. 

In any case, the best protection against 
unexpected troubles and unbearable costs 
is to pick a good mechanic and to stick 
with him. He can be the best friend 
vour car ever had. 



THE COED 
Between the sincerity of old age and 
discrimination of childhood there is a 
strange and uncanny age of the "coed." 
Coeds come in assorted sizes, weights, 
shapes and colors. They can be found 
everywhere — inciting panty raids, read- 
ing the latest edition of "Confidential," 
and bragging about that date with the 
campus hero they wish the\' could get. 



A coed is e.xotic with mascara on her 
eyelashes, demurene.ss in a sweater, and 
"The Future Homemaker" with a can 
opener. A coed is a composite — she is as 
funny as a train wreck, as modest as 
Lady Godiva, as subtle as a kick in the 
pants, has the taste of "pheasant under 
glass" and when she wants i-'omething, 
it is usually a date. Who else can talk 
more and say less. She is as cvuining as a 
rattlesnake, as meek as ,i tiger, and as 
graceful as a giraffe. 

She likes flattery, champagne, big 
cars, wedding rings, windy street cor- 
ners, her roommate's clothes, and boys — 
anytime. She is leery of cheap dates, 
housemothers, western movies, hillbilly 
music, work, and other girls. 

Nobody else can cram into one little 
billfold a complete picture album, five 
recent love letters, a box of Kleenex, 
her boy friend's car keys, eight safety 
pins, and a flashlight for emergencies on 
dates. After four long years of faithful 
companionship during which she has ac- 
cumulated your ring, your letter sweat- 
er and your fraternity pin, you receive 
the two most heart-warming words in 
the whole world . . . "Dear John." 



If young girls stay out late, drink, 
smoke and pet, men will call them fast 
— as fast as they can get to a phone. 



MY SLIDE RULE 

There are many like it but this one 
is mine. 

My slide rule is my friend 

And I shall learn to lo\e it like a 
friend. 

I will obey my slide rvde. 

When mv stick tells me that SxS is 
24.8,' 

Then by god, fi\e times five is twen- 
ty-four point eight! 

I will learn the anatomy of my slide 
rule. 

Though 1 die in the struggle, I will 
use every side, 

The black scale and the red, the 
inverted C and the inside out 
log. 

The reversed A and the mutilated I). 

I will master them all, and they will 
serve me well, thev will I 

I will cherish my slipstick and never 
shall profanity sear its long, 
graceful mahogany limbs. 
My slide rule shall be my brother 
in suffering through long hours 
of midnight toil. 

We will work together, my slide nde 
and I. 

And on the great day when my slide 
rule and I have finished our ap- 
pointed task and the problems 
are done and answers are right. 

I will take that damn stick and have 
one hell of a fire, I will! 




World-Wide lifJK 
Refrigeration '^ ^ 



INDIA— Prime Minister Nehru insnects 
a Frick installation by Mohammed 
Singh, a Frick graduate. 



FRICK COMPANY 

Student Training 

Course attracts students from all over the world. 

Established by one of fhe oldest manufacturers of 
refrigeration, this course has acquired such an out- 
standing reputation that only a small select group 
can be admitted each year. 

Write for details and applications today. 



Fill RUUN6 PENS MST 
Nmi ONE HAND! 

with new HIGGINS INK-A-MATIC 
drawing ink dispenser 

Just a slight movement of your hand, and HIGGINS new drawing ink dis- 
penser fills ruling pens automatically - faster, easier, than ever before! 
SPEEDS UP INK TRACING BY 32%. Ink bottle sits securely on non-skid 
rubber base. Gentlest touch on lever lifts stopper, brings pen filler into 

position. No mess, no waste. 

Pen filler maybe 

rotated for most 

convenient filling angle. 

Lever may be clamped 

down so bottle stays 

open when you use dip pen. 



IJjMMH«UJirH)tWM 'BjlTJ«l-lf« 

@Ig^gg 




Now at 
art and 

stationery 
stores 



HIGGinS m CO JNC. 

Brooklyn, New York 
riie basic art medium since 7880. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



47 



NAVY PIER STAFF 



(1959-1960) 




U.I.C 



The Navy Pier column this month will be devoted to 
the introduction of the Pier staff. All returnees hove three 
things in common; they are all nineteen, they are all in 
engineering, and they all like to v^rite for TECH. 

SHELDON ALTMAN is Navy Pier editor of TECHNO- 
GRAPH. A graduate of Austin High school, he became 
active in the school concert and marching band. While in 
High school Shelly also played trumpet for a small com- 
bo. At present he is a fifth semester mechanical engineer- 
ing student. As a staff member he has been both circula- 
tion and business manager. His contributions to the mag- 
azine were published quite frequently lost year. 

ARVYDAS TAMULIS came to the Pier from St. Ignatius 
High school. While there he deboted with the high school 
team. This experience has added to his creative skill as 
a writer; Arvy is also active in the Lituanica Club. He is a 
third semester engineering physics major. 

MIKE MURPHY, is a graduate of St. Rita H. S. He is a 
third semester civil engineering student and is active in 
the ASCE. Mike contributed some fine material to the 
magazine last semester, including a competent report on 
Chicago's new exhibition center and the controversial 
filtration plant. 

EILLEEN MARKHAM has come to us from Alverina 
H. S. A varsity debater, with high school experience in 
the same, she is the president of the UIC chapter of Pi 
Kappa Delta. Last years Navy Pier editorial was her work. 
Among her other interests are scouting (she's a Mariner 
leader), swimming (she's an instructor) and classical 
music (strictly a listener). Added note: Eillen is a third 
semester electrical engineering student. 

IRVIN TUCKMAN, a third semester EE, has added his 
artistic talents to our group. While at Von Steuben H. S., 
Irv, won a Museum of Science and Industry contest for 
his design of a wind tunnel based on the Venturi Effect. 
His big writing assignment for TECH was co-editing the 
St. Lawrence Seaway report. 



The Techtiograph stafli wishes to correct a mistake in 
the May 1959 Navy Pier issue. 

All article, "Central District Filtration Plant," was run 
minus the name of one co-author, Arnold Feinberg. We also 
wish to credit Mr. Feinberg with the photographs accom- 
panxini; the article. 



48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Used But Not Gone 



Use Professional/''^ 



by Olga Ercegovac 



What happens to all that water that 
runs down the drain while you're wait- 
ing for it to get cold enough for that 
comparatively small drink? It runs 
down that drain into a sewer and mixes 
with wastes from other homes and in- 
dustry. You probably don't feel very 
extravagant luiless you live in a com- 
munity threatened by a water shortage. 
It you have Ii\ed in California, you are 
probahi\ more aware of such a situa- 




tion. California is having trouble be- 
cause of its rapid decline in ground 
water and the intriisian of sea water. 
No one enjoys living in a community, 
where he cannot feel at ease taking an 
extra shower on a muggy day or water- 
ing his parched lawn. Over conserva- 
tion can be a trying thing. Why not 
re-use some of that precious water? 

This question has been asked before, 
but even the American heritage of ex- 
travagance has been overworked. One 
California town sends a 2000 ton train 
of water (which we just spent a good 
deal of mone\ on in the way of treat- 
ment ) to transport only one ton of or- 
ganic solids. And what's more — we 
throw away the train at the end of only 
one trip. In most common cases of well- 
treated sewage, one good burro could 
carry all that is required of a half a 
million gallons of water. The usual 
type of water provision plans take much 
time to get in operation. This is not 
the case with water and sewage recla- 
mation. 

Fii>r of all, what is sewage reclama- 
tion .•' There is no standardized defini- 
tion, but it is usually considered as a 



purposeful upgrading of the quality of 
sewage. It is done with the intent of 
making it useable by agricultm'e, indus- 
try, or the public. Sewage reclamation 
ma\' also be the actual utilization of 
sewage effluent which has luidergone 
suitable treatment for some other reason. 
The term does not apply to treatment 
of sewage for the mere purpo.se of dis- 
posal. Nor does it apply to incidental 
reclamation achieved by dilution of 
sewage discharge into water coinses for 
the purpose of disposal even though the 
water from the stream may be of su't- 
able quality for beneficial use. Lsually 
sewage receives minimum treatment 
iust so it can be legally thrown away. 
This minimum is dictated by advancing 
standards of a growing population based 
on public health, aesthetics, and the 
rights of other water users. 

Sewage reclamation has been in prac- 
tice since 1930; but even in sections of 
the country where the water shortage 
is acute, sewage is disposed of with no 
reclamation. We have been slow to re- 
use waste water because of delays in 
technical, engineering, economic, psy- 
chological, and legal departments. Re- 
sides these, engineers and public officials 
tend to think of the collection, trans- 
portation, treatment, and distribufon 
of water as one complete package; while 
the recollection, transportation, and re- 
treatment of the same water is consid- 
ered an unrelated job of scavenging. 

In 19,?(), Goudey demonstrated that 
highly treated sewage could be safeh' 
applied to ground water by surface 
spreading. In 1949 Arnold, Hedger, and 
Rawn found ground water recharged 
with treated sewage to be both techni- 
cally and economically feasible. A gen- 
eral lack of interest in sewage reclama- 
tion delaved further scientific investiga- 
tion. Until quite recently, it was be- 
lieved that direct recharge of ground 
water was impractical because of clog- 
ging due to suspended matter in sewage 
effluents, and it was feared that patho- 
genic bacteria might travel long dis- 
tances with moving ground water. 

Even industry did not consider recla- 
mation very seriously. Transporting the 
water back to potential users incurred 
large expense. Few cities were willing 
to tear up paved streets to lav tu-w net- 
works of pipe. \ot onlv is it alreadv 
crowiled, but it is difficult to keep two 




A.W.FABIR imported 
CASTELL with famous 
Black Gold graphite, 
or LOCKTITE with 



lead holder and 

Blade Gold Imported 
9030 Castell Lead. 

Nothing is more 
important to you in the 
formative phase of your 
education than to develop 
professional habits. 
A.W.Faber Black Gold 
graphite has helped 
countless thousands of 
seasoned Pros acquire 
the "golden touch". 
It is available to you 
either in the world- 
renovi/ned Castell wood 
pencil or in the Spiral 
Grip TEL-A-GRADE 
LOCKTITE with degree 
indicator. 

Black Gold graphite tests 
out at more than 99% 
pure natural carbon. 
It is smooth, grit-free 
and black as a raven's 
wing. It takes a long, 
keen point and resists 
heavy pressure in 
drawing or drafting. 

Whether your talents are 
creative or interpretive, 
you'll do better work 
once you acquire the 
"golden touch" with 
professional Castell 
tools. 20 superb degrees, 
8B to lOH. Pick up 
some Castells at your 
convenient supply 
store today. 




A.W.FABER-Cil5r£a 

PENCIL CO., INC. NEWARK 3, N. ). 



OCTOBER, 1959 



49 



separate water systems in one plant, 
l-'iirther inhibitions were due to the un- 
known economics of the situation. It is 
easier to mine out the e\istinj; ground 
waters than it is to reclaim sewage. 
Not too man\ people think of the long- 
term consequences to the natural re- 
sources. This all brought up the concept 
of water rights. Who would own the 
water that was recharged at public ex- 
pense? What restriction could be placed 
on its withdrawal from an already over- 
pumped ground water basin? There was 
little inteiest in soKing the problems 
that were connected with the whole con- 
cept. People want to go along for as 
long as they can get away with it. 

It is too bad about the general lack 
of interest in sewage reclamation. Water 
supplied by reclaimed sewage could have 
well used more research. If present 
standards of nutrition are maintained, 
six million acres of newh' irrigated crop 
land must be brought into full produc- 
tion b\ 1975. This land will lie in seven- 
teen western states and need near three 
acre-feet of water per acre. This means 
we will need eighteen million acre-feet 
of water per year to make it useable, 
(joing by a present census, we find that 
the total sewage How is about three mil- 
lion acre-feet or one-sixth of the de- 
m;md if the entire sewage How can be 
reclaimed. Sewage reclamation is not 
sufficient to meet the irrigation demands. 



COMPARISON OF FRESH AND RECLAIMED WATER COSTS 



/ortition 




fresh 






rcclaitited 


use 


(Golden Gate 

California 


Park 


$ 66 






$ 21 


lawn and shrub 

irrigation and 

ornamental lake 


(irand Can\( 
Arizona 


n 


550 






120 


lawn inigation 


Los Alamos 
Mexico 




92 






24 


power pl;uit 
cooluig w:it(M" 


Santa I'"e 
Mexico 




7S 
cost is 


dollars 


per 


49 
acre foot 


irrigation of 
golf course 



but these tremendous \()lumes of water 
can certainly help relie\e the situation. 

Approximately half a billion gallons 
of water are wasted to the ocean each 
day after only single useage in Cali- 
fornia's two greatest centers of popula- 
tion. This is enough water to represent 
the combined yield of 350 12" wells 
each producing 1000 GPM continuous- 
ly'. It is enough water to produce 7800 
tons of steel daily at normal figures of 
64,000 gallons per ton. Or this volume 
of water could irrigate 100,000 acres of 
land even if half of it were lost through 
evaporation during storage. Although it 
is not enough, this water can still go a 
long way. 

Because most sewage ellluent occurs 



in populated areas, this is where it is 
used. It can be used for industry, local 
irrigation, and domestic supply. The 
first two uses are most promising. Sew- 
age reclamation water for domestic sup- 
ply is hindered by aesthetic considera- 
tions as well as high costs for greater 
refinement. However, sewage effluent 
may be used by the public to recharge 
ground waters and thus become part of 
the water suppl\, or to irrigate parks 
and golf courses or even maintain recre- 
ational ponds. In .some large cities, re- 
claimed sewage is used in peripheral 
agriculture or in maintenance of pasture 
land for dairy cattle not currently pro- 
ducing milk. Industry sometimes seems 
the mf)re logical user. For o\er four- 



Complete yourlibrary 

with this portfolio -rliLL: 



Your professional engineering library is part of 
your stock in trade. In the years afiead, you will draw 
on it-and heavily— to make the decisions that affect 
your future. 

Ask yourself: is your library complete? Is it perti- 
nent? It can be neither if it doesn't include basic 
material on Asphalt technology. 

For if you don't know Asphalt, you don't know 
your highways. Asphalt is the modern paving for 
today's and tomorrow's roads. Asphalt surfaces 
more than 4/5ths of all roads and streets in the 
country. 

That's why we have put together a special student 
portfolio on Asphalt Technology. It covers the 
Asphalt story, origin, uses, how it is specified for 



paving . . . and much more. It is a worthwhile, per- 
manent addition to your professional library. 

It's yours, free. Send for it today . . . make sure 
your library is complete in the vital subject of 
Asphalt Technology. 

: THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE 

* Asphalt Institute Building, College Park, Maryland ^~ 

* Gentlemen; 

* Please send me your free student portfolio on Asphalt 

* Technology. 








Annpps"; 






SCHOOI 





50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



teen years the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany has heen using the sewage efflu- 
ent of Baltimore for cooling blast fur- 
naces, open hearths, rolls in rolling 
mills, wire drawing machines, quench- 
in'z and granulating blast furnace slag 
and cleaning gases. This has been done 
at great savings to both the cit\' and 
the company. Savings are common with 
the use of reclaimed water as can be 
shown by the attached table. Even 
when .sewage is treated to meet public 
health standards, it can still compete 
with fresh water in cost. Most of the 
investigation of use of sewage effluent in 
the United States has been done b\ 
studies sponsored by the California 
State Water Pollution Control Board. 
The Board has fomul that the treated 
sewa';re can be applied to soil at the 
rate of one-half acre-foot per acre per 
da\' and that intestinal bacteria are re- 
moved from the liquid within the first 
four feet of travel through the soil. 
T^rom another stud\' sponsored b'- the 
Board, a practical method of recharg- 
in": well oneration by direct iniection 
uito ground water wa.s developed. The 
public health safety of this procedure 
was also demonstrated. Bacterial travel 
with moving groimd water did not ex- 
ceed one hundred feet even though the 
settled sewage introduced carried away 
very high concentrations of organisms. 
The Board has confirmed the use of 
sewage effluent for irrigation in agricul- 
ture and for cooling water in industry. 

The field of irrigation has been great- 
ly influenced by the use of sewage efflu- 
ent. When the practice was first begun, 
the economy of installation and opera- 
tion usually resulted in too much sew- 
age on too little land. Results were un- 
favorable and much of the practice was 
stopped. Much of the trouble was due 
to the fact that disposal was the pri- 
mary object and the raising of crops 
and replenishment of ground water were 
secondary. New methods of using sew- 
age effluent for irrigation emphasize con- 
servation and agricultural utilization. 
This practice returns to the land as 
much as possible of the organic and 
fertilizing elements that have been with- 
drawn from the soil by harvesting food- 
stuffs. This results in superior growth 
of crops. The new technique uses a lo\v 
rate of application o\er large areas of 
land integrated with planning of agri- 
cultural crops and requires proper main- 
tenance and operation of all irrigation 
and agricultural devices. 

When using sewage effluent for irri- 
gation, some type of pretreatmcnt is 
necessary even if it is just plain sedi- 
mentation. This removes coarse solids 
by thirty minute detention. Pretreatment 
advantages are: less wear on pumps, re- 
duced sludge deposits in ditches and 
pressure .sewers, prevention of poisonous 
product formation, no clogging of soil, 



and opportunity to rest the soil if out- 
let to a stream is feasible. With primary 
treatment on fertilizing value of the 
sewage effluent is lost as is the case with 
secondar>' treatment. 

The irrigation methods used should 
be adapted to local farming practices, 
nature of .soil, climatic conditions, to- 
pography, and the types of crops raised. 
The types of irrigation that can be used 
are spray, broad surface, ridge and fur- 
row, flood, and subsurface. Drainage 
must be carefully watched at all t'mes 
and the whole s>stem of irrigation must 
be carefully planned. 

At the present time irrigation with 
sewage effluents is carried on in two 
places in Arizona, seventeen in Cali- 
fornia, one in Nevada, four in New 
Mexico, and four in Texas. Industries 
using sewage effluents number seven in 
in Arizona, four in California, two in 
New Mexico, four in Texas, and one 
in Utah. 

In the future it is predicted that rec- 
lamation plants will not be connected 
with treatment plants, and water recla- 
mation will be carried on in its own 
right. At the present time there is only 
one plant that has been specifically de- 
signed for water reclamation alone. 
When ground waters are exhausted and 
people have to pay for transportation of 
water, the economic barrier to reclama- 
tion will be broken. There are only 
three sources of water suitable for 
ground water replenishment ; runoff 
water, imported water, and reclaimed 
water. The technical and economic 
feasibility of water reclamation are send- 
ing our water back for re-usage. 

BIBLIOGR.APHV 

Keefer, C. E., "Bethlehem Makes Steel 
with Sewage," ll'asli's Entiinrrrinii, v27, ii7, 
July, 1956, pp. 310-13. 

McGauhe\, P. H., "The Whv and How 
nf Sewage Effluent Reclamation," Hater and 
Scuiage ll'nrks, vl04, nft, lune, 1957, pp. 
265-70. 

Mertz, Robert C, "Direct Utilization of 
Waste Waters," Hater and Seivage H'orks, 
vl03, n9, Sept., 1956, pp. +17-23. 

Rawn, A. M. and Bowcrman, F. R., 
"Planned Water Reclamation" Setcai/e and 
Industrial ll'asles, v29, nlO, Oct., 1957, pp. 
1134-8. 

Skulte, Bernard P., "Irrigation with Sew- 
age Effluents," Sewage and Industrial Hastes, 
v28, nl, January, 1956, pp. 36-43. 



Bubble Mining 

.■\ Chicago compaii) has patent appli- 
cations in the U.S. and 31 other coun- 
tries on a low-cost, "soap and bubble" 
method of recovering metals from sea 
water. Developed by a South African 
university professor, the method uses se- 
lected soaps to chase minerals to the 
smface when bubbles are blown through 
the water. The professor estimates it 
should be possible to get 600 tons of 
aluminum, two tons of uranium or 240 
ounces of gold daily from the sea. 




IW! 



NON-SLIP CHUCK 

holds lead firmly 
at any length you 
want. Lead can't be 
pushed back into 
barrel — and won't 
twist in sharpener. 



SATIN-FINISH 
METAL GRIP is 

knurled for easier 
holding. Its extra 
length gives more 
accurate control, 
less finger tension. 



THE ANODIZED 
ALUMINUM BAR- 
REL is unbreak- 
able. And it can't 
rolloffthe board be- 
cause it's hexagon- 



NEWS 

PUSH-BUTTON in- 
stantly releases the 
chuck's grip on the 
lead at the touch of 
the thumb. It's col- 
ored for quick iden- 
tification of grade. 




NEW! 

This lifetime lead holder for just 




All-metal construction 
makes it the buy of a lifetime. 

EAGLE 
TURQUOISE 

PENCILS, LEADS AND HOLDERS 
EAGLE PENCIL COMPANY, DANBURY, CONN. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



51 



INVISIBLE POWER 



by Gerald Wheeler 



SooiHT or later, every yoimi; eiitri- 
iieeriiij: student is faced with the solu- 
tion of prohlems involving; power. We 
learn early in our freshman year that 
|i(i\ver is liefined as "the rate of doing 
work." W^ork, in turn, is defined as 
"the product of a force acting through 
a distance in the direction of that force." 
.After mastering these fundamentals, we 
proceed to soKe innumerahle prohlems 
without ever considering the source of 
power invohed. W'e know that gaso- 
line is used in our cars, coal or oil is 
used to heat our homes, and gasoline 
keeps our rooms well lit. But there is 
a new source of power rapidly becom- 
ing the most popular of all. That 
source — natiu^al gas. 

The statement "new s o u r c e of 
|iower" must he ipialified. It is new 
only in the sense that it has not been 
used commercially to any extent in the 
past. Actually, it is millions of years 
old. The ancient people referred to the 
constantly burning fires that escaped 
fro-n earth fissures as "wild spirits" or 
holy altar fires." As late as 1934, nat- 
ural gas was regarded as a ninsance by 
m,un oil men. Why has this source of 



energy suddenly become so popular in 
the modern home and industry? 

Without knowing anything of natur- 
al gas, one might intuitively answer 
"economics." This is the primary rea- 
son. Although the gas has long been 
a\ailable, there has been no way of 
transporting it to the home or industry. 
If there were some way, the consumer 
would probably be willing to pay a 
little more for it considering that he 
would have no soot or waste products. 
But how? The answer was by pipeline. 
But of what shall the pipe be made? 
And how shall we lay the pipe across 
rivers, up mountains, and through 
swamps? Here was another case of the 
natural resources going to waste while 
luan's industrial might grew strong 
enough to solve the many problems. 

The first effort made to use natural 
gas publicly was in 1824, in Fredonia, 
New York. Hollowed out logs carried 
the gas from a 27 foot ell to two 
stores. This was all right for local use 
but hollowed out logs would certainly 
not be very practical as a piping sys- 
tem from Texas to New York. It was 
not until the 1920's that the steel in- 



dustry had advanced to the point wlierc 
thin walled pipes could be produced 
economically. Since pressure in the 
pipes often exceeded 700psi, great ten- 
sile strength was required. Meticulous 
research and development was carried 
out to the extent that present day fin- 
ished pipe properties include an ulti- 
mate strength of 72,000 psi, yield point 
of 52,000 psi, and elongation of 22% 
in 2 inches. Once the pipes were made 
available, underground pipelines spread 
across the country from New Mexico 
to Vancouver and from Texas to New 
York. At the present time, natural gas 
pipeline mileage exceeds that of the rail- 
roads. 

The size of the larger pipes is phe- 
nomenal. In fact, everything in the nat- 
ural gas industry seems to be done on 
a grandiose scale. The "Big Inch" and 
"Little Big Inch" pipes running from 
Texas to the eastern seaboard are 24 
and 20 inches in diameter, respectively. 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company's 
"Super Inch" from New Mexico to 
California is 34 inches in diameter. The 
"Big Buck" trencher, used to scoop out 
the bed for the Super Inch weighs 31 
tons. Digging a ditch 44 inches wide 
and 53/ feet deep, it can provide a 
mile-long trench in one day. 

Once the production of suitable pip- 
ing was a reality, the problems facing 
the large gas companies were of a tacti- 
cal nature. Specifically, how to go over 
the mountains and across the rivers? 
The pipeline could not be laid around 
the bottom of the mountain because of 
the possibilit\ of landslide damage. By 




52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



laying the pipes straight up to the top 
and then down the opposite side, the 
moving earth rides along the side of 
the pipe. This mountain work entails 
step by step sweat labor. Distances 
traveled in these areas are measured in 
feet per hour. 

Risers are spanned according to their 
tLirbulence. If tiie river contains man\' 
rapids, shifting beds, and seasonal 
changes, chances are that the company 
will make arrangements to attach their 
lijie to a railway or highway bridge. 
If none are available, they ma\- build 
a suspension cable of their own. Most 
of the lines, however, are sunk beneath 
the rivers, in this case, they are usually 
weighted down b\- large concrete sec- 
tions. 

By 1929, pipelines had been laid from 
the Texas Panhandle to Chicago, De- 
troit, IVIinneapolis, and Denver. But 
then the depression halted the building 
of more pipelines, for the cost of oil 
and coal fell so low that natural gas 
could not compete. During World War 
II, the price of gas and oil rose while 
natural gas regained its competitive posi- 
tion. Both private individuals and large 
industrial firms found that natural gas 
as a heating fuel provides ease of con- 
trol and fuel uniformity. It was shortly 
after the war that the tremendous boom 
in the gas industry began. By 193.?, 
over .315,000 miles of natural gas pipe- 
lines existed in the country. 

Accompanying the rapid rise in pop- 
ularity was another problem. House 
heating during the winter created ex- 
ceptionally high peaks in the use of gas. 
Companies in the Chicago area were 
.sometimes using 15 times as much gas 
on a cold day as on a warm one. It 
seems that the only thing consistent 
about the weather is its inconsistency. 
Temperatures may range above normal 
during the cold months of one year only 
to average below normal the following 
year. The gas that is supplied to the 
domestic users is on tap from the south- 
ern oil fields. Since the velocity of How 
through the pipes was only about 15 
mph, a sudden cold snap could easily 
result in the demand for gas exceeding 
the supply. How then could the com- 
panies insure their users that they would 
not be caught .short during the winter 
months? Perhaps larger pipes could be 
built that would supply a large metro- 
politan area through the bitter cold 
months. 

A little thought will show that larger 
and more extensive pipes were not the 
answer. If the natural gas supply trans- 
ported here by pipeline for the Chicago 
region were used primarily to serve 
house heating consumers in the winter 
months, the pipelines would, for the 
most part, lie idle in the summer and 
wovdd be only partly used during the 
major portion of the year. At the pres- 



ent time, the situation is such that the 
unused gas of the summer season (that 
is, unused for domestic heating) is sold 
to industrial customers on a low-price 
interruptible or off-peak basis. In return 
for the lower gas rates, the industrial 
customer is subject to shutoff during 
periods of cold weather because domes- 
tic customers have a priority on the use 
of all the gas available. This settles the 
problem of summer use but might still 
result in an insufficient supply during 
the winter. Could we possibly store up 
the gas for emergency use? Various at- 
tempts were made to store the gas in 
cylindrical man-made tanks but the 
above-ground holders were found to be 
impractical from the standpoint of both 
capacity and cost. The problem was 
finally solved by storing up huge quan- 
tities of gas in worn-out oil and gas 
fields. Where the capacity of the largest 
above-ground storage tank is about 1 5 
million cubic feet, the average capacity 
of 151 underground storage pools at 
the end of 1952 was more than 572 
times as large. 

The Chicago area, which is one of 
the world's largest natural gas con- 
sumers, unfortunately has no depleted 
oil fields nearby. For this reason it was 



necessary to undertake the "Her.scher 
Dome" project. Geologists di.scovered 
that a large geologic trap (anti-syn- 
cline) in the region of Herscher, Illi- 
nois, contained a thick sandstone forma- 
tion which was well adapted for the 
storage of great volumes of gas. It un- 
derlies approximately 15,000 acres, or 
nearly 24 square miles. In comparison to 
the 16 gas holders of the Peoples (Jas 
Light and Coke Company now in opera- 
tion in Chicago, which have a total 
capacity of 106 million cubic feet, the 
Herscher Dome has a 90 billion feet 
capacity. 

The problems now facing the gas in- 
dustry are small indeed in comparison 
with those of the past. Every day more 
and more people are switching to gas 
for heating, cooking, refrigeration, and 
air conditioning. Although a prodigous 
amount of natural gas has been wasted 
in the past, the consumer need not 
worry about the supply being depleted 
in the near future. Proved reserves are 
three times as great as they were 12 
years ago and 10 times greater than 
they were 30 years ago. Today's re- 
serves are over 185 trillion cubic feet. 
Even today, more gas is being discov- 
ered than is being used. 




FATIGUE SPIN RIG uses compressed ai 
balls oround the bore of a test cylinde 
mine cylinder's static fatigue life. 



JET ENGINE BEARING TESTING MACHINE tests 
main rotor boll bearings under actual operating 
conditions of load and lubrication. 



Fafnir works with "unknowns" to come 
up with ball bearings you'll need! 



In many fields of industry and technology, 
progress depends in large measure on 
solving increasingly complex ball bearing 
problems. Bearing materials and lubricants 
have yet to be perfected that can take cer- 
tain temperature extremes. Higher speeds 
and heavier loads pose formidable prob- 
lems. So does miniaturization. 

To help its research engineers probe 
the unknowns in these and other areas, 
The Fafnir Bearing Company maintains the 
most up-to-date facilities for metallurgical 
research, and bearing development and test- 



ing. It is another reason why you are likely 
to find Fafnir ready with the answers — 
should bearing problems some day loom 
large for you. Worth bearing in mind. The 
Fafnir Bearing Company, New Britain, 
Connecticut. 

Vv'rite for booklet, "Fafnir Formula For Solving 
Bearing Problems" containing description of Fafnir 
engineering, research, and development facilities. 

FAFNIR 

^^BALL BEARINGS 

^<^ MOST COMPLETE LINE IN AMERICA 



OCTOBER, 1959 



53 




The care and feeding of a 




54 



It takes more than pressing a button to send a giant rocl<et on its way. 
Actually, almost as many man-hours go into the design and construction 
of the support equipment as into the missile itself. A leading factor in the 
reliability of Douglas missile systems is the company's practice of including 
all the necessary ground handling units, plus detailed procedures for system 
utilization and crew training. This com p lete job allows Douglas missiles like 
THOR, Nike HERCULES, Nike AJAX and others to move quickly from test 
to operational status and perform with outstanding dependability. Douglas 
IS seeking qualified engineers and scientists for the design of missiles, 
space systems and their supporting equipment. Write to C. C. LaVene, 
Box 600-M, Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 
Alfred J. Carah, Chief Design Engineer, discusses the ground installation 
requirements for a series of THOR-boosted space H A I I /^ I A Q 
probes with Donald W. Douglas, Jr., President of l/UUULMO 

I GROUND-HANDLING EQUIPMENT 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



MISSILE SYSTEMS ■ SPACE SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ JETLINERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB I 



Metal quiz... you might have to take one 
like it again when you design equipment. 
Try your hand at it now. But remember to 
take advantage of the help INCO can give 
you when really tough metal quizzes come 
your way in your future engineering jobs. 




D 



Refinery valve — Needed: resist- 
ance to attack from petroleum 
products, thermal and hydrau- 
lic shock. Which alloy ... f 



□ Turbojet afterburner shell — I I Recovery tov^er — Needed: re- 

Needed : strength plus corro- I I sjstance to hot coke oven gases 

sion resistance at high temper- I I and aromatic chemicals, long 

atures. Which alloy... f ' ' service life. Which alloy... O 



See if you can tell which of these 
nickel-containingalloysproved tobe 
the answer to these problems. Put 
the right number in the right box. 

[T] Ductile Ni-Resist- 
ryi Nimonic "75"* nickel- 
L^ chromium alloy 

Ul Nickel-aluminum bronze 

[Tj Ductile iron 

[5] Monel* nickel-copper alloy 

pi-| Inconel* nickel-chromium 

L"J alloy 

Pj- Type 316 chromium-nickel 
llJ stainless steel 

See answers below 



KJ 


tl« 


Diesel manifold — Needed: 
scaling and oxidation resist- 
ance at 1200°F, resistance to 




'- '■ rmm 






^^sf^wr 



Ht.it treating retort — Needed: 
lifahl '.■.ntlU, ability to endure 
destructive heating-cooling 
cycles. Which alloy... f 



Ship's propeller — Needed 
lighter weight and re: 
to erosion and salt wate 
rosion. Which alloy. 



eded - I I Regenerator pre-heater — 

stance I I Needed: trouble-free service 

2r cor- I I handling hot caustics, fabri- 

7 eating ease. Which alloy... O 



When you start to design equipment, you'll have to select 
the proper material to meet given service conditions ... a 
material that might have to resist corrosion, or wear, or 
high temperatures, or a combination of these conditions. 
Over the years, Inco Development and Research has 



in many such problems. Inco's List "A" and List "B" con- 
tain descriptions of 377 Inco publications which are 
available to you, covering applications and properties 
of Nickel and its alloys. For Lists "A" and "B", write 
Education Services. 
gathered information on the performance of materials The International Nickel Company, Inc., New York 5, N.Y. 



ANSWERS: 

• Refinery valve . . . Ductile iron 

• Turbojet afterburner shell . . . Nimonic 

• Recovery toviier . . . Type 316 stainless 



•Diesel manifold... Ductile Ni-Resist 

• Heat treating retort . . . Inconel alloy 

' Ship's propeller . . . Nickel-aluminum bronze 

• Regenerator pre-heater . . . Monel alloy 



/\ 



^ Inco Nickel 

makes metals perform better, longer 



OCTOBER, 1959 



55 



1959 — lOUth Anniversary of tin- Oil Industry. .. 7()ih Anniversary of Standard Oil Company 

whale oil lamps 
to space rockets 

How the oil industry helped the United States to become the world's most productive nation! 




^A*f ^' 



lBS^S9 Colonel Drake discovers 
oil— and the decline of ihe great whaling 
industry is in sight as thousands of lamp 
users turn from whale oil to kerosene. 



■rjw^^:" 




The automobile is in its 
infancy — weak and unpromising. Standard 
Oil Company is born on June 18, 1889. The 
following year the company's first research 
laboratory is opened at Whiting, Indiana. 




■ 903 Two bicycle mechanics 
named Wright fly an odd-looking machine 
at Kitty Hawk. Almost 33,000 autos are 
on the road, but the horse is still supreme. 
Standard Oil is building a new refinery at 
Sugar Creek, Mis 




1^91 ■ Almost 640.000 motor vehi- 
cles are on the road. Dr. William M. Bur- 
ton and Dr. Robert E. Humphreys, famous 
Standard Oil scientists, discover the secret 
of mass producing gasoline economically. 
The company becomes independent of all 
other Standard Oil companies. 




J ^9ii2^S The automobile is here to 
stay. More than 15 million motor veliicles 
are on the highways. Standard is the first 
major oil company to sell gasoline con- 
taining tetraethyl lead, anti-knock agent. 





■ 5^"»^^ The greatest demand in 
history for aviation fuel is near. Standard 
Oil puts into operation the world's first 
catalytic reformer, which produces higher 
octane gasoline than was [>ossible before. 




■ %9^9^7 The Space Age is dawn- 
ing. New fuels and lubricants for rockets 
and jets come from Standard Od labora- 
tories to help make space exploration 
possible and to strengthen America's 
defenses. Standard Oil marks its 70th 
anniversEury. 



Here are some Important developments 
by Standard Oil, a leader and a pioneer 
in petroleum research. 

• How to mass produce gasoline econom- 
ically. This opened the way to modern 
automotive transportation. 

• How to recover more oil from almost- 
dry wells. This added billions of bar- 
rels to America's oil reserves. 



• How to eliminate gasoline gumming. 
This meant lower repair bills for car 



ntly. 



How to dewax motor oils effii 
This meant better car perfo 
and fewer trips to the repairn 



ard 



o make clean burning solid fuels 
ckets. This was a big step for- 
in America's missile program. 



These, and many other Standard Oil de- 
velopments, have played an important part 
in man's progress from the horse-and- buggy 
age to the Space Age. 



(standard ) 



STANDARD OIL COiMPANY 



THE SIGN OF PROGRESS . 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



56 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



BRAIN TEASERS 



Edited by Steve Dilts 



A certain tarnu'r rt-ceixeil an order 
for foil'- crates (A, H, C, and D) of 
eggs. The order stated tfiat the iiumher 
of es'i's in an\ two crates was to he a 
iH'rfect square, and the number in whole 
four crat's must also be a perfect square. 

Now the farmer's problem is: What 
is the smallest number of e"'gs that can 
h'' put in the crates to fulfill these con- 
ditions — a different number bein;z in 
each crate. 



't's not e\actl\' the time of year for 
fishing, but here is a fish story. 

A ]v:m caught a shark and when 
hoastiii'i about it, he would only sav 
that the head was 14 ft. long, the tail 
was as long as the head and one-quar- 
ter of the back while the back was as 
long as the head and twice the tail. 
Find the length of the fish. 



If you are thinking ahead of spring 
\acation and are planning to take a trip, 
this teaser should provide some usefvd 
figuring. 

A car makes three trips all of equal 
length. The speed in miles per hour of 
the second trip was three times the 
speed of the first trip, and the speed of 
tile third trip was double that of the 
secon<l tri|i. If the average speed of all 
tri|is was ,■!() m.p.h., find the speed of 
each trip. 



A man, who had three sons passed 
away. In his will he directed that his 
total cash should be divided among 
them, except for a gift to the local hos- 
pital. He had a mathematical turn of 
mind, and after the will was made, he 
had worked the matter out and found 
that if he made the hospital gift to his 
eldest son, he woidd then have as much 
as the other two sons. But if he had 
given it to the second son, he would 
then have twice as much as the other 
two, while if he had given it to the 
youngest son, he would have three times 
as much as the other two. Now, if the 
man left a total of $1800, can you cal- 
culate how much each son and the hos- 
pital received as their share? 



Three sadors come upon a pile ot 
cojonuts. The first sailor takes half of 
them plus half a coconut. The .second 
sailor trakes half of what is lift plus 
half a coconut. The third sailor also 
takes half of what remains plus half 
coconut. Left over is exactly one coco- 
nut which they toss to the monkey. How 
many coconuts were there in the origi- 
nal pile? If you will arm yourself with 
20 matches, you will have ample ma- 
terial for a trial-and-error solution. 



BULLETIN 

L'. of I. scientists announced, dead- 
line night, that preparations had been 
completed for launching a satellite into 
orbit. The Teihnograph was to be in 
on the project, they said, but the\ re- 
fused to release any further details. 



A brain-tea.ser that calls for deduc- 
tive reasoning with little or no numeri- 
cal calculation is usually labeled a logic 
problem. Of course such problems are 
mathematical in the sense that logic 
mav be regarded as very general, basic 
mathematics; ne\ertheless it is con\eni- 
ent to distinguish logic brain-teasers 
from their more muiierous numerical 
cousins. 



The most frequently encountered type 
is sometimes called by puzzlists a 
"Smith-Jones-Robinson" problem after 
an early brain-teaser devised by the Eng- 
lish puzzle expert Henry Dudeney. It 
consists of a series of premises, usual- 
ly about individuals, from which one 
is asked to make certain deductions. A 
recent American version of Dudeiiey's 
problem goes like this: 

1. Smith, Jones and Robinson are 
the engineer, brakeman and fireman on 
a train, but not necessarily in that or- 
der. Riding the train are three passen- 
gers with the same three surnames, to 
be identified in the following premises 
by a "Mr." before their names. 

2. Mr. Robinson li\es in Los .'An- 
geles. 

,1. The brakeman lives in ( )maha. 



4. Mr. Jones long ago forgot all the 
algebra he learned in high school. 

r The passenger whose name is the 
same as the brakeman's lives in Chi- 
cago. 

6. The brakeman and one of the pas- 
sengers, a distinguished mathematical 
physicist, attend the same church. 

7. Smith beat the fireman at billiards. 
Who is the engineer? 

For readers who care to try their 
luck on a more difficult Smith-Jones- 
Robmson problem, here is a new one 
de\ ised b\ Ra\inond Smullyan, no«- 
wo-king for his doctorate in mathe- 
n^at'cs at Princeton University. 

1. To celebrate the Armistice of th- 
First World War, three carried couples 
had dinner together. The following facts 
relate only to these six, and only their 
first and last names are involved. 

2. Each husband is the brother of one 
of the wives; that is, there are three 
brother-sister pairs in the group. 

,?. Helen is exactly 26 weeks older 
than her husband, who was horn in 
August. 

4. Mr. White's sister is married to 
Helen's brother's brother-in-law. She 
(Mr. White's sister) married him on 
her birthday, which is in January. 

3. Marguerite White is not as tall as 
William Black. 

6. Arthur's sister is prettier than 
Beatrice. 

7. John is 50 \ears old. 

What is .Mrs. Brown's first name? 
* ^ «■ 

Three men — A, B and C — are aware 
that all three of them are "perfect lo- 
gicians" who can instantly deduce all 
the consequences of a given set of prem- 
ises. There are four red and four green 
stamps available. The men are blind- 
folded and two stamps are pasted on 
each man's forehead. The blindfolds 
are removed. A, B and C are asked 
in turn: "Do you know the colors of 
your stamps?" Each says: "No." The 
question is then asked of A once more. 
He again says: "No." B is now asked 
the question, and replies: "Yes." What 
are the colors of B's stamps? 
ff a » 
I he answers will appear next month 
ten- these teasers. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



57 




RCA Electronics introduces the tube of tomorrow 



Called the Nuvistor, this thimble-size electron tube 
is likely to start a revolution in electronics. RCA 
engineers scrapped old ideas— took a fresh look at 
tube design. The result will be tubes that are far 
smaller, perform more efficiently, use less power, 
can take more punishment, are more rehable. De- 



velopmental models now being tried out by de- 
signers will have a profound effect on the size, 
appearance, and performance of electronic equip- 
ment for entertainment, communications, defense, 
and industrv in the future. It is another example of 
the way RCA is constantly ad\'ancing in electronics. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



)ii^^^m..- 










■i'-C^iJ^'^C-'^i'T'^V 






STANDARDIZATION 



"The American economy could save 
at least $4 billion a year if all those 
who neglect standardization would now 
get wise to it," a group of engineers at 
a dinner observing National Engineers 
Week were told. 

The speaker was Cyril Ainsworth, 
I )cputy Managing Director, American 
Standards Association. 

"l^nless you are thinking in terms of 
the national budget, this seems like an 
awful lot of money going down the 
.Iraiii," he continued. "As our indus- 
trial economy moves into the space age, 
hccoming larger and more complex, the 
waste is likely to increase, if we don't 
make some radical changes in our stand- 
ardization procedures." 

The knives, forks and spoons of our 
table cutlery are similar in size and 
^liape to their counterparts all over the 
\M)rld. Their standards evolved through 
a slow process of elimination until the 
most acceptable shapes and sizes 
('merged. Practically all other tools 
tliroughout man's pre-industrial history 
wire standardized by this same process 
of e\olution, custom and preference. 

Ibis evolutionary process of stand- 
aiclization proved much too slow after 
tin- industrial revolution got into full 
^wing. It took almost 200 years to de- 
\('lop and agree upon a workable sare- 



ty code for steam boilers. Before it be- 
came available, boiler explosions were 
one of the most serious causes of loss of 
life and damage to property. 

"In our budding space age, the nu- 
clear reactor is comparable to the steam 
engine in the early industrial revolu- 
tion. It's obvious that we can't wait 
almost 200 years for workable safety 
standards for nuclear reactors. Of 
course, individual nuclear reactors to- 
day are constructed with all possible 
safety features, but what is really need- 
ed are generally applicable safety 
standards for all nuclear reactors," Mr. 
Ainsworth pointed out. 

Unfortunately, American industry 
does not understand and subscribe as 
thoroughly as it should to the idea of 
standardization, said Mr. Ainsworth. 
It is best understood on the engineer- 
ing le\el and in the purchasing office. 
However, the money needed to carry 
on standards work has to be authorized 
by management, treasurers, or in many 
cases, by contribution committees. Since 
these executives often are uninformed 
about the \alue of standardization and 
ha\c other problems foremost on their 
minds, the>- often fail to understand the 
connection between long-range stand- 
ards and future benefits. 

"Let me give you an example," said 
Mr. Ainsworth. "The nuclear standards 



program initiated under ASA proced- 
ures costs about $25,000 a year to ad- 
minister. This is small change com- 
pared to the multi-million dollar invest- 
ments needed to develop nuclear power. 
Yet it is difficult, or almost impossible, 
to collect this amount fully! This in 
spite of the fact that the leading tech- 
nical experts of every industry with an 
interest in this program are represented 
on the working committees. Financial 
support of ASA is too often handled 
as a contribution, much as a donation 
to the community chest. Such support 
is a sound business expense from which 
untold benefits are obtained." 

The solution, said IVIr. Ainsworth, is 
in education. Once basic research was 
viewed with suspicion. Today enlight- 
ened management knows its value. 
Standardization has not yet reached 
this stage of acceptance. Management is 
still reluctant to pay for standards 
projects that have no apparent direct 
relation to current production. Yet 
there is enough evidence that some of 
the greatest money savings have come 
from the long-range standards projects 
affecting all industry. Industrial safety 
standards are a case in point. They 
have reduced a fantastic toll in human 
li\es and financial cost in lost man- 
power and production to an absolute 
minimum. 



OCTOBER, 1959 



59 







ENGINEERING GRADUATES — YOUR 

STEPPING 

NIUNtS 

TO 
SPACE 



Your career, like a missile, must first get 
off the ground. You need more than lust momen- 
tum. Remember— the "DESTRUCT" button has 
been pushed on many a missile because of poor 
guidance. In selecting the position which best 
suits your interests and abilities, seek competent 
guidance from your Professors and Placement 
Officers. 

At McDonnell — young engineers have a 
wide choice of interesting assignments covering 
the entire spectrum of aero-space endeavor — 
airplanes, helicopters, convertiplanes, missiles, 
and spacecraft. 

Learn more about our company and com- 
munity by seeing our Engineering Representa- 
tive when he visits your campus, or, if you pre- 
fer, write a brief note to : Raymond F. Kaletta 
Engineering Employment Supervisor 
P.O. Box 516, St. Louis 66, Missouri 




Seen here discussing a computer run of a control dynamics prob 
lem are young Project Mercury staff members, Joseph J. Voda 
MSAE, U. of Illinois, '58, on ttie left, and Lawrence D. Perlmutter 
IVI.S. Instrumentation, U. of Mictiigan, '59. 




60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




ys Mile Long 

MERCK SHARP & DOHME 



Plant 



where dependability 
of pipelines is a must, 
control is entrusted 
to JENKINS VALVES 

World famous Merck Sharp & Dohme, division of Merck 
& Co., Inc. not only knows pharmaceuticals and biologicals; 
they know a lot about valves. They need to! Control of 
pipelines must be unfailing. 

That's why you'll find Jenkins Valves on all process pipelines 
in this West Point, Pa. plant ... as well as on plumbing, 
heating and air conditioning lines. 

The Jenkins name is not new to Merck Sharp & Dohme. 
They have been using Jenkins Valves extensively for the past 
twenty years. The unusually large number of valves installed in 
the company's seventeen domestic and foreign plants 
represents a big investment. So you can be sure this 
experienced valve buyer has found Jenkins Valves both 
dependable and maintenance free. 
Jenkins dependability can save money for any plant or 
building. What's more, you can specify or install Jenkins Valves 
at no extra cost. Jenkins Bros., 100 Park Avenue, New York 17. 

So/d Through Leading Distributors Everywhere 




Jenkins Valves on main steam lines serving the 
Biological buildings 



JENKINS 

LOOK FOR IHE JENKINS DIAMOND 

VALVE S 



■•,A< r,.; l&7-0^ 



OCTOBER, 1959 



61 



To all the combined advantages of Synthane Laminated Plastics 
. . . add one more big plus-MACHINABILITY 




There are many reasons why plastic lami- 
nates such as Synthane are well regarded. 
They offer — in combination — resistance 
to heat, wear, chemicals, oil, water; light 
weight; excellent dielectric properties and 
mechanical strength; dimensional stabil- 
ity. On top of all these, however, is the 
one property that makes Synthane 
practical — Machinability. 

This means that whatever your appli- 
cation you may obtain parts of Synthane 
in the form desired and at a reasonable 
cost whether you require one or a million. 

How Machinable is SyntKiane? 

Synthane laminates are easy to machine, 
using ordinary wood or metal working 
machinery with only a few modifications 
of method. .\s an example, here are some 
standard machining operations readily 
performed on Synthane: 
Shearing Screw Machine 

Band Sawing Operations 

Circular Sawing Planing 




Drilling 
Tapping 
Fly cutting 
Milling 
Gear cutting 
Turning 
Turret Lathe 
Operations 



Shaping 

Punching 

Broaching 

Shaving 

Sanding 

Grinding 

Boring 

Tumbling 

Butting 



Practically all of those operations can be 
handled on standard machines, many 
with standard cutters. But the nature of 
the material, being softer and more resil- 
ient than metal, and being laminated and 
a poor heal conductor, often makes the 



Sawing long leuglbs. One of the numerous! 
special tools whose advantages are available 
n^hen Synthane fabricates the material. 

use of cutters with special rake and clear- 
ance, operating at special feeds and speeds, 
desirable. 

The successful machining of Synthane 
laminates is aided by proper design of 
parts for ease of machining. A Synthane 
booklet: "Design Hints for Laminated 
Plastics*" adequately covers design rec- 
ommendations. 

It pays to iet Synthane machine 
laminated plastics for you 

Although Synthane laminated plastics 
are easy to machine, it will usually pay 
you to have us handle the machining for 
you — for these reasons: 

1. All of our etjuipment is especially de- 
signed or adapted for the fabrication of 
plastics. 

2. We are constantly developing new, 
*Booklel available upon request. 



faster, and more economical methods of 
machining Synthane laminated. 

3. We make all of our own tools, dies, fix- 
tures and jigs, quickly and economically. 

4. We relieve you of all production wor- 
ries: machining errors, rejects, waste, mis- 
takes in dimensions or tolerances, and 
delays in delivery. 

5. Because we combine manufacturing 
and fabrication in one location, we can 
maintain high quality control while solving 
difficult machining problems. When nec- 
essary, we can even modify the properties 
of a given grade of material to meet 
special requirements. 

For further information, write Synthane 
Corporation, 13 River Rd., Oaks, Penna. 




Metal disintegration, a fast, economical way 
Synthane itiies to produce or revise dies. 

rswrfiANE] 

^ — w — ^ 



CORPORATION, l^^ OAKS, PENNA. 
Laminated Plastics for Industry 

Sheets. Rods, Tubes, Fabricated Parts 
Molded-taminated. Molded -macerated 



62 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



TRANSITION 
SE : riON 



CCMVECTION 
RE - EATER 




How to get steel tubes to harness highest 
steam pressures and temperatures 



IN constructing Philadelphia Electric Company's revolu- 
tionary new Eddystone power plant, engineers had to 
harness the highest combination of pressure and steam 
ever achieved in a central station with 5,000 psi at 1,200° F. 
This called for superheater tubes (see diagram above) of a 
special stronger steel never before used in steam power 
plants. No one had ever succeeded in piercing this tougher 
steel to make seamless steel tubing. 

The problem was given to Timken Company metal- 
lurgists, experts at piercing steels for 40 years. And they 
turned the trick. They made the steel for the platen and 
finishing super-heaters with the alloying elements in just 
the right balance for perfect piercing quality. Thev pierced 
20 miles of tubes free from both surface and internal flaws. 

Timken Company metallurgists and Timken steels have 
solved all kinds of tough steel problems. They can help 
you on problems you may face in industry. 

And if you're interested in a career with the leader in 
specialty steels . . . with the world's largest maker of 
tapered roller bearings and removable rock bits . . . send 
for free booklet, "Better-ness and Your Career at the 
Timken Company". Write Manager of College Relations, 
The Timken Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 




Creep-Stress Rupture Laboratory in our new Steel Research 
Center. Here we test the resistance of steels to deformation at 
temperatures as high as 1800° F. 



TIMKEN STEEL 

SPECIALISTS IN FINE ALLOY STEELS, GRAPHITIC TOOL STEELS AND SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING 

OCTOBER, 1959 63 



Begged, Borrowed, and . 



Edited by Jack Fortner 



(uiiiloil Missile . Das Sieiuitiker Gt'schteiuverkes 

Fiicnkrakkfr. 

Rin'kfr l"ii>;iiu" Fireiischpittcr niir Sniokenurul 

Schiiorti'n. 

Liquiii Rocket Das Skwirti-n juct-nkiiui Kireii- 

schpitter. 

(luiilaiu-c- System Das Schteerenwerke. 

C'elistial Ciuiiiance Das Schruballische Schtargaz- 

en Peepenglasser niit Koinp- 
iiterattacheii Schteereinverke. 

I're-Set Ciiiidance Das Seiuleii Offen mit ein Pat- 

tenbacker und Finger Gekres- 
sen Schteereinverke. 

Control System Das I'ulleii-imcl-Schoven 

Werke. 

Warhead Das Laudenhoomer. 

Nuclear Warhead Das Eargeschplitten Lauden- 
hoomer. 

H\(lrogen Device Das Eargeschplitten Lauden- 
hoomer mit ein Grosse Holen- 
graiind und Alles Kaput. 

.NLinagement Das L Itzerenhalden Groupe. 

Engineering Das Aufguefen Grupe. 

Project Engineer Das Scluvettennoiidter. 

W'indtunnel Das Huffenpuffen (irupe. 

Computing Das Schlidenruler Grupe. 

Structural Test Das Pullenparten Grupe. 

Security Das Schnoopen Hunche. 

Contract Administrator Das Tablegepaunder (jrupe 

I'lanniiig Das Schemen (irupe 

Nuclear Research Das Whizkidden Grupe 

Facilities Das Daskgescho\en Hunche. 

Support Equipment Das Garterhelten Grupe. 



Engineer on telephone: "Doctor, come quick! My little 
hoy just .swallowed my slide rule." 

Doctor: "Good heavens man Ell he right over. What 
are you doing in the meantime?" 

Engineer: "L'sing log tables." 



Hoarder: It's disgraceful, madam. E 
were fighting in my bedroom last night. 

^Lldam: What do vou e.xpect tor is2 
fights? 



sure two rats 



lonth? Hull 



64 



EE: "What are \ou doing with that on your s\x-eater? 
Don't you know that \ou're not supposed to wear it unless 
vou've made the team?" 

She: "Well!!!" 



I he psychiatrist was testing the intelligence of a hope- 
candidate for discharge from the asylum. 
Doc: "What would happen if 1 cut off your ear?" 
Joe: "I couldn't hear. " 
Doc: "And if I cut off the other ear?" 
Joe: "I couldn't see." 
Doc: "Why?" 
Toe: "Hecause mv hat would fall over m\ eves." 



Sorority Girl: "We're going to give the bride a shower. " 
Erat man: "Swell! Count me in. Ell bring the soap." 



A bathing sin't — like a barbed wire fence — is designed 
to protect the propertv' without obstructing the view. 



Said the rooster as he put the ostrich egg in front of the 
hen: "I'm not complaining, hut I just want you to see the 
kind of work they do in some places." 

"Hey, Dad, I'm home from school again." 
"What the devil did you do this time?" 
"I graduated." 



"Professor," said the engineer in search of knowledge, 
"will you try to explain to me the theory of limits?" 

"Well, John, assume that you have called on a pretty 
woman. You are seated at one end of the divan and she is 
seated at the other. You move halfway toward her. Then you 
move half of the remaining distance toward her. Again you 
reduce the distance separating you from her by 50 per cent. 
Continue this for some time. Theoretically, you will never 
reach the girl. On the other hand, you will soon get close 
enough to her for practical purposes." 



Now go hack and read the rest of the magazine! 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



y 






v^^^r; 






C:aU-i|)illai U.S IkkI.u w iili i i|>|)ri 



Rippers really rough it — 

So radiography checks their stamina 




Ripper shank being radiographed with cobalt 60 projector 



RIPPER SHANKS and clevises at the business end of 
■ a high-powered tractor lead a torturous life as 
they tear through overburden and rock. 

No place here for a flaw to ruin performance ! So 
Claterpillar makes sure of their stamina — has them 
radiographed at the foundry that casts them. This 
is the place for any imperfection to be shown up. 
For here Radiography can do two things. It can 
make sure that only sound castings go out. It can 
point the way to improving casting technique so 
that a consistently better yield can be had. 

Radiography is but one branch of photography 
that is working day in — day out for the engineer. It 
is saving time and cutting costs in research and 
development, in production, in sales and in office 
routine. You will find that in whatever field you 
choose, photography will be ready to serve you too. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N. Y. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 



.\s Radiography becomes more important 
in the business and industry of tomorrow, 
there are excellent opportunities for sci- 
entists who want to grow in this field. If 
\ou have a doctoral degree in physics and 



a desire to follow radiography as a carcei , 
write for information about careers with 
Kodak. Address: Business and Technical 
Personnel Department, Eastman Kodak 
Coinpany, Rochester 4, New York. 



aJI 




1M^ 



One of a series 




■^ Interview with General Electric's 

""^ Charles F. Savage 

Consultant — Engineering Professional Relations 

How Professional Societies 
Help Develop Young Engineers 



Q. Mr. Savage, should young engineers 
join professional engineering socie- 
ties? 

A. By all means. Once engineers 
have graduated from college 
they are immediately "on the 
outside looking in," so to speak, 
of a new social circle to which 
they must earn their right to be- 
long. Joining a professional or 
technical society represents a 
good entree. 

Q. How do these societies help young 
engineers? 

A. The members of these societies 
— mature, knowledgeable men — 
have an obligation to instruct 
those who follow after them. 
Engineers and scientists — as pro- 
fessional people — are custodians 
of a specialized body or fund of 
knowledge to which they have 
three definite responsibilities. 
The first is to generate new 
knowledge and add to this total 
fund. The second is to utilize 
this fund of knowledge in service 
to society. The third is to teach 
this knowledge to others, includ- 
ing young engineers. 

Q. Specifically, what benefits accrue 
from belonging to these groups? 

A. There are many. For the young 
engineer, affiliation serves the 
practical purpose of exposing his 
work to appraisal by other scien- 
tists and engineers. Most impor- 
tant, however, technical societies 
enable young engineers to learn 
of work crucial to their own. 
These organizations are a prime 
source of ideas — meeting col- 
leagues and talking with them, 
reading reports, attending meet- 
ings and lectures. And, for the 
young engineer, recognition of 
his accomplishments by asso- 
ciates and organizations gener- 
ally heads the list of his aspira- 
tions. He derives satisfaction 
from knowing that he has been 
identified in his field. 



Q. What contribution is the young en- 
gineer expected to make as an ac- 
tive member of technical and pro- 
fessional societies? 

A. First of all, he should become 
active in helping promote the 
objectives of a society by prepar- 
ing and presenting timely, well- 
conceived technical papers. He 
should also become active in 
organizational administration. 
This is self-development at work, 
for such efforts can enhance the 
personal stature and reputation 
of the individual. And, I might 
add that professional develop- 
ment is a continuous process, 
starting prior to entering col- 
lege and progressing beyond 
retirement. Professional aspira- 
tions may change but learning 
covers a person's entire life span. 
And, of course, there are dues to 
be paid. The amount is grad- 
uated in terms of professional 
stature gained and should al- 
ways be considered as a personal 
investment in his future. 

Q. How do you go about joining pro- 
fessional groups? 

A. While still in school, join student 
chapters of societies right on 
campus. Once an engineer is out 
working in industry, he should 
contact local chapters of techni- 
cal and professional societies, or 
find out about them from fellow 
engineers. 

Q. Does General Electric encourage par- 
ticipation in technical and profes- 
sional societies? 

A. It certainly does. General Elec- 
tric progress is built upon cre- 
ative ideas and innovations. The 
Company goes to great lengths 
to establish a climate and in- 
centive to yield these results. 
One way to get ideas is to en- 



courage employees to join pro- 
fessional societies. Why? Because 
General Electric shares in recog- 
nition accorded any of its indi- 
vidual employees, as well as the 
common pool of knowledge that 
these engineers build up. It can't 
help but profit by encouraging 
such association, which sparks 
and stimulates contributions. 

Right now, sizeable numbers of 
General Electric employees, at 
all levels in the Company, belong 
to engineering societies, hold re- 
sponsible offices, serve on work- 
ing committees and handle im- 
portant assignments. Many are 
recognized for their outstanding 
contributions by honor and 
medal awards. 

These general observations em- 
phasize that General Electric 
does encourage participation. In 
indication of the importance of 
this view, the Company usually 
defrays a portion of the expense 
accrued by the men involved in 
supporting the activities of these 
various organizations. Remem- 
ber, our goal is to see every man 
advance to the full limit of his 
capabilities. Encouraging him to 
join Professional Societies is one 
way to help him do so. 
Mr. Savage has copies of the booklet 
"Your First 5 Years" pubUshed by 
the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development which you may 
have for the asking. Simply write to 
Mt. C. F. Savage, Section 959-12, 
General Electric Co., Schenectady 
5, N. Y. 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: Salary • Why Companies 
have Training Programs • How to 
Get the Job You Want. 



GENERAL AeLECTRIC 



november • 25f^ 



TECHNOGRAPH 



K 


♦ ,^^^^ .,^-^v ^ 


^ 


■^^m 
l&^^ 






IjS 


1 


^^B 


,»,t|| 






■ 


L^ 


^ ^^^l^r '^^^1 




U 


1 


■■ 






^^^^p^^ 


M 


3s 








1 


"^ 


L Jl^ 




i^f 


^ 


kh 






1H 










UnU6r TITGy the performance of men and machines depends on what they are made of. United States Steel 
makes the materials for the machines, whether it's a very tough armor plate, or heat-resistant alloy, or Stainless Steels. 

You might be interested in some of the USS steels developed specifically for aircraft and missiles: 
USS Strux, an alloy steel with close to 300,000 psi tensile strength primarily for aircraft landing gears; 
USS Airsteel X-200, an air-hardenable alloy steel with 230,000 psi yield strength for aircraft sheet and missile 
applications; USS 12MoV and USS 17-5 MnV Stainless Steels for high-speed aircraft and missiles; 
Stainless "W", a precipitation-hardenable Stainless Steel. 

New "exotic" metals, new methods for making them, present an exciting challenge. Men willing to accept this 
challenge— civil, industrial, mechanical, metallurgical, ceramic, electrical or chemical engineers have a future 
with United States Steel. Write to: United States Steel, Personnel Division, Room 2316, 
525 William Penn Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania. 

USS is a registered trademark 




United States Steel 



Editor 

Dave Penniman 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 

Asst. — Marilyn Day 

Editorial Staff 

George Carruthers 
Steve Dilts 
Grenville King 
Jeff R. Golin 
Bill Andrews 
Ron Kurtz 
Mark Weston 
Jerry Jewett 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 

Production Staff 

George Venorsky 
Jack Pazdera 

Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan. Director 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 

Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 

Chairman: Stanley Styncs 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Cooi)era- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer. Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louis- 
iana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review. Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer. Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic, Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
neer, Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 2 



November, 1959 



Table of Contents 

ARTICLES: 

Ceramics and Nuclear Engineering lim Blome 17 

Mathematics for the Space Age Dean H. L. Wakeland 21 

Language and Leadership Tom Gabbard 25 

Technograph Launches Satellite George Carruthers 27 

No Hipsters These Bob Westerbeck 32 

Soused for Science lerry Jewett 38 

Teaching Interns Bill Andrews 49 

Campus at Night Photo Staff 55 

FEATURES: 

From the Editor's Desk 11 

Technocutie Photos by Dave Yates 34 

Skimming Industrial Headlines Edited by Paul Cliff 62 

Brainteasers Edited by Steve Dilts 66 

Begged, Borrowed, and Edited by Jack Fortner 72 

Cover . 

Abstract art can often be as confusing as some of the abstract 

thinking in science. Yet, if the end result is something worth ap- 
preciating then the project is a success. 

Barbara Polan has donated an example of abstract art for 
this month's cover. 



Copyright, 1959, by lUini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter. October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act of March i, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved by The Illinois Technograph. Publisher's Representative — Littell-Murray- 
Barnhill, Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 




All-weather auditorium in Pittsburgh 
will be covered by a 415-foot 
diameter Nickel-containing stainless 



steel dome. Largest of its kind in 
the world, the dome will protect 
an audience of more than 13,000. 



For Pittsburgh's new auditorium . . . 

A"push-button umbrella roof" of Nickel stainless steel 
...the roof design of tomorrow 



Here's the first of a revolutionary 
new type of roof design, destined to 
introduce a new concept in building. 

A simple concept, but a daring one. 
The domed roof of a building is 
divided into eight sections which 
nest together when opened. Push a 
button, and six of these sections 
glide quietly together around an out- 
side track. 

In Pittsburgh's new all-weather 
auditorium, the push-button 
umbrella roof can be closed at the 
first sign of bad weather without 
disturbing the show. In private 
homes, a roof design like this could 
bring the beauty of nature right into 
the home. 



But ichat material i.f lasting 
enough for a dome like tliis? Archi- 
tects and designers of the audito- 
rium looked into all types of 
materials. They selected Nickel- 
containing stainless steel. They 
selected Nickel stainless because it 
has the best combination of proper- 
ties for this purpose. For example 
it is one of the most weather-resist- 
ing, corrosion-resisting metals. 

Naturally, this is just one example 
of how designers are taking advan- 
tage of the unique properties of 
Nickel-containing metals. In the 
future, however, you may be design- 
ing a machine— not a spectacular all- 



weather push-button roof. You might 
need a metal that resists corrosion, 
or wear, or high temperatures. Or 
one that meets some destructive 
combination of conditions. Here, too, 
a Nickel-containing metal could be 
the answer. 

But, whatever your field of study, 
in the future you can count on Inco 
for all the help you need in metal 
selection. Right now, if you'd like to 
get better acquainted with Nickel 
Stainless Steel, why not write Inco 
for "Stainless Steel in Product 
Design." Write: Educational Serv- 
ices, The International Nickel Com- 
pany, Inc., New York 5, N. Y. 



/\ 



^Inco Nickel 



makes metals perform better, longer 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Engineer Larry Ktivans reviews the results of a computer- 
simulated ground checkout of Radioplane Division's 
near-sonic RP-76 rockel-pov/ered target drone. Formerly 



at Norair Division, Lorry came to Radioplane in 1955. At 
31, he is Manager of (he Division's lAOman Electronic 
Support Group, is working toward his doctorate at UCLA. 



YOUNG ENGINEERS ARE NORTHROP'S NEWSMAKERS! 



Northrop Corporation's dynamic and diversified corporate struc- 
ture creates an ideal worlc climate for forward-thinking scientists 
and engineers. Our three autonomous divisions are all in Southern 
California - are all headed by progressive management eager to 
examine and try new ideas. 

Let's assume that you are a man who can qualify for one of our 
engineering teams - a man who can create history! 

YOU'LL EARN what you're worth, get increases as often as you earn 
them - based on your own individual achievements. Our salary 
structure is unique in the industry; our vacation policy extra-liberal, 
as are all of our other fringe benefits. 

YOU'LL LEARN while you earn, with no-cost and low-cost education 
opportunities at leading Southern California institutions -earn ad- 
vanced degrees and keep abreast of latest technological advances 
in your own chosen field. 

YOU'LL WORK with men who are acknowledged leaders in their fields 
- men chosen for their own capabilities am! for skills in guiding 
and developing the creative talents of younger men. And, these 
are men who delegate authority, assuring your fair share of credit 
for engineering triumphs. 

YOU'LL BE FLEXIBLE-able to apply your talents to the work you enjoy, 
in the field best suited to your own inclination and ability. Northrop 
Corporation and its divisions offer wide diversity, with over 30 
operational fields to choose from. All offer challenge aplenty - 
opportunity unlimitedl 



RADIOPLANE DIVISION. Creator of the world's first drone family; has 
produced and delivered tens of thousands of drones for all the U.S. 
Armed Forces. Now developing ultra-advanced target drone sys- 
tems for weapon evaluation, surveillance drone systems, and mis- 
sile systems. 

NORTRONICS DIVISION. Pioneer in celestial and inertial guidance. 
Currently exploring infrared applications, airborne digital com- 
puters and interplanetary navigation; developing ground support, 
optical and electro-mechanical, and data-processing equipment. 
NORAIR DIVISION. Creator of SAC's intercontinental USAF Snark 
SM-62. Currently active in programs for the ballistic recovery of 
orbiting man; flight-testing the USAF T-38 supersonic trainer; 
readying the N-156F NATO-SEATO fighter for flight tests. 
NOW WRITE! Get full information on Northrop Corporation and all 
of its Divisions. Then choose the division that offers you the most 
challenge. To reserve your spot where news is happening, write: 
Engineering & Scientific Personnel Placement Office, Northrop 
Corporation, P.O. Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California. 



a/W 



A 



Divisions of NORTHROP CORPORATION 




NOVEMBER, 1959 





POWER AND PROGRESS 
^o hand-in- hand . . . 



America's progi'ess depends upon a plentiful supply of electric power . . . 
and upon young engineers like those shown above who are preparing for 
the years ahead by learning how to harness the power of atomic energy 
to the job of producing electricity. 

Opportunities for personal progress, too, are to be found in the electric 
industry. Wisconsin Electric Power Company's far-reaching expansion pro- 
gram requires engineering skills in a wide variety of fields — electrical, 
mechanical, civil, chemical, statistical, research, sales, administrative, etc. 

See our representatives when they visit your campus. Ask for more 
information about the excellent job opportunities available for engineers. 

WISCONSIN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 
Appieton, Wis. 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co 
Racine, Wis. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




HOW TO MAKE A "LEFT TURN" IN OUTER SPACE 

(and the "right turn" toward a gratifying career) 



Like the dimensions of the universe 
itself, the future of space technology 
is beyond imagination. The fron- 
tiers of space will edge farther and 
farther from us as engineering and 
scientific skills push our knowledge 
closer to the stars. Bendix Aviation 
Corporation, long a major factor in 
America's technological advance, 
offers talented young men an out- 
standing site from which to launch 
a career. 

In the field of controls alone, for 
example, Bendix (which makes con- 
trols for almost everything that 
rolls, flies or floats) has developed 
practical, precision equipment for 
steering and controlling the atti- 



tude of space vehicles. It consists 
of a series of gas reaction controllers 
(actually miniature rockets) which 
are mounted around the satellite. 
Individually controlled by a built- 
in intelligence system, they emit 
metered jets of gas on signal when- 
ever it is necessary to change the 
orientation of the satellite. 

The development of this unique 
control equipment is but one of the 
many successful Bendix projects 
involving knowledge of the outer 
atmosphere and beyond. Bendix, a 
major factor in broad industrial re- 
search, development and manufac- 
ture, is heavily engaged in advanced 
missile and rocket systems and com- 



ponents activities. These include 
prime contract responsibility for 
the Navy's advanced missiles, Talos 
and Eagle. 

The many career opportunities 
at Bendix include assignments in 
electronics, electromechanics, ultra- 
sonics, computers, automation, 
radar, nucleonics, combustion, air 
navigation, hydraulics, instrumen- 
tation, propulsion, metallurgy, com- 
munications, carburetion, solid 
state physics, aerophysics and 
structures. See your placement 
director or write to Director of 
University and Scientific Relations, 
Bendix Aviation Corporation, 
1108 Fisher Bldg., Detroit 2, Mich. 



A thousand products 




a million ideas 



NOVEMBER, 1959 





- diversification 



These specialized electronics systems 
are an important part of Collins' con- 
trihntion to advancements in military 
and commercial communication. 

Collins was selected over several com- 
panies because it could do the job — 
economicallv, vvith excellent ecjuipment, 
and provide capable engineering assist- 
ance for all phases. 

Collins needs engineers and physicists 
to keep pace vvith the growing demand 
for its products. Positions are challeng- 
ing. Assignments are varied. Projects 
currentlv underway in the Cedar Rap- 
ids Division include research and de- 
velopment in Airborne communication, 
navigation and identification systems, 
Missile and satellite tracking and com- 



munication. Antenna design, Amateur 
radio and Broadcast. 

Collins manufacturing and R&D in- 
stallations are also located in Burbank 
and I3allas. Modern laboratories and re- 
search facilities at all locations ensure 
the finest working conditions. 

Your placement office will tell you 
when a Collins representative will be 
on campus. 

For all the interesting facts and fig- 
ures of recent Collins developments 
send for your free copies of Signal, pub- 
lished ([uarterlv by the Collins Radio 
Companv. Fill out and mail the at- 
tached coupon today. You'll receive 
every issue published during this school 
year without obligation. 



COLLINS 




Professionol Placement, , 
Collins Radio Company, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Please send me each Collii 
during this school year. 



Signol published 



COLLINS RADIO COMPANY • CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA • DALUS, TEXAS • BURBANK, CALIFORNIA b 



Address 


City 


Stote 


College or University 


Major degree 


Minor 


Graduation dote 


■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Heat lost except at absolute zero? 

A measure of disorder? 

A statistical probability of state? 

The gradient of a scalar? 

Macrocosmic phenomenon or 
microcosmic, too? 

The fundamental concept of entropy 
is involved in many phases of our 
technology. Hence we have a funda- 
mental need to know everything we 
can about its significance. This 
knowledge is critical to our work of 
energy conversion. 

Thus we probe and inquire, search 
\A:ithout wearying — call upon the 
talents of General Motors Corpora- 
tion, its Divisions, and other indi- 
viduals and organizations — for a 
complete appreciation of all phases 
of scientific phenomena. By apply- 
ing this systems engineering con- 
cept to new research projects, we 
increase the effectiveness with 
which we accomplish our mission — 
exploring the needs of advanced 
propulsion and weapons systems . 



Energy conversion is our business ; 




Want to know about YOUR opportunities on 
the Allison Engineering Team? Write: Mr. /?. C. 
Smith, College Relations, Personnel Dept. 



Division of General Motors, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



NOVEMBER, 1959 




Thinhiiig far up the road 

. . . lit V tV (j 1 1 (J f ( I Lu The automatic hi^hwav, 
clcmonstrittcd in this icorking model of General Motors experimental 
Auto-Control System, is an electronic marvel that takes over steering, 
speed, braking and obstacle detection for drivers. 



GM positions now 

available in these fields 

for men holding 

Bachelor's, Master's 

and Doctor's degrees: 

Mechanical Engineering 

Electrical Engineering 

Industrial Engineering 

Metallurgical Engineering 

Chemical Engineering 

Aeronautical Engineering 

Ceramic Engineering 

Mathematics 

Industrial Design 

Physics • Chemistry 

Engineering Mechanics 

Business Administration 

and Related Fields 



If you're thinking aliead in the field of 
science or engineering. General Motors 
is the place for you. Here are many 
challenging opportunities for young men 
who want to do things, do things better, 
solve problems on projects that probe 
into the future. 

Among many available fields and 
products in which GM engineers and 
scientists work are: electronics, rocket 
propulsion, automotive, solar energy, 
astronautics, diesel engines and house- 
holil appliances. 

GM has plenty of room in which you 
can grow. As you move forward, you 
take on jobs of greater responsibility in 
your Division and can bridge across to 
positions of responsibility in other Divi- 
sions of the Corporation. And if you 
wish to continue w ith advanced studies, 
GM offers financial assistance. 

For more information on a fine posi- 
tion with an exciting future, write to 
General Motors, Personnel Staff, 
Detroit 2. Michigan. 

GENERAL MOTORS 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




DOW is tomorrow-minded 



A chemist, with his mind on his own specialty exclu- 
sively, might say: "The chief raw materials for 
Dow products are sea water, brine, petroleum, coal, 
oyster shells." Up to a point he would be right. But 
in fact he would be overlooking the most important 
ingredient of all — people of a certain exceptional kind 
and quality of mind. 

Let's look at a quick profile of the kind of person Dow 
looks for. His mind and ambitions are not Umited by 
the dimensions of the job he is doing. His horizons 
take in tomorrow, while he does his job well today. 
Problems appear to him in a dynamic context of both 
today and tomorrow. The "big picture" is not just a 
cynical phrase to him. 

This broader view makes him plan well — for his family 
as well as for his job. As the phrase goes, he is "a 
good provider." He owns his own car. Chances are he 
owns his own home. Along with some 80,000 others he 
has invested in Dow stock because he believes in his 



company and wants to back up that belief with cash. 

He is a builder at work or in liis community. He gets 
a kick out of creating new things. Such products as 
Saran Wrap*, Separan* for the mining industry, the 
new fiber Zefran*, and others. Making things that do 
some important job for the human community, better 
than it has ever been done before, gives him a real thrill. 

Not everyone who works for Dow, whether at Midland 
or the other 23 United States locations (plus 23 foreign 
and 5 Canadian), fits this profile. But by and large 
most of those who do well tend to. Though they have 
more than their share of "creative discontent," they 
have found a good place to grow, and work out their 
hopes, plans and ambitions. 

If you would like to know more about the Dow oppor- 
tunity, please write: Director of College Relations, 
Department 2427FW, the dow chemical company, 
Midland, Michigan. 



THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY • MIDLAND, MICHIOAN 

NOVEMBER, 1959 




Leonardo da Vinci... on experiments 



I shall hegin by making some experiments before I pro- 
ceed any further; for it is my intention first to consult 
experience and llien sfiow by reasoning wliy that experi- 
ence was bound to turn out as it did. Tliis. in fact, is the 
true rule by which the student of natural effects must pro- 
ceed: although nature starts from reason and ends willi 
experience, it is necessary for us to proceed the other %vay 
around, thai is — as I said above — begin willi experience 
and with its help seek the reason. 



Experience never errs; what alone may err is our judg- 
ment, which predicts effects that cannot be produced in 
our experiments. Given a cause, what follows will of 
necessity be its true effect, unless some external obstacle 
intervenes. When that happens, the effect that would 
have resulted from the cause will reflect the nature of the 
obstacle in the same proportion as the obstacle is more 
or less powerful than the cause." 

-'Notebooks, circa 1500 



THE RAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprodi organization engaged in research on problems relalcd lo national security and the public interest 



10 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Editor's Desk 



To the Seniors . . . 



On this campus in years past there were many traditions. The bench at 
the southwest corner of the Union Building was for Seniors only. It was a privilege 
reserved for those who hod gone through registration week for three years 
and had come back for more. They hod sweated their hour exams and probably 
done poorly on some of them, but at least they were still around. 

No one knows better than on engineer the work that lies behind a person in 
his senior year, and he should also realize the work that lies ahead. He soon 
finds that the senior year is more hurried than ever. 

But while all the seniors seem to be working as hard as each other and 
striving for the same ultimate goal, they lack something best described as espirit 
de corps. I speak of a feeling for their fellow classmates as well as the school 
which has given them as much education as they are willing to obtain. 

There used to be another tradition on this campus. Every male student 
would say hello to every other male student, regardless of whether he knew him. 
Obviously, with the growth of our campus this is impossible; however, the engi- 
neering campus could incorporate something of this nature. 

Another idea is that of a special shirt or hat for the seniors. If this seems 
silly, then look at the U. S. Army which has as standard a uniform as could ever 
be wished on a person, and yet some students wear parts of it to class (and 
rather proudly I suspect). 

The solution to the problem may be something much simpler. Forget the 
whole idea. "We're seniors. We'll be out soon, so why bother?" The point is just 
that. We will be out soon, and what have we got to show for it besides the 
ability to analyze an engineering problem? 

Industry is looking for a person with a touch of the "gung-ho" in him, and 
the willingness to let it show. 

Why not let it show now, while you are in with a group of men who are 
doing and wanting the same things you are? Let it show some, and you as 
well OS the school will benefit by it. 

-WDP 



NOVEMBER, 1959 11 




Phillips Petroleum 
Offers Outstanding 
Career Opportunities 
in the Field 
of Your Choice 



Phillips Petroleum Company is one 
of America's largest and most widely 
diversified producers of petroleum, 
natural gas, natural gas liquids and 
petrochemicals. Having recently 
completed a billion-dollar expansion 
program, Phillips is now entering a 
new period of growth. 

Phillips is a research and engi- 
neering-minded company, where 
one out of every eight employees is 
a technical graduate! These men 
are working on such broadly diver- 
sified projects as synthetic rubber, 
atomic energy, fertilizer, rocket 
fuels, plastics and new processes for 
improved motor fuels, lubricants 
and other petroleum jjroducts. 

Other Phillips scientists and en- 
gineers are specializing in the fields 
of geology, geophysics, computer 
programming, market develop- 
ment, refinery production and pipe- 
line construction. 

Phillips policy of promotion and 
transfer from within is creating op- 
portunities for young engineers and 
scientists who will be our key men 
of tomorrow. 

Write today to our Technical Man- 
power Division for our latest bro- 
chure . . . and when the Phillips Rep- 
resentative visits your campus be 
sure to arrange for an interview 
through your Placement Office. 

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Bartlesville • Oklahoma 




12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



An Announcement of Importance 

to Engineering 

and Physical Science Majors 




Lockheed Missiles and Space Division is engaged in a broad spectrum 
of scientific exploration. The Division has complete capability in more than 
40 areas of technology — from concept to operation. 

Diversity of the work areas is typified by the programs in such fields as: 
magnetohydrodynamics; space medicine; oceanography; sonics; propulsion 
and exotic fuels; metallurgy; advanced systems research; manned space 
vehicles; reconnaissance; optics and infrared; electromagnetic wave propa- 
gation and radiation; electronics; physics; chemistry; mathematics; computer 
design; aero and thermo dynamics; test; design and operations research 
and analysis. 

PROJECTS — Current major projects include the Navy polaris Fleet Ballistic 
Missile; the discoverer program; midas and samos; Air Force 0-5 and X-7 
and the Army kingfisher. Project midas is an early warning infrared 
system against ballistic missile attacks, based on the use of satellites. Project 
samos is designed for the development of an advanced satellite reconnais- 
sance system. Discoverer, midas, and samos are programs of the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency under the direction of the Air Force Ballistic 
Missile Division with Lockheed as systems manager. 

LOCATIONS —You have a selection of two of the choicest living areas in the 
country at Lockheed. Headquarters for the Division are at Sunnyvale, Cali- 
fornia, on the San Francisco Peninsula. Research and development facilities 
are located in the Stanford Industrial Park in Palo Alto and at Van Nuys, 
in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. Testing is conducted at Santa 
Cruz and Vandenberg AFB, California; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and 
Alamogordo, New Mexico. 

Together, the Division's facilities occupy more than two million, six 
hundred thousand square feet of laboratory, engineering, manufacturing and 
office space and provide the latest in technical equipment, including one of 
the most modern computing centers in the world. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCED EDUCATION - For those who desire to 
continue their education and secure advanced degrees Lockheed maintains 
two programs. The Graduate Study Program permits selected engineers and 
scientists to obtain advanced degrees at the company's expense while working 
part time at Lockheed. 

The Tuition Reimbursement Plan remits fifty per cent of the tuition for 
approved evening courses for salaried employees who are working full time. 

For Information regarding career opportunities at Lockheed, please write 
Professional Placement Staff, Dept. K-96, Lockheed Missiles and Space 
Division, 962 West El Camino Real, Sunnyvale, California, or see your 
Placement Director for date of Lockheed campus visit. 



Lockheed 



MISSILES AND SPACE DIVISION 



SUNNYVALE, PALO ALTO, VAN NUYS, SANTA CRUZ, SANTA MARIA, CALIFORNIA 
CAPE CANAVERAL, FLORIDA • ALAMOGORDO, NEW MEXICO • HAWAII 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



13 



Westinghouse is the best place for talented engineers 






1^ 


J 


• •• • •• lyl > 

• •• • •• |K, 


^ J 








• - 




^H^B^S' ' ' ' • • • • • JH^E* ' 

HHIHiiiHt' ' 


w 


'^^b'--- Jlp - ■ /^ c 



Westinghouse i 



athematici; 
goutsolutK 



Moffat and Dr 
nsfer 



Richard Durstine checl< on an electronic 
forthe company's Atomic Power Di\ 



The Mathematics Department helps you to use 
high-speed computers to solve your problem 



The Mathematics Department helps Westinghouse 
engineers take advantage of modern methods of mathe- 
matics and new develoijments in this field. If new tech- 
niques are needed to use a digital computer for solving 
an engineer's problem, these men will develop them. 

This department, the second of its kind in American 
industry, is staffed by 15 Ph.D.'s, 3 M.S.'s, and 6 B.S. 
mathematicians. Among other accomplishments, it is 
credited with developing OPCON, an electronic brain 
for optimizing control of proce.ssing systems. OPCON 
won for Westinghouse the 1958 Industrial Science 
Achievement Award of the A.A.A.S. 

Supporting the work of about 150 other mathemati- 
cians with operating divisions, the Mathematics Dept. 
is actively studying industrial logistics (called OR or 
Operations Research by some), fatigue of metals (pio- 
neering work using statistical techniques), equipment 
and system design, and a variety of other challenging 
problems. 

The young engineer at Westinghouse isn't expected to 



14 



know all of the answers. Our work is often too advanced 
for that. Each man's work is backed up by specialists — 
like the men in this Mathematics Dept. Even tough 
problems are easier to solve with this kind of help. 

If you've ambition and real ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportuni- 
ties for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write to Mr. L. H. Noggle, 
Westinghouse Educational Dept., Ardmore & Brinton 
Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pa. 

you CAN BE SURE... IF ITS 

Westinghouse 

WATCH WESTINGHOUSE LUCILLE BALL DESI ARNAZ SHOWS 
CBSTV FRIDAYS 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



■^rs^zr. 



New products create 
more good jobs at Du Pont 




HOW LONG WILL IT STAY BRIGHT AND SHINY? 



That depends, for the most part, on its 
finish. The most dazzling cars on the mad 
today wear gleaming coats of Du Pont 
"Lucite"* acrylic lacquer. For "Lucite" 
stays bright and beautiful three times longer 
than the best conventional finishes. 

Like hundreds of other products de- 
veloped through Du Pont research, "Lucite" 
has created all kinds of new jobs. Jobs in 
the laboratory. Jobs in production. And 
jobs in sales and marketing. Good jobs 
that have contributed su])stantially to the 
growth of Du Pont and the prosperity of 
our country. 

It's an old story. But it's truer today 
than ever. For the very nature of our busi- 
ness makes research pay off, giving us the 
courage to "obsolete" products when better 
ones are found. This is probably why our 
sales have increased more than tenfold dur- 
ing the last twenty-five years. And for every 
dollar we have spent on research during 
these years, we have been able to invest 
three in new production facilities. 

What does all this have to do with you? 



^"Lucile" is Du Pout's registered trade 



For qualified bachelors, masters, doctors, 
career ojiportunities are greater today at 
Du Pont liian ever before. There is an in- 
teresting 1! I Pont future for metallurgists, 
pliNsicists. mathematicians, electrical and 
mechanical engineers, and other technical 
specialists, as well as for chemists and chem- 
ical engineers. 

You probably won't discover a "Lucite." 
nylon or neoprene, or develop a revolu- 
tionary new process, your first year. No- 
body expects you to. But you will be given 
responsibility from the very start, along 
with training that is personalized to fit your 
interests and special abilities. Our advance- 
ment ])olicies are based on the conviction 
that you should work at or near the top of 
your ability. For as you grow, so do we. 

If you would like to know more about 
career opportunities at Du Pont, ask your 
placement officer for literature. Or write 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 
2420 Nemours Building. Wilmington ''I!. 
Delaware. 



t 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING . . . THROUGH CHEfMSTRt 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



15 







''■'j:^--m' 







Ceramics and Nuclear Engineering 



By Jim Blome 



There is a great need for new mater- 
ials that can he used in atomic reactors. 
These materials must be capahle of 
withstanding not only high tempera- 
tures, but also corrosive environments 
and radiation damage. A few of the 
ceramic materials that have been used 
for this work will be discus.sed along 
with the problems that arise from their 
use. 

There are a \ ariet\ of special condi- 
tions on materials used in the construc- 
tion of a reactor. The core of a thermal 
reactor must be made up of elements 
having a low probabilitv for capturing 
neutrons. The bulk of the core must be 
of light elements in order to slow down 
the neutrons for the atomic reaction. 
This eliminates most of the elements 
from consideration. The control rod 
which is inserted in the core must hi- 
made of elements ha\ing high neutron 
capture probabilities. The particle shield 
which is around the core must absorb 
neutrons without the emission of gamma 
radiation. The radiation shield which 
goes around the particle shield must be 
\ery dense to absorb the harmfid radia- 
tion that is emitted. 

The effects of bombardment of fission 
products, neutrons, beta particles and 
gamma radiation, called radiation dam- 
age, place still another big restiiction 
on the material that is to be used in the 
construction of reactors. 

Extracting the heat which is produced 
in the reactor is done via a coolant 
which gi\es rise to corrosion problems 
ne\er thought of at normal tempera- 
tures. 

The ceramists and metallurgists ha\e 
done a remarkable job in meeting the 
difficult materials requirements of re- 
actors. 

Oak Ridge 

1 wo t\ pes of research reactors are 
operated at Oak Ridge National Lab- 
oratory. One is a graphite moderated, 
air-cooled, natural uranium reactor; the 
second is a water-cooled and moderated, 
enriched uranium reactor. 

The graphite reactor was first built 
as a pilot plant for the Hanford plant, 



but since 1944 has been used as a re- 
search reactor. There are three ceramic 
materials used in this reactor: graphite, 
concrete and glass (in the form of glass 
wool). Together they make up the bulk 
of the reactor. 

The size of the graphite core is 24x 
24x24 ft., and is entirely surrounded by 
a concrete shield seven feet thick. The 
graphite is fitted together from blocks 
4\4x48 in. in size which are keyed to 
prevent shifting. About 600 tons of 
graphite are built into the I'eactor. The 
shield is composed of three layers of 
concrete ; a one foot thick wall of stand- 
ard concrete on the inside and outside 
and the five feet in the center which is 
filled with a special concrete containing 
bar\tes to increase the density, thus mak- 
ing the shield more effective in absorb- 
ing gamma rays. The concrete also con- 
tains haydite ( an expanded clay ma- 
terial) to give the structure a high water 
content and thus make the shield more 
effective. The water has the property' of 
absorbing neutrons. The mass of urani- 
um in the reactor is 54 tons and is 
formed into cjlinders commonly called 
slugs. These slugs are 1.1 in. in diameter 
by 4 in. long and are enclosed in akuii- 
inum jackets. The aluminum "can" is 
to prevent oxidation of the uranium. 

Approximately 90,000 c.f.m. of cool- 
ing air is filtered through coarse glass 
wool filters and through channels in 
the graphite. After flowing through the 
channels and thus removing the fission 
heat from the uranium slugs, the air is 
taken through a long duct of concrete 
to a filter house. Here the air is filtered 
again through glass wool fibers and 
special paper filters which remo\e all 
particles above one micron in diameter. 
This process is very important since 
some of the slugs rupture and put radio- 
active fission products in the air. The 
air is drawn from the filter house by 
two 900 h.p. centrifugal compressors and 
is discharged at the top of a 200 ft. 
stack. The stack is necessary because of 
radioacti\ity in the cooling gases. The 
radioactive part of the gas is largeh' 
Argon-41. Fortunately, this does not 
have a verv long half life (about 100 



Ceramic systems are being considered as fuel element material here at 
Atomics International, a division of North American Aviation, Inc. 



minutes) and the radioactivity decays 
before the gases reach the ground level. 

Another factor which limits the kind 
of material that can be used in reactors 
is radiation. In some ceramic materials 
the low temperature thermal conductiv- 
it\' is appreciably decreased by radiation. 
Nearh' all of the electroiu'c properties 
of the nonmetals are altered b\' bom- 
bardment of fission products. 

Although the present state of know- 
ledge in the field of radiation damage 
makes it hard to give a complete pic- 
ture of the best materials to use, t\vo 
things seem to be most important in 
radiation stability. The most stable ma- 
terials are those which are ionic and 
which have a high symmetry. Experi- 
ence with graphite indicates that, if it 
is necessary to use anisotropic materials, 
the best results will be obtained with 
small particle sizes and a mininuim of 
preferred orientation. 

Urania 

In xiew of the fact that lU). is a 
very important ceramic material used in 
reactors, a short summary of some of its 
physical and chemical properties will 
now be discussed. Uranium dioxide has 
been used as a reactor material for 
fuel elements both in bulk and granular 
forms. Uranium dioxide is a dark brown 
material in powder fomi. Its crystal 
structure is the face centered cubic 
CaF.^ type, the uranium ions occupying 
corners and faces. 

The melting point of UO., is stated b\' 
most investigators to be about 2800"C 
and sintering has been noted at temper- 
atures as low as 1400"C. Some furnace 
walls, after sintering, ha\e been colored 
and radioactive, indicating the volatility 
of UO3. If Be(^ is present it becomes 
even more volatile. 

Some of the chemical reactions with 
in'anium that have been noted are: 

With Carbon— UC,; UX, 

With H\drogen — No reaction up to 
melting point. 

With Oxygen— UO.,; U,0,; U,0- ; 

u.o,; u.A 

With Oxides — Solid solutions with 
ThO, .<^ ZrO, 

With Silicon — USi., 

With Aluminum— UAl,; UAl, 

With Columbium — Solid Solution at 
1000"C containing an unknown phase. 

Urania is formed into many shapes by 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



17 



such ceramic tabricatintj processes as: 
cold pressing, slip casting, extrusion, and 
hot pressing. Urania bars and pellets, for 
example, are made by pressing L (^_. 
pouiler plus a tew per cent dextrose or 
wax hinder in a steel die at 10, 000 psi. 
All i)t these forming methods are com- 
mon to the ceramic industry and much 
u'ork has been done h\ cer.uuists on 
nuclear fuel. 

Crucibles, cylinders and other hollow 
thill wall shapes are made by slip cast- 
ing a water-urania mixture, plus HCl 
as a deHocculant, in an ordinary plaster 
mold. This method of forming ceramic 
materials has been used hy manufactur- 
ers for many years, although different 
deHocculating chemicals ma\ he used in 
different casting slips. 

Refractories 

In the rcictors which use uranium as 
a fuel there is a need for special shaped 
fuel components. Some of the refrac- 
tories which have been used for casting 
and melting this metal are Magnesium 
( )xide. Calcium Oxide, Thorium Oxide 
and .'Muminum (^xide. These special 
molds anil crucibles are formed by slip 
casting and dry pressing, just as are 
many other ceramic products. 

In slip casting alumina, a very fine 
powder of it is used along with benton- 
ite, ball clay and distilled water. A one- 
eighth inch wall thickness can be at- 
tained in about one minute in a plaster 
mold. Alumina can also be dry pressed 
using a modified polyethylene glycol or 
binder. 

Some ceramic bodies which are made 
for nuclear applications need special 
consideration in their preparation. 
Bodies made of urani.-i nuist be fired in 
a partial vacuum oi' in some other inert 



gas atmosphere, because urania upon 
heating in the presence of oxygen con- 
verts to U.|0,i causing a destructive vol- 
ume increase. It has been found that 
bodies containing 30 percent urania and 
711 iH-r cent thoria (by weight) can be 
fired in the air by adding U..O„ to the 
thoria, thus producing a solid solution, 
with, no flagrant \olume change. This 
product has become more popular he- 
cause of the ease of firing. 

A higher temperature reactor has 
been proposed using more ceramic ma- 
terials. This reactoi' would make for 
more efficient production of power. 
W^th the fuel, moderator and breeder 
planket in ceramic form and gas as a 
coolant this reactor could operate at 
higher temperatures and could be more 
efficient according to the Carnot cycle. 
The Carnot cycle asserts that the effici- 
ency of a heat engine is increased if the 
spread between the temperatures of the 
incoming and outgoing gases can be in- 
creased. The high temperatures attain- 
able (above 1000°C) in a ceramic re- 
actor would make this increase in effici- 
ency possible. 

Applications 

It IS saul that much of our nations 
electrical supply will soon come from 
atomic energy. This is especially prob- 
able in regions where there is little nat- 
ural supply of power like water or coal. 
Atomic power plants today pro\ ide 
light for the homes of less than 2iH).- 
000 Americans. In three years, how- 
ever, that total should soar to about 
2,000,000. It has been predicted that 20 
per cent of our electrical power will 
come from nuclear sources by 1980. 

i)n July 21, the first American-built 
nuclear-powered merchant ship was 




Physical ceramists at Atomics Interna- 
tional investigate inter-particle rela- 
tionships of refractory oxides. 

christened at Camden, X.J. and there 
are others now in the building stage. 
Nuclear power has also made history in 
the able hands of the United States 
Navy. There is no other source of 
power that could have driven a sub- 
marine thousands of miles uiuler the 
polar ice cap. 

By 1962, the Air Force hopes to 
have nuclear-powered airplanes and a 
few years later commercial planes of 
this type may be in the test stage. 

Mines being worked with nuclear 
power equipment and trains of nuclear 
design have been predicted bv the mid- 
dle 1960s. 

Ceramics will ha\ e a strategic role 
in power reactors of many types in years 
to come. There will be many problems 
iiuolved in adapting ceramic materials 
to the various conditions under which 
they will be used in nuclear reactors 
but, if progress in this field continues 
as it has. these problems will be taken 
in stride. 




Main Research Building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



HOW FORGED PARTS 
help airplanes haul 
bigger payloads 




In ail airliner, every pound of weight saved is worth hundreds of dollars 

... in revenue-making payload. And in military aircraft, pounds saved mean 

added miles-per-hour ... or added load carried. 

In commercial products . . . trucks, cars, materials-handling equipment . . . 
the pounds of dead weight you eliminate by using forgings make money 
year-after-year for the operator. The forging process lets you put the metal exactly 
where you need it to carry the load, withstand shock or vibration, 
endure torsion. And with not a surplus ounce of non-working weight going 
along just for the ride. 

Forged parts are the designer's friend . . . strong where strength is needeti. 
lowest in weight, twice-worked by original rolling of the best metals 
plus the hammer blows or high pressures of the forging process. 

\^ rite for literature to help you specify, design, and procure forged parts. 



■ ' ' I II — 

Drop Forging Association • Cleveland 13, Ohio 



Sames of sponsoring companies on request to this magazir 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



19 




ELECTRIC SPACE VEHICLE 

Hypolhetical Model 

1 Nuclear Reactor 

2 Propellant 

3 Turbo-Generator 

4 Radiator 

5 Crew Cabin for 

6 Landing Croft 
Lengtii: 600 feet 

Weight: 350,000 lbs. 
Power: 12,600 KW 
Thrust: 58 lbs. 



MASTERY OVER 



NASA's space efforts are directed toward two specific ob- 
jectives. First, to make it possible for man to achieve the 
same mastery over space he has aheady secured in every 
other region he has attempted to make his own ... on the 
surface of the earth, under it, or in the air above it. 
Second, to free man from one additional element of intel- 
lectual bondage— that is, to gain for all mankind additional 
knowledge about the cosmos. 

To accomplish these objectives NASA's broadly conceived 
programs encompass intensive work in the following areas: 

Scientific investigations in space by means of sounding 
rockets, scientific satellites, lunar probes, deep space 
probes. 

Research and development of spacecraft, missiles and 
aircraft. 

Meteorological and communications satellite systems. 

Space operations technology — Project Mercury and 
space rendezvous techniques. 

Space propulsion research, including solid propellant 
rockets, high energy propellant rockets, lV2-rnillion-poimd- 
Ihrust single-chamber rocket engine, nuclear and electric 
rocket engines. 

Orbiting space laboratories. 



Scientists 

and Engineers: 

Career opportunities for graduates at 
NASA ore as unlimited as the scope of 



odd 



nquiry to the 
I Director of any of the 



your 



Mowing NASA research centers: 

Langley Reseorch Center 
Hampton, Virginia 

Ames Research Center 
Mountain View, California 

Lewis Research Center 
Cleveland, Ohio 

High-Speed Flight Station 
Edwards, California 

Goddard Space Flight Center 
4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W. 
Washington 25, D. C. 



NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



MATHEMATICS FOR 



THE SPACE AGE 



By Dean H. L. Wakeland 



(^n October 4, 1957, a new age was 
born when tbe Russian satellite Sput- 
nik orbited the earth and shocked many 
Americans into the realization that Rus- 
sia's space technology had not only 
equaled but surpassed American space 
technology. Immediately cries rang from 
all corners of the United States for the 
causes of our failure in the space pro- 
gram. One area which was immediately 
singled out as a great weakness was our 
educational system. More emphasis was 
placed on mathematics and science in 
education than ever before. 

However, the high schools in the 
State of Illinois were several years 
ahead of the space program in their 
planning for better mathematics pro- 
grams. In 1950 the College of Engineer- 
ing proposed a change in the mathe- 
matics requirements for entrance into 
college and the Illinois high schools im- 
mediately began to upgrade their mathe- 
matics programs. A brief review of en- 
trance credits presented by the freshmen 
in the College of Engineering from the 
years 1952 through 1959 indicates the 
planning and achie\ement made by Illi- 
nois high schools. 

Freshmen in the College of Engin-er- 
ing come primarily from Illinois high 
schools and therefore the entrance cred- 
its they present indicate the college 
preparation available in Illinois. In 
1950 the mathematics entrance require- 
ments for the College of Engineering 
were one and one-half years of algebra, 
one year of plane geometry, and one- 
half year of solid geometry. At that 
time approximately sixty per cent of all 
entering freshmen met these require- 
ments. In ]95.'i the College of Engineer- 
ing raised its mathematics requirements 
to two years of algebra, one year of 
plane geometry, one-half year of solid 
geometry, and one-half year of trigo- 
nometry. In 1956 the one-half year of 
solid geometry was dropped as a re- 
quirement in hopes that high school stu- 
dents woidd replace solid geometry 
w ith the study of advanced mathematics. 
Suice the latest change in 19S6 the en- 
trance requirements li,i\e remained at 



three and one-half years of high school 
mathematics. 

The response of the Illinois high 
schools to this upgrading of college en- 
trance requirements has been extremely 
gratifying. The graph below indicates 
the continued improvement in the prep- 
aration of high school students. In 1952 
only 47% of the students entered with 
three and one-half years of mathe- 
matics including trigonometry. That 
figure has now risen to 82.2% and con- 
tinues to rise each year. An even sharp- 
er contrast is shown in the comparison 
of students having had four years of 
high school mathematics. In 1952 only 
27 '"f of the freshman class had four 
years of high school mathematics, where- 
as, in 1959, 70% had four years of high 
school mathematics. 

Illinois high schools have also added 
college level courses to their offerings 
during the past ten years. In 1952 only 
a few of the engineering freshmen pre- 
sented college credit in algebra or trigo- 
nometry, but in 1959 nearly 15C,' of 
the class did so. In addition, an increas- 
ingly larger niimber of students are en- 
tering the College of Engineering each 
year with college credit in analytic ge- 
ometry and integral or differential cal- 
culus. In 1959 twent\-six engineering 
freshmen were placed in the first course 
in calculus and 5 in the second course 
in calculus. 

The alumnus who complains "stu- 
dents aren't as good as when I was 
here " would be enlightened if he were 
to review the statistics of each new in- 
coming cla.s.s. The quality of the engi- 
neering freshmen class continues to im- 
prove each year. In 1952, 59%) of the 
incoming freshmen came from the upper 
thirty per cent of the high school class, 
whereas, in 1959, 66% came from the 
upper thirty per cent. Likewise, the En- 
gineering freshmen in IQSO oftVred 
more entrance credits in areas other 
than mathematics than any class before 
them. 

It seems that enguieermg freshmen 
can alw.us luiil ui,in\ thmgs to he cor- 



rected in the high school from which 
they came, but seldom do they realize 
the good points of their high school 
background. The high schools in the 
State of Illinois are to be commended 
for their high standards and continued 
progress in making their mathematics 
program one of the strongest in the na- 
tion. Studies and improvement pro- 
grams are being carried out in other 
educational areas and a comparison 
might show similar progress. 

The College of Engineering is again 
studying its entrance requirements in 
areas other than mathematics and there 
is a possibility that other entrance re- 
qiurements will be changed in the fu- 
ture. The fundamentals of mathematics 
as in any other educational area, have 
not been changed by the so called 
"Space Age," but the excellence re- 
quired in educational areas is definitely 
higher than ever before. Illinois' high 
schools not only have realized this fact 
but had instrumented programs to meet 
their new challenge before Sputnik was 
fired. 



00 






























. — 


70 










^ 








/ 




' ^ 














/ 


/ 














/ 






























20 
lO 













































1952 '53 '54 55 56 57 58 59 

Year of er^france 

Percent of the Engineering Freshman 
Class presenting Sli years of high 
school mathematics. 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



21 



Best mdwidua/ effort. . . 



AEROPHVSICS 




STRUCTURES & WTS. 



m^ 




OPERATIONS RES. ^9 w •♦ 

. . . oesf combmafwn ofmeas 



At Convair-Fort Worth, you'll find a new 
outlook ... a new perspective in the engi- 
neering organization . . . one whose objective 
is to provide a framework from which each 
engineer can contribute his best individual 
effort toward achieving the best combination 
of ideas. 

This is one reason why so many experienced, 
well-trained men with creative ability and 
inquiring minds are taking a close look at 
the advantages of joining a team whose 
advanced thinking is so vividly portrayed 



by the all-new B-58, America's first and 
fastest supersonic bomber. 
Living in Fort Worth has its advantages, too. 
There is no state income or sales tax, ade- 
quate housing in all price ranges, no com- 
muting problem. Descriptive literature will be 
supplied on request, or send a complete res- 
ume' of your training and experience for care- 
ful evaluation by engineers in the areas best 
suited to your qualifications. To be assured 
of prompt attention and strict confidence, 
address your inquiry to P. O. Box 748C. 



CONVAIR-FORT WORTH 

A DIVISION OF 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




How to advance through lateral movement 



THE LATERAL PASS is a perfect example of how to 
get ahead by first going sideways. And lateral move- 
ment is a philosophy we use at Koppers. 

Here's how it works. Let's say you're a new employee 
at Koppers. We give you a specific assignment. You 
find it exciting, challenging. You do a good job. But do 
we leave you there? Not at all. Once you understand the 
products and the function of that particular operation, 
we try you on a different assignment. Here, again, you'll 
find the work new and stimulating. 

You'll never be buried at Koppers. You'll never stand 
still intellectually. Moving from one operation to an- 
other, you'll move ahead. Your assignment won't be to 
learn just a job, but a vast, diversified corporation. Your 
compensation? Advancement, responsibility, success. 

Your youth won't be held against you. Neither will 
short tenure. If you have the ability and the desire to get 
ahead, you'll move fast! Our system of continuous ap- 
praisal and evaluation is your guarantee of that. 



Koppers is so widely diversified that you can almost 
name your job. Want to work with chemicals, jet-engine 
sound control, plastics, sintering plants, wood preserva- 
tives, road surfacing materials, electrostatic precipi- 
tators? Interested in research? Production? Sales? These 
are only a few of the fascinating opportunities at Koppers. 

Why not find out how you can fit into the Koppers 
picture? Write to the Manager of Manpower Planning, 
Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania. 
Or, see your College Placement Director and arrange an 
appointment with a Koppers representative for the next 
recruiting visit. 



K O P P E 




NOVEMBER, 1959 



23 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, under the direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



YOUR TASK FOR THE FUTURE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



"We do these things because of the unquenchable curiosity of 
Man. The scientist is continually asking himself questions and 
then setting out to find the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
have sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who eon tell what we will find when we get fo (he planets? 



Who, at this present time, can predict what potential benefits 
to man exist in this enterprise ? No one can soy wjfh any accu- 
racy what we will find as we fly farther away from the eartht 
first with instruments, then with man. It seems to me that we 
ore obligated to do these things, as human beings'.' 

DR. W. H. PICKERING, Director, JPL 



CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Research Facility operated for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interesled in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 
STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for our immediate consideraiion. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or of fhe Laboralory. 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tau Beta Pi Essay 



LANGUAGE 

and 

LEADERSHIP 



By Tom Gabbard 




As till" woiKI grows siiialk-r, the op- 
portunities for United States industries 
to exploit the world's resources are be- 
coming increasingly advantageous. 
Many industries have already taken the 
giant step into world-wide operations. 
The oil industry is a prime example. 
In respense to these new opportunities, 
our oil industries have established oper- 
ations in South America, Africa, and 
Asia. 

This movement abroad lias created a 
great demand for engineers who are 
willing to work in these foreign lands. 
Howe\er, the supply of men who are 
qualified to take these jobs has been 
very limited. The limitation is the in- 
ability of American Engineers to speak 
another language. It is well past the 
time to remedy this situation. Until 
high schools begin to fulfill this need 
more satisfactorily, our universities need 
to install an effective program to teach 
our engineers how to speak to the na- 
tionals of other lands. 

In all of the educated foreign coun- 
tries of today there is some program 
of dual language instruction. Many 
young students learn to speak two or 
three languages before they are even in 
high school. This accomplishment seems 
like a miracle to us. However, the 
achievement is very real. Many Ameri- 
can educators have realized this fact 
and are encouraging programs for pri- 
mary schools. However, these programs 
are still in the experimental stage. It 
will he m.inv vears before these schools 



are turning OLit students who arc bi- 
lingual. I met a good example of just 
what we should strive for when I visit- 
ed Brazil last summer. I stopped a 
young man of about fourteen years of 
age on the street and asked for some 
assistance. The boy apologized for not 
being able to speak English very well. 
He said that he had only been studying 
it for three months. However, he asked 
if perhaps I could speak Portuguese, 
Spanish, or French. I \ery humbly 
apologized to him and asked him to try 
his English. 

If the American uni\crsities iiad 
men like this yoimg Brazilian for stu- 
dents, they would have no problem. As 
it is, we are not likely ever to approach 
this criterion for many years. The uni- 
versities must revise their curriculum 
in order to satisfy this crying need. It 
may be hard for many people who have 
never thought of traveling abroad to 
realize that this problem is important. 
However, these people will one day be 
awakened. Two of this country's most 
eminent engineers visited Paris this sum- 
mer for a world conference and were 
brought face to face with this \ery 
problem. Since the conference was held 
in France, it was assumed by everyone 
except our engineers that the official 
language would be French. As the con- 
ference progressed, it became apparent 
to everyone that these two men were 
being left completely out of the discus- 
sion. When this situation was discov- 



ered, the ofHcial language was changed 
to English. This unfortunate situation 
caused a great deal of embarrassment 
for our representatives. Similar situa- 
tions may also cause much ill feeling 
toward our coimtry. 

In many of our universities, the engi- 
neering students waste much time each 
semester taking sun'ey courses that are 
of little \alue to them. This time could 
be spent in learning to speak foreign 
languages. With the new techniques for 
training that have been developed, a 
student should have no difficulty in 
learning a language well while in col- 
lege. Such a program wovdd lend em- 
phasis to the programs of the secondary 
and primary schools. Students in col- 
lege preparatory curricula would realize 
the need to increase their talents. 

The engineer of today must be a man 
of many talents. He is being called into 
the fields of management, of sales, of 
administration, and of leadership. As 
life becomes increasingly mechanized 
and work becomes increasingly techni- 
cal, the leadership is going to become 
the most important aspect of the profes- 
sion. If the engineer is not fully cap- 
able of meeting this challenge, our coun- 
try will soon lose its position as the 
world leader. We can not long retain 
our position if we cannot .speak to, or 
understand the customs of, our friendly 
neighbors. In this age engineering is 
tantamount to leadership, and leadership 
is paramount in success. We must pre- 
pare ourseKes for these responsibilities. 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



25 






V 




TECHNOGRAPH LAUNCHES 

SATELLITE 



As Recorded by George Carruthers 



On October 21, 1939, nienibcis of 
the rcrhnot/raph staff, in cooperation 
with the college of engineering, placed 
till- world's first cat-carrying \ehicle, 
Katnik I, into orbit aroiinil the earth 
and later brought it back safely. 

This tremendous achievement was the 
result of over a year of top-secret work. 
In fact only a few bearded Cossacks 
caught the squeal before the Cat's meow 
was broadcast around the world. Cat 
lovers were overjoyed although they 
were at first concerned about putting 
a cat and dog in the same space. 

The rocket, built wholly on campus, 
had a small launching vehicle. This 
first stage was powered by a new and 
radical means of propulsion developed 
at the University of Illinois. A hydro- 
gen-oxygen-carbon chain produced by 
means of a catalyst of heat and smoke 
was bonded in such a manner as to pro- 
duce a new high energv fuel — 
H-O-O-C-H. 

The power of this combination as a 
propeliant was discovered a few \ears 
ago by a couple of chem e's doing un- 
sponsored research. They had decided to 
keep the results of their experiment se- 
cret; iio\xever, hearing of the need for 
such a fuel for the project, they threw 
tiu'ir caution to tlie v\-ind. During the 
first test run, the thrust of the Atlas 
the first stage 



V^ernier engine used 
was nearly doubled. 

The second stage of tiie two-stage 
vehicle was also powered by a high- en- 
ergy propellant. However, two full pro- 
fessors worked on this stage, so a soliil 
propellant was used. 

The engine section of the first stage, 
which was assembled by the aero de- 
partment, weighed only 100 pounds 
complete with shell and pumps. This 
phenomenalh' low figure surprised even 
tliose who planned the stage. Upon 
checking, it was found that someone had 
forgotten to install the engine. This 
hiked the weight to 175 pounds. 

About the same time, the question 
came up as to the t\pe of research to 



be carried out with tiie proposed satel- 
lite. A faculty member in the home eco- 
nomics department suggested inclusion 
of one of his pastries aboard the satellite 
so that the University could claim the 
world's first "pie in the sky." Hou- 
e\er, this idea was rejected because of 
lack of space, weight considerations and 
the added complications necessary to 
eject the pie into orbit. 

The biology department suggested an 
animal experiment for study of space 
medicine. They thought of using mice. 
However when a cat wandered into 
the lab, they changed their minds and 
sent the cat instead. Besides supplying 
useful medical data, sending the cat en- 
abled tile dep.-irtment to resume their 
e\pei iniciits with rodents. 



The satellite proper which hoLised the 
cat was mounted atop the solid-pi<ipel- 
lant second stage, wiiicii in turn was 
mounted on a spin-stabilization turn- 
table just above the guidance system of 
the first stage, (see diagram) 

Housed in the satellite were air, 
water, food and a sandbox for the cat. 
Also on board were time-lapse cameras 
loaded with color film, radio telemeter- 
ing de\ices and reco\ery equipment 
which included a radio beacon and dog 
repellent. The electronic equipment in- 
cluding the entire guidance system of 
the rocket vehicle was completely the 
work of students and facult\- members 
of the electrical engineering department. 

[design of tlie \ehicle: ;in<l catellite 
(Coiitiiin,,! 01, l',u/, 2''j 




TECHNOGRAPH staff makes last-minute adjustment on rocket 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



27 



Ue<i. "katnik" satellite rocket 



f\SLP\TlON NOSE 
Co r\j e: 



CftT CHf=^rv)KE-R. 



AlN/D xeLE MtTRY 



SPifV 



Lt GiUI Q 



/^l«CONOlTiONlNQ SYSTEr^ 



WATER /^ND CAT FOOD 
Cf\TE LLlTt 



guidance: SYS TE M 
VETMT A NO nuL 




TE"5LA TOR^glNf 
And FutL PUMps 



RocKt r 

CN 6 I N E 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Flunkout I is placed in satellite 



((.ontimiid from Piiye 27 ) 
was carrifd out by sections of (r.K. IDd. 

Working on the assumption that new- 
blood was best for a project such as 
this, the students were given incentive 
by hearing strains from "They said it 
couldn't be done . . ." 

Construction of the vehicle was begun 
late in September in the aero lab. H\' 
the middle of October, construction and 
preliminary tests were completed. 
The tests came through with only one 
hitch during a static test of the first 
stage — it blew up. But muttering "back 
to the drawing board," the workers 
gained new incentive and the stage was 
completely rebuilt. The rest of the tests 
and the launching of the vehicle were 
then placed in the hands of the Techno- 
graph staff. Tliey were considered dis- 
pensible. 

While the tests went on, arrange- 
ments were made to track the vehicle. 
Members of the U. of 1. .Astrononu' 
Club volunteered to track the vehicle 
\isually, using binoculars and small 



telescopes confiscated from students in 
back of a women's housing unit. 

It was planned to launch the vehicle 
in a north-south direction so the cat 
would be in the Van Allen belt of radi- 
ation for as short a time as possible. 
The planned perigee was to be 12(1 
miles and the apogee 400 to 600 miles. 
This would allow the second stage and 
catellite to orbit the earth from 10 to 
M) times before drag caused them to 
fall into the earth's atmosphere. The 
second stage would burn up, bur the 
catellite would be recovered. 

On the night of the launching, the 
Astronomy Club was notified that 
countdown was in progress. All planes 
at the airport were grounded and the 
Civil Air Patrol was notified to keep 
planes out of the area. At 1:17 a.m. 
on the morning of the 21st, fueling be- 
gan. PreHight checkouts were completed 
with only two holds, once when a crew 
member walked up to the hydrogen 
fueling truck smoking a cigar, ami once 
when it was discovered that a mouse 



had gotten into a compartment of the 
catellite near the one occupied by Flunk- 
out, the cat. This mistake caused quite 
a commotion over the microphone in the 
second stage as would be expected. 

-At 3 :45 a.m. the countdown reached 
the final ten seconds. All was clear, so 
at X minus zero the firing signal was 
given. The ignition button was pushed. 
The rocket simply sat on the pad. "Mis- 
sile does not lift." was the word. Dis- 
appointment showed on the faces of all 
present ; it seemed certain the .shot 
would have to be scrubbed. Just then, 
one of the crew members walked in 
with a sheepish grin on his face. He 
stammered, "I'm uh sorry, fellows. I 
er-idi forgot to put the batteries in." 

The project boss went into action. 
There was a thud of shoe leather 
against denim. The crew member sailed 
through the door in a parabolic aic and 
plopped down at the ba.se of the launch- 
ing pad. 

( ('.ijnliiiiit (I nil Page 42) 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



29 



Product Development at IBM 



IBM Engineer Richard R. Booth 
explores electronic frontiers 
to develop new, faster and 
larger storage devices 
for tomorrow's computers. 




Computing time cut from six months to one day 

"My job is to design and develop new, tiighspeed 
storage devices for a powerful new computer that 
will perform, in one day, operations requiring six 
months on present equipment," said Dick Booth 
as he began a typical day recently. A product de- 
velopment engineer at the IBM Laboratories in 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., he started his morning with a 
conference on a product of great interest to him : a 
magnetic core storagedevice with a nondestructive 
read-out feature. For an hour, he discussed with 
circuit design engineers the logical devices needed 
for the register— such as magnetic core drivers and 
sense amplifiers. Should such devices not be avail- 
able, the group wou Id work on designs for new ones. 
Dick Booth next met with members of the Mag- 
netic Materials Group to establish specifications for 
the magnetic core memory elements to be used in 
the register. He also discussed with the group the 
development of equipment to test the memory 
elements. "This magnetic core register is based on 
an original idea of mine," he explained. "When you 
have a worthwhile idea, you will be given a free 
hand in proving it out, backed by IBM's resources 
— plus the assistance of skilled specialists." 



^'•;. \ .* i 


L' "- '' 




^5 

1 


m 


1 



Increasing responsibility 

At 10:30, Dick Booth reviewed the status of the 
entire project with the two engineers, two tech- 
nicians, and one logic designer who make up his 
team. "My present position is staff engineer," he 
explained. "It's the second promotion I've had 
since I joined IBM three years ago with a B.S.E.E. 
degree from the University of Illinois. I know that 
there are plenty of other opportunities to move 
ahead. Furthermore, parallel advancement oppor- 
tunities exist for engineers in either engineering 
development or engineering management." 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Preparing for the future 

In the afternoon, Dick Booth went to the 704 Com- 
puting Center to supervise some complex preci- 
sion computations. "You see how quickly the 704 
arrives at the answers," he said. "The computer 
being developed is expected to multiply more than 
500,000 fourteen-digit numbers a second and add 
them at the rate of one million a second. The com- 
puter may be used for design computations for 
reactors, as well as calculations of satellite be- 
havior. Of course it should have hundreds of other 
applications." 

At 3:30 P.M., Dick Booth attended a weekly class 
on Theoretical Physics that lasted until 5:00. After- 
ward, he commented, "You know. IBM offers 
excellent educational opportunities both in gen- 
eral education and for advanced degrees. One of 
the engineers in my group has just received his 
Master's degree from Syracuse University, after 
completing a postgraduate program given right 
here at the IBM Laboratory." 




A chance to contribute 

As he was leaving for the evening, he said, "Yes, 
I'd recommend an IBM career to any college gradu- 
ate who wants to exercise his creative ability. IBM 
will appreciate his talent and he'll have the oppor- 
tunity to work with specialists who are tops in 
their fields. I doubt that he'd be able to find a 
more sympathetic and stimulating atmosphere. 
Furthermore, he'll have the added incentive of con- 
tributing to vitally important projects . . . projects 
that will take him to the frontiers of knowledge in 
computer electronics." 



Talented college graduates will find exciting, re- 
warding careers at IBM. Excellent opportunities 
are now available in Research, Development, Man- 
ufacturing, Applied Science, Sales, and Adminis- 
tration. Find out from your College Placement 
Office when our interviewers will next visit your 
campus. Or, for information about careers of in- 
terest to you, write to: 

Manager of Recruitment 

IBM Corporation, Dept. 839 

590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N. Y. 



IBM 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



31 



NEV\f! 

NON-SLIP CHUCK 

holds lead firmly 
at any length you 
want. Lead can't be 
pushed back into 
barrel — and won't 
twist In sharpener. 



NEW! 

SATIN-FINISH 
METAL GRIP is 

knurled for easier 
holding. Its extra 
length gives more 
accurate control, 
less finger tension. 




NEW! 

THE ANODIZEO 
ALUMINUM BAR- 
REL is unbreal<- 
able. And it can't 
rollofftheboard be- 
cause it's hexagon- 
shaped. 



NEW! 

PUSH-BUTTON in 

stantly releases the 
chuck's grip on the 
lead at the touch of 
the thumb. It's col- 
ored for quick iden- 
tification of grade. 



\\ 



This lifetime lead holder for just 




All-metal construction 
makes it the buy of a lifetime. 



EAGLE 
TURQUOISE 

PENCILS, LEADS AND HOLDERS 
EAGLE PENCIL COMPANY, DANBURY, CONN. 



No Hipsters These 



By Bob Westerbeck 



He pii'sscil tlic Minister of Destriic- 
t'on's uisfiit button. The screen focu.>;eii, 
tadeii, and came into focii.s asrain. "Pri- 
ority, Sir. 1 suggest you alert the phuiet 
for eventual attack, preparedness comh- 
tion one — Sir! Did nou }iet nn mes- 
sage?" 

"Sorry. ')4, I iiad to |iiug m\ trans- 
lator in. This blasted Knt^Iish ! Yes, it's 
■'s we thought ; the missiles are coming 
from earth. They're very crude all the 
same, hardly enough to warrant pre- 
paredness condition one. Are you sure 
\'ou're not losing your touch, 14?" 

"On tile contrary. Sir, niv faculties 
were never keener. I believe that Mars 
or the Jupiter moons want us to be- 
lieve the missiles are from earth. They 
hope t(i lidl us into complacency, into 
tile belief we ha\e nothing to fear for 
a century or two. At an unsuspected 
moment, they'll disguise their disinte- 
grator missiles as harmless earth mis- 
siles and destroN us before we realize 
the dangei'." 

".An interesting possibility 94, but 
what makes you .so sure the missiles are 
l.-uiucbed by enemies disguised as earth- 
men and not by earthmen themselves?" 

"As you know. Sir, I frequently visit 
the fraternal organizations on a planet 
for information. The inhabitants seem 
more talkative in such an atmosphere. 
Accordingly, 1 spent an hour in a place 
called Tony's Cellar Club in one ot 
the larger cities here on eaith. ' 

"Yes, yes, 04. (Jet on with it! 1 have 
an execution scheduled shorth." 

"\ es. Sir. It was very close ami warm 
inside, and the light was very bad. The 
atmosphere was full of smoke from 
what they called cigarettes. There were 
three earthlings manipulating musical 
instruments called a horn, a set of skins, 
and a bass. The music was appallingly 
primitive, and the earthlings .seemed to 
be in a high state of barbaric passion. 
They swayed, clapped their hands, had 
glassy eyes, and seemed Inpnoti/ed in 
general. There were various couples at 
tables who embraced each othei' pe- 
riodicalK ui their ardor. 1 assume they 
still reproiluce their race physically, a 
sure sign of inferior cultural e\-olution. 
Also, their language has not progressed 



to the point we had thought. Vnv in- 
stance, 1 asked an earthling what the 
tit'i- of the music was. He told me not 
to be Mjuare. th.-it it was a session, and 
that it was real cra/v. Well, Sir, it ap- 
pears that the earthlings worship insan- 
it\ , which is what cra/v means. More 
significantly, I think, I had not as- 
sumed the geometrical square form, 
which would imlicate the earthling was 
lia\ iu'; li;illucinatious." 

"Is that all, 04 ?" 

"No, Sir, there's more. 1 his earth- 
ling asked me if I dug the music. I 
thought perhaps if I humored Ivni, I 
could diaw him into my conlulence. I 
told him 1 didn't because 1 had no 
sho\el. He laughed loudly, for no ap- 
parent leasoii, and told me I was a 
gasser. I must confess I was a little of- 
fended. We certainly have more humane 
methods of execution than gas. Well, 
Sir, he said I fractured him, even though 
1 hadn't so much as touched him. He 
called a few more earthlings over, and 
said he wanted them to meet a real 
square. I was a little shaken at this 
point. I thought perhaps I had inad- 
vertently assumed the square form. I 
looked over my entire form, and it was 
that of an earthling. It seems that they 
were all metally unbalanced. Sir. He 
then told me 1 was cool, man, cool. It 
must have been a rare lucid moment for 
him, since he recognized my form for 
that of a man. Well, I told him I wasn't 
cool at all, on the contrary, I told him 
1 was \ery hot. The whole group went 
into hysterics at this point, probably at 
some prearranged signal I didn't catch. 
1 presiniied they were working theni- 
seKes into a savage orgy of some sort, 
so I left and came back to the space 
sled .ind contacted you. That's all I 
lia\e to report, Sir." 

"Very good, 04. It appears quite ob- 
vious that the earthlings are themselves 
incapable of developing missiles. No 
further verification will be necessary in 
\ lew of the conclusi\eness of this re- 
port. The phinet's strategic position as 
,1 shield tor our enemies poses a serious 
threat to our ci\ ilization. I will take the 
appropriate steps now that we know 
nothing important will be lost. 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• The small gas turbine is an important aircraft 
support item used primarily for starting jet engines 
and providing on-hoard auxiliary power. The high 
compressed air and shaft outputs for its small size 

EXCITING FIELD 

FOR GRADUATI 

Diversity and strength in a company offer the 
engineer a key opportunity, for with broad knowl- 
edge and background your chances for responsibil- 
ity and advancement are greater. 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch 
Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its 
diversification, which you will experience through 
an orientation program lasting over a period of 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your 
most profitable area of interest. 

Other major fields of interest include: 

• Aircraft Flight and Electronic Systems — pioneer and 
major supplier of centralized flight data systems 



and weight mark it as an important power source 
for common commercial use. AiResearch is the 
largest producer of lightweight gas turbines, ranging 
from 30 H.P. to tlie 850 H.P. unit pictured above. 

S OF INTEREST 

E ENGINEERS 

antl other electronic controls and instruments. 
• Missile Systems — has delivered more accessory power 
units for missiles than any other company. AiResearch 
is also working with hydraulic and hot gas control 
systems for missile accessory power. 
•Environmental Control Systems — pioneer, leading 
developer and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air 
conditioning and pressurization systems. 

Should you be interested in a career with The 
Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 
Corporation and Career Opportunities" at your 
College placement office. For further information 
write to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley... 



THE 




/liResearch Manufacturing Divisions 



Los Angeles 45, California • Phoenix, Arizona 
Systems. Packages and Components for: AIRCRAFT. MISSILE. NUCLEAR AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 

NOVEMBER, 1959 33 



%♦ 



^-x 



^-. 




-Photos by Dave Yates 



Technocutie . . . 



JUDY COSME 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Techiiograph's November Technocutie is :i liiil that 
likes to go to Kani's jam sessions ami one tliat uoiiid like 
to learn more of the songs here on campus. 

Jiul\ Cosme. a freshman in Home Kconomics, thinks 
|iarties are fun. Also high on her list of date ideas are going 
to the movies, out to eat or dancing. (Other things she likes 
to do are swim and ice skate. Sweater and skirt type dates 
are best to her thinking. 

More than ja/.z or Dixieland, rock "n roll is Judy's 
faxorite type of music. 

Judy says she doesn't get on the engineering campus 
much, and that she doesn't know much about engineering. 
When asked about Einstein's theory of relativity, she re- 
plied, "What's that?" Perhaps there is an engineer that 
\\c)uld be willing to explain. 

The things th.at make a fellow rate with her are clean- 
sha\en faces and promptness on dates. Jud\' likes men's 
clothes especialh the new Continental pants that are be- 
coming popular. She says she has seen some sharp dressers 
on campus, but not all fellows qualif>'. Sweaters and slacks 
are the clothes she likes on a fellow. She would rather not 
see a fellow in Bermudas. 



This semester Judy is living in LAR. She said she 
heard about the water-fights U. of I. is famous for and 
thinks it would be "neat" to ha\e one. 

Judy's favorite foods are the fattening kind; but she also 
likes steak, candieil ap|des and pretzels with her favorite 
beverage. 

Judy emphatically sa\s that girls are not at college to 
catch a man. She admits that there may be some who are 
but that they are the exceptions. Her reasoning is to take 
into account the number of girls that do graduate and get 
jobs. Also she feels that if a girl weren't here to go to 
school, she wouhl take only easy coin\ses and courses that 
she likes. 

Jud\ likes school although she thinks it is h.ard. Hecau.se 
she has ,i hard time writing, freshman rhetoric scores low 
with her. 

Typically female. Judy likes the hen sessions at LAR. 
It is eas\' for hei' to talk study time ;iway. 

Jud\' would like to date engineers, and she has no |irefer- 
ences as to type. 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



35 



engineers 




Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 

engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 

of data from many information points. 




Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 

on related research projects. 




and what they d) 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today arc concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems— air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and allied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four 
basic fields: 

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING Men engaged in this 
activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad- 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 

DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo- 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en- 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per- 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING Here men supervise 
and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel- 
opment engines. They devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop- 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future effort. 

MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other materials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 
They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina- 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturing difficulties. 



Under the close supervision of an engineer, 

final adjustments are made on a rig for 

testing an advanced liquid metal system. 




Pratt & Whitney Aircraft... 




Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on at the Florida Research and Development Center. 



For further information regarding an engineer- 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement officer or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azinger, Engineering Department. Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 



PRATT & IMfHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporotion 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS - East Hartford 

FLORIDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER - Palm Beach County, Florida 




RESEARCH 

INTO THE 

EFFECTS OF 

ALCOHOL 



SOUSED 

for 

SCIENCE 



By Jerry Jewett 



( )ii Si-ptcmbcr tcnrli, ot tin's \car, 
three men appeariiii!: tor the I raffic 
Short Course given b\ the College of 
Law ill connection with the University 
of Illinois Traffic Court Safety Confer- 
ence consumed liquor in the interests of 
science to demonstrate graphically to 
the assembled officials the affects of al- 
cohol on the driver. 

These men. one a justice ot the 
peace, forty-two year old judf^e Robert 
Hrown, another, L. James Strif. a for- 
mer naval officer and present iuruOr in 
the College of Law, and Harold Stain- 
er, a big two-hundred pound reporter 
for the Decatur Review, sat down be- 
fore the round of tests to enjoy a lunch 
of either a hamburger or ham saiul- 
wich with coffee or milk, .Iflrr litis in 
less lluiii fifty minutes . the men dr,-ink 
the previoush' determined amount of 
liquor. 

Judge Mrown had lune shots ot nnc- 
hundred proof bourbon mixed with 
coke, James Strif drank straight five 
ounces of one-hundred proof Old (Jrand 
Dad, and Harold Stainer consumed six 
cans of beer in the alloted time. Im- 
meiliatelx' following this, the men were 
put through a battery of tests given b\ 
Professor Horkenstein of the Lhiiver- 
sity of Indiana and State Trooper Wal- 
ter Ziel. These tests had been admin- 
istered once before the men began their 
drinking bout. The tests included a 
Hiearhali/.er test to measure alcohol in 
the blood stream, the Canadian Dot 



38 



test to measure concentration and reac- 
tion, a depth perception test, and a re- 
action test which measured reaction 
speed and errors in decision making. 

The results of these tests showed that 
in abilit\' to concentrate. Judge Brown 
and James Strif deteriorated at the 
same rate of fifteen per cent, l^rown de- 
teriorated one-hundred forty-seven per 
cent in depth perception ; Strif, three- 
hundred eighty-five per cent; and Stain- 
er, one-hundred eighty-nine per cent. In 
glare recovery Judge Brown went down 
one-hundred forty-five per cent; James 
Struif, eleven per cent; and Harold 
Stainer one-hundred eight-nine per cent. 
However in errors. Brown made one- 
hundred sixty per cent more after drink- 
ing; Struif, two-hundred seventy-fi\e 
per cent more; and Stainer, one-hundred 
sixty-six per cent more. 

These tests were designed as a dem- 
onstration to determine the efficiency 
of chemical tests, for it was hoped that 
this information would help the judges, 
justices of the peace, magistrates, ,uid 
attorneys to detect people too drunk m 
dri\e. 

In this state. ,i person nuivt ha\i' 
o\er fifteen hundredths per cent alcohol 
or over fifteen parts of alcohol per ten 
thousand units of blood to be guilty 
of drvmken driving. Between five and 
fifteen hundredths, a person ma\- be ar- 
rested for drunken driving but convic- 
tion is hard unless further e\iilence is 
presented. 



In addition to determniing the effici- 
enc\' of chemical tests, this expeiiment 
also showed that the light social drink- 
er is more of a inenace than the com- 
plcteh' drunk individual. Someone with 
ii\ci fifteen hundredths per cent alcohol 
in his blood stream may actually be 
vafer on the road than one less drunk. 
The completely inebriated person com- 
pensates for his drunkenness by going 
very slowly so that other drivers know- 
he's coming. The person with fewer 
drinks feels he can do anything and 
travels at lethal speeds of seventy or 
eighty miles per hour. These people feel 
that they are driving better than the\ 
e\er ha\e before, but really man\' of 
their decisions may be incorrect e\ en if 
their reaction time is just as fast. The 
test proved that the three guinea pigs 
could make decisions just as rapidly as 
before drinking, but their percentage 
of errors increased remarkably after the 
drinks. These men only had eight hun- 
dredths per cent of alcohol in their 
bloodstream ; so although they were not 
leg.ilh' presumed drunk, they would 
ha\e been a menace on the highway. 

Robert Stainer pointed out a tew lit- 
tle-known fallacies and truths about 
drinking which the tests pro\ed. For 
one thing, one shot of one-hundied 
|iroof whiskev' equals in alcoholic con- 
tent one twelve ounce can of beer, and 
a man weighing two hundred pounds 
can ha\e two drinks for every one a 
(Continued on Page 40) 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



J 



Campus-to-Career Case History 




Bill Burns (far right) reviews a plan for expanding Syracuse's toll-free calling area with some fellow supervisors. 

He wanted more than 
"just an engineering job'* 



William G. Bums majored in Civil Engineering 
at Union College. But he had his own ideas about 
his engineering future. ''I wanted a job with a 
■growtli' company," he says, ''where I could get 
diversified experience and have some adminis- 
trative responsibilities. ' 

Bill found his "growth' company— and his man- 
agement o]5portunity. On graduating in June. 
lUS-i. he started work with the New York Tele- 
phone Company. 

Six months of training and job assignments in 
Albany familiarized him with the Plant, Com- 
mercial. Accounting and Traffic functions of the 
telephone business. Then came 18 months as en- 
gineer in the Long Range Planning Group. 

In October, 1956. Bill was promoted to Super- 
vising Engineer. He was transferred to Syracuse 



in August. 1958, as Supervising Engineer — Fun- 
damental Plans, with a staff of four engineers 
and two clerks. In this job, he studies and fore- 
casts the future telephone needs of customers in a 
4800-square-mile area, planning from three to 20 
years ahead. He then co-ordinates the develop- 
ment of plans to meet future needs with the 
various engineering groups involved. Bill calls it 
"management engineering." 

Bill is married, has three youngsters and owns 
his own home. ''A man has to build his own 
security," he says, "and finding the right place 
to do it can be mightv important. Choosing a 
Bell Telephone career w as the best decision I ever 
made. I dont know where an ambitious young 
fellow- can find more or better chances to move 
ahead in management." 



3Iany voung men, with degrees in the sciences, arts, engi- 
neering or business, are finding interesting and reward- 
ing careers with the Bell Telephone Companies. Look 
into career opportunities for you. Talk with the Bell 
interviewer when he visits your campus. And read the 
Bell Telephone booklet on file in your Placement Office. 




BELL 
TELEPHONE 
COIVIPANIES 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



39 



SOUSED FOR SCIENCE . 



ronlnui.,! I' 



I'lun- .>S) 



(inc liuiulrcil pdiiiul man liii>. 'I'liiis tl-.c 
ali'dhol rati' In their blood stiTani will 
he kept I'M'ii. The tests also proved 
that (Irinkiiii; a (ittli of bourbon in ovfr 
t\\<-nt\ -lour hours will lca\e a person 
sober but eonvuniinj; it in sixteen hours 
(u less will make one drunk. Takinf: 
one drink an hour, a person's hodx 
burns the alcohol as fast as it is beinj: 
absorbed, but takinj; two drinks an hour 
one is beinji burned up and the other 
is beijifi stored. I'.atinji before (lrinkin<; 
will help somewhat because alcohol is 
.ibsorbed into the blond more quickly 
on an empty stomach. That one last 
c\ip of coffee for the "road" will not 
help .It all. Neither garlic nor oiudns 
will chanue the effectiveness of the 
l!reathali/er test. 

between se\enty to ei.i;ht\ per cent 
lit the major tiafHc accidents inxoKe .it 
le.ist one dri\er who has been drinkint; 
too much. It is felt that the social drink- 
er, if he realized his potential deadli- 
iiess, would be more careful about dri\- 
iny; when he has been drinking. Even 
tboujjh ()\er fifteen parts of alcohol per 
ten thousand units of blood indicate 
conclusively that a driver is drunk, a 
dri\er with less than this concentration 
of alcohol may be far more dangerous. 



System for Safe Flying 

A new instMinicnt ll\ui^ s\sleiii en 
• ibles a pilot to judge his altitude, 
ground speed and compass heading. 
The sN'steni, demonstrated on ;i heli- 
copter, promises safe all-weather iKing 
for airplanes and helicopters. 

Fast Highway Painter 

The Delaware .State Highwa\ He 
partment uses an electronicall\ cmi- 
trolled highway striping machine that 
can apply solid, broken or edge line~ at 
speeds of 12-to-15 miles per hour. Hiiilt 
into a light truck chassis, the unit car- 
ries its own supplies of white and yel- 
low marking paints and reflective glass 
beads, and can be a|i|ilied by one man. 

Brain Surgery Will Cut Food Bill 

Medical researchers are looking for 
the part of the brain that controls the 
appetite. If they find it, a surgeon will 
be able to cut the food bill. 

Hula Hoop Craze 

The current world-wide craze for 
hula hoops — which range in price from 
around sixty cents to a sophisticated 
mink-covered hoop for $101) — has put 
hoop sales to around $35 million, re- 
ports Chemical Week. 



Farm Equipment Industry 
Big Consumer of Iron 

.A c<)m|).-uati\cl\ new iiiet;il that 
bridges the gap between steel .and ordi- 
nar\' cast iron, ductile iron gained a 
foothold in the farm equipnieut iiidus- 
tr\- last year when about 12,110(1 tons 
were consumed. During the current 
year some 27,()()0 tons ot ductile iron 
castings will be used in plows, listers, 
ha\ balers, cotton and corn pickers, 
li.ii\esters, threshers, small tractors and 
other farm equipment. The farm equip- 
ment Held is only one of many in which 
ductile iron has found widespread use. 

Ilie materials being replaced by 
ductile iron in a wide assortment of 
components include gray iron, pearlitic 
malleable iron and steel forgings and 
castings. Ductile iron castings are also 
being used in original designs which in 
the past would ha\e been weldments for 
forgings. 

Ductile iron is gaining the ascend- 
ancy over ordinary cast iron especially 
in the case of rotating parts. With farm 
machinery being designed to handle ever 
heavier duties at continually increasing 
speeds, greater strength and ductility 
than that offered by gray irons are re- 
quired. The need for a stronger material 
at a price much lower than other engi- 
neering materials of similar strength is 
being met bv ductile iron. 



ElVniiyiEEHS New Kind of Missile iv/f/} 



SECURE YOUR FUTURE NOW 

with one of the oldest manufacturers of 
refrigeration in the world. 

Sft^i^ff^c^ ttecded ^ . , . 

HOME OFFICE 
design 
application 
development 

FIELD 

erection 

sales 

distributors 

To enable you to fill these positions in the fast 
growing field of commercial refrigeration, Frick 
Company offers a special training course at the 
home office. 
Write for details and applications today. 



E(SS® 



J murt ^m^imym 




HIGGinS IIIK 



. . carry it with you wherever you go.' 



Good news lor draftsmen! New HIGGINS 
AMERICAN INDIA INK Cartridge always feeds 
the right amount of ink into pens and drawing 
instruments. No mess, no waste! 

Compact, rigid, plastic cartridge fits easily in 
pocket, purse or drafting sets. 

Stands on table, shelf, desk - won't roll off 
inclined drafting boards! Most convenient way 
to fill pens — and so economical! 




40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ANOTHER WAY RCA 

SERVES BUSINESS 

THROUGH 

ELECTRONICS 




RCA Electronics creates the "501" to streamline the paper work 
of business — it reads, writes, figures and remembers on tape 



Much of today's traffic jam in paper 
work is being eliminated by electronic 
data processing. But to build a system 
that would be practical and economical 
for even medium-sized organizations 
was a job for electronic specialists. 

To solve the problem, RCA drew on 
its broad experience in building com- 
puters for military applications and 
combed its many laboratories for the 
latest electronic advances that could 
help. The result was the RCA "501" 
high-speed electronic data processing 
system— the most compact, flexible, and 
economical ever built. It is a pioneer sys- 



tem with all-transistor construction for 
business use. 

The "501" cuts out paper work bottle- 
necks for many government agencies 
and businesses, from stock brokerage 
firms to public utilities, banks, insurance 
companies, and steel mills. 

It "remembers" millions of letters, 
numbers, and symbols that are "read" 
onto its magnetic tapes by such things 
as punch cards and paper tapes. In a 
fraction of a second, it can do thousands 
of calculating, sorting, and comparing 
operations — and checks each step. 
Finally, it writes such things as bills, re- 




ports, payrolls in plain English at 72,000 
characters per minute. 

This economical and practical answer 
to an acute business problem is another 
way RCA Electronics is helping to sim- 
plify the growing complexity of business. 



RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 




NOVEMBER, 1959 



Technograph Launches Satellite . . . 



(C'nilinunl from Pa^i 2'-)) 

I'wii niinutfs Liter, tin- countdown 
IkuI iwyclcil ;in<l u:is asain in tin- linal 
ten sfConils. "3, 2, 1, Zfi'o!" 

A burst of blue-white Hanie shot out 
t'roMi the base of the rocket. As tlie 
rocket built up thrust, it remained 
locked tijiht to the pad by the special 
restraininj;: arms. When the project boss 
was satisfied that the engine was work- 
ing; properly, he ordered, "Let her go!" 

The restraining arms snapped back 
from the rocket, and with a tremendous 
roar the \ehicle lifted slowly off the 
pa<l and climbed upward. The glare of 
the exhaust was so intense that it lit 
up the surrounding countryside like 
ila\light, much to the dismay of nu- 
nu-rous co-eds. 

The rocket gained speed ami altitude 
quite rapidly and began to tilt toward 
the north. At this time a group of stu- 
dent members of the Chicago Rocket 
Society were alerted to watch for the 
vehicle as it passed over Chicago. At 
X -)- lb7 seconds the rocket vehicle 
was travelling horizontally with a ve- 
locity of some 10,000 niph, IMS miles 
above Harvey, Illinois. At this instant, 
the first stage burned out and the sec- 
ond stage took over, boosting itself and 
the cateilite to orbital \elocit\ of 18,00(1 
mph. 

The cateilite then separated from the 
second stage and both were in orbit. 

The second stage firing was clearly 
\isible from to the naked eye; the ex- 
haust flame appeared brighter than 
X'enus. 

At first the crew worried that the 
cateilite might not orbit because the 
perigee was only 103 miles instead of 
the planned 120 miles, but they soon 
forgot their worries. 

In the meantime, the first stage 
which had separated from the second 
just south of Chicago, was beginning its 
re-entry trajectory. It had been plan- 
ned that the first stage would re-enter 
ij\er Lake Superior, 600 miles north of 
the L'niversity. However, because of 
the somewhat low perigee (caused by a 
malfunction in the guidance system) 
the first stage landed in the outskirts 
of the town of Cascade, IVIichigan, just 
iland from the shore of Lake Superior. 

The flaming rocket smashed into a 
highway about thirty feet from a parked 
whisky truck. The impact set off a 
detonation of the highly explosive li- 
ipiids stored in the truck. This spread 
to similar supplies of explosives in a 
ta\ern nearby. The truck driver and 
tavern owner stopped sampling sup- 
plies and headed for a bomb sheltei' 




X minus 10 seconds . . . Katnik I just before launching. Frost on 
the missile is due to the sub-zero liquid, HOOCH, stored inside. 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




when tht-y saw the b\irniii5i rocket ap- 
proaching them. They figured the spir- 
its were out to get them and ran ni 
fright. 

About one-half hour after this, sig- 
nals of the satellite passing west of the 
University came in. The rocket was on 
orbit. 

As data poured in, the men at the 
.aunching site grew wilder and wilder. 
Although the satellite perigee was only 
lOS miles, the apogee was over 97(1 
far exceeding expectations. 

It seemed there would be little cele- 
bration at the launch site ( the tradi- 
tional type) because it was 5:20 a.m. 
and alf coffee shops were closed; but 
the chemical engineers came through 
again, serving the first stage fuel as 
"Scotch on the rockets." 

By the next night, the orbit of the 
satellite had begun to decay as had the 
crew. Tracking stations and rescue 
ships were alterted to retrieve the catel- 
jite when it re-entered the atmosphere. 
The orbit of th satellite had been ac- 
curately determined although attempts 
use the 12-inch telescope met with 




Katnik bias 



,s off on historic flight to place world's first cot-carrying spoce vehicle into orbit 



43 



NOVEMBER, 1959 




Above: One of the few existing 
photos of the cotellite in orbit. Seen 
in the background is the moon. 



ilifficulty. A bald eagle had built its 
nest on the main lens. 

On the 16th orbit, the .second stage 
re-entered the atmosphere south of Los 
Angeles. As it reached the city limits, 
it caught fire and fell into the set of 
a new Hollywood movie, "The Return 
of Jesse James." The producer and di- 
rector of the film plan to incorporate 
the unscheduled scene into the mo\ie by 
a slight revision of the script. 

The catellite re-entered the atmos- 
phere just of? the Aleutian Islands on 
the next orbit. Rescue ships were alert- 
ed, and the cat and vehicle were re- 
covered intact the next da\'. When the 
chamber was unlocked, it appeared that 
rile car had been reduced in size. ( )ne 
ot the ship's crew pointed out that the 
cat had merelv gi\en birth to a kitten. 
(He was a family man, himself). 



The cats are now being stiulied by 
the biology department to deteriiiiiie the 
effect of radiation, prolonged weight- 
lessness and the affects of outer space 
on litter size. 

All University departments were 
pleased with the success of the flight 
with one exception. The University Se- 
curity Division charged the Tehnograph 
office with violating the fireworks stat- 
ute. The staff members didn't sweat it; 
one of their former editors who now is 
a janitor in the Pentagon, was able to 
have the charges dismissed. 

As for the future, another rocket 
similar to this one will be orbited about 
the Moon. It is to be noted, however, 
that there will be no mice on the flight 
since the Russians have discredited the 
cheese theor\'. (Resides, Flunkout II, 
has top prioritv. ) 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





— 


UJ 


I 


z 


LU 


a. 


(- 




X 


< 


LU 


_i 




f- 


LL_ 


^ 






45 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



HUGHES MASTERS FELLOWSHIPS. The Hughes Masters Fellow- 
ship Program offers unusual opportunities for academic training 
leading to a masters degree . . . and, in addition, provides each fellow 
with practical experience in the professional field of his choice. 

Approximately one hundred new awards will be made by Hughes in 
1960 to qualified applicants who possess a bachelor's degree in 
science or engineering. Additional awards are open to qualified appli- 
cants interested in business administration and education. 

Hughes conducts extensive research and development in the scientific 
and engineering fields. While working for Hughes, fellows may be 
assigned to such areas of Research & Development as: microwave 
devices, parametric amplifiers, masers, infrared search and track 
systems, microminiaturization, antenna arrays, simulation methods, 

propagation, data handling, human factor analysis and to a 

variety of engineering areas such as guided missiles, weapons con- 
trol systems and systems analysis. 

A selected group of award winners will be offered a FULL STUDY 



PROGRAM. Participants in this program will receive fellowships th, 
permit them to attend an outstanding university on a full time bas 
during the regular academic year with a substantial stipend. 

Other award winners will be assigned to the WORK STUDY PROGR# 
and will attend a university sufficiently near a facility of the Hugh' 
Aircraft Company to permit them to obtain practical experience, 
a professional field of their choice, by working at the company pe 
time each week. An appropriate stipend will also be awarded. 

After completion of the Master's Program, fellows are eligible to apf 
for HUGHES STAFF DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS. 

The classified nature of work at Hughes makes eligibility for securi 
clearance a requirement. 

Closing date for applications: January 15, 1960. 

How to apply: Write Dr. C. N. Warfield, Scientific Education, Hugh 
Aircraft Company, Culver City, California. 



Hughes 

Fellowship 

Programs 




HWARD HUGHES DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS. If you are inter- 
eed in studies leading to a doctor's degree in physics or engineering, 
yi are invited to apply for one of approximately 10 new awards in the 
150 Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowship Program. 

Ts unique program offers the doctoral candidate the optimum 
cnbination of high-level study at an outstanding institution plus 
pictical industrial experience in the Hughes laboratories. 

E:h Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowship provides approximately 
5,000 annually. Of this amount $1,800 is for tuition, books, fees, 
t;sis and research expenses. The remainder is the award of a cash 
ipend and salary earned by the fellow. 

tighes conducts extensive research and development in the scientific 
fd engineering fields. Typical programs include; network analysis 
;d synthesis, semiconductor materials, plasma electronics, commu- 
tations, computing. . .and solid state physics, atomic and nuclear 
['ysics, tests of the general theory of relativity, chemistry, physical 
cemistry and metallurgy, information theory, mechanics of struc- 



tures, electro-mechanical propulsion systems, and systems analysis. 

Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowships are open to outstanding stu- 
dents qualified for admission to graduate standing. A master's 
degree, or equivalent graduate work, is considered very desirable 
before beginning the Fellowship Program. 

The classified nature of work at Hughes makes eligibility for security 
clearance a requirement. 

Closing date for applications: January 15, 1960. 

How to apply: Write Dr. C. N. Warfield, Scientific Education, Hughes 
Aircraft Company, Culver City, California. 



Creating a new world 
with ELECTRONICS 








r 1^ 





TEACHING 



INTERNES 



By Bill Andrews 



Quietly getting under way this se- 
mester here at the University of Illi- 
nois is a new intern program for pros- 
pective engineering teachers. This pro- 
gram is being carried out in the de- 
partments of Mechanical and Electri- 
cal Engineering under the sponsorship 
of the Ford Foundation. The pilot pro- 
gram will, over a period of four years, 
involve a total of thirty graduate en- 
gineering students, each of whom will 
participate for four semesters. Each fall, 
beginning this fall, there are to be ten 
students starting the program, five from 
the Department of Electrical Engineer- 
ing and five from the Deparment of 
Mechanical Engineering. (This fall, 
because one of the accepted applicants 
dropped out of the program too late to 
be replaced, there are only nine. Next 
year there will be eleven starting the 
program.) In the course of each in- 
tern's two years he will work toward 
his Master of Science Degree, which 
he will obtain after three or four se- 
mesters, in the former case continuing 
work toward his doctorate in the final 
semester of his participation in the pro- 
gram. In addition to a half to two- 
thirds academic load, the graduate stu- 
dents are involved in two other phases 
of this program designed to prepare him 
for a teaching career. He gains teach- 
ing experience through a phase in teach- 
ing plan which softens the transition 
from student to teacher. He also acti\e- 
ly participates in a series of seminars on 
a wide variety of subjects. Each student 
receives an annual stipend of $2,000 to 
defray the cost of living at the Univer- 
sity. 

T his program was envisiiiiied about 
two and a half years ago as a reply to 
a problem posed by the provost of the 
L'niversity of Illinois, Gordon N. Ray: 
How is your department going to insure 
an adequate supply of instructors for 



the anticipated increase in enrollment ? 
This was passed by Dean William L. 
Everitt of the College of Engineering 
to Professor Seicho Konzo, Chairman 
of the College's Graduate Committee. 
The ideas worked out by Professor 
Konzo are essentially the program now 
under way. It was decided to submit 
the plan to the Ford Foundation, which 
had shown recently an interest in the 
problems of engineering education. They 
suggested a few minor changes in the 
plan, such as including students in only 
two departments rather than through- 
out the college of engineering, and then 
approved the program. All this took 
only about six months. However, it 
was still too late to get started the 
fall, 1958, semester, so it was begun 
this fall. 

The selection of the interns began 
last year with the notification of the 
various colleges of engineering across 
the country of the program. Ry the clos- 
ing date for applications, February, 
1959, the College had seventy-five ap- 
plications for the ten available positions. 
The successful applicants were notified 
in March and reported here to begin 
this September. Among the considera- 
tions in selecting the candidates were 
scholarship (A "P" average or standing 
in the top twenty per cent of his gradu- 
ating class was required to be consid- 
ered.), three letters of reference from 
engineering instructors, and a real in- 
terest in the engineering teaching pro- 
fession. An attempt was also made to 
distribute the scholarships so that a 
large nmnber of schools woidd be rep- 
resented. (The nine men presently en- 
rolled in the program represent eight 
universities, with only the Ihu'versity 
of Alberta represented twice.) Although 
the program is primarily intended for 
those just receiving their H.S. degree, 
con^ideratil)n is also given recent gradu- 



ates now serving in industr\- or teach- 
ing. 

It should be noted that the Univer- 
sity of Illinois does not stand to gain 
from this program directly in terms of 
available teachers. This is because of a 
clause in the program that none of the 
men completing the program will be 
offered positions at the University of 
Illinois for a period of five years, and 
then only upon application by the stu- 
dent. The purpose of this program is not 
to augment the teacher supply for the 
host school. 

The graduate work done by the stu- 
dents is not appreciably affected by the 
nature of the program. The foreign 
language requirements of the Ph.D. are 
anticipated by the students and courses 
taken to meet them. Other than these, 
most of the courses taken are advanced 
engineering courses. This phase of the 
program occupies approximately three- 
fifths of the student's time, the remain- 
der divided between the two unique 
phases of the program. 

The teaching intern concept of the 
program is one of the real innovations. 
Here the student first learns teaching 
from observing outstanding instructor 
experts, grading papers, working with 
laboratory groups, and finally, in their 
final semester in the program, taking 
over an actual class, giving it with a 
minimum of supervision from the col- 
lege staff. Each student is assigned an 
instructor as his advisor. This instruc- 
tor has been chosen by the department 
for his particular teaching abilities. 
Thus avoiding the shock of being hand- 
ed a book and being told he has sixteen 
weeks to cover this material, which is 
rather discoinaging to a prospective 
teacher, the intern is phased into actual 
teaching in gradual steps. In some cases 
it is felt that the student is qualified 
to go directly into laboratory work, so 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



49 



SALES 

ENGINEERING 

UNLIMITED 




DUNHAM^BUSH 





DEANE KEUCH 

Purdue UniversHy 53 



l^EANE Keuch, one of 136 Dunham-Bush sales 
engineers, knows the advantages of being associated with a 
dynamic young company with extensive product lines. 

Following his engineering studies at Purdue, Deane joined 
Dunham-Bush as a trainee and soon became an application 
engineer. After a relatively short time he was assigned his own 
territory, working out of the Cleveland area sales office. 

In calling on consulting engineers, architects, plant engineers, 
wholesalers, contractors and building owners, Deane (like all 
Dunham-Bush sales engineers) finds it reassuring to be backed by 
his area otTice and the facilities of Dunham-Bush laboratories. 

Equally reassuring is the availability of complete lines. The range 
of Dunham-Bush refrigeration products runs from compressors 
to complete systems; the range of air conditioning products 
extends from motel room conditioners to a hospital's entire air 
conditioning plant. The heating line is equally complete: from a 
radiator valve to zone heating control for an entire apartment 
housing project. The Dunham-Bush product family even includes 
specialized heat transfer products applicable to missile use. 

If you'd like to know more about the company 
that offers "Sales Engineering Unlimited", send for a copy of 
"This is Dunham-Bush". 



AIR CONDITIONING. REFRIGERATION, 

HEATING PRODUCTS AND ACCESSORIES 

Duntiam-Bush, Ino. 

WEST HARTFORD 10, • CONNECTICUT, • U.S.A. 

^^^^^mmam^i^^mm^ saies offices iocateo in principal cities ^B^a^iaBBBiBBBBB^^ 



that a number of students are now, in 
their first semester in the program, act- 
ually working with lab .sections. 



final phase of 
of weekly two 
will ic(|iilre a 



the course is a 
hour seminars, 
certain amount 
the pa It of the 
uui a great ileal 



interns in ineparation 
on the part of the particular intern who 
is roiulucting each. The variety of sub- 
jects projected suggests the variety of 
puiposes indulging them. Some are 
highly practical in teaching the stn- 
ilents certain subject material, classroom 
psychology, and information about test- 
ing methods. Others will be of more 
broadening value. These will cover such 
ili\erse subjects as ja/.z, sociological 
problems, and fine arts. In addition to 
the actual information which is avail- 
able through these seminars, the stu- 
dents get invaluable experience in group 
(Knamics and general class handling. 
I'.acli of the students will be chairman 
of one or more of these seminars and, 
at other times, recorder-reporter, who 
nnist prepare a summary of the proceed- 
in:':s. He gets opportunities to observe 
how individuals are "drawn in" to the 
discussion and how to think on his feet. 

Preparing for teaching through this 
pilot program are nine men with only a 
desire to teach engineering in common. 
They come from Canada and Okla- 
homa, Kansas and the Bronx, up-state 
New York and suburban Chicago. One 
thirty-five year old intern is the father 
of three while another is twenty-one. 
Their interests run from Thermody- 
namics to Microwave Communications. 
Of the nine, five are ME's, three EE's, 
and one, Gordon Anderson, has trans- 
ferred to the department of physics and 
is working under the program in this 
department. 

It is the hope of the department that 
this program will prove itself worthy 
of its expectations and eventually spread 
to other universities. The shortage of 
engineering instructors is particularly 
serious in the smaller engineering 
schools where there are relatively few 
graduate students who can handle 
classes themselves, and who are likely 
to stick with their alma mater as a 
teacher. It is thus a responsibility, the 
bigger of engineering colleges to help 
meet this demand. 

Perhaps an indication of the stu- 
dents' impressions of the program thus 
tar can be draW'ii from the opinion of 
Kd Yellin: 

"The projected program, and the 
manner in which it has thus far been 
implemented, certainh' indicate that 
those of us in the program will be both 
psychologically and educationally pre- 
pared to enter the engineering teaching 
profession." 



50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




... a hand in things to come 



Probing the atom . . . for you 

The boundless energy of the uranium atom means a brighter future 



Every day brings the benefits of atomic energy closer to our 
daily living. It presents a whole new field of exploration for scientists all 
over the world. 

A longer, healthier life Is hopefully ahead as radiation is help- 
ing doctors learn more about the basic processes of life by revealing how 
certain elements are put to work by the body. The controlled rays of the 
atom are also being used to pin-point malignant tissues for subsequent treat- 
ment. And radiation studies of how plants absorb nutrition from sun and 
soil are showing the way to improved food supplies. 

These are but a few of the vital jobs being done by radioisotopes 
—radioactive materials created in atomic reactors at Oak Ridge, Tennessee 
. . . the great atomic energy center operated by Union Carbide for the U. S. 
Atomic Energy Commission. The people of Union Carbide will continue 
their pioneering research in atomic energy — and in the vital fields of alloys, 
carbons, chemicals, gases and plastics— to bring you a brighter future. 

NOVEMBER, 1959 



Learn about the opportunities 
at Union Carbide in carbons, 
chemicals, gases, metals, plastics 
and nuclear energy. Literature 
is available at your placement 
office or write to V. O. Daris, 
Union Carbide Corporation, 30 
East 42nd Street, New York 
17, N. Y. 






...a hand 
in things to come 



51 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 




automated bridge 

The bridge of tomorrow will be sclf-;icti\atiiig. 
equipped with clcctric-eye controls and an anti-frcezc .sys- 
tem. No overhead struetures will obstruct the \iew, or 
interfere with radio reception, according to Robert J. 
Companik of Chicago. 

In his design, the bridge is operated by pressure 
pumps that draw water from the canal into tlic hollow 
structure and hold it shut by the weight of the water. 
To allow boats to pass, pressure is released, counter- 
weights pull the sections together, and the bridge opens. 
An electric eye down the canal activates the opening and 
the bridge docs not close until an eye on the other side 
is passed. Heating units keep both eves free from snow 
and ice, and a brine system keeps the bridge in operation 
in freezing weather. 

Manv ingenious solutions to traffic and other prob- 
lems are on the boards today. To make their ingenuitx 
clear, and to translate them from idea into reality, re- 
quires the best of drafting tools. 

In pencils, of course, that means Mars, long the 
standard of professionals. Some outstanding new prod- 
ucts ha\c recently been added to the famous line of Nlars- 
Technico push-button holders and leads. Lumograph 
pencils, and Tradition-Aquarell painting pencils. These 
include the Mars Poeket-Technico for field use; the effi- 
cient Mars lead sharpener and "Draftsman" pencil sharp- 
ener with the adjustable point-length feature; Mars Lu- 
moehrom, the color-drafting pencils and leads that make 
color-coding possible; the new Mars Non-Print pencils 
and leads that "drop out" your notes and sketches when 
drawings are reproduced. 



The 2886 Mars-Lumograph drawing pencil, 19 de- 
grees, EXEXB to 9H. The lOOi Mars-Technico 
push-button lead holder. 1904 Mars-Lumogroph 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB to 9H. Mors- 
Lumochrom color-drafting pencil, 24 colors. 



J.S 



TAEDTLERINC. 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 



Magnetic Pump for Reactor 
Produced 

1 lie wciilil's larjiot pcrmaiK'iir ni.iL'- 
lU'f i> schcilulcd to Wdik in AinciK'a '^ 
.Atomic liiicrfi)' Program. It will help 
pump liquid sodium in a breeder reacto'' 
to be operated by the Arfioiine National 
Fyaboiatory for the Atomic Energy 
Ldnmiissioii. To be known as the I'.x- 
pcrinieiital Breeder Reactor $$ (EBR- 
II), this reactor will produce electrical 
power on the Argonne Idaho Divis'on 
site at the National Reactor Testing 
Station near Iilaho Fiills, Idaho. 

The magnet weighs 1720 pounds, 
and is made of Alnico V material. The 
overall dimensions of the magnet are 
52^ by 36 by 10 inches. It has a gap 
length of 16j/^ inches and a gap volume 
of 1584 cubic inches. 

The magnet was checked in a 3000 
hour test at temperatures up to 750 de- 
grees F prior to its being put into serv- 
ice at the Argonne National Labora- 
tory. 

The huge permanent magnet will 
help in the pumping of the highly radio- 
active sodium at elevated temperatures. 

The pumps operate without moving 
parts. This is achieved by the interac- 
tion between a current passing through 
the sodium at right angles to a strong 
magnetic field. This interaction pro- 
duces a force in the sodium when di- 
rected through a closed piping system 
serving as a continuous supply of liquid 
sodium. 



S I'AII- \1 !■ \|- K'l-i illK'KIl BY THE 
A( I III t < i\i,l;|.>s , ,[ AfGUST 24, 
]■•[ : As .WILMUJi in I UK ACTS OF 
M.XKl II .i, IV.;,:. .\M) .ILLY 2, 1946 
I Title .!'). United States Code, Section 233) 
SlldWlXr; THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
.M.IC.MliXT, AND CIRCULATION 

( If The Illinois Technograph published 
October, November, December, January, 
T'ebruarv, March, April and May, at Ur- 
l.ana, Illinois for October 1, 1959 

1. The names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 



I'ublishc 



Illi, 



111! 



II. ill. I'll., 
isv M.nia!;. 



Publishing Company, 
ami,.n^„. Illinois; 
iiiiMii. Jl.s Civil Engi- 

1, lllniM,,; 

215 



Eneiiu'cring Hall. Trl-ana. Illinois. 

3. The owner is: the Illini Publishing; 
("dinpany, a non-profit corporation. 

J. The known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or hold- 
ing 1 per cent or more of total amount of 
bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: 

4. Paragraphs 3 and 3 include, in cases 
where the stockholder or security holder ap- 
pears upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, 
the name of the person or corporation for 
whom such trustee is acting; also the state- 
ments in the two paragraphs show the affi- 
ant's full knowledge and belief as to the 
circumstances and conditions under which 
stockholders and security holders who do 
nut appear upon the books of the company 
as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide 

Knj<;cr L. Harrison, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 
liMh ti.iv of October, 1959. 
(Si- A 1. 1 H. E. York. 

i\Iv commission expires Dec. 30, 1963) 



52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Raytheon Graduate Program 



FOR STUDY AT HARVARD 
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
AND CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
IN 1960-61 



lllil-„ 




^ 






hm^- • 


1 


^ 


yu 


J^^i 





MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 




The Raytheon Graduate Program has been established 
to contribute to the technical development of scientists 
and engineers at Raytheon. It provides the opportunity 
to selected persons employed by Raytheon, who are 
accepted as graduate students by Harvard University, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and California 
Institute of Technology, to pursue at Raytheon's ex- 
pense, regular courses of study leading to a master's 
or doctor's degree in science or engineering in the institu- 
tion of their choice. 

The Program requires, in general, two or three semesters 
of study, depending on circumstances, with the summer 
months spent in the Company's research, engineering, or 
manufacturing divisions. It includes full tuition, fees, 
book allowances and a salary while at school. Students 
are eligible for health, accident, retirement and life insur- 
ance benefits, annual vacation and other privileges of 
full-time Raytheon employees. 

To be considered for the Program, applicants must have 
a bachelor's degree in science or engineering, and should 
have outstanding student records, show technical prom- 
ise, and possess mature personal characteristics. They 
may apply for admission to the Program in anticipation 
of becoming employees of Raytheon. 

YOU ARE INVITED TO ADDRESS YOUR INQUIRY 
to Dr. Ivan A. Getting, Vice President, Engineering 
and Research, outlining your technical background, 
academic record, school preference, and field of interest, 
prior to December 1, 1959. 



RAYTHEON COMPANY, Waltham 54, Mass. 



tMll()h\l\ I\^IIH1I Ol IICIINOIOUY 



Excellence in Electronics 



RAYTHEON 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



53 



Number Two of q Scr 



ENGINEERING GRADUATES — YOUR 




STEPPING 
«TONES 
TO 
SPACE 



steady acceleration to escape velocity is 
mandatory to place a space vehicle into success- 
ful orbit. So too, your career must accelerate. 

At McDonnell — you alone will determine 
your rate of ascent. Favorable conditions pre- 
vail — professional association, counselling, sup- 
plementary training, rotational assignments — 
but you are at the controls and must contribute 
your own technical ability and initiative. You 
will be bounded only by your own ambitions. 

Learn more about our company and com- 
munity by seeing our Engineering Representa- 
tive when he visits your campus, or, if you 
prefer, write a brief note to : Raymond F. Kaletta 
Engineering Employment Supervisor 
P.O. Box 516, St. Louis 66, Missouri 




Monitoring a thermal-stress test in the Transient Heat Facihty are 
Project Mercury staff members. True E. Cousins, BSAE, U. of Kan- 
sas, '58, on the left, and Eugene G Shifrin, BSME, U. of Iowa, '55. 



wmwii^ 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Campus at Night . . . 

WHAT THE CAMPUS LOOKS LIKE 
AFTER THE SHADES ARE DRAWN 
AND THE CAT PUT OUT 



NOVEMBER, 1959 55 




LOOK FAMILIAR? 




AT LAST! 



56 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




MIDNIGHT GRIND AT MRH 




AND AT BEVIER HALL 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



57 





POWER PLANT (M.E. 263 PROVING GROUND) 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




E.E. COMEJ THROUGH 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



59 




LATE FOR THE GAME 



60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Air brake for a spaceliner 




The earth's atmosphere, one of the biggest obstacles to getting into outer 
space, can be one of our biggest assets coming back. At Douglas we are 
investigating how we can use its braking effects on rockets returning from 
deep space trips at far faster than ICBM speeds. Success will allow us to 
increase payloads by reducing the weight of soft landing systems. This 
technique also will aid us in pinpointing landing areas. Current reports show 
real progress. Douglas is engaged in intensive research on every aspect of 
space planning, from environmental conditions on other planets to the 
destroyer-sized space ships necessary to get there. We invite qualified 
engineers and scientists to join us, Write to C. C. LaVene.Box 600-M, Douglas 
Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 

Arthur Shef, Chief, Advanced Design Section, Missiles and Space Sys- 
tems, irons out a problem with Arthur E. Raymond, ^^ll^l AQ 
Senior Engineering Vice President of ^wUwLMw 

MISSILE SYSTEMS ■ SPACE SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ JETLINERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB ■ GROUND-HANDLING EQUIPMENT 

NOVEMBER, 1959 61 




Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by Paul Cliff 



Sputtered Resistors Make High 
Component Density Possible 

Sputtered thin-iilni resistors, toniu'd 
from refractory metals such as tantalum 
and titanium, may be one of the more 
important developments in micromini.i- 
ture electronics. Such resistors can bf 
produced on glass or ceramic bases in 
lines as narrow as 1 mil (0.0(11 inch). 
spaced 1 mil apart, thus producing ex- 
tremely high resistance in a small area. 

Research in sputtering, an old tech- 
nique in which ionized gas molecules 
bombard a cathode, dislodging atoms of 
metal which then redeposit on nearb\ 
surfaces, has been conducted .it Hell 
Laboratories for several years. 

The newly announced miniature re- 
sistors owe their success to a high pre- 
cision masking process, which makes it 
possible to produce the thin films in 
specifically restricted locations. An ex- 
pendable copper mask is used for this 
operation. 

In producing a resistor, an over-all 
thin film of copper is first deposited 
onto the ceramic or glass base, for ex- 
ample, by sputtering. Then, the desired 
pattern is etched into the copper siuface 
by standard photoetching techniques, 
leaving the bare substrate exposed. Tan- 
talum, other refractory metals, or elec- 
trically useful alloys are then deposited 
onto the etched copper pattern, and the 
whole \mit placed in an etching bath. 
The copper with its overlay of tanta- 
lum is removed, leaving behind only 
the tantalum which was in direct con- 
tact with the bare surface. Since the 
masks are extremch thin, line ilet;iil 



is possible. Also, since the sputtered ma- 
terials adhere to the substrate itself, sup- 
port considerations are not necessary 
and complex patterns can be produced. 

"Goer"— New Military 
Transporter 

A new type of off-road transport \e- 
hicle, capable of delivering militar\' s\ip- 
plies across-country to widely dispersed, 
fast moving units of the atomic age 
Army, is being manufactured by Le 
Tourneau - Westinghouse. 

The giant rubber tired machine, dvib- 
beil the "Goer" for its "go-anywhere" 
mobility, is a strict departure from con- 
ventional Army trucks and transporters. 
Instead of following the historic pat- 
tern of being a military development 
which might one day be adapted to 
civilian use, it is essentially a "plow- 
share hammered into a sword." For the 
most part, Goer design principles and 
components have been adapted from 
those which have given mobility, agilit\' 
and durability to commercial earthmov- 
ing machines in the I'nited States since 
before World War II. The (loer's two- 
wheel prime mover; articulated, wagon- 
type electric steering ; high ground clear- 
ance ; springle.ss suspension, rugged, sim- 
ple power train ; and six foot-tall r\ib- 
ber tires are all commoTi to modern 
earthmoving equipment. 

Two Goer prototypes — a 3,000-gal- 
lon fuel tanker and 15-ton cargo carrier 
negotiated a series of rugged rough-ter- 
rain problems which proved impossible 
for a fleet of conventional .Army trucks 
and transporters. Full\ lo.ided, the 



Goers climbed slopes, thre.ided their 
\\A\ between hciulileis, scaled a vertical 
wall, skimnieil n\er a sand trap, snaked 
their way through whip-deep nuid pits 
and topped the whole performance off 
b\ swimming across an udand lake. 

New Copper Paste for Screen 
Printing 

■A new method foi' producing printed 
wiring directly on ceramic basis with- 
out the use of adhesives has recently 
been developed by Bell Telephone Lab- 
oratories. The basis of the new process, 
which uses standard silk screening tech- m 
niques for forming the pattern, is a spe- ■ 
cially formulated copper-bearing paste. I 
Pillowing the printing of the desired ■ 
pattern on the ceramic base, the piece ^ 
is fired in a two-step process, resulting 
in a clean, durable pattern with ex- 
cellent electrical characteristics. 

In present methods of production, a 
sheet of copper foil is usually bonded to 
the ceramic or plastic base with an ad- 
hesive. The desired pattern is then pro- 
duced by one of several methods usual- 
h' involving the removal of undesired 
material. The bond of the copper to 
the base thus is dependent on the M 
strength of the adhesive. Often, it fails M 
during svibsequent processing operations, 
such as soldering or assembly. 

With the new process, a paste is pre- _ 
pared from a finely ground mixture of ■ 
copper oxide and a special glass frit, ^ 
blended with a standard silk screen 
printing vehicle. The paste is used to 
print the pattern on the ceramic, and 
the "card" is heat-dried to remove solv- 
ents. After drying, the card with its 
pattern is fired in air at 750"C for 
twenty minutes to burn off the printing 
vehicle. This operation leaves a non- 
conducting copper oxide pattern, ready 
to be reduced to metallic copper. 

The second firing operation is con- 
ducted at 850°C for thirty minutes, in 
a controlled atmosphere containing hy- 
drogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. The hy- 
drogen in the atmosphere reduces the 
copper oxides to metallic copper, while 
the oxygen prevents reduction of other 
oxides in the system and promotes good 
wetting of the glass frit and the cer- 
,-unic. Without the ox\gen present, a 
poor bond residts. 

Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium 
Batteries 

A versatile selection of compact, re- 
chargeable, sealed nickel-cadmium 
cells and batteries designed for battery- 
operated devices rcqvn'ring high energy 
has been introduced b\- Hurgess Battery 
Compan>'. 

The hermeticalh' sealed construction 
of the new units, eliminating routine 
maintenance and the addition of liquids 
re(|uirecl by earlier nickel-cadmium bat- 



62 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



tcnes, represents a major advance \n 
seeondary battery technology. 

Burgess will market individual cells 
in eight sizes, as well as a range of mul- 
tiple cell batteries in numerous \olt- 
ages. The individual cells, rated at 1.2^ 
\olts. include six button-t\ pe units 
ranging from a finger-tip sized cell only 
tour-tenths of an inch in diameter to 
one slightly larger than a silver dol- 
lar. Long-lasting single-cell batteries in 
penliglit (AA) and standard Hashlight 
battery (I)) sizes also are available. 

A \irtually unlimited variet\' of nud- 
tiple cell nickel-cadmium batteries covdd 
be designed from the cells to fill the 
widely varying requirements of indus- 
trial product designers and electronic 
engineers. 

Development of a vmique conductive 
silver wax inter-cell connection makes 
possible broad flexibilitv for nickel-cad- 
mium battery designs. A dab of silver 
wax on the positive and negative sides 
of each cell permits cells to be connect- 
ed in series merely by being stacked in 
a column. The ability of the wax to 
mold itself to an\' contour between the 
cells assures a permanent inter-cell con- 
nection which will not break even under 
rugged handling. 

Recharging will restore the new 
nickel-cadmium batteries to peak operat- 
ing efficiency hundreds of times. Re- 
sponse of the cells is eq\ially good to 
either a slow or fast charge. The nickel- 
c.idmium batteries are not affected ad- 
versely bv long idle periods either in a 
charged or discharged state, and thev' 
operate in a temperature range of to 
1 1 5 degrees F. 

In tests, engineers have demonstrated 
how the normal life of nickel-cadmium 
batteries can be extended manv times 
by recharging before they discharge 
more than one-half of their capacity. 

Winners of Highway Bridge 
Design Announced 

.Award winners of the :,^44,()()(l Steel 
Highway Bridge Design Competition 
sjionsored by U. S. Steel's American 
Bridge Division were named. 

Top winner in the professional classi- 
hcation was Allan M. Beesing, struc- 
tural design engineer with James J. 
MacDonald. Buffalo, X. Y., consulting 
engineer. He was awarded i'!l.S,(X)ll for 
his entry. 

First award in the student classifica- 
tion went to a joint entry submitted bv' 
Niels Gimsing and Hans Xyvold of 
Copenhagen, Denmark. Roth men were 
students at the Technical University of 
Denmark. They will share $4,000 for 
their entry. 

The competition, conducted under 
the auspices of the American Institute 
of Steel Construction, Inc., required en- 
trants to design a steel bridge to carrv 



a two-lane crossroad over a modern 
four-lane highway. It was open to pro- 
fessional design engineers and college 
engineering students anvwhere in the 
vv.H-ld. 

Winning entries were selected on the 
basis of originalitv of design, utilization 
of the properties of steel, economv . and 
appearance. 

According to A. J. Paddock, presi- 
dent of American Bridge Division, the 
selection of the particular problem fea- 
tured in the competition is especially ap- 
propriate to the construction of Amer- 
ica's 41,()()()-mile interstate and defense 
highway sv stem over the next 1 5 years. 
It is estimated that more than one 
bridge will be required for each mile 
of the high speed highway network. 

Beesing's top-award design is a grace- 
ful welded steel girder structure which 
bridges, in a single span, a four-lane 
divided highwav'. The skillful combina- 
tion of carbon and high strength steels 
and design innovations permits the abut- 
ments to be moved back from the shoul- 
ders and eliminates the need for a centei 
pier. 

The Gimsing-Nv void entry is a weld- 
ed two-span frame bridge designed for 
mass production and requiring minimum 
field erection. Construction work is re- 
duced to a few riveted or bolted con- 
nections. 

Four of the 15 awards were made to 
foreign entries. Two went to student 
entries, the other two being awarded 
to professional entries, 
w It as the consensus of the judges 
after completing their work that the 
professional entries were outstanding 
and indicated that they represented a lot 
of thought and effort. As for the stu- 
dent entries, they commented: "futine 
of bridge design is in good hands. " Thev 
were siu'prised and delighted at the 
quality of work turned in by students, 
one saying, "This is better than I could 
have done in my college days, which 
means better students today and speaks 
well of educational advances." 

Compact Cathode Ray Tube 
Produced 

riu- development of a newlv de- 
signed, compact "Wamoscope" — a cath- 
ode ray tube capable of presenting 
microwave frequency information di- 
rectlv' on its screen — was annovmced bv' 
Svlvania Electric Products Inc. 

Dr. Robert M. Bowie, vice president 
Sylvania Research Laboratories, said 
the new tube, which was developed foi' 
use in advanced electronic systems ap- 
plications, does not require a solenoid, 
a bulky focusing structure requiring an 
external source of electric current. The 
"Wamoscope" is only slightlv longei' 
than conventional television picture 
tubes. 



The improved "Wamoscope" oper- 
ates over a frequency range of 2 to 10 
kmc, and will be particularly important 
in high-resolution ralar applications. Dr. 
Bowie said. The new tube has a signal 
coupler incorporated within the tube en- 
velope and "spot ^ize" has been im- 
proved to 160 lines per inch at the cen- 
ter of its 10-inch screen. 

Stainless Steel Pump for Yankee 
Atomic Electric Plant 

Shown at W'cstmghou.se Llectric 
Corporation's atomic equipment depart- 
ment, a 16,000-pound canned motor 
pufmp volute is being made for the 
^ ankee Atomic Electric Company's 
l.'!4,0()0-kilowatt nuclear power plant 
at Rowe, Mass. The finished canned 




motor pump, which will be hermetical- 
ly sealed, will be over 11 feet high and 
will weigh 39,000 pounds. Along with 
three other units, the canned motor 
pump, rated at 1600 horsepower, will 
circidate radioactive water at 496 de- 
grees F through the nuclear reactor sys- 
tem at a rate of 23,700 gallons per 
minute at a system pressure of about 
2000 pounds per square inch. There 
will be an 80-psi pressure rise across 
the pump. Both the rotor, or rotating 
part, and stator, or stationary part, of 
this tvpe of pump are encased, or "can- 
ned," in metal. Water being circulated 
Hows through the space between the 
rotor and the stator, thus acting as a 
coolant and lubricant. 

Skin-Diver Patrol 

Skin diveis p.itrol subm.arine cables 
of an electric utilitv companv. The 
divers are able to check the cables at a 
rate up to two miles per day in depths 
up to 40 feet and one-half mile per day 
in deeper water, where decompression 
is required after 35 minutes' exposure. 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



63 




Could this be a picture of you tomorrow? In 
the fall of 1958, it was Jack Carroll, principal 
speaker at the opening of Electronic Associ- 
ates' modern new plant in Long Branch, N.J. 



Jack Carroll (right) discusses the new equip- 
ment he has just seen during a visit with 
Henri Busignies, President of ITT Laborato- 
ries (center) and Anthony Pregliese, ITT Pub- 
lic Relations. 



64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



YOU... 

An Editor of a Top Engineering Publication ? 



JACK CARROLL, MANAGING EDITOR OF ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE, 
ROSE TO A TOP POST IN LESS THAN TEN YEARS 



Are Jack CarrolVs shoes your size? 

"If it's scope you want, try keeping on top of every- 
thing that's hot in electronics," says John M. Carroll, 
electronics' Managing Editor at McGraw-Hill Pub- 
lishing Company. 

A Lehigh B.S. graduate in 1950, Jack has become 
an industry authority in less than 10 years. "Knowing 
that the industry itself is looking to your magazine 
for the word on things is the most stimulating part 
about it. It's your job to get the thinking of the men 
behind everything that's new in the field. You work 
with the top of the profession. What engineer can 
resist that?" 

Wrote in College 

In his senior year at Lehigh, Jack got his first real 
taste of writing as editor of the college newspaper. He 
joined McGraw-Hill as editorial assistant on elec- 
tronics in 1950, took a 17-month "leave" in Korea, 
then became assistant editor in 1952 and associate 
editor in '54. 

"By then I'd got my M.A. in physics at Hofstra on 
the McGraw-Hill Tuition Refund Plan, where the 
company pays half the cost. And since I was pro- 
moted to managing editor in 1957, I've been working 
after hours on my doctorate in engineering science at 
N.Y.U. This is an engineer's outfit. You gi-ow right 
along with your industry at McGraw-Hill," says Jack. 



"The engineer who chooses a McGraw-Hill career 
need have no fear of winding up in a corner on one 
part of one project. You work with the new . . . the 
experimental . . . the significant. Sitting down with 
the leaders of your field is part of the job. Your as- 
signment? Interpreting today's advanced thinking for 
the rest of your field." 

McGraw-Hill Tuition Refund Plan 

All of our editors have the opportunity to continue 
their education in their chosen fields under the 
McGraw-Hill Tuition Refund Plan. Physics, econom- 
ics, aerodynamics, and business management are typi- 
cal of the courses they may choose. 

You May Be The Right Man 

How about wi'iting experience? It helps, but if you 
like to wi'ite— and engineering is your profession — 
that's the main thing. 

Would you like to learn what opportunities 
McGraw-Hill ofi'ers in your field? Write for "Careers 
in Publishing At McGraw-Hill." Tell us about your 
backgi'ound, college r'ecord, outside activities and 
why you seek a career in engineering journalism. 

Write to: The Editorial Director, McGraw-Hill 
Publishing Co., Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New 
York 36, New York. 



McGraw-Hill 



'''o...° PUBLICATIONS 
McGR AW-HILL PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC., 330 WEST 42nd S T RE E T, NK W YO RK 3 6, N. T. 

NOVEMBER, 1959 65 



Cash Prizes! 



FOR 



BRAINTEASERS 



The TECHNOGRAPH will award $5 to each of the 
winners of the monthly brainteaser contests 
which will begin with this issue. The winner will 
be the person who turns in the greatest number 
of correct answers to the TECHNOGRAPH office 
in 215 Civil Engineering Hall. If there is a tie, the 
prize will be given to the entry with the earliest 
date. The deadline for entries this month is De- 
cember 10th. 



66 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



BRAIN TEASERS 



Edited by Steve Dilts 



A group of airplaiifs is based on a 
small island. The tank of each plane 
holds just enough fuel to take it half- 
way around the world. Any desired 
amount of fuel can be transferred from 
the tank of one plane to the tank of an- 
other while the planes are in flight. The 
only source of fuel is on the island, and 
for the purposes of the problem it is as- 
sumed that there is no time lost in re- 
fueling either in the air or on the 
ground. What is the smallest number of 
planes that will insure the flight of one 
plane around the world on a great cir- 
cle, assuming that the planes have the 
same constant groiuid speed and rate 
of fuel consumption and that all planes 
return safely to their island base? 

What is the radius of the largest cir- 
cle that can be drawn entirely on the 
black squares of ;i chessboard with 

squares that are two inches on a side? 

«- *. * 

An amusing parlor trick is performed 
as follows. Ask spectator A to jot down 
any three-digit number, and then to re- 
peat the digits in the same order to make 
a six-digit number {e.g.. 394,394). 
With your back turned so that you can- 
not see the number, ask A to pass the 
sheet of paper to spectator B, who is re- 
quested to divide the number by 7. 

"Don't worry about the remainder," 
you tell him, "because there won't be 
any." B is surprised to discover that you 
are right (e.(/.. 394,394 divided b\- 7 is 
56,342). Without telling you the result 
he passes it on to spectator C, who is 
told to divide it by 11. (^nce again \ou 
state that there will be no remainder, 
and this al,so proves correct ( %,342 di- 
vided by 11 is 5,122). 

With your back still turned, and no 
knowledge whatever of the figiues ob- 
tained by these computations, you di- 
rect a fourth spectator, D, to divide the 
last result by 13. Again the division 
comes out even (5,122 divided by 13 is 
394). This final residt is written on a 
slip of paper which is folded and hand- 
ed to you. Without opening it you pass 
it on to spectator A. 

"Open this," >ou tell him, "and you 
will find your original three-digit num- 
ber." Prove that the trick cannot fail to 
work regardless of the digits cilosen by 
the first spectator. 

* <t * 

Two nu'ssiles speed directly toward 
each other, one at 9, ()()() miles per 
hour and the other at 21,000 miles per 
hour, lliey start 1,317 miles apart. 



Without using pencil and paper, calcu- 
late how far apart the> are one nu'nute 
before they collide. 

1 he answers will appear next month. 

-» * * 
Here are the answers to last month's 
brain-teasers. 

1. A= 10430 
B = 3970 
C = 2114 
D = 386 

2. 93 feet 

3. 1st trip = 15 ni.p.h. 
2nd trip = 45 m.p.h. 
3rd trip ^ 90 m.p.h. 

4. Kldest ^^ 75 
2nd $375 
3rd $525 
Hospital $82S 

The answer to the coconut problem is 
fifteen. 

The most convenient device for solv- 
ing the first logic problem is to use a 
matrix with vacant cells for all possible 
pairings in each set. One cell is needed 
for pairing names with jobs, and an- 
other is needed for pairing names with 
cities. Each cell is marked so as to show 
whether or not the combination is pos- 
sible. 

Premise 7 eliminates the possibility 
that Smith is the fireman, and Premise 
2 tells us that Mr. Robinson lives in 
Los Angeles. Premise 3 and 6 inform 
us that the physicist lives in (^maha, but 
he can't be Mr. Robinson nor Mr. 
Jones (who has forgotten his algebra). 
Mr. Smith is therefore the physicist, and 
Mr. Jones must live in Chicago. 

Premise 5 now permits us to identi- 
fy the brakeman as Jones. Since the 
fireman can be neither Smith nor Jones, 
Robinson must be the fireman, and 
Smith must be the engineer. 

The second logic problem left unan- 
swered last month is best handled by 
three matrices: one for combinations of 
first anil last names of wives, one for 
first and last names of husbands and 
one to show sibling relationships. Since 
Mrs. White's first name is Marguerite 
(premise), we have only two alterna- 
tives for the names of the other wives : 
( 1 ) Helen Black and Beatrice Brown 
or (2) Helen Brown and Beatrice 
Black. 

Let us assume the second alternati\e. 
White's sister must be either Helen or 
Beatrice. It cannot be Beatrice, because 
then Helen's brother would be Black; 
Black's two brothers-in-law would be 



White (his wife's brother) and Brown 
(his sister's husband); but Beatrice 
Black is not married to either of them, 
a fact inconsistent with premise 4. 
Therefore White's sister must be Helen. 
This in turn allows us to deduce that 
Brown's sister is Beatrice and Black's 
sister is Marguerite. 

Prenu'se 6 leads to the conclusion that 
Mr. White's first name is Arthur (Ar- 
thur Brown is ruled out because that 
would make Beatrice prettier than her- 
self, and Arthur Black is ruled out be- 
cause we know from premise 5 that 
Black's first name is William). There- 
fore Brown's first name must be John. 
LTnfortunately premise 7 informs us that 
John was born in 1868 (50 \ears be- 
fore the Armistice), which is a leap 
year. This would make Helen older 
than her husband by one day more than 
the 2() weeks specified in premise 3. 
( Premise 4 tells us that her birthday is 
in January, and premise 3 tells us her 
husband's birthday is in August. She 
can be exactly 26 weeks older than he 
if her birthday is January 31, his on 
August 1, and there is no February 29 
in between!) This eliminates the second 
of the two alternatives with which we 
stated, forcing us to conclude that the 
wives are JVIarguerite White, Helen 
Black and Beatrice Brown. There are 
no inconsistencies because we do not 
know the year of Black's birth. The 
premises permit us to deduce that Mar- 
guerite is Brown's sister, Beatrice is 
Black's sister, and Helen is White's sis- 
ter, but leave undecided the first names 
of White and Brown. 

In the problem of the stamps on the 
foreheads, B has three alternatives: his 
stamps are (1) red-red, (2) green- 
green, or (3) red-green. Assume they 
are red-red. 

After all three men have answered 
once, A can reason as follows: "I cannot 
have red-red (because then C would 
see four red stamps and know inniiedi- 
ately that he had green-green, and if 
C had green-green, B would see four 
green stamps and know that he had 
red-red). Therefoie I must h.i\e red- 
green." 

But when A was asked a second time, 
he did not know the color of his stamps. 
This enables B to rule out the possibil- 
it\' that his own stamps are red-red. Ex- 
actly the same argument enables B to 
eliminate the possibility that his stamps 
are green-green. This leaves for him 
only the third alternative: red-green. 

(Brointeosers courtesy of Scientific American) 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



67 



TOMORROW BEGINS TODAY AT CONVAIR SAN/DIEGO 



FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS 



o 



CONVAIR/SAN DIEGO 

ENGINEERING-CONVAIR DIVISION OF 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 




As an engineering, mathematics or physics 
major, you will soon be called upon to make 
one of the most important decisions of your life: 
Choice of Association. 

In making that decision, we hope you will choose 
the aerospace industry and Convair/San Diego. But 
whatever your choice, the selection of association 
must be made with meticulous care and keen aware- 
ness of what that decision will mean, not only 
immediately, but in years to come. 
To arrive at such an important decision, you will 
need all the information available to you. That is 
why Convair/San Diego is suggesting that you care- 
fully read a new booklet prepared for the express 
purpose of helping you make this vital decision. 
Within the twenty-four pages of this brochure, you 
will find detailed information about Convair, the 
General Dynamics Corporation, and the work of 
each group within the Convair/San Diego engineer- 
ing Department. 

Whether or not you decide to discuss your career 
with us in more detail, we sincerely believe you will 
be better equipped to make your decision after 
reading this brochure. 

If your placement office does not have a copy, we 
will be pleased to mail you one. Simply write to 
Mr. M. C. Curtis, Industrial Relations Administra- 
tor, Engineering, 



^HHKE^kk^ 



CONVAIR/SAN DIEGO convair is a division Ol 

3302 PACIFIC HIGHWAY. SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 



DYNAMICS 



68 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This huge research center at Whiting, Indiana, Ls only 
part of Standard OiKs research faciHties. A recently 
completed technical service and quality control lab- 



oratory, not shown here, is the largest laboratory of 
its kind in the country. In addition, large research 
laboratories are operated by several affiliates. 



Where the fuels of the future are born! 



From time to time, we are asked if gasoline 
and oil today really are better than they were 
five or ten years ago. People can't see the 
difference, smell it, or feel it. 

The answer is an emphatic yes. And this 
aerial view of Standard Oil's research center 
at Whiting, Indiana, is graphic evidence of 
the extensive research work that goes on be- 
hind the scenes day in and day out. 

Thousands of research experts — chemists, 
engineers, and technicians — work together in 
Standard's modern laboratories, improving 
present fuels and lubricants and developing 
new ones for cars that will not be a reality 
until about 1965! Rocket fuels, too, are being 
developed. Standard's development of clean- 



burning, highly-reliable solid fuels has been a 
realcontribution to America's missile program. 

Since our first research laboratory opened 
69 years ago, research scientists of Standard 
Oil and its affiliated companies have been re- 
sponsible for many major petroleum advances 
— from making a barrel of oil yield more gas- 
oline to discovering a way to revive almost-dry 
wells. Each process had the effect of adding 
billions of barrels to America's oil reserves. 

At Standard Oil, scientists have an oppor- 
tunity to work on a wide variety of challeng- 
ing projects. That is one reason why so many 
young men have chosen to build satisfying 
careers with Standard Oil. 



STANDARD OIL COMPANY 

910 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE, CHICAGO 80, ILLINOIS 



(standard 



THE SIGN OF PROGRESS ., 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



I NOVEMBER, 1959 



69 



ea(;im:lrs • J'HYsicists 



Sylvania Encourages Scientific Heretics 



Who ('an Utilize Unique and Unorthodox Thinking in 
IMaking Statc-ol-tlie-Art Advances in Eh'ctronics, Electronic 
Counternieasures, Metallurgy, Semiconductors, Radar, 
Coniniunications & Navigation Systems, Airhorne Defense, 
Missiles, Computers, Lighting, Radio, Television, Plastics, 
Photography, Chemicals, \y^ire, Phosphors. 



To the young engineer and scientist 
who questions present hypotheses anil 
who can combine unorthodox percep- 
tion with imagination, Sylvania ex- 
tends a climate of achievement. From 
these men, Sylvania foresees a number 
of tomorrow's breakthroughs. If your 
ambition is to attain your fullest pro- 
fessional potential, these facts about 
Sylvania — one of the world's fastest 
growing industrial organizations — 
merit your close attention. 

Started as a basement industry 
manufacturing incandescent lamps 
only 59 years ago, Sylvania today has 
23 laboratories and 46 plants located 
in 14 states across the nation. These 
69 modern facilities afford employ- 
ment to over 30,000 people. In the 
last 25 years sales have climbed from 
$6,000,000 to over 1/3 of a billion dol- 
lars. Strong as this industrial base is 
for the engineer and scientist, it was 
substantially reinforced in February 
1959 when Sylvania merged with 
General Telephone Corporation. The 
merger of these two growth com- 
panies will: 

• Increase ability to finance future 
growth and development 

• Ad<l further diversification to al- 
ready broad conunercial and defense 
product lines 

• Measurably increase research and 
development facilities 

• Give Sylvania the benefit of 
(General Telephone's wide experi- 
ence and background in foreign 
manufacturing and sales. 

Sylvania Prizes liidividualilv 

Sylvania's success and reputation 
have long been based on the belief 



that the success of the organization 
depends upon the personal success of 
the individual. The engineer/scientist- 
oriented management has given much 
thought and study to provide an en- 
vironment that kindles self-expression 
and creativity. Here you are assigned 
to a position where you can direct 
your training toward its greatest po- 
tential. Promotion from within the 
company gives impetus to your pro- 
fessional progress; assignments are 
frequently reviewed. 

There is no predetermined pattern 
of orientation, for the speed with 
which this is accomplished is up to 
the graduate; you are given a number 
of assignments with increasing 
responsibilities. Working directly 
with a project leader or senior 
engineer, you quickly confirm your 
special abilities and aptitudes. 

Large-Organization Strength 
^'ith Small-Company 
Flexibility 

Each laboratory or plant is similar 
to an independent business at Syl- 
vania. Important decisions are made 
on the operating level by technical 
managers familiar with the problem 
at hand, who appreciate and accur- 
ately evaluate individual contributions. 

Whether your interests center on 
engineer management or scientific 
specialization, you will enjoy parallel 
paths for development at Sylvania — 
double opportunity to move forward 
with equal reward and status. Syl- 
vania encourages the publication of 
research articles, active participation 
in professional groups, attendance at 



meetings of engineering and profes- 
sional societies. It has long been 
Sylvania's philosophy that these "ex- 
tracurricular" activities are of im- 
measurable importance to both the 
company and the individual, for com- 
munication increases comprehension 
and scientific curiosity— which are the 
forces that spark experinicntalion and 
discovery. 

Continual .\dvances 
In Slate-Of-The-Art 

The success of Sylvania in the ad- 
vanced areas of electronics has been 
maintained over the years by scien- 
tific and engineering excellence. Syl- 
vania's encouragement of uninhibited 
technological thinking has led to a 
number of important breakthroughs 
across many technologies, such as: 
Data Processing Systems; Com- 
puters; Semiconductors; Electronic 
Flash Approach System; Space Tech- 
nology; Ceramic Stacked Tube; 
Electroluminescence; Bonded Shield 
Television Picture Tubes; Sarong 
Cathode Coating; First 110' Televi- 
sion Set. 

Generous Benefits 

Sylvania's belief in the well-being of 
the individual has been amply dem- 
onstrated by liberal employee policies. 
Ranging from a savings and retire- 
ment plan to financial reimbursement 
for graduate study, these policies have 
helped set a standard for the elec- 
tronics industry. 

To explore fully the career advantages 
you can find with Sylvania, see your 
College Placement Officer; or write 
us for a copy of "Today and Tomor- 
row with Sylvania." 

^SYLVANIA® 

GENERAL TELEPHONE i ELECTRONICS 

730 Third Avenue, New York 17, New York 



70 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




The »„,d s,a.e -"^-'^^X W' S e\fLTd::S 1'' t^^^ 

But there is quite another kind of space close ai 

challenge the genius of man. 

•u, hP mensured It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
This space can easily be measured. I is t p ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^_ 

distance between them . . . the kind ot space loi , • „ .^^^ its supply 

shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inacces.bcl.annmd_.^^ 

base, between the site of a mountain crash and ^'^^^^^^^'^^^^^ ,^,,,, ^,. 

Sikorsky is concerned with the precious "spaceway that curremiy 

tween all earthbound places. 

Ou, engineering efforts are directed '-"f .^ ™*'i t^^^L mo't 

aircraft configurations. Among earlter f ''■™^'->' *^f ' ° jV,„day arc the ve- 

^i^^::^^i:zz::^:^::^^^ . ..Uortat,on 




IKORSKY 
AIRCRAFT 



For Information about careers with "=, please ad- 
d?Ls Mr. Richard L. Auten, Personnel Department. 



One of the Divisions of United Aircraft Corporation 
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT 



71 



NOVEMBER, 1959 



Begged, Borrowed, and . . . 



Edited by Jack Fortner 



Engineer's Glossary 

// (.1 in f>roifSs — So wrapped up in 
red tape that the situation i^ niniost 
hopeless. 
//'<■ nil! look into il — V>\ the time the 
wheel makes a tidi turn, we assume 
\()u will ha\e tor>iOtten abmir it 
also. 
,/ l^roi^rniii — An\' assigiuiient tliat 
eamiot be completed by one tele- 
phone call. 
l'.x[>i(Hti — To confound contusion 

with commotion. 
Chdnnih — The trail left by inter- 

oftice memos. 
Coordinalor — The gu\ who has a 

desk between two expediters. 
C.onsullant. Expert — Any ordinar\- 
guy more than 50 miles from here. 
To activate — To make carbons and 

add more names to the memo. 
To i/ii/t/niunt a proi/rain — Hire more 

people and expand the office. 
I'niler tonsidtration — Ne\er heard of 

it. 
.7 meeting — A mass mullinii: by 

master minds. 
// eonference — A place where conver- 
sation is substituted for the dreari- 
ness of labor and the loneliness of 
thought. 
Under active consideration — We are 

lookini; for it in the files. 
To ne//otiate — To seek a meeting of 
the minds without the knocking to- 
gether of heads. 
Re-orientation — G e t t i n g used to 

working again. 
Reliahle source — The guy yo\i just 

met. 
Informed source — The guy who told 

the guy you just met. 
Unimfieachah/e source — The guy who 
started the ugly rumor originally. 
.7 clarification — To fill in the back- 
ground with .so many details that 
the foreground goes underground. 



Three tourists were standing on a 
street corner in North .'\frica. They 
were an Englishman, an .'\rahian, and 
an American. Just then a beautiful 
woman walked by. The Englishman 
said, "By jove!" The Arabian said, "By 
the prophet." The American just shift- 
ed his chewing gum and said, "By mid- 
night!" 



A meek little man walked into a bar- 
room .-uid ordered two ilrinks hum the 
buily bartender. He drank one of the 
drinks and povned the other into his 
shirt pocket. After about ten rounds of 
this procedure the barteniler sa\s, "I'al. 
why are you pouring the other drijik 
into your shirt pocket?" 

The little man jumped up into the 
bartender's face and snarled, ".Mind 
\()ur own business, you big bum, or I 
shall come over the counter and whale 
the fire out of you." About that time a 
blurry-eyed mouse stuck his head out of 
the man's shirt pocket and said, "That 
goes for >our damned cat, too." 

During the recent California drought 
e\erything was so dry that the trees 
were going to the dogs. 

Professor Lewellyn Rubin looked to- 
\\ard the next green, waggled his driver 
confidently, and declared, "That's good 
for one long drive and a putt." He gave 
his club a mighty swing, blasted up 
about two inches of sod, and managed 
to get the ball about three feet from the 
tee. 

The caddy stepped forward, handed 
him his putter, and suggested, "Now, 
for one hellu\a putt." 

iS !> * 

Did you ever hear the story about 
the farmer who was milking a cow on 
the side of a mountain? He slipped and 
fell ami woidd have gone down SOO 
feet if he didn't have something to hang 
onto . . . the poor cow saved him but 
the neighbors thought it was an air 

raid. 

-» * * 

"The editor just hanged himself." 
"Have they cut him down.''" 
"Not yet. He isn't dead." 

Little Jack Horner 

sat in a corner 
Crib notes under his eye. 

He opened his book 
And took a quick look. 

And now he's a Tau Beta Pi. 

Pop Robin returned to the nest and 
proudK aiuiouuced that he had made 
a deposit on a new I'uick. 



Three .football player> at different 
schools had flunked their classes and 
were dropped from the team. They got 
together and talked about their mis- 
fortune. The man from O.U. said, 
"That calculus was just too damm 
much." The man from S.M.U. said, 
"It was trig that got me." The gu\ 
from V. of I. said, "Did yourse gu\s 
ever hear of long division?" J^ 

Statistics show there are three classcN 
of coeils — the intellectual, the beautiful, 
and the maioritv. 

*■**.. i 

1 wo be-bops while traveling in Rus- ^ 
sia, saw a guy being flogged in a public 
square. 

"1 don't ilig the beat," said one, "hut 
that sure is a crazy drum." 

Two old ladies were enjoying the 
music in the park. "I think it's a Minu- 
et from Mignon." one said. 

"I thought it was a wait/ from 
Faust," said the other. 

The first went o\er to what she 
thought was the board announcing the 
numbers. 

"We're both wrong," she said when 
she got back, "It's a Refrain from Spit- 
ring." 

He was a rather undersized freshman 
at his first college dance, but despite 
his smallness and bashfulness he was 
sure of himself in his own way. He 
walked over to a beautiful and over- 
sophisticated girl and said. "Pardon me, 
Aliss, but may I have this dance?" 

She looked down at his small size 
and lack of fraternity pin and said, 
"I'm sorrv, but I ne\er dance with a 
child!" 

The freshman bowed deepl\ and 
said, "Oh I'm sorr\-, 1 didn't know \c)ur 

condition." 

if * i» 

r. of I.! What a football team!! 
What an attack!!! Even their breath is . 
offensive. | 

A woman is getting older when she 
begins to worry more about how her 
shoes lit than her sweater. 

Now go back and read the rest of 
the magazine! 



72 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From research to finished product- 

Photography works with the engineer 





Sparks fly as the plant photographer 
records a grinding technique for study. 



Photoelastic stress analysis helps the design engineer 
pinpoint areas requiring extra strength. 




Giant machines produce a flow of photo-exact engi- 
neering drawings — save countless hours of drafting 
time. 




loday photography plays many important roles in 
industry. It speeds engineering and production pro- 
cedures. It trains and teaches. It sells. In whatever 
work you do, you will find photography will play a 
part in improving products, aiding quality controls 
and inoreasing business. 

Careers with Kodak 

With photography and photographic processes becoming 
increasingly important in the business and industry of 
tomorrow, there are new and challenging opportunities at 
Kodak in research, engineering, electronics, design and 
production. 

If you are looking for such an interesting opportunity, 
write for information about careers with Kodak. Address: 
Business and Technical Personnel Dept., Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
Rochester 4, N.Y. 



Color transparencies on 
the production line aid 
operators in assembly 
operations — save time 
and reduce errors. 




I 



One of 



e of a series 




Q. Mr. Savage, should young engineers 
join professional engineering socie- 
ties? 

A. By all means. Once engineers 
have graduated from college 
they are immediately "on the 
outside looking in," so to speak, 
of a new social circle to which 
they must earn their right to be- 
long. Joining a professional or 
technical society represents a 
good entree. 

Q. How do these societies help young 
engineers? 

A. The members of these societies 
— mature, knowledgeable men — • 
have an obligation to instruct 
those who follow after them. 
Engineers and scientists — as pro- 
fessional people — are custodians 
of a specialized body or fund of 
knowledge to which they have 
three definite responsibilities. 
The first is to generate new 
knowledge and add to this total 
fund. The second is to utilize 
this fund of knowledge in service 
to society. The third is to teach 
this knowledge to others, includ- 
ing young engineers. 

Q. Specifically, what benefits accrue 
from belonging to these groups? 

A. There are many. For the young 
engineer, affiliation serves the 
practical purpose of exposing his 
work to appraisal by other scien- 
tists and engineers. Most impor- 
tant, however, technical societies 
enable young engineers to learn 
of work crucial to their own. 
These organizations are a prime 
source of ideas — meeting col- 
leagues and talking with them, 
reading reports, attending meet- 
ings and lectures. And, for the 
young engineer, recognition of 
his accomplishments by asso- 
ciates and organizations gener- 
ally heads the list of his aspira- 
tions. He derives satisfaction 
from knowing that he has been 
identified in his field. 



Interview with General Electric's 

Charles F. Savage 

Consultant — Engineering Professional Relations 

How Professional Societies 
Help Develop Young Engineers 



Q. What contribution is the young en- 
gineer expected to make as an ac- 
tive member of technical and pro- 
fessional societies? 

A. First of all, he should become 
active in helping promote the 
objectives of a society by prepar- 
ing and presenting timely, well- 
conceived technical papers. He 
should also become active in 
organizational administration. 
This is self-development at work, 
for such efforts can enhance the 
personal stature and reputation 
of the individual. And, I might 
add that professional develop- 
ment is a continuous process, 
starting prior to entering col- 
lege and progressing beyond 
retirement. Professional aspira- 
tions may change but learning 
covers a person's entire life span. 
And, of course, there are dues to 
be paid. The amount is grad- 
uated in terms of professional 
stature gained and should al- 
ways be considered as a personal 
investment in his future. 

Q. How do you go about joining pro- 
fessional groups? 

A. While still in school, join student 
chapters of societies right on 
campus. Once an engineer is out 
working in industry, he should 
contact local chapters of techni- 
cal and professional societies, or 
find out about them from fellow 
engineers. 

Q. Does General Electric encourage par- 
ticipation in technical and profes- 
sional societies? 

A. It certainly does. General Elec- 
tric progress is built upon cre- 
ative ideas and innovations. The 
Company goes to great lengths 
to establish a climate and in- 
centive to yield these results. 
One way to get ideas is to en- 



courage employees to join pro- 
fessional societies. Why? Because 
General Electric shares in recog- 
nition accorded any of its indi- 
vidual employees, as well as the 
common pool of knowledge that 
these engineers build up. It can't 
help but profit by encouraging 
such association, which sparks 
and stimulates contributions. 

Right now, sizeable numbers of 
General Electric employees, at 
all levels in the Company, belong 
to engineering societies, hold re- 
sponsible offices, serve on work- 
ing committees and handle im- 
portant assignments. Many are 
recognized for their outstanding 
contributions by honor and 
medal awards. 

These general observations em- 
phasize that General Electric 
does encourage participation. In 
indication of the importance of 
this view, the Company usually 
defrays a portion of the expense 
accrued by the men involved in 
supporting the activities of these 
various organizations. Remem- 
ber, our goal is to see every man 
advance to the full limit of his 
capabilities. Encouraging him to 
join Professional Societies is one 
way to help him do so. 

Mr. Savage has copies of the booklet 
"Your First 5 Years" published by 
the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development which you nnay 
have for the asking. Simply write to 
Mr. C. F. Savage, Section 959-12, 
General Electric Co., Schenectady 
5. N. Y. 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: Salary • Why Companies 
have Training Programs • How to 
Get the Job You Want. 




GENERALB ELECTRIC 



' illinois december - 25/ 

TECHNOGRAPH 




1st Award-$4,000-Student Class 

Niels Jorgen Gimsing, Hattensens Alle n, Copenhagen, Denmark 
Technical University of Copenhagen (Graduate) 

and 
Hans NyVOld, Ulrikkenborg, Alle 62, Lyngby, Denmark 
Technical University of Denmark (Graduate) 



These students won $9,000 for bridge designs 



American Bridge Division of United States Steel 
recently awarded $44,000 in world-wide competition 
for the best designs of small steel bridges. Professional 
engineers and college engineering students partici- 
pated. Designs came in from 50 states and 40 foreign 
countries. From these entries, 15 winners were chosen, 
eight professional awards and seven student awards. 
They were selected under the supervision of the 
American Institute of Steel Construction. The judges 
were prominent consulting engineers and architects. 
They judged the designs on the basis of originality, 
economy, appearance and the utilization of steel. The 
bridges had to carry two-lane traffic over a four-lane 
interstate highway in accordance with AASHO stand- 



ards. In addition to the winners, many of the designs 
entered were so outstanding that they will be pub- 
lished later. 

Bridge design is a good example of what can be 
done with steel and imagination. But, it's only one 
example. There are thousands of other uses for steel 
. . . and it takes thousands of men to make and sell 
steel. If you want to know about engineering oppor- 
tunities at U.S. Steel, write to United States Steel, 525 
William Penn Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania. 

USS is a registered trademark 



United States Steel 





1st Honorable 
Mention-S2,000 
Student Class 
James C. Costello 

21 Leeson Park, Dublii 
Ireland University 
College, Dublin, 
of the National 
University of Ireland 



2nd Honorable Mention-$1,000-Student Class 




James A. Wood Jack A. Berrldge William 0. Evers 

Graduates of California State Polytechnic College, 
San Luis Obispo, Calif. 



3rd Honorable 
Mention-$500 
Student Class 
Troy R. Roberts 

Route 5, Neosho, 
f^issouri 

University of Missouri 
School of IVlines and 
l\/letallurgy (Graduate) 





3rd Honorable 
Mention-$500 
Student Class 
Harland C. Zenk 

Truman, IVlinnesota 
South Dakota State 
College (Graduate) 




3rd Honorable 
Mention-S500 
Student Class 
Albert C.Knoell& 
Rodger K. Gleseke 

Drexel Institute of 
Tech. (Graduates) 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



3rd Honorable 
Mention-$500 
Student Class 
Joseph A. Yura 

629 North 23rd St., 
Allentown, Penna. 
Duke University 
(Graduate)- 
Durham, N.C. 




Editor 

Dave Penniman 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 
Asst.— Marilyn Day 

Editorial Staff 

George Carruthers 

Steve Dilts 
Grenville King 
Jeff R. Golin 
Bill Andrews 
Ron Kurtz 
Jeri Jevvett 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 

Production Staff 

Mark Weston 

Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan, Director 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 

Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 3 



December, 1959 



Table of Contents 

ARTICLES: 

Free Piston Engine Dick Nordsieck 10 

How Great is the Union? Dean H. L. Wakeiand 19 

Where Hove You Built Your Floor? George Kuhlmon 20 

Slide Rules Anonymous Jeri Jewett 23 

History of Engineering Gren King 26 

The Forgotten Low Momo Iko 36 

FEATURES: 

From the Editor's Desk " 

Technocutie Photos by Dove Yates 32 

Skimming Industrial Headlines Edited by Paul Cliff 38 

News from the Navy Pier ^' 

Brainteasers Edited by Steve Dilts 45 

Begged, Borrowed, And . . Edited by Jack Fortner 48 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 

Chairman: Stanley Stynes 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Micliigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Eiigi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia lech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louis- 
iana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic, Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Te.xas A & M Engi- 
neer) Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



Cover 

who knows what lurks on the cover of the TECHNOGRAPH? 
Barbara Polan does. She again deals with un abstract theme, as 
last month, but has added a second color. 



Copyright, 1959, by lUini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the >;e^r /O';; 
.oberrNovem'ber. December, January, February, ^l''^'^'^ AP"' ''"d May) by the II m 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class mat er October 30 19J0 ^' 'he f'^^' 
office at Urbana lUino s, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Uttice ^15 engineering 
Hal. Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1 50 per year, Single copy 25 "'J^'-^All rights 
reserved by The Illinois Tech,w,jraph. Publishers l<ei'"^e^entative — Littell^Murray 
Bamhill Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 



Looking deep... 
into the 
nature of things 



At the General Motors Research Lahoratnries, physicists entfilov 
radioactive isotopes and other ultra-modern techniques and tools 
in their search for new scientific knowledfre and an understanding 
iij the many laus of nature that continue to perplex mankind. 

Although a hit depends on a man's abiHty, enthusiasm and 
growth potential, there's every chance for advancement in 
many fields for General Motors scientists and engineers. There's 
virtually no limit to opportunity at GM. Fields of work are 
as varied as radioactive isotope research, astronautics, auto- 
mobiles, aircraft engines and inertial guidance systems — to 
mention but a few. 

If you wish to pursue postgraduate studies, CM offers financial 
aid. And since each GM division is autonomous yet related, 
you can grow in two directions — up through your own division, 
or to the side to other divisions. 

For an exciting, rewarding career, see your Placement 
Officer or write to General Motors, Salaried Personnel Place- 
ment, Personnel Staff", Detroit 2, Michigan. 

GENERVL MOTORS 



GM positions now available in these fields for men holding Bachelor's, Master's and Doctor's degrees: Mechanical, 
Electrical, Industrial, Metallurgical, Chemical, Aeronautical and Ceramic Engineering • Mathematics • Industrial 

Design • Physics • Chemistry • Engineering Mechanics • Business Administration and Related Fields 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Westinghouse Metallurgists, Dr. M. J. Fraser (foreground) and Dr. H. W. Weart, prepare to photograph a molten alloy sa 
in the determination of liquid-solid intertacial energy. These direct experimental measurements are the first of their kin( 



nple as one step 
ever attempted. 



The Metallurgy Lab helps when you need a 
new alloy to make your idea practical 



The Metallurgy Lab helps Westinghouse engineers solve 
problems involving the need for special alloys and other 
new materials. If an engineer's idea requires a new kind 
of material to withstand high temperatures or one with 
unusual magnetic or thermoelectric properties, the men 
in the Metallurgy Lab may be able to develop it for him. 

This laboratory, one of the largest of its kind in the 
country, uses both basic and applied research to come 
up with a spectrum of new materials with a variety of 
properties. One typical activity is the development of 
alloys of high melting point metals like tungsten, tan- 
talum and niobium for use in reactors. Another is a study 
of deformation and fracture, which will add to the store 
of metallurgical knowledge engineers in other depart- 
ments can call on to solve their specific problems. 

The young engineer at Westinghouse isn't expected 
to know all of the answers. The work we do is often too 
advanced for that. Instead, each man's abilities and 
knowledge are backed up by that of specialists like those 



in the Metallurgy Laboratory. Even the toughest prob- 
lems are easier to solve with this kind of help. 

If you have ambition and real ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad prod- 
uct line, decentralized operations, and diversified tech- 
nical assistance provide hundreds of challenging 
opportunities for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write to Mr. L. H. Noggle, 
Westinghouse Educational Department, Ardmore & 
Brinton Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pennsylvania. 

you CAN BE SURE ... if it^ 

Westinghouse 



DECEMBER, 1959 




Follow The Leader 



IS no game 




with Delco. Long a leader in automotive radio engineering and 
production, Delco Radio Division of General Motors has charted a 
similar path in the missile and allied electronic fields. Especially, we are 
conducting aggressive programs in semiconductor material research, 
and device development to further expand facilities and leadership 
in these areas. Frankly, the applications we see for semiconductors are 
staggering, as are those for other Space Age Devices: Computors . . . 
Static Inverters . . . Thermoelectric Generators . . . Power Supplies. 

However, leadership is not self-sustaining. It requires 
periodic infusions of new ideas and new talent — aggressive new talent. 
We invite you to follow the leader — Delco — to an exciting, 
profitable future. 

If you're interested in becoming a part of this challenging 
Delco, GM team, write to Mr. Carl Longshore, Supervisor- 
Salaried Employment, for additional information— or talk to our 
representative when he visits your campus. 



ELCO Radio Division of General Motors 



KoKOMO, Indiana 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



NEW PRODUCTS LEAD TO BETTER JOBS AT DU PONT 




COULD YOU MAKE A BETTER BATHING SUIT? 



The suits these girls are wearing are 
made of nylon, the first truly synthetic 
fiber. It is a product of Du Pont re- 
search. Pure research. Applied research. 
And research in manufacture, research 
in product improvement. All require 
many types of skills. 

You may not discover a new fiber, but 
as a technical man you can profit well 
anyway. For once a product — any prod- 
uct—is discovered, hundreds of technical 
men go to work. Pilot plants are de- 
signed. Operating procedures are devised. 
New plants are built. Manufacturing 
methods are improved. Product quality 
is worked on. backed by Du Pout's policy: 
Let's make it better . . . still better . . . 
even better. Discovery is but the start- 
ing shot: these later activities are the 
game. The players? Men of every tech- 
nical specialty. 

You'll find a teamwork atmosphere at 



DuPont. Others have. Maybe that's 
part of the reason half of Du Pont's 
profits today come from products un- 
heard of twenty-five years ago. 

If you join Du Pont, the men who have 
worked on new products and ways to 
make them are the men who will teach 
you. You will be given an actual project 
assignment almost at once, and you will 
begin to learn your job by doing it. Ad- 
vancement will come as rapidly as your 
abilities permit and opportunities de- 
velop. For Du Pont personnel policy is 
based firmly on the belief in promotion 
from within the company strictly on a 
merit basis. 

For more information about career 
opportunities at DuPont, ask your place- 
ment officer for literature. Or write us. 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 
2420 Nemours Building, Wilmington 98, 
Delaware. 




Better Things for Better Living . . . through Chemistry 



DECEMBER, 1959 




How to put wings on a warehouse 



^^^^dKJ^pr 



Giving overseas air bases what amounts to local warehouse service on 
Important parts is an Air Force objective. Its present system has slashed 
delivery schedules up to 20 t/mes... saved taxpayers several billion dollars 
over the past decade. To improve it further, Douglas has been selected to 
develop specifications for a comprehensive Material Handling Support 
System involving better communications, control, cargo handling and 
loading, packaging and air terminal design. Douglas is well qualified for 
this program by its more than 20 years in all phases of cargo transport. Air 
logistics is only one area of extensive Douglas operations in aircraft, missile 
and space fields in which outstanding openings exist for qualified scientists 
and engineers. Write to C. C. LaVene,Box 600-M, Douglas Aircraft Company, 
Santa Monica, California. 

Schuyler Kleinhans and Charles Glasgow, Chief Engineers of the Santa 

Monica and Long Beach Divisions, go over air transport needs relating 

to advanced cargo loading techniques with ^^ll^l AO 

Donald W. Douglas, Jr., President of L/ U U U L Au 

MISSILE AND SPACE SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ DC-8 JETLINERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB ■ GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• Fliylit data systems are essential equipment fur mcnts. Pioneer in tliis and otlier flight and electmnic 
all modern, high speed aircraft. In the AiResearch systems, AiResearch is also working with highly sen- 
centralized system, environmental facts are fed to a sitive temperature controls for jet aircraft, autopilot 
central analog computer (above), which in turn indi- systems, submarine instrumentation, transistorized 
cates to the pilot where the aircraft is, how it is amplifiers and servo controls for missile application, 
performing, and makes automatic control adjust- and ion and radiation measuring devices. 

EXCITING FIELDS OF INTEREST 
FOR GRADUATE ENGINEERS 



AiResearch is also working with hydraulic and hot 
gas control systems for missiles. 

• Environmental Control Systems— pioneer, leading devel- 
oper and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air con- 
ditioning and pressurization systems. 

• Gas Turbine Engines — worlds largest producer of small 
gas turliinc engines, with more than 8,500 delivered 
ranging from 30 to 850 horsepower. 

Should you be interested in a career with The 
Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 
Corporation and Career Opportunities" at your Col- 
lege placement ofTice. For further information write 
to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley... 



THE r^il:l:l =b A i CORPORATION 

/AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions 

Los Angeles 45, California • Phoenix, Arizona 
Systems, Packages and Components for: aircraft, missile, nuclear and industrial applications 
DECEMBER, 1959 7 



Diversity and strength in a company offer the engi- 
neer a key opportunity, for with broad knowledge 
and background your chances for responsibility and 
advancement are greater. 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch 
Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its 
diversification, which you will experience through 
an orientation program lasting over a period of 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your 
most profitable area of interest. 

Olhrr major fields of interest include: 

• Missile Systems — has delivered more accessory 
power units for missiles than any other company. 





ames 



"^cl wo may reflccl llial plnsics and pliilosopliy are at 
most a few thousand years old, but probabI> lia\e lives 
of tliousands of millions of years stretching away in front 
of liicni. They are only jusi beginning to get under way. 
and we arc still, in Newton's words. lihe children playing 
with pebbles on the sea-shore, while the great ocean of 
truth rolls, unexplored, beyond our reach. It can hardly 



i 



be a matter for surprise that our race has not succeeded 
in solving any large part of its most difficult problems in 
the first niillionlh part of its existence. Perhaps life would 
be a duller affair if it had, for to many it is not Knowledge 
bill I lie ciiKst for knowledge that gives the greater interest 
to lliuiighl — to travel hopefully is better than to arrive." 
— Pltysics nut/ PhilosopJiy, 1942 



THE RAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonproiil organization engaged in research on problems related lo national security and tlie puLIic interest 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



from the Editor's Desk 



What do you know? 

One of the most well used and least meaningful greetings on this 
campus is, "What do ya know?" An answer such as, "Not much, how 
about you?" is the inevitable return to this rhetorical question. 

What do you know? Many theoretical concepts and practical ideas 
have been made evident during your time at this university, but one 
phase is left up to you. You must find out about You. 

How well do you know yourself? It is a very discouraging thing 
to find that, after four years of college, knowledge of oneself is lack- 
ing. Time is scarce, and thinking required on numerous subjects; how- 
ever, time should be spent on yourself, also. 

Do you know yourself well enough to realize your limitations and 
your strong points so you do not spend a great amount of time on 
something of little interest to you? If the things of little interest include 
your studies, then some serious thinking should be done concerning 
your goals. 

Knowing yourself is not an easy thing to do and requires a type 
of thinking that is far more analytical than any mechanical problem, 
because the mechanism (you) is variable in almost every respect. The 
reasons for these variations are vital things to know, yet no book, 
person, or editorial can define them for you. If success (which also 
should be defined by you personally) is ever to come, some thing must 
be spent in regarding yourself. Stop to think of your goals, even amid 
the bustle of this campus. Then the next time someone says, "What 
do you know?" you can answer that question to yourself at least. 

WDP 



DECEMBER, 1959 



The Free Piston Engine 



By Dick Nordsieck 



Introduction 

111 thf past, the field of aircraft power 
h:us been divided into two main cate- 
ogries, jjas turbine type engines and re- 
ciprocating engines. These have been de- 
veloped almost entirely separately, and 
each is now nearing or past the point 
of diminishing returns from its devehip- 

ment. 

The turbine type power plants, in- 
cluding such engines as the turbo-jet and 
the turbo-prop have been developed to 
the point where increased efficiency will 
necessitate higher turbine inlet temper- 
atures and thus require better alloys tor 
turbine blade materials. Metallurgists 
feel that thev have reached their peak 
in a turbine blade which will withstand 
1800°F. Furthermore, the efficiency of a 
turbine tvpe power plant, at its maxi- 
mum, is only 3y; and this occurs at 
the top speed of the engine. 

On the other hand, the reciprocating 
engine is limited with respect to power 
by the maximum allowable bearuig pres- 
sures and hence an upper limit is placed 
on combustion chamber pressures. 
Granted the efficiency of a reciprocat- 
ing engine is creditable, but it would be 



highly desirable to have more power 
without sacrificing efficiency. 

From the previous observations, it 
might seem that a combination of the 
two, turbine and reciprocating engine, 
would just compound the limitations, 
and so it would, if some ingenuity were 
not employed. It will be the purpose of 
thi> report to present just such an in- 
genious combination of these, two of 
The oldest forms of power plant. 

The free piston gas generator tur- 
bine is a hvbrid engine, combining the 
advantages and eliminating most of the 
disadvantages of both the gas turbine 
and the reciprocating engine. The en- 
gine is composed of two major parts, 
the gas generator and the turbine assem- 
bly. The free piston gas generator is 
basicallv a pressure-charged, two-cycle, 
opposed-piston, crankless diesel engine ot 
variable stroke and compression. It is 
evident, since the engine has no crank- 
shaft that its power cannot be trans- 
mitted directly. Rather, the purpose of 
the free piston gas generator is to sup- 
ply high pressure exhaust gases to a 
turbine assembly placed in its exhaust 
system. Because the gas generator em- 



ploys reciprocating pistons to perform 
its task, the hybrid engine is not re- 
gardeil as a true gas turbine by many 
people, since a gas turbine uormalK 
utilizes only rotating parts. 

History 

The first patent on a free piston en 
gine was held by Doctor Buchi, a 
Frenchman, in 1905, but the gas gen- 
erator was not built and run in its 
modern form until 1925 when the Mar- 
quis R. P. de Pescara of Spain built 
an engine which he hoped would power 
a small helicopter. As it turned out, his 
engine was more successful as an air 
compressor, and Pescara decided to de- 
velop it along these lines. Just prior to 
World War II several small companies 
in Europe began to work on the gas 
generator turbine combination, and by 
t940 a 750 kilowatt set was in opera- 
tion in the Alsthom factory in Belfort, 
France. During this time Alan Munt/. 
and Co. of Hounslow, Middlesex, held 
a Pescara license and also did develop- 
ment work on behalf of the Admiralt\. 
The outbreak of the war interrupted 
French development. When they over- 




i 



D.r... P..T.,- 


A 

B 


G*S C.UI-E 


r.-»«ss.« C,.,««, 






I^TAKe V.ti/rf 






D.L,>,.«» V»L,-r5 






Foeu XKjtcToK 






C.«P-..ss = . P.>-w 







F.c. 1 !«-« 



<J<5 6) 



/X.. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



10 



ran Europe, the Nazis were able tii 
capture the gas generator designs, and 
subsequently some German submarines 
were equipped with free piston air com- 
pressors. In 1943, the U. S. Navy cap- 
tured one of these submarines, and be- 
came very interested in the gas genera- 
tor/turbine combination as a power 
plant for marine use. The General Ma- 
chinery Corporation of America con- 
ducted extensive research work on ma- 
rine installations for the Navy. This 
work is continued today by the same 
company under the name of Baldwin- 
Lima Hamilton. 

Some other fiinis now developing free 
piston power plants include General 
Motors Corporation and Ford Motor 
Company, both working under Pescara- 
Muntz license. In 1956, General Mo- 
tors exhibited the Firebird I, an experi- 
mental car powered by a free piston en- 
gine, and. in 1957, General Motors 
built a 6000 hp marine free piston 
power plant installed in the Liberty 
ship William Patterson. Also in 1957, 
Ford rolled out the Ford Typhoon free 
piston gas generator 'turbine powered 
tractor which exhibited excellent char- 
acteristics for the farmer's purpose in 
that it produced its maximum torque at 
hea\'y load. 

Components and Principles of 
Operation 

The closest simidation of a free pis- 
ton gas generator would be obtained 
tiom an opposed two cylinder diesel en- 
Liine with a turbine placed in its ex- 
haust system. The primary differences 
are that in the free piston engine there 
i^ only one combustion chamber and no 
1 rankshaft or connecting rod. 

Figure 1 shows the locations and 
identities of the \arious parts and will 
he referred to frequently during the 
explanation which follows. 

Beginning with the pistons at their 
extreme outward positions, kno«'n as 
the "outer dead points," air which has 
been admitted to the compression cylin- 
ih-rs (4) through the inlet valves (5) 
is compressed through valves (6) to ap- 
proximately 50 p.s.i. by the inward mo- 
tion of the pistons. The valves (6) pre- 
vent the return of this air to the com- 
pression cylinder. Depending on the 
power loading on the generator, the 
I'istons will be at a certain variable dis- 
tance apart and the compression pressure 
may W as high as 900 p.s.i. 

At a predetermined point in the 
Ntroke, fuel is injected into the cylinder 
through injectors (7) of conventional 
design suitabh' spaced around the com- 
bustion chamber (2). Combustion is 
spontaneous and the two pistons are 
driven apart, npinint/ first the exhaust 
/torts (10) nrul then the scnvengc-intake 
ports (9). The exhaust gases, consider- 
ably cniilcd and (lihired b\ the pressm- 




a) Cc 



, pr.es Sv O N 




b)Po> 




ized sca\enge air, trasel at about SO 
p.s.i. through the damping chamber (H) 
and thence to the turbine (C). The 
purpose of the damping chamber is to 
smooth out the impulsive exhaust dis- 
charge before ilelivery to the turbine. 
When the exhaust reaches the turbine, 
pidse frequencies are low enough that 
there is no risk to turbine blades. The 
fundamental frequency of the main pres- 
sure waves in the exhaust gas is of the 
order of 10 c.p.s. compared with a nat- 
ural frequency of about 1000 c.p.s. for 
the bl:ides in the first stage of a large 
turbine. 



Gases reach the turhuie at about 'MID 
F., and after expansion through the 
turbine, exhaust to the atmosphere at 
approximately 450°F. The turbine it- 
self acts as an exhaust silencer and the 
noise level is about the same as a diesel 
engine running at the same speed, but 
no high frequency noises such as \al\e 
clatter are present. 

As the piston continues outward, it 
compiesses the air trapped in the 
cushion cylinders ( .? ) , exchanging the 
kinetic energy of the piston for potential 
energ\' in the compressed air. The re- 
( ('.onliinicil on Puj^c 14) 



DECEMBER, 1959 



n 




The word space commonly represents the outer, airless regions of the universe. 
But there is quite another kind of "space" close at hand, a kind that will always 
challenge the genius of man. 

This space can easily be measured. It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
distance between them . . . the kind of space found between mainland and off- 
shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inaccessible clearing and its supply 
base, between the site of a mountain crash and a waiting ambulance— above all, 
Sikorsky is concerned with the precious "spaceway" that currently exists be- 
tween all earthbound places. 

Our engineering efforts are directed toward a variety of VTOL and STOL 
aircraft configurations. Among earlier Sikorsky designs are some of the most 
versatile airborne vehicles now in existence; on our boards today are the ve- 
hicles that can prove to be tomorrow's most versatile means of transportation. 

Here, then, is a space age challenge to be met with the finest and most practical 
engineering talent. Here, perhaps, is the kind of challenge you can meet. 




IKORSKY 
AIRCRAFT 



For information about careers with us, please ad- 
dress Mr. Richard L. Auten, Personnel Department. 



One of the Divisions of United Aircraft Corporation 
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




BENDIX WATCHES THE UNIVERSE 
(. . . and offers unlimited opportunity for young scientists) 



Bendix"' Radar is one of the free 
world's major safeguards against 
sneak attack. Night and day Bendix 
radar stations are keeping constant 
watch all over the globe, alert 
against aggression. In radar and 
other technological fields, Bendix is 
doing outstanding work. And the 
scope of Bendix activities provides 
young engineers and scientists excep- 
tional chances for advancement. 

Take the field of radar alone. 
Bendix has had much to do with 
the development of radar from the 
earliest pioneering of systems and 
equipment, and today is a foremost 
producer of many different types 
... on land, at sea, and in the air. 
Our airborne radar, for example, is 
used by more commercial aircraft 



than any other system. It helps 
safeguard air travelers by "seeing" 
storm turbulence as far as 150 
mdes ahead, allowing pilots to make 
course corrections to avoid bad 
weather. 

Another example is Bendix 
Doppler Radar which for the first 
time allows pilots to determine exact 
position, ground and wind speeds — 
without manual calculation. This 
system is being placed in service by 
major airlines for both domestic 
and trans-oceanic flights. 




The many diversified projects in 
which Bendix is engaged offer the 
young college graduate an unparal- 
leled opportunity to grow as Bendix 
grows ... in such fields as electronics, 
electromechanics, ultrasonics, com- 
puters, automation, nucleonics, 
combustion, navigation, hydraulics, 
instrumentation, propulsion, metal- 
lurgy, communications, solid state 
physics, aerophysics, structures, 
and, of course, radar. 

Put Bendix in your post-gradu- 
ate plans. Consult your placement 
director about campus interview 
dates or write to Director of Uni- 
versity and Scientific Relations, 
Bendix Aviation Corporation, Fisher 
Building, Detroit 2, Michigan. It 
will be well worth your while. 



A thousand diversified products 



DECEMBER, 1959 



13 



((JiiHlliuuil from' I'dijv 1 1 ) 
turn of the pistons is cffccti-d In tliis 
fiu-ijiy stori'il in the cushion cylinilcrs 
and the amount of enciKV storeil dv- 
piMuls upon the amount of fuel in- 
jected on the previous stroke, so the 
stroke of the engine varies by virtue 
of the quantity of energy stored in the 
cushion cylinders. It now becomes e\i- 
dent that as extra fuel is injected, more 
energy is stored and. on the inw.-ud 
stroke, the pistons will come closer to- 
gether giving higher peak pressures and 
more power. For an\' given constant 
load, there will be an equilibrium con- 
dition and the stroke will become es- 
sentially constant. 

It should be noted here that any d f- 
ference in pressures between the cush on 
cylinders would result in a difference in 
piston return energies and out of phas- 
ing of the pistons. These differences in 
pressure which might result from va-i- 
ations in cylinder and piston riii": we.ir 
are neutralized by two devices. First, a 
balance pipe is provided between the 
cushion cylinders, which also serves a; 
a guide locj, and second, the pistons 
are synchroni/eii by means of a lif^hr 
rack and pinion mechanism. (See I'ii;. 
3). This synchronizing gear only sup- 
ports small forces and is not a power 
transmitting device. 

The air valves used are normalh of 
the tfat <lisc type. Experiments with the 
reed type of valve showed that tlu-\ 
were more efficient, but more reed type 
valves were necessary for the same in- 
stallation and breakage was high due 
to vibrations, resulting in increa'^ed 
maintenance requirements. 

Due to high combustion chamber 
temperatures, it is necessary to cool the 
piston crowns and this is done quite 
simply and neatly by a telescoping dou- 
ble channel pipe which projects \ip the 
center of each piston from the outer 
end and squirts cool oil on the imder- 
side of the piston crown. The oil is sup- 
plied by the center tube and returns via 
the outer channel to be recooled. Cool- 
ing is provided for the cylinder walls 
in the conventional manner by water 
jackets around each cylindei. 

Injection of fuel into the c\linder is 
effected by a compressed air chamber 
on the injection p\imp and is initiated 
b\ a trip usually located on the syn- 
chronizing linkage, thereby utilizing tlie 
piston position to time the injection cor- 
rectly. Of course, the quantity of fuel 
injected is controlled by the operator. 

There are .several methods for start- 
ing the free piston gas generator. The 
method used will generally depend on 
the size and type of the installation hut 
all the methods require that the opera- 
tor be able to control the final position 
of the pistons when the engine is shut 
off after use. The usual method of stop- 
ping the generator is by opening a valve 



on the balance pipe to bleed air from 
the cushion cylinders gradually until 
tiiere is no longer enough air compressed 
in the cushion chamber to return the 
piston to the center of the cylinder. 
This leaves the pistons ne.ir the outer 
end of the stroke. Anotiicr metliod of 
stopping tile generator is to simply 
siuit off the fuel, but this does not in- 
sure the operator's knowledge of the 
pistons' final positions. 

One starting method involves, first, 
closing the valve on the balance pipe and 
then suddenly feeding highly compressed 
air into the cushion cylinders via an- 
other valve or the balance pipe. This 
drives the pistons together, and combus- 
tion is usually instantaneous so that a 
full load can be taken up immediately. 

The other method employed utilizes 
a ratchet starter on the synchronizing 
linkage which pushes the pistons out- 
ward compressing the air left in the 
cushion cylinders. The starter relea.ses 
suddenly and the pistons Hy in\v'ard to 
start combustion which is, again, almost 
instantaneous. 

Three controls over the operation of 
the free piston gas generator are avail- 
able to the operator. As was previously 
mentioned, he can meter the fuel to the 
combustion chamber to control the 
power output of the generator. A re- 
lief valve is provided so that the opera- 
tor can stabilize the scavenge chamber 
pressme to that of the cushion chambers 
to insure a constant speed, or the oper- 
ator can control the cushion chamber 
pressure to increase or decrease the load 
on the generator as is done in the case 
of stopping. 

The turbine drive used with a free 
piston gas generator differs little from 
an ordinary axial flow gas turbine ex- 
cept in one important respect. Since the 
temperature of the gases at the inlet 



is never more than 1()()0°F., it is not 
necessary to use special high tempera- 
ture alloys in the turbine blades. They 
can be made of stainless steel instead. 

A single or multi-stage tuibine may 
be employed as the installation requires, 
• uid the gases can be directed to per- 
form a \ariet\' ot tasks. As is depicted 
in Fig. 4(A) full power ma\ be ob- 
tained by directing all the gas through 
the main turbine, or, as shown in Fig. 
4(H) the gas may be diverted through 
a reverse turbine to provide a type of 
reverse gear as might be needed in an 
automobile or an aircraft. Al.'-o, if need- 
ed, the gases could be exhausted ahe.ad 
of the turbine in an emergency or when 
no motH)n is re(iuned. 

Thermodynamic Comparison 

It is advantageous, at this time, tn 
compare the expansion cycles eniphncd 
in the diesel engine, the open cycle gas 
turbine, and the free piston gas genera- 
tor turbine in order to obtain a better 
understanding of the thermodynamic 
features and the efficiency of the free 
piston engine. 

In a diesel engine all the expansion 
of the exhaust gases takes place in the 
cylinder in which combustion also oc- 
curred. Here the expansion is limited 
by the highest compression ratio and 
peak pressures which can be tolerated 
by considerations of bearing stresses, 
usually the primary limiting factor. 

The open cycle gas turbine obtains 
its power by using all the expansion of 
the gases in the turbine section, which 
means that the exhaust gases reach the 
turbine at temperatures in the neighbor- 
hood of 1(S0()"F. directly from the com- 
bustion chamber. Part of the work pro- 
duced b\' this expanding gas must be 
used to drive the compressor unit, but 
due to present design limitations, the 



I 




BALk~ 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



pressure ratios :ichic\e<l there are j;en- 
erall\' quite low. Coiisequenth . al- 
though a large amount of heat can he 
applied to the compressed air, in prac- 
tice, much of the compressed air is used 
til dilute the combustion gases in order 
to protect the combustion chamber and 
the turbine blading. 

In the free piston engine, part of the 
gas expansion takes pi, ice in the com- 
bustion cylinder and the rest occurs in 
the turbine section. Therefore the com- 
bustion cylinder is not exposed to ab- 
normally high mean effective pressures 
although its scavenge air is at a much 
higher pressure than in a conventional 
diesel engine, and also the gas turbine 
is not subjected to excessive tempera- 
tures. These gas temperatures can be 
lower for an equivalent amount of work 
in the tvn'bine since the work of com- 
pression has already been done inde- 
pendenth' in the gas generator. 

Comparisons of Different Free Piston 
Principles 

Although the Pescara or inward- 
compressing type of gas generatcn', which 
h.is been discussed so far, \vas favored 
(luring French development, some varia- 
tions on the original design have evolved 
in an attempt to improve on it. Some 
authorities claim that the inward-com- 
|iressing type has some disadvantages be- 
cause when a large amount of fuel is 
injected into the cylinder, the clearance 
at the inner end of the piston increases 
proportionately as does the clearance in 
the compressing cylinder. This causes 
the volumetric efficiency of the engine 
to decrease with increasing load. 

In the generator pictured in Fig. 
^(A), compression of the scaxrnge 
gases takes place on the our«ard stroke 
of the pistons. This outward compress- 
ing generator eliminates the disadvant- 
age discussed above in that its volu- 
metric efficiency increases as the piston 
IS driven further out by larger fuel 
charges. 

Another interesting design is shown 
\i\ Fig. 3(B). Here compression takes 
place alternately on both the inward 
and outward piston strokes, hence its 
name, the double-acting generator. The 
major drawback of this design is that it 
N too efficient. It compresses too much 
air so that the diameter of the com- 
pressing pistons must be decreased, mak- 
ing it difficidt if not impossible to at- 
tach a s\nchroni/,ing linkage. 

It appears that, taking into account 
M/.e, wearing surface area and simplicity 
of design, the Pescara design is still 
the most efficient type. 
Advantages and Disadvantages 

.At the present time, the known ail- 
\antages of the free piston gas gener- 
ator, nu-bine far outmimber its disad- 
vantages. 

Comjiaie peak pressures of approxi- 



mately 'MIO ji.s.i. attain.able in a lice 
piston gas generator to those of ^('0 
p.s.i. in a conventional diesel engine due 
to bearing load limitations. Its high 
compression allows the engine to oper- 
ate efficiently on any clean burning fuel 
from peanut oil to high octane gasoline, 
which results in lower fuel costs. Com- 
bining this with the fact that the free 
piston gas generator affords lower fuel 
consiuiiption than either the convention- 
al diesel engine, long noteil foi' its ef- 
ficiency, or the open c\cle gas turbine, 
the result is much improved econonu'. 

As was previously mentioned, exhaust 
gases reach the tmbine section at tem- 
peratures imder U)00°F., eliminating 
the need for critical materials in turbine 



blades as occurs in the con\entional gas 
turbine, and theieby lowering initial 
costs. 

Due to its s\nimetrical construction, 
the free piston engine is inherently bal- 
anced, and onl\' slight vibration is pres- 
ent caused by the inertia of its pulsing 
exhaust. Its symmetrical nature also 
renders the free piston gas generator in- 
sensitive to therinal distortion due to 
changing load, and it is thought that 
the engine can be safely started cold and 
brought to full power within two min- 
utes. 

The free jiiston engine cm accelerate 
faster than ;in\ corn entional gasoline 
engine, and, being of simpler construc- 
tion, it has fewer high precision com- 



5SL»cTo« VAuwe 




a) f^ 



ro^u e R, rn S \ T \ t 







b) Rt 



to^'CR. roilTloN 



Fi<;, 4 



DECEMBER, 1959 



15 



puiiciits ajul tcwir uc.iriii}; parts. A 
great deal of cylinder wear is elimina- 
ted in a free piston generator, since 
there is no side thrust imparted by con- 
necting rods as in conventional gasoline 
or diesel engines. 

Finally, the free piston engine is of 
relatively light construction. Aircraft 
engineers have estimated that a free 
piston power plant applied to an air- 
plane might weigh less than one pound 
per horsepower which equals the ratio 
achie\ed in today's best radial engines, 
but these radial engines require three 
times the weight in fuel. 

To date the only real disadvantage 
to the free piston gas generator is that 
it is still prone to some of the troubles 
encountered in other piston type engines 
such as piston ring and cvlindcr wear. 

Applications 

Consi<lcrnig its excellent efficiencx , 
relatively light weight, simplicity and 
power characteristics, it woidd appear 
that the free piston gas generator tur- 
bine could he advantageously utilized as 
an aircraft power plant. 

In a 1949 Research Memorandum 
the N.A.C.A. compared the perform- 
ances of several similar transport air- 
craft powered by different types of 
power plants, including the piston type 
gas generator engine, turbo-jet, turbo- 
prop, compound engine and turbo-super- 
charged reciprocating engine with vari- 
able-area exhaust jet nozzle. The gas 
generator employed was a conventional 
diesel engine which drove its own com- 
pressor directlv off the crankshaft and 
supplied its exhast gases to tuurbines to 
drive the propellors. Tests were car- 
ried out at turbine inlet temperatures 
of 1400° and ISOO^F. for the turbo- 
jet, turbo-prop and gas generator en- 
gines, and flight speeds investigated 
were in the subsonic region. The com- 
parison was based on the pay-load ton- 
miles per hour of operation per ton of 
take-off gross weight. 

"The relative merit of the piston- 
type gas generator engine based on this 
comparison was found to increase as the 
flight range increased. The performance 
of the piston-type gas generator en- 
gine was found to exceed the perform- 
ance of the other engines at all Hight 
speeds investigated for flight ranges 
greater than 1600 miles at a turbine-in- 
let temperature of 1400°F. and for 
flight ranges greater than 2000 miles 
at a turbine-inlet temperature of 1800° 
F." 

It is evident from this report that, 
since a conventional diesel gas genera- 
tor engine outperformed its competitors, 
a free piston gas generator turbine 
could svirpass them even further by vir- 
tue of its forementioned advantages o\er 
the conventional diesel engine. For a 



1| 




A. OoTv^ARD CLoMPRESS iN<^ ^t.NG«.&Te>H 







free piston engine powered transport air- 
craft, excellent range and efficiency 
characteristics should be available cou- 
pled with 300 m.p.h. cruising speeds. 

A possible configuration of this air- 
craft would ha\e the gas generator (s) 
located within the fuselage or the wing 
roots with the gas turbines housed in 
the wings, thus relieving some of the 
structvu'al problems involved in mount- 
ing complete engines on the wings. 

The free piston gas generator turbine 
is also suitable for use in electrical geU' 
eration, railroad engines, marine power 
plants and automotive propulsion. 

Conclusions 

Before any new power plant goes 
into production, good, sound engineering 
reasons must be presented which sup- 
port its usefulness and ability to per- 
form the required tasks. The fact that 
it riuis and is as good as other present 
day products is not sufficient. It must 
go finther, surpass current machines and 
incorporate additional features which 
will make it attractive to both engineer 
and consumer. 

In the opinion of this author, the free 
piston gas generator turbine meets these 
qualifications and he hopes that he has 



demonstrated this fact here. It would 
seem foolish to pass up an opportunity 
for real progress in the field of propid- 
sion with the argument that "the tried 
and true old timers" are the best. 

In summing up, there is hardly a 
place where fuel is converted into en- 
ergy that this new engine won't find 
application. It is more versatile than the 
diesel, three times more economical than 
the open-cycle gas turbine and cheaper 
than the steam plant. If properly ex- 
ploited the free piston engine could ha\c 
quite as large an impact on all our 
lives in the second half of the twentieth 
century as the conventional internal- 
combustion engine had during the first 
half. 

REFERENCES 

CcMiper D. C. "Free-Piston Gas CJenerator/ 
Turliine, Its Principles .ind Application," 
Australasian Engineer, Oct 1955, 58-68. 

"Engine of Tomorrow Goes to Work 
Today," Popular Science, Sept. 1957. 

"Evaluation of Piston-Type Gas Generator 
Engine for Subsonic Transport Operation," 
NACA RM E9D01, July 15, 1949. 

"Free-Piston Engine," Scientific American, 
lune 1956. 

"Free-Piston Gas Generator," Engineering, 
May 18, 1956. 

Ratcliff, J, D. "Revolution of the Free- 
Piston Engine," Popular Mechanics, Sept. 
1950. 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Engineering student Frank G. 
discovers it's 




"PRODUCT PLANNING UNLIMITED" 
d(; HAMILTON STANDARD 



Hamilton Standard has conducted a vast product 
diversification program which has made it a leader 
in the field of aerospace equipment. 

Established skills in . . . 

Fluid Dynamics Combustion 

Hydraulics Heat Transfer 

Electronics Thermodynamics 

Metallurgy Astrophysics 

Vibration Aerodynamics 

Mechanics Thermoelectricity 

. . . are being brought to bear on a varied list of 
new products such as: 

MinlRcooler — A tiny (10 ounce) device for cool- 
ing infrared detection equipment to minus 350° F. 
The coolers have endless applications in missile 



guidance, mapping, surveillance by orbiting satel- 
lites, etc. 

SOLAR CELL — A small concave dish-like device 
with a highly polished surface used to convert the 
energy of the sun's rays into electrical energy. 
One potential use is power generation for earth 
satellites. 

Other recently designed and developed products 

are: 

ANTI-LUNG which reverses the cycle of the 

human lung to reconstruct the atmosphere in a 

space vehicle or submarine 

A REFRIGERATOR with no moving parts 

A TOOL that slices diamonds like cheese 



THUS ADVANCED "PRODUCT PLANNING UNLIMITED" MEANS "ENGINEERING FUTURES UNLIMITED' 

write to R. J. Harding, Administrator — College Relations for a full 
color and illustrated brochure "Engineering for You and Your Future" 



HAMILTON STANDARD/ ' a d,v)s/on of 

UNITED AIRCRAFT CORP. 

BRADLCr flCLD «D., WINDSOR lOCXS, CONN 

ufocluren of- Engine Controls Hydraulic Equipment Electronic Controls ond Instrument Systems 
Starters Propellers Environmentol Conditioning Systems Ground Support Equipment 



DECEMBER, 1959 



17 




The new Ramo-Wooldridge Laboratories in Canoga 
Park, California, will provide an excellent environment 
for scientists and engineers engaged in technological 
research and development. Because of the high degree 
of scientific and engineering effort involved in Ramo- 
Wooldridge programs, technically trained people are 
assigned a more dominant role in the management of 
the organization than is customary. 

The ninety-acre landscaped site, with modern build- 
ings grouped around a central mall, contributes to the 



TJ 



academic environment necessary for creative work. The 
new Laboratories will be the West Coast headquarters 
of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc. as well as house 
the Ramo-Wooldridge division of TRW. 

The Ramo-Wooldridge Laboratories are engaged in 
the broad fields of electronic systems technology, com- 
puters, and data processing. Outstanding opportunities 
exist for scientists and engineers. 

For specific information on current openings write 
to Mr. D. L. Fyke. 



THE RAMO-WOOLDRIDGE LABORATORIES 

8433 FALLBROOK AVENUE. CANOGA PARK, CALIFORNIA 



18 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Dean Speaks — 

HOW GREAT IS THE 

UNION? 



By Dean H. L. Wakeland 



New engineering graduates are often 
shocked and surprised to find that an 
engineering union exists in the company 
organization in which they ha\e been 
employed. Few colleges and universities 
inform engineering students of the ex- 
istence and influence of engineering 
luiion. F'ven fewer prepare them for the 
professional status and responsibilities 
that they should accept when they enter 
engineering practice. 

How great are the unions which rep- 
resent engineers at present? For years 
engineering societies have attempted to 
determine the number of engineering 
unions and members but only recently 
has any reasonable estimate been pub- 
lished. In July, 1958, the National So- 
ciety of Professional Engineers reported 
in their publication "The American Y.n- 
gineer" the first compilation ever made 
of the unions representing engineering 
and technical employees. Present esti- 
mations (depending on whether union 
or engineering society estimates are 
used) places the number of engineers 
in the United States between 300,000 
to 500,000. Of these, the unions repre- 
sent 40,000 or about 10% of all engi- 
neers. Only ,10,000 of the engineers 
represented by imions are dues paying 
members. It is also commonly believed 
that many of these 40,000 members 
called engineers are technicians, drafts- 
men, rod-men and other sub-professional 
personnel. 

IVIost of the 29 engineering unions 
are located on the East or West Coast 
of the United States with only a few 
being located in the Mid-West or South. 
1 he largest number are found in the 
aircraft and electronics industries, al- 



though railroads, oil industries and gov- 
ernmental groups are also included. In 
nearly every case, the union has been an 
outgrowth of a large employment situa- 
tion where individuality is not easily 
maintained. Normally a combination of 
factors — poor management practices, 
failure of the engineer to grow profes- 
sionally and desire of labor unions to 
control all labor — has led to an or- 
ganized union. 

Perhaps we should review for a 
moment the aims of unions as contrasted 
to professional organizations. The union 
has nearly always existed for the pur- 
pose of achieving gains — many times 
selfish gains — for a limited number of 
persons. These gain.s — normally better 
working hours and conditions, higher 
wages, greater benefit.s — are not always 
peacefully achieved. Conversely the pro- 
fe.ssional organizations have promoted 
integrity, expertness, common public 
welfare, ethical practices, responsibility 
and fair dealing in individual services. 
The aims of the professional are to pro- 
vide services which will benefit most of 
the people concerned providing these 
services are not ba.sed on self gain to the 
professional. A contrast of these aims 
shoidd illustrate that unionism and pro- 
fessionalism are incompatible. 

Walter Reuther ha,s boasted publicly 
many times that some day he will bring 
the engineers into the big, happy, labor 
family. Basically the imions present at- 
titude towards engineers is no different 
than ,i() years ago when the late Mat- 
thew Woll, the long time vice presi- 
dent of AFL said, "The trouble with 
you engineers is that you picture your- 
selves as professional men. Actually, you 



are just hireil help." In recent years 
a number of engineering unions have 
been orgaiuzed which give lip service to 
jirofessional status, ethics, integrity, 
public welfare, and would ha\e the 
members believe that they are a part 
of a high level union which operates in 
harmony with professional aims. 

However, the records of these modern 
imions expose their aims and methods of 
operations. In the final analysis the old 
stand-bys — strikes, closed shop, pay- 
roll deduction of dues, and union power 
— are used. Some engineers have sudden- 
ly found themsehes classified in the 
same area as draftsmen, stenographers, 
sub-professional workers and any others 
that were easily organized. Others have 
found that they have degraded their 
own status and raised the status of 
others through unionism. In several in- 
stances the modern union has been voted 
out after a few years of trial. In most 
cases the engineers feel their profession- 
al status is jeopardized. Yet we must 
realize that a number of engineering 
unions still exist. 

Thus, the ans\\er to the new engi- 
neering graduates' question, "How 
Great is the Union?" is not a short and 
concise one. We know that about 10'/(. 
of all engineers are unionized and that 
only a small percentage of the graduates 
are faced with this question. But any 
engineering graduate facing this situa- 
tion shoidd evaluate the implications 
and working conditions imder such an 
arrangement before accepting employ- 
ment. The basic questions that he must 
answer are "Do I Want a Union?" or 
"Do I Want a Profession?" for I per- 
sonally believe that they are incompat- 
ible. 



DECEMBER, 1959 



19 



Tou Beta Pi Essay 



Where Have You Built Your Floor? 



By George C. Kuhlman 



The Nijo Palace located in the city 
of Kyoto, Japan, is a living reminder 
of the feudal era in that country's hist- 
ory. Within the palace a large audience 
room can be found where the Shogun 
or ruler met his visitors some four 
hundred years ago. The room is divided 
by having half of the floor three feet 
higher than the rest. Upon this elevated 
portion sat no one b\it the Shogun. The 
reason? He wanted to show that he was 
above all others because of the position 
he held in life. The I'nited States has 
been bvu'lt on a different and well 
known system. The floor where our 
leaders now stand is the same that we 
tread upon. With our very way of life 
based on such a principle, we still find 
.some people, who because of their posi- 
tion or occupation, are ever trying to 
raise the statami ( floor mat found in 
the homes of Japan) beneath them. 

Today the young engineer, who is 
about to enter the world of business, 
finds opportunities in his future which 
no person dreamed possible, a few years 
ago. His big problem is not where to 
find a job, instead it is which one to 
accept. He finds that opportunities for 
future advancement show overwhelming 
promise. The wages at which he starts 
his position are unprecedented where 
compared to other walks of life. 

The entire world today is placing 
more emphasis on the engineer and the 
things he does than ever before. A great 
deal of the future political control of 
the world has been placed on the engi- 
neer's ability or inability to produce a 
variety of goods. It lies not only in the 
production of machines of destruction, 
but in the things that better the living 
standards of the population as well. The 
young engineer, in most cases, under- 
stands the responsibility placed upon 
him and strives toward more under- 
standing of his work. 

Along with this ability to acquire .1 
job, to receive high wages, and the 
world wide importance of his job comes 
one bad aspect. This 1 am sure is 
found in a substantially large portion 
of young men. It is the idea that his 
line of work is just a little better or 
of more importance than someone else's. 
This feeling is not the young engineer's 



fault. It is, shall I say, an occupational 
hazard which would have happened to 
any young man, regardless of his train- 
ing, had the emphasis been placed upon 
him. 

The outcome of this feeling, whicli is 
but a human interpretation of import- 
ance, could have a profoundly adverse 




effect upon our young men. They may 
tend to rebuild the floor beneath them- 
selves at a little higher elevation. This 
will eventually affect the feeling of the 
people the young men come in contact 
with and will arouse a dislike for the 
young engineer. Such a dislike is surely 
not wanted by the new engineer nor is 
it wanted by those who have been in 
the profession for a long time. 

I am sure that if such a thing does 
happen to these men they will eventual- 
ly realize their mistake and correct it. 
'I'his will come with age and a broader 



understanding of life. In the meantime 
though, the actually unwanted but un- 
realized attitude will ha\e alre.idy made 
its mark upon them. 

There may be some controversy on 
the part of the reader as to whether a 
slight swelling of heads is occuring on 
our newly graduating engineers. Isn't it 
only a natural reaction to think in terms 
of greatness when emphasis is placed 
upon the things you do? Isn't it even 
more natural when this emphasis is 
backed up by wage earning possibilities 
we all know are present today. This I 
called earlier an occupational hazard. 
Still, there is one thing that is adding 
to this feeling of superiority and does 
not come under any of the headings 
listed above. This is the distinction made 
between the engineer and the non-tech- 
nically educated person by people who 
ha\e an overwhelming influence over 
our younger men and women. If they 
are correct in making such a distinction, 
then the schools of engineering through- 
out om" land are making a terrific mis- 
take. This mistake being the placing of 
more and more non-technical subjects 
into the engineering student's cmricu- 
lum. This is done not to gain full pro- 
ficiency in such subjects but to place 
more understanding at the reach of the 
engineer about the things that other peo- 
ple do, the things the engineer must 
know and understand so he may live 
and work with his neighbors. 

Let us nor st(}p placing such empliasis 
on our engineer or any other person as 
long as they deserve such emphasis. Let 
us though at the same time increase the 
understanding between the engineer's 
work and the non-technical man's. The 
engineer when in the world of business 
is only as good as the adxertlser, the 
salesman, the banker or the numerous 
other men whom he works with. If this 
one point is stressed enough it will sure- 
ly be conveyed and a lot of misunder- 
standing and unhappiness prevented. 
Let us lower that floor for the young 
men before it is nailed too firmly. Put 
it at the point where one's self pride 
begins and the inflatedness leaves off. 

The yovuig engineer today must not 
oid\' be well versed in his own profes- 
sion, but it is his dur\- to know and take 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



part in civil as well as functions of 
private organizations in coniniunit\' life. 
He will come in contact with men of 
every conceivable walk of life. He must 
work at a variety of things with these 
other men anil do so on the same patch 
of ground. He must not, for the good 
of his own way of life, attempt to make 
himself seem at a higher elevation. Every 
other man our young engineer works 
with, \vhatever position or walk of life 
he ma>' be in, plays just as important a 
role in life as the man with the slide 
rule.This I am sure has been said be- 
fore, but repetition is often the best 
means of conveyance. Here then is the 
point that the young engineer must ab- 
sorb and not hear and forget. IVIen must 
stand on the same level as all other men 
to be able to understand, work, and live 
with one another. 

If we look once more at the interior 
of the Nijo Palace in Kyoto, we find a 
strange yet not surprising thing built 
within its walls. Every board that was 
placed on the floor of that palace had a 
squeak put into it. You find it impos- 
sible to mo\e a foot in silence. Each 
movement brings forth the cry of the 
marauding blue jay. The people of that 
country call it the palace of ten thous- 
and canaries, but to my ear it was not 
the chirp of the gentle songbird. 



Unprecedented Need for 
Engineering Teachers 

Delegates tor the national convention 
of Tau Beta Pi, the honor society for 
outstanding American engineering stu- 
dents, returned to their campuses from 
Purdue I niversity ready to tell the 
story of the "unprecedented" need for 
new teachers in the nation's engineering 
colleges. 

At least 1,000 new engineering teach- 
ers will be needed each year through 
1967, according to a report by repre- 
sentatives of the American Society for 
Engineering Education at the Tau Beta 
Pi meeting. "And events of the next 20 
years will give the nation's engineering 
teachers new importance and status," 
Dr. Harold L. Hazen, Dean of the 
Graduate School of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and chairman 
of ASEE's Committee on the Devel- 
opment of p]ngineering Faculties, said 
at the convention. 

Only the most able and creative of 
America's engineering students can fill 
the demands of engineering teaching, 
according to Dean Hazen. He advised 
would-be teachers to continue their edu- 
cation into residential graduate work. 
"Experience indicates that if you enter 
full-time employment when you gradu- 



ate," Dean Hazen said, "the chances 
that \ou will ever enter teaching are 
small." 

"On the other hand, if you choose 
graduate study you are adding to your 
assets in a very substantial way, inde- 
pendent of whether you eventually enter 
industry or education. 

"During the past six \ears, the na- 
tionwide production of engineering doc- 
torates has been steady, at about 600 
per year. Of these 200 to 300 go into 
teaching. Our need for engineering 
teachers is roughly four times the num- 
ber of doctorates now in prospect. We 
must have many more, and more of 
them must enter education." 

Speeds Assembly Method 

Set screws, used in the manufacture 
of products, are automatically carried 
15 feet or more by air pressure through 
a flexible tube to a new air gun driver 
developed by a New England firm. 
Operating rate of this portable machine 
is up to 2,000 screws an hour, depend- 
ing on torque setting, screw depth, oper- 
ator proficiency and fixturing. 



Hove you ever been pinched for going 
too fast?" 

"No, but I've been slapped." 



Plan YOUR FUTURE with 




Charles Thornton, Ga. Tech., Sarbjet Singh, India 

We ofFer a training course to college graduates 
in Mechanical Engineering. 

Set details of this pracfical training course now, 
and prepare yourself for a career In the field of 
commercial and industrial refrigeration. 

Ask for Bulletin 412. 

tiiili.miam |[^^ iui.i»tiN»rm 



1.7 vj:i*< t I I mjj i.'i^iw.^.^ 



Starting Salaries 

The Engineers and Scientists of America 
have conducted a study of the trends in 
starting salaries of new graduate engineers. 
From the data available we have prepared 
recommended minimum starting salaries 
for various levels of experience and class 
standing. 

Copies of this recommended minimum 
standard have been sent to your Dean of 
Engineering, Engineering Library, Place- 
ment Director, and Chairmen of the Stu- 
dent Chapters of the various Technical 
Societies. 

We would be happy to send you a com- 
plimentary copy. 

Engineers and Scientists of America 

Munsey Building 

Washington 4, D. C. 



DECEMBER, 1959 



21 




"Well 



sir . . . we do have a few bu 



gs to ircn out!" 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



SLIDE RULES ANONYMOUS 



By Jeri Jewett 



Engineers beware ! The slide-nilc 
carrying coeds on your campus are 
uniting. For the first time, this semes- 
ter the few woman engineers at the 
University of Illinois are baiuiing to- 
gether to help each other. These girls 
with their sponsor, Professor Wilson, 
are trying to gain membership in the 
Society of Women Engineers. At pres- 
ent, they are on probation. 

The nat'onal organization of the So- 
ciety of Women Engineers is primarily 
a professional one for graduate woman 
engineers and women with equivalent 
engineering experience. These groups 
have developed out of various industrial 
and educational centers where substan- 
tial numbers of woman engineers were 
located. C)rgani/,ed meetings have been 
held since 1949 and the organization 
was incorporated in the District of 
Columbia earh' in 19S2. 

The Society is tr\ing to get more 
women engineers hv informing the pub- 
lic of the availabilir\ of qualified wom- 
en in this field and by fostering a 
favorable attitude in industry to these 
women. The Society also tries to con- 
tribute to their professional ad\ ance- 
ment. 

Of primary importance is the fact 
that the Society is encouraging younger 
girls with aptitudes and interests in 
this field to enter the engineering pro- 
fession. It also is helping to guide their 
educational program. Resides this, the 
Society encourages its members to be- 
long to other technical and professional 
engineering societies. 

In carrying out these aims, the So- 
ciety has a Public Relations Committee 
which helps secure public recognition 
of the achievements of women engi- 
neers. The Nnvslft/rr of the Soriiiy nf 
Women Engineers tells what the wom- 
en in various sections are doing plus 
giving articles of interest to these 
women. 

To interest young women in this 
field, the Professional Guidance and 
Education Committee finds out infor- 
mation about the various fields, the pro- 
grams offered by accredited colleges, and 
scholarships available to engineering 
students. 

Yearly, a national Convention is held 
for all interested members. The pro- 
gram includes panel discussions and ad- 



dresses by prominent speakers, and a 
banquet at which the SWE award is 
presented to the woman who has made 
a significant contribution to engineering. 

The Society is divided into three 
grades of membership : Member, Asso- 
ciate Member, and Student Member. 
Naturally the girls at the U. of I. are 
tr\ing to become Student Members, but 
upon graduation they will become full- 
fledged Members. When this chapter is 
chartered, it will join the two other 
student chapters, one at Purdue and 
one at Drexel. 

The girls here, following the exam- 
ple of the Society, are being urged to 
join their individual engineering soci- 
eties on campus. At the meetings the 
girls have speakeis and then get to- 
gether to talk over specific problems 



and help each other with homework. 
These girls also go into the high schools 
to tell girls interested in engineering 
not to give it up just because of the 
small number of women enrolled in 
that college at present. 

The chapter here has about ten girls 
representing most of the different 
phases of engineering. Barbara Kozub, 
a pretty junior in Industrial Engineer- 
ing, is the chairman of the group and 
her assistant is secretary-treasurer, Lu- 
cille Kowalski. 

Well, boys, you had better watch out 
or these coeds carrying tackle boxes will 
be beating you at yom' own game. The 
Society of Women Engineers seems to 
be accomplishing one of its main goals, 
for most of the girls are freshmen. Ciood 
luck girls; keep up the good work. 




lAB 


ANALYST 


(top) 


ope 


rates 


a c 


orbon 


de 


ermln 


otor 


(or 


chec 


<ing 


carbo 


n CO 


nten 


of 


bear 


ng St 


eel. 


Bolto 


•n . 


tech- 


nicia 


n test 


bal 


life 


with 


boll 



CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE FURNACE used for determining heat 

treoting specifications in Fafnir's metallurgical laboratory. 



From Fafnir Research today/ 
the bearings you need tomorrow! 



Ball bearing requirements in many areas of 
industry are growing fantastically complex. 
Materials and lubricants used in bearings 
today are inadequate for certain foreseeable 
needs. To help find answers to such vital 
problems, engineers at The Fafnir Bearing 
Company are provided with the most up- 
to-date facilities for ball bearing research 
and development, including a completely 
modernized metallurgical laboratory, and 
highly refined devices for testing bearings, 
bearing materials, components, and lubri- 
cants. From such resources, and unceasing 



experiment, new and better Fafnir ball 
bearings are "born". That is why — when 
future progress reaches "turning points" — 
chances are Fafnir will have a bearing on it ! 
The Fafnir Bearing Co., New Britain, Conn. 
Write for booklet, "Fafnir Formula For Solving 
Bearing Problems" contoining description of Fafnir 
engineering, research and development facilities. 

^FAFNIR 

I^^MBALL BEARINGS 



DECEMBER, 1959 



23 



engineers 




Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 

engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 

of data from many information points. 




Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 

on related research projects. 




and what they diP 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today arc concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems— air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and aUied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four 
basic fields: 

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING Men engaged in this 
activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad- 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 
DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo- 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en- 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per- 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING Here men supervise 
and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel- 
opment engines. They devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop- 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future effort. 
MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other niaterials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 
They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina- 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturing difficulties. 



Under the close supervision of on engineer, 
final adjustments are made on a rig for 
testing an advanced liquid metal system. 




1 Pratt & Whitney Aircraft... 




Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on at the Florida Research and Development Center. 



For further information regarding an engineer- 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement ofliccr or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azinger, Hngineering Department, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 



PRATT & VlfHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporotion 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS - East Hartford 

FLORIDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER - Palm Beach County, Florida 



^^''-'^ 




After graduation, a person who has 
taken social science courses has greater 
chances of success. He is able to face 
competition and join the social life his 
job offers. (iF, 220 and other social sci- 
ence courses offered to the engineer 
broaden the chances of promotion and 
raises in salar\-. 

Interest in the world outside the lab- 
oratory is stimulated. The scientist 
realizes the need to help in fields only 
\aguely related to engineering. He 
tries to improve the schools to which his 
children go, the community, and the 
church to which he belongs. He begins 
to realize the need for his services. Local 



THE HISTORY 
OF ENGINEERING 



By Gren King 



< )iie of the main problems facing the 
engineer today is overcoming the stigma 
of a stereotyped personality. The engi- 
neer in fiction and in people's minds is a 
shy, withdrawn person satisfied with 
being introverted. Unfortunately many 
engineers are typified by this stereotyped 
idea. A graduate, having taken only sci- 
ence and math, is ill-equipped to face 
the world of totlay. Personal insecurity 
and uncertainty are the main causes of 
a scientist's withdrawal from humanity. 

There is no need for this insecurity 
and uncertainty. Several courses de- 
signed to promote an interest in the 
field of the humanties and social studies 
are offered to engineering students at 
the University of Illinois. An engineer 
who has taken several humanities 
courses has the ability to talk to anyone 
about almost any subject. 

One of the newer courses is one fair- 
ly important to engineering. After a 
course in Engineering History (GK 
220), an engineer is able to answer 
most questions concerning past science. 
In History of Engineering, the inter- 
relation of science, politics, religion, and 
commerce, past and present, is covered 
in detail. Past discoveries, accomplish- 
ments, and a history of man's attempt 
to alter his environment all give the 
student a better understanding of the 
"taken-for-granted" things of life. 



The study of Greek and Roman ci\il- 
i/.ations seems unimportant to an engi- 
neer until he realizes that the roots of 
modern science are embedded in these 
cultures. Each person is encouraged to 
further study history and philosophy by 
the teachers of this course. A student 
profits from the knowledge and mis- 
takes of the past. A greater interest in 
engineering subjects and social studies 
promotes better marks, and these better 
marks improve the chances for a job 
upon graduation. When an employer 
has to choose between two job appli- 
cants, he is hoimd to choose the one 
who has taken a broader field of sub- 
jects. 








politics indirectly influence science and 
engineering by influencing appropria- 
tions to schools. An engineer who has 
entered life on an enlarged political, 
religious, and social scale helps science. 

Ninety per cent of government ap- 
propriations are concerned with science 
or engineering projects ; yet, only ten 
men in either house of Congress have 
any scientific backgroimd. Therefore, 
people having both scientific and gener- 
al education are desperately needed in 
government jobs. People having taken 
social science courses plus their engineer- 
ing courses can be beneficial to the gov- 
ernment. 

All engineering students should at 
some time in their \ears in school take 
Engineering History. The course is open 
only to juniors and seniors because a 
general knowledge of engineering is 
necessary to receive the full value of 
the course. Professor Dobrovolny says 
that the History of Engineering corre- 
lates comprehension of scientific matters 
and the heritage rightfully belonging 
to engineers to give the engineer a more 
well rounded background. 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 






COMPUTERS, CAREERS and YOU... 
after you join Western Electric 



will be coriespondini; opportunities for career building 
within research and cnt^inccring. Progress is as rapid as 
your own individual skills pri iiiit. And Western Electric 
maintains both full-time all-expenses-paid graduate 
engineering training and tuition refund plans to help 
you move ahead in yom- chosen field. 



Opportunities e 
trial, civil and c^ 
physical sciences. 
cf Cons.c/er a C, 
Placement Officer 



200D, Western Electri 
York 7, N. Y. AncJ b 



:ist for electrical, mechanical, indus- 
imical engineers, as well as in the 
For more informotion get your copy 
reer ol Western Electric from your 
ite College Relations, Room 



Interested in computers, computer technology and ap- 
plications? Then you shovild investigate Western Elec- 
tric as a place to build >our career. Telephony today is 
built around computers. The telephone cross-bar switch 
is basically a computer. Electronic switching gear uses 
computer principles. 

At its new engineering research center and at most 
of its 25 manufacturing locations, Western is relying 
more and more on computers in doing its main job as 
manufacturing and supply unit for the Bell Telephone 
System. In its other major field — Defense Communica- 
tions and Missile systems — the use of computers and 
computer technology is widespread. 

You'll discover quickly that opportunities with 
Western Electric are promising indeed. Here companv 
growth stands on a solid base, and your own growth, 
too. We estimate that engineers will find 8,000 super- 
visory jobs open to them in the next ten years. There 

Principal manufacluring locations at Chicago, III : Kearny. N, J : Ballimore. Md.; Indianapolis. Ind.: Allentown and laureldale. Pa.: Burlington, Greensboro and Winston-Salem, N, C. 
Buffalo. N, Y,: Norlh Andover, Mass ; Lincoln and Omaha, Neb.; Kansas City. Mo,: Columbus, Chio: Oklahoma City, Okia,: Teletype Corporation. Chicago 14. III. and Little Rock, Ark. 
Also We.stern Electric Distribution Centers in 32 cilies and Installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headauarters: 195 Broadway. New York 7. N. Y. 




DECEMBER, 1959 



27 



Probl©m: How to have fun while 

doing something constructive 
in your limited spare time 

Solution: 

Join Technograph! 



whatever your interests, there's a place for you 
with The Tech, including: 



Writing 
Taking photos 
Drawing cartoons 
Designing the layout 
Handling correspondence 



Working with ad agencies 

Copy-rewriting 

Preparing covers 

Proofreading 

Skimming industrial releases 



Stop by our office .... 215 Civil Eng. Hall 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Mtnm!<HKV'S!^'^ 



ANOTHER WAY RCA 

SERVES DEFENSE 

THROUGH 

ELECTRONICS 





To our missile experts, "is it ready" is al- 
most as important as "how far can it go." 
For retaliatory power, missile crews must 
be able to launch a maximum number of 
missiles in rapid fire order. 

America's intercontinental ballistic mis- 
sile, the Atlas, had already proved itself 
for distance on a 55()0-nautical-mile range. 
But checkout and launching took several 
hours. So the next step in turning the mis- 
sile into an operational weapon was to 
make it ready for quick action. RCA was 
selected to build an electronic system that 
would radically reduce the countdown 
time at the Atlas Operational Bases now 
under construction. 

Now, in a matter of minutes, this elabo- 
rate electronic system can determine if 
any part needs attention— or signals that 
the missile will be ready to go. 

This automatic checkout equipment 
and launch control system for the Atlas is 
one more of the many ways in which RCA 
Electronics works to strengthen our 
national defense. 

RADIO CORPORATION 
OF AMERICA 




29 



Basic Research at IBM 



IBM scientist Gerald Burns 
studies ferroelectrics 
to improve understanding 
of their basic properties. 




A basic research project 

"I'm using nuclear resonance to explore ferro- 
electrics," says IBM scientist Gerald Burns. 
"We're trying to discover how the ions in a ferro- 
electric crystal are arranged, and why and how 
they change position and structure with tempera- 
ture changes. Ferroelectric crystals have a revers- 
ible spontaneous polarization . . . that is, they can 
be polarized in either of two directions, and, by 
the application of an electric field, polarization can 
be reversed." 

How did Gerry Burns come to work on this prob- 
lem? "I started this particular research project be- 
cause it was related to other work I had been doing 
and I felt it would prove challenging and reward- 
ing. Little is known about what goes on in a ferro- 
electric crystal — or why. Our basic objectives are 
to find out what and why. 

"At the planning stage, the project seemed to offer 
a great research potential, but none of us was 
sure how long the project might last or what its 
ramifications might eventually be. It's a good ex- 
ample of the basic research done at IBM." 




A day at the laboratory 



One of the eight scientists in the Ferroelectric Re- 
search Group, 26-yearold Gerald Burns began a 
recent day by setting up equipment for the first 
daily run. 

"The experiment is conceptually quite simple," he 
explained. "A ferroelectric crystal is placed in the 
tank circuit of an oscillator, between the pole 
pieces of a large electromagnet. The sample is sur- 
rounded by a dewar so that the temperature can be 
accurately regulated. Then the magnetic field is 
slowly decreased. When the field reaches certain 
values, the nuclei in the crystal absorb energy from 
the oscillator. The trick is to detect this absorption 
which is quite small. Runs at various temperatures 
are made, and the temperature dependence of this 
absorption is studied. 

After setting up the first run, Gerry Burns met 
with the head of his group. Together, they dis- 
cussed the temperature dependence of the nuclear 
quadrupole resonance coupling constants. Several 
helpful suggestions were made. 
Gerry Burns then talked with chemists who grow 
the crystals used in the experiments. They dis- 
cussed possible variations in the crystal-growing 
method and considered the growth of other crys- 
tals in order to broaden the experiments. 
Early in the afternoon, he attended a seminar con- 
ducted by a visiting professor on the subject of 
the atomic structure of solids. Each week, several 
such seminars on a variety of technical matters 
are given. 

After the seminar, Gerry Burns returned to set up 
another run at a different temperature. He also 
talked to a technician about building a new piece 
of equipment to be used in future experiments. 




Excellent facilities and programs 

"Besides these experiments, I'm also doing some 
theoretical calculations in the field of nuclear 
quadrupole resonance. The actual computations 
were done here at the Laboratory on an IBM 704, 
which can perform in minutes computations which 
j would take weeks if done by other methods. 
"This is one of the advantages of working at IBM. 
Large-scale high speed computers are available to 
research scientists when needed. Furthermore you 
will find your colleagues always willing to help 
• when you are stumped by a problem. Many of 
these men are recognized authorities in their 
fields. The exchange is always informative and 
often stimulates new ideas and approaches. 
"Our Company offers many educational opportu- 
I nities — both in general education and for ad- 
vanced degrees," Gerry Burns said. "As an exam- 
1 pie, engineers and scientists may earn a Master's 
\ Degree in a postgraduate program conducted by 
I Syracuse University right here in Poughkeepsie. 
I "We also have a very useful library. Just the other 
' day I dropped in to pick up some technical papers 
I needed as source material for an article. I've al- 
ready published one paper on my experiments," 
he noted. "You're encouraged to publish your 
I findings and to participate in professional society 
j meetings. It's important for a research man to 
I work in an atmosphere where independent think- 
1 ing is encouraged and where every effort is made 
\ to facilitate research investigations." 




Some IBM advantages 

Employee-benefit plans, paid for by the Company, 
are comprehensive, liberal, and kept up to date 
to meet changing conditions. They include life 
insurance, family hospitalization, major medical 
coverage, sickness and accident pay, permanent 
disability pay, and retirement benefits. 



Talented college graduates will find exciting, re- 
warding careers at IBM. Excellent opportunities 
are now available in research, development, manu- 
facturing, and programming. Find out from your 
College Placement Office when our interviewers 
will next visit your campus. Or, for information 
about careers of interest to you. write to: 

Director of Recruitment, Dept. 839 

IBM Corporation 

590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York 



IBM 

INTERNATJONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION 




i 



Photos by Dove Yates 



Technocutie . . . 



ELLEN BROCKWAY 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



December cutie of the month 
is vivacious Ellen Brockway, jun- 
ior in Art from Downers Grove, 
Illinois. On campus she lives at 
Alpha Phi sorority, where she 
serves as house chaplain. This 
office reflects Ellen's taste for 
good literature, intelligent con- 
versation (from the speaking as 
well as the listening side), and 
speech work. In the latter cate- 
gory, the readers will note her 
appearances in several Univer- 
sity Theatre Workshop plays. 

On the lighter side, this 5'4" 
brunette has an enthusiasm for 
life and all her activities within 
it. Her friends see her laughing 
whole heartedly and livening up 
any situation in which she finds 
herself. Among her avocations 
are bicycle riding and painting. 

You can find Ellen running 
from the Architecture Building to 
the house to activities at any 
hour of the day. Among her ac- 
tivities is Angel Flight, women's 
campus branch of the Air Force. 
Some of you may have seen her 
in the 1959 Dolphin Queen Con- 
test. 

Soy hello the next time you 
see her. She'll love if! 




DECEMBER, 1959 



33 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, underthe direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



YOUR TASK FOR THE FUTURE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



"VVe do these things because of the unquenchable curiosity of 
Man. The scientist is continually asking himself questions and 
then setting out io find the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
have sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who can lell what we will find when we gel to the planets? 



Who, at this present time, can predict what potential benefits 
to man exist in this enterprise ? No one can say with any accu- 
racy what we will find as we fly farther away from the earth, 
first with instruments, then with man. It seems to me that we 
are obligated to do these things, os human beings'.' 

DR. W. H. PICKERING, Director, JPL 



CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Reseorch Facility operated for the National Aeronautics ancJ Spoce AcJministrotion 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

♦ EmploymenI opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 
STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for our immediate consideration. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or at the Laboratory. 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



News is 
hap penin g 
at Northrop 




FIND OUT MORE about 
the young engineers and 
scientists who are making the 
news happen at Northrop. 

WRITE TODAY for 

information about Northrop 
and all of its Diuisions. 

Engineering & Scientific 
Personnel Placement Office 
Northrop, P.O. Box 1525 
Beverly Hills, California 





Here's a 

7- Question Quiz 

to help you 

decide on your 

future: 



Where Do You Want To Work? If your interests lie in 
the fields of electronics or the aircraft/missile indus- 
tries, you will want to join the outstanding scientists 
and engineers in Southern California-the electronic, 
aircraft/missile center of the world. 

Where Do You Want To Live? If you work at Northrop 
you'll be able to spend your leisure at the Pacific 
beaches, in the mountains, on the desert. You'll enjoy 
an active life in Southern California's incomparable 
year-round climate. 

Want Top Salary? Northrop's salary structure is 
unique in the industry. At Northrop you'll earn 
what you're worth. With this growing company 
you'll receive increases as often as you earn them. 
And these increases will be based on your own indi- 
vidual achievements. Northrop's vacation and fringe 
benefits are extra liberal. 

Want Advanced Degrees? At Northrop you'll con- 
tinue to learn while you earn with no-cost and low 
cost education at leading Southern California inst 
tutions. You'll earn advanced degrees and keep cur 
rent with latest advances in your own chosen field 

Want To Work With Leaders? Your Northrop col 
leagues are acknowledged leaders in their fields- 
men chosen for their capabilities and their skills in 
guiding and developing creative talents of younger 
men. "These are men who delegate authority, assure 
you of fair share of credit for engineering triumphs. 

Want The Challenge Of Opportunity? At Northrop 
you will apply your talents to the work you enjoy 
- in the fields best suited to your inclination and 
ability. You'll work with the newest, most-advanced 
research and test equipment. At Northrop and its 
Divisions you are offered a wide diversity of over 
30 operational fields from which to choose. 

In Which Of These 3 Divisions Would You Like To Work? 

NORAIR DIVISION is the creator of the USAF Snark 
SM-62 missile now operational with SAC. Norair 
is currently active in programs of space research, 
flight-testing the USAF-NorthropT-38 Talon trainer 
and Northrop's N-156F Freedom Fighter. 
RADIOPLANE DIVISION, creator of the world's first 
family of drones, produces and delivers unmanned 
aircraft for all the U.S. Armed Forces to train men, 
evaluate weapon systems, and fly surveillance mis- 
sions. Today Radioplane is readying the recovery 
system for Project Mercury. 

NORTRONICS DIVISION is a leader in inertial and astro- 
nertial guidance systems. At Hawthorne, Nortronics 
explores infra-red applications, airborne digital com- 
puters, and interplanetary navigation. At Anaheim, 
Nortronics develops ground support, optical and 
electromechanical equipment, and the most ad- 
vanced data-processing devices. 

northropX 

C O R PO RATION Beverly Hills 
California 



DECEMBER, 1959 



35 



The Forgotten Law 



By Momo Iko 



"Stop liildliiiy: up thiMT aiul hit somc- 
tliiii^. Tlu'sc newsmen are beginning to 
gall, " said gray-haired Doc. 

A laugh came o\er the radio ami 
jack Hardin answered his (.'ouusclor ot 



1 1 months, 
aiming tor 



"i'atieiice, doc. We've been 
that blasted moon for _'~i 



•a tew more ho\ir- 



lat. 



1(1(1 nullion ra- 




dios voiced his remark and 80 million 
Americans smiled at this cock\ man who 
tor eleven months was the star ot this 
uneartld\- project. Kids all o\er the 
country were in a state of ciclirium. 
Huck Rogers was fact now. I'leven 
months of accelerated hell was paving 
off. 

At two o'clock. .'Xpril 2^th, Jack 
Hardin stepped into the Z-M). grinning 
broadh'. The engines' explosive thrust 
propelled the ship off the firing table 
w ith a roaring bellow, and in a minute 
the ship was out of sight. Now. one 
day after the take-off Hardin non-cha- 
lantl\- made small talk with his friend. 

"Doc, you were right. There was ab- 
solutely nothing to panic about. I had 
the jitters at first, but now I have a 
feeling that everything's going to work 
out great. Just think. Doc, I'll be the 
first hiuiian being ever to go to the 
moon." He wrinkled his brow in amuse- 
ment. "Damn Huck Rogers, for once, 
I'll be the hero in m\ family. When 
\'ou realh' think of . . . 

Commander W'illis strode into the 
control room and cut the con\ersation 
short. He picked up the mouthpiece. 
"Hardin, this is Willis. You're sched- 
uled to hit target in 15 minutes. Buckle 
in, double check your equipment and re- 
lax. We'll make contact with you 10 
minutes after you land. Remember, 
Hardin, relax and don't worry." 

"1 won't sir. Really . . . Ynn worry 
too much . . . sir." 

Willis motioned Doc over. "Keep the 
talk light." 

Doc nodded in assent and sat down 
at the radio. "Hey Jack, remember to 
make your first words from the moon 
witty. This wild world will love you." 
A long silence ensued. 

Then a voice registered through the 
vacuum, "Doc, tell me . . . " Hardin's 
voice jerked. A loud jolt and a strangled 
sound leaped over the radio. Both men 
stiffened. They waited; 5 minutes, 10 
minutes, 12 minutes. Willis flicked the 
switch. "Hardin, come in. Do you hear 
me? Come in." His face looked haggard 
as he turned to Doc. 

"Maybe," Doc said, "maybe he's still 
unconscious; give him time," but his 
face was twisted in fear. 

Ten more minutes went by and in 
the interior of the Z-30, Doc's disbe- 
lieving voice pierced through the radio 
static. "What went wrong. God, what 
could have gone wrong." Jack Hardin's 
dead form was stiffening. 

"We have to do it now," said Willis. 

"Xo," screamed Doc, but the lever 
was pulled and the Z-30 exploded into 
dust again. 

Buck Rogers was still a fairy tale. 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Scientific imagination 
focuses on . . . RADAR. .. 
SONAR . . . COMMUNICATIONS . . . 
MISSILE SYSTEMS . . . 
ELECTRON TUBE TECHNOLOGY... 
SOLID STATE 

Challenging professional assignments are of- 
fered by Raytheon to outstanding graduates 
in electrical engineering, mechanical engin- 
eering, physics and mathematics. These as- 
signments include research, systems, devel- 
opment, design and production of a wide 
variety of products for commercial and mil- 
itary markets. 

For specific information, visit your place- 
ment director, obtain a copy of "Raytheon 
. . . and your Professional Future," and ar- 
range for an on-campus interview. Or you 
may write directly to Mr. John B. Whitla, 
College Relations, 1360 Soldiers Field Road, 
Brighton 36, Massachusetts. 



Excellence in Electronics 



DECEMBER, 1959 



37 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by Paul Cliff 



Two Advances in Fluorescent 
Lamp Design 

Two dramatic concepts in fluorescent 
lamp design lia\e been announced by 
tbe WestHighousc lamp tiuision. 

Where the fluorescent lamp has tra- 
ditionally been a tube with a base at 
each end for electrical contact, West- 
inghouse has unveiled a fluorescent tube 
with a base on a single end. Since the 
lamp does not require wiring and sock- 
ets for both ends, it can be mounted 
in one socket much like a conventional 
incandescent lamp. 

Dr. R. M. Zabel, manager of re- 
search and engineering, said that while 
single-ended fluorescent lamps have been 
under study for several years in the 
laboratory, a recent breakthrougli 
achieved by Westinghouse researchers 
makes it possible to build a practical 
single-ended lamp of high efficiency. 

The second advance announced by 
Westinghouse consists of a U-shaped 
fluorescent lamp, which shares many of 
the advantages of the single-ended 
fluorescent tube since all electrical con- 
nections are at one end. 

U-shaped fluorescent lamps have an 
efficiency equal to or gieater tlian con- 
ventional fluorescent lamps. Also, U- 
shapcd lamps are only half as long as 
lamps of comparable wattage. 

Dr. Zabel reported that although tlie 
company has not set a date for market- 
ing either lamp, the company's commer- 
cial engineers are working with archi- 
tects, designers, and lighting fixture 
manufacturers to determine the scope of 
applications to which tiie lamps might 
be put. 



Some of the immediate uses which 
can be foreseen for the new lamps, in- 
clude fluorescent installations above dif- 
fusing plastic or glass ceilings, decora- 
tive lighting in restaurants, bars, and 
amusement parks, showcase lighting, 
street lighting, signs and displays, school 
lighting, and for unusual effects in 
lounges, reception rooms, halls and lob- 
bies.' 

New Test Instrument Described 

A new automatic instrument is pro- 
viding greater accuracy and reliabilit\' 
in measuring the viscosity of photo- 
graphic emulsions at Kodak Park 
Works. 

Kodak scientists tlescribed the instru- 
ment as a "rolling ball viscometerer." 

The viscometer consists of a preci- 
sion glass tube, mounted in an inclined 
position in a temperature-controlled 
water bath, the scientists said. The tube 
is tilled with the liquid to be measured, 
and a steel ball, with a variation in size 
of less than 6/'l()0,0()() of an inch, is 
dropped into it. 

The time taken by the ball to tra^•el 
the distance between two magnetic coils 
that siuround the tube near the top and 
bottom is a measure of the viscosity of 
the liquid, they explained. 

Since the ball is steel, changes it 
causes in each of the magnetic fields 
start an electronic clock when the ball 
passes through one field and stop it 
when it enters the other. The time of 
passage is thus measured \erv accurate- 
ly.^ , ' . 

The Kodak researchers s,n<l the \ is- 
cometer is easy to opciatc and has gi\cu 
accuiatc, reproducible results. 



Ground Broken for United 
Engineering Center 

Herbert Hoo\er, representing .300,- 
000 members of 18 major engineering 
societies, broke ground for the IS-story 
I'nited Kngineering Center at United 
Nations Pla/.a. The ceremony was at- 
tended by an estimated 500 people. 

Mr. Hoover was assisted by a fresh- 
man engineering student from Hawaii, 
j(ir\ Fujimoto, representing the engi- 
neers of the future. 

In remarks just before he turned the 
lirst sh(i\ei-fuil of earth at the site of 
the new Center, Mr. Hoover called the 
occasion "an event of national import- 
ance. The engineering societies in our 
country comprise a great army of ovei' 
250,000 creative minds covering almost 
every branch of the profession." 

The United Engineering Center, 
scheduled for completion in mid-19f)l, 
will house the headquarters of major en- 
gineering societies and joint engineering 
groups. Their members, Mr. Hoover 
said, "are the foundation of securit\- in 
our defense and the increase of the 
standards of li\ing and comfort for our 
people." 

"The purpose of this great building 
is to facilitate these goals. It will play 
a great part in American life. It will 
serve all mankind," he concluded. 

The Center has been made possible 
by contributions from industry and from 
thousands of individual engineers. Plans 
for the Center have been eight years in 
the making. To date, more than 500 
companies have contributed nearly $5 
nu'llion, and some 56,000 engineers have 
added another $3 million. 

When completed in 1961, the Cen- 
ter's 180,000 square feet of ofHce area 
will be occupied by the following 
groups : 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

American Institute of Mining, Metal- 
lurgical and Petroleum Engineers 

The American Society of Mechaiu- 
cal Engineers. 

American Institute (tf I'lectrical En- 
gineers 

American Institute of Chemical l'"n- 
gineers 

American Societ\- of Heating Re- 
frigerating and Ail-Conditioning Engi- 
neers 

Illuminating Engineering Society 

American Institute of Consulting En- 
gineers 

American Welding Society 

American Institute of Industrial En- 
gineers 

Society of Women Engineers 

The Municipal Engineers of the Cit\' 
of New \'ork 

Uniteil Engineering Trustees, Inc. 

Engineering Societies Library 

Engineering Foundation 

Welding Research Council 

( (jnritiniicil mi Prif^c 40) 



38 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 






kt one time, grease used in wheel bearings of supersonic jet planes would melt during landings — would even 
atch fire! Now this has been solved by a revolutionary new grease developed by Standard Oil research. 



Meet the man who put the grease 

in greased lightning! 



When a jel lands, wheel bearings undergo tem- 
perature changes from —40° up to 450°. 
Above, Dr. Richard H. Leet, who helped de- 
sign a grease that could withstand such pun- 
ishment, is shown working in the Standard 
ch laboratory 




When men started probing into space and flying 
at speeds faster than sound, they met a new 
and baffling lubrication problem. 

Existing greases were good either in cold or 
heat, but not in both. A grease was needed that 
would not break down under extreme changes 
in temperature — from bitter cold one minute to 
blow-torch heat the next. 

Lubrication experts in the research labora- 
tories of Standard Oil, headed, by Dr. Richard 
H. Leet, had foreseen the need for such a grease. 
And when America's future jet growth hinged 
on the development of a revolutionary new 
grease, it was ready —as the result of a five-year 
research project. 

Because of the unique qualities and great 
versatility of this new grease, it is also being 



used in industry, serving more efficiently and 
more economically than previous greases under 
conditions of extreme heat and extreme cold. 
It is another example of a major contribu- 
tion to progress from Standard Oil's research 
laboratories. Other examples of the same thor- 
ough and painstaking research are the gaso- 
hnes and oils millions of motorists buy daily at 
Standard service stations throughout the 
Midwest and Rocky Mountain region. 

What Makes A Company A Good Citizen? 

One gauge is a company's usefulness... its con- 
tribution to the general welfare. Through re- 
search. Standard constantly strives to develop 
products thatwill strengthen America's defenses 
and help millions of people in their work, in their 
homes, and on the road — today and in the future. 



Rockets and missiles have moving parts that 
must be lubricated at temperatures from — 65** 
to 450°. Another special Standard Oil grease 
can do this job without breaking down. 



STAM».\ltl> Oil. r03ll».\>V ^w' 



THE SIGN OF PROGRESS ... 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



DECEMBER, 1959 



39 



((Uintiiiiuil frtiiii I'tu/f .i<S) 
Kngineeriiig Imlox 

KiigiiU'crs' Council for Professional 
DevelopiiiiMU 

Fii^iticcrs joint Council 

Transparent Silicone Potting 
Compound 

A new silicoiu- pottinji material that 
permits visual ami instrument clieckini; 
of individual parts within a potted as- 
sembly is now on the market produced 
by Dow Corninsj Corporation, Mid- 
land, Michigan. 

This material cures in place to form 
a resilient, protective mass that retains 
its outstanding dielectric properties and 
moisture resistance oxer the wide tem- 
perature span of below -(>() up to 201) 
degrees C. 

No damaging stresses are exerted on 
delicate parts by this materi.il either 
during or after curing. 

Potted circuits can be traced visualh, 
and test probes can be accurately di- 
rected to connections by simply inserting 
them through the gel. Dielectric Ciel 
"heals" itself immediatei\ wlien test 
probes are removed. 

Electronics Cut Road Costs 

(icorgia's Highway Department cred- 
its electronic equipment with a four- 
teen-month savings of $229,681 and 
14(1,257 man-hours in earthwork de- 
sign. On bridge computations, savings 
add up to S10l),()0(l and the time of 1,> 
engineers. 

Stepping Transistor Made of 
Interconnected Elements 

A p-n-p-n semiconductor element that 
can serve as the basic building block of 
a silicon .stepping transistor has been 
described by Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories. It has potential application to 
digital computers, pushbutton dialing, 
and telephone switching. 

The four-terminal device acts as a 
pulse-controlled on-ofif switch. It ma\- 
be used as a basic stage in building up 
certain logic circuits in digital comput- 
ers, such a.s for counting and decoding. 
Hy using one element to drive two 
others, versatile decoders can be made. 

A more complex device, which is fab- 
ricated from a single piece of silicon, 
can also perform the.se logic functions. 
As a prototype arrangement, a stepping 
transistor with four stages — or clc- 
ment.s — has been made. 

The stepping transistor, as fabricated 
on a single piece of silicon, performs 
the function of a complex circuit. Hence 
it is referred to as a "functional de- 
vice." The concept of a functional semi- 
conductor device is a promising approach 
to microminiaturization. 

The gas stepping tube utilizes the 
bistable voltage-current characteristic of 
a gas discharge for its operation. Uni- 



directional transfer ot xoltage between 
its electrodes — one anode and several 
cathodes — is obtained by the nons\in- 
metrical geometr\' of the hitter's con- 
struction. 

The stepping transistor utilizes a 
p-n-p-n transistor as the bistable ele- 
ment. The design of the structure re- 
sults in a bistable voltage - current char- 
acteristic between a single common elec- 
trode and a set of multiple electrodes. 
Nonsymmetrical geometry is employed 
to obtain ri unidirectional transfer of 
\ olrage. 

.■\lso, uidike the gas stepping tube, 
cIo.se proximity between stages is not 
basically required in the stepping trans- 
istor. This is why stepping transistor 
elements comprising single four-terminal 
stages can be separately encapsulated 
and connected extenudly. 

Defense Dome 'Sees Red' 

"litan' optical mateiial l()rm> a 
dome for the nose of an infrared-guided 
missile. The new material transmits 
radiation efficiently up to 8 microns in 
the infrared. It is especially resistant to 




Irtan optical material finds job as 
nose cone for heat-seeking missiles. 

cracking <lue to thermal shock when a 
missile reenters the earth's atmosphere. 
To the eye, objects viewed through the 
dome appear rose-colored because of Ir- 
tan material's transmission of the red 
portion of the \isible spectrum. 

Salavaged 7 Billion Pounds of 
Aluminum Since 1948 

Through research and advancements 
in the art of aluminum smelting during 
the past decade, a total of more than 7 
billion pounds of scrap aluminum has 
been salvaged, proces.sed into alloys and 
returned to American industry for a 
wide variety of uses. 



It is predicted that, through expand- 
ing knowledge of metallurg\, more than 
1 ^ billion pounds will be returned to 
the nation's aluminum users during the 
next 10 years. 

Comparable in e\ei\ way to alloys 
made with primar\ aluminum, the 
smelters' alloys are converted into cas- 
ings for the automobile industry, appli- 
ance manufacturers, business machines 
and a host of other end use products. 

The con.servation and re-use of scrap 
aluminum has literalh- saved the U. S. 
economy billions of dollars, the Institute 
stated. It pointed out that, without the 
salvage of 7 billion pounds since 1948, 
American users, in duplicating the out- 
put with virgin aluminum, would li.i\e 
forced to : 

Import 1.3 million tons of bauxite. 

Ship the bauxite to the U. S. in l.'^Ofl 
Ncnages at 10,000 tons per trip. 

Ship to plants 10 million tons of 
alumina, coke, pitch, cryolite, sod;i ash. 
and other ingredients. 

Construct additional facilities to proc- 
ess the metal into ingot form. 

Consume 67 billion kilowatt hours 
of electrical power — an amount equal 
to all electricit)- generated in the L . S. 
in about a five-week period. 

As the principle users of aluminum 
scrap, the aluminum smelting itidustry 
has been chiefly responsible for the pres- 
ervation of the value of the scrap as a 
useful conimodit\' and kept it from be- 
coming an unwanted, indigestible ilrag 
on the nation's economy. 

New Plan for Disposal of 
Radioactive Waste 

Disposal of radioactive wastes by 
using sandstone layers thousands of feet 
under the earth's surface as an ion-ex- 
changing "water softener" was suggest- 
ed at the 32nd annual meeting of the 
Federation of Sewage and Industrial 
Wastes Associations. 

Low-level radioactive wastes now are 
dumped into streams. A growing prob- 
lem is developing as amounts of these 
increa.se. Another unsatisfactory disposal 
is in buried tanks. 

The engineers propose pumping the 
water-carried wastes into sandstone lay- 
ers below any danger of contaminating 
ground water, oil, coal, or minerals. 

In passing through the sandstone, 
radioactive wastes would be deposited in 
manner similar to deposition of minerals 
in a water .softener. The pmified water 
would return to the surface through a 
second well at a distance. 

Gravy Fender-Offer 

Stain-repellent ties are now being 
made by one company. The ties are 
guarded against both water and oil 
stains and common dirt. 



40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



UIC 



NEWS FROM THE 



NAVY PIER 



In and Around Chicago 

Chicago art-a stt-cl producers now are 
racing old man time. With the steel 
strike recessed, the ore boats are bring- 
ing ore in as fast as possible to lav in 
winter stockpiles. 

Meanwhile, area plants have called 
back 90,000 steelworkers who haven't 
received a paycheck for four months. 
U.S. Steel Corp., the nation's largest 
producer, expects shipments to reach 
near capacity within a few weeks. 

Spot shortages may develop during 
the winter which probably will be side- 
stepped by costlier rail deliveries. How- 
ever, with good weather the Crreat 
Lakes shipping sea.son can last into the 
middle of December. Then the water- 
ways will be ice-locked until about 
April. Navy Pier, housing the Port of 
Chicago (and the Chicago branch U. 
of I.) is hoping for good weathei" to 
extend the shipping season. 

At Navy Pier 

Overheard : Instructor to class — 
'Some professors run through courses 
like express trains. (^nly trouble is. 
they're the only ones riding." 

New Courses Added 

New courses added to Chicago cur- 
riculum include math 341, Differential 
Kqviations; math 346, Complex Vari- 
ables and Applications; and M.E. 221, 
Mechanics of Machinery. With the.se 
and other courses, some Navy Pier en- 
^Hieers can remain in the city for five 
or six semesters. 

DECEMBER, 1959 



ASCE Meeting 

I he I .I.e. student ch.-ipter of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers 
played host to Melvin F]. Amstutz, a 
member of the Illinois State Board of 
Examiners for Professional Engineers. 
He gave an informative talk to mem- 
bers of all the engineering societies. 

Amstutz began his lecture by briefly 
reviewing the history of the National 
Society of Professional Engineers. He 
explained how the organization was 
formed in 1934 for the purpo.se of ad- 
vancing the profession of engineering. 
The society's membership soon spread 
across the country. State chapters of the 
N.S.P.E. were formed. Illinois was one 
of the first. Soon there were cit\' and 
county chapters being formed and today 
membership numbers between 50,000 
and 60,00(1, There are state chapters 
in each of the 50 states with approxi- 
mately 400 local chapters. 

Amstutz went on to enumerate the 
unceasing activities of the N.S.P.E. 
today. The society constantly is striv- 
ing to protect the rights of Professional 
Engineers. These rights include that of 
the freedom of an engineer to practice 
withoirt joining a union. This has been 
one of the most important achievements 
of the societ)-. Union officials constanth 
have opposed legislative action which 
would protect the engineer. It has been 
mainly through the efforts of the .society 
that these laws have been passed. An- 
other act which the society was instru- 
mental in helping to pa.ss was that of 
declaring engineering a profession. It 
constantly has endea\ored to have state 
(('.rjiitiniitd on Payc 42) 



Use Professional/^ 

Tools pr.^ 

NOW ^ J^^ 




A.WJABIR imported 
CASTELL with famous 
Black Gold graphite, 
or LOCKTITE with 

NO SLIP* SPIRAL GRIP 

lead holder and 
Blatk Gold Imported 
9030 Castell Lead. 

Nothing is more 
important to you in the 
formative phase of your 
education than to develop 
professional habits. 
A.W.Faber Black Gold 
graphite has helped i 

countless thousands of 
seasoned Pros acquire 
the "golden touch". 
It is available to you 
either in the world- 
renowned Castell wood 
pencil or in the Spiral 
Grip TEL-A-GRADE 
LOCKTITE with degree 
indicator. 

Black Gold graphite tests 
out at more than 99% 
pure natural carbon. 
It is smooth, grit-free 
and black as a raven's 
wing. It takes a long, 
keen point and resists 
heavy pressure in 
drawing or drafting. 

Whether your talents are 
creative or interpretive, 
you'll do better work 
once you acquire the 
"golden touch" with 
professional Castell 
tools. 20 superb degrees, 
8Bto lOH. Pickup 
some Castells at your 
convenient supply 
store today. 




A.W.FABER-C45rfli 

PENCIL CO., INC. NEWARK 3, N. J. 



41 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 




Navy Pier 

i C'inliniK il JKji. 



I',u,c 41) 



brings 'em back alive 

Today's binning pioblcni in space flight is how- 
to case a rocket safclv back to earth, witliout being 
consumed by the metal-melting friction of our dense 
atmosphere. Design Engineer Carl [. Ranschenbcrger's 
ingenious suggestion is a ]3air of wings, locked for- 
ward at blast-off, later folded back into flving position 
(insert) by hydraulic cylinder controls for a slow, safe 
descent. Mr. Rausehcnbcrgcr also envisions a retract- 
able glass nose cone, heatproof to withstand the take- 
off, drawn back to admit air to a jet engine on the 
return flight. 

This outstanding solution to a timelv design 
problem may already exist in working drawings on 
somebod\'s drafting board, or even in mock-up form. 
But whether a project is dc\eloped today, tomorrow 
or the year after next, it will always be important to 
shape ideas into realities with the best of drafting tools. 

In pencils, of course, that means Mars, long the 
standard of professionals. Some outstanding ncw^ prod- 
ucts ha\e recently been added to the famous line of 
Mars-Tcchnico push-button holders and leads, Laiiiio- 
graph pencils, and Tradition-Aquarcll painting ju-ncils. 
These include tlie Mars Pocket-Tcchnico for field use: 
the effieient Mars lead sharpener and "Draftsman" 
pencil sharpener with the adjustable point-length fea- 
ture; Mars Lumoehrom. the color-drafting pencils and 
leads that make color-coding possible: the new ^hlrs 
Non-Print pencils and leads that "drop out" your 
notes and sketches when drawings are reproduced. 



The 2886 Mars-lumogroph drowing pencil, 19 de 
grees, EXEXB to 9H. The 1001 Mors-Technico 
push-butlon lead holder. 1904 Mors-Lumogropl 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB to 9H. Mar, 
lumoehrom co/or-dra(fing pencil, 24 colors. 



J.S. 



TAEDTLERINC. 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 



i whii'h wduld rcciuirc all 
I he rc};istcic(l. Tlu-rc is such 



1.1 us pa 
CIlflilU'tTS to 1 

.1 law in Illinois which not only for- 
iiids aiuonc to call themselves profes- 
sionals unless registered but also defines 
tin- term engineer. 

.Anistut/. then further discussed the 
engineer by talking about how a person 
goes about becoming a Professional Kn- 
g'neer. He explained that a test is given 
to the prospective engineer a.s soon as 
he completes his education. This is re- 
ferred to as Engineer in Training exam 
and deals basically with the material 
covered during one's college \ears. After 
a period of time has been spent in ac- 
tual iiractice, another exam is given 
y liich measures the amount of knowl- 
edge acquired from on-the-job experi- 
ence. Upon pa.ssing both exams the 
anplicant becomes a professional ens^i- 
neer. Amstutz said that many compatres 
are adopting the policy of hiring only 
resnstered engineers and more probably 
will do so in the future. 



I 



Academic Profile 

I wo students are standing in the 
halls, slide rules at their hips. It is 
early spring. 

"Say Bill, do you know where there 
are any siunnier jobs available? " 

"Yeah, .sure. I just got one from 
Prof. Wal raven." 

And so it goes, lines of engineers 
shuffle to Prof, Walraven's oflSce in 
search of jobs. Prof. Walraven has con- 
tact with more than 250 engineering 
companies that request student employ- 
ment. 

This i.s only one of the functions of 
Prof. Walraven who is chairman of 
the 101 (hawing courses in the G.E. 
department. In addition to his academic 
duties, he is the University representa- 
tive to A.S.E.E. (American Society of 
Engineering Education). In this capac- 
ity he is able to study the engineering 
programs of other schools and compare 
the Chicago program to theirs. 

Prof. Walraven was born in So\ith- 
ern Illinois. He received his Masters 
at the U. of I. and started his doc- 
torate. He went into industry so he 
could bring practical experience to the 
classroom. 

In w r i t i n g General Enginccrin<i 
Piohliiiis. a lab manual. Prof. Wal- 
raven and a co-author presented practi- 
cal engineering problems to the students 
in an academic manner. 

Prof. Walraven, a family man, has 
three children. He admits he has little 
spare time, but when he can, he turns 
to technical writing. 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



He's an 

Allis-Chalmers 

Engineer 



He has confidence born of knowing where he's going and how he's 
going to get there. The graduate training program at Allis-Chalmers 
helped him decide on a specific career — and he had a choice of many. 
He knows his future is bright because Allis-Chalmers serves the growth 
industries of the world . . . produces the widest range of industrial 
equipment. He is confident of success because he is following a suc- 
cessful pattern set by Allis-Chalmers management. 



Here is a partial list of the 
unsurpassed variety of ca- 
reer opportunities at Allis- 
Chalmers; 

Types of jobs 



Design 

Development 

Monufacluring 

Application 

Soles 

Service 

Industries 

Agriculture 



Electric Power 
Nucleor Power 
Poper 
Petroleum 
Steel 



ALLIS-CHALMERS 





fACl 



Equipment 

Steam Turbines 
Hydraulic Turbines 
Switchgeor 



El. 



acto 



Crushers 

Tractors 

Earth Movers 

Motors 

Control 

Pumps 

Engines 

Diesel 

Gas 

Fields 

Metallurgy 

Stress Analysis 

Process Engineering 

Mechanical Design 

High Voltage Phenomena 

Nucleonics 

Electronics 

Hydraulics 

Insulation, Electricol 

Thermodynamics 



from GTC to "VIP" 

The graduate training course 
helps you decide on your "Very 
Important Position," by giving 
you up to two years of theoretical 
and practical training. This course 
has helped set the pattern of ex- 
ecutive progress since 1904. For 
details write to Allis-Chalmers, 
Graduate Training Section, Mil- 
waukee 1, Wisconsin. 



DECEMBER, 1959 



43 



S'umhrrThrrrofaSerict 



ENGINEERING GRADUATES — YOUR 



STEPPING 




TO 



SPACE 



Stabilized in orbit, the space vehicle is pre- 
pared to perform the functions for which it was 
designed. With experience, you will establish 
your reputation as a professional engineer and 
will thus be qualified to assume more and more 
technical responsibility. 

At McDonnell — young engineers will find 
the opportunity to train for the particular type of 
work they enjoy most: to assume increasing re- 
sponsibility as they become ready for it ; to have 
their efforts carefully, fairly, and impartially 
evaluated ; and be compensated accordingly. 

Learn more about our company and com- 
munity by seeing our Engineering Representa- 
tive when he visits your campus, or, if you 
prefer, write a brief note to : Raymond F. Kaletta 
Engineering Employment Supervisor 
P.O. Box 516, St. Louis 65, Missouri 




John H. Suchan. BSCE. Iowa State U., '51, Supervisor Strength 
Engineering, standing to the left; and Floyd J. Smith, Jr., BSME, 
U. of Illinois, '49, Project Mercury Test Coordinator, are seen here 
discussing orbit velocities required for Project Mercury, manned 
space capsule. 




44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



BRAIN TEASERS 



Edited by Steve Dilts 



NOTE: Due to the unavoidable delay in the printing of the November issue the 
Brain Teaser contest will begin this issue. Dead line for entries will be Jon. 15th. 



A gang of boys made a raid on the 
Perkins orchard and came back with :i 
quantity of apples, which were then 
pooled and divided equally among 
them. Michael said he thought it would 
be fairer to share by families instead of 
by individuals. As there were two John- 
son brothers and two Fairbanks broth- 
ers, redivision by families would have 
increased each share by 3 apples. With 
the argument at its height, along came 
Fred, who, being the oldest of the gang, 
was appealed to as arbiter. Fred decided 
that it would be unfair to share by 
families. Furthermore, he pointed out. 
he himself would certainly have partici- 
pated in the raid, to the great increase 
of bouty, had he not been detained by 
a compulsory engagement with a rug- 
beater. But as head of the gang he was 
entitled to a share. Fred had a way of 
winning his arguments, so each boy con- 
tributed one apple to him, making equal 
shares all around. How man\ apples did 
the boys gather? 



Prove that at a recent convention of 
biophysicists the number of scientists in 
attendance who shook hands an odd 
nvimber of times is even. The same 
problem can be expressed graphically as 
follows. Put as many dots (biophysicsts 
as you wish on a sheet of paper. Draw 
as many lines (handshakes) as you wish 
from any dot to an\' other dot. A dot 
can "shake hands" as often as you 
please, or not at all. Pro\e tliat the 
number of dots with an odd number of 
lines joining them is even. 



Smith, Brown and Jones agree to 
fight a pistol duel under the following 
uiuisual conditions. After drawing lots 
to determine who fires first, second and 
third, they take their places at the cor- 
ners of an equilateral triangle. It is 
agreed that they will fire single shots in 
turn and continue in the same cyclic 
order until two of them are dead. At 
each turn the man who is firing ma\' aim 



wheiever he pleases. All three duelists 
know that Smith always hits his target, 
Brown is 80 per cent accurate and Jones 
is 50 per cent accurate. Assuming that 
all three adopt the best strategy, and 
that no one is killed by a wild shot not 
intended for him, who has the best 
chance to survive ? A more difficult ques- 
tion : What are the exact survival prob- 
abilities of the three men? 

-:if * * 

An unlimited supply of ga.soline is 
available at one edge of a desert 800 
miles wide, but there is no source on 
the desert itself. A truck can carry 
enough gasoline to go 300 miles (this 
will be called one "load"), and it can 
build up its own refuelins' stations at 
nnx spot along the way. These caches 
may be of any size, and it is assumed 
that there is no evaporation loss. What 
is the minimum amount (in loads) of 
gasoline the truck will require in order 
to cross the desert? Is there a limit to 
the width of a desert the truck can 



The most popular problem ever pub- 
lished in Till- Jiniricdti Mathematical 
Monthly, its editors recently disclosed, 
is the following. It was contributed by 
P. L. Chessin of the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric Corporation to the April, lQi4, 
issue. 

"(^ur good friend and eminent nu- 
merologist. Professor Euclide Paracelso 
Bombasto Umbugio, has been busily en- 
gaged in testing on his desk calculator 
the 81 X 10" possible solutions to the 
problem of reconstructing the following 
exact long division in which the digits 
were indiscriminately replaced by x save 
in the quotient where the\ were almost 
entireh' omitteil. 

8 



XXX) xxxxxxxx 

XXX 

xxxx 

XXX 

xxxx 
xxxx 



"Deflate the Professor! That is, re- 
duce the possibilities to (81 X 10")"." 

Because any number raised to the 
power of zero is one, the reader's task 
is to discover the unique reconstruction 
of the problem. It is easier than it looks, 
yielding readily to a few elementary in- 
sights. 

The answers will appear next month. 



Here are the answers to last month's 
brainteasers. 

Four airplanes will do the trick. One 
solution : 

Planes 1, 2, J and 4 take off to- 
gether. After going 1/6 of the distance 
around the earth, planes 1 and 4 trans- 
fer half their remaining fuel to planes 
2 and 3. As 2 and 3 continue for an- 
other l/'6 of the wa\-, planes 1 and 4 
return to base. Plane 3 nr>w transfers 
its fuel to 2. 

•:•:- * * 

If you place the point of a compass 
at the center of a black square on a 
chessboard with two-inch squares, and 
extend the arms of the compass a dis- 
tance equal to the square root of 10 
inches, the pencil will trace the largest 
possible circle that touches oidy black 
squares. 

* * » 

Writing a three-digit number twice is 
the same as multiplying it by 1,001. 
This number has the factors 7, 1 1 and 
13, so writing the chosen number twice 
is equivalent to multiphing it by 7, 11 
and 13. Naturally when the product is 
successively divided by these same three 
numbers, the final remainder will be the 
original number. 

-:S « * 

The quickest way to solve this prob- 
lem is to run the scene backward in 
time. A minute before the crash the 
9,000 niile-per-hour missile is clearly 
150 miles from the meeting point and 
the 21,000 mile-per-hour missile is 350 
miles from the same point, making the 
distance between them tOO miles. 



DECEMBER, 1959 



45 



New American Society for IVIetals Headquarters 




[^■^s;^ 



NEW HEADQUARTERS BUILDING, AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR METALS, Novelty, Ohio, east of Cleveland. 
Architect: John Terence Kelly. Consulting Engineer: Mayer and Valen- 
tine. General Contractor: Gillmore-Olson Company. Plumbing and 
Heating Contractor: Spohn Heating & Ventilating Company. Dome 
Design: R. BucKMiNSTER FULLER, Synergetics, Inc. 



Imagination shows in the building 

— practical planning in the choice of Jenkins Valves 



Metals Park . . . dramatic new Headquarters of the 
American Society for Metals, is a showcase for the 
wonderful world of metals. 

The geodesic dome, "world's largest space lattice," 
required thirteen miles of tubing and rods in open- 
work trellis. It stands as a monument to man's imag- 
ination in the use of the raw elements of the earth, 
as symbolized in the circular Mineral Garden below. 
At Metals Park, metals are everywhere and every- 
thing — providing an ideal background for ASM's 
many services to 30,000 members in the metal 
industry. 



You would expect men of metals to choose metal 
products of superiority for their headquarters. And 
they did — including Jenkins Valves for all plumb- 
ing, heating and air conditioning lines. They had 
good reason: superior metals give Jenkins Valves 
the extra stamina that makes them famous for long 
life and dependability. 

Whenever a building is planned with the future in 
mind, it's wise to specify or install Jenkins Valves. 
They're the practical choice to assure longtime 
efficiency and economy — and they cost no more. 
Jenkins Bros., 100 Park Ave., New York 17, 




JENKINS 



LOOK FOR THE JENKINS DIAMOND 



VALVE S 



)ND^^^® 



SOLD THROUGH LEADING DISTRIBUTORS EVERYWHERE 



46 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




What is a 

Timken 

tapered 

roller 
bearing? 



IT'S an anti-friaion bearing that's geometrically de- 
signed to give true rolling motion — and precision- 
made to live up to that design. Here's how you, as an 
engineer, can benefit from Timken" bearings: 

A Tapered design enables a Timken roller bearing 
• to take any combination of both radial and 
thrust loads. You'll often find that one Timken bearing 
does the load -carrying job of tv^'o ball or straight 
roller bearings. 

BFull line contact between rollers and races gives 
• Timken bearings extra load-carrying capacity. 
This enables a design engineer to cram maximum 
capacity into minimum space. And Timken bearings can 
be pre-loaded for accurate gear or spindle alignment. 

CCase carhurization makes the steel of Timken 
• bearing races and rollers hard on the outside 



to resist wear, tough on the inside to resist shock. 
This prolongs the life of Timken bearings. And the 
steel we start with is the best. It's nickel-rich for 
toughness. 

What is Better-ness? its our word for the 

result of the ceaseless American urge to make machines 
that do more, do better, do faster. Our engineers help 
make Better-ness possible. They've pioneered every 
major tapered roller bearing advance. And they work 
right at the drawing board with engineers of every 
major industry. It's exciting, rewarding work with a 
future. 

If you would like to help create Better-ness on our 
engineering team, write Manager, College Relations, 
The Timken Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



BETTER, -NESS rolls on 




DECEMBER, 1959 




tapered roller 1>ea.ring:s 

rir$t hi beariug value jor 60 years 



47 



Begged, Borrowed, and . 



Edited by Jack Fortner 



A \iT\ rich deposit of oil was liis- 
i()vcn-(i 1)11 the farmer's land, liiniu'di- 
atfly he rushed into town to purch:iM- 
a new car. An obliging salesman show ed 
him a sleek roadster selling for $5,00(1. 

"I nni prepared to pay cash," said 
the farmer. "Will I get a discount?" 

'AVhy certainly," replied the salrv- 
man. "We will give you a 10', dis- 
count on a cash purchase." 

Not being confident on his abilit\- as 
a n\athematician, the farmer said he 
would think it over and return later. 

He walked into a restaurant and o\er 
his coffee tried to figure what his dis- 
count would be, but to no avail. Final- 
ly in desperation he turned to the 
waitress and asked. "If I ga\e \()u 10', 
of $\()(^0 how much would sou take 
ofi?" 

Blushing prettily, the waitress whis- 
pered, "Would my earrings bother 
you?" 

M.E. Problem Test No. 2 

A crosseyed woodpecker with a cork 
leg and synthetic rubber bill required ]/, 
hour to peck Y^ of the distance through 
a cypress log 53 years old. Shingles cost 
79c per hundred and weigh 8 pounds 
apiece .The log being pecked upon is 
,34 feet long and weighs 46 pounds per 
foot. Assuming that the coefTficient of 
friction between the woodpecker's bill 
and the cypress log is 0.097 and there 
is negligible resistance to diffusion, how 
many units of vitamin B, will the wood- 
pecker require in pecking out enough 
shingles for a $75,000 barn with de- 
tachable chicken house? The wood- 
pecker has efficiency of 97 per cent, and 
gets time and half for overtime. 

The engineer returned home one 
night at a late hour, and finding dif- 
ficulty with his equilibrium, made con- 
siderable noise in the hallway. Sudden- 
ly there was a sound of crashing glass 
which awakened his wife. 

"John," she called, "What's the mat- 
ter?" 

From downstairs came a low mumble, 
"I'll teach those goldfish to snap at 
me." 



There .ire those who claim that silk 
isn't the best thing in the world, but 
most people will agree it is about the 
nearest thing to it. 



She was a gorgeous girl, 

.And he was a lo\iiig male. 

He praised her shape in English, 

h'rench, Italian, and Braille. 



Prof. : "Why don't you answer when 

1 call your name?" 

ME: "I nodded my heail." 

Prof. : "You don't expect me to hear 

the rattle all the way up here do you?" 

The fellow and girl charged around 
,1 corner and bumped smack into each 
other. They stepped back, apologized 
and started up again. But they both 
dodged in the same direction and 
bumped once more. Again they started 
up, bumped and apologized. This time 
the fellow stepped back, raised his hat 
and gallantly remarked, "Just once 
more, cutie, then 1 realh lia\e to go." 

Mottoes: 

Freshman Girl: "Mother knows 
best." 

Sophomore (jirl: "Death before dis- 
honor." 

Junior Girl: "Nothing \eiitured, 
nothing gained." 

Senior (iirl: "Bo\s will be boys." 



Freshman: "What does 'Fantasy' 
mean ?" 

Senior: "A stor\- in which the char- 
acters are ghosts, gobliii>, \irgins, and 
other supernatural beings." 



Two Wacs returning late one night 
got into the wrong barracks — those of 
the enlisted men. (^ne lost her head and 
ran: the other remained calm and col- 



Then there was the chemical engi- 
neer who died from drinking shellac. 
The boys all said he had a good finish. 



ENGINEERS CORN TEST 
Connect 20,000 volts across a pint. 

If the current jumps it, the product is 

poor. 

If the current causes a precipitation 

of lye, tin, arsenic, iron slag, or .iluni, 

the whiskey is fair. 

If the liquor chases the current back 

to the generator, you've got good 

whiskey. 

The origin of the e.xpression, "hur- 
rah for our side!" goes back to the 
crowds lining the streets when Lady 
Godiva made her famous sidesaddle ride 
through the streets of Coventry. 

Some girls are cold sober. 
Others are always cold. 

During mock maneuvers an army 
commander ordered a notice to be dis- 
played on a bridge stating: "This bridge 
has been destroyed by air attack." But 
to his chagrin, he noticed through his 
field glasses that a foot regiment was 
cro.ssing the bridge despite his orders. 
He sent his adjutant to the officer in 
charge post-haste to find out how he 
dared to defy his orders. An hour later 
the adjutant was back. "It's all right, 
sir," he reported. "The troops are wear- 
ing signs saying 'We are swimming'." 

Two enterprising young men on a 
train decided to make the acquaintance 
of the young lady across the aisle from 
them. Said the first gentleman, "M\ 
name's Peter, but I'm no saint." Added 
the second, "My name's Paul, but I'm 
no apostle." Replied the flustered young 
ladv, "My name's Mary and I don't 
know what to sav. " 



"She isn't my best 
best." 



-just 



ecks 



Bus driver: ".'\11 right back there?" 
Feminine Voice: "No, wait till I get 

vn\ clothes on." 

Then the driver led a .stampede to 

the rear and watched the girl get on 

with a basket of lauiulry. 



48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



IN DEVELOPMENT 



Photo graphy 
'w^orks for 
the Elngineer 




Design pn 

suggested by high-spnd iiidiinii p 

slow down motion so thai ii can bt 



There's hardly a spot in business and 
industry today w here photography does 
not play a part at simplifying or easing 
work and routine. It works in research, 
on the production line, in the engineer- 
ing and sales departments, in the office. 
And everywhere it saves time and costs. 
You will find it valuable in whatever 
you do. So be sure to look into all the 
ways it can help. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
Rochester 4, N.Y. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK: 

With photography and photographic 
processes becoming increasingly impor- 
tant in the business and industry of 
tomorrow, there are new and challeng- 
ing opportunities at Kodak in research, 
engineering, electronics, design, sales, 
and production. 

If you are looking for such an inter- 
esting opportunity, write lor inlorma- 
tion about careers \sith Kodak. Address; 
Business and Technical Personnel 
Department, Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 



IN PRODUCTION 




PiodiKlion lint- assemblers, working 
Irum ]jlii)lc)'4raphic color transparencies, 
cpiickK and accurately connect the 
iiitiicatc ina/c ol nuilti-colorcd wires. 



IN SALES 




Ph(it(iL;iaphs pJa\ a major lolc in prosidmg 
manat;enient with an up-to-date record of 
physical facilities — plants, branches and 
sales offices. 




One of 



a series 



-J 




Q. Mr. Savage, should young engineers 
join professional engineering socie- 
ties? 

A. By all means. Once engineers 
have graduated from college 
they are immediately "on the 
outside looking in," so to speak, 
of a new social circle to which 
they must earn their right to be- 
long. Joining a professional or 
technical society represents a 
good entree. 

Q. How do these societies help young 
engineers? 

A. The members of these societies 
— mature, knowledgeable men — 
have an obligation to instruct 
those who follow after them. 
Engineers and scientists — as pro- 
fessional people — are custodians 
of a specialized body or fund of 
knowledge to which they have 
three definite responsibilities. 
The first is to generate new 
knowledge and add to this total 
fund. The second is to utilize 
this fund of knowledge in service 
to society. The third is to teach 
this knowledge to others, includ- 
ing young engineers. 

Q. Specifically, what benefits accrue 
from belonging to these groups? 

A. There are many. For the young 
engineer, affiliation serves the 
practical purpose of exposing his 
work to appraisal by other scien- 
tists and engineers. Most impor- 
tant, however, technical societies 
enable young engineers to learn 
of work crucial to their own. 
These organizations are a prime 
source of ideas — meeting col- 
leagues and talking with them, 
reading reports, attending meet- 
ings and lectures. And, for the 
young engineer, recognition of 
his accomplishments by asso- 
ciates and organizations gener- 
ally heads the list of his aspira- 
tions. He derives satisfaction 
from knowing that he has been 
identified in his field. 



Interview with General Electric's 

Charles F. Savage 

Consultant — Engineering Professional Relations 

How Professional Societies 
Help Develop Young Engineers 



Q. What contribution is the young en- 
gineer expected to make as an ac- 
tive member of technical and pro- 
fessional societies? 

A. First of all, he should become 
active in helping promote the 
objectives of a society by prepar- 
ing and presenting timely, well- 
conceived technical papers. He 
should also become active in 
organizational administration. 
This is self-development at work, 
for such efforts can enhance the 
personal stature and reputation 
of the individual. And, I might 
add that professional develop- 
ment is a continuous process, 
starting prior to entering col- 
lege and progressing beyond 
retirement. Professional aspira- 
tions may change but learning 
covers a person's entire life span. 
And, of course, there are dues to 
be paid. The amount is grad- 
uated in terms of professional 
stature gained and should al- 
ways be considered as a personal 
investment in his future. 

Q. How do you go about joining pro- 
fessional groups? 

A. While still in school, join student 
chapters of societies right on 
campus. Once an engineer is out 
working in industry, he should 
contact local chapters of techni- 
cal and professional societies, or 
find out about them from fellow 
engineers. 

Q. Does General Electric encourage par- 
ticipation in technical and profes- 
sional societies? 

A. It certainly does. General Elec- 
tric progress is built upon cre- 
ative ideas and innovations. The 
Company goes to great lengths 
to establish a climate and in- 
centive to yield these results. 
One way to get ideas is to en- 



courage employees to join pro- 
fessional societies. Why? Because 
General Electric shares in recog- 
nition accorded any of its indi- 
vidual employees, as well as the 
common pool of knowledge that 
these engineers build up. It can't 
help but profit by encouraging 
such association, which sparks 
and stimulates contributions. 

Right now, sizeable numbers of 
General Electric employees, at 
all levels in the Company, belong 
to engineering societies, hold re- 
sponsible offices, serve on work- 
ing committees and handle im- 
portant assignments. Many are 
recognized for their outstanding 
contributions by honor and 
medal awards. 

These general observations em- 
phasize that General Electric 
does encourage participation. In 
indication of the importance of 
this view, the Company usually 
defrays a portion of the expense 
accrued by the men involved in 
supporting the activities of these 
various organizations. Remem- 
ber, our goal is to see every man 
advance to the full limit of his 
capabilities. Encouraging him to 
join Professional Societies is one 
way to help him do so. 

Mr. Savage has copies of the booklet 
"Your First 5 Years" published by 
the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development which you may 
have for the asking. Simply write to 
Mr. C. F. Savage, Section 959-12, 
General Electric Co., Schenectady 
5, N. Y. 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: Salary • Why Companies 
have Training Programs • How to 
Get the Job You Want. 



generalBelectric 



tLl.-i^^ 



"■ t-i»//. 




||jliii|«OT 4|"ti"M5TT't''Mri";(i«j 'WKI'i' "ttpiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



r; '•".■ \ '" '> - > 





bpp 



ERING 

HOUSE 



How to start a heart 

Lliai SlOpS. An ()|)erating room is 
ii (|ui(l place. Init you could hear a sriowflake 
ili(ip whiMi a living heart stops. Sometimes 
only a .single word is spoken. "epine|)hrine." 
The .syringe is firmly i)laced in tht> siirgron's 
(Hit-^tiitthcd hand and he plunges the long 
needle fleep into the chest— into the center of 
the heart it.self. As soon as the life-giving 
chemical touches the muscle of the heart, this 
wondrous organ usually contracts violently 
and starts to heat again. 

In the human body epinephrine is secreted 
by the core of the adrenal gland, and it acts 
to regulate the flow of body blood in conjunc- 
tion with other body chemicals. 




Editor 

Dave Penniman 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 

Asst. — Marilyn Day 

Editorial Staff 

George Carruthers 
Steve Dilts 
Grenville King 
Jeff R. Golin 
Bill Andrews 
Ron Kurtz 
Jeri Jewett 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 

Production Staff 

Mark Weston 

Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan, Director 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 

Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 

Chairman: Stanley Stynes 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph " 
gineer ^ '^ ■' ^ 



Transit, Kansas Enginee 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Enginee 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Loui 
iana Tech Engineer. Manhattan Enginee 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Mil 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, N' 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Nutre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, KPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic, Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
neer, Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 4 



January, 1960 



Table of Contents 

ARTICLES: 

Importance of Communication Dean 5. H. Pierce 15 

News Flash Cynthia Patterson 17 

What Are The Odds? Precis 20 

Special Open House Section 24 

Responsibility of The College R. W. Sievers 63 

FEATURES: 

Come and See Us Dean W. L. Everitt 9 

Technocutie Photos by Dove Yates 58 

Skimming Industrial Headlines Edited by Paul Cliff 65 

Brointeasers Edited by Steve Dilts 71 

Begged, Borrowed, And Edited by Jack Fortner 80 

Cover . . 

The cover this month done by Phil Weibler will also be the 
OPEN HOUSE poster for this year. Phil is doing all the art work 
for the Open House publicity campaign. 



Copyright, 1959, by lUini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Oc; 
tober, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved by The Illinois Technograph. Publisher's Representative — Littell-Murray- 
Barnhill, Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 




W. J. Burnham of Westinghouse's Electronics Lab controls the evaporation of germanium metal in a low pressure atmosphere. The 
germanium smoke collects on a glass disk producing a thin film semiconductor of the type to be used in telemetering systems. 

Is a semiconductor film the answer? 
Ask the men in the Electronics Lab 



I 



The Electronics Laboratory helps the Westinghouse en- 
gineer use the latest tools in the electronics field and 
works to develop new ones for his special projects. If a 
Westinghouse engineer needs a new semiconductor film 
for a satellite telemetering system, or a highly sensitive 
tube for a new kind of TV camera, he can call on this 
group of experts for help. 

The lab is currently doing work with infrared imaging 
devices, molecular electronics, sound transmission in 
water and air, parametric amplification of microwaves, 
plasma physics, thermionic power conversion and light 
emission. Nearly all of its work is in support of engineers 
and scientists in other departments of the company. 

At Westinghouse the young engineer isn't expected to 
know all the answers. Our work is often too advanced 



for that. Instead, each man is backed up by specialists, 
like those in the Electronics Lab. 

If you have ambition and real ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportunities 
for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write to Mr. L. H. Noggle, 
Westinghouse Educational Department, Ardmore & 
Brinton Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pennsylvania. 

you CAN BE SURE ... IF it's 

TVestinghouse 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




'J'he deiice abo}il lo he suhmenjcd is an "undenrdtcr sound source". It transmits sound waves beneath the sea and is part of the research 
equipment developed by Bendix Research Laboratories Division for use in the Bendix program of undersea acoustics research. 



Bendix, America's most diversified engineering organi- 
zation, offers challenging job opportunities in every 
area of man's scientific and engineering accomplisii- 
ment— under the sea, on land, in the air and in 
outer space! 

Take, for example, the urgent problem of defense 
against enemy submarines. Bendix— pioneer in sonar 
research development, and supplier of this equipment 
to our government for many years — was selected to 
develop new techniques to increase sonar capabilities. 

Another important Bendix anti-submarine device is 
"dunked" sonar, lowered from helicopter into the sea 
to detect enemy submarines. 

The spectacular "TV eye", which enabled the crew 
of the nuclear-powered submarine "Skate" to observe 
the underside of the Polar ice pack and locate areas 



A thousand products 




for safe surfacing, was likewise a Bendix development. 

The real "depth" of job opportunities at Bendix can 
best be measured by the many and diverse scientific 
fields in which Bendix is engaged. 

For example— career opportunities are available in 
such fields as electronics, electromechanics, ultra- 
sonics, computers, automation, radar, nucleonics, 
combustion, air navigation, hydraulics, instrumenta- 
tion, propulsion, metallurgy, communications, carbu- 
retion, solid state physics, aerophysics and structures. 

At Bendix there is truly Opportunity in Depth for 
outstanding young engineers and scientists. See your 
placement director for information about campus 
interview dates, or write to Director of University 
and Scientific Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpora- 
tion, 1108 Fisher Building, Detroit 2, Michigan. 



a million ideas 



JANUARY, 1960 




complete instrumentation for NASA's Project Mercury 

COLLINS ELECTRONICS 



The reality of McDonnell's manned sat- 
ellite will be a great milestone in NASA's 
exploration of space. Collins Radio Com- 
pany is proud to participate in Project 
Mercury by supplying the complete elec- 
tronics system, including orbital radio 
voice communication, a command system 
for radio control, a telemetry data system, 
a Minitrack beacon system, a transponder 
beacon system for precision tracking, and 
a rescue radio voice and beacon system. 

Collins needs engineers and physicists to 
keep pace with the growing demand for its 
products. Positions are challenging. Assign- 
ments are varied. Projects currently under- 
way in the Cedar Rapids Division include 
research and development in Airborne 
communication, navigation and identifica- 



tion systems. Missile and satellite tracking 
and communication. Antenna design. Ama- 
teur radio and Broadcast. 

Collins manufacturing and R&D in- 
stallations are also located in Burbank 
and Dallas. Modern laboratories and re- 
search facilities at all locations ensure the 
finest working conditions. 

Your placement office will tell you when 
a Collins representative will be on campus. 

For all the interesting facts and figures 
of recent Collins developments send for 
your free copies of Signn/, published quar- 
terly by the Collins Radio Company. Fill 
out and mail the attached coupon today. 
You'll receive every issue published during 
this school year without obligation. 



COLLINS 




Professional Placement, 
Collins Radio Company, 
Cedar Roplds, Iowa 



me each Collins Signal published 

chool year. 



COLLINS RADIO COMPANY • CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA • DALLAS. TEXAS • BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 



Address 


City 




State 




College or Univer 


ity 






Major degree 




Minor 




Groduotion date 


■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■a 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




DOW is tomorrow- minded 

plant 



Take just one for-instance: Plaquemine. Some five 
hundred acres of Louisiana sugar cane country once. 
Stately oaks and magnolias. Today they're still 
there. But growing harmoniously with them are the 
vivid contemporary colors of the new plant— the 
Dow reds and greens, gleaming whites, Confederate 
gray, businesslike black. They blend in with the 
oaks and magnolias to provide one of America's 
most modern and distinctive plant vistas. Along 
with the forward-looking products and the people 
who produce them, this tomorrow-minded Dow 
plant is a part of the new face of the new South. 

Plaquemine is located in one of the nation's fastest- 
growing concentrations of chemical manufacture. 
This now bustling Evangeline country offers abun- 
dant natural resources, an excellent network of 
transportation, good accessibility to great and 
developing markets and communities. And, perhaps 



most important of all— Old Man River— the limit- 
less Mississippi, with its never-ending source of 
fresh water and its gate to the ocean-going trade 
routes of the world. 

Today's Plaquemine is a symbol of Dow's tomorrow- 
minded growth— at one of the fastest rates in the 
industry. To keep pace with its output of products, 
new and old, Dow plants are building nationwide. 
Says the Chairman of the Board of Directors: "We 
build in boom times to keep up with the demand; 
we build in slump times for the future." And Dow 
continues to build its plants, products and people 
always with tomorrow in mind. 

If you would like to know more about the Dow 
opportunity, please write: Director of College 
Relations, Dept. 2425FW, the dow chemical 
COMPANY, Midland, Michigan. 



THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY • MIDLAND, MICHIOAN 

JANUARY, 1960 



A new dimension in 




bubble blowing 



This plastic bubble protects the antenna of a 
radically new aerial three-dimensional radar 
defense system. 

Sensitive to the inadequacies of conventional radar 
systems, engineers at Hughes in Fullerton devised 
a radar antenna whose pointing direction is made 
sensitive to the frequency of the electromagnetic 
energy applied to the antenna. This advanced tech- 
nique allows simultaneous detection of range, bear- 
ing and altitude. . .with a single antenna. 

Hughes engineers combined this radar antenna with 
"vest-pocket sized" data processors to co-ordinate 
antiaircraft missile firing. These unique data proc- 
essing systems pi'ovide: 

1. Speed — Complex electronic missile firing data was 
designed to travel through the system in milli- 
seconds, assuring "up-to-date" pinpoint position- 
ing of hostile aircraft. 

2. Mobility — Hughes engineers "ruggedized" and 
miniaturized the system so that it could be mounted 
into standard army trucks which could be de- 
ployed to meet almost any combat problem — even 
in rugged terrain. 

3. Reliability — By using digital data transmission 
techniques, Hughes engineers have greatly re- 
duced any possibility of error. 

Result: the most advanced electronics defense 
system in operation! 




Reliability of the advanced Hughes systems can be in- 
sured only with the equally advanced test equipment 
designed by Hughes El Segundo engineers. 

^ 1 




Other Hughes projects provide similarly stimulating 
outlets for creative talents. Current areas of Re- 
search and Development include advanced airborne 
electronics systems, advanced data processing 
systems, electronic display systems, molecular elec- 
tronics, space vehicles, nuclear electronics, electrolu- 
minescence, ballistic missiles. ..and many more. 
Hughes Products, the commercial activity of Hughes, 
has assignments open for imaginative engineers to 
perform research in semiconductor materials and 
electron tubes. 

Whatever your field of interest, you'll find Hughes 
diversity of advanced projects makes Hughes an 
ideal place for you to grow... both professionally 
and personally. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND PHYSICISTS 
Members of our staff will conduct 

CAMPUS INTERVIEWS 

MARCH 10 and 11, 1960 

For interview appointment or informational 

literature consult your College Placement Director. 




Tht Weefa 
leader in 
advanced 
ELECTRONICS 



HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY 

Culver City. Kl Setnnntu, Fullerton, New-port Beach, 

Malibit and Los Angeles, California 

Tucson, Arizona 



Falcon air-to-air guided missiles, shown in an en- 

1 vironmental strato chamber are being developed and 

manufactured by Hughes engineers in Tucson, Arizona. 




I 



Karl Pear son... on mystery versus ignorance 



Does science leave no mystery? On the contrary, 
it f)roclaims mystery where others profess Knowl- 
edge. There is mystery enough in the universe 
of sensation and in its capacity for containing 
tliose httle corners of consciousness wliich project 
their own prochicts. of order and law and reason, 

THE RAND CORPORATION, 

A nonprofit organization inpnccd in rcscardi on prol 



into an uni<nown and uni<nowable world. There 
is mystery enough here, only let us clearly distin- 
guish it from ignorance within the field of possible 
knowledge. The one is impenetrable, the other 
we are daily subduing. 

.-'Grammar of Science, 1892 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

(cms related to nalion.il security and tlie public interest 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



COME AND SEE US 



Get a Student's — Eye View of Engineering 



W. L. EVERITT 
Dean, College of Engineering 



En<riiieering is more a \v:\y of lite than a way of niakiiifj; 
a living. Hence, it is difficult to explain in succinct terms 
just what an engineer is or \\hat he does. One somewhat 
facetious definition has it that "an engineer is .someone who 
knows whether a thing will work before it is huilt — any 
fool knows afterward." Such a definition shows why m'athn- 
inatics is so important as an engineering tool, but does not 
begin to tell the whole story: how an engineer must work 
with people as well as with energy and materials, how he 
must predict and then fulfill the needs and desires of his 
fellow men, so that his product must meet socially desirable 
objectives — will both work and be wanted. No definition 
can make clear how the engineer must dream as well as pro- 
duce, or how he fits into our modern economic system so 
indispensably that many people think he, more than the 
members of any other profession, will determine the future 
of mankind. 

As a contribution to career guidance, the College of 
Engineering at the University of Illinois is most anxious to 
present engineering as a possible profession for the considera- 
tion of high school students in the state, the group from 
which members of this and all other professions must be 
drawn. Such a presentation is made in a variety of ways, 
and in cooperation with other groups who have similar ob- 
jectives. For that reason, we publish numerous booklets 
(such as our Careers in Engineering), we arrange (on invi- 
tation) for speakers at Career Days in high schools, and we 
support national organizations such as the Engineers' Coun- 
cil for Professional Development in their information efforts. 

However, nothing can convey a message of interest and 
hospitality quite as well as a person-to-person contact. We 
are, therefore, always glad to have high school students or 
parents come to Urbana or to the Chicago Undergraduate 
Division at the Pier to talk with our staff or to see our 
physical facilities. But once each year, in mid-March, we 
suspend classes so that students and faculty together can 
make a special concerted effort in displaying our whole Col- 
lege and its facilities for our visitors. This is our Engineer- 
ing ( )pen House, to which this i.ssue of Terhnoffrtiph is 
ilcdicated to gi\e the high schools prelunuiarv information. 



During the two days of March 11-12, we will have 
many interesting demonstrations, and almost everything lab- 
oratory-wise will be going at once. You may talk to stu- 
dents and faculty advisers as well as .see equipment in 
operation. Our Tau Beta Pi Honor Society even has a 
textbook roundup and will give interested visitors a scholar- 
ly, curricular point of view to balance the entertaining fea- 
tures in the laboratory areas. I myself find it a good time 
to learn more about engineering, to see our new facilities 
in operation, and to be pleasantly surprised by the new ways 
our students have found to present their own special fields 
and projects. 

I must admit that such a short, overall tour-visit can 
hardly convey to you a deep and broad understanding of 
engineering in terms of the philosophy I expressed in the 
opening paragraph — sometimes this takes years for even a 
practicing engineer to grasp in shaping his own attitudes 
toward life. But I hope that such an ob.servation of engi- 
neering education in action may help lay the foundation so 
that by combining it and other means high school students 
can find an answer to the critical question : Is engineering 
the right career for me? We are also, of course, anxious to 
have vocational advisers and other members of the high 
school faculties, as well as school administrators, parents, 
and the general public come to see us. 

If you wish, we can make arrangements to h.ave you talk 
individually with one or more members of ovn- faculty. In 
this connection, it would be helpful if you would write 
ahead so that we can plan appointments; but if your plans 
are uncertain until the last minute, come anyway and let 
us know when you get here. While I will not be in my 
office all the time (I, too, want to see what is going on), you 
can reach me or members of my staff through my secretary 
in Civil Engineering Hall, Room 106. 

May I extend, on behalf of our students and staff, a 
warm invitation to come to our 1960 Engineering Open 
House at I'rbana on IVlarch 1 1 and 12 to see a leading En- 
gineering College on parade. 



JANUARY, 1960 




OLLOW HE EADERisnogame 

with Delco. Long a leader in automotive radio engineering and 
production, Delco Radio Division of General Motors has charted a 
similar path in the missile and allied electronic fields. Especially, we are 
conducting aggressive programs in semiconductor material research, 
and device development to further expand facilities and leadership 
in these areas. Frankly, the applications we see for semiconductors are 
staggering, as are those for other Space Age Devices: Computors . . . 
Static Inverters . . . Thermoelectric Generators . . . Power Supplies. 

However, leadership is not self-sustaining. It requires 
periodic infusions of new ideas and new talent — aggressive new talent. 
We invite you to follow the leader— Delco — to an exciting, 
profitable future. 

If you're interested in becoming a part of this challenging 
Delco, GM team, write to Mr. Carl Longshore, Supervisor — 
Salaried Employment, for additional information — or talk to our 
representative when he visits your campus. 



^^ J^ELco Radio Division of General Motors 

KoKOMO, Indiana 



10 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• Shown above is a ireon refrigeration system ior manned flight environmental control systems, Garrett 

the Boeing 707. Through its unique design, a 10-ton designs and produces equipment for air-breathing 

cooling capacity is provided at one-tenth the weight aircraft as well as the latest space vehicles such as 

of commercial equipment. The leading supplier of Project Mercury and North American's X-15. 

DIVERSIFICATION IS THE KEY TO YOUR FUTURE 



Company diversification is vital to the graduate engi- 
neer's early development and personal advancement 
in his profession. The extraordinarily varied experi- 
ence and world-wide reputation of The Garrett 
Corporation and its AiResearch divisions is supported 
by the most extensive design, development and pro- 
duction facilities of their kind in the industry. 

This diversification of product and broad engineer- 
ing scope from abstract idea to mass production, 
coupled with the company's orientation program for 
new engineers on a rotating assignment plan, assures 
you the finest opportunity of finding your most profit- 
able area of interest. 

Other major fields of interest include: 
• Aircraft Flight and Eletfronic Systems — pioneer and 



THE 






major supplier of centralized flight data systems and 
other electronic controls and instruments. 

• Missile Systems — has delivered more accessory 
power units for missiles than any other company. 
AiResearch is also working with hydraulic and hot 
gas control systems for missiles. 

• Gas Turbine Engines — world's largest producer of 
small gas turbine engines, with more than 8,500 
delivered ranging from 30 to 850 horsepower. 



See the magazine, "The Garrett Corporation and 
Career Opportunities," at your college placement 
office. For further information write to Mr. Gerald 
D. Bradley in Los Angeles... 



/AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions 



Lus Angeles H, CuUlmma • Phoenix. Ar 



Systems, Packages and C(ini;i(inriiis for: aircraft, missile, nuclear and industrial applications 
JANUARY, 1960 H 




Guided tour 

of the 
solar system 




The new NASA Thor-boosted research rocket, DELTA, now being con- 
structed by Douglas, will set up big signposts for further space explorations. 
Combining elements already proved in space projects with an advanced 
radio-inertial guidance system developed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories 
of Western Electric Company, DELTA will have the versatility and accuracy 
for a wide variety of satellite, lunar and solar missions. Douglas insistence 
on reliability will be riding with these 90 foot, three-stage rockets on every 
shoot. At Douglas we are seeking qualified engineers to join us on this and 
other equally stimulating projects. Write to C. C. LaVene, Box COO M, Douglas 
Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 



Maxwell Hunter, Asst. Chief Engineer— Space Systems, goes over a 
proposed lunar trajectory with Arthur E. Raymond, 
Senior Engineering Vice President of 



DOUGLAS 



MISSILE AND SPACE SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ DC-8 JETLIMERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB I 



12 



I GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




spore looks like magnified. 



Some pollen isn't 
to be sneezed at 

.,.it may be clue to oil! 



One of nature's most 
closely-guarded secrets 
is being unraveled to- 
day by the painstaking 
efforts of research 
scientists working 
with clues millions of 
years old, some dating 
back as far as 500 mil- 
lion years. 

Scientists feel certain that vast supplies of oil lie 
undiscovered beneath the earth's surface. Only a few 
scattered and skimpy clues to its whereabouts exist. 
Fossils of plant and animal life are among the most 
important. But with the skill of an expert, nature has 
covered the trail well. In many areas, the better known 
fossils can't be found! 

Constantly searching for new clues, science "detec- 
tives" in the laboratories of Pan American Petroleum 
Corporation, a Standard Oil affiliate, have turned to 
the invisible pollen and spores that fill the air to the 
discomfort of hay fever sufferers. (Spores are similar 
to pollen and also can cause hay fever symptoms.) 
But these pollen and spores no longer peril allergy 
victims, for they have been embedded in rock for 
millions of years. 

These microscopic traces of plant life form the 
missing link, telling scientists the same story they 
normally get from the larger plant and animal fossils. 
Because of this new study, extensive areas, once 
passed over, have been opened to re-exploration. 
Scientists expect new oil discoveries will be made. 

As the result of such trail-blazing research work 
America's proved underground oil reserves have grown 
larger, prices have remained reasonable, and America 
has been assured an adequate supply to keep its 
defenses strong. 

WHAT MAKES A COMPANY A GOOD CITIZEN? 

Responsibility for the future is inherent in good citizen- 
ship. One way a company can discharge this obligation 
is through research aimed at expanding America's 
resources and assuring future generations the benefits 
we enjoy today. 




STANDARD OIL COMPANY 



THE SIGN OF PROGRESS .. 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



JANUARY, 1960 



13 




A RESUME IS A TWO-PARTY AFFAIR 



Throughout your engineering career, the name 
of the first employer appearing on your resume 
can be as significant as your education. But, in 
selecting that first employer, you should also 
consider his resume. 

ITT is the largest American-owned world-wide 
electronic and telecommunication enterprise. 
To give you an idea of the breadth of our 
activity . . . there are 80 research and manu- 
facturing units and 14 operating companies in 
the ITT System playing a vital role in projects 
of great national significance in electronics 
and telecommunications research, development, 
production, service and operation. 
The scope and volume of work entrusted to us 
by industry and the government opens a broad 
range of highly diversified engineering and 



technical positions in all areas of our work . . . 
from tiny diodes to complex digital computer 
systems and a massive network of global 
communications. 

In addition to the opportunities for work and 
association with distinguished engineers and 
scientists, our graduate education tuition re- 
fund program encourages engineers to continue 
their formal training . . . and the facilities 
for graduate work near ITT locations are 
superior. 

This is an all too brief resume. It would be 
hard to associate yourself with a company that 
off"ers the engineer greater choice of assign- 
ment. Write us about your interests — or see 
our representatives when they visit your 
campus. 



INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH CORPORATION 

67 Broad Street, New York 4, N. Y. 



rrffi 



FEDERAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • INTERNATIONAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • ITT COMPONENTS 
DIVISION • ITT FEDERAL DIVISION • ITT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS DIVISION • ITT LABORATORIES • 
INTELEX SYSTEMS. INC. • INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ELECTRIC CORPORATION • ITT KELLOGG 
DIVISION • ROYAL ELECTRIC CORPORATION • AMERICAN CABLE AND RADIO CORPORATION • 
LABORATORIES AND MANUFACTURING PLANTS IN 20 FREE-WORLD COUNTRIES 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Dean Speaks — 

The Importance of 
Communication in Engineering 

By Associate Dean Stanley H. Pierce 



Some people mistakenly believe that 
the acquisition of an education in tech- 
nical subjects alone is sufficient to be- 
come successful in engineerinu;. Al- 
though there may be isolated instances 
in which an individual has had a mod- 
erate degree of success with a purely 
technical education, it certainly is not 
to be recommended to prospective engi- 
neering students. 

Freshmen at Illinois ha\e often heard 
me say, "You will ne\er be successful 
in engineering by just filling your head 
with technical information. You may 
have e.xcellent ideas for new designs 
and technological improvements, how- 
ever, they will not be useable unless you 
can communicate them to someone else 
by means of the written or spoken 
word. Courses in rhetoric and speech 
will be as important to you and your 
career as any technical subject you may 
take. Study these courses as hard as you 
would study mathematics or physics." 

There is an old saying that "hind- 
sight is better than foresight." What 
do engineering graduates ha\e to sa\ 
about this area of communication in en- 
gineering? They can look back on their 
college education and evaluate it in 
light of their present engineering e\- 
I periences. 

Professor Herman A. Kstrin of the 

Newark College of Engineering wrote 

,ni interesting article on this subject in 

I the November 1959 issue of College 

I English, published by the National 

Cnvmcil of Teachers of English. He 

ivked several hiuidred alunuii of his 

i-ollege the question, "What ad\ice 

I would you give a freshman concerning 

I the study of English in an engineering 



curriculum?" Permission has been 
granted to include the answers to this 
question in the Technograph. There is 
a wealth of sound advice in the four- 
teen points, summarized by Professor 
F.strin below, which are applicable to 
both engineering and non-engineering 
students. 

1. Approach English as \ou \\ould 
any task. Work as hard at it as you 
need, to become proficient. English is 
goxerned by rules and laws as are all 
technical studies. Learn and use them. 

2. E'tilize every opportunity to write ; 
and in writing, practice convening ideas 
clearly and concisely. 

3. Treat English at least as import- 
antly as any techru'cal course and get as 
broad and comprehensi\e an English 
background as possible. 

4. Become proficient in expressing 
yourself on paper. Develop the habit 
of writing all decisions, since industry 
tries to avoid verbal orders. 

5. Learn the fundamentals of gram- 
mar well. Learn how to present ideas, 
to put important things first, and to 
eliminate the irrelevant. 

6. Learn to write technical papers 
and learn to read them. Learn how to 
organize and present a technical report 
verbally through use of charts and 
graphs. Above all, learn how to spell ! 
Misspelled words create the same im- 
pression as gravy stains on a necktie. 

7. Concentrate particularly in acquir- 
ing the abilit)' to write clear, concise 
letters and articles. Master completely 
not only grammar forms but also 
rhetoric. Become thoroughly able to 
think and speak on your feet. 



8. Treat English I as you would 
Physics I or Chemistry L The f<eii dis- 
places the slide rule /is an individual 
advances in cngincerint/. 

9. Pay close attention to the assign- 
ments. Advancement in business (in- 
cluding greater remuneration) can be 
achieved only by people who can ex- 
press their thoughts and desires in a 
manner that will make them be listened 
to by others. This can be accomplished 
only by speech or composition. 

10. L'^se your teacher harshly as \oiir 
critic. English is a subject as important 
as any of the rest, and you cannot af- 
ford the luxur\' of letting the teacher 
set the pace. 

11. Take English, but study coin- 
ntunication. This, more than any other 
quality which you may possess, will set 
the rate and extent of your professional 
advancement. 

12. Learn sentence structure and 
write intelligently. I think that men 
should be made to read other men's 
compositions and reports to sec how 
miserabl\- most people write. 

1.1. Do not consider English as a sec- 
ondary subject. It can be more valuable 
than any technical course. More respon- 
sibilities given to a person in his job 
usually mean more administrative func- 
tions — residting in less slide-rule work 
and greater need for effective English 
to commiuiicate ideas and policy. 

14. If you do not succeed in master- 
ing Engineering, be certain to obtain a 
mastery of English. For in the end it 
■u'ill be one subject you will need more 
than any other during your lifetime. 



JANUARY, 1960 



15 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, underthe direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



YOUR TASK FOR THE FUTURE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



"VVe do these things because of the unquenchable curiosify of 
Man. The scientist is continually asking himself questions and 
then setting out to find the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
have sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who con tell what we will find when we gel to the planets ? 



Who, at this present time, can predict what potential benefits 
to man exist in this enterprise ? No one con say with any accu- 
racy what we will find as we fly farther away from the earth, 
first with instruments, then with man. It seems fo me that we 
ore obligated to do these things, as human beings'.' 

DR. W. H. PICKERING, Director, JPL 



CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Research Facility operated for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 
STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for out immediate consideration. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or at the Laboratory. 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Newsflash: Washington, D.C., 5:45 A.M. The Plexus, carry- 
ing the first man to Mars, was just launched from Cape Canav- 
eral. Confusion and excitement reigned. Paul Getz, the passen- 
ger, was sent off amid chaos. His family received countless tele- 
grams of congratulations. All America was restless and proud. 



At 9:10 a.m. a report came in from 
Salina, Kansas, that the Plexus had 
failed, and had landed on the outskirts 
of the corn growing community. Ap- 
parently it had made less than one orbit 
of the earth before landing. Thus far 
there were no signs of Getz. Instruc- 
tions were broadcast for no one to enter 
the Plexus under any circumstances. 
Government officials wanted first hand 
observation in order to determine the 
cause of failure. 

Scientists and technicians in charge 
of the project were flown immediately 
to the site. Swift]\- but cautiously two 
men entered the ship. Although ex- 
ternally the appearance was identical to 
the Plexus, the interior revealed a more 
advanced knowledge of inter-spacial 
travel. The instrument panels were la- 
beled in unreadable hieroghphics. The 
investigators were frigjitened and con- 
fused. Why? How? 

Both ran from the spaceship like 
scared children. By this time, a crowd of 
curious spectators had gathered, re- 
strained by armed military police. How- 
ever, the attention was not on the metal 
tube, but a man dressed similarly to 
Getz, ready for space travel. From the 
crowd were hurled threatening ques- 
tions, but the man would make no reply. 
He looked neither Mongoloid, nor Ori- 
ental, nor Caucasoid. He was different. 
Indescribably different . . . He\\ildercd, 
the men fought their wa\' through the 
crowd to the nucleus of Army officials, 
told them the phenomena of the instru- 
ment panels and stared at the space-clad 
stranger. 

The research center in Washington 
was alerted to the freak experience in 
Kansas. More experts were Hown ui. 



H\- now, most of the American public 
was aware. Tension stretched tighter 
and tighter as time passed with no con- 
cluding results. 

Intense inspection of its mechanical 
properties led to the assumption that 
the origin of the ship was Mars. Mile- 
age was approximate. The fuel tank, 
halt empty, contained exactly the 
amount estimated for the Plexus. 

With this new store of information, 
officials again turned their attention to 
the stranger. His attempts to communi- 
cate were luu'ntelligible, his facial ex- 
pressions grotesque. Fear of the un- 
known roused the mob to \ioIeut out- 
bursts of nervous energy. 

A small boy dodged his wa\ through 
the crowd, pointing his toy tommy gun 
at the foreign intruder. "A . . . a . . . 
. . . a . . . a . . . aaaa . . ." Terrified 
bv the strange noise and insulted by 
the nervous laughter, the stranger grab- 
bed the child, shaking him and stamp- 
ing the plastic gun to pieces. From the 
turbulent crowd, men sprang forward 
and freed the child. The space visitor 
was mauled, beaten, bruised and left 
bleeding on tlie groinid. The distraught 
Army officials rushed him to the near- 
est hospital where he was given little 
chance to live. He made several at- 
tempts to communicate, but exhaustion 
defeated him each time. 

Washington, D.C. 1 :,>!) a.m.: com- 
munication was established witii Getz. 
Tlie feeble message decoded : 

"/ nni in captivity until the Mar- 
tian is returned. Earth ilepemh 
upon fllS safety." 

As this message was being relayed 
to Kansas, news of the stranger's death 
was being rela\e(i to Washington. 



— By Cynthia Patterson 



JANUARY, 1960 



17 




The word space commonly represents the outer, airless regions of the universe. 
But there is quite another kind of "space" close at hand, a kind that will always 
challenge the genius of man. 

This space can easily be measured. It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
distance between them . . . the kind of space found between mainland and off- 
shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inaccessible clearing and its supply 
base, between the site of a mountain crash and a waiting ambulance— above all, 
Sikorsky is concerned with the precious "spaceway" that currently exists be- 
tween all earthbound places. 

Our engineering efforts are directed toward a variety of VTOL and STOL 
aircraft configurations. Among earlier Sikorsky designs are some of the most 
versatile airborne vehicles now in existence; on our boards today are the ve- 
hicles that can prove to be tomorrow's most versatile means of transportation. 

Here, then, is a space age challenge to be met with the finest and most practical 
engineering talent. Here, perhaps, is the kind of challenge you can meet. 




IKORSKY 
AIRCRAFT 



For information about careers with us, please ad- 
dress Mr. Richard L. Auten, Personnel Department. 



One of the Divisions of United Aircraft Corporation 
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT 



18 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




AT RAYTHEON... 

Scientific imagination 
focuses on . . . RADAR ... 
SONAR . . . COMMUNICATIONS . . . 
MISSILE SYSTEMS . . . 
ELECTRON TUBE TECHNOLOGY... 
SOLID STATE 

Challenging professional assignments are of- 
fered by Raytheon to outstanding graduates 
in electrical engineering, mechanical engin- 
eering, physics and mathematics. These as- 
signments include research, systems, devel- 
opment, design and production of a wide 
variety of products for commercial and mil- 
itary markets. 

For specific information, visit your place- 
ment director, obtain a copy of "Raytheon 
. . . and your Professional Future," and ar- 
range for an on-campus interview. Or you 
may write directly to Mr. John B. Whitla, 
College Relations, 1360 Soldiers Field Road, 
Brighton 36, Massachusetts. 



Excellence in Eleclrontct 



JANUARY, 1960 



19 



What are the Odds? 



From PRECIS 



H( 



ill 



\()u live. 



What arc >our chances of winiiiiiK 
the Irish Sweepstakes? Of drawing a 
perfect hand at bridge? Of acquiring a 
mate, if presently unattached ? 

No one can tell you for certain, of 
course, but the mathematical experts 
who spend their lives doping out the 
laws of chance can do almost as well: 
they can tell you the odds. 

What, for example, are the mathe- 
matical chances of your living to a ripe 
old age? According to annuity tables 
worked out by insurance actuaries, the 
odds are that a twenty-year-old man 
will live 54.23 years longer; a girl of 
the same age can expect 59.43 addition- 
al years of life. 

Once you reach 30, the odds say you 
will survive another 44.61 years if you 
are a man, another 49.70 if a member 
of "the weaker sex." At 40, figure on 
another 35.15 (or 40.11) years; at 50, 
you're odds-on to hang around for 26.23 
(36.81) (twelve-months) more. 

Men of sixty are favored to sunive 
till 78 ; women of the same age are 
good bets to reach 82. Once you've 
achieved 70, the odds say you'll sur\i\e 
past 80, giving the men 11.86 more 
years and women 14.18. 

Rut lest you become over confident 
and do something silly — like 80 miles 
an hour — remember that your chances 
of accidental injruy this year are about 
1 in 17, and that accidents are the 
priman' cause of death from age 1 to 
44! 

Unfortunately, yovu' chances of acci- 
dentally striking it rich are much, much 
slimmer. The odds against any single 
ticket winning the Irish Sweepstakes? A 
sad 60,000 to one. 

According to information supplied by 
Facit, Inc., creators of precision-made 
Swedish biisiness machines, even great- 
er are tiie odds against your drawing a 
royal flush at poker: 649,739 to one. On 
four of a kind, they drop to 4,164. The 
odds on getting a Hush are only 508 to 



one against you, and a straight comes 
even easier at t254 to one. 

You can easily figure your chances of 
a straight or a flush by counting the 
number of cards that will do it against 
the number of cards remaining in the 
deck. It's 47 to 8 on the first, 47 to 9 
on the second. 

You have 4 chances in 47 of drawing 
an inside straight — a bet hardly worth 
taking unless the table is likely to con- 
tain, at the very least, 12 times as much 
money as you're likely to wager. And 
then you may lose because an inside 
straight can be beaten. 

How about bridge? The odds against 
a perfect hand — all 13 cards of the 
same suit — are a ridiculous 635,013,- 
599,599 to one. But few card players 
stop to think that the odds against their 
picking up any specified hand — includ- 
ing that awful one that Fate dealt you 
last night — are exactly the same as the 
odds against holding thirteen spades. 

Has a whole table ever held perfect 
hands at one deal ? Yes — and it hap- 
pened quite recently — just this past 
April. The lucky players: the Duke of 
Marlborough and some aristocratic pals 
at a London bridge table. The odds 
against this particidar mluke, as com- 
puted with the help of a Facit calc\i- 
lator, were 53,644,737,765,488,702,- 
839,247,440,000 to one! 

Hut if \ou think those odds are high, 
just tr\- to calculate the odds against 
the Facit, or the Odhner ading machine 
— or any other precision machine — mak- 
ing a mistake. The odds against such a 
boner are infinite ! 

Often called a gamble, marriage, too, 
has computable odds. At the age of 
twenty, a girl has nine chances in ten 
of marrying at some time during her 
life. At 25 she has 78 chances in 100 of 
marrying, by 30 her chances are 55 out 
of 100, a year later she has an even 
chance, and by 32 the odds are slightly 
against her — 16.4 chances in 100 of be- 
coming a Mrs. 

A man of 30, on the other hand, has 
72 chances in 100 of finding a wife, 



and the odds don't begin to work against 
him till the age of 35, when he has 
slightly less than one chance in two of 
marrying. (A woman of the same age 
battles three to one odds against finding 
a mate.) There are 31.7 chances in lOO 
that a man of 40 will wed ; one chance 
out of five that a woman of the same 
age will marry. 

What are the chances of wedded bliss 
including a set of twins, triplets, quad- 
ruplets or quints? Though multiple 
births do tend to "run in families, " the 
theoretical odds against any expanctant 
mother giving birth to twins are 90 to 
one. The odds against her producing 
triplets are 9,000 to one, 900,00(1 
against quadruplets and 90,000,0(10 
against repeating the accomplishment of 
Papa and Mama Dionne! 

But surely you can count on a tift\- 
fifty chance of getting a boy (or a girl 
if you want one)? Not quite; Actually 
the ods are very slightly in favor of hav- 
ing a son. One hundred and five boys 
are born for every 100 girls. Doctors 
know that the very young mother ( teens 
and early twenties) is even more likely 
to produce a son. 

The law of averages has no influence 
in determining the sx of a child — or any 
other issue in doubt. No fallacy has cost 
more people more money than the 
"lightning doesn't strike twice in the 
same place" myth. It's even cost lives! 
The chances of getting "heads" on a 
coin toss, no matter how many "heads" 
have rolled before, is always one in two. 

And many soldiers in World War I 
found, to their cost, that a newh' made 
shell-hole was no safer a refuge than a 
trench which had not been previously 
hit. It's true that the chances of two 
shells striking exactly the same spot are 
very small. But after the first one has 
hit, the chance that a second one will 
strike the same place is no smaller than 
the chance that it will strike any other 
point on the battlefield ! 

But if \ou a\oid shell-holes, tire 
blowouts and lovdette tables, your 
own chances of sur\i\al couldn't be bet- 
ter. 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Getting the jump in a card game 
can mean hurdling tremendous 
odds. You hove only one chance 
in 649,739 of drawing a royal 
flush in poker, one in 4,164 of 
getting four of a kind. But the 
odds against a perfect bridge 
hand-635,599,599 to one-are 
no higher than the odds against 
getting any specified hand in 
the deck! (Figures and drawings 
from Facit, Inc.) 





Using more complex methods of 
doping out life expectancies, 
statisticians hove come up with 
figures that would make any- 
body flip. The average citizen of 
20 is odds-on to survive at least 
another 54 years. At 30, he's 
favored to live another 44 years, 
the 40-year-old can expect an- 
other 35 years of life, men of 50 
are odds-on to survive post 75. 
And the outlook for women is 
even better! 



JANUARY, 1960 



21 



Number Four in a Scrict 




ENGINEERING GRADUATES — YOUR 

STEPPING 
STONES 
TO 



Just as the satisfactory recovery of an or- 
bital vehicle signals the success of a space 
project, you, as a professional engineer, will in 
time enjoy increased prestige in your company 
and community, a high standard of living, and 
personal pride in the knowledge that your con- 
tributions have advanced the art of aeronautical 
and space technology. 

At McDonnell — a large number of relatively 
young engineers are already enjoying the hall- 
marks of success mentioned above. You, too, can 
■ write f/oH?- success story with us by taking ad- 
^- vantage of McDonnell's Stepping Stones to 
■*',• Space. 

Learn more about our company and com- 
munity by seeing our Engineering Representa- 
tive when he visits your campus, or, if you 
prefer, write a brief note to: Raymond F. Kaletta 
Engineering Employment Supervisor 
P.O. Box 516, St. Louis 66, Missouri 




llluslfatiny McDonnell's youthful and dynamic management is 
Jotin Yardley, age 34. Project Engineer-Project Mercury. John re- 
ceived his BSAE from Iowa State in 1944. and his MS Applied 
Mechanics Degree from Washington U., St. Louis, in 1950. 




22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




'SWEATING MY PHYSICS FINAL? WHY-- NO! 
WHAT MAKES YOU ASK THAT?" 



i JANUARY, 1960 

\ 



23 



Special Section on 

ENGINEERING OPEN 
HOUSE 

March 11 and 12 



INDEX 

Aeronautical 26 

Agricultural 28 

Ceramic 30 

Chemical 32 

Civil 34 

Electrical 36 

General 38 

Feature: Betatron 42 

Industrial 44 

Mechanical 46 

Metallurgical 48 

Mining and Petroleum 50 

Physics 52 

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 54 

Engineers in the Armed Forces ._-. 56 



24 THE TECHNOGRAPH 



AERONAUTICAL 

ENGINEERING 



Aerodynamics 

Acroilx iiaiiiii's is the ticlil ot M'Vd- 
iiautiial eiifjiiifi-riiiji; which tli-als witli 
the (Ifteriniiiation of the flows past a 
boily immersed in a fluid medium, and 
the forces and moments wliich they 
produce on the body. 

To aid in the stuil\ of aerodynamics, 
l.iboratory experiments are conducteil 
ar)d the results are employed in sol\- 
insr associated problems. The shock tube 
which will be on display in Aero Lab 
H generates a shock wave which mo\es 
past a model, producing flow velocities 
up to 20 times the speed of soimd for 
very short durations of time. By pho- 
tographing the model during this period 
with a high speed camera, valuable data 
is obtained. The smoke tunnel, also on 
display in Lab H, enables the engineer 
to stud\ low speed flows past wing sec- 
tions at various angles of attack. This 
is accomplished by injecting parallel 
streams of smoke into air passing over 
an airfoil which in turn trace the path 
of the air stream lines. The analog com- 
puter provides solutions of flight re- 
gime problems by means of circuit bal- 
ancing. Such problems would be ex- 
tremely difficult to solve without the 
aid of this valuable electronic device. 

Students also study aerodynamics 
through individual research. Two ex- 
amples of this are the working models 
of a helicopter and a ground-effect ve- 
hicle which will be demonstrated for 
(Open House visitors. These devices are 



employed in examining the phenomena 
of li()\ering and vertical take-offs and 
landings. Through such research will 
eventually come airliners which are cap- 
able of landing on a football field and 
still travel in level flights at supersonic 
speeds from city to cit\. 

Aircraft Structures Display 

Once upon a time when Sir Barn- 
stormer and his steed, the Biplane, were 
champions of the air, the primary prob- 
lem of aircraft structural engineers was 
to design an aircraft structure whose 
strength was superior to the air loads 
supplied to it. Loss of material stren;uh 
due to vibration and high temperatures 
was unheard of. 

Today however, as aircraft speeds 
creep past mach S. such as in the X-15 
rocket airplane, the "structures man" is 
required to become well versed in struc- 
tural problems whose complexities were 
not even imagined. 

Flutter, or vibration, not only of con- 
trolled surfaces such as ailerons and ele- 
vators but also of wings and fuselage 
panels, plagues the modern aircraft 
structural engineer. In our wind-tunnel. 
Lab A, we will have an airfoil section 
installed which demonstrates the phe- 
nomena of flutter. 

Structures can no longer be analyzed 
only as single strength systems. Due to 
heat addition from air friction temper- 
ature rise and material properties are 




The piasma-jef in operation 



impaired. To combat strength losses due 
to these temperature rises, we can : 

a. use a heavier structure 

b. use improved materials 

c. emiiioN a combination of steps a 
and b. 

The last alternative is usually the 
necessary one. In Lab B we will ha\e 
a display of some of the high tempera- 
ture probleins and their solutions. 

In addition to the displays in these 
relatively new fields, a Baldwin Test- 
ing Machine will be used to exhibit the 
torsional failures of columns loaded in 
compression. Photoelasticity and its use 
in explaining stress fields will be dem- 
onstrated. 

Samples of aircraft honey-comb struc- 
tures and some small parts will also be 
shown. 

Aircraft Propulsion 

Did you ever hear of a bladeless tur- 
bine? Well, believe it or not, the Aero 
Department will have on display a Tes- 
la turbine, which extracts power from 
high-pressure air, gas or steam using 
nothing more than a series of plain flat 
steel discs. The friction of the gas 
passing over the disks rotates them at a 
high speed, thereby providing power 
with greater simplicity and far less 
weight than any conventional gas tur- 
bine. 

In\ented b\ Nikola Tesia in l*^!,^, 
this device is now being developed by 
the department for use in light aircraft. 
Because of the lack of blades, the tiu-- 
bine can produce much more power per 
pound and can operate at higher tem- 
peratures; and at the same time it is 
far cheaper and simpler than the bladed 
gas turbine. It will be demonstrated in 
Aero Lab B. 

Aero Lab A will sound like Cape 
Canaveral when our working model 
rocket motor is demonstrated. Using 
hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, this 
motor works on the same principle as 
those used on our biggest missiles. 

Also demonstrated in Lab A will be 
a plasma jet generator, a propulsion 
system of the future. Creating a jet hot- 
ter than the surface of the sun, the 
plasma generator can produce up to ten 
times as much thrust per pound of fuel 
as the conventional chemical rocket en- 
gines. The plasma generator also is the 
power source of the hypersonic wind 
tunnel which subjects models of ballis- 
tic missiles and space vehicles to the ex- 
treme temperatures they will encounter 
on re-entering the atmosphere from 
outer space. You will see an actual 
model of a missile nose cone melt like 
butter before your eyes. 

On display in Aero Lab B will be 
an actual working model of a ramjet 
engine. Also there will be full-scale 
cutaway displays of turbojet, pidsejet 
and rocket engines. 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Prof. McCloy and Prof. Yen are shown operating the Tesia turbine 




Shown obove is the shock tube which is used by the Aeronautical and Mechanical 
Engineering Departments for research. A rapidly expanding gas travels the 
length of this tube creating shock waves which may be studied. 



JANUARY, 1960 



27 



AGRICULTURAL 

ENGINEERING 



Kngineeriiig, an essential in a;irieul- 
tural progress, is the theme tor the Agri- 
cultural Kngincering Open House dis- 
play of 10()(). By use of actual machines, 
models, and displays the Illinois Student 
Branch of the American Society of Ag- 
ricultural Engineers will present a few 
of the projects and products of engi- 
neering research. 

Agricultural I''ngineers will feature 
the newest method of transportation 
developed by man, the "Aeromobile." 
The aeromobile developed by Dr. W. 
R. Bertelsen, Nepon.set, Illinois, pow- 
ered by a 75 H.P. engine rides on an air 
cushion free of the surface of the ground 
moving at speeds up to 40 miles per 
hour. The engine drives a fan that pro- 
vides the air cushion that the aeromobile 
rides on. Steering is provided by flaps or 
fins that control the flow of air and lie- 
termine the direction of travel for the 
machine. The inventor reports that the 
machine will travel over water, hover 
over a field or move in any direction at 
will. The machine may enable many 
new kinds of agricultural applications 
to be developed with transportation over 
wet fields, swamps and bogs becoming 
possible. See it at the Agricultural En- 
gineering (^pen House Exhibit. 

Agricultural engineering cons'sts of 
four divisions, each embracing the work 
being done in four great areas of agri- 
culture. These are the divisions of 
power and machinery, soil and water, 
farm structures and farm electrification. 

The power and machinery exhibit 
will be high lighted by the presence of 
a "fuel cell" tractor, a research project 
of Allis Chalmers Co., which utilizes a 
greatly different method of producing 
power than found in conventional farm 
tractors. The fuel cell instantly con- 
verts chemical energy to electrical en- 
ergy in the fonn of direct current. The 



chemical energ\' pro\iding the fuel is a 
gas nuxture which is largely propane. 

Although this is a research tractor, it 
is of commercial size and will pull a 
two-bottom plow. The main advantage 
of the engine is its efficiency in the range 
of 60-70 per cent, whereas the best 
diesel engines are about 40 per cent ef- 
ficient. 

Another feature of the power and 
machinery exhibit will be a tractor 
equipped with an automatic guidance 
system. This system is capable of com- 
pletely guiding the tractor as it goes 
through the field. The onh' effort re- 
quired of the operator is that which is 
necessary to turn tlie tractor at the end 
of the field. 

Also included in the exhibit will be 
cutaway views of automatic and con- 
ventional tractor transmissions as well 
as a corn planter test stand which shows 
the working mechanisms of a modern 
farm corn planter. 

The soil and water area will ha\e a 
field tile flow line demonstration. B\' 
the use of colored dyes added to the 
water flowing through a glass faced 
sand tank, the flow lines of water to a 
subsurface drainage tile can be observed. 
This model allows the comparison of 
actual flow patterns with those deri\ed 
from theoretical analysis. 

Another demonstration will consist of 
a portable water channel and scale mod- 
els of various water control structures. 
The use of these models for the hy- 
draidics of various designs may be ob- 
served as well as the variations in ca- 
pacity for various How conditions. 

The soil and water division will also 
feature several other interesting ex- 
hibits. One of these will be a sprinkler- 
type irrigation set-up showing how the 
rate of application of water may be 
varied through the use of various size 
nozzles and direction of spray. The sec- 



ond model (iispla\ is that of soil erosion 
control structures. These plastic models 
are of flumes, V-notch spillways, and 
dams with drop-box inlets. There are 
also enlarged photographs of field con- 
ditions where these structures are being 
used. 

The third division is that of farm 
structures. The increasingly wide- 
spread use of steel construction will be 
shown by a complete farmstead model. 
This model shows the use of steel build- 
ings in a typical beef and swine opera- 
tion. 

Another model present will he that 
of a machine to test trusses of all t\|ies. 
This machine allows accurate labora- 
tory determination of the effects of 
loads on the various types of tni;ses 
which are used in farm biuldings. 

The fourth division is that of farm 
electrification where there is very much 
interest in feed processing and handling. 
This will be illustrated by a model of 
a completely automatic live' tock feeding 
system. Such a system is capable of mix- 
ing the desired ration and t'ci deliver- 
ing it to the animals in the correct 
amount at the desired t nie. This is 
tnd\ the start of "farm automation." 

The extent to which electricit\ is 
put to use on the farm is well brought 
out by a model farm huout. Operation- 
al electric devices on the model show- 
how electricity is used to reduce labor. 

Of much interest to niati\, especially 
swine pioducers, wdl be the display of 
electric floor heating. A concrete slab 
is cast arovuul a layout of electrical heat- 
ing cables which results in a floor for 
which the temperatuie nia\ be con- 
trolled. 

For a first-hand view of some of the 
many advances taking place in Agricul- 
tural Engineering be sure to stop at the 
tent housing the previous!) described ex- 
hibits. You'll be glad that you did! 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This student is shown spraying 
dust into a tractor air cleaner to 
test the effectiveness of various 
filters. 



The radio-controlled tractor above will be demonstrated at this year's 
Open House. 




I This air tent will house all the Agricultural Engineering displays. It is supported by air blown from a crop dryer. 

I JANUARY, 1960 29 



CERAMIC 

ENGINEERING 



'riic wiiilcl ill wliich we Inc. the lilc 
we lead is inw made p()^sil1l^■ rhinuLih 
tlic ili'vclopini'iit anil use ot ci-ramu' 
proilucrs. Ceramics is teehnicalK ile- 
fineil as: "iion-nietallir, inorganic ma- 
terials wliK'li ie(iuiie the use ot liif^li 
temperature in their processin;:." Hut 
what does ceramics mean to me — wliat 
iloes ceramics mean to you? 

Ceramics is the foundation cil our 
liomes; the bricks, (ibreglass insulation, 
,ind plaster in the walls, the windows, 
the sanitar\ facilities, the ceramic coat- 
ed ranijes, washers and bath tubs, the 
dishes, the ^rlassware, the mirrors, and 
e\cn the lif;lu bulbs. But this li-t is 
iinK the beginning. The television s-t 
h.is a ceramic picture tube and many 
small ceramic electronic parts. Outside 
the home the impact of ceramics still 
hea\ily inHuences our lives. The streets 
upon which we walk, the sewers we 
need, the bmldings we admire — the 
heaut\ (it our comnu;nit\ is due in a 
l.ir^e extent to ceranuc jiroducts. 

Ceramics though, has a more subtle 
function in our e\eryda\' lives. With- 
out ceramics, there would be no automo- 



biles, no sil\ iTw;ire, no airplanes — no 
steel because ceramic materials line the 
inside of the blast furnaces in the steel- 
making processes, and practically e\ery 
other turn.ice in existance. ( )ther ma- 
terials simpl\ cannot withstand the 
temperatures recjuired in toda\'s manu- 
tacturing processes. Almost e\ery article 
we possess either has within itself or 
has been manufactured using ceramic 
inateiials or products. With a small in- 
sight into the products at our disposal 
and the processes used in their manu- 
f,-icrure we can easily see that niir world 
is tniK — a ceramic world! 

Iiut what about the future.'' It. too, 
will be a ceramic world. I here will he 
ceranuc structures for space \ehR'les, 
ceramic rocket engine parts, ceramic nu- 
clear fuels, high temperature ceramic 
electronic components, fabrication of 
cenunic components for atomic piles and 
many other products that now seem onh 
like the wildest of ilreams. How is the 
ceramic engineering curriculum |irepar- 
ing for tomorrow so that we all ma\ 
have a better toda\ ? 

Ceramic engineering is t.aught in a 




Determining the temperature of a porcelain enamel smelting furnace by 
means of an optical pyrometer. 



curriculum which maintains a sound en- 
gineering basis in mathematics, chemis- 
try, physics, applied mechanics and en- 
gineering design with clecti\es in so- 
cial science and humanities. On this 
base the stud\ of high temperature re- 
actions ;ind equilibria in the processing 
of nonmetailic, inorganic raw materials 
is expanded to apph' to the problems 
of a wide \ariet\ of the process indus- 
tries. In |iarticular is the "ceramic in- 
dustry;" ie., glass, refractories, porce- 
lain enamel, structural clay products, 
abrasives whitewares, electrical compo- 
nents, cements, etc. This may include, 
however, the mineral processing activi- 
ties of ,in\ industrv in which high tem- 
perature technologh is emphned. 

With the advent of the nuclear era, 
supersonic tra\el and missiles, the field 
of ceramic engineering has become even 
more important. These new endeavors 
have made necessary traimng in the 
high temperature disciplines, in elec- 
tronic ceramics and in similar .-illied 
fields. 

Opportunities for professional devel- 
opment for engineers with a ceramic 
background are almost unlimited. The 
broad training received in ceramic engi- 
neering leads the graduates to positions 
of responsibility in fundamental investi- 
gations and research on materials, pro- 
duct development, process development 
and supervision, quality control, manu- 
facturing administration, or sales and 
technical service in the use of raw ma- 
terials, mineral products, and processing 
equipment. Tho.se engineers with par- 
ticular .iptitude for engineering design 
have an opportunity for employment in 
fields where a knowledge of the engi- 
neering properties of materials at ele- 
vated temperatures is of paramount in- 
terest, such as industrial furnace design, 
a'.-ronautical and space applications, or 
nuclear and conventional power plants. 
The future ceramic engineer, in short 
may be a high-temperature materials 
specialist in a modern engineering team 
devoted to research, development, opera- 
tion, or sales in ,-i world that has needed 
and used ceramics from the ancient 
aqueducts and roads of Rome to the 
spectacular advances of the space age. 
This world is truly a ceramic world ; 
and a glimpse of it mav' be obtained at 
the 1960 Engineering Open House. 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




An hydraulic press is used to form dry shapes of ceramic materials in a study 
of desirable dies and pressure relationships. 



JANUARY, 1960 



31 



CHEMICAL 



ENGINEERING 



l*iT>i)iis touring the Kasr Clu-niistr\ 
Hiiililiiii,' ilni-ins rhe I'lWI Kiifiiiu-eiiiij: 
( )pcii House will be shown some ot rhe 
processes atul equipment used e\eiy il:i\ 
in the industrial world. The majority 
of the processes arc located in the four- 
story I Hit Operations Laboratory and 
are ot proportions approximating tlie 
size ot pilot plants which are simpl> 
scaled-down, tulh -operating models of 
the commercially-employed units. The 
dl•si,^n and operation of the pilot plant 
is ijeneralU the last important step in 
the sequence of events which often 
starts in a chemist's test tube and which 
ma.\- or may not result in the full-scale 
operation of a chemical plant. Pilot 
plant work thus constitutes a \ery im- 



portant and challenuint; phase of chenu- 
cal engineerin;;. 

The tour of the "Init Ops Lab," as 
it is called by those closely associated 
with it, will consist of demonstrations 
and explanations of gas absorption, dis- 
tillation, filtration and radiochemistry. 
Exhibits not in the main laboratory in- 
clude a temperatme measurement dis- 
play, a Chem-Magic show, and a series 
of films showing the chemical engineer 
applying his talents in industry. 

The gas absorption displa\-, more 
commonly called "Chem-Pop," consists 
of a long, clear, packed column which 
contains uncarbonated popade. The car- 
bonating gas carbon dioxide, is then 
bubbled through the column and is ;ib- 





This bomb is used to obtain extremely high pressures. Variations in pressure 
are detected by the defraction of light rays passing through the high 
pressure area. 

32 



sorbed by the liquid, thus producing a 
refreshing drink of sparkling Chem-Pop 
as well as demonstrating the process of 
gas absorption. 

.Another clear plastic colunui is em- 
ployed to visually exhibit the distilla- 
tion process. A solutioti of two liquids 
of different boiling points, one of which 
is colored, is heated and thus vaporized. 
The \apor phase, consisting initially of 
both components, is forced up through 
the distillation column which, by means 
of tower trays and a uniform tempera- 
ture gradient gradually separates the 
two \apors. In this particular two com- 
ponent separation, one compoi'iMit (the 
lower boiling of the two) goes out the 
top of the tower as a vapor while the 
other condenses and flows back down 
through the column. 

The apparatus used to demonstrate 
filtration is called a continuous vacu- 
um rotary filter. A slurry of colored 
calcium carbonate in water is fed to 
the bottom section of the slowly rotat- 
ing, cloth-wrapped drum. The water is 
then sucked through the cloth hy \irtue 
of a partial vacuum drawn on the in- 
side of the drum, leaving the sludge or 
filtrate adhering to the cloth. The fil- 
trate is later removed by releasing the 
\acuum and scraping the drum. 1 his 
t\pe of filter has found widespread use 
in many separation processes. 

The radiochemistry exhibit is intend- 
ed to explain the operation and applica- 
tions of geiger covmters anil other in- 
struments and equipment utilized in ex- 
perimental work and in radioactive 
chemical tracer techniques. 

The temperature measinTment dis- 
play, located in the instrumentation lab- 
oratory on the .second floor, will include 
a more or less chronologically based ar- 
rangement of the many devices used by 
chemical engineers to measure and con- 
trol that very important process vari- 
able, temperature. The display contains 
a rather extensive number of instru- 
ments, ranging from the simple mer- 
cur\ thermometer to devices as complex 
as the optical pyrometer and the self- 
balancing potentiometer type tempera- 
ture recorded and controller. 

Intended both to balance the tour of 
the scientific and engineering aspects of 
chemical engineering and to give the 
possibly travel-weary visitor a chance to 
relax for a few minutes, are the Cheni 
Ma'iic show and the films. These are 
both performed periodically and will 
pro\e to he entertaining as well as edu- 
cational. 

Another unique feature of the Chemi- 
cal Engineering Department's Open 
House Program is the use of a group 
of guides, whose purpose is to lead the 
\isitors through the building and dis- 
pla\s and to answer their questions on 
the subject of chemical engineering. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Fermentation apparatus in chemical engineering enables biochemistry students 
to study all types of biological action. 



JANUARY, 1960 



33 



CIVIL 



ENGINEERING 



Have you cvt-r thouglu ot the miser- 
able, lowly civil engineer, out in the 
rain aiiii cold, shoutinsj tour-letter words 
at the laborers to encourage them to 
work a little less slowly? Have you 
ever thought of how frustrated he must 
be when rain washes out his new road ; 
or when the foundations upon which he 
was going to place his new building sud- 
denly sink into the ground for no ap- 
parent reason ; or when a flood rises to 
tear away his new and beautiful bridge? 
If you have ever thought about this 
miserable, lowly engineer, you have 
probably become convinced that you 
don't have to be crazy to be a civil en- 
gineer, but it helps. 

You may have looked in open- 
mouthed awe at a news film of a rocket 
laimching and decided that you would 
have to be a rocket engineer. Or, you 
may have taken a tour through nuclear 
reactor facilities, such as Argonne Na- 
tional Laboratories, and decided that 
there wa,s no other field worth consid- 
ering except nuclear physics. Then on 
\()ur way home, \ou passed a location 
where a new road was being construct- 
ed. Amid the dust, noise, and confusion, 
you saw a man who appeared to be en- 
cased in dirt from head to toe. This. 
you guessed, was a civil engineer. But 
after all, who would want to work in 
conditions like that? How can a grini> 
civil engineer compare to a distinguished 
scientist in a white coat working with 
complex equipment ? 

If you have ever thought of these 
things, you have been thinking of the 
wrong person. The true civil engineer 
is a combination of construction boss, 
on-the-spot computer and catalogue of 
engineering know-how, designer, and 
public relations man. He is constantly 
trying to find new and less expensive 
means of achieving important goals. 

The civil engineer's college education 
provides a complete back-ground in tech- 
nical subjects and in areas which will 
help the engineer to communicate with 
his fellow man. The Department of 
Civil Engineering at the University of 
Illinois is acknowledged as one of the 
finest in the country. There are many 
prominent citizens of this country who 
spent many of their college hours in 
Civil Kngineering Hall at the U. of I. 



The qu:dit> ot the graduato, hi)we\er, 
is only a reflection ot the qualir> of the 
faculty. 

At the 1960 Engineering Open House 
the student civil engineers plan to dem- 
onstrate how they go about developing 
this complete backgroimd to aid them 
in their future fields of endeavor. They 
will show how known principles are 
applied and how new theories are 
proven. If you are interested in the 




The traditional civil engineer 

world about \()u, do not bypass the in- 
formative displays of the ci\il engi- 
neers. 

Have you ever watchctl a building 
being constructed and wondered what 
was going on? You will be able to see 
the whole process from the initial cost 
estimates to the laying of the last brick. 
If \ou decide to pursue this phase of 
ci\il engineering, you will not only re- 
ceive instruction in the efficient use of 
heavy construction equipment but also 
in labor relations and in the economics 
of engineered construction. 

Most of you either are or soon will 
be drivers. The design and construction 
of the highways iqion which you drive 
is another of civil engineering's many 



piiases. The proper niethml of timing 
traffic through a town wdl be demon- 
strated. There will also be a model 
of a modern traffic interchange. This 
type of structure will become more 
prevalent as the interstate highway sys- 
tem nears completion. There will also 
be examples of student-prepared high- 
way designs. These show the amount of 
material which a student highway engi- 
neer masters during his years of study. 

In recent years, you have no doubt 
read of the many floods that have oc- 
cured in the United States. While these 
flood have caused much damage, the 
amount of such damage is slight when 
compared with the additional damage 
that has been prevented by the hydraulic 
engineer. The students of hydraulic en- 
gineering show in model form just how 
a flood is prevented. Flood control is 
just one small part of the main interest 
of hydraulic engineers which is the con- 
trol and efficient utilization of water, 
our most abundant and most misused 
national resource. 

Closely associated with the liydraulic 
engineer is the sanitary engineer. After 
water is made available to a population 
center, it must be made fit for human 
consumption. The student sanitary engi- 
neers plan to show the advances in their 
field through the use of a model water 
purification system. The job of water 
purification is almost the direct opposite 
of the other task of the sanitary engi- 
neer which is the disposal of industrial 
and human waste. The difficulties of 
this task have been greatly increased be- 
cause of the general use of radioactive 
material in some industries. Some ways 
in which these difficulties are overcome 
will be of interest to all. 

The most impressive means of ma.ss 
transportation is the railroad. As the 
years go by, the efficient use of the 
railway systems becomes more of a prob- 
lem to the railway engineer. The use 
of modern equipment and better meth- 
ods of planning are two solutions to the 
problem. Methods of planning will be 
shown through the use of models. Full- 
size modern equipment will be dem- 
onstrated on a nearby siding. This may 
be your only chance to see the inside 
of a diesel locomotive. 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The most basic but at the same time 
the most complex ph;use of civil eng;i- 
neeriiig is the study of structures. Most 
of the other phases are in some way 
concerned with structures. Highway 
and railroad bridges, dams, and filtra- 
tion plants are all structures. Many ex- 
amples of the various types of struc- 
tures will be shown in model form. You 
will get an opportunity to see structural 
research in action in the crane bay of 
Talbot Laboratory. Since all structures 
must eventualh carry their loads to the 



earth, the types of foundations become 
important. Some of the spectacular 
foundation failures in the past will be 
clcpictcd. 

The \ arious parts of a structvne must 
tit together accurately. The lengths and 
widths of the parts are known, there- 
fore the entire length and width of 
the structure must be accurately fixed 
upon the earth's surface. The process by 
which this is done is called surveying. 
You will see the most advanced types 
of surveving instruments which can 



measure heights to one thousandth of 
a foot and angles to the nearest 5 sec- 
oiuls. Surveyors are also concerned with 
making maps of the ground surface. 

If you have any questions as you go 
through the displays, feel free to drop 
into the lounge to discuss them with 
the facultN' and students present. 

It is hoped that you now realize that 
the civil engineer is not just a scientist, 
but a scientist that must see his work 
bringing about some improvement in 
modern living. 




THE MODERN CIVIL ENGINEER 



JANUARY, 1960 



35 



ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERING 



This year's Electrical Kngineeriiig 
Open House will feature, in addition to 
some new projects, the most popular dis- 
plays of previous years. As in the past, 
students will assenihle and present the 
displays. Rather than depend upon out- 
side exhibits and/or elaborate iHinia- 
nent apparatus within their department, 
tlie majority of the E.l'". displays arc 
projects constructed from common elec- 
trical components by the E.E. students. 
These exhibits often prove to be the 
most interesting from the spectators' 
viewpoint. 



An incentive provided by the college 
of Electrical Engineering for new and 
interesting displays is a method whereby 
a student may receive credit for devil- 
ing and constructing a worthy exhibit. 
If an E.E. has plans for a new project, 
the stvident submits his ideas to a mem- 
ber of the faculty. If the faculty ad- 
visor deems the project economically 
and, of course, electrically feasible, the 
student may register for one hour of 
credit in E.E. 271, a course which ex- 
ists for a variety of occasions. A re- 
quirement for the credit is a paper writ- 




This electronic package is an artificial neuron used in a biological computer 



ten by the student, which describes the 
exhibit. Many of the popular displays 
of previous vears were the prod\ict of 
E.E. 271. 

Among the new displays to be pre- 
MiUed at this year's (^pen House are a 
number guessing game, an electronic 
humidity control, and a light-bulb con- 
trol. In the niunber guessing game, the 
participant chooses a number between 
one and 32, and by answering four yes- 
no questions, the correct number will 
be shown on the machine. The electronic 
humidity control is a device which auto- 
matically turns a dehuniidifier on or 
ofi, depending upon the amount of hu- 
midity in the surrounding air. 

The light-bulb control should pro\e 
to be one of the most m\st\fying, al- 
though relatively simple, displays of 
this year's Open House. A box showing 
two switches is connected to another 
box exhibiting two light bulbs with 
only a single wire between them. \iy 
employing a system of rectifiers ( prop- 
erty of which allows the passage of cvir- 
rent in only one direction) unseen to 
the spectators, each switch can turn its 
respective light bulb on or off through 
this single interconnecting wire. 

Several projects involving the use of 
a cathode ray oscilloscope will be pre- 
sented. With an oscilloscope patterns 
generator, many interesting traces are 
generated on the screen of the .scope. 
An exhibit seemingly created for the 
species of beings known as knob-twist- 
ers is the smiling scope face. A face is 
traced out on the oscilloscope screen 
which can be made to smile or frown 
by the turning of knobs. Another spec- 
tator participant display is the ghost 
writer. A small electric pencil that 
makes no physical contact with the oscil- 
loscope can be used to write on the 
screen of the scope. 

Familiar displays which have ap- 
peared at previous Open Houses in- 
cKule the Van-de-Graff generator, which 
displays 100,000-volt electrical dis- 
charges; a high current demonstration, 
in which a hacksaw blade is heated and 
melted in a few seconds by the use of 
merely six volts; the electromagnetic 
cannon, a repulsion effect produced on 
a non-magnetic ring which "shoots" at 
a target ; a J<acob's ladder, where a 
high voltage spark climbs up two paral- 
lel wires; electronic Tic-Tac-Toe, in 
which a spectator tries to beat the com- 
puter (the computer always wins or 
ties) ; Data-Fax, a demonstration of 
how photographs are sent long distances 
over wires; a sonar exhibit, which meas- 
ures the distance from the EE building 
to an adjacent building by the use of 
sound waves; the kissometer, a device 
measuring a coviple's romantic potential 
through oscidlations ; the educated duck, 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ail electronic "duck" trained to move 
toward \arious liy;lit sources; a remote 
controlled ball two feet in diameter 
which rolls around on the floor through 
the commands of a radio control system. 
There are also several special dis- 
plays from local organizations. One of 
these is WPGL, the student operated 
carrier-current radio station on the cam- 



pus. During open - house weekend, 
WPCjU will be broadcasting "live" 
programs from a room in the Llectrical 
Engineering Huilding. 

Another university organization 
which will provide a display is the Syn- 
ton Radio Club, the university amateur 
radio club. Its members will exhibit 
and demonstrate its equipment by at- 



tempting to contact other "Hams." 

Other demonstrations will be given 
by the State Police, who will show how 
speeders are trapped by radar; WILL- 
TV, the University of Illinois TV sta- 
tion, which will have a TV camera in 
the building; and the EE department 
radar set, which will show the sur- 
roundiii": terrain on a small screen. 




The electromagnetic can- 
non being "loaded" with a 
non-magnetic ring. 



Students with radio station 
WPGU broadcasting from 
the E.E. Building during 
Open House. 




JANUARY, 1960 



37 



General 
Engineering 

rill- CiciuTal Kiii;iiii'L'iinj; Di'part- 
mciit will have its exhibit in the Trans- 
portation Building;. ( leneral engincerinf; 
offers professional training for several 
careers, including engineering journal- 
ism, engineering sales, engineering man- 
agement and engineering geology. 

."X spectacular exhibit will be the opei- 
ation of a new system of copying ma- 
chines. These machines utilize the lat- 
est techniques of microfilming and dry 
processes of reproduction. Incorporating 
the latest electronic control mechanisms, 
these devices have revolutionized the art 
of reproducing engineering drawings. 
Microfihning oiiginal drawings, mount- 
ing indi\idual microfilms into a|ierture 
tiling cards, and automated copying pro- 
iluce drawing prints of variable size. 
^Vhile the print is being made, the oper- 
ator observes an enlargement of the 
drawing on a viewing screen. Distribu- 
tion, revision and filing of drawings are 
greatly facilitated. In addition to the 
microfilming processes, other types of 
all-electric reproduction machines will 
be tiisplayed. 

An engineer is well-advised to know 
the legal aspects of his field. A display 
will explain the legal problems encoun- 
tered in acquiring property and in mak- 
ing contracts for engineering projects. 



The correct procedures for obtaiin'ng a 
patent will be shown in detail. 

History of engineering encompasses 
the technological accomjilishments of all 
time. A panorama will present one 
aspect of man's progress, transportation. 
Included will be illustrations of pre- 
historic dugouts, clipper ships of the last 
century, present day jet airliners, and 
future designs of atomic space ships. 

For people in research ami in design, 
graphics has an important application to 
problems involving repeated formulae. 
Uses of various slide rules, nomographs 
and alignment charts, logarithmic and 
other graph paper will be demonstrated. 

Engineering drawing is .i uni\ersal 
means of comnuuiicatiou betu ecu engi- 
neers and scientists. It is perhaps the 
major application of geometry in the 
science of mathematics. The engineer 
and draftsman have many mechanical 
aids for drawing. Demonstrations will 
illustrate the use of the pantograph, el- 
lipse machine, lettering devices, axono- 
metric projection boards, airbrush, zipa- 
tone and other special equipment for 
making drawings. Visitors may enjoy 
using some of these devices. 

Descriptive geometry has many ap- 
plications in science and engineering. In 
one instance, it is applied to the earth 
science dealing with the structin'e of 
the earth's crust and the formation and 
development of its various geologic lay- 
ers. Special geological problems and 
their solution by means of descriptive 
geometry, signs and symbols used in 



geology, and apidied isometiir and 
oblicpie projcitioiis are among the illus- 
trations to lie Idund in this displa)'. 

An impiiitant puipcjse of the Cjener;d 
{•"ngineering Department is teaching the 
elements of engineering graphics. Many 
types of drawing will be displayed, in- 
cluding machine drawings, freehand 
sketches, axonometrics, perspectives and 
shadow projections. Limit dimensioning 
and tolerancing for interchangeable as- 
sembly are stressed. Special applications 
are portra\ed in such fields as geology, 
heating and ventilating and architecture. 

The University of Illinois I'ounda- 
tion has applied for a patent on a de- 
\ice which implements a new drawing 
system. The device consists of a Incite 
quadrangle of special shape which oper- 
ates within an equilateral triangular 
frame. By use of the device, the new 
drawing system automatically projects 
between top, front, side and isometric 
views. A pla.stic three-dimensional model 
will convey the geometric theory of the 
new system, and the quadrangle will be 
demonstrated. 

Throughout the Transportation 
Building, students will be stationed to 
help answer questions and to explain the 
displays. In addition, the staff of the 
General Engineering Department will 
be on hand to provide information on 
specific career opportunities for the 
graduate in general engineering. The 
students and staff of the department ex- 
tend a cordial welcome to one and all. 
We look forward to meeting vou. 




Students working on aircraft drafting and lofting in General Engineering 203 



38 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Circle and ellipse drawing 
machine being demonstra- 
ted to visitors of last year's 
Open House. 





The various views of two 
intersecting cones are dem- 
onstrated by plastic pieces 
in the orthograpic and iso- 
metric planes. 



JANUARY, 1960 



39 



engineers 




Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 

engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 

of data from many information points. 




Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 

on related research projects. 




and what they d< 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today arc concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems— air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and allied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four 
basic fields: 

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING Men engaged in this 
activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad- 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 
DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo- 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en- 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per- 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING Here men supervise 
and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel- 
opment engines. They devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop- 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future elTort. 

MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other materials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 
They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina- 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturing difficulties. 



Under the close supeivibion of an engineer, 

final adjustments ore mode on a rig for 

testing an advanced liquid metal system. 




Pratt & Whitney Aircraft... 




Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on at the Florida Research and Development Center. 



For further information regarding an engineer- 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement officer or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azingcr, Engineering Department, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 



PRATT & IMfHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS - East Hartford 

FLORIDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER - Palm Beach County, Florida 



Special Feature . . . 



THE BETATRON 



Contrary to popular bclift, the- fu- 
ture I'ligiiifi-rs, physicists, aiul cluMuists 
who work on the betatron at the 
I'hysics Research lab do not wear wliite 
coats and h)ok like part of the ma- 
chines they are associated with. I hese 
are just average men with an above 
average aptitude and intelligence in 
their chosen fields; science and research. 

The first betatron was completed on 
July 15, 1940, by Professor Donald W. 
Kerst, working at the University of 
Illinois. This gets its name from two 
(ireek symbols "beta" used scientifically 
to indicate high energy electrons, and 
the sufHx "tron," meaning an instru- 
ment for. The betatron is an instrument 
for producing high-energy electrons. 
This first machine produced 2'X mtl- 
lion-volt x-rays and was used primarily 
for research. 

.-\ \ear later, this same professor built 
a 24 million-volt machine which is now 
being manufactured by Allis-Chalmers 
.Manufacturing Companw This machine 
is the most useful in industry and medi- 
cine, for machines with less \oltage 



don't penetrate as tar for industrial 
uses and the larger ones produce tin\ 
particles of matter which interfere with 
the picture. The betatron can reveal 
Haws in thick metal castings and forg- 
ings and can check the assembly of com- 
plicated mechanisms within metal ho\is- 
ings to determine the condition without 
taking it apart. Flaws as small as 1 Id 
inch deep and 5 1, 000 inch wide can 
be seen in metal 20 inches thick and 
photographic plates may be placed away 
from the object, enlarging the picture 
so that flaws up to 1/1,000 inch wide 
may be seen. This property was first 
used b\' militar\' foices when the first 
betatron was produced commercialh. It 
was used to check internal mechanisms 
of military equipment before shipping 
and to try to find cavities in the ex- 
plosive filling of large shells. 

In medicine the 23^<> million volt ma- 
chine is good for treating skin cancer 
while the 24 million volt one can pene- 
trate deeper. The 24 million volt beta- 
tron is especially useful in the treatment 
of cancer because, instead of using x-rays 




And it's still growing 



which ma\ pass be\ond the cancer into 
he.ilthy tissue, it can produce a high- 
energy beam of free electrons which will 
go very little beyond the cancer. The 
x-ray beam, because of its high energ\', 
has a very sharply-defined edge which 
is of utmost importance when cancer is 
near a vital organ. 

Ten years after the second betatron 
a 340-million-volt machine was designed 
and built luider Professor Kerst's di- 
rection. This betatron had such drastic 
refinements of design that if the original 
2J/2 million-volt betatron (two feet 
.square) had been built this way it could 
have come from a machine the size of a 
tin\' matchbox. 

This big betatron is used at the pres- 
ent solely for research. It is used to 
check theories and to provide numbers 
from which new theories can be made. 
This is basic or pine research without 
a product involved as contrasted with 
research and development which is striv- 
ing to perfect something or find some- 
thing with a product. 

As my guide said, the hardest job of 
the men working on the betatron is ex- 
plaining to the taxpayers who eye ask- 
ance the huge sum of money necessary 
for research and maintenance that the 
machine will not develop a "super 
bomb" or new nuclear weapon. They 
have a hard time explaining that all the 
machine does is give a set of numbers 
from which scientific research may be 
continued. One man jokingly said that 
the only product is a few hard-earned 
Ph.D.'s from working and research on 
the betatron. 

At the Research Lab the betatron is 
"big business." In connection with it is 
a machine shop and a glass shop to make 
pieces of equipment needed, a radio- 
chemistry lab, experimental preparation 
rooms, and control rooms, a well equip- 
peil stockroom and several offices. The 
boys at M.R.H. can testify to the fact 
that the betatron requires plenty of en- 
ergv, for at various times all the lights 
in the residence halls blink six times a 
.second while the machine is charging 
up. Many \aried \\a\s of insuring safe- 
ty from excess radiation are in effect. 

In the atomic age in which we live 
perhaps the betatron at this school will 
conduct the research which will be the 
key to the future. 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




AND DICK MASLOWSKI 



They're transmission engineers wilh Michigan Bell 
Telephone Company in Detroit. Burnell graduated 
from Western Michigan in 1951 wilh a B.S. in 
Physics, spent four years in the Navy, then joined 
the telephone company. His present work is with 
carrier systems, as they relate to Direct Distance 
Dialing facilities. 

Dick got his B.S.E.E. degree from Michigan 
in 1956 and came straight to Michigan Bell. He 
is currently engineering and administering a pro- 
gram to utilize new, transistorized repeater ( ampli- 
fier) equipment. 

Both men are well qualified to answer a ques- 
tion you might well be asking yourself: "What's 
in telephone company engineering for me?" 



SAYS DICK: 



"There's an interesting day's work for you every 
day. You really have to use your engineering train- 
ing and you're always working with new develop- 
ments. Every time Bell Laboratories designs a new 
and more efficient piece of equipment, you are 
challenged to incorporate it in our system effec- 
tively and economically. For example. I have been 
working on projects utilizing a newly developed 
voice freciuency amplifier. It's a plug-in type-- 
transistorized — and consumes only two watts, so it 
has lots of advantages. But I have to figure out 
where and how it can be used in our sprawling 
network to provide new and improved service. 
Technological developments like this really put 
spice in the job." 



SAYS BURNELL: 



"Training helps, too— and you get the best. 
Through an interdepartmental training program, 
you learn how company-wide operations do\ctail. 
You also get a broad background by rotation of 
assignments. I'm now working with carrier sys- 
tems, but previously worked on repeater (ampli- 
fier) projects as Dick is doing now. Most 
important, I think you always learn "practical engi- 
neering.' You constantly search for the solution 
that will be most economical in the long run." 

There's more, of course — hut you can get the 
whole story from the Bell interviewer. He'll be 
\ isiting your campus before long. Be sure to sit 
down and talk witli him. 




BELL TELEPHONE COMPANIES HM. 




JANUARY, 1960 



43 



INDUSTRIAL 

ENGINEERING 



Tlu- liulustiial I'Ji^iiR'ciin^ I)i\isii)ii 
lit tlu- Di'paitment of Mechanical Kn^i- 
lu-criiifi is engaged in tliree main areas 
ot lesearch: (1) the problems encoun- 
teicd in nu'tal cuttinji, (J) use of coni- 
imtors. anil (}) the new piciletermineil 
time s\stems vised in establishing work 
standards. Kach of these phases is beiiif; 
acti\el\' carried on by both the instruc- 
tional staff and tlie t;ra(luate students in 
the di\ision. 

Prime plnsical e\iilence of this re- 
s-arch in the form of apparatus, is evi- 
dent in the machine tool laborator> and 
in the methods-time lahoratorv. 

This \ear the Industrial Engineerint; 
Department has tried to bring new con- 
cepts and ideas into its displays devel- 
oped for Open House. The program 
v.ill consist of five different areas. 

The first of these areas is linear pio- 
gramming and statistics, which will 
consist of three different exhibits. A 
random ^ampling display will he the first 



exhibit demonstiating the theor\- of 
probability. This exhibit consists of a 
rarulom selection of a number of balls 
from a box containing diffeient colored 
balls. The- probable nundier of eac!i 
i(diir of balls has been prrdetc-rniined 
for a random sample, thus deciding 
whether to accept c)i- reject the- whole 
lot. 

The next item is t()lei;uK'e build-up 
,uid control consisting of a series of 
wooden blocks of different sizes (simu- 
l;iting parts) stacked as an assembly 
process. The differences in sizes of the 
blocks will demonstrate how tolerances 
can build up an assembly and is an ex- 
ample of statistical quality control. An- 
other feature in this area is the IHM 
()1() Automatic Decimal Point Compu- 
tor. This machine is mainly u-e,l lor 
scientific and engineering calculations. It 
is a desk model computor combining 
keyboaril, wire panel and paper tape 
progr.amming with printed output. The 




Time and motion study utilizes many modern devices to improve output and 
save labor. Shown here is a camera recording the procedure used in on 
assembly process. 



f)l(l h.is ,-1 S4 word magnetic drum mem- 
or\, each word consisting of .^1 digits 
and a sign. Pi-ogramming and calcula- 
tions for a few t\pical Industrial I'.ngi- 
neering problems will be illustrated. 

The second area is motion and time 
study. An electric peg board is being 
used to show the advantages of motion 
:md time study. Pegs are inserted in sev- 
er.d different ways, with each time re- 
corded. The audience may participate 
to sc(- il th(-\ lan match a predeti-rmined 
time standaril. 

There will also be a displa\ showing 
different eqvupment us(-d in motion and 
time study, plus wall cli.irts used by In- 
dustrial Engineers. 

Plant layout and material handling 
is the third area. The first exhibit in 
this area consists of a display using elec- 
trically operated valves and an air cylin- 
der to move an object through a maze 
demonstrating new' concepts in material 
handling. Another materials handling 
display features a three foot high model 
of a man lifting a load. The mechanical 
model man first lifts a load the wrong 
\\a\ and then performs the correct 
method of lifting a load. A scale model 
of a plant will also be on display show- 
ing some of the principles of plant lay- 
out. 

The fourth area is safety. The first 
exhibit in this area will show the prin- 
ciple of fume control. This displa\' 
points out that gas fumes are heavier 
than air and can travel down pipes, ele- 
vator shafts, and stairways to be ig- 
nited in other parts of buildings. The 
second display consists of a model fac- 
tor\' set up with saw dust and a candle 
burning in it. A bellows blows air into 
the model causing the dust to circulate 
and finally explode, demonstrating how- 
dust explosions are caused. Another ex- 
hibit shows different types of protective 
equipment consisting of safety and fire- 
iigh ting-equipment. 

A safety goggle endurance display is 
also being featured this year. A hy- 
draulic device drives a spike into a safe- 
ty goggle lens showing the protection a 
person receives when wearing safety 
glasses. Two more displays demonstrate 
the principles of guards and safety de- 
\ ices on equipment such as a saw and 
jointer guard and a punch press guard. 

The last area is tool design. Sev- 
eral displays have been set up to show 
the different t\pes of tools used in tool 
design. A pmich press die model will 
also be shown and operated. 

The students and instructors of the 
Industrial Engineering Department be- 
lieve that this year's exhibit is one 
which will grasp the interest of every 
\isitor. A great deal of time and effort 
has been expended on the various pro- 
jects and displays for the sole purpose 
of illustrating the man\' facets of engi- 
neering's yoimgest field. 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This peg board demon- 
strates that even in such a 
simple operation as insert- 
ing pegs in a board there 
is a right, i.e., faster way 
to operate. 



PBSONAt PROTECTIVE ECXFMfl^ 



This is part of the exhibit 
o n protective equipment 
for personal safety in in- 
dustry. 



laspfniom woifcnoN 




JANUARY, 1960 



45 



MECHANICAL 



ENGINEERING 



This year, as in the past, the Me- 
chanical Engineering Department will 
feature demonstrations and tours of its 
lahoratories and cq\iipnient. During the 
time a student spends as an undergrad- 
uate in Mechanical Engineering, he 
will at one time or another operate 
many of the different pieces of equip- 
ment that are on display. These ma- 
chines will give the undergraduates 
some practical experience in the appli- 
cation of the theory that he receives in 
the classroom. 

In the internal combustion laborator), 



a visitor will see diesel, gasoline, and 
gas turbine engines mounted on test 
stands. The performance characteristics 
of these engines can be found by much 
the same procedure as is used in indus- 
try. The gas turbine only recently in- 
stalled, may be of interest because much 
work is being done in industry and here 
at the University with idea of applying 
it to passenger cars, busses, trucks and 
other vehicles. 

In the heat treatment of metals lab- 
orator\-, you can see how steels can be 
treated in different processes to obtain 




A student is shown conducting a performance test on a gas turbine in the 
Internal Combustion Laboratory. This is only one example of the displays 
which visitors may observe at Engineering Open House. 



a variety of desired physical properties. 
Under microscopes the different struc- 
tures and components in treated steels 
can be observed and studied. The high 
temperature electric and gas furnaces 
here are similar to those used in indus- 
tr\ but on a smaller scale. The metal 
working laboratory will give you a 
chance to see many of the various ma- 
chine tools used in metal cutting such 
as lathes, mills, grinders and planers. 
Also there will be demonstrations of re- 
search and student experiments in metal 
cutting and tool problems. 

A welding laboratory will be open 
with demonstrations of various welding 
techniques given by students. 

In the mechanical engineering labora- 
toiy various forms of steam equipment 
such as turbines and engines will be on 
display. Also air compressing units, cen- 
trifugal fans and air conditioning equip- 
ment will be in operation. 

In the foundry, there will be demon- 
strations of the steps required in the 
making of castings. The making of 
molds, cores, and the pouring of metal 
can be seen here also. 

The mechanical engineering student 
honorary. Pi Tau Sigma, will prepare 
an exhibit which explains the mechani- 
cal engineering curriculum. Some text- 
books used by the student and a com- 
plete list of the courses of study will be 
found in the Mechanical Engineering 
Lounge. 

There are many fields open to gradu- 
ates in mechanical engineering and the 
student branch of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers will have a 
display to show some of them. 

A new display this year will be the 
physical en\ironment laboratory. Here 
\ou can see the equipment and tech- 
niques used in research on the effects 
of temperature and relative humidity on 
the comfort of humans. 

There should be many things that 
you will find of interest in the Mechani- 
cal Engineering Department and we 
hope you can take advantage of this 
year's Open House to see them. 



46 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Professor E. L. Broghamer instructs a Mechanical En- 
gineering student in the use of an analog computer 
to solve a problem in stress analysis. This machine 
will be on display during Open House. 




Professor Turkovich dem- 
onstrates some of the 
equipment used in metal 
cutting research to a group 
of interested visitors. 




In this "isolation" booth 
humidity and temperature 
are controlled so that hu- 
man comfort in relation to 
types of clothing and at- 
mospheric conditions may 
be studied. 



JANUARY, 1960 



47 



METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERING 



( h the 'IS n.ituiMlh declining: clc- 
mciits, 70 arc metals. The im-ralluriii- 
cal iMiginei'i' is conccrncil with metals, 
ami he has a large storehouse to work 
iKim. To ilate, tlic iiietalliirfiist lias 
touiid eommercial uses and appiieations 
tor less than half of these 70 metals, so 
he has a long way to go. Hut he h.is 
progressed far in many (ielils of appli- 
cation of metals. For example, titanium 
was very precious 15 years ago but to- 
(ia\' it is used commonly in aircraft. 
.Metallurgy has progressed remarkably 
tor the short time it has been in exist- 
ence but there are many avenues open 
for in\estigation. Metallurgy, now a 
basic science consisting of mathematics, 
ihemistry, and physics, is concerned 
with two main purposes — the procuring 
and adaption of metals to satisfy human 
wants. 

The Open House exhibit for the 
.Metallurgical Engineering Department 
has increased the number and scope of 
exhibits this year in order to show the 
major areas of metallurgy today, and 
to show some recent advances in the 
field. Our displays this year will show- 
how metals are extracted from their 
ores, how they are cast, how corrosive 
conditions affect them, how temperature 
affects them, and how they are formed 
by mechanical means. The total number 
of exhibits this year is twenty; the\ are 
briefly described below: 

Steelmaking Exhibit: This display 
shows steel production from sources of 
ores to finished products. 

.Metal casting: Aluminum ashtrays 
will be c.'Lst at periodic intervals and 
will be distributed to visitors. 

Metals Under the Microscope: This 
display shows what .some of the more 
common metal products look like under 
the microscope. It also shows the steps 
necessary to prepare a metal for ob- 
servation under the microscope so that 
its structure can be determined. 

Photography in Metallurgy: Photo- 
graphic equipment is used in metallurgy 
to get permanent records of metal struc- 
tures. Some examples are shown. 



Thermocouple Demonstration: This 
displa\ shows how temperatures can be 
measured by means of a combination of 
two dissimilar metals. 

Phase Changes in Steel : Phase 
changes in steel are shown by e\|iansion 
of a specimen as it is heated to high 
temperatures. 

Heat Treatment of Steel: 'I'his dis- 
play' shows the changes in properties of 
steel as it is subjected to high tempera- 
tures and different cooling rates. 

Cold-Cadmium Robber-like Alloy: 
This display is an example of one of the 
research projects in progress in the 
Metallurgy Department. The alloy dis- 
played can be made to behave like a 
piece of rubber or like a piece of putty. 

Cn'stal Models of Metals: Atoms 
are arranged in metals to foiin various 
crystal structures. Many models will he 
shown. 

(jalvanic cells: The foiu' displays are 
all examples of electro-metallurgical 
phenomena and show the relationship 
between electricity and metals, cor- 
rosion in action, electroplating, electro- 
polishing. 

Metals quiz: The visitor trys to 
match the correct metal with a certain 
property or application, and can de- 
termine his metal I.Q. 

Display of metals: This is a new dis- 
play this year which shows o\er forty 
of the metals in use today along with 
their price and relative abundance. 

Question and answer booth : Here the 
visitor can obtain literature and answers 
to questions about specific displays and 
metallurgy in general and the education- 
al opportiuiities at the University. 

Movies: Three or four short dura- 
tion films about metallurgy will be 
shown. 

Rolling mill demonstration: This dis- 
play will show how metals ;ire reduced 
to foil. 

Brittle fracture in metals: This is a 
new display which will show the effect 
of temperature on the impact strength 
of steel. A steel will change from a 
ductile to brittle nature .'is the temper- 



ature is changed a few degrees. 

Zinco — the wonder metal: This ilis- 
play shows how a metal which has been 
quenched in cold \\afei" heats up again 
in a person's hand. 

These processes and phenomena are 
understoo<l b\' the metallurgical engi- 
neer to some extent, but there arc many 
answers that are still needed. To ob- 
tain these answers much research has to 
be done. Some important questions 
which are outstanding today anil which 
are recei\ing attention tlirougli depart- 
ment research unestigations aie; 

U liy lid sDiiii' iiKliih and /i//rtys iiii- 
iliri/(i III} nhrujtl i\miigc jrom ilinli/i 
til hiitlli hiluiviiir liver an cxlniiiily 
sii'dll tciiipcraturc intcri'alF 

U hat cjji-its ifi/l irr/ttliatiiin sink iis 
that fiiiiii ii niiiliiir rciiitur hiivi iiii the 
piii/^irtics mill life nf ii iiutal' 

II lull is till III! I liiinisin l/y iiliii li iil- 
lnys .UK Ii in- sticl iiir liiiiilciud :' 

1 1 ira ilii liit/li liiii/ifriitlirfs, silih a.\ 
llin.u I III iiiintrrr/l in missiles, ajjcit 
iiiiliih mill alloys, and lioir loni/ icill 
iiiiitiiiiih lust iiiiilir these I iinditinns.' 

llijic mil line fidiul the liehnviiii uj 
alloys from ii I'liimledi/e of their pure 
eomponents.' 

II hat eiin he learned about metals 
and alloys by examininy them under the 
optieal and cleetron microscopes. 

11 me does continuous stressing such as 
that oeeurrini; in automobile axle af- 
feit the properties and life of a metal' 

II hat is the mechanism through 
veliieh m'etals are attacked by corrosion:' 
11 hx do metals become harder lehen 
they are iL formed.' 

Are there better processes for relin- 
ini) and pcuducini/ metals more economi- 
cal I y.' 

These problems are but a few of the 
ones now confronting the metallurgist 
in his work. In time, these problems 
will be solved, but new ones will con- 
tinually arise. The metallurgist there- 
fore must always be around to solve 
these problems ; but, more important, he 
is needed to produce and adapt metals 
for today. 

In our exhibit we are attempting to 
show metallurgy today — what the field 
encompasses and what the function of 
the metallurgical engineer is. We also 
are going to give the public a glimpse 
into the future of metallurgy. 

The present-day opportunities in 
metallurgical engineering are practical- 
ly limitless. The field of metallurgy is 
wide open and in great need of trained 
personnel. Adequate and extensive 
training in metallurgy and metallurgical 
engineering is available at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois and many other colleges 
and universities. Metallurgy is a Held 
where one can engineer and utilize his 
creative ability to the fullest, and find 
extremel\ interesting and satisfying 
work. 



48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Students adjusting high 
vacuum furnace in metal- 
lurgy laboratory. 




Shown above is a teaching model which is used to illustrate the crystalline 
structure of the atom array in copper-alloys. 



JANUARY, 1960 



49 



MINING and PETROLEUM 
ENGINEERING 



Mining Engineering 

'I'lu- lii>t()r\ ot the milling cii^.Miift'r- 
in;: luniculum ilates back to tlic hcjiiii- 
ninizs of the l'iiiversit\- of Illinois. Thf 
initial report of the Coiiimittci- on Stmh 
of Course and Facultx' pro\ iilcil for 
(.-oiirscs in niinin'r fiifiiniTring. How- 
ever, there was little mechani/.ation in 
mining then, and niininsr ens:ineerinjr 
education was slow in catchinji on. It 
was not until the beginnin;; of this cen- 
rurv that the Department of Mininj; 
lliiflineerinn was re-established by ac- 
tion of the Gen-.-ral .Assembly. A newly 
constructed mim'ng laboratory was oc- 
cupied in the fall of 1^)12. Compared 
to other departments in the College of 
I'ngineering. the I^epartment ofMining 
lias remained relatively small with the 
;ui\antage of small classes and close 
contact between instructor and students. 

Mining engineers are engaged in pro- 
ducing and processing primary wealth 
from the earth's crust and as long as 
industry uses minerals to manufacture 
e\er\ thing from nylon stockings to atom 
bombs there will be careers for engineers 
in the mineral ind\istrles. About 1 10th 
of all gainfully employed persons in the 
I lilted States are connected with the 
mineral industries. Many foreign enter- 
prises are staffed by engineers tra'ned 
in the I'nited States, and they add great- 
h to these figures. 

Mining engineers are concerned with 
finding mineral deposits containing 
fuels, ores, and non-metallic minerals 
for the building and for the chemical 
industries. The first steps are to ex- 
plore the size and to evaluate the rich- 
ness of such finds; to <letermine whi-ther 
profitable mining Is possible, and to 
choose a method for extracting, recov- 
ering, and treating the mineral. Engi- 
neers also design and select the process- 
ing equipment, purchase components 
and supervise the erection of the plant, 
and operate both the extraction and 
treatment facilities. 

A surprisingly large percentage of 
mining graduates enter the administra- 
tive and marketing phase of the mineral 
industries. Others occupy themselves in 
related fields — production and use of 
explosives, the manufacture, sale, and 
servicing of equipment such as crushers 



and grinders, drills, hoists, cutting and 
loading machines, mechanical nuners 
|)umps ventilating fans, locomotives and 
mine cars or belt conveyors, and safety 
equipment. 

Some mining men, of course, cover 
the whole range of this kind of activity, 
while others confine them.selves to a sin- 
gle aspect or specialty. Other people, 
who work most closely with mining en- 
gineers are geologists and geophvslclsts, 
civil engineers, chemists, eletrlcal anil 
mechanical engineers, and finally metal- 
lurgists. 

The Mining Department of the L ni- 
verslty of Illinois has all the facilities 
to prepare the student for the work 
basic to his profession, but this is by no 
means the only work. 

There are other areas of instruction 
for the graduate student working to- 
ward his master's or doctor's degree. 
This phase is closely related with re- 
search in mining, which often is carried 
out in cooperation with other agencies 
on the campus such as the University 
of Illinois Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, the State Geological Survey, an 1 
others. Students from all corners of the 
globe come for advanced work in the 
Mining Department, which has a world- 
wide reputation. Research is done in 
many areas of mining. In geophysical 
prospecting, such physical characteris- 
tics of rock as gravity, magnetic attrac- 
tion, resistivity to electric current, ra- 
dioactivity, and speed of transmitting vi- 
brations are a few of the things which 
can be measured accurately by delicate 
Instruments. Measuring the speed with 
w h 1 c h vibrations are transmitted 
through rock strata, has been particular- 
ly successful In locating oll-bearlng for- 
mations thousands of feet below the 
earth's surface. 

Some fundamental research in a com- 
pletely new field called "rock me- 
chanics" tries to find out what happens 
to rocks when drilled, blasted or crushed 
and ground as in preparation plants. 
Drilling research ranges from blasthole 
drilling to oil well drilling to tuiuul 
boring machines and continuous miners. 
In blasting research, the blasting effect 
of commercial explosives is investigated 
to determine the useful energy formed 
under controlled conditions. 



Clnselv related is the study of the 
failure of muie roof and nf mine pillars, 
and the design of undergrourxl openings 
to make them safe. 

In the field of mine ventilation, elec- 
trical and aneniometric gages for the 
measurement of the flow of air in closed 
ducts have been developed. Methods for 
economically reducing air lo.sses in mine 
ventilation are studied. 

Another wide field of mining research 
is in ore beneficiation and coal prepara- 
tion. Latest work deals with the utili- 
zation of Illinois coal, its adaptation 
for making metallurgical coke, etc. 

In mine administration the use of 
modern statistical concepts and the ap- 
plicability of mechanical and electronic 
computers Is being Investigated. 

Examples of the work done by the 
mining department at the University 
will be on display In the Mining Labor- 
atory and in the Ceramics Building dur- 
ing Engineering Open House. 

Petroleum Engineering 

Oil and natural gas occur filling the 
pore spaces of various sedimentary rocks 
usually at considerable depth, and fre- 
quently in association with "connate " 
water. 

Petroleum engineering is concerned 
with the problems of drilling wells to 
the oil bearing horizons and then getting 
the oil (or gas) from these beds to the 
surface. Actually It is difficult to re- 
cover more than about 30' i of the oil 
originally in the rock and in many in- 
stances as much as 80' ,' of the oil origi- 
nally present may be left in the reser- 
voir at the end of the primary produc- 
tion process. Much of the current re- 
search in petroleum engineering is con- 
cerneil with ways and means of increas- 
ing the total yield of oil by the use of 
"secondary recovery" methods. Con- 
fronted with the two possibilities of in- 
creasing oil production, either that of 
finding new fields, or that of getting 
more oil out of known fields one can 
see that the latter is the more attractive 
proposition since naturally the" more 
easily located oil has already been found 
( and produced and sold ) and explora- 
tion is becoming both more expensive 
■ind more difficult. 



50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Ot till- >c'C()iular\ recoMTV mi'thiiils 
nii\\ In use, that ot "water Hooding" is 
«i(lcl\ used in Illinois (as well as other 
st.ites) ; in this method water ix pumped 
through an uijection well and a^ it 
sweeps through the ieser\oir rock to 
the producing well it pushes oil ahead 
lit it. The amount of extra oil that can 
he recovered by this method depends 
iiu quite a lot of factors, tor example 
whetlier the oil lU' the \xater wets the 
rock surface. \er\ e\ten>i\c lesearch is 
being carried out in both um\ersit\ and 



industrial labcuatories on the i]uestion of 
increasing >ields from water floods. 

A more recent and \er\ attractive 
method of increasing oil production b\ 
secondary recovery methods is that of 
the "fire flood" wherebv oil is ignited 
underground so that b\ binning some 
of the oil the rest is iieated and driven 
towards the producing wells. The heat- 
ed oil Hows more freely since it is more 
Huid when hot, and the gases produced 
during the combustion act to drive this 
heated oil out of the n-servoir. 



.Another source of supplv for oil lies 
in possible fields located at great depths 
below those currently known, the prob- 
lems of drilling to these great depths 
include the behaviour of materials at 
the high temperatures and pressures 
such as exist deep in the crust. 

The Open House exhibit will illus- 
trate methods of determining how well 
the oil Hows through a rock, bow niiich 
is in the rock, how "electric logs ' can 
tell the content of oil and water in the 
formations at depth, and methods of 
displacing oil by vv.ater and gas. 




Graduate laboratory for 
Mining Engineering stu- 
dents. 



New type velocity guage used for meas- 
uring ventilation currents. Specifically, 
this Instrument manometrlcally takes the 
square root of 20 numbers, averages 
them, and multiplies the result by a con- 
stant depending upon the psychrometric 
condition of the air. This guage was de- 
veloped in the mining department. 




JANUARY, 1960 



51 



PHYSICS 

DEPARTMENT 



Durins; the l'>h(l l",nf;iiictTiiifi ( )|H-n 
House physics stuiiciits will (it'inonstratc 
some of tile equipment used to teaeli 
physics ar the I iii\ersity. 1 hese ex- 
hibits will he located on the first floor 
of the ph\sics laboratory. 

Room iOO will be ilevoted to the sub- 
ject of mechanics, which describes the 
motion and behavior of bodies as small 
as nuclear particles and as large as the 
stars. In the past few years, the news 
of earth satellites and missiles have 
made us more conscious of the laws of 
motion and have ^i\en us popular ex- 



amples lit bmlies \\ hich continue to mii\c 
iiidelimteh in the absence of friction. 
These laws ha\e alwa\s been somewhat 
unsitisfactorily illustrated in the class- 
loom because the drag of friction slows 
thinfrs down. New apparatus used by 
the physics department makes use of thin 
films of gas as bearings of such low 
friction that the motion is almost undis- 
turbed. No longer does the teacher ha\e 
to make excuses for discrepencies be- 
tween theory and experiment because of 
annoying friction. 

New demonstrations this \ear, also 



ui room 1(M), include a small model 
merry-go-rounii which illustrates some 
interesting properties of circular motion 
and an apparatus which demonstrates 
the laws governing projectile motion and 
ballistics. 

Kxhibits of high and low tempera- 
ture phenomena will catch the interest 
of visitors entering room 112. A new 
geyser has been made of glass so that 
one can see more clearly how this in- 
teresting phenomenon takes place. Other 
exhibits include tanks of liquid nitrogen 
used to show what happens to materials 




52 



Two students study the phenomena of sending and receiving electro-magnetic waves 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



at very low tt'iiipc-raturcs. One example 
is a lead bell that rings, but visitors will 
have to stop in to learn about the others. 
The nuclear physics exhibit tiiis year 
will be located in room 1 12 ami will in- 
clude a model of the famous "Van Allen 
Belt" of radiation high above the earth. 
The production and detection of cosmic 
rays and radioacti\it\ will also be dem- 
onstrated. 

A series of demonstrations pertaimng 
to the field of optics will be located in 
room 119 of the physics laboratory. 
The.se will include a .smoke box dem- 
onstration of geometrical optics, dem- 
onstrations of wave motion and inter- 
ference, and the Land two-color process 
of photographic color reproduction. 

Geometrical optics, including the 
study of simple and complex lenses, can 
be demonstrated quite clearly with a 
.smoke box. A smoke box consists mere- 
ly of a rea.sonably air-tight containei' 
with one side made of clear glass. Some 
sort of smoke generator is used to fill 
the volume of the box with smoke. Since 
the smoke paiticles reflect light, thin 



rays ot light |iropagating through the 
box can be .seen throughout their en- 
tire length. Several of these smoke boxes 
will be on exhibit during the Open 
House. Lenses of various sizes and in 
combinations of two or more will be 
used to show how light ra\s are re- 
fracted and focuseii. One of the smoke 
boxes will have a small container of 
water inside it. Beneath the water sur- 
face, a .source .sending rays of light at 
various angles will show the effects of 
refraction on the rays at the interface 
of water and air. 

Demonstrations of wave motion and 
intciference will include diffraction 
gratings, the Michelson interferometer, 
and the Fabry-Perot interferometer. 

The Land two-color process of pho- 
tographic color reproduction illustrates 
some interesting facts about the eye and 
how we see colors. It was previously 
thought that three colors called the pri- 
mary colors are necessary to form com- 
plete color. Recent experiments by Ed- 
ward Land have shown that the eye 
does not neei] three colors, but that onl\ 



two ,ire necessarx for full color nnages 
to appear. By simultaneously projecting 
on a screen two carefully prepared black 
and white transparent slides, each 
through different color filters, a full 
color image appears. This process will 
be used to take two photographs of a 
group of colored objects and, shortly 
thereafter, demonstrated that full color 
is obtained by projecting the slides on a 
screen. 

The cyclotron, housed in the nuclear 
radiation laboratory, will be open to the 
public this year. The cyclotron and 
other experimental apparatus in the lab 
are used by graduate student s.md facul- 
ty for experimental woik in nuclear 
physics. 

The betatron research and develop- 
ment program is housed in the physics 
research laboratory. The staff of the 
lab, as in past years, will conduct a 
guided tour of the building. Facidty and 
graduate students at the lab are en- 
gaged in the study of nuclear phenom- 
ena produced by X-rays and electrons 
from the 340 MEV betatron and the 
22 MEV^ betatrons. 




Engineering sophomores in a physics laboratory determining the relation between the charge and mass 
of an electron by measuring the deflection effects of electric and magnetic fields on a beam of electrons in 
a vacuum tube. 



JANUARY, 1960 



53 



THEORETICAL AND APPLIED 
MECHANICS 



Tliis \i-ai the ilispla\s of the I^cpnrt- 
iiUMit nt 'riicoictical and Applied Mc- 
ihaiiics, located in Talbot Laboiatorx 
«ill iiiclmic the demonstration of a ein- 
lent research project which studies the 
behavior of a missile as it lea\es water 
:\iit\ enters the air. As the missile lea\es 
the water it is photo<irap]ied by a mo\ie 
camera, and by analyzing the photo- 
graphs the action of the missile can be 
determined. This disphn will be pre- 
vented in the basement ot the Hind me- 
chanics laboratory e\er\ hour on the 
halt hour. 

In the crane ba\ a three stor\ tall 



testing machine will be used to fracture 
large concrete cylinders. These cylinders 
usually tax the machine to almost its 
full capacit\' of .^ nu'llion pounds load. 
When fracture docs occur, it happens 
with e\plosi\e quickness resulting in .ui 
exciting spectacle. The demonstration 
of the machine wdl occur e\ery hour 
on the hour. 

On the west end ot the fust floor of 
the building the entire fluids laboratory- 
will be open to visitors. Some of the 
man\ operating displa\s in fluid me- 
cham'cs will be water turbines, a pump 
that carries water from the basement to 



the liist lioor by means of water cling- 
ing to a rope, and the hyilraulic jump 
(where Howing water suddenly jumps 
from fast, shallow Mow to deep, slower 
llow m order to osercome resistance in 
the cbanel ), 

( )n the second floor ol Talbot Labor- 
ator\', exhibits will show methods for 
determining the mechanical behavior of 
solid materials. By allowing polarized 
light to pass through a clear plastic 
specimen and observing the resulting 
fringes of color, the distribution of 
stresses in that specimen can be ob- 
tained. This useful method, call photo- 





A hydraulic jump occurring in a glass-sided flume located in Talbot Laboratory. The hydraulic jump is an import- 
ant phenomenon since, cs indicated, the extreme turbulence will erode a stream bed where if occurs. Spillways of 
dams and other hydraulic structures must, therefore, be designed so the jump appears in a concrete-lined section 
of the channel. 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



I'hisricity will W clcnioiistraK-d alonji 
with the uses of sensitise strain gages 
which indicate by electrical means how 
much a specimen has stretched. These 
i;;ages are so sensitive that they can de- 
tect the stretch in a 3 inch diameter 
brass bar 3 feet long when it is touched 
by your finger. Also shown, will be 
examples of mechanical vibrations. 
When a machine such as a car engine 
undergoes sudden loads mechanical vi- 
brations result. Modern vibration meas- 
uring instruments and models which 
demonstrate a few of the basic ideas in 



the st\id\ of mechanical \ibrations will 
be in the display. Tests showing the 
behavior of steel bars when they are 
pulled in tension and twisted in torsion 
will be performed continuously during 
the Open House. In the torsion test the 
visitors may actually run the test by 
cranking an arm which twists the steel 
bar through a gear reduction. Many 
people are sinprised when they see how 
many times a steel bar can be twisted 
around before it breaks. A machine 
which tests small concrete cylinders in 
the same wa\' as the big machine in the 



crane ba\ will be operating and there 
will also be a machine which demon- 
strates the effect of high temperatures 
on steel under load. 

The third Hoor of Talbot Labora- 
tory contains the fatigue of metals lab- 
oratory. Here, actual research projects 
which study the effects of repeated load- 
ing and fracture of metals will be 
shown. One of the research projects 
now in progress is concerned with the 
behavior of the metal in the Polaris 













This concrete cylinder has just been shattered by the 3 million pound testing 
machine whose base is shown at the right. 



JANUARY, 1960 



55 



ENGINEERS IN THE 

ARMED FORCES 



Army Ordnance Corps 

'Vhc Kile «t oidiiaiHT will In- \><>V' 
tiaxi-.l in the f\citiiijj cxliibit wliR-h tlu- 
Army ( )rilii:itK-e Corps lias prt'part-il tor 
this year's Kngiiieerinj!; Open House. 

I)ispla\s which will exhibit the 
Army's achievements over the past years 
will include models of Nike anti-air- 
cratt rocket installations. The Nike- 
.-\ja\ is deployed all o\er tin- countr\ 
toda\. 

There will be mock-vips of the Army'> 
satellite-carrying missiles, and back on 
the earthy side, we will display the com- 
plete line of close support missiles which 
are used in the field today. Other wea- 
pons on display will be the "81" and 
the "^7" mortars and a variety of small 
arms. 

Models of the new .Army weapons 
will be available, tojiether with an ex- 
planation of the enjiineeriiifr which lioes 
into their design. 

Vou will also have an opportunity to 
he.ir of the many ad\antages of a career 
in the r. S. Army. There will be 
skilled personnel on hand to answer any 
questions vou may have. 

Me >ure to visit the Army Ordnance 
dlspla\ whe[i you come to this year's 
Kngineerin;: Open House. \'our visit 
^hould be entertaining and enjoyable. 

Signal Corps 

In tile new concept of Atomic War- 
fare, tile liiited States Government re- 
lies o[i three principles to enable it to 
defeat the enemy. These are mobility, 
lirepower, and communications. 

The main responsibility for communi- 
cations rests with the Signal Corps. To 
implement its goal of a solid net of 
mobile communications covering any 
size unit of troops in an area, the Sig- 
nal Corps and civilian manufacturers 
have developed a number of specialized 
pieces of equipment. A few of these 
means will be on display at the 1Q60 
I'ngineering Open House to give spec- 
tators a small view of some of the equip- 
ment necessary to complete the needed 
communications of the Army. 

Several radios will be set up so the 
spectators can operate them and get a 
better knowledge of the equipment used 
by the service. The best known is the 
small individual set called the .AN 
PRC-6 or "walkie-talkie." In aildition 
to the "walkie-talkie's" capabilit\- of 
being easily carried and operateil, it can, 
if necessary be used to broadcast tele- 
type signals as will be done at Open 
House. This particular set-up is not 
normally used by the Army; however. 



56 



If i> t\pical lit the uM-luliiess and \ersa- 
tilit\ of go\criiment equipment. 

In contrast to the small one-man 
radios shown, several large, nuilti-unit 
radios, normally .set up in trucks, will 
also be on display. These will be tuned 
to local commercial stations t(i show 
that military radios operate on the same 
principle as do civilian radios. The rug- 
ged construction and other special de- 
vices will show the difference between 
the two types. Military radios both 
broadcast and receive. This is but one 
facet of their versatility. 

.Although radio is the primary means 
of communications other supporting 
means are necessary. This includes wire 
communication composed of telephone 
and teletype. 

Several teletype machines will be on 
display. Spectators can send and receive 
between two of these. This will dem- 
onstrate its speed and usefulness. An- 
other set will receive a national press 
news service to show again, the simi- 
laritv to civilian installations. This wire 
equipment is generally more stable than 
radio but is not as mobile. 

Other wire equipment to be shown 
include telephones and switchboards. 
Some other equipment widely used by 
the Signal Corps, but not shown, will 
be long range telephone and radio equip- 
ment, photography, television and elec- 
tronic computers. 

Speedy, reliable communications is a 
must for a modern army. The Signal 
Corps provides this with fast, accurate 
equipment employeil in highly mobile 
situatiiins. 

Army Engineer 

The mission of the infantry division 
engineer battalion in the attack is to as- 
sist the forward movement of the divi- 
sion by general engineer work. 1 he dis- 
position of all available engineer troops 
and equipment, both organic and sup- 
porting, is determined by the division 
engineer to accomplish this mission ac- 
cording to the scheme of maneuver 
established by the division commander. 
The engineers accomplish this by per- 
forming various duties during the at- 
tack. Some of these general duties are: 
engineer reconnaissance, collect data for 
improvement of existing maps, removal 
and construction of obstacles, main- 
tenance of supph- routes and lines of 
communication and the construction 
and maintenance of bridges to be used 
during the attack. It is the division en- 
gineer's responsibility to see that there 
are engineer units with the front. Hank 
and rear guards. 



The location and maintainence of the 
main supply route (.MSR) is another 
important duty of the engineer. Suppiv 
routes must be kept open at all cost to 
maintain the forward motion of the 
attack. These routes must be kept clear 
of mines and also road work must be 
done to keep the routes in shape lor 
their intended traffic. Also the engineers 
are responsible for the supph' of water. 
The engineer is responsible in trans- 
|iorting troops across rivers. This is ac- 
complished by means of assault boats, 
foot bridges, ferries, and bridges. Care- 
ful planning must go into river cro.ss- 
ing operations and the engineer plays 
one of the more important parts in these 
operations. Planning may be started ^0 
miles before the river is reached by the 
attacking force. 

The engineer is an important factor 
in the attack whether his job is remov- 
ing obstacles in the advance or con- 
structing obstacles in the retreat. .Much 
of the success of the attack depends 
upon the engineer's accomplishments. 

NROTC 

The U. of I. NROTC's exhibit for 
the 1960 Engineering (^pen House is 
located in rooms 1^2 and 134 in the 
Mechanical Engineering Building, first 
floor. Consisting mainly of displays con- 
cerning deelopinents in aircraft control, 
guided missiles and missile guidance, 
and Naval ordnance, the exhibit repre- 
sents many of the latest .advancements 
in naval warfare. 

A moving cockpit simply demonstrates 
manual aircraft attitude control. V'^isit- 
ors may sit in the cockpit and move the 
control stick, which actuates servos that 
cause the cockpit to pitch and roll re- 
alistically. The device is similar to a 
Link trainer, but less complicated. 

A small-scale skeleton aircraft frame 
is mounted with a spinning gyroscope 
connected to its control surfaces. The 
frame is pivoted and may be easilv 
moved to show the movements of the 
control surfaces caused by the gyro. 
The display's purpose is to demonstrate 
the principles of gyro control in air- 
craft. 

A coiitinuoush - running projector 
shows a sound film on the Sidewinder, 
one of the Navy's new air-to-air mis- 
sile. The film is in color, and explains 
the guidance principles of the heat- seek- 
ing missile. The Sidewinder is shown 
in flight, and runs on target drones. 

Numerous static displays feature new 
developments in Naval Ordnance, and 
include models of the X/iiitiliis and the 
Fatriik llinry. a new ballistic missile 
sLibmarine. Also shown are .scale cut- 
aways of mines, bombs, depth charges, 
,uui a new torpedo employing a homing 
device to actually hunt its target. 

Midshipmen will be on hand to con- 
duct the exhibit .uid answer questions. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ANOTHER WAY RCA 

SERVES BUSINESS 

THROUGH 

ELECTRONICS 




Princeton, N. J: Today the oreo around this historic educational center is one of the country's foremost communities of scientific research. 



RCA Electronics helps build a new capital of science 

at Princeton, N.J. 



Explorers once looked for new opportunities beyond 
the mountains and the oceans. Today, our frontiers 
are somewhere out in space or deep inside the 
atom. The modern explorer is the research scientist. 
He seeks new ideas, new knowledge. 

Research has been an important activity at RCA 
e\'er since it was founded in 1919. And eighteen 
^•ears ago many scattered operations were united 
in the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center, wliich 
set tile pattern for a new capital of industrial re- 
search at Princeton, N. |. Here, RCA pro\ided 
giftetl men with fine facilities— and created a cli- 



mate in which research thrives. Since then, many 
other institutions dedicated to research in a variety 
of fields have been erected in the area. 

From RCA's vision has grown a reservoir of 
scientists and research men whose achie\'ements 
put electronics into service on an ever-broadening 
front, and with such success that RCA means elec- 
tronics—whether related to international communi- 
cations, to the clearest performance of television in 
color or black-and-white, radio and stereophonic 
music or to national defense and the electronic 
conquests in space. 



RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 









—Photos by Dove Yates 



technocutie . . . 



BARBARA KOZUB 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





January's IVcliiiocutie beloiii;s to the i-iiginet-rs at the 
I iiiversity more than any other Techiiocutie in a long tinu-. 
Barbara Kozub, majoring in Industrial Engineering, is a 
junior at the University. Called Bobbie by her friends, she 
^ays she picked engineering as a career because it was a chal- 
U'nge. Barbara says she wanted to be in the business field, 
but liked the combination of business and science that in- 
dustrial engineering offers. To her, the field offers a right 
balance between the two. 

When Barbara graduates, she woidd like to work in a 
big plant (preferabh' one in chemicals, foods or clothing) 
.lud do production supervision. She says she wants a lot of 
people around her all the time to work with as well as doing 
engineering problems. 

Barbara says the students she works with all seem polite 
.uul lots of fun ; they are very friendlw rather nice and 
mannerly. She says she doesn't know what they think about 
having a girl in their classes, but outwardly they are friend- 
ly. Teachers' attitudes vary, Bobbie says. Some of them are 
wonderful towards a girl; others will try to embarrass a 
girl; and still others just ignore her. Most of them she feels 
are very good, however. 

Industrial engineering coLirses, economics and physics 
are Barbara's favorite courses although she admits physics 
nth was hardest for her. "The subjects best liked and hard- 
est sometimes go hand in hand." Barbara enjoys the chal- 
lenge of tackling a hard course. She admits she often lets an 
easy course slide and therefore gets the worst marks in them. 

Bobbie is one of the women trying to get the Society of 
W^omen Engineers started. She is chairman of the group who 
are tr\ing to get more women engineers interested in the 
society. The girls also plan to write to high school girls who 
\\ rite to the Dean of Women about engineering, and they 
will tell them the advantages and disadvantages of engineer- 
ing for women. 

.Although she doesn't have much spare time in the school 



\ear, Barbara is also a freshman ad\is()r at LAR and a mem- 
ber of SIES. She says she likes to listen to Johnny Mathis, 
Doris Day and instrumental mood music to rela.x. She does 
not like modern jazz. 

She admits she likes food : salads, fried chicken, steaks 
and chops well done top her list. She prefers coffee or cokes 
to beer. 

Barbara's pet pee\e concerrurig men is the conceited 
\ariety, the egotistical men not interested in others. She 
thinks people on the whole should be interested on others, as 
she herself is interested in people. 

Another of Barbara's peeves are people who let them- 
selves be dominated by social pressures of campus life and 
who don't relax and act natural. She feels engineers are more 
sincere than some of the men on the other side of campus. 

If she coedd be doing anything she wanted, Barbara 
would like to be working at an interesting job where she 
could serve a useful purpose and have lots of friends and 
work with a lot of nice people. 

Ageneral education is important for engineers, Barbara 
feels, because everything an engineer does take is technical 
and not all of it is necessary. She wishes it were possible to 
substitute LAS courses for these. She feels most engineers 
know where they will major and therefore some of the 
courses could be more general. 

Bobbie is not sure just where she will be working in 
Open House, but she will be helping in some industrial en- 
gineering display. She thinks Open House is good each year. 
She says it is possible to learn more in one day of (^pen 
House than in one year of classes. A student there can see 
what courses he will be taking will be like and what other 
engineers are doing. 

About the idea of a stereotyped female engineer, big and 
muscidar, Barbara says the girls in the Society are sharp, 
and that type of woman can be fo\uid in any field, not just 
engineering. 



JANUARY, 1960 



59 




60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



...staffed by graduates 
of virtually every engineering 
school in the United States.. 



ma\g»&^ _VAtH\^ m^'^. 




TO'^lVmr_.n---iTr.^ 



mM- 







CONVAIR FORT WORTH 

p. O. BOX 748-C6 
A DIVISION OF 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 



61 

JANUARY, 1960 



NASA LEADS 
U.S. VENTURES 
INTO 




SPACE 

OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE 
TO GRADUATING SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS 



NASA plans, directs and conducts the Nation's 
aeronautical and space activities for peaceful pur- 
poses and the benefit of all mankind. 

NASA's efforts are directed toward discovering 
new knowledge about our universe and formu- 
lating new concepts of flight within and outside 
the earth's atmosphere. Through the application 
of the resulting new knowledge and supporting 
technology, we will gain a deeper understanding 
of our earth and nearby space, of the moon, the 
sun and the planets, and ultimately, of inter- 
planetary space and the distant galaxies. 

NASA is now engaged in research, development, 
design, and operations in a wide variety of fields, 
including: 

Spacecraft • Aircraft • Boosters • Payloads 
Flight dynamics and mechanics • Aeroelasticity 
Launching and impact loads • Materials and struc- 
tures • Heat transfer • Magnetoplasmadynamics 
Propulsion and energy systems: nuclear, thermal, 
electrical, chemical • Launching, tracking, naviga- 
tion, recovery systems • Instrumentation : electrical, 
electronic, mechanical, optical • Life support sys- 
tems • Trajectories, orbits, celestial mechanics 
Radiation belts • Gravitational fields • Solar and 
stellar studies • Planetary atmospheres • Lunar 
and planetary surfaces • Applications: meteor- 
ology, conununications, navigation, geodesy. 



Career Opportunities 

At NA.SA career opportunities for graduates 
with bachelor's or higher degrees are as unlimited 
as the scope of our organization. Because of our 
dynamic growth and diversified operations, ex- 
cellent oppoi-tunities for personal and professional 
advancement are available for graduates with 
majors in : 

Engineering: Aeronautical, Mechanical, Electronic, 
Electrical, Chemical, Metallurgical, Ceramic, Civil, 
Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Physics 
Science: Astronautics, Physics, Electronics, Chem- 
istry, Metallurgy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Geo- 
physics 

For details about career opportunities, write 
to the Personnel Director of any of the 
NASA Research Centers listed below or 
contact your Placement Officer. 

NASA Research Centers and their 
locations are: 

• Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 

• Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. 

• Lewis Research Center, Cleveland 35, Ohio 

• Flight Research Center, Edwards. Calif. 

• Goddard Space Flight Center, Washington 25, D.C. 



NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 



62 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tau Beta Pi Essay . . 



The Responsibility of the College 



By Richard W. Sievers 



Today's lilghly trained s[iact'-iiiiiulfd 
engineering student receives an educa- 
tion that equips him to live in a func- 
tioning society composed principally of 
technicians or other engineers. He is 
completely at home in a conversation en- 
compassing such topics as Newton's 
Equations, Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's haw 
and a host of other allied subjects that 
are of interest mainly to other engi- 
neers. His only hope of surviving a con- 
versation in a mixed group containing 
non-engineering students is for him to 
shift or limit the discussion to areas in 
which he may make knowledgeable con- 
tribution.s. These areas are admittedh 
small. They do not usually include sucii 
topics as art, music, literature, or in 
many instances, e\en current e\ents. 
His political knowledge is chiefly coni- 
po.sed of tinted accounts that appear in 
local newspapers telling of the exploita- 
tion of the public or crafty politicians. 

From these observations it would 
seem that the engineering student is not 
receiving a sufficiently broad education 
while at school. It would seem that his 
technical education, either by his own 
choosing, or by college requirements, 
should be augmented by a greatly in- 
creased amount of subjects in such 
fields as Economics, Political Science, 
Art, Literature, Music, and the Hu- 
manities. It should be the responsibility 
of the college to insure that the engi- 
neer, at the time of his graduation, is 
fully qualified to meet his own responsi- 
bilities to society. 

The engineer has a two-fold responsi- 
bility; to industry, and to all forms of 
government from the local to the na- 
tional level. The foremost of these is 
probably to industry. It is here th.it the 
skills and talents that have been devel- 
oped in our engineering schools are 
called upon and have been proven ade- 
quate. The engineer could not help in 
producing the maze of complicated 
hardware and gadgetry that has become 
the stock-in-trade of American engineer- 
ing. His productivity is second to none. 
He seems to have an infinite capacits' 
for finding the solutions to a great \ a- 
riety of difficult problems. 

One of the major problems facing the 
engineer is one that has confronted him 
ever since the invention of the first 
wheel. This problem is the control, for 
useful rather than destructive purposes, 
of all of the findings and creations that 



e\()l\e fiom the ingenuit\ of engineer- 
ing. With the ad\enr of blasting pow- 
der, man was able to increase his pro- 
ductivity by having the powder with 
which to clear land. His ability to des- 
troy was also increased by the applica- 
tion of this power to muskets and can- 
nons. The Industrial Revolution pro- 
duced new production machines which 
we consider to be indispensible to our 
present way of life. Mass-production, 
made possible by mechanization of the 
industries, has allowed the production 
of merchandise to be of such a volmiie 
that an abundance of goods and serv- 
ices are available to everyone. These 
same mass production methods are also 
used to mass-produce rifles, bullets, 
tanks, planes, and even warships. This 
again brings with it the problems con- 
nected with control. 

These same problems of control are 
experienced when the engineer meets 
his second responsibilitN ; that responsi- 
bility that is iliiected toward govern- 
ment. 

With the ratiiication of the Consti- 




tution of the United States in the lat- 
ter part of the eighteenth centiuy, the 
citizens of the L'nited States were grant- 
ed the privilege to choose, through elect- 
ed officials, the governmental policies to 
b? followed. This same process of 
choosing those to represent us in the 
government by free elections is still 
followed today. It is up to the indi- 
\uiual to become familiar with the me- 
chanics of our government and to give 
support in order th.it our government 
may be truly the "People's Govern- 
ment." The communit)' leaders, who 
may well be engineers, must be people 
who are educated in the functions of 
good government. It is un to all indi- 
viduals to realize the full importance 
and necessity of ha\ irv:: a multi-party 
' olitical system with full-time politicians 
ro operate them. It is, however, up to 
t'lese same individuals to determine the 
c-ipabilities and potentialities of these 
s\srenis and politicians, and to offer 
their support and leadership to insure 
their election. It is up to the engineer, 
as a community leailer, to arouse com- 
munity interest and to provide com- 
munity leadership in order that the con- 
trol of the government be in the hands 
of ;ill people. 

In order that the engineer ma\ ha\e 
the abilit\ to provide adequate leader- 
ship, he himself must first have been 
schooled in governmental theory. This 
can most easily be effected by a further- 
ance of his college training. Yet, the 
engineering student is granted only a 
minimum of time that he may devote 
to non-technical subjects. Is this fair 
to either the stuilent or to the com- 
inunit) in which he later lives? Should 
not the colleges recognize that this facet 
of an engineering student's education is 
also important and initiate measures 
which would correct this condition? 
Even though the student engineer, of- 
fered lucrative starting salaries in in- 
dustry, will not of himself take the 
extra time to fortify his education with 
more non-technical subjects, the educa- 
tional institutions must insist that this 
be done. They should require non-tech- 
nical courses to insure that the engi- 
neeiing student, as a potential leader 
ciitenng into community activities after 
graduation, be (pialified to offer guid- 
ance and leadership in order that our 
goxernment "of the people" ma\' con- 
tinue to be just that. 



JANUARY, 1960 



63 



^^vxxxxvxxxxxxx\vx\xvvvxxxv\\xxxvv\\\vxvxvxxxvxvxxvvvvvvx\\xxxxxxvvvxvx\xvxx\vxv\xvxvvx\^x\^ 



ENGINEERS 



SCIENTISTS 



THE! 



MITRE 



Iff^ites Candidates jor baccalaureate 

and Qraduate T)e^rees to In^f estimate 

the Career Opportunities ^i^ailatte 

in X^ar^e-Scale System "Engineering 



Accelerating programs in the growing techno- 
logical field of large-scale system engineering 
at MITRE afford young engineers and scien- 
tists unique career opportunity because: 

• MITRE, a systems engineering and development 
organization, formed under the sponsorship of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has the 
unusual assignment of providing engineering solu- 
tions to the varied and complex problems inherent 
in large-scale air defense systems. 

• The complexities involved in the design and 
development of the world's largest real-time 
control systems provide an opportunity to apply 
professional skills across a broad scientific spec- 
trum. Included within this long-range work pro- 
gram is the design, development, evaluation and 
integration of the diverse components, equipments 
and subsystems from which total systems are 



evolved. This is a continuing assignment because 
the MITRE system approach takes cognizance of 
the immediate and long-term threat, the total 
defense technology — both present and projected — 
and the complex logistics of air defense that 
insures the best possible defense system, at mini- 
mum cost, for any given time period. 

• Working directly with the men who designed 
and developed the SAGE System, professional 
growth is stimulated in a multi-disciplined environ- 
ment where there is freedom of choice to apply 
individual skills in areas which best fit professional 
talents. Assignments range from system design 
through prototype development to advanced oper- 
ations research. 

• Openings are available at MITRE's modern 
locations in suburban Boston, Massachusetts — 
Fort Walton Beach, Florida - and Montgomery, 
Alabama. 



We invite you to discuss with us how your academic training 
can be effectively utilized in the following areas: 



• COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

• RADAR SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 

• REALTIME COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS 

• ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING 
AND EVALUATION 



• SYSTEM RESEARCH AND DESIGN 

• COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT 

• ELECTRONIC RECONNAISSANCE AND 
COUNTERMEASURE SYSTEMS 

• BASIC ELECTRONIC RESEARCH 



\ 



64 



Please contact your Placement Director to arrange interview on campus 

THE MITRE CORPORATION 

244 Wood Street — Lexington 73, Massachusetts 

J brochure more jiiUy describing l^nj.T^f and its acticities is nvailMc on rccluest. 
\XXXXXXXXXXXXXVXXXVVXXXXXXXV»lXXXXXXXXXVV\\X\XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXVXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXV»S^ 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by Paul Cliff 



New Stereo Speakers 

Four ni'w ( uMU'ial Electric "Stereo 
Classic" speakers have been introduced 
by the audio products section of the 
Company's radio receiver department, 
accordiiifr to an announcement by S. J. 
Welsh, marketing manager tor audio 
components. 

Model 120] H, a 12-inch wide-range 
speaker priced at $19. 9S, will serve as 
an effective economical basic speaker for 
any stereo or monophonic high fidelity 
system. It has a recommended amplifier 
rating of 5-25 watts (continuous power 
rating) , frequency response of 48 to 
13,000 cps, power rating of 25 watts, 
and Alnico 5 magnet weight of 14.5 
ounces. 

Also priced at $19.95 is the Model 
G-504 tweeter speaker, a 2%-inch di- 
rect radiator tweeter speaker, styled for 
surface movuiting if desired. It provides 
maximum dispersion of high frequencies 
in all directions for truer stereo effect, 
with frequenc\- response of 1200 to 16,- 
000 cps. Model G-504 has a 100-de- 
gree dispersion, both horizontally and 
vertically, power rating of 30 watts, 
and Alnico 5 magnet weight of 6.8 
ounces. 

Model G-502 dual-cone 12-inch 
speaker features a specially treated cloth 
edge suspension for improved low-fre- 
quency response with greater linearity 
and new binding post terminals for easy 
connection. It has a special auxiliary 
"whizzer" cone for high frequency per- 
' tormance and a recommended amplifier 
1 rating of 5-25 watts (continuous power 
] rating). Model G-502, priced at $34.95, 
I has frequencv response of 30-16,00(1 



cps, power rating of 25 watts and Al- 
nico 5 magnet weight of 14.5 ounces. 

Priced at $59.95 is Model G-503, a 
dual coaxial 12-inch speaker, with spe- 
cially treated cloth edge suspension for 
better low frequency response plus a 
new combination electro-mechanical and 
L-C crossover network for smoother 
transition. An extra-long aluminum base 
voice coil provides greater linearity and 
fine tone under varying climatic condi- 
tions. With a recommended amplifier 
rating of 5-30 watts (continuous power 
rating), Model G-503 has frequency re- 
sponse of 30-16,000 cps, 100-degree dis- 
persion, crossover frequency of 2,000 
cps, power rating of 30 watts (Inte- 
grated Program Material), and Alnico 
5 magnet weights of 14.5 ounces for the 
woofer and 6.8 ounces for the tweeter. 

Supersonic Circuit at Tullahoma 
Nears Completion 

Largest of the 22 wind tunnels and 
test cells at the U. S. Air Force's Ar- 
nold Engineering Development Center 
in Tullahoma, Tenn., is the propulsion 
wind tunnel comprised of a transonic 
unit now in operation and a supersonic 
circuit nearing completion. 

The propulsion wind tunnel — one of 
the three major laboratories at the 
Center — is powered by the world's 
largest rotating machine. Built by the 
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, the 
machine is over 480 feet long and de- 
velops 216,000 horsepower. It concludes 
the world's two most powerful syn- 
chronous motors, each rated 83,000 
horsepower, and two smaller "starting ' 



motors of 25,000 horsepower each. The 
four motors, which were built at the 
Westinghouse East Pittsburgh, Pa., 
plant, are connected in tandem to drive 
two huge compressors: one a three-stage 
luiit for the transonic circin't; the other 
an 18-stage unit for the supersonic cir- 
cuit. The compressors were built at the 
Westinif^house Sunnyvale, Calif., manu- 
facturing division. 

The transonic circuit at the Center 
has been conducting aerodynamic and 
propulsion tests for nearly three years, 
and it soon will be joined by its as- 
sociated supersonic tunnel. Tests have 
been conducted on more than 30 of tne 
major weapon-system projects of the 
United States government, including 
the USAF Titan, Snark, GAM-72 and 
Honiarc missiles, nose cones for all in- 
tercontinental ballistic missiles, t h e 
Xavy's Polaris, the Army's Juniper and 
the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration Mercury "man-in-space" 
project. 

Picture Freezer for TV Editing 

A video picture freezer which instant- 
Iv stops TV picture action and holds 
the frozen image on its screen for as 
long as ten minutes is now available 
from the industrial systems division of 
Hughes Aircraft Company. 

The new Hughes storage monitor is 
equipped with a five-inch Hughes Ton- 
otron tube, which can display a con- 
tinuous television picture, and "freeze" 
the action at any desired time. 

The Hughes storage monitor has a 
\ aried range of applications, including: 

1. Video tape editing. The monitor 
can be used as a key unit in the design 
of advanced video tape editing systems. 

2. Surveillance. Closed-circuit TV 
surveillance in industrial plant protec- 
tion, as a deterrent against shoplifting, 
and as an aid in general law enforce- 
ment. 

3. Sports. Quick determination of 
pertinent actions in sporting events by 
providing an instant frozen picture of 
race finishes, winners, accidents and 
rules infractions. 

4. Teaching. Closed-circuit "on the 
scene" TV classroom instruction. Ideal 
for capturing pertinent moments in 
medical and dental operations and dem- 
onstrations, thus permitting elaboration 
by the lecturer. 

5. Fluoroscopy. Capable of storing 
images where short-biu'st fluoroscopic 
X-ray techniques are used, further aid- 
ing in reducing patient irradiation 
dosage. Image available for immediate 
examination. 

The Hughes storage monitor can be 
connected directly to a closed circuit 
television camera, video tape recorder or 
other video signal source, the company 
said. The device will monitor the pic- 



JANUARY, 1960 



65 




Take advantage of the 

MECHANICAL 
ADVANTAGE 



The screw is a combination of two 
mechanical principles: the lever, 
and the inclined plane in helical 
form. The leverage applied to the 
nut combines with motion of the nut 
around the bolt to exert tremendous 
clamping force between the two. 

One of the greatest design errors 
today, in fact, is failure to realize 
the mechanical advantages that 
exist in standard nuts and bolts. 
Smaller diameters and less costly 
grades of fasteners tightened to 
their full capacity will create far 
stronger joints than those utilizing 
bigger and stronger fasteners tight- 
ened to only a fraction of their 
capacity. Last year, one of our engi- 
neers showed a manufacturer how 
he could save $97,000 a year simply 
by using all the mechanical advan- 
tages of a less expensive grade. 

When you graduate, make sure 
you consider the mechanical advan- 
tages that RB&W fasteners provide. 
And make sure, too, that you con- 
sider the career advantages RB&W 
offers mechanical engineers — in the 
design, manufacture and application 
of mechanical fasteners. If you're 
interested in machine design — or 
sales engineering, write us for more 
information. 

RUSSELL, BURDSALL & WARD 
BOLT AND NUT COMPANY 

Port Chsstsr, N. Y. 




Rmw 



115 year 




tunc until tlu" stdic switch is manu.illx 
or automatically actuatcil. This instajit- 
ly freezfs the action, until normal pic- 
ture action is again started by iisinjr the 
monitor switch. The unit is a\ailable 
for table or rack mounting and multiple 
units can be set up to freeze a nuniher 
i)f sequential action frames. 

Larger License Plates 

l.iifiise pi.ites (in 7ll million Ameii- 
can motor \ehicles will he biirger, 
brighter, and easier to read if states 
anply research findings reported to the 
Highway Research Board by three en- 
gineers from the University of Illinois. 

They told about a two-year stiid\ on 
license legibility sponsored at the iini- 
versitv by Charles F. Carpentier, Illi- 
nois Secretary of State. Recommenda- 
tions for Illinois plates ha\e been re- 
ported to him. 

They recommended the national size 
of license plates, 12 h\ h inches, be 
lengthened to 14 by 6. 

For quick accurate identification 
under normal da\light conditions at \2'' 
feet or farther they recommended no 
more than six identification characters 
on the plates. 

For states with fewer than 1,(IO(),0(1I) 
vehicles the easiest read s\stem is 
straight use of numbers. For larger 
states they found the best system two 
letters and four numbers, which pro- 
vides for 6,000 vehicles. All letters 
should be together at beginning or end 
of the series, they said. 

Rigger characters for state names or 
abbreviations and for year numbers 
were recommended to make this infor- 
mation legible at least 65 feet away. 

Reconunendations were in line with 
finds that licenses have two functions: 
to identify the vehicle, and to show the 
owner has complied with registration 
laws. 

I nder these finding slogans and em- 
blems would go off the plates. The en- 
gineers reported, "The advertising aiul 
publicizing of the state by means of slo- 
gans or symbols is not a function of 
license plates." 

Two plates — one front and one rear 
— were found necessary to best accom- 
plish the purpose of licenses. 

Rounded open-st\le numbers and let- 
ters were recommended for best legibil- 
it\', with letters slightly larger than the 
the numbers, and with selection of higli- 
contrast colors for the plates. 

ReHectorization of license plates was 
di.scussed and it was said that this in- 
creases night legibility by 28 per cent. 

"There appears no appreciable differ- 
ence in legibility of various types of ma- 
terials used," he said, however, "consid- 
erations other than legibility, have an 
important bearing on choice of reflectoi- 
izing material." Factors he listed are 



\isibility, ilurability, ease of cleaning, 
all-w cathei iierformance, nianufactur- 
ing requirements, and cost." 

F.ffect of retlectorized plates on \e- 
hicle collisions is not definite, he said. 
Additional data are needed. 

A Home Away From Home 

How will space speciali>t^ keep a man 
'■ouifoitable in a space ship if the\- can't 
load the \ehicle with tons of air condi- 
tioning equipment to change tempera- 
tures or put its occupant in a tempera- 
ture-adjustable space suit? 

The answer is to try to design the 
space vehicle to operate at a constant 
"shirt sleeve" temperature, said senior 
research scientist J. E. Janssen, \Iinne- 
apolis-Honeywell Research Center. He 
added however that this is ea.sier said 
than done. "How do you calculate the 
temperatures, if no one's e\er been 
there? " 

Conditions in sp.ice differ from eavth- 
h ones, said .Mr. Janssen, and the wavs 
that the skin has of helping to keep the 
b(id\ comfortable on the ground may 
not be available to it among the stars. 

For one thing, since the force of 
gravity is so much lower in space than 
on earth, the air that carries off heat 
and moisture from the body won't be 
mo\ing nearly as fast. If some means is 
not provided for moving the cloud of 
carbon dioxide and \apor from around 
the space man, he won't be \ery com- 
fortable. But velocities will have to be 
kept fairly low, because high air move- 
ment has a fatiguing effect. 

E\en more important, fornudas indi- 
cate that air temperature variations in- 
side the vehicle have less effect on the 
occupant than the "mean radiant tem- 
perature" of the ship. Air. Janssen de- 
fined "mrt" as, roughly, the surface 
temperatures of an enclosure, like a 
space ship, which gives off the same heat 
as a body in the actual environment. For 
e\ery degree that "mrt" varies, a .i.2°F 
change is necessary in the air at atmo- 
spheric pressure to compensate for it. 
The big job will be control of "mrt," 
he said. 

From the data he gathered, Mr. Jans- 
st'ii went on, comfortable atmosphere in 
a space ship in given conditions would 
he about 67 F. This would compare to 
an earthly environment of 70°F and 
82.2 skin surface temperature. 

But, he indicated, these formulas are 
only the beginning. They will help a 
man stay alixe while hurtling through 
space, but only when he comes back can 
exact ones be worked out. 

At the same session of the AS ME 
meeting, a new space age word that may 
soon be a standard part of the lan- 
guage was defined. 

The word is "clo" and, according to 
I. W. McCutchan, associate professor 



66 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



of I'ligiiieeiing at the University of Cali- 
fornia, a "clo" is that quantity of cloth- 
ing that will maintain a comfortable 
lieat balance for a man sitting at rest 
in a room with a 70° temperature, less 
th.-m 50° humidity and air movement 
iif at least 20 feet per minute. 

Professor McCutchan said that crews 
of supersonic airplanes need at least 3 
or 4 clo for complete protection in case 
the\ have to bail out in arctic territor\-. 
The problem is that an impossibly low 
cabin temperature is required if the men 
are to wear that much clothing in com- 
fort. 

The solution may lie in ventilated 
clothing, continued Professor ^IcCut- 
chan. This type of garment, which has 
built-in vents among its other attributes, 
is a sort of substitute for air condition- 
ing and allows the air to circulate 
through clothing more freely. 

Suits of this type have already been 
designed, but crewmen must wear with 
them an anti-exposure suit, flying suit, 
woolen imderwear, gloves, wool socks 
and rubber boots. 

The perfect solution to the piiihlem 
has yet to be found. 

Street Of Gold 

Although many Europeans erroneous- 
ly believed that the streets of America 
were paved with gold, there actually 
was one saturated with the metal. Lo- 
cated in San Francisco in 184S, it con- 
tained so many specks of gold that some 
people picked it out as a means of mak- 
ing a living. How the gold got there is 
;i mystery, but some say miners who 
lodged at the United States hotel lost 
tiny grains enroute from the leaky can- 
vas bags they carried. 

TV For Towser 

Televisi(}n adxertisers are reported 
flirting \\'ith subliminal messages again 
— this time aimed at dogs. The trick 
would be to transmit supersonic bark- 
ing, which a dog can hear but a man 
can't, along with a picture of a dog- 
food can. The viewer's dog woidd bark 
in answer and the viewer, presumably 
would rush out to bu\' the food. 

Labor-Snaring Lottery 

An appliance company in labor-short 
West Germany holds Saturday lotteries 
to keep its workers on a six-day week, 
reports International Management Di- 
gest. The firm offers a lottery of 20 
prizes — including its own refrigerators 
and washers — plus free beer and sand- 
w iches in addition to overtime pay, to 
employees who report for work on Sat- 
urdavs. 



Electrical and Mechanical Engineers; Physicists 




At 



ffiSlE 



\h 



you can work in this new 

multi-million dollar engineering 

research & manufacturing facility in 



Next fall the Norden Division of United Aircraft Corporation will 
consolidate in its new 350,000 sq. ft. Norwalk home, the operations it is 
now carrying on in plants and laboratories in White Plains, New York 
and Stamford and Milford, Connecticut. The Ketay Department, however, 
a prominent leader in the field of rotating components, will continue 
operations in its modern facilities in Commack, Long Island. 
At Norden Laboratories you will be associated with top men in the field 
of precision electronics, while working in this ultra modern new building 
which will contain the most up-to-date laboratory equipment available 
to facilitate the design and development of: 



Fire Control Systems 
Radar Systems 
Communications Equipment 
Data Processing Equipment 
Infrared Equipment 
Television Systems 



Inertial Guidance Systems 
Navigational Systems 

and Components 
Microwave Equipment 
Aircraft Instrumentation 
Anti-Submarine Warfare 



Norwalk is a particularly attractive location that has "more than its share" 
of cultural activities— the largest community art center in the East as well 
as its own symphony orchestra. Outdoor recreation also abounds — golf 
courses, fishing, boating, and swimming on Long Island Sound and famous 
New England winter sports centers close by. You can pursue graduate 
study under Norden's excellent tuition refund plan in many area schools. 
And all this is only 41 miles from New York City. 

For additional information on opportunities at Norden Laboratories, see 
your college placement officer or write to: Technical Employment Mgr. 



T NORDEN LABORATORIES 

NORDEN DIVISION OF UNITED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 

121 Westmoreland Avenue, White Plains, New York 



NORD 

f 



JANUARY, 1960 



67 




Test engineers (right) assemble high potential testing equipment. 
The complete installation (upper) consists of a completely enclosed 
electrostatic generator (on right) which has a current output of four 
milliamps and a uoltage output of 600,000 volts. The electrostatic 
generator feeds into a current-limiting and discharge assembly in the 
lower left of the picture. 




POWER and TECHNOLOGY 
to assure progress . . . 



The rapidly expanding needs for electric power place a premium on tech- 
nological knowledge to develop new concepts of design, operations and sys- 
tem protection. The high potential tester, above, is the only such unit in 
operation by a U. S. electric utility — another example of Wisconsin Electric 
Power Company's leadership in technological development. The Company 
has pioneered many engineering "firsts" in electric power because its policy 
has been to do its own design and development work. 

See our representatives when they visit your campus. Challenging jobs 
are open in your field of engineering with excellent opportunities for personal 
advancement. 



WISCONSIN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 
Applefon, Wis. 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. 
Racine, Wis. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Where do you want to work? 



These 2 answers may shape your future 




AT N O RTH RO P you will be offered a wide diver- 
sity of over 30 operational fields from which to 
choose. You will apply your talents to the work you 
enjoy - in the fields best suited to your inclinations 
and ability. 

You will work with the newest and most-advanced 
research and test equipment. 

You will work with acknowledged leaders in their 
fields-men who are chosen for their capabilities and 
their skills in guiding and developing the talents of 
younger men. You will like the way they delegate 
authority and assure you of your fair share of credit 
for engineering triumphs. 

You will earn top salary. Northrop's salary structure 
is unique in the industry .With this growing company 
you will receive increases as often as you earn them, 
and these will be based on your own individual 
achievements. You will discover, too, that Northrop's 
vacation and fringe benefits are extra liberal. 

And you will continue to learn while you earn at 
Northrop with no-cost and low-cost education. At 
leading Southern California institutions, you will 
earn advanced degrees and keep current with the 
latest advances in your own chosen field. 



NORTHROP 



CORPORATION 




NBWS IS HAPPENING AT NORTHROP 



IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA you will work 
in the electronic, aircraft/missile center of the world. 
You will join the outstanding scientists and engi- 
neers who continually advance Southern California's 
dynamic leadership in these fields of the future. 

When you work at Northrop you will be able to 
enjoy your leisure the year around. Close to the 
beaches and the mountains, you'll enjoy an active 
life in Southern California's incomparable climate. 



Now -as you plan your future, you owe it to yourself to 
consider these 3 Divisions of Northrop. 
NORAIR DIVISION is the creator of the USAF Snark SM-62 
missile now operational with SAC. Norair is currently 
active in programs of space research, flight-testing the 
USAF-Northrop T-38 Talon trainer and Northrop's N-156F 
Freedom Fighter. 

RADIOPLANE DIVISION, creator of the world's first family 
of drones, produces and delivers unmanned aircraft for 
all the U.S. Armed Forces to train men, evaluate weapon 
systems, and fly surveillance missions. Today Radioplane 
is readying the recovery system for Project Mercury. 

NORTRONICS DIVISION is a leader in inertial and astro- 
nertial guidance systems. At Hawthorne, Nortronics ex- 
plores infrared applications, airborne digital computers, 
and interplanetary navigation. At Anaheim, Nortronics 
develops ground support; optical and electromechanical 
equipment; the most advanced data-processing devices. 
Find out more about the young engineers and scientists 
who are making the news happen at Northrop. 

W/RITE TODAY for information about Northrop 

and all of its Divisions. 

Engineering & Scientific Personnel Placement Office 

Northrop, P.O. Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California 



JANUARY, 1960 



69 







Student Frank G. analyzes the 

Spectrum of skills built into 
Hamilton Standard products 



0^-: 



Some engineering specialties that contribute 
to creating this engine control: 

• FLUID DYNAMICS 

• HYDRAULICS 

• ELECTRONICS 

• METALLURGY 
• VIBRATION 

• MECHANICS 
• CONTROL DYNAMICS 
• STRESS ANALYSIS 

• SERVO MECHANISMS 



OTHER PRODUCTS 
DEVELOPED BY 
THIS INTEGRATION 
OF VARIED SKILLS: 




ELECTRONIC 
FLIGHT CONTROLS 




TURBO PROP 
CONTROLS 




ENVIRONMENTAL 
CONTROLS 













■ m^ _ I- ^ -■^, ' I -, L , ^bM 



^ 







MODEL JFC 12-n FUEL CONTROL is, typically, 
the result of the Hamilton Standard "task force of talents" 
concept now producing so many ingenious, space-con- 
quering devices for advanced aircraft, missiles and space 
vehicles. The unit above is standard equipment on the 
highly successful Boeing 707 Jet Transport. This light- 
weight (60 lbs.), complex (about 1200 parts), and sensitive 
unit delivers 16,000 gallons of fuel in 7 hours — sufficient 
to drive a car 240,000 miles — the distance to the moon! 

Incoming students like Frank G. can use their engi- 
neering knowledge immediately at Hamilton Standard by 
contributing, as members of small design, analysis or proj- 
ect groups to the development of a product. There is 
virtually no limit to the types of engineering background 
required at Hamilton Standard, and no limit to the chal- 
lenging applications that await these talents. 

Write to R. J. Harding, Administrator-College Relations, 
for full color, illustrated brochure: 

HAMILTON STANDARD 

A DIVISION OF 

UNITED AIRCRAFT CORP. 

BRADLEY FIELD ROAD, V/INDSOR LOCKS, CONN. 



70 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



BRAIN TEASERS 



Edited by Steve Dilts 



This elegant pii/./ic dates bacic to 
1739. For historical interest, I give it 
in the original dress which seems to 
have imposed the English currency on 
the Netherlands. I hasten to state that 
all an American needs to know about 
this currency is that a guinea contains 
21 shillings. 

Three Dutchmen and tlieir wives go 
to market, and each individual buys 
some hogs. Each buys as many hogs as 
he or she pays in shillings for one hog. 
Each husband spends altogether 3 more 
guineas than his wife. The men are 
named Hendrick, Elas, and Cornelius; 
the women are Gurtrun, Katrun, and 
.Anna. Hendrick buys 23 more hogs 
than Katrun, while Elas buys 1 1 more 
than Gurtrun. What is the name of 
each man's wife? 

* * * 

Can you rearrange the integers from 
1 to 49 so that all rows (horizontal 
and vertical) plus the two major dia- 
meters add up to 175 per summation? 
Just for a start — 
12 3 4 
11 
18 
2S 
32 
39 
46 
For a "bonus point,' 
as follows: 

30 39 48 I 
Now you kjiow how many rows 
there are and the placement of seven 
numbers, so go to it ! 

* -* » 

The following puzzle, due to Du- 
deney, is given because the method of 
solution is useful for an entire class 
of digital problems. 

If we multiply 571,428 by 5 and then 
divide by 4, we get 714,285, which is 
tlie same as the original number with 
rlie first digit transferred to the end. 

Can you find a number that can be 
divided by 5 and multiplied b\- 4 in 
the same way — by transfering the first 
digit to the end? 

Of course, 714,285 would serve if 
we were allowed to transfer the last 
digit to the head. Rut the transfer 
must be made the other way — from the 
begiiuiing to the end. 



8 


9 


10 


15 


16 


17 


22 


23 


24 


29 


30 


31 


36 


37 


38 


43 


44 


45 



5 


6 


7 


12 


13 


14 


19 


20 


21 


26 


27 


28 


33 


34 


35 


40 


41 


42 


47 


48 


49 


th, 


firs 


t row is 


10 


19 


28 



Eight men entered tlie tenms tourna- 
ments at Hillcrest. The tournament 
was played in three con.secutive days, 
one per day, and no match was de- 
faulted. The first and second round 
matches were stipulated to be two sets 
out of three, while the final was three 
sets out of five. A spectator who was 
present on all three days reports the 
following facts from his observations : 

1. Eggleston never met Haverford. 

2. Before play began, Gormley re- 
marked jocularly to Bancroft, "I see 
we meet in the finals." 

3. Chadwick won a set at love but 
lost his first match. 

4. Although 140 games were played, 
the losers won 43. 

When the pairings were posted, 
Abercrombie said to Devereau, "Do you 
concede, or do vou want to plav it 
out?" 

6. On the second day, the first roinid 
of losers played bridge, and the same 
table gathered on the third day with 
Egiileston in place of Abercrombie. 

7. Bancroft won nine games. 

8. Franklin won 32 games. 

9. The first score of the tournament 
was a service ace by Gormley at which 
Eggleston shouted, "Hey, I'm not over 
there !" 

Who won the tournament? Whom 
did he beat and by what score? 
* » » 

The answers will appear next month. 
Here are the answers to last month's 
brainteasers. 

Because two people are involved in 
every handshake, the total score for ev- 
eryone at the convention will be evenly 
divisible by two and therefore even. The 
total score for the men who shook hands 
an even number of times is, of course, 
also even. If we subtract this even score 
from the even total score of the conven- 
tion, we get an even total score for those 
men who shook hands an odd number of 
times. Only an even mnnber of odd 
numbers will total an even number, so 
we conclude that an even number of 
men shook hands an odd number of 

times. 

» » » 

In the triangular pistol duel the poor- 
est shot, Jones, has the best chance to 
survive. Since his two opponents will 



aim at each other when their tmns 
come, Jones' best strategy is to fire into 
the air until one opponent is dead. He 
will then get the first shot at the sur- 
vivor, which gives him a strong ad- 
vantage. Computing the actual survival 
probabilities is somewhat tricky, but I 
have the assinance of several experts 
that Jones, who hits his target 50 per 
cent of the time, has a siuvival chance 
of 47/90; Smith, who is 100 per cent 
accurate, comes next with a chance of 
27/90 or 3/10; and Brown, who is 80 
per cent accinate, is last with a chance 
of 16/90. Perhaps there is a moral of 
international politics in this somewhere. 
* * * 

The following anahsis of the desert- 
crossing problem appeared in a recent 
issue of Eurika. a publication of mathe- 
matics students at the University of 
Cambridge. Five hundred miles will be 
called a "unit;" gasoline sufficient to 
take the truck 500 miles will be call a 
"load ;" and a "trip" is a journey of 
the truck in either direction from one 
stopping point to the next. 

Two loads will carry the truck a 
maximum distance of 1 and 1/3 units. 
This is done in four trips by first set- 
ting up a cache at a spot 1/3 unit from 
the start. The truck begins with a full 
load, goes to the cache, leave 1/3 load, 
retmns, picks up another full load, ar- 
rives at the cache and picks up the 
cache's 1/3 load. It now has a full load, 
sufficient to take it the remaiinng dis- 
tance to one unit. 

Three loads will carry the truck 1 
and 1/3 plus 1/5 units in a total of 
nine trips. The first cache is 1/5 unit 
from the start. Three trips put 6/5 
loads in the cache. The truck retin-ns, 
picks up the remaining full load and 
arrives at the first cache with 4/5 load 
in its tank. This, together with the 
fuel in the cache, makes two full loads, 
sufficient to carry the truck the remain- 
ing 1 and 1/3 units, as explained in the 
preceding paragraph. 

We are asked for the minimum 
amount of fuel required to take flu- 
truck 800 miles. Three loads will take it 
766 and 2/3 miles (1 and 1/3 plus 1/5 
units), so we need a third cache at a 
distance of 33 and 1/3 miles (1/15 
uiu't) from the start. In five trips the 
(('rinlliiiicd oil Next Pnge) 



JANUARY, 1960 



71 



SALES 

ENGINEERING 

UNLIMITED 




DUNHAM^BUSH 





DEANE KEUCH 

Purdue Univers/ly 53 



^J EANE Keuch, one of 1 36 Dunham-Bush sales 
engineers, knows the advantages of being assoeiated with a 
dynamic young company with extensive product hnes. 

Following his engineering studies at Purdue. Deane joined 
Dunham-Bush as a trainee and soon became an application 
engineer. After a relatively short time he was assigned his own 
territory, working out of the Cleveland area sales ot^ce. 

In calling on consulting engineers, architects, plant engineers, 
wholesalers, contractors and building owners, Deane ( like all 
Dunham-Bush sales engineers) finds it reassuring to be hacked by 
his area office and the facilities of Dunham-Bush laboratories. 

Equally reassuring is the availability of complete lines. The range 
of Dunham-Bush refrigeration products runs trom compressors 
to complete systems; the range of air conditioning products 
extends from motel room conditioners to a hospital s entire air 
conditioning plant. The heating line is equally complete: front a 
radiator valve to zone heating control for an entire apartment 
housing project. The Dunham-Bush product family even includes 
specialized heat transfer products applicable to missile use. 

If you'd like to know more about the company 
that ofTers "Sales Engineering Unlimited", send for a copy of 
•'This is Dunham-Bush". 




AIR CONDITIONING. REFRIGERATION. 

HEATING PRODUCTS AND ACCESSORIES 

Dunham-Bush, Inc- 

WEST HARTFORD 10, • CONNECTICUT, • U.S.A. 



SAIES OFFICES LOCATED IN PRINCIPAl CITIES 



BRAINTEASERS . . . 

( Cdiiliiitud fro/ii I'lixi' T-)) 

trm'k can build uii tin's cache so that 
when tin- tnu-k reaches the cache at the 
(11(1 (it the seventh trip, the combined 
fuel ot truck and cache will be three 
loads. As we have seen, this is sufficient 
to take the truck the remainiiifi: distance 
of 766 and 2 '.3 miles. Seven tri|)s are 
made between starting point and lir^t 
cache, using 7/15 load of gasoline. 'I lie 
tliree loads of fuel that remain are just 
suflicient for the rest of the way, so the 
total amount of gasoline consumed will 
be .1 and 7/1.5, or a little more than 
.1.46 loads. Sixteen trips are required. 

Proceeding along similar lines, four 
loads will take the truck a distance of 
1 and 1/3 plus 1/5 plus 1/7 units, 
with three caches located at the boun- 
daries of these distances. The sum of 
this infinite series diverges as the num- 
ber of loads increases; therefore the 
truck can cross a desert of any width. 
If the desert is 1,000 miles across, 
seven caches, 64 trips and 7.67.1 loads 
of gasoline are required. 

In long dix'ision, when two digits are 
brought down instead of one. there must 
be a zero in the quotient. This occurs 
twice, so we know at once that the 
quotient is x080x. When the divisor is 
multiplied by the quotient's last digit, 
the product is a four-digit number. The 
quotient's last digit must therefore be 
9, because eight times the divisor is a 
three-digit number. 

The divisor must be less than 125 
because eight times 125 is 1,000, a four- 
digit number. We now can deduce that 
the quotient's first digit must be more 
than 7, for even times a divisor less 
than 125 would give a product that 
would leave more than two digits after 
it was subtracted from the frrst four 
digits in the dividend. The first digit 
cannot be 9 (which give a four-digit 
number when the divisor is multiplied 
by it), so it must be 8, making the full 
quotient 80809. 

The divisor must be more than 123 
because 80809 times 123 is a seven- 
digit number and our dividend has 
eight digits. The only number between 
123 and 125 is 124. We can now re- 
construct the entire problem as fol- 
lows: 

80809 



124 1 10020316 
992 



72 



1003 
992 

1116 
IIH) 
The answer to the i:isr problem was 
72 apples. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Sun Checks Radar 

The sun, long a navigational aid, now 
can be used to check the accuracy of 
search-and-height-finding- radar antennas 
in a new technique. The method uses 
the steady radio signals emitted by the 
sun as known and accurate reference 
points and permits testing and adjusting 
of antennas in active service at field 
sites for the first time. 

Perfume Discourages Fido 

Meter readers for an electric utility 
firm in Texas have found that spraying 
a cheap perfume with a water pistol 
will discourage menacing dogs. While 
perfume spraying is not a positive pre- 
\entati\e for dog bites, it does show- 
promise of substantiall\ reducing the 
number of attacks suffered by meter 
readers. 

'Fantastic' Steel 

The Russians claim to have developed 
a process by which steel can be fabri- 
cated to resist the "fantastic" loads of 
nearly two million pounds per square 
inch. Soviet scientists report that the 
process "succeeds in moving atoms of 
matter so close together" that virtually 
no space exists between them. 



Thor Statistics Soar 

To handle one squadron of Thor mis- 
siles (15 launching emplacements) re- 
quires ten miles of piping, 2,500 miles 
of wire, 1,500 meters, 3,000 panel light 
assemblies, 50,000 resistors and potenti- 
ometers, 50,000 capacitors, 5,000 relays 
and enough electricity at peak output 
to suppl\- a community of 25,000 homes. 

Electronic Nightstick 

Watchmen's nightsticks have gone 
electronic. A new model has a built-in 
transmitter that actuates an electronic 
alarm system. A button at the top of 
the stick sets off a signal, enabling a 
watchman to sound alarm instanth' 
without going to a fixed box. The sig- 
nal can be used to operate any burglar 
alarm or other device. 



River Lights Aid Planes 

Neon lights are being spaced on trans- 
mission-line spans across rivers to alert 
airplane pilots who often follow rivers 
when fog cuts visibility. These lights 
already have been installed at Columbia 
and Mississippi Ri\er crossings. Similar 
installation are planned by utilities for 
eastern rivers. 



Convenient Location 

Frankfurt, Germany, will have a 
restaurant sitting on top of 14,000 tons 
of malt and barley. A circular restau- 
rant for 160 persons, several smaller 
rooms for 40 diners each, and a roof 
garden with a capacity of 1 50 persons 
is being built at the top of a brewery 
tower. In addition, there will be a beer 
hall on the ground floor. 

Fast Winter Starts 

Motorists can keep their automobile 
batteries warm this winter and increase 
starting power 35 per cent at 32 de- 
grees Fahrenheit with a new heating ele- 
ment that is said to maintain battery 
temperature at 60 degrees F., even in an 
unheated garage. A lead-in cord is at- 
tached to the unit for connection to a 
line from the regular house current. 

Cheaper Clothes Coming 

A new aci\lic latex plastic may per- 
nu't clothing such as suits and dresses to 
be made from low-cost, longer-wearing 
nonwoven fabrics. Nonwoven fabrics 
treated with the latex are easier and 
cheaper to make, are stronger and can 
be washed or dry cleaned often — two 
processes that rapidly ruin nonwovens 
treated with conventional materials. 



IfOU Don't Have fo Join t/re 
Service for 

TRAVEL — ADVENTURE 
EDUCATION 

FRICK COMPANY offers a training course for a 
small select group of trainees each year. 

The additional experience and training gained in 
this refrigeration course will guarantee your future 
in this fast growing field. 

Frick graduates are associated with all types of 
large industry, all over the world. 

find out how you too can join this select group 
of refrigeration experts. 

IVzlte . . . 

for details and applications for the Student 
Training Course today . . . 



pnji i Mn«nj|[H<f',Ji. r»trtJ«llH 



Help Wanted! 

The Technograph needs men and 
women interested in gaining experi- 
ence in: 

• BUSINESS PROCEDURES 

• WRITING 

• MAKE-UP 

• ILLUSTRATIONS 

• ADVERTISING 

• PROMOTION 

Apply at: 

THE TECHNOGRAPH OFFICE 

215 Civil Engineering Hall 



JANUARY, 1960 



73 








• m 






^•^.-^ 





»€i*».. 



.N> 



/ 



H 




m 

L«iiiiii 





^m 



D. ;. /)(»»//, (E.K. -.57) rarm-f/ /,« Jcgrff at ]olins Ilophim. An Xssocialr Kui^inrrr at //J.A/, l,r is doing original work in the 
design and testing of thin jihn circuits. Two of his ideas in this ficU haic been filed upon for patents. 




HE'S WORKING TO GIVE OLD 
METALS A NEW FUTURE 

The metals now Ijeing utilized in thin fihii development have 
been known and used lor centuries. But dormant within these 
metals has been their quality of supcrconducti\'ity at extremely 
low temperatures. Only when researchers were able, with 
great ingenuit\ , to create certain relations between metals 
and changes in tlieir basic structures, could these supercon- 
ducting qualities be utilized. But much remains to be done 
at this moment, especially in the application of thin metallic 
films to practical working devices. 

Development Engineers at IBM are at work daily on the 
problem. They envision the replacement of today's electronic 
logic elements with modules of amazing responsiveness, dura- 
bilitv, and simplicity. The extremely small size of these modules 
and their low power requirements will be important factors 
in shaping the electronic s\stems of the future. 

Closely allied on this work are engineers of practicallv every 
specialt\'. Onl\' bv bringing tlie talents and abilities of people 
of man\' fields to bear on the unique problems of thin film devel- 
opment, will progress lie consistent with objectives. Engineers 
at IBM expect to obtain these ob]'ecti\es, and once they are 
ol:)tained, to set new ones. 

If \ou think you might be interested in imdertaking such trulv 
\ital and interesting work, you are invited to discuss your 
future with IBM. 

Our representati\e will be \'isiting your campus soon. He will 
be glad to talk with \ou about the many opportunities in vari- 
ous engineering and scientific fields. Your Placement Director 
can give you the date when our rcprcsentati\e will next visit 
) our campus. 



IBM 



For fuitlici- infoiriiation alioiit opiiortunitics at IBM, write, outlininc; vour 
Ijackground and interests, to: Manager of Technical Emphn/ment, Dept. 
S44, IBM Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York. 




rluiitlreds do it every day, witliout ever leaving their 
company. Confined by an unimaginative management, 
they sink to the level of ])cn(il pushers ... or slip-stick 
artists, losing the value of their intensive arademic 
training. But the youthful engineer does not have to 
suffer this fate. Selecting the right company . . . with 
thought to its rc[)utalion for leadership, initiative, and 
atmosphere . . . makes the difference. 

Linde Company is world renowned for its progressive 
development in many fields ... in atmospheric gases 
and acetvlene, welding and flame processes and equip- 
ment, svnthetic crvstals and adsorhents to name a few. 



This leadership has only heen won through the creative 
powers and initiative of LiMDE engineers and scientists. 
And, these men have received individual recognition 
of their achievements. 

You can find out more ahout career opportunities at 
LiNDE. in research, development, production, sales, and 
staff positions, from your Placement Officer. A booklet, 
"Look to LiNDE for your future," is availahlc hy address- 
ing J. J. Rotosky, Recruiting Dept., Linde Company, 
Division of llnion Carhide Corporation, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



OVER 50 YEARS OF LEADERSHIP 

The terms "Liiiiie " aud " L uiou Carbitle" are registerctl trade-marks of UCG. 




76 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




what is 





Energy conversion is our business 




A method of doing work? 
A change of state? 
Regimentation of random motion? 
Organized degradation of matter? 
/s /■/ reversible? 



Because we are constantly preoccupied 
with energy conversion, we are interested 
in energy in all its forms — solar, nuclear, 
thermal, mass, magnetic, electrical, me- 
chanical and radiant. 

And in our attempts to convert one form of 
energy into any other form , we search for 
methods which will give us the greatest 
amount of energy output from the smallest 
possible input. 

To aid us in our efforts, we call on a myriad 
of talents and capabilities: General Motors 
Corporation, its Divisions, other individuals 
and organizations. By applying this sys- 
tems engineering concept to new projects, 
we increase the effectiveness with w^hich 
we accomplish our mission — exploring 
the needs of advanced propulsion and 
weapons systems. 



Want to know about YOUR opportunities 0/1 
tf^e Allison Engineering Team? Write: Mr. R. C. 
Smith, College Relations, Personnel Dept. 



Division of General Motors, Indianapolis, Indiana 



JANUARY, 1960 



77 



IVI t iM ...who are Engineers, look twice 

at the many advantages 
CONVAIR- POMONA offers 




NEW PROGRAMS at Convair-Pomona, ofFer excellent 

opportunities today for Engineers. Convair-Pomona, created 

the Army's newest weapon, REDEYE, Shoulder Fired MISSILE and 

developed the Navy's ADVANCED TERRIER and TARTAR MISSILES. 

Many other, still highly classified programs, 

stimulating the imagination of the most progressive thinking 

scientist and engineer are presently at various stages 

of development. 

Pos'iiions are open for Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate 

candidates in the fields of Electronics, 

Aeronautics, Mechanics and Physics. 



ADVANCEMENT opportunities are provided for the 
competent engineer as rapidly as his capabilities will permit 
in currently expanding programs. 

PROFESSIONAL ENV/RONMENT-CONVAIR-POMONA'S 

facility is of modern design and completely air-conditioned. 
You will work with men who have pioneered the missile 
industry and are now engaged in some of the most advanced 
programs in existence. 

ADVANCED EDUCATION — luWlon refund is provided 
for graduate work in the field of your speciality. Company 
sponsored in-plant training courses offer the Engineer the 
finest of educational opportunities. 

CALIFORNIA LIVING — Suburban Pomona offers lower 
living costs and moderate priced property, unexcelled recre- 
ational facilities, freedom from rush hour traffic and the 
ultimate in comfort and gracious living. 

Coniaci your placement office immediately to assure yourself of (f 
campus interview with Convair-Pomona. 

If personal interview is not possible send resume and grade transcript 
to B. L. Dixon, Engineering Personnel Administrator, Dept. CM-525 
Pomona, California. 



CONVAIR/POIVIONA 

Convair Division of 

GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION 



POMONA, CALIFORNIA 



78 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




ATOMS IN YOUR FUTURE? 



You are looking at a photograph recently 
released by the Atomic Energy Commission. 
It shows the Commission's heavy water plant 
near the banks of the Savannah River in 
South Carolina. It is but one unit of an 
atomic energy project that covers more 
ground than the entire city of Chicago. 

This vast installation was built by Du Pont 
at government request in 1950 for cost plus 
$1. Still operated liy Du Pont, it stands as a 
bastion of strength for the free world. Equally 
important, here are being expanded horizons 
of nuclear engineering which will eventually 
lead to better living for all of us. 

Like hundreds of other Du Pont research 
projects, probing the mysteries of the atom 
has led to all kinds of new jobs. Exciting 
jobs. In the laboratory. In production. In 
administration. Good jobs that contribute 
substantially to the growth of Du Pont and 
our country's security and prosperity. 

What does all this have to do with you? 

For qualified bachelors, masters and doc- 
tors, career opjiortunities are today greater at 



Du Pont than ever before. There is a bright 
future here for metallurgists, physicists, math- 
ematicians, electrical and mechanical engi- 
neers, and other technical specialists, as well 
as for chemists and chemical engineers. 

Perhaps you will work in the field of atomic 
research and development. But that is onlv a 
small part of the over-all Du Pont picture. 
\our future could lie in any of hundreds of 
areas, from the development of new fibers, 
films or plastics to the exploration of solar 
energy. Or in the sale and marketing of new 
products developed in these and many other 
areas. In any case, )'ou will be given respon- 
sibility from the very start, along with train- 
ing that is personalized to fit your interests 
and special abilities. Well help you work at 
or near tlie top of your ability. For as you 
grow, so do we. 

If you would like to know more about 
career opportunities at Du Pont, ask your 
placement officer for literature. Or write E. I. 
du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 2420 
Nemours Building, Wilmington 98, Delaware. 



<MB> 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING . . . THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



JANUARY, 1960 



79 



Begged, Borrowed, and . . . 



Edited by Jack Fortner 



Dill you hear about the fiii;ineer that 
thoujjht he was a bijr fiuii just because 
he (inisheii every week with a report? 

Any of you }iu\s hear about the ent:i- 
neer who didn't bu\ an\ Christmas 
seals because he couMn't aliOril to teed 
them ? 

Prof.: "Are you troubled b\- tbouj;lus 
that you niit^ht Hunk out of enijine 
school ? 

E.E. : "No. I rather enjoy them." 

1st M.E. : "You cuttin' machine de- 
siirn Friday?" 

_'nd M.k. : "Xopt". I can't. Need the 
sleep. " 

.A well-known zoolog\- professor was 
unwrapping a parcel before his class 
which, he explained to his pupils, was 
a fine specimen of a dissected frog. Upon 
disclosing two sandwiches, a hard-boiled 
egg, and a banana, he was very surprised 
and exclaimed, "Hut surely I ate my 

lunch." 

» » * 

The guy was doing his best, leading 
a goat with one hand, carrying a cane 
with the other, and loaded down with 
a laundry basket on his back and a 
chicken under his arm. 

His girl hesitated when they came 
to the woods, saying, "I'm afraid to 
walk with you in there. You might try- 
to molest me." 

"How could I?" the guy assured her. 
"Look at all the stuff I'm carrying. 

"But you could put the chicken un- 
der the laundry basket, stick the cane in 
the ground, and tie the goat to it." 
# *, * 

A lunatic was leaning out of the 
asylum and watching the gardener. 

"What are you doing there?" he 
asked. 

"I'm putting manine on the straw- 
berries." 

"I usually put sugar on them, but of 
course, I'm crazy." 

The wild crowd has a new game go- 
ing. Three guys rent a hotel room and 
each brings a quart of Old Screech with 
him. They sit and drink for an hour, 
then one of them gets up and leaves. 
The other two have to guess which one 
left. 



The Southern father was introducing 
his fainih of bovs to a visiting governor. 

"Seventeen boys," exclaimed the 
father, "and all Democrats — except 
John, the little rascal. He got to 
readin'." 

.And then there was the condemned 
gidfer who asked the hangman, "Mind 
if I take a couple of practice swings?" 

» * * 

Men are as honest and truthful as 
women — that's wh\' women are so 
suspicious of them. 

Freshman: "Wliar does 'Fantasy' 
mean ? " 

Senior: "A story in which the char- 
acters are ghosts, goblins, virgins, and 
other supernatural characters." 

A patient of an asylum who had been 
certified cured was saying good-by to 
the director of the institution. 

"And what are you going to do when 
you go out into the world?" asked the 
director. 

"Well," said the ex-nut, "I have 
passed my bar examinations, so I may 
try to work up a law practice. Again 
I had quite a bit of experience with 
dramatics in college, so I might try my 
hand at acting." 

He paused and thought for a mo- 
ment. 

"Then on the other hand," he con- 
tinued, "I may be a teakettle." 

Two engineering students were tak- 
ing calculus for the first time and while 
waiting for the instructor to arrive, they 
took a quick perusal through the book. 
One of them came across the integral 
tables in the back of the book. 

"Tell me," he asked his friend, "can 
you read that?" 

"No," replied his friend, "but if I 
had my flute with me I could pla\- it." 

It's quite simple," explained one of 
the .seniors in EF, "to hook up an elec- 
tric power circuit. We merely fasten 
leads to the terminals and pull the 
switch. If the motor runs, we take our 
readings. If it smokes, we sneak it back 

and get another one. " 

* » » 

Wine, women and song are getting 
to be too much for me; guess I'll have 
to quit singing. 



Two lunatics were playing a little 
game. 

"What have I got here?" asked one, 
his hands cupped. 

"Three Navy Patrol bombers." said 
the other. 

The first looked carefully into his 
hands, "Nope." 

"The Empire State Building?" 

"Nope." 

"The Philadelphia Symphony (Orches- 
tra?" 

The first one looked into his hands 
again and saiil shlv. "W'^ho's conduct- 



Been doing qiute a bit of research on 
the origin of old sayings and phrases, 
and think I've stumbled upon the begin- 
ning of that great old cheer, "Hoorah 
for our side!" I guess it was first heard 
on the day Lady Godiva rode side sad- 
dle through the streets of Coventry. 

A man went into the Army, and, 
right after induction, he went to see a 
doctor. 

"What's wrong with you?" asked the 
doctor. 

"Well, I just got in the Army, and 
look at the unifonn they gave nie! The 
pants are just the right length, the 
sleeves are just right, and the hat fits 
perfectly, and the shoes are also per- 
fect." 

"Well?" asked the doctor. 

"My problem is this," said the in- 
ductee. "Am I deformed?" 
* * * 

A college senior entered a professor's 
office one morning and said : 

"Last night, professor, your daughter 
accepted my proposal of marriage. Pulh' 
realizing the importance of the step, I 
have called upon you to see you and in- 
qiu're if there is any insanity in your 
family." 

The professor looked up over his 
glasses and surveyed the young man in 
silence for a moment, then sadly nodded 
his head and remarked : 

"Yes, ves. There must be." 

"Get up!" commanded the Irish cop. 

"I can't offisher," replied the Scot. 
"Two men ha' got me down." 

"Nonsense!" snorted the policemen. 
"I don't see any men holdn' ye down." 

"They are too," insisted the reclining 
one. "'Fheir names is Haig and Haig." 



80 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Photographs of parts, assemblies 
and models help both speed and 
accuracy in drafting. 



At Rohr Aircraft photog- 
raphy provides accurate in- 
structions for the intricate 
assembly of an 880 jet engine. 




From drafting board to final assembly... 
Pliotograpliy works for tlie engineer 



loday photography has become an accepted, 
important tool in business and industry. It 
helps in product design, in engineering and 
development, in production, in quality control 
and in sales. 

Whatever your work in whatever field, you 
will find all along the line that photography 
will provide quicker, more accurate, and more 
economical methods of getting a job done. It 
will save you time. It will reduce costs. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 

With photography and photographic processes 
becoming increasingly important in the business 
and industry of tomorrow, there are new and 
challenging opportunities at Kodak in research, 
engineering, electronics, design and production. 

If you are looking for such an interesting 
opportunity, write for information about 
careers with Kodak. Address: Business and 
Technical Personnel Dcpt., Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester 4, N. Y. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N. Y. 





One of 



or a series' 



Q. Mr. Savaye, should young engineers 
join professional engineering socie- 
ties? 

A. By all means. Once engineers 
have graduated from college 
they are immediately "on the 
outside looking in," so to speak, 
of a new social circle to which 
they must earn their right to be- 
long. Joining a professional or 
technical society represents a 
good entree. 

Q. How do these societies help young 
engineers? 

A. The members of these societies 
— mature, knowledgeable men — 
have an obligation to instruct 
those who follow after them. 
Engineers and scientists — as pro- 
fessional people — are custodians 
of a specialized body or fund of 
knowledge to which they have 
three definite responsibilities. 
The first is to generate new 
knowledge and add to this total 
fund. The second is to utilize 
this fund of knowledge in service 
to society. The third is to teach 
this knowledge to others, includ- 
ing young engineers. 

Q. Specifically, what benefits accrue 
from belonging to these groups? 

A. There are many. For the young 
engineer, affiliation serves the 
practical purpose of exposing his 
work to appraisal by other scien- 
tists and engineers. Most impor- 
tant, however, technical societies 
enable young engineers to learn 
of work crucial to their own. 
These organizations are a prime 
source of ideas — meeting col- 
leagues and talking with them, 
reading reports, attending meet- 
ings and lectures. And, for the 
young engineer, recognition of 
his accomplishments by asso- 
ciates and organizations gener- 
ally heads the list of his aspira- 
tions. He derives satisfaction 
from knowing that he has beerj 
identified in his field. 



Interview with General Electric's 

Charles F. Savage 

Consultant — Engineering Professional Relations 

Ho^ Professional Societies 
Help Develop Young Engineers 



Q. What contribution is the young en- 
gineer expected to make as an ac- 
tive member of technical and pro- 
fessional societies? 

A. First of all, he should become 
active in helping promote the 
objectives of a society by prepar- 
ing and presenting timely, well- 
conceived technical papers. He 
should also become active in 
organizational administration. 
This is self-development at work, 
for such efforts can enhance the 
personal stature and reputation 
of the individual. And, I might 
add that professional develop- 
ment is a continuous process, 
starting prior to entering col- 
lege and progressing beyond 
retirement. Professional aspira- 
tions may change but learning 
covers a person's entire life span. 
And, of course, there are dues to 
be paid. The amount is grad- 
uated in terms of professional 
stature gained and should al- 
ways be considered as a personal 
investment in his future. 

Q, How do you go about joining pro- 
fessional groups? 

A. While still in school, join student 
chapters of societies right on 
campus. Once an engineer is out 
working in industry, he should 
contact local chapters of techni- 
cal and professional societies, or 
find out about them from fellow 
engineers. 

Q. Does General Electric encourage par- 
ticipation In technical and profes- 
sional societies? 

A. It certainly does. General Elec- 
tric progress is built upon cre- 
ative ideas and innovations. The 
Company goes to great lengths 
to establish a climate and in- 
centive to yield these results. 
One way to get ideas is to en- 



GENERAL 



courage employees to join pro- 
fessional societies. Why? Because 
General Electric shares in recog- 
nition accorded any of its indi- 
vidual employees, as well as the 
common pool of knowledge that 
these engineers build up. It can't 
help but profit by encouraging 
such association, which sparks 
and stimulates contributions. 

Right now, sizeable numbers of 
General Electric employees, at 
all levels in the Company, belong 
to engineering societies, hold re- 
sponsible offices, serve on work- 
ing committees and handle im- 
portant assignments. Many are 
recognized for their outstanding 
contributions by honor and 
medal awards. 

These general observations em- 
phasize that General Electric 
does encourage participation. In 
indication of the importance of 
this view, the Company usually 
defrays a portion of the expense 
accrued by the men involved in 
supporting the activities of these 
various organizations. Remem- 
ber, our goal is to see every man 
advance to the full limit of his 
capabilities. Encouraging him to 
join Professional Societies is one 
way to help him do so. 

Mr. Savage has copies of the booklet 
"Your First 5 Years" published by 
the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development which you may 
have for the asking. Simply write to 
Mr. C. F. Savage. Section 959-12, 
General Electric Co., Schenectady 
5, N. Y. 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: Salary • Why Companies 
have Training Programs • How to 
Get the Job You Want. 




ELECTRIC 



IZjt. 3 T^, 



-^// C.//. 



ECHNOGRAPH 




THIS IS THE WORLD'S BIGGEST TRUCK 




Your first impulse is to dive for the 
ditch when you see this mastodon of 
trucks roaring down the road. But if 
you were a contractor, you'd soon de- 
termine that this world's-largest- 
truck is an 18-wheel, 750horsepower 
monsterthat can haul 165 tons of pay- 
load each trip. 

The box and frame are built from a 
remarkable United States Steel grade 
called USS "T-1" Constructional 
Alloy Steel. Its more than three times 
stronger that standard steel, so they 
could use thinner, lighter sections. 
Result: They shaved 72^ tons of 
dead weight from the trailer by de- 
signing with the new steel, a net 
weight savings of 25%. The savings 
went into extra payload capacity. 

Unlike most ultra-strong alloy 
steel, "T-l " Steel can be easily 
formed, and it can be welded in the 
field without fancy heat treating 
equipment. "T-1" Steel resists impact, 
corrosion, abrasion. And it retains its 
strength down to a hundred degrees 
below zero. "T-1" Steel's only one of 
the amazing high-strength metals pro- 
duced by U. S. Steel. 

U. S. Steel is constantly working on 
newer and stronger metals for the 
important jobs of the future. The suc- 
cess of this research and the applica- 
tion of these steels depends upon engi- 
neers. If you would like details of the 
many engineering opportunities in the 
steel industry, .send the coupon. 

USS and ••T-1 are registered trademarks 

United States Steel 




United States Steel Corporation 
Personnel Division 
525 William Penn Place 
Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania 

Please send me the booklet, "Paths of Opportunity.' 



Editor 

Dave Penniman 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 

Asst. — Marilyn Day 

Editorial Staff 

George Carruthers 
Steve Dilts 
Granville King 
Jeff R. Golin 
Bill Andrews 
Ron Kurtz 
Jeri Jewett 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 

Production Staff 

Mark Weston 
Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan, Direct 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 

Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 5 



February, 1960 



Table of Contents 

ARTICLES: 

Wanted: Engineers Who Can Write Verne Moberg 14 

Human Capabilities and Space Flight Milton Haefner 20 

Job Opportunities Overseas ludy Ondria 25 

Women in Engineering Eileen Morkham 26 

Solid Rocket Fuels Mike Murphy 27 

The Other Role of the Engineer Robert Jones 29 

The Inscription Helen Geroff 41 

FEATURES: 

From the Editor's Desk 9 

In and Around Chicago Sheldon Altman 30 

The Deans' Page 34 

Technocutie Photos by Dave Yates 44 

The Thing That Couldn't Be Done Stephen Lucas 49 

Skimming Industrial Headlines Edited by the Staff 52 

Brain Teasers Edited by Steve Dilts 60 

Begged, Borrowed, and . . Edited by Jack Fortner 64 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 

Chairman: Stanley Stynes 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College \'ector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State IJniversity Engineer, Louis- 
iana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic, Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
neer, Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



Cover . 

Pictured on this month's cover is a "pensive young man" 
studying engineering who might someday become a writer also. 
For more about engineers in the writing field turn to page 14. 

—Barbara Polan 



Copyright, 1959, by Illini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved liy The i'.linois Technograph. Publisher's Representative — Littell-Murray- 
Barnhill, Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago II, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 




Westinghouse scientist Robert Sampson analyzes a special photoelastic model under polarized light to ( 
the stresses which would be built up in an atomic reactor component now in the design stage. 

If your design must resist severe stress and 
shock, the Mechanics Lab can help you 



Engineers at Westinghouse can count on the Mechanics 
Lab for expert advice and help on problems involving 
static or dynamic mechanics. If an engineer's design 
must withstand the shock of a missile blast, or the stress 
in an atomic reactor, the men in the Mechanics Lab will 
analyze it for him and point out ways to improve it. 

This laboratory supplements the work of engineers in 
all departments at Westinghouse. Its typical activities 
include studies of flow and combustion, heat transfer, 
lubrication, stress, and vibration . . . studies aimed at 
solving today's si)ecific problems, as well as building a 
store of knowledge for tomorrow. 

The young engineer at Westinghouse isn't expected to 
know all the answers . . . our work is often too advanced 
for that. Instead, his abilities and knowledge are backed 



up by specialists like those in the Mechanics Laboratory. 

If you have ambition and ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportunities 
for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write today to Mr. L. H. 
Noggle, Westinghouse Educational Department, 
Ardmore & Brinton Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pennsylvania. 

you CAN BE SURE . ..IF it's 

Westinghouse 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




HOW TO MAKE A "LEFT TURN" IN OUTER SPACE 

(and the ''right turn" toward a gratifying career) 



Like the dimensions of the universe 
itself, the future of space technology 
is beyond imagination. The fron- 
tiers of space will edge farther and 
farther from us as engineering and 
scientific skills push our knowledge 
closer to the stars. Bendix Aviation 
Corporation, long a major factor in 
America's technological advance, 
offers talented young men an out- 
standing site from which to launch 
a career. 

In the field of controls alone, for 
example, Bendix (which makes con- 
trols for almost everything that 
rolls, flies or floats) has developed 
practical, precision equipment for 
steering and controlling the atti- 



tude of space vehicles. It consists 
of a series of gas reaction controllers 
(actually miniature rockets) which 
are mounted around the satellite. 
Individually controlled by a built- 
in intelligence system, they emit 
metered jets of gas on signal when- 
ever it is necessary to change the 
orientation of the satellite. 

The development of this unique 
control equipment is but one of the 
many successful Bendix projects 
involving knowledge of the outer 
atmosphere and beyond. Bendix, a 
major factor in broad industrial re- 
search, development and manufac- 
ture, is heavily engaged in advanced 
missile and rocket systems and com- 



ponents activities. These include 
prime contract responsibility for 
the Navy's advanced missiles, Talcs 
and Eagle. 

The many career opportunities 
at Bendix include assignments in 
electronics, electromechanics, ultra- 
sonics, computers, automation, 
radar, nucleonics, combustion, air 
navigation, hydraulics, instrumen- 
tation, propulsion, metallurgy, com- 
munications, carburetion, solid 
state physics, aerophysics and 
structures. See your placement 
director or write to Director of 
University and Scientific Relations, 
Bendix Aviation Corporation, 
1108 Fisher Bldg., Detroit 2, Mich. 



A thousand products 




FEBRUARY, 1960 



a million ideas 



alia 1)1 ii<i llie course ofpoicci' 

...in hijdi'diirics 




General Motors en(jincers lueasnre the torque ainl voin lali-ri[ r;in ri-;ill\ i;(i placi-.. 'I'lieic's im dcad- 
and efliciencii chnracteristics of torque con- iTnlinf; licie. Vm can i;(i liuuanl liy Wdikiiij; cm a 
verier blade designs uith hifih velociti, fluid V'"i''l^ "'' 'li-iU'-n^Airi- pnijc-rls. mc.viii- up lliin,,;:!, 



floir, nsinq eleetronic nieasurenienl devices to 
solve for unknoirns in highlfi complex inathe- 
malic desifin priddenis. 

Wliafs ydur sppcialilN . vdur fust love in science and 
engineering? Astronautics? Automobiles? Elcclmnics? 
Jet Power? Refrigeration? Basic Research? Youll lind 
opportunities in all of llicse fudds and nianv rriorf at 
General Motors. Rerausc CM i^ a ciPiniianN ulicrr vnu 



ur divi>i(in. ami there's also a possihiHlv DliiKiving 
aciijss to oliiri- divisions. 

lrltere^tt•d in postgraduate studies? CM provides finan- 
cial aid. 'I'heres also a summer program for uudcr- 
gradualcs. ^on gain woik experience whil<' vacationing 
from school. 

('■ct the story on a rewarding GM career from your 
riaceiricnl Olficei' or write to General Motors, I'er- 
sonncl .'^lalf. Di'lrnil 2. Mi, hi-an. 



GENMPvALMOIXlllS 

GM positions now available in these fields for men holding Bachelor's, Master's and Doctor's degrees: Mechanical, Electrical, Industrial, Metallurgical, Chemical, 
Aeronautical and Ceramic Engineering* Mathematics* Industrial Design • Physics •Chemistry Engineering Mechanics' Business Administration and Reljted Fields 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Student Frank G. pictures himself 
Hf^ on a typical Hamilton Standard 

engineering assignment: environmental 
control system for Convair 880 




ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE of HamUton Standard equipment 
is reflected by the selection of its air conditioning and pressuriz- 
ation system for the new Convair 880 jet. Frank G. readily sees 
the variety of engineering applications involved and learns that 
he would, as an engineer, participate in its development in one of 
the following groups: 

DESIGN ENGINEERING — Where the engineer, using technical 
skills in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, vibration, 
servo mechanisms and electronics, creates a working concept of 
the product to meet rigid specifications of jDerformance, weight, 
size, reliability, cost and safety. Engineers shown at right are 
discussing stress analysis problems of the turbo compressor rotor 
system. 

ANALYSIS ENGINEERING— Where the engineer, acting as a 
consultant in applied research, derives and evaluates data on 
performance, structures, vibration and reliability. In addition, 
Frank G. finds that close liaison is maintained with project and 
design engineers, who incorporate this information in the devel- 
opment of the product. Such machines as the Philbrick Analog 
Computer, shown at right, facilitate compilation of technical data. 

PROJECT ENGINEERING — Where the engineer's prime respon- 
sibility is coordinating all activity from design through qualifi- 
cation testing. Frank G. discovers this means "shirt sleeve" 
work at laboratory test facilities, verifying product specifications 
with analysis and design groups, working with experimental 
technicians and contact with customers and vendors. Electronic 
temperature control pictured at right, was developed by our 
autonomous Broad Brook Electronics Department. 

For full color and illustrated brochure "Engineering for You and Your Future" 
write R. J. Harding, Administrator— College Relations 

HAMILTON STANDARD 

A DIVISION OF 

UNITED AIRCRAFT CORP. 

BRADLEY FIELD ROAD, WINDSOR LOCKS, CONN. 



^^ "'1"^ 




FEBRUARY, 1960 



I 



;* 



'^^'P^k 







Robert M. King(B.S.E., Princeton '57, M.S., Carnegie Tech) is investigating applications of the chetronic computer in advanced compute 
design. A skilled computer programmer, he has done original work in orgaiuzing programs that make possible computer self-diagnosis 



-| ^ETtT 3ICACIA 



1 




s.- ^Am^-^'^'i 



r . . I I r? 



HE GETS COMPUTERS TO 
DIAGNOSE THEIR OWN FAULTS 

With tlie increasing size and complexity of modern computers, one 
of tlie most interesting problems that engineers face is the rapid 
and efficient location of failures within the system. 
The method which they have found most practical is to use the 
speed and logical abilities of the computer itself to make the 
diagnosis. Programming computers to perform this function is the 
job of Robert M. King. 

The Diagnostic Technique 

He prepares programs for the computer which actually simulate 
the deductive processes of a man investigating the faults of the 
machine. Each program instructs the computer to exercise various 
segments of its circuitry in a logical order. 

The result of each test is checked against the correct result, stored 
in the computer memory, of previous tests of the same circuitry 
when in proper working order. If the results do not agree, a mes- 
sage is automatically typed which indicates the failure and which 
component caused it. 

A computer is particularly adept at this job. It can take into con- 
sideration simultaneously a large number of factors. It can also 
work at very high speeds. Once a program is properly written, the 
computer makes no errors. Appropriately enough, diagnostic pro- 
gramming often aids in designing better computers. 

A Programmer's Background 

Computer programs are the result of ingenious applications of 
many intellectual qualities. Computer design and language are 
based on sound laws of logic. Therefore an important prerequisite 
is the ability to analyze complex problems and to deduce from them 
useful methods of solution consistent with machine requirements. 
If you think you might be interested in working in one of the many 
fascinating areas of computer programming, you are invited to 
talk it over with an IBM representative. The future can be as un- 
limited as the future of the computer itself. 



IBM 



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION 



Your Placement Officer can tell you \\'hen an IBM representative 
will visit your campus. Or write, outlining briefly your back- 
ground and interests, to: Manafi^er of Technical Emploi/mcnt, IBM 
Corporation, Dcpt. 845, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N. Y. 




Williani Whewell...on mind and mattei 



...tlu'Sc iiu'laplu >ic .il tlisrussions aro not to l)(' piil in 
opposition lo llic sliuK ol fails; Inil arc to \>v sliimiLihxI. 
nourisnocl and uircclcu In a constant rtn ourse to experi- 
ment and observation. 1 lie eultivation of ideas is to be 
conducted as having for its oujet t llie lonnexion of fa( Is: 
never to be pursued as a mere exircise ol llic subllcly of 
tlie mind, striving to build up a world of its own. iind 
neglecting that wliicli exists about us. For altbougii man 



riia\ In lliis w.iy please bimselt. and admire tlie creations 
ol Lis own l)rain. lie can ncxri. \)y ibis course, bit upon 
llie real sclieme of nature. Willi bis ideas unfolded by 
edui.ition. sharpened b> (onlroversy, reclified by meta- 
pll\^i^s. he may iiikIcisUiikI the nalur.u world, but he 
( .iruHil iurcnl it. .\l e\ir> step. Ii<' iiiusi try ihe value 
ol the atKances he has made in lliought b\ applying his 
thoughts to things. 

~Pliih,soi,l,y <>/ (/,e Inductive Sciences. 18-17 



Tlfll RA\D C O R PO R ATTOX, SA\TA M O \' I C A, CALIFORNIA 

A no,,, .r. .1,1 „rf.,„,/.„lio„ ,„..., l,. I ,„ ,,.,■.,„!, ,.„ nr„l,|,„,. r.K,l.-,l I.. „„hu„„l M,,.r,l) .,„,! ll,, |,„l,l,c .nicest 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Editor's Desk 



Room for One More 



If you have taken a look at the table of contents, you will have 
seen that this issue leans heavily toward the engineer as an individual. 
We have included two essays and several articles concerning human 
interest and human factors that must be considered in your professional 
future. 

These articles, we hope, will whet your interest in yourself. 
You must think of yourself as a unique person with ideas and feelings 
of your own. If you are a senior and have started interviewing, you 
will begin to realize the pitfalls open to you. Conformity is an easy rut 
to travel. The men interviewing you represent companies which in 
essence are strange new worlds. One of these unknown worlds con- 
tains a place for you: a rut if you make it so. 

In your first effort to fit into the company you may find con- 
formity the easiest method. Questions such as: "Should I join the com- 
pany country club? Should I stock up on the 'tailored look' suits?" may 
become more important than you think now. Sure you've been o self- 
made man and grown a beard, or gone beat for a month, but these 
are very weak memories to cling to when you become part of an or- 
ganization. 

Conformity of the mind is the real danger for which to be on the 
alert. You have come from college relatively unspoiled in that your 
mind is still pliable. You should be alert for new areas of knowledge 
and grasp at new facts, but don't grasp at the first pattern of opera- 
tional procedure. 

This may fit you into the cocktail club at noon and the poker 
club at night, however it will stifle your chance of making room in the 
true professional field of engineering. There is no niche for you there; 
you have to make a place for yourself. 

WDP 



FEBRUARY, 1960 




Look beyond the obvious . . . 



^' 



... as you consider your first professional job. 
At Melpar, we believe that all young engineers 
and scientists should develop the habit of looking 
beyond the obvious. 

First, what is the obvious? It's obvious that 
you're in demand. You don't have to worry about 
getting your material wants satisfied. And you 
don't have to worry about getting opportunities 
for professional growth. Since you are in demand, 
you can expect to get the things you want from 
any number of potential employers. 

But, if you look beyond the obvious, you'll real- 
ize now that you're going to want something more 
than "want satisfaction" out of your career. 
You're going to want pride — pride in your per- 
sonal, individual contribution. 

At Melpar, where we are now working on 120 
advanced defense and space exploration projects, 
we are interested only in young men who realize 
that pride is a reward that extends much beyond 
the obvious. Because Melpar is a proud Companv. 
We're proud of our IMAGINEERIXG approach 
to the solution of electronic problems; we're proud 
of our uninterrupted growth and controlled expan- 
sion; we're proud of the communities that sur- 
round our laboratories and plants in Northern 
Virginia and Boston, and we're proud of our cre- 
ation, design, and production of electronic prod- 
ucts destined for universal application. 

If you want an opportunity to be proud of your 
contribution and your Company, we're interested 
in hearing from you. Tell us about yourself. 
Either ask your college's Placement Director to 
arrange a personal interview with the Melpar 
representative who will be visiting your campus, or 
write to our Professional Employment Supervisor. 
Tell him if you would like to hear from one of 
your college's graduates who is now progressing 
at Melpar. 



"^MJ" 



IVIELPAR y INC 

A SUBSIDIARY OF VVESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKE COMPANY 

3401 Arlington Boulevard, Foils Church, Virginia 

\n Historic Fair/ax County 

(10 miles from Washington, D. C.) 



10 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



NASA LEADS 
U.S. VENTURES 
INTO 




SPACE 

OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE 
TO GRADUATING SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS 



NASA plans, directs and conducts the Nation's 
aeronautical and space activities for peaceful pur- 
poses and the benefit of all mankind. 

NASA's efforts are directed toward discovering 
new knowledge about our universe and formu- 
lating new concepts of flight within and outside 
the earth's atmosphere. Through the application 
of the resulting new knowledge and supporting 
technology, we will gain a deeper understanding 
of our earth and nearby space, of the moon, the 
sun and the planets, and ultimately, of inter- 
planetary space and the distant gala.xies. 

NASA is now engaged in research, development, 
design, and operations in a wide variety of fields, 
including: 

Spacecraft • Aircraft • Boosters • Payloads 
Flight dynamics and mechanics • Aeroelasticity 
Launching and impact loads • Materials and struc- 
tures • Heat transfer • Magnetoplasmadynamics 
Propulsion and energy systems: nuclear, thermal, 
electrical, chemical • Launching, tracking, naviga- 
tion, recovery systems • Instrumentation : electrical, 
electronic, mechanical, optical • Life support sys- 
tems • Trajectories, orbits, celestial mechanics 
Radiation belts • Gravitational fields • Solar and 
stellar studies • Planetary atmospheres • Lunar 
and planetary surfaces • Applications: meteor- 
ology, communications, navigation, geodesy. 



Career Opportunities 

At NASA career opportunities for graduates 
with bachelor's or higher degrees are as unlimited 
as the scope of our organization. Because of our 
dynamic growth and diversified operations, ex- 
cellent opportunities for personal and professional 
advancement are available for graduates with 
majors in: 

Engineering: Aeronautical, Mechanical, Electronic, 
Electrical, Chemical, Metallurgical, Ceramic, Civil, 
Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Physics 
Science: Astronautics, Physics, Electronics, Chem- 
istry, Metallurgy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Geo- 
physics 

For details about career opportunities, write 
to the Personnel Director of any of the 
NASA Research Centers listed below or 
contact your Placement Officer. 

NASA Research Centers and their 
locations are: 

• Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 

• Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. 

• Lewis Research Center, Cleveland 35, Ohio 

• Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. 

• Goddard Space Flight Center, Washington 25, D.C. 



NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 



IFEBRUARY, 1960 



11 




Look ^ 
around you . . . 




makes big things happen 

in 

exciting products 




O 




Paints, chemicals, E;lass, plastics, fiber p;lass ... all these products 
have exciting family trees. .And at Pittsburgh Plate Glass Com- 
pany, tomorrow's offspring promise to be even more intriguing. 

Look around you ... at paint, for example. It's much more 
than mere color. Paint protects. It must be thoroughly researched 
and carefully compounded to withstand infinite variations of 
atmosphere, heat, stress and other conditions. Or look at chem- 
icals . . . their roles in the creation and development of textiles, 
metals, paper, agriculture, missiles, medicine. You name it; 
chemicals are there, making important contributions. Glass? 
These days, it can be made to remain rigid at blast furnace 
temperatures, withstand supersonic speeds, have the tensile 
strength of bronze. And it's much the same story for plastics 
and fiber glass. Everywhere you look — in architecture, industry, 
the home, everywhere — PPG products find new, exciting applica- 
tions with fascinating and challenging potentialities. 

Are you seeking a career that requires creative thinking, 
utilizes all your skills and know-how, offers a chance to learn the 
latest techniques? Then look into your enticing career possibili- 
ties with the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. Contact your 
Placement Officer now, or write to the Manager of College 
Relations, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, One Gateway Center, 
Pictsl)urgh 22, Pennsylvania. 



PAINTS • GLASS • CHEMICALS • BRUSHES • PLASTICS • FIBER GLASS 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPHl 




Scientific imagination 
focuses on . . . RADAR... 
SONAR . . . COMMUNICATIONS . . . 
MISSILE SYSTEMS . . . 
ELECTRON TUBE TECHNOLOGY... 
SOLID STATE 

Challenging professional assignments are of- 
fered by Raytheon to outstanding graduates 
in electrical engineering, mechanical engin- 
eering, physics and mathematics. These as- 
signments include research, systems, devel- 
opment, design and production of a wide 
variety of products for commercial and mil- 
itary markets. 

For specific information, visit your place- 
ment director, obtain a copy of "Raytheon 
. . . and your Professional Future," and ar- 
range for an on-campus interview. Or you 
may write directly to Mr. John B. Whitla, 
College Relations, 1360 Soldiers Field Road, 
Brighton 36, Massachusetts. 



Excellence in Electronics 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



13 




WANTED: 

Engineers Who Can Write 



By Verne Moberg 



Iiuiiistry needs engiiuns who can ex- 
press theiiisehes. 

And the student enj;ineer can most 
lirotitahh- spcnil the little spare time 
axaihihle dmini: his undergraduate 
\ears hy iearnins; to write. He ma\' 
e\en douhle his income. 

Why is it, tlien, that the earmark of 
engincer.s on the llhnois campus is that 
the\' can't write or speak well? 

Who knows ? 

Hut the truth is, enjiineers both in in- 
dustry and on college faculties insist 
that self-expression is almost the import- 
ant skill student engineers need to 
learn. And they ran learn to write — 
which is a first step in communication 
— with only a little effort through con- 
centrating on some basic principles, stay- 
ing awake in rhetoric class and get- 
ting in some practice writing. 

You don't believe that you can learn 
to write or need to do it? First let's 
sec what professional engineers have to 
say about the need for expre.ssion. 

John Isaacson, manager of college re- 
lations at the IBM Product Develop- 
ment Laboratory, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
who was interviewed at Illinois this fall, 
says that the way an idea is expressed is 
almost as important as the idea itself. 

"If you can't communicate, you may 
as well gi\e your ideas away. We'd have 
to hire two people instead of one. " 

The people who communicate, Isaac- 
son says, are the ones who make the 
grade in tangible rewards, "prestige, re- 
sponsibility and the dollar," as well as 
intangibles (pride of a job well done). 

Ci. H. Duff, Westinghouse central 
Illinois branch sales manager, Peoria, 
agrees. About 85 per cent of the West- 
inghou.se personnel in management posts 
began as engineers who were able to put 
acro.ss their ideas effectively. 

And here's how engineering college 
faculty rate communication skills. 

According to Prof. T. J. Dolan, head 
of the U. of I. Department of Theoreti- 
cal and Applied Mechanics, "The prin- 
cipal job of an engineer is to sell his 
ideas and to sell himself, ll he c.iu't 



do this, he may as well gi\e uii trying 
to be a profe.ssional engineer. " 

Other engineering educators say com- 
munication skill is more important for 
the engineer than for a man in pure sci- 
ence, because he must sell his ideas to 
all kinds of people — politicians, econo- 
mists and businessmen of all kinds, in- 
cluding other engineers. 

^'es, the\ care. And like girlfriends, 
instructors want to know you care — 
e\en about the little things. 

One professor in the T. ^" A. M. de- 
partment even confides that concise, 
straightforward presentation ought to be 
jvist as important as technical mastery to 
a student who wants high grades on his 
papers. Instructors are human too, and 
they're naturally impressed when \ou 
turn in a paper that says what you mean 
in crisp, clean language. 

All right, so they all care. But ex- 
actly how much is the big payoff. 

Louis N. Rowley, editor and publish- 
er of "Power," technical magazine of 
McCiraw-Hill Co., Inc., declares that, 
"other things being equal, skill with 
words and speech will add anvwhere 
from $50,000 to $200,000 to an engi- 
neer's lifetime earnings." 

Prof. G. M. Sinclair, research dire- 
tor of the T. (i' A. M. Fatigue Labora- 
tory, calls Rowley's guess conser\ati\e. 
Effective commimication skill, he savs, 
will probably double an engineer's life- 
time income. 

Estimates vary, but all professionals 
agree, the dollars increase. 

Of coiu'se, an engineer can get a job 
without knowing how to express lum- 
self, according to Isaacson. 

"But he'd better be Einstein, " he 
warns quickly. "He'll ha\e to make up 
to the company what it's paying anothei' 
man to interpret him. Einstein could 
coinmunicate his more complex theories 
to very few men. But that was Einstein. 
The ideas most engineers come up with 
every day aren't that good." 

If you know you're no Einstein, but 
still think engineers at Illinois don't 
ha\e to leain to write, don't go ne.ar 



Prof. JoDean Morrow in the T. & A. 
M. department. "People like that are 
second-rate technical clowns," he feels. 
"Either \ou ha\e professional piide or 
you don't." 

So you want to be ;m engineer? So 
you'd better learn to write. If \ou'll 
put down that slide rule, you can start 
right now. 

The fust thing to keep in nun<l is 
that language, like a beautiful bridge, 
is a functional structure. It is designed 
to carry across ideas with economy and 
grace. The best technical writing, like 
the finest literature, is short and sweet. 

As engineers, you have a headstart 
here over students in liberal arts be- 
cause you're used to thinking in this 
strictly organized, functional way. So 
when you're designing, molding and re- 
fining the parts of language, which are 
paragraphs, sentences and words, alway; 
remember these basic principles. 

1. All the parts must be there, or 
communication won't take place. 

2. All the parts must be functional ; 
useless parts just get in the wa\ and 
slow up understanding. 

3. The structure (paper or literary 
work) with the fewest parts works thi- 
best and lasts longest. 

Before you begin to formulate what 
you have to say, put these in mini! and 
you'll ha\e an overall frame to simplify 
your thoughts. 

In producing good writing you'll con- 
centrate on three basic proce.sses: design- 
ing, molding, and refining your 
thoughts, or as rhetoric teachers will 
say, organizing, writing and reviewing 
(correcting and or revising). Each one 
is important, and none can be left out 
— not even in an impromptu theme for 
rhet class. If, at any one of these three 
stages, you discover that preparation at 
an earlier stage was faidty or incom- 
plete, go back to it and start from there. 
The stage you are in will be the most 
important when you are in it. 

First comes design. As soon as \ou 
ha\'e a topic, narrow it down. I sually 
in factu.nl wiitintr, the more worils that 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



are in your title, the smaller your sub- 
ject becomes and the more specific and 
meaningful will be the things you say 
about it. Next choose a thesis — a com- 
plete sentence which expresses your gen- 
eral topic in its subject and the particu- 
lar slant you're taking on it in the 
predicate — and write it down. Now de- 
cide on your purpose and \our scope 
and write them down. Now stop. 

Take a look at \our audience. Who 
will be reading your paper? Engineer- 
ing professors? Rhetoric instructors? 
Other professional engineers? Find out 
who they are, learn as much as you can 
about their likes and dislikes regarding 
the subject and, more important, know 
what they can and what they uill read. 

Robert Gunning says in his book, 
"The Technique of Clear Writing," 
that technical writing is due for a Co- 
perican revolution. Over four hundred 
years ago the Polish astronomer said 
that the earth orbited around the sun 
not vice versa. It's about time now. 
says Gunning, that engineers centered 
their thoughts on the reader, not on 
themselves. 

So after you've noted the aspects of 
your topic you'll want to cover, or- 
ganize them in a pattern most agree- 
able and appropriate to your reader. For 
engineers this will generally mean a 
logical structure of deductive reasoninir. 
That is, in your paper as a whole you'll 
state your main points and then show 
why the\'re true. For instance, you 
might start like this: 

1. The moon is a spherical mass mov- 
ing around the earth. 

A. Newton said so. 

B. The Russians say so{ they saw- 
its backside). 

C. Walking home last night, yoiu- 
girlfriend agreed that the moon is a 
■-pherical mass moving around the 
i-arth (Ma\be your word choice gave 
her that headache?) 

Of you might use a time or space se- 
quence of relating the main points in 
descriptive writing. 

In any ca,se, jot down the main ideas 
in outline form and then ask yourself, 
"What questions would an intelligent 
reader ask about my topic that I ha\en't 
covered?" Then fill in the blanks. 

Another important factor to consider 
about your reader is the suitable le\el 
of language. In what situation are you 
addressing this person? At the college 
level, you will probably need to use a 
professional tone. This means you will 
stick to business and tell what happened 
in the most direct, objective way pos- 
sible. You will not relate the experi- 
ment to your instrtictor or employer in 
the same way that \ou would tell yoiir 
roommate, "A very funny thing hap- 
pened to me in met. lab today . . ." 

.'^t the same time you don't want to 
strain \ourself to sound "scientific" h\ 



tr\ing to pull intellectual wool o\er 
anybody's e\es. .Make it \our goal to 
express what you know, not to impress 
the reader. If you can express yourself 
well, natm'ally the audience will be im- 
pressed. 

Now, are >ou orgaiuzed? All right, 
get it down in black and white. 

Here's where the streamlining really 
comes in. You'll want to weigh and 
test e\erything to find the best com- 
bination of parts in each of the three 
ftmctional units of expression — para- 
graphs, sentences and words. 

The largest and simplest unit is the 
paragraph. As you know, it's a group of 
sentences tied together to give logical 
support to a larger section of the paper. 
Make sure this thought unit carries 
through one idea and, if possible, ar- 
range the specific ideas at the beginning 
and the end of the paragraph so the\' 







Engineers who think they don't need 
to learn to write ore second-rate tech- 
nical clowns. 

will naturally How from the preceding 
and to the following ideas. 

Next: sentences. Keep them short. Of 
course, at times, \\'hen you want to var\' 
the pace of yoiu" thoughts, you'll add 
some compovMid, or maybe e\en complex 
sentences. 

If sentence structure leaves you in 
the dark, check a grammar book to get 
the facts. While you're at it, save your- 
self much pain in rhetoric classes by 
learning these general punctuation rules: 

1 . Almost always use a comma after 
an introductory dependent clause. 

2. Almost always use a comma before 
the "and," "but," "or " or "nor " which 
joins two main clauses. 

The rare exception occurs when the 
sentences are unusuallv short or closeh 



related. I3e safe — u.se the comma — and 
usually you'll be right. 

Now that you're familiar with the 
terms, here's the main point. You can 
give your ideas weight by placing them 
properly. A main clause always carries 
the most important idea ; a dependent 
clause, a less important one. If two 
ideas rate equally and are closely re- 
lated, put them in a compound sentence 
with either a coordinating conjunction 
("and," "but," "or" or "nor") or a 
semicolon to separate them. 

Another major factor in sentence 
structure which can add or take away 
from the emphasis you want to put on 
your ideas is the order of the sentence 
elements. Unlike man\' other languages, 
Fnglish has a traditional order for parts 
of the sentence and that is, subject- 
verb-object. One, two, three; Mary 
loves John. If you want to put across 
your idea quickly and clearly, follow 
this order. Don't change it without one 
of these two good reasons : 1 ) The sen- 
tence sounds stilted and completely lui- 
natural, or 2) Your sentence patterns 
need variation. Most important, sub- 
jects and verbs belong together, and if 
you can help it. don't separate the two 
with irrevelant words. 

Likewise, modifiers — either words or 
phrases — belong as close as possible to 
elements which they complement. When 
your date comes down the stairs on the 
night of the big dance with a gorgeous 
new dress, you don"t wait till next year 
to tell her about it. In the same way, 
readers forget what you"re talking about 
when you tag on a modifier at the end 
of the sentence that refers to a word at 
the beginning. If you write, "The alloy 
melted quickly that was nitrided at 
lOOF." you're talking nonsense. Place 
the modifiers right after the elements 
and make sense. 

Finally, let's look at words, the most 
basic units of meaning. Once more, 
search for the simple, specific, familiar, 
concrete terms and you'll communicate 
faster. With the wealth of $64,000 
words engineers have in their technical 
language, you can't afford to fog up 
the reader's mind with any more non- 
technical syllables than necessary. So 
keep it short. 

Since most of our short, brisk words 
came from the Anglo-Saxon ancestral 
tongue of the English language, and not 
the Romance languages of .southern Eu- 
rope, you'll to well to favor them o\er 
words of Latin, French or Spanish back- 
ground. 

For instance, use "come" instead of 
"approach" and "great" instead of "im- 
mense." The most sparkling literature 
in English has been composed chieHy of 
these words and they can help you too. 
In his major works, Shakespeare drew 
00 per cent of his words from the An- 
glo-Saxon, Milton used SI per cent and 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



15 



tin- 15ibli- (thiTC tiospi-ls). ''4 per a-nt. 
\()ii mi'ulu not outdo these best sellers, 
but your paper will at least be reaii. 

A woiil about word choice: sa\ what 
you mean. If possible, don't say the 
same thintr so often that your reader is 
bored ; find synonvms to express it in 
a different light. Sometimes, of course, 
tiiere's no more than one word tor the 
thill}; you are talking about. So, tor 
your instructor's sake, use it — it can t 
be helped. 

One engineering professor is now re- 
co\ering from a severe case of amnesia 
because a student in his paper refused 
to call an extensometer an extensomcter 
after the first reference. The worried 
man searched the lab for weeks f" 'i'"' 
the other "expansion gage cage," "me- 
tallic gift-wrapped measuring device" 
and "deformation quantifier" which the 
student talked about. 

Certainly the rhetoric teacher is right 
uhen he says don't bore the reader with 
the same term over and over; do find 
synonyms. Rut the great sin, he'll tell 
vou, is repetition of ideas. The same 
word will do twice if it's the only one 
that fits. In engineering a spade is a 
spade. Likewise, an extensometer is an 
extensometer, and your reader will be 
lost if you call it anything else. 

A last word on verbs: if at all pos- 
sible, keep them active, not passive. 
When the verb is in the active voice, 
the subject does the acting, but with a 
passive verb, the subject is acted upon. 
This becomes much clearer through ex- 
ample. 

Passive: The yield point was lowered 
b\- cooling the metal. 

Active: Cooling the metal lowered 
the yield point. 

Often in technical writing the per- 
sonal approach, involving "I" and other 
personal pronouns, is left out in order 
to show the objectivity and reproduci- 
bility of the results. I'sually this in- 
volves the passive, but it can be avoid- 
ed with effort. 
For example: 

Don't Use: That method of testing 
was dispensed with to reduce argon con- 
sumption. 

Do Ise: A new method of testing 
reduced argon consLimption. 

.As Robert Cjunning says, "The need 
to be impersonal is not the need to be 
inhuman. Some writers shun the first 
person so much they wouldn't use 'we 
to refer to the human race." 

Hut for best results keep both the 
subjective and the pas.sive elements from 
your writing. 

Shakespeare was lucky, most engi- 
neers will think. It was not until after 
his time, or about 1700, that scholars 
began to concentrate on rules of gram- 
mar. During the eigtheenth centurx 
about 250 books were publislunl in ef- 
fort to establish "correct English." 



16 



l?ut w liting is easier with rules than 
without, and they can help you organize 
your writing. Hecome familiar with 
them if you can, but see them as they 
make up the overall picture, not just as 
a set of facts. Remember, no rule is in- 
fallible. Break an\ one if necessary to 
say exactl> what \ou mean. 

Now your paper is down in black and 
white — it's written. Mut it's not com- 
plete until after the iiiial process of re- 
fining your thoughts. 

(lO back and look at your work again. 
Have vou used the best w(ir<ls available 




Take a look at your audience. Know 
what they can and what they will 
read. 

in ever\- case? "The difference between 
the right word and the almost-right," 
said Mark Twain, "is the difference 
between lightning and the lightning 
bug." 

Would analogies or comparisons, 
facts, examples or quotes brighten your 
material? f^inally, are there any ques- 
tions left unanswered? Fill it out and 
tighten it up. 

Then check out the spelling and 
punctuation. You've been learning the 
rules since grammar school. Just apph' 
them. 

Or maybe you never really learned 
the rules. Prof. Morrow from the T. & 
A. M. Department claims a four-page 
handwritten paper turned in to him con- 
tained a record 136 misspelled words. 
Those odds are almost 1:4! Wood ynii 
be annoyed if \ou had too read a paper 
with that many misiiclled woi'ds? Nat- 
urally. 

Save yourself a lot of time for the 
rest of your professional ami private 
life and learn the simple, logical prin- 
ciples now. Then you won't waste time 
looking them up each time you're in 
doubt.' 



Some words you'll miss|iell o\er and 
over out of habit. List them, learn to 
spell them correctly and make a real 
effort to memori/.e them. Never be 
afraid to use a dictionary. 

As for punctuation, yes, leam the 
rules. They'll tell you non-restrictive 
clauses and phrases (ones that aren't 
essential to the meaning of the sentence) 
are set off" on both sides by commas. 
Atu\ learn the placement of quotation 
marks in regard to other punctuation. 
It's sim|ile: 

1. .Always place periods ,ind com- 
mas inside the quotation marks. 

2. Always place colons and semicolons 
outside the quotations. 

3. Place exclamation points and ques- 
tion marks inside or outside quotation 
marks, according to which unit of 
thought they're meant for. 

To punctuate reference paper foot- 
notes and bibliographies, see a style 
sheet in any good modern Engli.sh text. 
Generally the elements of the references 
are listed in the descending order by 
which you would locate them in the li- 
brary, i.e.. title, volume, page, etc. 

Now, if everything's correct, you can 
take the last step. Read your paper 
aloud. Does it flow or does it stumble? 
Make the repairs. The smoothness of 
vour writing will be the last X factor, 
for once you've mastered the basics, it s 
vour style that will win your audience. 
When you have reached the point at 
which you feel you're "just talking 
along" — with the proper degree of for- 
malit\- or casualness, of course — then 
vou ha\ e succeeded ; your reader will 
wish he could write that well. The 
pancr is done. 

Writing is a long hut logical process 
and with practice, you will take these 
necessary steps automatically. And you 
may not believe it, but all this can he 
done while you're studying engineering 
if you'll accept these challenges. 

1. View every written assignment :is 
a chance to impro\e your skill in self- 
expression. 

2. Pay attention to vour rhetoric in- 
structor. He knows the best wa\ to 
teach you one of the most important 
skills you can master. 

.1. Try to fit in courses in public 
speaking, expository writing and busi- 
ness letter writing. Learn how to sell 
\ouiself and your ideas. 

4. Take time out for an extra-cur- 
ricular activity which requires \oii to 
communicate. 

s. Write. Write as much as you can. 
Write letters to your parents, letters to 
your girlfriend, letters to the editor. 
Write it down. Take pride in the way 
you express every thought. 

All set? Congratulations. You've 
overcome the greatest barrier in learn- 
in<; to communicate — the desire to do it. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



H AD 

14 



DOOR IS OPEN AT ALLIED CHEMICAL TO 



Opportunities for professional recognition 



If you feel, as we do, that the publication of technical 
papers adds to the professional stature of the individual 
employee and his worth to his company, you will see why 
Allied encourages its people to put their findings in print. 
Some recent contributions from our technical stall are 
shown below. 

It's interesting to speculate on what you might publish 
as a chemist at one of our 12 research laboratories and 
development centers. The possibilities are virtually limit- 



less, because Allied makes over 3,000 products— chemi- 
cals, plastics, fibers— products that offer careers with a 
future for chemists, chemistry majors and engineers. 

Why not write today for a newly revised copy of "Your 
Future in Allied Chemical." Or ask our interviewer 
about Allied when he next visits your campus. Your 
placement office can tell you when he'll be there. 

Allied Chemical. Department 26-R2 
61 Broadway, New York 6, New York 



SOME RECENT TECHNICAL PAPERS AND TALKS BY ALLIED CHEMICAL PEOPLE 



"What is a Foam?" 

Donald S. Otto, National Aniline Division 

American Management Association Seminar on Polymeric 
Packaging Materials 

"Electrically Insulating, Flexible Inorganic Coatings on 

Metal Produced by Gaseous Fluorine Reactions" 

Dr. Robert W. Mason, General Chemical Research 

Laboratory 

American Ceramic Society Meeting, Electronic Division 

"Gas Chromatographic Separations of Closing Boiling 
Isomers" 

Dr. A. R. Paterson, Central Research Laboratory 

Secoiui International Symposinni on Cas Chromatography 
at Michigan State University 

"Correlation of Structure and Coating Pr operties of 
Polyurethane Copolymers" 

Dr. Maurice E. Bailey, G. C. Toone, G. S. Wooster, 
National Aniline Division; E. G. Bobalck. Case In- 
stitute of Technology and Consultant on Organic 

Coatings 

Gordon Research Conference on Organic Coatings 

"Corrosion of Metals by Chromic Acid Solutions" 

Ted M, Swain, Solvay Process Division 

Annual Conference of the National Association of 
Corrosion Engineers 



"Isocyanate Resins" 

Leslie M. Faichney, National Aniline Division 

Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 

"Concentration of Sulphide Ore by Air Float Tables- 
Gossan Mines" 



R. H. Dickinson, Wilbert J. Trepp, I. O. Nichols. 
General Chemical Division 

Engineering and Atining Journal 

'Urethane Foams" 



Dr. Maurice E. Bailey, National Aniline Division 

For publication in a hook on modern plastics by 
Herbert R. Sunomis 

"The Booming Polyesters" 

James E. Sayre and Paul A. Elias, Plastics and Coal 
Chemicals Division 

Chemical A Engineering News 

"7', 2', 4'— Trimethoxvfiavone" 

Dr. Sydney M. Spatz and Dr. Marvin Koral, Na- 
tional Aniline Division 

Journal of Organic Chemistry 

"Physical Properties of Perfiuoropropane" 

James A. Brown, General Chemical Research Lab- 
oratory 



Journal of Physical Chemistry 



"Use of Polyethylene Emulsions in Textile Applications" "Su lfur Hexafluoride " 



Robert Rosenbaum, Semet-Solvay Division 
D. D. Gagliardi, Gagliardi Research Corporation 
American Association of Textile Colorists i*i C hemist: 




Dr. Whitney H. Mears, General Chemical Research 
Laboratory 

Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 



BASIC TO 
AMERICA'S 
PROGRESS 



DIVISIONS: BARRETT • GENERAL CHEMICAL ■ NATIONAL ANILINE • NITROGEN • 
PLASTICS AND COAL CHEMICALS -SEMET-SOLVAY- SOLVAY P ROCESS ■ I NTER N ATI ON AL 




FEBRUARY, 1960 



17 



The industry that 




impurity built 




Exit rones capable of withstanding 
temperatures of 6000° F. represent 
one example oj advanced eng;ineer- 
ing beinp performed by the Hughes 
Plastics Laboratory. 



This photomicrograph (at left) of an etched silicon 
crystal is used in the study of semiconductor materials. 
Impurities introduced into crystals such as this form 
junctions for semiconductor devices. 

In the fast-growing semiconductor industry. Hughes 
Products, the commercial activity of Hughes, is leading 
the field. Its programs include basic research on semi- 
conductor surfaces: alloying and diffusion techniques; 
and materials characterization studies to determine the 
electrical effects of imperfections and impurities. 

In addition, Hughes Products is developing new semi- 
conductor devices such as parametric amplifiers, high 
frequency performance diodes, and improved types of 
silicon transistors. New techniques are being devised for 
casting silicon into various configurations. Also under- 
way is the development of new intermetallic compounds 
for use in semiconductor devices. 

Other activities of Hughes provide similarly stimu- 
lating outlets for creative engineering. The Hughes 
Research & Development Laboratories are conducting 




studies in Advanced Airborne Electronics Svstems, 
Space \ chicles. Plastics. Xuclear Electronics. Global and 
Spatial Communications Systems. Ballistic Missiles... 
and many more. Hughes in Fullerton is developing radar 
antennas which position beams in space by electronic 
rather than mechanical means. 

The diversity and advanced nature of Hughes projects 
provides an ideal environment for the graduating or 
experienced engineer interested in building rewarding, 
long-range professional stature. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND PHYSICISTS 
Members of our staff will conduct 

CAMPUS INTERVIEWS 

MARCH 10 and 11, 1960 

For Interview appointment or informational 
literature consult your College Placement Director. 



The HV.(('s Lculvr m aAvanml ULUC'iRONICS 



HUGHES 



HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY 

Cidi'er City, El Scgtitido, Ftillcrtoii, 

Newport Beach, Matihii and Los Aii^vlcs, Citliforiila 

Tucson, Arizotia 



\ Falcon air-to-air ^tiiilpil missiles, shoirn in an environmental 
stralo chamber arc being developed and manufactured by Hughes 
ens,ineers in Tucson. Arizona. 




The word space commonly represents the outer, airless regions of the universe. 
But there is quite another kind of "space" close at hand, a kind that will always 
challenge the genius of man. 

This space can easily be measured. It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
distance between them ... the kind of space found between mainland and off- 
shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inaccessible clearing and its supply 
base, between the site of a mountain crash and a waiting ambulance— above all, 
Sikorsky is concerned with the precious "spaceway" that currently exists be- 
tween all earthbound places. 

Our engineering efforts are directed toward a variety of VTOL and STOL 
aircraft configurations. Among earlier Sikorsky designs arc some of the most 
versatile airborne vehicles now in existence; on our boards today are the ve- 
hicles that can prove to be tomorrow's most versatile means of transportation. 

Here, then, is a space age challenge to be met with the finest and most practical 
engineering talent. Here, perhaps, is the kind of challenge you can meet. 



CLIKORSKY 
AIRCRAFT 




For information about careers with us, please ad- 
dress Mr. Richard L. Aufen, Personnel Department. 



One of the Divisions of Untied Aircraft Corporation 
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



HUMAN CAPABILITIES 

and 

SPACE FLIGHT 



By Milton Haefner 



Introduction 

In recent years, a freqLiently asked 
question has been, "Is it possible to put 
a man into space?" From a technical 
point of view, the answer to this ques- 
tion would be yes, a man can be put 
into space. 

However, man is designed to exist 
within a comparatively limited en\iron- 
ment. Due to his chemical and structur- 
al composition, he can tolerate only 
relatively small changes in this environ- 
ment. Therefore, the question of putting 
a man into space is largely a question 
of whether or not man is capable of 
surviving in space. Looking at Figure 
1, it can be seen that many of man's 
physical limitations and tolerances fall 
outside of the range of conditions whicii 
exist in space. From this, it is evident 
that if man is to survive in space, he 
iTiust either adapt to his new environ- 
ment or change the environment. 

It is impossible to present here all 
the problems which must be faced and 
solved before man can enter into his 
new environment, space. Two import- 
ant factors, however, which must be 
taken into consideration are man's tol- 
erance to stress caused b\' acceleration 
and man's reaction to lack of weight 
both of which must be encountered if 
man is to accomplish space travel. An- 
other consideration is the internal en- 
vironment which must be maintained 
in the space vehicle if man is to con- 
tinue to function efficiently. Decom- 
pression and radiation problems nuist 
also be taken into account when study- 
ing the possibility of survival in space. 
A less often considered aspect of the 
problem of man in space is the psycho- 
logical-social problem which will be en- 
countered due to confinement inside a 
small container. 

Acceleration 

These and other problems will now 
be considered in more detail. Due to 
the method by which man will be pro- 
pelled into space, it is inevitable that 
he will be subjected to high acceleration 



forces. There are two factors which will 
greatly affect man's ability to tolerate 
this force. These factors are the position 
of the man relative to the direction of 
the acceleration and the duration of time 
for which the acceleration will last. 

It has been calculated that dining 
take-off of a three-stage orbital rocket. 



ID 








26 



kW.I pi' 
155- AVM. 
A7H, , 



ZZo 
Zoo 
tSo 

\oa 
9a 

*f.Trftw»uSB*J 
■JJJ" SSo.lJBC 

Co 
4 ,'-l«C 



TftMP- PSEit- ACCEL- 

EHATyRE v;re eratiou 

Figm'e 1: I.Icii in the 
Phyiical YJorld. 



the passenger will be subjected to accel- 
erations ranging from .i Cl's for 10 min- 
utes to 10 (I's for 3 minutes. However, 
these are not the only acceleration forces 
which will affect the pilot of a space 
vehicle. For instance, in a turning ma- 
neu\-er at high \cIocity, normal acceler- 



ations as high as 40-50 G's may be ex- 
perienced. These accelerations can, of 
course, be reduced by increasing the 
turning radius of the maneuver while 
holding the velocity of the vehicle con- 
stant (see Figure 2 ). 

Consider now how a man's tolerance 
to acceleration varies with the direction 
and duration of the force. When man 
is in the upright position, with the ac- 
celeration acting along his longitudinal 
axis, he has the lowest tolerance to ac- 
celeration. Refering to Figure 3. it can 
be seen that an acceleration of three 
(I's sustained for a duration of one to 
two minutes would cause black-out. The 
cause of this condition is that the blood 
pressure is not great enough to over- 
come the added weight of the blood, 
and the blood then drains away from 
the eyes. Unconsciousness soon follows 
black-out. 

There is, however, a significant in- 
crease in tolerance to acceleration when 
the subject is placed in a supine or prone 
position. The only difference between 
the supine and prone positions is that 
supine refers to lying face up while 
prone refers to lying face down. Again 
refering to Figure 3, it is seen that at 
ten G's acceleration, man's tolerance 
limit is now about three hundred sec- 
onds or five minutes. At an acceleration 
of three Ci's, a man's useful tolerance 
limit would be about six thousand sec- 
onds or one hundred minutes. 

From the acceleration point of view, 
it then appears that the tolerance limits 
of man will not cause too serious an 
obstacle in the problem of sending man 
into space. 

Weightlessness 

Weightlessness is perhaps one of the 
most difficult orbital conditions to re- 
produce vmder laboratory conditions. 
There are only two ways in which it is 
possible to simulate this gravity-free 
condition. One of these ways is to place 
a body in a state of free-fall, and the 
other is to transport a body in an air- 
(Contlniicil on Next Paejc) 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



21 



RoutE 


Ml. 


T»M£ 




^.0 


80 


10 


ZV.G 


3.0 


\Z0 


15' 


2^.0 


\.^ 


14^ 


3.0 


\Z.O 


.2C 


^80 
960 


6.0 
\Z>0 


6.0 
3.0 



Figure c: I-^ormal Acceleration^^ 
Due To Turning Rate^ 



L'l.-itt uliK'h IS ilcsiTibiiiL; a parabolR' arc. 
Hoth ot tlifsf iiR-tlioiis ot smuilatiiifi tlic 
fiiavity-tree condition have the obvious 
disadvantage that the time duration of 
the condition is too short to determine 
the effects of proU)nged weightlessness. 

There are, in general, two sides to 
the problem of weightlessness. The first 
is the more obvious physiological aspect, 
lack of muscular co-ordination and dis- 
orientation being two of the greatest 
factors. 

Decrease m nuiscni.ir co-ordmatioii is 
expecteil to take place whcji the gravity 



tree state is first expeiiciiced, but ail- 
justment to tliis condition will prob- 
ably occur within a relatively short 
time. This lack of muscular co-ordina- 
tion is caused by the fact that man is 
normally accustomed to exerting a cer- 
tain amount of muscular tension in 
order to accomplish some motion. How- 
ever, in the weightless state, the same 
amount of force will result in more mo- 
tion than is anticipated; the first at- 
tempts to compensate for this overexer- 
tion will result in decreased muscular 
co-ordination. The final answer to this 



(piestion will not be known until ;iii 
orbital vehicle is actually put into oper- 
ation, because this alone will provide a 
gravity-free condition of sufficient dur- 
ation for adjustment to take place. 

(Orientation depends on certain sen- 
sory organs, some of which depend on 
gra\ity for their stimulus, and, as a re- 
sult, weightlessness will cau.se these 
gravity-sensitive preceptors to be inef- 
fective. Nerve endings are one example 
of these preceptors; by indicating where 
the pressures due to weight are concen- 
trated, they thereby indicate position. 
To clarify this statement, consider this 
example: if the soles of a man's feet 
detect pressure concentrations, he knows 
lie is standing, while if the concentra- 
tions ;ire distributed on his back, he 
knows he is lying face up. Another 
organ which aids the sense of orienta- 
tion is the inner ear which again de- 
pends on gravit\' as a stimulus. 

There is, however, one means of ori- 
entation which does not depend on 
gravity as a stimulus. This is visual ori- 
entation and it is believed by most au- 
thorities that this means of fixing one's 
position and motion with respect to the 
interior of the vehicle will largely oxer- 
come the effects of disorientation due to 
weightlessness. 

In addition to the physiological prob- 
lem, there is also the possibilit\ of a 
psychological problem arising as a re- 
sult of weightlessness. Since the first 
men to be chosen for space travel will 
be above-average physical specimens, 
there is the probability that they will 
also have an above-a\erage interest in 
their bodies. There is a correlation be- 



\oo 



o.S- 



l>a.*i6,ur6M^ 




■-Fa»TM* i>oaFACc ^" 



\06zc 



16^ 



K5" 



»0" 



Figure o: HiiiQan time- tolerance to acceleration 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



tuffii masculinit\ luul physical attri- 
butes and as a result, lack of co-ordina- 
tion may cause some concern as to loss 
(if masculine traits. This may in turn 
cause some men to strive to regain their 
vclf-confidence by aggressive actions and 
bullying. Of course, in the close qviar- 
ters of a space vehicle, this is intolerable. 

Cabin Environment 

If HKUi is to sui\i\e and to continue 
to function efficiently in space, then he 
must be provided with an en\ironnient 
which, within moderate limits, will ap- 
proximate that on earth. Pressvne, tem- 
perature, humidity, and chemical com- 
position of the atmosphere are the most 
important considerations in determining 
man's en\ironment requirements. 

There is a great deal of correlation 
between pressure and oxygen require- 
ments. At sea level, 14.7 psi pressure 
with an oxygen content of 21 per cent 
Is MifHcient to provide man with needed 
(iwgen supplies. Howe\cr, as the total 
pressure of the atmosphere and the par- 
tial pressure due to the oxygen decrease, 
a greater percentage of oxygen is re- 
quired. When the total pressure has 
been reduced to about 3.5 psi, 100 per- 
cent oxygen is required to give the ef- 
fect of sea level breathing. From a tech- 
nical viewpoint, it is not feasible to con- 
sider a 100 per cent oxygen atmosphere 
and as a residt, pressures considerably 
above 3:5 psi will have to be main- 
tained. Ideally, sea level pressures woidd 
be desirable from the physiological 
standpoint, but the resulting pressure 
ilifferential in space vehicles would pro- 
\ ide serious structural difficulties. 

The oxygen consumption rate of man 
depends on how hard he is working. 
Figure 4 gi\'es some values of this con- 
sumption rate, a reasonable overall aver- 
age being about 24 cu. ft. per day or 2 
pounds per day. Corresponding to this 
oxygen consumption rate, about 21.6 cu. 
ft. or 2.5 pounds of carbon dioxide 
would be released per day. 

It will therefore, be necessary to pro- 
vide means of supplying oxygen and 
eliminating carbon dioxide. Since the 
first attempts at manned space flight 
will most likely be of short duration, 
the oxygen problem will probably he 
solved by storing a sufficient supply 
ahead of time. The carbon dioxide prob- 
lem will most likely be solved by utiliz- 
ing a chemical reaction which will ab- 
sorb or decompose the carbon dioxide. 

Temperatme and humidity are also 
two important aspects of cabin environ- 
ment. While man can withstand rea- 
sonable temperature extremes for a short 
period of time, it must be taken into 
account that man in space must be an 
efficient mechanism. In order for him 
to function properly for extended pe- 
riods of time, provisions must be made 
til maintain a comfort:ible temperaturc- 



humiditv' level. The problem of heating 
ilue to friction will be accounted for by 
providing sufficient insulation and a pos- 
sible heat sink. However, the amount of 
heat produced by the human body is ap- 
proximatelv 3,000 cal. per day or about 
12,000 B.T.U. per day. As a result, 
the same insulation which earlier pro- 
tected the man mav' now cause him 
some discomfort if suitable air-condi- 
tioning is not provided. Perspiration will 
over a period of time, raise the hu- 
midity level if steps are not taken to 



wlulc total deconnuession would not 
occur for almost ten minutes. It can 
then be seen that the time it takes for 
hypoxia to occur would be the limiting 
factor when considering decompression 
effects. 

Decompression sickness is the result 
of two things: lowered boiling points 
and gas expansion. From Boyle's Law 
it is known that as the pressure applied 
to a gas is decreased, the volume in- 
creases. Because of this, any gas which 
is trapped in tissues when decompres- 



Og. Ui>eti ('f«ed«y/{»J 


CiOzEelEASED^AV/M^ 


CM.fi. 


tb&. 


CU. (t 


)U. 


19.2 


i.rg> 


f$.8 


*.g> 


Zh^ 


J.?9 


B.Z 


2.2 


ZM.O 


l$9 


Zi.& 


2.r 


1 20.8 


2.39 


264 


3.0 


\ ZZ-i 


Z-W 


3\.Z 


3,& 



Figure 4: OTrjgen CoixbUiiiption 
and Carbon Dioxide ReleaaSe 



prevent this. However, this can easily 
be overcome by use of chemicals which 
ab.sorb moisture. 

Decompression 

Most factors point to the desirability 
of employing a sealed cabin for manned 
space vehicles. However, in space this 
can cause a severe problem in the event 
of meteorite collision. While it has been 
calculated that the chance of collision 
with meterites of significant size is ex- 
tremely remote, the problem must be 
considered. 

Decompression means loss of pressures 
due to atmosphere and it is here meant 
to be a relatively fast loss of pressure. 
The physiological results of this decom- 
pression include hypoxia and decompres- 
sion sickness. 

Hvpoxia, or oxvgen starvation, is 
probablv' the more serious pioblem. 
Holes caused by meteorites would prob- 
ably be of the order of one inch in 
diameter, and it has been calculated 
that with an initial pressure differen- 
tial of 14.7 psi in a 500-cu. ft. cabin, 
hypoxia wo\dd occur in two minutes 



sion occurs will expand causing tissue 
damage. "Boiling of the blood" will 
also occm' because the effect of lower- 
ing pressure on a fluid is to reduce the 
vaporization temperature. When the 
pressure becomes sufficiently low, nor- 
mal bodv' temperature becomes the 
boiling point of body fluids and bubbles 
will then form. 

One possible solution to this problem 
is the use of emergency oxygen sup- 
plies which can be released to prevent 
decompression for a sufficient period of 
time for the crew to don pressure suits. 

Radiation 

Without the pnitection of the earth's 
atmosphere, which filters out most harm- 
ful radiation, man will be s\ibjecte<l to 
heavy cosmic and solar radiation. 

Solar radiation, which is ultraviolet 
in nature, will cause severe sunburn and 
heating problems. Since man's first space 
ventures will most likely be accomp- 
lished entirely within the confines of 
the space vehicle, sunburn problems will 
perhaps cause some concern. It is hoped 
(Ci)ii(liulcd nil Xe.vt Page) 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



23 



tliat the tcnipcriituri' control will In- 
accomplisju'il by makinj; sonif areas ot 
the vi'liicic radiation ri'ilcctors while 
other surfaces will absorb railiation. 

Cosniic radiation is at present larfjely 
a matter of speculation. It is known 
that as altitude increases primary rad'a- 
tion (alpha, beta, gamma, etc.) also in- 
creases. It is believed that the cticct-- 
of this radiation on man will be much 
the same as the effects of radiations 
which are found on earth, llowexer, 
since heavy radiation shieldinji is 'm- 
practical in space vehicles, the soliit on 
to this problem is not readily appannr. 

Social-Psychological Problems 

The most pressing psychological prob- 
lems will be those of isolation and bore- 
dom. Once a space vehicle has b-eii 
successfully put into orbit, there will 
be little for the crewman to do except 
for occasional monitoring of iiistu- 
mcnts. Ill addition, there will be phy-i- 
cal restraints due to the I'estricted si/e 
of orbital vehicles. 

Studies on the effects of sustained iso- 
lation and boredom indicate reduced in- 
tellectual capacities, emotional depres- 
sion, and a tendency to\\ard hallucina- 
tions. Of course, these conditions will 
be intolerable in prolonged space 
flights. There are however, \aiious ways 
of overcoming, to a certain degree, the 
effects of isolation and boredom. Radio 



oi' tele\ ision links with cirih wciuiil 
greath rehe\e the seus.itKJii ot beuig 
separ.ateil tidni realir\. .Small games or 
problems which would jiresent a chal- 
lenge to man's intellect would also be 
of great help in relieving boredom. 

.\s space flights increase in length 
aiul Clews increase in si/.e, the problem 
of inter-personality relations will be of 
interest. There is much truth in the 
ailage, "Familiarity breeds contempt. " 
Tests have indicated that even the best 
of friends can become enemies when 
s ibiected to e.-icb others conip;my for 
_'4 hours a da\ tor extended periods of 
time. The solution to this problem is 
tluit enough room must be proxided to 
;issure each indixidual a certain degree 
of pri\ac\'. It has also been shown that 
personalities which are too evenly 
matched will not prove to be a good 
(imilition for extended periods of time. 
This brings up the possibility of mixed- 
sex crews because of the obvious per- 
sonality differences. However, on flights 
of durations oxer a year's length, this 
could ;ilso produce some obvious diffi- 
culties. 

Summary 

While ti(im a technical point of \iew, 
m.iii in space is ipiite possible, physio- 
logical and psychological problems must 
,ilso be taken into consideration before 
manned space flights are undertaken. 



llii\\c\cr, it woulil seem that mosi 
111 these problems can be solved with 
picsent day engineering practices. It is 
hoped that satellite programs now in 
progress will shed light on some prob- 
lems such as radiation effects and me- 
teorite concentrations about which icla- 
ti\ely little is now known. 

With all problems taken into con- 
sideration, it is reasonable to make the 
statement "Man in space is possible." 

Ki:i'KRI'.NCI',S: 
t. 1. J. Ratfiine, "AcceieratiDiis I'Drccs and 
llu' Space Pileit," Journal of :l slronaulics, 
viil. 2, 11(1. 3, '55, p 100-4. 

2. II. StruKhold, "Medical Prolilems Iii- 
vcilveil ill Ortiital Space FliEht," 7/7 l'>o/>iil- 
sioii. vnl. 26, no. 9, Sept. '56, p 745-8, 7 56, 
788. 

3. K. H. Kiinccii, "lliiinaii FacKirs in 
Space FIijj;ht," .Ifio/Sptti r lint/irii'iiiiit/, vol. 
17, no. 6, Tunc '58, p 34-40. 

4. C. A. Heny, "Tlic F.m iiniime iit (if 
Space in Human I^light," .Irroiiaulu al hniji- 
ncertnq Kcvicu:, vol. 16, n((. 3, Mar. '58, 
p 3 5-8, 60. 

5. O. N. Micliael, "How to Keep Space 
Crews Content," Missies and Roikiis, vol. 3, 
no. 4, Apr '58, p 110, 112-4. 



Motel Skyscraper 

A motel building, 23 to ,iS stories 
high and costing $18 million, is planned 
for downtown Fort Worth. Parking 
will be on the same floors as the rooms. 
The building also will include an audi- 
torium seating 6,000 to 8,000 persons. 



Help Wanted 



Positions are available on the editorial and production staff of 
The Illinois Technograph. Experience of this type is invaluable 
for personal satisfaction, job references, and development of 
creative skills. Applicants need not be engineering students. 
Interested persons may call the editor, Dave Penniman, at 
2-4254 or leave their name at The Technograph office in 215 
Civil Engineering Hall. 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



JOB OPPORTUNITIES OVERSEAS 

The Myth and the Truth 



By Judy Ondria 



Do you see yourself in a \ear or so 
with a degree in one hand and a suit- 
case in tile other, hoarding a transcon- 
tinental jet on the \va\' to a joh o\er- 
scas? You have heard ot telhjws who 
gra(hiate, join a firm and go to some 
ideal foreign country to represent that 
firm. You probably have thouglit, 
"What a setup! (let paid to travel! I'll 
have to find out about getting one of 
those jobs." And then perhaps your da\- 
dreani went on to Italian wines or (ler- 
man beer or French women. 

Lots of engineers dream of just the 
same thing. Mrs. Pauline Chapman, 
head of the engineering placement of- 
fice, says eacii semester she is asked re- 
peatedly about firms looking for men 
to relocate abroad and each semester 
she must tell many job hunters, there 
are N(^ opportunities for starting engi- 
neers overseas. The statement, of course, 
must be qualified. There are rare cases, 
but Mrs. Chapman and representati\es 
(if engineering firms who conduct inter- 
\ iews on campus prefer to take the abso- 
lute negative viewpoint becaiise of tlie 
raritx' . 

There are two main reasons wh\- a 
-farting engineer is not sent overseas. 
I )ne is economic, the other diplomatic. 

.Mrs. Chapman and a representative 
from Boeing .Aircraft list the following 
icasons why few starting engineers have 
a chance for foreign employment. First 
iif all, companies realize that recent 
maduates look upon an overseas job as 
a two-year paid vacation. They realize 
the engineer thinks of the job as a final 
"fling" before settling down to responsi- 
bilities of a wife, home and children. 
The companies know that the engineer 
lioesn't want to work overseas more 
than two years. The engineers don't 
want to make a career of foreign work. 
It's a well-known fact that a person just 
starting with a firm cannot know every- 
thing he needs to know to represent the 
firm ; therefore men with five or ten 
\ears' experience are much better invest- 
ments. It's common sense to companies 
that they save money by sending an old- 
er, more settled and more experienced 
man overseas. Also most of the jobs 
available are top management positions 
that only experu-nced men .-ire qualified 



to fill. Mrs. C'hapman sa\s she has 
talked with man\ company representa- 
ti\es on the subject of foreign employ- 
ment. .'\lmost every company, she says, 
wants at least fi\e years' experience in 
the re|iresenrari\ es ; most ask for ten 
\ears. 

Tied in with the economic savings 
mentioned abo\e, the Boeing representa- 
ti\e sa\s that often an engineer who gets 
an o\ erseas job doesn't want it for loii":. 
.American firms over.seas are mainly in 
countries like Saudi Arabia and South 
America. The Americans nuist lower 
their standard of li\ing. and not many 
men can adiust. The men that do go 
o\er won't find large, clean homes with 
modern plumbing and refrigeration. 
The foods available aren't fresh vege- 
tables or government inspected meats. 
He says most .Americans, unused to the 
native diet, get sick when the\ eat the 
foo.l. 

The aho\e are superficial reasons, 
however. The real reasons lie in the 
realm of diplomatic relations. When .an 
American firm contracts with a foreign 
country to build a branch office in that 
country, the firm must agree to hire as 
high as 95 per cent native help. The re- 
maining five per cent employed are, of 
necessity, Americans in a supervisory 
capacity. This again emphasizes the nec- 
essit\ of at least five years' experience. 

Not onl\' must 95 per cent of the em- 
plo\ees be native, but there is an under- 
standing between the firm and the gov- 
ernment that as time pa.sses, natives will 
be trained to take over these supervisory 
positions. The longer a compaiu' has 
been over.seas, the smaller the need tor 
.American help. 

Another source of native hel|i to till 
engineering positions overseas are the 
great numbers of men who come to the 
United States from a foreign country to 
get a degree. These natives, after re- 
ceiving their degrees, go back to their 
homes. They will find any kind of job 
once they are home. These men literally 
sit around and wait for an American 
firm to open in the area. And these are 
the men that are hired. They are well- 
trained, (]ualified engineers. American 
firms can't afford tn nut hire these men ; 



and the firm knows that these engineeis 
are not just looking for ,a vacation. In 
most cases native engineers can he 
counted on as permanent help in that 
area. 

One other strong reason for employ- 
ing natives is the fact that it is just 
good business .sense. Natives do a much 
better .selling job to their own country- 
men than any American could do. 

.Another main source of overseas en- 
gineering jobs is through the federal 
government. Tom Page, University rep- 
resentative in charge of placement with 
government agencies, savs that an over- 
seas job is not the first iob an engineer- 
ing graduate will get. He must first go 
through a training period. Government 
pamphlets on available jobs qualify 
openings for "mature, competent pro- 
fessional and technical specialists of rec- 
ognized stature." These men are needed 
as "experts in the fields of engineering." 

The closest a college graduate can get 
to a government overseas job is as a 
su|iport specialist. Support specialists 
work with persons of recognized stature. 
But here, too, is a qualifier. These spe- 
cialists must have "an excellent formal 
education (or its work equivalent) . . . 
and several years of profession.al work 
experience. . . . 

If you still want to go abroad, there 
are a few possibilities. Some of the na- 
tional advertising of I . S. firms, pub- 
lished in I'hi ']'(■( linn//) ii/ili offers for- 
eign opportunities. Look into these firms 
to find out what they are offering. 

(i. Brnvver, Boiang's representative, 
sees a somewhat optimistic future for 
overseas jobs, however. He feels that as 
industry develops overseas, so will job 
opportunities. There is a trend starting, 
he says, for companies to contract busi- 
ness in other countries. Several automo- 
bile and electronic firms are already set- 
ting up firms in F'urope. Brower feels 
foreign aid .and the United Nations' 
policies should bring some increase m 
jobs. 

But the most practical tiling is to re- 
sign yourself to at least live years' train- 
ing here in the states. If you can prove 
yourself with your company, they may 
be anxious to send you as a represent.a- 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



25 



Women in Engineering 



By Eileen Markham 




U.I.C 



Have \ou notu'ctl the shadow on I'li- 
tlineering classes? What shadow? — that 
i]uestion is easy to answer if you've 
been readiiiu; the papers. 

It seems that not enough women arc 
entering the scientific professions. Sta- 
tistics to prove this have appeared in 
almost all major news publications at 
some time during the month of Decem- 
ber, 1959. So what? — the mniiber of 
engineers, chemists, physicists and other 
technicians could increase b\ at least 
fifty per cent if the qualified women 
entered these fields. 

Let's look at these facts rationally: 
Do ice need themf Of all Russian en- 
gineers fifty per cent are women. (Rus- 
sia has more engineers tlian the United 
States.) Less than one per cent of our 
engineers are women. 

Do we need engineers/ I'll lea\e that 
answer to your discretion. Just glance at 
the Sunday emploxiiicnr section of any 
major newspaper. 

(^iin the U'liiu n do tin same u'ji k 
men tire dnint/.' With the exception of 
the jobs which involve heavy construc- 
tion, engineering endeavors are not too 
physically demanding. The mental work 
can be done by any intelligent person 
with the proper training. And, since 
brains do not have sex, this can be 
achieved by a woman. 

Oh ! but, engineering is a man's field ! 
Today it is. Tomorrow it needn't be. 
Ciirls may have to work harder to 
acquire those extra intuitive judgments 
which are part of a commonplace des- 
criptive geometry situation. Yet, some 
of the world's foremost physicists and 
mathematicians were women. Even the 
men have produced no equal to Madame 
Curie who achieved two Nobel Prizes. 

Why don't women enter engineering? 
Look at our own L . of I. Undergradu- 
ate Bulletin. The information on the 
engineering curriculum begins with a 
sentence about the training of "men" 
for engineering professions. For another 
thing, women are hesitant to enter the 
man's world. The competition is keen. 
It took over a hundred years for women 
to be accepted in medicine and law. 
(They are still frowned upon b>' many 
of their male contemporaries.) The 
same problem exists in engineering. 

Sureh, a more casual atmosphere ex- 
ists in an all male class or place of 
work. Hut need this be reason for the 
instructor in a technical course to ig- 
nore or downgrade a woman student ? 
These things have been known to occur. 
I, however, say NO to this treatment! 
Why? Because: We're needed! We're 
interested! We expect to earn our de- 
grees and become qualified and capable 
members of an extremely vital profes- 
sion. That is whv we are engineers. 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Pier 



SOLID ROCKET FUELS 



By Mike Murphy 



On the nitiht of April 1, IQid, Dr. 
Jos. C Patricic, a chemist and i-x-physi- 
cian, went into his laboratory to check 
on an experiment. Little did Dr. Pat- 
rick realize how important this experi- 
ment would be to the whole world. Dr. 
Patrick was trying to concoct a new- 
type of automobile anti-freeze. Instead 
of finding a clear liquid which he ex- 
pected, he found something that was 
dark and s\ rupy and having a smell 
like rotten eggs. Dr. Patrick viewed 
the experiment n^ore or less as a failure. 
He used pieces of the unknown sub- 
.stance, which hardened upon cooling, 
for paperweights. In 1928 a man named 
Bevis Longstretch became interested in 
the substance which Patrick had named 
Thiokol, which is derived from the 
Greek words thio (sulphur) and kol 
(glue). It was found that Thiokol was 
impervious to petroleum and therefore 
could be used as an extremely efficient 
gasket for sealing gasoline tanks and 
other petroleum products containers. 
The two men searched for a place to 
open a factory but were refused many 
sites because of the sulphurous stencii 
produced when Thiokol was processed. 
Finally they were able to set up a fac- 
tory in Trenton, N. J. Business was 
general!)' poor but iluring World War 
II it improved because of the demand 
for gaskets for ;iir|ilane fuel tanks. Dur- 
ing the year PHI the company made 
$89,000. It was not until after the war 
that the possibilities of Thiokol as a 
solid rocket fuel were investigateil to 
any extent. Thiokol has been a leader ni 
the field of solid fuels ever since that 
time. In I'H.S tlic sales mounted to i'ii,- 
000,000. 

Solid fuels have definite advantages 
over liq\iid fuels. The\ can be pocketed 
into smaller spaces because of their high 
density and the fact that the oxidizer 
is built in. There are few moving parts 
in the combustion chamber which re- 
duces the chance of mechanical failure. 
Solid fuels rockets are easier to tr.ans- 
port and easier to fire. 

On the other hand there are se\eral 
disadvantages to solid fuels. Solid fuels 
rockets are relatively less powerful than 
liquid fuel rockets. There is a chance 
that the "grain" or charge ma\' crack 



and thus expose more surface aiea. This 
condition will produce erratic Hight re- 
sulting from velocity changes. Another 
disadvantage is the fact that solid fuels 
misses are hard to steer. These prob- 
lems are rapidly being solved and the 
future of solid-fuels looks good. 

Due to the extensive research in the 
field of rocket propellents man\ difler- 
cnt types have been developed in the 
past few years. Most of the present day 
rocket fuels deliver in the neighbor- 
hood of 200 lbs. of thrust for each 
pound of fuel consumed per second but 
hiirher \alues are rare. One example of 
solid fuel having more thrust is one 
which Allegany Ballistic Laboratory 
has been working on and is reported to 
be about 285. 

A term known as specific impulse is 
generally referred to when solid fuels 
are being compared. Specific impulse is 
the impulse per unit mass of a propel- 
lant expressed in units of pound seconds 
per pound. The final height reached by 
a missile is proportional to the square 
of the specific impulse. 

In regard to solid fuels specific im- 
pulse can be foimd by multiplying the 
thrust by the time and dividing by the 
mass of the propellent. Another factor 
which enters into the computing of the 
specific impulse is the operating pressure 
in the combustion chamber, or the ratio 
of the nozzle exit area to throat area, 
and on the OLitside pressure. To achieve 
sp.ice Hight with chemical propellants we 
need those that gi\e the most energ\" 
pel' unit weight. 

The specific Impulse of most solid 
fuels has increased by about 70 pound- 
secoiuls per pound, but there is little 
hope of passing .^00 since the energy of 
solid fuel is rather limited. Some double- 
base and composite solid blends offer the 
best possibilities of exceeding 230 pouiul- 
seconds per pound, but 245 will be the 
probable limit for standard carbon-hy- 
drogen-oxygen-nitrogen types. 

Some of the more important solid 
fuels are Ballistite, NDRC, and Cor- 
dite. 

Iiallistite can be safely stored at 12(1 
degrees 1''; its ignition temperature is 
,i(l(l degrees 1'', and its dame tempera- 



ture is about 5000 degrees F. The cost 
of this material averages five dollars a 
pound, but the specific impulse of 210 
and the exhaust velocity of nearly 7000 
feet per second are higher than those of 
the cheaper materials NDRC and Gal- 
cit. The exhaust \elocities of the latter 
are 5150 and 5900 feet per second, re- 
spectively. 

.N'RDC stands for National Defen.se 
Research Committee and is a composite 
propellant, fuel and oxidizer separate. 
It costs only one dollar a pound, for 
specific impulse of up to LSO pound- 
seconds per pound. The flame tempera- 
ture is, however, only about 4,000 de- 
grees F., and the burning rate is rela- 
ti\el\' low. 

Cordite and (Jalcit are usually made 
up of organic pohiner fuel and inor- 
ganic nonplastic oxidizers. 

High exhaust velocities from some 
(did fuels have been reported in the 
neighborhood of from 4,000 to 8,000 
miles per hour. These fuels, for the most 
part, possess undesirable physical proper- 
ties. 

One propert\' of a solid fuel which is 
important to know is its burning rate. 
This figure tells the weight or amount 
of propellent consumed per second per 
square inch. Most burning rates are 
between 0.2 and 2.0 inches per .second. 

In order to reduce the thickne.ss of 
solid fuel rocket walls, the charge has 
a hole from top to bottom. This hole 
is generally star shaped. The purpo.se 
of this is to permit the charge to burn 
toward the wall of the rocket. This 
situation permits the use of thin wall 
construction. By varying the geometri- 
cal shape and size of the hole different 
effects in power and burning time can 
be had. 

I oda\ more and more mi.ssiles pow- 
ered with .solid fuel are appearing. A 
few of these mi.ssle are the Sparrow, the 
Falcon, the Sidewinder, the Oenie, the 
Dart, which is used against tanks and 
the Rat, which swoops down on subs. 
Familiar to many m various .'\merican 
cities is the .Nike-Hercules. The recent 
success of the Polaris is further proof of 
the potential use of solid fuel. 



More from 



NAVY PIER 



on Page 30 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



27 



MASTER & DOCTOR OF SCIENCE 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

CANDIDATES 

COMPLETING REQUIREMENTS IN 

Engineering Physics | Applied Mathematics 



Space Technology Laboratories, Inc.. Los Angeles, California. 

recognizes your scholarly and technical achievements by encouraging you to 

have your findings published in recognized scientific journals and 

to present them before scientific and technical societies. 

For members of STL's Technical Staff, a group proficient in the preparation 

of written and oral presentations is available to give able assistance. 

Since 1954, STL has been a pioneer in virtually every phase of theoretical 

analysis, research, development, and administration of military 

and civilian space systems including the systems engineering and technical 

direction for the Air Force Ballistic Missile Program. 

These are some of (lie recent papers prepared hy ineinbers of llie STL Technical Staff: 



Lester Lees, F. W. Hartwig 
and C. B. Cohen. "The use of 
aerodynamic lift during entry 
into the earth's atmosphere." pre- 
sented at .American Rocket Soci- 
ety Controllable Satellites Con- 
ference. April-May. 1959. 

S. C. Baker and ]. M. Kelso. 
"Miniature movies of the plan- 
ets." reprinted from Aeronau- 
tics. May. 1959. 

R. W. Rector, "Space age com- 
puting," reprinted from Datama- 
tion, March-April, 1959, 



E. S. Wei BEL, "On the confine- 
ment of a plasma by magneto- 
static fields," reprinted from The 
Physics of Fliiuii. January-Feb- 
ruary, 1959. 

A. D. Wheelon (with G. 
Munch), "Space-time correla- 
tions in stationary isotrophic tur- 
bulence." reprinted from The 
Physics of F/iiiiis. November- 
December, 1958. 

G. E. Solomon, "The nature of 
re-entry," reprinted from Astro- 
mnilics. March, 195Q, 



T. A. M..\GNESS, J. B. McGuiRE 
and O. K. Smith, "Accuracy re- 
uircments for interplanetary bal- 
listic trajectories," reprinted from 
Proceeding !X(/i /iitcTnnliomi/ 
Aslronuulirci/ Congress. Amsler- 
dam, August, 1958. 

A. D. Wheelon (with H. 
Staras), "Theoretical research 
on Iroposphcric scatter propaga- 
tion in the United States, 1954- 
1957." reprinted from JRE 
Transactions on Antennas and 
Propa<]ation. J.uui.irv. 1950. 



Investigate opportunities in your major concentration at our laboratories in Los Angeles, California, 

or Cape Canaveral, Florida. Please consult with your placement officer for further information or write to: 

College Relations, Space Technology Laboratories. Inc. P.O. Box 95004, Los Angeles 45, California 



® 



SPACE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES. INC. 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Hesnifs tin- tfchnical procedures in- 
volved in an engineering design, the en- 
gineer must consider both public rela- 
tions and the aesthetic appeal of the 
proiect, for they will affect the success 
of his design. Often, the acceptance of 
a project depends upon the effectiveness 
of the exchange of ideas the engineer 
has had with citizens and citizen groups 
during the planning stages of the de- 
sign and, sometimes more important, 
how the finished project looks to the 
eye of the public. 

The engineer's public relations re- 
sponsibilities can be summed up in a 
few paragraphs. 

First, he must be able to get along 
with the public; it is, in effect, his em- 
ployer, whether he works for a govern- 
ment agency, for industry, or for a con- 
sulting firm assisting government or in- 
dustry. 

Second, he must plan carefully 
enough and far enough ahead that he 
can explain his actions at any stage any 
time. In the case of highway design, 
such explanations would include why he 
chooses a particular route, why his de- 
sign provides for drainage of storms 
which are likely to occur at only five 
vear intervals, or why he sets a par- 
ticular design restriction, as far as he is 
empowered, on the speed and use of a 
given section of highway. 

Third, he must be able to fare suc- 
cessfully under the fire of public com- 
ment and criticisms which accompany 
his decisions. Such discussion often 
comes from organized citizen groups 
and newspaper campaigns in a form 
which tends to put the engineer on the 
defensive. He may thus he caught be- 
tween two factions of opin'on, but must 
work his way out while satisfying both 
sides. Of course, he should have antici- 
pated and been prepared to answer many 
of the arguments against his decisions. 
It must also be realized that some prob- 
lems are incapable of solution without 
hurting someone. 

In justifying the construction of a 
highway, for example, the engineer must 
concern himself with the economic bene- 
fits to the whole area under considera- 
tion. In doing so, he must weigh all 
possible highway locations in relation to 
whether they provide the best service 
both for the overall region and the spe- 
cific area through which the highway 
passes. Often these considerations are in 
conflict; he must then work out an 
equitable compromise. For safety, one 
particular location might require a re- 
duction in the speed limit over a section 
of bridges and curves. This is opposed 
to the desirability of a higher limit 
which provides rapid How tii rough the 
entire highway network. 

Preventing or limiting truck traffic on 
a parkway can cause troubles for the 
commiMiities through which the trucks 



THE OTHER ROLE 

OF THE ENGINEER 

As Illustrated from Problems of Highway Er}gineering 

By Robert M. Jones 



must then pass. Eventually the truck 
traffic becomes such a problem that it 
demands a new highway to take care of 
trucks. 

A recent case in New England. Con- 
necticut, in particular, involved the 
Merritt Parkway and the Wilbur Cross 
Parkway which, for many years, formed 
parts of the only multi-lane highway 
between New York and Boston. These 
parkways were restricted to passenger 
car traffic, and, even with such a re- 
striction, were crowded. At the time 
they were built, shipping by truck had 
not become as large an industry as it is 
today. After World War II, the in- 
dustry blossomed with numerous heavy 
trucks to take care of the increased vol- 
ume of shipping. These trucks were 
forced to travel on U. S. 1, the Boston 
Post Road, through the centers of 
towns along the northern coast of Long 
Island Sound and on deeper into the 
slate. 

The inevitable effects on these towns 
were traffic congestion, confusion, and 
inconvenience, plus destruction of city 
streets with accompanying increased 
taxes for residents. 

The result of a concentrated cam- 
paign for a solution to the problem was 
the Connecticut Turnpike. It was espe- 
cially designed for trucks, though pass- 
enger cars are allowed if the\' pav the 
tolls. 

The need for a highway such as the 
Connecticut Turnpike should have been 
foreseen at the time the two parkways 
were designed. Even if it was, the rate 
of growth of the trucking industry was 
probably not correctly forecast. As a 
consequence, the volume of traffic at 
which more highway facilities would be 
built was reached at an earlier date so 
the engineer was caught short. 

In the middle of the Connecticut 
Turnpike situation was the highway en- 
gineer. He was expected to make every- 
body happy with his solution to the 
problems of routing, alignment, curva- 
ture, sight distance, and related subjects. 
Everyone, as usual, expected a dream 
highway which would neither disturb 
the towns through which it passed nor 
evict people from their homes. Since 



this as obviously impossible, the "other 
role of the engineer" played an import- 
ant part in the development of the Con- 
necticut Turnpike. There, the route 
passes through some of the most heavily 
populated and wealthiest counties in the 
nation ; in addition, these counties are 
some of the most beautiful and historic 
in New England. Thus, the usual pres- 
sures were multiplied. 

The engineer must be most careful 
in his relations with the owners of the 
prospective site of a highway. He must 
be certain he does not needlessly destroy 
any of our country's heritage in the 
form of old houses, historic sites, fine 
trees or beauty spots, and other places 
of sentiment. 

In this light, he must be able to ac- 
covmt for each of his design actions, 
such as why he chose to put an ele- 
vated section of highway in a metropoli- 
tan section rather than skirting the 
downtown area by building through the 
cheaper land of the slums. He must be 
able to explain, in terms that the lay- 
man can understand, why alignment, 
sight distance, and volume of excava- 
tion dictated this choice rather than 
ignoring the honest questions of inter- 
ested though perhaps irate landowners. 
Aesthetic Design Important 

Besides achieving a functional de- 
sign, the engineer must consider the ef- 
fects the project will have on the peo- 
ple it is meant to serve. Beauty should 
be included, for although it sometimes 
costs more, the favorable reactions of 
the viewing and using public are well 
worth the added expenditure. It must be 
remembered that the work of an engi- 
neer will last for many years and thus 
should be aestically pleasing. 

Highway bridges, for example, could 
be perked up by using unusual shapes 
or combinations of concrete, steel, alum- 
inum, and other materials. Or, extreme- 
ly simple though aesthetically balanced 
ma.sses could be used. 

Since concrete requires surface 
grooves to arrest and contain cracks, 
good architectural u.se might well be 
made of these grooves. With little or 
no extra cost, the grooves could be ar- 
(Cnnlinucd nn Page 30) 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



29 



IN AND AROUND CHICAGO 



By SHELDON ALTMAN 



More Modernizing 

A new "^oviTiimfiit cc-nter costing 6.1 
mil lion dolhirs will j^et top priorit\' 
soon :is thf next proji-ct in the tompic- 
hensivc plan tor mo(lcrni/.in<; Chic:ijj;o's 
ilowntown ari-a. The project \\ill house 
local jTovernnieiit and is to be built in 
the block bounded by Washinfi:t<in. 
Dearborn, Raiulolph ami Clark. 

In February the nia\or, hea(lin<: the 
public buildings commission, is sched- 
uled tor a report that will give the 
"ok" tor the project. 

The project will consist ot two IX- 
story buildings, and will house court- 
rooms tor Superior, Circuit, and Mu- 
nicipal courts and additional local gov- 
ernment office space. The remainder ot 
the block will be a parklike pla/a, with 
such facilities as a skating rink in win- 
ter. This is just one of many projects 
that will renovate the downtown area. 
The Metropolitan Exposition ceritei' on 
2.^rd street and the lake is well uniler 
construction. 

The first building will be a federal 
go\ernment sk\ scraper in the half block 
.ilong the east side of Dearborn between 
.Adams Street and Jackson Boule\ard. 
.After this is completed and is housing 
the federal courts and offices, the pres- 
sent United States courthouse bounded 
by Adams, Dearborn, Jackson and 



Chirk will be razed to make way for 
the second building. 

A project for con.solidating the rail- 
way terminals and building the I ni- 
versity branch on these 1.^0 acres is 
.nlso under consideration. 

Big Nuclear Shipment to Chicago 

.A l.^SO-pound shipment nt nuclear 
enuilsion, largest order of its kind and 
worth $100. 001) has arrived at the Ini- 
\ersit\' of Chicago from England. Prof. 
Mai'cel Schein, physicist, and his asso- 
ciates in Operation Skyhook, plan to 
u.se the emulsion in a new study of 
high-energ\' cosmic rays. 

It will be sent aloft in two giant bal- 
loons off the West Indies. The eniid- 
sion is highl>' sensitive material and will 
leplace photographic plates in the gon- 
dolas of the balloons. The\' will be 
"stackeil" to gi\e a three-dimensional 
"track" of cosmic ra\s. 

First Full-Length Picture in 43 Years 

Chicago is on its \va\ to becoming 
the midwest's Hollywood. For the first 
time in 43 years a full-length feature 
has been produced in Chicago. All con- 
cerned with the production are Chicago 
talent. This includes the producer, di- 
rector, actors and technicians. 

In recent years many studios ha\e 
been engaged in the production of in- 
dustrial, educational, public service and 



.Armed Forces training films. Some 
Holl\wood scenes and some television 
dramas have been shot here, b\it the 
recent completion of "Prime Time" 
marks Chicago's first effort to emulate 
the old days of l'M() and Essanay Stu- 

Hetween 1897 and lOK), long before 
the first camera turned in Holhwood, 
Chicago was a major producer of fea- 
ture films. Essanay Studio had people 
such as Charlie Chaplain, (Gloria Swan- 
son, Wallace Heery and 'Eom .Mix 
workuig for them. 

Th.' title "Prime Time" is based on 
the concept of youth as the prime of 
life and is concerned with the problems 
of \()uth. When the script called for 
specific locations the film-producers 
searched out locations bearing the cor- 
rect names within the Chicago area. 
When a teen-age hangout called "Lu- 
iga's " was needed a pizzeria was use<l 
with that name. Nightclubs and ta\- 
erns in the area were also utilized. This 
city may soon be renamed "New Holly- 
woo<l." 
At The Pier 

Some more new courses have been 
added for the benefit of engineering stu- 
dents. These include Math 315, Linear 
Transformations and Matrices; Math 
342, Differential Equations, an intro- 
ducductory course in partial differential 
equations and Physics 281, Intermedi- 
ate Atomic Physics; Physics 322, the- 
oretical mechanics. M.E. 221 is again 
being offered. It was first offered last 
semester. This is all part of UI's ex- 
panding program. 



THE OTHER ROLE OF THE ENGINEER 



(C'lnttniicl from I'lujc l*-) ) 
ran'i:ed in pleasing geometric patterns. 

I he highway right-of-way also needs 
nnich attention. Its landscaping, includ- 
ing informative signs, must be integrated 
with the natural surroundings. All 
should be at least as good as if not bet- 
ter than the quality of the overall area. 
Economy Versus Safety 

I he engineer must seek an economi- 
cal solution, but in doing so he some- 
times plays a deadly game. When get- 
ting fill material for a highwa\', as an 
example, he has to balance one evil 
against the prospects of another. Bor- 
row pits, as the sources of fill material 
are called, can also be accident and 
health hazards. While the cost of haul- 
ing material from an area where ex- 
cavation is already nece.ssary is .some- 
times more than the cost of excavating 
from a nearby field, the engineer must 
consider the effects of his decision to 
open a borrow pit. 

Usually with a borrow pit, a field is 
lost from farming or from prospective 
hr)me or factory sites. The proper use 



of a borrow pit should he both to pro- 
vide fill material and to improve the 
effectiveness of the surrounding in looks 
and use. 

If a low spot is created, water will 
collect during storms, proving a hazard 
to children and grownups alike as acci- 
dents can always be associated with 
pools of water. The standing water pre- 
sents a health hazard as it can harbor 
mosquitoes and other disease-carrying 
insects. Also, it can pollute drainage 
waters which m time pass through the 
possibly contaminated water of a bor- 
row pit. 

The.se situations are seldom, if ever, 
desirable. Besides being a danger to all 
forms of life, they detract from the 
beautx" ot the highway \icinity. 
Responsibility Lies in the Engineer 

In short, the engineer has a high 
level of social and aesthetic as well as 
technical responsibilitv' for his actions. 
The demands upon him are maTiifold, 
and do not stop with a purely practical 
solution to his problems. He works with 
people, and for the community; he inust 



therefore consider all the effects ot his 
creation on those concerned. 

If he does so, he will find his services 
more in demand and his leadership more 
respected and sought. The reason is sim- 
ple: when people have something good 
and are happy with it, they will want 
more of the same. But if they are dis- 
pleased, the\- will be reluctant to pur- 
chase more such services or to appropii- 
ate money for sinular projects. Again, 
the engineer must always remember that 
his work will be exposed to the public 
for many vears; thus, his professional 
reputation is at stake with every deci- 
sion he makes. 

The best way for the engineer to help 
people and to keep them happy is to be 
honest, to show the engineering reasons 
for his decisions, and to fulfill his real 
role — that of diligently striving to make 
every design as socially desirable, techni- 
cally efficient, and aesthetically pleasing 
as possible for the public. V>n\\ in this 
way can the engineer fill his true posi- 
tion of intellectual leadership in our so- 
ciety. 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• A missile's main engine runs only for a few 
seconds. To supply electric and hydraulic power for 
control during the entire flight a second power plant 
is necessary. The AiResearch APU (accessory power 
unit) which answers this problem is a compact, non 

EXCITING FIELD 

FOR GRADUATI 

Diversity and strength in a company offer the 
engineer a key opportunity, for with broad knowl- 
edge and background your chances for responsibil- 
ity and advancement are greater. 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch 
Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its 
diversification, which you will experience through 
an orientation program lasting over a period of 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your 
most profitable area of interest. 

Other major fields of interest include: 

• Aircraft Flight and Electronic Systems — pioneer and 
major supplier of centralized flight data systems 



air-breathing, high speed turbine engine. The unit 
pictured above develops 50 horsepower and weighs 
30 pounds. The acknowledged leader in the field, 
AiResearch has designed, developed and delivered 
more accessory power units than any other source. 

S OF INTEREST 
E ENGINEERS 

and also other electronic controls and instruments. 

• Gas Turbine Engines — world's largest producer of 
small gas turbine engines, with more than 8,500 
delivered ranging from 30 to 850 horsepower. 

•Environmental Control Systems — pioneer, leading 
developer and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air 
conditioning and pressurization systems. 

Should you be interested in a career with The 
Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 
Corporation and Career Opportunities" at your 
College placement office. For further information 
write to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley. . . 



THE 




/AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions 



Los Angeles /.i, ('.(ililiirniu • I'liiit-nix. Arizona 
Sysleius, ParluiSrs and Cmponents l„r: AIRCRAFT, MISSILE. NUCLEAR AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 
FEBRUARY, 1960 31 



engineers 




Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 

engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 

of data from many information points. 




Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 

on related research projects. 




Under the close supervision of an engineer, 

final adjustments are made on a rig for 

testing on advanced liquid metal system. 



and what they di 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today are concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems— air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and allied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four 
basic fields: 

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING Men engaged in this 
activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad- 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 

DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo- 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en- 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per- 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING Here men supervise 
and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel- 
opment engines. They devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop- 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future effort. 

MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other materials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 
They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina- 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturinc difficulties. 




Pratt &. Whitney Aircraft... 




Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on at the Florida Research and Development Center. 



For further information regarding an engineer- 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement ofliccr or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azinger, Engineering Department, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 



PRATT & IMfHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS - East Hartford 

FLORIDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER - Palm Beach County, Florida 



The Deans' Page . 



NEW ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 
FOR ENGINEERS 

By Dean D. R. Opperman 



Scincmbcr, l')().\ has been appi'cu i-il 
In tin- Ho.uil of Tiiistecs as the cftVc- 
ti\c (late tor tile lU'w entrana' ifquirc- 
mi'iits into tlic Collcfif of Knjiiiiffrinj; 
at the Chicasjo L iidcrjiraduatc I)i\isioii 
ami at I rbaiia. These new ^equil■(■nlent^ 
are the result of a year long stinh iiiaile 
by a group of engineering faculty men 
on the Urbana campus. Their reconi- 
mendations were subsequently appro\e<l 
by the engineering faculty and the sen- 
ate on the I rbana campus and by the 
ensrineerins; facult\' and senate at the 
Chicago Undergraduate Division locat- 
ed on Xavv Pier. 

Man\' interesting facts were dis- 
covered in the study made by the I r- 
bana facult\ members. 

Students entering the College in I r- 
bana as new freshmen have been pre- 
senting nunc entrance credits than re- 
quired b\ the College and the I'niver- 
sit\'. Further, the trend is for each suc- 
ceeding class to enter the College bet- 
ter prepared than the class previous to 
it. A good example is found in mathe- 
matics. 

In the fall of 1954, 70'; of the enter- 
ing freshmen presented at least 3'/> 
uiu'ts in mathematics. (A imit is one 
year of studv' in one cour.se.) Four 
\ears later, in September 1958, the 
number of students presenting this num- 
ber of credits climbed to 79','. Last 
fall, September 1959, the figm-e rose 
.mother .S',' to HI' i . We feel confident 
that this trend shown by prospective en- 
gineers to take more and nvire mathe- 
matics will continue in the future. The 
credit for the trend .should be shared 
eqiialK between the College of I'.ngi- 
necring which has demanded more 
mathematics and the high schools which 
have responded with excellent college 
preparatory mathematics programs. Last 
fall several new freshmen received ad- 
vanced placement in differential calculus 
and a few students received advanced 
placement and began their mathematics 
studies in integral calculus, the sccoiul 
semester calculus course! 

Similar trends to take more subjects 
than required in high school have been 
shown to exist in other fields of instruc- 
tion generally considered as college pre- 
paratory work. Increasing numbers of 
students are taking a full four years of 
English in high school, more foreign 



l.uiguage, more scienc. 1 he increases in 
all of these areas are noteworthy if we 
compare the class entering in 1954 with 
the class entering in I95.S. The result 
of these stronger college preparatorv 
programs is shown dramaticallv' in the 
accompanv ing graph. 

The I niversitv ol Illinois requires 
a minimum of 9 uiuts of college pre- 
paratory subjects of admission. The re- 
maining () units required for atimission 
ma> be in any area acceptable to the 




Total units of high school subjects in 
foreign languages, the social sciences, 
mathematics, the sciences, and Eng- 
lish, presented by freshmen entering 
in fall of 1954 and fall of 1958. 

high school for graduation. This graph 
indicates that very few students enter- 
ing in either 1954 or 1958 presented 
only a minimum of 9 college prepara- 
tory subjects. A large number of the 
students presented from 13 to 16 units 
of this nature, an impressive fact when 
16 units is all that is required for gi7«/- 
uation in many high schools. Howe\er. 
the most significant feature of the 
graph is the comparison between the 
classes entering in 1954 and 1958. 
Those students presenting smaller num- 
bers of credits in college preparatory 
subjects are in the majority in the class 



of 19S4. The class of I9SS came far 
hcter prejiared than the class ot 1954 
with respect to 1^ through I'' or 19.5 
units. Several conclusions can be dr,-iwn 
from the graph. 

1. High school students are receiving 
better and better counseling each 
year with regard to programs of 
study that v\ill prepare them for 
college studies. 

2. At the present time, entering stu- 
dents are presenting far more 
"solid" subjects than required for 
entrance by the College of Engi- 
neering or the University of Illi- 
nois. 

3. A student who minimizes college 
preparatory subjects in high school 
will be at a distinct disadvantage 
when paced in competition at the 
college level with students who 
have given thought to their high 
school programs and have chosen 
wi.sely the subjects they will need 
for their college work. 

As a result of these rather intensive 
studies of the background of the stu- 
dents who entered in 1954 and 1948, 
definite recommendations were made, 
;md approved, to strengthen the en- 
trance requirements to the College of 
Engineering. These new entrance re- 
quirements, effective in September I''h3. 
are as follows: 

Rctoiiniit iiilt il 
Rif/uiniJ JddilKjiiiil 



Units 



I 'nils 
1 



Su/fjcct 

English 3 

Algebra^ 2 

Plane Geometry 1 

Trigonometry ' j 

College Preparatory 

Mathematics 

Science" 2 

Social Studies 2 

Language' 2 

'Students who have only 
gebra and one unit in plane Reometry may 
lie admitted on condition that the deficiency 
is removed in the first year. 

"Re<|uired science must include two units 
from physics, chemistry, and biology. Botany 
ami zoology may be substituted for biology, 
(ieneral science mav" not be used as a re- 
(|uired subject. 

'Reciuired language must be two unit> in 
one language. Students deficient in language 
may be admitted on condition that the de- 
ficiency is removed during the first two years. 
( (Uintinuctl on P(U/c 36) 



.ailabl. 



as available' 
nne unit in al- 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




What's ahead for you... 
after you join Western Electric? 



Aii\ \\'1h'1c' \i)U look — ill ciigim'ciiiit; and ollifi piolc-s- 
sioiKil areas — tlif answer to that question is piugrc.s.s. 
For Western Eleetrie is on a job of ever-inereasing 
complexity, both as the manufacturing and supply unit 
of the Bell System and as a part of nian\' defense 
communications and missile projects. 

These two assignments meau \oull find \i)uiselt in 
the thick of things in such fast-breaking fields as miero- 
\va\e radio relay, electrouic switching, miniaturization 
and automation. You may engiueer installations, plau 
distribution of equipment and supplies. Western also 
has need for field engineers, whose world-wide assign- 
ments call for working with cc|uipment we make for 
the Government. The opportunities are luiiny — anil 
thei/re wditinp,! 

You'll find that Westi'in Eli-ctric is cai-eer-minded . . . 
and [/()i/-minded! Progress is as rapid as Nour own indi- 
vidual skills permit. We estimate that 8, ()()() supervisory 
jobs will open in the ne.\t ten years — the majority to be 
filled by engineers. There will be corresponding oppor- 



tvmities lor career building williin rcsearcli ,nid engi- 
neering. Western Electiic maintains its own full-time, 
all-e.\penses-paid engineering training program. And 
our tuition refund plan also helps you move ahead in 
\()ur chosen field. 

Opportunities exist for electrical, mechanical, indus- 
trial, civil and chemicol engineers, as well as in the 
physical sciences. For more information get your copy 
of Consider o Career at Western Electric from your 
Plocement Officer. Or write College Relations, Room 
200D, Western Electric Company, 195 Broadway, New 
York 7, N Y. Be sure to arrange for a Western Electric 
interview when the Bell System team visits your campus. 



WeBtcrn, 



EmJf^ 



OF THE BELL SYSTEM/ 



Principal manufacturing locations at Chicago. III.; Kearny, N, J.; Baltimore. Md.; Indianapolis. Ind.; Allentown and Laureldale. Pa.: Burlington. Greensboro and Winston-Salem, N.C.; 
Buffalo, N. Y,; North Andover, Mass.; Lincoln and Omaha. Neb., Kansas City, ^o.: Columbus, Ohio: Oklahoma City, Okia,: Engineering Research Center. Princeton. N. J.: Teletype 
Corp,, Chicago 14, III and Little Rock, Ark, Also W E, distribution centers in 32 cities and installation headquartars in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway. New York 7, N.Y. 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



35 



(Coiiliiiiinl from 1'iiy.f .'V j 
'It is ri-C(iminciuli-il thai adilitioiiMl ijiilil 
In- canicil in ihi- >atne latiKuaKf lliat \%a> pii- 
Miitfil tor ciitramc cri-clit. However, it tin- 
two tiiiits of reiiuiri-d laiiKuaKf are l.atin, 
aiUlitioTial ort-dit sti.nild W m a modtrii 
laiimiaui-. 

'I'lu- inatluMiiatlcs and llnulish ic- 
(luin-iiH-iits tor admission have ifmami-d 
imchaii!ii-d from what they wt-rc. The 
additions to the i-ntrana- reqiiiri'ments 
arc two units of lant;uage. two units ot 
social studies, and two units of science. 
I.ary:e numhers of students aii' alread\ 
presenting two units ot science and 
therefore this new requirenu-iu will not 
demand too much niodificat'oii in the 
programs of the h'gh school students. 
( )ver SO' ; of the students entering in 
lOSK presented two units of soc al 
studies although one or one and one- 
half units are required for j^raduation 
troni high school. Therefore, a numher 
of prospective students who intend to 
enroll here will he required to add one- 
half or one unit of social studies to th;ir 
programs. 

The requirement that will entail the 
most adjustment in hi<;h school pro- 
• 'rams is the new reciuirement in lan- 
!'na<re. Over 55'; of the students in 
1958 pres'"nted 2 units of credit m 
lansjuatjc, but as the new entrance re- 
quirements indicate, this figure should 
ri--e to close to imi', by September of 
1%3. No stude-it will be barred ad- 
mission to our College because he does 
not have language credit since provision 
has been made to make up this deftcen- 
cy during the first two years at the I ni- 
versity of Illinois. However, the de- 
ficiency will mean that the student will 
have to add approximately one .semester 
to the time normally required to einn 
his baccalaureate degree in engineering. 
Increasing numbers of emrineering 
students are continuing in college for 
p-raduate studv after thev have received 
their bachelo's def^ree. Everyone recoc-:- 
ni/.es the value of foreign language in 
helping graduate students study more 
effectively. Since (ierman, French, and 
Russian are the languages in which most 
of the significant technical literature is 
published, a study of one of these 
languages can be of immense \alue to an 
engineer. However, Spanish or other 
languages specified by the rniversity 
may be used for entrance cre.lits. lail- 
ure to study language before a student 
reaches the graduate level will only 
hamper his progress and delay his grad- 
uation with a master's or doctor's de- 
cree. 

Another important reason tor stu(l\- 
ing a foreign language is its contribu- 
tion to the student's grasp of the mean- 
ing and structure of his own language. 
Many engineers have trouble communi- 
cating with other people, though their 
record is no worse than any other group 
of professional people. Foreign language 



36 



studies will help the engineer write 
more effectively and, therefore, indirect- 
K contribute to his future success. 

One last item of significant informa- 
tion uncovered by the study .should be 
brought to \our attention. Though this 
information has no bearing on the iiev,- 
entrance requirements, it still should be 
of interest to students planning to go 
into engineering. The following graph, 
which indicates high school rank, shows 
that more and more students ot engi- 
neering are coming from the up|ier half 
and only extremely small numbers are 
from the bottom quarter of their high 
.school class. Larger numbers ot students 
are coming from the upper ten per cent 



Proud of your School? 




eo 70 60 t 

39 79 69 59 49 39 29 19 

H:gr\ SctiC'0< Ra^k in PercentHe. 



Rank in high school class of freshmen 
entering in fall of 1954 and fall of 
1958. 

of their high school class each year. In 
September of 1959, 34 high school val- 
edictorians were among the students en- 
tering engineering at Illinois! 

It should be pointed out, however, 
that this garph shows nothing whatever 
as far as the success of these students 
in college is concerned. I firmly believe, 
though, that the prospective engineer 
sh(uild know that achievement in high 
school Is an important indicator of suc- 
cess in later college work and this gra|ih 
is one measure of achievement. 

This article has not been written to 
inflate the ego of the present engineer- 
ing students or to scare prospective stu- 
dents out of enrolling in engineering. 
However, e v e r y incoming student 
should realize the importance of a sound 
high school education. The new en- 
trance requirements ;ire designed to 
help prepare prospecti\e stiuleiUs for the 
challenge and the thrill that will he 
theirs the da\ the> first enroll m 
engineering. 




BE 
PROUD 
OF YOUR 
WORKING TOOLS... 

A.W.FABER 
CASTELL 

helps the hand that 
shapes the future 

#9000 Castell Pencil 

with world's finest 
natural graphite that 
tests out at more than 
99% pure carbon. 
Exclusive microlette 
mills process this 
Kraphite into a drawing 
lead that lays down 
graphite-saturated, 
non-feathering lines of 
intense opacity. Extra 
strong to take needle- 
point sharpness without 
breaking or feathering. 
Smooth, 100^; grit- 
free, consistently 
uniform, 8B to lOH. 

#9800 SG LOCKTITE 
Tel-A-Grade Holder, 
perfectly balanced, 
lightweight, with new 
no-slip functional grip. 
Relieves finger fatigue. 
Unique degree 
indicating device. 

#9030 imported Refill 
Leads, matching 
exactly #9000 pencil 
in quality and grading, 
7B to lOH, packed in 
reusable plastic tube 
with gold cap. 
A man advancing in 
his career just 
naturally gravitates to 
Castell, world's finest 
drawing pencil. You'll 
be wise to begin now. 



A.W.FABER -WSrfli 

Pencil Co., Inc., Newark 3, N. J. 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




A singularity in a field? 

What is the nuclear "glue" 
for like charges? 

A better comprehension of charge 
is important to Allison because 
energy conversion is our business 
and charge is one keystone for this 
conversion work. Thus we have a 
deep and continuing interest in elec- 
trons, protons, positrons, neutrons, 
neutrinos— charge in all its forms. 

In its investigations, Allison calls 
upon the capabilities within General 
Motors Corporationand its Divisions, 
as well as the specialized talents 
of other individuals and organ- 
izations. By applying this systems 
engineering concept to new re- 
search projects, we increase the effec- 
tiveness with which we accomplish 
our mission — exploring the needs 
of advanced propulsion and weap- 
ons systems. 



Energy conversion is our business 




Wan( to know about YOUR opportunities on 
the Allison Engineering Team? Write: Mr. R. C. 
Smith, College Relations, Personnel Dept. 



Division of General Motors, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



37 




Engineers who qualify to fill these chairs... 

are on the road to filling responsible jobs 
with a growing company in a growing industry 



American Air Filter Company is one of the world's 
pioneers in the field of "better air." Starting 30 years ago 
as a manufaclurcr of air filtration equipment only, it has, 
through a planned program of product development, attained 
the unique position of being the one company in its industry 
that can take the complete over-all approach to the customer's 
air problems. In brief, this means supplying and coordinating 
all the proper products to filter, cool, heat, clean (control 
process dust), move, exhaust, humidify and dehumidify air. 
"Better Air", while a big business today, is still in its 
infancy. Name any industry, any building type, and you have 
a present or potential user of .AAF equipment. Other well- 
known trade names in the AAF family are Herman Nelson, 
Kennard and Illinois Engineering. At present, AAF operates 
ten plants in Louisville, Moline, 111., St. Louis, Chicago and 
Montreal, Canada. 



. QUALIFIES YOU FOR 
THIS KIND OF JOB 



THIS KIND OF 
ENGINEERING DEGREE . . . 

Mechanical — Engineeriiif;, Sales or Mtintijiictiiring 
Electrical — Enijineering or Sales 
Industrial — Maniifactiirini; or Sales 
Civil — Sales 



FORMAL FIVE-MONTH TRAINING COURSE 

Your first job at AAF will be to complete a full five-month 
course in its technical training school. This is a complete 
and carefully planned course covering every phase of this 
business of better air and is under the direction of Mr. James 
W. May. a recognized authority on air handling problems and 
presently a member of the board of directors of ASHRAE. 
Classes, held in special, air conditioned quarters, are sup- 
plemented by field trips to visit AAF plants and observe 
on-the-job applications of equipment. 

YOUR FUTURE IS ALL-IMPORTANT TO AAF 

AAF prides itself on attempting to m'atch the man to the 
job. During your training period you will have contacts 
with key company personnel. Your personal desires as to type 
and location of job are given every consideration. AAF is big 
enough to provide opportunities galore — small enough to 
never lose sight of the personal touch that adds satisfaction 
along with success. 

A representative of AAF will be on your campus soon to 
interview students interested in learning more about the 
opportunities with this company. Consult your Placement 
Office for exact date. 



38 




rATA 



itnencan 



A>.1> 



Iter 



BETTER AIR IS OUR BUSINESS 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



■ '*1fl 




ANOTHER W»V 

RCA SERVES 

YOU THROUGH 

EUCTRONICS 




One of the sharpest photos ever taken of 
sun's surface. It, and hundreds of others 
taken by stratoscope, may answer mystery 
of violent magnetic disturbances on earth. 



Exact position of photograph in relation 
to the total sun surface is shown here. Plotting 
and photography of precise areas was made 
possible by airborne RCA television. 



RCA REPORTS TO THE NATION: 




Going lip for "good seeing." Un- 

mauTicd ballooii-obsiMvalory starts its 
ascent to lake sunspot photos. "Project 
Stratoscope" is a continuing program 
of the Office of Naval Research and 
the National Science Foundation. 

FEBRUARY, 1960 



REMARKABLE NEW PHOTOS UNLOCK 
MYSTERIES OF SUN'S SURFACE 

Special RCA Television, operating from stratosphere, 
helps get sharpest photos of sun's surface ever taken 



Scientists recently took the first, 
sharp, searching look into the center of 
onr solar system. It was achieved not 
by a missile, but by a balloon posted 
in quiet reaches of the stratosphere. 

The idea was conceived by astrono- 
mers at the Princeton University Ob- 
servatory. They decided that a lloaling 
observatory — equipped with a tele- 
scope-camera — would offer a stable 
"work platform" from which sunspots 
could be photographed free of the distor- 
tion caused by the earth's atmosphere. 

But "Project Stratoscope" encoun- 
tered an unforeseen and major obslacle 
on its initial flight. A foolproof method 
was needeil for aiming and focusing 
the telescope of the unmanned observ- 
atory. Princeton asked RCA to help. 

A special RCA television system was 
devised which enatiled observers on the 



ground to view exactly what the tele- 
scope was seeing aloft. This accom- 
plished, it was a simple matter to 
achieve precise photography— directed 
from the ground by means of a separate 
RCA radio control system. 

The resulting pictures reveal sun- 
spot activities in unprecedented detail. 
They provide the world with im|)ortant 
information regarding the magnetic 
disturbances which aflect navigation 
and long-range communications. 

The success of "Project Stratoscope" 
is another example of RCA leadership 
in advanced electronics. This leader- 
ship, achieved through quality and 
dependability in performance, has al- 
ready made RCA Victor the most trusted 
name in television. Today. RCA Victor 
television sets are in far more homes 
than any other make. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

THE MOST TRUSTED NAME IN ELECTRONICS 



39 



At CHRYSLER'S 
HUGE NEW STAMPING 
PLANT ^ 




\H. Mill ' r, .■, I '...INEERS 



JENKINS 

VALVES assure reliable, 

economical control 

of Production's Lifelines 

Cited as one of the nation's "Top Ten Plants of the Year", 
Chrysler Corporation's stamping plant at Twinsburg, Ohio, is 
a 34-acre model of building and manufacturing eflicicncy. 

Go into the power plant and you will find Jenkins Valves 
everywhere, controlling "production's lifelines" that supply 
150,000 pounds of steam per hour ... 30 million cubic feet of 
air per day . . . 7500 gallons of cooling water per minute. Jenkins 
Valves got the job because "every efTort was made to install the 
finest mechanical and electrical equipment . . . and to insure 
minimum costs by eliminating excessive upkeep and equipment 
with a short life span". 

It is a highly significant fact that all building experts and 
operating engineers agree "there's nothiiii; heller limit Jenkins 
Valves". Many will always insist on JENKINS for critical serv- 
ices, and will prefer them for general use. After all, Jenkins 
Valves cost no more! 

When you are buying or specifying valves, remember that 
the best valves are the best assurance of economical service. 
Jenkins Bros., 100 Park Ave., New York 17. 




In the ultra-modern boiler hmr i th.-. n ,ibove, all gen- 
eral service valves controllirif', |ii[K'lines are JENKINS 



JENKINS 

LOOK FOR THE JENKINS 01/ 



40 



Sold Through Leading Distributors Everywhere 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Inscription 



By Helen Geroff 



1 boarded iii\ sliip and \va\cil to tlie 
crowd outside. In five minutes, I would 
have to pull the lever which woidti re- 
lease the rocket blast and take me off 
into the unknown. As I gazed out of 
the porthole, I saw- the faces of my 
loved ones. They were proud of me, I 
was sure, but their haggard faces re- 
vealed the same fear that I had. Would 
we ever meet again? 

I threw one last kiss and pulled the 
le\er. The ship lunged forward and 
lifted me high into the sky. My fingers 
turned the panel dials almost automatic- 
ally. My training had been long and ex- 
hausting, and now, I only hoped that 
1 could remember everything. 

As the moon came closer and closer 
into focus, I prepared to land. I radioed 
back to Earth that everything was func- 
tioning satisfactorily and that I would 
be checking in with them at regular in- 



tei\ als. .\1\ landing on the moon was 
\ery smooth. I made one last check of 
the panel controls, donned my oxygen 
mask, opened the ship's door, and set 
out. 

1 walked around collecting rock and 
dust samples for several hours. When 1 
was almost ready to go back to the 
ship, I noticed a cave. I was getting 
tired, but I remembered hearing the 
scientists say that if man was ever to 
live on the moon, he would probably 
have to live under the ground, so I de- 
cided to look inside. 

With pencil and note pad in hand, 
1 began to explore the cave. I had not 
walked more than twenty yards when 
I came upon a man-made door, at least 
it looked man-made. On the door, a 
strange inscription was written in sev- 
eral languages. Excitement swelled in- 
side of me. Here was something man 



li.ul talked (it Inidnig but had ne\er 
realK' hoped to find. 

Moving as fast as I coidd, I ran back 
to the ship. With trembling hands, I 
tuned in the radio, focused the tele- 
screen, and relayed my findings and the 
inscription to my superiors. 

The commander's voice came o\er the 
radio loud and clear, "Stay where you 
are. We have called in some experts on 
languages, and they will translate the 
message if possible. You will hear from 
me again when we receive the transla- 
tion. ( )\er and out. " 

I waited anxiously for Earth's reply, 
but when it came, I found myself total- 
ly unprepared to receive such a message. 

"This is Earth calling. The inscrip- 
tion reads as follows: 'The Earth will 
be blown to bits during their nuclear 
war. Any Earth-man reaching the moon 
before the start of the war will remain 
ali\e if he stays in this cave. A ship 
from Venus will pick up any possible 
sm'vivors three days after Earth's de- 
struction.' " 

"Your orders are to remain in that 
ca\e. Russia has just declared war on 
the I riited States and . . ." 

As I leaned closer to the ladio, I 
heard a terrific explosion, and the voice 
died away. 




T»AK^^ ■■ H Minus 

World-Wide 
Refrioeratioii 



New Kind of Missile with 

HiGGins inK 



INDIA — Prime Minister Nehru inspects 
a Frick installation by Mohammed 
Singh, a Frick graduate. 



FRICK COMPANY 

Student Training 

Course attracts students from all over the world 



Established by one of the oldest manufacturers of 
refrigeration, this course has acquired such an out- 
standing reputation that only a small select group 
can be admitted each year. 

Write for details and applications today. 

, t^jji'irntamim r\ir.rBtrr<«i i n 




. . . corry if with you wherever you go! 



Good news for draftsmen! New HIGGINS 
AMERICAN INDIA INK Cartridge always feeds 
ttie right amount of ink into pens and drawing 
instruments. No mess, no waste! 

Compact, rigid, plastic cartridge fits easily in 
pocket, purse or drafting sets. 

Stands on table, shelf, desk - won't roll off 
inclined drafting boards! l\/lost convenient way 
to fill pens - and so economical! 




FEBRUARY, 1960 



41 






...staffed by graduates 
of virtually every engineering 
school in the United States... 

CONVAIR FORT WORTH 

p. O. BOX 748-C6 
A DIVISION OF 

GENERAL DYNAMICS 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 
42 



^ 





OLLOW HE EADER 



IS no game 




with Delco. Long a leader in automotive radio engineering and 
production, Delco Radio Division of General Motors has charted a 
similar path in the missile and allied electronic fields. Especially, we are 
conducting aggressive programs in semiconductor material research, 
and device development to further expand facilities and leadership 
in these areas. Frankly, the applications we see for semiconductors are 
staggering, as are those for other Space Age Devices: Computors . . . 
Static Inverters . . . Thermoelectric Generators . . . Power Supplies. 

However, leadership is not self-sustaining. It requires 
periodic infusions of new ideas and new talent — aggressive new talent. 
We invite you to follow the leader — Delco — to an exciting, 
profitable future. 

If you're interested in becoming a part of this challenging 
Delco, GM team, write to Mr. Carl Longshore. Supervisor — 
Salaried Employment, for additional information — or talk to our 
representative when he visits your campus. 



ELco Radio Division of General Motors 



KOKOMO, INDI.A.NA 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



43 



Photos by Dave Yates 



Technocutie . . . 



MARION HILLER 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Bevier Hall and the school of 
Home Economics claim fresh- 
man, Marion Hiller, most of the 
time, but the engineers on cam- 
pus claim her as their February 
Technocutie. 

From Evanston, Marion calls 
Allen South her home on cam- 
pus; but Saturday afternoon she 
lives at the Turk's Head listen- 
ing to Hockenhull. An alternate 
on occasion is the Capital for 
the jam session. 

Marion likes outdoor sports, 
tennis being her favorite with 
water skiing and sailing coming 
in second. But she also admits 
she is enjoying learning to play 
chess. 

Sweets are Marion's favorite 
food. She laughingly admits she 
doesn't care for meals, but loves 
eating between them. Lobster 
tail rates high with her; milk is 
her favorite beverage. 

Informal dates are the kind 
Marion likes most: movies, the 
beach in the summer, parties 
with close friends. She's always 
ready to dance. 

Egotistical and unattentive 
men are Marion's pet peeve. She 
also rates low the type that call 
and say, "I'm here; come on 
down." A sense of humor in a 
fellow goes far with her. 

Men's clothes are neat to 
score with Marion. In the win- 
ter she loves to see sweaters. 
She likes Ivy League clothes but 
would do away with the belt 
idea. Cotton slacks and wash 
pants instead of Levis are also 
a must. 

With a millionaire's budget, 
Marion would travel; she would 
like to see the much-heard-about 
places, especially Russia. 

Marion is not sure what she 
will do when she graduates per- 
haps go into retailing or textile 
research. In the meantime, she 
will study and have fun. 




FEBRUARY, 1960 



45 





290,000 KVA AUTO TRANSFORMER SERVES 460,000 KVA LOAD 

Wisconsin Electric Power Company engineers' specifications for the new 230/ 13S hv 
transformer at the Company's Bliiemound Substation were reduced from the 460,000 kva 
(shown in outline) to 290.000 hva as the result of imaginative thinking. 



POWER is ENGINEERED 
for economy, reliability 



Wisconsin Electric Power Company engineers needed a transformer to carry a load 
of 460,000 kva. The unit was to be part of Wisconsin's first 230 kv transmission sys- 
tem from the new 275,000 kilowatt generating unit at Oak Creek. An auto transformer 
was the obvious choice over a conventional two winding unit. But Company engineers 
also considered these three factors: (1) the ambient temperature expected in the Mil- 
waukee area; (2) the daily and hourly variation in load expected for the next 15 years, 
and (3) the use of supplemental cooling equipment. The result was the 290,000 kva 
unit above. It is able to carry 460,000 kva of load without sacrificing reliability or short- 
ening transformer life. 

The electrical engineer plays a vital role in design and development work at Wiscon- 
sin Electric Power Company. Progress in power with us may be your key to the future. 



WISCONSIN EIECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



46 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 
Appleton, Wis. 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. 
Racine, Wis. *■ 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



REQUIRED SAFETY 
FACTORS in steering 
arm assured by 
designing it to be forged 




By designing with forgings, a trucls. manufacturer can count on the required 
safety factors, with minimum '■beefing-up" of parts to offset unknown 
internal structures or non-homogenious materials. 

You, too, can achieve results like these by designing uith for^irif^s either at 
^he start or on re-design. The benefits of forgings are equally impressive, 
whether you make home-workshop equi]iment or diesel engines. 

Forgings start as better metal . . . are further improved by the lunnmer-ljlows 
or high pressure of the forging process. 

Write for literature on tiie design, specification, and procurement of forgings. 



Drop Forging Association • Cleveland 13, Ohio 



Nam,-i ol H,o,„. 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



47 




Problem: To fin(l a job that will utilize your engineer- 
ing trainin-; to the fullest possible extent, and reward 
you for a job well done. 

Soliilion: Find a company that has a rejiulation for 
hein>; the leader in its field. A eonijiany whose eontinued 
expansion is hiiilt on creative enjrineerinji of new prod- 
ucts, new jirocesses. A company with this hackgroiuid 
relies on its engineers for progress and rewards them 
accordingly. 

At LiNDE, the creative engineer will find this and 
more. As you prohahly know, Linde is a major supplier 
of industrial gases to industry . . . you're projiahly famil- 
iar with them in welding; steel companies use them in 
refining metals; and they're essential to thousands of 
chemical processes. I.inde is also famous for its con- 
Irihulion in welditig eipiipmeni, and its leadership in 



cryogenic (ultra-low-teniperature) technology, and 
other new and fascinating [)roducts and processes. 

A IjINDE engineer, as a result of this progressive com- 
jtanv thinking, enjoys several important advantages. 
Primarily, he works in a professional atmosphere, where 
highly specialized technicians are used to relieve him 
of hcnch work, drafting, and other detail work. And the 
engineer at all times enjoys privacy that is so greatly 
desired in engineering today. 

But all these are discussed in a booklet that should 
he in your possession before you decide. Why not write 
for a copv today ... no obligation. Ask for "Look to 
LiNDE for Your Future." Address: Mr. J. J. Rostosky, 
Manager — Recruiting, Linde Company. Division of 
Union Carbide Corporation, 30 East 42nd Street, New 
^'ork 17, New York. 



A LEADER FOR OVER 50 YEARS 

The terms "Linde" and "Union Carbide" are repistered trade-marks of UCC. 




^ii/e 






48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tau Beta Pi Essay . . . 



The Thing That Couldn't be Done 



By Stephen Lucas 



S'liiii hotly said that it (ouldn't he /lone. 

But III nith II iliiuUc ri-pliiii 
Hull " iiiiiyhc it lOiililn' t ." hut lie ivniilil 
hv one 
Who u'oiililii't say so till hi'/l triiil. 
So III- hiirUid I'ti/ht in ivith the triiee of 
II jfiiii 
On his ftiee. If he ivorried he hid it. 
lie started to siui/ as he taekled the 
t hi nil 
That eoitldn't he done, and he did it. 

— Edgar A. Guest 

They said it couldn't be done; thc-y 
said nobody could do it. Sounds familiar, 
iloesii't it. "Gunsnioke " is interrupted at 
K-ast three times a week by that catchy 
little phrase to which is added a plug 
for Liggett and Meyers L & M cigar- 
ettes. Most (if us though are so worried 
about whether Matt Dillon will catch 
that week's \armit that we don't think 
seriously about the present implication 
of those twehe words — they said it 
couldn't be done; they said nobod\' 
coidd do it. 

Throughout his brief presence on 
earth, man has attacked many problems 
which couldn't be done, and done them. 
One does not have to think too long to 
come up with such examples. Man was 
not made to fly and he certainly coidd 
not in a heavier than air machine; yet 
the Wright brothers did it. It was im- 
possible for one person to talk to anoth- 
er many miles away; but Alexander 
Hell did it. A ship dri\en by a tub of 
boiling water — impossible, the people 
said ; they were amazed when Fulton's 
(Jeriiiont did it. 

That's \ery nice, you are probabh' 
saying to yourself, but I knew all this 
before. True, I say, this is not m\- 
point; my question is, can we keep the 
impossible jobs of today and tomorrow 
as our forefathers did? Can we, who are 
in colleges and universities of the Lnit- 
ed States, tackle the job that couldn't 
be done and do it? I am not sure we 
can, and I shall attempt to explain why 
and to offer a few suggestions on how 
we can remed\ the situation of which 
I speak. 

In The Organization Man. William 
Whyte takes several chapters to explain 
his \ie\\s on the effect of education in 



turning out the organization man, the 
man who is happy to find his safe little 
niche in life and stay there away from 
the \\(u-ries and insolvable problems of 
life. The Wall Street Journal, in an 
early March editorial, noticed that more 
employers wanted their prospecti\e em- 
ployees to ha\e a wide and di\ersified 




training. The e<litiiiial went on to sa\ 
that presenth' colleges and luiiversities 
were graduating tradesmen or human 
machines with the characteristic lack of 
drive and vocational interest that 
Whyte often observed. To come a little 
closer to home, Mrs. Frayn Utley, wife 
of Clifton Utley, well-known news 
commentator, and famous herself as a 
news commentator, last week at the an- 
nual professional journalism honorary 
banquet said, ". . . schools of journal- 
ism are not providing enough hack- 
ground education. Tlu-\ are turning nut 
technicians." 



What does all of this mean ? What 
am 1 trying to say? I am saying that 
the uni\ersities and colleges are not 
tinning out the thinking man, the man 
who has a wide and varied background 
in all or most fields, the man who when 
confronting a problem knows what to do 
when parts of the solution are not in 
his field, and the man who can and will 
tackle any problem because his mind has 
not been channeled and persuaded that 
the problem cannot be done. I am sav- 
ing that the men and women graduated 
today are not the well-rounded men and 
women they believe themselves to be. 

The three sources noted above are 
only a sample of the many persons, 
groups, and publications which cite the 
poor education being obtained in col- 
leges and universities. It is relatively 
simple to say that something is definite- 
ly Licking in college education today; 
hut. it is much harder to advance even 
.1 partial solution to this difficult prob- 
lem. Hefore setting down suggestions, 
1 should like to advance two statements: 
the first to explain what education 
should not be, and the second to gener- 
alh' outline what it should be. 

The late Albert Einstein once re- 
marked, "There is born into the minds 
of all men an intense curiosity and de- 
sire for knowledge, hut for most people, 
this is .soon educated out of them." And 
V ice President and Provost of the I'ni- 
versity, Gordon Ray, commented last 
year at the Men's Independent Associa- 
tion Awards Banquet that the aim of 
college education is not the amassing of 
information, but the enlarging of mental 
capacities to enable an individual to use 
the information he gained at college. 

With these two statements in mind, 
let us see what could be done to actually 
educate, and not train, the people at- 
tcnd'iig our colleges and universities. 
I'irst, the undergraduate curriculum 
should consist of basic and general 
courses. A large amount of technical 
and specialized cour.ses should only be 
taught in graduate schools. A po.ssible 
solution to the old complaint about the 
narrowness of engineers would be to 
make engineering curricula of five year 
duration. The present trend of under- 
graduate engineering schools, which are 
most often accused of not offering a 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



49 



\M'II-r()uiuInl cmiiM' i>t stiul>, is to i-oii- 
tinually k«'p adding more technical and 
specialized courses to the already over- 
loaded undergraduate program. If the 
engineering school at this university 
were changed to a five year school, it is 
almost a certainty that the extra \ear 
would he composed almost entirelx of 
more technical courses, althougli the 
main reason many educators ami per- 
sonnel directors in industry would want 
an extra year for engineering education 
is to add the lacking non-technicai or 
liberal arts courses. Several of my in- 
structors have mentioned that many of 
the pre.sent engineering courses were 
taught in graduate school when tiny 
went through their schooling. These 
courses ha\e now pushed their way into 
the undergraduate's curriculum, often, 
I am afraid, at the expense of a non- 
technical or liberal arts electixe. Some 
work should be definiteh' done in this 
area to stop the trend of technical spe- 
cialization and turn it into a trend of 
education. 

Second, se\iT;d reipnred courses in 
present or contemporary world events 
should be offered by colleges and luu- 
versities to all of their undergraduates. 
A very noticeable trend in our nation at 
this time is the ignorance and disinter- 
est of the people in world, national, and 



local aft'aiis. 'riii> lack of intere>t and 
knowledge is ipiite evident in the cam- 
pus counterpart — student govertuiient. 
Student Senate at this university has 
long admonished the student for his 
apathy in governmental affairs. Perhaps 
Student Senate could work in conjunc- 
tion with the uni\ersit\ in offering these 
courses in go\ernmeiit :\i\i\ world af- 
f;iirs and use the uni\ersir\ .is a small 
model on which the students on this 
camnus could practice and learn. 

Third, a series of one course in con- 
temporary, creative, or out-of-field writ- 
ing should at least be offered and possi- 
hi\ be require<l in certain colleges. Tau 
ISef.i Pi recognizes the need for this 
t\pe of practice and education in re- 
quiring as a pledge duty the writing of 
a non-technical essay of which this paper 
\()u are reading is an example. The rec- 
ognition of this problem, however, does 
not necessarily bring about a solution. 
Those engineers elected into Tau Reta 
Pi do need this type of experience ; but, 
surely the other people in engineering 
need this experience as much if not more 
than those persons actually participating 
as pledges. A course of this type should 
be required of all engineers, possibly a 
full year after Rhetoric 102. This pro- 
gram would be applicable to other col- 
leges whose graduates also need a good 




FATIGUE 


SPIN 


RIG 


inei 




mpress 


d al 


to 


d 


ive 


balls oro 


und th 


e bo 


re ol 


a 


test cy 


inder 


to 


de 


er- 


mine cyl 


nder s 


stoti 


c fat 


9U 


e life. 











JEI ENGINE BEARING TESTING MACHINE tests 
main rotor ball bearings under actual operating 
conditions of load and lubrication. 



Fafnir works with "unknowns" to come 
up with ball bearings you'll need! 



In many fields of industry and technology, 
progress depends in large measure on 
solving increasingly complex ball bearing 
problems. Bearing materials and lubricants 
have yet to be perfected that can take cer- 
tain temperature extremes. Higher speeds 
and heavier loads pose formidable prob- 
lems. So does miniaturization. 

To help its research engineers probe 
the unknowns in these and other areas, 
The Fafnir Bearing Company maintains the 
most up-to-date facilities for metallurgical 
research, and bearing development and test- 



ing. It is another reason why you are likely 
to find Fafnir ready with the answers — 
should bearing problems some day loom 
large for you. Worth bearing in mind. The 
Fafnir Bearing Company, New Britain, 
Connecticut. 

Write for booklet, "Fafnir Formula For Solving 
Bearing Problems" containing description of Fafnir 
engineering, research, and development facilities. 

FAFNIR 

^^BALL BEARINGS 

^—^ MOST COMPLETE LINE IN AMERICA 



cimimaiul ot spoken and written I'.iiglisli 
in lelds other than their own area ot 
specialization. 

Educators prominent in this area 
could certainly come up with more pro- 
found suggestions than those which 1 
ha\ e offered ; yet, I feel that these sev- 
eral suggestions expan<led and fitted info 
the pre.sent educational system here ,ire 
certainh' needed in the light of com- 
ments similar to the oik-s pre\iousl\ ad- 
vanced and to the read'ly apparent dis- 
satisfaction of industr\ with present 
college graduates. With our present 
world becoming so specialized and tech- 
nical, we must make sure that our col- 
lege graduates do not become just a 
small cog or bolt in the great machine of 
American technology. Our college grad- 
uates must be educated, prepared to 
think and soKe the complex problems of 
our day which cut across man>' fields 
and specialties. If we do not start to 
remedy this problem of education \ery 
soon, the bigger, impossible problems of 
our society might be approached as ob- 
served by this take-off on Edgar Guest's 
aforementioned quote ; 

They gave hiiii the jo/> that loiildii't hi- 
duiic . 
Ill siiiihd iind noil rii/ht ta it. 
Ill- 1(11 kicd the jdh that loiildii't he 
done . 
.hid found that he eonldn't do it. 



Pirate's Pirate 

The theft and republication of books 
b\ Russia has long angered Western au- 
thors and publishers — and now the So- 
\ iets themselves are learning how it 
feels from the Red Chinese. The Chi- 
nese Communists have proved to be 
pirate's pirates by stealing and reprint- 
ing not only Western books but Rus- 
sion texts as well. 

Melon On A Stick 

Watermelon on a stick may be the 
newest national frozen confection fad 
next Summer if a Texas company is able 
to expand its opertaions fast enough. 
The company now ships chilled "melon 
squeezings" in 4,000 gallon tank trucks 
to dozens of creameries and other plants 
in its area for final processing. 

Alcohol With Water Chaser 

A slug of alcohol may play a signi- 
ficant role in bringing approximately 
1 ^O-billion barrels of untapped U. S. 
oil to the surface. A professor of pe- 
troleum and natural gas engineering be- 
lieves the alcohol slug, followed by a 
w aterfiood, may be one solution to the 
oil industr\'s secondar\' recoverv prob- 
lem. 



50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



HE MAKES HIS ENGINE STALL 




Charles Domke (right) is one of the few men we know wlio takes a positive 
deliglit in having his engine stall in sub-zero weather. He and Mechanic 
Verland Stout change gasoline blends frequently. When the engine stalls, they 
try another blend. Their objective, of course, is to find the perfect gasoline 
under various climatic and road conditions — and the true test is on the road itself! 

The gasoline that performs best in icy conditions will cause 

engine difficulty in hot weather. Standard gasoline formulas are 

changed twelve times a year to assure peak performance in every 

season. Mixtures also differ from one geographical location to 

another in order to offer customers more gasoline value for their dollar. 



...SO yours 

won't! 

Charles Domke lias one of the world's most un- 
usual jobs. He tricx to have engine trouble! 

He's a Project Automotive Engineer at 
Standard Oil. In all kinds of weather— hot, cold, 
wet, dry, low barometer, high barometer — he 
goes driving. First thing you know, he'll stop 
and change fuel, put in a different blend of 
gasoline to see what happens. If it stalls, he 
doesn't call a tow truck. He just puts in an- 
other blend of gasoline. 

You might say he makes his engine stall ... so 
yours won't! 

What Mr. Domke and other automotive en- 
gineers learn from these constant experiments 
is used to give you gasoline that is blended es- 
pecially for the region of the country in which 
you live and also for the season. 

It may surprise you to learn that 12 or more 
seasonal changes are made in Standard gasoline 
every year! It is adjusted for temperature, 
humidity, altitude and other factors that affect 
ua.'^oline performance in your area. 

.\ pioneer in petroleum research. Standard 
' 111 is famous for its "firsts" in petroleum prog- 
ress. Since our first research laboratory opened 
Til years ago, our scientists have been respon- 
sible for many major petroleum advances— from 
making a barrel of oil yield more gasoline to dis- 
covering a way to get more oil out of the earth. 

Charles Domke and other scientists at 
Standard Oil and its affiliated companies are 
searching continually for ways to make oil 
products serve you better. . to make petroleum 
more useful to more people than ei'cr before! 

What makes a company a good citizen? 

For a company, good citizenship is more than 
obeying the law and paying taxes. It is looking 
ahead, planning for the future, making im- 
provements. America has grown to greatness 
on research conducted bv private business for 
the benefit of all. 



S T A X II A It II OIL CO >l I* A .\ V 



standard) 



THE SIGN OF PROGRESS 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



51 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by The Staff 



Seven Tips on How to Get Better 
Results from Tape Recorder 

^'our (laiii;htcr lias Midi a sweet little 
voice that you simply must put it c)ii 
tape. You do — and she sounds like a 
beatnik on a binge. 

This can be avoided if \ou follow 
these seven hints on how to get better 
results from \our tape recorder. 

1. Avoid hand-holding the micro- 
phone. Mike stands, both Hoor and 
table models, are preferable. Don't 
place the microphone on the same t.ible 
with the recorder nv on .1 piano, radio 
or TV cabinet. 

2. Make sure to record at the proper 
volume level. Too high or too low le\els 
will create distortions. 

3. Record the speaking voice at a 
speed of 3.7 S ips. Hut it is advisable to 
record music, both vocal and i nstru- 
mental, at 7.5 ips. 

4. To avoid feedback, place the mi- 
crophone so that the sound from the 
speaker is not directed toward it. Keep 
the mike away from audible hum fields 
such as those produced by fluorescent 
lamp ballasts and the like. 

X Keep tapes away from excessive 
heat and dampness, and do not store 
tape near electrical appliances or mo- 
tors which may generate magnetic fields. 

6. Do not wind the tape too tightly 
when you store it. Be sure the tape is 
wound evenly, and make sure to rcw iiid 
at least once every six months. 

7. Don't be afraid to experiment and 
make mistakes. One unique advantage 
of a tape recorder is that you erase mis- 
takes simply by re-recording. 



52 



Survey on Engineering Writing 
Under Way 

A siir\e\ to find what management 
is doing to help technical people com- 
municate better is being made by the 
Technical Writing Improvement So- 
ciety (TWIS). Underlying the survey 
is the desire to find why industry is not 
doing more to help their key profes- 
sionals — particLilarly engineers — write 
better. The survey results are expected 
to show if the reasons are financial, lack 
of instructors, lack of books and other 
teaching materials, etc. 

Questionnaires are being sent bv 
TWIS to more than l.(H)() of the coun- 
try's top firms in all industries. The sur- 
vey is being directed bv John L. Kent, 
TWIS Executive Secretary. TWIS is 
a national organization of educators, 
tr.ide journal editors, industrial writers 
and editors, and iiianagenient people, 
founded in lO.SS. 

In announcing the sur\e\, Kent s.aul 
that industrial management is one (jf 
the four factors which educators feel 
have a bearing on the quality of writ- 
ing. The other three are ( 1 ) the eng:- 
neer himself, (2) the editors who ac- 
cept engineers' writing, and (3) the 
schools and colleges which ha\e helpeil 
educate the engineer. 

Results are to be published b\ TWIS 
this June. 

New Repellents 

A dusf-iepelleiit for paint and a 
water-repellent for clothing are promis- 
ing new developments. The paint-pro- 
tector is a colloidal silica preparation 
that "fills the pores of a paint surface 



to produce a slickness so total that there 
is \irtually nothing tor dirt to adhere 
to." The water-repellent treatment 
"\\ ithstood se\ en days of continuous 24- 
lioiii" raint.ill without showing any 
w.itei' penetration." 

Mobile Lounge 

I'.issengers at the now-abuilding 
1 )iilles Intei'national Aii|iort outside 
Washington, D. C"., will he ferried 
I rom teiiiiinal to pl.incs in "mobile 
lounges." The \ehicles will he self-pro- 
pel le<l, lia\e controls at both ends for 
tia\el in either direction, and be self- 
le\eling to adjust to airliner door sills. 
Average passenger trek from car to 
pl.me will be cut from 1,6(10 to 350 feet. 

Electronic Warehouse 

.A giant Milwaukee mad order house 
li.is sl.ished its two biggest costs — 
li,i|ierwork and physical assembly of or- 
ders — by an estimated #250,000 a year 
through automation. Two electronic 
computing systems used to sort and 
process orders have enabled a reduction 
of the firm's warehouse staff from 200 
to 20. 

Fish Finder 

A Massachusetts electronics company 
has developed a portable depth and fish 
finder for use by sports fishermen in 
boats as small as dingies. The transistor- 
ized fathometer can operate off a port- 
able battery or the battery of a power 
boat, has .a depth range of 120 feet, 
and will (lin-point both bottom depth 
and an\ intervening schools of fish. 

New TV Tube 

A pale green glow emitted by the 
radar screens is the onh' source of light 
in an airport radar room. All day, every 
day, observers in this darkened room 
scan the scopes to insure that air traffic 
is safely routed. 

Without disrupting these vital oper- 
ations, WDSU-TV, Channel 6, New 
()rleans, recently took its viewers into 
the radar room of the new Terminal 
Huilding at Moisant International Air- 
port. The telecast from this darkened 
room was made possible by the use of 
(leneral Electric's new super-sensitive 
television camera tube. 

The e\ent was one of a series of high- 
l\ successful local "remote" telecasts 
using this type (iL-7629 image orthicon 
for black-and-white for the first time in 
regidar on-the-air service. WDSl -1 \ 
technicians were amazed by the abilit\ 
of this tube, to pick up a usable pictui'e 
in abscdute minimum "existing light' 
conditions. 

New Orleans' St. Louis Cathedral, 
on hist(u-ic Jackson Square, was the site 
of another important telecast using this 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



new image orthicon. WDSU-TV's tra- 
ditional Christmas Eve telecast of Mid- 
night Mass was marked by the best re- 
sults ever this year. Understandably, the 
use of TV^ lights for this remote is out 
of the question. Engineering personnel 
were prepared to switch to a regular 
t\ pe 5820 tube if the light conditions in 
the Catheilral caused disturbing "burn- 
ins," or "highlights." However, no 
change was necessary; results were ex- 
cellent. 

The new tube also was used on a 
telecast from the Christ Church Cathe- 
dral, a location with very little available 
light. Again, the picture quality was far 
better than could be e\|iected with the 
"=i82()" tube. 

Still another "night-into-day" success 
story was chalked-up d u ring the 
WDSL-TV coverage of the dramatic 
Democratic primary run-off on January 
9, in which Jimmy Davis defeated de- 
Lesseps Morrison. A one-camera remote 
from the Jefferson Parish courthouse 
picked up reactions of crowds and can- 
didates that were missed during first 
primary coverage using a regular tube. 

WDSU-TV Chief Engineer Lindsey 
Riddle was well pleased with the re- 
sults obtained with the new tube during 
the remote telecasts and studio experi- 
ments. 

Radioactive Waste 

The luiclear energy industr\' cm de- 
velop in a rational way without being 
"bottle-necked" or "liamsfnuig" by 
trouble in ilisposing of ]adioacti\e 
wastes, an Atomic Energy Comnu'ssion 
spokesman said. 

.'\ddressing a University of Illinois 
sanitary engineering conference that has 
"Radiological Aspects of Water S Lip- 
plies" as its theme, J. A. Lieberman, 
chief. Environmental and Sanitary En- 
gineering, AEC Division of Reactor 
Development, said: 

"The management of railioacti\e 
wastes which includes their handling, 
treatment and disposal is a general prob- 
lem whose thread runs thi'ough the com- 
plete fabric of nuclear energy opera- 
tions. . . . 

"In the peaceful day-to-day ap|ilica- 
tion of the benefits of nuclear technol- 
ogy, the disposal of radioactive wastes 
potentially represents perhaps the major 
'non-beneficial' effect on the public anrl 
Its resources. 

"More mone\' probabh' has been 
spent, and more scientific and technologi- 
cal effort concentrated on facilities, 
operations, and research with regard to 
this industrial waste than on any in- 
liustrial contaminant we have known. 
At the present time at Atomic Energy 
Commission installations, there is an in- 
vestment of approximately $200,000,0()() 
in facilities for the hnndling, treatment 



and diNposal of the wastes, while the 
estimated annual operating cost tor 
these facilities is appro\imatel\ is(),(KI(l,- 
000." 

Methods of keeping waste from hav- 
ing harmful effects center around two 
major concepts, "concentrate anil con- 
tain" and "dilute and disperse." 

Lieberman stressed that "the manage- 
ment of disposal of radioactive wastes 
is not a single problem with a single 
solution. It varies widely, depending 
upon the specific nature, concentration 
and quantity of radioactive materials in- 
volved, and on the specific environment 
in which it must be considered." 

However, some methods which are 
being used with some effectiveness in 
varying kinds of situations include: 

— Use of the "diluting power of th.e 
environment to some extent in hamlling 
low-level waste. 

— "Conversion of waste to solids by 
one of several methods. 

— "Storage of solids in selected geo- 
lo'u'ca! strata with major emphasis on 
salt beds. 

— "Disposal of liquids into geological 
strata — either deep wells or salt beds. 

— "Disposal of liquids or solids into 
the sea. 

"The conversion to solids and storage 
of these wastes in salt formations seemed 
to be the most favored possibility at this 
time," Leiberman added, referring to 
recent Washington hearings on the sub- 
ject. 

".Although one has to be \er\' care- 
ful to distinguish between aspiration, 
reality and speculation in this field, it 
is our own strong feeling that the devel- 
opment program has thus far found 
solutions to ^ome of the waste problems 
and at least indicated solutions to 
others." 

The U. of I. Sanitary Engineering 
Conference is conducted by the U. of I. 
Department of Civil Engineering and 
Division of University Extension, with 
the Division of Sanitary Engineering, 
Illinois Department of Public Health. 
Proceeilings will be published. 

Milling During Transfer 

|-,\h:ui>t manitold castings can now be 
completely finished in a machine that 
not only saves floor space hut permits 
simple alterations to meet part design 
changes. Designed and built b\' The 
Cross Company, Detroit, Mich., this 
machine mills all flange faces of mani- 
folds while they are being transferreil 
and does machining operations in both 
stations. Any change of the tailpiiie 
flange angle — which usually changes 
with each new vehicle model — can be 
accommodated by changing the fixturing 
and the angle of just one head in one 
of the stations. 

.A two-position livture, mounted on 



the shuttle, is lo.ided with two parts in 
the first station. One raw casting is 
clamped with the four exhaust port 
flanges up. A partially finished casting 
IS turned end for end. rotated approxi- 
mately ')(l deg and clanipe<l with the 
tailpipe flaive up. The fixture locates 
the unmachined part on cast surfaces 
and will accommodate normal casting 
variations. The semifinished part is lo- 
cated bv two milled surfaces and two 
drilled holes. 

After the automatic c\cle is initiated, 
fhe pallet moves to the second station. 
During the transfer, the parts pa.s under 
rid are machined b\' three inserted-blade 
carbide-tipped milling cutters. The ex- 
haust port flanges pass under a roughing 
and finishing cutter. Only one cutter is 
needed on the tailpipe flange since finisli 
re^Tm'iements are not as rigid because the 
tailpipe (its into a machined opening, di- 
recting the hot gases away from the 
gasketed joint. 

In the second station, the t;iiliiipe 
HaiT'e holes of the raw ca-ting are 
drilled b\ an angular head. The same 
holes in the se:iiifinislied part are tapped 
by tools mounted on the same short ver- 
tical column as the mil'ing cutters. With 
normal part design changes, it would 
on!\ be necessary to change the angle of 
the tailpipe flange-drilling head. Because 
of standard component ilesign, this is a 
compartively simple m.atter. Eixturing 
changes would depend on the angular 
change. 

The parts are shuttled back to the 
first station in rapid traverse f(u- the 
final machining operations. To prevent 
scuffing of the milled SLirfaces, the mill- 
ing cutters are lifted about ' ,s inch dur- 
ing the period of the return movement. 

In this station, the eight exhaust port 
flange holes of the r.iw casting are 
drilled and the central opening in the 
tailpipe flange of the semifinished part 
is finished with a two-step boring tool 
using carbide cutters. 

At the end of this automatic cycle, 
the operator removes the finished part, 
transfers the .semifinished part to the 
second fixture position and inserts a raw 
part in the first position. Each back-and- 
forth cycle of this machine produces one 
finished manifold ami the production 
rate is 20 |iarts per hour at IIIO', 
etficiencv while producing truck mani- 
folds. 

Space 'Bicycle' 

S|iacemen may spend a good part of 
their time pedaling. One researcher says 
a human passenger in a space vehicle 
could supply some of his own power by 
a pedal operated generator to .save the 
weight and space used by other power 
sources such as batteries. In addition, it 
would provide a form of exercise and 
possibly help relieve tension. 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



53 




I 



''Fenton! Quick!'' 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Summer jobs often lead to rewarding careers at Du Pont 




THIS SUMMER... 



ON-THE-JOB TECHNICAL TRAINING AT DU PONT 



Pictured are a few of the many Du Pont 
plants and laI)oratories across the country 
where selected technical students roll up 
their sleeves during summer vacation and 
put their college training to practical use. 

Most of the assignments are similar to 
work the employees are likely to do after 
graduation. Next summer, for example, a 
chemical engineering student may go to 
work on a catalyst recovery project. A 
mechanical engineering trainee may be- 
come engrossed in a challenging hydraulic 
study. A promising young chemist may 
tackle a problem in organic chemistry. 

In short, each man is given a regular 
plant or laboratory assignment commen- 
surate with his education to date. And, as 
with permanent employees, the student's 
training is personalized and tailored to fit 
his background and interests . . . even to 
the location he prefers, as far as practical. 

This program has proved of benefit both 
to students and to Du Pont. It gives stu- 



dents an opportunity to increase technical 
knowledge and to learn how to put college 
training to use in industry. It gives 
DuPont a chance to observe men who will 
soon be graduating in science and engi- 
neering. Many of these summer associa- 
tions are stepping stones to rewarding 
careers with this company. 

Juniors, seniors and graduate students 
will be given technical assignments. Op- 
portunities are in chemical, mechanical, 
electrical and metallurgical engineering; 
also in physics and mathematics. Candi- 
dates should write at once to E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 2420 Nemours 
Building, Wilmington 98. Delaware. Open- 
ings are, of course, limited. 

There are opportunities also for men 
who have completed tlieir freshman and 
sophomore years, as laboratory assistants 
or vacation relief operators. They should 
apply direct to the Du Pont plant or 
laboratory location of their choice. 



OTK 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING . . . THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



55 



Biggest thirst in the universe 




i 




Each 6,000,000 pound thrust rocket ship now being planned for manned 
interplanetary exploration will gulp as much propellant as the entire capac- 
ity of a 170 passenger DC-8 Jetliner in less than 4 seconds! It will consume 
1,140 tons in the rocket's approximately 2 minutes of burning time. Required 
to carry this vast quantity of propellant will be tanks tall as 8 story buildings, 
strong enough to withstand tremendous G forces, yet of minimum weight. 
Douglas is especially qualified to build giant-sized space ships of this type 
because of familiarity with every structural and environmental problem 
involved. This has been gained through 18 years of experience in producing 
missile and space systems. We are seeking qualified engineers and scien- 
tists to aid us in these and other projects. Write to C. C. LaVene, Box 600-M, 
Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 

Dr. Henry Ponsford, Chief, Structures Section, discusses valve and 

fuel flow requirements for space vehicles with ^^ll^l AQ 

Donald W. Douglas, Jr., President of l/UUULMd 



MISSILE AND SPACE. SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ DC-8 JETLINERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB ■ GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 



56 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




. a liaiul in tliiiif^s li 



Reaching into a lost world 

. . . jor a plastic you use every day 



Massive creatures once sloshed tlirough endless swamps, feeding on 
huge ferns, luxuriant rushes and strange pulp-like trees. After ruUng for 100 million 
years, the giant animals and plants vanished forever beneath the surface with 
violent upheavals in the earth's crust. Over a long period, they gradually turned into 
great deposits of oil and natural gas. And today. Union Carbide converts these vast 
resources into a modern miracle — the widely-used plastic called polyethylene. 

Millions of feet of tough, transparent polyethylene film are used each 
year to protect the freshness of perishable foods such as fruits and vegetables. Scores 
of other useful things are made from polyethylene . . . unbreakable kitchenware, alive 
with color . . . bottles that dispense a fine spray with a gentle squeeze . . . electrical 
insulation for your television antenna, and even for trans-oceanic telephone cables. 

Polyethylene is only one of many plastics and chemicals that Union 
Carbide creates from oil and natural gas. By constant research into the basic ele- 
ments of nature, the peojjle of Union Carbide bring new and better products into 
your everyday life. 



Learn about the exciting work 
going on now in plastics, car- 
bons, chemicals, gases, metals, 
and nuclear energy. Write for 
"Products and Processes" 
Booklet H, Union Carbide 
Corporation, 30 E. 42nd St., 
New York 17. N. Y. In Canada, 
Un ion Carbide Canada Lim ited, 
Toronto. 







... a hand 
in things to come 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



57 





//mmw 

mm. 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, under the direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



.THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



~ We do these things because of the unquenchable curiosity of 
Man. The scientist is continually asking himsell questions and 
then setting out to lind the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
hove sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who can tell what we will find when we get to the planets ? 



Who, at this present time, can predict what potential benefits 
to man exist in this enterprise? No one con say with any accu- 
racy what we will find OS we fly farther away from the earth, 
first with instruments, then with man. It seems to me that we 
ore obligated to do these things, as human beings'.' 

DR. W. H. PICKERING, Director, JPL 



CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Reseorch Facility operated for the National Aeronautics anct Space Administration 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 

STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for our immediate consideraiion. Inferviews may be arranged on Campus or at the Laboratory. 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




For the man 
who likes to make 

his own 
career decisions 



The AlHs-Chalmers Graduate Training Course 
is based on freedom of opportunity. You will 
have up to two years of practical training to 
find the right spot for yourself. At the same 
time, you enjoy a steady income. You can ac- 
cept a permanent position at any time — when- 
ever you can show you are ready. 

You help plan your own program, working 
with experienced engineers, many of them grad- 
uates of the program. Your choice of fields is 
as broad as industry itself — for Allis-Chalmers 
supplies equipment serving numerous growth 
industries. 

A unique aspect of the course is its flexibility. 
You may start out with a specific field in mind, 
then discover that your interests and talents lie 
in another direction. You have the freedom to 
change your plans at any time while on the 
course. 

esign • Development • Manufac- 
Service. 



Types of jobs: Research ■ 
turing • Application • Sole 



Industries: Agricultur< 
Electric Power • Nude 



Pope 



Equipment: Steam Turbines • HycJroulic Tu 
• Transformers • Electronics • Reoctors ' 
Tractors • Earth Movers • Motors • Control 



rbines • Switchgeor 
Kilns • Crushers • 
• Pumps • Engines: 



Freedom of Opportunity ojiens the doors to chal- 
lenging and interesting careers. Among them is 
our Nuclear Power Division, with an engineering 
staff in Washington, D. C, a new research and 
development center in Greendale. Wis., and an 
important research effort at Princeton University 
involving power from the hydrogen atom. For de- 
tails on the opportunities available, write to Allis- 
Chalmers, Graduate Training Section, Milwaukee 
1, Wisconsin. 



ALLIS-CHALMERS <^ 



FEBRUARY, 1960 



59 



BRAIN TEASERS 



Edited by Steve Dilts 



A familiar txin- ot logic |ii)mt ma\ he 
callfd the "coloieii-hat" variety after 
the followini; best - known example. 
Three men : A. 1? and Care blirulfold- 
ed and told that either a red or a sireeii 
hat will he placed on each of them. 
After thi.s is <l()ne, the blindfolds are re- 
moved ; the men are asked to raise a 
hand if the>- see a red hat. and to lea\e 
the room as soon as the\' are sine of 
the color of their own hat. All three 
hats happen to be red. so all three men 
raise a hand. Se\eral minutes go by 
\mtil C. who is more astute than the 
others, leaves the room. How did he 
deduce the color of his hat? 

Another class of jiopular logic puz/les 
involves truth-telling and lying. The 
classic example concerns an explorer in 
a region inhabited b\ the usual two 
tribes; the members of one tribe al- 
ways lie, the members of the other al- 
ways tell the truth. He meets two na- 
tives. "Are you a truth-teller?" he asks 
the tall one. "Goom," the native re- 
plies. "He say 'Yes'," explains the short 
nati\e. who speaks English, "but him 
big liar." What tribe did each belong 



When Professor Stanislaw Slapenar- 
ski. the Polish mathematician, walked 
down the down-moving escalator, he- 
reached the bottom after taking 50 steps. 
As an experiment he then ran up the 
same escalator, one step at a time, reach- 
ing the top after taking 125 steps. As- 
suming that the professor went up fi\e 
time as fast as he went down ( that is. 
took five steps to e\'ery one steii before), 
and that he made each trip at a con- 
stant speed, how many steps would be 
visible if the escalator stopped running? 

* » » 

An absent - minded bank teller 
switched the dollars and cents when he 
cashed a check for Mr. Brown, giving 
him dollars instead of cents, and cents 
instead of dollars. After buying a five- 
cent newspaper, l?rown <lisco\ered that 
he had left exactly twice as much as his 
original check. What was the amount 
of the check? 

* » * 

Hrainteasers courtesv Sricii/ifii .1 nicri- 



The answers for these hi .linteasers 
will apiiear next month. The answers to 
last month's problems follow. 

The ;imount spent by eacli individual 
is a square number, and the difference 
of the expenditure within each family 
is 63 shillings. The first step is to find 
3 sets of squares that differ b\ 53. The 
required numbers are: 
32-31 ==63 
12=- 9==63 
8=- P=63 

The integers in the first column rep- 
resent expenditures b\ the husbands; in 
the second column, by the wi\es. Now 
we have to pick the integers that differ 
b\- 2?i and 11. It is easily seen that 
Anna (31) is the wife of Hendrick 
(?>2) \ Katrun (9) is the wife of Elas 
(12) ; (nirtrun (1) is the wife of Cor- 
nelius (8). 



30 


39 


48 


1 


10 


19 


28 


38 


47 


7 


9 


18 


27 


29 


46 


6 


8 


17 


26 


35 


37 


5 


14 


16 


25 


34 


36 


45 


13 


15 


24 


33 


42 


44 


4 


21 


2:> 


32 


41 


43 


3 


2 


79 


31 


40 


49 


2 


11 


20 



The required number is enormous, 
but it can be found by "hnite force." 

Since we do not know how nian\- 
digits there are in the lequired integer, 
we will represent them b\ A, H, C . . . 
as read from right to life. Then the in- 
teger is one of form as follows: 
(1.) A-f-lOB + lOOC... +10>'-iZ 
where /; is the number of digits. 

Let us take A as the tenuinal digit 
to be transferred. When it is placed at 
the other end, the integer becomes: 
(2.) B+10C+100D...+10"-=Z 

10"- 'A 

The stipulation is that (1.) is to be 
4/5 of (2.). (Remember that the digits 
are represented in reverse of the way 
they are written. ) Then — 
(3.) A+IOB+IOOC . . . +10"-iZ= 
4 '5 (B + IOC... +10»-=Z+ 

KK'A) 

Clearing of fractions and cxp.inding, 
we have — 
(4.) 5A-f 50B+500C . . . +5 

(10"-'Z) = 



4M+40C... +4(1()"-^Z) + 

4(1()"-'A) 
Now collect the A terms on the right, 
all othei' terms on the left — 
(X) 46(B+10C... +10"--Z) = 
A[4(10»-')-5] 
From (5) it follows that the right- 
hand member is divisible by 46. In other 
words we must find \alues for A and n 
such that — 

(6.) A[410"-)-5] _ 

2 X 23 . . 1 

will be integral. Since the expression in 
brackets is odd, it is not divisible b\' 2 ; 
therefore A is divisible by 2, and we 
can write — 
( 7. ) A=2, 4, 6, or 8 

Since A is not divisible by 23, the ex- 
pression in brackets must be. The expan- 
sion of this expression for values of n 
1, 2, 3 . . . gives 35, 395, 3995, etc. 
To find the first of these terms divisible 
bv 23, set up a long division in form — 
(8.) 23) 399... 95 (17... 
23 

169 
164 

59 etc. 

Bring down 9 from the di\idend each 
time, until a remainder of 11 is reached, 
,so that the final 5 can be brought down 
(since 115 23x5). This turns out to 
be a lengthy matter, but it is mere 
.•■rithmetic. The smallest quotient ob- 
tainable is — 
( 9 ) . 1 73,913,043,078,260,869,565 

By taking A^2, we ha\e the smallest 
integer that satisfies the conditions: 
( 10). 2,173,913,043,078,260,869,565 

Three other answers can be obtained 
by setting A equal to 4, 6 and 8. In 
each case, as is seen from (6.) number 
(9.) has to be multiplied by half of A 
to make up the balance of the integer. 

The minimum number of sets that 
could have decided the tournament was 
15, totaling 90 games (4). One extra 
set was played in the first round (3), 
leaving one game to be accounted for. 
One set in the tournament must have 
been won by 7-5. Bancroft lost his first 
match by 6-4 and 7-'i (7.) Franklin 
reached the finals where he lost (8.) 



60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Since he won the unique 7-5 set, his 
Hrst-round opponent was Bancroft. 

Other first round pairings were Aber- 
cronibie vs. Devereau (3), and (jormley 
vs. Egglestoii (9). The remaining two 
entrants must ha\e been paired: Haver- 
toril vs. Chadwick. 

The winners in the first round were 
Haverford (3), Franklin (8), Eggles- 
tnn and Devereau (6). 

In the second round Eggleston did 
not meet Haverford (1), nor did he 
meet Frankhn, for Franklin vs. Ban- 
croft and Eggleston vs. Gorniley were 
in different halves of the original brack- 
et (2). Therefore, Eggleston met Dev- 
ereau, and Haverford met Franklin. 
The winners were Devereau (6) and 
Franklin (8). 

Devereau won tiie final match from 
Franklin by 6-4, h-4. and ti-4 (8). 

Gulls Plague City Dump 

Gulls may force Diduth, Minn., to 
close its city garbage dimip. The scaven- 
ging gulls, defying bombs, buckshot and 
thicker coverings of dirt, are considered 
a hazard to planes using a nearby air- 
port. They ha\e flown into jet intakes 
and coUuleil with radar equipment. 

Paint Kills Bugs 

.A paint that kills insects which alight 
on it recently has been developed. The 
paint is applied by conventional tech- 
niques. Insect-killing power is said to 
last as long as the paint itself. 



Electronic 'Old Man' 

.\ew Hampshire's famous "Old Man 
of the Mountains," the natural rock for- 
mation that inspired Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne to write "The (jreat Stone 
Face," is being protected from the 
weather by modern electronic equip- 
ment. Engineers have installed strain 
gages on the steel rods used to reinforce 
the stone face to measure shifts in the 
formation of the rock. 

Belt Saves Roads 

Old conveyor belts, which had been 
discarded by a mining firm, now are 
being used to protect the surface of a 
road from tractor-type machinery. The 
company's operations lie on either side 
of a black-top road and the old belts, 
laid across the road, prevent crawler- 
type machinery fi'om damaging the pave- 
ment. However, the belting does not 
interfere with normal road traffic. 



Rumpus Room Shelter 

The latest twist in bomb shelters is 
a walnut paneled room designed to serve 
as a guest room, rumpus room or work- 
shop when not being used as a shelter. 
It uses the basic design approved by 
the Office of Civil Defense Mobiliza- 
tion, but it adds such refinements as 
convertible sofas, vinyl floors, finished 
walls, a television set and cabinets. 



Hat Radio 

Latest idea In company communica- 
tion is a two-way radio in a safety hel- 
met which has a sound-cancelling micro- 
phone for efifective transmission when 
surrounding noise level is high. The 
radio, about the size of a cigaret pack 
and weighing two pounds including two 
small batteries, has a 1 ,(100-f()ot range. 

Arctic Buildings Self-Rising 

Two huge steel buildings that pull 
themselves up by their own bootstraps — 
in this case, built-in hydraulic jacks — 
are features of new Distant Early 
Warning Line construction in the Arc- 
tic. The two-story, 133-by- 144-foot 
structures stand on "stilts" 19 feet 
above Greenland's ice cap and are raised 
b\- the jacks three feet each year. This 
keeps them from being buried b\- drift- 
ing and accumulating snow, which 
builds up on the cap one \ard each year. 

Steam Welding 

Steam weKling is the latest idea in 
shieded-arc systems — where gases usual- 
ly are used to protect the weld from im- 
purities such as oxygen — in the Soviet 
L'nion. Russian engineers say tests show 
that water vapor becomes a protective 
medium — providing a large quantity of 
moisture at the joint — that prevents 
weld porosity and improves over-all 
quality. 



To students who want to be 

SUCCESSFUL highway engineers 



There's a real need for qualified men in America's 
100 billion dollar highway program. It's a big job. 
For example, for the new Interstate Highway Sys- 
tem alone, 35,000 miles are still to be built. 

Choice assignments await engineers at every level. 
They will go to the men who prepare for them. 

As part of that preparation, you must have basic 
material on Asphalt Technology. For if you don't 
know Asphalt, you don't know your highways. 

Asphalt is the modern paving for today's and 
tomorrow's roads. Asphalt surfaces more than 
4/5ths of all roads and streets in the country. 

We have put together a special student portfolio 
to meet that need for information on Asphalt. It 
covers the Asphalt story, origin, uses, how it is 



specified for paving . . . and much more. It is a 
worthwhile, permanent addition to your profes- 
sional library. 

It's yours, free. Send for it today. Prepare now for 
your future success. 



THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE 

Asphalt Institute Building. College Park, Maryland ' ' ^ 

Gentlemen : '^ 

Please send me your free student portfolio on Asphalt 
Technology. 





r.t isi 












"iTATP 









FEBRUARY, 1960 



61 




62 



i. 1 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



''we need. . . 

men who can write . , . or learn to write; cover fast -breaking 
neivs around the world; develop into editors running top 
business and engineering magazines.'^ 



Robert K. Moffett 

Assistant to the Editorial Director 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 



"Buck" Moffett is looking for engineering graduates 
who can come up as fast in business and technical 
journalism as he did himself. 

Buck was trained on Business Week, Factory, and 
Fleet Owner, handling everything from rewrite to field 
assignments. With experienced McGraw-Hill editors 
to show him how, he rose rapidly from trainee to 
assistant editor to associate editor to managing editor 
of Fleet Owner. 

Now Assistant to the Editorial Director of ^NIcGraw- 
Hill, he's looking for engineering graduates who want 
to rise to the top of their industry— in publishing. 

This is no job for the engineer who wants to spend 
his life in a corner on one part of one project. You work 
with the new . . . the experimental . . . the significant. 

It will be up to you to interpret today's advanced 
developments for thousands of readers. Whichever 
McGraw-Hill magazine you're assigned to, an indus- 
try will be looking to you for the word on the latest 



in that field— and what it may mean. 

In line with this, you may also be interested in the 
McGraw-Hill Tuition Refund Plan. All of our editors 
have the opportunity to continue their education in 
their chosen fields. The company pays half the cost. 
Physics, economics, aerodynamics— whichever will 
help you go the furthest in your career. 

Is writing experience required? It helps, but if you 
like to write— and engineering is your profession— 
that's the main thing. 

Buck Moffett will cover as many colleges as he can 
in person. Ask your placement director when he'll be at 
yours. If he hasn't been able to get your campus on his 
itinerary, write direct. Tell us about your background, 
college record, outside activities and why you would 
be interested in a career in engineering journalism. 

Write to: Assistant to the Editorial Director, 
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc., 330 West 
42nd Street, New York 36, New York. 



— »:- 



Mc Graw-Hill 



PUBLICATIONS 



McGRAW-HILL PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC., 330 WEST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK 36,N.Y. 

FEBRUARY, 1960 63 



Begged, Borrowed, and . . 



Edited by Jack Fortner 



■rilK I. IFF. OF A jOKK 

Hi,th — A frcshinaii thinks it up :hu1 
lauj;lis out loud, wakinsi two Sopho- 
niori-s in the back row. 

Aiic 3 minutes — Freshman tells it to 
a Senior, who answers: "It's funny, but 
I've heard it before. 

Aj;e 1 (lay — Senior turns it in to a 
eolle^e ma-'-azine as his own. 

Aije 2 days — Editor thinks it's ter- 
rible. 

.Asie 10 days — Editor has to Idl ma>i- 
a/,ine, so joke is printed. 

Age 1 month — Thirteen college com- 
ics reprint it. 

Ao-e 3 years — Seventy-six radio come- 
dians discover it simultaneously and tell 
it accomiianied bv howls of mirth from 
the b()\s in the orchestra (,<S.()() per 
howl). 

.Age 10 years — Professors start tell- 
ing it in class. 

A motorist broke down in a loneh 
part of Illinois pork country and found 
refuge for the night in a farmhouse. 
The next morning, his breakfast was 
served a large bowl. As he ate he found 
that he was verrrry popidar with a 
small pig which kept nu//ling him af- 
fectionately. 

'Fhe farmer's explanation — "Wal, it 
ain't you the pig likes. It's jest that 
you're a-using his bowl mister!" 

Salesman: "This model has a top 
speed of one hundred miles an hour ;ind 
she'll stop on a dime." 

Prospect: "What happens after 
that?" 

S:desm,ui: " .\ little putty knife comes 
out and scrapes you oft' the windshield." 

'Fhe unusually high birthrate in a 
suburb near om' city as recently ex- 
plained. Every morning at 6:15 the ex- 
press comes roaring through town blow- 
ing its whistle. 

It's too early to get out of bed, and 
too late to go back to sleep. 

'Fhe 'Fechnograph is a great publication 
'Fhe school gets all the fame, 

'Fl>e printer gets all the money. 
And the staff gets all the blame! 



64 



'Fhe Professor ot English and the In- 
structor of Engineering were dining to- 
gether in the Faculty Cafeteria. During 
the course of the meal the fonner 
spoke : 

"I had a rather pecidiar answer in 
class today. I asked who wrote the 
'Merchant of Venice,' and a rather 
young freshman rejilied. 'I'le.ise, su, it 
wasn't me!" 

"Ha ha ha!" laughed the Eugineei- 
iiiL' Instructor, "and I suppose the lit- 
tle rascal did it all the time." 

A young engineer took his girl to 
an open air opera one beautiful, warm, 
summer evening. During the first act 
he found it necessary to excuse himself. 
He asked the usher where the men's 
room might be found. 

"'Furn to your left, and walk down 
to the big oak tree, and there it is." 

The young engineer did as he was 
told anil in ilue time letiinied to his 
seat. 

"Is the second act over yet?" he 
asked his girl. 

"Vou ought to know," she replied, 
"\(iu «ere in it." 

A girl finished with her bath ami was 
just stepping on the scales to weigh 
herself. Her husband returned home un- 
expectedly and entered through the back 
door. Seeing what his wife was doing as 
he passed the batlirooni door, he ex- 
claimed, ".Well, dear, how many 
pounds today?" With(uit turning her 
head, she replied, "I'll take 73 pounds 
todav, and don't you dare pinch me 
with those tongs." 

'Fhree eminent doctors were brag- 
ging .among tliemseKes one day. Said 
The first, "I grafted an arm on a fel- 
Idw and now he plays tennis like a 
pro." S.iid the second, "1 grafted a leg 
on a m.in and now he runs on the (Olym- 
pic team." 'Fhe third took the cake 
with. "1 once grafted a smile on a jack- 
ass ami now he is in Student Senate. 

Some girls go in for necking — others 
go out for it. 

Who was tliat lady you were obscene 
with la^f night? 



A patient at .a mental hospital who 
hail been certified cured was saving 
LM)od-b\ to the head psychiatrist. 

"And what are you going to do when 
\(iu '.'vx out in the world?" 

"Well I may go back to I', of I. and 
fiii'sh mv CE course. Then, 1 liked the 
.Arm\- before, so I may enlist again. He 
paused a moment and tbouidit. "'Fhen, 
a'_;ain, 1 may be a teakettle." 

He grabbed me by my slender neck 

1 could not yell or scream. 

He dragged me to his bedroom 

Where we could not be seen. 

He threw aside my flimsy wraps 

And gazed upon mv form. 

1 was cold and chilly. 

He was nice and warm. 

He pressed bis feverish lips to mine 

I could not make him stop. 

He drank my very life away — 

I could not call a cop. 

He made me what I am today — 

Hateil, used up, thrown away. 

'Fliat is why you see me here — 

An empty broken bottle of beer. 

The eager relatives gathered for the 
reading of the will. It contained one ' 
sentence: "Being of sound mind, 1 spent 
e\ery damn cent 1 had," 

A wise man has observed that people 
who live in gla.ss houses shouldn't. Hut 
then, they might as well — e\eryone 
knows they do. 

A small boy leading a donkey passed 
a Marine camp. A couple of marines 
wanteil to have some fun with the lad. 
"What are you holding on to your 
brother so tight for sonny?" said one 
of them. 

"So he won't join the Marines," the 
youngster replied. 

Student: Wh\ didn't I make 100 on 
mv history exam ? 

Prof: You remember the question, 
"Why did the pioneers go into the wil- 
derness?" 

Student: Yes. 

Prof: Well, your answei', while \ci\ 
interesting was incorrect. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




By setting templates of standard 
components on photo-sensiti\e 
paper and exposing it, hours of 
hand drafting are saved. 



With this plotter, stereo aerial 
photos become contour maps, show 
highway routes, mineral-bearing 
formations, volume of coal piles. 



Slides give the sales staff cjuick 
understanding of the engineering 
superiority of their product — equip 
them with facts for their customers. 




From drawing board 
to shipping platform... 

Photography works 
forth 



Photographs of freight cars as loaded and as 
received provide information for engineers to 
develop better loading practices (as well as 
data for damage claims). 



e engineer 



Whatever your field, you will find photography 
increasing in importance. It works for the research 
scientist, the production engineer, the sales executive, 
the administrator. It speeds engineering, expedites 
quality control. It trains, and teaches, and sells. It 
will help you in whatever you do. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 



Careers witli Kodak 



With photography and photographic 
processes becoming increasingly impor- 
tant in the business and industry of 
tomorrow, there are new and challeng- 
ing opportunities at Kodak in research, 
engineering, electronics, design, and 
production. 



If vou are looking for such an inter- 
esting opportunity, write for infor- 
mation about careers with Kodak. 
Address: Business and Tcchiiiral 
Per.sonncl Department, 
Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 





One of a series 



hilerview with 

General Electric^s Earl G, Abbott, 

Manager — Sales Training 

Technical Training Programs 
at General Electric 



Q. Why does your company have train- 
ing programs, Mr. Abbott? 

A. Tomorrow's many positions of major 
responsibility will necessarily be filled by 
young men who have developed their 
potentials early in their careers. General 
Electric training programs simply help 
speed up this development process. 

In addition, training programs provide 
graduates with the blocks of broad ex- 
perience on which later success in a 
specialization can be built. 

Furthermore, career opportunities and 
interests are brought into sharp focus 
after intensive working exposures to 
several fields. General Electric then gains 
the valuable contributions of men who 
have made early, well-considered deci- 
sions on career goals and who are con- 
fidently working toward those objectives. 

Q. What kinds of technical training pro- 
grams does your company conduct? 

A. General Electric conducts a number 
of training programs. The G-E programs 
which attract the great majority of 
engineering graduates are Engineering 
and Science, Manufacturing, and Tech- 
nical Marketing. 

Q. How long does the Engineering and 
Science Program last? 

A. That depends on which of several 
avenues you decide to take. Many gradu- 
ates complete the training program dur- 
ing their first year with General Electric. 
Each Program member has three or four 
responsible work assignments at one or 
more of 61 different plant locations. 

Some graduates elect to take the Ad- 
vanced Engineering Program, supple- 
menting their work assignments with 
challenging Company -conducted study 
courses which cover the application of 
engineering, science, and mathematics to 
industrial problems. If the Program mem- 
ber has an analytical bent coupled with a 
deep interest in mathematics and physics, 
he may continue through a second and 



third year of the Advanced Engineering 
Program. 

Then there is the two-year Creative 
Engineering Program for those graduates 
who have completed their first-year 
assignments and who are interested in 
learning creative techniques for solving 
engineering problems. 

Another avenue of training for the 
qualified graduate is the Honors Program, 
which enables a man to earn his Master's 
degree within three or four semesters at 
selected colleges and universities. The 
Company pays for his tuition and books, 
and his work schedule allows him to earn 
75 percent of full salary while he is going 
to school. This program is similar to a 
research assistantship at a college or 
university. 

Q. Just how will the Manufacturing 
Training Program help prepare me for 
a career in manufacturing? 

A. The three-year Manufacturing 
Program consists of three orientation 
assignments and three development 
assignments in the areas of manufacturing 
engineering, quality control, materials 
management, plant engineering, and 
manufacturing operations. These assign- 
ments provide you with broad, funda- 
mental manufacturing knowledge and 
with specialized knowledge in your 
particular field of interest. 

The practical, on-the-job experience 
offered by this rotational program is sup- 
plemented by participation in a manu- 
facturing studies curriculum covering 
all phases of manufacturing. 

Q. What kind of training would I get 
on your Technical Marketing Program? 

A. The one-year Technical Marketing 
Program is conducted for those graduates 
who want to use their engineering knowl- 



edge in dealing with customers. After 
completing orientation assignments in 
engineering, manufacturing, and market- 
ing, the Program member may specialize 
in one of the four marketing areas: appli- 
cation engineering, headquarters market- 
ing, sales engineering, or installation and 
service engineering. 

In addition to on-the-job assignments, 
related courses of study help the Program 
member prepare for early assumption of 
major responsibility. 

Q. How can I decide which training 
program I would like best, Mr. Abbott? 

A. Well, selecting a training program is 
a decision which you alone can make. You 
made a similar decision when you selected 
your college major, and now you are 
focusing your interests only a little more 
sharply. The beauty of training programs 
is that they enable you to keep your 
career selection relatively broad until you 
have examined at first hand a number of 
specializations. 

Furthermore, transfers from one Gen- 
eral Electric training program to another 
are possible for the Program member 
whose interests clearly develop in one 
of the other fields. 

Personalized Career Plantiiiif! 
is (General Klectric's term for the 
selection, plareineitt. and pro- 
fessional development of engi- 
neers and scientists. If yon nonid 
like a Personalized Career Plan- 
ning folder u-hicli describes in 
more detail the Company's train- 
ins proiirams for technical arailn- 
ates, write to Mr. Abbott at Sec- 
tion 959-1.3, General Electric 
(knnpany, Sclienectady 5, l\. 1. 



Progress fs Our Most Important Product 

GENERAL AeLECTRIC 



Mnois 

TECH 



'!(.!VfHSITr «F IllHIOfli 

MAY 1 1 1960 



GRAPH 




^^^^^^A T-. 7-OL.AN 




UnOBr TirGy the performance of men and machines depends on what they are made of. United States Steel 
makes the materials for the machines, whether it's a very tough armor plate, or heat-resistant alloy, or Stainless Steels. 

You might be interested in some of the USS steels developed specifically for aircraft and missiles: 
USS Strux, an alloy steel with close to 300,000 psi tensile strength primarily for aircraft landing gears; 
USS Airsteel X-200, an air-hardenable alloy steel with 230,000 psi yield strength for aircraft sheet and missile 
applications; USS 12MoV and USS 17-5 MnV Stainless Steels for high-speed aircraft and missiles; 
Stainless "W", a precipitation-hardenable Stainless Steel. 



New special metals, new methods for making them, present an 
exciting challenge. Men willing to accept this challenge— civil, 
industrial, mechanical, metallurgical, ceramic, electrical or chemi- 
cal engineers — have a future with United States Steel. For details, 
just send the coupon. 

djsS) United States Steel 

USS Is a registered Iradeniark ^^^^^ 



United States Steel Corporation 
Personnel Division 
525 William Penn Place 
Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania 

Please send me the booklet, "Pattis of Opportunity.' 
Name 



Address^ 
City 



NAVY PIER STAFF 

Associate Editor 

Sheldon H. Altman 

Associate Business Manager 

Michael Murphy 

Editorial Staff 

Irwin E. Tuckman 
Arvydas Tamulis 
Eileen Markham 



Editor 

Dave Penniman 
Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 
Circulation Director 

Steve Eyer 

Business Staff 

Chuck Jones 
Charlie Adams 
Jim Fulton 

Photo Staff 

Dave Yates, Director 
Bill Erwin 
Dick Hook 
Scott Krueger 
Harry Levin 
William Stepan 

Art Staff 

Barbara Polan, Director 
Gary Waffle 
Jarvis Rich 
Jill Greenspan 
Advisors 

R. W. Bohl 
N. P. Davis 
Wm. DeFotis 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 
E. C. McClintock 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 

Chairman: Stanley Stynes 
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illmois Technojraph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louis- 
iana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
Bluepr 



Quad) 


rangle, : 


Mnrth 


1 Dakota Er 




eer, North- 


weste 


m Eng 


ineer 


Nr 


.tre D, 




Technical 


Kevie 


w. Ohi 


o State 




*er 


Oklahoma 


State 


Engine* 


■r, O 


regor 


1 State 


le. 


chnical Tri- 


1 angle, 


, Pittsbi 


irgh 


Skys 


craper. 


Pi 


irdue Engi- 


neer. 


KPl EnKin 




Rochester 


Indicator, 


i SC Engineer, 


Kos 


e Technic, Sou 


them Engi- 


' neer. 


Spartan 
Washi' 


Lnp 


ineer 


, Texa; 


i A 


& M Engi- 


1 neer. 


ngton 


Kr 




WSC Tech- 


1 noraeter, \Va 
\ Engineer. 


yne 


Eng. 




ind 


Wisconsin 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 75, Number 6 



March, 1960 



Table of Contents 

Editorial 9 

Pier Personalities 13 

U. S. and British Schools A, J. Tamulis 16 

Fable of the Barnyard E. Markham 17 

State Street Lighting S. Altman 19 

Museum of Science and Industry M. Murphy 21 

Raw Material Inventory I. E. Tuckman 23 

Engineering Firsts I. E. Tuckman 30 

Skimming Industrial Headlines 35 

News from the Pier 38 

Brainteasers Edited by Steve Dilts 45 

The Strange Science of Seeing 48 



Cover . . . 

During the eight months in which Ti'clniniirdpli is published, 
contributions come from the Navy Pier branch. Last year an 
issue of Tcchno^raph was completely written and edited by 
Chicago engineering students. This 7 i'ch>i<)i>itipli is the second 
such issue. Again all contributions come from the Chicago branch 
of the University. The "Pier" students sincerely hope you enjoy 
this issue and hope to make it a yearly custom. 



Copyright. 1960, by Illini Puhlishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
ofRce at LJrbana, Illiii.iis, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Office 2li Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illiniii^. .'^ubscriiniims $l..iO per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved by The Illinois TichiunirapU- Publisher's Represent.ative — Littcll-Murray- 
Barnhill, Inc., 737 North Micliigaii Avenue. Chicago 11, 111., 369 Lexington Ave., 
New York 17, New York. 



:-.'^Si;^f€iJ? 



— &»',^«*.''. 'C, -\ 




Getting beneatli 

the surface of things . . . 



Throiifih a nciily developed \-ray diffriiclioit technique that extiiniiies 
streti.s-iiidiift'il clKiiiaes in the spiiciiiii Itelireen nlonis, General Motor.s liesearrli 
physicists are iinir able to determine residual stresses below 
the surface of hardened steel in 25% of the lime prerionsly required. 



Rodiii to t^row shmilil lie \(iiir most basic requiii'tni'iit in seokiiig a [Kisitioii. 

This is where General Motors ofll'ers you an exceptional advantage. 

Depending upon your own capabilities and enthusiasm, 

vou uill lind \irluallv limitless opportunity to move within a single CM division 

or lo (ilhci- (h\isioiis or lo a staff activity. Fields of work at General Motors vary from 

astronautics to automobiles, household appliances to ii)ck<'t propulsion, 

inerlial guidance to isotope research — to mention a few. 

General Motors offers (inancial assistance to employees who wish to enter 

or progress in postgraduate studies. And undergraduates may gain from work experience 

in tbi' summer cmplovmciil program. 

Before you make vour linal I'liiploymeiit decision, 

ask your placenicril oiriccr about General Motors, or write to 

General Motors. Salaried Personnel Placement, Personnel Staff. Detroit 2. Michigan. 



(ilv\KI{AL MOTORS 



GM positions now available in these fields for men h-ilding Bachelor's. Master's and Doctor's degrees: Mechanical, Electrical, Industrial, Metallurgical, Chemical, 
Aeronautical and Ceramic Engineering • Mathematics • Industrial Design • Physics • Chemistry • Engineering Mechanics • Business Administration and Related Fields. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



...NEWS IS HAPPENING ATNORTHROP\ 

Take this 3-Minute Quiz to 
help you determine your future 



1. What part of the country has the best future for your 
type of work? 

2. What part of the country offers an outstanding 
opportunity to enjoy your leisure ? 

3. Where can you work and still earn advanced degrees ? 

4. How important to you is the challenge of opportunity 
— and salary that matches your achievements ? 

5. Where can you work with outstanding men in your field? 




FIVE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS... 
NOW CONSIDER THESE ANSWERS: 



1. If your interests are in the fields of 
electronics or the aircraft/missile 
industry, you will want to join the 
outstanding scientists and engineers 
in the space age center of the world 
- Southern California. 

2. If you work at Northrop you will 
live in Southern California - famous 
for its year-round vacation climate. 
Here you're close to the beaches, 
mountains and desert where you can 
tnjoy an active life in the sunshine. 

3. Northrop encourages you to work 
for advanced degrees and to keep 
current with the latest developments 
in your chosen field. With Northrop's 
program, you will continue to learn 
while you earn with no-cost and low- 
cost education at leading Southern 
California institutions. 

4. At Northrop you will work with 
the newest, most-advanced research 



and test equipment. And with over 
30 operational fields from which to 
choose you can apply your talents to 
the work you enjoy-in the fields best 
suited to your inclinations. 
At Northrop you will earn what you 
are worth. With this growing com- 
pany you receive increases as often 
as you earn them. And these increases 
in salary are based on your own indi- 
vidual achievements. 
Northrop's vacation and fringe bene- 
fits are extra liberal. 
5. Men you work with at Northrop 
are acknowledged leaders in their 
fields. They are selected because they 
have the skill to guide younger men. 
These are men who know how to 
delegate authority, encourage your 
progress, and assure you of your 
fair share of credit for engineering 
achievements. 



ITS NOT TOO EARLY TO PLAN YOUR FUTURE. 
WHICH OF THESE 3 DIVISIONS OF NORTHROP 
ARE BEST FITTED TO YOUR TALENTS? 



NORAIR DIVISION is the creator of 
the USAF Snark SM 62 missile now 
operational with SAC. Norair is cur- 
rently active in programs of space 
research, flight-testing the USAF- 
Northrop T-38 Talon trainer and 
Northrop's N-156F Freedom Fighter. 
RADIOPLANE DIVISION, creator of 
the world's first family of drones, pro- 
duces and delivers pilotless aircraft 
for all the U. S. Armed Forces to 
train men, evaluate weapon systems, 



and fly surveillance missions. Today 
Radioplane is readying the recovery 
system for Project Mercury. 
NORTRONICS DIVISION is a leader in 
inertial and astronertial guidance 
systems. Nortronics explores infra- 
red applications, airborne digital com- 
puters, and interplanetary naviga- 
tion. Other current programs include 
ground support, optical and electro- 
mechanical equipment, and the most 
advanced data-processing devices. 



Write today for complete information about your future at Northrop. 

NORTHROPX 



C O R P a RA Tl O N ' 



Engineering & Scientific Personnel Placement Office 

Northrop, P.O. Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California 




F. Kelly, W. J. Miller, and J. P. Tobin of the Westlnghouse Atomic Power Department lift the "core plate" 
off the nuclear core for the first U.S. -built power reactor designed for use abroad (Mol, Belgium). 

Waltz Mill Experimental Reactor helps 
Westinghouse engineers solve problems 



The new Westinghouse Testing Reactor at Waltz Mill, 
Pa., provides engineers with complete facilities for an- 
alyzing the effect of nuclear radiation on various mate- 
rials, processes and designs. If a Westinghouse engineer 
is working on develoj)ment of atomic fuels or the design 
of reactor components for an atomic power plant, he 
can count on help from the men at Waltz Mill. 

The Westinghouse Te.sting Reactor is one of only two 
such privately owned reactors in the country. It pro- 
vides a high radiation field comparable to that of a 
working reactor, and in addition has special controlled 
environment loops for the study of radiation effects at 
high temjieratures and pressures. Work presently being 
carried out here for other departments of the company 
includes studies of thermionics, crystal structure, and 
thermoelectric effects as well as the work on atomic 
reactor designs and fuels. 



The young engineer at Westinghouse isn't expected 
to know all the answers . . . our work is often too ad- 
vanced for that. Instead, his abilities and knowledge are 
backed up by specialists like those at Waltz Mill. 

If you have ambition and ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportuni- 
ties for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write today to Mr. L. H. 
Noggle, Westinghouse Educational Department, Ard- 
more & Brinton Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pennsylvania. 

you CAN BE SURE . ..IF ITS 

Westinghouse 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Why diversification makes a better all-around man 



Divi RsiFicATioN ot effort makes for versatility — and ver- 
satility pays oft' in business as well as on the athletic 
field. We've found that to be especially true here at Koppcrs. 

Koppers is a widely diversified company — actively en- 
gaged in the research and production of a wide range of re- 
lated and seemingly unrelated products, such as remarkable 
new plastics, jet-engine sound control, wood preservatives, 
steel mill processes, dyestuffs, electrostatic precipitators, coal 
tar chemicals, anti-oxidants and innumerable others. 

Because we are diversified, our work is interesting. Through 
a system of lateral movement, our engineers and manage- 
ment personnel are given the opportunity to learn many of 
the diverse operations at Koppers. The result? Versatility. 

While you are moving laterally at Koppers, you are also 
moving up. Your responsibilities are increased. Your ability 
is evaluated and re-evaluated. And you are compensated 
accordingly. 

You don't have to be with Koppers for 20 years before you 



get somewhere. If you have ability, ideas, spark — you'll move 
ahead, regardless of seniority or tenure. 

At Koppers, you'll stand on your own two feet. You'll get 
responsibility, but you'll also have free rein to do the job the 
way you think it should be done. No one will get in your way. 

Koppers is a well-established company — a leader in many 
fields. Yet, it's a forward-looking company, a young man's 
company. Perhaps, your company. 

Why not find out? Write to the Manager of Manpower 
Planning, Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh 19, Pennsyl- 
vania. Or, see your College Placement Director and arrange 
an appointment with a Koppers representative for the next 
recruiting visit. 



KOPPERS 




MARCH, 1960 





. diversification 



These specialized electronics systems 
are an important part of Collins' con- 
tribution to advancements in military 
and commercial communication. 

Collins was selected over several com- 
panies because it could do the job — 
economically, with excellent c(juipment, 
and provide capable engineering assist- 
ance for all phases. 

Collins needs engineers and physicists 
to keep pace with the growing demand 
for its products. Positions are challeng- 
ing. Assignments are varied. Projects 
currentlv underway in the Cedar Rap- 
ids Division include research and de- 
velopment in Airborne communication, 
navigation and identification systems, 
Missile and satellite tracking and com- 



munication, Antenna design. Amateur 
radio and Broadcast. 

Collins manufacturing and R&D in- 
stallations are also located in Burbank 
and Dallas. Modern laboratories and re- 
search facilities at all locations ensure 
the finest working conditions. 

Your placement office will tell you 
when a Collins representative will be 
on campus. 

For all the interesting facts and fig- 
ures of recent Collins de\elopments 
send for \-our free copies of Signal, pub- 
lished ([uarterly by the Collins Radio 
Companv. Fill' out and mail the at- 
tached coupon today. You'll receive 
every issue published during this school 
year without obligation. 



iCOLUNSt 



i 


'^ 


^ 


■■■■■■■■m 

FREE J 


' 


>^ 


3 


■ 


Pro 
Co 
Ce 

Pie 
du 

Na 


fessionol Placeme 
tins Radio Compo 
Jar Rppids, Iowa 

ase send me eac 
ing this school y 


nt, . 

ny, 
1 Collin 


s Signal published ■ 


Address 




City 


Stote ■ 


College or University 




Major degree 


Minor ■ 


■ 
Graduation date _ 



COLtlNS RADIO COMPANY . CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA . DAtLAS. TEXAS . BURBANK, CALIFORNIA hi 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Interior of Saran Wrap* plant. 



DOW is tomorro^w-minded 



product 



Publishing a complete list of Dow products — all 700 
odd of them — is an elusive project. By the time such 
a list was off the press, new names would have to be 
added to bring the list up to date. The reason: develop- 
ment of new products is the order of the day at Dow, 
every day of the working year. 

These new products are developed to meet the needs 
of the many industries Dow serves. Today's problems 
in manufacturing and processing must be solved, and, 
as these industries advance, new chemicals and materials 
will be needed to implement tomorrow's technology. At 
Dow, research and development aim at anticipating 
these future needs . . . thus a "tomorrow-minded" 
attitude toward products is always evident. 

The product group of Dow Agricultural Chemicals, for 
example, has expanded manyfold in recent years 
through a vigorous research and developmental pro- 
gram. In the early '50's it consisted of two or three 
products. Today it includes many varieties of weed 
killers, fertilizers, fumigants, insecticides, feed additives 
and animal health aids. A new crab grass killer has 
recently made its debut, first in a series of new "ag 
chem" products slated for the homeowner market. 

Dow's work in automotive chemistry is typical of the 



"tomorrow-minded" attitude. Dow currently supplies 
a number of chemicals and plastics materials to auto 
makers — latex-based metal primers, antifreeze, uphol- 
stery materials and brake fluids, to name a few. But a 
quick tour through Dow's two Automotive Chemicals 
Laboratories would reveal that Dow will be ready with 
the right chemicals and plastics for the job, no matter 
which way future automotive design goes! One under 
development, for example, is a chemical that cools the 
engine by continuous boiling. 

One of the most outstanding success stories at Dow is 
that of Separan", a product developed to fit into 
industry's future. This chemical is a flocculant, or 
"settler" of solids in solution. Perhaps "super floc- 
culant" would be a better description because Separan 
takes minutes to do jobs that formerly took days. 
Introduced in 1955, it has gained widespread recognition 
in mining, pulp and paper and other industries. 

In such a climate of creativity and tomorrow-minded- 
ness, new opportunities at Dow are constantly opening 
up for people who have their eyes — and their thoughts 
— on the future. If you'd like to know more about the 
Dow opportunity, please write: Director of College 
Relations, Department 2426FW, the dow chemical 
COMPANY, Midland, Michigan. 'trademark 



THE DO-W CHEMICAL COMPANY • MIDLAND, MICHIGAN 

MARCH, 1960 




[ROcms}^ lF^iF(o>(^(UJc 



f(o)lF^OO(^irD 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Pier Desk 



The Widening Gap . . . 

It becomes more and more evident to the sensitive engineering student 
as he advances in his undergraduate years, that there is a gap in the knowledge 
available with this type of education. The four-year engineering college seems 
to be producing more trained technicians and tradesmen than engineering 
graduates with university training. 

There is certainly nothing wrong with an honest trade or a skilled tech- 
nical ability, bul the job of the university is to train men for responsible places 
in society and if possible instill a quest for learning and knowledge. How can 
this be done with the present "liberal" background available in engineering? 

As the curriculum now stands it is very possible to go through four years 
of "education" without opening your mouth to express an opinion. Engineers 
come off the production line without a command of their native tongue, without 
the ability to communicate in writing, sometimes without even a rudimentary 
idea of the current world situation, and certainly without the more sophisticated 
attributes of a cultural background. 

Certainly you can go through life without knowing what mokes Beethoven 
or Shakespeare great, but you can also live without knowledge of the laws of 
thermodynamics. Each is important in its own way. However, a knowledge of 
both mokes your education that much more complete. 

What is the answer to this sorry situation? Many fine engineering schools 
have attempted to "humanize" their engineers by expanding the curriculum to 
five years. This is certainly a step in the right direction. It is much better than 
13 hours of non-tech electives in 140 hours of credits. 

Among the schools to make this step ore MIT and Cornell, names familiar 
to most. The combined liberal arts-engineering program available at this uni- 
versity shows a progressive attitude at Illinois. However, to go a step further, 
it is the responsibility of the university to acquaint its students with their cultural 
heritage. This would force some to take "dem reodin" courses and some even to 
"like dem reodin" courses. We can delegate the responsibility of producing tech- 
nicians and tradesmen to industry and trade schools. 

— Sheldon Altmon 



MARCH, 1960 



^M/e 



DRIVE AND CONTROL IDEAS 
FOR ENGINEERS 



Tips on better 
designing with 
flexible shafts 



REMOTE CONTROL AND POWER DRIVE: 



Retractable hard top simplified by flexible shafts. 




In the Ford Fairlane 500 Skyliner, the roof 
retracts into the trunk, and the trunk lid 
closes and locks. All this is done auto- 
matically, within 40 seconds. Powering this 
ingenious mechanism are six 3 16" high 
speed, remote control flexible shafts, driven 
by three reversible electric motors. 

The use of flexible shafts enabled the 
designerstouseonly 
one motor to drive 
each pair of actu- 
ators, thus solving 
synchronization 
problems and at the 
same time cutting 
down on the number 
of motors needed. 

Flexible shafts 
(1) and (2) rotate the trunk lid locking 
screws m and out of engagement. Flexible 
shafts (3) and (4) drive a pair of screw-jack 
actuators to raise or lower the trunk lid. 
Flexible shafts (5— not shown) and (6) drive 
a pair of actuators and their associated 
linkage to raise or retract the roof. 




'# 



POWER DRIVE: 

Powe ring a movable co mponent ■ . ■ 

is easily accompiislied witti flexible 
shafts. Position of barrel type feeder 
on this new/ Detroit Pow/erScrevi/driver 
is highly adjustable, because it is 
driven by a flexible shaft. Power take- 
off is at the main drive motor. 




COUPLING : 

Solve alignment and 
vibration problems... 

with S. S. White cou- 
pling shafts — short 
pieces of flexible 
shafting without com- 
panion casings. Here 
is one being used be- 
tween an adjustable 
pulley and a gear 
pump. 



Now available 

THE S. S. WHITE FLEXIBLE SHAFT HANDBOOK 

New 4th Edition. . . Send for your free copy! 

This authoritative handbook has been recently revised to 
include new selection and application data for 
S. S. White Standard . . . Pre-engineered . . . Custom-designed 
flexible shafts. A guide to product design. 




10 



;. S. WHITE INDUSTRIAL DIVISION 

DEPT. 02. 10 EAST 40tri STREET 

NEW YORK 16, N. Y. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




United Air Lines pilots review flight plan calculated by Bendix G-15 Computer at UAL's Operating Base, Denver, Colorado. 

BENDIX COMPUTERS ... AND HOW TO FIGURE 
YOUR FUTURE AS A PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER 



Jet air line speeds bring new com- 
plications to the problems the air- 
line captain must solve. Helping 
him to prepare and follow his Flight 
Plan are two important Bendix'^' 
contributions: (1) The Bendix G-15 
Computer, which makes pre-flight 
calculations of wind, weather, fuel, 
and load in seconds; and (2) air- 
borne Bendix Doppler Radar, which 
gives the pilot instant, constant 
navigation data that previously re- 
quired continual manual calculation. 

Similar Bendix scientific and engi- 
neering advances are geared to the 
entire modern industrial complex. 
Opjiortunities for the engineering 
graduate are nearly limitless. 

BENDIX HAS 24 DIVISIONS, 4 SUBSIDI- 
ARIES— Coast to coast, Bendix activ- 
ities are decentralized— and, at the 
same time, generally adjacent to the 
industries they serve. There is great 
latitude in choice of work area for 
the young engineer. 

SIZE AND STABILITY - In terms of 



MARCH, 1960 



corporate size, Bendix ranks in the 
top GO industrial firms (dollar sales) 
in the United States. In fiscal 1959, 
Bendix sales totalled more than 
$080,000,000. An investment in 
future sales was the $120,000,000 
in engineering expenditures. 

DIVERSE PRODUCTION AND RESEARCH 

— The graduate engineer has a 
chance to specialize with Bendix. 
He can probe electronics, nuclear 
physics, heat transfer, ultrasonics, 
aerodynamics, power metallurgy — 
and a long list of other challenging 
fields. Or, he can aim for bi'oader 
areas of mathematics, research, ad- 
ministration, and management. 

CHANCE TO LEAD - Bendix is a di- 
versified engineering-research- 
manufacturing firm. Bendix 




products include: Talos and Eagle 
guided missiles; Doppler radar 
systems for aircraft navigation ; 
numerical control systems for 
machine tools; power steering and 
power brakes for automotive 
vehicles; nuclear devices; flight 
control systems for aircraft ; satel- 
lite controls. More important to you, 
as an engineering graduate, are the 
vast numbers of new projects now 
being planned — projects to which 
you can contribute your knowledge 
and ingenuity. 

BENDIX IS SYNONYMOUS WITH ENGI- 
NEERING— At Bendix, you can join 
an engineering stafl^ of more than 
12,000 people-5,000 of them grad- 
uate engineers. 

Bendix offers you a chance to 
exercise your engineering degree 
in a real engineering capacity. See 
your placement director or write to 
Director of University and Scientific 
Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpo- 
ration, 1108 Fisher Building, 
Detroit 2, Michigan. 



A thousand diversified products 



11 




The word space commonly represents the outer, airless regions of the universe. 
But there is quite another kind of "space" close at hand, a kind that will always 
challenge the genius of man. 

This space can easily be measured. It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
distance between them . . . the kind of space found between mainland and off- 
shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inaccessible clearing and its supply 
base, between the site of a mountain crash and a waiting ambulance— above all, 
Sikorsky is concerned with the precious "spaceway" that currently exists be- 
tween all earthbound places. 

Our engineering efforts are directed toward a variety of VTOL and STOL 
aircraft configurations. Among earlier Sikorsky designs are some of the most 
versatile airborne vehicles now in existence; on our boards today are the ve- 
hicles that can prove to be tomorrow's most versatile means of transportation. 

Here, then, is a space age challenge to be met with the finest and most practical 
engineering talent. Here, perhaps, is the kind of challenge you can meet. 



rilKORSKY 
AIRCRAFT 




For information about careers with us, please ad- 
dress Mr. Richard L. Auten, Personnel Department. 



One of the Divisions of United Aircraft Corporation 
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Pier Personalities . . 



AN INTERVIEW 

with Ogden Livermore 



Mr. Ogtlen Li\einiore, assistant pro- 
fessor in physics at the Chicago Under- 
graduate Division of the University of 
Illinois and a former advisor for Tiih 
is one of the original stalwarts of the 
academic staff at our Lake Shore insti- 
tution. 

Horn on November 17, 1809, Mr. 
Lixermore has been interested in physics 
as far back as he can remember. His in- 
terest extends into the limitless practical 
applications associated with this science. 
His hobby as he calls it is "gagetry and 
gimmickr\." In his youth he used to 





%-^ 







*■•'. 
^ 


^i. 




M^ 


f 


W/ri^Tt 


Hr^^ I 


y 




py^ 


m • ' 



Professor Livermore 

tinker around cars, and became familiar 
enough with them to invent a few ac- 
cessories. His inventions include a radi- 
ator curtain and a hand operated therm- 
ostat for the car ; both, he claims, made 
long before they ever came out on the 
market. 

l'rofess(jr Lisermore who li\es with 
his wife in Chicago's suburban Evanston 
has developed his hobby to include vari- 
ous household gadgets. One of Mr. Liv- 
ermore's latest inventions is a special 
support for a ladder. The windows on 
his house are so tall that if a ladder were 
placed at the bottom, the top of the 
window could not be reached. This 
makes washing them difficult. He solved 
the problem by the use of his special 
brace. The brace enables the ladder to 
be placed at various heights on the win- 
dow without leaning against the glass. 
Mr. Livermore very proudly sketched 
the brace and it's application for this re- 
porter. His hobby has led to the con- 
struction of man\- of the lecture demon- 



stration "toys" for the physics depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Livermore received his B.S. in 
Chemical Engineering from Illinois in 
1922. He also has received an M.A. 
from Northwestern in Education and 
studied physics and worked in metal re- 
search at I.I.T. 

His teaching career started in 1937, 
and has covered everything from kinder- 
garten up. Second graders are his favor- 
ites. He loves to talk with people and 
he finds that "the second graders are 
grownup enough to talk to, but not 
grownup enough to take offense." 

Mr. Livermore came to the Pier in 
1946 when it opened. He remembers 
when the teachers had to walk across a 
plank bridge that was over a gully of 
water in the corridor on the way to the 
lunchroom. That first year was a hectic 
one. Remodeling had not been complet- 
ed yet and there weren't enough chem- 
istry teachers to go around. Although 
he had been hired as a physics instructor, 
Mr. Li\ennore taught quant., qual., and 
begirmim; chemistry. 

Mr. Livermore was the first sponsor 
tor Tech. at the Pier, and ran it success- 
fully for eight years. Because of his 
work on Tech the Dean of Women pre- 
sented him \\-ith a handsome pin that he 
proudlv wears. With the pin came a 
membership in The Activities Honorary 
Society. 

When asked why he took up teach- 
ing his first words were "I like to show 
oft." But this is very misleading. Mr. 
Livergood "likes personalities." He is 
the type of instructor who meets every 
one of his students individually. He 
takes a very personal interest in them 
and all their problems. His hobby has 
enabled him to reach students and help 
them to understand problems in physics. 
This helpfulness and un\isual friendli- 
ness won him honorary membership in 
Omega-Beta-Pi, a pre-med scholastic 
fraternity at the Pier, and Phi-Eta- 
Sigma. 

Professor Livermore feels that his 
term as an integral part of the Chicago 
campus has been, to say the least, an 
enjoyable one. He feels that our engi- 
neering school is one of the best. The 
only improvement that he can see would 
be the addition of a few more yoinig 
ladies to boost morale and the decor 
(.Amen). 




Take advantage of the 

MECHANICAL 
ADVANTAGE 



The screw is a combination of two 
mechanical principles: the lever, 
and the inclined plane in helical 
form. The leverage applied to the 
nut combines with motion of the nut 
around the bolt to exert tremendous 
clamping force between the two. 

One of the greatest design errors 
today, in fact, is failure to realize 
the mechanical advantages that 
e.xist in standard nuts and bolts. 
Smaller diameters and less costly 
grades of fasteners tightened to 
their full capacity will create far 
stronger joints than those utilizing 
bigger and stronger fasteners tight- 
ened to only a fraction of their 
capacity. Last year, one of our engi- 
neers showed a manufacturer how 
he could save $97,000 a year simply 
by using all the mechanical advan- 
tages of a less expensive grade. 

When you graduate, make sure 
you consider the mechanical advan- 
tages that RB&W fasteners provide. 
And make sure, too, that you con- 
sider the career advantages RB&W 
offers mechanical engineers — in the 
design, manufacture and application 
of mechanical fasteners. If you're 
interested in machine design — or 
sales engineering, write us for more 
information. 

RUSSELL, BURDSALL & WARD 
BOLT AND NUT COMPANY 

Port Chester, N. Y. 




115 year 



MARCH, 1960 



13 




Space exploration will really come of age when manned rockets can leave 
earth, accomplish their missions and return without disposing of parts of 
themselves en route. This breakthrough depends on the rapid development 
of both nuclear rocket engines and the space vehicles capable of using 
them. Douglas is putting forth a major research effort in the area of manned 
nuclear space ships. Every environmental, propulsion, guidance and struc- 
tural problem is being thoroughly explored. Results are so promising that 
even if the nuclear engine breakthrough comes within the next five years, 
Douglas will be ready to produce the vehicles to utilize this tremendous new 
source of space power! Douglas is seeking qualified scientists and engineers 
for this and other vital programs. Write to C.C. LaVene, Box 600-M, Douglas 
Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 

Elmer Wheaton, Engineering Vice President, Missiles and Space Systems, 

goes over new space objectives that will be made possible by nuclear 

propulsion with Arthur E. Raymond, Senior j^^ll^l A O 

Engineering Vice President of 1^ w iJ w LMO 

MISSILE AND SPACE SYSTEMS ■ MILITARY AIRCRAFT ■ DC-8 JETLINERS ■ CARGO TRANSPORTS ■ AIRCOMB ■ GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 




14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This huge research center at Whiting, Indiana, is only 
part of .Standard Oil's research faciUties. A recently 
completed technical service and quality control lab- 



oratory, not shown here, is the largest laboratory of 
its kind in the country. In addition, large research 
laboratories are operated by several affiliates. 



Where the fuels of the future are born! 



From time to time, we are asked if gasoline 
and oil today really are better than they were 
five or ten years ago. People can't see the 
difference, smell it, or feel it. 

The answer is an emphatic yes. And this 
aerial view of Standard Oil's research center 
at Whiting, Indiana, is graphic evidence of 
the extensive research work that goes on be- 
hind the scenes day in and day out. 

Thousands of research experts— chemists, 
engineers, and technicians — work together in 
Standard's modern laboratories, improving 
present fuels and lubricants and developing 
new ones for cars that will not be a reality 
until about 1965! Rocket fuels, too, are being 
developed. Standard's development of clean- 



burning, highly-reliable solid fuels has been a 
real con tribu tion to America's missile program. 

Since our first research laboratory opened 
69 years ago, research scientists of Standard 
Oil and its affiliated companies have been re- 
sponsible for many major petroleum advances 
— from making a barrel of oil yield more gas- 
oline to discovering a way to revive almost-dry 
wells. Each process had the effect of adding 
billions of barrels to America's oil reserves. 

At Standard Oil, scientists have an oppor- 
tunity to work on a wide variety of challeng- 
ing projects. That is one reason why so many 
young men have chosen to build satisfying 
careers with Standard Oil. 



STANDARD OIL COMPANY 

910 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE, CHICAGO 80, ILLINOIS 




THE SIGN OF PROG RESS .. 
THROUGH RESEARCH 



MARCH, 1960 



15 



U.S. and British Schools 



By Arvydas J. Tamulis 



Ri-ceiitly, much has been said about 
our educational system, and especially 
in comparison with the systems of other 
countries. No longer does the public of 
this country pose the question of whether 
Johnny can read, but their primary con- 
cern was whether Johnny can read bi-r- 
ter than Ivan. Lest 1 bore you with 
the much worn out auestlon of onr 
school system versus Nikita's little n-d 
school house, perhaps it woidd be of 
interest to note the comparison of tiie 
education a student receives in Amer- 
ica as compared with his English speak- 
ing contemporary in England. 

At the mention of education in Brit- 
ain, one immediately thinks of the time- 
honored names of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and their outstanding positions 
as places of learning in the world. A 
notable fact to bring out here is that 
Britain, with a population of 31 mil- 
lion, has only <SS,()(H) students in uni- 
versities while the U. S., with a popu- 
lation of 178 million, has 3.4 million 
students in colleges and universities. 
Comparing the proportion of population 
to those attending universities, the U. S. 
places first, with Russia second, and 
Hritain towards the bottom of the list 
as the 25th. In search of a reason for 
the small amount of students on the uni- 
versity level in Britain we must start 
at the beginning. 

The British child usually starts in a 
primary school, a U. S. equivalent of 
public grade school, for children aged 
from 5 to 10. Between the ages of 10 
and 1 1 a child takes an intelligence test 
known as the 11-plus. If he ranks 



among the top 25',' of the students he 
is then admitted into what is called a 
grammar school, a L'. S. equiva'ent of 
a junior and senior high school. T h's 
school is intended as a preparation for 
the luiiversity and is much more diffi- 
cult than its counterpart in the U. S. 
1 1 the child does not rank high in this 
ll-nliis exam, he is th"n sent to a sec- 
ondary modern school, a school stress- 
in'; vocational training and his educa- 
tion ends at the a-e of 13 or \h. This 
is considered by many, even the British- 
ers themselves, as an evil in the educa- 
tional system. At the afre of eleven the 
future of the chi'ld is set. The ma-s of 
the British ponnlation is denied a hi-rh- 
er education. The so called late devel- 
opers, and others potentiallv good for 
college are turned aside. It is true that 
in svich a wav univers'ties assure them- 
seKes of good material, but such a s\s- 
tem hurts the country as a whole by 
letting other good material for college 
-lip awav not to speak of the injustice 
done to the child. 

Now those that are admitted into 
these grammar schools find a tovurh cur- 
riculum awaiting them. This school is 
geared high to prepare the student for 
the university, eliminating the gap so 
apparent between our high schools and 
the college level school. In thefe schools 
the student must choose a field, either 
science or the arts, at about the age 
of 14 or 15. Then, if he shows a prefer- 
ence for the arts, a great emphasis is 
placed on language whereby he may 
take two or three languages. If a stu- 
dent prefers science at 15, at the latest, 



CERAMISTS & CERAMIC ENGINEERS 

Do yotr have an idea that you would 
like to develop and produce? 

We want a new product to manufacture, and we will back the 
right fellow and the right idea with a small factory and laboratory 
and the ability to furnish any other help needed, especially good 
successful business experience. Address '/'/;( Tci lino /j rap li — Box b 



he takes up chemistry and physics. Then, 
usually at the age of IS, he may enter 
the luiiversity. All along the student is 
worked to capacity. 

Without going deeph' into the all 
familiar American educational system, 
the most glaring evil asserted by man\ 
educators is the gap created between 
high school and college. On the whole 
the colleges of this country attempt to 
keep the standards high and are raising 
them all the time in order that the com- 
pletely educated man of the American 
system mav hold his head high anvwhere 
in the world. On the other hand the high 
schools attempt to take everyone and 
push them through the mill at the cost of 
lowering the standard. The trend in 
America is to follow the Dewey system 
of education which places the student in 
the center and around him builds the 
cvu'riculum, the principles of education. 
If the student does not want an\ more 
mathematics above arithmetic and in- 
stead wants to substitute the proverbial 
basket-weaving course, so be it. While 
in England, as well as the other Euro- 
pean countries, the principle of educa- 
tion, of learning, is placed in the center, 
and the student, if he wishes to ad- 
vance in his studies, must adapt him- 
self. 

Which course is better to follow is 
hard to say. On both sides we have good 
points as well as bad. A happy medium 
may be called for, a system permitting 
the majority the chance at education, 
yet keeping the principles high so the 
svstem would not suffer. 



Paris in Plastic 

Spring has come in Paris — in a plas- 
tic wrapper. Parisian flower sellers have 
set up shop in transparent tents in the 
winter-swept city streets. 



Stainless Steel Fuel Tanks 

Tests are now being conducted on 
AM-355 stainless steel for use on spe- 
cial fiiel containers for solid fuel rock- 
ets. It is a special, new type precipita- 
tion hardening stainless steel made 
especially for use in super-speed aircraft 
and missile parts which give the high 
strength-to-weight ratio to the fuel cas- 
ings. 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A Fable of the Barnyard 



By Eileen Markham 



Of liilc I hiivt- hiirjiiic lOnviiKid tliiit 
the must vti/iiiih/f thiiK/s arc those 
Iniit/ht IIS in our childhood. One of the 
most strikint/ carry-overs of those fileas- 
(int days is the close corelation ln- 
tivecn the neighhorhood park sand liox 
and the foundry classrooms. Thus. I 
feel it miyht he of interest to us all 
if ire ii'crc to go hack and read some 
of the stories ice read as cliildren. But, 
I f;iicss that might he a little boring 
as most of us have already reail the same 
stories. So. I've iiritten a ueiv one — a 
ffd'le that might he of interest to all of 
us. It is, as ire knrnr the typical fable 
to be. an animal story. May I present to 
you a TrcHN'OGRAPH first: 

Once upon a time in the barnyard 
tiiere was a horse and a nude. All their 
li\es they lived the day by day way of 
the barn\;n"d. Let's look at one sueh 
day. 

Early in the morning the barnyard 
was in a state of complete quiet. Not 
a soul had stirred. The sun's rays began 



to penetrate the light strealced sk:\-. And 
then we see a tired rooster begin to 
stir. As he slowly lumbered to the fence, 
his feathers perkeil up. Finally on the 
accustomed peich, his song began. The 
hen house awoke befoie the barn an 1 
then, at last, the lights in the hous:- 
flickered on. In the barn the mule and 
horse paced back and forth waiting lor 
their breakfast. (It was late again.) Im- 
patiently the mule tried to open tie 
feed bin lock with his teeth. Just as it 
started to give, the farmer's son came 
in with their meal. Aftei'wards rlieir 
real day began. 

Before lunch they didn't have much 
to do — just run and play in the su,i. 
Hut then the children came out to play. 
So, the mule and horse gave them rid-js. 
The horse would stand still (as hors;'s 
do) and wait for them to mount. Then 
he'd take them around the small pad- 
dock at a slow pace. That mischievous 
mule, however, used to stand still just 
until Teddy got half-way onto his back, 
then he'd begin to walk. He made a 



game of it. Thus, despite his lack of 
glamour (mules are ugly) he became 
his young master's faxorite. It became 
almost a game, sometimes Ted and Joan 
would mount and ride him, other times 
the\- could not. He even did tricks (with 
some persuasion). All the while his 
friend the horse concentrated on his 
slow but beautifidly uneventful ride 
a'ong the path. 

The obvious result was an extra lump 
of sugar for supper. Sometimes the mule 
would get another by taking it out of 
Joan's pocket. And the horse got his 
customarv pat on the head in thanks 
f(n' his dutiful task. 

I could go on, but I think my point 
has been ma le. The individualist who 
strives to please can cope with more sit- 
uations than the conformist. Hence the 
parallel in engineering. When we go out 
into the business world — maybe the 
straight "A" man who knows his sub- 
ject backwards and forwards will get a 
higher starting rate. But, when we've 
((Continued on Page 2S) 



Two Important McGraw-Hill Books 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS 

A Unified Introduction io Electrical Engineering 

By J. P. Neal. [biivrrsity of Illinois. 402 pui-es. $S.50 

This book provides undergraduate students with a thorough, coherent understanding of funda- 
mental theoretical Electrical Engineering concepts, stated in terms of appropriate mathematics, and 
illustrated by practical applications to simple eletronagnetic phenomena and structures. 

CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS 

By John J. D'Azzo and Constantine H. 1 loupis, hotli of t/ir 

Uuitcd States Air Force Institute of Teelinolo<.iy. 

Read\ in March. 

Written from the student's point of view, and for the most part class tested, this textbook introduces 
tie Root Locus first, thus bringing the objectives of feedback control systems into proper perspective. 
All topics have been aligned to fit into a more logi;al sequence for most efficient teaching. A unified 
approach is used to integrate all methods. The concept of mathematical models is extensively used. 

Send for Copies on Approval 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 



330 West 42nd Street 



New York 36, N. Y. 



MARCH, 1960 



17 



STATE STREET LIGHTING 



By Sheldon Altman 



Chicago's Start" Street has doiic it 
again. It has regained the title of the 
most brilliantly lighted street in the 
world. The 74 lighting standards that 
accomplish this task spread for o\er 
seven blocks. Seventy poles extend from 
Lake Street south to Van Buren, ac- 
counting for 5,300 feet of lineal street 
area. Four more lights were added 
south of Van Buren in front of the 
Sears Roebuck store. 

The poles are a basic tree design, ha\ - 
ing four curved arches growing from 
the tree "tnmk." The pole also has 
three containers, 30 inches in diameter 
for the tree's flowers. 

This standard was fabricated b\' I n- 
ion Metal Company of Canton, Ohio 
and is composed of 17 major parts. The 
fabrication of the standards was a cus- 
tom job. It required special mandrels for 
forming and specially selected plant per- 
sonnel were used to hand bend the 
curved arms of the pole. 

The central branch is of 5 If) inch 
steel. It tapers from 12 inches diameter 
at the bottom to eight inches in diameter 
at the top. The base of the standard is 
34 inches in diameter at the ground 
line. The side walk luminaire is 24 feet 
above the ground ; the two side mounts 
.-.re 34 feet above the ground and the 
center mount reaches to 36 feet. 

The lumenaire is now a standard 
( leneral Electric flourescent lumenaire 
with special modifications. It is designed 
to accommodate 6 six foot power groo\e 
flourescent lamps. 

The flourescent lamps are effected by 
temperature so that a self-enclosed air 
circidating system is incorporated in the 
luminaire. This is the first luminaire 
to be equipped with its own "air-condi- 
tioning" system. The air moving equip- 
ment consists of a centrilical hlowei' 
il riven by a unit bearuig motor with a 
recirculating fan on the opposite siiaft 
end of the motor. The motor is a shad- 
ed-pole type designed for long life and 
infrequent oiling. 

In case of fan failure a thermostat 
cuts off the top two lamps to prevent 
o\erheatiiig. The motor is controlled by 
a second thermostat which opens at 20 
degrees F and closes at 40 degrees F. 

.^ modification for State Street also 



consists of a special compounding of a 
plastic enclosing globe which makes the 
outline of the tubes during the daytime 
but provides for efficient light transmis- 
sion during night operations. 

One luminaire produces 55,800 lu- 
mens of light ; each pole provides 223,- 
200 lumens of light using the present 
lamp. When relamping is done the new 
double power grooved lamp will be 
used. This will raise each lumenain-'s 
output to 62,000 lumens and each pole's 
output to 248,000 lumens. This will 
produce an average lighting intensity on 
the street of over 15 foot candles even 
though 20 per cent of the light is beamed 
upward on building facades. 

Radio equipment is used extensiveh" 
in the State Street lighting facilities. 
This is another first in street lighting. 
The system is operated by radio utiliz- 
ing a 30-watt input transmitter broad- 
casting in the 27 megacycle banij. The 
transnutter, located on the third floor 
of Carson Pirie Scott and Co., has astro- 
nomical time clocks which automatically 
turn on all four lumenaires at dusk, 
turn off the lower lumenaires at mid- 
night, and turn the remaining fixture off 
at dawn. Separate time clock control is 
also provided for turning festoon light- 
ing (such as that used of Christmas 
decorations) on and oft. Manual push 
buttons are provided so that the system 
can be operated without use of the time 
clocks if desired. 

There are actually two transmitters 
so that if one should fail the .second can 
be utilized. The transmitter antenna is 
of the loaded dipol type and is approxi- 
mately eight feet long. 

The receivers are located in the bases 
of the poles. They are also equipped 
with an "air-conditioning" system. (len- 
eral Idectric calrod heating units in- 
stalled at the base of each pcde main- 
tain correct operating temperature for 
the radio receivers so that they will 
function under severe weather condi- 
tions. 

Twenty-eight receivers are used and 
each receiver serves alternately two or 
three poles. If the receivers shoidd fail 
to function the lights can be operated 
maiuially from the base. 

To operate the radio broadcasting 



station a license was obtained from the 
FCC under their business category and 
it is renewed yearl\. 

The lumenaire reflector design pro- 
vides for an upward component of light 
representing about 20 per cent of total 
light output. This was done to provide 
a cheerful atmosphere for the entire 
shopping area, both vertically and hori- 
zontall\'. 

Each pole costs S7,5(IO installed. The 
city contributed $1,200 toward each 
pole, the balance being paid b>' the 
merchants on the street. The merchants' 
contribution was assessed on the basis 
of net front feet of store area along 
State Street on a six-year amortization 
basis. The city contribution is what a 
normal city light s\stem would cost to 
install and maintain. 

Every three months the poles are serv- 
iced. The lumenaires are cleaned, de- 
fecti\e lamps are replaced, aiul instru- 
ment testing is performed on all radio 
equipment. 

This unique lighting system has an 
output of nearly 3,300 lumens per lineal 
foot of roadway, three times the in- 
tensity of the next highest system. 

It is interesting to note how this sys- 
tem came into existence. In the early 
1920s the merchants of State Street de- 
cided that their street would have more 
than just the normal lighting facilities. 
They wanted a street that would be 
known around the world. 

In cooperation with Commonwealth 
Edison and the best illumination engi- 
neers of the day they developed this sys- 
tem. On October 24, 1926, this system, 
owned and operated by the merchants, 
was put into operation as President 
Coolidge pressed a golden telegraph key. 

But times change and a lighting sys- 
tem that is second to none in 1926 is 
far from that position within 25 years. 
It began to show signs of old age, and 
excessive maintainance costs combined 
with the fact that it was no longer the 
queen of streets again brought the State 
Street merchants together with a com- 
mon bond. A new lighting system was 
again their mutual interest. What was 
needed was a light system that would : 

1. .Make State Street the brightc■^r 
street in the world. 



MARCH, 1960 



19 



STATE STREET 
LIGHTING 



2. Would Ix- ail arti^ti^.■ ami tuiu'tion- 
al achievt-'ment. 

3. Yield a light which would not 
distort color (for display window pur- 
poses) ; increase siI-t'" <"■ '"S'^"*'" '■'"Hcc- 



tioiis in store windows; and one that 
would be up to ilate with comintj d- 
luniination trends. 

4. Would furnish building and up- 
ward illumination as well as street light- 
inir. 

These are pretty toutrh conditions tor 
any light s\steni to meet. Robert O. 
Burton, a Chicagoan with extensive ex- 
perience in interior and lighting design, 



had his design selected from over lOU 
different designs studied in the two year 
planning of the renovated street. The 
simplicity of his form and its highly 
imaginative design, sets a lasting im- 
pression in illumination design. 

The current svstem went into opera- 
tion Nov. 13, 1959, (3.^ years after the 
first of the State Streets) giving Chica- 
go another major civic achievement. 




State Street taken the night of the opening ceremony, 
had been blocked to traffic 



/hen the street 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



CHICAGO'S MUSEUM OF 
SCIENCE and INDUSTRY 



By Michael Murphy 



Just west of the lakefront on 57th 
Street stands one of the most beautiful 
buildinjis in the world, Chicago's Mu- 
seum of Science and Industry. The idea 
for a nuiseum of this t\pe was conceived 
hy Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, 
Roebuck and Co., being prompted by 
the inquisitiveness of his son, William. 
While Mr. Rosenwald and his son were 
in (jermany in 1920, William was fas- 
cinated by the famous Deutsch's mu- 
seum of science and industry. Rosen- 
wald set out to found a nuiscum like 
it in Chicago. 

The site of the museum is the Fine 
Arts Building of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition of 1893. The building 
was of Greek Classic style but with a 
modern layout. Many of the features 
of the fabulous striictm'e were copied 
from the Erechtheion, one of the tem- 
ples on the Acropolis, Athens, built in 



the 3th century, H.C. The original 
building was constructed of heavy brick 
walls with plaster coverings on the in- 
side and outside. After the Columbian 
Exposition the building was used as 
museiun which contained a collection of 
works which was mainl)' assembled from 
the Exposition. The name of the niu- 
seiun was the Field museum now known 
as the Chicago Natural History mu- 
seum. In 1920 the Field nuiseum left 
its slowly deteriorating building for a 
new home at its present location in 
Grant Park. Rosenwald decided to re- 
store the building and to use it as the 
location for a museum of science and 
industry. He offered $3,000,000 for its 
restoration and the south park district 
added another $3,000,000 to this which 
was acquired through a bond. Later gifts 
hy the Rosenwald family brought their 
total contribution to $7,000,000. 



The rebuilding of the structure con- 
sisted mainly of replacing the exterior 
of the building with Indiana limestone 
and interior with marble. All pillars 
which were originallv iron were re- 
[ilaced with stone. The man\' skylights 
were replaced with domes of tile and 
copper. One striking feature of the ex- 
terior of the building is the 24 Carya- 
tids which are supporting columns that 
have the form of draped female figures 
and are 13 feet tall. Reproductions of 
the sculptured panels which adorned 
the famous Parthenon ornament cast 
and west pavilions. Some 330,000 cubic 
feet of stone weighing 28,000 tons make 
vip the building. The structure contains 
13,000,000 cubic feet of space and oc- 
cupies 263,000 square feet (approxi- 
mately six acres) of land. The Hoor 
space and exhibit space of the museum 
amount to 600,000 square feet and ap- 
proximately 400,000 square feet re- 
spectively. The building consists of three 
pavilions. The central pavilion offers 
space for exhibits, offices, reference li- 
brary, cafeteria, lunch rooms, kitchen, 
receiving room, and workshops. In the 
east pavilion can be found exhibits, 
studios, and storage space \\hile located 
in the west pavilion are exhibits, and 
auditorium seating 1000 and a lecture 
hall seating 300. 

The Museum of Science and Indus- 




MARCH, 1960 



21 



rry is :iM I'lliicational institution, the 
imrposc lit which is to acquaint thi- jivn- 
cial public with science and its applica- 
t'dn to inilustrial processes. An inscrip- 
tion in the Central Rotumla reaiis. "Sci- 
ence Discerns the Laws of Nature — 
Industry Applies Them to the Needs 
of Man." An explanation of tliis in- 
scription is thoroughh- carried nut In 
the niuseiun. 

W'iien the museum lirst opened its 
do')rs in I'Hd tliere were onh a tew 
exhibits scattered throus^hout the spa- 
cious building. This unimpressive atmo- 
-.■ihciT residted in the museum facing a 
linancial crisis. The trustees of the mu- 
seum called upon Maior Lenox R. Lohr 
to remed\- the situafon. ^Lnor Lohr 
who graduated from Cornell I nixersitv 
was a member of the L. S. Arnn Corns 
of Engineers for twcKc \ears. His 
work previous to bein"; called upon bv 
the iiuiseum trustees was that of i'en- 
eral manager of A Centurv of Prog- 
ress, the 1033-34 Chicago World's Fair 
and he also was president of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Compaiu'. 

Major Lohr's main objecti\e was to 
remove the boring atmosphere general- 
ly associated with a mu-eum. He re- 
viewed the characteristics of other mu- 
seums and settled upon some definite re- 
sults. Smoking is permitted throughout 
the building and benches are provickd 
for visitors who become wear\. 

Due to the trcmendi)\is cost of most 
exhibits which are worth \iewing, the 
help of American industr\ was enlisteil. 
As anyone can see the ,id\ ertising which 
is accomplished by a company having 
an exhibit at the museum would more 
than pay for the cost of the exhibit. 
About fifty per cent of the exhibits are 
sponsored by industry. An exhibit by 
some organization is permitted by in- 
vitation only and then only under cer- 
tain circumstances. Although the name 
of th" company sponsoring the exhibit 
can be used freeh' in the exhibit no 
mention of excellence compared to other 
brand names is allowed. The com|i;m\ 
pays no fee for the space used but must 
pay for the complete construction and 
maintenance of the exhibit and for any 
demonstrators which are needed. Ex- 
hibits are kept for a period of three or 
five years depending upon .igreemen*^. 
If longer periods of exhibition aie de- 
sired the compaiu' must agree to keep 
the exhibits up to date. One exhibit, 
that of the Bell Telephone Compain 
changes thirty per cent of its material 
a year. The museum has about an equal 
number of its owai exhibits. These in- 
clude among other things a full scale 
operating coal mine, the captured (ler- 
man submarine L^-5(15, a full scale 
model entitled "Yesterday's ^L^in 
Street" and m;ui\ more. 

The majority of exhibits feature such 



22 



things as life, motion, or visitor pai'- 
ticipation. It is this st\le of exhibit 
which mainly accounts tor the large 
luuuber of visitors to the nuiseum year- 
ly. In l')S') the luunber of visitors 
amounted to 2,547,231 which w ,is a 
sizeable increase over the =;i(i,S4,S pi'o- 
ple wlu) visited the nuiseum in l')4ll. 
In l')4() the aver;ige stay of a visitor w:is 
^S minutes but in l''S9 it was 3 hours, 
12 minutes. People came from everv 
state in the uiudii ,ind I rom the District 
(if Colundiia and manv foreign coun- 
tries. 

The nuiseum has an operating co t 
of about :J;8()(),l)(H) a year. To meet this 
expenditure the museum has four 
sources of income — contributions from 
industi'V, income from securities, taxes 
levied bv the park district and profit' 
from admission to the submarine, cn.d 
mine, the Microworld and from th- 
sale of souvenirs and from the cafeterui. 
Although Julius Rosenwald gave >?,- 
000 000 to start the museum he left 
no endowment — believing each gener.i- 
tion should provide for itself. 

One industrial exhibit of partlcular 
interest is the B. F. Goodrich exhibit 
which features a "guillotine." The pur- 
pose of this guillotine is to show the 
strength of a tubeless tire. A 34 pound 
blade is dropped from a height of 30 
feet onto the tire with the resulting 
force equal to that of a car traveling 
00 miles per hour and striking a curb. 
In the Radio Corporation of Amer- 
ica exhibit visitors stand in front of 
color television cameras and see them- 
selves on color receivers. The exhibits 
also show \arious phases of the science 
of color. 

Another fascinating industrial exhibit 
is that of the International Harvester 
Company's simulated 160 acre fami. 
This exhibit is complete with model 
buildings, animals and people. An ex- 
hibit along similar lines is that of Swift 
and Co. The title of this exhibit is 
food for life and a farmer is employe 1 
full time to help maint;iin it. Every d.ay 
100 chicks are hatched in this exhibit 
and young ducks, lambs, and pigs are 
replaced about every three or f<iur 
weeks. 

Cieneral Motors exhibit, "Motorama" 
emphasizes interchangeable assembly 
and its importance in modern industry. 
This exhibit tells the storv' of the lirst 
vehicles and traces their development 
through the years leachiig to niodeiii 
luxury cars of today. 

'Fhe Santa Fe railroad has an ex- 
hibit which delights everyone. It is an 
operating scale model of the whole 
Santa Fe railroad sy.stem extending 
from Chicago to California. Everything 
is shown in precise detail from the wheat 
covered plains of the midwest to the 
rich fruit producing Imperial vallev of 
California. 



The museum itself maintains a large 
number of permanent exhibits. Perhaps 
the most famous of these is a full scale, 
opei.-iting coal ii'ine. .After paying a 
s:ii;ill admission tee the visitors to the 
co;il mine are led into ,iii elevator and 
descend "600 feet" into the earth. 
Actually the elevator descends only a 
short distance hut the slow motion of 
the elevator and the fast moving cables 
seen through the elevator give the ap- 
pear.-ince of a lide deep into the earth. 
This is followed by a ride on a small 
underground railroad of the same type 
u ed in actual mines. Next are demon- 
strations and lecture's in v.irioiis phases 
of coal mining. 

.Another ponuhar prrnianent exhibit is 
tint of the I -SOt (lermaii submarine. 
This submarine which was captured bv 
'"American Naval forces during World 
War II wa-. brought to Chicago a few 
years ago as a memorial to the people 
who lost their lives while fighting Ger- 
man submarines. The sub was towed to 
Chiuuzo throindi the Great Lakes and 
moved across the outer drive to its final 
resting place next to the museum. The 
visitors are first brought to a room 
which contains various articles such at 
log books, clothing and other object? 
found on the sub. Next the visitors enter 
the sub through its side and are lead 
through various compartments as the 
lecturer describes the sub's history and 
operation. The sub has been restored to 
a point where it is practically the same 
as it was during the years that it hunt- 
ed for Allied shipping. As the visitors 
leave the sub thev pass through a cor- 
ridor which contains a periscope mount- 
ed in such a manner that the viewer 
can see out into the outer drive. 

A must for every visitor is the ex- 
hibit entitled "Aliracle of Growth." 
This exhibit was prepared with the as- 
sistance of the professional colleges of 
the University of Illinois. Pictures and 
diagrams serve to illustrate the process 
of human reproduction. This exhibit 
also contains a transparent plastic fig- 
ure of a pregnant woman showing a 
full term fetus ready for birth. An- 
other exhibit in the medical science sec- 
tion is "The Transparent Woman." As 
a demonstrator lectures concerning this 
exhibit various internal organs of the 
model light up. Other exhibits in this 
section of the museum are a 16 foot 
model of a human heart which can be 
cnteicd. .As a person walks through the 
heart a recording of an actual heart 
heat is heard. 

All of the exhibits are created in 
such a manner so that the average per- 
son is able to clearly understand them. 
.Many students in scientific fields have 
received their initial inspiration from i 
visit to the Chicago Museum of Sci- 
rnce and Indiistiv. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



I 



Raw Material Inventory for 
the Steel Industry 



By Irwin E. Tuckman 



The newspapers often cany stories as 
to the approximate inventories of the 
\arious producers of steel. The.\' inform 
the public as to the importance of a 
stable supph' in the warehouses, and the 
fact that if the sup|ily dwindles prices 
rise. 

Hut the steel companies ha\e another 
mxentory, an inventory' tiiat rises for 
about 8 months each year and falls the 
rest of the year. The public doesn't read 
about it, but it is harder to measure 
and much easier depleted than the ware- 
house inventory. It is one of the most 
important factors in tiie production of 
steel. This is the raw material iinen- 
tory. 

Near the blast furnaces of a steel re- 
finery are mounds of iron ore, coal and 
limestone. These mounds appear to be 
small mountains and hills within the 
confines of the refinery. They can be 
compared to the pile of coal that was 



dumped in the alley for the heating of 
an apartment building. If that pile of 
coal were enlarged about six times it 
would be a very small mound in the 
stockpile of raw materials at a steel re- 
finery. 

To weigh tiie stockpile to rind out 
how much there is, is out of the ques- 
tion. Yet by the use of engineering the 
tonnage can be measured with as little 
as one to two per cent error. 

Most of the iron mined in this coun- 
try comes from the Mesabi Range of 
Eastern Minnesota, the Clinton Range 
which runs from New York through 
the Appalachian Mountains to Alabama, 
and Wisconsin and Michigan. 7*5'; of 
the ore comes from the Mesabi Range 
and the Lake Superior region. 

The ore is transported down the 
Great Lakes on special barges to the 
furnaces located nearby. About 85't of 
all the iron and steel used in the United 



States is made in those states adjacent 
to the Great Lakes. In winter parts of 
the waterway freeze up, cutting off a 
major supply of ore. For only 8 months 
out of the \ear are the lakes navigable, 
and during this short time enough ore 
must be stored up to keep the fiu'naces 
going all \ear 'round. This time ele- 
ment is the reason behind the import- 
ance of knowledge of the in\entor\' of 
the law materials. 

Formerly a crew of engineers used to 
go out to the stockpiles and measure 
the height of the mounds of raw m;i- 
terials. This operation took three to 
four weeks. Then they woidd spend 
about six weeks figuring the volume of 
the stockpile. From the volume and the 
density of the raw materials an estimate 
was made as to the number of tons of 
iron ore, coal for coke, and limestone 
available. An error of 8% was con- 
sidered good. But an over estimation of 
more than 8'r' could throw the jiroduc- 
tion schedule for a loop. 

Several years ago a new method of 
aerial survey was introduced. It was 
new to the steel industry but old to 
the army. Originalh' used in World 
War II with .^-I) photography, photo- 
grammetry was able to obtain accurate 
details of enemy installations and indus- 
trial plants. Since then it has been used 
(Continued on Page 26) 



Are You Cominq Down to the 
U. of I. Next Semester? 

The Technograph needs men and 
women interested in gaining experi- 
ence in: 

• BUSINESS PROCEDURES 

• WRITING 

• MAKE-UP 

• ILLUSTRATIONS 

• ADVERTISING 

• PROMOTION 

Apply at: 

THE TECHNOGRAPH OFFICE 

215 Civil Engineering Hall 



EIVGIIVEERS 

SECURE YOUR FUTURE NOW 

with one of the oldest manufacturers of 
refrigeration in the world. 

S*t<^i*tcen^ tteeded ^<n . . . 

HOME OFFICE 
design 
application 
development 

FIELD 

erection 

sales 

distributors 

To enable you to fill these positions in the -fast 
growing field of commercial refrigeration, Fricit 
Company offers a special training course at the 
home office. 
Write foi details and applications today. 



:®[S 



/vi.-iii 11 I mni't^m>m-iwym 



MARCH, 1960 



23 



engineers 




Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 

engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 

of data from many information points. 




Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 

on related research projects. 




and what they c: 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today arc concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems— air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and allied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four ' 
basic fields: 

ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING Men engaged in this i 
activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad- 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 

DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo- 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en- 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per- 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING Here men supervise 
and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel- 
opment engines. They devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop- 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future efltort. 

MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other materials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 
They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina- 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturing difficulties. 



Under the close supervision of an engineer, 

final adjustments ore made on a rig for 

testing an advanced liquid metal system. 




Pratt & Whitney Aircraft... 




Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on ot the Florida Research and Development Center. 



For further information regarding an engineer- 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement officer or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azinger, Engineering Department, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 



PRATT & VlfHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporotion 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS - East Hartford 

FLORIDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER - Palm Beach County, Florida 



(llontiniud from I'agc J.ij 
by I'lifjineers to survey land in the phin- 
niiifi ot hif;h\va\s. 

Hy the use ol plintosiraninicriy a to- 
pofiraphie map can lie niaJe. Tills map 
shows the confiKii ration or shape of the 
land surface of an\ area with much 
detail. Due to the detail iinoKed it is 
a map ot small area as compared to a 
^eo<;raphic map, and therefore is per- 
fect for the stock piles. The map is 
made up of contour lines. On a steep 
slope the lines are close together and on 
a gentler one they are further apart. 

There are four basic steps in the 
aerial in\entor\ of a raw material stock- 
pile. 

I. The Plane 

At a height of 1650 feet directly o\er 
the stockpile, a camera in the plane 
takes a series of photographs with ,i 
55'( overlap. When a matching paii 
of the.se photographs is projected on a 
screen a 3-D picture of the area is ob- 
tained. The scale used for mea.surement 
of a stockpile area is obtained hy using 
known distances between markers. 

II. The map. 

The negati\es of the photographs are 



used to make positive prints on glass 
plates. The pair of plates are put in a 
stereoscopic plotter, which projects them 
together on a small white screen. The 
two positives are each projected in dif- 
ferent colois, one red and one blue. I he 
plottei' operator \xeais red anil blue 
glasses similar to those used tor Mew- 
ing .vl) movies. The stock|iile then ap- 
peals in 3-D to the operator and he can 
distinguish the peaks and \alle\s ,is the\ 
actually are. 

-A bright dot is superimposed on the 
picture. The dot is contiolled by the 
operator. He can adjust it to appear 
at any elevation. The dot is moved hy 
a tracing table to which a pencil point 
is attached. By moving the dot along 
the pile so that it always touches the 
surface of the slopes of the nioimds, the 
operator causes the pencil to draw a 
contour line at the bottom of the pile, 
and by moving up two feet with each 
successive line to the top of the stock- 
pile an accurate topographic map of the 
pile is constructed. 

III. Measuring the map. 

A plainmeter measures square area 
within an irregular outline, and b\ its 
use the area of the stockpile is obtained. 



With the counters set at zero tin 
operator places the glass covered viewci 
on the first contour line. He follows the 
line with a ilot in the viewer. After fol- 
lowing the line through the ma]) he 
procedes to the ni-\t ele\ation line and 
so on throiighdiit the map. 

A dial registers figures as the \iewer 
goes from ele\ation to ele\atioii and 
around the map. The figures are then 
interpreted by means of a scale, giving 
an accurate tabulation of the area with- 
in the contour lines. 

I\'. Final Analysis. 

The rest of the calculating is tloiie 
by machines. The volume, the density 
of the material, and an allowance for 
the \anations of slope of the stockpile 
are all taken into consideration. The 
result is an estimate of tonnage within 
one to two per cent error. 

This accuracy and the time sa\cd 
make the jobs of the men who make up 
the production schedule much easier 
than the old method. 

The steel industry, using aviation, 
3-D photography, map making, calculat- 
ing machines, and engineers, "just for 
an inventory" keeps production at a 
constant rate. 




//?(5/\/ 



5T0L-K P/LE 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




i^'^^ 




Dick Ernsilorff ^tiulies a microwave site-layout chart atop a moun- 
tain near Orting. in western Washington state. On assignments like 
this, he often carries |25,000 worth of equipment with him. 




' / 



wmm 



kW^i^*' 



Here, Dick checks line-of-siglu 

mirror-flashing and confirms reception by portable radio. Using this 

technique, reflections of the sun's rays can be seen as far as 50 miles. 



He wears two kinds of work togs 



For engineer Richard A. Ernsclorff, the "uniform of the 
day" changes frequently. A Monday might find him in a 
checkered wool shirt on a Washington or Idaho mountain 
top. Wednesday could be a collar-and-tie day. 

Dick is a transmission engineer with the Pacific Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company in Seattle. Washington. He 
joined the company in June. 1956. after getting his B.S.E.E. 
degree from Washington State University. 'T wanted to 
work in Washington," he says, "with an established, grow- 
ing company where I could find a variety of engineering op- 
portunities and could use some imagination in my work." 

Dick spent 21-) years in rotational, on-the-job training, 
doing power and equi])ment engineering and "learning the 
business." Since April. VJ^'). he has worked with micro- 
wave radio relay systems in the Washington-Idaho area. 

When Dick breaks out his checkered shirt, he's headed 
for the mountains. He makes field studies involving micro- 



wave systems and SAGE radars and trouble-shoots any 
problem that arises. He also engineers ''radar reinoting" 
facilities which provide a vital communications link be- 
tween radar sites and Air Force Operations. 

A current assignment is a new 11.000 mc radio route 
from central Washington into Canada, utilizing reflectors 
on mountains and repeaters (amplifiers I in valleys. It's a 
niillion-dollar-|)lus project. 

"I don't know where an engineer could find more inter- 
esting work," says Dick. 

* * * 

You might also find an interesting, rewarding career with 
the Bell Telephone Companies. See the Bell interviewer 
when he visits your campus. 

BELL TELEPHONE COMPANIES HMl 



Dick slops by the East Central Office building in Seattle to look 
at some microwave terminating equipment. It's involved in a 4000 
megdcvtle racho re la\ s\stem \h tween Seattle and Portland, Oregon. 



In the Engineering Lab in downtown Seattle. Dick calibrates and 
aligns transmitting and receiving equipment prior to making a path- 
oss test of microwave circuits between Orting and Seattle. 




MARCH, 1960 



27 



A FABLE OF THE BARNYARD 



( (joiiliniiiil frijin I'agi 17 J 

been out in the competitive field tor u 
few days or weeks or months or years 
things will be different. 

The man who can adapt to every sit- 
uation, the one who knows moie than 
how to solve the necessary equation, the 
one who has taken electives which reacii 
tar from his field will excel. I might 
even add that those who really become 
proficient in extra-curricular pastimes by 
joining teams and clubs have an even 
greater edge. 

The really apparent parallel is iden- 
tical to that of our friends: the mule 
and horse. The horse was efHcient and 



\ielchn^. He >uppr(•^M•d his own ideas 
to please the children. H\it he was not 
exciting to them. He didn't have the 
ingenuity' to go beyond his training. The 
potential is equally bestowed on the 
horse and the mule to give children the 
ideasure of a ride in the afternoon. Yet 
one of them was the favorite — I'd even 
call him a "leader." This is compar- 
able to our plight as engineers. We 
have equal resources in engineering. 
Our required courses must be mastered. 
However, in fields outside the technical 
area, there is a tendency to siougii off. 
We must use these socio-humanistic 
fields to convey our engineering task 
to others. 



We must realize our own make-up, 
physical, mental, and spiritual. These 
non-technical areas are also the ke\ to 
getting along with your boss — knowing 
his limits and those of your co-workers 
and helpers. 

These and many other factors are 
needed in an engineer. We have a re- 
sponsibility to the world we create with 
our automation that goes beyond the 
knowledge that an eIe\ator cable will 
break with so much tensile stress. We 
must know if the people who will ride 
in that elevator are physically able to 
cope with the elevator's new facets. We 
m\ist know if they can withstand its 
acceleration, or understand its self-op- 
erative features. This may open a whole 
new field of human engineering. 




I 



Yours? 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



RCA REPORTS TO YOU 



NEW ELECTRONIC "BRAIN" CELLS 
FIT IN THE EYE OF A NEEDLE 



Basic building block for compact, 
electronic "thought savers" will 
serve you in your office, in 
defense -someday, in your home 

• Today, science not only is working on lahor-sa\ing 
devices — but on thought-saving devices as well. 

These "thought savers" are electronic computers 
— wonder-workers that free us from tedious mental 
work and are capable of astoundingly rapid compu- 
tations. Naturally, the more compact these computers 
can be made, the more applications they can have. 
Not only in industry, defense and research — but in 
the oflTice and ultimately in the home. 

"Squeezing" exacting components 

A big ad\'ance has recently been made liy RC.^ 
research towards making these "thought sa\'ers" 
smaller than ever before, for broader than ever use. 

Take, for example, the new "logic" circuit which 
actually fits in the eye of a needle. It is a new 
computer component developed by RCA. 

Today, the electronic functions of this micro- 
miniature device require a whole fistful of wires, 
resistors, transistors and condensers. 

These tiny units will calculate, sort, "remember," 
and will control the flow of information in to- 
morrow's computers. Yet they are so small that 
100,000,000 of them will fit into one cubic foot! 

Cutting computers down to home size 

This extreme reduction in size may mean that some- 
day cigar-box-size electronic brains may help you in 
your home — programming your automatic appli- 
ances, and keeping track of household accounts. 

Remarkable proaress in micro-miniaturization is 
another step foncard hv RCA — leader in radio, tele- 
vision, in communications and in all flt'Ctronics — for 
home, office, and nation. 




Needle's eve linltis eleelroiiie "brain" eells — Photograph shows how 
new RCA "logic" element can be contained in the eye of a sewing needle. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

THE MOST TRUSTED NAME IN ELECTRONICS 



MARCH, 1960 



29 



ENGINEERING FIRSTS 



By I. E. Tuckman 






BOY MEETS SLIDE RULE 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




MASTERING THE SLIDERULE 



FIRST EXAM 




"Maybe I'll look it over tonight" 




NEXT DAY 



MARCH, 1960 



31 



FIRST PHYSICS LAB 



FIRST E.E. LAB 




/ 



'j; 



^ 










M 



dy- c' 



^) 



'WORKS, DOESN'T IT?" 



I think I'll open a hot dog stand" 



FIRST JOB 




'WE STRESS INDIVIDUALITY" 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




• The small gas turbine is an important aircraft and weight mark it as an important power source 
support item used primarily for starting jet engines for common commercial use. AiResearch is the 
and providing on-board auxiliary power. The high largest producer of lightweight gas turbines, ranging 
compressed air and shaft outputs for its small size from 30 H.P. to the 850 H.P. unit pictured above. 

EXCITING FIELDS OF INTEREST 

FOR GRADUATE ENGINEERS 

Diversity and strength in a company offer the and other electronic controls and instruments, 

engineer a key opportunity, for with broad knowl- • Missile Systems — has delivered more accessory power 

edge and background your chances for responsibil- units for missiles than any other company. AiResearch 

ity and advancement are greater. is also working with hydraulic and hot gas control 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch systems for missile accessory power. 

Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its * Environmental Control Systems — pioneer, leading 

diversification, which you will experience through developer and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air 

an orientation program lasting over a period of conditioning and pressurization systems, 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your Should you be interested in a career with The 

most profitable area of interest. Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 

Other major fields of interest include: Corporation and Career Opportunities" at your 

• Aircraft Flight and Electronic Systems — pioneer and College placement office. For further information 
major supplier of centralized flight data systems write to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley... 



¥HE 




/AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions 



Los Angeles 45, California • Phoenix, Arizona 
i Systems, Packages and Components for: AIRCRAFT. MISSILE, nuclear and industrial APPLICATIONS 

I MARCH, 1960 33 




I 



Nosing Us ivay duivn to earth, X-15's skin of a high-Nickel-containing alloy will glow with the dull cherry red of a tossed rivet. 

Inco-developed alloy to help X-15 
carry first man into space 

Alloy perfected by Inco's continuing research program 
will help new rocket plane withstand destructive heats 



When the first manned rocket plane 
streaks in from space, temperatures 
may build up to as high as twelve 
hundred degrees. 

The ship's nose and leading edges 
heat to a dull glowing red in seconds. 
At this destructive temperature, 
X-15's metal skin could weaken, 
could peel off. 

Aircraft research personnel found 
the answer to this high-temperature 
problem in one of a family of heat- 
treatable nickel-chromium alloys 
developed by Inco Research. It with- 



stands even higher temperatures 
than 1200°F! 

Remember this dramatic example 
if you're faced with a metal problem 
in the future. It may have to do with 
product design, or the way you make 
it. In any event, there's a good chance 
Inco Research may help you solve it 
with a Nickel-containing alloy. 

Over the years, Inco Research has 
successfully solved a good many 



metal problems, and has compiled a 
wealth of information to help you. 
You may be designing a machine 
that requires a metal that resists 
corrosion, or wear, or high tempera- 
tures. Or one that meets some 
destructive combination of condi- 
tions. Inco Research can help supply 
the answer. Help supply the right 
metal, or the right technical data 
from its files. 

When you are in business, Inco 
Nickel and Inco Research will be at 
your service. 

The International Nickel Company, Inc., 
New York 5, N.Y. 



Inco Nickel 



makes metals perform better longer 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by The Staff 



New Flagging Tape 

A new, \ci>atili.- plastic flagging tape 
was iiitrniiuceil by Keiiffel &' Esser C(i. 
Made of tough, vinyl plastic in fne 
\iviii colors, it acts as a high-visibilit\ 
marker for identification piu'poses. 

Its far-reaching uses include locating 
bi)un(lar\ lines, stakes, stations, land- 
marks, center lines, property and utilit\ 
lines and danger areas. 

Ideally suited for engineers, survey- 
ois, real estate firms, utility companies. 
buiUlers. contractors and exploration 
companies, the weather and wind- 
resistant tape tears clean, takes pencil 
and ball point pen markings and re- 
mains supple at temperatures as low as 
minus M) degrees F. 

The tape conies in red, yellow, blue, 
white and orange. It is furnished in 
loUs 4 inches in diameter, Ij^-'nch 
wide, M)i) feet in length. 

Hints on Interviewing 

After accepting job^, graduating stu- 
dents shovdd not continue interviewing. 
College placement officers should not re- 
strict the number of interviews a stu- 
dent has. 

These are two suggestions among 
many in the first revisions of "The 
Principles and Practices of College Re- 
cruiting," a six-page leaflet published by 
the College Placement Council, Inc., 
Hethlehem, Pa., and the Chamber of 
Commerce of the United States, Wash- 
ington. The leaflet lists mutual obliga- 
tions of students, employers, and place- 
ment officers. The Council and the Na- 
tional Chamber are sending the leaflet 



to i.3lHl college placement officers and 
,1, ()()() top business, college, and govern- 
ment executives. 

With business booming again, the 
Council and Chamber expect a boom in 
the number of interviewers arriving on 
college campuses in the next few 
months to talk with the hundreds of 
thousands of senior and graduate stu- 
ilents in the class of 1960. The Council 
and Chamber expect that, as during the 
hectic 1957 recruiting season, the short- 
age of top quality science graduates will 
continue. 

The two organizations emphasize that 
departure from commonly accepted 
practices were few in 1957. They be- 
lieve that a trend toward serious in- 
fractions was averted by the suggestions 
in the first joint statement. Howe\er, 
they point out that in 1958 and in 19 59 
the business recession caused a slacken- 
ing in recruiting competition. The leaf- 
let states that: "It is in the best inter- 
ests of students, colleges, and employers 
alike that the selection of careers be 
made in an objective atmosphere with 
complete understanding of all facts." 

Specific, mutual obligations of col- 
lege students, placement officers, and in- 
terviewers are listed. For exam|ile: 

"When a student is invited to visit 
an employer's premises at the employer's 
expense, he should include on his ex- 
pense report only those costs which per- 
tain to the trip. If he visits several em- 
ployers on the same trip, costs shouhl 
be prorated among them. . . . 

"The (college) Placement Ofl'icer 
and faculty members should counsel 
students but should not unduly influ- 



ence them in the selection of jobs. . . . 

"l-'mplou'rs should not raise (salary) 
offers already made, except when such 
action can be clearly justified as sound 
industrial relations practices: such as, 
when an increase in hiring rate is re- 
quired on an over-all basis to reflect 
salary adjustments in the employing or- 
ganization." 

The College Placement Coimcil 
serves the eight Regional Placement As- 
sociations of the I'nited States and 
Canaila. Business, industry, and govern- 
ment personnel officers and college 
placement directors are members. The 
Chambei- is composed of 3,450 business, 
trade, and professional organizations 
\\hicli haxe a membership of 2,750,000 

hM^i^(■^^ mcU. 

Ductile Iron Pipe Production 
Seen Tripling This Year 

I'loduction of ductile iron pipe will 
triple this year and by 1961 it will climb 
to 100.000 tons annually. This predic- 
ti<in by The International Nickel Com- 
pan\. Inc., is based on the rapidly ex- 
panding use of this new engineering ma- 
terial for water mains; in undergromid 
gas distribution system; and for pipes 
aboard tankers and in chemical plants. 

Two recent major installations in 
ChicajTO — one for gas distribution, the 
other for water — point up the trend in 
favor of ductile iron. Some 21.000 tons 
of this metal, which combines the 
strength and ductility of carbon steel 
with the corrosion resistance of gray 
cast iron, will be used for pipe this year. 

FoUowini successful underground in- 
sallations of ductile iron pipe on a pilot 
basis to test its resistance to ground set- 
t'ement and traffic stresses. Peoples Gas 
Light ;uid Coke Company of Chicago 
is now \ising many hundreds of thous- 
ands of feet of this pipe in sizes rang- 
ing from six to 30 inches throughout its 
gas distribution system. 

"Ductile pipe possesses an impact 
strength from 12 to 15 times that of 
pipe produced from gray cast iron and, 
therefore, will withstand much greater 
shocks resulting from heavy traffic," 
James L. Adkins, chief technical engi- 
neer of Peoples Gas, reports. "The 
greater strength and bendability of duc- 
tile iron pipe permit it to withstand 
much heavier beam loading and greater 
deflections without failure." 

Magnetic Roasting in Production 
Of Iron Ore 

The gaseous .selective reduction proc- 
ess employed by The International 
Nickel Company of Canada as a stage 
in the recovery of high-grade iron ore 
from nickeliferous pyrrhotite, was de- 
scribed. A closely allied procedure, 
magnetic roasting of iron oxides, is 
considered to be one of the most prom- 



MARCH, 1960 



35 



ising methods for beneficiating the l(n\ - 
grade iron ores of the Lake Supiiidr 
region. 

Large-scale iiiagneti/.in^ rd.isring is 
being practiced, employing a noNcI pinc- 
ess invented and dexeloped by INCt'. 
In this procedure, pre-heated hematite 
is subjected to a controlled reducing 
roast in kilns l.i feet in diameter, using 
gas generated by the partial combustion 
ot hea\\- fuel oil or natural gas in a 
concurrent gas-solid operation. These 
are the laigcst known gaseous reduc- 
tion kilns in the wculd. 

The hot hematite feed is luoduccd 
Irom nickeliferous p\rrhotite in lluul- 
hcd roasters 26 feet in diameter. I he 
roasters incorporate another concept in- 
\ented and developed hy Inco which 
results in uniipiel\- high roaster capacit>' 
co'i.cidental with a high degree of sid- 
phur elimination and a high-quality sid- 
pluu' dioxide oft-gas. 

After remo\al of nickel, copiier ;uul 
cobalt from the kiln product by leach- 
ing, the almost pure magnetic is ag- 
glomerated on balling discs and fired on 
an 8-foot-\vide traveling grate pellet 
sintering machine. The final product 
consists of pellets one inch in diameter 
analyzing 68 per cent iron, considered 
to be the highest quality tonnage iron 
ore produced on the North American 
continent. 

Advanred Infrared Sensistors 

l.ockhccil Aircraft Corporation re- 
ports development of an infrared device 
so sensitive it can detect the presence 
of a glowing cigarette miles away. 

Applications of infrared theory in a 
major new Lockheed research program 
have brought forth a similar device for 
West Germany's F-KHG Starfighters. 

Robert A. Bailey, California Divi- 
sion chief engineer, said the research 
product provides fire control systems 
with "nudtiple advantages" over equip- 
ment now installed in modern military 
aircraft. 

"Meeting all requirements for super- 
sonic fighter use, it is smaller and light- 
er, more reliable and more accurate 
than similar instruments in current use; 
in addition, it is operable both da\- .ind 
night," Bailey said. 

Designed to supplement electronic 
tracking gear, it will provide measure- 
ment of angular target movement after 
initial radar contact. 

Full Power Reached by Nation's 
First Dual Reactor 

Two pre.ssuri/.ed water reactors of 
the land-ba.sed prototype nuclear power 
plant for large surface ships have op- 
erated in parallel at full power at Idaho 
Falls, Ida. The plant, known as the 
AlW prototype, is the nation's first 
nuclear power plant to have two reac- 



36 



tors powering one propeller shaft. De- 
signed as the forerunner of the power 
plants for two Navy combatant ships 
now under construction, the guided 
nu'ssile cruiser. Long Beach, and the 
aircraft carriei", l'"nterpri>e, the ,'\1W 
i> the largest naval nucle.ir pciwcr plant 
in opeiation. Full power was achie\e<l 
Septendier 1 \ l')S<). 

The .MW protot\pe power plant was 
designed ,ind developed by Westing- 
house I'lectric Corporation at the 
.Atonu'c F.nergy Commission's Bettis 
l,[h(ir;itor\', Pittsburgh, imder the direc- 
tKin of .-md in technical cooperation 
with the Na\al Rc.ictors liianch ot the 

Af:c. 

Philip N. Ross, general manager of 
the Bettis atomic power laboratory, em- 
phasized that the AlW prototype full 
scale test of the reactor, reactor system, 
steam plant systems apparatus, and con- 
trols will provide important technical 
information on over-all plant perform- 
ance. 

The two AlW reactors along with 
all the primary coolant systems are 
housed in an exact replica of a ship's 
hull section. Newport News Shipbuild- 
ing and Dry Dock Company, Newport 
New^s, W. Va., was responsible for the 
construction of the ship's hull and the 
installation of nuclear and propulsion 
plant components. 

The cruiser, Long Beach, which was 
launched July 14, 1959, will use two 
AlW type atomic reactors in its pro- 
pidsion plant, while the carrier. Enter- 
prise, will utilize eight of these reactors. 

Economy of Gravel Roads 

Gravel or crushed stone roads are 
economical when traffic volume is low, 
but beyond a certain limit, potholing 
and washboarding raise maintenance 
costs to an extent that more expensive 
surfacing is cheaper, Prof. Eugene Y. 
Huang, LTniversity of Illinois civil en- 
gineering department, told the Highway 
Research Board. 

He reported an investigation con- 
ducted under the U. of I. Engineering 
Experiment Station in cooperation with 
the Illinois State Division of Highways 
and V. S. Bureau of Public Roads. 

(navel roads stiulied by Prof. Huang 
were more resistant to potholing and 
crushed stone to washboarding. Both 
conditions are caused by traffic. Good 
ilrainage helped by maintenance of road 
crown and shoidders helps keep down 
these avito-shaking and teeth-jolting de- 
loini.-itions of the surface, he said. 

Potholes result when an auto tire 
passing over a soft spot in the roadway 
splashes out fine materials, then bounces 
out the loosened larger materials. Holes 
S or 6 inches deep result. 

Washboarding resvdts when a wheel 
passing over a soft roadway hits a small 
obstruction, bounces, pushes surface 



materials a bit, and bounces again until 
oscillations stop. Effect is compounded 
by one vehicle after another, and a cor- 
rugated surface results. 

Xundier of vehicles causing such 
roadway deformation may be as low as 
So a day, Prof. Huang said. The de- 
formities develop rapiilly when traffic 
densities ^n lievnnd 41111 vehicles a day. 

New Metal Etching Control 
Material Described 

A new Iv-Intiiiduced control material 
for metals-working industries which em- 
ply etching, photo milling, or plating 
techniques is now available. 

Kod.ik .Metal-Etch Resist was devel- 
oped to assist in accurate and economi- 
cal control of the removal of superflu- 
ous and hai'd-to-get-at metal from in- 
process pieces through etching or chemi- 
cal milling. It is expected to have far- 
reachmg applications in space-age indus- 
tries which work largely with alumin- 
um and titanium. 

Kodak Metal-Etch Resist protects the 
surface of the in-process piece in those 
areas where the removal of metal is not 
required or is undesirable. The entire 
surface of the piece is first coated with 
Kodak Metal-Etch Resist. The piece is 
then exposed to high-intensity light, 
from a carbon-arc or mercury-vapor 
lamp, through a photographically pre- 
pared line negative which "masks" the 
piece, passing the high-intensity light to 
areas which require protection and ex- 
cluding it from areas to be worked. 
This exposure forms an image of the 
desired pattern. After treatment with 
Kodak Metal-Etch Resist Developer, 
the protected areas will resist the action 
of the etching solutions. 

Because it is a non-conducting ma- 
terial which adheres readily to a num- 
ber of metals, Kodak Metal-Etch Re- 
sist is expected to be widely used also 
In plating to permit the plating of a 
piece In specific areas, while excluding 
the plating from other areas. 

'Plastic' Transportation 

A C.madian company is using plas- 
tic balls to Hoat wood chips down the 
Frazer River. If the experiment proves 
to be successful, this method may elimi- 
nate the need to purchase 1,500 gon- 
dola-type rallw.iv cars to transport the 
huge volume of chips. 

'Punctures' Help Tires 

A tire companv is puncturing its tires 
with thousands of tacks before offering 
them to consumers. The company has 
found an even spread of tiny holes on 
the tread gives a tire a crepe-like quality, 
lets the tread touch every dent and 
bump on a slipperv' road and develops 
m:ixun\im traction. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



I 



why Frank G. selected 

HAMILTON 
STANDARD 




■pRANK G. has now chosen a company to launch his en- 
■*■ gineering career. Previously we have shown you how he 
gave Hamilton Standard a thorough looking-over. He was 
impressed by the spectrum of skills built into Hamilton 
Standard's products and the advanced planning program 
that predicts future technical and economic trends. Also he 
learned that participation in small project, design or analy- 
sis groups permitted unusual latitude to express his ideas 
and to get a job done. 

CONCLUSION— Hamilton Standard offered career satis- 
faction and management potential. 

Frank noted that Hamilton Standard, and United Air- 
craft Corporation, offer the country's finest privately owned 
research laboratories. Hamilton Standard is well diversified. 
Products range from tiny thermoelectric generators for sat- 
ellites to the complex environmental conditioning system 
for the Convair 880. And, of course, the picturesque Con- 
necticut countryside promises leisuretime living at its best 
. . . with New York and Boston just a few hours away. 
CONCLUSION— Hamilton Standard's facilities, products 
and locale are superior. 



GRADUATE STUDY COMPLETES THE PICTURE 

Frank G. considers Hamilton Standard's graduate study 
program the finest in the industry . . . and this sealed the 
verdict. Knowing that the continuation of his studies will 
enhance his opportunities for advancement, Frank plans to 
take advantage of the company's tuition-paid study pro- 
gram at a choice of universities such as Rensselaer, Yale, 
Trinity, Columbia. Yes, Hamilton Standard scored high on 
Frank G.'s "career exam." 

CONCLUSION-Whcther you are an EE, ME, AE or 
MET why not take a good look now? 

Write to Mr. R. J. Harding for 
"ENGINEERING FOR YOU AND YOUR FUTURE" 



HAMILTON STANDARD 

DIVISION OF \ 

UNITED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 



-fe.^ 



Every type of technical talent has helped create 
lence of Hamilton Standard's products including 
dynamics, vibration, servomechanisms, electronic: 



the Engineering Excel- 
aerodynamics, thermo- 
;, structures, reliability. 




Assistant Project Engineer Don Coakley, BSME M.l.T. '52, points out per- 
formance test reading of a turbo compressor unit to Senior Test Engineer 
Dick Wilde, BSME Yale '56, Test Engineer Jim Holsing, BSME Brown '59, 



BRADLEY FIELD ROAD, WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT 



MARCH, 1960 




Connecticut offers one of the country's most desirable living areas. 
Choose from city, suburban or urban homesites . . . unlimited recrea- 
tional and cultural facilities. 



37 



NEWS FROM 

NAVY PIER 




U.I.C 



Student 
Uprising, 



.\ pic-planiu-(l ilciiKinstiatidn by stu- 
ilcnt It-ailiTs, liilfillcd a promise nuulc 
last year in tlu- Ma\i)r'> office on the 
occasion of the sruilcnr inarcli last 
sprint;. 

It was proniiscil last \cai that the stii- 
lients would a^ain protest it no concrete 
action were made towaril school re- 
location. 

The demonstration liei^an with a 
funeral procession and niin-k coffin beini: 



carrieil to the east end of the pier. A 
ind the coffin 
with it flavor 



38 



short eidojix was s;i\en 

slii! into tile lake carryinf 

Daley's promises for action. The cofiin 

wouldn't break throufrh the ice because 

as one student out it, "this showed the 

weakness and shallowness of the proiii- 

i:cs made h\ the \!a\or." 

After this loud hut onlerly proces- 
sio:i about .^0 cars proceeded in a solemn 
line to Garfield Park, one of the pro- 
nosed locations, and •> cornerstone was 
laid. It read: "Let it be known that we, 
the students of the Universitv of Illi- 
nois at Chicaaro do hereby claim this 
land for a new UIC site on the 10th day 
of March, Anno Domini, 1960." 

The press covera'^e inchided all the 
Chicasro daili-s "Newsweek Maga/.ine" 
pjul XHC and CBS news commentators. 

60-Story Cylinders 

Two cylindrical 60-story apartment 
towers, the world's largest residential 
structures, will be built on the north 
bank of the Chicago River between State 
and Dearborn. 

This unprecedented center will in- 
clude a 10 story office structure, a wide 
plaza and sculpture garden facing the 
river, a theater, a marina for 700 small 
boats, a restaurant, an ice-skating rink, 
a swimming pool and an 18 story garage. 
The project is called Marina City. 

Construction for the project will start 
this summer. Architect Bertand Gold- 
berg, 46, a Harvard graduate, and one 
time student of Mies van der Robe, de- 
votes the first IS stories to a spiral raiiip 
for automobiles, and the top 40 stories 
to pie shaped apartments, each with its 
own balcony. 

The cost for the project will be $36 
million and will be financed by AFL- 
CIO Building Service Employees' In- 
ternational Union. The money will be 
taken from the Union's health and wel- 
fare funds to build up the central city 
where the members have their jobs. A 
5 per cent retuiii on the investment will 
be guaranteed the union under Title 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




//mmiy 

mm. 




Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis- 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, underthe direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 



THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE 

tier will advance at an accelerated rate. 
The preliminary instrument explora- 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 



will be made of the moon and the plan- 
ets and of the vast distances of inter- 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 
In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un- 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 



"We do these things because of the unquenchable curiosity of 
Man. The scientist is continually asking himself questions and 
then setting out to find the answers. In the course of getting 
these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that 
have sometimes surprised even the scientist. 

"Who can tell what we will find when we ge( to the planets? 



Who, at thii 



present time, can predict what potential benefits 
man exist in this enterprise ? No one con say with any accu- 
y what we will find as we fly fariber away from the earth, 
I with instruments, then with man. II seems to me that we 
obligated to do these things, os human beings'.' 

DR. W. H. PICKERING, Director, JPL 



CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A Research Facility operated for the Notional Aeronautics and Space Administrotion 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

INFRA-RED • OPTICS • MICROWAVE • SERVOMECHANISMS • COMPUTERS • LIQUID AND SOLID PROPULSION • ENGINEERING MECHANICS 
STRUCTURES • CHEMISTRY • INSTRUMENTATION • MATHEMATICS AND SOLID STATE PHYSICS 

Send professional resume for our immediate considerafion. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or at f/ie Laboratory. 
MARCH, 1960 



39 



WHO'S 
<*ARRIVED" 




E. L. DISBROW 

TriSlale College, Angola, Ind. '51 

^H DISBROW exemplifies the opportunity to grow with a young, 
growing company. Now District Manager of the Dunham-Bush ISIinne- 
apoMs ofiice. he supervises widespread engineering activities of a group 
of sales engineers representing a multi-product technical line. 

Engineering degree in hand, Ed went to work for Heat-X (a Dunham- 
Bush' subsidiary f as an Application Engineer. Successive steps in the 
Dunham-Bush main office and as Sales Engineer in the New York 
territory brought him to his present managerial capacity. 

A member of Belle Aire Yacht Club, Ed leads a pleasant life afloat 
and ashore with his wife and two boys. 

Equally satisfying is Ed's job. In directing calls on consulting engi- 
neers, architects. pFant engineers, wholesalers, contractors and building 
owners, he knows he's backed by the extensive facilities of Dunham- 
Bush laboratories, ^'ou can see him pictured above on a typical call, 
inspecting a Minnesota shopping center Dunham-Bush air conditioning 
installation. 

Ed's success pattern is enhanced by the wide range of products he 
represents. For Dunham-Bush refrigeration products run from com- 
pressors to complete systems; the range of air conditioning products 
extends from motel room conditioners to a hospital's entire air condi- 
tioning plant. The heating line is equally complete: from a radiator 
valve to zone heating control for an entire apartment housing project. 
The Dunham-Bush product family even includes highly specialized heat 
transfer products applicable to missile use. 



DunHflin/BUSfl 



AIR CONDITIONING, REFRIGERATION, 

HEATING PRODUCTS AND ACCESSORIES 

Dunham-Bush, Inc. 

WEST HARTFORD 10, • CONNECTICUT, • U.S.A. 

^i