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THE TELEGRAPHER : 



^L 



Journal of Electrical iromm 



VOLUME X. 



1874. 



\U 



\ 



vo 



RUSSELLS' AMERICAN STEAM PRINTLWG HOUSE, 17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STREET. 






Humanities 



INDEX TO VOLUME X. 



EDITORIAL. 

Appointment of II. H. Ward, Secretary and Treasurer of 

tlie Gold and Stock Telegraph Co 11 

An Old Friend in a New Dress 11 

Arguments in Favor of and Against Telegraphic Monop- 

Another Atlantic Cable Telegraph Company Proposed. ... 41 

An Excellent Appointment— L'. N. Jacobs 42 

American Fire Alarm Telegraph, The 42. 95, 239 

An Enterprising Firm ,' 47 

An Unwise Policy 52 

An Excess of Telegraphic Labor 58 

Annual Announcement of Packard's Business College 65 

Automatic Signal Telegraph, The 77 

Advertising Patronage" of The Telegrapher 83 

Another Atlantic Telegraph Cable Interruption 94 

Alliance between the Western Union and American Dis- 
trict Telegraph Co.'s 100 

A Sad Affliction : 106 

Agents for The Telegrapher .* 107 

Automatic Telegraph Company, The , 125 

Arrival of President Orton '. 130 

A Liberal Response 130 

An Error Corrected 130 

Another Atlantic Cable Completed 167 

Automatic Telegraphic Inventions 178 

Automatic 196 

American Electrical Society, The 233, 250, 256, 263 

Automatic Telegraphy not Inimical to the Interests of the 

Telegraphic Fraternity 280 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, Executive 

Changes ] 287 

Approaching Session of Congress, The 287 

A Journalistic Nuisance 287 

American District Telegraph Company Volunteers 287 

Annates Teleg rupliiqiies 299 

American Journal of Science and Arts 299 

A Reform Needed in our Patent Laws 305 

Active Telegraphic Competition Probable 310 

Bliss, George H. <fc Co.'s Telegraphic Manual ". 53 

Brooks' Insulators 65 

Bliss, George H. & Co J 89 

Business and Telegraphic Prospects [ 250 

Consolidation and Telegraphic Competition . ./. 16 

Congress and the Postmaster General J 17 

Chance for a Little Civil Service Reform 23 

Conspiracy to Oppress Teiegraph Employes. A Real Griev- 



Claims of the Page Patent, The 

Congress and the Patent Office 

Correspondence of The Telegrapher, The 8; 

Currency Inflation Question, The, and Telegraphic Pros- 
pects I. 

Congress, Inflation and the Telegraph 

Congress and the Telegraph 

Completion of the Europo-Brazilian Cable 

Oincinnati Industrial Exposition of 1874, Tha 166, 

Chance for Inventors, A 

Cable Telegraph Enterprises ' 

Congress aud the Postal Telegraph 

Change of Location and Business 

Chester's. New and Superior Register aim Relays 

Champion Burglar Alarm and Annunciator 

Close of the Tenth Volume of The Tejegrapper . . 

Comparative Cost of Telegraphic Systems 

Death of Prof. De La Bive 

Discouraging Experience of a Friend of The Tele- 
grapher 

Destructive Sket Storm. A 

Dominion Telegraph Co., The .... 

Deficiency in the Postal Revenues, The .- 

Dull Business Season, A 

Defective Postal Arrangements !'.!!!'...!!!!! 

Dsiioion ot Judge Dnimmond 1 he 

Direct United States Cable, The '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 1 91 ', 269, 

Deserved Promotion and Excellent Appointment 

Departure for California of Dr. L. Bradley 

Direct United States Cable Fleet, Tie. 

psctllC Watt h Clocks and Dials.,! . . 

Elementary Principles of Electrical Measurement 

Editor and Telegrapher in Luck. Ai 

Extension of the Telegraph in Ceftial and South America 

Encouraging Telegraph Prospects 

Effective Way to Do It, The { 

Encouraging 7 

Edison and Prsacott Organs, i/;. and P-ist Systems cf 
telegraphy 

Excellent and Successful Telegriphic Management and ihe 
Result I 

Eleventh Volume of Tin: Telegrapher, The'.'.'. '. .'.' '.' ' ' '.'. 

Financial Utopia, The, How it is Likely to Affect Tele- 
graphic Interests , 

Farce Played Out, The " '.'.'.' 

Fourth of July, 1776 and 1874. Progress and Improvement 
in.: the U. ',•_, became a Nation 

failures to Receive The Telegrapher Regularly 

Friendly Talk with our Readers ami Correspondents, A . 

Fnsnalg and Complimentary 

fain/ Elestris Eu-m: the ° 

Cray's Telephone 

Gold and Stock Telegraph System to be introduced 'in 

Canada 

Getting Up a Newspaper Under Difficulties!! !.!!!! ........ 

liubbard Telegraph Monopoly, The 

Hubbard Bill. The, Reported in the Senate . 

Hale, Hon. Eugene, Declines the Office of Postmaster 

General 

Holiday Set!::::. II::. 

International Free Kxhibilion of Arts and Manufacture's 

Impecunious Telegraphers... . 

Industrial Monthly, The '.'.'.'.'..'.'.'" 

toternatian.il Bsviiw Fhs 

Illustrated Annual of Phrenology and Physiognomy Tlie 
Important to Telegraph Instrument Makers = 
Improvement in the Offices Provided for Telegraph Bii i 

ness, The 



Illness of Mr. F. L. Pope 118 

Interests of The Telegrapher, The 119 

Improvement in Business and Telegraphic Prospects, 

The 148 

Inducements to Engage In, and Objections to Telegraphic 

Service '." . 242 

Indications of Renewed Prosperity to Telegraph Interests. 298 

Justice to Military Telegraph Employes 246 

Largest Piece and Largest Coil of Telegraph Wire in the 



W. 



Lightning and Thunder All Around 142 

Lightning and Lightning Arresters 167 

Lightning Rods and the Protection of Buildings from 

Lightning 214 

Laying of the New Cable. Reports of Direct Cable being 

Sold to the Anglo-American Teleg. Co 215 

Liberal Contribution to Reserve Fund T. M. B. Asso- 
ciation 287 



Literatim 



311 



Migratory Proclivities of Telegraphers, The 53 

More Startling Inventions for Rapid Telegraphing 172 

Marvellous Character and Achievements of the Electric 

Telegraph *. 226 

Marine Telegraph Bill of Canada, The 227 

Metallic or Lead Battery, The 280,299 

New Year aud the New Volume of The Telegrapher, 

The 4 

New Volume of The Telegrapher, The 34 

New Feature, A 53 

New Style of Telegraphic Journalism, A 65 

New Atlantic Cables, The 106, 113, 136, 185, 221 

New Uniform of the A. and P. and Franklin Messengers. . . 112 

New Telegraph Cables in Progress and Proposed 124 

New Compulsory Education Law, The, and the Telegraph 

Messengers 124 

New Telegraphic Establishment, A 137 

Necessity for a More Thorough Education of Telegraph 

Operators : 190 

New Telegraph Line to Sandy Hook, The 221 

New Law in Regard to Postage on Newspapers, The 280 

New Postmaster General and the Telegraphs, The 280 

Not Exactly the Fair Thing ... 298 

Operator The 71 

One more Unfortunate 89 

Our hew Advertisements 280 

Our Washington Correspondence 293' 

Postmaster General and the Western Union Telegraph Co., 

The 4 

Postmaster General and Mr. Orton on Automatic Telegra- 
phy, The 10 

Patent Insulated Telegraph Wires 17 

Public Ledger A'manac, The 18 

Page Patent Litigation, The 28, 47. 53, 262 

Prospects for Telegraph Business, The 52 

Present Condition of Telegraphs, Telegraphers and Tele- 
graphic Service, The 

Popularization of Cable Telegraphy 

President Orton Gone Abroad 

Presentation to Mr. S. C. Rice, of Albany, N. Y 

Proposition for a Society of Electricians and Telegraph 

Engineers, The •. 

Personal Talk with ur Readers, A 

Progress of the New Lines of the A. and P. Telegraph Com- 
pany 

Pope, F. L. & Co. , and their Specialties 

Policy, Creed and Practice of The Telegrapher, The 

Proposed New Electrical Association, The 

Put Your Telegraph Lines in Order for the Winter 

Phillips' Insulated Wires 

Premium Awarded to the Brooks Insulator 

President Orion's Annual Report to the W. U. Stockhold- 



64 



94 

112 
118 

161 
161 

228 
244' 
245 
251 
251 



President Orton's Reports to the Directors of the W. U. 
Telegraph ( lompany 

Quick Cable Telegraphing . \. 

Cu-ct Al::ng the Iinsa 

Railroad Telegraphers and The Telegrapher, The. .!!... 

Rumors of Future Telegraphic Combinations. How a Con- 
solidated Opposition may be Profitably Managed 

Recent Test of the Automatic Telegraph System, The 

Rapid Increase and Extension of Cable Telegraph Lines. . . 

Railroad Telegraphs 

Riturn cf Fresidint Orton 

Resignation of Mr. II. L. Hotchkiss ! !!...!!!!!!!! 

Ksl.ii :tiai of I .slniaster Gj.ntral- 

Resignation and Appointment of Superintendent N. Y. Fire 
Alarm Telegraph 

Rumored Sale of Rival Telegraph Lines to the VV. I . Co! ! 

Reminiscences 

iivt of Albany, N. Y., Fire Alarm 



Resignation and Appi 
Telegraph 

Resignation and Appi 
District Telegri 



262 

311 
41 

208 



40 
41 
70 
82 
125 
125 
160 

173 
226 
233 

239 



lintment of Superintendent American 
ph Co 

Resignation of a Popular Telegraph Superintendent 

Social and Professional Status of Telegraph Operators in 
this < lountry and Europe 

Success of The TELEGRAPHER, The .' 

Speculation in Western Union Telegraph Stock 

Seasonable Suggest ions 

Snapper Sounder, The 

Some Reflections on the Different Characteristics of Tele 
graphers 

Swindling Tricks of Telegraph Colleges and Certain Tele 
graphers 

See| i,„, ,,r the New Allinitic Cable Laid, A !.... 

Season ami ii ■ Consequences, The 

Suspension of the Switch 

Safety Of Ihe Cable Sleainslilp Faraday 

Summer Passing Away Experience and Prospects 

Seasonable Considerations 

Steamer Faraday not heard from 

Success and Failure in Telegraph Cable Laj illg 

The Telegrapher in Canada , 

Telegraphic Positions on Central and South American 

Line- 17 

True Worth 23 

Telegraph Poles 23 



Telegraph Invention and Inventors 

Telegraph Messengers in Uniform 

Telegraphic Projects at Home and Abroad 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association 

Tillotson and Co. on Hand 

Telegraph Lines in Cities 

7 lie Plu// 

The Weather and the Telegraphs 

Telegraph Instrument Manufacturing Business, The 

Termination of the Contract between the U. P. R. R. and 

W. U. Teleg. Co.'s 

Telegraphy and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . . . 

Telegraphic Science in India 

The Telegraph in Wall Str- et 

Telegraphic Enterprise of the English and American Press 

The Volume Halt Completed 

Te egraphic Reunion 

Tillotson and Co. as Advertisers. 

Telegraphic Journalism : its Failures and Successes 

Telegraphic Rumors and Fancies 

The Telegrapher in Texas 

The W. U. Telegraphic Journal and Duplex Telegraphic 

Inventions . . 

Telegraphic Inventions and Inventors and The Tele- 
grapher 

Telegraph Lines in the Streets of Cities 

Telegraphic Insurance Agent, A 

The "Telegraphic Situation 

The Oracle Dumb 

To Subscribers and Friends of The Telegrapher 

Telegraphic Inventions and Inventors and W. U. Officials. 

Telegraphic Journalism 

The Con undrum Evidently too Difficult 

Too Many Telegraph Students Taught 

Telegraph Business Improving 

To the Friends of The Telegrapher 

The " Organ " Business 

Tillotson, L. G. and Co 

Tillotson and Co.'s Philadelphia Establishment 

Telegraphic Construction and Management in the United 

States 

Telegraphic. Prospects Brightening 

The Telegraph r and Automatic Telegraphy 

LTnpr titableness of Government Telegraphs 

Valuable Contribution, A 

Very Pretty Project, A 

Valuable Contributions 

Value of Telegraphic Protection against Conflagrations . .. 

Watts & Co.'s New Catalogue 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co., The 

Work of the Patent Office for 1»73.— Proposed Reforms in 

its Organization 

Western LTnion Dividend, The 

Wheatstone Automatic and the Western Uniou Telegraph 

Company, The 

Was he a Pioneer Line Constructor 

What Causes the Excitement 

Western Union Telegraph Co., The 

Why we Criticise and Condemn 



34 

35 
58 
65 
83 
100 
100 
106 
112 

113 
113 
136 
142 
148 
154 
160 
161 
166 
172 
172 



179 
184 
185 
1H0 
191 
196 
196 
202 
203 
203 
209 
232 
233 
551 
262 

271 

299 
304 
112 
6 
17 
71 
100 
17 
29 

46 
136 

191 
196 
214 
244 
245 



ORIGINAL, ARTICLES. 

All About Us 25 

A Bashful Telegrapher's Mortifying Mistake 121 

A Duplex Review of the English and American Systems of 

Automatic Telegraphy '. 163 

Anders' Magneto-Printing Telegraph Instrument 211 

A Cry from Macedonia. 271 

American Electro-Chemical (Automatic) Telegraph System 

and Construction 283 

Automatic versus the Morse System of Telegraphy 307 

Bridge ve?'sus the Differential Duplex, The 37 

Bad Medicine 133 



Bill Body's Recollections 

Bear's Principle of Balancing Batteries. 



Criticism of tin 

the W I ' 

Cap. De Costa. 

( lallaghan 

( 'hrracteristics 



Annual Report o I' the A. & P. Telg. Co. by 
i -flicial Organ 



>f Tele 



. 115, 170 
290 



it Telegraphers and Condition 

graphic Service 

Death 

Duplex Telegraphy, New System of 

Duplex Telegraphy.— A Combination of the Bridge and Dil 

I'erenlial Systems 

Elementary Principles of Electrical Measurement 



79 
188 
2U5 

283 
44 
157 



175 

. 1, 13,25,43, 

67, 97, 127 

157 



Earth Currents 

Ferg MeOlevcrly 205 

Fourth Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, The 248 

Ureal Telegraphic Suit in Prospect, A 7 

Ghost of Telegraphica,. The H 

Great American Telegraph Traveller, The 283 

How Two of the Boys got Taken In 199 

Honesty of '. outhful Writers, The 199 

How an Electrician got a Urst class Lightning Rod cheap. 801 
Improvement in Telegraph Line Construction, Theories 

and Practical Results in the Past 187 

Industrial Exhibitions. Their Uses and Abuses, Adyan 

tages and Defects 323 

Jottings Here and There' 189 

.lack Allison 283 

Little Tip MeCloskcy 61 

Later Telegraphic Experiences 103 

Laws of Derived Circuits, The 168 

Little's Condenser Rheostat 175 

M.civu Brother of Hob's 339 

Mystery of Electrical Communications, The 341 

\eu Baltimore, Md., Western Union Office, The. 115 
Necessity tor a More Thorough Training and Education of 

Telegraphers '. 198 

New Printing Telegraph Line 217 

New, Cincinnati, O., western Union Office, The 259 

New Yorker I >u West, A 260 

i ihi Jim Lawle 53 

Old and New American Telegraph Systems 217 



Wh2 



INDEX 



Organization, Constitution and By-Laws of the American 
Electrical Society 

Posie Van Dusen 

Pip! Poor Pip! 

Proceedings Chicago, 111., Dist. T. M. B. Association 

Reply to Mr. Orton in Regard to Automatic Telegraphy . . . 

Review of Modern Telegraphy 

Reddy MeGuire 

Retrospective and Otherwise 

Telegraphic Lays i ■ 

Telegraphs and Telegraphers of a Quarter of a Century 
Ago 

Testing Leaky Lines for Insulation and Conductivity 

Telegraphers who Disgrace the Profession, The 

That Little Bill 

Telegraphic Ability, Natural and Acquired 

Telegraph Gossip 

The Dutch have taken Holland 

Telegraphic Inventions, Old and New 

Thrown Overboard Like Jonah 

The Telegraph Cable Operators 

Telegraphing as a Government Institution 

Tom Larkius, the Messenger 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



A reply to the Offl- 



A Response to Nettie Bronson 

Another Problem 

Automatic and Morse Telegraphy 

cial Journal 

A Telegraphic Union the One Thing Needed 

An Oregon Telegrapher's Trip 

A Defence of the Telegraphic Fraternity 

A Matrimonial Failing 

A Correction 

A Telegraphic Organization Essential 

A Scientific and Practical Problem 

Agitator Snubbed 

An Admirer of Nettie Bronson ' 

A Solution of " Ohm Catcher's " Problem 

A Problem for Mr. C. II. Haskins 

Another Telegraphic Paper Wanted 

A Telegrapher who Proposes to Act as well as Write 

Action for a Telegraphic Association Demanded., 

A Bill to Regulate Telegraph Charges. Military Telegraph 
Line 

A Telegraph Pickle Factory 

Another Telegrapher in Earnest 

An American Society of Electrical and Telegraphic Engi- 
neers Proposed 

A Plan for Organizing a Telegraphers' Association 

A Practical Basis fur a Telegraphers' Association 

American District Telegraph Company 

An Electric Surprise. A Confirmed Telegraphic Rascal . . . 

A Hull and its Pecuniary Consequences 

A Lady who Tolerates the Use of Tobacco 

A Bull and an Atrocious Pun 

Automatic Telegraphy 

America! Its Universal System of Automatic Telegraphy. 

A Reply to Mr. Howe 

Action of Washington, D. C, W. U. Employes on Death of 
James T. McCook ....'. 

A New Way to Spell "Cow." 

Automatic, Duplex and Quadruplex j 

A Frightened Telegrapher 

A Reply to Journalistic Criticism 

A Telegrapher Sold 

Automatic Telegraphy ... 

Action of Chicago Members T. M. B. Association. Sugges- 
tions ." 

Are Brooks Insulators Liable to Damage from Lightning? 

An Organ Grinder Badly Sold 

Advantages of T. M. B. Association. A New and Superior 
Relay 

An Excursion of Telegraphers. Their Tribulations and 
Adventures 

A '■ Little " Too Much 

A Night Operator on the C. P. R. R. Promoted to an 
Agency 

An Electrical Conversazione 

Adjournment of Congress for the Holidays. Scare at the 
Capitol, etc ; 

Automatic Telegraphy and Legal Proceedings 

Bounty Land Warrants to Army Telegraphers 

Bullock, A 

Bear's Duplex Telegraph System 

Brooks Insulators not Liable to be Damaged by Lightning. 

Brief Summary of Events in Nebraska .". 

Bear Rises to Explain Again 

Bereaved Telegraphic Artists 

Bear on Verbal Jugglery .... 

Consolidation of Com pet in 
Safety 

Congress and the Telegrapl 



Telegraph Lines the 



3 

3 

8 
9 
32 
39 
44 
45 
62 
03 
63 
5-87 
SO 
81 
ST 
87 
93 

93 
99 
99 

105 

111 
111 
128 
129 
147 
153 
171 
177 
182 
183 

189 
195 
195 
21S 
230 
231 



242 
243 
249 



290 
297 

297 
308 

309 
309 
33 
39 
181 
236 
261 
261 
285 
297 



20, 27. 32. 39. 56. 93, 105. 

...123, 134. 

Character, Disposition and Ability of manv Telegraph and 

R. R. Officials 

Character and Habits of Telegraph Operators . .. 

Country vs. City Telegraph Operators *... 

Claims of the Page Patent, The 

Closing Services of the P. and A ( IhicagO Office. Location 

of the late Employes 

Claims of Military Telegraph Operators to Bounty Lands. . 
Causes Tending to Control Compensation to Telegraph 

Operators , , 

Closing Days of the P. and A. Telegraph Co. at Pittsburg, 

Changes in Philadelphia Consequent on Demise of P. & A. 

. Telegraph Co 

Correction of Personal ".'.'.' 

Consolidation of Competing Companies Practical and Ad- 
visable 

Cheap and Convenient Appliance. A. '. ". ................ 

Ciiiauian ltlegraphs and 'i'elegr ipheir, 1 lit. 
Calilomia Personals 



d of the Ante 



and Morse 



> Teh 
Telej 



graphic Inventors 

raph Co, Heard Fron 



Proceedings 



Comparative Actual Sj 

Systems 

Common Sense Suggestions U 
Colusa Lake and Mendocino 

The 

Cable Telegraphy 

Chicago T. M. B. Associatior 

Electrical Society 

Coil for a Sine Galvanometer 

Duplex Telegraph, The . . 

Death of Charles F. Simmons 

Don't Want Him !........[.]... 

Defence of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoking Telegrapher 
Discoveries and Proa-ess in Electricel Science . . . . 

Duplex Telegraphy 

Double Duplex and Quadruplex Telegraph '. 



Duplex Review Reviewed, The 200 

Departure of Mr. Albert L. Baker. A Case in Point 278 

D. L. and W. Railway (Boonton Branch) Telegraphers 285 

Exit of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Co 3 

Experience of a Young Telegrapher 69 

Experience of a Telegraph College Student 81 

Erie Railway Telegraph Department, The 86 

Erroneous Formula for Testing Telegraph Lines for Mile- 
age Insulation Resistance 123 

Electric Protection for Express Cars on Railroads 135, 141 

Electromotograph, The. A New Discovery in Telegraphy 

and My Duplex Review 212 

Excellent Arrangement of W. U. Lilies in Cincinnati 249 

Electrical Puzzles the Thing Demanded 309 

Fate of the Pittsburg, Pa., P. and A. Employes 51 

Franklin Line Telegraphers at the Capitol, The 57 

Fast Telegraphy. The W. U. Co. Coming in 188 

First Crucial Test of the American Automatic System 189 

Fast Telegraphy and the Interests of the Telegraphic Fra- 
ternity 285 

Good Counsel to the Telegraphic Fraternity ... 45 

Ghosts and Gunpowder 194 

G. R. and I. R. M. Telegraph, The 237 

General and Recapitulatory _ 309 

How the Western Union Co. Encourage Inventors 3 

How the Difficulty of a Sticking Key may be Avoided 15 

How Two R. R. Telegraph Superintendents Conspired to 

Fleece a Victim 33 

HJavv Sleet Storm. A Telegraph Line Man Treed by a 

Mule 45 

How a Short Line may be Made to Work with more 

Strength 183 

How Some Things are Done in the U. S. Patent Office 195 

Indifference of Telegraph Operators to their own Interests. 20 
Importance of the Telegraph to Railroads and Insufficient 

Compensation of R. R. Telegraph Operators 27 

Inspection of the Arizona Military Telegraph Line 33 

Imperial Telegraph Operator, An 57 

In He Plugs 93 

Invention and Inventors of Automatic Telegraphy, The. . . 201 
Inter-State Exposition Chicago. Telegraphic News and 

Notions..' 225 

Information for the '"Organ' 1 Upon Duplex Telegraphy... 237 

In ■the Wilds of Jersey 243, 249 

Justice to Military Telegraph Operators 54 

Line Repairing Adventure in Oregon 261 

More Reminiscences 8 

Matrimonial Epidemic among the Oregon Telegraphers 153 

Morality of Using Tobacco, The A Defence of the Tele- 
graphic Fraternity 165 

Mobile and Ohio R. R. Telegraph. The 273 

Northwestern and Northern Pacific Telegraph 35 

Nettie Bronson and The Telegbapheb Correspondents.. . 63 

Not Talk but Action Needed 75 

New Baltimore, Md., W. tJ. Office. Telegraphic Matters of 

Interest 117 

Necessity for Telegraphers' Association 183 

Nl w Telegraph Projects in Oregon 194 

No Telegraphic Apparatus Shown at Chicago Inter-State 

Exposition and Why '. 237 

New Boston, Mass.. Western Office 267 

New Plug Factory Started, A. Probable reduction of Sal- 
aries 303 

Obligation of Telegraph Companies and their Employes. . . 57 

On a Telegraphers" Union * 69 

On Behalf of The Telegrapher 75 

On Working Wires of Different Resistances from a Single 

Battery 8G, 92 

On What Shall a Telegraphic Union be Based? 99 

Out West 128 

Origin of the Term " Plug" 159 

Origin of Popu ar Terms. When does an Operator cease to 

be a Plug:' 171 

Origin of the Telegraph Signal " O. K." 177 

One of my Electro-Chemical Problems 201 

Plugs, not Female Operators, Objectionable S 

Practical Suggestions 21 

Peculiar Characteristics of Different Operators 27 

Presentation to Mr. E. P. Adams 39 

Pian for a Telegraphic Union 81 

Practical Sympathy with Tin; Telegrapher 87 

Proposed Society of i-Electricians and Engineers, The 

"ill, 122, 129, 231 

Proposed Telegraphic Association, The 117 

Perkins' Plan for a Union Approved. Practical Suggestions 117 

Promotion of a (irand Trunk R. R. Train Dispatcher 148 

Paters n, N. J., Operators 255, 273, 279 

Practical Advice 273 

Prompt Telegraphing _ 29ti 

Pursuit of Pleasure under Difficulties. The 29' 

Quantity and Intensity .20 

Qu druple Transmission by the Morse Telegraph System. . 171 

Remedy for a Sticking Key, The 27 

Resignation of Mr. John F. Hibbard * 51 

Resignation of, and Presentation to Mr. James S. Urqiihart 117 

Railway Telegrapher ( 'owhided, A 231 

Reply to Journal of the Telegraph Criticisms on Bear's 

Duplex 242 

Setting up the Oravity Battery 15 

Solution of Problem 15 

Supply and Demand 27 

Snapper Sounder, The .-. . 57 

Suggestions to Telsgraphic Employes 68 

••Soother." Sooth Thyself 69 

Suggestions for a Telegraphic .Organization 81 

Solution of a Problem 87 

Slaughter of an American Telegrapher by Australian Sav- 
ages, The " in 

Seasonable Mention and a Sensible Suggestion 117 

Slow Telegraph Repair Steamer, A 135 

Secrecy of Government Telegrams Secured by Use of Auto- 
matic Telegraph ' 141 

Some Bulls— by the Perpetrator 183 

Something about the Lake Superior Region and its Tele- 
graphers ' 207 

Status and Condition of the Railroad Telegraph Service . 219 

Suggestions for Old Probabilities ;.. 225 

Successful Working Of the Quadruplex. Good Time in 

the President's Messag .—Reduction of Salaries, etc. 303 

Telegraphers Better than they are Represented 2 

The Bible and the Invention of the Telegraph 3 

Telegraphers' Unions Impracticable, and Why. Reduc- 
tion of Salaries and Official Holiday Greetings 9 

Telegraphic Progress in Northern Michigan \\ 15 

Transmission ot the President's Message, The 21 

Telegraphers Unjustly Accused arid Characterized. . 21 

Telegraph Matters in OreOon 27 

Topics 5f G enc.i al Telegraphic Interest Diseased %- 

Telegraphers not so Bad as Represented 33 

Idt^raphic c: clients Aam ~0 

Telegi aphs and Telegraphers of Washington Territory. . . . 63 



U. 



Testing Lines for Insulation Resistance 

The Telegraph College Humbug. . .-. 

Telegraphers' Association 

Telegraph Affairs in the South 

Telegraphers' Convention Proposed 

Telegraphic Improvements in Oregon 

Telegraphic Matters in Central America 

The Telegrapher in Boston. Removal of the W, 

Office, etc 

Telegraphic Matters in Washington, D. C. . .............. 

Telegraphic Bulls and Personals 

Tub Telegrapher and the Official Organ 

Telegraph Train Orders and Reports 

Telegraph Schools and their Victims 

Telegraphic Journalism Criticised 

Telegraphic Journalism , 

The Official Organ's Criticism of Blair Duplex Criticised. . . 

The Telegraph College Humbug Again 

Telegraphs and Railroads in Oregon. Resignation of Supt. 
Plummer 

Telegraphic Bull 

The Plug and Nihil Nameless 

Telegraphs' and Telegraphers in Chicago. The Quadru- 
plex, etc ... 

The Other Side 

Urgent Necessity for a Telegraphic Organization, The 

Use of Tobacco and Intoxicating Liquors Condemned 

Use of Tobacco, The 

Value and Importance of The Telegrapher. An Opera- 
tor Sold 

Ville du Havre Disaster, The 

Western Union Co. vs. the Poor Inventor, The 

Why we should Support The Telegrapher , 

Well Informed Telegraphic Artists 

What the Objects arid Purposes of a Telegraph Association 
should lie , 

Wanted— A Dictionary 

West Wisconsin Railway Telegraphers, The 

Western 1 'nion and Quadruple Transmission, The 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



68 
69 
81 
87 
9:; 
111 
122 

123 
165 

165 
183 
183 
-194 
201 
207' 
213 
243 



254 
255 
266 

296 
303 



99 
9 
69 

69 

98 
153 

2iy 



Anonymous 99 

An Interested Brother 195 

An Operator. . 195 

B. F. Spear, San Francisco, 

Cal 74 

Country Plng..\ 87 

C \ 195 

G. E. C \ 9 



L. E. M., Charleston 219 

New England Operator... 67 

Occasional 3 

Railroad Operator 87 

Silver State 39 

S. McNider 99 

Trip 45 



POETRY. 

A Psalm of (the '(telegrapher's) Life 87' 

An Operator's Musings 43 

A Retrospect \ 231 

; owney's Lament. 151 

J oe S . nders 265 

My Last "73" .- 235 

The Craven 55 

The Last Message 171 



THE TELEGRAPH. 



Pacific Telegraph Co.. 
42, 54, 130, 162, 257', 



Annual Meeting of the Atlantic a 
American District Telegraph, Th 

Anglo-American Telegraph, The 

Annual Report of the' A. and P. Telg. Co. for 1873 

Additions to the A. and P. Lines 

Anglo-American 1866 Cable Interrupted 

Anglo- American 1866 Cable Repaired, The 

Arrival of the 1". S. Steamer, Tnscarora , 

Astoria Telegraph Lint- 

Annual Meeting of theGold and Stock Telg. Co 

Arrival of Direct U. S. Cable Operators 

Annual Report of the west, of the W. U. Telegraph Co 

Animal Meeting of the W. U. Telg. Co 

Atlantic and Pacific Telg. Line from Chicago to Omaha, 

The 

An Offer to Lease the Franklin Telg. Lines 

American Fire Alarm Telegraph in Pawtucket, R. I., The.. 

Accident to a Cable 1 

Annual Meeting of the Southern and Atlantic Telegraph 

Annual Meeting of the Mlinhattan Quotation Company. . .. 
Brazilian Telegraph, The. Celebration of Completion of 

theLine 1. 

Bold Forgery of an Official Announcement of Increase of 

Western Union Stock 

Brazilian Naval Aid to Cable Enterprise 

British Postal Telegraph Service, The 

Brazilian Telegraph, The 173, 

British Postal 'Telegraph, Tie 

British Gov't has no Intention of Purchasing Ocean Telg. 

Concession for a Telegraph Cable between Pern and Chili. 

Cable Steamer Adrift, A 

( 'able Communication between Jamaica and Porto Rico. . . 

Cable Communication Restored 

Contract tor the Panama and Hayti Cable, The 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph, Tie 89, 92, 

Change of Managers of San Frincisco, Cal., W. U. Office.. . 
Contract for Alliance and Co-operation between the W. U. 

and Am. District Cos 

Contract between the U. P. R, R. and W. I'. Telg. Co. to 

be Terminated . 

Cuba Cable, The 

Completion of the Brazilian ( table 

Congratulations on Anglo-Brajzilian Cable . . . ". 

Congratulations between Emperor Brazil and Pres. United 

States on Completion Anglo-Brazilian Cable 

( able Steamship Faraday at Portsmouth, X. H., The 

( 'able Steamers Faraday and Ambassador, The 

( iongrat illations 

Competition in Telegraphic Marine News 

Complimentary 

Central American Telegraphs. The 

Consolidation of the A. arid P. and Franklin Lines 

Canadian Pacific Telegraph Line, The 

Decision of the Postmaster General in Regard to Gov't 

Messages -. 

Dominion Telegraph Co., The. Annual Meeting 

Dominican and Martinique Cable Reopened', The 

Direct United States Cable being Shipped 

Dangerous Illness of Air. Charles II. Mixer 

Duplex System on Long Submarine Cables, The 173, 

Direct United Slates Cable, The 125, 221, 257, 

Dominion Telegraph Co. of Canada. The 228, 

Direct United States < 'able Reports from the Faraday. . . 

Daily Line Tests in England 

Election of Officers of the Southern and Atlantic Telg. Co. 



29 

281 

54 

59 

83 

95 

173 

215 

228 

23J 

239 

247 ■ 

251 

251 

281 
281 
293 

299 
299 



48 

54 

104 

208 

209 



83 
235 



101 

119 
149 
161 

161 
173 
179 
203 
238 
234 
239 
275 
275 



104 
125 

20:: 
263 
275 

287' 
309 



INDEX 



B 



Exit the Pacific and Atlantic Telg. Co. ■••••.••• ■ •• • 

Electric Telegraph on the Gold Coast of Africa, The. . . .... 

Enlargement and Improvement of Indianapolis, Ind, W. 

U. Office 

Electric Railroad Crossing Alarm ......... 

Electrical Construction and Maintenance Co., of San Fran- 
cisco ■■■■ ■ ■•■■ 

Extension of the Southern and Atlantic 1 elegraph Lines.. 

Extension of Telegraphy, The 

Extension of the A. & P. Telg. to Long Branch, N. J 

Europo-Brazilian Cable Completed, The 

Economy of Good Insulation, The 

Election of Officers Western Union Telg. Co 

Extension of the Gold and Stock Telg. Lines • . 

Foreign Telegraphic Notes, 12, 29, 36, 42, 48, 54, 59, 66. i2, .8, 
83, 89, 101 107, 113, 119, 131, 137, 143, 149. 155, 102, 167, 
173 179, 185, 197, 203, 209, 215, 222, 233, 239, 249, 25, , 
' ' ' ' ' 263, 269, 275, 281 , 293, 300, 306, 312 

Facilities for Direct United States Cable 215 

Faraday Not Heard From, The f& 

Faraday to Sail in Search of the Broken Cable, 1 he 246 

Fire Alarm Telg. on the C. P. R. R., The ............. m 

Fault Discovered in the Direct Cable, A.— lne Cable -_ 

Buoyed • • ■ •••••, • • ■ ■ / • • ■ 

First Snow Storm of the Season.— City Telegraph Lines 

Demoralized : iT'V 

Galvanometrical Measurement of the Resistance of Insula- 

t rtva 95, 10i, 110 

197 

GoldVid'stock 'Telegraph Co.,' The -239 

257 
257 
300 
24 
107 
221 
246 
273 



155 

1-75 

179 

185 
192 



Telegraphic Communication with Foreign Countries 131 

Telegraphic Conference 

Telegraphs in Mexico ■ ■ ■ 

Telegraphic Communication between the. Courts and Law- 
yers' Offices 

Telegraphic System in the Island of Cuba, The 

The Telegraph of the Reading Railroad Co 

Telegraphic Communication^with Uraguay . . . _ 197 

200 

2 ir, 

246 

246 
257 
257 
263 
271 
275 
281 
294 
312 
59 
246 
311 



Globe Telegraph and Trust Co., The 
Gold and Stock Telegraph 
Great Telegraphic Feat, A 

Heavy Gale and Telegraphic Interruption 

Highest Telegraph Station in the World, The 

Irregularities of the West India and Panama Cable 

Interruption of the Cuba Cable of 1873 • . . 

Interruption of Telegraphic Communication with Europe. 

International Telegraph Conference, The 

Improvement in Military Telegraphy 

Inc.ease of Telegraph Lines in Russia 27o 

Important Action of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 299 

Kansas City Metropolitan Telegraph Co., The 72 

Kite Tails and Telegraph Wires 308 

Launch of the Cable Steamer Faraday 54 

Landing of the Shore End Direct IT. S. Cable.— Scenes and 

Incidents l£jj 

Laying the Direct United States Cable 228 

La Plata Telegraph Cable Cut, The 262 

Lease of the Franklin Lines to the A. & P. Telg. Co 293 

" La Plata '" Disaster, The 299 

Lease of Lines of Franklin Co. to the A. & P. Telg. Co. 

Confirmed 399 

I"."" 149 

' 167 



Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co., The 

The Telegraph in Queensland, Australia 

Telegraphing from Stenographic Notes 

Telegraph for New York Court House, A 

The Telegraph in the United States Army 

Telegraphic Communication Facilitated in Turkey 

Telegraph Instruments on Trains 

The Telegraph between Great Britain and Ireland 

The Telegraphs of the Argentine Republic 

Telegr.iph in Australia, The 

Telegraphing Extraordinary 

Train Telegraph Instruments on Lake Shore Road 

Telegraph in Switzerland, The 

Untimely Demise of the Light Cable Co 

Unsuccessful Termination of the Direct Cable Expedition 

United States Direct Cable, The 

Visit of Supt. Gamble to San Diego, Cal INI 

Violent Gale on the British Coast, and Interruption of 

Telegraphic Communication 299 

West India and Panama Telegraph 2, 18, 35, 141 

27 275 



Western and Brazilian Telegraph Co., The — 

West India Telegraph, The 

Western Union Chicago Office, The 

Wreck of Cable Steamer and Delay of Telegraphic Com- 
munication in South America ■ 

What Does this Mean ': 

Why the Wires Wouldn't Work 

Western Union Telegraph Company— Report of President 
Orton 



222 
239 

306 

311 



Mexican Telegraphs, The 

Model Telegraph Line, A 

M issing Cable Steamer Faraday, The 

Merchants' Exchange News Room and the W. U. Telg. 

Co., The - 

Marine Telegraph Fight, The 

More Trouble about the Lease of the Franklin Teleg. Lines 
Marine News Department of the Gold and Stock Telegraph 

Co 

Notice of Annual Meeting of A. $ P. Telegraph Oo 6 

New Cable Submerged between Jamaica and Porto Rico. . . 29 

New Western Union Office at Cincinnati, A 59 

New Direct United States Cable, The .' 77 

New Philadelphia, Pa., Office of the P. R. & P. Telegraph 

Company •• 107 

New Atlantic Telegraph Cable, The 113, 131, 137, 209, 215 

New City Office of the A. & P. and Franklin Telegraph Cos 113 

New Western Union Office in Baltimore, Md . . 113 

New Telegraph Line of the Great Southern Railway The. 125 
New Atlantic Cable. Arrival of the Faraday at Ports- 
mouth, X. H 143 

New Western Union Telegr 'ph Building, The 143 

New Atlantic Cable and A. & P. and Franklin Telegraph 

Cos., The 161 

New Anglo-American Cable Completed. The 167 

New Telegraphic Line in Japan 215 

No Later News of the Faraday 239 

New Telegraph Line, A 239 

New Sandy Hook Telegraph Line, The 257 

New Washington, D. C, Police Telegraph Lines 269 

New Police and Fire Telegraph Lines in Brooklyn, N. Y . . 293 

New Western Union Building, The _ 295 

New Zealand Telegraphy 296 

Near Completion of the Southern and Atlantic Lines to 

New Orleans 311 

New Sandy Hook Telegraph Line, The . . , 311 

Owl Telegraph Company, The 293 

Practical Test of the Automatic Telegraph System, The — 35 

Progress of the Southern and Atlantic Telegraph Lines 42 

Project for a New Atlantic Telegraph ( 'able 42 

Proposed Texas Military Telegraph Line, The 72, 101 

Portuguese Cable, The ■ 77 

I'ostal Telegraph Schemes, The 131 

1'rogress of the New Atlantic Cable .... 149 

Protection of Government Telegraph Lines, The 167 

Progress of the New A. & P. Telegraph Line 185 

Pleasures of Telegraph Construction in Central America.. 204 

Practicable Route Discovered for the Pacific ("able, A 215 

Progress of the Farady in Laying the Direct U. S. Cable. . 275 

Preparation s for the Direct U.S. Cable 287 

Quotation and District Telegraphs in England, The 23 

Quarterly Dividend of the W. tJ. Telegraph Co 215, 299 

Removal of Offlce Automatic Signal Telegraph Co 113 

Resumption of Dividends by the W. U. Telegraph Co 137 

Reporting Telegraph in Canada, The 143 

Return to Sau Francisco of Mr. Wm. E. Smith 143 

Reported Loss of the Cable Steamer Faraday Nil 

Reports on the Postal Telegraph Question, The 221 

Resignation of Operators from the Manhattan Quotation 

Company 251 

Recovery of the Direct U. S. Cable 269 

Removal of Gold and Stock Telegraph Company to the 

New W. U. Building 293 

Shares of the Gold & Stock Telegraph to be Dealt in at 

Slock Exchange 101 

Sailing of a Cable Steamer for South America 118 

Superintendence of the Arizona Military Telegraph, The.. 113 

Soundings for the Pacific Cable 119 

Strike of the American District Telegraph Messengers, A 143 

Southern and Atlantic Telegraph ( 'o., The 143, 185, 281, 811 

Soundings for the Australian Cable 239 

Steamship La Plata Wrecked. Brazilian Cable Sunk 293 

Statistics of Government Telegraphs for 1873 294 

Special Meeting of the Direct 0. S. (able Co. Proposition 

to lay a Second Cabin 295 

Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities 12, 18, 23, 86, 42, 59, 



NEW PATENTS. 

Apparatus for Lighting Gas by Frietional Electricity— 

John P. Putnam 72 

Apparatus for Firing Fuses by Electricity— Moses G. Farmer 95 
Automatic Fire Alarm and Circuit Therefor— John H. 

Guest 101 

Automatic Telegraphy and Perforators Therefor— T. A. 

Edison 155 

Automatic Electric Commutators— William Robinson 240 

Burglar and House Alarms— Richard M. Billings 54 

Chemical Telegraph— T. A. Edison 78 

Circuits for Chemical Telegraphy— T. A. Edison 78 

Composition for Coating Telegraph Wires — Alex. Wilkin- 
son 107 

Chemical or Automatic Telegraph — T. A. Edison 143 



Electric Lights— Matthias Day, Jr 

Electrical Thermostat— Wm. B. Watkins 

Electro-Magnetic Motors— C. J. B. Gaume 

Electric Telegraph Apparatus— Wm. Thomson 

Fire Alarm Telegraph— Louis H. McCullough 

Fire Alarm Telegraph Apparatus— John F. Kirby 

Fac-Simile Telegraph— Francis De Hondt 

Fire Alarm Register— John O. Alley 

Galvanic Battery, and Combining Therewith Secondary or 
Accumulating Batteries (Re-issue)— Geo. H. Le- 

clanche 

Galvanic Battery (Re-issue) — Geo. H. Leclanche 

" " — Robt. M. Lockwood 

" " — Michael Breslin 

Galvanometers— Wm. E. Davis 

Improvement in Post Hole Digger (Extension)— John Lee. 

Insulating Telegraph Wires— Thos. L. Reed 

Insulated Electric Conductors— " 

Morse Telegraph Register— John E. Smith 

Machine for Making Telegrap Pins— Chas. O. Ripley 

Magnetic Telegraph Apparatus for Student's Use— Wm. 

Hemans.. 

Magnetic Electric Apparatus— Ernst W. Siemens 

Mechanical Telegraph Instruments (Trade Mark— Snapper 

Sounder)— R. W. Pope 

Magnetic Safety or Relief Valve— Chas. S. Westland 

Magnetic Electric Machine— Win. Hochhausen 

" " Otto Heikel 

Magnetic Motor— G. M. Phelps 

Non-Freezing Battery— Edward H. Ashcroft 

Ore Separated by Use of Magnets— John Y. Smith 

Printing Telegraph— John E. Smith 

Perforators for Automatic Telegraphy— T. A. Edison 

Printing Telegraph— John E. Smith 

" Merritt Galley 

Portable Telegraph Apparatus— V. H. De Forville 

Receiving Instrument for Chemical Telegraph— T. A. Edi- 

Railwav Signals Operated by Electricity- A. H. Dailey... 
Supports and Connections for Portable Telegraph Appara- 



288 
306 
312 
60 
107 
107 
288 



120 
120 
240 
174 
240 
288 
72 
89 

108 
125 

143 

186 

258 

263 

306 

6 

101 

72 

78 

107 

107 

150 



Cells for Galvanic Batteries— A. L. Nolf 

Clamps for Telegraph Wires— George A. Beach. 

Duplex Telegraph — George D'lnfreville 

" " Jos. B. Stearns 



T.A.Edison 89 

Charles H. Haskins 240 

District Telegraph Signal Boxes— T. A. Edison 240 

District Alarm Telegraph — William D. Snow 258 

Duplex Chemical Telegraph— T. A. Edison 300 

Electric Signalling Apparatus for Railroads — Frank L. 

Pope 12 

Electro-Pneumatic Action for Musical Instruments— Wm. 

F. Schmoele and H. Schmoele, Jr 18 

Electric Ship Alarm— James B. Andrews 36 

Electro-Magnet— Hy polite Fontaine 36 

Electrical Apparatus for Ships* Registers— Niles H. Thomp- 



Supr 

tus— V. H. De Forville 

Splices for Electrical Track Circuits— Wm Robinson 

Telegraph Cut Out— Wm. G. Linn 

Telegraph Register— Wm. H. Sawyer 

Telegraph Insulator— C. Fox and E. G. Heston 

Telegraph Relav— S. H. Lombard 

Telegraph Signal Box— T. A. Edison 

Telegraph Insulator— Peter Eby : 

Telegraph Apparatus— Henry Van Hovenburgh 

Telegraphic and Thermostatic Fire Alarm— Albert F. and 

"" Frank B. Johnson 

Telegraph Apparatus for Cable Use— Wm. E. Sawyer 

Telegraph Sounder— Henry C. Royer 

Telegraph Insulator— Chas. L. Le Baron 

Telegraphic Fire Alarm Box— John Beaum and Wm. A. 

" Jackson 

Thermostat and Thermostatic Alarm— John H. Guest 

Telegraph Relay— T. A. Edison 

Thermo-Electric Pile— Chas. Clamard 

Telegraph Key— R. W. Walker 

Telegraph Relay— P. B. Delany 

Telegraph Key— T. M. Foot and C. A. Randall 

Telegraph Registers and Sounders — Henry Middleton 

Telegraph Insulators— Chas. L. Le Baron 

'• Homer Brooke , 

Tubes for Underground Telegraph Lines— T. Fell 

Telegraph Cables— G. Zanini : 

Underground Telegraph Lines— Wm. Mackintosh 

Watchman's Electrical Time Recorder 



BIR1 Ht 



Electric Bell Striking Apparatus— L. H. McCollough. . . .. . 39 

Electric Annunciator — Lewis Finger 56 

Electric Telegraph— T. A. Edison 78 

Electric Light— Matthias Day, Jr 89 

Electric Alarm— Frank L. Pope 90 

Electric Gas Lighter— Wm. W. Batchelder 95 

Elect ric Fuse— Thos Varney 96 

Electric Indicator for Elevators— Aug. Hahl 101 i 

Electro-Plating Apparatus— Wm. C. Holman 101 

Electric Clock— Johann B Kcrz 101 

Electrolytic Apparatus— E. Casselberry and N. II. Edger- 

ton N)7 

Electric Railway Signal— Frank L. Pope 114 

Electric Gas Lighting Apparatus— Edwin E. Bean 120 

Electric Magnetic Alarm — Frank L. Pope 120 

Electric Steam Boiler Alarm — Wm. C. Baker 126 

Electric Railway Signal Apparatus — Thos. L. Hall 126 

Electric and Thermostatic Fire Alarm— Geo. S. Shute 126 

Electric Railway Signal— John M. Goodwin 126 

Electro Magnetic Hotel Register— Louis Finger 132 

Electrical Condenser— Charles A. Brown and Isaac S. 

Brown 143 

Electric Conducting Cordage — Thos. L. Reid 150 

Electro-Magnetic Car Brake— F. F. A. Achard 155 

Electric Signal Apparatus for Fire Hose— Joseph Buchtell. 155 

Electrical Temperature Regulator — Wm. C. Baker 174 

Electric Lighting Attachment to Gas Burners— A. T. 

Smith 186 

Electro Magnetic Motors— W. S. Sims 192 

Electric Telegraphs— T. M. Foote and C. A. Randall 192 

192 

Electric Signalling Apparatus for Railroads— Wm. Robin- 
son 198 

Electric Telegraph Apparatus— R. K. Boyle 198 

Electric and Galvanic Apparatus (Trade Mark)— Jerome 

Kidder 198 

Electro-Magnetic Engines -Henry M. Paine 210 

Electric Signalling Apparatus— Wm. H. Sawyer 210 

Electric Railway Signals Win. Robinson 210 

Electro Magnetic Engines — L. Bostal 216 

Electro-Pneumatic Railway Signal Apparatus- A. Bern- 
stein 216 

Electro-Magnetic Governors for steam Diving Apparatus 

J. M. Bradford 828 

Electro Magnetic Station Indicators Charles W. White, . 222 

Electric Telegraphs -Wm. O. Barny 284 

Electric Hotel Anunciators — Louis Finger 234 

Electric Anunciators- Albert Storer and John Lennox 240 

Electro-Magnetic Engines L. Bast 11 and <'. J. B. Dannie . 246 

Electrical Thermostatic Alarms Win. I). Snow 258 

Earth Batteries for Generating Electricity Win. I). Snow. 258 

Electric Clocks Rudolph Sayer ... 258 

Electric Anunciators W. R. Cole 258 

Electric Anunciators Ceo. P.. Scott 263 

Electro-Magnetic Engines Henry Van Hovenbergb 270 

270 



MARRIAGES, DEATHS. 
BORN. 



I'o Aspinwall, C, a son 

"■ Anderson, D. S., a daughter 

" Berry man, John, Jr., a son 

" Bailey, J. R., a son 

" Collins, John F., a son 

" Duggan, J. C, a son 

•' Gooding, C. F., a daughter — , 

" Hubbel, C. H., a son 

" Jones, G F., a son 

" King, Charles O, a son 

" Larkin, Thomas G., a son 

•' Lynn, Frank G., a son 

" Maynard, H. C, a daughter 

" McLaughlin Thomas F., a son. 

" Parsons, W. H., a son 

" Rice, S. C. , a son 

" Sparks, George L., a son 

•' Sholes, C. G., a daughter 

" Thornton, H. B., a son 

" Weller, L. E.. a daughter 



143 
21C 

143 

258 

6 

6 

24 

36 

60 

72 

78 

90 
114 
120 
120 
120 

132 
132 
135 
155 
174 
174 
174 
210 
222 
240 
281 
288 
54 
281 



204 
270 
54 
78 
143 

270 
46 
150 
135 
6 
108 
126 
264 
258 
150 
6 
126 
180 
155 



MARRIED. 



Adams— Dirstine 

Berry — Pashburgh 

Cadmus— Barkelow . . 

Finks— Brown 

Failing — Barrett 

Faulconer — Hackett. . 
Huntington— Swayze. 

Howden-Read 

Jones — Dike 

Lichty— Supplee 

Mayo— Pfeiff er 

Munson— Wood 

York 



A illicit, Louis James. . 
Andrews. Charles A. 
Armstrong, 
Calkins, George W 
( Ireighton, Edward. . 

Dohni, Dennis 

Eagan, William 

Finnan, Horace 1. 
Harris, George 

Whit.' 



70 Murray-Foster.... 

14 Plum— Husted .... . 

48 Purden— Cline 

6 Riley — Norton 

18 Rowe- Washbume. 

104 Stewart— Scwalka.. 

72 Taylor— Hull 

:81 Thayer- Pray 

4-8 Van Size— Fellows 

!K> Wood -Crowley.... 

42 Wheeler Neally... 

26 Wheeler Basset l 



■Balthis 228 



135 
216 
216 
66 
■i'.ti 
135 
135 



R II 



Long, Minnie 

Maynard 

Miner, Charles T 

McConiiell. Harrison. . . 
Orton, Samuel Vance.. . 
Porter, Samuel 
Scully, Bertha M. 

Shea, Vincent 11 
Upson, Henry s.. 

. . 78 



OBITUARIES. 



72, 78, 125, 148, 162, 167, 173, 179, 209, 228, 234, 800, 306, :112 Electro-Magnetic Stop Cocks E. Coe and II. W. Fluke 

The Telegraph in China 42 

Telegraph Lines of the Great Southern Railway Jul 

The Telegraph in Japan 130, 203 



s, Isaac . . . . 288 

ailing Apparat us for Railways R. A. Stendell 276 Creightcm, Kilwun! 276 

■ '■:-- ■»-■' «'■■■ «' ''•■ 276 Eagan, Win . 188 

288 Harris, Geoij;c. 4p 



Electric si^ 

h.l. ctril Car Detaching Devices Win. W. Carson 
Klectro-Thcrmosltttic Eire Alarm.-. K J. Emit 



Myers, II. R 
Miner, Charles 'I' 
Porter, Suumcl 

St John, Juui- s 1! 



222 

179 
228 
234 
294 

48 
179 
294 
234 

66 
1U8 
155 



J 26 
216 
27U 
300 
108 
60 
126 



101 

270 

B0 

1M 



6 



INDEX. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Action of the Cleveland, 0., W. U. Operators on the Death 

of George D. Phillips 8 

Automatic Semaphore Railroad Signals 31 

A Noble Opportunity Lost 31 

Appropriate Presentation to Supt. W. A. Graves, N. Y. C. 

&H. R. Rd. Telegraph 56 

A Good Hit 63 

Anglo-American Cable, The 74 

Action of W. U. Employes, Cincinnati, O., on Death of 

George H. Everett 83 

Another Electric Motor and Invention 86 

A Bit of Advice to Correspondents 98 

An Exegesis 110 

An American Telegrapher Killed by Australian Savages. . . 110 

An Efficient and Popular Superintendent Ill 

An Unprofitable Customer Ill 

All the Flounces 131 

A (Quaint Conceit 140 

A Telegrapher Recovers Judgment against a Railroad Co. 159 
Associated Press, The.— C. P. R. R. and the Telegraphs, 

The 164 

A Misstatement Corrected 182 

An Improved Astatic Galvanometer 182 

Automatic (Fire) Signal Telegraph 199 

A Step in Civilization 201 

A Chance lor Inventors 205 

Atmospheric Telegraphy .• 206 

Arrangement of Lightning Conductors 210 

American Electrical Society, The 334 

A Telegraphic Blunder and What Came of It 235 

Appropriate and Deserved Presentation to Mr. Gerrit 

Smith 251 

Annual Meeting of the T. M. B. Association 256, 278 

Activity of Telegraphic Invention, The 269 

Action of Buffalo, N. Y. District, T. M. B. Association 269 

Are Earthquakes an Electrical Phenomenon ? 288 

Atlantic Telegraphers 289 

A Scientific Practical Joke 302 

Adventures of Two Nice Young Operators from Golden .. . . 308 
Ball at Tucson, A. T., to Celebrate Completion Military 

Telegraph to San Diego, Cal 30 

Bewildered Father, A 62 

Break ! for the Light is Breaking ! 83 

Berry and His Matchlock 131 

Barrow Creek, Australia, Telegraph Station, Attack on 140 

Berthon's Collapsible Barge 140 

Bunsen'e Battery Improved 164 

Bryant's Big Humbug 218 

Boston Industrial Exhibition, The 235 

Christmas Greeting to a Telegraph Manager 2 

Can Electricity oe Profitably Employed as a Motive 

Power ? 26 

Cruise of the Tusearora to Locate a Route for the Pacific 

Cable 26 

Correspondence of The Telegeaphek, The 30 

Chicago AVestern Union Female Operators, The 62 

Cable Company in Chancery, A 62 

Compliment to a Retiring W estern Union Superintendent . . 105 

Cables and Cable Laying 121 

Chemic Acid Solution for Batteries . .■ 162 

Constructing Electro-Magnets 164 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co. Meeting, The , 165 

Canadian Marine Telegraph Bill, The 224 

Cheap Galvanic Battery, A 237 

Constants of Nature . .'. 254 

Corelation of Forces, The 261 

Camacho Electro-Motor, The 285 

Curiosities of the Telegraph , 285 

Canadian Telegraphs Act. The 289 

Character of Electric Discharges 302 

Dedication of the New General Post Office, London. > 19 

Dots and Dashes in the Stock Exchange ." 12 

Demoralized Telegraphers 110 

Dog Killing by Electricity 186 

Delay in Laying Submarine Cables 193 

Death of Ex-Commissioner of Patents, S. S. Fisher 207 

Dr. Priestly and the Voltaic Pile 209 

Duplex and Quadruplex Telegraphy 229 

Difficulties Attending the Introduction of the Telegraph in 

China 253 

Duplex, Quadruplex and Fast Telegraphy 271 

Death of Ezra Cornell 300 

Details of the Wreck of the Cable Steamer La Plata 301 

Electricity 38 

Eastern Telegraph Co. , The 61, 182 

Elongation of Conductors by Electricity 123 

Electricity in Commerce 146 

Electro-Plating with Cobalt 153 



Electrical Apparatus used by Robt. Houdin 

Electricity Produced in Mechanical Actions 

Experiments on Electrical Transmission through Wood.. . 

Electrical Railway Alarm, The 

Electrical Gas Lighting 

Electric Headlight for Locomotives 

Electrical Countries 

Electric Lights for Lighthouses 

Fast Receiver, A 

First Report of the B. A. Committee on Dynamical and 
Electrical Units 

Financial Failure of the British Postal Telegraph 

Future Work of the Challenger 

Farmer's Dynamo-Electric Machines 

Fire Alarm Telegraph 

Government and the Telegraphs, The 

Galvanic Electricity 

Gas Pressure Alarm 

Galvanic Electricity without Chemical Action 

Gas Lighting by Electricity 

Good Education, A 

Government Purchase of the British Ocean Telegraphs, The 

Government Telegraph Schemes 

Historical Department of the German Telegraph Exposi- 
tion at Vienna in 1873 55, 

How the English Government Treats its Female Operators. 

How the British Government Telegraph Pays. An Increas- 
ing Deficit 

Hooper's Telegraph Works • 

He, too, was Weak 

How to find the Electro-Motive Force of a Battery 

How a Practical Joker was Sold 

Herring, Mr., and the Telegraphs 

Hymeneal Presents to a Western Union Cashier 

Important Legal Decision 

Importance of Little Things in Telegraphy 

Indian and American Telegraphs 

John Oakum 

Keep Cool 

Launch of the Cable Ship Faraday 

Light Cable Company, The .■ 

Light vs. Heavy Cables 

Line Repairing in Queensland .- 

Lightning's Vagaries, The 

Lightning Rods 

Lectures by Prof. Trowbridge at the Lowell Institute, Bos- 
ton, Mass . . ' 

Legal Proceedings against the Automatic Telegraph Com- 
pany and Others 

Mathematics for Non-Mathematicians 

Method of Determining the Actual Resistance of Old Tele- 
graph Line Wires 

Misfortunes Attending West India Telegraphs 

Magnetic Equivalent of Heat, The 

Military Telegraphs 

Marine Glue for Wooden Battery Cells 

Magnetization of Steel, The 

Magnets 

Magneto-Electric Machines 

Mayor Wickham's First Official Act 

Matched 

New Central Telegraph < )fiicc in London, The 

Novel Application of Electricity 

New Western Union Telegraph Building, The 

New Bonds of the Western Union Telegraph Co 

New ( irgunizarion of Telegraph Employes, A 

New Printing Telegraph, A 

Novel Application of Telegraph Wire 

New Thenno Electric Pile'. 

New Duplex Telegraph, A 

NewWestern Union Office in Cincinnati, Ohio ?. 

New Invention in Telegraphy, A 

New Electro-Magnetic Station Indicator 

New Magneto-Mechanical Separator 

New Theory of Electricity, A 

New Postmaster General and the Telegraph, The 

New Form of Electro-Magnets, A 

Opposition to the Western Union Telegraph Co., The 

Our Telegraph Operators 

On Some Points in Connection with the Indian Telegraphs 

133, 139, 145 

One May to Stop If. 159 

Origin of the '1 erm Ping 165 

On the New Contact Theory of the Galvanic Cell 211, 223 

Owton A. Flye. He goes into the Country with his Family 210 

Origin of Weather Telegraphy, The ". 254 

Personals, 3, 11, 18, 23, 29, 35, 39, 47, 54, 59, 65, 71, 78, 83, 89, 
95, 99, 105, 113, 117. 125. 129, 137. 142, 149, 155, 161, 167, 
173, 179, 185. 191, 197, 203, 209. 215, 221, 227. 233, 239, 
345, 251, 257, 263, 275, 280, 287, 293, 299, ^03, 311 I 



157 
177 
198 
206 
209 
290 
302 
309 
75 

109 
181 
197 
242 
181 
2 
103 
153 
153 
155 
192 
207 
303 

109 

98 

104 
109 

125 I 
182 i 
186 I 

*5 

I 

1M 
175 
186 

284 

303 
14 

19 
86 
131 
141 
177 
186 
213 
219 
306 
312 
18 
97 
110 
111 
145 
158 
165 
198 
206 
230 
286 
243 
243 
278 
281 
297 
38 
78 



Promoted' 12 

Postmaster-General's Report, The! .'.............. 19 

Phenomena of Induced Currents 21 

Patent Congress, The 24 

Postal Telegraph Debate, The 36 

Page Patent Litigation, The. Answer of Manhattan Quo- 
tation Co 49 

Panama Cable Service, The 56 

Pima Indians and the Telegraph 63 

Pass Him Round 1 

Prominent Telegraphers of Elizabeth, N. J. . . . . . 74 

Practical Application of Electricity, The 79 

Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Soundings. . 97 

Pacific Cable, The 98, 1 16 

Pluck 128 

Poetry of Telegraph Poles , 153 

Post Office Telegraphs .- 207 

Press Telegraphing in Great Britain. Inefficiency of the 

Postal Telegraph 235 

Production of Electric Light 254 

Pyrometers ■ 261 

Presentation to J. A. Noble 281 

Parade and Festival of American District Telegraph Mes- 
sengers J : 291 

Proposed Reform in the British Patent Laws 309 

Quotations of Telegraph Stocks, 60, 66, 72, 78, 84, 89, 95,-10], 

107, 114, 120; 125, 132, 137, 143, 149, 155, 162, 1(17, 173, 

179, 186, 192, 198, 204, 210, 216, 222, 227, 234, 240, 246, 

• 252, 256, 263, 270. 276, 281, 288, 294, 300, 306, 311 

Queensland, Australia, Blacks Attack a Telegraph Station 110 

Reniar able Operations 2 

Resignation of, and Presentation to Mr. Chas. P. Hoag 38 

Reply to President Orion's Statement in Regard to Relative 

Expense Morse and Automatic Telegraphy 50 

Rapid Development of the Electric Telegraph Business, The 193 

Recent Soundings for the Pacific Cable Route ,'206 

Recent Advance in Electrical Science 207 

Route for the Pacific Cable, The 218 

Robbery Prevented by Telegraph 230 

Railroad Telegraph Superintendent Killed, A 255 

Resignations and Promotions in the U. S. Patent Office 257 

Society of Telegr .ph Engineers, The 8 

Suit against the W. U. Telegraph Co 38 

Spanish Telegraphy in 1873. Submarine Cables 68 

Southern Telegraph Institute of Louisville a Humbug 75 

Staae Telegraphy 7'8 

Sundries ' 89 

Submarine Telegraph Property 116 

Survey for the Pacific Cable, The 152 

Society of Arts 153 

Shocking. .•. 195 

Straw Lightning ( 'onductors 261 

Suicide of Win. H. Clark 294 

The AV'ay the Cable Talks 3 

Telegraphic Defaulter, A 36 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit. Association. Acknowledg- 
ments, 68, 86, 98, 104, 110, 122, 128, 149, 158, 170, 182, 
198, 204, 212, 230, 236, 252, 269, 273, 290, 302 

Telegraphic .Matters > 92 

The Theory of Magnetic Force 97 

Telegraph Department of the Reading R. R. Co 116 

Telegraphing above the Clouds 116 

The Telegraphic Offices in the Corridors of the Capitol at 

Washington 127 

Telegraphic RemcinVcence, A. , 131 

The Telegraph in War 151 

The Telegraph in Central America 152 

Telegraphic Poetry 155 

Telegraphic Base Ball I 'elebrafion of the Fourth of July. . . 159 
Telegraphic Base Ball Match. Dashes again Victorious 

over the Dots 164 

Telegraphic Bulls 171 

Telegraphic Annual Reunion 176 

Telephone, The 176 

Tommasi's Hydro-Electric Cable .■ 198 

Toothache Cured by Electricity 310 

Telegraphic Cables 272 

Taxation of Telegraphic Companies, The 294 

Time by Telegraph 297 

Uncle Jim's Dog 159 

Uneconomical Economy in Australia 206 

United States Signal Service. Its Telegraphic Connections 289 
Work of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co. 

in 1873 68 

Weak Lightning 164 

Western Union Telegraph Company, The. Opposing Tele- 
graphic Monopoly 206 

Western Union and Automatic Telegraph Co. Little in 

Reply to Orton 259 




Vol. X. 



JVew York, Saturday, January 3, 187 Jf. 



Whole JVo. 890 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 GOURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
G-ALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GONGS, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

"Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 

AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFAOTUBEBS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 

AND 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

3S2 and 3S4 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

^T OVELTY! 
A SOUNDER of Entirely New Construction, 

which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
elear sound. 

Size for Regulab Offices $5 00 

Small Size 3 50 

Learners 1 Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c, 

all complete 7 50 

Send for Circular. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND M'F'G 00., 

No. 4 Leader Building, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(established 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various Vinds of Office and Magnet Wires, In- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 
DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



/COVERED WIRES, 

^^ Made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or other 
material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-Magnetic Machines, 
Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, ENAMELLED, SHELLACED, 
PARAFFINED, and all kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven a-nd Braided. Parties being partial 
to any particular kind need only enclose a small specimen in a 
letter and it can be imitated in every particular. 

CONDUCTING- CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

C. THOMPSON, 
(Successor to Josiah B. Thompson,) 

29 North 20th St., Thila., Ta. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 *B 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 

OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 

EUGENE F. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 

Lock box, 169. peO VTDEJVCE, R. I. 



With improved facilities for the manufacture of BRAIDED 
LINEN or COTTON COVERED OFFICE WIRE, either plain or 
paraffined, I am now prepared to offer to purchasers a SUPERIOR 
ARTICLE, in any quantity, on the most reasonable terms. 

The Gold and Stock, and the American District Telegraph 
Companies have been supplied from my works with the larger 
part of the office wire used by them. 

SEND FOR SAMPLE CARD. 

For further information address as above, or 

F. L. POPE & 00., 

38 YESEY STREET, N. Y. 



|^ALLAUD BATTERY. 

L G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS in the EAST. 

ORDERS SOLICITED. 

No. 8 DEY STREET, NEW YORK. 

\ NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. 

One of these cells has been in use in this city for running a 
sewing machine for weeks, without renewal, and is still in good 
working condition. Price, $2.25. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for either locals or main line. 
Price; $2. 

These batteries will be supplied, and further information 
furnished by 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

38 VESEY STREET, 

SOLE AGENTS. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND, AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M°ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELE0TRI0 MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



WALLACE & SONS,. # 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

BRASS. COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 
in Dm Roll and Sheet. 

We make the inaiiufiieturi' o! Kloctric Wire a specialty— 
especially the finer sizes of C"]i)> irfor i onductlon, and Gorman 
Hi i vim- for resistance purposes guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every in; ituiici- to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer In the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

8'.) Chamber Street, N. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

Ansonin, Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 3, 18?4, 



\ LEXANDEK L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEHBERTON SQUARE, 

(Room 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a line 
many times with our new Hook, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

" per dozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATE RS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 

TJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

-"' STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 

17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STREET, near FRANKFORT, 
NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OP 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMERCIAL PEIETIUG, 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
npHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

-*- MANUFACTUBEBS OF 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOE 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS,;YACHTS, 

etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, "WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 VdBICK STREET, NEW YOBK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

ByR. S. CULLEY, 

ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGSATH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction of the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 
vol. 8vo, cloth „ $5 oo. 

i Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Boots 
e ighty pages, 8vo, sent to any address on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D, VAN N0STBAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA T STREET, N. 7. I 



*HE AMATEUR'S 
TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide. Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 

Seven Dollars and ITifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete , $14 50 

Sounder and Key only 6 60 

, " " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. . . 7 50 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



OHAFPNER'S 

TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGKAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Illustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming-Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 



OMETHLNG NEW. 



s 

11 The Rattler" Telegraph Sounder. 




(patent applied for.) 

This is a very simple and effective Instrument, and, as it does 
not require any spring to draw the lever back, is always 
adjusted. 

PRIGE, ----- $3.50. 



L. G. TILLOTSON & CO 



No. 8 HEY STREET, N. Y. 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCH A WORKS, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 




S . BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OP 

PURE GUTTA PER C HA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 



Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATE© 

WIRES OF EVERY VAKIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for undergrounfl 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors 

, required. 

Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE, 

AND FOE 

BLASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Peboha has been universally adopted by all scientific anfi 
practical Electricians' and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with in= 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DE7 STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the WorkB in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN THQMLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods mann- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO., 363 Broadway, 
D. HODGMAN & CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St. 

Address all Communications to 

S . B I S H O T» , 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. 



January 3, 1314. 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



The Telegraphek 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. 


N. 
















SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 3, 1814. 




VOL 


X. 


WHOLE No. 


390. 



Original QvMti. 

The Elementary Principles of Electrical Meas- 
urement. 
By F. L. Pope. 
Introductory. 

The foundation of all exact knowledge rests prima- 
rily upon the comparison of one quantity with another, 
or, to speak perhaps more accurately, upon the com- 
parison of unknown with known quantities. "When 
experimental researches are conducted hy single indi- 
viduals, the absolute value of the quantities dealt with 
are usually immaterial, but if a number of persons are 
employed in investigating the same class of phenom- 
ena, it becomes necessary that they, should have a mu-' 
tual understanding of the units and methods of measure- 
ment to be employed. The object of the present treat- 
ise is to assist the student in obtaining a clear under- 
standing of the principles and standards employed in 
making electrical measurements. 

The electrical phenomena which admit of measure- 
ment are four in number, viz., electro-motive force, re- 
sistance, quantity and current. These four measur- 
able properties necessarily exist in every electric cir- 
cuit. 

An electric circuit, in the most usual acceptation of 
the term, consists essentially of a voltaic battery and 
of a conductor, or series of conductors, connecting its 
positive and negative poles. This battery may consist 
of a single cell or element, or of many cells ; and the 
conductor joining its poles may be of "any length, from 
an inch or two to many hundreds of miles, but the es- 
sential features of the circuit in either case are precisely 
the same. 

Before entering upon the subject of electrical meas- 
urement, it is necessary that the student should under- 
stand the precise meaning of the terms used to denote 
the four measurable qualities of the electric circuit. 
Electro-motive Force. 

This may be defined as the immediate force which 
produces an electric current, or, in other words, the 
power which a voltaic cell, or other generator of elec- 
tricity, possesses of causing a transfer or flow of a cer- 
tain quantity of electricity. It does not depend in the 
slightest degree upon the size or form of the cell, but 
principally upon the kind of metals of which the bat- 
tery is composed, and to a less extent upon the nature 
of the exciting solution in which the metals are im- 
mersed. 

This may be easily proved by the following interest- 
ing and instructive experiment: Procure a commou 
toy tumbler an inch and a half high, and construct a 
miniature Darnell's cell with it by bending a piece of 
sheet zinc into a cylinder of such size as to just go 
within the tumbler. Make a porous cell of the bowl of 
a common clay tobacco pipe, with the stem broken off 
and the opening at the bottom* closed by a bit of wax 
or tallow. Bend a piece of copper wire into a spiral, 
of such size as to go within the pipe bowl, which is to 
be filled with powdered sulphate of copper or blue 
vitriol. A wire soldered to the zinc cylinder forms the 
other pole.of the battery. Pill the tumbler and the 
pipe bowl with warm water. Now connect this minia- 
ture cell in circuit with a full size Darnell's cell, so that 
the two batteries oppose each other. By placing a 
galvanometer in circuit it will be found that not the 
slightest current will pass, showing that' the electro- 
motive force of the small cell is exactly equal to that 
of the large one. 

The existence of an electro-motive force necessarily 
involves a certain electrical condition, which is termed 
by recent writers on the subject a difference of poten- 
tial. Although the idea expressed " by this term is a 
very simple one, it is nevertheless somewhat difficult 
to translate it into words so as to bo easily understood. 
In fact, the terms electro-motive force and difference 
of potential are often employed indiscriminately by 
writers on electricity. They are not, strictly speaking, 
identical, although neither can exist without the other. 
Perhaps the matter may be reudered clearer by an 
illustration. 

If plates of two .different metals (as the copper 
and zinc Z in fig. 1) be immersed in water contained in 
a 1 glass vessel, and a copper wire, C, be joined to the 
zinc Z, C will become charged with positive and'C with 



negative electricity, and' the difference in the electrical 
condition of these poles, as they are termed, of the 
voltaic cell or element thus formed, is their difference 
of potential. 

Now if C and C 1 were united by a wire, that wire 
would be traversed by an electric current, and the 
strength of this current would be strictly proportional 
to the difference of potential between the poles before 
they were joined. The electricity existing in and 
C 1 before they are connected by the wire is said to be 
in a static condition. When traversing the wire it is 
said to be in a dynamic condition — that; is, in motion. 
Now, as the strength of the dynamical current is 
always strictly proportional to the difference of poten- 
tial existing. between the two statically charged points, 
it follows that the statical charge becomes a measure 
of the dynamical action. Electricity at rest bears a 
definite relation to electricity in motion. Similarly, 
the difference of potential existing between and C 1 is 
always strictly in proportion to the electro-motive 
force of the cell or element, and, in fact, may be said 
to be caused thereby. The difference of potential, 
therefore, may be said to be that difference of electrical 



cV 




(Fig. >.) 

condition between two points by virtue of which a 
current tends to flow from one to the other when they 
are united by a conductor. The existence or continu- 
ance of the flow of a current of electricity from one 
point to another consequently depends solely upon 
the difference of potential between the two poiuts. 

Probably it would not be incorrect to say that an' 
electro-motive force causes a difference of potential 
between two points, and this difference of potential in 
turn gives rise to a current whenever the two points 
are connected by a conductor. 

This may, perhaps, be rendered clearer by means of 
a certain analogy which exists between the action of 
electricity and that of water. 

Suppose we have two vessels of equal size and ca- 
pacity, A and B, fig. 2, connected by an horizontal 
pipe, C, provided with a closed stop-cock. Now let 
such a quantity of water be put into each vessel that 
the surface of the water in A shall be the same dis- 
tance above the line X X that the surface of the water 
in B is below it. The difference between the level of 
the water in A and in B may be termed their difference 
in potential. The two bodies of water are in a condi- 
tion corresponding to that of the electricity in the cell 
shown in figure 1. Now, if we open the stop-cock 
(which corresponds to the act of joining and C 1 in 
fig. 1 by a wire), a current will flow through the pipe 
C. The greater the difference of level between A and 
B the more rapidly and forcibly will the water pass 
through C. When the water in both vessels has 




(Fig. 2.) 

reached the same level— that of the line X X— the 
flow will cease, because there is no longer any differ- 
ence of potential. The line X X, therefore, may be 
termed the zero of potential, and the original level in 
A which was higher than this line represents a positive 
potential, while the lower level in B in the same way 
represents a negative potential. 

Now let us suppose that an apparatus is sot at work 
pumping water from B into A. This would tend to 
lower the water in B and at the same time raise it an 
equal amount in A, or, in other words, to maintain a 
difference in potential between the two vessels. This 
pumping apparatus corresponds to the electro-motive 
Force and the difference in potential maintained between 
A and 1!, and consequently the amount, of wafer that 
will thereby be caused to pass through in a given 
time depends entirely upon the energy of its action, 
and is of course directly proportional t beret/). 

It will also be obvious that the amount of water 
flowing through (' depends upon the difference of level 
between A and B, and not at all upon the absolute 
level, which may be arbitrarily assumed :if pleasuro. 
For instance, the zero lino X X might bo assumed 'as 



the mean level of the sea. In precisely the same man- 
ner the potential of the earth is assumed as the zero of 
electrical potential, merely as a matter of convenience 
in electrical work, and therefore, when we say that 
a given point has a certain positive or negative poten- 
tial, we mean that its potential is so much greater or 
less than that of the earth. 

Resistance. 

All known substances, whether solid or liquid, op- 
pose a greater or less resistance to the passage of an 
electric current through them, when they form part of 
an electric circuit, by which it is to be understood that 
when two bodies having a different electrical potential 
are connected by any material whatever, the quantity 
of electricity produced occupies a certain time in pass- 
ing between them. Thus, if a certain difference of 
potential between two points is maintained by means 
of a constant electro-motive force, and these two points 
are joined by a conductor, as before explained, it is 
found that, by modifying the form or the material of 
the conductor, the transfer of a given quantity of elec- 
tricity may be made to take place in very different 
times. The quality of a conductor, by virtue of which 
it prevents the transfer of more than a certain quan- 
tity of electricity in a given time, is called its electrical 
resistance. 

Eeturning to our illustration by means of the flow 
of water, as shown in fig. 2, if the pipe C were reduced 
to one half its original capacity, its resistance would 
be doubled. It would then take exactly twice as long 
as before (leaving friction out of the question) for a 
given quantity of water to be transferred from A to B, 
provided the other conditions remained unchanged. 

Electrical resistance is a property that differs very 
widely in different substances. The best conductor 
known is probably pure silver. One of the worst is 
gurta percha, the resistance of which is no less than 
850,000,000,000,000,000,000 times as great as that of 
pure silver. Substances usually termed insulators are 
merely those having a very great resistance. The terms 
conductor and insulator are, therefore, entirely relative 
and not absolute, and it would, perhaps, be as well for 
the student to consider all bodies in the light of con- 
ductors having a greater or a less resistance, as the 
case may be, which will materially assist him in form- 
ing a clear and distinct conception of the nature of 
electrical action. 

The resistance of an electric circuit is partly within 
the battery itself, and partly in that portion of the cir- 
cuit outside the battery. 

Quantity. 

Much confusion of ideas has ariseu from the loose 
and indefinite sense in which the term quantity has 
been used by different writers on electricity. A cer- 
tain quantity of electricity means exactly the same 
thing as a certain quantity of anything else, that is, a 
given amount of it. In the combination shown in fiff. 
1, it was explained that a current of electricity would 
flow between the poles C and C\ when these were 
joined by a conductor. This current of electricity 
arises from the action of the electro-motive force, and 
is supposed to be maintained by the chemical combina- 
tion of the zinc with the oxygen of the water, the zinc 
being consumed exactly in proportion to the amount 
of electricity developed. Therefore, we may, for the 
purposes of this explanation, regard the electricity as 
a component part of the zinc, which is set free when 
the latter combines with oxygen. We may conceive, 
then, that the zinc plate of a battery contains a certain 
definite quantity of electricity, the same as the reser- 
voir or vessel A. Figure 2 contains a definite quantity 
of water above the line X X. Now, the less the resis- 
tance of the pipe C, the greater will be the quantity of 
water which will pass through it in a given time, and 
the sooner will the water in A bo reduced to the level 
of X X. Similarly, in a voltaic battery, the groater the 
amount of current traversing the conductor joining its 
poles in given time, the sooner will the original quan- 
tity of electricity (which we may regard as having been 
stored up in the zinc) bo exhausted. 
Current. 

From what has been said, it will readily be under- 
stood that current is simply tho quantity of electricity 
that passes through a given conductor or circuit in a 
given time. To avoid circumlocution, the direction of 
,i current is assumed to be from a higher to a lower 
potential, and is usually spoken of as if this were really 
the ease. Actually it is the recombining of the two 
opposite or positive and negative electricities, which 
have been separated bv an electro-motive fo>'ce, and, 
therefore, strictly ipeaking, may be said to flow as 
much in one direction as in tho other. 

The strength of a constant current in any circuit — 
thai is to say, the quantify of electricity that passes in 
a given time — is equal al every point in (.he circuit. 
This uniform current, throughout the circuit, is not in- 
fluenced in the smallest degree, either by differences in 
the resistance of different parts, or by differences in 
the material of which the circuit, is composed. The 
distinction of "quantity" and " intensify " currents, 
formerly in vogue among electrioians, is entirely a fal- 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[January 3, 1814. 



lacious one. There is only one kind of current, and 
tbat is a current of greater or less magnitude or 
strength, by which we understood nothing more nor 
less than the simple fact that it conveys a certain defi- 
nite quantity of electricity past a given point in a given 
time. Here, once again, we may refer to our illustra- 
tion of the water flowing in the pipe 0, fig. 2. Sup- 
pose this pipe to be replaced by a series of pipes of 
various diameters, all of course filled with water, the 
curreut of water from A to B will flow uniformly 
through all of them. Precisely the same quantity of 
water per second will flow through each section of the 
pipe, whatever its diameter may be. It is true that 
the velocity of the water varies in proportion to the 
diameter of the different sections, but the current is 
uniform throughout, in the sense that it is a current of 
so many gallons per second. 



The Government and the Telegraphs. 

We stated a short time since (Oct. 4th, 1873) that 
the railway companies had still some very large claims 
upon the Government, arising out of the purchase of 
the telegraphs by the State, and at that time not less 
than forty-one claims were unsettled. Twelve of the 
claims of the largest amounts have been submitted to 
arbitration, including the North-Eastern, Midland, 
Lancashire and Yorkshire, Great Eastern, London and 
South"W"e$teru, Great Northern, North London, Ulster, 
Metropolitan, Metropolitan "District, Metropolitan, 
Hammersmith and City, and Metropolitan and St. 
John's Wood. The latest returns to Parliament show 
that the sum paid for taking over the telegraphs was 
£5,847,347. It is probable that when the whole of 
the claims are disposed of, the cost to the country will 
not be far short of ten or twelve millions. With re- 
gard to the claim of the Lancashire and Yorkshire and 
other lines, we find the following in the Western 
Morning Neios : 

" An error of enormous magnitude has been discov- 
ered in the Government telegraph accounts. Instead 
of purchasing, as was supposed, a freehold and abso- 
lute title, the Government finds that it purchased the 
leasehold only from the telegraph companies, whose 
rights were bought up in many instances. The tele- 
graph lines were leased from the railway companies, 
and what they sold was merely a lease of them. The 
railway companies are represented as being now en- 
gaged in preparing their claims. Some of- these, it ap- 
pears, are uncomfortably large. The claim of the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Eailway for the telegraph, 
which the Government fondly imagined it had pur- 
chased from the Magnetic Company, amounts to 
£950,000. The matter is to be referred to two arbi- 
trators — Mr. Weaver, secretary of one of the^elegraph 
companies, on the part of the Government^ and Sir 
John Hawksbaw, on the part of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Eailway. Sir John Karslake is to be um- 
pire. The approach of an arbitration of much public 
interest and importance, which is thus alluded to, can 
scarcely, however, be fairly called an error, nor is it 
possible that, in purchasing the rights of the telegraph 
companies, the Government imagined itself to be ac- 
quiring the whole of the privileges connected with 
telegraphs in the country. The Telegraph Act, 1868, 
after giving powers to purchase the undertakiugs of 
telegraph companies, goes on to recite that the railway 
companies on their part are either owners of telegraph's, 
or they have contracts with telegraph companies 
whose apparatus is placed in the stations and along the 
railways and canals of the railway companies. Powers 
are, therefore, given in this Act of 1868 to the Post- 
master General to take the place of the telegraph com- 
panies in such contracts with the railway companies, 
and to pay the railway companies compensation, 
either to be agreed upon or to be fixed by arbitrators, 
for the loss of present and reversionary gains. The 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Company is 'mentioned by 
name in this Act as one of the railway companies with 
which arrangements will have to be made, and no 
agreement having been come to, although negotiations 
have been going on ever since the passing of the Act, 
the time has now come when a decision will have to be 
arrived at by arbitration, as provided in the Act, and 
before Sir John Karslake as umpire. Eminent counsel 
have been retained on both sides. The Marquis of 
Salisbury, as umpire, has already pronounced on a 
somewhat similar claim, involving, however, a much 
smaller amount than the sum to which, on the part of 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company, it will pro- 
bably be contended that company is entitled. The 
Act of 1869 estimated £700.000 as 'a sufficient sum to 
cover the whole expenses of the Government in this 
part of the transfer of the telegraphs. The Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Company alone now demand a million 
or more. But it will be obvious tbat neither the Gov- 
ernment nor the company is a fair judge of its own 
cause, and the public will look with interest for the de- 
cision of Sir John Karslake and his experienced asses- 
sors. The arbitration will involve difficult and intri- 
cate matters of account."— The Eailway News. 



West India and Panama Telegraph. 

The committee of shareholders appointed at the 
annual meeting of the shareholders of the company on 
the 17th November, 1873, report that their long de- 
ferred hope of the completion of the telegraph system 
of the company is now likely to be realized, the 
steamships Minia and Kangaroo, in the service of the 
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, 
freighted with cables for duplicating the lines between 
Jamaica and Porto Bico, and Dominica and Martinique, 
having sailed on the 2d of December, and the Investi- 
gator, in the service of the same company, having 
sailed on the 8th of December, to repair the broken 
cable of the Cuba Telegraph Company. After referring 
at some length to the failures and shortcomings of the 
past, which have resulted in the unquestionable diffi- 
culties of the present, they state that they " cannot 
but express their regret that more decided action was 
not taken by the board immediately after the expira- 
tion of the eleven months named in the contract for 
the laying of the cables, and that, previously to the 
commencement of litigation, more vigorous efforts 
were not made to bring about an amicable adjustment 
or arbitration by commercial men. The committee 
have, as far as time would permit, looked through the 
voluminous proceedings in this unfortunate Chancery 
suit, and they came reluctantly to the opinion that it 
was unadvisable, in the interests of this company, to 
approach the defendants with a view to an amicable 
settlement; but, in saying this, they are not by any 
means without hope that, under a newly constructed 
board, negotiations may not be advantageously opened 
with a view to an amicable adjustment of differences. 
The' committee cannot but suspect that, in the long- 
continued discussions and correspondence which have 
taken place between the directors and officers of this 
company and the India Bubber Company, feelings have 
been excited not favorable to the amicable solution of 
the grave differences existing; and, entertaining this 
opinion, the committee have come to the conclusion 
that it is desirable'that some members of the present 
board should retire, and that some gentlemen of larger 
practical experience in the management of existing 
submarine telegraph companies should be invited to 
take seats at the board." 



Remarkahle Operations. 

B. Franklin made his name famous when he flew 
his kite and brought down lightning from the clouds, 
which had been flying around without paying its way. 
Now we not only flash through on wires, but science 
has grappled with electricity and used it to perform 
miracles.. Our readers will remember that when Gen. 
Kilpatrick returned from Chili, three years since, he 
had a remarkable operation performed by a physician 
in New York, who removed a large fleshy formation 
from the General's neck by filling it full of needles 
and then attaching a galvanic battery to it. Ten min- 
utes after the current of electricity was let on the 
bunch had entirely disappeared. A remarkable opera- 
tion was performed by a Whitehall physician a few 
days ago. A gentleman who had been suffering from 
a superabundance of adipose tissue consulted a physi- 
cian, asking for relief from his burden. The gentleman 
consented, and, with the medical practitioner, entered 
the telegraph office at this place. The fat man was 
requested to "remove his coat and vest, after which, 
the physician surrounded him with wires, attaching 
the ends to a powerful galvanic battery. At a signal 
from the doctor, Manager W. B. Eddy let on the cur- 
rent. The patient writhed and twisted when he 
felt the current passing around him, but he stood 
it like a martyr. Presently he began to shrink; he 
grew smaller and smaller and smaller; his clothing 
hung in bags about his fast diminishing form. The 
doctor felt much pleased at the result of his experi- 
ment, while the formerly fat man's joy was very great, 
although he seemed to be suffering the worst pain. 
All of a sudden there was heard a loud clicking at the 
instrument, as if Pandemonium's great hall had been 
let loose. The operator sprang quickly to answer the 
call. He ascertained it was from the New York office. 
He quickly asked, " What's up 1" An answer came 
back as if some demon was at the other end of the 
wire: " Cut off your wires quick — you are filling the 
New York office with soap grease !" 



The Way the Cable Talks. 

An operator sits at a table in a room darkened by a 
curtain. On his left hand stands a little instrument, 
named the " reflecting galvanometer," the invention 
of Sir William Thompson, without which Atlantic 
telegraphy would be a slow process — not exceeding 
two or three words per minute, instead of eighteen or 
twenty, the present rate. 

This delicate instrument consists of a tiny magnet, 
aud a small mirror swinging on a silk thread, the two 
together weighing but a few grains. The electric cur- 
rent, passing along the wire from Valencia, deflects 



the magnet to and fro. The mirror reflects a spot o 
light on to a scale, in a box placed at the operator' 
right hand, where, by its oscillation, the spot of ligh 
indicates the slight movements of the magnet, which 
are too slight to be directly seen. 

This little swinging maguet follows every change in 
the received current, and every change, great or small, 
produces a corresponding oscillation of the spot of 
light on the scale. A code of signals is arranged by 
which the movement of the spot of light is made to 
indicate the letters of the alphabet. 

When receiving a message from Valentia, the ope- 
rator watches the movement of the little speck, which 
keeps dancing about over the scale on his right. To 
his practiced eye each movement of the spot of light 
represents a letter of the alphabet, and its seemingly 
fantastic motions are spelling out the intelligence which 
the pulsing of the electric current are transmitting 
between the two hemispheres. It is truly marvellous 
to note how rapidly the experienced operator disen- 
tangles the irregular oscillations of the little speck of 
light into the letters and words which they repre- 
sent. 

» * » 

Christinas Greeting- to a Telegraph Manager. 

A loop extends from the main office of the Southern 
aud Atlantic telegraph office at Charleston, S. C, to 
the sleeping room of the manager, Mr. L. E. C. Moore. 
At twelve o'clock, Christmas Eve, he heard his call, 
" Em," and, upon answering, received the following 
Christmas greeting.from the employes in the office : 

" Main office, S. and A. Telegraph Co., Charleston, 
S. C, Christmas Eve, 1873. To L. E. C. Moore, 
manager.' — The employes of your office extend to you 
and your family a happy Christmas greeting, and hope 
that the ' circuit' of your happiness may be long, and 
your course of life so ' adjusted ' as to catch every 
'dot' of pleasure; that the "' sympathy ' that now 
exists between us may never be interrupted by any 
' ground ' of discord; that the strong 'iattcry' of 
friendship now existing may never lose its ' insulation ;' 
that ' escape ' of all trouble may ever be your fortune. 
May our, each aud every 'manipulation' be ' conduc- 
tive'' of your popularity as our manager ; may you and 
yours ' dash' through life smoothly and steadily; may 
the ' space ' of time be long extended ere our ' connec- 
tion' be severed, and may nothing ever ' stick ' in the 
friendly intercourse existing between us, is the wish of 
your employes. 

J. C. Duggan, Chief Operator. 

A. L. Haynes, Night Manager. 

A. J. Wright, Operator. 

J. P. Finnigan, " 

J. Phillip Bivers, " 

Thos. F. Seattery, " 

Alva B. Green, Clerk. 

J. L. Smith, Lineman. 

S. E. Bell, ) 

Jno. W. Eobinson, > Messengers." 

H. E. Prior, ) 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Telegraphers Better than they are Represented. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I notice that there is considerable said through 
the columns of The Telegrapher in regard to the 
morals of telegraphers, aud how they are looked upon 
in social circles. Some of the writers are afraid that 
matters are growing worse instead of improving, and 
that operators are, as a general thing, a depraved and 
almost an abandoned class of men. Now I think these 
fears are not only unnecessary but groundless. Speak- 
ing of the fraternity at large, it is true that there are 
black sheep in all flocks. This is true in church and 
state, and always has been and always will be to the 
end of time. Our Saviour, when upon earth, chose 
twelve disciples, and Christ himself said, " Have I not 
chosen twelve, and one of them is a devil 1 ?" But 
Christ also said, " Let the wheat aud the tares grow 
together, but while ye root up the tares ye also root 
up the wheat." 

Now I have met a great many telegraphers, and 
formed their acquaintance, and been associated with 
them, and I must say that they are not the worst men ; 
but, as a general rule, a more generous, whole souled 
class of men you cannot find. They are always ready 
to extend the helping hand whenever required. The 
only mystery to me i's that telegraphers are not 
more dissipated and reckless than they are, for most of 
them have left home and home influence when quite 
young, aud perhaps just at the very time they most 



January 3, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



3 



needed the kind admonitions of careful parents — when 
they were moulding a life character. They have left 
all this; and how many, many sweet influences are con- 
nected with a Christian home ! God only knows the 
influence of a mother. What heart does not thrill 
with joy as they rememher a kind and loving mother, 
who in their youth taught them their first prayer, and 
told them of heaven and a Saviour, who had gone to 
prepare a home for them, if good children ? Then how 
that same gentle, loving mother would imprint the 
good night kiss upon the cheek. Oh ! who can tell the 
influence of a Christian mother 1 I well remember, 
when I left the old homestead, how my mother bade 
me farewell with tears streaming down her cheeks, and 
bade me remember the advice and instruction received 
from her. 

Now this is not all romance, as many a one who will 
read this can testify, and perhaps call to remembrance 
home, thinking of that gentle, loving mother who so 
often soothed their boyish sorrows. Perhaps she now 
sleeps in the silent churchyard, and her spirit has gone 
home to its eternal resting place. Now, who will not 
think it strange, upon reflection, when duly considering 
all the many privileges and home counsels that tele- 
graphers are deprived of, that they are no worse than 
they are? And, as I think back on my own experi- 
ence, I have great reason to thank God for a pious 
mother. Telegraphers are, to use a vulgar expression, 
kicked from pillar to post, and the public do not, in the 
way they should, appreciate the services rendered them 
by the fraternity. They look upon them as a kind of 
necessary evil, and generally treat them accordingly; 
but we can bear all this, for ours is a noble calling, and 
we have the consciousness of doing a noble work, and 
if oar reward is not just upon earth, we are assured 
that we are seen by our Heavenly Father in secret, 
and shall be rewarded openly by him ; and, if that be 
not until the great and final day, let us not despair, 
but perform well and faithfully our part in life. 

Let some one else speak upon this matter. It can 
be made interesting. Melville. 
♦-•-♦ 

The Bible, .and the Invention of the Telegraph. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Some of your correspondents have been goiug back 
in the history of -telegraphy for items of interest. Since 
they have started on the backward course, I would like 
to cite them to where we read in Nahum (ii, 4) of 
chariots seeming like torches, and that they should 
run like the lightning, with terrible collisions in the 
highways ; and earlier still, by nearly a thousand years 
(Job xxxviii, 35), inquire if the lightning could be sent to 
convey intelligence ? Three millenials pass away and 
Morse responds " it can ; " and to-day thousands of op- 
erators throughout our land exclaim with Morse, " it 
can." 

In the language of another, we can say, " God has 
shorn the lightning of its terror and laid it powerless 
in our hands." "We should remember " we operators 
are the mediums of one of the noblest uses that science 
ever whispered into the ear of man." When we see 
how rapidly this art has developed we cannot help but 
admire its inventor. There is no name that the Ameri- 
can people more deeply revere than that of Morse. 
Magically, by the wonderful power of telegraphy, 
months have been reduced to seconds, time ignored, 
space powerless, man speaks to man in words of living 
eloquence, though oceans separate them. High moun- 
tains and broad rivers constitute no obstacle in the 
path of this irresistible force. Everything yields to its 
potent sway, and still stands aghast with wonder, con- 
templating in amazement the mighty works of fellow 
men, and exclaiming, " all is possible." It is. indeed, 
the arteries through which beats the great pulse of 
humanity— the public highway of thought. 

S. L. C. 

Consolidation of Competing Telegraph Lines the 
Only Safety. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The consolidation of the Pacific and Atlantic Tele- 
graph lines with the Western Union, although not 
unexpected, should awaken the managers of the com- 
panies competing with the Western Union to the neces- 
sity which exists for taking measures to consolidate 
interests and to protect themselves against a 



their 

similar fate. Only in such a consolidation can there 
be safety, and it is imperatively demanded by their 
own interests and that of the public whom they serve. 
It is the policy of the Western Union Company to 
absorb competing companies one by one— and while 
they remain separated, and to a more or less extent 
divided in their interests, they cannot compete upon 
anything Ida; equal terms with that organization, 

The Atlantic and Pacific Company is the leading 
telegraph organization outside of the Western Union 
combination, and it would seem to be the part of wis- 
dom for the managers of that company to take the 
lead in the movement towards such a consolidation. 



The defection of the Pacific and Atlantic Company 
renders it necessary that the territory which it covered 
should be occupied by new competing lines with the 
least possible delay, and this can be done if the exist- 
ing companies will unite their energies and resources 
in practically one organization. 

This course has been urged for years in The Tele- 
grapher, and its recommendations in the premises 
have met with general approval, but it has been un- 
derstood that hitherto the Pacific and Atlantic Com- 
pany has stood in the way of any advantageous ar- 
rangement. That obstacle is now removed, and it is 
to be hoped that we shall soon witness effective action 
towards a consummation which all who have the per- 
mauauce of telegraphic competition at heart must 

desire. Consolidation. 
*-♦-♦ 

How the Western Union Company Encourage 
Inventors. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

The last number of the official organ contains an 
elaborate illustrated description of the Milliken Re- 
peater, filling two pages. This amount of space, how- 
ever, was not sufficient to allow the writer room 
enough to state that although the Western Union 
Company are using between one and two hundred of 
these repeaters ou their lines, yet, so far as heard from, 
Mr., Milliken has never received a dollar of compensa- 
tion from that company for the use of his invention ; 
yet the actual money value of it to them since its 
■ adoption must amount to a great many thousands of 
dollars. This is paralleled by the case of Culgan, the 
inventor of the well kuown switch-board, of which 
hundreds and hundreds have- been used by the same 
company, and no compensation was ever made either 
to the inventor or his destitute widow. When they do 
attempt to reward an inventor, they seem to be 
equally unfortunate ; for the considerable sum of 
money paid for the duplex patents, " $1 9,258 on ac- 
count" {vide Mr. Orton's report), to all appearances 
was paid to the wrong man, as almost every point 
about the latter invention of any practical value, and 
which was uot free to public use, was anticipated in 
Parmer's patent of 1858, which has recently been ex- 
tended for seven years. They are perfectly willing; 
however, to pay a large sum for a fraudulent patent 
like that of Page, not for legitimate business purposes, 
but as au engine of oppression, for the purpose of 
crushing any one who ventures to make use "of elec- 
tricity in any way without paying tribute to their mo- 
nopoly. To hear some of their officials talk, one 
would think a man couldn't be killed by a stroke of 
lightning without liabilitj^ of haviug a royalty col- 
lected from his heirs. This is the way wealthy corpo- 
rations reward worthy inventors. Justitia. 



A Response to Nettie Bronson. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

That spicy little note from " Nettie Bronson," in 
your last issue, was really so interesting that I shall 
have to ask of you a small space to express my admira- 
tion. " 

Although never taking any particular interest in the 
question as to the practicability of admitting ladies 
into the profession, I have never been able to see why, 
if they have the proper qualifications, those of the fair 
sex should not have the same privilege to, the profes- 
sion as we of the more unrefined persuasion. And 
"Nettie's" idea of our sitting with our feet on the 
table, etc., almost makes me believe that we are a sort 
of a clownish set ; but I hope she does uot have as poor 
an opinion of all of us as her description of the "gen- 
tleman" (I should say not a very dear friend) to whom 
she applied would seem to imply. If she does, fare- 
well to all my hopes of reconciliation. 

Not long since I was coworker in au office with a 
very nice young lady, and the pleasure of smoking, 
with all its attendant gratifications, had to bo dis- 
pensed with ; but if Nettie could have seen with what 
eagerness a pipe was grasped, as soon as the lady left 
the office, I think she would have admired my martyr- 
dom in foregoing such a pleasure ; yet, I assure her, I 
made no complaint, and, in fact, think I was quite 
cheerful. 

I am afraid that Nettio felt a little " sour" when she 
wrote that letter ; and, no doubt, if at that time any 
poor unfortunate "fritegerse" had come in her way, 
on his devoted cars would have fallen, with appalling 

distinctness, " Yon plug!" lor I can say to her that I 
have seen those of our sister operators who were quite 
emphatic when their anger was aroused. 
But as I should certainly expect to be withered at 

Once by Nellie's sarcasm, I hereby disclaim any idea of 

criticism, and announce myself in perfect sympathy 
with her. Nettie presumes she should prefer a gentle- 
man student. Allow me tosay that this, strange as it 
may seem, striken me as being her finest point, especially 

as she shows such a Christian spirit in her willingness 
to help others. 

I hope, if she has not an office now, she soon will 



have. Let him who dare say nay, and I shall imme- 
diately renounce all my knowledge of telegraphing and 
apply for a position as student. Will Nettie look with 
favor on the application % Frankie. 



Exit of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 
Company. 

Pittsburg, Pa., December 28. 
To thf. Editor of The Telegrapher. 

" The king is dead, long live the king." Last night at 
6 o'clock the wires were cut off from the office of the 
Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company in this city 
and transferred to the Western Union office. Every- 
thing had gone on in the usual way until the moment 
of closing, and as we rose from our tables as the wires 
were cut off at the switch-boards by Mr. Geo. Wynne, 
the veteran repairman, we all felt as though parting 
from old friends for the last time. For the last hour or 
so before six o'clock the wires were almost entirely 
occupied in farewell talks between the " boys" at the 
termini, and along the line of the several wires. 

Messages expressive of mutual regret at parting, and 
wishes for future prosperity, were exchanged between 
chief operators Long, at Chicago, and Hamilton, at 
this place, on behalf of their respective forces. 

We all felt sad, and the impressible " R. A." was ob- 
served to draw forth a huge red silk handkerchief 
and weep ; he then jammed his hat down over his eyes 
and made for the door, fearful lest his emotion should 
be seen. 

The force here consisted of Messrs. Geo. A. Hamil- 
ton, chief operator (day), M. M. Prescott, chief opera- 
tor (night), R. W. Ledwith, assistant chief operator 
(day), and Messrs. Fetch, Myers, Pollock, Byrne, 
Muse, Barclay and Matthias, operators, all of whom, 
it is understood, are to be transferred, for the present at 
least, to the Western Union office. M. S. 



Another Problem. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Supposing four points, A, B, C and D, to be connected 
by telegraph lines, each being at an equal distance, say 
10 miles from the point E. there being available only 
just enough material to construct 40 miles of single wire 
line, how can it be arranged so that each office can work 
direct with either of the others, without the use either of 
loops or of repeaters ? 

C 



The diagram shows the arrangement of wires and 
stations above described. B. 



Answer to Correspondent. 

Occasional. — Your items of the 10th ult. were aecidently over- 
looked last week. Sorry, and will try not to have it occur 
agaiu. 



Mr. Frank N. Diament has resigned his position 
of assistant agent and operator of the North Pennsyl- 
vania, and North East Penn. Railroad at Abington, 
Pa., and accepted a position with the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad at TnnkhannocK, Pa. 

Mr. J. B. Shute has accepted the position of agent 
and operator at Abington, Pa., resigned by Mr. 1)ia- 
ment. Mr. Shute was a former resident of California, 
and his many friends on the Pacific Coast will no 
doubt be pleased to hear from him. 

Mr. John Murphy, operator in the general agout's 
office of the North Perm. It. R. at Philadelphia, Pa., has 
been absent on leave of absence to his home in Rich- 
mond, "Va. 

Mr. Geo. H. Wilson has been appointed agent and 
operator of the North Penn. R.R.at Eellertown, Pa. 



r riii>: total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom during the 
week ended December 6, L873, was 339,099— an in- 
creas i tin; corresponding week of IH72 of 53,453. 

The total traffic receipts of the Great Northern Tele- 
graph for the month of November amounted i<> 314,573 
fr. (£12,583), and forthe same month in l872to229,187 
IV. (£9,167), showing an iuoreas>e of £3,416. Tin; receipts 
on tin' European lines amounted to L66,563 fr., against 
124,915 fr., and on the China and Japan lines to 
148,010 fr., against 104,272 fr. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 3, 18*14 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 3, 1874. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 
PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY at 38 VESET ST. 

T E TXT T H VOLUME. 



$2.00. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, - 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION 
Communications must bo addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 



T 



HE TELEGRAPHER. 



A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday, 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
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As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 

patrouag.- received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

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GRAPHER must be addressed to 

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The New Year and the New Volume of The 
Telegrapher. 

A ISTew Tear has dawned upon the world, and will 
be in its third day when these lines reach our readers. 
The Christmas and New Tear festivities have nearly- 
closed, and it is time to address ourselves once more to 
the serious every day business of life. The customary 
compliments and greetings have been exchanged, and 
the New Tear is with us, with what of pleasure or 
pain, joy or sorrow, success or failure, will be duly 
solved by the swiftly passing days, weeks and months 
which, in due course, shall bring us to 1875. 

With the ISTew Tear The Telegrapher commences 
its Tenth Volume, and will, we trust, coutiuue to be 
a welcome weekly visitor to all of its old friends and 
subscribers and to many new ones. Its prospects for- 
tbe future are apparently as good or better than 
ever before in its history, and its usefulness, we hope, 
will be even more marked than at any previous time 
since it was first established. The volume which has 
just been closed, although not in all respects what we 
had hoped to make it, still has been, we think, a de- 
cided improvement upon those which have preceded it. 
We are under obligation to many friends for their valu- 
able contributions to its columns during the year, and 
are assured of the continuance of their favors, and of 
contributions from others which will have a tendency 
to increase the value and iuterest of the paper. We 
have no special promises to make in regard to The 
Telegrapher, further than that all its valuable and in- 
teresting features will be continued, and such improve- 
ments and additions made, from time to time, as ad- 
ditional experience and more ample facilities and 
means shall render possible and practicable. 

The evidences that we are constantly receiving of 
fuller appreciation, and increasing and widening inter- 
est in The Telegrapher, are very gratifying, and 
stimulate us to renewed efforts to make it worthy of 
the high position which it has obtained as an authority 
in electrical science and telegraphic art, and as the 
onlyiudependent and reliable telegraphic journal in 
this country. Representing as it does the practical 
telegraphers of the country, wherever known and 
by whom employed, and not crippled by compli- 
cation with any telegraph company, combination or 
clique, it can afford to be a really independent pub- 
lication — and, as such, it is our especial pride to main- 
tain it. It is for the telegraphers themselves, whom it 
represents, to say how long its present policy and 
character shall be maintained. If they continue to 
support it by their subscriptions and influence it shall 
not be found wanting. It has passed through some 
apparently dark days, but, we believe, has never 
forfeited or lost the confidence of the practical tele- 
graphers of the country. 

We had hoped to still further enlarge the paper 
with the commencement of the new volume, but 
have deemed it advisable uot to do so at present. 
Such enlargement involves not only considerable 
increase of the cost of publication, but also of labor 
and care, which we are not in a condition to 
bestow just now. If the patronage received shall 
be sufficient to warrant it, and other things shall 
he favorable, we may make this enlargement during the 
present volume. We can truly say that the prospects 
of The Telegrapher were never more encouraging 
than at the present time. Notwithstanding the depres- 
sion in business its circulation is increasing, and of ad- 
vertising we have more offered than we can hud 
room for. All things considered, we anticipate for the 
new volume a success which shall equal, if not excel 
that of auy which has preceded it. To realize this 
anticipation, however, we must rely upon the con- 
tinued active cooperation of our telegraphic friends, 
who have not heretofore failed us. 

In conclusion, we would ask every telegrapher, 
who believes that it is important to the welfare, instruc- 
tion and best interests of the fraternity, that The Tele- 
grapher, as its organ and representative, should be 
maintained,' to use his or her influence to add to its 
circulation and influence. With such an active and 



easily afforded cooperation, its subscription list would 
soon be doubled and trebled — and with increase of cir- 
culation comes increase of influence and usefulness. 
With thanks to the kind friends who have by their 
generous efforts given the new volume encouragement 
in the way of additional patronage, and with the compli- 
ments of the season to one and all of our readers, 
we uow start the Tenth Yolume of The Telegrapher 
with favoring winds upon its brief, but, we hope and 
believe, prosperous voyage through the coming year. 



The Postmaster General and the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. 

Postmaster General Cresswell, in his efforts t o 
induce Congress to confide to bis Department the man- 
agement of the telegraphs of the country, seems to be 
peculiarly unfortunate. Actuated by an ambition 
rival the fame of Mr. Scudamore in England, who 
succeeded in securing to the Post-office and himself 
the administration of the telegraphs of the United 
Kingdom, after a severe and protracted contest with 
the companies that owned them, Mr. Cresswell en- 
tered npou the task of obtaining a similar triumph here 
with great confidence, and a manifest disregard of the 
existing telegraph interests. He was nut long in dis- 
covering, however, that the undertaking was a much 
more arduous one than he had calculated upon, and 
that Congress did not incline much to the course which 
he recommended, and which he had, by elaborately 
prepared, but, as it was fouud when analyzed, fallacious 
and unreliable statistics, endeavored to show would 
prove a popular and profitable one. President Orton 
and the Western Union Telegraph Company entered the 
lists against the proposed confiscation of their property 
and interests zealously and successfully, and, as a con- 
sequence, our worthy Postmaster General lost his tem- 
per, and, in the report which he presented at the open- 
ing of the present session of Congress, he attacked 
both the Company and Mr. Orton personally in a sav- 
age and most unusual manner. To this Mr. Orton 
has just issued a reply, which caustically reviews 
Mr. Cresswell's report, and puts him in a most un- 
comfortable aud unenviable position. The length of 
this reply, which fills a pamphlet, of 38 pages, precludes 
its publication entire in our columns, but we will en- 
deavor to give briefly the more important features of it. 

The Postmaster General is unfortunate in his treat- 
ment of the subject. He is so evidently unreasonable, 
ill tempered, inconsistent and illogical, as to damage 
his own case, and prevent his suggestions and recom- 
mendations having the weight and influence desired. 
It is evident to him, as to everybody else, that the 
proposition for a Government telegraph monopoly, in- 
stead of gaining, loses grouud, and that there is no 
reasonable prospect of success; but he apparently de- 
sires to do as much damage as possible to the party or 
parties whom he regards as largely responsible for his 
ill success. 

Mr. Orton's reply is in the form of a communication 
addressed to the Postmaster General personally. The 
communication gives the following explanation of the 
reasons which have impelled such an unusual course 
on the part of Mr. Orton, who says: 

" I have before me an official copy of the Report of 
the Postmaster General for the fiscal year ending Juue 
30, 1873, which contains statements concerning the 
policy and management of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, including allusions to myself, which 
are so erroneous, unjust and personal, that it seems in- 
credible they should have been made by a Cabinet 
Minister in an official communication to the President 
for transmission to the Congress of the United States. 

" That it is an unusual proceeding for a private citizen 
to publicly address a communication to a Cabinet Min- 
ister upon the subject of an official report, is admitted. 
On the other hand, I believe it is equally unprecedented 
for a Cabinet officer, in a public report to the Presi- 
dent, to select for official animadversion a business 
lawfully prosecuted, or a citizen who has infringed no 
law ; aud, therefore, if any justification is needed, it will 
be fouud in the extraordinary character of the paper to 
which this is a reply. It seems due to the owners of 
property whose value may be impaired by official mis- 
representation, to the public, who are largely inter- 
ested in the proper conduct of the telegraph business, 



January 3, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



and also to the managers of a corporation who have been 
held up to public reprobation by the head of one of the 
most important Executive Departments of the Gov- 
ernment, that his errors should be plainly pointed out, 
and the facts fully and fairly stated." 

He then proceeds to give a brief history of what the 
Government has done for the telegraph, its whole 
assistance to this important interest having been com- 
prized in an appropriation of $30,000 to bnild the ex- 
perimental line from "Washington to Baltimore, and a 
subsidy of $40,000 per year, for ten years, to the first 
line to California, which latter was more than repaid 
by the transmission of Government despatches over it 
without other charge. He then contrasts the munifi- 
cent liberality of the Government to railroads with its 
niggardliness to the telegraph, showing " Hundreds of 
Millions of Government aid to Railroads and but thirty 
thousand to the Telegraph !" 

He then considers the Act of 1866, which conferred 
certain privileges upon telegraph companies, but n 
return extorted from them an agreement to sell their 
lines to the Government, at its option, upon appraisal, 
at any time after five years; a contract which the tele- 
graph companies have never repudiated, but which the 
Postmaster General— neither Congress nor the people 
giving any indication of intention of enforcing — desires 
repudiated, and a partial Government competition 
established, to depreciate and destroy the value of the 
property which Congress may desire hereafter to pur- 
chase. 

He then proceeds to review the proposed legislation 
in Congress, looking to a postal telegraph. He quotes 
from the Report of the Postmaster General in 1872 the 
following paragraph : 

" I am decidely of opinion that if the people inter- 
ested require a postal telegraph, it should bo entirely 
in the hands of the Government. If, on the contrary, 
a postal telegraph is not so demanded, then the Gov- 
ernment should not favor one private company to the 
exclusion of another, nor should it in any wise enter 
into competition with private enterprise.'" 

The Report of the Postmaster General, in 1872, fixed 
the value of the existing telegraph property in the 
country at $11,880,000, while the only estimate sub- 
mitted in his report, from an expert, was that the lines 
could be duplicated for $18,250,000, if the material 
could be imported free of duty — while Mr. Orton as- 
serts that the property was worth in the market not 
less than $50,000,000. The Postmaster General, in the 
report under consideration, expresses " full confidence " 
in the correctness of the estimates in his previous 
report. The communication says : 

" The Government has the right to buy the property 
of the Company thus assailed, and the utterance of 
official opinions calculated to prejudice the public 
mind as to its value, looks like an attempt to forestall 
the award of the arbitrators, and to compel the owners 
to accept a sum less than that to which they consider 
themselves entitled, rather than take the risk of inciting 
greater official hostility. The injustice of such a pro- 
ceeding will be apparent to any one who will examine 
the facts." 

In his report the Postmaster-General asserts that 
" the opposition to the postal telegraph comes almost 
entirely from the telegraph companies and those di- 
rectly interested with them in sustaining their monop- 
oly," and that " every intelligent, disinterested ob- 
server, who has seen the workings of the Government 
system abroad, gives them the decided preference." 

Mr. Orton briefly but effectually refutes both of 
of these statements. " The press," he says, " are al- 
most unanimously opposed to it, and there is no evi- 
dence that even a respectable minority of the people 
desire its assumption by the Government." These 
facts are evident to everybody outside of tho Postmas- 
ter General's office, and it is difficult to believe that he 
makes the statements with an intelligent faith in their 
correctness. 

The assertions of the Postmaster General that "under 
the present management the use of the telegraph by 
the masses of the people is almost prohibited by reason 
of arbitrary rates, unnecessarily high charges and a 
want of facilities," and that " it may, however, be re- 
garded as settled, that whilo under tho control of pri- 



vate companies, whose chief object is to make a profit 
for their stockholders, and whose skill and labor are 
expended in efforts to advance the price of their stock, 
and to enforce the highest rates to which the people 
can be made to submit, the telegraph will never be- 
come a general medium of correspondence," are dis- 
cussed at considerable length by Mr. Orton, and their 
fallacy shown by statistics of the telegraph service in 
this country and in Europe — by which it appears that 
the telegraph is more generally used here than in any 
country in Europe, and that the rates of charges are 
no higher, relatively, than in countries where the tele- 
graph is a Government system. Statistics are 'also 
given which show that, with the exception of Russia, 
the Government telegraphs are worked at an absolute 
loss ; and in Russia, which made a profit of 4,000,000 
francs out of its telegraph service in 1872, the average 
charge per message was about 5% francs, while the 
present average tariff for messages in the United States 
is but fifty cents— about 2£ francs for a message of ten 
words — date, address and signature being free. 

The following will no doubt be endorsed by every 
person familiar with the telegraph business : 

" It is strictly true that the chief object of the com- 
panies is to make profit for their stockholders. It is 
for that purpose alone that private parties have in- 
vested capital in the telegraph business ; and there is 
no good reason why the investors in such property, 
and those to whom they have entrusted its manage- 
ment, should be subjected to the invidious rhetoric of 
a Cabinet officer, more than citizens engaged in other 
legitimate industries ; neither should their efforts to 
make the business remunerative and the property 
valuable, by lawful means, be made the subject of 
official condemnation. The present telegraphic facili- 
ties are adequate to meet all the demands upon them. 
In no other country have telegraphic facilities in- 
creased so largely, during the last few years, as in the 
United States. This increase has not only kept pace 
with the public demand, but in many sections has 
anticipated it. "While in other countries the cost of 
telegraphic extension, and in some of them a part of 
the cost of its operation, has been paid from the public 
treasury with moneys raised by taxation upon the 
people, in the United States the extensions have been 
made entirely by private capital, furnished by private 
citizens." 

The review of the Postmaster General's statements 
in regard to the automatic system we have not space 
to consider in this article, but will consider specially 
hereafter. Mr. Orton endeavors to show that the 
automatic system is really slower and more expensive 
than the Morse, but the facts do not bear out the as- 
sumptions made, as will be shown in a future article. 

The Postmaster General states that " there are now 
but two parties in the controversy over the postal tele- 
graph — on the one side the people, on the other the 
Western Union Telegraph Company." 

To this special pleading Mr. Orton says : 

" It was stated early in the report that the opposi- 
tion to the postal telegraph came from the telegraph 
companies (in the plural) and those directly interested 
with them in sustaining their monopoly. Further re- 
flection appears to have induced the Postmaster Gene- 
ral to modify this opinion — to suspend sentence upon 
all parties except the Western Union, and to concen- 
trate upon that company and its officers the entire 
weight of his condemnation." 

It might very properly have been said that in the 
postal telegraph scheme there are but two parties — tho 
Postmaster General and a very limited following — -and 
in active opposition or indifferent to it nearly the 
entire press of the country and almost the whole body 
of the people. 

The Postmaster General having made serious charges 
against the Western Union Company and its efforts to 
destroy rivals, Mr. Orton replies to these at some 
length and defends the company, and asserts that if 
its rivalsj have been vanquished it was " cither be- 
cause they did not possess, tho facilities requisito for 
doing sufficient business to enable them to pay its ex- 
penses, or because the rates they insisted upon estab- 
lishing proved to be unremunerativc, or because they 
failed to conduct their business to tho satisfaction of 
tho public." 

"The charge that tho "Western Union Company 
' have not scrupled to uso any device which the power- 



ful can employ against the weak, and failing in the 
open field of fan- competition, have resorted to artifice, 
and have triumphed by making gold their weapon,' is 
absolutely groundless, and if uttered by one less dis- 
tinguished than the Postmaster General, would deserve 
to be characterized as a pompous slander. If pub- 
lished by one private individual in respect to another, 
it would make its author liable to an action for dam- 
ages. * * It has the right to acquire a monopoly of 
the telegraph business by serving the public better and 
cheaper than auy other parties are able or willing to 
serve it ; but if it be true, as stated in the report, that 
its competitors have been ' vanquished ' by the reduc- 
tion of rates, does not that fact destroy the chief sup- 
port on which the postal telegraph scheme rests? If 
private companies cannot pay expenses at present rates, 
how is it expected that the Government can make a 
profit at still lower rates V 

In conclusion, Mr. Orton says : 

" There only remains to be considered the re- 
commendation of the Postmaster General, that 
Congress authorize the construction of lines re- 
quired for the immediate establishment of the postal 
telegraph. Can it be that the Postmaster General 
expected a proposition to be seriously considered 
which contemplates employing public moneys, collect- 
ed from the people by taxation, to set up the Govern- 
ment in business as the competitor of private citizens ? 
Coming from an executive officer of a Republican Gov- 
ernment, whose powers are defined and limited by a 
constitution and laws, the proposal is simply mon- 
strous. If there were no such prohibition in the Con- 
stitution, the common sense of an intelligent people 
would revolt at the suggestion that private property 
should be taken for public use without just compensa- 
tion. But to use public moneys to destroy private 
property by Governmental competition, would be more 
unjust than to take it without compensation. In the 
latter case its owners would lose only its value, while 
in the former they would make the same loss, and, in 
.addition thereto, be obliged to contribute in taxes their 
pro rata share of the cost of its destruction. The own- 
ers of telegraph property, startled as they may well be 
at this extraordinary proposal, need have no apprehen- 
sion of its being carried into effect. The people of the 
United States are intelligent and just, and the Con- 
gress they have chosen, faithfully representing them, 
will require the Government to show the same respect 
for private property and private rights that the common 
law requires each citizen to show to every other." 

We have been obliged to pass over many points in 
this communication which we should be pleased to 
consider, and merely refer to others which deserve more 
extended notice. We will only add, in conclusion, 
that the argument is all against the Postmaster Gen- 
eral, and that, before he again enters the lists, he had 
better regain his good temper, devote some further 
time to the consideration of the subject, and then dis- 
play his acquired wisdom by letting it severely alone. 
*-«-♦ 

The Railroad Telegraph Operators and The 
Telegrapher. 

When, two or three years since, recognizing the im- 
portance which railroad telegraphy had assumed, we 
dovoted special attention to railroad telegraphy and 
telegraphers, we did so because we considered that it 
was due to both. Before that time little attention had 
been paid to this important interest, and it had been 
regarded as rather a reproach than otherwise to be 
ranked, as a " railroad telegrapher." All this has been 
measurably changed now, and many of tho ablest elec- 
tricians and practical telegraphers arc engaged in the 
railroad telegraph service. Certainly there is no brauch 
of telegraphy which requires more ability and relia- 
bility upon the part of the operators than that connec- 
ted with the railroads of the country. Upon the ability 
and reliability of these persons not uufrequently de- 
pend the safety of lives and property, and they seldom 
fail at tho critical moment. Although not generally as 
well paid as commercial operators, their duties arc 
usually more arduous and their responsibilities much 
greater. "Wo think that their condition is gradually 
improving, and if Tiik Telegrapher can in any way 
aid in such improvement, its influence shall not bo 
lacking. 

Tho railroad telegraphers of the country have not 
been slow to recognize aud appreciate the position 
taken by The Telegrapher in relation to them, and 
some of our most valued contributors, and no incon- 
siderable number of our subscribers are connected with 
tho railroad telegraph service Wo hope that both 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[January 3, 1814. 



will be increased during the coming year, and that 
they may be fully satisfied that The Telegrapher 
not only desires but intends to do them justice, and 
that it is not without influence in their behalf. 



A Valuable Contribution. 
"We would direct the special attention of onr scien- 
tific readers to the valuable and instructive series of 
papers on, The Elementary Principles of Electrical 
Measurement, the first of which appears in the present 
issue. As a complete exposition of the very latest dis- 
coveries and theories in electricity, it will be found to 
be a contribution of great and permanent value to the 
literature of the subject. 

Special Notice. 
The present number of The Telegrapher— the first 
of Vol. X — will be sent to subscribers Whose subscrip- 
tions expired with the last number of Vol. IX, whose 
renewal of their subscriptions has not been received. 
It is hoped that all who have not yet sent their renewal 
will do so at once, if not the paper will be discontinued 

after the present issue. 

♦*-« 

Back Numbers of the Telegrapher Wanted. 

Our supply of the following numbers of Volume IX 
of The Telegrapher is exhausted : 

Numbers 342, 351 and 334. 

We would be obliged to any of our friends who may 
have either of them to spare if they will forward them 
to us to complete files. 



lite lilipnpit. 

Election of Officers of the Southern and Atlantic 
Telegraph Company. 

At the adjourned annual meeting of the Southern 
and Atlantic Telegraph Company, held in this city on 
Wednesday, December 17, 1873, Mr. James E. Cren- 
shaw was reelected President of the company for the 
ensuing year. At a meeting of the directors of the 
company (whose election was noted in The Tele- 
grapher of December 20th last) the following elec- 
tions were made : Mr. Charles W. Blossom, Vice- 
President ; Mr. W. K. Gardner, Secretary and Treas- 
urer; Mr. George H. Grace, General Superintendent. , 

The following gentlemen were elected Executive 
Committee: Messrs. Francis Morris, H. Hentz, C. W. 
Blossom and Henry Morgan. 

The President is ex officio a member and chairman 
of the Board of Directors, and of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

The lines of the company now extend to Selma, 

Alabama, and will soon be constructed to New 

Orleans, La. 

*-»-* 

Annual Meeting of Stockholders of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Telegraph Company. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company will be held 
at the executive offices of the company, 102 Broadway, 
in this city, January 28th. 



Exit the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Com- 
pany. 

The wires of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 
Company have been turned over to the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, and the former, as a practical 
telegraph organization, has ceased to exist. 



The receipts of the Submarine Telegraph Company 
for the month of November, 1873, amounted to £8,851, 
against £8,485 for the corresponding month of the 
previous year. 

New Patents. 

jg®- Official Copies of any XT. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, sent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, P. O. 
Box 5503, New York City. 

For the week ended December 2, 1873, and bearing that date. 

145,064.— Telegraph Cut-out. William G. Linn, Bloomfield, 

Iowa. Application filed April 21, 1873. 

Central revolving disk, with a metallic raised rim divided into 
two equal parts by insulating Bpaces. Disk revolved in one 



direction connects B to B and B' to B', cutting the office out ; 
reversing connects B to B' and B to B'. 

The movable disk, with its separated conducting strips, com- 
bined with the conducting arms B B B' B\ substantially as de- 
scribed. 
145,128. — Telegraph Register. William H. Sawyer, New York, 

N. Y., assignor to the American District Telegraph Company, 

same place. Application filed October 17, 1873. 

Employs principle of screw thread unison of printers to arrest 
clock work of registers, preventing running down and waste of 
paper when not in use. 

1. The combination, with the pen lever of a telegraphic regis- 
tering or recording apparatus, of a shaft, Y, provided with a 
screw, S, and stop piece X, a pivoted lever, L, carrying a pin, XJ, 
a supporting arm, K, and a retracting spring, O, substantially as 
and for the purposes herein specified. 

2. The combination, with the screw S and pin TJ, of the pivoted 
lever L, the latter being made flexible for the whole or a portion 
of its length, substantially as and for the purposes herein speci- 
fied. 

3. The combination, with the arms R and L, of the adjustable 
stop V, substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth. 

145,143.— Non-freezing Battery. Edward H. Ashcroft, Boston, 

Mass. Application filed October 30, 1873. 

A number of battery cups are arranged upon shelves in a sub- 
terranean casing, containing a lamp and having ventilating 
pipes. 

The out door battery, composed of cells C, enclosed in a sub- 
terranean close chamber, and provided with lamp D, pipe E for 
supplying fresh air, and vent F, for escape of the battery fumes 
and products of combustion. 



Born. 

Larkin.— At Kobe, Japan, the wife of Mr. Thok. J. Larkin, 
Superintendent of the Imperial Telegraph Department, of a 
daughter. 

Sparks.— At Abington, Pa., Nov. 30, 1873, to Mr. George L. 
Spauks, Agent of the North Pennsylvania and Northeast Penn- 
sylvania Railroads, a male sounder. 



Married. 

Finks— Brown.— At Waco, Texas, Dec. 17th, 1873, Mr. J. H. 
Finks, Manager of the Western Union Telegraph, to Miss Fannie 
Brown, of that place. 



Died. 

Upson. — At his residence in Burlington, Vt., at 3 o'clock on the 
morning of December 22d, 1873, of consumption, Henry S. Up- 
son, aged 31 years. 

Mr. Upson had been in the telegraphic service for about fifteen 
years, being employed most of the time at 145 Broadway, New 
York, and Burlington, Vt. He leaves a wife and one child. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 
Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 




One half of actual size 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KEY; 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 

Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

from 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 60 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE & CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 



Anson Stager, 

Pres't. 



Elisha Gray, 
Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 

No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 
Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOB CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTRO-MACKNETIC "WATCH CLOCKS AND 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'ff Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 
UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 
JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 
KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 

ODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
TRIC TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
Bvo, cloth., - - - - • $2.00 



4gg™ Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



OITUATION DESIRED. 

A Situation is desired by the subscriber as a Telegraph Operator. 
She has had nine years' experience, and has filled responsible 
positions in Commercial and Railroad offices satisfactorily, but 
is at present without an engagement. Would prefer a situation 
in an office in some city, or place of moderate size, where she 
could have an office by herself — either in a Commercial or Rail- 
road office. 

Any person knowing of such,a situation, or desirous of engag- 
ing her services, will please address 

Miss A. NIXON, 
Hobart, Lake County, Indiana. 



January 3, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



AN IC PRICES. 



OUR PROMTS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



ALL WHO NEED 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 

IN 

Large or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 

SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 

A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H. BLISS'& CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



G 



EO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 



TELEGRAPHIC ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



Agents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 
" " AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 

" JONES' LOCK SWITOH BOARD. 
" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 
'« HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 
" MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
" THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 
" PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 
" " BROOKS' 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 
" POPE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 
" " EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 
" ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 
No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 
No. 4 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. i 00 



Instruments, Line Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

flO- Special attention given to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 



npHE GALVANOMETER AND ITS USES. 

JL A MANUAL FOR 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By C. H.HASKINS, 

WITH ILLUSTEATIONS. 

18ino, Pocket Form, morocco tuck $2.00 

D. VAN N0STKAND, Publisher, 

23 Murray St. and 27 Warren St. 



*** Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

EDUCTION OF PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL. 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

Por AMATEUKS, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they arc constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates : 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 50 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

[P. O. Box 5503.] 38 Tesey Street, N. Y. 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



O A U T.I O N . 

Ail persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will De prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words "Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

JVo. i.0 West fSth Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 

rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 



,; : ,, : v. 



1 

1*1 



X 



(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

-WK§>~ — 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warrauted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " " with Cut Out and Lightning 

Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 JOEY STREET, N. Y. 

T^LECTRICAL BELLS. 




$10 BEJL.L. 

We ]>a?o a great variety of both SINGLE STROKE and CON- 
TINUOUS RINGING BELLS, from $6.50 upward. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 J)EY STREET, N. Y. 



HE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
IN THE WORLD 

IS SUPPLIED BY. 

L. G. TILLOTSOIsT & CO., 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MANUFACTUKERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

OF 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL, AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders j 3 50 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, Ijx2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAG-NETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from X to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 
INSULATORS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS, PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LECLANCHE, NITRO-OHROMIO AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 
CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohror and 

other Battorios. 
OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," ... - 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY k TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalogue it m) '-'/'rice Dist furnished upon application. 
L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

* JiEY STREET, NEW Y&RK. 



IV 



A 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 3, 1814. 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



GAMEWELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

o 

J. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North-Wost, 

5 R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina, 

J. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L, M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

THIS SYSTEM OP 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL, OFFICE, 

OR 

UPON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now in operation in the following Cities, to which referenceis 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I,, 
Quebec, L. C, 
Rochester, N. Y., • 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal,, 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. C, 
Worcester, Mass. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ARE, 

First — The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits 5 and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 

Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the fire is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sufficient vindication of the claims which are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWEtL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER <£• CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has j ust been extended for seven years, and 
d uring the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietoi s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 
the introduction and operation of which involves so litl la ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

PIEE ALAKM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 
ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, three 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
their efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 



Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



CHARLES T. CHESTER, 

104= Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 



AND MANUFACTURER OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 



BATTERIES, 



ND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood- work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 

A. G. DAY'S 
KERITE, 

OR 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE. 



SUBTERRANEAN & MMAL WIRES, 

OF THE 
HIGHEST INSULATION. 

We are now prepared to furnish, after an experience ofthrea 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injury. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVEE, believing that tt will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and prioe. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily and quickly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w )rk practically with a single Danibll cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to betaken down but once a year, and the 
very be^t MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



January 3, 18*74.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



TT>ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOR THE SALE OP 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BEOOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer. 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
&C stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Gables, Cables for Eiver Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A 



SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENT, , 
EOR PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 



Awarded the First Premium— Silver Medal— over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDEN. This 
Instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, beliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIVATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements wiU be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MEEOHANTS' MANuTACTUEItfa AND 
CONSTEUCTION CO. 

S. J. BURRELL, Superintendent, 

No. 60 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14;. 
P. O. BOS 6865. 



\ MERICAN COMPOUND 
^ TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 

COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
compared with iron, consists in its lightness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tensilk strength, homogeneity and elasticity — de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in its dorabilitx, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resultiug in a very great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time, insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
Address — 

American Compound Telegraph Wire Co., 
ALANSON OAET, Treasurer, 

No. 234 West '49th St.. 

New York. 



M 



AGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 



KAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors, 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 
114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IS MAIL- EN LANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



FL. POPE & CO., 
• MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

TELEGRAPH iNSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OP 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all desobiptioIW of tele- 
graph MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, SUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE LIO-HTilNJ-IKrG- uft^E/R.BSTER,S- 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOCHHAUSEN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC BATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it is 
conceded by all who have Used it to be the Best ami most, Econo- 
mical Battery, for telegraphic and other purposes, offered to tho 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pres'l. JOHN E. CART, Vice-Pret't. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, Sec'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 
GAMEWELL & CO., N. Y. 
Specialties made of 
HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SURE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY'' SOUNDER, 
Cheap Instruments for Learners, Amateurs, 4c, 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private Souse Electric Annunciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL, BELLS AND ALARM BELLS of every style. 

23 alter ies, Chemicals, JVire, Insulators, 
Supplies, &c, So. 

MODELS and LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 



PRICE LIST. 

Hicks' Repeaters (1873.) $100.00 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00" 1§.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8.00 

Keys " 3.00" 6.50 

Learners' Outfits (complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Amnunciators, per room " 7.00" 12.00 

Burglar Alarms " 50.00 " 200.00 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 
No. 4 LEADER BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O, 



D 



R. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 



JERSEY CITY, N. J., 



Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL APPARATUS 



Electric Measurement,' 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Rheostat as 
they have been recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, ftc. ; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro-motive force o/ 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dtnamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. It* measurements are accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of s,rithmett«al calculations. It. packs in a case seven 
inches deep and uine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. Considering the wide range of its 
capacity, itis cheaper than any other instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $280, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $40 to $60. 

Descriptive pamphlets may be had on application, 



(P. O. Box 5503. 



38 VESEY STREET. 



He also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH AUK OF 

Naked Copper Wire, 

Bo wound that the convolutions ai.' .i|i;i].ii.>i r. <>m each other by 
a regular and uniform space of the l-800th of an Inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper. In Helices of silk insulated wire, tho 

Bpai scupied by me Bilk Is the I IBOth to the l-800th of an inch; 

therefore a spool made of o given length and size of naked wire 

will be smaller and will contain many more convolutions around 
the Core than one of s'dk Insulated wire, and will make a DropO!* 

tionablj stronger magnet, while the resistance will be the same. 

These Belicea are now offered for the use of manufacturers of 
Telegraphic and Electrical apparatus, and orders will bo lilted 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 3, 1874. 



^HE PERFECT BATTERY. 

CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOOKWOOD BATTERY, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & 00,, Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dey Street, N. Y. 
This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in this country and Europe to be 

FAE SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purposes, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OP 1871. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper and zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, an'd there is^ 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 
equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 
or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 
current. 

The number '2 size (price $2.60) is now ready for sale Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 

Mend for Circular. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O I_j IE AG-EHTS. 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyer, Secretary. 



/^RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 



"SATE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
ehave down the butt and screw into the Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, 111. 



TXTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, k, k 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A. VERY SUPERIOR MAIN IINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 



The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, ) 
Sept. 22d, 1873. ) 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager. 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearanco. Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences, 



T>ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO.'S 

GIANT SOUNDER. 




K^ 



They are offered as being unequalled, and. giving louder and 
better sound, with 

ONE CELL OF DANIELLS OR CALLAUD BATTERY, 

than is usually produced from other Sounders worked by two 
cells of the same batteries. 

Price, ______ $7.50. 

Sent by Express, C. O. D., or upon receipt of Money Order 




OUR NEW STYLE 

IMPROVED CURVED KEYS. 

THEY DO NOT STICK, 

and it is the verdict of all operators who are using them that 
they CAN SEND BETTER, FASTER and LONGER with them, 
without fatigue, than -with any others they have ever used. 

PRICE, - - - - $5.50. 

k 
Same quality and style, with Straight Levers, - - $5.50. 
Sent by express, C. O. D., or upon receipt of money order. 

PARTEICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOUTH: FOURTH: STREET, Philadelphia, Pa. 



TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Electrical ani Telegraph Instruments, 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 
CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELEOTEIO BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



AZL GOODS W^-HSsiJVTFT) FIRST CZsiSS, 
AND PRICES EXTKEMELT LOW. 



SEND FOR PBICE LIST. 



TT^ENOSHA INSULATORS, 

. BEACKETS AND CEOSS-AEMS, 

DFOK, SALE BY 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 BEY ST?., NEW YORK. 




Vol. X. 



JVew Yorh, Saturday, January 10, 187 Jf. 



Whole JVo. 391 



,/^HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
■GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GONGS, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Meehanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

41 Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A PULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 
AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 



/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 

All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 

•Office and Factory, 

352 and 354 KIN& STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 



N 



O V E L T Y! 



A SOUNDER of Entirely New Construction, 

•which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
«lear sound. i 

Size for Regular Offices $5 00 

Small Size 3 50 

Learners' Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c„ 

all complete 7 50 

Send for Circular. 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MT'G CO., 
J^o, 4 Leader j3uilding, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

(established 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for Bale the various kinds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 

eluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 

DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



i^OVERED WIRES, 

— Made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or other 
material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-Magnetic Machines, 
Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, ENAMELLED, SHELLACED, 

PARAFFINED, and all kinds of 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being partial 
to any particular kind need only enclose a small specimen in a 
letter and it can be imitated in every particular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, BOLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

C. THOMPSON, 
(Successor to Josiah B. Thompson,) 

29 North 20th St., Thila., 2>a. 

JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 

OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



/^lALLAUD BATTERY. 

L. G. TILLOTSON &. CO. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS in the EAST. 

ORDERS SOLICITED. 

No. 8 DEY STREET, NEW YORK. 



\ NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 
J These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
Running motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Daniells, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESET STREET, N. I". 



E' 



UGENE F. PHILLIPS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE WIRES 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS, 
Lock Box, 169. PR0 VIDENCE, R. I. 



With improved facilities for the manufacture of BRAIDED 
LINEN or COTTON COVERED OFFICE WIRE, either plain or 
paraffined, I am now prepared to offer to purchasers a SUPERIOR 
ARTICLE, in any quantity, on the most reasonable terms. 

The Gold and Stock, and the American District Telegraph 
Companies have been supplied from my works with the larger 
part of the office wire used by them. 

SEND FOB SAMPLE CARD. 

For further information address as above, or 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

38 VESET STREET, N. T. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND, AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M C ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



w 



ALLACE & SONS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS. COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll and Sheet. 

We make the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty— 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every instance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, IV. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

Ansonisi, Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 10, 18T4, 



\ LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 

{Room 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



^HE AMATEUR'S 
TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOB. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a line 
many times with our new Hoot, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

" per dozen ...$3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Eelays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATE RS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 

TJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

■fr STEAM PRINTING HOUSE. 

17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STKEET, near FRAEKFOET, 

NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMEECIAL PBIBTIBG. 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a " Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, In 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

:<§>: 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 

Seven Dollars and. Fifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete $14 50 

Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. . . 7 60 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

-*- MANUFACTTJBERS OP 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

. FOR 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS'/FACETS, 
etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 VARICK STREET, JVEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 
ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGEAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

vol. 8vo, cloth .....$5 00. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any address on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D, VAN N0STRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA 7 STREET, N. 7. 



CHAFFNER'S 

TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my '* TELEGRAPH MANUAL," and desire 
cto make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five ninstra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNER, 

78 and 80 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. 7. 



^s%l 



OMETHING NEW. 



s 

"The Rattler" Telegraph Sounder. 




(patent applied for.) 

This is a very simple and effective Instrument, and, as it does 
not require any spring to draw the lever back, is always 
adjusted. 

PRICE, ----- $3.50. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 HEY STREET, N. Y. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOOD 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 



Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED" 

WIRES OF EVERY VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROU>D AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE-' 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground* 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors^ 

required. 

Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNTJN- 

CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE,. 

AND FOR 

BLASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Peboha has been universally adopted by all scientific and* 
practical Electrician sand Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with In- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can impotst Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DE7 STREET, NEW 70RK r 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale o* 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0KNLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO., 363 Broadway, 
D. H0DGMAN h CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St. 

Address all Communications to 

S. B I B H O I», 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. 



January 10, 1814. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



The Telegraphek 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. 


N. 
















SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 10, 1814. 




VOL 


X. 


WHOLE No. 


391. 



A Great Telegraphic Suit in Prospect. 

The litigation which has recently been commenced 
between the Gold and Stock and Western Union Tele- 
graph Companies on one hand, and the Manhattan Quo- 
tation Company on the other, from the nature and 
amount of the interests involved, seems likely to create 
as great an excitement in telegraphic circles, before 
it is finished, as did any of the celebrated suits between 
the Morse, House and Bain interests, which most of 
our older readers doubtless well remember. As appear- 
ances indicate that active hostilities are about to be 
commenced, it will probably interest our readers to 
know something of the origin and causes of the dispute. 

The Gold and Stock Telegraph Company first com- 
menced, in 1867, the then novel undertaking of furnish- 
ing printed telegraphic quotations of the transactions of 
-the gold and stock markets to subscribers in the neigh- 
borhood of Wall and Broad streets, having purchased 
for this purpose the patents of E. A. Calahan. The Cala- 
han printing instrument employed three line wires, and 
was capable of transmitting at the rate of perhaps six 
or eight words per minute ; but, in spite of this appa- 
rently slow rate of speed, it served an excellent pur- 
pose, and the system very soon became an established 
institution. Within two years a large number of in- 
struments were put in operation, and the profits of the 
company speedily became very large in proportion to 
the capital invested- During the year 1869 Mr. S. S. 
Laws, who was in reality the originator of the system 
of simultaneous reporting by telegraphic apparatus, 
also appeared in the field with a printing instrument of 
his own invention, and established a rival system. The 
Laws instrument required three line wires, and was not, 
in any essential particular, an especial improvement 
upon the Calahan instrument. Upon investigation the 
patents of the rival concerns were found to conflict, and 
there was at one time a prospect of a contest between 
them, which, however, terminated in the purchase by 
the Gold and Stock Company of Laws' patents and his 
entire system of reporting telegraphs, including his sys- 
tem of gold indicators, which has proved a notable 
success. This arrangement was consummated in the 
fall of 1869, and greatly strengthened the position of 
the Gold and Stock Company. The next attempt at 
competition in this business was made by Pope & 
Edison, who established a system of printing instru- 
ments for reporting gold quotations during the winter 
of 1869-70. Their instrument required but one wire, 
and was made simpler than any of its predecessors. 
The enterprise was quite successful, but was eventually 
purchased in the spring of 1870 by the Gold and Stock 
Company, together with a number of valuable patents. 
Meantime the progress of the Gold and Stock Com- 
pany had been jealously watched by the officers of the 
Western Union, who were greatly chagrined at the 
spectacle of such a powerful organization growing up 
under their very noses, and reaping a golden harvest in 
a field which they had possessed neither the foresight 
to discover nor the administrative skill to cultivate ; so 
they at length determined to enter the arena themselves 
with a new system, intending to employ an elegant and 
rapid printer, which had been invented by Mr. G. M. 
Phelps, superintendent of the company's manufactory, 
and which required but two line wires, although it was 
capable of doing three or four times as much work as 
any of the previous instruments in use. 

By the latter part of the year 1871 Mr. Phelps had 
perfected his invention, and had built a large number 
of the machines, and it seemed probable that there 
would be a vigorous campaign opened against the Gold 
and Stock Company. Almost the sole advantage of the 
Western Union, as far as the business" of New York 
city was concerned, consisted in the superior working 
qualities of their instrument. The Gold and Stock, on 
the other hand, already occupied the field, which advan- 
tage, together with their energetic management, and 
more especially their experienced, skilful and well 
trained cmployds, weighed heavily in their favor. Be- 
sides this they were owners of patents, on the basis of 
which instruments even more rapid and effective than 
that of the Western Union might have easily been con- 
structed; but the threatened contest terminated in a 
compromise and the union of the two adverse interests. 
The Gold and Stock Company maintained its separate 



organization, but a controlling interest in the stock 
passed into the hands of the Western Union Company. 

Scarcely had this arrangement been effected when 
still another competitor appeared upon the scene,in 
the shape of the Manhattan Quotation Company, which 
was destined to become the most formidable and suc- 
cessful antagonist of the whole series. The instrument 
employed by them was devised by J. E. Smith, and re- 
quired but one line wire, while its effective speed was 
considerably greater than that of the old instruments — a 
consideration which the growth of business in the ex- 
change had rendered a very important one. Thenew 
concern pushed matters very energetically, and within 
a year of the time they first opened for business they 
had put in a large number of instruments. 

The old organization, naturally, were not disposed to 
share their large and lucrative business with a rival with- 
out a vigorous contest. Accordingly, several months 
ago the Gold and Stock Company commenced legal 
proceedings in the United States District Court against 
the Manhattan Company, alleging an infringement of a 
number of patents of which they were sole owners. 
Three distinct suits were instituted — one against the 
Manhattan Quotation Company.- another against cer- 
tain of its chief officers, engaged in promoting the en- 
terprise, and a third against Mr. C. T. Chester, the 
manufacturer of the instruments employed. In addi- 
tion to these, other suits have been commenced against 
the same parties by the Western Union Company for 
an alleged infringement of the notorious Page patent, 
and which are no doubt intended to test the validity of 
this somewhat questionable monopoly. Furthermore, 
notice was issued to all the subscribers of the Manhat- 
tan Quotation Company that they would be held liable 
for damages for using the instruments of that com- 
pany. The Manhattan Quotation Company thereupon 
promptly issued a circular to their patrons, containing 
opinions signed by two eminent patent lawyers of this 
city, to the effect that the instruments used by the 
Manhattan Quotation Company did not "infringe any 
" patent or patent rights under patents issued to any 
"parties other than those owned by the said company." 
On the 30th of December the Gold and Stock Company 
came out with another pronunciamento, announcing a 
reduction of terms from six dollars per week to ten 
dollars per month, to take effect on the first of Janu- 
ary. But perhaps the most important feature of this 
circular was a copy of certain correspondence between 
the attorneys of the Western Union Company and the 
two eminent attorneys whose opinions appeared in the 
previous circular of the Manhattan Company, and was 
quoted in substance above. One of them says, in his 
reply : " I have recently examined several of the tele- 
" graph printing machines put up and in use by the 
" Manhattan Quotation Telegraph Company in this 
" city, and find that they embrace devices that were 
" not in the machine previously examined by me, and 
" upon which my opinion referred to was based." In 
conclusion, he pronounces the machine actually in use 
" An infringement of the 11th, 12th and 13th claims of 
" Page's* reissued patent." 

In reply to this, the Manhattan Quotation Company 
came out with another circular on the 2d inst., ad- 
dressed to the bankers and brokers of the city, setting 
forth that the Gold and Stock Company — especially 
since their alliance with the Western Union— had be- 
come " arrogant and unreasonable in their treatment 
"of customers, slow and careless in furnishing quota- 
" tations and financial news, and impatient of just 
"complaints," and claiming that they (the Manhattan 
Company) had furnished a vastly superior instrument ; 
had abolished the former charge of $100 for the intro- 
duction of instruments; had reduced the charge for all 
kinds of service to the sum of $6 per week, and, 
finally, had contributed to the payment to the Stock 
Exchange of a rental of from $20,000 to $30,000. 

In regard to the heavy reduction of rates by the 
Gold and Stock Company, above referred to, the circu- 
lar contains the following: "And now, practically 
" admitting that a fair competition on the merits of 
" the instruments is too much for them, and that they 
" have no hope of succeeding in their suits for a pre- 
" tended infringement of their patents, this powerful 
" monopoly has lately announced, by their circular of 
" the 30th of December ult., that they will reduce the 
" price of their stock instrument to $10 a month — thus 
" resorting to the policy of crushing out this company 
" by reducing the charges for similar service below a 
"living rate." The circular also denies that any de- 
ception has been resorted to, as charged by the Gold 
and Stock Company. 

The fight is likely to prove a lengthy and obstinately 
contested one, especially so far as the question of the 
validity of the Page patent is involved therein — and, 
judging from universal experience, it seems probable 
that the contest will end in a consolidation of the op- 
posing interests in some shape, whatever may be the 
final result of the litigation. Meanwhile, tho prospect 
is that the host of eminent counsel who have been 
engaged will reap a rich harvest. Nothing like so 
cheering a prospect, telegraphically, for these gentle- 
men has turned up since the days when " Fog " Smith, 



Henry O'Eeilly and Amos Kendall, " fought, bled, and 
paid " on many a well contested field. 



A Reply to Mr. William Orton, in regard to 
Automatic Telegraphy. 

Automatic Telegraph Company, ) 
80 Broadway, Room 28, > 

New York, Jan. 3d, 1874. ) 
Wm. Orton, Esq., 

President Western Union Telegraph Co. 

Sir: Referring to your letter, published in the 
New York Tribune of December 27, 1872, criticising 
the Annual Report of the Postmaster General, so far as 
he discusses the possibility of cheaper telegraphy, you 
are pleased to task him, by implication, with using his 
office to further private interests, because he is awake 
to current developments, and states a few facts which 
will not be gainsaid by any one capable of seeing and 
judging, and cannot be refuted by mere assertion. 

We had no idea that Mr. Cresswell would make any 
reference to the Automatic system in his report, much 
less mention it with even qualified approval. If 
Automatic telegraphy be the utterly worthless thing 
you would have your stockholders and the public be- 
lieve it, why indulge in such a labored attack upon it ? 
It has been in operation, between New York and 
Washington, during the past year, for general business, 
which would seem to be the best evidence of its prac- 
tical working. To ignore facts, simply because they 
are unpleasant, is not the part of wisdom. 

In 1869, after the "Duplex" had been in practical 
operation between New York and Boston for several 
years, you said, concerning it, " The double transmitter 
— an apparatus for working both ways over one wire 
at the same time — has long occupied a prominent place 
among speculative telegraphers, and has recently been 
extensively advertised by the promoters of the various 
competing lines. During the past 20 years there has 
been several inventions for accomplishing this result, 
the first being that of Dr. Gintl, of Germany ; but, 
while it is possible, under certain exceptional circum- 
stances, to transmit messages both ways at the same 
time over one wire, the conditions under which this 
result is obtained are such as to render the general use 
of the system impossible. If there were, however, any 
practical value in this apparatus, its use, like that of 
the Morse telegraph, is freely open to all." 

In 1873, after circumstances allowed you to secure 
it at a nominal sum, you characterize it as " the most 
important and valuable of all the improvements which 
have been made since the Morse telegraph was first 
established," and excite the imagination of your stock- 
holders, over prospective dividends and the obliteration 
of further competition, in the following eulogistic pas- 
sage — 

"The Duplex apparatus, the patents- for which are 
owned by the Western Union Company, is capable of 
rendering more valuable service than the Automatic, 
even if the graver defects of the latter are successfully 
overcome. The Duplex works equally well single or 
double, thus obviating the necessity for duplicating 
instruments. It doubles the capacity of a wire by 
enabling messages to be transmitted overit in opposite 
directions at the same time, without any perceptible 
diminution of speed. It does more than save the post 
of providing and keeping in repair additional wires. 
It gives the carrying capacity of two wires, when, by 
accidental interruptions, there is but one in working- 
order, and when no amount of money previously in- 
vested in wires would have provided another." 

Meantime the world moves — Automatic telegraphy 
is developed, and you would again treat it with the 
same contempt as you formerly regarded the now much 
vaunted Duplex. 

It is unnecessary to comment on y< ur assertions that 
the Automatic system has been for years seeking a 
market. Enough to say that no one has ever yet been 
authorized to offer it for sale, aud its present owners 
are still content with their investment: nor is it neces- 
sary to reply in detail to the extravagant statements 
made as to the cost and character of machinery and 
equipment, the large number of operators needed, and 
tho comparative capacity of tho various systems. 

The fact exists, notwithstanding, that we perforated 
the President's late message at the rate of 25 words per 
minute per man, transmitted it in 34 minutes over one 
wire from Washington to Pottsville, Penn., and there 
copied it at the rate of 32 words per minute per copyist 
— the perforating, transmission aud copying, of course, 
proceeding simultaneously, as in the case of tho West- 
ern Union. 

We shall have the pleasure of doing that or better 
in a further demonstration within a few days, and 
shall be pleased not only to have you present, but also 
id present you with affidavits of responsible gentlemen, 
which will bo eminently more convincing and satisfac- 
tory to this public patrons of the telegraph than any 
mere statements. 

You will recall a conversation with the writer last 
winter, in Washington, when, in tho discussion of this 



8 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 10, 18*14. 



subject, you raised numerous theoretical objections, to 
which he replied that it did uot rest on his statement, 
as that might prove nothing ; nor would your simple 
refutation change the matter. The question the writer 
put was : " Is the work clone ?" Our daily experience 
then and since is the answer. 

Regarding your positive statement that press matter 
cannot lie handled automatically in the day time, we 
simply reply that all offered us is being transmitted be- 
tween Washington and New York for a half cent per 
word — which is at least 50 per cent, less than the pre- 
sent charge of the Western Union Company — and this 
is done in conjunction with our ordinary commercial 
business. 

Be patient and you shall hear from us again. The 
President of the Western Union Telegraph Co. should 
know what is going on in the telegraphic world. If he 
does not, we will endeavor practically and kindly to in- 
form him. J. C. Reiff. 
•-+* 

Action of the Cleveland, Ohio, Western Union 

Operators on the Death of Mr. 

George D. Phillip. 

Mr. George D. Phillip, who had been employed 
as an operator in the Cleveland, Ohio, Western Union 
office for several years, died recently of small pox, after 
a brief illness. 

The following letter and resolutions, expressing the 
sentiments of his late associates, were prepared and 
forwarded to his family, and are published by request, 
in The Telegrapher : 
"■To the family of the late George D, Phillip. 

" Dear Friends : Enclosed you will find resolu- 
tions deploring the untimely death of our late beloved 
friend and associate, George D. Phillip. They contain 
our heartfelt sentiments. His departure upon the 
great unknown sea comes home to us like a personal 
bereavement, and impressively teaches us that "he 
who builds beneath the skies builds too low." He was 
one of the fortunate few who possess the happy faculty 
of conciliating and pleasiug every one, and his accom- 
modating and winsome ways have left an indelible im- 
pression upon us, and we sympathize very deeply with 
you in your irreparable loss. 

" Please accept these resolutions as a sincere expres- 
sion of friendship for our departed friend, and cherish 
them for memory's sake. 

" At a meeting of the telegraph operators of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, held Sunday, December 28, 1873, at the 
Western Union telegraph office, for the purpose of tak- 
ing fitting action in regard to the death of their late 
fellow operator, George D. Phillip, the following reso- 
lutions were adopted : 

" Whereas, We deem it proper to tender' to those he 
held so dear our sympathy, and to express our regrets 
at the loss of our esteemed friend and associate, George 
D. Phillip— 

" Resolved, That by his death the profession has lost 
one of its most accomplished members, the telegraph 
company a valuable servant, and his fellow operators 
a kind companion and a true friend. 

" Resolved, That we tender to the family of the de- 
ceased our heartfelt sympathies in their great bereave- 
ment. 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be pre- 
sented to the family of the deceased, and that they be 
published in the papers of this city and in the journals 
of the country devoted to the interests of telegraphy. 
V. D. Greene, ) 
J. T. Hanford, > Committee. 
R. W. Williams, ) 
" 0. A. Gurley, Secretary." 



The Society of Telegraph Engineers. 

The annual general meeting of the London Society 
of Telegraph Engineers took place on the 10th of De- 
cember last. The annual report was read by the chair- 
man, Mr. W. H. Preece, and showed that the affairs of 
the society were in a very prosperous condition. The 
total number of mem bers, including honorary, associate 
and foreign members, at the date of the report, was 
512. The society has lost several of its most promi- 
nent members by death during the past year, among 
whom may be mentioned Sir Francis Ronalds, the very 
father of telegraphy; Mr. Leudi, of Berne, and Mr. 
George Saward, of Atlantic cable celebrity. The 
balance of funds on hand at the close of the fiscal year 
was over £500. Three honorary members have been 
added to the rolls of the society during the year ; viz., 
Professor G. B. Airy, the Astronomer Royal ; General 
Edward Sabine, and Professor William Weber, of 
Gotlingen. A number of changes and modifications 
have been made in the rules and regulations of the 
society. Any foreign member can now become a life 
member upon the payment of ten pounds. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President— Sir William Thompson. Tice Presidents- 
Lord Lindsay, Latimer Clark, R. S. Cully and Professor 
G. C. Foster. Other members of Council — Professor 



Abel, Major Malcolm, W. H. Preece, Robert Sabine, 
Carl Siemens, Lieutenant Colonel Stothard, Major 
Webber, Wildman Whitehouse, C. F. Varley, C. E. 
Spagnoletti, C. V". Walker, Professor Williamson. As- 
sociates — A. Bell, Dr. A. Muirhead, Lieutenant Wat- 
son. Auditors — J. Wagstaff Blundell, Fred. C. Dan- 
vers. Treasurer — Major Webber, 101 Cannon street, 
E. C. Hon. Secretary— Major Frank Bolton. Secre- 
tary — George E. Preece. The society have recently 
secured commodious and convenient rooms for a 
library, office and meeting room at No. 4 Broad 
Sanctuary, which are beiDg prepared for occupancy, 
and will be opened early this year. 



We do not bold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Automatic and Morse Telegraphy.— Reply to the 
Official "Journal." 

New York, Jan. 6th. 

To The Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Sir: As the Western Union Company furnish the 
money to pay for printing and editing their official 
Journal, it is, of course, natural that the company 
should wish to exclude from its columns matter detri- 
mental to its own interests ; but, as the Journal affects 
to be "up "in all the scientific and practical depart- 
ments of telegraphy, it could not well avoid alluding 
to automatic telegraphy, and here is the way the editor 
does it: 

"Now, we claim that if it takes as long to prepare a 
message for transmission by one process (Automatic) as 
to transmit it by another (Morse), the latter process, in 
all but exceptional circumstances, must have the ad- 
vantage." 

In the first place, it is well known to every person 
who knows anything about Automatic telegraphy (and 
to none better than to the editor of the Journal and 
his employers), that the average speed of Mor.-e ope- 
rators, in large and small offices, does not exceed 6,000 
words per day of ten hours. The leading officers of 
the Western Union Company, including the editor of 
the Journal, know, from their own eyesight, that the 
perforators of the Automatic Company have been ac- 
curately worked up to 135 words per minute, and to 
such expert operators 3,000 words per hour would be a 
very easy task ; and, to the slowest operators of the 
perforators, 1,500 words per hour would be as easy as 
500 words per hour to the average Morse operator. 

In the very outset, therefore, of the Journal's allu- 
sion to automatic telegraphy, the editor deliberately 
robs the system of more than two thirds of what 
actually belongs to it, and then complacently'assumes 
that its absurdly untrue premises, are correct, and, of 
course, finds it easy to deduce conclusions satisfactory 
to the managers of the Western Union Company. 

But it is easy to show the absurdity of the Journal's 
conclusions, even if we concede to it ail it claims; and, 
for illustration, let us take two lines, of one wire each, 
say 100 miles in length, with twenty offices on each- 
one Morse and one Automatic. 

The twenty Morse offices take in an' average of 
thirty words each per hour, which, with the addresses 
and signatures, would aggregate over 1,000 words per 
hour, which, of course, any disinterested Morse tele- 
grapher would unhesitatingly say was twice as many 
words as are ordinarily transmitted over way or side 
lines. Now, then, obviously, eighteen of the twenty 
Morse operators must be standing still — utterly unable 
to advance the work of the line in any degree— as only 
two can work the line at the same time. 

At the end often hours, the wire having been con- 
stantly occupied, it has conveyed 10,000 words, and 
eighteen of the twenty operators have been waiting 
their turn at the wire, which they have individually 
obtained once in every hour— so their messages have 
beeu delayed only an average of sixty minutes. 

Now, turn to the Automatic line of twenty offices, 
each averaging a business of 500 words per hour. As 
fast as the messages are handed in, each of the twenty 
operators finds steady employment id perforating or 
copying the messages or in transmitting them — no 
one office holding possession of the wire over one 
minute. In each hour, therefore, the Automatic wire 
will have been in actual use but twenty minutes, but 
yet the twenty operators have been able to so employ 
their time that they have served the public with 10,000 
words as easily as the twenty Morse operators have 
served them with 1,000, and the day's business foots 
up 10,000 words for twenty Morse operators and 100,000 
for twenty Automatic operators. 

Here are legitimate advantages of nine to one in 
favor of Automatic telegraphy, and it is not in the 
power of the editor of the Journal, nor of any of his 



employers, to imagine a probable combination of cir- 
cumstances wherein Automatic telegraphy will not 
show actual advantages over the Morse system, vary- 
ing from at least fifty to ninety per cent. — always, of 
course, on the supposition that the public will transact 
a very large business over the wires, if they can do so 
at a very small charge. D. H. C. 

» »♦ 

More Reminiscences. 

To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

The contributions from the veterans appear to be 
well received, and, even if they do tell tales out of 
school occasionally, there is little harm done. Charley 
Jones rather goes for a fellow about my size, but I for- 
give him. 

But what I wanted to put on record is the story of 
one of the early day mysteries, which never was ex- 
plained before, and which will not meet the eye of the 
injured party in all human probability. During the 
" early days " opposition lines were extended rapidly 
Westward, and the town on any great thoroughfare was 
small indeed that could not boast of two offices. In a 
little place that shall be nameless, the spirit of compe- 
tition was made a personal matter between the opera- 
tors, and all sorts of devices were concocted to curry 
favor with customers, and decry the ability and injure 
the facilities of the opposition. Little jokes were 
played, and matters were worked up to a fever heat. 
One line opened late in the fall with a brand new office 
and instruments, a glittering sign, and other appurte- 
nances of an equally attractive nature, and business 
flocked to the standard of the Speed man. The O'Rielly 
man became thoughtful and almost despondent. Sat- 
urday night all was lovely with the Speeds, but Monday 
morning the Speed man was in trouble. His circuit 
came and went like the "milk sick" in Indiana, and 
all his communications were fractional ; but there was 
no trouble elsewhere on the line. His office was in a 
loop, so he hunted for it there. He climbed every 
pole in the town — a mile of poles — without climbers, 
but found nothing, and still the current came and went 
irregularly, and apparently without cause. Oh! how 
he turned and twisted the screws of his instruments 
and fussed with his local ! His hooks filled, his cus- 
tomers grumbled, then left him and returned to their 
first love. Then the repairer came and sweat, and 
quoted from the book of common prayer, and went 
home again. Things went on in this way several days, 
until one morning the trouble disappeared as mysteri- 
ously as it came and was heard of no more. By some 
means or other two fine wires had made connections 
between two separated sheets of zinc under his stove, 
which stood on bricks, and the wires on either side of 
his instrument, and as they lay in the grooves of the 
floor they had been overlooked, and somehow or other 
the tongs, every now and then, and occasionally a wet 
boot, completed the cut-out. The uncertain action of 
the unfortunate arrangement was what made it diffi- 
cult to find, and it was accounted for, in a sort of Dun- 
dreary style, " As one of those things no feller can find 
out." 

Between Queenston and Lockport the line ran 
through an Indian village. When lines would not 
work in those days you would find on the office door 
a notice something like this : 

" Gone out on line. Be back soon as I find the 
break." — Operator. 

One terribly cold day in January my office was deco- 
rated as above, and I was footing it between the two 
points named. I met a noble red man and made in- 
quiry as to the status of the line, and the noble red 
caromed on the white as follows : 

" Me show where broke. All right now. Me fix 
'em. Indian wau't pail handle ; rope no good for pail." 

The breechless Modoc supposed a fair exchange was 
no robbery, and so he had traded, giving string for 
wire, and had put up an extra pole, in the shape of a 
slanting fence rail, into the bargain, to keep the line 
from the ground. I thought, "pretty well lor Ingin." 
Come again, somebody. - C. C. H. 
♦-*-♦ 

The Western Union Company vs. The Poor 
Inventor. 

To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

A correspondent in your last number has something 
to say on the subject of the treatment of inventors by 
the Western Union Company. If he had stopped to 
think a little it might have occurred to him that there 
is another aspect of the subject. Take for instance the 
case of the Milliken repeater. There was certainlj r 
nothing to prevent Mr. Milliken from taking out a pat 
ent (provided the invention was really his, which I as- 
sume to be the fact) any time within two years of the 
date when his invention was perfected and put in prac- 
tical operation. Failing to do this the invention became 
public property, in accordance with the Act of Congress. 
As Mr. Milliken held a position as manager of one of 
the largest telegraph offices in the country, it is hardly 
reasonable to suppose that he failed to apply for a 
patent on account of lack of funds, as the expense of 



January 10, 18U.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



9 



so doing certainly would not have exceeded $100. Hav- 
ing made no effort whatever to secure his invention, and 
having allowed it to become public property, I think it 
is hardly worth while to raise a howl because the West- 
ern Union Company have seen fit to equip their lines 
with it, as they had a most uudoubted right to do. In 
fact, it is very likely that this was done with the per- 
mission of the inventor, as he has made uo protest 
against it, " so far as heard from." 

I know nothing about the case of Culgau, but as the 
switch never was patented (or patentable either, for 
that matter, in my opinion), it is fair to presume that 
it was substantially a similar one to that of Milliken. 

In regard to the Duplex patent, if it is true — as your 
correspondent asserts — that " almost every point about 
" the latter invention of any practical value, and which 
" was not 'free to public use, was anticipated iu Farm- 
"er's patent of 1858" — I would like to ask where 
Farmer has been all this time 1 ? If his invention was a 
practical one, why was it never used 1 I think, when 
the matter is sifted, that we shall find that, as is often 
the case, his invention fell just short of success, and 
that Stearns added some apparently trifling but really 
essential modification, that just bridged the narrow gap 
between success and failure. Most great inventions are 
made in just that way, and the man who puts on the 
finishing touch gets credit for the whole. It seems un- 
just to his predecessors, who have borne the burden aud 
the heat of the day ; but is it? The question is : Are 
we not indebted to the man who gives the invention to 
the public in an available form, for the benefits we ac- 
tually derive from it, and for which we pay our money? 
It is obviously impracticable to divide up the credit and 
the compensation in due proportion among the thousand 
and one inventors, each of whom contributed more or 
less towards the development of almost every great in- 
vention that could be named. 

Furthermore, I would ask if it seems likely that the 
Western Union Compauy, having in their employ some 
of the able'st patent counsel to be found in the country, 
would be so supremely foolish as to pay out such a 
large sum of money for a patent of this kind, if, as your 
correspondent says, it was anticipated by Farmer's pat- 
ent, which, of course, was readily accessible to any one 
who chose to look for it ? The very idea is ,a manifest 
absurdity. Lastly, by- what authority does your corres- 
pondent assert that the Page patent is fraudulent 1 ? 
Congress authorized the Commissioner to grant Page a 
patent for whatever he might be able to prove himself 
the original inventor of. His claims were examiued iu 
the Patent Office, and passed upon precisely the same 
as those of any other inventor, and are, therefore, pre- 
sumably valid. If the Western Union Company 
thought enough of the patent to do so, I cannot see 
wherein they did wrong to buy it. The company 
was probably established for the purpose of makiug 
money. If the patent is worthless there should be no 
particular difficulty in proving it; if, on the other hand, 
it is good, the company would finally have been obliged 
to buy it in any event, for their own protection, and if 
they were convinced of its validity, they were very wise 
in getting hold of it in good season. I have heard a 
great deal said about the Page patent being used as an 
" engine of oppression," but from the. fact that nobody 
has been molested by any attempted enforcement of it, 
although the Western Union Company have owned it 
for more than two years, it would seem that they 
bought it principally for self-protection. Some of your 
correspondents are always ready to raise a hue and cry 
at the Western Union Company, but I fancy the officers 
of it generally do just about the same as any one else 
would placed in their position. Inventor. 
» > » 

A Response to Nettie Bronson. — "Plugs," not 
Female Operators, Objectionable. 

Falls City, Neb., Dec. 31. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Nettie Bronson takes me severely to task for my 
strictures on the superfluous number of "plugs" 
throughout the country, and, as she does injustice to 
the motives which prompted that article, " I rise to 
explain." 

Without the remotest idea of assailing your sex, 
Nettie, that protest was made purely against the too 
early employment of students, before they could lay 
auy claim to being capable of managing an instrument. 
In self-vindication, and to further explain the injus- 
tice of your observations and conjectures, I will add 
that I have instructed ladies to become expert opera- 
tors, but they did not take charge of an office until 
their competency was quite manifest. 

About that "dollar bet " — you cause a manly blush 
to o'erspread my physiognomy; — I suspect you would 
lose. I am pronounced the quintessence of 1 modesty. 
I made so many " bulls" while learning the art, half a 
decade of years ago, that it took all the conceit out of 
me. You did not give the geographical location of 
those "soft" operators, but wo don't have any of that 
class out here. 

The encouragement of ladies to become operators is 
very generally aud highly commended, and by few 



more so than this scribe. They are admirably adapted 
to this peculiar employment, and the deference shown 
a poor operator on the lines is the strongest evidence 
of sympathy and consideration for her that can be pro- 
duced, and a like inefficiency in a man would hardly 
be tolerated. 

The avenues for ladies to find suitable, and the 
chances of remunerative employment, are too few, and 
no obstacle would be willingly thrown in the way to 
their preferment in the telegraph ranks. The most 
common and formidable objection raised is the likeli- 
hood of their abandoning the calling in a few years, 
from various causes, and therefore start in the business 
with such a contingency in view. 

A person starting out to learn operating should be 
made acquainted with the qualifications requisite to 
become successful. Many illiterate persons attend 
these institutes month after month, and actually de- 
mand recognition in the profession for their trouble, 
without any. other evidence of merit or sympathy than 
an exhausted purse and wasted time. 

But, Nettie, you make a sweeping accusation against 
us operators for what would seem our lack of magna- 
nimity. You probably never realized what a vast 
amount of patience it requires to transact business over 
the wires with a "plug," especially when one has little 
time to squander coaxing messages to such. 

It is an over-zealousness in students to become 
managers or operators, before they have attained rea- 
sonable proficiency, that robs them of their real merits 
Personal experience indicates to my mind the import- 
ance of these considerations. I had, while learning, 
the usual zeal to take an office, and was, at the same 
time, very doubtful about being able to hold a place 
when I got it, and have since thanked the operator by 
whom I was instructed for restraints on such impetu- 
ousness. 

The opportunities for learning the first rudiments of 
the art are innumerable, aud thi* kind of employment 
to young persons is fascinating, hence a great number 
of persons attempt to learn, encouraged by a mistaken 
belief that no personal adaptation is essential. 

It is with no "dog in the manger" spirit that the 
generality of managers repel the students, by any 
means. There are few operators that outgrow their 
remembrance of having belonged to that class them- 
selves, but the constant demands on managers to 
"finish learning," or, to practice, or, by more courage- 
ous ones, for a job, brings the class into bad odor with 
managers. 

This will account for the ill success of so many stu- 
dents who venture among strangers, and expect sym- 
pathy and assistance. Aaron Around. 
*-»-* 

Telegraphers' Unions Impracticable and Why. — 
The Moral, Social and Professional Status 
of Telegraphers. — Reduction of Sala- 
ries, and Official Christmas and 
New Year's Greetings. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

If I remember rightly, I have expressed myself on 
the subject of Telegraphers' Unions before, but I might 
add a reason or two more why I believe them to be 
impracticable : 

First. There are two distinct aud separate classes of 
telegraph operators, which are removed as far from 
each other as though they were of different vocations. 
I refer to the railroad operators aud those employed 
upon commercial lines. There is no harmony of feel- 
ing and action, no sentiment of sympathy existing be- 
tween them. The generality of railroad operators 
have been reared, so to speak, on railroad lines, and 
know nothing of the workings of commercial Hues ; 
and railroad wires and the mysteries of train orders, 
etc., are as foreign to the commercial operator as water 
to the fowls of the air. 

Second. The great difference in the capacity of opera- 
tors and its consequent result — the wide range of 
salaries — is a serious obstacle. 

Third. There is, as I have said before, no one to act. 
It is all well enough to write anonymous communica- 
tions for The Telegrapher, or assume some nom de 
plume and express one's self, but I really have very 
serious doubts whether there is actually a man in the 
fraternity who is bold enough to assert himself suffi- 
ciently to accomplish anything. 

Regarding our standing socially and morally, of 
which some few of your correspondents have, spoken, 
T have noticed a something wrong myself — but it does 
not seem to me that it is because we are so very im- 
moral. Indeed, the telegraphers of my acquaintance 
are, with a few exceptions, inoffensive, good for-nothing 

fellows, who would do no one a wrong. I am one of the 
same class— am not smart, enough to do a mean 01" dis- 
honest thing — and yet I have observed that in social 
circles tbe telegrapher is not respected as l think he 
ought to be. ilit is considered an insignificant sort of 
fellow, instead of the representative of the greatest of 

art sciences. 
For this 1 am uuablo to account. I have sometimes 



wondered if it were not on account of the imperfect 
knowledge of the art and our inferior qualifications. 
But I hardly think this is so much the trouble as is the 
fact that we stand divided against ourselves. There 
is not enough of harmony between us and unity of 
action. If we wish to gain the esteem of others we 
must first learn to esteem ourselves. 

Although, taken as a class, I do not believe we are 
so very immoral ; yet, the term "press operator" is 
always associated in my mind with unlimited and un- 
told quantities of whiskey. My first inward exclama- 
tion, on reading the article of your correspondent the 
other day, who told us of the great feats he had per- 
formed, was: "Ah! how the 'benzine' must have 
suffered." A man who is really & first class operator, 
and can show himself to be such, ought not to apply 
for work in this section of the country; it is hardly 
worth his while. They are said to be unreliable. 

As your correspondent, Nettie Bronson, says, " the 
telegrapher is surely a very conceited mortal." One 
glance at your correspondents' columns justifies this 
belief; and I claim no exception to the general 
rule. There is scarcely a day but I see how much 
moro I admire and appreciate myself than others 
do. How unwilling would a single one of your 
correspondents be to acknowledge the limited number 
of years of experience they have had at telegraphing; 
and in the four years I have worked at it, I have got 
this principle so thoroughly inculcated in my mind, 
that not for worlds would I have one of your readers 
mistrust that I am a minute less than .twenty years 
at the business ! 

The salaries ou many of the lines in this section have 
been reduced ten per cent. Our Hues are included 
in the number. And now comes the meanest part of 
the story. I have read of the man who whipped his 
oldest boy when his wife found tobacco in his own 
pocket — whipped him, he said, because the tobacco 
oelonged to the boy, aud the boy had put it there to 
escape detection — I have read of this, and how the de- 
praved old vagabond afterwards laughed, and told his 
bar-room friends how it made his old heart glad to think 
he had a boy that could be relied upon in case of emer- 
gency ; but it strikes me this is not a comparison in 
meanness to the keeping in of operators, upon legal 
and national holidays, to send Christmas and JSteto 
Years greetings from the officials to " all employes!!!" 
Aud, methiuks, if those who favored the reduction 
knew how strangely those smoothly worded greetings 
sounded— how harshly they grated on our ears— if they 
knew of the little some of us had to make our Christ- 
mas merry or the New Year happy, they would refrain 
from sending them. 

But, for the life of me, I cauuot begin to imagine 
what we are going to do about it, even though we do 
uot like it. But we will hope for better times, and 
hope in dead earnest, too. Iu the spring, we are told, 
they will come; and until then we will patiently siib- 
mit to that which we cannot now remedy. J. H; 



A Telegraphic Union the One Thing Needed. 

Buffalo, N. Y., Dec. 29th. 

To the Editob of the Telegrapher-. 

Sir: In your last number I saw an article signed 
" Eover," aud as he agrees with me in his idea ot a 
Telegraphic Union, I wish to give my views on this 
subject : 

In the first place, I eoufeud that there is no trade or 
occupation in this country (requiring the same amount 
of education and ability to master it) that receives so 
low salary as telegraphers in general. Take any of the 
trades— gas fitters, plumbers, engineers, etc.— are those 
men superior in either education or ability to tele- 
graphers? Emphatically, no; and yet either of them 
can command as much or more than a first class tele- 
grapher, and the situation is growing worse each year. 
Now, let us have a Union, as Rover says, " built on a 
firm basis." Admit none but first class men ; put 
(hem through the mill first, and then, with a ticket 
signed by the officers of the Union, the holder would 
be respected, aud could always be sure of a position, 
and 1 am sure that iu a short time the Union men 
would be iu demand, and the plugs be where nature 
intended them, i. c, chopping wood. Speaking of 
plugs reminds me that the operating department is not. 
the only place to find plugs in. 1 mean plug linemen 
or repairers — and from my observations 1 think the per- 
centage; is very large, and no wonder. It is the same 
story with them as with operators— no standard of 
ability. Now is the lime to lorm a Union, for delays 
are dangerous, and unity is strength, aud if it is ever 
wanted now is the time. 

As 1 am not an operator, I will not attempt lode- 
scribe how the Ij'nion should be constructed, but will 
leave that to older beads than mine. Start the Union, 
brothel's, and I will lend a helping band. S. (x. 



Answer to Correspondent. 

G. E. 0.— Do not know wlier« tnu articles mentioned can be 
/jbtaineu, or that auy one manufactures thorn now. 



10 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 10, 18U. 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

op THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 1874. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY at 38 VESET ST. 



T IE KT T H VOLUME. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, ----- $3.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 

rpHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OP ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OP THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegraphic clique or com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 

patronage, received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

first class 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
Terms of Subscription. , 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR $2 OO 

SINGLE COPIES Five Cents. 

Canada Subscribers must remit Twenty Cents in addition for 
Postage,. 

Specimen Copies will he forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
ing subscriptions, and will be allowed Twknty Per Cent. Com- 
missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, which may bo deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for pour subscri- 
bers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per year, 
will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

HUliSCRIBKRS CHANCING THEIR RESIDENCES, AND DESIRING A 
CHANGE IN THEIR ADDRESS, MUST ALWAYS SEND 'THEIR OLD AS 
WELL AS THEIR N i-.W ADDRESS. 

Remittances lor subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the ri.-k of the' Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
cost of the order or registration may be deducted from the 
amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reasonable 
rates ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than One 
Dollar per insertion. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER mubt be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. 0. Box 5503,) NEW YORK. 



The Postmaster-General and Mr. Orton on 
Automatic or Fast Telegraphy. 

In considering last week the reply of Mr. Orton to 
the Postmaster-General's report on the subject of tele- 
graphy, and his attacks on the "Western Union Tele- 
graph Company and that gentleman personally, we 
proposed to make that portion of both the subject of a 
separate article. 

In reference to the Automatic system of telegraphy, 
the Postmaster-General, in his report, says : 

" For years past the attention of inventors and scien- 
tists has been attracted to the necessity for a more 
rapid and less expensive mode of transmission than the 
Morse, which requires the message to be spelled out by 
a slow and tedious process, at about the speed of an or- 
dinary writer. One of the results of their investigations 
is the " Automatic, or Fast System," now in operation 
between ISTew York and Washington. This system is 
capable of a speed of from 500 to 800 words per min- 
ute. The average of an expert Morse operator is not 
over 25 words per minute. Therefore, it is evident that 
if the Automatic method can be made to accomplish 
what its advocates confidently predict for it, the capa- 
city of a single wire for business will be increased 
nearly or quite thirty times. This increased capacity 
may again be doubled, or, perhaps, quadrupled, if the 
Duplex apparatus, now used every day by established 
companies for sending messages simultaneously in dif- 
ferent directions on the same wire, can be successfully 
combined with the Automatic machine. There can be 
no doubt of the ultimate success of the Automatic prin- 
ciple. Its battle with an incredulous public is almost 
won. As soon as it shall be thoroughly developed and 
applied in practice, the problem of cheap telegraphy 
will be definitively solved." 

To this Mr. Orton responds : 

" The next notable statement in the report relates to 
what is therein styled the ' Automatic, or Past Sys- 
tem.' It is certainly an unusual instance of good for- 
tune when the owners of patents, who have been for 
years unsuccessful in their efforts to make a satisfac- 
tory sale, are enabled to secure so valuable an adver- 
tising medium as the Annual Report of a Postmaster- 
General. The inference to be drawn from the state- 
ments in the report concerning this wonderful ' system ' 
is that it is a pudding novelty, just ready to burse into 
the full bloom of triumphant success. I would not 
blast its promise by even the breath of an unkind word, 
but a few plain and simple truths concerning it must 
be told : 

"First. — It is not a novelty. There lies beside me 
as I write a pamphlet, bearing date December 1, 1869, 
throughout whose twenty-two pages the praises of 
what it had then achieved are glowingly set forth. 

" /Second. — It is not a success. Four years of con- 
stant trial, during which large sums have been expended 
in practical experimeuts, and in endeavoring, by new 
devices, to overcome constantly developed defects, 
have failed to demonstrate its superiority over existing 
modes, or even its ability to compete successfully with 
them. 

" Automatic telegraphy, as a separate system, has 
never been attempted in any country. It has been in 
use in England for several years, but only as an aid to 
the Morse system, or as a substitute for others greatly 
inferior to the Morse, and which were either never .in- 
troduced into this country or were long since discarded. 
Its chief defects are — 

" 1. More time is required to prepare a message for 
transmission by the Automatic than to send it by the 
Morse. By the latter the receiving operator writes out 
the message as fast as the sending operator transmits 
it, so that when the sending is finished the copying is 
completed, and the message ready for delivery. 

" 2. By the Automatic system the message is re- 
ceived in the dots and dashes of the Morse alphabet. 
More time is then required to translate and copy than 
is occupied in both sending and copying in the ordinary 
way. No matter, then, what the rate of speed at 
which the signals are made to pass over the wire — if it 
takes as much time to prepare for transmission, and 
again as much time to translate and copy, after the 
message is received, as to transmit and copy by the 
Morse system — it is plaiu that twice as much is con- 
sumed in respect to any siugle message by the Auto- 
matic process as by the ordinary Morse. 

"But there are other grave practical difficulties. 
The Automatic apparatus, as compared with the 
Morse, is cumbersome, intricate and costly. It gets out 
of repair easily, and the cost of providing duplicates 
tor use in case of accident, and of shipments over long 
distances lor repairs, constitute a serious objection. 

" Again, it is evident that in the separate processes 
of perforating, transmitting, translating and copying 
by the Automatic system, more operators are required 
than in the regular Morse. The testimony of those 
connected with the Government telegraph in England 
is, that it takes five times as many operators to 
successfully work the former process as the latter. 



The cost of operating is the chief expense of carrying 
on the telegraph business. It would be much cheaper 
to provide additional wires, and to apply the Duplex to 
them, than to double the cost of operating; but if it be 
necessary to multiply this cost by five, that fact 
alone constitutes a fatal objection." 

In an appendix to his letter Mr. Orton elaborates 
his argument, and, by assuming certain conditions, 
endeavors to prove the inferiority of the Automatic 
over the Morse system "as regards speed and relative 
cost. The argument and assumptions are certainly 
ingenious, but an analyzation shows both to be falla- 
cious. 

It might be supposed that his experience in de- 
crying the Duplex system and apparatus as utterly 
impracticable, and subsequently purchasing the same 
at a large price for the Western Union Company, and 
vaunting it, as he has done iu his last Annual Report 
to the Stockholders of that company, as the greatest 
and most valuable telegraphic invention of recent 
years, would have induced more modesty and caution 
in his treatment of the Automatic system. If he re- 
mains in the telegraph service for auy considerable 
time he will undoubtedly change his toue as entirely, 
in regard to the Automatic, as he has already done in 
regard to the Duplex. 

As the readers of The Telegrapher will bear wit- 
ness, we have never been extravagant (its friends think 
us hardly just) iu our statements in regard to what 
the Automatic system has accomplished or is capable 
of. We have given space to nothing in favor of that 
system which we have not had good reason to believe 
was fully substantiated by actual performance. We 
do not now regard it as likely to supersede the Morse, 
but believe that it has proved of great value and ad- 
vantage, and will become more so as it is more gene- 
rally introduced. 

Mr. Orton bases his arguments entirely upon what 
has been accomplished by the Wheatsone Automatic 
in England. We willingly concede his statements in 
regard to that system to be correct, so far as they go, 
but the Wheatstone is much slower, relatively to the 
American (or Little) Automatic, than the Morse, as 
practiced there, is slower than the same system in this 
country and with American operators. 

The Western Union officials are making progress on 
the Automatic system, evidently. In the fall of 1870 
Mr. George B. Prescott, the electrician of the 
Western Union Company then as now, stated, in a 
communication published in the Scientific American, 
that after an exhaustive series of costly experiments, 
(instituted on behalf of that company), he had proved 
the utter impossibility of attaining by any known 
means a greater speed than fifty to sixty words per 
minute automatically on 100 miles of line. Mr. Orton 
now concedes that nearly 12,000 words can be and 
have been transmitted in distinct legible signals, in 
one instance fa. thirty-four and in another in twenty- 
two minutes, on about 300 miles of line ! 

In 1872 Mr. Orton asserted, before a Congressional 
Committee at Washington, that the wires and operators 
of the Western Union Company were capable of tele- 
graphing upon an average only about 600 words per 
hour. Conceding that by the Duplex the capacity of 
the wires and operators is doubled (which it is not), 
would give an average of only 1,200 words per hour, 
against a conceded performance of the Automatic equal 
to about 36,000 words per hour .' It must be borne in 
mind that the statement in regard to the performance 
of the Morse operators is Mr. Orton's, not ours. 

The Automatic Telegraph Company, for a year or 
more, has had its Hues opened for public business be- 
tween this city and Washington. During that time 
the capacity and practicability of the system has been 
pretty thoroughly tested, and has not been found want- 
ing. The capability of the system of transmitting tele- 
graphic signals as rapidly as is claimed for it having 
been conceded, the question remains as to the relative 
speed of perforation and copying the despatches. The 
President's message, to the transmission of which ref- 
erence has been made, was actually perforated at the 
rate of twenty-five words a minute per man. Conse- 



January 10, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



11 



quently, eight perforators could prepare the despatch 
for transmission in one hour - . It was copied at the 
rate of thirty-two words a minute per copyist. Six 
copyists, therefore, would be required to copy it in an 
hour. Upon Mr. Orton's own statement it required 
sixteen operators and eight wires to accomplish what 
could have been done by the same number of 
operators, i. e., eight perforators, one sender, one re- 
ceiver and six copyists by the Automatic system, in the 
same space of time, on one wire. This speed was by 
no means exceptional, and can be largely increased 
with practice. 

This simple statement of facts disposes of Mr. 
Orton's assumption that it will require at least double, 
and, judging from English experience, five times the 
number of operators by the Automatic system to ac- 
complish the same amount of work as by the Morse 
system. 

Mr. Orton entirely ignores one of the greatest ad- 
vantages of the Automatic system. If, as is not un- 
frequently the case, all but one or two wires on a main 
route, like that between New York and Washington, 
or between New York and Boston, for instance, are 
incapacitated for a time, the automatic system would 
enable one wire to do all the actual transmission re- 
quired ; or where all the wires are prostrated and busi- 
ness accumulates, as it does in these days of almost 
unlimited use of the telegraph, the messages can be 
perforated, and as soon as a single wire is restored, 
they can all be forwarded to the receiving stations in a 
very brief space of time, whereas by the Morse system, 
even with the valuable assistance of the Duplex, hours 
would be required to clear the files. 

The length to which this article has extended, and 
the pressure upon our columns of other matters, compels 
us to be brief in our allusions to other points in Mr. 
Orton's remarks upon the Automatic system. In the 
appendix to his communication he asserts positively 
that, " whatever else the Automatic may be able to do 
satisfactorily, it is very certain that it cannot handle 
press matter in the day time." To this it is sufficient 
to say that it does handle press matter in the day time, 
and, we are informed, is prepared to contract for the 
satisfactory transmission of press despatches on the 
route covered by its wires to any desired extent. 

The cumbersomeness and costliness of the appara- 
tus, even if true, is a minor consideration, and oue not 
difficult to obviate. Its liability to get out of repair we 
have not investigated, but think it safe to assume that 
this assertion has ho better basis than the other, whose 
fallacy we have shown. 

It is true that the Automatic system is no novelty, 
and it is also true that a sanguine advocate did, in 
1869, publish a pamphlet or pamphlets glowingly set- 
ting forth what it had accomplished. "We believed and 
stated then that we considered such publications prema- 
ture and unadvisable, but that fact did not and does 
not lessen the real merits of the system. The idea of 
Automatic telegraphy outdates by many years Mr. 
Orton's accession to the telegraphic service, but until 
the development of the American system its capabili- 
ties and practicability had not by any means been de- 
monstrated. It required the application of the rheostat 
and condenser, made by Mr. Gkorge Little, to make 
it practical and reliable for long lines of telegraph. 

As to the paragraph in the Postmaster-General's re- 
port being a " valuable advertisement," we are assured 
that the fact that it was to be mentioned by him was 
unknown to the officials of the Automatic Telegraph 
Company, and that the system has not been offered for 
sale or a purchaser been sought. 

There are other points which we should be pleased 
to notice more at length, hut we cannot now afford 
more space therefor. What wo have stated we can 
substantiate at any time. At the same time, it should 
be understood, that, while conceding the advantages 
of Automatic telegraphy, and firmly believing that it is 
to become a most valuable part of the telegraph system 
of this country and the world, we arenotyet convinced 
that it will either supersede the Morse, or that it 
affords any argument in favor of a postal telegraph, 



such as the Postmaster-General seeks, with so slight 
prospect of success, to have imposed upon the country. 
If, by increasing the development of the practical 
capacity of the wires for business, the cost of tele- 
graphic service can be materially cheapened, private 
enterprise will not be slow to recognize so important a 
fact, and private competition will assure to the public 
the advantage to be derived therefrom. 



Death of Professor Be la Rive. 

The distinguished Swiss scientist and electrician, 
Prof. Aug. De la Eive, of Geneva, died on the 27th 
of November. He was formerly Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the Academy of Geneva, and is best 
known to Americans by his great work on electricity, 
the first volume of which was published in 1852 and 
the last in 1858, and which has been translated into 
English, German and Italian. This work may truth- 
fully be said to have embodied almost everything that 
was known in relation to electricity up to the time of 
its publication, and for many years was the standard 
text-book ou this branch of natural science in all the 
countries of Europe. Some of the later writers on the 
same subject — in this country especially — have pub- 
lished works whose most valuable portions have been 
compiled almost literally from De la Rive's treatise. 
Prof. De la Rive was several times visited by Davy 
and Faraday, and was an almost constant correspond- 
ent of these eminent men. At the time of the annexa- 
tion of Savoy to Prance he was sent to England by 
the Federal Council of Switzerland on an important 
and delicate political mission. He was a foreign mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of London, a corresponding 
member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, and of a 
large number of other learned societies in the different 

capitals of Europe. 

*-»-* 

An Old Friend in a New Dress. 

With the opening of the New Year our esteemed 
contemporary, the American Artisan, comes to us in a 
new form and a new dress. Hereafter it is to be pub- 
lished monthly instead of weekly. The January num- 
ber, the first of the new series, is a large quarto of 32 
pages, cut, stitched, and enclosed in a tasteful and 
elegant cover. It is profusely illustrated, and in typo- 
graphical-appearance is certainly superior to any journal 
of the,kind ever issued in this country. It is filled with 
useful scientific information of all kinds, and contains 
many articles of marked ability, written in an interest- 
ing and popular manner. The high reputation of its 
conductors, Messrs. Brown & Allen, is a sufficient 
guarantee that no pains or expense will be spared to 
maintain the utmost degree of excellence in the future 
numbers of the Artisan, and we trust that they may 
meet with the success which they so well deserve. 
The terms of the Artisan are two dollars per year, in 
advance. Specimens will be sent free, on application 
to the publishers, at No. 258 Broadway, New York. 



The Telegrapher in Canada. 

Tue telegraphic fraternity in Canada have apprecia- 
ted The Telegrapher, and are very generally repre- 
sented on its subscription list. For this we are largely 
indebted to the kindness of our friends who have acted 
as agents and canvassers, bringing the paper to the 
notice of the fraternity generally. 

Mr. John Trenaman train despatcher of the Grand 
Trunk Railway at Kingston, Ontario, has been very 
efficient in securing the support of the operators em- 
ployed on the lino of the road, and we are under obli- 
gations to him for past favors, and commend him to 
tho telegraphic fraternity as an agent of the paper, 
which wo hope he will continue to be for years to come. 

Wo are also under obligation to Messrs. II nan 
NEILSON, of the Dominion Telegraph Company, of 
Toronto, Geo. Black, of the Montreal Telegraph Com- 
pany, Hamilton, J. ATKINSON, of Port Hope, A. B. 
Munhon, of Fergus, Geo. VV~. Rah/con, of Morritton, 
and others who have, rendered valuable service in add- 
ing to tho circulation of tho paper in tho Provinces. 



We would solicit the continued cooperation of all 
the old friends of an independent telegraphic journal 
in not only maintaining but increasing the circulation 
of The Telegrapher, and many new ones which we 
hope to secure from time to time. 



International Free Exhibition of Arts and 
Manufactures. 

Mr. George Black, for several years manager of 
the Montreal Telegraph Company's Hamilton, Ontario, 
office, has, with Mr. Walter W. Sims, agent of the 
Toronto Globe, engaged in a new and novel enterprise, 
which is likely to prove of much value — it.is entitled an 
International Free Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures. 
They propose the establishment of a permanent free ex- 
hibition and general sample and advertising agency in 
the City of Hamilton, and all the cities of the Dominion, 
for introducing, exhibiting and advertising the manu- 
factures, wares, etc., of the Dominion, Great Britain 
and the United States. Premises have been secured 
at No. 78 James street (North), Hamilton, Ontario, and 
other agencies will be opened as rapidly as possible. 

This enterprise should meet with encouragement and 
success. . Mr. Black's experience and ability as a 
telegrapher will enable him to deal intelligently and 
successfully with telegraphic and electrical instruments, 
inventions and apparatus, and we have no doubt but 
that our American manufacturers will find it for their 
interest to communicate with and patronize him. 

Circulars and all required information may be ob- 
tained by addressing Black, Sims & Co., drawer 49, 
Post-office, Hamilton, Ontario. 



Appointment of Secretary and Treasurer of the 
Gold and Stock Telegraph Company. 

On the 1st inst. the office of the Atlantic Telegraph 
(Cable) Co. in this city was closed, and Mr. Henry H- 
Ward, who has for several years filled the position of 
Supt. of the New York, Newfoundland and London 
Telegraph Company, which has been merged in the 
Cable Company, retired from the service. He has been 
appointed Secretary and Treasurer of the Gold and 
Stock Telegraph Company, of this city, and assumed 
the duties of his new position on the 1st of January. 

Mr. Ward has filled several important telegraphic 
positions during the many years of his connection with 
the business, all of which he has filled with much 
ability and credit to himself. His services to the Gold 
and Stock Company will be very important and valu- 
able, and his duties will be discharged with the ability, 
faithfulness and courtesy which are characteristic. 



Titlepage and Index to Vol. IX. 

The Titlepage and Index to Yol. IX of The Tele- 
grapher will be furnished with this week's number. 
Should any one who desires fail to receive them, copies 
can be had on application to this office. 



Mr. W. N. McCormick has accepted a position in 
train despatcher's office at Fort Wayne, Ind., on the 
P., Ft. W. and C. Railroad. 

Mr. J. A. Patterson has resigned the position of 
train master and superintendent of telegraph of the 
Cairo and Viucennes Railroad, and Mr. T. E. Clarke 
has been appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Mr. J. H. Powers has resigned his situation with tho 
Western Union Company at Chicago, HI., and accepted 
a situation with tho Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
at Elizabeth, N. J. 

Mr. 0. M. G/BEENE has been appointed division ope- 
rator of the Minnesota Division of tho Northern Pacific 
Railroad, with headquarters at Brainard, Minn. 

Information is desired, and, if possible, the present 

address of Mr. William J. Cowan, formerly tele- 
graph operator at Crook Haven, Ireland. Any person 
who can give such information is requested to address 
Mr. PHIL, P. KAUFF, Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, 11)8 Broadway, N. Y. 

Mr. Charles R. Eosmer, who has ably filled the 
position of manager for the Dominion Telegraph Com- 
pany at Buffalo, N. Y., for two years past, has been 



12 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[January 10, 1874. 



promoted to be Superintendent of the Eastern Division 
of that company, with headquarters at Montreal, Ca. 
Mr. Charles A. Tinker, general train despatcher, 
has been appointed Superintendent of Telegraph for the 
Central Vermont Railroad Co., and all telegraph lines 
belonging to or connected with the interests of that 
company are placed under his charge. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

Messrs. Hambro & Son, of London, England, have 
announced the payment, on the 1st of January, of inter- 
est at the rate of five per cent, per annum, on the shares 
of the Great Northern Telegraph Company. 

We are told by the London Times that it may be 
some time before the nation learns the total cost of the 
purchase of the telegraphs by the State. The materials 
for calculation are, at present, £5,847,347 returned as 
paid to " Telegraph Companies ;" £865,559 returned as 
paid, or due to " Railway Companies," up to the 15th 
of July, 1873; and such"' proportion of the £5,000,000 
said to be the amount of claims outstanding as may be 
eventually ascertained, by arbitration or otherwise, to 
be due. 

The total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom, during the 
week ended the 13th of December, 1873, was 338,742 — an 
increase over the corresponding week of the previous 
year of 47,625. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company's traffic receipts for 
the month of November, 1873, amounted to £35,096, 
against £33,667 in the corresponding period of 1872. 

The Eastern Extension, etc., Telegraph Company 
state that the receipts of their lines for the month of 
November, 1873, amounted to £17,454, against £15,- 
991 for the corresponding period of 1872 of the four sep- 
arate lines, viz : British-India Extension, China Sub- 
marine, British-Australian, and Tasmanian Submarine 

Telegraph. 

*-•-• 

Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

The new telegraph line for the United States Signal 
Bureau, between Norfolk, Ya., and Cape Hatteras, 
reached a point, on the 7th ins.t., twelve miles below 
Cape Henry, and is being pushed rapidly to the danger- 
ous coast of Hatteras. 

A severe sleet storm, on Wednesday last, prostrated 
all the telegraph wires west of Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
suspended telegraphic communication with the West. 
The wires were badly damaged in all directions west. 



Promoted. 

It is with pleasure that we note the promotion of 
Mr. James J. Riegel from the position of station agent 
at Bingen, North Pennsylvania Railroad, to the charge 
of Old York Road Station, on the same road, about 
seven miles from Philadelphia. In his new position 
Mr. Reigel will take charge of the ticket and telegraph 
offices, also will act as freight agent and agent for the 
Central Express Company. Mr. W. W. Sell, assistant 
station agent at Doylestown, will succeed Mr. Riegel 
in charge at Bingen. These promotions will go into 
effect to-day, and are as deserved as they are gratify- 
ing to us to publish them. — The Morning Progress, 

South Bethlehem, Pa. 

♦ « » 

Should men be indulged in ungentlemanly, profane 
or obscene language over telegraph lines 1 



New Patents. 

jggf Official Copies of any U. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, sent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, P. O, 
Box 5603, New York City. 

For the week ended December 9, 1873, and bearing that date. 

145,308. — Electric Signaling Apparatus for Bailroads. 
Prank L. Pope, Elizabeth, N. J. Application filed April 2, 
1873. 

For use at tunnels, drawbridges, etc., one line of rails divided 
into insulated sections, the other in connection with earth. 
System of repeaters at each end of, say, tunnel. Train going in 
one end sets a primary signal at far end, which signal repeats 
back and sets a secondary signal at entrance. Train on*lts exit 
closes certain circuits, reversing the signals. 

1. The combination of the electro-magnet C, electro-magnets 
B Bi, circuit breaking levers 6 61, and circuit closing devices 
ai and at, substantially as and for the purpose herein specified. 

2. The combination of the magnet C for operating a primary 
signal, the magnet D for operating a secondary signal and a cir- 
cuit closer, <ji, the latter arranged to be actuated by the passage 
of a train, substantially as herein described. 

3. The combination and arrangement of the electro-magnets 
B and Bi and armature levers 6 and 61, so arranged that the 
closing of the circuit through one magnet will break the circuit 
of the other, substantially as herein specified. 

4. The arrangement of a primary signal magnet and a second- 
ary signal magnet at each end of a section of railroad track, each 
secondary signal magnet being controlled by the action of the 
primai-y signal magnet at the opposite end, substantially as and 
for the purpose herein specified. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 
Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 




One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KEY, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand ^ide. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Beel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

from 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 50 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE & CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 



TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTUEEES AND DEALEES IN 

Electrical anil TeleppI Instruments. 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 
CONSTANTLY ON HAND. • 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELE0TEI0 BELLS AND AHNUN0IAT0ES, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

attery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



*B 



AZL GOO&S Wri-ftfttiJVTED FIHSZ CLASS, 
AND PRICES EXT11EMELT LOW. 



SEND FOB PRICE LIST. 



TT'ENOSHA INSULATORS, 

BKAOZETS AND CR0SS-AKMS, 

FOR. SALE B^ 

L. a. TILLOTSCW & CO., 

8 DEY ST., NEW YORK. 



Anson Stager, 

Pres't. 



Elisha Gray, 
Snp't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGEAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 
Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTKO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCKS AND 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 
UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 
JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 
KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



M 



ODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
TRIC TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth, $3.00 

SSB" Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



w 



ANTED. 



Wanted to know the whereabouts of ROBEET McCALLUM. 
Was operating on the B. and M. R. R. when last heard from. 
Anyone knowing him, or having seen him during the past three 
years, will please communicate with his brother, ALEXANDER 
McCALLUM, Mendocine City, California, and by so doing wiU 
confer a great favor. 



January 10, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



P 



ANIO PRICES. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



ALL WHO NEED 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 

IN 

Large or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 

SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 
A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H. BLISS & 'CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



s 



ITUATION DESIRED. 



G EO 



H. BLISS & CO., 

41 XMIMI> AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



: for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 
" AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 
" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 
" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 
" HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 
" MoPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
" THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 
.< PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 
" BROOKS' " 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 

" p6pE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

" EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

'• SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

" ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 
No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 
No. 4 3 oo 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instruments, Line Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

t&- Speoial attention given to REPAIRS ana MODEL WORK. 



A Situation is desired by the subscriber as a Telegraph Operator. 
She has had nine years' experience, and has filled responsible 
positions in Commercial and Railroad offices satisfactorily, but 
is at present without an engagement. Would prefer a situation 
in an office in some city, or place of moderate size, where she 
could have an office by herself— either in a Commercial or Rail- 
road office. 

Any person knowing of such a situation, or desirous of engag- 
ing her services, will please address 

Miss A. NIXON, 
Hobart, Lake County, Indiana. 



R 



EDUCTION OF PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEUES, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates: 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 50 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

[P. O. Box 5503.] 38 Vesey Street, N. T. 



X ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 

CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will De prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words " Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 

Leclanche Battery Co., 

JVo. i.0 West 18th Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 

rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" «' " with Cut Out and Lightning 

Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 JDEY STREET, N. T. 

T^LECTRICAL BELLS. 




$10 BELL. 

Wo ha»e a great variety of both SINGLE STROKE and CON- 
TINUOUS RINGING BELLS, from $6.50 upward. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 DEY STREET, N. Y. r 



rpiIE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
^ IN THE WOULD 

IS SUPPLIED BY 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 JDey Street, New York, 

MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

OF 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL, AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 60 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, 1^x2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from %. to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 
INSULATORS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS, PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LEOLANCHIS, NITRO-CHROMIO AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 
CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smeo, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 
OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 
"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," .... 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY & TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Calaloffito and Price List furnished upon application . 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

* JOEY STREET, NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[January 10, 1814. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



&AMEVELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

J. W. STOVEE, 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West, 

J R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina, 

J. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L, M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE v 

OR 

UPON TEE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now In operation in the following Cities, to which referenceis 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass, 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. 0., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo. N 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. C, 
Worcester, MasB. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First — The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constan't per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — Tlie Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the fire is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OP 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sufficient vindication of the claims which are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 
COMPLETELY FAILED; 

the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWEIilj Si CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER c& CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 
The most important improvement which the Proprietoi s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

the introduction and operation of which involves so litl U ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

HEE ALAKM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE - 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

KELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, thkee 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing-its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
Iheir efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system ■will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



CARLES T. CHESTER, 

104 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 

AND MANUFACTURER OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 

AND EVEBY DESCRIPTION OF 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood-work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 

A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OB 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE. 



SUBTERRANEAN & MRIM WIRES, 

OF THE 

HIGHEST INSULATION. 

Wearenow prepared to furnish, after an experience ofthree 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injuiy. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed itto the most destructive 
agencies; finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that it will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, introduced by us eight years 
Since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily and quickly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w jrk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very bejt MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



January 10, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



B 



ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOR THE SALE OP 



Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Gables, 

AND EVERT VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BE00KS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
be, stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 

Siemens' Submarine Cables, Gables for Eiver Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 
INSTRUMENT, 

FOR PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium—Silver Medal~~over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. 3. E. SELDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, beliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIVATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MEEOHANTS' MANUFACTURING AND 
CONSTRUCTION 00. 

S. J. BUERELL, Superintendent, 

No. 60 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. 



A' 



MERICAN COMPOUND 

TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 
COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELJEGRAPH WIRE, 
oo m pared with iron, consists in its lightness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tensile stbenoth, homogeneity and elasticity — de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in its dobability, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resulting in a very great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time, insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
Address — , 

American Compound Telegraph Wire Co., 
ALANS0N 0AEY. Treasurer, 

No. 234 West 29th St.. 

Hew YorTc. 



MAGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 

FOB 

RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED by 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, &. CO., Proprietors, 
J. HAMBLET. Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IS MAIDEN IjANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 
of all kinds, , 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



FL. POPE & CO., 
• MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all descriptions of tele- 

OBAFH MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, SUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 

of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE LTG-HTKrilsTG- ABRBSTERS. 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOCHHAUSEN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC BATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it is 
conceded by all who have used it to be the Best and moit Econo- 
mical Battery, for telegraphic and other purposes, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pres't. JOHN E. CARY, Vice-Pres't. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, Sec'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 

GAMEWELL & CO., N. Y. 

Specialties made of 

HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SURE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY" SOUNDER, 

Cheap Instruments for Learners, Amateurs, &c, 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private House Electric Annunciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL. BELLS AND ALARM BELLS of every style. 

Batteries, Chemicals, Wire, Insulators, 
Supplies, <&c., (&c. 

MODELS and LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 



PRICE LIST. 

Hicks' Repeaters (1873.) $100.00 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00 " 19.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8.00 

Keys " 3.00" 6.50 

Learners' Outfits {complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Annunciators, per room " 7.00" 12.00 

Burglar Alarms " 50.00 " 200.00 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 
No. 4 LEADER BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



D 



R. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 



JERSEY CITY, N. J., 



Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL, APPARATUS 



Electric Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Theostat as 
they have been recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity ; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, Ac. ; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro-motive force of 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dinamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. Its measurements are accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read otf in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It packs in a case seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. Considering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $230, according to stylo, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $40 to $C0. 

Descriptive pamphlets may be had on application. 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY STREET. 



He also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARK OP 

Naked Copper Wire, 

So wound that tho convolutions are separated from each other by 
a regnlar and uniform space of the 1-800 th of an inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper. In Helices of silk insulated wire, tho 
space occupied by the silk Is the MBOth to tho l-300th of an Inch; 
therefore a spool made of a given length and sizo of naked wire 
will bo smaller and will contain many moro convolutions around 
thecoro than one of silk Insulated wire, and will make a propoi*- 
tionably stronger magnet, while the resistance will bo tho same. 

These Helices are now offered for tho use of manufacturers of 
Telegraphic and Electrical apparatUB, and orders will bo filled 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 10, 1814' 



T 



HE PERFECT BATTERY. 

CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOCKWOOD BATTERY, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILL0TS0N & 00., Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Det Street, N. Y. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in this country and Europe to be 

PAR SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purposes, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1871. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper and zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely unifokm at all times. It is 
equally well adapted for a \ 

LOCAL BATTERY, 
or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 
current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale. Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 
Send for Circular. 

L. G. TILL0TS0N & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O Hj E3 A&BNTS. 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyeb, Secretary. 



RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 




"SATE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into the Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 
Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, 111. 



TTTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE^ 

MANUFACTTJEEES OP 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, &c, &c. 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A. VERY SUPERIOR MAIN LINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 



The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, Naw York, ) 
Sept. 22d, 1873. ) 

Dear Sir — Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager. 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearanco. Occcupies little 
more space than the cellit supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. ' '*•*'•■ 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to' be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



ipARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO.'S 

CHAMPION LEARNERS 

AND 

SHORT LINE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

A GREAT IMPROVEMENT 

over all Instruments of the kind ever offered for this purpose, 
consisting of a 

No. 1 SOUNDER AND KEY COMBINATION SET, 

AN EXCELLENT BOOK OF PBACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN 

TELEGRAPHY, 

OFFICE WIRE, CHEMICALS, etc., 

making a complete arrangement for one office. 

The Instruments are full sized, complete in every respect. The 
Battery is a full sized first class Callaud cell, and the entire outfit 
has nothing about it which in any way resembles the many wretched 
affairs which have been extensively sold as Learners' Apparatus. 




Great numbers of our "Champion Instruments" are in use 
upon short private lines, and upon City wires of Telegraph 
Companies, where they are giving the greatest satisfaction, on 
account of their very substantial make and excellent working 
qualities. 

We guarantee them to be in every respect better than any form of 
Learners' Apparatus or Short Line Instruments ever offered to the 
public. 

Price of Apparatus, complete, with Book of Instructions, 
Battery, Wire, and all necessary materials for one complete office 
outfit, ready for shipment, sent C. O. D., $10 — or, if money order 
sent for the amount, $9.50. The latter plan will additionally save 
the purchaser the express charges for the return of money. 

Price of Single Instrument, good for one mile or less, with- 
out Battery $8 50 

Ornamental style ditto, with rubber covered coils, without 

Battery 10 00 

Single Instrument, good lor working a line from one to 

twelve miles 9 50 

Ditto, ornamental, with rubber covered coils 11 00 

Battery, per cell 1 50 

PAETRICK, BUNNELL & CO,, 

38 SOUTH FOURTH ST., PHILADELPHIA, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGKAPH & ELE0TEI0AL INSTRUMENTS 
and Supplies of every description. 




Vol. X. 



JVew York, Saturday, January 17 , 187 Jf. 



Whole No. 392 



i^HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
O-AI/VANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GONGS, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

"' Pope's Modem Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 
TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 

AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 

AND 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

352 and 354 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

"VT O V E L T Y! 
A SOUNDER of Entirely New Construction, 

which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
clear sound. 

Size for Regular Offices $5 00 

Small Size 3 60 

Learners' Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c, 

all complete 7 50 

Send for Circular. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND M'F'G 00., 
No. 4 Leader Building, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

^"^ (established 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various binds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 
DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



/COVERED WIRES, 

^^ Made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or other 
material, forTelegraph Instruments, Electro-Magnetic Machines, 
Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, ENAMELLED, SHELLACED, 
PARAFFINED, and all kinds of 

TELEGEAPH OFFICE WIEES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being partial 
to any particular kind need only enclose a small specimen in a 
letter and it can be imitated in every particular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

G. THOMPSON, 
(Successor to Josiah B. Thompson,) 

29 North 20th St., Thila., Ta. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET, 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 



OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



R 



EDUCTION OP PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL. 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEURS, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates: 
Single Instruments, including Three Colls Baltory, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $0 50 

Two sets of Instrument?, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

F. E. POPE & CO., 

[P. O. Box 5503.] 38 Vcsey Street, N. Y. 



s 



ITUATION DESIRED. 



A Situation is desired by the subscriber as a Telegraph Operator. 
She has had nine years' experience, and has filled responsible 
positions in Commercial and Railroad offices satisfactorily, but 
is at present without an engagement. Would prefer a situation 
in an office in some city, or place of moderate size, where she 
could have an office by herself — either in a Commercial or Rail- 
road office. 

Any person knowing of such a situation, or desirous of engage 
ing her services, will please address 

Miss A. NIXON, 
Hobart, Lake County, Indiana. 



£ 



NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 



Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Ea.Tbor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTEET. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according Jo the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Danielle, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 



F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503. 



38 VESEY STJtEET, N. Y. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND, AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M C ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

0HAELES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



w 



ALLACE & SONS, 

MANUFAOTOREB8 OF 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll and Sheet. 

We make the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty — 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposos — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in overy instance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer iu the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, N. Y, 

MANUFACTORY, 

A iison in. Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 17, 1814, 



A LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBEBION SQUARE, 

{Boom 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The damage from the loss of a single message -will equip a line 
many times with our new Hoot, which gives great security. 

Price , 30 cents each. 

" per dozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, HI., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATERS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

GEO, H. BLSSS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 

iUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

STEAM PRINTING HOUSE 
17, 19, 21, 23 EOSE STEEET, near FEARKFOET, 
NEW 'YORK, 
EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMERCIAL PPJUTIEG, 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOB 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS,:TACHTS, 

etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS', 
79 VARICK STREET, NEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 
ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction of the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

vol.Svo, cloth §5 oo. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Boots 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any addiess on receipt of ten cente. ' 

D. VAN N0STRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET, N. Y. 



nnHE 

^ TELEGRAPH 



AMATEUR'S 

APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE; 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a " Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 
Seven Dollars and Fifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete $14 50 

Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. .. 7 50 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, HI. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAFFNER'S 



TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGRAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELEGRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Illustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway^, 

NEW YORK. 



M 



ODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
TRIC TELEGRAPH. 



A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth, , $2.00 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCH A WORKS, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. F. 




4® 1 - Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



S. BISHOP, Proprietor , 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 

<*iS*= 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED 

WIRES OF EVERY VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style, 

OFFICE WiRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors 

required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE, 

AND FOE 

BIAST1SG AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation forTelegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Percha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practical Electricians and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with in- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchating 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILI.OTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW T0BK r 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0ENLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia,, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT &. STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO.. 363 Broadway, 
D. H0DGMAN &C0..27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William SL 

Address all Communications to 

S. B I S H O I? , 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. 



January 11, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



13 



The Telegrapher 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. ASHLEY. 



PUBLISHER. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 17, 1814. 



VOL. X. WHOLE No. 392. 



(Original %xi\t\t%. 

The Elementary Principles of Electrical 
Measurement. 

By Frank L. Pope. 

(Continued from page 2.) 

Ohm's Laxo. 

Each one of the four electrical phenomena that have 
heen described is susceptible of being measured with 
great accuracy. The essential properties of an electric 
circuit may be said to be : First, the electro-motive 
force included or contained in it; second, its resistance 
to the passage of the current ; and third, the magnitude 
of the current so passing. "When any two of these three 
properties have a known value the value of the third 
may readily be ascertained. 

This is done by means of Ohm's law, upou which all 
electrical measurements are founded — the importance 
of which is only equalled by its simplicity. From 
the fact that it is expressed in most books by algebraic 
formulae, students are apt to be very much afraid of it, 
but there need really be no difficulty in understanding 
it. Unless he does understand it, the student can make 
but little progress towards a thorough knowledge of the 
phenomena of the electric current. 

Ohm's law may be briefly stated as follows : 

1. The current in any circuit is found by dividing its 
electro-motive force by its resistance. ■ 

2. The resistance in any circuit is found by dividing 
its electro-motive force by its current. 

3. The electro motive force in any circuit is found by 
multiplying its resistance by its current. 

4. The quantity of electricity produced in any circuit 
is found by multiplying the current by the time during 
which it flows. 

The algebraic formulge referred to are nothing more 
than a short way of writing down the same thing, 
thus: 

Let Q denote the total quantity of electricity gene- 
rated in any circuit. 

Let B denote the electro-motive force in the circuit. 

Let R denote its resistance. 

Let C denote the current flowing in the circuit. 

Let T denote the time during which the current 
flows. 

We may then write down the above statements, 
thus: 

(1) C = — . (2) R = — (3) E = RO. (4) Q = CT. 
R C 

For the benefit of those not familiar with algebraic 
formulge, it may be well to state that, when two letters 
standing for numerical quantities are placed one above 
another in the form of a common fraction, it signifies 
that the quantity above the line is to be divided by the 
quantity below the line. 
E 
Thus — signifies E divided by R. 
R 

The sign = denotes equality; or that the quantities 
on one side of the sign are equal to those on the other 
side. 

When two or more letters standing for numerical 
quantities are written together, one after the other, it 
signifies that they are to be multiplied together. Thus, 
in the above case, the expression E = RC means that 
E is equal to the product of R multiplied by 0, or, in 
other words, that the electro-motive force (E) is equal 
to the resistance (R) multiplied by the strength of cur- 
rent (C), which is exactly what was stated above in 
the third paragraph of Ohm's law — only in the former 
case it required 78 letters to explain it, and in the lat- 
ter case we express precisely the same thing by means 
of four letters and one arbitrary sign, which, perhaps, 
may serve to give the student some idea of the reason 
why persons who understand algebra prefer to use it 
whenever circumstances permit. 

Units of Electrical Measurement. 

In order to measure anything we must first provide 
ourselves with suitable known standards or units of 
measurement with which the unknown quantities may 
be compared. Thus, in measures of space, we have the 
inch, in measures of time, the second, and in measures 
of force or weight, the pound. 



The first well defined and accurate unit of electrical 
measurement proposed, which met with much general 
acceptance in practical work, was the resistance unit 
of Dr. Werner Siemens, of Berlin, Prussia, which he 
constructed in 1860. 

The Siemens unit is defined as being equal to the re- 
sistance of a column of chemically pure mercury, one 
metre in length and one square millimetre in sectional 
area, maintained at a temperature of 0° Centigrade or 
32° Fahrenheit. No definite standards of electro-motive 
force or of quantity have ever been authoritatively 
established in connection with the Siemens resistance 
unit. The ordinary Daniell cell furnishes a unit of 
electro-motive force of sufficient uniformity and con- 
stancy for ordinary purposes, and one which is used in 
this way very generally by practical electricians. 

A complete system of electrical units has more re- 
cently been established by the British Association for 
the advancement of science, which are usually known 
as the B A units. They are as follows: 

The Volt 1 is the unit of electro-motive force. It 
does not differ greatly from the electro-motive force of 
a single sulphate of copper cell, and for many purposes 
may be considered equivalent to it. According to Mr. 
Farmer's determination, the sulphate of copper battery 
generally used in telegraph work has an electro-motive 
force equal to 0-93, or i\% of a volt. 2 

The Ohm 3 is the unit of resistance. It is equal to the 
resistance of a round wire of pure copper ,§§ of an 
inch in diameter and 408 feet 4 inches in length, at 
a temperature of 60° Fahrenheit. - This is the size 
generally known as No. 16 wire, Birmingham gauge. 
Roughly, it is about equivalent to the resistance of 
330 feet of ordinary No. 8 galvanized wire, such as that 
used in the construction of telegraph lines. The ohm 
and the Siemens resistance unit before referred to 
do not differ greatly from each other. According to 
the most trustworthy determination 1 ohm is equal to 
1.0486 Siemens units, and 1 Siemens unit is equal to 
0.9537 ohms. 
The Farad* is the unit of quantity and of electro- 
ns 



c 



static capacity. It is equal to the quantity of elec- 
tricity that will pass through a circuit having a resist- 
ance of 1 ohm during 1 second, with an electro-mo- 
tive force of 1 volt. The use of the same unit for quan- 
tity and capacity is a matter that seems somewhat 
puzzling at first sight, but if we refer to our former 
illustration in figure 2, the propriety of it becomes ap- 
parent. The capacity of the vessel A above the line 
xx may be for one gallon, and, in that case, the quan- 
tity of liquid contained in it when it is full, will also be 
one gallon. 

The Weber has been proposed, b_y some writers on 
the subject, as a unit of current, and is defined by 
them as equal to the quantity of electricity that will 
pass per second in a circuit having an electro-motive 
force of 1 volt and a resistance of 1 ohm. The neces- 
sity of a distinctive name for a unit of this description 
is not very apparent, and would seem rather liable to 
create confusion of ideas than otherwise. Fleeming 
Jenkin, who is probably the best authority on the 
subject, gives one farad per second as the unit of cur- 
rent, and it is probable that his definition will be the 
one ultimately adopted. It has the merit of being capa- 
ble of comprehension, at all events, and when we speak 
of a current of so many farads per second, the idea 
conveyed is as distinct as it would be if we spoke of a 
current of water of so many gallons per second. 

The ordinary Callaud cell usually has about 3 ohms 
resistance. If such a cell were placed on " short cir- 
cuit," that is, haviug its poles connected by a wire so 
thick as to offer no appreciable resistance, the current 
traversing the circuit would be equal to one third of a 
farad per second. One sixtieth of a farad per second 
is sufficient to operate the relays in the main circuit 
of a telegraph line. A local circuit for actuating a 
sounder or register usually has a current of from one 
fourth to one sixth of a farad per second. When a 



1 So named from the Italian philosopher, Volta, tho discover 
of the Voltaic battery. 

•i According to the same authority the mean electro-motive 
forces of some of the cells in common use are as follows : 

Bi-Chromate Carbon 1.75 Volts. 

Grove 1.C3 '* 

Bunsen 1.59 " 

Smee 62 

3 So called in honor of Dr. G. S. Ohm, who was tho first to dis- 
cover and lay down tho true laws of electrical action. 

4 So called in honor of the English philosopher, Michael 
Faraday, distinguished for his researches and discoveries in 
electrical science. 



current of a certain number of farads is spoken of, the 
words per second are, of course, understood. 

The wide variation in magnitude of the different 
quantities dealt with by electricians— such for example 
as the ratio of resistance between silver and gutta 
percha, before alluded to— renders the use of multiples 
and submultiples of the above units very convenient 
in practice. The names and values of these are as foU 
lows : 

1 megavolt = 1,000,000 volts. 

1 megohm = 1,000,000 ohms. 

1 megafarad = 1,000,000 farads. 
Similarly — 



1 microvolt = , ooo.ooo of a volt. 
1 microhm = 1>OOUtOOU of an ohm. 
1 microfarad = ,.„„,',_„„„ ■ of a farad. 



1 ,000,01)11 

(To be continued. 



"The Ghost." 

Very likely it is not generally known outside of New 
York that the Western Union office at No. 145 Broadway 
is haunted — but such is the mournful fact — the appa- 
rition, however, taking the unostentatious and frugal 
form of a blank book, of goodly dimensions, on the 
cover of which appears the following announcement: 
" Telegraphica's Ghost." 
Vol. 1. 
A manuscript chronicle of events 
occurring in and in connection with the general 
office of the W. U. Telegraph Co., New York, and a medium of 
communication between operators in quest of 
" subs " or " subbing," edited by 
W. P. Phillips, 
and engrossed by the best penman that can be 
induced to engage in the work. 
New York, Jan. 1st., 1874. 

On the fly leaf appears the appended lines, which ex- 
plain themselves : 

When Telegraphica's spark expired, 

In bonny, blossoming June, 
Many kind voices hastened to say 

" Its being has closed too soon." 

And though it never has returned 

Through all the months now fled, 
It has staid away, with reason, 

And now sends its ghost instead. 

As its founder sat pondering, Christmas night— 
The season when spirits hold full sway — 

This ghost came down through the chimney pot 
And in hurried accents went on to say : 

" Haste — oh I haste thee, and bring me a dress 
From some neighboring blank book store. 

That I may remain, for a time at least, 
And breathe earth's air once more." 

These were the words of the spirit, 

And this is the dress that was got ; 
May it prove a cheerful kind of a ghost, 

This sprite of the dash and dot. 

P. S. — The phantom requests, in blandest tones, 

It be asked of the " powers that be " 
That it be allowed to " lay around here," 
That all may its pages see. 

Below are given a variety of extracts, calculated to 
show the field in which the "Ghost" is calmly stalk- 
ing, and the way it " chins " the boys about matters 
and things in general : 

"The glad New Tear — the great, the important day 
to New Yorkers, big with the fate of calls, of cake and 
wine — is here once more. Last night we telegraphic 
knights nocturnal listened and heard old Trinity ring 
out the chimes of requiem for dead 73, and felt with 
gladness that the new born year was ushering in. How 
easy to look back across the short expanse when last 
year's infant note was pealed upon the air ! How easy 
to peruse the page on which the events of the past 
twelve months are written ! The leaf is scattered o'er 
with marks awakening sad memories, vain regrets and 
sweet remembrances. But we peer into the future to 
no purpose; the wee bairn tells us naught of what's to 
come. In its cycle it will surely bring marriage, 
births and death ; failure and success ; defeat and vic- 
tory; which, and to whom, we may not know as yet. 
And still a little farther on new chimes will ring out 
on the midnight air; the calls, tho cake and wine 
again will be in order, and our familiarity with the fin- 
ished page of '74 will make us marvel that its great 
events were but so shortly enshrouded in mystery and 
gloom !" 

" The force list for New Year's day, which has been 
tastefully drawn up by Mr. Bolan, is embellished 
with three significant etchings by Mr. J. J. Callahan. 
The first represents a day man astride a horseshoe 
magnet, the speed of which is evidently retarded by a 
'home resistance,' composed of the smell of poultry 
in tho pan, the smiles of wife and children, and a . 
natural longing to gather round tho hearth on Now 
Year's day. The anxious follow is slowly bearing 
down on 'No. 145,' though his eyes are eagerly turn- 
ed towards the clock which looms up on Trinity, and 
as ho notes the fact that its hands point to precisely 
eight o'clock, he sinks his imaginary spurs into his 



14 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[January 11, 1814. 



3ankless steed and gasps: 'I wonder if I'm on the 
reserve?' The nest depicts an office scene, in which 
the operators seem to have taken several steps hack- 
ward in the direction of primitive man, as Darwin pic- 
tures him. Bills and web feet, as well as claws, are 
noticeable, suggesting that a diet somewhat poultryish 
, has had a queer effect. There is a great effort making 
to clear the hooks, in order to assist at a discussion of 
a monster 'phoul,' which a sable seignoris bringing in, 
indicating that primitive man or nothing is the object 
to be achieved. The last of the group is a picture of 
an 'owl,' on whose front— it can hardly be called a 
face — despair is visibly imprinted, as he spasmodically 
ejaculates, after the manner of Mr. Jingle, ' no pens — 
can't draw on the 10th — broke!' It may be well to 
state, for the benefit of a benighted posterity, that 
with the close of 1873 the system of paying salaries on 
the first, tenth and twentieth instants, so long in vogue, 
is abandoned, and hereafter the first and fifteenth in- 
stants will be the only days on which the telegraphic 
mind will generally contemplate the purchase of the 
Windsor Hotel, the completion of our gorgeous Court 
House, or indulge in meditating an expenditure in other 
ways of accumulated shekels." 

"Our genial friend, Mr. Op. St. Mq. Weller, seems 
to flourish with his wonted luxuriance since entering 
the state connubial. Indeed, he is unusually majestic 
since he became one of the day force. We have no in- 
formation to the effect that he meditates becoming one 
of the Brooklyn Board of Aldermen, but, even in the 
absence of such information, we cannot refrain from 
saying that he is rapidly building up n physique which 
would do honor to a representative from Gowanus." 

"The current number of Harper's Magazine has an 
interesting article on the manner in which press busi- 
ness is conducted among the Washington correspon- 
dents. There are several illustrations, oue of which 
represents ' Newspaper row,' with the Western Union 
Telegraph and Associated Press offices, which are in 
the same building, occupying a conspicuous place. 
There is also a cut entitled "Rushing for the Wires," 
in which our ' 0. W.' Washington office is well depict- 
ed. Likenesses of Ben. Perley Poore, the famous cor- 
respondent, L. A. Gobright and J. W. Simonton, lend 
the article peculiar attractions to the telegraphic eye." 

" We hereby make Mr. Thomas R. Taltavall one of 
our most gracious bows. It is. to him we are indebted 
for all the ornamental work that has entered thus 
far into this remarkable history, including the tasteful 
lettering on the cover and the careful execution of the 
verses. When we contemplate the finish, the grace 
and the symmetry of Mr. Taltavall's work, and com- 
pare it with our original copy of the same, which was 
about as shaggy as a buffalo robe, we realize 'how com- 
petent he is to change chaos into order, and removing 
our cap reverentially, we pretend to blow our proboscis 
while we really shed a ' briny' over our shortcomings." 

The engrossing is neatlv and skilfully done by Mr. 
Thomas J. Bishop, and the " Ghost," naturally enough, 
has been an object of great interest since its advent. 
The management, it is hoped by those interested, will 
not manifest a disposition to deny it the coveted privi- 
lege to 

" 'lay around here,' 

That all may its pages see." 



The New Central Telegraph Office in London. 

The Telegraphic Journal of Dec. 15th contains an 
engraving of the magnificent new building, now nearly 
completed, which is to be occupied as the central sta- 
tion of the Postal Telegraph system in London. The 
exterior is very handsome, being ornamented with col- 
umns, and cornices, and mouldings, in the renaissance 
style, executed in sufficiently bold relief to break up 
the front, so as to produce a pleasing effect. In style 
the building forms as strong a contrast to the new 
office of the Western Union Company in this city as 
could possibly be imagined, though, to our fancy, the 
latter is the most effective of the two. We copy a 
portion of the Journal's description of the new build- 
ing: 

" The material used is granite as high as the ground 
floor, and above that Portland stone. The building is 
300 feet long by 90 feet wide, and forms a parallelo- 
gram pierced with two central courts, which are the 
secret of the plentiful supply of light. The ground, 
first and second floors are taken up by the different 
offices of the departmental staff, from the Postmaster 
General's rooms downward. The ledger room on the 
ground floor is of fine proportions, and very handsome 
with its pillars and mouldings of white stone, but the 
principal feature of the building is the great telegraph 
room, by far the largest in the world, occupying the 
whole of the upper floor. Its area is 20,000 square 
feet, and there are two thirds of a mile of mahogany 
instrument tables. The wires are already laid from the 
main lines into the room, which is at present a sort of 
electric siding to the telegraph system of the country. 



When all is ready the telegraph street wires will be 
cut, and the stream of messages turned into the new 
office. The countless ends of wires growing through 
the mahogany tables will each be connected with an 
instrument, and beside each instrument a card fixed in 
a stand will give the number of the " circuit." These 
will be, as far as possible, distributed geographically, 
Scotland and Ireland being in one corner together, so 
that the room will be a sort of telegraphic map. All 
the wires are gathered together at the " test box," a 
neat array of " terminals." To these terminals the 440 
wires are led from out of doors, and then on the in- 
struments at the tables — the object of having all the 
wires together at one point in the building being to 
enable the eugineer to alter the service, as may be 
necessary. Bach terminal being numbered, the route 
of the wire is known, and it can be used when wanted 
in making up afresh circuit, or line of direct communi- 
cation. Every evening the telegraph service of the 
country is altered for press purposes — ordinary wires, 
no longer wanted for private messages, being joined 
together to make lines of direct communication with 
towns in need of newspaper matter. There is, for in- 
stance, no direct communication with Darlingtou dur- 
ing the day, public messages being repeated from one 
place to another till they reach it ; but at six o'clock 
the Darlington Echo begins to want its news, and the 
direct line or " circuit" necessary for the quick and 
economical transmission of the long press messages is 
made up for the benefit of the Echo by joining a Lou- 
don and Sheffield, a Sheffield and Leeds, and a Leeds 
and Darlington wire. A Darlington and Newcastle 
wire is also joined on, so that the same information 
may at the same time reach auother journal. Wheu 
Mr., Bright delivered his recent speech at Birmingham 
a similar arrangement and diversion of wires enabled 
his speech to be telegraphed simultaneously by 12 
automatic and 17 Morse instruments — one of the former 
being equal to two of the latter. Altogether, 150,000 
words, or matter equivalent to more than 90 large print 
columns of The Times, was telegraphed from Birming- 
ham that night between 9 P. M. and 2 A.M. The 
numbers on the brass finials of the test box in the tele- 
graph room of St. Martin's-le-Grand indicate the route 
as well as the destination of each wire. Thus Liver- 
pool has in all no less than 17 wires, of which eight go 
by the London and Northwestern Railway, six by 
the Great Western, and three by the Grand Junction 
Canal. Of the thin green paper tape, dotted with tele- 
graphic strokes, no less than 10,000 miles a month are 
used throughout the kingdom. The color is chosen as 
being less trying to the clerks' eyes. Even these 10,- 
000 monthly miles of telegrams are not nearly all, for 
they do not represent the messages of the sight and 
sound instruments, of which there are 6,000 in use, as 
against 1,500 automatic or recording instruments. 

All along one side of the great telegraph room are 
ranged the curved leadeu tubes and brass fittings ot 
the pneumatic delivery apparatus. Eighteen miles' 
length of this pneumatic tubing are laid to twenty-five 
telegraph stations in the city and Westminster, which 
can thus deliver their telegrams at the Central Office 
in parcel form faster than the messages could be sent 
by wire. The messages are enclosed, twelve or sixteen 
at a time, in despatch tubes, which are shot along the 
exhausted pipe to the counter of the Central Office. 
From the counter they are carried to the check table, 
whence they' are distributed, partly by messengers and 
partly by travelling tapes, to the clerks at the instru- 
ments. The Post-offices being the only collectors and 
distributors of messages, telegrams for the cables and 
lines of private companies come to this central office, 
aud are sent thence to the offices of the coaipanies by 
pneumatic despatch. The 440 wires workiDg directly 
from the telegraph room are in communication with 
upwards of 1,000 stations. The battery room on the 
basement will have 25,000 battery cells, and here, 
again, the wires are collected together at a test box 
studded with innumerable brass finials. There is 
300 miles, length of gutta percha covered copper wire 
within the building. 

Leaving the spacious and handsome instrument room 
(the telegraphic workshop and executive are lodged on 
the same floor), we notice through the windows the 
great chimney rising from the boiler house built in the 
floor of the south court. Descending a staircase under 
a handsome suy light, we pass the departmental offices 
of the lower floors, aud turning along corridors, always 
well lighted, descend to the engine house, on the floor 
of the north court. Here there will be three engines 
of 50 horse power each, for the pumping work of the 
pneumatic tubes, and two of 10 horse power, to draw 
water from the well of 400 feet deep which is being 
sunk on the premises. This well will soon repay its 
cost, and even the 50 horse power engine on Telegraph 
street spends close upon £000 a year in drink. The 
new offices will have cost altogether when complete 
about £450,000, of which £300,000 has been swallowed 
up by the site. We rejoice that the administration at 
the Post-office of so distinguished a man as Dr. Lyou 
Playfair commenced at the time of the opening of this, 
the greatest telegraphic centre in the world. 



[From tlie Telegraphic Journal.] 

Mathematics for Non-Mathematicians. 

BY W. PAGET HIGGS, LL. D. 

Division I. — The Algebra, of Constant Quanti- 
ties. 

(Continued from p. 313, Vol. IX.) 
Limit of Series, 
The powers of a quantity greater than unity increase 
without limit. Thus, there is no power of 2 but that 
the next higher power is greater. Improper fractions 
follow, of course, the same law ; thus, 1^- raised to the 
second power, or 1| x H, as it contains the half of one 
and a half more thau one and a half, is greater than 
the first power. The powers of unity only never in- 
crease; but the powers of a proper fraction, or of a 
quantity less than unity, always decrease. Thus, the 
powers' of i, viz., i, i, JVi 3 \, etc., constantly dimin- 
ish. Representing an integral quantity by x, and a 

1 
fractional quantity by — , the powers of the first, or 

x 
x*, x :i , etc., continually increase, while the powers of 

1 1 1 

— , viz., — , — , etc., diminish in value. Thus, with 

X X* X 3 

the series 

x x 3 - X3 . • • • x", etc., 
we have the following conditions: 

I. An increasing series, if x is greater than unity. 
II. A decreasing series, if x is less than unity. 
III. A series whose terms are all of the same value, 
when x = 1. 

In the first and third cases, the sum of the series 
may evidently be made as great as we please by the 
addition of more terms. But where x is less than 
unity this may or may not be possible. 
If we take the decreasing series, 

l+i+i+i+iV+sV etc - 
the sum of this series will constantly approach 2, but 
will never attain that value. It will always be neces- 
sary to add the last term to obtain the value 2. Thus, 

(l+i)+i = 2-- 

(i+A + i + i) + i = 2. 

2 is then the limit towards which the series 

1 + i + i, etc., 
constantly approaches.* 

Such a series as 1, r, r' 2 , r 3 .... r", has, then, al- 

ways a limit when x is less than unity. The powers 

of r are constantly decreasing in value, and the higher 

the name of the power the lower its value. Let n be 

1 — n 

a very distant term ; will be the sum. But 

1 — r 



1 — r 1 — r 1 — r 

whence we see that the more distant is the termw (or, 

n 1 

rather, the smaller the fraction, ) the less is 

1—r 1—r 



— is then the 



affected by the subtraction. — 

1 — r 
limit towards which the series 1 + r + r a , etc., ap- 
proaches. 

The formula given in our last section for the summa- 
tion of au infinite series was 

a 

2 = , 

1 — r 
where a is the first term. Substitute 1 for a, and we 
have as well by this method the expression 
1 

= 1 + r .... +r„, 

1 — r 
where n = oo . Whence we perceive that " the sum of 
an infinite series is the limit toward which we approxi- 
mate by continually adding more and more of its 
terms." 



German troopers are now exercised in climbing up 
telegraph poles, and furnished with instruments to cut 
the wires. This is, of course, intended for service in 
an enemy's country, and the work is executed under 
cover of a dark night. The men are despatched across 
the country in couples; whilst one of the troopers 
dismounts, climbs up the pole and cuts the wires, the 
other holds his comrade's horse, and keeps a look out 
for any indication of interruption on the part of the 
enemy. 

* But we are not therefore to conclude that every decreasing 
series has a limit, it is possible to arrange a series (for instance, 
the reciprocals of the integer numbers in lots, each containing 
half as many terms as there are units in the denominator of its 
last term) having no limit. 



January IT, 18T4.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



IB 



(ttmmwMltnM. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Telegraphic Progress in Northern Michigan. 

Bat City, Mich., Jan. 7th. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Perhaps a brief account of the progress made by the 
"Western Union Telegraph Company, relative to the 
extension of their lines within the past three years in 
this woody country, will not be uninteresting to some 
of your readers. 

The excellent manner in which the majority of your 
correspondents contribute to your columns, tends to 
throw my efforts in the shade, and almost discourage 
me from making any attempt to follow their example; 
however, I will go as far as my abilities will permit. 
Three years and a half ago (so I am informed by Mr. 
Cooper, our efficient manager here) there was no such 
thing as a telegraph line north of Bay City. During 
the year 1871 the "Western Union Company built a line to 
Au Sable, a distance of 75 miles from here. In 1872 they 
added 165 miles to this, extending to Mackinaw City. 
During the year just closed the same line has been 
increased by an additional 245 miles of wire, together 
with five miles of cable, which crosses the straits of 
Mackinaw (and which cost the company $10,000); 
thence by overland route to Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., 
-and Marquette, L. S., making a complete circuit, from 
this point to Marquette, of 490 miles. There are 24 
offices along the route, the most important of which 
are Tawas, An Sable, Alpena, Cheboygan, Mackinaw, 
Sault Ste. Marie, "White Fish Pomt and Marquette, 
which places are all more or less engaged in au exten- 
sive lumber business. The line is equipped with five 
batteries, their respective situations being at Mar- 
quette, Sault Ste. Marie, Cheboygan, Alpena and 
Bay City. It is also well supplied with repairers, 
there being about half a dozen stationed at various 
points, at a respectable distance from each other. It 
should be borne in mind that this line traverses no 
civilized country — three fourths of it running through 
woods, and, for 25 miles, between Sault Ste. Marie 
and "White Fish Point especially, where it finds its 
way through the thick and gloomy forest, devoid of 
any road save a narrow pathway cut out by the build- 
ers when engaged in constructing it. During fine and 
dry weather we can work through to Marquette (with- 
out repeaters) like a charm, and on the same adjust- 
ment as if we were working with a neighboring office. 
Manager Cooper. thought he would try an experiment, 
by connecting this Hue with one of our Detroit wires. 
This being accomplished, to our great susprise we had 
the satisfaction of hearing messages passing through 
from Detroit to Marquette, and vice versa — a circuit of 
600 miles without repeaters. This lengthy circuit would 
only permit of slow and firm manipulation. During 
this extended circuit a message was sent from Mar- 
quette to Chicago, it being repeated at Detroit only, 
and an answer received at Marquette in precisely eight 
minutes from the time the first message left the office. 
I might also state that, to receive an answer to a letter 
by mail, would require six weeks. As a general rule, 
the wire is cut at Sault Ste. Marie, that office repeating 
for Marquette; this will necessarily have to* be the 
case during the busy season of navigation. 

From the above you will see that Bay City is an im- 
portant telegraphic centre, inasmuch as it is the re- 
peating office for this extraordinary long wire. Four 
years ago Bay City was only afforded two wires, one 
to Detroit and the other to Jackson, Mich., the entire 
business being conducted by our present able manager, 
Mr. Cooper. Now we have four wires, two of which 
connect us with Detroit, one from Saginaw City to 
Otsego Lake, which is a railroad wire on the line of 
the J. L. & S. R. R., the other to Jackson, Mich., as 
before stated. Our force consists of four operators, 
one of whom, Mr. F. S. Hogau, is entirely devoted to 
press reports, and is, without any exception, a first 
class operator. The company also employ a book- 
keeper and two messengers here, but in the summer 
we are blessed with three. 

"Without any exception our office is one of the cosiest 
and best fitted up in the State. We have a place for 
everything, and everything is in its place ; and, as re- 
gards our manager, the only depredation we can find 
him guilty of is that he is too lenient with us. Take 
us on the whole, we are a happy fraternity of tele- 
graphic artists. We are also considerably high toned, 
inasmuch as that we indulge in the fragrant smoke of 
Havanas; but should the company deem it advisable 
to reduce the salaries of their employes ten or fifteen 
per cent., we would necessarily and very reluctantly 
(with a sour expression overhanging our pleasant 
countenances) have to fall back on our brier root 



pipes — which would be exceedingly degrading in our 
own estimation, after the progress we have heretofore 
attained. 

I will close, hoping ere long to say something rela- 
tive to some further extensions and improvements in 
telegraphy which will be made in the spring in the 
northern part of the State. 

So far so good for progress, enterprise and persever- 
ance. Q- 

The Duplex Telegraph. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

I have noticed some discussion in the last two num- 
bers of The Telegrapher in regard to the invention 
of the duplex telegraph apparatus, and being some- 
what familiar with the subject, it is possible that I may 
be able to throw some light on it. " Inventor " suggests 
that Mr. Farmer's apparatus, patented in 1858, may 
have lacked some essential element, by the addition of 
which, at a later date, the invention was rendered com- 
plete and practical. 

I have before me a copy of Farmer's patent of 1858. 
The arrangement figured in the drawings is very much 
like the "differential duplex" now in use on the West- 
ern Union lines. The transmitting circuit breaker is 
arranged so as to make contact between the battery 
and line before breaking it between the ground and 
the line, and is shown in another figure, worked 
by a local circuit and key. The relay is wound 
with two distinct wires. In fact, the only essential 
difference is in the connections, for the same iden- 
tical apparatus shown in the drawings — the differ- 
ential relay, circuit preserving key aud adjustable rhe- 
ostat — might be worked either on Farmer's plan or on 
Stearns', merely by changing the connections. Far- 
mer's drawings also show a duplex repeater, and a dif- 
ferential relay having two magnets opposite to each 
other, acting on a single armature lever. 

It is quite possible that Stearns' arrangement may 
work better than Farmer's ever did, but it is certain 
that the latter was worked successfully on lines 300 or 
350 miles long at least fifteen years ago. I remember 
its having been shown to me the first time I was ever 
in the Boston office, which was in the latter part of 
1859. It was a very wet day, but the apparatus was 
working to Portland as well as could be desired. It 
was also worked between Cincinnati aud Indianapolis 
(I think) about the same time. Mr. W. Wiley Smith, 
now of Indianapolis, would probably know all about 
that experiment. In fact, if I recollect rightly, there 
was quite a serious effort made to introduce the inven- 
tion at that time, but there were several reasons why 
such an effort could not have proved successful. One 
reason was the wretched character of the lines in those 
days, not so much from bad insulation — though that 
was bad enough — as from rusty and imperfect connec- 
tions, which caused wide aud sudden fluctuations in 
resistance — a condition of things fatal to the satisfactory 
operation of any duplex system whatever. There was 
also the fact that such an invention was much less 
needed then than now. The wires were comparatively 
few in number and not overburdened with business 
at that. Then again, there was that old, inveterate 
prejudice against new inventions, which was consider- 
ably more formidable then than now, though even yet 
it is very far from being extinct. If Mr. Stearns had 
not himself been President of a telegraph company I 
have not the slightest idea that he would have been 
able to introduce his invention into practical use for 
many years to come, if at all. The manner in which 
it was decried and ridiculed by the officers of the West- 
ern Union Company, even after it had been in daily use 
on the Franklin line for more than two years, is well 
kuown, and affords an excellent example of this. 

In reference to the interference between the patents 
to which your correspondent alludes, I have only to 
say that it is a simple question of fact, and can only 
be decided after a very careful investigation of the 
whole subject by competent persons. In any event it 
concerns nobody but the owners of the respective oat- 
ents, who are doubtless abundantly able to look after 
their own interests. F. L. P. 

Elizabeth, N. J., Jan. \Wi, 1874. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

Washington, D. C, January 14. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Since the reassembling of Congress telegraph mat- 
ters have scarcely been thought of either in or out of 
the Capitol. 

The House Committee on Appropriations, to which 
the subject was referred, have had no time, and appa- 
rently little disposition to bother themselves with the 
matter. It came up, however, yesterday in the I'mii- 
tnittee, and was postponed until next Tuesday, when it 
is proposed to dispose of if in one sitting. The senti- 
ment of the Committee is known, however, to bo very 
much opposed to the scheme of buying existing lines, 
and the proposition contained in Mr. Cresswell's report, 



that the Government shall ignore existing telegraph 
interests and build new lines, to compete with those 
now in operation, is not regarded seriously by anybody, 
except possibly by Mr. Cresswell himself. 

As has been before stated, there is no prospect of 
anything being done in regard to telegraph matters at 
this session. The absence of any popular demand for 
a Government ownership or management of the tele- 
graphs, would prevent its favorable consideration by 
Congress, even if other conditions were favorable to it, 
which is not the case. 

Even the Postmaster General has abandoned any ex- 
pectation of accomplishing anything in the furtherance 
of his pet project at present, and, from the indications 
at this time, Congress aud the telegraph is likely to 
prove a barren subject, so far as any special interest is 

concerned. Capitol. 
♦-♦-<► 

Setting up the Gravity Battery. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Is it the rule (I do not find it anywhere), in setting 
up Callaud cells, to put all in position, water included, 
and close on short circuit before supplying sulphate of 
copper ? My observation is that this is the very best 
way. Circuit being closed, the first trace of acid 
reaching the zinc causes current, and consequent con- 
sumption of sulphate of copper, keeping the strong 
solution away from zinc, when it is not desired to use 
sulphate of zinc to start with. S. 

[This method of setting up a battery is recommended 
by most writers on the subject, except that they do 
not give any specific directions as to whether the cir- 
cuit is to be closed before or after the sulphate of 
copper is dropped in. Our correspondent's suggestion 
is a good one. — Ed. Telegrapher]. 



Solution of Problem. 



To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I offer the following as a solution of B.'s problem 
on page 3 of The Telegrapher of January 3d: 

Any one of the stations can work simultaneously to 
the three others, provided the wires are connected at 
the intersection, by using his own battery, the other 
stations being connected to ground without battery. 
According to Ohm's law the current will divide into 
three parts at E ; and, for that reason, the sending 
station should be supplied with a battery affording a 
sufficient quantity of electricity. An ordinary sulphate 
of copper battery, in the above case, would suffice. 

The same arrangement should be adopted at each 
station. When at rest, every station should have the 
extremity of its branch line connected through its re- 
lay with the ground, to be ready for any coming mes- 
sage, and, before sending, the receiving station is called 
as usual, as they receive all together. An open circuit 
key, as on European lines, would be advantageous in 
that case, although not necessary. 

Geo. D'Infreville, 
Consulting Electrician and Engineer. 



To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

" B.'' asks how offices A, B and D, connected by 
lines joined at E, may work with each other. 

There are two ways. 

First. Let him try the old open circuit plan, or what 
is nearly the same, double pointed keys, front to battery, 
back to ground, lever to line, without circuit closer. 

Second. Let him increase his capital stock and sell 
enough to pay for wire to bnild it as it should be, and 
to also pay two or three semi-annual divideuds, after 
which, when the stock cau be bought in at from 
twenty-five to thirty cents, secure all within reach, 
then sell a control to the Western Union at fifty cents, 
and close out the whole concern by lease at four per 
cent, on the whole capital. Perkins. 

[We have also received solutions to this problem 
from J. L. W., C. H. H. and R. J. H., which are cor- 
rect, but the above will be sufficient. Our correspond- 
ents have solved this problem apparently with little 
difficulty]. 

How the Difficulty of "A Sticking Key" may 
be Avoided. 

New York, Jamcary Gth. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Sticking Keys are the bugbear of fast telegraph- 
ing. I had one that bothered me terribly, and the 
following simple device saved mo all trouble and 
avoided all difficulty. I inserted a little oil between 
the platinum points, which is then held iu suspense by 
the attraction of the metal, aud does not have to be re- 
newed more than once or twice a month. My key has 
never stuck since, and 1 do not think it will, though I 
work it very close. The oil should be pure ; watch oil 
will do ; and, very probably, some other non-conducting 
substance, such as glycerine, could be used with ad- 
vantage. E. M. D. 



16 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 11, 1814. 



The Telegkraphek 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1874. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY at 38 VESET ST. 



T E IM T H VOLUME. 



TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, ----- $9.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
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SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION. 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. 1ST, ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. 0. Box 5503.) 38 VJESEY ST. , New Yorh. 

npHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every S aturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten yeaes, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous to lhat 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegraphic clique or com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 

patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

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Terms of Subscription. 

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Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
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missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, winch may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for four subscri- 
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Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
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All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

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Consolidation and Telegraphic Competition. 

The absorption of the lines of the Pacific and At- 
lantic Telegraph Company into the "Western Union 
system, although anticipated for more than a year past, 
naturally creates some uneasiness on the part of tele- 
graphers and the public as to the permanence and 
stability of other competing telegraph organizations. 
It is not to be denied that there is a fear that these may 
one by one be forced to succumb, and that in the end 
the assertion, so confidently made by Mr. Orton in his 
late report to the stockholders of his compauy, that at 
an early day there would be practically no competition 
in the telegraph business of this company, may prove 
to have a better basis than has generally been supposed. 

Ve do not regard these fears and anticipations as 
well founded. The fate of the Pacific and Atlantic 
Company, from its management, was inevitable, if not 
actually intended by Mr. Thurston, its late President, 
and those associated with him in the actual control of 
the company. It has long been known that it was in 
a moribund condition, and that the period of its exist- 
ence as a telegraph organization was dependent upon 
the will of its former rival. The only cause for sur- 
prise is that it existed so long — not that it has at last 
been exhibited in its true colors. 

As we have before stated, that compauy is rnuph less 
damaging to the competing interests in its present con- 
dition than it was while dragging out a miserable im- 
pecunious existence. It has removed an obstacle to 
the progress and enterprise of other companies, which 
are honestly engaged in maintaining telegraphic com- 
petition. It throws open to occupancy an important 
section of the country, and there is no doubt but that 
at an early day the routes which it covered will be 
made available for the establishment of new lines, 
which it is to be hoped will be managed more efficiently 
and honestly than those which preceded them. It is 
essential, however, to the safety and permanence of 
any telegraphic system competing with the 'Western 
Union, that it should be practically one in interest and 
management. It will not do to continue an attempt 
at a guerilla contest, aud operate in comparatively 
small and feeble organizations. There is telegraph 
business enough for two national organizations, and it 
would be the part of wisdom for the existing telegraph 
organizations not in the Western Union combination to 
unite their forces, and act vigorously and effectively 
for the best interests of all concerned. Until this is 
done they are liable one by one to meet the fate which 
has overtaken so many similar organizations, and which 
has so recently befallen the Pacific and Atlantic Com- 
pany. 

The railroad telegraph system of the country has be- 
come of great extent and importance, and it is for the 
interest of the railroad companies generally that they 
be enabled to control and operate their own lines. It 
seems to us that they are deeply concerned in the main- 
tenance of an effective and powerful telegraphic com- 
petition. If any telegraphic organization shall succeed 
in establishing a practical telegraph monopoly, it will 
not be content until it brings the railroad telegraph 
lines into subjection to it, either through the notorious 
Page patent or some similar outrageous monopolizing 
device. The railroad companies of the country should 
not be compelled to pay tribute to or submit to the 
exactions of any telegraphic monopoly. It seems to 
us that they are vitally interested in this matter, and 
should not be slow to combine their forces with those of 
a competing organization such as we have indicated. 
In fact, one or more of the great railroad companies 
might very properly take the lead in bringing about 
such a combination and consolidation of the telegraphs 
and telegraph organizations outside of the Western 
Union. 

The telegraphic field is ripe for this harvest, aud to 
secure it it is only necessary that the proper parties 
should, without unavoidable delay, proceed to do the 
work. If this opportunity should be neglected, it is 
hardly probable that so excellent an one will soon be 
again presented. Such an organization as might thus 
be brought about would be national in its character, 



and by availing itself of the best telegraphic systems, 
with the pecuniary resources which it would possess, 
could maintain itself against any efforts possible to be 
made against it. Such an extended telegraph system, 
properly and economically managed, would undoubtedly 
prove profitable also, and serve the interests of inves- 
tors, the fraternity and the public alike. 

It is evident that there is not the slightest proba- 
bility of Congress interfering with the telegraphs of 
the country — it could not if it wonld in the present 
condition of the public finances — and past experience 
has demonstrated that it would not if it could, so long 
as the public is properly served at reasonable rates — 
and there is no popular demand that, in addition to 
its other multifarious duties, the Government shall un- 
dertake the telegraph business of the country. As 
long as there is any effective competition in the tele- 
graph business there will be no popular or general de- 
mand for a Government telegraph. The only condi- 
tion which would create this demand, in our judgment, 
would be such a telegraph monopoly as Mr. Orton 
and his associates in the management of the Western 
Union Company have labored for years to establish, 
and which that gentleman assures his stockholders will 
be established in the near future. We are satisfied 
that in his case the wish is father to the thought, and 
that there is yet too much good sense on the part of 
those intrusted with the management of the competing 
companies to allow them to go to the wall, when 
they can so easily be not only preserved but strength- 
ened, and their value and importance increased. 

The interests of the public and of the telegraphic 
fraternity require that there shall be telegraphic com- 
petition. It will, indeed, be an unfortunate day for 
the telegraphers generally when the Western Union 
or any other 'telegraph organization, through a mon- 
opoly, shall have them at its mercy. The great body 
of employes of the Western Union Company are to-day 
benefited by the existence of its competitors. The 
result to the fraternity of the establishment of a tele- 
graphic monopoly must be too evident to every intelli- 
gent telegrapher to require detailed elucidation from 
us. It is in their interest and in that of the public that 
we urge such action on the part of managers of exist- 
ing competing telegraph organizations, and on the part 
of railroad managers, as shall assure the creation and 
permanence of a united, powerful and successful com- 
petitor of the Western Union Telegraph Company. 



The Social and Professional Status of Telegraph 
Operators in this Country and Europe. 

American operators, generally, have but little idea 
of the different social and professional status of prac- 
tical telegraphers in this country and Europe. Indif- 
ferent as many of them regard their position and com- 
pensation, they are in every respect in advance of the 
similar class there. To some extent here a good opera- 
tor is expected to have some knowledge of electrical 
science, and to be able in an emergency to assume the 
management of the wires and business. In Europe a 
telegraph operator or cierk (as they are termed) is 
merely an operator, and is expected to know nothing 
more than how to send and receive messages. The ar- 
rangement of circuits, management of batteries, test- 
ing; removal of difficulties, etc., are intrusted to officials 
specially assigned and instructed in such duties, and it 
would be regarded as presumptuous and absurd for a 
mere operator to interfere in the higher branches of 
the business. As a natural sequence to this they are 
paid proportionately, and the salaries received by them 
would be scouted by even second rate American opera- 
tors. They are in fact barely sufficient to enable them 
to live in a very humble and unpretentious manner— 
and the discipline in which they are held is of the most 
stringent and strict character. Their social position is 
but little, if any, above that of other laborers, and not 
so good as that of the better class of merchants and 
storekeepers' clerks and assistants. The business be- 
ing a Government monopoly, they are compelled to ac» 
cept such positions and salaries as are offered them, 
and cannot vary their employment at will, as is the 



January it, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



case here. As an offset to the small amount paid for 
their services, it must be acknowledged that two or 
three are employed to do the work that any competent 
operator is expected to do in this country, so that the 
advantage pecuniarily to the system is not so great as 
would at first sight appear. 

We do not think that the telegraphers in this country 
would be pleased if placed under similar conditions as 
to professional and social position, and certainly not as 
regards the scale of salaries, as their European brethren. 
The" enjoy advantages and have prospects in life 
which the latter would never dream of, and this ought 
to be some compensation for the evils of which they 
not unfrequently complain. 

Naturally, in the increase of the telegraph business 
in extent and importance, the duties have been subdi- 
vided to a considerable degree, even in this country, 
and in the larger offices especially, the operators, as a 
general thing, are not expected to be as familiar with 
the whole routine of duties as formerly — but almost 
every telegraph operator here looks forward to the time 
when he shall become chief operator and manager, and 
every manager has in view the higher position of super- 
intendent, and this incites the better class to become 
acquainted with electrical science to some extent, and 
its application to practical telegraphy. 

Socially, the American telegrapher is as good as 
anybody else, and it is his or her own fault if they 
occupy a lower social position than others of the com- 
munity. 

The successful publication of The Telegrapher is 
an illustration of the different status of the American 
telegraphers from that of any European country. In 
no other country would it be possible to maintain a 
publication which should be devoted to the interests 
and the organ of the telegraph operators themselves. 
This idea would be regarded as absurd, and not the 
least so by the operators themselves. 

We hope that our telegraphic friends will think of 
these things, and that they will strive by all means in 
their power to improve their social and professional 
status. They can do this most effectually by seeking 
to obtain a more thorough scientific and practical 
knowledge of their profession. Every telegraph opera- 
tor who desigus to make the business a permanent 
occupation, should, seek by study and application to 
become fitted to discharge creditably and satisfactorily 
any position in the telegraph service. They should not 
be satisfied with a knowledge of the merely mechani- 
cal duties of manipulating a key and reading telegraph 
signals as they are transmitted. However expert they 
may be in these, they are but the lower rounds in the 
professional ladder, and those who would go higher 
must be content to study and investigate, instead of 
idling away their time in material pleasures and tem- 
porary personal gratification. There is a brilliant 
telegraphic future before us, and let it be the ambition 
of one and all that the telegraphic fraternity shall be 
worthy of the highest respect and honor, and not, as in 
other countries, mere servants, for whom there is little 
chance of professional or social elevation. 



value to any person interested in telegraphy than 
many times the amount of the subscription price. In 
fact, we do not think that any. such person can really 
afford to be without it. This is not our opinion alone, 
by any means. "We are almost daily in receipt of let- 
ters of the most flattering character, and, if we may 
credit the statements of our correspondents, The Tele- 
grapher is constantly improving, and becoming more 
valuable from week to week. We hope that tele- 
graphers will seriously consider whether they can 
properly and advantageously dispense with the paper, 
and whether in i eality, if it is necessary to economize, 
economy cannot be better exercised in some other di- 
rection. The recent additions to our subscription list 
indicate that our views in this matter are by no means 
ours alone. There is still room on our books for many 
more subscribers, and we hope the good work that has 
been so excellently commenced will be continued, until 
every telegrapher who desires to be advanced in the 
profession, and who especially seeks to become better 
qualified for the discharge of telegraphie duties, shall 
be enrolled on its subscription list. 



Impecunious Telegraphers. 

Not a few telegraphers, when solicited to subscribe 
for The Telegrapher, excuse themselves on the 
ground that they are too poor, and cannot afford the 
small amount required to secure its weekly visits. 
There may be a few who make this excuse in good 
faith, but in most cases it will not bear examination. 

How many are there who have made this excuse that 
do not every month waste in useless or hurtful expen-* 
ditures more than the subscription price of the paper 
for a year? If a telegrapher does not desire to receive 
the paper, or does not consider.it of sufficient value to 
repay the investment, he or she may very properly de- 
cline to subscribe for it. We can in such cases only re- 
gret their lack of appreciation, but have no reason to 
question their honesty. 

The amount of information and instruction contained 
in a volume of The Telegrapher makes it'of far more 



Congress and the Postmaster General. 

Postmaster General Cresswell evidently is not 
in favor with the members of Congress. His urgent 
pleadings with that body to establish a Government 
telegraph system, and to entrust to his department its 
control and management, fall on unheeding ears ; and 
now his recommendation to establish a postal savings 
bank system is understood to meet with no favor in the 
committee to which it was referred. The transmission 
of public documents free through the mails is likely to 
be restored, and the expensive foolery of printing 
stamps, to be sold to the other Government depart- 
ments and officials, for use on official communica- 
tions, instead of their being franked as heretofore, will 
probably be abandoned. The deficit in the revenues 
of the Post-office department the last fiscal year was 
over $6,000,000, and is increasing, notwithstanding the 
abolishing of the franking privilege. We are afraid 
that he will be forced to the conclusion that Congress 
is a very intractable and altogether obnoxious assem- 
blage, and managing the Post-office affairs of the coun- 
try a by no means desirable job. Jlowever, he can 
console himself with the idea that if he is inclined to 
give it up there will be no difficulty in finding a suit- 
able person to take it off his hands, and, possibly, one 
with fewer crochets in his head and somewhat less 
ambition may find it easier to get along with. 



A Very Pretty Project. 

As many of our readers know, the speculation in 
■Western Union Telegraph shares has been very active 
since, the monetary stringency has been relaxed, and 
the price which, during the panic, was depressed to the 
neighborhood of fifty, has recently advanced rapidly, 
and is quoted at 76 to 79, and has even touched 80— 
some 4,000 shares having been sold at that figure on 
the Stock Exchange one day last week. This rapid 
advance has been stimulated by reports that it was in- 
tended to declare a large dividend shortly, and that the 
Executive Committee of the company had the matter 
under consideration. Last week some parties engaged 
on the bull side of this speculation got up a petition 
addressed to the management of the company, which 
was circulated in the Exchange, proposing that, in ad- 
dition to the $7,000,000 of the stock which was held by 
the company on the first of J uly last, enough more 
should be purchased by the company to reduce the 
Capital stock to $30,000,000 ; and that then $15,000,000 
of 7 per cent, income bonds should be created and di- 
vided among the stockholders pro rata, as representing 
the net earnings of the company since 1869. This 
would be in effect preferred stock, and the capital of 
the company would then be represented by $30,000,000 
of common stock, and $15,000,000 of these income 
bonds, or preferred stock, in addition to its other in- 
debtedness. Undoubtedly this would bo a very good 
arrangement for the speculators, and the circulation of 



17 

the petition had the immediate effect of advancing the 
prices of the stock, which was probably all that was 
designed by the enterprising genius who devised the 
scheme. 

It has not generally been supposed the nominal cap- 
ital of the Western Union Company required any addi- 
tional inflation. The plan which was originated by 
President Orton, and iu the carrying out of which the 
late Horace E. Clark was engaged, was to reduce 
the capital and bonded debt to $30,000,000, by invest- 
ing the net earnings of the company in its own shares 
until the amount had been thus reduced. This plan, 
the legality of which at best was exceedingly doubtful, 
came to grief when Mr. Clark died, and as is well un- 
derstood, has been abandoned ; but it is not reasonable 
to suppose that the present managers will not only 
undo what has been accomplished in that direction, 
but actually dilute still further the already excessive 
nominal capital of the company. 

It is understood to be the policy of the present man- 
agers in the future to distribute in dividends the net 
earnings of the company, and it is not improbable that 
a dividend of some as yet undetermined amount will 
be declared Iry or before the first of July next. 



Watts & Co.'s New Catalogue. 
AVe have received from Watts & Co., of Baltimore, a 
catalogue of telegraph material and electrical appara- 
tus manufactured and sold by them, which is very 
carefully and handsomely got up. It is illustrated with 
engravings of nearly all the different articles kept on 
hand, including several specialties of this firm which 
have already become widely known. Among these 
may be mentioned the main line sounder, or " wreck 
instrument," very useful and convenient in railroad 
work ; keys with Davis' patent circuit closer — an excel- 
lent device ; a cheap, simple and effective dial instru- 
ment, which only costs forty dollars; Scott's patent 
hotel annunciator, and the well known Baltimore bat- 
tery. The catalogue will be found of much intrinsic 
value merely as a book of reference, as it contains all 
the formulae and tables for size, weight and resistance 
of iron and copper wires, and a very full and explicit 
series of instructions for the use of students and ama- 
teurs, in which we think we recognize the handiwork 
of our old friend, Mr. J. B. Yeakle, who is now asso- 
ciated with Watts & Co., and attends principally to 
the electrical work of the establishment. Copies of the 
catalogue may be had on application to Watts & Co., 
47 N." Holliday street, Baltimore. 



Patent Insulated Telegraph Wires. 

The use of Insulated Telegraph Wires has very 
largely increased during the last few years, and the 
quality of such wires has been greatly improved. The 
new advertisement of Mr. Eugene F. Phillips, of Prov- 
idence, R. I., which appears in this number of The 
Telegrapher, will be found of interest to all who may 
have occasion to use such wires. The wires manufac- 
tured by Mr. Phillips are of a very superior quality, 
and the demand for them has been so large, and is in- 
creasing so rapidly as to require an enlargement of his 
factory, which is now completed, and in future he will 
be able to fill all orders promptly and satisfactorily. 
We have no hesitation in recommending those wires, 
as we know them to be all that is claimed for them. 



Telegraphic Positions on Central and South 
American Lines. 

We are occasionally iu receipt of letters from tele- 
graphers, who desire to obtain situations on telegraph 
lines iu the Central and South American States, askiug 
for information as to rates of compensation, chances of 
obtaining situations, how to make applications, etc. 

Prom such information as we have of these lines wo 
do not feel at liberty to encourage any telegrapher, 
who has employment in this country, in seeking to bet- 
ter his fortune by emigrating to those countries, as we 
understand the rates of compensation of telegraphers 
there are much less than in this country. The climate is 



18 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January IT, 1874. 



unhealthy for foreigners, and the mode of living not 
agreeable to those who have been used to living here. 
The lines are all Government property, and the policy 
adopted is to fill the positions with natives — proficiency 
and ability not beiDg of much account. 

In no country in the world are telegraph operators 
so well paid, or as pleasantly situated, notwithstand- 
ing the disadvantages which undoubtedly exist, as 
here ; and our advice to all telegraphers is to remain 
where they are rather than engage in a very dubious 
search for improvement in their situations, by emigra- 
ting to any Central or South American country. 



The "Public Ledger' 9 Almanac 

We have received from Mr. George W. Childs, of 
Philadelphia, the Public Ledger Almanac for 1874. 
This almanac is annually prepared for and presented 
to the subscribers to the Public Ledger newspaper, of 
which Mr. Childs is the publisher, gratuitously. It 
contains a large amount of useful information, handy 
for reference, and is a very handsome and valuable 
work. It is not printed for sale, and none are sold. 



Mr. George Clark, late Train Despatcher on the 
Pennsylvania Central and St. Louis Railroad at Pitts- 
burg, and formerly of the Philadelphia and Erie Rail- 
road, has been appointed Special Agent for Mr. George 
Webb, Assistant General Manager of the Pennsylvania 
and St. Louis Railroad. 

Messrs. George H. Bowker. and M. P. Smith, 
have accepted positions with the Atlantic and Pacific 
Telegraph Company at Albany, N. T. 

Mr. 0. E. Lake, of Poughkeepsie, 1ST. T., has accepted 
a situation with the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company at Troy, iST. Y. 



lit* liifQppb. 

Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company have 
opened offices at 44 Pine street, 122 Front street, New 
York City, and 18 Exchange Place, in Jersey City, W. J. 
These offices were recently occupied by the Pacific and 
Atlantic Company. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company have 
opened an office in the Delevan House, Albany, N. Y., 
with Mr. E. A. Gay as operator. 

The Atlantic and Pacific and Franklin Companies 
have secured some of the best offices recently occupied 
by the Pacific and Atlantic Company in the principal 
cities where the lines of these companies extended, and 
opened offices for their lines in them. 

The bill before the Legislature of New Zealand, 
authorizing a cable to Australia, has become a law. 

It is suggested that, in the laying of ocean cables, 
communication between the deep sea line and floating 
buoys, all along the route, be arranged. A ship in dis- 
tress could, by sending a boat and crew to one of the 
buoys, send word to the shores for help. 



The West India and Panama Telegraph Company. 

A movement is on foot among the shareholders of 
the West India and Panama Telegraph Company to 
call an extraordinary meeting of the company, fqr the 
purpose of taking into consideration the report of the 
committee, and reconstituting the present board. This 
step has been rendered necessary in their opinion by 
the fact of the directors declaring that they would use 
the proxies received by them before the date of the ap- 
pointment of the committee in voting upon the recom- 
mendations of the report. 

A more remarkable abuse of the privilege of using 
proxies has seldom been attempted than that which ap- 
pears to have been the case at the recent meeting of 
the shareholders. With one single exception every 
person present approved the report of the committee, 
and endorsed the opinions which were expressed as to 
the past management of the company's affairs. The 
proxies which the directors used were, however, given 
to them prior to the appointment of the committee, and 
consequently before they could have known anything 
whatever respecting the nature of the report. As the 
directors appear resolved to persist in the use of proxies 
obtained under these circumstances, the only course 
open to the shareholders is that which has been sug- 
gested of calling a special meeting, and taking such steps 
as they consider necessary for the protection of their 
interests. — The Baihvay News. 



New Patents. 

<j®~ Official Copies of any XI. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, sent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address P. L. Pope, P. 0. 
Box 5503, New York City. 

For the iceek ended December 16, 1873, and bearing that date. 

No. 145,532 — Electbo-Pneumatic Action fob Musical Insteu- 
ments. William F. Scdimoele and Henry Schmoele, Jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa., assignors of one third their right to Charles 
Schmoele. Application filed March 7. 

A small wind pocket, operated by an electro-magnet, is used 
as a trip to operate the vaive of a wind instrument. 

1. The use or application of an eleotro-magnet to operate a 
wind pocket or pockets employed to work the valve, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. The form of pocket and valves employed, admitting the 
wind by a groove with double aperture, controlled by two valves 
or nuts opposed to each other on a screw threaded wire, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

3. The small or primary pocket with diminutive valve, to con- 
trol the large or secondary pocket, which operates the pallet or 
other resistance, substantially as described and set forth. 



The custodian of many secrets — the telegraph ope- 
rator. 



AN TED, 



Wanted to know the whereabouts of ROBERT McCALLUM. 
Was operating on the B. and M. R. R. when last heard from. 
Any one knowing him, or having seen him during the past three 
years, will please communicate with his brother, ALEXANDER 
McCALLUM, Mendocine City, California, and by so doiDg will 
confer a great favor. 



rpELEGRAPH POLES. 

Parties who are in want of good 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES 

can obtain them on favorable terms, and have them delivered 

at any Lake Port between Oswego and Chicago, on the 

opening of Navigation, by applying to 

A. A. COLBY, 

P. 0. Box 1,376. TORONTO, ONTARIO, 

CANADA. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURER OF 

REED-& PHILLIPS' 

PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 

(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18th, 1873.) 

Lock Box 369. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are "now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best Insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAEFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at|the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared 'to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a" greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

jg®~ Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 

Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co '. New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

E. L. Pope & Co 

W. HOCKHAUSEN " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr. .' Boston. 

Thomas Hall — i " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. P. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Sup't. 



Anson Stager, Elisha Gray, 

Pres't. Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



ESTERN ELECTEIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 

No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCKS AND 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 

JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 

KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 

EROME REDDING & CO., 
30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Electrical and Telirapl Mrwats. 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT* ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELECTRIC BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

, Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



s4.ZL GOODS Ws±ltll34.JV2ED JFIHS2 CZslSS, 
AND PRICES EXTREMELY LOW. 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 



January 17, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



in 



P 



ANIO PRICES. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 



WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



w. 



ALL WHO NEED 



TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 



Uarge or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR, OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 



SEND POR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 



A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD A VENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



G 



1EO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 
Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 



Agents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 
" AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 
" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 
" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 
" " HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" " HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 

" MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
" THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 
« .. prjTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 
«' BROOKS' 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 
" POPE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 
" " EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" " SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

" " ANDERS 1 MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. i 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Initruments, Line Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Touts:, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Boohs, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

W Special attention given to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 




One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CEOSING- KEY, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 

Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and bard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

trom 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 10 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 50 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

'The above may alsobe had of F. L. POPE k CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will De prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words " Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

.Yo. 4-0 West fSth Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 



rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

^~ — 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first claHs 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the- require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Rase, with one Cell Hill's Pateut 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, aud 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key onlv (i 50 

with Cut Out and Lightning 
A rrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 HEY STREET, N. Y. 



nPHE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
-*■ IN THE WORLD 

IS SUPPLIED BY 

L. G. TILLOTSOJST & CO., 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MANUFAOTUKERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

OF 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 60 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders.... 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 
POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, Ijx2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
FLECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from X to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance onXist Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 

KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS, PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LECLANCHE, NITRO-CHROMIC AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 
CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," .... 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY k TELEGRAPHY. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalor/ue and 2*rice List furnished upon application . 

L. G. TTLLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW YORK, 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 11, 18*74. 



AMERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

GAME WELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 



J. W. STOVER. 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- Wast. 

J R. DOWELL, Richmond. Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 

3. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L, M. MOiSKOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada, 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OB 

UPON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

Is now In operation in the following Cities, to which reference is 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



AiDany, A. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Coviugton, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Oiiraha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C>, 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo.* 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y„ 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. C, 
Worcester, Mass. 



tne Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

Vint— The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constari t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth— the Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the fire is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each Are company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PLRKCT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRS ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sumcient vindication of the claims whieh are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instances in whioh municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWEIiL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has j ust been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now cove .3d by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietois have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 
the introduction and operation of which involves so littla ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

PIRE ALARM AND POLICE TELEGRAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

EELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 
ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, thbee 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
Iheir efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



c 



HARLES T. CHESTER, 

104: Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 



AND MANUFACTURER OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 
BATTERIES, 



AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact ana reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
-ontraction of wood-work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OB 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & MKlkl WIRES, 

OF THE 
HIGHEST INSULATION. 

Wearenow prepared to furnish, after an experience of three 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injury. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructi\e 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this articl« 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that it will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily and quickly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w >rk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very bent MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embraoing a large amount of new matter 
and description, Is now ready for distribution. 



January 17, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



T3R00KS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOB THE SALE OP 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OP 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BROOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
Included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
&c, stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Cables, Gables for River Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, arid can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 
INSTRUMENT, 
FOR PEIYATE AND SHORT LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium— Silver Medal—over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of He. J. E. SgLDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, reliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIVATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c„ for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MERCHANTS' MANUFACTURING: AND 
CONSTRUCTION 00. 

S. J. BUEEELL, Superintendent, 

No. 60 BEOAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. 



A ] 



MERICAN COMPOUND 

TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 
COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGEAPH WIRE, 
oompared with iron, consists in its lightness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tensile stbenoth, homogeneity and elasticity — de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in its durability, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resulting in a vory great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time. Insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
Address — 

American Compound Tftle^ray-b Wire Co., 
ALANSON GARY, Treasurer, 

,V«. 234 West 29th St.. 

New Torh. 



MAGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 

FOB 

RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED by 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors. 
I. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TMEMONT STMEET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IS MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



L. POPE & CO., 

' MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

iELEOR&PH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPUES 



EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all descriptions of tble- 

OBAFH MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, Such as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

Fcr Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 

globe ijio-iiTxsrinsrca- -a.e,r.bstbe,s. 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

II0CHHAU3EN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC liATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it Is 
conceded by all who have used It to be the Best "/<<< mott Econo- 
mical Batterj , for telegraphic and other purpo ies, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY ST11EET. 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pres't. JOHN E. CARY, Vice-Pres't. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, Sea'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 
GAMEWELL & CO., N. Y. 
Specialties made of 
HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SURE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY" SOUNDER, 
Cheap Instruments for Learners, Amateurs, &c, 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private House Electric Annunciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL BELLS AND ALARM BELLS of every style. 

"Batteries, Chemicals, Wire, T/isulators, 
Supplies , &c., <£c. 

MODELS and LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 

FJftlOE LIST. 

Hicks 1 Repeaters (1873.) $100.00 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00" 19.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8.00 

Keys " 3.00" 6.50 

Learners' Outfits {complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Annunciators, per room " 7.00" 12.00 

Burglar Alarms.... " 50.00 " 200.00 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 

No. 4 LEASEE BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

R. L. BRADLEY, 

Uo. 9 Exchange PHace, 

JERSEY CITY, N. J., 

Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
' is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL APPARATUS 

FOB 

lectrig Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Hhoostat as 
they have heen recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means lor correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity ; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, <%c. ; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro -motive force of 
batteries ; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dluamie electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, arc em- 
braced in this one. Its measurements arc accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It. packs in a caso seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. Considering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $'2(10 to $280, according to stylo, 
Sec. Price, Tangent Oalvanomoters, $40 to $60. 

Descriptive pamphlets may bo had on application. 

He also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARE OF 

Naked Copper Wire, 

Bo wound that the convolutions are soparated from each oilier by 

a regular and uniform space of the I 800th of an Inch, the layers 

separated bythin paper, in Helices of sill Insulated wive, the 

pace occupied by the silh is the i IfiOth to the I 800th of on ln< h; 

therefore a i pool made < f o given ten jtl 6 i ii oi nal ed 

will ho smaller and will contain manj tnoi revolutions around 

the core than one ol i ill ii i v. iv ■ and \\ ill mi I e a propos- 

tlonably stronger magnet, while the rei ii tance « ill be the same. 

bo Helices are now ol d for the use o) manufaeturersoj 

Xelegraphlo and Electrical apparatus, and orders will bu flJt*d 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 17, 1814 



*HE PERFECT BATTERY. 

CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOOKAVOOD BATTEET, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L, G. TILLOTSON & 00., Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dry Street, N. Y. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading' Electricians 
in this country and Europe to be 

PAK SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purpisis, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

^T THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1873; 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper abd zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 

current. 

The number '2 size (price $2,501 is now ready for sale Other 
styles are In preparation, and will soon be put, ou the market. 
Send for Circular . 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O T_i El AGENTS. 



w 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Mossrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale ot the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyer, Secretary. 




"SAVE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into th9 Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, 111. 



ATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE, 



MANUFACTURERS OP 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SQUNBERS, COMBINATION SETS, k, fc. 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A VERT SUPERIOR MAIN LINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 



The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, 1 
Sept. 22d, 1873. 5 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
. Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearance Occcnpies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent "Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

"We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



"pARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO.'S 

CHAMPION LEARNERS 

AND 

SHORT LINE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

A GREAT IMPROVEMENT 

over all Instruments of the kind ever offered for this purpose, 
consisting of a 

No. 1 SOUNDER AND KEY COMBINATION SET, 

AN EXCELLENT BOOK OF PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN 

TELEGRAPHY, 

OFFICE WIRE, CHEMICALS, etc., 

making a complete arrangement for one office. 

The Instruments are full sized, complete in every respect. The 
Battery is a full sized first class Callaud cell, and the entire outfit 
has nnthing a bout, it which in any ivay resembles the many wretched 
affairs which have been extensivcty sold as Learners' Apparatus. 




Great numbers of our "Champion Instruments" are in use 
upon short private lines, and upon City wires of Telegraph 
Companies, where they are giving the greatest satisfaction, on 
account of their very substantial make and excellent working 
qualities. 

We guarantee them to be in every respect better than any form of 
Learners' Apparatus or Short Line Instruments ever offered to the 
public. 

Price of Apparatus, complete, with Book of Instructions, 
Battery, Wire, and all necessary materials for one complete office 
outfit, ready for shipment, sent C. O. D., $10— or, if money order 
sent for the amount, $9.50. The latter plan will additionally save 
the purchaser the express charges for the return of money. 

Price of Single Instrument, good for one mile or less, with- 
out Battery..... $8 50 

Ornamental style ditto, with rubber covered coils, without 

Battery 10 00 

Single Instrument, good tor working a line from one to 

twelve miles 9 50 

Ditto, ornamental, with rubber covered coils 11 00 

Battery, per cell 1 50 

PAETRI0K, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOUTH FOURTH ST., PHILADELPHIA, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH & ELECTRICAL INSTEUMENTS 
and Supplies of every description. 




Vol. X. 



New York, Saturday, January 24, 187 J^. 



Whole No. S9S 



i^HAELES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GrONG-8, 

PEINTIN0 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS.. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

■"Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 
TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 
AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 

AND 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

352 and 354 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

^OVELTY! 
A SOUNDER of Entirely New Uonstruction, 

which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
clear sound. 

Size for Regular Offices $5 00 

Small Size 3 50 

Learners' Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c, 

all complete 7 50 

Send for Circular. 

TELEGEAPH SUPPLY AND MT'G 00., 
J^To. 4 Leader Building, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

^^ (ESTABLISHED 1856,) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various kinds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 

DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



COVERED WIRES, 
Made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or other 
material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-Magnetic Machines, 
Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of Electrical Purposes. 

Also, PLAIN, WOVEN, ENAMELLED, SHELLACED, 
PARAFFINED, and all kinds of 

TELEGEAPH OFFICE WIKES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plaiu, Woven and Braided. Parties being partial 
to any particular kind need only enclose a small specimen in a 
letter and it can be imitated in every particular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

C. THOMPSON, 
(Successor to Josiah B. Thompson,) 

29 Worth 20th St., Thila., Ta. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

{Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 



OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



R 



EDUCTION OP PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL. 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEUES, STUDENTS and SH0ET LINES. 

Since tho introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at tho following popular rates: 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $0 50 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

r. l. pope & co., 

[P. O. Box 5503.] . 38 Vesejf Street, N. T. 



T 



ELEGRAPH POLES. 



Parties who are in want of good 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES, 

can obtain them on favorable termB, and have them delivered 

at any Lake Port between Oswego and Chicago, on the 

opening of Navigation, by applying to 

A. A. COLBY, 
P. O. Box 1,376. TORONTO, ONTARIO, 

CANADA. 

\ NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTEEY. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Daniells, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503. 



38 VESET STMEET, N. Y. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND, AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL MCALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

0HAELES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTEEN ELE0TEI0 MANUFAOTUEING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



WALLACE & SONS, 
MANUFACTURERS OP 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll and Sheet. 

.We mako the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty — 
especially the finer sizos of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silvor for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
tho same in every instance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, IV. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

Aiisoiiiit, Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 24, 1874. 



A LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBEBTON SQUABE, 
(Boom 12,) 



BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOP.. 

The damage from the loss of a single message 'will equip a line 
many times with our new Hook, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

*' per dozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
Very cheap ; also, several sets of 

HICKS REPEATE R8, 

ill perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 



TJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

** STEAM PRINTING HOUSE. 

W, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STEEET, near FRAEKFORT, 

NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMERCIAL PEIKTIEG. 

TELE G RAP E PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 



rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

- MANUFACTURERS OP 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOR 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS,:YACHTS, 

etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 Yd RICK STREET, JVEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 
ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction oi the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electrio and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

F0T7ETH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

vol. 8 vo, cloth $5 00. • 

Copies sent free by mail on recent of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific»Books 

eighty pages, 8vo, 6ent to any addiess on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D. VAN NOSTRA ND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET N. Y. 



mE AMATEUR'S 
TELEGRAPH 



APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 
Seven Dollars and Fifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete $14 60 

Sounder and Key only 6 60 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. .. 7 60 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., , 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD ATENVE, 

Chicago, HI. 

SEND FOR CIRCVLAR. 



OHAFFNER'S 
TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGRAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Illustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAX, P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 



M 



ODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
TRIC TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-B90K 

FOR 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND , 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth, - - ■ - * $3.00 

jggj- Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. , 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTORY 

OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 
■€§*= 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED. 

"WIRES OF EVERY VAPJETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH. UNDERGROUSD AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered "Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Perchaco^red, with any number of conductor* 

required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIO USE, 

AND FOR 

BLASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electrio Conductors 
Gotta Peboha has been universally adopted by all scientific anfi 
practical Electricians and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with in- 
oreaslng superiority In the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can impokt Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one iveek's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW YORE, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered In New York. 

JOHN TH0ENLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO., 363 Broadway, 
D. H0DGMAN & CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St. 

Address all Communications to 

S , BISHOP, 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. 



January 24, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



19 



The Telegrapher 

A JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 





N. 




- - - - - - PUBLIS UPR 


J. 












SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 24, 1814. 




VOL 


X. 


WHOLE No. 


393. 



Dedication of the New General Post-office, 

London. * 

The London newspapers of the 2d instant coutain 
very full reports of the dedication of the new General 
Post-office, which occurred on New Tear's night, and 
which seems to have been quite a brilliant affair. The 
following is condensed from the report published in 
the London Times: 

"Last evening this edifice, erected in St. Martiu's-le- 
Grand, immediately in front of the old General Post- 
office, and which has been devised and constructed with 
a careful regard to the large and still growing wants of 
postal communication, as understood in the present 
day, and especially telegraphic communication, may 
be said to have been dedicated to the public service. 
The ceremony of last night assumedHhe modest form 
of a conversazione in commemoration of the reopening 
of the Post-office Library, and a large and influential 
company, some hundreds in number, many of whom 
were ladies, had been invited to witness it, the new 
Postmaster General, Mr. Lyon Plavfair, M. P., taking 
the leading part, as became his official position, and 
the central, northeast, and southeast galleries of the 
building having been thrown open for their accommo- 
dation. All the heads of departments in the General 
Post-office were also present, and vied with each other 
in consulting the comfort and convenience of the audi- 
ence. 

In the southwest gallery, which was brilliantly 
lighted and tastefully decorated with banners lent for 
the occasion by many of the civic companies, there 
was a museum of early telegraphic instruments and 
appliances. The mode of transmitting news to and 
receiving it from nineteen large towns simultaneously 
was also shown there. The system of the Exchange 
Telegraph Company, by means of which identical in- 
formation as to the prices of stocks, shares, etc., is 
sent to the offices of stock brokers, was likewise ex- 
hibited. There was a direct communication during 
the evening between this gallery and the postal tele- 
graph offices in Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Jersey, 
Pe-iZiiuce, Manchester, Southampton, and several Lon- 
don stations. In the same gallery, too, communica- 
tion by means of the Hughes type printing instrument 
was established between London and Southampton, 
and messages printed in Koman type were sent simul- 
taneously in opposite directions on one wire, through 
the instrumentality of Mr. Stearns' invention. The 
chronofer, by means of which Greenwich time is trans- 
mitted simultaneously to the principal towns in the 
kingdom, was also exemplified there. In the north- 
west gallery the process of 'testing for faults 'was 
shown. There was direct communication during the 
evening between this gallery and Australia, India, 
Teheran, America, St. Petersburg, Paris and Berlin. 
On tables, microscopes, stereoscopes, graphoscopes and 
electrical apparatus of various kinds were exhibited, 
as was also the working of the pneumatic tubes which 
connect the Central Telegraph Station with the princi- 
pal offices for the collection and delivery of messages 
in the metropolis. 

A raised dais had been erected in the central gallery, 
and from it, after the company had assembled, Mr. 
Lyon Playfair opened the proceedings by delivering an 
address. He said: '"We are met to-night in the new 
great telegraphic room which, in a few days, will be the 
active centre of the whole kingdom for sending out 
with the speed of lightning aud by the same agency 
the thoughts of people who require immediate inter- 
communication. All our improvements of postal com- 
munication become dwarfed by this mighty invention. 
Most of you are much more familiar with postal his- 
tory than myself, but still let us recall to our memory 
one or two facts, which may serve to impress us with 
our present position. You all recollect that post mes- 
sengers arose out of State necessities, and that their 
survivals are still seen in the Queen's messengers of 
the present day. They were originally men who trav- 
elled on foot or on horse with State despatches, but 
did nothing for the service of the general public. As 
they grew more numerous they required a supervisor, 
who was the ancestor of the Postmaster General. The 
Universities were among the first bodies who estab- 
lished running postmen of their own to carry the com- 
munications of professors and students. Some towns, 
also, had their own separate postmen. The far north 
City of Aberdeen, during the reign of Elizabeth, had 



the bravery to appoint a postman with a blue cloth 
dress, emblazoned with the city arms, to go leisurely 
up to London with the letters of the enterprising Aber- 
denians, and to bring back those addressed to them. 
Intercommunication with Scotland was very imperfect 
until the Scotch King James VI sat upon the English 
throne as James I. Recollect how he learnt the death 
of Elizabeth, and the difference between his time and 
our own will be very apparent. It is related that Rob- 
ert Carey, having received a ring taken off the Queen's 
finger when she died, at three o'clock on Thursday morn- 
ing, galloped off to Edinburgh, which he reached in the 
middle of the Saturday night. That was a wonderful 
feat in those days ; but now such a message, put into 
the bands of Mr.Scudamore, would find its way to Edin- 
burgh in less time than Carey could have saddled his 
first horse. The electric agency which is to be used in 
this room for sending messages has been known since 
the world began. Every flash of lightning in the sky 
revealed its existence. When the savage African rubs 
his furkaron electric sparks appear, but they light up 
an eye as intellectually dull as the eye of an ox, and 
no science is developed from such untutored observa- 
tions. The clever wife of an Italian physician was the 
first who noticed a fact which led to our possession of 
electricity in quantity sufficient for our present pur- 
poses. Madame Galvani was the daughter of the cele- 
brated physician, Galeazzi, and she observed that frogs' 
legs became convulsed under electrical excitement — the 
popular version being while she was making soup for 
her husband, but the truer version, that they were con- 
vulsed while near an electric machine. Out of her 
acute observation her husband ultimately discovered 
the galvanic battery and laid the foundation for tele- 
graphy. But great discoveries do not startle an aston- 
ished world by a sudden apparition. It is only in 
mythology that Minerva, full grown and panoplied in 
complete armor, starts out of the brain of Jupiter. 
Science and its practical applications are of slow 
growth; the seed being put in favorable ground the 
young plant appears after a time, but requires much 
care before it comes to maturity. And so Galvani's 
discovery, supplemented by many intermediate discov- 
eries, required nearly a ceutury to mature it before 
my friend Sir Charles Wheatstoue, whose presence we 
expect to-night, gave us that form of telegraph which 
now bridges over space and time from this office to the 
whole kingdom. 

This is not the occasion to give you a scientific lec- 
ture, but I would ask you to remember how slowly 
this Post-office has received its wonderful organization. 
The inventive genius of Wheatstoue, and the bold con- 
ceptions of Rowland Hill have aided us powerfully to 
attain our present position, but both of these men, 
whose friendship I am proud to claim, would tell you 
that after all they were mainly exponents of a knowl- 
edge which had descended to them by inheritance 
from their forefathers. Wheatstone could not have 
achieved his triumphs if Oersted, and Faraday, and 
many other philosophers had not largely developed 
the original discovery of Galvani. Rowland Hill could 
have done uothiug in introducing or in carrying into 
effect the peuny post, had there not been large develop- 
ments in the means of intercommunication, by good 
roads, coaches and railways. Withering, by his postal 
organization of 1635; Palmer's mail coach system of 
1784 ; Dockwra, by his London penny post, and 
Stephenson by his railways, were as much the postal 
progenitors of Rowland Hill as Galvani, Oersted aud 
Faraday were the scientific forerunners of "Wheat- 
stone. 

# % # * % # 

In this great establishment there are many men of 
thoughtful minds who desire to benefit by the accumu- 
lated intelligence of those who have preceded them. 
They can only acquire this through books. There are 
few men worked more hardly than our officers ; but 
the nature of the service gives iutervals of leisure 
without which the work could not be performed. In 
those intervals access to a library aud a reading room 
is of great importance to them, and a lending library 
to the numerous clerks, both male and female, of this 
office, offers resources which cannot be too highly 
valued, either intellectually or morally. I do not in- 
tend to weary you with empty platitudes as to the 
benefits of knowledge. Our work here is of the most 
varied character. Our postal system, our packet ser- 
vice, our telegraphs, our money order office, and our 
savings banks — all involve even technical knowledge of 
geography, science and political economy, which would 
give ample scope to those who wish to carry on their 
duties, not by a mere blind empiricism, but with that 
intellectual understanding which distinguishes man 
from a mere machine in activity. But we do not desire 
to confine readers to mere technical books bear'mg on 
their occupations. You have the glorious records and 
learning of antiquity, the literature of more modern 
times, and the recreative books which amuse us well as 
instruct. The library is created by yourselves and 
managed by yourselves, so that it will be adapted for 
your several needs and desires. 1 am only here among 
you to-night by your own favor to wish you continued 



prosperity in an undertaking which gets fresh life by the 
enlarged accommodation afforded to it in a new build- 
ing. I offer to it no patronage, for that would be un- 
worthy of its object and of the committee who manage 
it ; but I ask you to accept my warmest wishes for the 
prosperity of the new reading room and library, and to 
assure you that, while I remain in office the Committee 
of Management will always find in me a warm friend.' 

The address of the Postmaster General throughout 
was listened to with marked attention, and at its 
conclusion the company signified their interest and ap- 
proval by an enthusiastic cheer. 

The company then, on the invitation of the Post- 
master General, and accompanied by Mr. Scudamore, 
C. B., and other of the principal officers of the depart- 
ment, made a tour of the several galleries, inspecting 
the various objects of interest, and had opportunities 
of witnessing the telegraphic arrangements and opera- 
tions. The occasion was rendered still more agreeable 
by a choice selection of vocal and instrumental music. 
Altogether, the occasion was replete with interest, and 
the company lingered in the building until far towards 
midnight." 

*-»-* 

[From the Telegraphic Journal.] 

Method of Determining the Actual Resistance of 
Old Telegraph Line Wires. 

To the Editor of the Telegraphic Journal. 

Sir — In your journal of the 15th inst. I am accused, 
by J. W. Hagers, Inspector of the Government Tele- 
graphs in the Netherlands, of reproducing a formula of 
his and publishing it as my own. 

The article, " Method of Determiuining the Actual 
Resistance of Old Telegraph Line Wires," published in 
your journal of 15th May, is not written by me, nor is 
my name mentioned in connection with the article. 

I am referred in Mr. Hager's note to an article by Mr. 
Ayrton, in the journal of the 1st inst. Mr. Ayrton's 
note had escaped my notice until now. 

I desire to say to Mr. Ayrton that the object of my 
article on " Economical Line Construction," was to 
show the advantages of perfect insulation, or insulation 
that is not affected by dampness. In this case a heavy 
and expensive conducting wire is not essential. 

My business is the manufacture of insulators. I 
guarantee their performance. One of these guarantees 
is that they shall not be affected by rain or damp 
weather. I undertake to insulate a wire weighing, 
say two hundred pounds per mile, and thereby make 
the capacity of that wire equal to another wire weigh- 
ing four hundred pounds per mile ; this latter wire 
being insulated with common insulators— such, for 
instance, as are used in the British East Indies, the 
Netherlands, or England. I do it and maintain this 
degree of insulation for a moderate charge — less than 
is usually expended for such purposes, asking no pay 
unless these conditions are fulfilled. 

To Mr. Ayrton I beg to say I have not had the good 
fortune to read " Instructions for Testing Overland 
Lines," compiled by Mr. Sch wendler, nor " The Instruc- 
tions for Testing Telegraph Lines, and the Technical 
Arrangements in Offices." I have no doubt that I 
would be interested and profited by doing so. 

I and others in this country have applied Mr. 
Schwendler's formula to correct the apparent or ob- 
served resistance of old telegraph lines. I refer to the 
formula as published by Clark and Sabine. "We have 
been unsuccessful, however, in getting at anything 
like an approximation to its actual resistance for these 
reasons : (1.) The resistance of the insulators is seldom 
if ever uniform for the entire length of line, but con- 
stantly changing. (2.) Conductivity of old wires is 
more reduced by bad joints than by loss of actual 
weight of metal. The resistance of defective joints is 
reduced by dampness, in some instances sufficient to 
make a difference in the apparent resistance of the wire 
of more than one hundred per cent. 

In measuring the resistance of old wires to determine 
the loss in conductivity from use and exposure, it is 
perfectly useless to attempt it except in clear or cold 
weather. In one instance the resistance of an old wire 
reinsulated was reduced over three hundred per cent, 
by rain, as compared to a measurement in clear weather. 
Iu dry weather in this country the resistance of the 
insulators is too great to enter into or affect the result. 
It is beyond the scope or range of the Siemeus's uni- 
versal galvanometer. It is so in rain where my insu- 
lation is used. Rain or dampness does not affect this 
insulation. We can then observe and realize the effect 
of dampness upon the bad joints. 

My knowledge of the telegraphs in the British East 
Indies is derived chiefly from the London journals. If 
there is improvement I am glad to hear of it. I have, 
in my business of reinsulating telegraph lines, distribu- 
ted over thirty of Siemeus's universal galvanometers, 
nearly all of them to railway companies. In the inaun- 
facture of these insulators I employ the most sensi- 
tive galvanometers, using those made especially for the 
purpose by Kuhmkorf, Dr. Werner Siemens and Mr. 
Becker. If we do not keep pace ''in the application 



20 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 24, 1814. 



of scientific laws to practical questions," we are deter- 
mined not to be so far behind the rest of the world as 
to lose sight of those that win the race. I am, etc., 

David Brooks 

The Postmaster General's Report. 

The annual report of the Postmaster General has 
been very extensively circulated, and has deservedly 
attracted considerable attention. The evils which 
attend our present system, and which we have fre- 
quently pointed out, seem at last to have received 
some consideration, but to any intelligent person that 
has had much experience in transmitting matters by 
mail, it is very evident that Mr. Creswell's ideas in 
regard to the best method of removing the defects 
which are now a subject of general complaint are by 
no means clear and practical. And we would earnestly 
suggest to him that a thorough revision and reform in 
the practical workings of our present postal operations 
is far more necessary than any advance in the direc- 
tion of postal savings banks or postal telegraphs. " One 
thing at a time" is a good rule, and if Mr. Creswell 
will ouly devote his energies to the perfecting of our 
present system of sending letters, papers, books, etc., 
he will not only fiud his time and talents fully occu- 
pied, but if he succeeds in giviug satisfaction to the 
reasonable portion of the community, he will have 
achieved a title to the gratitude of every man and wo- 
man in the country, and this is more than he can hope 
to attain even by his pet scheme of a Government tele- 
graph. — Industrial Monthly. 



(&Mxt$iwm\t\ut. 

We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

"Washington, D. C, January 12. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

The inevitable scheme of Mr. Gardner G. Hubbard, 
which has been before Congress for several years, has 
come to the surface once more. This scheme, as the 
readers of The Telegrapher are aware, proposes that 
a Postal Telegraph Company, so called, shall be char- 
tered by Congress, and be worked in connection with 
the Post-office Department. It is a scheme to estab- 
lish a gigantic telegraph monopoly for t v he benefit of 
the proposed corporation, under the auspice's of and 
fostered by the Government. It is neither a private 
enterprise, relying upon its patronage for its profit, 
or a Government institution, the benefits of which are 
to inure to the public, although it will be maintained 
largely at the expense of the Treasury. The Postmas- 
ter General does not favor this proposed enterprise, 
but desires, if any change be made, that a bona fide 
Government telegraph shall be established. 

The bill was reintroduced by Senator Ramsay in the 
Senate early in the session, as has already beeu stated 
in this correspondence, and referred to the Post-office 
Committee, of which he is Chairman. It is similar to 
the bills which have heretofore been introduced in 
previous Congresses, and offers no new features of im- 
portance. 

On Thursday and Friday of last week the committee 
had the subject before them, and Mr. Hubbard was af- 
forded an opportunity to repeat his oft told tale, and 
restate his arguments in favor of his pet project, 
which are now quite threadbare from such frequent 
repetitions. The scheme has all the disadvantages of 
the Government telegraph schemes, and none which 
will compensate for such au extraordinary grant from 
Congress. 

President Orton and Mr. George B. Prescott, elec- 
trician of the "Western Union Telegraph Company, 
were also before the committee iu opposition to the 
scheme, and are to be heard further in opposition to it 
this week. 

Mr. T. T. Eckert, of the "Western Union New York 
office, also put in an appearance here on Monday 
night. 

Large numbers of the pamphlets, containing Mr. 
Orton's reply to the report of the Postmaster General, 
have been circulated among the members of Congress 
and others here. 

In reply to a resolution of the House, the Postmas- 
ter General has prepared a statement in regard to the 
additional numbers of employes of the Post-office De- 
partment which would be required in case the tele- 
graph was added to the other business of the depart- 
ment. His statement is too long to be included in full 
iu this letter, but, in conclusion, he reaffirms the esti- 
mates given in his report of 1872, that an aggregate 
telegraph force of 7,500, including all grades, at an 
annual cost of $4,500,000, would be ample to work 



the postal telegraph up to 30,000,000 of messages per 
annum, which, he says, is about double the number 
transmitted by all the companies operated one year 
ago. 

If our Postmaster General is great in anything it is 
in statistics. It may be said for him that, having once 
made his statistics, no amount of demonstration will in- 
duce him to retract or vary tbem. The baselessness and 
unreliability of his telegraph statistics have been repeat- 
edly and conclusively shown, but he still adheres to and 
repeats them with a confidence which, if not convinc- 
ing, is, at least, courageous and obstinate, and is only 
paralleled by Mr. Hubbard's persistent urging of his 
scheme for a telegraph monopoly sanctioned by Con- 
gress and largely supported by the public treasury. 

If Mr. Creswell could reduce the deficiency of six 
to seven millions in the postal business of the country, 
Congress and the people might, perhaps, have more 
confidence in his statistics, and his ability to conduct 
the telegraph business successfully and satisfactorily. 
But so long as this deficit annually increases under his 
administra'ion, they will, on economical grounds, hesi- 
tate to confide to him additional business, the cost of 
which he so greatly underestimates. An effort will be 
made to have a special committee appointed in each 
House to take charge of the postal telegraph matter, 
although the most sanguine friends of the scheme con- 
cede that there isn't the ghost of a chauce for it this 
session. The new representatives appear to take more 
interest in the matter than the older members, and 
some of them have commenced to cram, to display 
their intimacy with the subject for the enlightenment 
of their fellow members and the country when the 
opportunity is afforded. 

A bill was introduced in the House yesterday by 
Mr. Negley, of Pennsylvania, "to promote telegraphic 
communication with foreign countries." This bill pro- 
vides for the incorporation of the Submarine Cable 
Printing Telegraph Company, which is said to be, com- 
posed of Boston and New York capitalists, to lay and 
operate one or more lines of Atlantic cable. The en- 
terprise is based upon new methods of ocean tele- 
graphing — the invention of Mr. W. S. Sawyer, of this 
city, who was formerly a correspondent here of several 
newspapers. The promoters of this enterprise are con- 
fident that Mr. Sawyer has made an important and 
valuable invention, which will greatly increase the 
rate of transmission of telegraphic signals over long 
cable lines. Section 4 of the act provides "That the 
tolls for governmental, commercial and private mes- 
sages over the line or lines of the said company shall 
not exceed fifty cents per word, and for press de- 
spatches shall not exceed twenty-five cents per word." 

The weather reports of the Signal Bureau, which 
were formerly sent over the Pacific and Atlantic lines, 
are now forwarded by the Western Union, and it is 
said that arrangements have beeu concluded between 
the Signal Bureau and the "Western Union Company 
under which the latter is to resume the service in full, 
as was the case originally. Capitol. 
*-+* 

Quantity and Intensity. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I have read Mr. Pope's'introductory article with in- 
terest and profit, and am especially pleased with his 
happy illustration of the term potential. Pardon me, 
but I do not quite see the drift of his assertion that Jhe 
electric current cannot be distinguished by the terms 
" quantity" and "intensity." I am no expert in these 
matters, and ask only for information. Suppose we 
have three cells of precisely the same electro-motive 
force. How are we to distinguish the currents in the 
two methods of connection, viz., in a single series, or 
with all the zincs joined to one pole and all the carbons 
to another? G. 

Reply. — One objection to the use of the terms " quan- 
tity" and "intensity" is, that they have not a well 
understood and well defined meaning. It is customary 
to speak of quantity and intensity currents, but a so- 
called quantity current must have some degree of in- 
tensity, and an intensity current must also have more 
or less quantity. Then we have all shades of currents 
between the two extremes of quantity and intensity, 
and nobody can agree what to call them. In fact, the 
use of these terms for so many years has involved the 
whole subject in such confusion and obscurity, that I 
doubt if anybody ever clearly understood it until they 
had first got rid of the idea inevitably suggested by 
them, viz., that there are two kinds of electro-currents, 
of very different qualities and producing very different 
effects. But when we have once grasped the idea that 
there is only one kind of current, which, as I have 
before said, is a current of greater or less quantity — 
meaning by this that a greater or less amount of elec- 
tricity passes through the circuit per second — our diffi- 
culties and perplexities vanish. 

Suppose we take four carbon cells, such as our cor- 
respondent speaks of, and connect them to an electro- 
magnet, first " for quantity " and then " for intensity " 
— or, as I should term it, first parallel and then in 
series — and see what the result will be. We will try 



it first with an electro-magnet having a resistance of 
4 ohms, and let the cells have an internal resistance of 
1 ohm each. Connecting them parallel, we have a 
total electro- motive force equal to one cell only, or say 
1.75 volts. The resistance of 4 cells connected paral- 
lel is only one fourth that of a single cell, or 0.25 ohms ; 
add to this the resistance of the magnet, and the total 
resistance in circuit is 4.25 ohms. Therefore, 1.75 
(volts) divided by 4.25 (ohms) gives us a current of 
0.41 (farads per second). 

Now connect them in series and we have 1.75 x4 = 6 
(volts), which, divided by 4 x 1 = 4 (battery resist- 
ance) + 4 (magnet resistance) = 8, gives us a quotient 
of 0.75 (farads per second), nearly twice as much cur- 
rent as in the first case, showing that for the particular 
magnet in question we get the best result by connect- 
ing in series. 

Now take another magnet having a resistance of 0.5' 
ohms. Connected parallel the current would be 1.75 
(volts) divided by 0.75 (ohms), or 2.3 (farads per 
second). Connected in series we would have 6 (volts) 
divided by 4.5 (ohms), or only 1.3 (farads per second). 
Thus the effective force of any current may be pre- 
cisely determined without the least vagueness. Thus 
we find that the difference between a current of 100 
cells, connected parallel with a very short exterior cir- 
cuit, and that of the same in series with 500 miles of 
telegraph wire in circuit, is merely one of degree, and 
not of kind or quality. F. L. P. 

Elizabeth, N. J., Jan. 20, 1874. 



Indifference of Telegraph Operators to their 
own Interests. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

The Telegrapher seems to be working earnestly 
for the elevation of the profession. I wish you suc- 
cess, but must confess it appears to be almost a hope- 
less undertaking. The field for such labor is large, 
but it seems to be almost like "casting pearls before 
swine." 

On a railroad division upon which there are twenty- 
five telegraph offices, I have personally solicited sub- 
scriptions for The Telegrapher at each office, and 
obtained four. In three city offices, in places of 4,000 
to 8,000 inhabitants, I was even less successfu! — obtain- 
ing none. Two years ago many of these operators 
knew nothing of The Telegrapher, but I think I 
obtained two subscribers, last year three or four, and 
this year, after circulating nearly all my numbers of 
Vol. IX, I obtained four subscribers. 

The following scene will illustrate the discouraging 
indifference and evasions which are encountered by 
those who appreciate the value of the paper, and desire 
to benefit telegraphers by inducing them to take and 
read it : 

Scene : A Telegraph office. — Operator wearing silk hat, 
which cost $6; brilliant neck-tie, $1.25, etc. Salary 
$40 dollars per month. Enter solicitor for subscrip 
tions to The Telegrapher. 

Solicitor. " Have you read the papers I sent you ?" 
Operator. "Ob, yes! Read most of them." 
Solicitor. ''"Where are they? I want tq preserve 
them." 

Operator looks around and finds one behind the 
ticket case ; another, which has falleu down behind the 
safe, and thinks he must have used the other to kindle 
the fire. 

Solicitor. "Well, I suppose you will subscribe for 
the coming year?" 

Operator. "No, I can't do it! Two dollars is too 
much for that kind of a paper. Times are too hard 
now. My pay is not very much, and, besides, am 
owing for a box of segars I" 

Another, who has two students at present, and from 
whose office have graduated six first class (?) operators 
within the past two years, all now holding responsible 
positions, at salaries of from $35 to $50 per month. 
Enter agent, to solicit subscription to The Tele- 
grapher. 

Operator. "0, we get that regular; they send it to 
us ; we don't have to pay for that, we don't." 

Solicitor explains to best of his ability the difference 
between The Telegrapher and the Journal — that the 
object of the latter is to circulate W. U. Tariff circu- 
lars, corrections, etc., but that The Telegrapher is 
the organ of the fraternity in general ; only one in the 
world with a large fund of scientific and general tele- 
graphic information, chiefly devoted to elevating the 
profession, etc., etc. 

Operator. " Oh, wo don't care anything about that; 
we get the Journal, that's good enough for us. "We 
ain't going to pay for a paper when we are getting ono 
of same kind dead head !" 

Another, whose orders I have to obey, although he 
makes me many miles of travel and weary hours of 
work during a heavy rain, on a glass iusulated line of 
100 miles, because he got a slight current, with key 
open at the further eud, and did not see" how there 
could be any escape, unless insulators were broken, or 
trees or timbs on wire ; and when I suggested replac- 



January 24, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



21 



ing the old Bradley relay (resistance from 300 to 600 
ohms), Avith uniform style, say 150 ohms, didn't see 
what difference it made ; an instrument was an instru- 
ment, any way; if they would answer calls, it was all 
he wanted — when solicited to subscribe, says, "It 
don't amount to shucks ! I wouldn't read it if you 
would give it to me. Some high toned stuff cant, 
nobody understands, and rest damn nousense," etc. 

Another, who has a short line from his office to the 
room of a Telegraph Institute, with a capacity of about 
ten plugs per month, when solicited, says, " O yes; I 
want that paper, that is a pretty good thing ; I am 
going to have that paper; but, by George, I ain't pre- 
pared to send just now. What is the address?" 
Copies address, saying, " I am going to send for that 
just as soon as I can." He did the same last year, and 
probably will as often as asked, never intending to 
subscribe. 

Now, what can be done to elevate such telegraphers 
as these 1 I have but little faith in their elevation. If 
there is such a thing as total depravity, I think they 
have not far to get there. T. 
, « »♦ 

The Transmission of the President's Message. 

Audubon, Minn., Jan. 14. 
Xo the Editor of The Telegrapher. 
It is claimed that the following statement — 
" Quick Telegraphing. — The President's message, 
Spanish protocol and synopsis of the Treasury report, 
in all 12,325 words, were, on the 2d iust., transmitted 
from "Washington, D. C, to New York, over eight 
wires, by the Western Union Telegraph Company, in 
one hour. This is the shortest time in which the mes- 
sage was ever received, and under the disadvantage of 
unfavorable weather — a steady rain falling at the time 
along the whole length of the lines. The report passed 
through the Associated Press office in one hour and 
twenty minutes" — refers to transmission by the Auto- 
matic system. I claim that it was sent by the Morse 
system, making 26 words per. minute for each wire 
— it being transmitted at the same time' over eight 
different wires. Will you inform us through The 
Telegrapher which is right ? Ten. 

[Tou are right. The despatch referred to was trans- 
mitted by the Morse. The Western Union Company do 
not operate the Automatic system — which President 
Orton states, as he formerly did in regard to the Du- 
plex, to be inferior to the Morse, as regards speed, and 
practically valueless. He will, doubtless, in process 
of time see his error, and retract his present assertions 
as completely as he already has done in regard to the 
latter, which, in bis last annual report to the stock- 
holders of the Western Union Company, he claims to 
be (Mr. Stearns' patents having since been purchased 
by his company) the " most important and valuable 
of all the improvements which have been made since 
the Morse telegraph was first established." — [Editor 
op The Telegrapher.] 



The Character, Disposition and Ability of Many 
Telegraph and Railroad Officials. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I have often thought this world of ours would be a 
very pleasant and delightful place to live in if the hu- 
man race were not disposed to be so selfish and exacting 
one of another. But man too often forgets the golden 
rule, and instead thereof acts upon what is sometimes 
called the silver rule — that is, do unto others as others 
do unto you, and by his selfish ways, and the harsh and 
unfeeling manner in which he treats his fellow man, 
he not only makes himself miserable, but also all 
wjth whom he comes in contact. In the language of 
the poet, "Man's inhumanity to man makes countless 
thousands mourn." Kindness costs nothing, and what 
a magic power there is in it who can tell ? It will 
reach the heart and compel us to respect the one who 
exhibits it toward us. Who would not do all in his or 
her power to please one who thus treats them- kindly 
and encourages them 1 ? I refer particularly to em- 
ployer and employe, and in order to make the matter 
still plainer, say railroad and telegraph officials and 
their employes. There are so many of these so-called 
officials who are in some way placed in positions of 
honor and trust, that are as undeserving and unqualified 
for the positions, they command as a child, and these 
are not exceptional cases, but very common; and, in- 
stead of matters improving in this direction, they are 
constantly growing worse and more unbearable, and 
in nine cases out of ten of such officials, who rise from 
some humble position in life to hold one of any impor- 
tance at all, they entirely forget how very low down 
they themselves once were, and they seem to think 
they are fully licensed to abuse their fellow man who 
has the misfortune to be uuder their authority. They 
want everybody to know who they are and that they 
wear the brass collar. They very forcibly remind me 
of a story my grandfather used to tell of a man of his 



acquaintance residing in Connecticut, who was elected 
captain of militia in his native town, and was so elated 
over the matter, and wanted to be known by the name 

of Captain , that he used to go out to his barn, and 

stick his head in a barrel, and call out, "Captain 

." Now this man's qualifications and vanity fully 

illustrates the one half of our so-called officials who 
assume the management of railways and telegraph 
lines. How such men ever command these positions 
has always been a query to my mind, but how they 
manage to keep them is a greater query. They are 
undoubtedly a great detriment to the business. Now 
the kind of men we want for superintendents and other 
important offices are generous, whole sonled and kind 
hearted men. Let such men as are referred to in the 
commencement of this communication study the life 
and character of our Saviour if they would learn a les 
sou of humbleness and self-sacrifice. He was never 
known to turn any away without giving them satisfac- 
tion, and if the Great Teacher could condescend to 
always speak kindly and encourage all who applied to 
Him, then I think men ought to be heartily ashamed 
of their way of treating those under them. I am glad 
we, as a fraternity have just such a paper as The 
Telegrapher, through whose columns we may ex- 
press our views and defend our rights; and as The 
Telegrapher is not the organ of any monopoly, and 
is not kept up by any mammoth telegraph company, 
we may expect to see our cause fearlessly defended. 
I wish the whole fraternity would give The Tele- 
grapher their support and encourage the editor in his 

work. Melville. 
*-*-* 

The Character and Habits of Telegraph 
Operators. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

In reply to " Prankie's " note, I would say that there 
was a time when I thought that operators were in- 
deed a " clownish set." I don't think I ever met with 
one but what he smoked, chewed and drank, and, in 
fact, some of them, after they have eaten their dinner, 
must have a little game of billiards before going back 
to their office. But in The Telegrapher of late I have 
seen some very nice and interesting communications 
from those who, I trust, are perfect gentlemen and true 
Christians. There was one over the signature of " H," 
if I mistake not, which I admired exceedingly. It 
showed a mother's careful trainiug, and it made me 
feel glad to see his courage in saying "No," when 
asked by a friend to take a drink or a smoke. Oh, I 
wish there were more young men like him. May he 
always have streugth to resist temptation. 

Tou think, " Prankie," that he was not a very dear 
friend. At that time we were, and I use to enjoy 
going to his office, but since then we meet as strangers, 
but I trust we are friends. A reconciliation is indeed 
without hope. 

I do not think I felt " sour," but am afraid I had a 
few bard feelings against " Aaron Around," for I do 
hate selfishness. No, I have not an office, and often 
feel discouraged, but still " I'll wait a while longer 
before I despair." I thank " Prankie " for his sympathy, 
and would certainly receive him as a student, but 
think he would make a great sacrifice, for he would be 
obliged to give up smoking and all the rest of his bad 
habits (which, I trust, are few). I will bid the readers 
of this paper a kindly farewell, for I think this is the 
last time you will hear from me at present, as I cannot 
afford to take The Telegrapher any more, at least 
not until I get an office, when I hope to have a few 
more " stamps " than I have at present. I have taken 
great interest in the correspondent's column, and re- 
gret that I am unable to unite with you to help along 
this interesting paper. Should " Fraukie " like to hear 
from me personally (that is if he is unmarried) I will 
give the editor of The Telegrapher liberty to give 
him my address. Nettie Bronson. 



Country vs. City Telegraph Operators. 

California, January 7. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

In your issue of the 27th ult. my attention has been 
called to the remarks of " Rover," who seems to look 
down upon we "country plugs' having countrj r offices, as 
though he thought it was a disgrace to be the manager 
of a country office; and, also, his remarks for the 
placing of boys in the San Francisco office. Now, it is 
my fortune to have been connected with the Western 
Union lines for something like six years, and in that 
time have gained considerable knowledge of the 
" ticking of the instrument, and understand its" ling," 
at a moderate rate of speed, although not a first class 
man in my own estimation, as some of our young men 
are apt to think themselves, when actually they are 
only passable. 

The reason why boys are employed in San Francisco 
is because the boys can send and receive what is given 
them to do as though it were a school, while wo " coun- 
try plugs" are holding responsible transfer offices — 



money to the extent of $1,000 to $2,000 a month — doing 
as though it were a banking business, requiring a clear 
head and a knowledge of figures, facts and faces. We 
" country plugs " supply the San Francisco daily 
papers with all the interesting matter of our several 
country precincts, and our reports are published as 
sent, provided the San Francisco " first class ope- 
rators " do not make a "cow's brother" of our dis- 
patches. We " country plugs," in case of disturbance or 
breaking of lines, must mount our country plugs (horses 
or mustangs, as called here) and away with our blocks 
and tackle. Eighty-five to one hundred miles is not 
thought of by us. I have ridden one hundred and 
sixty miles in three days to repair a ground which 
another man had passed unnoticed. Do the first class 
operators of San Francisco know anythiug of making a 
splice, climbing a pole, riding broncos, or testing for 
grounds outside of the key 1 The sum and substance 
of " Rover's" remarks is that he has been superseded 
by the boys in San Francisco, and very likely would 
like now to take a back seat and become a " country 
plug." Indignant Country Plug. 



Telegraphers Unjustly Accused and Charac- 
terized. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

It is a good time to think to-day, for the lines are 
all down, and I have only heard a faint click on my 
instruments once or twice during the day. I have sat 
here alone so long with no company or business, listen- 
ing to the driving winds and rain as it rushes through 
the icy tree tops, that I feel (how shall I express it; 
blues don't begin) as though I would like to be at 
home, sitting in the little corner back of the stove, 
with the old cat on my knee. (I'll warrant he don't 
get much petting now). How cosy it looks. I think 
most any one would appreciate the picture if they 
could only look with me out of rny little window and 
see nothing but trees, with not even the smoke from 
some straggling chimney in sight. Having nothing 
much to do I have been reading The Telegrapher, 
and since laying it aside I have been wondering wheth- 
er anything I could say would entertain or give any 
one as pleasant thoughts as the communication over 
thesiguature " Mellville," in your first issue of the 
New Tear, has given me. It seems good to hear once 
in awhile that there are some who think there is still 
some chance of operators escaping from the charge of 
total depravity. I should think, from some of the com- 
munications in the last four or five numbers of our 
paper, that the writers had been getting in very bad 
company by the way they depreciate the whole fra- 
ternity. (T have heard it said that " birds of a feather 
will flock together.") Let us have a rest on the moral 
and social standing question, and if some one must 
be abused, take some other profession, by all means. 
If we don't respect ourselves the public won't, surely. 

N. R. 
♦-*-• 

Practical Suggestions. 

Michigan, January 14. 
To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

Hearing my brother operators around me making 
suggestions, and good ones, too, I think I will make 
at least one. It is this : That we be more careful in 
future, in sending messages, to put in the periods, and 
when necessary, even the commas. I have received 
not a few messages which could be read two ways ; 
either way with equally as much sense as the other. 
Now, by inserting the period, the message would be 
made to read with a definite meaning. The party re- 
ceiving may be expecting the message, and thus be 
able to read it with the true meaning, while again it 
may be an enigma to him, and possibly cause serious 
trouble, all from the omission of that little period. 
Let us hear your opinion upou the subject. 

Sentinel. 
« «« 

Phenomena of Induced Currents. 

The induction current is very generally employed, 
as is well known, in the stimulation of nerves and 
muscles. A new fact in this connection has been 
pointed out by Mr. Onimus, and is worth noting by 
physiologists. It is that the physiological effects 
differ according to the material of which the wire is 
formed. He made exactly similar coils of copper, lead 
and German silver wire, of 210 metres in length and of 
equal diameter. They were submitted in the same 
way to the action of the inducing curreut. It is stated 
generally, that when the wire for the induced current 
is of a metal that conducts electrioitj' badly, the con- 
tractions are much stronger, and the impressions on 
the cutaneous nerves less vivid than with good con- 
ducting wires, such as copper. The current induced 
in the badly conducting wires has much greater ten- 
sion than that in good conductors. Various experi- 
ments are described, which appear to show that Ger- 
man silver may with advantage be substituted for 
copper wire in certain cases. — English Mechanic. 



22 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 24, 1874. 



The Telegrapher 

Pevoted to the Jntef^ests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY U, 1874. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY at 38 YESEY ST. 



T ZE :n t hc volume. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, ----- $3.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION. 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5603.) 38 YESEY ST. , New Yorh. 



npHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunityshall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten yeahs, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegraphic clique ok com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 

patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

first class 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
Terms of Subscription. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR $2 00 

SINGLE COPIES Five Cents. 

Canada Subscribers must remit Twenty Cents in addition for 
Postage. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
ing subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty Per Cent. Com- 
missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for four subscri- 
bers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per year, 
will be ontitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing; their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the ritk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
cost of the order or registration may be deducted from the 
amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reasonable 
ratei ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than One 
Dollar per insertion. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503,)' NEW YORK. 



The Arguments in Favor of and Against a Tele- 
graphic Monopoly. 

Ever since, in the progress of events, it became evi- 
dent that comparatively short telegraph lines and 
small telegraph companies must he superseded by sys- 
tems which should practically be national in their 
character, there has been a persistent effort to establish 
and maintain a monopoly of the telegraph business of 
the"country. The "Western Union Telegraph Company 
is the outgrowth and result of this effort. The policy 
of absorption and consolidation of opposing and com- 
peting telegraph lines and companies has been stead- 
fastly pursued, and line after line, and company after 
company has been brought into that organization, until 
it has become the largest and most powerful telegraph 
organization in the world. The purpose of its mana- 
gers past and present to make it practically a monopoly 
has neither been disguised nor denied. 

It cannot be denied that the arguments in favor of 
such a monopoly have much weight, and that certain 
important advantages may be secured thereby. It is 
claimed that one organization can conduct the business 
more economically than if it be as now and heretofore 
carried on, by two or more organizations, covering the 
same territory, with opposing interests and duplicate 
offices, employes and officials. This is undoubtedly 
true, and if the interests of stockholders were alone to 
be consulted the argument must be decided in favor of 
the monopoly. But besides the interests of proprie- 
tors those of the public who are not owners of tele- 
graph shares, and who patronize the lines, and of the 
employes who depend upon telegraph employment, are 
to be considered. The advantages 4,0 be derived are, 
in our opinion, more than offset by the disadvantages 
to the two classes above mentioned. While the busi- 
ness would perhaps be more profitable, experience has 
shown that the public would find in an established 
telegraphic monopoly less regard for the interests and 
convenience of its patrons than when these have the 
option of employing its facilities, and, if dissatisfied with 
the manner in which its business is conducted, of trans- 
ferring their patronage to a competing line. The im- 
portant reductions of charges for telegraphic service 
are unquestionably due in great part to the existence 
of rival organizations. These may and probably have 
been of late more or less influenced by the urgent at- 
tempts which have been made to transfer the entire 
business to Government owuership and administration, 
but this has had less effect than the other cause men- 
tioned. 

As regards the employes, there can be no doubt but 
that their condition and compensation is influenced 
favorably by the existence of telegraphic competition, 
and the fact that they have to some extent a choice of 
employers. It creates a rivalry for the service of the 
better qualified among the employes, and enables them 
to secure far better terms than if there were but one 
organization to which they could apply for employ- 
ment. 

Another argument which the monopolists urge is, 
that one organization being more wealthy and power- 
ful than if subject to competition, it would be enabled 
to afford more complete and extensive facilities, and 
better provide for the expansion and growth of the 
business. This argument, too, is not without force, ab- 
stractly considered, and if we had reached that mil- 
lenial period when men, and aggregations of men into 
corporations, should seek not merely their own but 
their neighbors' profit as well, would have much more 
force than under existing circumstances and conditions. 
The object for which telegraph as well as other cor- 
porations are established is primarily to make a profit 
from the business transacted. . These will extend and 
expand only so fast and so far as may be necessary to 
secure a profit on their business. Monopolies are sel- 
dom as energetically managed as when they are sub- 
ject to the^pur of active competition, and, provided the 
balance sheet is all right, and the dividends satisfactory, 
there will be but little effort to provide facilities which 
involve the investment of additional capital, perhaps 
I not immediately remunerative. A telegraphic mo- 



nopoly once assured, there would be a hesitancy about 
extending lines and increasing facilities which does not 
now exist. 

The foregoing are the arguments which are princi- 
pally relied upon to justify the establishment of a 
monopoly of the telegraphic business of this country 
in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany. That they are plausible is admitted — that they 
are fallacious we think has been demonstrated. It is 
not for the interests of either the public or the em- 
ployes that the efforts which are made to establish 
such a monopoly shall succeed, and we do not believe 
that they will succeed. The genius and character of 
the American people is opposed to monopolies, and 
especially to a telegraphic monopoly, and there is no 
doubt but that if every existing competing telegraph 
line and company should be absorbed into the Western 
Union organization, the means would be speedily fur- 
nished to establish new ones. 

We have just seen one of ttre leading competing tele- 
graph organizations consolidated with the Western 
Union, and already plans are being perfected to cover 
the routes formerly occupied by that company, on 
which there are now no competing lines. So would it 
be if the others were to follow the Pacific and Atlantic 
into that mausoleum of telegraph organizations — the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. 

The true policy of the companies outside of the 
Western Union combination we have pointed out time 
and again, and the opportunity is now presented for 
the adoption of this policy. It is the only safe one, 
and the only one by whicn an organization capable of 
competing effectively and successfully can be estab- 
lished. It is to follow the example of their adversary 
and consolidate the several companies into one organi- 
zation, under one management, and then extend the 
system until, like the Western Union, it becomes 
general and national. The interests of investors, the 
public and the telegraph employes demand this, and if 
it is not done, those who are responsible therefor will 
be very much to blame. We believe that it only re- 
quires that some responsible parties should take the 
lead, and it can and will be effected, now that the 
principal obstacle, the Pacific and Atlantic Company, 
is out of the way. 

The railroad companies, to whom the telegraph 
under their owu control and management has become 
almost indispensable, are deeply interested in the 
matter, and may very well take the lead in such a con- 
solidation. Any telegraphic monopoly is adverse to 
their interests, and would inevitably subject them, 
once established and assured, to burdens and restric- 
tions of which they have had during the continuance 
of the Morse patents some experience. So much 
greater as their telegraphic interests are now than 
they were then, so much more onerous would they 
find the reestablishment of the control of a telegraphic 
monopoly. They should be wise in time, and at once 
move in this matter of such great importance to them. 



Discouraging Experience of a Friend of The 
Telegrapher. 

A communication from a friend of The Tele- 
grapher, which we print this week, details some rather 
discouraging experience in soliciting subscriptions 
for this paper. This is bat a sample of many such 
statements which we receive on this subject, and we 
print this to show the frivolous character of many tele- 
graphers, and of the excuses and evasions resorted to 
for the purpose of avoiding contributions to the sup- 
port of the organ of the telegraphic fraternity. 

It is true, ' t as stated by our correspondent, that we 
are endeavoring earnestly to secure the elevation of the 
character and standing of the telegraphic fraternity. It 
is also true that the progress made in that direction is 
slow, and our experience somewhat discouraging. Yet 
we believe that the influence of The Telegrapher is 
beneficial, and that the information and instruction 
which it is constantly imparting is of much value, and 
increasing the efficiency and professional ability of its 



January 24, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



£3 



readers. "Were it not for this the labor and responsibil- 
ity imposed would indeed be poorly compensated. 

In the last issue of The Telegrapher we briefly 
referred to this subject, and do not know that there is 
much to add to what was then said. There are but 
few telegraphers who cannot, if they desire to do so, 
afford the small sum of two dollars per annum for the 
weekly visits of the paper, and, without inteuding to be 
egotistical, we think we may properly claim that they 
receive many times the value of their investment. du- 
ring the year. The excuses and evasions made are not 
creditable to those who make them, and show either 
gross ignorance and incapacity, or that they are more 
Inclined to devote their money to sensual gratifications 
than to that which will improve them in the profession 
through which they seek to obtain a living. 

There is another view of the matter which is worthy 
the consideration of such persons. The better quali- 
fied they become, and the more intelligence they ex- 
hibit, the better will be their chances for promotion 
and compensation. The complaints of insufficient 
compensation are, in many instances, not just. Proba- 
bly a .majority of those who thus complain actually 
receive fully as much compensation as their ability and 
acquirements entitle them to, and in many instances 
much more than they could receive in any other capa- 
city. "We desire that all telegraphers should be pro- 
perly compensated, and it is to be regretted that the 
evil effect of the employment of incapable and insuffi- 
ciently instructed operators is not limited to them- 
selves. They not only injure themselves, but they 
give to the fraternity, generally, a low standing, and too 
often the whole are judged by these inferior members. 
This is not just, perhaps, but it is unavoidable. If the 
business was relieved from the incubus of their pres- 
ence it would be greatly to the advantage of all who 
are worthy the name of practical telegraphers. 

We do not make these remarks so much in the inter- 
est of The Telegrapher as in that of the fraternity. 
As we have before stated, it is the right of any person 
whose support for this paper is solicited to decline it, 
but let them put it on the true ground, and not pre- 
tend that impecuniosity is the cause, while they 
weekly or monthly squander much more than the 
amount of the subscription in things not only of no 
benefit; but most frequently of actual damage to 
them. 



True Worth. 

Some excellent and timely remarks upon the above 
subject appeared in the last number of our official con- 
temporary, after reading which we feel compelled to 
say that, while no well informed person for a moment 
supposes they can have any practical application under 
such a perfectly organized system of civil service as 
that now in force at the Western Union headquarters, 
yet there is, nevertheless, much reason to fear that the 
injudicious publication of articles of this kind may af- 
ford opportunities for evil minded persons to insinuate, 
that some deeper signification is intended than is at 
first sight apparent, which would, to say the least, be 
a very unfortunate circumstance, and one eminently 
calculated to make the judicious grieve. At the same 
time, there is so much sound philosophy and undeni- 
able truth in the observations of our contemporary 
that we feel that it would be an injustice to our readers 
not to reproduce them. They are as follows: 

"A really modest and meritorious person will never 
make pretensions of any kind. His manner and ex- 
pressions will always have a tendency to underrate his 
real ability, not because he will pretend to be less ca- 
pable than he really is, but as so many men have be- 
come pretentious in their manners and expressions, he 
fears he may be considered as such. *We are, in con- 
sequence, too apt to consider the extent of the capacity 
of those whom we meet a little below the standard in- 
dicated by their acts and expressions. Therefore, true 
merit is seldom properly appreciated, and its cultiva- 
tion is never greatly encouraged. On the contrary, 
pretence is almost always successful. He who is pre- 
tentious affects the interests of society in a similar 
manner as the swindler. He induces men to doubt the 
capacity of others, and often refuse aid and employ- 
ment, because they measure the merits of all by those 



of the pretentious fop and the conceited ignoramus. 
Many an honest and skilful man, and many a valuable 
improvement, has been refused support and adoption 
because the pretentious swindler has previously misled 
the people and imposed upon them outrageously. Pre- 
tensions of every kind are the true indications of a 
weak mind or a would-be swindler." 



A Destructive Sleet Storm. 

The recent storm was very severe in Central and 
Southern Ohio, and the telegraph lines suffered greatly. 
Tee formed on the wires nearly two inches in diameter, 
with icicles depending therefrom from two to six inches 
in length. Immense numbers of poles were broken 
off, and where the poles withstood the strain the arms 
and brackets were stripped off by wholesale. On the 
Marietta and Cincinnati R. R. not one of the three 
wires was left in working condition for half a mile in 
any one place, for a distance of fifty miles. The oldest 
wire of the three was broken, as a correspondent re- 
marks, "in 1,000,000,000,000 places by actual count," 
and is to be replaced by a new one. Such storms often 
do good service by annihilating a great many lines that 
have outlived their usefulness, but are in the disheart- 
ening condition of not being good enough to work, 
and a little too good to throw away. Prom the ac- 
counts of the storm which have reached us, we think it 
probable that there are not many of that sort of lines 
left in southwestern Ohio at this writing. 



A Chance for a Little Civil Service Reform. 

The inventors of the country are under the greatest 
obligations to Commissioner Leggett for the many re- 
forms and improvements he has introduced into the 
patent office, and especially for the tasteful and con- 
venient manner in which not only the patents them- 
selves, but the official reports and decisions are gotten 
up, and the means provided for obtaining them with the 
utmost promptness and the smallest amount of trouble 
and expense. But "if not inconsistent with public in- 
terests," as they say in Congress, we do wish that the 
Commissioner would try'and get a person who has at 
least had an introduction to "Webster's elementary 
spelling book in place of the present official who prints 
the titles of the inventions on the photo-litographic 
drawings attached to the patents. According to his 
orthography the Page patent is for " Indiction Coil Ap- 
paratus and Curcuit-Bveakers" and we also observe 
that Mr. Parmer has a patent upon " Electro- Magnec- 
tic Telegraphs." Give him a cold potato and let him 

go. 

♦-«-• 

The January Magazines. 

THE INDUSTRIAL MONTHLY. 

The January number of this handsomely printed and 
well conducted publication has reached us, and is one 
of the most valuable of all our exchanges. "We re- 
produced some of its articles in another part of this 
paper. The present number is illustrated with two 
handsome chromo-lithographs of machinery. Oue ex- 
cellent feature of the Industrial Monthly is the pub- 
lication of a list of all the articles of any importance 
appearing in the current industrial literature of the 
world, by means of which any one who is only inter- 
ested specially in one particular branch of science may 
ascertain whether any one of the scientific periodicals 
of the month contain anything of value to him without 
being obliged to take them all. For our own part we 
consider this feature alone worth the price of the whole 
work which is only $1.50 per year. The publication 
office is at 176 Broadway, Now York City. 



Telegraph Poles. 

The great and increasing demand for telegraph poles 
in this country, and the constant and rapid decrease of 
available timber has made them difficult to obtain and 
increased their cost. "With the opening of spring tele- 
graph construction will be resumed, and we therefore 
render a service in calling attention to the advertise- 
ment of Mr. Colby, of Toronto, Canada, who offers to 



furnish first rate cedar poles at reasonable prices, de- 
livered at the Lake ports. 

"We know Mr. Colby, and have no hesitation in re- 
commeudiug him to the consideration of those who 
may need telegraph poles, who can deal with him with 
confidence that he will furnish a good article, and that 
what he contracts to deliver they may rely upon ob- 
taining. 

♦-♦-* 

History of Postal Telegraph Schemes. 

Attention of parties interested is called to the ad- 
vertisement of the documents published by the govern- 
ment, telegraph companies and others during the last 
six years in connection with the schemes for a postal 
or government telegraph. This offers a rare oppor- 
tunity to obtain a complete copy of all these docu- 
ments. 

♦-»-♦ 

Numbers of Volume IX wanted. 

"We are very much in want of a few copies of Nos. 
342 and 351 of Tol. IX of The Telegrapher, to com- 
plete files. Any person who may have either of these 
numbers to spare will confer a great favor by sending 
them to this office. 



Mr. Henry Yan Hoevenbergh has been appointed 
Assistant Superintendent of the Gold and Stock Tele- 
graph Co., in charge of all printing instruments and 
wires connected with the New York Commercial 
News Department. 

Mr. W. W. Blrhans, lately in the employ of the 
Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company, New York, 
has accepted the position of night manager of the 
Washington, D. C, office of the Southern and Atlantic 
Company. 

Mr. C. R. Dart has resigned his position with the 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. at Troy, N. Y., and 
gone to California for his health. 

Mr. B. P. McManus has resigned his position with 
the Franklin Telegraph Co. at Washington, D. C, and 
retired from the business. 

Mr. Wm. Garland has accepted a position with the 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. at 198 Broadway, 
New York. 

Mr. M. 0." Gross formerly with the Pacific and Atlantic 
Co., Chicago, 111., has accepted a situation with the 
Atlantic and Pacific Co. in that city. 



Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

The Western Union and Arizona Military Telegraph 
offices were yesterday opened in their new quarters in 
Josse's brick building, corner D and Fifth streets. 
Under the competent direction of Manager Smith the 
rooms have been conveniently fitted up, and there is 
no neater telegraph office in the country than that of 
San Diego. The public will be perfectly accommo- 
dated, while the operating room, battery room, etc., af- 
ford ample space for the business of the lines. The lo- 
cation is a very fine one, and is generally satisfactory. 
— San Diego (Cal.) Union. 

The unfortunate Spanish frigate Arapiles, which has 
been detained so long at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and 
which has met with a series of misfortunes somewhat 
discouraging to her officers and crew, while passing 
down the East river, dragged her anchor and tore up 
and damaged the seven wire cable of the Gold and Stock 
Telegraph Company, which is laid from the foot of 
Jackson street to Brooklyn. 

Hooper's Telegraph Works have received the fol- 
lowing message from Mr. France, their engineer in 
chief, announcing the successful laying of the Pernam- 
buco-Bahia section of the Western and Brazilian Com- 
pany's cables: " Cable successfully laid on the 11th of 
December. Insulation superb. Start from Rio about 
the 25th." 

•-•-♦ 

The Quotation and District Telegraphs in 
England. 

The managing director of the Exchange Telegraph 
Company in London gives notice that the compaoy 
will give daily at about 4 P. M. the " opening prices " 
on the New York Stock Exchange of a few of the lead- 
ing stocks and shares, the rate of exchange, price of 
gold, and the general tone of the market; as also 
special extra messages, should circumstances render 
such necessary. He also announces that, " among 



24 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 24, 1814. 



other things, we are introducing: the ' call system,' as 
now worked at ISTew York, by which householders can 
call a messenger, cab, medical man, police, or give the 
alarm of fire, and so soon as the system is worked out, 
it will be started in the metropolis; in the meaDtime 
we are giving it free to" our subscribers on the Stock 
Exchange, for the purpose of calling members from the 
House to their offices." 



The Concession for «a Telegraph Cable between 
Pern and Chili. 

The Lima, Peru, correspondent of the Panama Star 
and Herald writes, under date of Dec. 20th, 1873, that 
• on the 18th instant a decree was made public by the 
Minister of Public Works granting permission to Mr. 
Charles Scott for the construction of a submarine 
cable between Callao and some port to be named in 
Chili. Mr. Scott is the representative of the India 
Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company 
of London, and offers to lay the cable without special 
privilege or guarantee of any description, within the 
term of eighteen months from date. The port to be 
selected iu Chili will probably be Caldera, from whence 
a land line runs to Valparaiso and thence across the 
Cordileras to the Argentine Confederation. When we 
have Mr. Scott's cable and that between Payta and 
Panama in operation, it will be an easy matter for the 
inhabitants of Buenos Ayres and Montevideo to wire 
their greetings via Santiago de Chili and Lima to 
friends in the old world. Owing to the malevolence of 
a discharged employe, the wires were cut between 
Payta and this city, and the first intelligence of the. 
attitude assumed by the United States towards Spaiu 
in the Virginius question, reached us with the steamer 
Lima on the 17th instant. 



Irregularities of the West India and Panama 
Cable. 

Many complaints have reached us lately of the 

freat delay in the transmission of messages by West 
ndia cable. We have heard of three instances within 
the past week in which messages from the United 
States were so long delayed as to bo completely 
worthless when received. Some with business orders 
for return steamer from Aspinwall were not delivered 
till long after the steamer had sailed thence. We have 
similar complaints of messages from this coast to New 
York. Such management on'the part of the company or 
companies is inexcusable. Wheu the cable is broken, 
or not in working order, the fact should be made pub- 
lic immediately ; and when delay is deemed unavoid- 
able, the time of delay likely to occur should be given, 
otherwise the companies should be obliged to refund 
the cost of all messages kept back beyond a due time. 
The management of the cables between Jamaica and 
the United States has ever been such as to render 
them atf annoyance more than a benefit to those pa- 
tronizing them. It is high time some steps were 
taken to remedy the evil. — The (Panama) Star and 
Herald. 

*-*-♦ 

The Patent Congress. 

■ A Convention of patentees and persons interested 
in patents and patent inventions was held in Washing- 
ton, D. C, last week, which was numerously attended. 
This Convention Was in response to the recommenda- 
tion of the International Patent Convention, held at 
Vienna during the International Exposition. The dif- 
ficulties and disadvantages experienced by American 
inventors in foreign countries in their efforts to secure 
protection were discussed, and it was resolved to hold 
a grand International Patent Congress at Philadelphia 
during the Centenuial Celebration in 1876. 

Resolutions were adopted declaring that the produc- 
tion of inventions should be guaranteed by the laws of 
all civilized nations, and that a patent should be 
granted for a term of 17 years, with a privilege of ex- 
tension for the benefit of the inventor or his heirs for 
a further term of at least seven years. A resolution 
was submitted recommending that Congress make use 
of the surplus fund of the Patent Office now in the 
United States Treasury for the erection of a suitable 
building in Judiciary Square, for the exhibition of the 
models of inventors. This fund is over $1,000,000. 

A permanent organization was formed, and it was 
recommended that State associations be organized. 
The following officers were elected: John S. Perry, of 
Albany, President ; Dr. C. F. Stansbury, of Washing- 
ton, Secretary; Hon. J. M. Thatcher, of Washington, 
Treasurer. Directors : T. A. Dodge, Massachusetts ; 
C. P. Kimball, Minnesota; G. H. Christy, Pennsyl- 
vania; JST. R. Graham. Illinois; 1ST. C. Stiles, Connecti- 
cut; C. E. McDonald, Indiana; J. S. Boyle, Ohio- 
H. G. Bulkley, New York. 



In. one of the county schools in England the art of 
telegraphing is taught to the children with much suc- 
cess. . The Postmaster General approves of the scheme, 
and is highly pleased at its adoption. 



A telegraph messenger boy got his despatches mixed 
the other day, and handed a jockey a telegram which 
read, " Can you supply our pulpit next Sunday?" And 
to a well known clergyman a despatch which read, 
" The race is postponed' till Monday. Can't you come 
down and spend Sunday?" 



New Patents. 

&§• Official, Copies of any U. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, tent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, P. O. 
Box 5603, New York City. 

For the. week ended December 30, 1873, and bearing that date. 

No. 145.997. — Telegbaph Insulator. Christian Fox and Elisha 
G. Heston, Gap, Pa. Application filed August 20, 1873. 

An annular glass ins ilator, slotted in its upper face for the 
wire, fits over a stud and rests upon a shoulder on the support- 
ing bar*. A shed cap screws down upon the stud. 

i he combination of the nut-like cap C with its sheltering base 
to cover, clamp and protect the annular slotted insulator G B, 
when the latter reits upon the shoulder a, and the former re- 
ceives the screw end D of a vertical shaft or support, A, the 
whole arranged in the manner showD.for the purpose set forth. 



H 



ISTORY OF POSTAL TELEGRAPH 
SCHEMES. 



The important documents on this subject published by the 

Government, the telegraph companies and others, during the 

last six years ; well bound ; in one volume, of over 1,000 

pages. One copy for sale. 

Price, $10. 

Address, 

"THE TELEGRAPHER." . 



w 



ANTED. 



Wanted to know the whereabouts of ROBERT McCALLTJM. 
Was operating on the B. and M. K. B. when last heard from. 
Any one knowing him, or having seen him during the past three 
years, will please communicate with his brother, ALEXANDER 
JlcCALLTJM, Mendocine City, California, and by so doing will 
confer a great favor. 



E 



UGENE F. PHILLIPS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REED & PHILLIPS' 



Anson Stageh, 

Pres't. 



Elisha Gray, 
Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 

(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 1STH, 1873.) 

Lock Box 169. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished atjthe lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 
ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 
which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

J8S* Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co New York. 

Charles T. Chester.. : " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. Hockhausen " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Sup't . 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELE0TR0-MAGNETI0 WATCH CLOCKS ASD 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 
JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 
KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 

TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MAKUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IK 

Electrical and Telepjl Instruments. 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IK USE. 

ELE0TRI0 BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



vizl . goo&s yr^mitciJviJES) fjusi czttss 

AND PRICES EXTREMELY LOW. 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 



January 24, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



P 



ANIC PRICES. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 



WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



ALL WHO NEED 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 

IK 

Large or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 

SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 

A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



G 



i EO . H. BLISS & CO 



41 THIRD ATETtTJE, 



Chicago, III. 



WHOCHHAUSEN, 
• Manufacturer of 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 
Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 




TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



Agents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 

•< AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 

" JONE8' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 
" " ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 

•' HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" HILL'S HOTEL ANNDNCIATOR ana FIRE ALARM. 

" MoPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
•' •• THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

.. PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 

" BROOKS' 

u UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 
" .. poPE'8 RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

" " EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" " SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

" " ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING 80UNDER, 

No. 4 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instruments, Lins Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

CtS- Special attention given to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 



rpjJE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
■*• IN THE WORLD 



One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KEY, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weiyht. .$50 00 

Sounders, from 4 60 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

trom 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 50 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE h CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 



L 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will oe prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words " Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

.Yo. 4.0 West fSth Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 



rpILLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

Th is apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Bounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

'■ Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" with Out Out and Lightning 
A rresiter attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 I>EY STREET, N. Y. 



IS SUPPLIED BY 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MANUFAOTUKERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

OF 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL. AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays •• 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 
POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, 11x2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from }£ to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for speoial purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 

KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS, PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELL8. 

LECLANCHE, NITRO-CHROMIO AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VER\ 

LOW. 

CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 
DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," ... - 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY k TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalogue and 7 1 rice List furnished upon application . 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NE W YORK. 



IT 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[January 24, 18U. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

o 



GAME WELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

63 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

jr. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintends nt. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 

* K. DOWELL, Richmond, Va.. 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 

3. A. BREKKER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L M. MONkOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

£L,KOTHIOaL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Oal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada, 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OR 

UPON TEE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

Is now In operation in the following Cities, to which reference is 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



muauj, A. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Gharlestown, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., . 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fltchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C, 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo.' 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. O, 
Worcester, Mass. 



tne Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABB, 

First — Tne Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constan t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — Tlie Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— Tlie Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth — The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the Are Is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each lire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PtRKCT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It w a sufficient vindication of the claims which ar« made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 
COMPLETELY FAILED; 

the few Instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. 6AMEWELL Si CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure Improvements, and the Systems are now cove 3d by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 
The most important improvement which the Proprietoj s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

the Introduction and operation of which involves so litt'.i ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even mwll 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

FIRE ALAEM AND POLICE TELEGKAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 
PRESS' 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 
ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that. In every community where It has been Introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, three 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEfiRAPHErtS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
iheir efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 



Any information, desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



/ CHARLES T. CHESTER, 

104 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 

AND MANDFAOTURER OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 

AND EVERY DESOBIPTION OF 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER, 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135aset,consistingof two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood-work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. GL DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OB 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & MMkl WIRES, 

OF THE 
HIGHEST INSULATION. 

We are now prepared to furnish, after an experience of three 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injuiy. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha In a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that it will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELEOTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPB, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
beingeasily and quickly learnedby any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w Jrk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very beat MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



January 24, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



T>ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENOS FOB THE SAM! OP 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BROOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use In 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exoeption, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
Included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer. 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
bo., stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Gables, Gables for River Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 
INSTRUMENT, 
FOR PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium— Silver Medal— over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
■uperior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, reliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIYATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MERCHANTS' MANUFACTURING AND 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

S. J. BURRELL, Superintendent, 

No. 60 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. ' 



\ MERICAN COMPOUND 
■^*- TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 

COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
oompared with iron, consists in its licjhtness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tensilb stbenoth, homogeneity and elasticity— de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— Insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines In any condition of the weather. 

And in its durability, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resulting in a very groat reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lfnes, while, at the same 
time. Insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
AddreBB — 

American Compound Telegraph Wire Co., 
ALANSON CART, Treasurer, 

No. )t34 West 29th St., 

New Yorh. 



M 



AGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 



RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED BT 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

15 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL. TELEGRAPH 

In the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

whioh is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



F 



L. POPE & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 



TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OP 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, Neti York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all descriptions of tele- 
graph MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, BUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE LTOHTISriXXrO- ^l.R,RESTBK.S- 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOCHHAUSEN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC BATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery la rapidly increasing, and it Is 
conceded by all who havo mod it to be the finst and motl Ecnno- 
mical Battery, for telegraphic and other purposes, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwardod upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY STREET. 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pret't. JOHN E. GARY, Yice-Pret't. 

GEO. W. STO0KLY, Sec'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OE EVERT DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 
GAME WELL & CO., N. Y. 

Specialties made of 
HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SURE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY" SOUNDER, 
Cheap Instruments for Learners, Amateurs, 4c„ 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private House Electric Annunciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL BELLS AND ALARM BELLS of every style. 

Batteries, Chemicals, Wire, Insulators , 
Supplies, d-e.j <&c. 

MODELS nml LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 

PRICE LIST. 

Hicks' Repeaters (1873.) $100.09 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00" 18.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8.00 

Keys " 3.00" 6.50 

Learners' Outfits {complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Annunciators, per room " 700 " 12.00 

Burglar Alarms " 50.00 " 200.00 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 
No. 4 LEADER BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

T>R L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 

JERSEY CITY, N. J., 

Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL APPARATUS 

FOR 

Electric Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Rheostat as 
they have been recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity ; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, Ac; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro motive force of 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dinamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. Its measurements aro accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It. packs In a case seven 
inohes deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. Considering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other Instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $280, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $40 to $60. 

Doscriptivo pamphlets may be had on application. 

IIo also pays special attention to the manufacture of hi* 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARK Olf 

Naked Copper Wire, 

Bo wound that the convolutions are separated from each other by 
a regular and uniform space of the 1 -800th of an inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper. In Helices of silk insulated wire, the 
spaco occupied by the silk is the 1 150th to Ihe l-800th of an inch; 
therefore a spool made of a given length and size of naked wire 
will lie smaller and will contain many more convolutions around 
the core than one of BHk insulated wire, and will make a propor- 
tlonably stronger magnet, while the resistance will be the same. 

These Helices lire now offered for the use ot manufneturerfiof 

Telegraphic and Electrical apparatus, and orders will h» tmti 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



V! 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 24, 1814. 



*HE PERFECT BATTERY. 
CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOOKWOOD BATTEET, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO,, Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dey Street, N. Y. 
This Battery has bfen iu extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in tljjs country and Europe to be 

EAR SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purpcsts, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM oyer 

all competitdrs for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1871. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without ant attention whatever. The copper a*nd •zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 
current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 

Send for Circular. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O X_i E AGE1STTS. 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyer, Secretary. 



ON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER, 




TTTATTS & COMPANY, 

41 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE^ 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, k, k 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A VERY SUPERIOR MAIN LINE SOUNDER; 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




"SAVE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into the Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1,80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., G-en'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, 111. 



Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 



The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. • 

145 Broadway, New York, ) 
Sept. 22d, 1873. ) 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager. 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearanco. Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



ARTRIOK, BUNNELL & OO.'S 

CHAMPION LEARNERS 



SHORT LINE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

A GREAT IMPROVEMENT 

over all Instruments of the kind ever offered for this purpose, 
consisting of a 

No. 1 SOUNDER AND KEY COMBINATION SET, 

AN EXCELLENT BOOK OP PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN 

TELEGRAPHY, 

OFFICE WIRE, CHEMICALS, etc., 

making a complete arrangement for one office. 

The Instruments are full sized, complete in every respect. The 
Battery is a full sized first class Callaud cell, and the entire outfit 
has nothing a bout it which in any way resembles the many wretched 
affairs which have been extensively sold as Learners' Apparatus. 




Great numbers of our " Champion Instruments" are in use 
upon short private lines, and upon City wires of Telegraph 
Companies, where they are giving the greatest satisfaction, on 
account of their very substantial make and exceUent working 
qualities. 

We guarantee them to be in every respect better than any form of 
Learners' Apparatus or Short Line Instruments ever offered to the 
public. 

Price of Apparatus, complete, with Book of Instructions, 
Battery, Wire, and all necessary materials for one complete office 
outfit, ready for shipment, sent C. O. D., $10— or, if money order 
sent for the amount, $9.50. The latter plan will additionally save 
the purchaser the express charges for the return of money. 

Price of Single Instrument, good for one mile or less, with- 
out Battery $8 50 

Ornamental style ditto, with rubber covered coils, without 

Battery 10 00 

Single Instrument, good lor working a line from one to 

twelve miles 9 50 

Ditto, ornamental, with rubber covered coils 11 00 

Battery, per cell 1 50 

PAETRICK, BUNNELL & 00,, 

38 SOUTH FOURTH ST., PHILADELPHIA, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH & ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS 
and Supplies of every description. 




Vol. X. 



JVew York, Saturday, January 31, 187 If. 



Whole JVo. 394 



|^HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS. 
GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT "ELECTRIC GONGS, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

u Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 

AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH- SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of . Electrical Instruments 

AND 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
AH orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

3B2 and 354 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

-NOVELTY! 
A SOUNDER of Entirely New Construction, 

which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
clear sound. 

Size for Regular Offices $5 00 

Small Size 3 50 

Learners' Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c, 

all complete 7 60 

Send for Circular. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND M'F'G 00., 
J^o, 4 Leader Building, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

^■^ (established 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various kinds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 

DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



COVERED WIRES, 
Made from Lake Superior Copper, warranted strictly 
pure, covered with Hemp, Flax, Linen, Cotton, Silk or other 
material, for Telegraph Instruments, Electro-Magnetic Machines, 
Philosophical Apparatus, and all kinds of Electrical Purposes. 

Also. PLAINS WOVEN, ENAMELLED, SHELLACED, 
PARAFFINED, and all kinds of 

TELEGrKAPH OFFICE WIRES. 

Also, Telegraph Switch Cords, 

many Patterns, Plain, Woven and Braided. Parties being partial 
to' any particular kind need only enclose a small specimen In a 
letter and it can be imitated in every particular. 

CONDUCTING CORDS, POLE CORDS, TINSEL. 

C. THOMPSON, 
(Successor to Josiah B. Thompson,) 

29 JVorth 20th St., Thila., Ta. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 *B 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 

OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



R 



EDUCTION OF PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEURS, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and moro sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates: 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 60 

Two sets of Instruments, elc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

P. L. POPE & CO., 

[P.O. Box 5503.] 38 Veney Street, N. Y. 



T 



ELEGRAPH POLES 



Parties who are in want of good 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES, 

can obtain them on favorable terms, and have them delivered 

at any Lake Port between Oswego and Chicago, on the 

opening of Navigation, by applying to 

A. A. COLBY, 

P. O. Box 1,376. TORONTO, ONTARIO, 

CANADA. 



A NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTEET. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Danielle, at 4 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, (2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY STREET, N. T. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND. AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M°ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING: CO.. 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



WALLACE & SONS, 
MANUFACTURERS of 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also. BRASS. COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll and Sheet. 

We make the manufacture of Elocti'ic Wire a specialty — 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes— guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every iustance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, X. Y % 

MANUFACTORY, 

A»soiii:i, Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 31, 18?4. 



A LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
TJ. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 
{Room 12,) 



BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOB. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a line 
many times with our new Hoot, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

" perdozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, HI., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
Tery cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATERS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 



R 



USSELLS' AMERICAN 

STEAM PRINTING HOUSE 
¥7, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STEEET, near FEAKKFOET, 
NEW YORK, 
EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMEECLAL PEJJTIEG. 

TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

*^ MANTJFACTTJEERS op 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

POB 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIP!?, YAGHTS, 
etc., etc, 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 

79 VARICK STEEET, MEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 
By R. S. CULLEY, 

ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGEAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED, 
vol. 8vo, cloth $5 00. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any addiess on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D, VAN NOSTKAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET, N. Y. 



HPHE AMATEUR'S 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

:<§>: 

■A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 
©even Dollars and Fifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete '. $14 50 

Sounder and Key only 6 60 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. .. 7 50 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD ATENVE, 

Chicago, III. 
SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAFPNER'S 
TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my ■' TELEGKAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELEGRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Illustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway^ 

NEW YORK. 



TI/TODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
™*- TRIO TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth, $3.00 

4®- Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS, 

422, 424,-426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFAOTUKKK 
OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. ... 

=€§«= 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OEFICE CABLES, AND INSULATE© 

WIRES OF EVERY VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 

Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MININq PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors 

required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

' TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE, 

AND FOB, 

BLASTING AND MINING PTJItPOSJES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Percha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practicalElectriciansand Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with In- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
Style and quality, and in half the lime required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORT. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 BEY STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale off 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0ENLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
facturedby me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured {except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO., 363 Broadway, 
D, H0DGMAN &CQ..27 Maiden Lane, 
' SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St 

Address all Communications to 

8. BIS HO I», 

OFFICE AT FACTOR!. 



January 31, 1871.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



23 



The Telegrapher 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. ASHLEY. PUBLISHER. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 31, 1814. 



VOL. X. 



WHOLE No. 394. 



CDriflinal %vtti\t$. 

The Elementary Principles of Electrical 
Measurement. 

By Frank L. Pope. 

(Continued from page 13.) 

Geometrical representation of the Phenomena of the 
Voltaic Circuit. 
The mathematical relations which have been 
shown to exist between the electro-motive force, 
resistance and current in a voltaic circuit, and 
wbich are expressed by Ohm's law, may also be 
graphically represented to the eye by geometri- 
cal projection — a process which often materially 
assists the student in forming a correct concep- 
tion of a subject. 

Let the resistances in any given circuit be laid 
off on a horizontal line, A B, figure 3, by means 
of a scale of equal parts. In the same manner 
let the electro-motive forces be laid off on the 
line A C, drawn perpendicular to A B, and let the lat- 
ter line also indicate the zero of potential. A battery 
of 5 Daniell cells is represented in figure 3, the zinc 
and copper plates z and c being represented at such a 
distance apart as to correspond to an internal resist- 
ance of 2 ohms per cell. Let the total resistance of 
the circuit be 20 ohms, wbich will be represented by 
the length of the line between A and B. The total 
resistance within the battery is shown by the length of 
the line A D, and the resistance exterior to the battery 
by the length of B D. 

Each of the five divisions of the line A C represents 
an electro-motive force of 1 volt, which, in this case, 
we will assume to be exactly equal to that of 1 cell, 
the total electro-motive force included in the circuit 
being 5 volts. 

"We have then in figure 3 a battery of 5 cells, 
each cell having a resistance of 2 ohms and an 
electro-motive force of 1 volt, and the copper pole 
(if this battery is connected to an insulated con- 
ductor, B D, having a resistance of 10 ohms. 

Now, let us suppose that the zinc or negative 
pole of the battery is connected to the earth at A, 
and that the opposite end of the conductor at B 
is insulated, or, in telegraphic parlance, "left 
open." In order to represent the difference of 
potential at every point of an open circuit, such 
as that under consideration, we must construct a 
line which may be termed the line of potential. 
perpendicular height of such a line above the line A B, 
at any point, will indicate a corresponding difference 
of potential between that point and the line. In the 
present case this will be a positive potential. 

As the first zinc plate at A is connected directly 
with the earth, which is assumed to be the zero of 
potential, as we have already explained, its potential 
must also be zero. But the first cell contains an 
electro-motive force equal to 1 volt, which we will, for 
convenience, assume to be situated at the junction be- 
tween the zinc plate and the solution in which it is 
immersed. As will be seen by the dotted line in the 
figure, at each junction of the zinc with the liquid the 
potential rises i volt, attaining in the fifth cell a poten- 
tial of 5 volts. But the whole of a perfectly insulated 
conductor, whatever may be its length, acquires the 
same potential as the pole of the battery to which it 
is attached, and, therefore, the potential of the line B 
T) is equal throughout. 

Next, let us take the same battery and conductor, 
and connect the end of the conductor B to the earth 
also, the latter, of course, having no appreciable resist- 
ance. The distribution of potentials throughout the 
whole system is now changed, and becomes as shown 
in figure 4. 

Both ends of the circuit have now a potential of zero, 
and the potential decreases regularly from the last cell 
of battery at D to the earth connection at B. It will 
be seen that the potential line falls or decreases within 
the cells of the battery just as it does on the line. The 
steepness of this line represents what Ohm termed 
the electric fall. The degree of steepness represents 
accurately the strength of current in the circuit. If 
the units of resistance in A B, and of electro-motive 
force in A C, are laid off to the same scale, as is the 



case in the above diagrams, a current of 1 farad per 
second would be represented by a line of potential j 
leaving an inclination of 45°. It really has an inclina- 
tion of just one fourth this, or 11^°, showing that the 
current in such a circuit would be one fourth of a farad 
per second, which we find by Ohm's law to be the 
case, for 

E = 5 Cvolts.) 

R = 20 (ohms.) 

E 5 1 

E 20 4 farad (per second). 

Figure 5 shows the same battery placed on short 
circuit — its poles being connected together by the earth, 
a conductor of infinitely small resistance. In this case 
the potential rises 1 volt in each cell, as in the two 
previous examples, and the maximum potential is 
found at the junction of the zinc plate and the solution. 
In this case the line of potentials is much steeper, in- 
dicating that a much stronger current flows through 
the circuit. The inclination is iu fact 22-^°, or twice as 
great as before, corresponding to a current of one half 




FIG. 3. 

a farad per second. As before, we find by Ohm's law 
that this ought to be the case, for, we now have 
E = 5 (volts.) 
R = 10 (ohms.) 
E 5 1 
and — = — = — farad (per second). 
R 10 2 
It is proper to state that the best authorities now 
consider that the change of potential which denotes 
the existence of an electro-motive force, does not 
actually take place at the junction of the zinc plate 
with the solution, as has usually been supposed, but at 
the junction of the metals, between two cells of the 



The total amount of heat generated by the oxidation 
of a given weight of zinc is always absolutely the same, 
and is, therefore, strictly proportional to the current, 
or rather the square of the current or quantity of elec- 
tricity which traverses the circuit, but it may be dis- 
tributed in various proportions between the battery 
and the external circuit. These facts were established 
by Joule, who carefully collected and measured the 
amount of heat developed in a circuit under known 
conditions. This method of electrical measurement is 
seldom if ever used in practice, as others, hereafter to 
be explained, are vastly more convenient. 

2. Chemical Decomposition. — When the voltaic cur- 
rent traverses a compound liquid conductor instead of 
a metallic one, the liquid is in many cases decomposed. 
This fact was discovered by Nicholson and Carlisle iu 
1800. Faraday devised an apparatus called a volta- 
meter, by means of wbich he proved that the quantity 
of liquid decomposed in a given time is absolutely in 
proportion to the quantity of electricity traversing the. 
circuit. The voltameter consists of a graduated tube, 
by means of wbich the quantity of gas generated in a 
given time is collected and measured. This instrument 
is found very useful in certain classes of measure- 
ments. 

3. Magnetism. — "When the voltaic current tra- 
verses a conductor, passing immediately in the 
vicinity of. and parallel to a freely suspended 
magnetized needle, as of an ordinary compass, 
the needle will be deflected, and will tend to 
assume a position at right angles to the direc- 
tion of the current. This fact was discovered by 
(Ersted in 1820. The greater the magnitude of 
the current the more nearly will the needle 
approach a position at right angles to the con- 
ductor. It is found, when proper precautions 
are observed, that the angles of deflection of the 
needle, under the influence of a voltaic current, 
are strictly proportional to the quantity of electricity 
passing, and such a needle, therefore, becomes the 
most convenient instrument for measuring or com- 
paring the strength of different currents. 

As the methods of measuring a current by its mag- 
netic effects are by far the most generally available 
for practical use, the remainder of this treatise will be 
confined entirely to their consideration. 
\To be continued.] 



fiHh 



cz cz czv ez o 



The 



fig. 4. 

battery. This is in accordance with what is called the 
contact theory of galvanism, the truth of which appears 
to have been verified by experiments of a most con- 
vincing character.* 

Phenomena produced by the Voltaic Circuit. 

Having now defined our units of measurement, we 
will next consider how they are to be used. "We can 
only perform electrical measurements by observing the 
effects of the electric current itself. These are ex- 
hibited in three different forms, viz., heat, chemical 
action and magnetism. 

1. Heat. — When the two poles of a voltaic battery 
are connected by a thick wire having no sensible re- 
sistance, through which the current passes, the wire is 




not perceptibly heated. Heat is actually developed 
by the oxidatiou of the zinc, but in this case it is con- 
fined to the battery itself. If however, we substitute 
Cor the thick wire one which .offers considerable resist- 
ance to the current, the wire will be heated, and if 
properly selected with reference to the quantity of 
electricity generated in the battery, may be raised even 
to a white heat. 



* Fleeraing Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism, pp. 43 to 48. 



[From The Ghost.] 

All About Us. 

It is a common grievance, among men of all classes 
and conditions, all trades and professions, that, period- 
ically, some one who has no personal knowledge 
of the matter, casts about him for information 
concerning their business, and then proceeds to 
print, with an amplification depending altogether 
upon the fertility of the writer's imagination, his 
second hand facts and first hand fancies. Med- 
dling with tools of which one does not know 
the proper use, and skating on thin ice, are 
perilous pastimes. "When the Rev. T. De Witt 
Talmage, not content with writing a book, saw 
fit to pretend to a knowledge he did not possess, 
he consequently came to be thought an ass 
by a large class of very intelligent men. "We allude 
to the printers, who were offended at his implied 
familiarity with their business. He indulged in the 
hope, in the preface to his work, that some erring 
sister, some faltering brother, etc., might be, through 
its influence, won back to a purer life, for then he 
should not regret that his manuscript had been caught 
up on the sharp teeth of the type. "Whether Mr. Tal- 
mage tbaught, because 'types are sometimes placed 
in a way that bites, that they have a full set of 
incisors, bicuspids and molars, or whether he fancied 
that there was something thrilling in the idea of his 
manuscript being "chawed up," as there was in reality 
about his book being so disposed of on its appearance, 
we cannot state, but in any event there is no denying 
that the remark was silly and the figure as outrageous 
as could possibly have been introduced. And so it 
often occurs in treating of other subjects. Our own 
business is not often "written up," as the phrase is, 
and for that we may be thankful, but when it is we 
find ourselves glaringly misrepresented, and our man- 
ner of filling our place in the business economy of the 
country provokingly disturbed, the same as those of 
other professions whose cases arc taken in hand and 
disposed of by that regular patron of free lunches — 
whose prejudice against clean linen is only equallod by 
his predilection for gin cocktails — the " penny-a-liner." 
In a New York Sunday paper of Jan. 8th tho ap- 
pended brochure occupies a conspicuous place. It will 
not bo difficult for tho reader to see whero the writer 
reproduces what he has been told, for that is tolerably 
correct ; but there is no doubt in our mind that he is 
wholly responsible for the flattering information that 
the averago telegrapher cannot, for the lifo of him, ex- 
plain how the sound of an instrument conveys intelli- 
gence. To him, moreover, is certainly attributable the 



26 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 31, 1814. 



cheering statement to those aspiring to take " a first 
class position in an office," that one year's practice will 
fit them therefor; or, still better, that "plenty of ope- 
rators have acquired proficiency in six months ;" pro- 
ficiency in swinging open the brass gate, unquestion- 
ably ; proficiency in the " cast," " it don't come," 
"write Gerse," etc., phrases; certainly not in working 
a wire with care and judgment. "We have not patience 
to allude to half the' inaccuracies that appear in the 
course of the article ; but we must not close without 
referring to the capers of the lightning as it goes flash- 
ing from the switch board and caroms on the different 
instruments, causing the operators to do the " demon's 
dance "fit to grace the most spectacular play. How 
familiar that scene has become to us ! How often we 
have all tripped the light fantastic under those circum- 
stances, and what a hit most of us would make in the 
spectacular line ! Listen to the magpie, and see how 
you like it: 

TELEGRAPHY. — WHERE OPERATORS COME PROM. — 

UNNECESSARY DELAYS CAUSED BY THEIR 

MULISHNESS, ETC., ETC., ETC. 

Telegraphy is a mysterious art to a great majority of 
people. Introduce a stranger to the operating room of 
an office and the confused rattling of the instruments 
strikes upon his untutored ear as a miniature Babel. 
It seems to him an impossibility for any one to distin- 
guish aught of order in the general din, and yet on 
every side he can see the operators, with pen or pencil 
in hand, tracing letters', syllables, words and sentences 
upon the paper before them with the utmost rapidity 
of movement. If he becomes inquisitive, and asks 
questions, he will receive little satisfaction, for the 
average telegrapher simply knows the fact that the 
sound of an instrument conveys intelligence of some 
description to him, but for the life of him he cannot 
explain how the result is achieved. 

To become proficient in the business of telegraphy 
requires constant, laborious practice for about three or 
four hours a day during the period of about one year. 
At the end of that time a candidate who has followed 
- this course may be considered capable of taking a first 
class position in an office. This is the case with most 
men, but of course there are exceptions, and often dis- 
appointment attends evtry effort of individuals to mas- 
ter the art. Then, again, plenty of operators have 
acquired proficiency in six months' hard work, but such 
cases are rare. 

As a rule, telegraph operators are either village bred 
or have graduated from the ranks of the messenger 
boys who are employed in every large city office, in 
numbers ranging from ten to a hundred. Operators 
are, in general, young men, and if their ages were 
averaged and compared with those of other professional 
men, they would undoubtedly be found to be the most 
youthful class. The reason for this can be easily ex- 
plained. A boy can become a messenger in a telegraph 
• office at the age of twelve years, and after spending 
from one to three or four years in this branch of the 
business the way is open to promotion. If the boy is 
smart, and shows it, he will be taken from the corps of 
messengers to fill a vacancv in the operating room. 
His duty there is to wait on the operators, remove mes- 
sages as they are received, and take -them from the 
dummy box as they are sent up from the receiving room 
to be sent to other cities. The work is light, and throws 
the youngster into the very heart of the business he is 
destined to follow. It would be impossible for an 
average youth to remain long in such a position without 
having his curiosity aroused, and he soon begins to 
tinker with the instruments. 

At first he is sly about it, and hates to acknowledge 
before operators that he is making any efforfeto learn 
the business. They find this out, however, without 
being told so, and then furnish the tyro with a copy of 
the alphabet, with the significance of each letter in 

telegraphy, marked by dots ... or dashes , 

alongside. When the "check boy," as he is called, 
gets this far along he is bound to progress, and it is a 
proud moment to him when he discovers that he is able 
to make the letter "A" in a manner pronounced cor- 
rect by the operator who is his particular patron. In 
three or four days, or, at the outside, a week, the alpha- 
bet is mastered. Nearly every new beginner has his 
particularly hard letter to overcome. Over that one 
letter he will work and puzzle for hours before he is able 
to sound it, and when he does do so intelligibly, he has 
to keep practicing on it to train his fingers to make it 
correctly. 

From learning the alphabet the boy begins to form 
conjunctions of letters and words, and with every 
advance he makes his interest increases, until finally 
he neglects no moment of spare time, and, after his 
working hours are over, remains in the office rattling 
away on a "way wire" instrument, and using up 
column after column of newspaper matter. In a very 
few weeks his finger joints seem to relax, and he can do 
anything with the key, from writing a single paragraph 
to playing the " Dead March in Saul." As a rule, 
beginners can send at the rate of twenty to thirty words 



a minute before they can read a letter of the messages 
that come over the wires. 

To acquire the nack of distinguishing between the 
confusion of noise made by an instrument at work re- 
quires long practice. It is by far easier to learn to 
send a message than to receive one. Generally, begin- 
ners entering upon the second and hardest stage of the 
study, practice together. Both students sit at the same 
table. No. 1 has one hand on the key and a newspaper 
in the other. No. 2 has is ear inclined toward the 
" sounder." No. 1 writes the alphabet slowly, letter 
by letter. No. 2, if he can catch the letters, repeats 
them. If he cannot, at the first attempt, they are re- 
peated over and over again until he can read them. 
He first attempts to read the letters in regular rotation. 
After he succeeds in this they are written by the sen- 
der in every way. He writes the alphabet backward, 
or begins in the middle. In this way the listener learns 
to tell the sound of the letters in themselves, without 
reference to other letters. He can tell the sound of 
" E " without having " J " sounded before it. 

From learning the letters the student soon becomes 
able to place them in words. "Words become senten- 
ces, and, after a few weeks longer practice, he can 
read the messages that come over the wires with great 
distinctness. After this result is gained about half the 
work is accomplished. Then follows the task of con- 
veying to paper the words that he reads in the ticking 
of the instrument. This part of the task is the hardest, 
and patience and constant practice are absolutely 
necessary to success. 

Operators' salaries range from $30 to $40 a month up 
to $120. The inferior class are never up to the stand- 
ard of men fit to fill positions in city offices, and their 
employment is obtained in the service of railroad com- 
panies, or as holders of branch offices in hotels, etc., 
where business is very slack. In " main" offices, the 
hours of labor range at from 8 A. M. to 6 P. M. for day 
men, and 6:30 P. M. to the hour of closing for night 
men. Night operators are sometimes through work 
by eleven or twelve o'clock, but when storms prostrate 
the wires, or on occasions when the President's mes- 
sage is to be transmitted, they may be kept at work 
until six or seven o'clock in the morning. 

It is very exciting to be in an operating room during 
a thunder storm. The lightning flashes over the wires, 
strikes the " switch board," caroms on the different in- 
struments in the room, and causes the men to do a 
"demon's dance" fit to grace the most sensational 
spectacular play. Balls of fire play about the room, 
and the flash is accompanied with snapping noises of 
the most startling character. On such occasions the 
boldest of operators grow alarmed, and often business 
is entirely suspended during the prevalence of the 
storm. 

Telegraph operators learn to cultivate a certain de- 
gree of worldliness, or it might be called callousness, 
that is born of the business they follow — messages 
affecting the most vital interests of the sender ; mes- 
sages to save life or to cause death, to enrich or to 
bankrupt, pass through their hands by the score every 
day. They know a great deal of the secret life of 
hundreds of men in this way, and it would be thought 
that this very experience would teach them the neces- 
sity of attending strictly to their business. That they 
do this is true of some, but there are scores of them 
who do not regard one message that may come into 
their hands of a whit more consequence than another. 
Often messages will bo left in the counting room of a 
telegraph office, with instructions to the clerk to " rush 
it." The message is sent up stairs, the clerk whistles 
to the check boy, ' rush this." The check boy tells 
the operator to do so, and the operator hangs it on a 
hook to rest until he shall have finished the particular 
chapter of the novel he is perusing. "When he does 
turn his attention to it, lazily enough, the delay may 
have reudered it useless in achieving the object de- 
sired by the sender, and yet the operator does not feel 
that he has violated his duty in any particular. 

Suits against telegraph companies for delay in the 
transmission of messages have often been brought, and 
sometimes successfully. . The more of thein that are 
instituted the better for the general public. 



want of efficiency in the water wheel would be sure to 
consume the other half. Now, it happeus curiously 
enough, that there are in common use two methods for 
producing dynamic electricity — one being the voltaic 
battery and the other any form of mechanical power. 
In regard to the latter, it is evident that the same 
principle holds true in regard to it that is true when 
applied to the water wheel and steam engine above 
mentioned. If electricity, which has been produced 
by the agency of mechanical power, be applied to the 
driving of an electro-motor, the latter can never be 
made to give out as much power as has been exerted 
by the engine employed to produce that electricity. 
In other words, no one could be found so foolish as to 
employ a steam engine to produce electricity for the 
purpose of operating an electro-motor intended to drive 
machinery. It would evidently be vastly more econo- 
mical to drive the machinery by means of the engine 
itself, without the intervention of any complicated ap- 
paratus. 

This proposition is so self-evident that it requires no 
elaborate demonstration ; but from it follows the very 
obvious conclusion that, if by means of the steam en- 
gine we can produce electricity more cheaply than we 
can by the voltaic battery, then it is evident that the 
battery cannot compete with the engine as a source of 
power, no matter how perfect may be the electro- 
motor through which the energy derived from the bat- 
tery is applied. Hitherto it has been claimed that the 
only difficulty in the way of applying electricity as a 
motive power, consists in the absence of a properly 
constructed electro-motor; but if it can be proved that 
electricity can be produced more cheaply by means of 
steam than by the consumption of zinc, then it is clear 
that even a perfect motor — that is to say, one that 
utilizes all the electrical energy, and converts it into 
mechanical power — cannot enable the battery to com- 
pete with steam. 

Here, then, is a crucial test which is easily applied. 
And we believe that the results already attained do 
not leave the question in any doubt. In the case of 
the electro-deposition of metals, as well as the produc- 
tion of the electric light — two instances in which the 
comparison between the engine and the battery may be 
made with great accuracy — it has been found that the 
engine is the most economical. A fortiori, it should 
be far more economical as a source of mechanical 
power. — Industrial Monthly. 



Can Electricity be Profitably Employed as a 
Motive Power? 

A New Answer to this Question. 
There was recently on exhibition in one of our in- 
dustrial expositions a series of pumps, worked by ex- 
haust steam, over which was placed the startling an- 
nouncement that, by means of them, water might be 
raised to a given height in quantity sufficient to drive a 
water wheel which would give out more power than 
the steam engine itself! . The placard was well cal- 
culated to attract attention, but then nobody believed 
the statement printed on it, for the simple reason that 
no engine, far less the exhaust steam from one, could 
ever pump up water enough to drive a wheel which 
would give out half the amount of power of the original 
motor. The waste in pumping and the loss caused by 



The Asiatic Cable.— Cruise of the Tuscarora to 
Locate a Route lor the New Cable.— Inter- 
view with Commander Belknap. 

The United States steamer Tuscarora yesterday 
sailed from this port for the Sandwich Islands and 
Japan, with the purpose of sounding en route for a 
location for the proposed telegraph cable between Asia 
and the Pacific coast of the United States. 

An interview with Commander Geo. E. Belknap yes- 
terday morning elicited some interesting information in 
connection with the Asiatic cable enterprise and the 
cruise of the Tuscarora, which we here lay before the 
readers of The Union. The Tuscarora was detailed for 
her present expedition at the suggestion'of Cyrus "W. 
Field, the projector and conductor of the great Atlantic 
cable enterprise, who is at the head of the Asiatic cable 
scheme. The steamer was first ordered to survey 
northward for a route through Puget Sound and via 
the Aleutian Islands, and pioceeded to carry out the 
instructions. Becoming short of coal she returned to 
San Francisco, where orders were received to go south- 
ward and survey the route from San Diego to the 
Sandwich Islands and Japan, returning by the north- 
ern route, if possible. 

Commander Belknap thinks that the southern route, 
with a landing for the cable at San Diego, is by far the 
most feasible, and believes that it will in all probability 
be adopted. 

The northern route to Japan via Aleutian Islands 
is beset with difficulties. It would be impossible to 
repair any break during the largest part of the year, 
there being but four months in which those northern 
waters are open to navigation. 

A route from San Francisco has apparently not been 
thought of. It would be well nigh impracticable to 
land a cable in that vicinity on acconut of the rocky 
nature of the bottom at that part of the coast. 

A line from San Diego via Japan to the Sandwich 
Islands is the most practicable ; first, because it would 
lie in the " calm belt of the Pacific," and the cable could 
be laid down and repaired at any time during the year ; 
second, as a connection with the Sandwich Islands is 
the evident purpose of the scheme, this line is geogra- 
phically the best, the branches to Japan and Australia 
being short and of easy access; third, the cable should 
connect with an overland wire not subject to inter- 
ruption, and by the time the submarine line would be 
laid there would be a southern overland line between 
San Diego and the east which could be constantly 
operated. It is a well known fact that communication 
by the existing overland line is constantly interrupted 



January 31, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



27 



by storms ; this would never be the case with a line 
running eastward via the thirty-second parallel. In 
every point of view the advantages of taking the 
southern route, and making the landing at San Diego, 
are so great that they can hardly be overlooked. 

Commander Belknap hopes that he will not find over 
three thousand fathoms depth on the survey across. If 
a satisfactory result in this respect is reached, he thinks 
it will not fail to give the route from San Diego the 
preference— everything else being very greatly in favor 
of its adoption. 

He will suggest that the cable be laid on the south 
side of the channel, landing on the Peninsula, from 
which point a land line would be built down the Pen- 
insula around by way of La Punta and up the bay 
shore to San Diego. The shore from the Peninsula 
slides off very gradually to deep sea water; the bot- 
tom being soft and smooth, in which a cable would 
imbed itself by its own weight very readily.— The San 
Diego Union. ^ ______ 

We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

"Washington, D. 0., Jan. 28. 
To the Editob of The Telegrapher. 

Thk discussion before the Senate Committee on Post- 
offices and Post-roads of the Hubbard postal telegraph 
scheme, so called, was continued on "Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Friday of last week. President Orton, of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, appearing and 
arguing at length in opposition thereto. 

Mr. Orton concluded his argument on Friday, in 
which he maintained the proposition that Congress has 
not the right to pass a bill of this character, for the 
reason that it would indirectly take private property 
for telegraph purposes without just compensation/ and 
that the passage of the bill would in fact be a violation 
of the contract between the Government and the tele- 
graph companies now existing under the provisions of 
the Telegraph Act of 1866. 

He further argued that if there were no constitutional 
objections, or violation of contract, the adoption of the 
Hubbard scheme, as contemplated by this bill, would 
be impolitic, because it constitutes a partnership be- 
tween the Government and a private corporation, to be 
conducted by both official and private agencies opera- 
ting at the same time, under which there is to be a 
division of expenses between the Government and the 
company, while any profits that may be realized will 
go exclusively to the latter. 

It was further contended that, whatever the faults of 
the existing telegraph system of this country may be, 
the proposed scheme affords for them no adequate 
relief. It was shown from official documents and 
statistics that the present average rate for messages in 
this country is lower than in Europe for like despatches, 
and that here the business is conducted without any 
expense to the Government, while the annual deficiency 
arising from the telegraph service in Europe, raised by 
taxation upon the people, whether they used the tele- 
graph or not, amounted to several millions of dollars. 

Mr. Orton, in reply to the arguments of Mr. Hubbard, 
asserted that there was in fact no combination between 
the Western Union Company and the Associated Press, 
and that all other press combinations are offered by his 
company the same terms as the Associated Press, and 
that the establishment of a postal telegraph could not 
affect the Associated Press combination in any way. 

The discussion has not attracted much public atten- 
tion, it being conceded that there is no probability that 
Congress will take any definite action in regard to tele- 
graph matters at this session, and that the Hubbard 
scheme especially, in any event, has no possible chance 
of success. 

It is understood that Mr. Hubbard is to have a fur- 
ther hearing, in reply to Mr. Orton's arguments, by the 
Committee. 

Aside from this matter nothing of telegraphic inter- 
est has occurred. Capitol. 
♦-.-♦ 

Telegraph Matters in Oregon. 

Albany, Oregon, Jan. 10. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

On Jan. 5th, 1874, Mr. F. H. Lamb, who for years 
past has been Sup't of the Fourth District, Pacific Divi- 
sion of the W. U. Tel. Co., from Portland, Oregon, to 
Victoria, B. C, turned the same over to Dr. 0. P. S. 
Plummer, Sup't of the Third District from Marysville, 
Cal., to Portland, Oregon. Dr. Plummer will in future 
have both Districts under his supervision. Mr. Lamb 
started East on a visit to the Atlantic States on the 



morning of the 6th inst., to be absent a few weeks, 
when he will return and take a District (we understand) 
with headquarters at Sacramento, Cal. 

Dr. Plummer's headquarters have been moved from 
Albany, Oregon, to Portland, Oregon. 

Mr. F. H. Lamb having resigned, Mr. J. "W. Sweeney 
has been appointed Sup't of the Puget Sound Telegraph 
Company. 

The following are trustees of this company, who are 
to serve this year, Messrs. 0. F. Gerrish, D. C. H. 
Rothschild, Marshal Blinn, Cyrus Walker and M. Ren- 
ton. The Trustees organized by electing 0. F. Gerrish, 
President; Cyrus "Walker, Treasurer; and James G. 
Swan, Secretary. This is a local line, built between 
and connecting' all the ports on Puget Sound, and is 
doing a very good business. Headquarters are at 
Seattle, W. T. Webfoot. 
» . ♦ 

Importance of the Telegraph "to Railroads, and 

Insufficient Compensation to Railroad 

Telegraph Operators. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The late ice deluge gave us a good opportunity to 
test the value of the telegraph department in the man- 
agement of a great railway. The five wires which ex- 
tend along the line of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and 
Chicago Road were almost entirely prostrated for a 
distance of seventy miles east from Crestline, and the 
railway company was deprived of their use thereby 
during two days. During those two days the trains 
became most hopelessly mixed up and delayed, so that 
it required freight trains to put in about twenty-four 
hours on fifty miles of road as they jogged along from 
one jumble into another. The strike of the locomotive 
engineers a few days previously was decidedly mild in 
comparison with the trouble caused by the exit of the 
telegraph. Everybody was in a tub at sea, without 
compass or rudder, simply because the faithful little 
clickers were deprived of the power of giving forth 
their joyful sound. And yet, while the telegraph is 
proven to be a most valuable and indispensable part of 
the management of a large railway, and the tele- 
graphers the most faithful and attentive in the dis- 
charge of their duties, their pay is kept at a rate but 
slightly in advance of the track repairers and coal 
heavers, who need not know a letter of the alphabet, 
or have any of the great responsibility which is at- 
tached to him who receives a train order from a rabid 
despatcher, the least error in which might consign to 
an untimely death scores of valuable lives and cause 
the destruction of property worth many thousands of 
dollars. 

This, and much more fully demonstrates that the 
telegraphers, as a class, have just cause to cry out 
against the universal oppression with which they are 
burdened. Their invaluable services to the public, and 
especially to railway companies, coupled with the 
enormous load of responsibility under which they con- 
tinually labor, and the large number of masters they 
are obliged to serve, demands double the compensation 
that any of them receive. 

A closer union, honorable protection, and a firm de- 
mand for just rights, should be the watchword of the 

craft everywhere. Magneto. 
*-^» 

The Remedy for a Sticking Key. 

Meaford, Can., Jan. 23d. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

In your issue of the 17th inst. I noticed a remedy 
for a sticking key, signed E. M. D., which I have tried, 
and am glad to say it has proved a success. I have 
been bothered terribly with a sticking key, and can say, 
for one, that this remedy alone is worth the amount 
paid you for The Telegrapher for one year. 

A. Gault, Operator. 
++-• 

Supply and Demand. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

In opposition to the theory of protection against the 
encroachments of capital, which is the corner stone of 
most trades unions, it is usually asserted that the law 
of supply and demand will regulate the rates of wages, 
and I believe you have editorially endorsed this argu- 
ment. Iwish to call your attention to the fact that a 
combination already exists in certain quarters, the ob- 
ject of which is to obstruct the natural demand for 
operators, by interposing official influence to prevent 
their securing more desirable positions. Among the 
young operators who are continually coming upon the 
stage, there are many who remain in situations where 
they neither have encouragement nor opportunity to 
rise, and who toil incessantly year after year, twelve 
or fourteen hours per day, at a very moderate compen- 
sation. If, perchance, a more agreeablo position is 
tendered them, the machinery of the combination I 
refer to is immediately put in operation. 

It is not to be expected that operators, so situated, 
can voluntarily secure a better place under the same 



superintendent or the same company, but it is well 
known that some of these picayune officials have made 
arrangements with each other, and with railroad tele- 
graph superintendents, under which they mutually re- 
fuse to hire operators who leave the service within the 
territory under their immediate control. Should a 
man, through some oversight, obtain a position within 
this hallowed precinct, it is probable he would be dis- 
charged immediately upon the fact becoming known 
to his late employer. Such contemptible scheming as 
this shows the calibre of the superintendent of the 
period, and if any of your readers have had any per- 
sonal experience of this kind, I hope they will avail 
themselves of your columns to smoke 'em out. 

Centripetal. 
» . ♦ 

The Peculiar Characteristics of Different 
Operators. 

Bristol, Pa., January 22. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Your correspondent, "Jo.," in his remarks on tele- 
graphers' unions or associations, classifies operators as 
railroad and commercial operators. 1 desire to make 
a further designation, and will distinguish them as resi- 
dent and travelling operators. 

The resident operator, whether railroad or commer- 
cial, is what is termed steady and reliable. Generally 
he is old fogyish, precise, contented, hangs to old 
fashioned ways of doing his work, don't put his five 
words per line, or count as he goes. If he gets it down, 
"nuffsed." Usually is not addicted to the use of 
tobacco, and is very apt to be married. 

Now for the other genus : He has a knowing look, 
is smart, with a moustache agonizingly undeveloped. 
Sports a tall hat, fashionable tights, a big ring and a 
girl. Don't care a cent whether school keeps or not; 
affects the traveller and is posted. Knows every 
Superintendent in the States and suburbs, and has 
worked for 'em all. Been discharged for every misde- 
meanor under the sun, and glories in it. Always 
financially busted. " By the way, Jones, can you 
spare a couple dollars till next week; it's all right, you 
know, ole feller, av coorse!" He does a nice gilt 
edged copy, puts on all the extras, and is generous to 
a fault when he has the means. Never saves a cent, 
and is never contented with his job. His monomania 
is to write to Superintendents for a " sit," and, if he is 
successful, leaves the one he is in for it. His morals 
are of the convenient type ; is not naturally bad, but 
his principles are that the world owes him a living, 
and he acts accordingly. Is full of fun, telegraphic jokes, 
and the boys all like him. Girls ditto. This is a 
different race from the old report operator, thirty years 
at the busiuess, who takes forty-five words Spencerian, 
can copy three messages at a time while sending with 
his left hand, diverting himself while so doing by 
Mazourkaing to other side of room to borrow a chew 
and talking to the boys. He can also string a set of 
Hicks. His eyes resemble a pickled mackerel's from 
long practice on fourth proof, and can't stay sober long 
enough to get a job. You've seen him, eh ? Spotts. 



The Western and Brazilian Telegraph Company. 

An extraordinary general meeting of the Western 
and Brazilian Telegraph Company (Limited) was held 
on the 17th December at the Carman Street Hotel, Lon- 
don. The Chairman said the object of the meeting 
was to approve an agreement, made on the 8th inst., 
between this company and the liquidators of the Great 
Western Telegraph Company, relative to the cancella- 
tion of the shares issued to the shareholders of the 
latter company, and the allotment and issue of other 
shares of this company in exchange for said shares, 
credited with the like sum as paid up thereon. His 
colleagues at the Board, however, had requested him 
to state the present position of the company. The line 
from Para to Pernambuco was laid and at work. The 
ship Hooper was now on the coast, laying the south- 
ern portion of the line from Rio. The further lines 
between Rio and the River Plate had been purchased 
by the company and the deposit money paid. A re- 
pairing ship had been bought by the directors to sail 
along the coast and look after the cables. As soon as 
the ship Hooper returned home she would take out the 
West India cable, and ho hoped the whole of their 
system would be completed and at work in a short 
time. Another satisfactory matter was that all moneys 
due to the contractors had been paid, and the com- 
pany was absolutely out of debt. The resolutions ap- 
proving the agreements, etc.,woro unanimously adopted 



The Eastern Extension, etc., Telegraph Company's 
traffic receipts for the month of December, 1873, 
amounted to £20,400, against £14,797 for the corres- 
ponding period of 1872 for the four separate lines, viz., 
the British Indian Extension, the China Submarine, 
the British Australian and the Tasmauian Submarine 
Telegraph Companies. 



28 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 31, 18U. 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 31, 1874. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY at 38 VESEY ST. 



TENTH VOLUME, 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, ----- $'4.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION. 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. K ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 



T 



HE TELEGRAPHER. 



A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OP THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. ■ 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
Its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous, to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegraphic clique or com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 

patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

first class » 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
Terms of Subscription. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR $2 00 

SINGLE COPIES Five Cents. 

Canada Subscribers must remit Twenty Cents in addition for 



Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
ing subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty Per Cent. Com- 
missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any per»on sending the names and money for four subscri- 
bers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per year, 
will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the" Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
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All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

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Conspiracy to Oppress Telegraph Employes.— 
A Eeal Grievance. 

"When some years ago it was found that a portion of 
the telegraph employes of the country had combined 
and established a League for mutual support and pro- 
tection, great was the outcry against it on the part of 
Western Union officials, and most earnest the determi- 
nation, at any cost, to defeat and destroy it. In this 
the company was successful, and, since then, except 
that at times the spectre of the League has seemed to 
trouble and terrify them, all has been serene, and with 
the exception of some grumbling and complaining 
through The Telegrapher, and spasmodic agitations 
of the Telegraphers' Association question, there has 
been little, so far as the employes were coucerned, 
to disquiet them. 

It is not our purpose to find fault with this or to agi 
tate disturbing elements, but it seems to us that if 
combination on the part of the employes which may 
prove adverse to the interests of employers is so wicked 
and discreditable, combination on the part of the 
higher officials of telegraph companies and liues, 
avowedly adverse to the interests of the employes, is a 
wrong and outrage, and constitutes a real grievance 
which should be exposed and made public. 

Our correspondent Centripetal, whose communi- 
cation will be found in this paper, partially reveals 
such a combination on the part of 'Western Union and 
certaiu railroad telegraph officials, which is made 
avowedry to prevent, so far as may be in their power, 
any chance for the subordinate employes bettering 
their condition, or availing themselves of opportunities 
for exercising the liberty of selecting their places of 
service, or exchanging from one location to another, 
except as these officials shall be graciously pleased to 
permit. That this is wrong aud an outrage there 
can be no question. In this country every person is 
supposed to be at liberty to select employment and 
employers, and, if an opportunity offers, to change both 
or either if it shall appear desirable or for their inter- 
est to do so. It is of course but right that in making 
such a change proper notice should be given of the 
intention to do so, and a suitable opportunity afforded 
to supply the service which is about to be withdrawn. 

This is all that can in justice or equity be required, 
but this is not sufficient to satisfy some telegraph offi- 
cials. 

It has recently come to our knowledge that an 
arrangement exists, as before stated, between "Western 
Union officials and certain railroad and other telegraph 
superintendents, by which an employe of either will 
not be given positions under the other without the per- 
mission of his former superior; or, if inadvertently an 
appointment be made, upon its being made known that 
the employe is a fugitive from the thraldom exercised 
by one of these officials, or has abandoned one for the 
other for a better position, easier labor or increase of 
compensation, the employe is at once discharged, and 
can either humble himself or herself, and, if graciously 
permitted so to do, return to his or her former, or a 
lower position under the old Superintendent, abandon 
the business, or starve. 

As will at once be supposed this arrangement has 
grown up on the division which is under the manage- 
ment of T. T. Eckert, and exists in all its force in the 
large district which is under the sway of D. H. Bates. 
"Whether it exists on other sections of the Western 
Union and connecting lines we are not as yet informed. 
It may be so, but we doubt whether such an arrange- 
ment could exist elsewhere. If it does, the fact should 
be made known and the subject agitated until the in- 
justice is corrected. , 

We concede the right of telegraph companies and 
officials to manage their business as they shall deem 
most advantageous, and to employ such persons as they 
shall deem most likely to serve them satisfactorily. "We 
deny their moral and equitable right to combine to 
keep in subjection the employes, or to prevent them 
from exercising freedom of selection of employers and 
employment, and especially to prevent them from 
obtaining better compensation than they may have 



previously been receiving. This is a conspiracy to 
oppress, and a real grievance,, which should be agitated 
until it is removed. 

"We do not approve of telegraph employes constantly 
and capriciously changing from one line to another, 
for insufficient reason or for no reason at all, but if they 
can obtain situations it is their right to do so. How 
much stronger then is the right of steady, reliable em- 
ployes, who after months and years of faithful service, 
seeing no probable reason to anticipate any improve- 
ment where they are, when the opportunity is afforded 
to secure such improvement by a change to avail them- 
selves thereof? But just here the old employer says, 
" No, you must continue in my service whether you will 
or not. By an arrangement between your proposed 
employer and myself, only with my consent can your 
service be transferred !" If this is not slavery we are at 
a loss to understand the word. If the power of such men 
as we have mentioned was only equal to their desires, 
they would be despots whose tyranny and oppression 
would equal any that has ever before been experienced. 

It is inevitable that combination will be met by com- 
bination, and if telegraph companies and officials do 
not desire that their employes should engage in such, 
they must not attempt on their own part to combine 
against them. "We may have something more to say 
on this subject hereafter if the above should continue, 
and in the meantime desire the fraternity throughout 
the country to inform us whether such a combination 
exists in their respective localities, 



The Hubbard Telegraph Monopoly. 

As has been stated by our "Washington correspond- 
ent, Capitol, the proposed Hubbard telegraph mo- 
nopoly has been discussed for several days before the 
Senate Post-office Committee, by Messrs. Hubbard, 
Orton, Prescott and others, for and against. The 
arguments adduced on either side were of the stereo- 
typed character, and are too familiar to our readers to 
make it worth while to reproduce them at any length 
in our columns. 

There is so little really to be said in favor of Mr. 
Hubbard's proposed telegraphic monstrosity that it is 
difficult to understand how it is that a committee of 
the Senate should need lengthy argument in opposition 
to it, or should give it serious consideration even ; but 
they do, and not only so, but once or twice at least 
have reported favorably upon it. It has the advan- 
tages neither of a private enterprise or of a Govern- 
ment telegraph, and is to be established, if at all, only 
upon the ruin of existing telegraph interests, and with 
the certainty that it must eventually, and that at no 
distant day, be taken over by the Government, and at 
a largely increased cost to that which would attend the 
purchase of the lines and the establishment in the first 
place of the proposed Postal Telegraph. 

The Postmaster General, rabid as he is on the sub- 
ject of a Postal Telegraph, sees through the Hubbard 
scheme and very sensibly opposes it. It should be 
effectually disposed of in some way, and not return 
Congress after Congress and session after session, to 
bother legislators and telegraphic officials uselessly 
and needlessly. How it can be done is beyond our 
knowledge, but that it ought to be there can be no 
doubt. That it will ever succeed we suppose no one 
besides Mr. Hubbard and Senator Ramsay seriously 
believes, and the two gentlemen named rely upon per- 
sistent worrying to effect the object, if it is possible to 
do it in any way. It has become a legislative nuisance 
and ought to be abated, but how ? 



The Page Patent Litigation. 

There seems to be a probability that the validity of 
the Page patent will be thoroughly and legally tested. 
We have before mentioned in The Telegrapher the 
fact that suits had been commenced in the United 
States Courts against the Manhattan Quotation Com- 
pany and Mr. Charles T. Chester, of this city, for 
infringement of this patent, and they are to be con- 
tested to the end, and its validity as affecting telegraph 



January 31, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



%Q 



instruments and apparatus, either established or denied 
judicially. 

Our readers are fully aware of our opinion in this 
matter, and we have shown, as we think, conclusively, 
that Prof. Page was not the original inventor of the 
devices for which a patent has been granted to him, 
and that in fact' the patent is an outrage on the public, 
who have paid largely for these same devices to other 
patentees, whose patents have expired and become 
public property. So well convinced was the Western 
Union Company of the invalidity of the patent that, 
when first offered to them for purchase, after an in- 
vestigation by experts and eminent patent lawyers, it 
was rejected. It was subsequently purchased by that 
company for good and sufficient reasons, no doubt, not 
connected with its validity, and has for the last three 
years been held in terrorem, over the telegraph inter- 
ests of the country, not connected with the Western 
Union — no serious attempt having heretofore been 
made to enforce it. 

It should, by all means, be disposed of at as early 
a day as possible. Tf properly contested that it can 
ever be maintained legally we regard as an- impos- 
sibility. 

The resources of the Western Union Company will 
enable them to press the matter, and the contest will 
be protracted and expensive. All who are interested 
in defeating it shonld at once join hands with the de- 
fendants and make common cause with them, sharing 
the expenses as they will the benefit of success. The 
railroad- companies are especially aDd vitally inter- 
ested in this matter, for if the Page patent be once 
established, they are at the mercy of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, so far as their telegraph 
facilities are concerned, and will be made to pay 
roundly for the exemption from such control during 
the last few years, since the Morse patents expired. 
They should be wise in time, and cooperate with those 
who are engaged in supporting the independence of 
the telegraphs of the country. 



Mr. C. D. Case has resigned the position of Ticket 
Agent and Telegraph Operator at the Broadway ticket 
office of the Midland R. R. at Paterson, N. J., and 
returned to his home in New York State. 

Mr. P. M. Huntington has been transferred from the 
Train Despatcher's office at Jersev City, 1ST. J., of the 
New Jersey Midland E. R. to the Broadway Ticket 
Office at Paterson, N. J. ; the despatches doubling up 
on their work at Jersey City. 

The W. U. Company have established an office at 
Congress Hall, Albany, 1ST. T., which is in charge of 
Mr. J. P. McAuliffe, transferred from the main office. 

The W. U. office at the State Capilol, Albany, N. T., 
has been reopened for the Legislative season. Mr. J. 
A. Osborn, late of' Hartford, Conn., is the operator in 
charge. 

Mr. W. P. Smith, late of the W. U. and P. and A. 
Co., has accepted the position of signal operator at the' 
Dudley Observatory, Albany, N. T. 

Mr. H. C. Wineland, formerly in the Kansas Pacific 
R. R. office, State line, Kansas City, Mo., is now extra 
operator on the Pittsburg Division of the P. R. R. 

Mr. Charles Rushmore, Secretary and Treasurer of 
the American District Telegraph Company, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., has resigned. 

Mr. H. L. Htjes, Manager of the Western Union 
Telegraph Co., Brcoklyn, N. Y., has been appointed 
Secretary and Treasurer pro tern, of the American Dis- 
trict Telegraph Co., to fill the vacancy from the resig- 
nation of Mr. Charles Rushmore. 



The Western Elective Manufacturing- Co. 

The Western Electric Manufacturing Co., of Chicago, 
111., seems to be in a sound and prosperous condition, 
considering the hard times. They have kept a full force 
at work at full time during the fall and winter, and 
have met all their engagements promptly, and we are 
pleased to learn that they find a good demand for the 
products of their shop. 

The company, instead of decreasing its production, 
is branching out and adding an entirely new depart- 
ment to their manufactory, in the shape of apparatus 
for insulating all descriptions of office and magnet wire. 
They have purchased of Messrs. Olmstead, Mead & 
Co., of Providence, R. I., their machinery for this pur- 
pose, and are setting it up in Chicago, adding new ap- 
paratus for the winding of silk and cotton magnet and 
resistance wire. 

This company does business on its own capital, and 
its business is not limited to any one branch of elec- 
trical work, and all branches do not fail at the same 
time. Again, its workmen and employes are stockhold- 
ers, and are thus working for themselves, and remain 
permanently in a shop where they have an interest in 
the profits, in addition to their wages. This naturally 
secures good workmen, interested in making a superior 
article, and who do their work economically, wasting 
neither labor or material. 

Those having occasion to use insulated wire of any 
description will do well to patronize the Western Elec- 
tric Company. 



lersfoujtls. 

Mr. 0. K. Tompkins, recently of the Dubuque, Iowa, 
Pacific and Atlantic office, has been appointed Day 
Assistant of the Northwestern and Western Union 
office at McGregor, Iowa— the great increase of business 
at that point necessitating an increase of the force. 

Mr. B. A. Dennis has been transferred from the 
Augusta, Ga., to the Charlotte, N. C, office of the South- 
ern and Atlantic Telegraph Company. 



By Cable. 

Kingston, Jamaica, Jan 24.— The Telegraph Con- 
struction and Maintenance Company have (17th inst.) 
succeeded in submerging a new cable between Jamaica 
and 'Porto Rico. It is laid to Ponce, on the south 
coast of Porto Rico. Everything is working well, but 
the line is not open to the public. The former cable was 
laid along the north side of Porto Rico to St. John, but 
in consequence of strong currents to the east of Porto 
Rico, the change of route has been considered neces- 
sary. 

•-»-♦ 

The Brazilian Telegraph.— Celebration of the 
Completion of the Line. 

By the mail steamer South America, which arrived 
at New York on the 22d inst., advices from Rio Ja- 
neiro to Dec. 26th, and Bahia to Dec. 30th, have been 
received. 

The Hooper Telegraph Company had completed their 
cable from Bahia to Rio — the steamer Hooper arrived 
at Rio with the final end on December 25th, and now 
there is complete communication from Para to Pernam- 
buco, Bahia and Rio. The completion of the line was 
celebrated by a grand banquet and dinner at each of 
the above named ports on Jan. 1st. The Emperor of 
Brazil, present at Rio, held communication with those 
ports, and, after an interchange of congratulations with 
the presidents and officials of the several provinces, by 
a signal from the Rio headquarters all parties simulta- 
neously sat to dine and toasted the success of the great- 
est enterprise that to-day exists in all Brazil. Other 
vessels of the company are now preparing to lay the 
remainder cf the cable between St. Thomas, West 
Indies, and Para, which, it is expected, will be com- 
pleted by May 7th, 1874, when there will be complete 
telegraphic communication with the United States, 
and thence to all parts of the world. Another line is 
projected and expected to be laid between Lisbon and 
Pernambuco within the year, thus opening direct com- 
munication with Europe. 



Annual Meeting of the Atlantic and Pacific Tele- 
graph Company. 

The Annual meeting of the Atlantic and Pacific 
Telegraph Company was held on Wednesday, the 28th 
inst., at the Executive offices of the Company in this 
City, and the following gentlemen were elected Trus- 
tees of the Company for the ensuing year. Messrs. 
Oliver Ames and John R. Duff, of Boston, Mass.; S. 
L. M. Barlow, George S. Bowdoin, George Bliss, Geo. 
H. Brown, H. G. Chapman, W. II. Clay, Sidney 
Dillon, John Duff, R. R. Graves, W. n. Guion, J. B. 
Hodgskin, C. P. Huntington, L. P. Morton, John H. 
Mortimer, G. G. Sampson, William W. Sherman, W. J. 
Synis, Henry M. Tabor, William It. Travers, John G. 
Yose, A. F. Wilmarth, New York ; John Barker, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.; James Uendrick, Albany, N. Y. ; N. C. 
Simons, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Cheney Ames, Oswego N. Y. ; 
H. G. Hamilton, Rochester, N. Y.; Russell Wheeler, 
Utica, N. Y. , S. H. Marks, Lockport, N. Y. ; W. W. 
Shippen, Hoboken, N. J. ; C. S. Bushuell, New Haven, 



Conn.; Herman D. Walbridge, Toledo, 0.: R. M. 
Shoemaker, Cincinnati, 0.; J. A. Devereaux, H. M. 
Flagler, Waldemar Otis, Cleveland, 0.; C. B. Ham- 
mond, A. B. Meeker, Chicago, 111.; and Emory Wen- 
dell, Detroit, Mich. 

♦-»-♦ 

Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

The directors of the Eastern Telegraph Compauy 
have announced an interim dividend of 2s. 6d. per 
share for the quarter ended September 30, 1873. 

An interim dividend has been declared by the direc- 
tors of the Eastern Extension Australasian and China 
Telegraph Company for the quarter ended September 
30, 1873, at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum, or 3s. 
per share. 

The total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom during the 
week ended January 3, 1874, was 284,788, an increase 
of 28,753 on the corresponding week of last year. 

A dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, on the shares 
of the Auglo-American Telegraph Company is an- 
nounced. 

The Evening Standard says there is no truth in a 
recent report that the Telegraph Construction and 
Maintenance Company (Limited) are about to manu- 
facture a light cable for the Anglo-American Telegraph 
Company for submersion between Great Britain and 
America. It is, however, probable that the 1,000 
miles of cable owned by the latter company, and now 
on board the Great Eastern, will be utilized during the 
present year, with the addition of about 700 miles of 
new cable of the heaviest type — experience having de- 
monstrated that this description of cable is the best 
and most durable. 

Gibraltar has been for more than eighteen months 
connected with the telegraph system of Europe by 
means of the line between that city and San Roque. 
Dp to the present time, however, the Spanish Govern- 
ment has permitted this line to be used only for tele- 
graphing to places in Spain itself, objecting to the 
transmission of messages to other countries, on the 
ground that it would accept no responsibility except 
for messages deposited in its own telegraph offices. It 
is notified, however, that from the first of January the 
service of the Gibraltar telegraph, heretofore limited 
to Spain alone, will be extended to all parts of the 
world. 

Admiral Sherard Osborn, C.B., F.R.S., has resigned 
the managing directorship of the Telegraph Construc- 
tion and Maintenance Company in order to place him- 
self at the disposal of the Admiralty, and is succeeded 
by Admiral Richards, C.B., F.R.S., who has filled the 
position of Hydrographer to the Navy for the last ten 
years. Admiral Osborn joined the Telegraph Construc- 
tion Company in 1864, previous to the first contract 
for au Atlantic cable, and during his tenure of the 
managing directorship has successfully carried out con- 
tracts for upwards of 30,000 miles of cable, extending 
from Falmouth to Australia and America, and consti- 
tuting a complete system of submarine telegraphy. He 
will still retain a seat at the board of the company, to 
whose utility and prosperity he has thus so long con- 
tributed. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company's traffic receipts 
for the month of December, 1873, amounted to £35,238, 
and for the corresponding month of 1872 to £32,250, 
showing an increase of £2,988. 

The Board of Supervision of the German Union Tele- 
graph Company of Berlin have resolved to pay an in- 
terim dividend on account of the dividend due 1st May 
next, with 10s. 4d. per share of 100 thalers, or £15, at 
the German Bank of Berlin, London agency, 50 Old 

Broad street. 

♦-•-♦ 

The West Indian Telegraphs. 

The Kingston, Jamaica, correspondent of the New 
York Herald, under date of Jan. 10th, writes: 

" It has long been a scheme to connect the entire 
group of West India Islands by telegraph, and the 
British Government, through the Colonial Office, offered 
to grant some kind of subsidy or concession to any 
enterprising capitalists who should undertake to carry 
out the idea. The West Indian and Panama Compauy 
had at one time so far completed it that it was possible 
to telegraph to almost any part of Europe from these 
islands, and while they were about demanding their 
reward from the Government the cable between Colon 
and Jamaica was broken, thus severing the connection 
and shutting off communication. No sooner was the 
Colon cable repaired than the cable laid to the north 
end of Porto Kico became useless, thus again destroy- 
ing the communication between here and St. Thomas. 
And, lastly, the Spanish authorities in Cuba have so 
far crippled the operations of the cable to Santiago and 
Batabano that it has been purely a waste of time to 
attempt to uso it for transmitting messages via Now 
York — five days boiug the time required for a single 



so 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[January 31, 1814; 



word to reach your city. Notwithstanding all the 
accidents of the deep, and the unjust and untimely 
interference of the Dons, the Panama Company have 
determined to try again to make the circuit complete. 
A few days ago two large steamers, chartered by the 
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, 
arrived at this port, having on board the material for 
the new Porto Rico cable. One of them, the Minia, 
had on board 648 miles of five eighths six strand wire. 
The Kangaroo carried fifteen miles of main cable, 
eighteen miles of intermediate and fourteen miles of 
shore end — the intermediate being about one inch and 
the shore end about one inch and three eighths in cir- 
cumference. 

The Minia, after having laid the present cable, will 
attempt to grapple aDd repair the wire now broken at 
some distance from Porto Rico, while the Kangaroo 
has to proceed to Martinique for the purpose of mend- 
ing the Dominica wire, which has been sundered in 
about 1,000 fathoms of water. 

The shore end of the new line will be laid, by about 
Tuesday next, the 13th inst., from Holland Bay, on 
the eastern extremity of Jamaica, to Ponce, on the 
south side of Porto Rico. The bottom, according to 
the soundings on the chart, appears to be uneven ; in 
some places it is only about 600 fathoms, while only a 
short distance further on the leads went tumbling 
down the sides of immense hills to the depth of over 
2,000 fathoms, showing that the bottom is mountain- 
ous and difficult to lay a wire on. 

The wires, on being tested before leaving, were found 
to be in splendid condition, so that iu all probability 
the enterprise will prove successful. The supervision 
of the work on behalf of the Panama Company has 
been entrusted to Mr. Theophilus Smith and a staff of 
three other electricians from the office of Sir Samuel 
Canning, while the contractors — the Construction Com- 
pany — are represented by Mr F. Lucas and a special 
staff. Some little difficulties are expected iu laying 
the shore end, for, though the British Government 
seems so anxious to have the "West Indies connected 
by wires to the United States aud Europe, their repre- 
sentative here declined to aid in the work by loaning a 
small steamer. Should the shore end be successfully 
laid by Tuesday, however, and the weather remain fine, 
the other end will have been laid at Ponce by about 
the 20th of Januarv. 



Ball at Tucson, A. T., to Celebrate Completion 

of the Military Telegraph Line to San 

Diego, Cal. 

On Saturday, Dec. 5, 1873, a ball took place at Tuc- 
son, Arizona Territory, to celebrate the completion of 
the military telegraph line connecting Arizona with 
the telegraph system of the country at San Diego, 
California. The Arizona Citizen, which, is published 
at Tucson, gives the following account of the affair : 

" This affair was well attended and as> well enjoyed. 
The evening was fine and the spirits of all present 
seemed finer. The dance opened about half past eight 
and continued to near twelve, when a fine supper was 
partaken of at jSTeugasa's restaurant. After eating and 
some drinking of coffee, champagne and other joy in- 
spiring fluids, some remarks were made. Gov. Safford 
gave a concise and interesting history of the rise and 
progress of telegraphing, and commented on the mys- 
terious wonder which it surely is to the mass of people 
even to this day. He paid proper tribute to Gen. Crook, 
and those under him, in its construction, and especially 
to Capt. G. P. Price, whose absence was regretted by 
all present, for to his energy and business tact the 
people of Arizona are much indebted for the entire 
completion of the line as contemplated with the small 
appropriation made by Congress ; and the Governor 
very fitly referred to delegate McCormick's prompt 
action in securing the appropriation for the work. It 
is true that others high in authority recommended it, 
but for the opportune motion of delegate McCormick, 
and enforced by his excellent arguments in committee 
of the whole House of Representatives in Congress, 
there would have been no appropriation made. This 
is a little history in this connection which the people 
of Arizona should properly remember. After the Gov- 
ernor's remarks the proprietor of the Citizen informed 
those present of the contents of a news despatch just 
received from San Diego, which set forth that the ad- 
ministration of President Grant had wisely averted war 
with Spain upon honorable terms, which were briefly 
stated ; the President's views on the postal telegraph 
and postal savings banks were also given as contained 
in the despatch fresh from Washington. Such late 
news was never before enjoyed at a supper in Tucson. 
Gen. E. A. Carr, of Camp Lowell, was called out, and 
he responded in some remarks complimentary to the 
citizens in general. 

So far as we can learn, all present still feel that it 
was good to have been there, and rejoice that a large 
step towards removing our feeling of isolation from the 
hives of population and thronged business centres of 
our country had just been taken." 



The Correspondence of "The Telegrapher." 

Now that the prospect of the location of the Ameri- 
can terminus of the Asiatic Telegraph Cable at this 
place begins to look like certainty, it is not out of place 
to mention the fact that the first public statement of 
the advantages of San Diego in that connection ap- 
peared in the columns of The Telegrapher, over the 
yiom de 'plume of " Clix," and was from the peu of Mr. 
Wm. E. Smith, the manager of the "Western Union 
Company's office in this city. The article was very ex- 
tensively copied in Ihe Eastern press at the time of its 
appearance. — San Diego (Cal.) Union. 



TT^ESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

FURNISH ALL DESCRIPTIONS OP 

Copper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EVEEY VAEIETT OF INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company, 

CHICAGO. 

VOLUMES OF THE TELEGRAPHER 
FOR SALE. 

The subscriber has had placed in his hands, to dispose of to 
the best advantage, complete sets of Vols, i, 6, 6 and 7 of the 
The Telegbapheh, unbound. They are in perfect condition 
and may be had at a bargain. 

' S. C. RICE, Operator, 

W. U. Telegraph Company, 

Albany, N". T. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURER OP 

REED & PHILLIPS' 

PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 

(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18TH, 1873.) 

Lock box 169. PE0VIDEN0E, E. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

S£g~ Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. HOCKHAUSBN ' " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall , " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January let, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Sup't. 



Anson Stager, Elisha Gray, 

Pres't. Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGEAPH, WIEES, INSTEUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAT0H CLOCKS AND 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGEAPH WIEE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 
JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 
KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 

TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Electrical and Telegraph Minents. 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELE0TEI0 BELLS AND ANNUNOIATOES, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Oarbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



ALL GOO&S WdUKjUrXJe?) FISS2 CLASS 
AND PRICES EXTREMELY LOW. 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 



January 31, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



ANIC PRICES. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



w. 



ALL WHO NEED 



TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 



Large or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 



SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 



A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD A VENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 

pEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THlItTi ATEXTJEy 

Chicago, III. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 

Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



Agents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 

" AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 

" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 

'< ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 

•• HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 
" " " MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
<• <« THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 
« .. PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 

" BROOKS' 

•' UNITED STATE8 ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 
" POPE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 
" " EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 
" SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 
" ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No - 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No - * 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instruments, Lin-e Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

tO~ Special attention given to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 




nPHE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
-*- IN THE WORLD 



One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KEY, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with tbis key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

trom 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 60 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE k CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer!." prices. 



L 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
bur patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will oe prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words " Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

JVo. 10 West iSth Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 

rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 



(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warrauted first class 
In every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 5(1 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

with Cut Out and Lightning 
A rreBter attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No> 8 I>EY STREET, N. Y. 




IS SUPPLIED BY 



L 



CO., 



G. TILLOTSOB" 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 



TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays. 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 
POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, I|x2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. • 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS. 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from }i to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 

vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED- WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for t-pecial purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 

KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS, PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BDNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LECLANCHE, NITRO-CHROMIO AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 

CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 
DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," .... 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY h TELEGRAPHY. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Calrilo.r/ue and 7'rice List furnished upon application . 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 I>EY STREET, NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 31, 1814. 



A MERICAN EIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

(JAMEWELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



J. W. STOVER. 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Ohioago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 

J R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va.. 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 

J. A. BREKKER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L. M. MONkOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

BLKUTKIOAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL, OFFICE, 

OR 

UPON TEE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

Is now lu operation in the following Cities, to which refereuceis 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



aiuaiiy, N. Y.» 
Alloghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Charlestown, Mass., 
Coviugton, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchbnrg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Omaha, Neb., » 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, ya., 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y„ 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. C, 
Worcester, Mass. 



tne Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First — Tne Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constan t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— Tne Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. , 

Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the Are is Instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each Are company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only KtRKCT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sufficient vindication of the claims which are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAME WELL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CBANNING FA TENTS, one of the most 
Important of which has jus* been extended for seven years, and 
A uring the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure Improvements, and the Systems are now cove 3d by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietoi s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

the introduction and operation of which involves so litl ' .) ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

TIRE ALARM AND POLIOE TELEGRAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 
ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, three 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their locaUties is cordially invited, and 
iheir efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 



Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
g*aphy, upon application as above. 



c 



CHARLES T. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 



AND MANUFACTURER OF 



INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 



AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood- work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OB 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & jERIAL WIRES, 

OF THE 

HIGHEST INSULATION. 

Wearenow prepared to furnish, after an experience of three 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injury. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha In a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, beUevlng that it will 
exceed, in Insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, Introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used In this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily arid quiokly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w >rk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very beat MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



January 31, 1814.] 

T>ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOB THE SALE OF 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BKOOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 



THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
included with first cost. 



Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
&0., stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Cables, Cables for River Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro-' 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



A SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 
INSTRUMENT, 
FOE PEIVATE AND SHOET LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium,— Silver Medal—over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872..^ 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, reliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PEIYATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MERCHANTS' MANUFACTURING- AND 
CONSTRUCTION QO. 

S. J. BURRELL, Superintendent, 

No. 50 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. 



\ MERICAN COMPOUND 
-^ TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 

COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
oompared with iron, consists in its LIOBTNESS, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative THSN8ILB strength, homogeneity and elasticity— de- 
creasing the liability to breakage, from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in Its dura.bil.ity, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogother resulting la a very great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph linos, while, at tho same 
time. Insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
' Address — 

American Oomponnfl Telegraph Wire Co 
ALANSON GARY. Treasurer, ' 

No. 234 Went '-HUth St.. 

New Tor 7c. 



M 



AGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH,* 



FOR 



RAILKOADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED by 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors. 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IS MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 
in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

Which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

AH instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



L. POPE & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

38 VESEY 'stM'EET, Neiv York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS, 

In addition to these we furnish all desoriptioks of tele- 
graph MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, SUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

Frr Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE LT.Q-HTI-TIlNrca- ARRESTERS. 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

, We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will bo supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOOHHAUSEN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

• Sole Agents lor the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC B ATTIC 11 Y. 

The demand for this Battery In rapidly Increasing, and it Is 
conceded byall who have n icd it to be the n ' '""' mn:t /■:<■<, »«- 
mical Battery, I irl ilei raphic and other purposes, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Prico List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY STREET. 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pres't. JOHN E. GARY, Vice-Pret't. 

GEO. W. STOCKLT, Sec'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and. Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 
GAMEWELE & CO., N. Y. 

Specialties made of 

HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SURE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY" SOUNDER, 

Cheap Instruments fo; Learners, Amateurs, &c, 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private House Electric Annytnciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL BELLS AND ALARM BELLS of every style. 

Batteries, Chemicals, Wire, Insulators, 
Supplies , dec., &C. 

MODELS and LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 

PRICE LIST. 

Hicks' Repeaters (1873.) $100.00 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00" 19.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8-00 

Keys... " 3.00" 6.50 

Learners' Outfits (complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Annunciators, per room " 7.00" 12.00 

Burglar Alarms " 50.00 " 200.0 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 
No. 4 LEADER BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

R. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Piace, 

JERSEY CITY, K. J., 

Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, aad 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

"UNIVERSAL. APPARATUS . 

FOB 

Electric Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer anil his f.heostat as 
they have been recently im proved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity.; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, limits, crosses, 4c.; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro motive force of 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents ot dinamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. Its measuremertis are Accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It packs in a case seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. I'pnsidering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper (ban any other instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $230, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangonl Galvanometers, $-10 to $60. 

Descriptive pamphlets may bo had on application. 

Ho also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARE OF 

Naked -Copper Wire, 

So wound that the.oonvolutions are separated from oach other by 
a regular and uniform space of the 1 800th of an inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper, in Helices of silli insulated wire, the 

pare occupied by the I ill Is tho i 150th to the L -800th of i ch; 

therefore a spool made of n given length and size of naked wire, 
ivlll be smaller and will contain many more convolutions around, 
thecorethan one ol Bilk insulated wire, and will make a propoi 
tlonably tronger magnet, while the resistance will be i he same. 

These Helices are now offered for i lie use of manufacturers of 
Telegraphic and Electrical apparatus, and orders will bo filled 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[January 31, 1814. 



THE PERFECT BATTERY. 
CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




TTTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holli&ay Street, 

BALTIMORE, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, k, fa. 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A VERY SUPERIOR MAIN IINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 



LOOKWOOD BATTEET, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO,, Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dey Street, N. Y. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in tliis country and Europe to be 

FAR SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purposes, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1878. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper and zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL, ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 

current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale Other 
Styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 
Send for Circular. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. • 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O I_i E ^. O E! 3KT T S . 



New Yobk, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyer, Secretary. 



o 



RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 

UK 



"SAVE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into, th9 Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., 81.80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, 111. 



ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO.'S 



CHAMPION LEARNERS 

AMD 

SHORT LINE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

A GREAT IMPROVEMENT 

over all Instruments of the kind ever offered for this purpose, 
consisting of a 

No. 1 SOUNDER AND KEY COMBINATION SET, 

AN EXCELLENT BOOK OF PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN 

TELEGRAPHY, 

OFFICE WIRE, CHEMICALS, etc., 

making a complete arrangement for one office. 

The Instruments are full sized, complete in every respect. The 
Battery is a full sized first class Callaud cell, and the entire outfit 
has nothing about it which in any way resembles the many wretched 
affairs which have been extensively sold as Learners' Apparatus. 




■ % m 11 



Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 

The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, \ 
Sept. 22d, 1873. I 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager. 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearance Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. TJ. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : . 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. . • . 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect,- in a contrivance for that purpose." 
Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. ■ . " . , , 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 




Great numbers of our "Champion Instruments" are in use 
upon short private lines, and upon City wires of Telegraph 
Companies, where they are giving the greatest satisfaction, on 
account of their very substantial make and excellent working 
qualities. 

We guarantee them to be in every respect better than any form of 
Learners' Apparatus or Short Line Instruments ever offered to the 
public. . _ ,. 

Price of Apparatus, complete, with Book of Instructions, 
Battery Wire, and all necessarv materials for one complete office 
outfit, ready for shipment, sent C. O. D., $10— or, if money order 
sent for the amount, $9.50. The latter plan will additionally save 
the purchaser the express charges for the return of money. 

Price of Single Instrument, good for one mile or less, with- 
out Battery $8 50 

Ornamental style ditto, with rubber covered coils, without 

Battery 10 00 

Single Instrument, good lor working a line from one to 

twelve miles 9 50 

Ditto, ornamental, with rubber covered coils 11 00 

Battery, per celL. 1 60 

PARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOUTH FOURTH ST., PHILADELPHIA, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH & ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS 
♦and Supplies of every description. 











Vol X 



New York, Saturday, February 7 ' , 187 Jf. 



Whole No. 895 



I^HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 
MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
OALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC G-0NG3, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

** Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 
TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 
AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 

AND 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

352 and 354 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 



N 



OVELTY! 



A SOUNDER of Entirely New Construction, 

which gives with the usual amount of battery a very heavy and 
olear sound. 

Size fob Regular Offices $5 00 

8mall Size 3 go 

Learners' Outfits, with small size Sounder, Key, 
Battery, Chemicals, Wire, Instruction Book, &c, 

all complete 7 50 

Send for Circular. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND M'F'G 00., 

NO. 4 L-EADER ^UILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



c 



1HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 



(ESTABLISHED 1866.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various kinds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 

eluding Cotton Covered, Silk. Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 

DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURES OF 

REED & PHILLIPS' 

PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 

(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18TH, 1873.) 

Lock Box 169. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having' recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LIXEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold aud Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

<K5~ Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. Hockhausen " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co #. Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall " 

George H. Bliss <fc Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Bear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Snp't. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 



OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Bratded, Prepared, ho. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, ho. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c. &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the teats of the 
highest authority In this country. 



T 



ELEGRAPH POLES 



Parties who are in want of good 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES, 

can obtain them on favorable terms, and have them delivered 

at any Lake Port between Oswego and Chicago, on the 

ooening of Navigation, by applying to 

A. A. COLBY, 

P. O. Box 1,376. TORONTO, ONTARIO, 

CANADA. 



A 



NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 



Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. Prioe, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Daniells, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 



F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 5603.) 



38 VESJET STREET, N. T. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND. AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL MCALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

0HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELE0TRI0 MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, IU. 

ALLAOE & SONS, 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

BRASS. COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 



W 



AlBO, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

In the Roll and Sheet 

We make the manufacture of Etootric Wire a specialty — 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every instance to bo superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, N. T. 

MANUFACTORY, 

AnsonLa, Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Feburary *J, 18U. 



A LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 
{Room 12,) 



BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




<HE AMATEUR'S 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




HHHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS> 

4=22, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 



PATENT APPLIED TOE. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a Line 
many times with our new Hook, which gives great security. 

Price 80 cents each. 

" per dozen $8.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Belays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATERS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

• til THIBD AVE., Chicago, 111. 



R 



USSELLS' AMERICAN 

STEAM PRINTING HOUSE 
17, 19, 21, 23 EOSE STEBET, near FRAUKFORT, 
NEW YORK, 
EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS' OF . 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMEEOIAL PBIBTISG. 
TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

"^ i ' MAKOTACTUBERS OF 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

. FOE 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS, YACHTS, 
etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OP 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, "WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 YABICK STREET, JVEW YOBK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R . S . CULLEY, 

ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 
REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

vol. 8vo, cloth $5 00. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of Amprican and Fonign Scientific Boohs 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any add) ess on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN N0STEAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET, N. Y. 



This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the moat 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 

and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, In 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

:<§>: 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 
Seven Dollars and Fifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete $14 50 

Sounder and Key only 6 60 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. .. 7 60 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, HI. 

SEND FOR CIRCVLAR. 




OHAPFNER'S 
TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGEAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Blustra- 
tions in the Edition ot 1859. and the present comiDg Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway^ 

NEW YORK. 



S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 

OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOOD 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 



"jl/TODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
p-"" TRIO TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 



FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth.', ..... 



jpa.oo 



46g- Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 



My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on rect-ipt uf ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED 

WIRES OF EVERT VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors 

required. 

Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN~ 

CTATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE* 
AND FOB 

BLASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Percha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practical Electricians and Manufacturersof Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with In= 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Outta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the lime required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TELLOTSON & CO., 

8 BEY STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered In New York. 

JOHN TH0KNLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu. 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are fop 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO.. 363 Broadway, 
D. HODGMAN & CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
' SHEPARD &. DUDLEY, 150 William St, 

Address all Communications to 

S. B I IS H o r, 

* OFFICE AT FACTOR*. 



February Y, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



31 



The Telegrapher 

A- Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. ASHLEY, 



PUBLISHER. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1814. 



VOL. X. 



WHOLE No. 395. 



[From The GJwst.] 

Telegraphic Lays. 

It was thought some years ago, when a celebrated 
blacking house in the City of London advertised " We 
keeps a poet," that blacking was tending upward, and 
that the makers of that convenient compound were 
enterprising who could afford to make a raid into the 
realm of the Muses, and keep up unfaltering chase of 
the Parnassian heights, until a full fledged singer was 
overtaken and brought to London to chant the praise 
of prosaic blacking. But in this enlightened day every 
blacking establishment might employ a versifier, with- 
out the trouble even of invading the enchanted enclo- 
sure of the Nine, for their name is legion who slip 
astride their Pegasus, and cavort about the arena of 
questionable verse in a manner as wayward and free 
as that which characterized Mr. Wegg,who, as all will 
remember, professionally " declined and fell, and, in a 
friendly way, dropped into poetry" for the edification 
of good Mr. and Mrs. Boffin. The editor of this vera- 
cious chronicle finds that in our own midst we have a 
number who write lines of considerable merit, but so 
numerous are his friends who have 

" Sighed o'er Delphi's long deserted shrine," 

that he will not attempt to give the names of these 
" celebrated composers," lest he may make some errors 
in fixing the authorship. In a little book which lies 
before us we find the following : 

In theory the city line 
May be considered very fine ; 
But to be gobbled every day. 
And from my post be sent away, 
And shifted till I'm tired, I vow, 
A victim of caprice, I " swow," 
Is not so hue, you'll all allow; 
But to imperious Fate I bow. 

Though my young years do count but few, 
It seems as if the Wandering Jew 
Had in me found his modern mate — 
For ever has it been my fate, 
Not only eight days out of nine 
To wander 'bout the city line, 
But on tne ninth to wander back. 
Aud at " Bn " to take a crack. 

Now Downer orders me on six — 
'Tis always in a fearful mix — 
Aud then I'm sent on fifty-one, 
A place I love to rest upon; 
But Fate conspires, and soon I pine 
Again upon the city line. 

And so it's been " from childhood's hour," 
"1 never loved a tree or flower" 
But off I wandered like a star, 
Always " so near and yet so far." 

A night man, who worked on the " Eries '' before Mr. 
Smith went on the " South," tells his experience in the 
following manner : 

"SUBBING" ON THE WEST. 

When you work upon the " West," 
Oh 1 minions of the night, 

Have a care for Smith, the chief. 
If you tend to biz, however, 

Tou are sure to be all right; 
But don't go prowling round, 

Or you'll surely come to grief. 

One dingy afternoon I engaged myself to serve 
For one Harris, who with Krie No. 7 had to do; 

And I strolled about the room my spirits to preserve, 
And passed my time away in "chinning " one or two. 

But no matter where I went I met Gerrit everywhere; 

And he smiled a funny way, and propounded me this query, 
Till I " tumbled to myself," as our friend Melnotte would say, 

" Let's see, how's this, ain't you working 7 Erie?" 

Yes, ye minions of the night. 
When you " spoop " in the broad day, 

Skin your orb lor Smith, the chief. 
If you tend to biz, however, 
, You are sure to be all right, 
But don't go prowling round, 

Else *' Ain't you Erie " grief. 

Prom the " Line Men's Book " for last year we take 
the following: 

When men are sent out on the wires 
Armed with a coil, and spurs and pliers, 
With carb the chiefs will, In this tome, 
Note when they start, and when come home. 



If e'er they should o'erstay their time, 
And make their claims they had to climb 
The largest pole within the town. 
The chiefs will also note this down. 

But if the fragrance of the cup 
Should spoil their tale of climbing up, 
The same will on this record go, 
That Captain Mcintosh may know. 

A branch office man amused himself on New Tear's 
Day, which he put in at "No. 145," evolving the ap- 
pended, which was found on the back of a blank on the 
table where he had been put down " to do his work- 
ing:" 

This winsome, gladsome, gay New Year, 
Sans whiskey, brandy, wine or beer, 
Is quickly passing while we're here 

Hard working. 

I know this life is one of woe — 
At least I've always found it so — 
But yet I cannot blame the Co. 

For workiug. 

For if I had in seventy-three 
Saved spondulix sufficiently, 
I could have hired a sub, you see, 

To do my working. 

But this is but a vain regret: 
Yet during seventy-four, you bet. 
I'll steadily keep out of debt 

And save my money. 

In parting with his desk diary an operator waxes 
sentimental, and, with a lingering, longing look, he re- 
linquishes it with the following very creditable verse : 

Adieu, old book! thy work is done! 

Thy record of this busy wire 

Is all complete, and on my lyre 
A parting song I sing. Adieu ! 
Adieu forever that long, endless day 
Which brings no hope' Away ! away ! 

And now again farewell; 

" And if forever, then forever 

Fare thee well." 

Here is a little one] for a cent, which was floating 
around at Christmas: 

To add to the joy of your Christmas bliss 

I hereby send you an electric kiss. 
, May it gladden your heart and brighten your eye 
' 'Tiil I exchange it for a real one bye-and-bye. 



[From the Iron Age.] 

Automatic Semaphore R. R. Signals. 

To the Editor of the Iron Age. 

The article describing Robinsou's Electric Railroad 
Signals, in your paper of January 8th, contains some 
statements calculated to convey an erroneus impres- 
sion in regard to the origin of the system of operating 
automatic semaphoric signals, by making use of the 
ordinary rails of .the track as electric conductors. After 
giving three distinct and very excellent reasons why 
the so-called wire systems previously in use "are ex- 
tremely limited in their functions, and may, under cer- 
tain circumstances, show a safety signal when the dan- 
ger actually exists which they are designed to avert," 
you add : "Mr. Robinson early recognized the above 
serious objections as inseparable from the wire system 
of signaling, and his efforts to overcome them have re- 
sulted in the present rail system." 

In reply to this statement I would say that in Feb- 
ruary, 1870, 1 was employed by Mr. A. E. Beach, of 
the Scientific American, to arrange an electric signal- 
ing apparatus for the Broadway Pneumatic Railroad. 
The car was driven by a stationary blowing engine, 
and it was necessary to automatically give a signal to 
the engineer when the car reached the remote end of 
the tunnel, so that he might reverse the blower. I con- 
nected the battery to the rails in such a manner that 
the wheels of the car would complete the circuit and 
operate an electric bell during its passage over a cer- 
tain section of the track. This apparatus was in op- 
eration for some months, and was seen by hundreds of 
people. It subsequently occurred to me that the same 
principle might be applied to ordinary railroads, and I 
found by calculation that it ought to be practical to 
convey an electric current through a line offish-jointed 
rails for at least two or three miles, even in wet weather. 
I tested this idea in the summer of 1870, on the line of 
the New Jersey Railroad, for a distance of between one 
and two miles, and proved by actual experiment that 
a strong current could be conveyed at least that dis- 
tance, and a magnet operated without serious difficulty. 
Having satisfied myself in regard to this fundamental 
point, the arranging of a signal to be controlled by the 
magnet was obviously a matter of no great difficulty. 
I was then actively engaged in other business, which I 
disposed of in May, 1871, in order to develop my pro- 
posed system of signaling. I worked out the details 
of my plan, and, on the 19th of September, 1871, 1 
filed an application for a U. S. patent, in which I pro- 
posed to use the rails in sections of a mile or more in 
length — of the practicability of which my earlier experi- 
ments had satisfied me. By November T had made 
a successful experiment on a New England railroad, 
where the apparatus remained for some months, and 
was examined by a considerable number of people. In 



this experiment I employed the rail circuit in combina- 
tion with both a stationary alarm and a semaphoric 
signal, and, so far as I can ascertain, T was the first to 
do this. 

It seems quite certain that up to about this time Mr. 
Robinson had not the slightest conception even of the 
possibility of operating signals successfully by rail cir- 
cuit; for, in an article published over his own signature 
in the American Artisan of September 6. 1871, he says • 
"Albert Horwood received a patent in 1861 for a device 
" in which he used three insulated rails, about as long 
" as ordinary rails ; these he placed longitudinally be- 
" tween the rails of the track. Two upright bars on tke 
" engine came in contact with these rails, closed the 
" circuit, and operated the instruments at the station. 
"It was only necessary that a careless laborer should 
" connect two of the insulated rails In/ a shovel full of 
" moist earth, or that a mischievous boy should place a 
" wet stick across them, in order to operate the instru- 
"ments at the station. This, of course, is an insur- 
" mountable difficulty in this invention." 

If Mr. Robinson at this time supposed that a single 
wet stick laid across the rails would operate the instru- 
ment, it is reasonable to suppose that the idea of ope- 
rating a signal through a mile of rails, connected 
together by 2,640 "wet sticks " — which is actually the 
case in the rail system on a rainy day — must have 
appeared to him so wildly absurd as to be utterly 
unworthy of consideration ! Even so late as November, 

1871, Mr. Robinson was still at work endeavoring to 
perfect his wire system and lever circuit closers, after 
my application for a patent on the rail circuit had been 
before the office for nearly two months. But on the 
6th of December, 1871, after accounts of my experiments 
had been published, and had become a matter of com- 
mon report in railroad circles, Mr. Robinson also 
applied for a patent on the rail circuit, differing from 
mine only in the arrangement of the connections, so that 
the magnet would be unmade instead of made by the 
passage of the train. My patent was granted July 16, 

1872, and reissued October 21,1873, and covers broadly 
the combinations above referred to. I certainly have 
no desire to detract from any credit that may be justly 
due Mr. Robinson ; but, as a matter of justice to my- 
self, it seems proper to make public the above state- 
ment of facts. Very truly yours, 

Prank L. Pope, 
Engineer Electric R. R. Signal Co., 
January, 23, 1874. 38 Vesey street, N. T. 



A Noble Opportunity Lost. 

We have now in progress, in the City of New York 
and elsewhere, several massive and imposing structures, 
which, though belonging to private individuals or cor- 
porations, may, nevertheless, from their position and 
the objects for which they are intended, be justly re- 
garded as public buildings. Prominent amongst these 
is the building; which is now being erected at the corner 
of Dey street and Broadway, in this city, for the use of 
the "Western Union Telegraph Company. In its pro- 
portions and the massiveness which characterizes every 
part, it promises to be one of the finest structures in 
the city. There is no sham work about the materials 
or the mode in which they are put together. Some 
idea may be formed of its size when we say that it is 
very nearly one half larger than the well known build- 
ing of the Equitable Life Insurance Company; that 
there are ten stories, the height to the top of the pavil- 
ion roof being 174 feet, while the top of the clock 
tower, which, by the way, is to be accessible, is 216 
feet above the level of the sidewalk. As a means of 
comparison, we may also state that the height of the 
spire of Trinity Church is 286 feet. The material is 
granite, brick and iron : and, from the well known 
wealth and liberality of the company, it is to be pre- 
sumed that the architect has been untrammelled by 
any considerations of mere cost. The object was to 
produce a structure in which might be transacted the 
business of one of the richest and most important cor- 
porations in this country or in the world — a corporation 
whoso relations to the public are as intimate and as ex- 
tended as those of the post-office itself; and whose 
functions, whether under Government control or in 
private hands, can never be dispensed with. It does 
not require any elaborate argument, therefore, to show 
that a building suited practically and sesthetically to 
the purposes of such a corporation should present a 
massive and imposing appearance; that it should de- 
pend for its effect rather upon a grand simplicity than 
upon intricate tracery, and that the colors should bo 
quiet and subdued. And now what has the architect 
given us ? Something which can be compared to no 
other object so well as to a gigantic barber's polo, with 
horizontal instead of diagonal stripes! Every passer 
by who possesses the slightest degree of correct taste, 
must be disgusted with the bizarre appearance pre- 
sented by this structure, and must regret beyond 
measure the loss of the fine opportunity that was there 
presented for the erection of a building that would have 
done us credit. — Industrial. Monthly. 



32 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 7, 18*14. 



Decision of the Postmaster General Regarding 
Government Messages. 

Post-office Department, ) 

Washington, D. C, January 16, 1874. $ 
Sir: Tour letter of the 13th instant states that in 
consequence of a difference in construction of the rules 
established by this department, relative to the com- 
putation of distances, your accounts for Government 
messages have in some cases been subject to reduction ; 
that messages between St. Paul and points on the Plains 
have to go hy way of Chicago, and thence to Omaha 
and destination, involving repetitions, while the post 
route may be nearly direct ; that all messages for the 
Pacific Coast have been sent to San Francisco, and re- 
sent from that point; that you charge from Washing- 
ton to San Francisco 3,123 miles, and from San Fran- 
cisco to San Diego 517 miles, making 3,640 miles or 15 
circuits, while you are allowed only for the direct dis- 
tance from "Washington to San Diego, 3,199 miles, or 13 
circuits ; and inquires whether it was the design of the 
Department to limit the compensation of telegraph 
companies to air-line distances. 

In section second of the act approved July 24th, 
1866, being the act under which the rates of telegraph- 
ing are fixed by the department, it is enacted that tele- 
graphic communications between the several depart- 
ments of the Government and its officers and" agents, 
shall " in their transmission over the lines of said com- 
panies " have priority, etc. This language itself defines 
the route; that is, that it is to be " over the lines of the 
oompanies ;" and, consequently, excludes the idea of air 
line distances or routes over which there are no tele- 
graph lines. I consider, therefore, that the companies 
may properly charge for the distance actually traversed 
by the message, although the mail route may be more 
direct. While the direct distance from Washington to 
San Diego is less than that by way of San Francisco, the 
latter route is the usual course of the mail, for the 
reason that it is the most convenient and expeditious in 
point of time. While I think it is right that the com- 
panies should charge for the distance over their lines, I 
hold that where there are two lines between the same 
points they are not to be allowed to subject the Govern- 
ment to unnecessary expense by charging for the 
greater distance. 

Yery respectfully, 

Your ob't servant, 
(Signed), Jno. A. J. Creswell, 

Postmaster General. 
Leonard Whitney, Esq., 

Manager Western Union Telegraph, Co., 

Washington, D. C. 



The " ends of the earth " are here literally brought to- 
gether, and here meet and mingle the thoughts and 
purposes of men separated by all the oceaus and conti- 
nents of the earth. — Chicago Railway Revieic. 



The Electric Telegraph on the Gold Coast, 
Africa. 

A large number of men, of all colors, castes and 
creeds, are employed under the Eoyal Engineers in the 
construction of the land telegraph lines on the Gold 
Coast. Wherever it is practicable trees are substi- 
tuted for telegraph posts without cutting them down. 
By means of the light wire and small insulators sent out 
from Henley's Telegraph Factory at ISTorth Woolwich, 
these men, with no other tools than a light ladder, 
large gimlet, a handsaw and axe, can complete six 
miles of line per day when the way is tolerably clear 
through the bush. The number of insulators and tree 
posts per mile varies according to the nature of the 
ground. The average on level ground is eighteen in- 
termediate and three straining posts per mile, which 
makes a span of eighty-four yards, and on hilly and 
difficult ground there are as many as twenty-six posts 
to the mile, and, in exceptional instances, there are 
spans of two hundred yards. The telegraph apparatus 
employed in the Gold Coast expedition against the 
Ashantees is the invention of Sir Charles Wheatstone, 
and is contained in a compact box, thirteen inches long, 
eight inches broad and seven inches deep, the weight 
of the whole being under twenty-five pounds. The 
electric power is derived from a permanent magnet 
withiu the instrument, a constant series of currents 
from which is obtained by a; rotation of a small iron 
armature placed before its poles and turned by a handle 
in front. The signals are made by successive depres- 
sions of lettered finger keys arranged round the dial 
plate. By means of these instruments camp and field 
messages can be transmitted, at the rate of twenty 
words per minute, a distance of one hundred or two 
hundred miles. The object in erecting the field tele- 
graph is that of making known the enemy's position or 
numerical strength, to order arms and reinforcements 
from distant stations, and to control any military and 
strategic movements found necessary in the war on the 
Gold Coast with the Ashantees. It is the first time 
field telegraphy has been employed by the English in 
actual warfare. 



In my communication of January 12th it was stated 
that arrangements had been made for the transfer to the 
Western Union Telegraph Company of all the weather 
reports, etc., of the Signal Bureau. This arrangement 
has been consummated', and from and after last evening 
this business, which has heretofore been divided between 
the Western Union and competing lines, will all be 
done over the former. The consolidation of the Pacific 
and Atlantic lines broke up some of the circuits as 
previously established, and made it very inconvenient 
for the the bureau to transact its business, and inter- 
fered with the prompt transmission of some of the 
reports, so that the change was rather forced upon the 
chief signal officer. This is another demonstration 
of the necessity for a consolidation of the lines and 
interests competing with the Western Union into one 
organization, and the extension of the system until it 
becomes really national, and able to compete effectively 
for the telegraph business of the country. Capitol. 



The Western Union Chicago Office. 

The City of Chicago has 75 miles of poles and 700 
miles of wire (of Western Union proper) ( within the 
metropolitan limits, with 68 branch offices — 28 regular 
Western Union and 40 Metropolitan. The main offices 
occupy a large portion of the block on the southwest 
corner of Washington and La Salle streets. In the 
basement are the District Superintendent's offices and 
the receiving department; on the second floor the 
General Superintendent's office and the office of the 
Associated Press; and the entire fifth floor, one hun- 
dred feet square, is occupied by the operating depart- 
ment. The wires are brought into the building on a 
new plan — being carried from the poles above the 
neighboring blocks to a central tower, through which 
they drop down in a circular cluster to the operating 
room. They already number 250, and the tower has a 
capacity for 750 wires. The wires are for the most 
part steel covered with copper. On entering the tower 
they strike the " lightning arrester," by which the at- 
mospheric electricity is carried off to the ground. The 
wires are exposed in their whole length after entering 
the building, facilitating changes and repairs. At- 
tached to each wire is a metallic tag, corresponding to 
another on the corner poles, giving the title of the wire. 
There are connected with the operating department 
two battery rooms, which the wires enter in a cluster. 
In the local battery room there are two jars to each 
instrument worked, giving increased force and louder 
sound, enabling the operator to read by ear. In the 
main battery room are five separate batteries — the 
largest of 60 cups, the smallest of 25 — from which all 
the wires are worked. The transition from the quiet 
of the battery department to the din of the great ope- 
rating room is no more striking to the ear than impres- 
sive to the imagination. This room is nerer closed ; 
every moment, all the year round, and from year to 
year, the scores of instruments are vocal with their 
sign language, and the tones of each are lost in the 
incessant hum of all. Here are ninety-five employes, 
busy day and night — about fifty constituting the ope- 
rating day force — these little instruments, making 
audible the otnmnresence of this electric potency; 
through them day uttereth speech unto day, and night 
unto night showeth forth knowledge, until now there 
ie no language or land where their voice is not heard. 



■Ve do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 4. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Our friend Mr. Gardner T. Hubbard was afforded an 
opportunity to reply to the arguments of Mr. Orton be- 
fore the Senate Post-office Committee last week, and 
repeated his arguments and statistics in favor of his 
scheme for establishing a private telegraph monopoly 
in company with the Government, with which the 
" constant reader '" of The Telegrapher is so familiar. 
It is hardly worth while to reproduce them at this 
time. The committees of Congress and the public are 
so thoroughly weary of the subject that the re- 
cent discussion has attracted very little attention here, 
as is manifest from the fact that although the hearings 
before the Senate Committee were public, the news- 
paper correspondents and reporters did not honor them 
with their presence, and they have been accorded the 
briefest possible notice in the reports of the Associated 
Press. 

Our amiable friend Gobright, the manager of the 
Associated Press bureau here, despite his desire to 
accommodate all who have "items" to communicate, 
looks glum when Hubbard or the postal telegraph are 
mentioned, and would, no doubt, with character- 
istic piety, were it not for his repugnance to saying or 
doing anything that could give offence, pray " Good 
Lord deliver me " from any further knowledge or men- 
tion of this threadbare subject. As for the other 
correspondents and reporters, they quietly ignore the 
whole matter, and if it is brought to their notice, are 
compelled at once to leave in pursuit of an item or an 
" interview " which cannot be neglected for a moment. 
It must be confessed that your correspondent, and, I 
doubt not, most of your readers, have a similar feel- 
ing, but The Telegrapher, as a telegraphic journal, 
must be kept informed on all matters pertaining to the 
art or business. 

The Senate yesterday adopted a resolution authoriz- 
ing the presiding officer to appoint an operator for the 
Senate wing of the Capitol for the departmental tele- 
graph line. 



An Oregon Telegrapher's Trip. 

Albany, Oregon, January 16. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

" A long time I ho see you," as our Mongolian neigh- 
bors say. 

Since our last we have been off on a " trip for our 
health," over the Puget Sound country, and if the items 
enclosed are of auy interest to the readers of our paper, 
they are welcome to them. 

January 1st we left Albany and struck down the E. 
R. to Portland, thence down the mighty " River of 
the West " for Kalemo, W. T., the headquarters of the 
Pacific Division of the Northern Pacific R. R. 

Arriving there in company with Mr. Sheridan, W. U 
operator, we found friend Fagan in charge of the R. R. 
office. We gently intimated that we were not averse 
to accepting a pass to Tacoma (the terminus) and re- 
turn. He opened his heart, and in a short time we 
were in possession of two pieces of paper that are a 
" g-o-o-d thing to travel on." 

Leaving Kalemo we started down the bank of the 
Columbia River, and thence up the Cowlitz through a 
country that could with the greatest of propriety be 
called well wooded, watered, and very " hilly." The 
road is a splendid piece of work, but how it is to be 
supported from the country around and adjoining is 
more than we can imagine. 

A sixty mile ride brought us out into the first prai- 
rie we had seen since leaving Kalemo, and six miles 
more to Tenino, the point we "lit out " at, as we 
wanted to visit Olympia, the capital of the Territory. 

Horror ! At Tenino we found that to reach Olympia 
a stage ride of sixteen miles awaited us. We started 
out in the most awful snow storm I have ever seen on 
this coast, and, to make it worse, it was freezing hard. 
This was nice for Oregonians who knew little or noth- 
ing about snow and ice ! 

Olympia was finally reached after four hours' ride 
over a terrible mountain road. This is a very pretty 
little town of 2,500 inhabitants. It is situated at 
Budd's Inlet, an arm of Puget Sound, one and a half 
miles below the extreme head of tide water. There is 
a great deal of business done here. Stepping into a 
telegraph office we found Mr. H. H. Pitts, a pleasant 
gentleman and first class telegrapher, in charge. 

Sunday morning at 8 o'clock, by the steamer 
Zephyr we started down the Sound — giving up our pro- 
posed trip to Yictoria and British Columbia on account 
of severe weather. After visiting Steilacoom, the old- 
est town in the territory, we reached Tacoma, the 
" terminus " of the 2J". P. R. R-, so much talked 
about, where we take the first through passenger train 
from Puget Sound to the Columbia River. 

Here on Puget Sound is to be found some of the 
largest saw mills in the world, cutting from 60,000 to 
150,000 feet of lumber each day. Ships are continually 
loading here for all parts of the world. The Tacoma 
mills keep in active operation, for their own use, a line 
of telegraph from Tacoma to Steilacoom, where it con- 
nects with the through wire. The Puget Sonnd Tele- 
graph Company was organized for the purpose of con- 
necting all the different mills on the Sound b and local 
business, and is doing well. 

There is bound to be a big city somewhere on this 
Sound, as the water is very deep, averaging from 60 to 
200 feet up to within 20 or 30 feet of the shore ; 
and, as it is protected by hills from high winds, it 
makes the finest harbor known ; and, for size, all the 
ships that sail the seas could be put inside this harbor. 
If auy of our eastern operators want to " invest," let 
them watch the progress of things, and put their 
money in the to be city of the United States— so the 
Puget Sound people say. 

At Tacoma the Railroad Company have built a 
large depot, buildings, offices and hotel. I understand 
that in the spring the headquarters will be moved to 
Tacoma from Kalema. 

Our old friend, J. B. Whittlesey, is manager, and is 
managing to exist on a "hundred a month." " Whit." 
is an ola timer, and looks ju6t as he did years ago 



February 7, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



33 



when he used to give " Webfoot " H— lifax for break- 
ing in on press, when the aforesaid " Webfoot " was 
"beginning " on the old string from Portland to San 
Francisco. 

A splendid double wire line has been thoroughly 
built fromKalemo to Tacoma, under the supervision of 
Mr. F. W. Lamb, formerly Superintendent of the 
fourth district of the W. U. Telegraph Company. 

The following are the operators on the N. P. E. R. : 
Kaleino— 0. E. Pagan, chief operator and Superintend- 
ent, pro tern. — no train despatcher or Superintendent 
having been appointed as yet. Cowlitz, Edward Va- 
liere, agent and operator ; Oleque, Edward Stevens, 
agent and operator ; Tenino, Chas. C. Hogue, agent and 
operator ; and last, but not least in size or ability, J. 
B. "Whittlesey, Tacoma. 

Por favors"received on this little run we desire to re- 
turn our sincere and heartfelt thanks to Chas. D. Pa- 
ling, Superintendent Telegraph, 0. & C. R. R., Port- 
land, Oregon ; C. E. Pagan, chief operator, and Gen'l 
J. W. Sprague, Gen'l Supt. X. P. R. R. ; C. C. Hogue, 
Tenino, and J. B. Whittlesey, Tacoma. 

Boys, as ye have done unto me so shall it be done 
unto you if you ever come my way ; and the remem- 
brance of your kindness will ever be fresh in the mem- 
ory of Webfoot. 

J *—* 

Inspection of the Arizona Military Telegraph 
Line.— A New Consolidated Office. 

San Diego, Cal., Jan. 10. 
To the Editoe or The Telegrapher. 

The pressure of business has been so great lately as 
to interfere with my purpose of keeping The Tele- 
grapher posted in regard to telegraph matters in this 
section of the country. At length I have been able to 
find a few moments of leisure which I can devote to 
you. 

Capt. George P. Price, of the fifth Cavalry, TJ. S. A., 
is now on a tour of inspection of the new military line 
connecting Arizona with San Diego. 

The offices of the Western Union and United States 
military telegraphs here have been consolidated, and 
placed under the management of Mr. W. E. Smith. A 
handsome office has been fitted up for their joint occu- 
pancy. The receiving and operating room, are all in 
one, with a sleeping room in the rear, and another 
room for the battery, near the latter. 

The operating room is fitted up with Boston tables, 
with the wires run under the floor, so as to be out of 
the way and out of sight. Upon one wall of the ope- 
rating room there is a splendid chromo (thirty-six by 
thirty inches) of Stanley's Indian Telegraph, which 
represents a scene near Gila Bend, Arizona Territory. 
On a high pedestal of rocks on the eastern bank of the 
river two Apache chiefs are seen — one signaling with a 
naming, smoking torch, while the other watches for the 
reply seen curling up in the dim distance. The air in 
Arizona is so clear that these signals can be seen for a 
long distance ; in fact, one of the main causes of defeat 
of the United States soldiers operating against the Apa- 
ches has been the information of their coming con- 
veyed by this system of visual telegraphy. The new 
Morse telegraph line has rendered this system of little 
use to the Indians in the future. With the aid of the 
telegraph we will be able to keep peace in the rich but 
Apache cursed territory of Arizona. 

Upon another wall is exhibited a handsome litho- 
graph of the new Western Union New York office, 
now in course of construction, surmounted by a bracket 
supporting the bust of Prof. Morse. Upon the other 
walls are displayed a view of the San Francisco West- 
ern Union office, several locomotives of Eastern rail- 
roads, etc., pleasant reminiscences of old times to the 
employes and others. 

Altogether it is the neatest and most completely 
fitted up telegraph office I ever saw — combining the 
conveniences and improvements which have been 
from time to time introduced into different offices. It 
is a comfortable and attractive office for the employes 
as well as the public, and calculated to make the for- 
mer contented, and willing to remain permanently 
where they are so well situated. 

The citizens generally are greatly pleased with the 
improvement, and consider it a credit to their young 
but important and growing city. More anon. 

Clix. 



How Two R. R. Telegraph Sup'ts Conspired to 
Fleece a Victim. 

Nkwark, N. J., Jan. '.U. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The communication from " Centripetal," in your last 
issue, and your editorial comments upon the " Conspir- 
acy to Oppress Telegraph Employes," brings to mind 
a sample of the policy pursued by the Superintendent 
of an important railroad telegraph line in this vicinity. 

At the junction of the Central Railroad of New Jersey 



with the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western R. R. an 
operator was employed who performed joiut duties for 
both companies, and drew a portion of his salary from 
each. The Central R. R. paid him $25 per month, and 
the D. L. & W. $35, making a grand total of $60 for 
thirty days, of twelve hours each. The former operator 
retired from this lucrative position after saving up a suffi- 
cient competency to provide against want in his old age. 
But his successor being in more of a hurry to get rich, 
endeavored to secure an advance of $10 per month from 
the Central R. R. His avarice hastened his downfall, 
for it brought to the immediate attention of the Super- 
intendent the fact that his salary was even then $10 
above the standard adopted for men in his position. 
In order to restore the equilibrium his monthly stipend 
was reduced to $20 per month on the part of the Central 
R. R., and the Sup't doubtless thought that he could 
easily induce the Sup't of the D. L. and W. to cut away 
a corresponding slice from the salary paid by that 
Company. In this he was for a time unsuccessful, but 
by continued perseverance, worthy of a better cause, 
he eventually succeeded beyond his expectations, the 
D. L. and W. Co. reducing his pay to $25, leaving him 
the munificent sum of $45 per month. It is a source of 
gratification to be able to state that the young man 
shortly after secured a position on another line, and 
has thus escaped from the combination which endeav- 
ored to swindle him out of $15 per month. 

I hope you will not overlook the fact that in this 
instance it was only through the connivance of the 
officials of two different companies that this result was 
accomplished. One of these worthies acts also as an 
assistant to D. H. Bates, and hereafter, when you have 
occasion to work out a problem of meanness, you can 
adopt as your formula, Eckert, Bates, Puller — mean, 

meaner, meanest. Redlight. 
♦*-• 

Topics of General Telegraphic Interest Discussed. 

To the Editor of the Telegrapher. 

The correspondence columns of The Telegrapher 
are read by myself, and probably by most of those who 
receive the paper, with great interest, and although the 
ideas of some of the writers are crude and not well con- 
sidered, they are all valuable as reflecting the opinions 
and sentiments of those practically engaged in tele- 
graphic pursuits. The policy of the paper in giving to 
all an opportunity to be heard, and to make known their 
views and sentiments, is undoubtedly the true one, and 
is one of the reasons for its popularity among the prac- 
tical telegraphers of the country. 

It must be confessed that lately I have not taken as 
much interest as formerly in the discussion of the Tel- 
egraphers' Association question, as there seems to be lit- 
tle that is new to be said, and no indication of any real 
purpose or determination to establish a new organiza- 
tion. Until some flagrant and general system of op- 
pression of the fraternity is developed, it is not probable 
that any effective movement in that direction can be 
successfully made. On the abstract proposition that 
such an organization or association, carefully and intel- 
ligently devised, would be advantageous to the em- 
ployes and employers, there is, probably, among the 
practical thinking members of the fraternity, little di- 
versity of opinion; but this seems not likely, for the 
present at least, to take practical shape. So long as no 
one is prepared to take the lead in such an organiza- 
tion, I, for one, cannot see any prospect of its being 
established. 

The matter of insufficient and inadequate compensa- 
tion of telegraphic employes has occupied, I would be 
afraid to estimate how many columns of The Tele- 
grapher. 

It seems to me, however, that most of those who 
write upon this subject take a very partial and limited 
view of it, and do not usually generalize upon it at all. 
They seem to look at and consider only individual 
cases, and that usually their own, and do not take into 
account the fact that in averaging compensation of 
employes telegraph managers have many things to 
consider. While it is true that in many cases tele- 
graph employes are insufficiently compensated, in more 
the individuals concerned receive much more than 
they could obtain in other employments. Telegraphy, 
of late years at least, has not apparently proved very 
remunerative to the investors in telegraph property, 
and it is a question whether commercial telegraph 
companies can afford to pay higher salaries than they 
do. The trouble, it appears to me, is not that the 
amount expended in telegraphic salaries is inadequate, 
but that it is not properly apportioned, some receiving 
more than their ability and proficiency entitle them 
to, while others are underpaid. One of the principal 
advantages to be derived from a telegraphic associa- 
tion would be, by cooperation between employes and 
managers, to classify situations, operators and salaries, 
so that they should bo more properly arranged than at 
present. 

There are other subjects which have been and are 
being discussed in the columns of The Telegrapher 
and among operators which I should like to consider, 
but probably sufficient space has been occupied for the, 



present. If this communication is favorably received, 
I may hereafter offer you some further considerations 
on topics of general telegraphic interest for publication. 
Practical Telegrapher. 



Telegraphers Not so Bad as Represented. 

To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

As I have just finished reading The Telegrapher, 
and turn back the leaves, my eye falls upon the commu- 
nication with the signature of " Nettie Bronson," and 
of course, I have to read it again. I heard it said by a 
brother operator last night that he should not be much 
surprised if that was a fictitious name for some young 
operator that wanted to be a girl, but could not, so he 
assumes a girl's name. Now, if the writer of these 
communications is truly a girl, I look upon them with 
admiration, and have no doubt but what I would also 
admire the bearer of that name if I could see her. If 
the writer is some male operator with that signature, 
he is very low, in my estimation, and is unworthy of 
being recognized by his brother operators ; but I trust 
and hope no person so frivolous ever learned the art of 
telegraphy. What Nettie says about drinking, chewing 
and smoking is perhaps true in her case, as far as she 
knows, but I do not think she is acquainted with tele- 
graph operators very extensively, for I know several 
that neither smoke, chew nor drink, and I think can all 

say No with courage equal to that of myself, for 

instance. I neither smoke, chew nor drink, and, in fact, 
never was the possessor of any of those filthy articles 
which, when used by man, make him a beast. If I have 
been asked to drink and smoke once I have been asked 
the same question a thousand times, and, thank God, I 
have the courage to say no unflinchingly, and without 
the least hesitation, and always have bad that courage, 
and trust and hope I always will. Our friend " Frankie " 
would feel taken down a little if Nettie should happen 
to be an old maid of about thirty-five, for she must be 
getting pretty well along in years, and wants to get 
married pretty badly, or she would not be so particular 
about his being married. I am sorry to hear that Miss 
Nettie talks of bidding us farewell on account of 
financial troubles. If she cannot really afford to take 
The Telegrapher, I will be one of eight persons to 
send it to her for a year, for the sake of hearing from her 
occasionally. I believe that hers is the only lady's 
signature that I have noticed lately in The Tele- 
grapher, and would be very sorry to lose the pleasure 
of reading her articles (if a lady she is) for the small 
sum of twenty-five cents. If any brother operator is 
willing to help send her this noble paper, let him re- 
spond through its columns, and I will be on hand. 

Elias. 

» • » 

Bounty Land Warrants to Army Telegraph 
Operators. 

To the Editor or The Telegrapher. 

About a year since, during a session of Congress, we 
saw many communications printed in The Tele- 
grapher and Journal in relation to the subject of a Gov- 
ernment grant to military operatprs who served during 
the late civil war. The correspondence suddenly ceased, 
since when not a word has been published or spoken of 
the matter. Was the subject definitely disposed of at 
that time, and the verdict rendered that army opera- 
tors were not entitled to any Government recognition ? 
Why are all the army boys so silent ? 

There are hundreds scattered all over the country, 
who served the Government faithfully, and endangered 
their health and lives by exposure, and many who not 
only nobly faced hardship and exposure, butal so gal- 
lantly stood at their posts of duty amid the whistling 
bullets on many fields of battle. Are not these men, 
who so faithfully served their country, and whose ser- 
vices were, in many instances, greater than whole regi- 
ments, entitled to a hundred and sixty acres of land? 

I would like to hear from my former companions-in- 
arms upon this subject, and ascertain if a petition 
cannot be successfully circulated. 

We have good friends at Washington, who would do 
their utmost in our behalf. Agitator. 



The Northwestern and Northern Pacific Tele- 
graph.— Bulls.— An Incredulous Wife. 

Northern Pacific R. R., Jan. 27. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Not seeing anything in The Telegrapher of late 
from this part of the universe, perhaps it would be as 
well to lot the fraternity know that we have 225 miles 
of wire, well put up, and scientifically repaired when 
necessary, "by one H. S. Lyle." Mr. O. C. Green is 
Superintendent for the N. W. Telegraph Co., and has 
charge of over GOO miles of wire. He is a kind, gentle- 
manly fellow, and highly esteemed by all of the N. P. 
operators and his numerous friends outside of the 
lightning department. 

{Cou tinned on page 'ob.) 



34 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 7, 1814. 



The Telegrapher 

Pevoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 1874. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 
PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY at 38 VESEY ST. 



T E TST T H VOLUME. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
One Copy, One Year, ----- $3.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION. 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 



T 



HE TELEGRAPHER. 



A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday, 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and ■will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued, and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. ' (Previous to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegraphic clique or com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 
As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 
first CLASS 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
Terms of Subscription. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR. $2 00 

SINGLE COPIES Five Cents. 

Canada Subscribers must remit Twenty Cents in addition for 
Postage. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
ing subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty Per Cent. Com- 
missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for four subscri- 
bers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per year, 
will be ontitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the" Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
cost of the order or registration may be deducted from the 
amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reasonable 
rates ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than One 
Dollar per insertion. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503,) NEW YORK. 



The New Yolume of The Telegrapher. 

It may be of interest to the many friends of The 
Telegrapher scattered throughout the country and 
the Dominion of Canada, to learn how the new volume 
has been received, and what its prospects are. It gives 
us pleasure to be able to state that its reception has 
been all that could reasonably be desired, and that the 
prospects of the paper were never better than at the 
present time. The new subscriptions have more than 
made good those which expired at the close of the last 
volume, and we are daily receiving assurances, which 
are most gratifying, that the paper is appreciated and 
its general course approved by those in whose interest 
it is published. 

The series of articles commenced by Mr. P. L. Pope, 
in the first number of the present volume, on the " Ele- 
mentary Principles of Electrical Measurement," have 
met with very general and warm approbation. These 
will be continued for some months to come, and will 
afford instruction and information which will be of 
great value to every telegrapher. 

We have also made arrangements for contributions 
from other able writers, scientists and expert tele- 
graphers, of series of articles on practical telegraphic 
subjects, which will be not less valuable than Mr. 
Pope's, and will add to the (we think we may say with, 
out egotism) high reputation of The Telegrapher as 
a scientific and practical telegraphic organ. 

Of course; all these cost money, but we rely confi- 
dently upon the support which has never yet failed us, 
from those interested in telegraphic pursuits, to bear 
us out in any reasonable amount of expenditure in 
maintaining a first class telegraphic journal, which shall 
be a credit to the telegraphic fraternity of the United 
States and Canada, whose organ and representative 
it is. 

"We shall publish next week a carefully prepared 
article, discussing the comparative advantages of the 
differential and bridge systems of duplex telegraphy. 
This is a matter of much importance, and has of late 
given rise to a great deal of discussion among practical 
telegraphers throughout the country. This will be 
found of much value and interest. 

These articles will be illustrated by all the necessary 
cuts and diagrams, to enable them to be readily under- 
stood, even by telegraphers who have not been so for- 
tunate as to obtain any special scientific education. 

We would ask that our friends will call the attentio n 
of their associates and others to the character of The 
Telegrapher, and continue to aid us in securing for 
it a constantly and rapidly increasing circulation. 



Telegraph Inventions and Inventors. 

The litigation of the extraordinary patent granted to 
the late Prof. Page under the special Act of Congress, 
which by no means contemplated anything of the sort, 
is likely to reopen the discussion and investigation of 
the claims not only of the patentee but of others who 
have occupied a prominent position as telegraphic 
inventors. Hitherto these investigations have only 
been pursued so far as was required to serve the pur- 
poses and interests of the contestants, and until the 
expiration of the earlier patents it was not deemed 
advisable to invalidate them— which would result in 
making the telegraph business free and unrestricted to 
everybody. It is, perhaps, needless to remark that 
this reason does not now exist, and therefore, in the 
present litigation, the whole subject will be necessarily 
most thoroughly and exhaustively considered, who- 
ever may suffer therefrom. 



It is the purpose of the present owners of the Page 
patent to reestablish a monopoly in telegraphing in 
this country, which will assuredly be accomplished if 
the validity of that patent, as reissued, should be judf- 
cially sustained. It was supposed that, with the expi- 
ration of the patents granted to Prof Morse, there no 
longer existed a possibility of restricting or making 
tributary any telegraphic interest. Those patents, or 
the more essential and important of them, had expired 
by regular limitation — had been extended and renewed, 
and having reached the utmost term which could be 
granted to them, except by special legislation, bad 
become public property. Whether rightfully granted 
or not, they had been acquiesced in and tribute paid 
under them to the patentee, and those holding through 
or under him, to a very large amount. The effort to 
enforce them against the Bain Chemical and House 
Printing Telegraph Systems had, it is true, failed, but 
neither of them ultimately proved very formidable 
rivals, and the value of the patents had proved to be 
very great. As before remarked, they had become 
public property, and there seemed to be no longer any 
obstacle to their actual realization as such by the 
people. 

The desire of Congress to do honor to Prof. Page, as 
a scientific and worthy American citizen, who had, it 
was contended, been unjustly deprived of the credit 
which was due him as the real inventor of what is 
known as the Rhumkorff coil, and of certain other 
inventions in magneto-electrical devices, led to the 
passage of the act under which the patent which is 
now attempted to be enforced was issued. There is 
abundant evidence in the act as passed, and in the dis- 
cussion in both the House of Representatives and the 
Senate, on its passage in those bodies respectively, (hat 
at that time there was not the slightest intimation, sus- 
picion or intention that it should apply to telegraphy 
in any way. There is no evidence that even up to the 
time of his death Prof. Page had any idea or intention 
of making the telegraph interests of the country tribu- 
tary under his patent. As a matter of fact he died in 
pecuniarily straitened circumstances, and his last days 
were troubled because he had been unable to make 
suitable and adequate provision for his family. Subse- 
quently to his death an attempt was made to dispose 
of the patent for a valuable consideration, the price 
asked for it being a half million of dollars, but no pur- 
chaser could be found at any price. It was offered to 
its present owners, the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, who had it carefully investigated by experts and 
by the best legal talent, and rejected it as worthless 
and valueless. How it was subsequently purchased 
by that company, and for what purpose, the readers of 
The Telegrapher are tolerably familiar with. 

It has since been reissued so as to cover essential 
telegraphic devices more completely — the Patent Of- 
fice officials apparently deeming it incumbent upon 
them to grant anything that is asked in the name of 
their late associate, and the attempt is being made to 
establish judicially its validity. 

The effect of the success of this attempt we have 
already pointed out, but it cannot be kept too promi- 
nently in view of those interested. It renders all tele- 
graph interests in the country tributary to the owners 
of the patent for years to come, and it would in that 
event undoubtedly prove the best investment which 
has been made in patents for a very long time. This 
would be no argument against it if its claims, or those 
made under it, were legal, just and equitable ; but they 
are not, and if contested, as they must be, they can 
never be so declared by any court. 

As was stated at the beginning of this article, this liti- 
gation will lead to a thorough and exhaustive investi- 
gation of telegraphic inventions and patents during the 
last forty or more years, and will be likely to alter 
materially the assignment of honor and credit for such 
inventions from what they now are. It will undoubt- 
edly prove that to Prof. Joseph Henry, of the Smith- 
sonian Institute, more than to any other single person, 
living or dead, belongs the honor and credit of the dis- 
coveries ^and inventions which have made the American 



February 1, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



35 



system of telegraph practical and successful. The 
principal devices described id the Page patent were 
known, demonstrated and described, some of them 
years before Prof. Page, as those who hold under him 
claim that he discovered and invented them. 

To no one man or nation belongs the honor of invent- 
ing the electric telegraph. As was better stated in a 
" Condensed History of the Electric Telegraph," pre- 
pared by Prof. Tan der Weyd for and published in the 
Manufacturer and Builder, which was reprinted in The 
Telegrapher for March 8th, 1873, than we can do it : 

" The electric telegraph is a forcible illustration of the 
power of accumulated human intellect. During several 
centuries scores of the most ingenious men have, by 
assiduous investigation, discovered facts upon facts — 
succeeding generations standing mentally on the 
shoulders of their ancestors, till, finally, one century 
ago the first real electric telegraph was born in that 
centre of political liberty and inventive genius, Switzer- 
land. 

One of the first duties in science is to ' give honor to 
whom honor is due ;' as latter brilliant inventions tend 
to eclipse former more valuable discoveries on which 
they are based, and as even the names of former great 
investigators and laborers in the field of scientific pro- 
gress become forgotten, we think it highly useful to 
give here a kind of chronology of the discoveries on 
which our knowledge of electricity, and the subsequent 
series of inventions which culminated in the modern 
electric telegraph, are based. It will show the reason 
why Switzerland, Germany, Prance, England, America 
and even Russia claim this invention — while the fact 
is that they all had their share in it, and that no single 
nation, and much less no single individual can lay any 
other claim than having taken advantage of the inves- 
tigations of others, and perhaps sometimes added some 
novelty, very trifliDg when compared with the knowl- 
edge inherited from predecessors. It also illustrates 
the truth of one of Prof. Tyndall's sayings in one of 
his recent lectures here, that the scientific investigators 
are the real workers, discoverers and inventors, of which 
patent applicants take advantage. In this respect we 
cannot omit calling attention to the historical fact that 
Prof. Joseph Henry stands foremost in preparing the 
way for the realization of the invention in question, 
which, after his labors were finished, required scarcely 
a single step forward." 

As experience for many years past has shown, and as 
all who have to deal with telegraphic interests are 
aware, there is practically no end to the inventions and 
discoveries, or what are supposed to be such, that are 
constantly being brought forward. Enthusiasts are con- 
stantly deluded with the idea that they have made 
remarkable and valuable discoveries and inventions 
(and not unfrequently succeed in deluding others into a 
similar belief) which, upon investigation, turn out to be 
aither old, or, at the best, merely rediscoveries, or 
else practically worthless. There has been such an 
active and exhaustive investigation into electrical 
science and telegraphic inventions that the field has 
been pretty well cultivated. We do not mean to say, 
or wish to be understood as intending that there is no 
possibility of any further valuable and novel discov- 
eries and inventions in this department, but that the 
chances are that what is claimed and believed to be 
new is not so, and that proper investigation will gener- 
ally save useless expenditure of time and money, and, 
perhaps, cruel disappointment in the end. As an in- 
stance of a very numerous class of such supposed 
inventions, we might cite a case which recently came 
to our knowledge, where a callow scientist and tele- 
grapher wrote to an electrical expert of an invention 
which he had made, which must come into' general use 
and prove very valuable, and proposing that he should 
take an interest in it, and get the patent for the inven- 
tion for him. A description and sketch of the inven- 
tion was included in the letter, which proved to be noth- 
ing more than a common electrical bell! of which 
thousands are probably made and sold every year. We 
have no doubt but that the same is true of almost every 
important or unimportant department of art and indus- 
try, but our attention has naturally been particularly 
attracted to electrical and telegraphic inventions and 
patents. 

It is not our purpose to trace the invention of the 
telegraph, or to show how it was slowly developed 
until it has reached its present state of perfection. We 
merely desire to attract attention to this subject of tele- 



graphic inventions and inventors that our readers may 
fully understand the litigation which is going on in 
regard to the Page patent, to which, it is probable, we 
may be "obliged to refer frequently for some time to 
come. 



Telegraph Messengers in Uniform. 

With the commencement of the present month the 
messengers employed in connection with the delivery 
department of the Western Union Telegraph Company 
in this city, numbering about 130, appeared in a new 
uniform, neat and comfortable in appearance. This 
regulation is a very good one, and should have been 
adopted, and has been attempted to be introduced once 
or twice before, but was abandoned on account of the 
opposition of the messengers themselves to it. 

The uniform adopted consists of a cap of the Prus- 
sian undress service, edged with scarlet, and a button 
or metallic rosette with the name of the company on 
the front. The clothing is of dark blue pilot cloth, well 
made and warm, the surtout buttoning close up to the 
neck, with a leather belt round the waist, bearing the 
name of the company. On the belt is attached a long 
leather pouch, in which to place the messenger's book 
and messages. 

The public will soon become familiar with this uni- 
form and its advantages will be apparent, while we 
can see no reason why any messenger should object 
to its use while on duty. 

It would be well for each company doing business 
here to adopt a distinctive uniform for its messengers, 
so that persons who may receive despatches may be 
assured, when a message is received, of the office or 
line from which it comes, and that the person present- 
ing it is duly authorized to receive replies, if any be 
required, and that they will be promptly returned to 
the office. We could suggest an addition which we 
think would prove of service in many cases — that each 
messenger have conspicuously displayed a number by 
which he may be identified, if it should become neces- 
sary or desirable. 



(Correspondence continued from page 33.) 

Mr. 0. M. Greene is our Division operator. Clem is a 
fine fellow, kind and accomodating, and yet withal a 
good disciplinarian. We are a happy lot of boys out 
west, and highly fortunate in having such able and 
gentlemanly officers. 

Here is a telegraphic bull, related to me by the 

victim : S. telegraphs from Z. to his son at to send 

him his two horse collars. Judge of his amazement on 
the arrival of the traiu to find his two horse colts on 
board instead of the " collars." The telegraph boys paid 
the freight both ways, and told him to say no more about 

it. Another operator at J takes a message to Mrs. 

R . She inquires who the message is from ? 

" Why," says J , " from your husband." " No, it 

can't be," says she "because I know his writing, and 
it don't look like that; you are trying to fool me." All 

of J 's arguments seemed to be of no avail, until 

he told her that her husband would certainly be on 
the train, and expecting to see her. That closed the 
affair. She went, found her better half, and has often 

wondered why J should try to make her believe 

it to be from her better half, when she " knew his hand- 
write well enough." N. p. 



A Defence of the Telegraphic Fraternity. 

To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

I feel it my duty to say a word in defence of tele- 
graphers as a class, after reading such terrible asser- 
tions as some of your correspondents have made in 
regard to their moral character. One of the laws of 
nature is that " Water always finds its level." So it 
is with individuals; they take their position in society 
just where they belong, as naturally as water finds its 
level, whether telegraphers or others. Wow, if there is 
in some locality somo telegraphers who do not bear a 
good character, must that necessarily place an indelible 
stamp on the whole fraternity, as consisting only of such 
characters'? I am happy to say that on this lino the 
telegraph operators, as a class, are respectable, intelli- 
gent and influential men, who are at the head of all 
good enterprises in society. Some have even ssiid it was 
useless to try to elevate the moral standing of this fra- 
ternity. We are truly thankful all are not of that opin- 
ion. (Our worthy editor, for one, is not.) If 1 was to 
gratify my passions, I would say these are the very 
ones to start with, aud the best method of elevating 



them would be to set them up in the boot and shoe 
business, which, at least, would have a strong ten- 
dency to elevate them. S. L. C. 



Mr. C. 0. McGrew has been appointed operator of 
the United States Military Telegraph, at Mountain 
Springs, Cal. 

Mr. John Gifpord has been appointed operator U. 
S. Military Telegraph at Stanwix Station, Arizona 
Territory. 

Mr. John. W. Stratjchen has been appointed ope- 
rator of the U. S. Military Telegraph at Wickenburg, 
Arizona Territory. 

Mr. C. W. Gearheart has been appointed operator 
of the U. S. Military Telegraph at Maricopa Wells, 
Arizona Territory. 

Mr. R. H. Howe has been appointed operator of the 
U. S. Military Telegraph at Tucson, Arizona Territory. 

Mr. Maurice Goldwater has been appointed ope- 
rator of the U. S. Military Telegraph at Phoenix, Ari- 
zona Territory. 

Mr. Thos. E. Atkinson has been appointed operator 
of the U. S. Military Telegraph at Yuma, Arizona 
Territory. 

Mr. Wm. B. Ellison has been appointed chief ope- 
rator of the U. S. Military Telegraph, with headquar- 
ters at Prescott, Arizona Territory. 

Mr. C. P. Adams, telegraph operator and station 
agent of the Grand Trunk Railroad, at Goaham, N. H., 
has resigned, and accepted a similar position with the 
Central Pacific R. R. at Corinne, Utah. 

Mr. J. Willson Utt, formerly extra telegraph ope- 
rator on the Lehigh Yalley Railroad, has been ten- 
dered and accepted the office of chief operator in the 
office of the North Pennsylvania Railroad Company, at 
Front and Willow streets, Philadelphia. This is a good 
appointment, as Mr. Utt is an excellent operator and 
intelligent gentleman. No appointment has yet been 
made to the position on the L. V. Railroad vacated by 
Mr. Utt. 



A Practical Test of the Automatic Telegraph 
System. 

On the evening of January 27th last the Automatic 
Telegraph Company made a demonstration of the 
actual working of their system, in answer to the criti- 
cisms and statements of President William Orton, of 
the Western Union Company, in his letter to Post- 
master General Creswell of December 27, 1873. There 
were present from the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany Mr. Geo. B. Prescott, the electrician of the com- 
pany in New York, and Mr. Leonard Whitney, man- 
ager of the Western Union office in Washington. Sev- 
eral other gentlemen, not connected with either com- 
pany, were also present in the New York and Washing- 
ton offices. 

The matter transmitted was the President's Message 
and the Spanish Protocol attached, numbering 11,130 
words. 

The operation of punching the matter on the strips 
for transmission was commenced in Washington at 
5:39 P. M v and the document was copied complete in 
New York at 6:48 P. M., occupying in all but 69 min- 
utes — against 70 minutes — the time occupied by the 
Western Union Company in its transmission. The av- 
erage time was 55*^ minutes — against 59 by the West- 
ern Union. 

But one wire was used by the Automatic process, 
while the Western Union used eight. 

The persons employed were ten perforators, thirteen 
copyists and two Morse operators, while the Western 
Union Company employed sixteen expert Morse ope- 
rators on their eight wires. The average pay of per- 
forators and copyists is stated to be $40 per month. 

This is claimed to be a complete refutation of the 
statements made by Mr. Orton, and especially the as- 
sertion that it would require seventy-eight persons to 
do this work automatically iu the time employed by 
the Western Union Company. 



West India and Panama Telegraph. 

A special general meeting of the shareholders of 
tho West India and Panama Telegraph Company was 
held in London on the 14th of January, at which the 
directors of the company resigned, and a new board, 
comprising Sir James Anderson, Mr. H. Weaver, Mr. 
C. W. Earl, Mr. W. Ford and Mr. H. Holmes, was 
unanimously elected. 

This company has been unfortunate, aud, the share- 
holders believe, badly managed, which created much 
dissatisfaction, which was manifested by the fact that 
the number of proxies placed in the hands of the com- 



36 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 7, 1874. 



mittee of shareholders, who have been endeavoring to 
effect a change in the management, were six to one, 
placed in the hands of the old board of directors. 

The meeting adjourned till the Wednesday following, 
at the office of the company to complete the election, 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

The directors of the Globe Telegraph and Trust 
Company have declared a dividend of 3s. per share — 
being at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum upon the 
preference shares of the Company. 

The Anglo-American Telegraph Company has de- 
clared a balance dividend of 2 percent. — being, with that 
previously paid, at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum 
for the eight months ended the 31st of December, 1873. 
The Company, after the payment of this dividend, will 
remain with a cash balance of about £250,000, besides 
about 900 miles of spare cable. The annual general 
meeting will be held at the London Tavern, on Friday, 
February 13th. 

The total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom, during the 
week ending January 10th, 1874, was 313,696, an 
increase on the corresponding week of the previous year, 
of 38,355. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company have announced 
the opening of their new lines from Otranto, Italy, to 
Zante, Greece, and from Zante to the Island of Candia. 
Messages should be marked, " Via Zante direct ;" and 
the rates to Greece will be the same as by the old route 
via Volo. This company also announce that they are 
prepared to accept messages for Para, Bahia and Rib 
Janeiro, to be posted from Lisbon to Pernambuco, and 
telegraphed thence to their destination. 

The traffic receipts of the Submarine Telegraph Com- 
pany for December, 1873, amounted to £7,798 against 
£7,466 for the corresponding month of the previous 
year. 

The total traffic receipts of the Great Northern Tele- 
graph Company, during the month of December last, 
amounted to 287,137f. (£11,485), and for the month of 
December, 1872, to 204,752f. (£8,190). The receipts 
on the European lines amounted to 142,938f'.. against 
106,294f. in December, 1872; and on the China and 
Japan lines, to 144,198f., against 98,458f. in the month 
of December, 1872. 

Reuter's Telegraph Company has announced that 
telegraphic communication is restored between Shang- 
hai and Hong Kong. 

Telegraph wires now extend from Copiapo to e 
Arancanian frontiers of Chili. 

The government of Salvador has had to pass laws, 
with severe penalties, against those who destroy the 
telegraph wires. It has been found that the people are 
apt to cut off long pieces of the wire, and use them as 
strings to dry clothes on. 

The Bishop of Pampaluna, in Sautander, Bogota, has 
given his blessing to the Electric Telegraph there, and, 
in his address to the people, begged them to respect 
the invention as being necessary for the progress of 
society. 

The telegraphic line lately constructed and connect- 
ing Yalparaiso, Chili, with Malvoa, Angol, Naciemiento, 
Chiguaihue, Callipulli and Mulchen, has been in work- 
ing order. 

« «♦ 

Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

Scientific Telegrams. — Last year Professor Henry, 
of the Smithsonian Institute, secured the privilege of 
a free exchange of scientific information — such as the 
discovery of new planets or comets — over the Atlantic 
cable. The Western Union Telegraph Company has 
agreed to send such despatches free of charge over all 
parts of the United States. The French telegraph 
companies have offered the same privileges, and re- 
cently the Director of the Russian Imperial Telegraph 
consented to the same arrangement. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company have ob- 
tained an injunction against the Manhattan Telegraph 
Company, restraining them — the directors, etc. — 
"from in any manner molesting, injuring, obstructing, 
or interfering with any telegraph pole, line or wire 
owned or used by the plaintiff, aud from erecting or 
constructing any telegraph pole, line or wire at or be- 
tween any point or points on any side of any street, 
avenue, square or public place in the city, at or be- 
tween which point or points any telegraph pole, line or 
wire is now or shall hereafter be erected or constructed 
by or for the plaintiff." 

The cable laid in 1869 across the straits at Cape 
Canso was fouled in December by the anchor of a ves- 
sel, and parted. The difficulty of laying a cable there 
in the winter season is very great — the current running 



eight knots an hour, and huge masses of ice somtimes 
wedging up in a night the whole passage. However, 
Mr. George Robinson, who has charge of repairs there, 
gathered up a number of spare pieces of cable at Plais- 
ter Cove, joined them carefully, and on the night of 
January 25th succeeded, after much toil, in laying it 
and restoring communication. 

Mr. F. A. Abbott, a witness for the defence in the 
case of John J. Kiernan vs. the Manhattan Quotation 
Company, of this city — which is being heard before 
Rufus F. Andrews, Referee, being charged with steal- 
ing the plaintiff's news — refused to answer the question 
as to how he obtained news for defendant, and was sent 
before Judge Lawrence for contempt. 

The shares of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co., 
and of the American District Telegraph Co. have been 
placed on the list of the Few York Stock Exchange, 
aud there is already considerable dealing in them. 

Gov. Straw, of New Hampshire, has conveyed to the 
United States Direct Cable Co. the right to use 4,000 
feet of land at Straw's Point, near Rye Beach, N\ H., 
for the use of the ocean telegraph cable now being 
manufactured in England for that company. The 
grantees are to erect and maintain substantial and 
comely buildings, and the land to be used only for the 
purposes indicated in the deed of conveyance. 



A Telegraphic Defaulter. 

Mr. Byron W. Barnard, who, under the name of 
William Bernard, was at the time employed in the Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Western Union office, volunteered during 
the pestilence which raged so fearfully at Stare report, 
La., last summer for service in the Western Union 
office there, which offer was promptly accepted. He 
was given the management of the office, and escaped 
the pestilence, only to prove a defaulter and swindler. 
In two months he had squandered all the company's 
funds in his possession, swindled his assistants by ob- 
taining their receipts for salaries which had not been 
paid, and nearly sacrificed his life in a fit of delirium 
tremens. This is not the first of his swindling transac- 
tions, and, however commendable may have been his 
conduct in volunteering for what may be called a for- 
lorn hope, he is not entitled to pity or commiseration. 

Buchanan and Saville, who also volunteered for this 
service, fell victims to the disease, and sad as must 
their fate be regarded, it was far preferable to that of 
Barnard, who has thus recklessly wrecked the chance 
which was afforded him for redemption. 



The Postal Telegraph Debate. 

The Gardiner Hubbard and William Orton Debating 
Society has been revived at Washington, and held 
meetings before the Senate Post-office Committee yes- 
terday and the day before. Their theme was the novel 
one of the Postal Telegraph. The subject will be con- 
tinued indefinitely for some years. — Springfield Repub- 
lican. 



New Patents. 

4S- Official Copies of any U. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, sent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, P. O. 
Box 5603, New York City. 

For the week ended January 13, 1874, and bearing that date. 

No. 146,421. — Electric Ship Alabm. James B. Andrews, New 
York, N. Y. Application filed November 6, 1873. 

Deviation of compass operates a circuit closer controlling an 
alarm. 

In combination with a magnetic needle or bar, suitable means 
adapted to be influenced by any change in the relative position 
of said needle with the ship, and an alarm device for denoting 
such change, substantially as hereinbefore set forth. 

No. 146,444. — Electro-Magnet. Hippolyte Fontaine, Paris, 
France. Application filed, October 2, 1873. 
A magnet formed of a series of thin flexible metallic blades, 
strips, or their equivalent, assembled and bound together by 
pieces of copper, soft iron, or malleable cast iron, substantially 
as shown and described. 

No. 146,463.— Telegbaph Belay. Sandford Howard Lombard, 
Winona, Minn. Application filed November 28, 1873. 
Movement of armature invariably shunts one coil entirely, and 
a determined portion of the other out of circuit. 

1. In combination with a relay a shunt circuit to a portion of 
its coil, brought automatically into action by the movement of 
the ar mature to the magnet, and an additional shunt adjustably 
connet u-.ii theieto by a switch, substantially as set forth. 

2. In combination with the shunt circuit h, the switch D, and 
connections e e\ substantially as described. 

3. The combination of the contact point a', conductor a, post 
C, switch D, points e e\ conductor h, and armature lever b, con- 
structed and arranged substantially as described. 

No. 146,490. — Electrical Apparatus for Ships' Registebb. 
Niles H. Thompson, Albion, Mioh. Application filed Decem- 
ber 24, 1873. 
Register chart moved to correspond with deflections of needle 
through electrical apparatus controlled by a circuit made and 
broken by needle. 

1. The combination, with a magnetic needle, of an electrical 
circuit and circuit closers (the circuit closers being arranged to 



indicate any deflection of the needle), and devices operating to 
remove the circuit closersfrom contact with the needle. 

2. 'I he combination with a registering apparatus, of a magnetic 
needle, and an electric circuit controlled by said needle opera- 
ting to convey any deflections o: the needle to the registering 
apparatus, substantially as set forth. 



T>ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOUTH 4th ST., PMILA- 
manufacturers of 

UNRIVALLED MORSE INSTRUMENTS, 

CHAMPION LEARNERS' APPARATUS, 

with Complete Instructions, Battery, Wire, etc., 

TrrhprovecL Czurved Keys, 
Batteries and Supplies of every Description. 



Send for Circulars and Catalogue. 



TTTESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

furnish all descriptions of 

Copper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EVERY VARIETY OP INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and. 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company, 

CHICAGO. 



R 



EDUCTION OF PRICES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL, 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEURS, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates : 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 60 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

F. E. POPE & CO., 



[P.O. Box 5503.1 



38 Vesey Street, N. Y. 



THE RAILROAD GAZETTE. 



TELEGRAPHERS and TKAIN DESPATCHERS, and all men 
in any way interested in or connected with Railroads, will find 
this paper interesting and valuable. It is the best Railroad 
paper in the world. 

It is an illustrated journal of 24 quarto pages, about the size 
of Harpers' 1 Weekly. 

PRICE, - - - - $4 A YEAR. 
Subscriptions will be received for three months at One Dollar. 
Address, 

A. N. KELLOGG & 00., 

72 BROADWAY, N. Y. 



February 1, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



m 



lNson Stager, Elisha Gray, 

Pres't. Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCKS AND 

TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 

JOHNSON'S WIRE. 
BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 

KKNOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 

TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS and dealers in 



A FULL ASSORTMENT OP TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELECTRIC BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



AN1C PRICES. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



ALL WHO NEED 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 

IN 

Ziarge or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 

SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 

A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 



Chicago, 111. 



G 1 



EO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD A.VENVE_, 

Chicago, III. 



AZ.L GO01)S WA.'RltsiJVZjET) FIHS7 CLASS. 
AN» PRICES EXTREMELY LOW. 



w. 



9 END FOR PRICE LIST- 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



A.gents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 
" AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 
" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 
" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 
" HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

•'. HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 
" MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 
" " THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

.. PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 
" •' BROOKS* " 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 

" POPE'S RALLWAY SIGNALS. 

" EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" " SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

'< ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 

IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 4 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instrument*, Line. Material, Office. Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

8®- Special attention gWen to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 
Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 




One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SEJCF-CEOSING SET, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

trom 6 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 50 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE & CO., 38 Vesey street, 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 

T ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 

CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will oe prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words "Pile 
Leclanche " on the carbons and glasses. Any Information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

JVo. i.0 West iSlh Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 

rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

1 TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 
~^,~ — 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete. Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Oell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " " with Cut Out and Lightning 
Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No, 8 J>BT STREET, N. T. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[February 1, 1874. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

o 



(3- A ME WELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

3. W. STOVER. 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 

J B. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 

3. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Speoial Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L. M. MONKOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Speoial Agent for New England, 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OB 

VTON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

If now In operation in the following Cities, to whioh refereuoeis 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



aioany, W. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Charlestown, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J ., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. 0., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Mass. 



ine Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

tnrtl — The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the oonstan t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the fire is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each Are company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PtRF-LXT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sufficient vindication of the claims which are mad« by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which nave been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions nave 

COMPLETELY FAILED; ' ' 

the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub. 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. 6AMEWBLL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARM ER & CHANNINQ PATENTS, one of the most 
important of whioh has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 
The most important improvement which the Proprietoi s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

the introduction and operation of which involves so lit! ie ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

PlftE ALAKM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 
throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT?! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, three 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
iheir efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



f CHARLES T. CHESTER, 

104 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 

AND MANUFACTURER OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 

AND EVEBY DESCRIPTION OP 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 

These Instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $ 135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood-work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OR 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & MMkl WIRES, 

OF THE 
HIGHEST INSULATION. 

We are now prepared to furnish, after an experience of thres 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injury. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hour*. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-condnctor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FUBNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that tt will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platlna Connection, introduced by us eight years 
slnoe; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily and quickly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties, a SOUNDER that 
will w >rk practioally with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very beat MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, la now ready for distribution. 



February t, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



T>ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 

INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOB THE SALE OP 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BEOOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance i9 
Included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
euch as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
4o., stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Gables, Gables for Eiver Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



M 



AGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 



FOE 



A SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 
INSTRUMENT, 
FOR PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium— Silver Medal—over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDKN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, reliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIVATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms. &c, apply to 

MEKOHANTS' MANUFAOTUKING AND 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

'. S. J. BUKEELL, Superintendent, 

No. 50 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. 



MER1CAN COMPOUND 

TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 
COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH W1KF, 
compared with iron, consists in its lmhtnkhh, reducing t>y over 
fifty p«r cent, the numb«r of poles »ucl Insulators required. 

Relative trnktlk htuenoth, homogeneity and elasticity de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, slj'et, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great Improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in Its ookabimtv, whlcli greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized Iron wire. 

Mtoeetlier resulting in a very great reduction in the coal of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time '.naming 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
Address — 

American Compound Tfileirranh Wire Co., 
ALANSON GARY. Treasurer, 

No. 234 West 90th St., 

New York. 



RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors. 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IB MAIDEN IjANE, NEW TORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 

which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



GEO. B. HICKS, (late) Pres't. JOHN E. GARY, Vice-Pret't. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, Sec'y and Treas'r. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 
AND 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

CLEVELAND, O., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 

Agents and Manufacturers for 

THE AMERICAN FIRE ALARM, 

GAMEWELL & CO., N. Y. 

Specialties made of 

HICKS' REPEATERS, HICKS' RELAYS, 

SUEE-CONTACT KEY, "NOVELTY" SOUNDER, 

Cheap Instruments for Learners, Amateurs, 4c, 

NEW GRAVITY BATTERY, 

Hotel and Private House Electric Annunciators, 

BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARMS, 

Dial and Printing Instruments for Private Telegraph Lines, 

CALL BELLS AND ALARM BKLLS of fvery style. 

Satleries, Chemicals, Wire, Insulators, 
Supplies, <&c., So. 

MODELS and LIGHT MACHINERY made to order. 



Tj^ L. POPE & CO., 

■*- # MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ThPBe Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish avl descriptions op tele- 

GBAFH MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, SUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE XjTGTEiTTSTIlSrO ABRBSTERS. 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this now and very superior 
■Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will bo supplied upon orders 
through us, at Uie Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOOHHAIISES'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for tho 

EAGLES metallic galvanic battery. 

The demand lor this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it la 
coiiced"d by all win> iitvs n-ted it t> be the n<-xi and mn i. Ecnnn- 
mi.cn.1 Battery, for telegraphic and other purposes, offered to the 

public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. I_. POPE & CO., 



PRICE LIST. 

Hicks' Repeaters (1873.) $100.00 

Hicks' Relays from $12.00 to 18.00 

Main Line Sounders " 12.00" 19.00 

Local Sounders " 3.50" 8.00 

Keys '.' 3.00" 6.60 

Learners' Outfits {complete) " 7.50" 10.00 

Dial and Printing Instruments " 75.00 " 225.00 

Annunciators, per room " 7.00" 12.00 

Burglar Alarms " 50.00 " 200.0 

Send for Circulars. 

GEO. W. STOCKLY, 

Sec'y and Treas., 
No. 4 LEADER BUILDING, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



D 



B. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 



JERSEY CITY, N. J., 



Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL. APPARATUS 



Electric Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Rheostat as 
they have been recently improved; which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity ; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, &c. : the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materiuls; the resistance and electro motive force of 
batteries; as well as the. strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents ot diiiamie electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, nre em- 
braced in this one. Its measurements are accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read oil' in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It packs in a ease, seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. ( onsidcring Iho wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other instruments, 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $230, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $40 to $60. 

Descriptive pamphlets may be had on application. 



(P. O. Box 6503.) 



88 VESE V STREET. 



lie also pays special attention to tho manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARE OP 

Naked Copper Wire, 

So wound that tho convolutions are separated from each other by 
a regular and uniform space of the 1 SUlMh of an inch, the layers 

separated by thin paper, in Helices of silk Insulated wire, tho 

I pace occupied by the silk is the 1 IfiOth to the l-.'ilKHh of an inch; 
therefore a spool made of a given length and size of naked wire 

will he smaller and will contain many more convolutions around 
the core than one of silk Insulated wire, and will make a propor- 
tionally stronger magnet, while the resistance will bo the same. 

These Helices are now offered for the use ol manufacturers of 
Telegraphic nnd Hluctricaj apparatus, and orders will bo filled 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VJ 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February T, 1874 1 



<HE PERFECT BATTERY. 
CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOOKWOOD BATTERY, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dey Street, N. Y. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in tliis country and Europe to be 

FAR SUPEKIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purpose*, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIR3T PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1871. 

The size shown in the cut (N'o. 2). when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MOKE THAN OWE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper and zinc" solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 

current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 
Send for Circular. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O I_i E3 AGENTS. 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyer, Secretary. 



RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 




"SAVE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short t > write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into th9 Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave„ Chicago, 111. 



TXTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, &c, &c. 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A VERY SUPERIOR MAIN LINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 

The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, ) 
Sept. 22d, 1873- J 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearance Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the miuimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more beforej the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



/npHE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
. IN THE WORLD 

IS SUPPLIED BY 

JL. G. TILLOTSOF & CO., 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MANUFAOTUEEES, DEALERS aad IMPOETEES 

Oil' 

• TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

; MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS 

; always on hand, for the equipment of liues of any length, at a 
moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 

POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, I}x2x5 inches. 

CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL. 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS. 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from % to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, price* 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 

KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS ■ 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS. PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LEOLANCHE, NITRO-CHROMI0 AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 

CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 
"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," .... 30 centB. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY & TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalogue and Price List furnished upon application. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW YORK , 




Vol. X. 



New York, Saturday, February ljf, 187 J^. 



Whole No. 396 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 
^ 109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 

MANUFACTURER OP 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OP ALL KINDS, 
<G-ALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GONG-8, 

" PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, - 

"" Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 

AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 



/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

All kinds of Electrical Instruments 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
AH orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
'Office and Factory, 

352 and 3S4 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont.. 

"YTTESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

FURNISH ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Copper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EVERY VARIETY OP INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and. 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company, 

CHICAGO. 
/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

^"^ (ESTABLISHED 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for Bale the various binds of Office and Magnet Wires, in- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 
DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



EUGENE P. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURER OF 

REED & PHILLIPS' 

PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 



Lock Box 169. 



(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18TH, 1813.) 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

- We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

J8®~ Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips 1 Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. Hockhausen " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent 's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Sup't. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 



OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &o. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



rpiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.) 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on fin sly 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Pate it 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 60 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" •• " with Cut Oat and Lightning 
Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 I)EY STREET, N. Y. 

HHHE RAILROAD GAZETTE. 



TELEGRAPHERS and TRAIN DESPATCHERS, and all men 
in any way interested in or connected with Railroads, will find 
this paper interesting and valuable. It is the best Railroad 
paper in the world. 

It is an illustrated journal of 24 quarto pages, about the size 
of Harpers' 1 Weekly. 

PRICE; - - - - $4 A YEAR. 

Subscriptions will be received for three months at One Dollar. 
Address, 

A. N. KELLOGG & CO., 

72 BROADWAY, N. Y. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND. AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL MCALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago , III. 



w 



ALLACE & SONS, 

MANUFACTURERS of 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll and Sheet. 

We make the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty— 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every instance to be superior to that of any othor 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, N. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

A nsoii i.-i. Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 14, 1874^ 



A LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
TJ. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 
{Room 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a line 
many times with our new Hook, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

" per dozen $3.00.^^ 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATE'iRS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 

T3USSELLS' AMERICAN 

-"* STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 

17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STREET, near ERABKEOET, 

NSW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

E00E", JOB AND COMMEEGIAL PEIETMG. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 



rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

-*- MANUFACTUEEKS OF 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOE 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS, TACHTS, 
etc., etc, 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 

79 VAEICK ST BEET, MEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OE PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 
ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGEAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and„adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 
vol.8vo, cloth $5 00. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books, 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any address on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN N0STKAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET, N. Y. 



HHHE AMATEUR'S 
■*■ TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 



(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Eriction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Bill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 
ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a " Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

A COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR A TELEGRAPH OFFICE, 
Seven Dollars and. HFifty Cents. 

Two Sets, complete $1* 5 " 

Sounder and Key only • • • • 6 B0 

• < " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester... 7 60 

We will pay expressage on Amateur Outfits when price is 
remitted in Advance. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAFFNER'S 



TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my "TELEGEAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELEGRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Elustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNEB, 

78 and 80 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 



~1 yfODERN PRACTICE OP THE ELEC- 






TRIC TELEGRAPH. 



A HAND-BOOK 

FOE 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth, - - - - - $3.00 

jggj- Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS,, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 

4& 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 
SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED- 
WIRES OF EVERY VAKIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground! 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors 

required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE, . 

AND FOB 

BLASTING AND MINING PTIItTOSES. 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Pebcha has been universally adopted by all scientific and.- 
practical Eleotricians and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with in- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

S5JBE$AR!WE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. . 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G\ TELLOTSQN &' CO., 

8 PJEY STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN THOOLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO.. 363 Broadway,. 
D. H0DGMAN &C0..27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St.- 

Address all Communications to 

S. BISHOP, 

OFFICE AT FACTOR r. 



February H, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



87 



The Telegrapher 

jk JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 







PIIRI ISHFR 


J. 


N. AoMLtY, 






SATURDAY, 


FEBRUARY 14, 1874. 


V 


OL. X. 


WHOLE No. 396. 



Written for The Telegrapher. 

A Psalm of (the Telegrapher's) Life. 



Tell me not, in mournful numbers, 

Telegraphing is a dream ; 
For the " plug " should die that slumbers 

Or reads by the tape machine.* 

For 'tis real, ditto earnest — 

Imperfection's not its goal ; 
Plug thou art, and plug remaineth, 

Was not spoken of us all. 

Others writing should remind us 
We can make our writing fair ; 

And our breaks be no more numerous 
Than a good receiver's share. 

Let us, then, begin to practice, 

Making each our sphere in life ; 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Shun contention, wrangling, strife. 
Mauch Chunk, Pa., Febuary 9. 

The Morse recording apparatus is referred to. 



(Original %x\\t\t%. 

The Bridge vs. the Differential Duplex. 

By F. L. Popk. 

In The Telegrapher of July 12, 1873, was pub- 
lished a description of the Stearns Duplex Telegraph, 
arranged on the differential plaD, which had at that 
time been in successful operation for more than four 
years, first on the lines of the Franklin, and more re- 
cently upon those of the ."Western Union Telegraph 
Company. Within a year past another form of duplex 
apparatus, upon a different principle, also invented by 
Mr. Steams, has been largely introduced upon the 
Western Union lines. The patent for this latter sys- 
tem, which is known as the " bridge duplex," was 
granted November 12, 1872. It involves the principle 
of the well known electrical balance, or Wheatstoue 
bridge, the respective resistances being so adjusted as 
shunt the outgoing curieut around the receiving relay, 
leaving the latter in a neutral condition, ready to be 
affected solely by the current arriving from the distant 
station. 

Although the "bridge duplex" has always been a 
great favorite with the electricians and managers of 
the Western Uniou Company, judging from the num- 
ber of them that have been placed on the lines, the 
opiuion of the practical telegraphers who actually do 
the work has almost uniformly been strongly in favor 
of the differential system, the generaMmpression being 
that the latter worked much better than the bridge 
instrument under unfavorable conditions of insulation. 
As this is a_matter of a good deal of practical impor- 
tance, a short discussion and comparison of the princi- 
ples involved in the question will be of interest to the 
readers of this journal. 

The accompanying diagram will serve to illustrate 
the arrangement of circuits in the bridge system. Only 
one terminal station is shown, the opposite station be- 
ing its exact counterpart in every particular. 

One pole of the main battery, E, is connected with 
the ground, and the other with the lever of the key K. 
A supplementary lever, K', is so arranged at the back 
of the key lever that when the latter is depressed con- 
tact is made between K and K' before it is broken be- 
tween K' and P — the effect of which is to keep the lat- 
ter connected direct to the ground, except when the 
battery E is inserted by depressing the key. "When a 
current is thus sent from the battery E it divides at H, 
one portion going through A to the line L, and the 
other going through B and the rheostat X to the 
ground. The relay R — which is of the ordinary kind — 
is placed in a circuit between F and G, called the 
"bridge wire." 

The circuits being thus arranged, it will be obvious 
to any one familiar with the principle of the bridge, 
that when the various resistances are arranged in the 
following proportion : 

A : B : : L ■ X, 
no cm-rent will flow through the bridge wire F G, and 
consequently the relay R will not be in the least 
affected by the outgoing current. 

On the other hand, if the line current be increased 
by. the closing of the key at the opposite end, the addi- 



tional current arriving at F will divide — part going by 
A to H, and part going through the relay R to G and 
thence through B to H, where it joins the first men- 
tioned portion, and the reunited currents go through 
K' to the ground. A portion also diverges at G and 
passes to the ground through X. 

Now, if we carefully examine the diagram, we shall 
find that, in order to send the greatest possible portion 
of the curreut into the line, the resistances of B and X 
should be as large as possible in comparison with the 
resistances of A. and L. Again, the most favorable 
proportion of resistances for receiving is the one that 
will cause the greatest proportion of the current to 
pass through the bridge wire F G and relay R. In 
order to do this we must make A as great as possible 
in comparison with R and B. 

It will, therefore, be evident that the best arrange- 
ment for transmitting is the most unfavorable for re- 
ceiving, and vice versa, and that in practice it is 
necessary to find the most advantageous compromise 
between these antagonistic conditions. 

A series of experiments, made by inserting a tangeut 
galvanometer in the bridge wire instead of a receiving 
relay, have shown that the best results are attained 
when the proportion between the various resistances 
corresponds with the figures given in the diagram, or 
A = 1,000, B == 500, L = 4,000, X = 2,000, R = 500. 

These figures are the same as those given in an ar- 
ticle describing this system published in the Journal 
of the Telegraph, Sept. 1, 1873. 

Taking these, therefore, for our basis of calculation, 
let us ascertain how much current can be made to pass 
through the relay in order to record the incoming sig- 
nal. 

The joint resistance of the two routes from G via X 

,_, . 2000 x 500 ... .,.-.. . 
aud B is = 400. Add the relay resistance, 

500, and we have 900 as the total resistance of the 
relay route between F and the ground. The resist- 




ance of the branch A is 1000; therefore the current 
dividing at F will give the relay {§, or .526— only a 
little more than one half of the current received from 
the line at F. But the current has already been di- 
vided at the sending station aud two thirds sent to 
ground through B and X, leaving ouly one third to go 
to line, which, upon reaching F at the receiving sta- 
tion, is again divided, the relay getting but one half of 
this, or only about 16 per cent, of the entire current 
leaving the battery at the sending station, even under 
the most favorable circumstances. 

It is not practicable to increase the sensitiveness of 
the receiving relay by substituting one of lighter re- 
sistance, because by so doing a greater proportion of 
the current is forced through the branch A, and the 
amount passing through the relay correspondingly 
diminished. On the other hand, if au attempt be made 
to lessen the resistance of the relay, the current passing 
through it is indeed increased, but the number of con- 
volutions in the helices is lessened, and the magnetic 
effect diminished iu the same ratio. 

The proportion of the current arriving at the receiv- 
ing station, which is given iu the above calculation, 
will ordinarily be still further diminished by leakages 
ou the line, aud it has been found in practice that the 
bridge system can scarcely be worked at all on a long 
line in wet weather. Efforts have been made to in- 
crease its efficiency by " piling on more battery " — the 
usual panacea for badly working lines — with substan- 
tially the usual result — that of increasing the escape 
and adding to the general misery. 

"When we compare the results of the two duplex 
systems, we find that they may be summed up as fol- 
lows : In Mr. Stearns' first system — the differential — 
50 per cent, of the current leaving the battery at the 
sending station reaches the receiving relay ; while in 
his second system — the bridge — only 16 per cent, 
reaches the same point. One of our loading electri- 
cians thinks that " it would be difficult for any one to 
"devise a more beautiful and ingenious aud at the 
" same time utterly useless improvement, than Mr. 
" Stearns has given us in his bridge duplex." The 
great intrinsic merits of the differential system have 



enabled it to triumph over the numerous obstacles that 
beset it, and its success has now become an established 
fact. It is certainly somewhat singular that such a 
persistent effort should have been made on the "West- 
ern Union lines to supersede it by a system so radi- 
cally inferior in every respect as that which has just 
been described. 

- — ■ »• » 

The Telegraphs and Telegraphers of a Quarter 
of a Century Ago. 

By Old Telegrapher. 

The telegraphic reminiscences which appeared in 
The Telegrapher some months since, prepared by 
the writer, called forth some very interesting communi- 
cations from telegraphers relating their early experi- 
ence. The subject is by no means exhausted, and it is 
to be hoped that we shall have more of them. Those 
who have engaged in the telegraph business within 
comparatively a few years past, have but little appreci- 
ation of the difficulties and disadvantages which their 
predecessors experienced when the telegraphic art was 
comparatively novel, and electrical science but imper- 
fectly understood. The practical operation of telegraphs 
then was, to a considerable extent, a groping in the 
dark, and even the best qualified for their duties but 
imperfectly comprehended the nature of the problems 
which were daily presented to them for solution. 

The theories which were from time to time propound- 
ed, and the efforts which were made to demonstrate 
practically their correctness, involved the sacrifice of a 
considerable amount of the capital invested, and retard- 
ed rather than promoted telegraphic progress and 
success. 

The surface theory, so called — that is, the theory 
that electricity was propagated on the surface of the* 
conductor rather than through the mass— at one time 
had many adherents, and the old New York* and Boston 
House line (as was stated iu The Telegrapher of 
March 15, 1873), was constructed on this theory. In- 
stead of a single conducting wire, seven small wires 
were mechanically twisted together, and the twisted 
iron cord was stretched between the two cities. When 
new this did not materially interfere with the transmis- 
sion of electric signals, as the three wires in effect 
formed a single conductor. In a short time, however, 
these small wires became oxydized, and the resistance 
to the passage of the signal must have been something 
enormous. As galvanometers for testing resistance 
were then but little known, the amount of this resist- 
ance cannot now be stated, but that it sadly interfered 
with successful telegraphy those who were then re- 
quired to operate the lines very sensibly appreciated. 
The actual cause of the difficulty experienced was not 
understood at the time, but that it existed was pain- 
fully evident to everybody concerned. Another diffi- 
culty, arising from this peculiar construction of the con- 
ductor, was, that it became so thoroughly oxydized and 
consequently weakened that it was constantly beiug 
broken.; and one of the most important qualifications of 
an operator was to be au expert line repairer. The line 
was built upon the highway, aud every office had in its 
monthly accounts a heavy outlay for horse hire and for 
teams engaged to transport the operators in the search 
for "breaks." The number of operators employed, es- 
pecially in the way offices, was very limited ; and it was 
customary, when a break occurred between any two of- 
fices, for the operator in each to close his office aud "go 
out on the line." It was a very common thing for cus- 
tomers desirous of forwarding messages to find, upon 
going to the office for that purpose, that it was closed, 
and a paper stuck upon the door announcing the fact 
that the operator had gone out to repair the line ; or, 
perhaps, a messeuger in charge, who coolly informed 
them that the line was down and the operator would 
" probably be back to-morrow." How much business 
would a telegraph line be likely to obtain, or retain, if a 
similar policy were now pursued ? 

The advantage to the company of such a policy was 
twofold. First, the expense of this system of repairs; 
and, secondly, the loss of business from the time the 
line was repaired until the return of the operator from 
a tour of from twenty to forty miles by team. This 
system of line repairing was continued for several 
years, and until the business became more extensive 
aud more thoroughly systematized. The printed in- 
structions issued to the managers and operators of a 
liue upon which the writer was employed as late as 
1855-56, among other things directed them, when the 
line was " down," to take the fastest horse that could 
be obtained and proceed to repair the difficulty and re- 
turn to their offices with all possible speed, so as to be 
ready for business. 

Telegraphers were not averse to this system, although 
it at all times imposed upon them severe labor. They 
used to have certain points of meeting, and made their 
excursions occasions of v^ry pleasant reunions, which 
otherwise would have been of rare occurrence. 

Another fallacy, which was almost universal, was 
when there was auj - difficulty iu working the lines, 
that did not amount to a total interruption of con- 
ductivity, to pile on battery in order to force the sig 



38 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 14, 1874. 



nals through the wire. The Grove battery was consid- 
ered the only one suitable for telegraphic purposes, 
and every operator was expected to know how to set 
up and take care of the battery. In none but the 
largest offices was there a person whose special duty it 
was to take charge of the battery, and every office was 
expected to have on hand an extra battery, to be added 
to the regular battery whenever there was an increase 
of the ordinary escape, which at all times, except in 
very dry or very cold weather, was considerable. The 
writer has frequently, when in charge of a large office, 
directed the battery man to add fifty to seventy-five 
cells of Grove battery to the very large batteries 
always used, in order to work through escape. 
Although even now making but small pretension to 
scientific knowledge, he would know that in such cases 
a reduction rather than an increase of battery would 
be likely to prove advantageous. At that time, how- 
ever, even those who made considerable pretension to 
electrical knowledge, believed that adding to the bat- 
tery power was the proper thing to do when troubled 
with escape of the electric current. The increase of the 
capacity of the conductor, and more careful insulation, 
have so largely decreased the necessity for battery that 
a large saving in this item of expenditure has been 
made. That this is capable of being still further 
economized there can be no doubt, and when, as in 
course of time must inevitably be the case, telegraph 
lines are more thoroughly insulated than they are even 
now, the waste of battery will be reduced to the mini- 
mum, as it is now on some lines. 

The characteristics of the old time telegraphs have 
already been touched upon in previous articles by the 
present writer, and by others who have supplemented 
them by their interesting communications, which have 
appeared in the columns of The Telegrapher. 

But few of them remain connected with the busi- 
ness. Many of them have said their last " good night," 
and have gone to their final account, where crosses, 
breaks and bad insulation shall trouble them no more. 
Nearly the ordinary lifetime of a generation has passed 
since the time to which reference is here made, and na- 
turally death has greatly depleted the number of those 
who, with high hopes and anticipations of what the tel- 
egraph was to become (which it may be truthfully said 
have already been more than realized), engaged in a 
business which possessed for them no ordinary fasci- 
nation. They were mainly young men, and generally 
intelligent, and enterprising, and, if their Bohemian style 
of existence had a tendency to somewhat demoralize 
them, they were usually faithful employes, and labored 
earnestly for the interests of the lines with which they 
were connected. That they had their faults it would be 
folly to deny, but their virtues also were great, and 
their love for their business and devotion to it was ex- 
ceptional and commendable. There were undoubtedly 
some black sheep among them, but their failings and 
errors generally injured themselves more than others. 

Those of them who are still connected with tele- 
graphy generally occupy responsible positions, to 
which their long experience fully entitles them. Those 
by whom these lines may be read will recognize their 
truthfulness, and it is hoped will add their own expe- 
rience and observation to the general fund, for the in- 
struction and amusement of the generation which now 
manipulate the instruments, and has taken the posi- 
tions as employes which they once held. 

The writer looks back with interest and affection 
to the many years past, when he was one of the then 
limited band of telegraph operators, and to those with 
whom he was then associated. Nothing gives him more 
pleasure than to meet these old time friends, and again 
revive the memories of the past ; and, as he recalls those 
who have gone from the joys, and sorrows, the suc- 
cesses and pleasures, and the troubles and tribulations 
of earth, he is saddened at the thought that he shall 
meet them no more in this life. 

'* After life's fitful fever they sleep well," 

and in a few days we too shall become but a memory 
of the past, and shall 

" Take our places in the silent hall of death." 

It is for us that remain that regret and sorrow should 
be felt. For those who have gone before us we should 
rather rejoice, because their warfare is ended. They 
have fonght life's battle, and for them there is no fur- 
ther need of apprehension, of disappointment, suffering 
or trouble. 

The telegraphs and telegraphers of the present day 
are unlike those which have been briefly and imperfect- 
ly depicted in these articles. In many respects there 
has been very marked improvement, but, in the ability 
and good qualities of the persons engaged in the busi- 
ness, the old time telegraphers will compare favorably 
with the generation which has succeeded them. 



Resignation of and Presentation to Mr. Charles 
P. Hoag. 

Mr. Charles P. Hoag, chief operator of the "Western 
Union Telegraph Company, of this citv, having tendered 
his resignation, which was to take effect yesterday, as 
he was about to leavo the office yesterday was called 
over to Mr. Urquhart's desk, where Mr. C. S. Cunning- 
ham, on behalf of the operators, addressed him as fol- 
lows: 

"Mr. Hoag — ¥e were surprised when we heard of 
your determination to surrender the profession in which 
you have so brilliantly distinguished yourself, and 
grieved because we know and feel that we are losing a 
kind friend, and the company a most worthy chief ope- 
rator. I wish my brother operators had selected one 
who could in words give you an adequate idea of their 
appreciation of you as a gentlemen and an operator. 
During our association with yon, your kind and gentle- 
manly deportment, your attention to your arduous du- 
ties, and your readiness at all times to consult the wishes 
and desires of those under you, have secured for you 
our love and confidence. Tour even and cheerful dis- 
position had a tendency to lighten our labors and cre- 
ate that harmony so essential in our profession ; and 
we feel that when you depart we have lost a valued 
friend and a most agreeable associate. Asa slight proof 
of our esteem we beg your acceptance of this chain and 
locket. Our only regret is that circumstances prevent 
us from tendering you something more valuable and 
worthy of the feeling which auimates us. We hope you 
will wear it in remembrance of the happy days we have 
spent together — and that in your new and more respon- 
sible duties you will be equally successful in meriting 
public confidence and esteem. We wish you, your ami- 
able wife and children, a long, happy and prosperous 
life." 

Mr. Hoag, in a few well chosen remarks, thanked the 
operators, and concluded by saying that he had 
worked a long time for the company, but he would ad- 
mit that this was the best " receiving " he ever did. Mr. 
Hoag is about to embark with his brother in the wind- 
mill business, an invention of their own. for which they 
have received a patent. — Alto California. 



messengers, which, I presume, your readers know all 
about, as you have it in Boston ; but, in brief, it is the 
quickest and most convenient method of sending mes- 
sages or packages ever invented, and, consequently, it 
is universally popular. The telegraph company which 
secures this will have an advantage in city distribution 
which can hardly be appreciated, except by those who 
have tried city despatches. The American District 
Telegraph Company, of Few York, is the parent con- 
cern, and the District Telegraph Company, of Boston, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, etc., are offshoots. It 
is probable that the Western Union, from its great in- 
fluence, will secure these lines, and finally incorporate 
them, and they are now negotiating; hence the ad- 
vance of American District Telegraph stock lately." 



Suit Against the Western Union Telegraph 
Company. 

The Indianapolis Journal gives the following in re- 
ference to a suit for $50,000 damages brought against 
the "Western Union Telegraph Company by a man 
named Ericsson, a theatrical manager, the injury being 
received, as alleged, through an operator's divulging 
the contents of a message: '* The theatre troupe over 
which Ericsson presided was playing an engagement 
at North Yernon, Ind., and became somewhat pressed 
for money. He telegraphed his brother for funds. The. 
brother responded as follows : ' No money here. Hold 
fast to all you get. Come home. Be sure and bring my 
dog.' One of the company, having his suspicions 
aroused from some cause, came to the telegraph opera- 
tor, and by representing himself as Ericsson's partner, 
succeeded in gettiug a copy of the despatch, on the 
strength of which he caused the manager's arrest and 
incarceration in the jail, where he remained for a brief 
interval of time. The complaint alleges that the plain- 
tiff had in his employ a large number of '.stars,' se- 
cured at an enormous expense, was making money 
rapidly on account of the excellence of his company, 
and that upon his arrest the company disbanded, srreatiy 
to his detriment, financially and otherwise. His an- 
guish of soul, during his stay in jail, be thought" could 
be assuaged by the payment of a few thousands. Every 
item was set out with the most excruciating exactness 
in detail. Desirous of settling some questions of im- 
portance involved the suit in the highest courts. Mr. 
Wallick, the manager of the Western Division of the 
telegraph company, has succeeded in having the case 
transferred to the United States Courts of this district, 
where it will be decided, probably next term." 



Electricity. 

We stated, a short time since, that arrangements of 
an important character were pending, having for their 
object the development of electricity as a lighting and 
motive power. That this mysterious power is capable 
of being applied to many purposes of art, science and in- 
dustry, has been already fully established, and there are 
yet many other purposes, at present only indicated, to 
which it may doubtless be applied with a success not 
less complete than that which has been achieved in the 
electric telegraph. For purposes of lighting our thor- 
oughfares and public buildings, for lighthouses and 
ship lights, electricity has already shown itself to be 
thoroughly well adapted; and all that is required for its 
extended application to these purposes is that the mat- 
ter should be taken up in a practical and business-like 
manner. In the departments of art and manufacturing 
industry a wide and at present comparatively unoccu- 
pied field exists for the application of this invaluable 
agent. In connection with the working of our railway 
system, with which we are more particularly interested, 
there would appear to be no reason why a very general 
economy might not be effected by the substitution of 
the electric light for the present expensive mode of 
lighting by gas. Night signals might be given by the 
electric light iu the place of the oil and gas at present 
employed. Electricity is successfully employed, and 
may be still further extended in the communication, and 
for keeping accurate time on all the railway clocks ; iu 
railway trains it may be applied for purposes of railway 
breaks ; and we believe the day is not far distant when 
even steam itself shall be superseded by electricity as a 
motive power. 

Hitherto electric science has been treated too much 
in the nature of a philosophical toy, and its most emi- 
nent professors have been content to keep to them- 
selves many of the brilliant results which they have 
obtained, and frequently overlooking, in the ardor of 
their scientific researches, the practical value of results 
which have been reached. One thing, at all events, in 
connection with electricity,has been fully demonstrated, 
which is, that it affords a cheap and efficient motive 
power. Enterprise has but to apply it to the many 
purposes to which it is adapted; but enterprise itself 
requires the motive power of capital. We are in a po- 
sition to state that this essential has been provided. A 
company has been registered for the purpose of taking 
over the manufacture of all Sir Charles Wheatstone's 
inventions in electro-magnetic telegraphs, electro-mag- 
netic clocks, mechanical clocks, with all the improve- 
ments connected with the patents. The company also 
take over the good will and stock in trade, and will ap- 
ply the capital to be raised generally in " assisting and 
promoting the economic application and development 
of electrical power." The capital consists of the small 
sum of £30,000, the whole of which has been already 
privately subscribed. The subscribers to the capital 
signing the articles of association are Sir Charles 
Wheatstone, 19 Park Crescent, Regent's Park, W. ; K. 
Sabine, Esq., 172 Great Portland street, W. ; H. Em- 
ber, 79 Lombard street, London : F. Braby, Mount Hen- 
ley, Sydenham ; Sir S. Canning, 7 Great Winchester 
street Buildings, W.; T. H. Pulestou, 41 Lombard street, 
and W. Abbot, 10 Tokenhouse yard. — The Railway 
News. 



The total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom during the 
week ended January 17, 1874, was 328,946; an increase 
over the corresponding week last year of 45,267. 



The Opposition to the Western Union Company. 

The New York correspondent of the Daily Evening 
Traveller, of Boston, Mass., writes to that paper in re- 
gard to the opposition to the Western Union Telegraph 
Company as follows : 

" I don't believe you will be afraid to publish the 
fact, in this connection, that the Western Union is really 
menaced now by the most serious opposition it has ever 
encountered. A few years since this company had the 
Atlantic and Pacific and Franklin in its grasp, but in 
some way it has lost it. I think I could tell you how, 
but it is unnecessary. Now there is to be a struggle 
which will be far more serious to the Western Union 
than any it has yet encountered. In anticipation of 
this, the Western Union had already monopolized the 
Gold and Stock Telegraph Company, but have since al- 
most lost that advantage by persisting in charges which 
brought the Manhattan Company into life, and now the 
American District Telegraph Company becomes an ob- 
ject of competition. This is a distribution telegraph by 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No uotice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. llth. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

There has been no mentiou of telegraph matters in 
either house of Congress since my last week's letter 
was written. What the Springfield Republican humor- 
ously styles " the William Orton and Gardner Hubbard 
debating society," before the Senate Post-office Com- 
mittee, Iseems to have substantially ended for the pres- 



February 14, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



39 



ent with Mr. Hubbard's reply to Mr. Orton's last 
speeches before the committee. Postmaster Burt, of 
Boston, Mass., favored the committee with his opinion 
that the messages could be delivered by the postmen 
as promptly as letters are now delivered, which it is to 
be presumed even Mr. Orton would not undertake to 
dispute, and this seems to have brought the perform- 
ance to a close for the present. The committee has 
agreed to print the arguments and evidence on the sub- 
ject, which will be a good thing, as private enterprise 
certainly would not undertake the job. Fortunately, 
although the committee may print, but few are com- 
pelled to read them, and so no great harm will be done. 
It cannot be denied that, however able and convincing 
these arguments and the evidence accompanying them 
may be, they lack the elements of freshness and nov- 
elty which would insure them a general perusal and 
consideration. . Besides, as it is a foregone conclusion 
that the Hubbard scheme and Mr. Creswell's postal 
telegraph have neither of them any chance of favorable 
consideration from this Congress, there is a plentiful 
lack of interest in anything relating thereto. We have 
other fish to fry in Congress, and can't waste time 
upon any impracticable telegraph propositions now. 
Having got their arguments before the Senate Com- 
mittee and printed, Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Orton can 
retire with the consciousness that their duty has been 
discharged, and that a grateful constituency will hold 
them in remembrance until the next session. 

Mr. Orton's prestige has been rather damaged by the 
demonstration of the Automatic Telegraph System re- 
cently made, the details in regard to which have been 
printed in circular form and generally distributed here, 
and were also printed in the Republican yesterday 
morning. The inaccuracy of his statements and asser- 
tions in regard to the Automatic System, in his letter to 
the Postmaster General, were so completely and prac- 
tically demonstrated on this occasion, and that, too, in 
the very presence of his friend and electrical guide and 
councillor, Mr. G. B. Prescott, that he must feel rather 
chagrined at having been led to make them in so pos- 
itive a manuer. As he must realize, from the mortify- 
ing position in which he has been placed, first in regard 
to the Duplex and now in regard to the Automatic, it 
isn't safe to decry and denounce telegraphic and elec- 
trical inventions and systems because they do not ex- 
actly accord with your interests and prejudices for the 
time being. 

Mr. William L. Ives, of Seneca Palls, N. Y., has 
been appointed by the President of the Senate operator 
in the Senate wing of the Capitol, on the line connect- 
ing the Capitol and the several Government Depart- 
ments. 

The Secretary of War has transmitted to the House 
of Representatives, with a request that it may receive 
early attention, a communication from the Chief Quar- 
termaster of the Military Department of Arizona, which 
states that, " In view of the fact that there is no law, 
national or territorial, affixing a penalty beyond that 
for a misdemeanor, for tampering with the military tel- 
egraph lines, and in view of the fact that the territorial 
legislature will not convene for over a year, the propri- 
ety of requesting the action of the proper authority, 
looking to the necessary legislation on the subject by 
the present Congress, is respectfully suggested for the 
consideration of the commanding General." 

This is approved and forwarded by General Crook, 
commanding the Department, who adds a recommen- 
dation that Congress be requested to pass an act affix- 
ing penalties equal to the severest imposed by any of 
the State Legislatures for this offence, and offering suit- 
able pecuniary rewards as an inducement to all parties 
to discover and deliver up any persons who tamper 
with the wires in the territory. 

The communication was referred to the Military 
Committee and ordered printed. Capitol. 



The Claims of the Page Patent. 

New York, February 9. 
To the Editor or the Telegrapher. 

Will you please enlighten me as to what is claimed 
by the Page Patent, mentioned so frequently in your 
very interesting columns. Having been " disconnected " 
from telegraphy for upwards of eighteen years, is my 
only excuse for making an inquiry that may seem ridicu- 
lous to most of your readers, but the patent was cer- 
tainly not well known when I had the pleasure of 
being an operator. Ni. 

Answer.— The following are the claims of Prof. Page, 
as contained in the patent issued to him under date of 
April 14, 1868: 

Claim — 1. An induction coil apparatus, consisting of a primary 
and secondary circuit, when said secondary circuit is many 
times (that is to say, two, three or more times) the length of the 
primary cirouit, having the connections so arranged that shocks, 
sparks, and electro-static result* may be obtained from the sec- 
ondary circuit alone, or from the combined primary and second- 
ary circuits, or from the primary alone, or from portions of 
either circuit, substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination of an automatic cirouit breaker with 
either a primary coil alone, or a primary and secondary coil com- 
bined, substantially as set forth. 



3. The combination of a mechanical circuit breaker with a pri- 
mary and secondary coil combined, substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination of both a mechanical and automatic circuit 
breaker with a primary and secondary coil combined, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

6. The combination of a primary and secondary coil, enclosing 
an electro-magnet, with an automatic circuit breaker, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

6. The combination of a primary and secondary coil, enclosing 
a compound or divided electro-magnet, with an adjustable auto- 
matic circuit breaker, substantially as set forth. 

7. The combination of a primary and secondary coil, enclosing 
a compound electro-magnet, with an attached hammer circuit 
breaker, substantially as set forth. 

8. The spark arresting circuit breaker, whether used with a 
primary coil alone or a primary and secondary combined, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

9. The spark arresting circuit breaker, whether used with a 
coil or coils enclosing an electro-magnet, substantially as set 
forth. 

10. The spark arresting circuit breaker, whether attached to or 
independent of the primary or primary and secondary coils, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

11. The adjustment of the retractile force of an automatic cir- 
cuit breaker, substantially as set forth. 

12. In combination with such adjustment, I claim adjusting the 
distance of the hammer, or the armature, from the pole or poles 
of the electro-magnet which actuates them, as set forth. . 

13? Adjusting or regulating the length of vibration of the circuit 
breaking bar by means of a set screw, or any mechanical equiva- 
lent for substantially the same purpose, substantially as herein 
set forth. 

14. The employment of one electro-magnetic instrument to open 
and close the circuit of another electro-magnetic instrument, 
using either one battery for both or separate batteries for each, 
substantially as set forth. 

15. The employment of separate and independent batteries to 
operate an elertro-magnetic circuit breaker, and the circuit which 
is broken by it, substantially as set forth. 

. These claims were reviewed and examined in The Tel- 
egrapher of February 25th and March 4 th, 1871. On 
the 10th of October, 1871, the patent was reissued to 
Mrs. Priscilla Webster Page, administratrix of the estate 
of Charles Grafton Page, deceased, assignor to the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, New York. The 
first ten claims of the reissue are identical with those 
in the original patent. The remaining and important 
claims of the reissued patent are as follows : 

11. The adjustment of the retractile force of an automatic cir- 
cuit breaker, substantially as set forth. 

12. The combination of an electro-magnet, armature and adjust- 
able retractor- 

13. Adjusting or regulating the length of vibration of the ar- 
mature of an electro-magnet by means of a Bet screw, or any me- 
chanical equivalent for substantially the same purpose, substan- 
tially as herein set forth. 

14. The employment of one electro-magnet to open and close 
the circuit of another electro-magnet, using either one battery for 
both or separate batteries for each, substantiaUy as set forth. 

15. The employment of separate and independent batteries to 
operate an electro-magnetic circuit breaker, and the circuit which 
is broken by it, substantially as specified. 

These claims of the reissued patent, as above, were 
printed in The Telegrapher of October 14, 1871. — 
IEditor of The Telegrapher. 



Death of Mr. Charles F. Simmons. 

San Francisco, Cal., February 1. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

For two or three weeks past I have looked for some 
notice in your paper of the death of an old telegrapher, 
hoping that some one of his numerous friends would 
send some word to you, but as none seem to take suffi- 
cient interest, I, who have been associated with him 
for a number of years, venture to do so. 

Mr. Charles F. Simmons, a native of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., died December 22d, 1873, of aneurism of the 
heart, after an illness of four days. 

Mr. Simmons came to this city in 1859 with Mr.Wm. 
Blanchard, under an engagement with Messrs. Lovett, 
for the purpose of introducing the combination printing 
telegraph instrument. 

He was subsequently employed in the Western 
Union office for several years, and in 1865, upon the 
organization of the San Francisco Fire Alarm Tele- 
graph, he was appointed operator, where he remained 
up to the time of his death. 

F. G. Wood, 
Operator Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph. 



A Presentation. 

To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Mr. E. P. Adams, who for fifteen years has served 
the Grand Trunk Railroad and Montreal Telegraph 
Company at Gorham, N. H., has been offered and has 
accepted the position of Agent on the Central Pacific 
Railroad, at Corinne, Utah. On the eve of his depart- 
ure, December 24th, a goodly number of his friends, 
employes of the Grand Trunk Railroad and citizens of 
Gorham, surprised him at his officej where he was pre- 
sented with a magnificent Swiss gold watch, valued at 
$160, by Thomas Giffard, Esq., for the donors. The 
closing lines of his very appropriate speech we will in- 
sert : 
"Mr. Adams. 

" We are sorry to hear that you are about to leave 
us for the distant West. Yet, as we hope the change 
may be for the benefit, physically, of yourself and dear 
companion, and also your financial benefit, we will not 



bid you remain, and shall always be glad to hear of 
your prosperity ; but should you ever return, we will 
be ready to welcome you with warm hearts and open 
hands. 

"As a token of our friendship please accept this 
watch — not for its intrinsic value, but rather as some 
tangible expression of the esteem in which you are held 
by these your friends. As you look upon it day after 
day, to remind you how time is passing, may it remind 
you of the many happy days we have spent in your 
society, and that among the old Granite Hills, and 
those other places here represented, you have left be- 
hind many true and admiring friends. 

" Let me also assure you, sir, that we will miss you. 
Yes, we will miss you when you cease from our society, 
as if a calm familiar star shot suddenly and brightly 
from our vision ; we will gaze wistfully down the path 
where you have vanished, and in the long after-time 
our hearts, which you have helped to make happy, 
will recall your memory with gratitude and tears." 

Mr. Adams then responded in a few terse and perti- 
nent remarks, followed by several speeches of regret 
that he was about to leave them, and all united in 
wishing him prosperity and happiness in his new home. 

W. 
» » « 

A Bullock. 

Dixie, February 4. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The following office messages passed through my 

hands to-day. I believe they will explain themselves 

to the intelligent telegrapher : 

" To Vicksburg, Miss., Ofs. 

" Give better address, yours 3d to Capt. H. H. Broad« 

stearnes, signed Cooper. Can't find party. 

" Selma, Ala., Ofs." 

" To Selma, Ala. Ofs. 

" Destroy it. The message goes to Capt. H. H. 

Bioad, steamer Selma, at New Orleans. 

" Vicksburg, Miss., Ofs." 

The message was originally sent to New Orleans 

direct. Q. Clucks. 
»*-. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

Silver State. — Your favor of January 31st received, and 
amount appropriated as directed. There is no doubt about the 
writer being a female. 



Mr. Harry I. Talley, telegraph operator, German- 
town Junction, Philadelphia, Pa., desires to learn the 
present address of Mr. Frank B. Schall, telegraph 
operator, who left New York last June. Anyone who 
can give the desire information is requested to address 
as above. 

Mr. Charles P. Hoag has resigned the situation of 
chief operator of the San Francisco, California, West- 
ern Union office, to engage in other business. 

Mr. John R. Yontz has been appointed chief 
operator of the San Francisco,. California, Western 
Union office, in place of Charles P. Hoag, resigned. 



New Patents. 

tSf Official Copies of any XT. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications and claims in full, sent 
free to any address for 25 cents each. Address P. L. Pope, P. O. 
Box 5603, New York City. 

For the week ended January 20, 1874, and bearing that date. 

No. 146,603.— Electric Bell Striking Apparatus. — Lewis H. 

McCullough, Richmond, Ind., assignor of two thirds his 

right to Elwood Patterson and Isaac G. Dougau, same place. 

Application filed September 4, 1873. 

Hammer held suspended against force of one spring by action 

of another spring or weight, exerted through a train of gearing 

held by the armature of a magnet taking against a detent. The 

train released, the hammer is instantaneously thrown against the 

gong by the one spring, and then raised by the other through a 

sectional gear and a rack pinion. 

1. A bell, hammer and detent, in combination with a prime 
mover for raising the hammer, and a spring for discharging it, 
the opposing forces being nearly balanced when the hammer la 
held suspended, so as to reduce the pressure on the detent to a 
minimum. 

2. An alarm bell in which the hammer is lifted against the 
force ol a spring, and thus held suspended by clock work, ready 
to deliver the blow. 

3. An alarm bell in which, during eaoh beat of the work, the 
hammer delivers a blow, and is also again lifted and held sus- 
pended for another discharge. 

4. The combination of the segmental pinion B of suitable 
clock work, rack A 2 on the stem of the hammer, spring O, revolv- 
ing stop pin /aud armature G of an electro-magnet, substantially 
as and for the purpose specified. 

5. The combination of the rack A* on the stem of the hammer, 
spring O, pinion B, revolving stop pins/ and/', and armature G, 
provided with a notched lug, g g', substantially as and for the 
purpose Bet forth. 

6. The spring cushion E, in combination with the shouldered 
stem A' o a of the hammer, substantially as and for the purposa 
specified. 

7. The loose fly wheel K, in combination with the segmental 
pinion B of the clock work, and rack A* of the hammer, substan- 
tially as and for the purpose specified. 



4d 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 14, i8U. 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 1874. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 
PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY at 38 VESEY ST. 



TENTH VOLUME. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 
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INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 
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Communications must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 

HHHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OP THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will olose with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued; and it 
will be improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without patronage or support, other than that ( derived from 
its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous to that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

' The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
and it may be said that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
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bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

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As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 
first class 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

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Rumors of Future Telegraphic Combinations.— 

How a Consolidated Opposition may 

be Profitably Managed. 

Although there is for the time apparent quiet and 
stagnation in telegraphic matters, there is a rather in- 
stinctive feeling that this condition of affairs is not to 
continue for a very long time. Foreign capitalists are 
said to be looking with considerable interest into the 
telegraphic situation, and to be ready to invest their 
surplus capital in acquiring an interest in and extend- 
ing the telegraphic system of this country. It was 
understood and reported at one time that it was in- 
tended, and steps had been taken towards acquiring 
a controlling interest in the "Western Union Com- 
pany, but this, it was subsequently admitted, had been 
abandoned, and it is since confidently believed in cer- 
tain quarters that they are making arrangements, in 
connection with the United States direct cable scheme, 
to consolidate and extend the existing telegraph lines 
outside of the Western Union combination, as has been 
advocated and urged for years, as the only safe policy 
for the opposition. "We are not prepared just yet to 
state how far matters have been arranged, but we shall 
be disappointed if something does not come out of this 
more than mere talk and buncombe. 

The extract from the JSTew York correspondence of 
the Evening Traveller of Boston points to this new 
combination to advance telegraphic competition, and 
indicates that the scheme is beginning to be made pub- 
lic. That there is an excellent field here for such an 
enterprise there cau be no doubt, and the time is fully 
ripe for it. The first step, of course, must be the con- 
solidation under one management of the companies 
and lines now competing with the Western Union, and 
then the extension of the system, so as to enable it 
to compete on something like equal terms for the tele- 
graph business of the country. The amount of capital 
that would be required to obtain a controlling interest 
in the existing opposition companies, if judiciously in- 
vested, would not be very large, comparatively speak- 
ing, and with such pecuniary results as may be obtain- 
ed by the extension of the system, and au energetic 
and liberal, and at the same time economical manage- 
ment, we know of none which would be more likely to 
attract the attention of intelligent and enterprising 
capitalists. 

The prediction of Mr. Orton, in his report to the 
stockholders of the Western Union Company, that at 
an early day there would be practically no competition 
with that company, is not likely to prove as correct as 
it was gratifying to those of them who were inclined to 
credit it. Competition there will be, unquestionably, 
the only query being whether it shall be an active, 
vigorous and aggressive one, with the means to meet 
its competitor on at least equal terms, or a compara- 
tively feeble and half exhausted affair, which shall just 
manage to exist, as has been the case for much of the 
time during the past few years. This question is, we 
believe, to be practically decided very soon, and we 
think, from what we can gather in regard to the situa- 
tion, that it is likely to prove the former. 

That it is now intended to lay the new cable which 
is being manufactured in England we think there is 
conclusive evidence. That it will, if laid and worked 
direct, prove a formidable rival to the Anglo-American 
Company, we do not believe, as the amount of business 
which can be transmitted over so long a circuit, and 
by a single cable, must be very limited. Still, if it is 
laid, it will need a more complete telegraphic system 
than there is at present to collect and distribute busi- 
ness for it. JSTaturally the question arises, on the part 
of those engaged in this enterprise, how such a system 
may be provided, and there can be but one solution to 
the problem, and that the one we have so often pointed 
out. 

We should prefer that the ownership and control of 
the competing lines should remain in the hands of our 
own people, but if it has been demonstrated that foreign 
capital must be called upon to supplement that already 
invested to complete the work, we must submit as 
gracefully and cheerfully as possible to the inevitable. 



The consolidation cff the existing companies and in- 
terests into one organization, and the extension of the 
system so as to make it really national in its character, 
will afford an opportunity, which we hope will be im- 
proved, to thoroughly revise the existing system of 
management, and introduce an improved system, 
which shall be more in accordance with common sense, 
and benefit by the lessons which the past and present 
experience of all telegraph companies and lines in' this 
country teach. There should be a thorough and sys- 
tematic organization of the whole machinery of the 
consolidated company, such as is calculated to insure 
efficiency, economy, and a proper administration of 
every branch of the business. The electrical and en- 
gineering portion of the business should be assigned 
here, as it is in Europe, to persons who are properly 
qualified to administer them intelligently aud properly. 
The General and District Superintendents have all tbat 
they can attend to properly in managing their operating 
and business departments — and, even if qualified to 
supervise or direct the electrical and scientific branch, 
which they seldom are, have not the time to attend to 
them properly. 

There should be a chief electrician and engineer, who 
ghould have charge of all matters which properly belong 
to that department. He should be carefully selected, 
and appointed only upon his ability and fitness for the 
position, and should have an assistant in each division, 
who should be accountable to him and report to him. 
These should not be interfered with by or accountable to 
the Superintendents, who properly are only the business 
managers of the lines and offices, and who can always 
find abundant and profitable employment in the dis- 
charge of their legitimate duties. Being relieved from 
other duties, these electricians and engineers would be 
able to devote their time to devising and determining 
upon the best and most advantageous methods of con- 
struction and insulation of lines, the proper and most 
efficient and economical arrangement of circuits and 
batteries, decide upon any improvements which may be 
made or proposed in telegraphic instruments and appa- 
ratus — in short, perforin all the duties which in Europe 
are considered as especially belonging to that position 
which it is proposed to create, aud which has never 
heretofore been fully established upon any American 
line. This is a most important matter, and one which 
should receive careful consideration if it is desired to 
avoid the errors and profit by the experience o'f the 
past. 

To the District Superintendents should be given the 
entire business management of their respective districts. 
They should have the appointment of all managers of 
offices, who should be directly responsible to them, and 
they in their turn should be responsible to the Gene- 
ral Superintendent, whose responsibility would be, of 
course, to the Executive of the company. A simple and 
easily comprehended system of business and accounts 
should be established, doing away with as much of 
the complicated machinery of the Western Union organ- 
ization as possible. While it is desirable that a certain 
amount of statistics in regard to the business shall be 
obtained and preserved, there is danger that this may 
be carried to excess, and that more time, labor and ex- 
pense may be invested in this direction than is profit- 
able. This should be carefully guarded against, and at 
the same time care be taken that all the necessary sta- 
tistical information is obtained and properly tabulated 
for information and use. 

With such an organization as we have hastily 
sketched there cau be no doubt but that the new organ- 
ization would prove practically and pecuniarily suc- 
cessful. Much money is constantly squandered on the 
telegraphs which could be saved with a little knowl- 
edge and care — and by a judicious and liberal outlay in 
directions where it is sadly needed, the chances and 
percentage of profit would be largely increased. 

If there is to be a new deal, and a reorganization of 
the lines "outside of the Western Union combination, 
we hope that it will be thorough and practical, and 
that the errors and foljies which have in the past, time 
and again* wrecked promising telegraphic enterprises, 
may be avoided, and that, profiting by the lessons of 



February 14, 18t4.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



41 



experience, we may see for once telegraphic enter- 
prises organized, managed and conducted on honest, 
sensible and practical business principles. That an 
enterprise so organized and conducted would prove 
advantageous and remunerative to all concerned — the 
investors as well as the public and the employes — there 
can be no doubt. The time and opportunity for it has 
come; now let us have it as speedily as possible. 



Another Atlantic Cable Telegraph Company 
Proposed. 

By a despatch to the Associated Press from London, 
which we print in another column, we learn that a 
prospectus has been issued in that city for a new tele- 
graph cable, to be laid from the English coa st to Hali- 
fax, N. S., via the Azores Islands. The cable proposed 
to be laid is a light one, and if it is to be provided and 
put down for the amount of capital stated in the des- 
patch, we should judge that it must be a very light 
one indeed. This new company makes a bid for public 
favor by stating its intention to transmit messages on 
its cable for one shilling per word. While this would 
undoubtedly, when laid and in operation, secure the 
line an abundance of business, it will not be very likely 
to induce very liberal subscriptions to its capital. 

No names are mentioned in connection with this 
new project, so that we are unable as yet to state tfy 
whom it is engineered, or upon what ground it expects 
to be able to do the business at 25 per cent, of the 
amount now charged by the Anglo-American Company 
for similar service. We shall have to wait the slower 
communication of the mails to learn the particulars, of 
this new enterprise, which seems to have been spruug 
upon the public. 

The Bailway News, of London, of the 24th uit., in an 
article on the pecuniary condition of the company and 
the quotations of Anglo-American shares, which, not- 
withstanding the increased receipts of the company on 
its business, which for 1873 were £64,000 in excess of 
those of the previous year, had been depressed, says: 
"The only cause operating to depreciate quotations 
appears to be the circulation of rumors, to which we 
alluded last week, as to the formation of competitive 
schemes for laying light cables — a bugbear constantly 
raised by speculators." 

The Bailway News makes some statements in regard 
to these proposed light or hemp cables, which do not 
indicate much probability of any continued success, 
even if the necessary capital could be obtained to 
manufacture and lay them. Our contemporary, the 
New York Commercial Advertiser, which is usually 
conspicuously sound and sensible upon telegraph mat- 
ters, leads off in a glorification of this new scheme, and 
an anticipation of the advantages which are likely to 
be derived from it, which we cannot but regard as 
rather premature. We would commend to its editor, 
and others of the fraternity who may think they per- 
ceive in this enterprise the approach of the ocean tele- 
graphic millennium, the following extract from the 
article of the Railway News referred to above : 

"As bearing upon this question of the proposed hemp 
cables, it may be useful to inform those who consider 
that there may be some probability of their being laid 
and worked with success, to state that a cable of this 
description was laid some time since between Cornwall 
and the Scilly Islands, and its existence was limited to 
a few short hours. On another occasion a similar cable 
was laid between England and Ireland. Its span of 
life, too, was short — not more, we believe, than three 
days. Both of these cables have been replaced by 
heavy ones, and they are now in as perfect a condition 
as when they were first laid, and without having been 
interrupted, or required the outlay upon them of a sin- 
gle shilling. If tuere were really any merit in these 
so-called light cables, it would have been to the interest 
of the Telegraph Construction Company to have manu- 
factured and laid them ; and if taken in haud by such a 
company, the public would at least have the guarantee, 
which cannot be provided elsewhere, that the work 
would be efficiently done, and the cable manufactured 
under the supervision of really practical men." 

We believe there is no instance on record where light 
ocean telegraph cables have remained in condition to 
be worked for more than a few days at a time, while 



the heavily armored cables have proved efficient, re- 
liable and remunerative. 

We shall await with some curiosity the further de- 
velopments in regard to this latest proposed cable tele- 
graph enterprise, and, until they are received, will not 
express an opinion as to its' character or the purposes 
for which it is initiated. 

►-•-♦ 

The Recent Test of the Automatic Telegraph 
System. 

We published last week a brief statement of the test 
of the demonstration made on Tuesday evening, Janu- 
ary 27th, of the Automatic System of Telegraphy, on 
the line of the Automatic Telegraph Company between 
.New York and Washington. As a matter of record we 
print this week the report of the General Manager of 
the company to the Hon. George Harrington, its 
President, giving the details of the demonstration in 
full, with the certificates of a number of gentlemen pres- 
ent at either end of the line, of the correctness of these 
details. 

The occasion of this demonstration was to show the 
inaccuracy of the statements made by President Orton, 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company, iu his letter 
to the Postmaster-Geueral under date of Dec. 27, 187% 
which were, that 

First. The Automatic System is practically slower 
than the Morse. 

Second. It requires at least five times as many ope- 
rators to do the same amount of work within a given 
time. • 

Third. That, consequently, it is more expensive. 

Mr. Geo. B. Prescott, the electrician of the West- 
ern V nion, Company, was present on behalf of that 
company in the New York office, and Mr. Leonard 
Whitney, Manager of the Western Union Company in 
that city, in the Washington office. 

The matter selected was the same as that previously 
transmitted over eight Western Union wire.?, against a 
single Automatic wire between the two cities. 

The following are the documents referred to : 

General Office of the Automatic Telegraph Co., 
66 Broadway, New York, 

January 28tb, 1874. 
Hon. George Harrington, President. 

Sir — I respectfully submit the following report of 
the work done in the demonstration made on Tuesday 
evening, January 27th, as per your instructions of prior 
date. The matter selected for the purpose was the 
President's late message and the Spanish protocol : 
Statement. 

Matter transmitted, 1 1,130 words. 

Length of Circuit, 281 miles. 

Conductors used, 1 wire. 

^°'-*" ™ | S^fc: : is 

i mn» . . { "353? o^«v.v, .5 

Total, 25 operatives. 

P. M. -Mins. 

Time. — < Perforating commenced, 5.39/ .-, 

Washington. \ Perforating completed, 6.24| \ T 

XT -v , S Copying commenced, . . 5.42 ? ~ e 

SewYork. {copying completed,... 6.48 \ 66 

Total time, 69 minutes. 
Cost. — Morse operators, $100 per month. 

" Automatic operators, 40 " " 

- The characters were perfectly legible and well de- 
fined, and were copied with great facility. 

The average time during which the perforating ope- 
ratives were actually at work was forty-five and a half 
minutes — making an average per operative, per minute, 
of twenty-five words. 

The average time of copyists was fifty minutes, mak- 
ing an average per copyist, per minute, of seventeen 
words. 

Unlike the Western Union Company, we had no 
large corps of operators from which to select our work- 
ing force, but were compelled to utilize all — good, bad 
and indifferent, which makes it proper to call special 
attention to the above averages made. 

The whole time consumed was sixty-nine minutes, as 
against the published record of seventy minutes by the 
Western Union in their late effort. 

The average time occupied by Automatic was fifty- 
five and a half minutes. 

The average time occupied by Western Union (as 
reported) was fifty-nine minutes. 

An unfortunate defect in the paper caused much de- 



lay in the transmission, otherwise still less time would 
have been consumed. No attempt, however, was made 
to attain a nigh speed of transmission on this occasion, 
as that point had already been yielded, and incontest- 
ably proved in the presence of the Hon. Jno. A. Cres- 
well, Postmaster General, and numerous other gentle- 
men, including Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress, on the evening of December 11th, 1873, when we 
transmitted some 12,000 words over our one wire from 
Washington to New York iu twenty-two and a half 
minutes. 

Our operatives were congregated at Washington and 
New York on Monday, January 26th, and were tested 
for the first time on the evening of that day. I call 
attention to this, in anticipation of the charge that the 
time which has elapsed since the publishing of the mes- 
sage, has been improved by our operatives in practising 
upon it. 

With the experience gained in this demonstration,! 
am confident that in auother we could readily dispense 
with at least two perforators and three copyists, and yet 
perform a like amount of work. 
Respectfully, 

E. H. Johnson, 

General Manager. 
New York, January 28, 1874. 
We were present in the office of the Automatic Tele- 
graph Company last evening, whilst they were receiv- 
ing the President's message and the Spanish protocol 
from Washington. 

At 5.39 P. M., Washington signaled that the perfora- 
ting had commenced. 

At 5.43 the first portion of the message was received 
aud handed to the copyists. 
At 6.42 the last portion was received. 
At 6.48 the copying was finished ; the whole time 
occupied being 69 minutes. 

There were 13 copyists in the room ; but we noticed 
that two or three were unemployed a portion of the 
time, so that, had all been constantly employed, there 
would have been several minutes saved in the aggre- 
gate. 

The writiug was perfectly legible, and the copyists 
translated with great facility. (Signed), 

Jas. G. Smith, A. G. Sujpt. A. & P. & F'lin Tel. Cos. 
H. G. Pearson, Assistant Postmaster, N. Y. 
Edward W. Serrell, C. E. 
James H. Wilson (of Winslow & Wilson). 
Hiram Barney. 

Office Automatic Telegraph Co., ) 
Washington, D. C. $ 
E. H. Johnson, Esq., General Manager. 

At the test which took place on Tuesday evening, 
January, 27 th, the late annual message of the President, 
together with the Spanish protocol, amounting in all to 
eleven thousand one hundred and thirty (11,130) words, 
was perforated by ten perforators, and transmitted auto- 
matically, by one Morse operator in the following time : 
Perforating commenced, 5.36 P. M. 
" completed, 6.21% " 

Time, 45% minutes. 
Transmission commenced, 5.40. 
" completed; 6.39. 

Time, 59 minutes. 
The above is New York time, as computed by Wash- 
ington Observatory time. 

Respectfully, 

P. B. Delany, Manager. 
Having witnessed this test throughout, we can certify 
to the correctness of the above statement. 
(Signed), 
Robert D. Lines {of Post Office Department). 
D. J. Gibson, U. S. A., Acting Signal Officer. 
H. W. Howgate, U. S. A. 
J. H. Lathrop. 

Quick Cable Telegraphing. 

The perfection to which the cable telegraph service 
has been brought is showu by the following facts, 
which can bo proved to be such : 

In December last a message was sent from New York 
to London, and in thirty minutes, actual time, the an- 
swer was received in New York. On Thursda,y the 
5th instant, another despatch was sent to London, to 
which a reply was received in thirty-jive minutes, ac- 
tual time. In neither of these cases was any especial 
effort made to hurry the answers, but the party ad- 
dressed sent the reply to the London office by the mes- 
senger delivering the original message. 

To fully appreciate the wonderful achievement we 
must consider that the distance from Now York by the 
land lines, from New York to the cable Btation at 
Heart's Content, N. F., is about 1,300 miles, the length 
of the cable about 2,000 miles, and the land lines 
and cable from Yaleutia to London about 300 
miles. Each message, therefore, was transmitted about 



42 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 14, 18T4. 



3,600 miles, aDd passed through the hands of eighteen 
persons, all told; consequently, the message and reply, 
in each case, passed through the hands of thirty-six 
persons, and travelled over 7,000 miles in thirty to 
thirty-five minutes. We do not think that this can 
easily be beaten, and the progress made within the last 
fifteen years,in the facilities for communication between 
countries 60 widely separated, is truly marvellous. 



An Excellent Appointment. 

By the recent death of Mr. John Foley, Manager of 
the Atlantic and Pacific, San Francisco, California, 
office, a vacancy was created, which, we are much 
pleased to learn, has been filled by the promotion of Mr. 
L. N". Jacobs to the position. This is an excellent ap- 
pointment, and one which we have no doubt will 
prove advantageous to the telegraph company and the 
public, as well as gratifying to the many friends of Mr. 
Jacobs. This gentleman is no stranger to the readers 
of The Telegrapher, who will be pleased to know 
that his ability is being appreciated and rewarded. 



Electric Watcli Clocks and Dials. 

The Howard Watch and Clock Company, of Boston 
and Jfew York, whose advertisement will be found 
in our advertising columns, are doing an extensive 
business in magneto-electrical telegraph instruments, 
and in electro-magnetic watch clocks, chronographs, 
astronomical clocks, etc. 

Mr. James Hahblet, the electrician of the company, 
is well known as an able and experienced scientific and 
practical inventor, and gives his personal attention to 
all the electrical work of the company. This company 
have just finished and delivered to the United States 
Observatory at "Washington eight astronomical clocks, 
to be used by the scientific expeditions sent out by the 
(Jnited States Government to observe the great astro- 
nomical event, the coming transit of Venus. 

In this city they have recently put up in the Hoff- 
man House an electro-magnetic watch clock, with 
twenty stations; also a similar clock in Mr. J. U. 
Briggs & Co.'s extensive stables, with five stations. 
They have also just finished putting iuto the new 
depot of the Boston and Lowell Railroad a watch 
clock with two stations, and a standard clock which 
actuates seven electric dials in different parts of the 

building. 

•-•-« 

The American Fire Alarm Telegraph. 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co. have just completed the 
fire alarm telegraph for Harrisburgh, Pa., and are now 
engaged in putting up their system under contract with 
the municipal authorities at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Their system has distanced all competitors, and they 
are now practically without opposition in the business 
which has been created by their enterprise, liberality, 
and fair dealing. 

The Claims of the Page Patent. 

At the request of a correspondent we reprint in 
another column the claims of the original and reissued 
patents of Prof. Page, which will be of interest at the 
present time, when an attempt is being made to estab- 
lish judicially the validity of the patent, which, as will 
be seen, in effect covers almost every description of 
electrical and telegrapnic apparatus. 



lit* fttligrapft. 

Progress of the Southern and Atlantic Tele- 
graph Line. 

The Southern and Atlantic Telegraph Company 
have actively recommenced the extension and con- 
struction of its lines. The section between Selma and 
Mobile, Ala., upon which the poles have been set and 
the insulators put on, is being wired, and will shortly 
be completed and in operation to the latter important 
point. It is understood that this company is meeting 
with very encouraging success, and that the extension 
of its lines south is watched with interest and cordially 
welcomed by the people of that section, who have 
hitherto been entirely dependent upon the Western 
Union Company for telegraphic facilities. 



By Cable. 

A CABLE STEAMER ADRIFT. 

London, Feb. 7. — The steamship Ambassador, laden 
with a section of the Brazilian cable, broke from her 
moorings at Woolwich yesterday, and was carried 
some distance up the Thames before the crew suc- 
ceeded in securely anchoring her. While the steamer 
was adrift she fouled thirty-two colliers, sinking two 
of them and damaging others. Several of the men on 
the colliers were severely injured. 



PROJECT FOR A NEW TELEGRAPH CABLE FROM EUROPE 
TO AMERICA. 

London, Feb. 9. — The organization of a new com- 
pany to lay a light cable from the coast of Great 
Britain to Halifax, via the Azores Islands, is an- 
nounced. 

The capital is $380,000, and the prospectus, which 
was brought out on Saturday, says it is the intention 
of the company to convey messages over its cable at 
the rate of one shilliu g per word. 



The American District Telegraph. 

The rapidity with which the American District Tel- 
egraph Company has increased in popular favor is cer- 
tainly astonishing. 

Scarcely two years ago the company started off with 
every prospect of success, but laboring under the dis- 
advantage of unprofitable rates, and the imperative 
necessity of keeping a large force, the company for a 
a time seemed to linger between life and death. 
Through the influence, ability and indefatigable per- 
severance of Mr. B. B. Grant, the present Vice-Presi- 
dent, and the hearty cooperation and incessant labors 
of the Superintendents the company has gradually 
risen to its present sphere of usefulness. Its pros- 
pects at the present time could hardly be more 
favorable, and with a liberal policy the company will 
meet with a success in the future hardly anticipated. 
Satisfactory arrangements have been completed with 
the City Fire Alarm Telegraph Department, that ena- 
bles the company's subscribers' signals for fires to be 
transmitted to the Department without repetition, 
should the fire prove to be of such magnitude as not 
to be conquered by the extinguisher carriages of the 
company. Fortunately all fires thus far have been 
subdued without the aid of the Department, although 
several have necessitated the calling of help from the 
adjacent districts. 

The understanding with the Police Department is 
also quite satisfactory, and arrangements will undoubt- 
edly be consummated within a short time that will 
largely increase the efficiency of both the city's and 
the company's forces. 

The patrol force of the company is to be extensively 
increased. In the Fifteenth District, 397 Broadway, 
over one huudred new subscribers were added last 



Patrol boxes are being placed in position as fast as 
possible, from which the night patrolmen will send 
signals every hour. The patrol force in this district is 
to be immediately increased by the addition of eight or 
ten men. This same system is to be carried into every 
district. To a certain number of districts will be as- 
signed a roundsman. This officer, in connection with 
the boxes and otber safeguards which will be brought 
out in the establishment of this system, will insure a 
perfect and reliable patrol force. The company have 
in circuit 2,300 instruments, paying a monthly rental 
of $2.50. The earnings of these instruments additional 
to the rental is — Messenger Police and Fire Service, 
average $250 per day, including Sundays. The re- 
ceipts for service have reached as high as $500 in a 
single day. The number of signals or " calls " average 
about 1,100 per day. The expenses of the company are 
necessarily large. To perform the service in a satisfac- 
tory manner requires a regiment of uniformed and dis- 
ciplined boys, an extensive police force, efficient appa- 
ratus for extinguishing fires, a large construction and 
maintenance force, etc. It should be understood, how- 
ever, that the increase of subscribers does not increase 
the operating expenses in the least, excepting in the 
matter of messengers, the present force being suffi- 
cient for treble the number of subscribers. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

The report of the directors of the Eastern Telegraph 
Company states that they have at length concluded a 
joint purse traffic arrangement with the Indo-European 
Telegraph Company. The net revenue for the six 
months ended the 30th of September, amounted to 
£122,826, and an interim dividend of 1£ per cent, on 
the 14th of October, and a further interim dividend of 
li per cent, declared on the 7th inst., amounting, to- 
gether with interest on new shares, to £99,932, leaves 
a balance of £22,893 to be carried forward. 

At an adjourned meeting of the shareholders of the 
West India and Panama Telegraph Company, at the , 



offices in London, the following gentlemen were elected 
directors in place of the old board, which had resigned: 
Sir James Anderson, Messrs. H. Weaver, C. W. Earle, 
W. Ford, Cyrus W. Field and H. Holmes. /The chair- 
man stated to the meeting that he had received a letter 
from the Telegraph Construction Company, which con- 
veyed the intelligence that the cable at Porto Rico was 
about being buoyed. 

»*-« 

The Telegraph in China. 

The Great Northern Telegraphic Company has re- 
cently established a line between Woosing and Shang- 
hai. Twenty words are sent for a dollar. This is the 
first successful attempt to introduce the telegraph 
through the main portion of the empire, as previous 
efforts have been met with violent opposition from the 
people, who cut the wires and destroyed the poles. 

Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

The Government of the United States has given per- 
mission to the Mexican Government to extend its tele- 
graph lines across the Rio Grande to Brownsville, Tex., 
and to establish an office there. When this is accom- 
plished there will be direct telegraphic communication 
established between all points in the United States 
and the City of Mexico. 

The annual meeting of the Dominion Telegraph 
Company of Canada was held at Toronto on Wednes- 
day last, the 11th inst. 



What all telegraphers should do — subscribe for and 
read The Telegrapher. 



Married. 



Meter — Pfeiffer. — At the residence of the bride's parents, 
February 1st, 1874, by the Rev. Father Bosco, A. Leonard Meyer, 
agent and operator of the Southern Pacific R. R. at Santa Clara, 
Cal., to Miss Lizzie Pfeiffer, of that place. 



W 1 



ILLIAM BROWNLEE, 

Dealer in 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES, 

DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 



\ NEW GALVANIC BATTERY. 




Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTEKY. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphlo 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
running motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Danielle, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is.a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 6603.) 



38 TE8EY STREET, Jf. T. 



February 14, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



111 



Anson Stager, Elisha Gray, 

Pres't. Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIRES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



ANIC PRICES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect In operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELEOTRO-MAGNETIO WATCH CLOCKS AND 
TIME DIALS, 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEGRAPH WIRE, Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 

JOHNSON'S WIRE. 

BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 

KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



w. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 

Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 



ALL WHO NEED 



TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 



Large or Small Quantities, 



WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 



SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 

A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

* GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD A VENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



G 



EO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 TSJJRT) A.VENVE, 

Chicago, III. 



L 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



CAUTION. 

All persona are hereby notified that Batteries infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using auy such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will be prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words "Pile 
Leclancho " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Leclanche Battery Co., 

JVo. £.0 West /St A Street. 

Nevj York, October 11, 1873. 



TELEGRAPH POLES. 

Parties who are in want of good 

CEDAR TELEGRAPH POLES, 

can obtain them on favorable terms, and have them delivered 

at any Lake Port between OBwego and Chicago, on the 

opening cf Navigation, by applying to 



P. O. Box 1,376. 



A. A. COLBY, 

TORONTO, ONTARIO, 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



Agents for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 
" " AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 

" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 

" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 

" HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 
" ■ " HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 
" " MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 

" THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

" PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 

" BROOKS' 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 

" POPE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

." " EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

" ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. i 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instruments, Line Material, Office Wire, Mar/net Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Books, Stationer;/, 

c nslanl.li/ on hand. 

«®- Special attention given to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 




One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KEY, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price. $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contact 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $50 00 

Sounders, from , 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

trom 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 60 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may alsobe had of F. L. POPE h CO., 38 Vesey street. 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 

TEROME REDDING & CO., 

30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Electrical aid Teliranl Instruments. 

A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELECTRIC BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 

ALL GOODS rrAli'RAJVIJZ?) FIRS* CLASS. 
AND PRICKS EXTREMELY TOW. 

SEND FOR PRICE LIST, 



IV 



\ MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

GAME WELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

68 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



J. W. STOYEE, 

General Agent aud Superintendent. 

I,, B. FIRMAN, Chicago, III., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 

J. It. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina, 

A. BRENBTER, Augusta, Ga„ 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L. M. MONbOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

EXjKOTJtUO.fl.il CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 00., 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada, 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OB * 

UFON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

Is now In operation in the following Cities, to which reference is 
made for evidence of its great 

.SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



' aioany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Ooun., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
, Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C, 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. John, N. B., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. C„ 
Worcester, Mass. 



Ine Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police telegraphs 

ABB, 

)nr»t — Tne Automatic Repeater, through which the 
Apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constan t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second— Tlie Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the Are is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PtRiECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OP 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It is a sufficient vindication of the claims which are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 

FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWELL Si CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CHANNIN0 PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has j ust been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covevad by 



[February 14, 1 



8T4. 



MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietoi s have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 
the introduction and operation of which involves so litl'a ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even mall 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain, it. 

The American System of 

FIKE ALAEM AtfD POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 
ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been proseived 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, thbee 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 

The cooperation of TELEfiRAPHEttS in' securing its in- 
troduction into their locaUHes is cordially invited, and 
their efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



piHARLES T. CHESTER, 

1 04 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEER; 

AND MANUFACTURER OF 

INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, 

AND EVEBY DESOBIPTION OF 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 



These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, * 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood- work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OR 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & MMAL WIRES, 

OF THE 

HIGHEST INSULATION. 

Weareuow prepared to furnish, after an experience ofthrea 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be buried in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of adds, without injury. 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, finds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere o f 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hours. It 
exceeds, glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this artiole 
for office purposes ata reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that it will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELECTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
being easily and quickly learned by any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties., a SOUNDER that 
will w >rk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does notrequire to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very beat MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



Fe bruary 14, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



TYROOKS' patent telegraph 

INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOR THE SALE OP 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BROOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 



THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
included with first cost. 



Siemens' Universal Galvanometer. 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
&c, stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 



Siemens' Submarine Gables, Cables for Eiver Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A 



SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENT, 
FOE PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 



Awarded the First Premium—Silver Medal — over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
superior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, keliable, and not liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PRIYATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

.MERCHANTS' MANUFACTURING AND 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

S. J. BURRELL, Superintendent, 

No. 50 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOX 496. 



A ] 



MERICAN COMPOUND 

TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 
COPPER FOR CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
oompared with iron, consists in its lightness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tenstle strength, homogeneity and elasticity — de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring groat improvement in the working of 
lines In any condition of the weather. 

And in its durability, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resulting in a very great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time. Insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 
Address — * 

American Compound Telegraph Wire Co., 
ALANSON OAEY, Treasurer, 

No. 234 West 29th St.. 

New YorU. 



MAGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 

FOR 

RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, & CO., Proprietors. 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

15 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

in the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 

They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC "WATCH CLOCK, 

which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 

of all kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 

All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



R 



EDUCTION OP PRICES. 



FL. POPE & CO., 
• MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and 

KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all descriptions of tele- 
graph MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES, SUCh as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 

GLOBE LIGHTNINO- ARRESTERS. 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

H0CHHAU3EN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC BATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it is 
conceded by all who have used it to bo the Best and mo>t Econo- 
mical Battery, for telegraphic and other purposos, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEURS, STUDENTS and SHORT LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,O0O 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates : 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 50 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

F. E. POPE & CO., 

[P. O. Box 5503.] 38 Yesey Street, N. Y. 



ARTRIOK, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOVTBC 4th ST., PBILA- 

MANTJFACTURERS OP 

UNRIVALLED MORSE INSTRUMENTS, 

CHAMPION LEARNERS' APPARATUS, 

with Complete Instructions, Battery, Wire, etc., 

G-I^nSTT SOUNDBPIS, 
IrrvpTOved. CuurTrecL HZeys, 

Batteries and Supplies of every Description. 

Send for Circulars and Catalogue. 

R. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 

JERSEY CITY, N. J., 

Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL APPARATUS 



LECTRJC 



lASUREMEfiT, 



Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Rheostat as 
they have been recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of breaks, faults, crosses, &c. ; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro-motive force of 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dinamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. Its measurements are accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It packs in a caso seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. Considering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $230, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $40 to $60, 

Descriptive pamphlets may he had on application. 



(P. O. Box 5503.) 



38 VESEY STREET. 



Ho also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARE OF 

Naked Copper Wire, 

So wound that tho convolutions are separated from each other by 
a regular and uniform space of the l-80()th of an inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper. In Helices of silk insulated wiro, the 
space occupied by tho silk is the 1 150th to tho l-3IIOth of an inch; 
therefore a spool made of a given length and size of naked wiro 
will he smaller and will contain many more convolutions around 
tho coro than one of silk insulated wire, and will make a propor- 
tionally stronger magnet, while the resistance will bo tho same. 

These Helices are now offered for tho use of manufacturers of 
Telegraphic and Electrical apparatus, and orders will bo filled 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 14, 1814. 



>HE PERFECT BATTERY. 

CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMT. 




LOCKWOOD BATTEET, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Det Street, N. T. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in this country and Europe to be 

FAK SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purposes, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

AT THE 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1873. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
Without any attention whatever. The copper and zinc solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is 

NO LOCAL ACTION,* 

and the circuit is absolutely uniform at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 

current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale. Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 
Send for Circular, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O I_i E AGENTS. 



New Yoek, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyeb, Secretary. 



RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 




"SAVE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
shave down the butt and screw into the Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 

Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, HI. 



TTTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE, 

MANTJFACTTJREKS OF 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, &c, k 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A. VERY SUPERIOR MAIN ZINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 




Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 

The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, ) 
Sept. 22d, 1873. J 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearance Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



nnHE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
■f IN THE WORLD 

IS SUPPLIED BY 

L. G. TILLOTSOK & CO., 

8 Dey Street, Netv York, 

MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

OP 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to $45 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Belays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 50 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets , -. 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 
POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, I]x2x5 inches. 
CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 
ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF COILS, from )i to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into offices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WIRES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SILK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 
KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

BRACKETS. PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELLS, 

LECLANCHF., NITRO-CHROMIC AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICALS AT LOWEST PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 

CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 
DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," - - - - 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY & TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalogue and Price List furnished upon application. 

L. G, TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW YORK. 




Vol. X. 



New York, Saturday, February 21, 187 If. 



Whole No. 397 



i^HARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 
MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OF ALL KINDS, 
GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC GONGS, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

^'Pope's Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 
AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 



/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



All kinds of Electrical Instruments 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 
All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
'Office and Factory, 

3B2 and 3S4 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

~YT7ESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

FURNISH ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Copper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EVERY VARIETY OP INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company, 

CHICAGO. 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

^-'^ (ESTABLISHED 1856.) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

lias for sale the various kinds of Office »nd Magnet Wires, in- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 
DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



E 



UGENE F. PHILLIPS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REED & PHILLIPS' 



PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 



Lock Box 169. 



(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18TH, 1873.) 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at-the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

j89~ Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co ...New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. Hockhausen " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia. 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 



General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Gen'l Sup't. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

{.Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 

OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to be of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
I highest authority in this country. 



HHILLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" $7 50 

Two sets 14 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " " with Cut Out and Lightning 
Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 DET STREET, N. T. 



P 



ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 



are daily in receipt of letters from everywhere, pronouncing 
their 

CHAMPION SETS 

to be just what they are named, 

"CHAMPIONS OVER ALL COMPETITORS," 

and really worth six to one, as serviceable and pretty instru- 
ments, more than anything of the kind yet introduced. 

AGENCIES WANTED. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND. AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M C ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELE0TRI0 MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES. 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 

WALLACE & SONS, 
manufacturers of 

BRASS. COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

In the Roll and Sheet. 

We make the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty— 
ospoeially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
811ver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in overy instance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

8«J Chamber Street, N. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

Angonia., Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 21, 18T4». 



\ LEXANDER L. HAYES, 

I*te Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

No. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 
(Room 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



rpHE AMATEUR'S 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE HOOK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOB. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip aline 
many times with our new Hoot, which gives great security. 

« Price 30centseach. 

" per dozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

43 Third Avenue, Chicago, HI., 
General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Relays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

SICKS REPEATE\RS, 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 



TJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

_ STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 

17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STREET, near FRANKFORT, 

NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMERCIAL PBIBTIBG. 
TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
npHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

MANtTFACTUKERS OF 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOB 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS, TACHTS, 
etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 VARICK ST REET, NEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 

ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 
REVISED AND ENLARGED, 
vol. 8vo, cloth $5 oo. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
flighty pages, 8vo, sent to any address on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D. VAN NOSTEAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET, N. Y. 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 

ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the above, more cups of battery, according to the 
length of line. 

COMPLETE OUTFIT, WITH BATTERY, CHEMICALS 

AND MANUAL, 

Seven Dollars. 

Sounder and Key only 6 00 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. . . 7 00 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, HI. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

OHAFFNER'S 

TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGRAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of / 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Six Hundred and Twenty-five Illustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1869, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it Is my design to issue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL. P. SHAFFNER, 

78 and 80 Broadway^ 

NEW YORK. 



"ll/TODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
-L'-*- TRIC TELEGRAPH. 

A HAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By PRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
8vo, cloth. $2.00 



%g- Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRA Y STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. 



1HE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS,, 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. T. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OF 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS; 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 

— <H&= 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATE© 

WIRES OF EVERT VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground- 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductors- 
required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC U8E r 

AND FOK 

BZASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Percha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practical Electricians and ManufacturersofTelegrapb Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with In- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purcharing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can impobt Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the lime required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 BEY STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works In New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0KNLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered In New York. 

Any Goods manufactured {except Telegraph Goods) are for 
sale In New York by 

SARGENT &. STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO.. 363 Broadway, 
D. H0DGMAN & CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St. 

Address all Communications to 

S. B I S H O DP, 

OFFICE AT FACTOR r- 



February 21, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



43 



The Telegraphek 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. ASHLEY, 



PUBLISHER. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1814. 



VOL. X. 



WHOLE No. 397. 



An Operator's Musings. 

By J. A. 

The other night, 'twas dark and dreary, 
An operator, tired and weary, 
Sitting within his office gloomy, 
With sullen look on his "visnomy." 

The rain beat fast on pane and shutter, 
The wind swept round with dreadful clutter 
And he, poor soul, felt quite forlorn, 
As o'er the wire these words were borne : 

"Poor baby died at half past seven ; 
Buried to-morrow at eleven ;" 
He spoke aloud, in tones of sorrow, 
" Alive to-day and dead to-morrow." 

The mystic words set him a thinking 
Of thousands who are daily sinking 
Into the grave. Death shoots the arrow- 
Alive to-day and dead to-morrow. 

Such were his thoughts. A gentle tapping 
Aroused him from his solemn napping ; 
He looked around in silent wonder — 
The sound appeared like distant thunder. 

"It cannot be ; I've not been sleeping, 
The clock strikes three ; how time is fleeting ; 
But hark 1 there goes another message, 
On wings as swift as birds of passage :" 

"A child was born this morning early, 
And such a boy is seen but rarely ;" 
This was the substance of the letter 
Or telegram — the name is better. 

Yet so it is, while time doth linger, 
Or cruel Death doth point its finger ; 
Or souls come forth to worldly sorrow, 
Some born to-day and die to-morrow. 

Ah, what 1 still, still there goes another, 
The deepest grief and gloom to smother ; 
"Married this morning — Sister Pearly 
Arrive by train to-morrow early." 

Two loving hearts have been united, 
Their futures bright, their paths unblighted 
By dire misfortune — Death will sever. 
They live to-day, but not forever. 

Yet such is life, its joys, its troubles ; 
Still it is naught but glistening bubbles ; 
For time will pierce the heart with sorrow 
Wedded to-day, and die to-morrow. 



The Elementary Principles of Electrical Meas- 
urement. 

By F. L. Pope. 

(Continued from page 25.) 
The Galvanometer . 

A magnetic needle, freely suspended in such a man- 
ner as to be at liberty to place itself in the magnetic 
meridian, and provided with a conducting wire so 
arranged as to convey an electric current parallel to 
and in the immediate vicinity of itself, constitutes a 
galvanometer. A scale divided into degrees is usually 
added, by means of which the angle through which the 
needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian may 
be conveniently ascertained. As the galvanometer in 
some form is almost an indispensable requisite in every 
class of electrical measurements, it is desirable to be- 
come acquainted with its different modifications 
before taking up the subject of electrical measure- 
ments in detail. 

Galvanometers may be conveniently divided 
into two classes. In instruments of the first class 
the angles of the deflections are not proportional 
to the strength of current by which they are pro- 
duced, except to a limited extent, while in those of n 
the second class the deflections bear a fixed and 
definite mathematical relation to the strength or 
quantity of the currents by which they are pro- 1 
duced, throughout the whole extent of the scale. j«j 

The simplest form of the galvanometer consists as 
of a carefully balanced magnetic needle, capable of 
turning freely in a horizontal plane, and a conduc- 
tor consisting of a metallic wire or band passing close 
to the needle, either above or beneath it, in a direction 
parallel to the magnetic meridian. This arrangement 
is illustrated in Fig. 6. N S is the magnetic needle, 
and E¥a wire passing directly over and parallel to it. 
The direction of this wire must necessarily be north and 
south, as the needle will always assume that position 



under the influence of the earth's magnetism. If now 
the extremities of the wire R W are connected with the 
poles of a voltaic battery, so as to cause an electric cur- 
rent to pass through it, the needle N S will be deflected 
from its normal position, and will assume the position 
a b or c d, according to the direction of the current 
passing through the wire W R. If the wire be placed 



Pig. 6. 

in the same direction, but below the needle the deflec 
tions will be the reverse of those produced by the same 
current when passing above the needle. For example, 
if the copper or positive pole of the battery is attached 
to W, and the zinc or negative pole to R, the north 
seeking pole of the needle will turn to the west if the 
latter is below the wire, and to the east if above it. 




Fig. 7. 

The tendency of the force exercised upon the needle 
by the current is to place it in a position at right 
angles to the conducting wire, and consequently to the 
magnetic meridian. But it is not possible for even the 
most powerful current to deflect a needle sufficiently 
to cause it to assume a position exactly at right angles 



r^f^ 



.,'.!-, ■ 




Fig. 8. 

to the conductor, because of the iufluence of the earth's 
magnetism, which still acts upon the needle and tends 
to draw it back to its original position. 

If the conductor be carried entirely around the 
needle, so as to pass once above and once beneath it, 




Fig. 9. 

the influence of the current upon the needle will bo 
doubled, and the resulting deflection considerably in- 
creased. It will be evident, upon reflection, that as the 
current passes in one direction above the needle, and in 
the other direction below it, the tendency of both will 
bo to deflect the needle in the same direction. " This 



operation of carrying the wire around the needle may 
be repeated any required number of times, and in this 
manner the effect of a very feeble current upon a 
needle may be multiplied until it manifests itself by 
causing a deflection. Hence, a needle surrounded by 
a number of turns or convolutions of wire is called a 
multiplier. The writer has employed in some of his 
experiments an instrument of this kind, having: 40,000 
convolutions of fine wire surrounding the needle. 

The most sensitive galvanometers or multipliers are 
those provided with what is termed an astatic system 
of needles. This consists of two separate needles, 
coupled together in the manner shown in Fig. 7. Both 
needles are placed in the same perpendicular planes, 
one directly over the other, but with their north and 
south poles opposite to each other. If the magnetism 
of the two needles were exactly equal, and they were 
also exactly parallel to each other, the action of the 
earth's magnetism upon each of them would be equal 
and opposite, and consequently they would remain at 
rest in any position indifferently. Bat in practice one 
needle always slightly overpowers the other, and by 
this excess determines the position of equilibrium. 
This position is never in the magnetic meridian, and is 
often nearly at right angles to it. 

In the astatic system, represented in Fig. 7, the 
directive force of the earth's magnetism is nearly 
neutralized by the influence of the two needles upon 
each other, while on the other hand the magnetic 
effect of the current upon the system is doubled. This 
is accomplished by arranging the conducting wire in 
such a manner that it will tend to deflect both needles 
in the same direction, as will readily be understood by 
a careful inspection of the figure. A light pointer or 
index, A B, is placed upon the axis above the upper 
coil, which traverses a scale divided into degrees, and 
serves to indicate the angle of deflection of the needles. 
In some instruments the lower needle only is sur- 
rounded by the conducting wire, and in this case the 
upper needle may serve as a pointer. Of course, this 
combination is less sensitive to the action of feeble cur- 
rents than the preceding one. 

A system of astatic needles is usually suspended by 
a minute filament of silk, and is therefore capable of 
being deflected by an exceedingly feeble current. 

A galvanometer or multiplier, constructed upon the 
plan which has just been described, is principally use- 
ful as a means of detecting the presence of an electric 
current. As a measure of the actual magnitude of a 
current it is deficient, inasmuch as its deflections are 
not proportional to the currents by which they are pro- 
duced beyond 14° or 15* of the scale. The reason of 
this will be apparent hereafter. 

Thomson's Reflecting Galvanometer. 
This beautiful apparatus, invented by Sir "William 
Thomson, of Glasgow University, is the most sensitive 
and probably the most generally useful iustrument of 
the kind ever devised. Strictly speaking it is one of 
the class above referred to, the deflections of which are 
not, beyond a certain point, proportional to the cur- 
rents producing them. It is, however, so arranged that 
in practice the actual deflections of the needle which 
are observed, are never required to exceed a very few 
degrees on each side of the meridian, and, therefore, 
the values indicated by them are in reality strictly pro- 
portional to the currents by which they are produced. 
The principle of the reflecting galvanometer is well 
shown in Fig. 8, which is taken from Jeukiu's Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism. 

A copper wire, insulated by being overspun with 
silk, is wound upon a hollow cylindrical bobbin of 
brass, A, provided with deep flanges, B B', and having 
feet at C by which it is supported upon a base of wood 
or hard rubber. Inside of A a small brass plug, D, is 
fitted, having at one end a hollow chamber about 0.6 
inches in diameter, which is closed by the lens E. The 
latter should have a focal distance of about 48 inches. 
Within the little chamber the mirror and magnet are 
suspended by a single fibre of silk— such as may be 
drawn out of a silk ribbon— and which should be so 
thin as to be almost invisible. The mirror itself 
is formed of microscope glass as truly plane iu sur- 
face and as thin as possible. The length of the 
magnet is equal to the diameter of the mirror- 
about half an inch — and is attached tothe latter 
by means of a little shellac dissolved in alcohol. 
The magnet is often made of a piece of watch 
spring. Care should be taken that the mirror is 
not drawn out of shape when the magnet is at- 
tached to it. The silk fibre is also secured to the 
mirror by means of tho shellac varnish, and then 
threaded through a small hole in tho top of the 
chamber, by means of a needle with a little varnish 
on it, and secured by means of tho same material. 
"When thus arranged, the plug D and its contents 
may be introduced into or withdrawn from A at pleas- 
ure. The outside diameter of the flanges B B is a'iout 
2.r> inches, and of the length from B to B' about 1.7 
inches. 

The diameter of the wire with which the space 
inside tho flanges B B' is wound, depends upon the 
purposo for which the instrument is to be used; as will 



44 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 21, 1814 



be hereafter explained. The two erids of the galvan- 
ometer wire T and T' are connected to two binding- 
screws, a and b, Pig. 9, insulated by means of hard 
rubber, and to which other wires may be attached. 
The instrument is completed by a common kerosene 
lamp, L, placed behind a screen having a slit M in it, 
in front of the mirror, and being also provided with a 
horizontal white paper scale N, about twenty inches in 
length. When the apparatus is arranged, as shown in 
Pig. 9, a narrow pencil of light from the lamp L passes 
through the opening M, and thence through the leus to 
the little mirror, and is reflected back by the latter 
through the lens, which forms a sharp image of the 
flame of the lamp upon the scale. The zero point is in 
the centre of the scale, exactly opposite the mirror, 
and when no current is passing the spot of light which 
serves as an index remains at zero. 

The operator reads the indications from a point just 
in the rear of the magnet and coil, the light of the 
lamp being cut off by the screen, so that he only sees 
the small luminous opening through which the light 
passes to the mirror, and a brilliantly defined image of 
the flame upon the white scale just above, which is 
kept in shadow by the screen. If by the passage of a 
current, through the coil the magnet is deflected to the 
right or left, the spot of light moves to the right or left 
along the scale. The angle formed by the reflected 
rays being twice the angle through which the magnet 
and mirror are deflected, a very small angle causes a 
comparatively great displacement of the image. It 
will at once be seen that we virtually have in this in- 
strument an index arm four or five feet long, abso- 
lutely without either weight or inertia. 

With an instrument of the above proportions the 
indicated deflections are, as has been explained, almost 
strictly in proportion to the streugth of current pro- 
ducing them, the range of the magnet itself being con- 
siderably less than 14° on each side of zero. It is a 
good plan to have the scale curved to form part of a 
circle having its centre at the point of suspension of 
the magnet. 

An adjustable permanent magnet, S, is usually 
placed in the magnetic meridian above the coil ; by 
raising or lowering this magnet the action of the di- 
rective force of the earth upon the suspended magnet 
may be increased or weakened at pleasure. If the 
south' pole of S is placed to the south it may be put in 
such a position as to render the needle nearly astatic. 
The instrument is then in its most sensitive position, 
but the spot of light will never remain quite station- 
ary. The zero adjustment may then be controlled by 
a second small magnet, T, placed at right angles to the 
magnetic meridian. 

A galvanometer of this kind might be constructed 
by an ingenious student without much difficulty, and 
would be a very useful and instructive instrument. 
[(719 be continued.) 



year, and had been identified with No. 4 Bast for ten lay it down rather sorry that we have not a better ac- 



years or more. He was a dwarf in stature, but men- 
tally he stood among the most intelligent members of 
the profession. Naturally of a smart, quick tempera- 
ment, be was sufficiently educated and travelled to be 
a most genial companion, and on postprandial occasions 
he was ever happy, comical and interesting in his re- 
marks. He had his peculiarities, like the rest of us, 
but his bonhommie served as an ample mantle to hide 
his faults, and his friends were those who knew him 
loDg and intimately. 



[From The Ghost.'] 

Death ! 



It is with sincere sorrow .that we announce the 
death, on the 11th inst., of the eldest son of Mr. J. T. 
Olmstead, of this office. There are others among us 
who have stood over the agonized form of onr first 
born and best beloved of all, and seen the little face on 
which we have looked so proudly lose the tinge of life, 
the little limbs grow cold, and felt, alas! how sure is 
death. All who have, met this sad experience will 
sympathize to-dny with our fellow laborer in his. be- 
reavement heartily and sincerely. No one else can' 
sympathize completely. Such losses as these cast a 
shadow into a man's heart, that good fortune, good 
health, a swarm of smiling children — everything the 
world may give — can never quite light up. It is a 
grief which, coming but once, outweighs all other sor- 
rows, and leaves a scar which none can comprehend 
but those who number it among their woes. 

Gilbert M. Simmons, formerly a printing operator in 
this office, died on the 12th inst., at his home in Wil- 
liamsbnrgh. His death resulted from a paralytic shock 
sustained in May last, hastened somewhat, perhaps, by 
a dropsical tendency. Mr. Simmons belonged in 
Pougbkeepsie, N. T., but had worked here for ten 
years or more, and was quite well known among print- 
ing operators generally. He recovered partially from 
his paralysis during the fall, and resumed his place for 
a 'few weeks, but when cold weather came on he 
again withdrew and he never returned. His death, 
while it was not unlooked for by those who knew of 
his critical condition, will take many by surprise, as it 
seems but yesterday that he was here. He and Charles 
P. Simmons, who died in San Francisco on the 22d of 
last December, were brothers. 

At Springfield, Mass., on the 11th inst., P. B. Curtis, 
better known .among the profession as " the Major," 
died suddenlyfat his home, where he had been con- 
fined several days with a slight indispositiou. He was 
thought to be recovering, but in the early part of the 
day he was seized with apoplexy and died almost in- 
stantly. "Major" Curtis was in his twenty-ninth 



[From The Ghost,] 

Odds and Ends. 

On St. Valentine's day there passed through this of- 
fice the following poet's appeal, supposed from its tenor 
to be going from a father to his absent dear: 

An empty chair is by my side; 
An empty void is gaping wide. 
No call for pickles greets my ear; 
No cry for sugar do I hear. 

The girl who at my right hand sat 
Has donned her jacket and her hat, 
And off to Bristol she has gone, 
And left her Popsey all alone. 

Oh, do come back, and once more shine, 
And be your dovey's valentine! 

Here is a short one of a similar shade, which comes to 
us on what compositors would call "snake copy," and 
is, presumedly, the work of one of the printing ope- 
rators : 

Well, Jake and George, my honest blades, I'm sorry for to say 
My heart is sad, my mem'ry fades ; forgot 'twas Cupid's day. 
So, not to let the custom fall, I'll simply drop a line: 
I'm yours — body, boots and all — your mouldy valentine. 

A young man, who lamented in these columns his 
disgust at having to work on New Tear's day, and po- 
etically resolved that 

"During sevonty-four, you bet, 
I'll steadily keep out of debt," etc., 

has split upon another rock thus early in the year, and 
tells his story after this fashion : 

I love her yet, that sweet brunette, 

Although she has deceived me. 
Her cruei ways did nearly craze, 
And have quite sorely grieved me. 

She wrote bad Morse, but yet, of course, 

I never dared to broak her. 
She was so proud, she'd tell the crowd 

How fast and well I'd take her. 

But oh ! alas ! it came to pass 

I made a horrid blunder, 
Which raised her ire, and o'er the wire 

Said she, " You go to thunder!" 

PERSONAL AND GENERAL. 

John P. Riley, of Hartford, whose numerous mes- 
sages—" Get me a ' sub ', to night," " You know how I 
am," " I am on my way up town "—made him famous 
while here, is sojourning in New York for awhile, and 
be looks as if the world was using him pretty well, 
too. 

The Baltimore American announces that the proprie- 
tors of that journal have purchased the building corner 
of Baltimore and South streets, Baltimore, now occupied 
by the Western Union Telegraph Company, on the site 
of which they inteud to erect a $125,000 shanty, known 
as the Baltimore American Building. 

Mr. A. D. Taylor, a day operator heretofore, succeeds 
P. B. Curtis, deceased, as night icport operator' at 
Springfield, Mass. Mr. Taylor is ore of the finest ope- 
rators of our acquaintance, and those who manipulate 
No. 4 East at this end will be glad to learn of his per- 
manent appointment. 

On the 4th instant Mr. William H. Hargrave, of this 
office, was united in wedlock, at White Plains, N. Y., to 
Miss Ella L. Esler— the Rev. Mr. Van Kleeck officia- 
ting. It seems an empty thing to say " we congratu- 
late," etc.; but, perhaps, the unusual sincerity with 
which we wish this newly married pair a happy voyage 
over life's dangerous waters, may render our congratu- 
lations acceptable. 

Dr. Powler Bradnac has returned to New York and 
will commence the practice of medicine here. He conies 
from Detroit, where he has relinquished a large and lu- 
crative business— the social attractions of this metropolis 
and the facilities afforded for a professional man to per- 
fect himself in his studies, having done the business for 
this genial disciple of Esculapius,asit has for the disci- 
ples of Bacchus, Momus and numerous other old parties 
who died some time back. The doctor will, perhaps, 
combine physic with electrical science, and agitate the 
brass occasionally. 

The Switch is the title of a diminutive journal pub- 
lished in the Western Union Chicago office. It is edited 
by the well known "Billy" Wallace, and is replete 
with local bits aud happenings. It must be keenly rel- 
ished by the Chicagoans, to whom every line tells a 
tale — the fine point involved in which is not so readilv 
seen. by outsiders. However, there are lots of thing's 
in The Switch which [are enjoyable to all, though we 



quaintance with our Chicago brethren, so we might 
know more accurately on whom The Switch is laid, 
and whose foibles are so pleasantly lashed in its col- 
umns. 

We again beg to acknowledge our indebtedness to 
Mr. J. J. Calaban for his efforts to the end of making 
The Ghost lively and entertaining. His caricatures, 
always fanny without being personal, are laughed over 
by everybody and admired by all. " The twenty-sev- 
enth man off, as he appeared at the South Perry," and 
the thirsty trio of telegraphic " bums," who, having ac- 
cidentally met in New York, penniless, of course, are 
"snuffing the bottle from afar off," are worthy of a 
place in any humorous journal in existence; but, un- 
fortunately, the subjects are not to be appreciated by 
those of the common clay, and so Mr. Calahan, like 
many another genius before him, continues to hide his 
light under a bushel. 

Dr. J. C. Graham, of No. 145, has been made the recip- 
ient of a very handsome Russia leather segar case, the 
donors being Messrs. O'Brien and Clarke, night operators 
at Scranton and Wilkesbarre, respectively. The gift is 
tendered, as a note which accompanies it explains, in 
token of their appreciation of his patience and judgment 
in sending " State Press." Courtesies of this kind are 
so very rare — the receiving operators on a press wire 
having an affection for the sender very similar to that 
which his satanic majesty is supposed to entertain for 
holy water — that this one should go on record by all 
means. The " regular practitioner," we believe, will 
not advertise, but we hope Dr. Graham will not 
"kick" at this publicity. In the words of inky 
Othello : 

" It is the cause — it is the cause, my soul." 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



The Closing Services of the P. and A. Chicago 
Office. — Location of the late Employes. 

Northwest, February 7. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

As the Pacific and Atlantic Company is permanently 
defunct, and the employes scattered here and there, it 
is desired by those of us in this section of the country 
to learn through the columns of The Telegrapher 
what has become of them, and how they have fared 
since the last " Good night " was said on the P. and A. 
wires, and they passed to and became a part of the 
Western Union system 1 

That memorable Saturday evening, December 27, 
1873, is one long to be remembered by the officers and 
employes of the Chicago offices. 

Among the greetings exchanged, the following to 
Circuit Manager Long will show what kindly feelings 
existed between the operators as a class:- 

" Pittsburg, Pa., Dec. 27, 1873. 
" To W. C. Long, Chicago, 111. 

" In behalf of the .operators in this office, allow me to 
thauk you for your courtesy toward us. May you live 
Long and prosper is the wish of each one of us. Pre- 
sent our compliments to your force. Our wires are be- 
ing cut and switched into Western Union now. Pare- 
well. (Signed), . . Ra." 

As " Ra " was the operator who generally worked 
Chicago circuit the above gave us all the more pleasure, 
because it came from one who knew all our failings as 
well as our good points. 

A little before six o'clock Supt. Wilson, of the West- 
ern Union, entered the office, and, with Circuit Manager 
Long at the switch board, disconnected the wires. As 
fast as opened by the closing of a key in the Western 
Union office the transfer was made, so complete were 
the arrangements in W. U. for the transfer. 

Messrs. Pearson and Stevely accepted positions in 
the operators' ranks in the W. U. office. Messrs. Long, 
Portier, and Hall were put on the W. U. day force', 
and Mr. Dennis on the night force. Mr. Gross accepted 
a position as operator and clerk with the A. and P. Co., 
Chicago, 111. Garner has accepted a position with the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway Co. as operator and 
signal man at Tunnel No. 3, Summit, Wis. 

Messrs. Harris and Iredale, "Branch Office men," 
continue in their respective offices, which are main- 
tained as Western Union offices. The "Indomitable 
Louderback," who established an office on commission 
with the three opposition lines, P. and A., A. and P. 
and Great Western, at No. 86 Madison street, continues 
there for the Western Union Company. The balance 
of the branch offices were closed. 

Communications from others as to whereabouts and 
positions of the Israelites will be acceptable and highly 
appreciated. 



February 21, 1814.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



48 



A word in regard to subscriptions. I am sorry to 
see so much indifference manifested towards The Tele- 
grapher, and hope operators will wake up to their 
interests by rolling in a liberal subscription from all 
quarters. I must say that my success in soliciting sub- 
scribers has been the same sad experience as that of 
my fellow laborer over the signature of " T," in issue 
of January 24th. Ex. P. and A. 
*"•"* . 

A Matrimonial Failing. 

Albany, Oregon, Jan. 30th. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE TELEGRAPHER. 

Failing to keep The Telegrapher posted as to what 
is going on is something I very seldom do. Everybody, 
of course, have their failings, but we of the Oregon and 
California Railroad Telegraph have one we think a 
good deal of— i. e., Chas. D. Paling, Superintendent of 
Telegraph and Train Despatcher, but we must say we 
were very much surprised last Wednesday to learn 
that, failing to find true enjoyment in the life of a 
bachelor, he had taken unto himself a wife. Tester- 
day the following telegram of congratulation was pre- 
pared and sent over the wire to Mr. Pailing by Assist- 
ant Chief Operator Rice, of Albany office. After Mr. 
Rice had finished sending it Mr. Kenny, Chief Ope- 
rator, signed it, then each operator in routine all over 
the wire. The following is the message : 

" Chas. D. Faling, 

Superintendent Telegraph O.-and C. Railroad. 
We tender to you, Mr. Faling, our sincere congratu- 
lations upon the annexation of an accomplished and 
excellent partner to your markedly faling firm. Our 
failure to more promptly learn of the faling alliance 
is our apology for failing sooner to proffer our open ex- 
pression of that never failing good will which unfail- 
ingly possesses our several breasts. May the circuit of 
your perfect happiness long remain unbroken, being 
clear of escapes and free from resistance. May your 
relays never fail you, a proper adjustment being unfail- 
ingly maintained. May you, never failing in the full 
enjoyment of life's pleasures, as you go dotting and 
dashing along her lightning pathway, find no grounds 
of discord to mar your harmonious working; and 
should crosses annoy, may they ever be sympathetic. 
May Time, as he rapidly clicks the hours away, ever 
adding something new, also add many lesser falings 
to your already faling household; and when the final 
good night is given, may your i i be the signal for that 
triumphant promotion which is the merit of an unfail- 
ingly faithful discharge of life's every duty. Such are 
the wishes of your emploves. (Signed), 
Jno. J. Kenny, Chf. Opr." W. B. Rice, Asst. Chf. Opr. 
W. W. Skinner. G. A. Taylor. 

J. E. TlBBETTS. 0. A. TlBBETTS. 

C. E. Parks. W. A. Williams. 

J. H. Reid. C. R. Wheeler. 

Geo. F. Crow. J. M. Fish. 

J. H. Woodrow. J. L. Williams. 

S. B. Hendee. H. C Stevens. 

W. T. Bradley." 

Mr. Faling was nonplussed for awhile, but shortly 
recovering from his surprise, telegraphed the following 
reply : 
" Operators 0. and C. Railroad. 

Gentlemen: Allow me to return you my sincere 
thanks for your kind wishes and hearty congratula- 
tions. I assure you they are deeply and truly appre- 
ciated. Hoping that the bonds of friendship which 
have existed between us may never be severed, and 
that fraternally our harmonious relations may con- 
tinue as heretofore, I remain very truly yours, 

C,has. D. Faling." 

As lottery gent remarks — " Who's the next lucky 
man ?" This looks discouraging to us five (5) poor 
lonely old fellows — all that are left out of a baud of fif- 
teen gay bachelors a year or so ago. But we will try 
and bear the burden yet a little longer, and there will, 
we trust, be further rejoicing in . Webfoot. 



Good Counsel to the Telegraphic Fraternity. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

For some time I have desired to respond to the com- 
munications and remarks of "Nettie Brouson," and to 
let her know that I sympathize with and feel Tor her. It 
occurred to me to try to obtain her real name and ad- 
dress, and open a personal correspondence with her, to 
tell her my experience, and how I fought my way until 
I obtained the portion and office that I finally secured 
here; but, on further consideration, I was' doubtful 
whether she would appreciate it, or be willing to corre- 
spond with an operator of her own sex, and so aban- 
doned the idea. 

In The Telegrapher of February 7th I noticed 
communications over the signatures of " Elias " and " S. 
L. C," which have again brought the subject to my 
mind, and I have decided to respond, if room can be 
accorded for my communication in your columns. 
" Elias " has expressed my opinion in regard to " Nettie 



Bronson " exactly. I should like to hear from her occa- 
sionally through The Telegrapher, and learn how 
she prospers in what I know by experience to be an 
arduous undertaking for a woman — getting a living by 
telegraphy. 

I am thankful that opportunity is given in your col- 
umns for a discussion of the morals and conduct of the 
fraternity, which has changed my views concerning 
them somewhat, as set forth in my communication of 
Aug. 9th, 1873, over the signature of " Female Opera- 
tor," when I made public my grievances. 

I am sorry to say that since then, as far as my ac- 
quaintance has gone with them on this circuit, I have 
met but three or four (certainly not more) who may 
properly be called gentlemeu in every respect— never 
meeting these iu person and not knowing their bad 
habits, if they have any, but judge that they have 
none. I have fouud, however, that as a general thing 
those who were coarse and ungentlemanly over the 
line were drinkers, smokers, billiard players, etc. — 
slaves to habits which sink men below the brutes. 
Thank God that they are not all alike ! and may he 
bless those who can say No to every temptation. 
Their reward is and will be great. 

Brothers, continue in well doing. I would request 
you to remember this fraternity in your daily devo- 
tions, as I have done ever since I became connected 
with telegraphy. We who can and do resist' tempta- 
tion should let our light so shine that others may see 
that we are walking with Christ. 

To the young, careless and reckless, I would say, 
"It is not all of life to live here." No, we are only 
pilgrims and strangers here, journeying, it is to be 
hoped, towards a better land. Let us so live that we 
may all meet there. Good bye all. God bless you 
and keep you, and give you strength to overcome all 
evil. Jennie. 
*-♦-♦ 

A Heavy Sleet Storm.— A Telegraph Line Man 
Treed by a Mule. 

Charleston, S. C, Feb. 11. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Seeing nothing in your columns from our section, I 
have concluded to let the world know that we still 
live, though one of the heaviest sleet storms that has 
ever visited this country stopped all direct communica- 
tion with the north for five days. The breaks between 
Charlotte, N. C, and Danville, Ya., were about forty 
to the mile, and it will take several weeks to restore 
wires to their original condition. We got Washington 
Sunday on temporary wires and work well to New 
York now. During the break the Western Union kept 
their northern business moving via Nashville, with, of 
course, some delay, but the Southern and Atlantic 
having no other outlet, had to refuse everything and 
grin and bear it patiently, waiting anxiously for a click 
from Washington. The weather here during the storm 
was cold and wet, and so very disagreeable that half 
the usual number of drinks were sufficient to retain the 
high polish and beautiful coloring on the tips of the 
natives' noses. 

Charleston has a natural curiosity in the person of a 
nobby lineman, who hails from Virginia, and is the 
happy possessor of 1,500 acres of highly cultivated 
land in that State. He is one of those'lucky chaps 
always finding knives and money in the street cars. 
When he sees a quarter on the floor he don't put his 
foot on it and await an opportunity of sliding it in his 
pocket, like the rest of us, but picks it up and offers it 
to every passenger in the car, and if no one claims it 
tries to force it into the conductor's or driver's hands. 
He is always purchasing canaries and mocking birds 
for his friends; but, unluckily, is kept so busy that the 
birds take wing and fly away just before he has time 
to go for them. Every time he goes out in the country 
repairing he purchases chickens, eggs, etc., in abund- 
ance for the married men in the office, but it always 
happens that there is company at the seller's house 
just before he calls for them, and chicks, eggs and 
everything have been cooked for said company, but he 
can have more next week. 

He is now feeling very blue because an amateur 
minstrel troupe organizing here won't allow him to buy 
instruments for them, and start them out in true Vir- 
ginia style, with diamond rings, pins, swallow tailed 
brass button coats, paper bosoms, etc. He offered to 
do it, and thinks hard of them for refusing the offer. 

He was out repairing during the late cold snap, aud 
was up a rather decayed pole putting on an insulator. 
Whilst busy at work a man rode up, dismounted, and 
hitched his mule, a very vicious one, to this pole. .Jim's 
fingers getting benumbed lie starts down to warm 
them ; but imagine his dismay when he beheld the 
mule with his fore feet up the pole, trying to reach him 
with his teeth. There is no doubt of his bravery, as 
three years' honorable service in the army will testify, 
but here was a dilemma. If he remained up Hie pole 
he would freeze on it. II' Ik; descended the mule would 
freeze on him, or even if he could scare him off he 
might pull the pole down in his endeavors to get away, | 



in which event he was liable to be severely injured by 
the fall. He concluded to risk the freeze rather than 
the teeth, so mounted higher and got astride a cross 
arm, where he sat whistling " Thou art so near and yet 
so far," and singing psalms till the shades of night 
brought the owner of the mule back, who unhitched 
him aud rode off into the darkuess, releasing the half 
frozen telegrapher from his airy perch. 

I hear that one of the boys passing along saw him 
when he first discovered the mule and had him photo- 
graphed. If so I will send you a copy. 

He is now throwing money around among the politi- 
cians endeavoring to have an ordinance passed prohibit- 
ing hitching jabid mules to telegraph poles. 

We all look forward impatiently for your paper day, 
and it is a most welcome sheet. Why it is not sub- 
scribed for by every one in the business is beyond my 
comprehension, containing as it does so much valuable 
information, besides being the well known champion 
of the fraternity. Qtjilp. 
♦-♦-♦ 

Justice to Military Telegraph Operators. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

I notice in The Telegrapher of February 7 a com- 
munication signed " Agitator," in regard to a land 
bounty for telegraph operators who served the Govern- 
ment during the war of the rebellion. As one of the 
many operators interested iu this question, I should 
very much like to know what, if anything, has at any 
time been done to bring our claims before Congress. 
Certainly it cannot be denied that our services were quite 
as valuable to the Government as were those of the 
brave soldier boys who so gallantly ran the risk of be- 
coming " food for powder," and are now enjoying their 
country's bounty. Although we did not bear arms, we 
were constantly exposed to danger and sickness ; and 
many of our number standing faithfully at their posts 
at points inadequately guarded, were captured by the 
enemy and suffered all the horrors of their prison pens ; 
others languished on cots (not beds) of sickness, and 
many laid down their lives as nobly as did their breth- 
ren on the battle field. By our aid many r calamities 
were averted, and many advantages gained which could 
not have been gained without the help of our little 
"clickers," insignificant as they might seem among the 
mighty " engines of war " by which they were sur- 
rounded. And wherever our army corps were found 
there also were seen our field lines, and our brave boys 
of the "key and quill," doing as effectual service as 
they of the " sword and epaulette ;" while in the rear, 
along the railway lines of communication and supply, 
their brethren stood sentinel night and day, watching 
with untiring fidelity the progress and safety of the 
trains bearing to the front the necessaries of life for 
those in the field. None were more trusted, or more 
implicitly relied upon by the President and the generals 
iu command, and none more fully proved themselves 
worthy of such confidence. Why, then, should Congress 
be unwilling to recognize our services by according to 
us a land bounty 1 Few of us are so " well to do" iu 
this world's gear that such a bounty would not seem, 
and in reality be, a godsend. It seems to me that it 
only requires conceried action on ohr part to set the ball 
in motion and carry our cause to a successful issue. 
Surely we shall find advocates among those in power 
who are cognizant of the justice of our claims. Com- 
pared with the hosts of arms bearers our numbers are 
small, even insignificant; but our services cannot be es- 
timated on a basis of " one man power." As your cor- 
respondent, " Agitator," truly says, " The services of 
one operator were often of greater value than those of 
whole regiments." 

I am not an organizer, and feel incompetent to sug- 
gest a course to be pursued iu this matter; but I hope 
others who are interested, and would be benefited by 
an Act of Congress iu favor of Military Telegraph Ope- 
rators, will give us their views through your columns. 
" Agitator's" suggestion that a petition be circulated, 
may be a solution of the question as to how we shall 
get our claim before Congress. Let the matter not be 
dropped again until some end is arrived at, either fav- 
orable or otherwise. We believe our claim to be just. 
Let us prosecute it with determination, and why shall 
we not succeed 1 One ok Tni<: Boys. 



A Correction. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

In my article last week, on the "Bridge Duplex," 
I attempted to say, " It is not practicable to increase 
the sensitiveness of the receiving relay by substituting 
one oF higher resistance." The printer made it read 
lighter resistance, which inverted the sense of the 
passage. As usual. F. L. Pope. 



Answer to Correspondent. 

Trip. — The niPHHugc received propoily contains eight words 
only, but what tho latent. Western Onion official ruling may be 
wo don't know. 



46 



THE TELEGRAPHS 



[February^!, 18U. 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1874. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY at 38* VESEY ST. 



TENTH VOLUME. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

One Copy, One Year, - - - - = $3.00. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE, 

Single Copies Five Cents. 
SPECIMEN COPIES FORWARDED FREE on APPLICATION. 
Communications must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) 38 VESEY ST. , New York. 

rpHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS, 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 

of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 

Published Every Saturday , 

AT 

No. 38 VESEY STREET, New York. 



TENTH VOLUME. 

The Tenth Volume of THE TELEGRAPHER will 
commence with the number for SATURDAY, JANUARY 3d, 
1874, and will close with the year. 

All the popular features of the paper will be continued,, and it 
will bo Improved from time to time, as opportunity shall offer. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

has now, for nearly ten years, been maintained upon its merits, 
and without pnfcronage or support, other than that derived from 
Its legitimate business, for the past five years. (Previous io that 
time it was partially maintained by the National Telegraphic 
Union.) 

The TENTH VOLUME commences under favorable auspices, 
aiid it may be Baid that it enjoys the entire confidence of the 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY, 
whose organ it is and will continue to be. It is a thoroughly 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 
bound to, or in the interests of no telegbaphio clique oh com- 
bination, but honestly devoted to the interests of the 

PRACTICAL TELEGRAPHERS. 

As heretofore, no labob, time or expense, warranted by the 

patronage received, will be spared to improve its character, and 

add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIB8T class 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
Terms of Subscription. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR $2 00 

SINGLE COPIES Five Cents. 

OaDada Subscribers must remit Twenty Cents in addition for 
Postage. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in obtain- 
ing subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty Peb Cent. Com- 
missions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount of 
such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for foub subscri- 
bers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per year, 
will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

STJBSCBIBMVS CHANGING. THEIR RESIDENCES, AND DESIBING A 
CHANGE IN THEIR ADDBESS, MUST ALWAYS SEND THEIB OLD AS 
WELL AS THEIB NKW ADDRESS. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the ri.-k of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollabs the 
cost of the order or registration may be deducted from the 
amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reasonable 
rates ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than One 
Dollab per insertion. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER mutt be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503.) NEW YORK. 



Justice to Military Telegraph Employes. 

We print this week a communication from another 
telegrapher, who. during the war, was employed in the 
military service of the United States, in regard to an 
appropriation by Congress of a land bounty to such 
as served faithfully in that capacity. 

An act was introduced in the last Congress by Mr. 
Richie, who was a member of the House from Mary- 
laud, and the subject was considerably discussed in 
The Telegrapher at the time, but finally the Con- 
gress expired and nothing was done with it. Our cor- 
respondent "Agitator," in a recent number of this paper 
again called attention to the matter, and it is beginning 
to attract the notice of the parties interested. 

"We are aware that the present is not a very favor- 
able time to present claims for bouuty or recognition of 
past services to Congress, but in this case the justice of 
the claim is so clear and indisputable that it seems to 
us a proper presentation of it would secure attention 
even now. 

In commenting on this matter in The Telegrapher 
of May 11, 1872, we said " If any persons who were in 
the United States military service during the war are 
entitled to recognition, and a grant of land from Con- 
gress, those who were in the telegraph service of the 
army should not be neglected or overlooked. Many 
of the telegraphers who were engaged in the military 
telegraph service were exposed to greater hardships 
and dangers than their associates in other departments, 
and performed services of incalculable value and im- 
portance. The safety of armies and the success of 
most important military operations frequently depend- 
ed upon the courage and fidelity of the military tele- 
graphers, and they were never found wanting in zeal 
or devotion to the national interests." "We do not 
know that we can add anything to this presentation of 
the case. The statements made are indisputable aud 
never have been disputed, to our knowledge. "We 
have heard of no special opposition to Mr. Richie's act 
having been made, but our recollection of the matter is 
that it failed for want of time, or from not having 
been urged with sufficient energy by those who were 
interested. 

We have no donbt but that a proper presentation of 
the claims of the military telegraphers would secure 
recognition, and ultimately justice being done to them. 
To effect this, however, there must be an organized 
effort made; if possible some influential member should 
be induced to take the matter up and present it pro- 
perly to Congress, and his efforts should be supple- 
mented by the petitions and personal exertions of as 
many of the parties interested as can be reached at this 
time. 

Congress will remain in session at least until the lat- 
ter part of next June, and perhaps longer, and if -a 
move is made within the next month or six weeks it is 
possible that something may be accomplished even at 
the present session. To do this, however, will require 
immediate personal effort on the part of those who are 
concerned. 

Believing the claims of the military telegraphers to 
be just and equitable, The Telegrapher will hereafter, 
as heretofore, support them to the extent of its ability 
and influence, but without such effort as we have indi- 
cated all that we may say or that our correspondents 

may say on the subject will-have but little effect. 
♦-•-♦ 

The Work of the Patent Office for 1873.— Pro- 
posed Reforms in its Organization. 

The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents 
for the year 1873 has just been published, and is in 
many respects a document of great interest, especially 
to inventors. The gross receipts of the Patent Office 
from all sources during the year was $703,199.77, 
and the expenditures $691,178.98. The total number of 
patents issued was 12,864. The greatest number of 
patents (2.826) was granted to citizens of Few York 
State, and the least number to Idaho and New Mexico, 
each 1. Of course we are not surprised to find the in- 
ventive faculty proportiuately more active in Connecti- 
cut than elsewhere, being in the ratio of 1 patent to 



every 864 inhabitants. New Mexico is at the other 
extreme, the ratio there being 1 to every 91,874 inhabi- 
tants. The total number of patents issued has varied 
but little one way or the other from 13,000 per year for 
the last seven years. The proportion of electrical 
patents to the whole number during 1873 is a little 
under 1- per cent. 

Commissioner Leggett recommends a number of 
amendments to the patent law of 1870, which experi- 
ence has shown to be seriously defective in many 
particulars, as many inventors have good reason to 
know. One of the most important of the suggested 
amendments is one making the duration of an 
Ajnerican patent entirely independent of the 
duration of any foreign patent to the same 
person. Another is the repeal of an absurd 
provision in the law of 1870, by which the assignee of 
the entire interest in a patent, in order to secure a re- 
issue, must first secure the signature and oath of the 
inventor, if he be living. The. only purpose served by 
this provision is to place-a means of extortion in the 
hands of unprincipled assignors. 

For the third time Commissioner Leggett called the 
atteutiou of Congress to the necessity of a reorganiza- 
tion of the Patent Office. There is no doubt whatever 
of the substantial truth of the Commissioner's state- 
ment that fully ninetenths of all the capital invested 
in manufacturing in this country is thus invested be- 
cause of the security afforded to it by patents. Hence 
the importance of ascertaining correctly what is new 
and useful in each application, and then limiting the 
applicant's claims to precisely that of which he is really 
the first inventor. While we consider that the Patent 
Office, on the whole, has succeeded admirably in doing 
its work in a creditable and satisfactory manner, in 
spite of its defective organization, yet it is no less true, 
as the Commissioner himself says, "that very many 
" applications are hastily and carelessly examined ; 
" very many patents are issued every year for subject 
" matter not patentable; and applications are rejected 
" upon which patents should be granted." We also 
emphatically agree with him when he says : " It is 
" well known that complaints from many sections of 
" the country against our whole patent system arise 
" almost exclusively from patents that have been im- 
" properly granted, because of the want of proper 
" supervision in their examination " — a supervision 
which it is utterly impossible to secure under the sys- 
tem now in vogue in the office. 

The plan recommended by the Commissioner is that 
of grouping the 145 classes in the office into nine divi- 
sions, each division to be presided over by a competent 
official, to review the work of his subordinates. " Such 
" an organization," he says, " would relieve the coun- 
" try of a large number of very annoying patents, 
" which should never be granted, and will secure to 
•' real inventors the products of their brain work with 
" much greater certainty than is now done." 

It is proposed to meet the somewhat greater ex- 
pense of the .new system by a tax of perhaps twenty 
dollars, to be paid in by the holders of ail patents, at 
the expiration of six or even seven years from their 
date. This would probably sweep away a great pro- 
portion of the worthless aud disused patents, amount- 
ing to perhaps 25 per cent, of the whole. The Com- 
missioner says that " this tax would not be onerous 
" upon the holders of patents possessing in themselves 
" any real merit, and would be beneficial in extermi- 
" nating Such as are without merit and stand in the 
" way of substantial aud practical improvement." 

We heartily endorse every one of the above recom- 
mendations, as well as the concluding one, which is in 
many respects the most important of all, that of estab- 
lishing at Washington " a Court exclusively for the 
" trial of patent cases, to be composed of men em- 
" inent for their legal aud judicial talents, and also 
" distinguished for their expert knowledge of the sub- 
" jects presented in the trial of causes growing out of 
" patents. This Court should be easy of access, always 
" in session, aud the pleadings simple and direct. Its 
" findings* of fact should be fiual ; its rulings on law 



February 21, 18T4.J 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



47 



" points might be reviewed, upon proper application 
"by the United States Supreme Court." The great 
value to inventors and manufacturers of such a Court 
is so obvious as to need no argument. It would greatly 
enhance the actual money value of all meritorious 
patents, and inventors would receive much greater en- 
couragement, also, and remuneration than under the 
present extremely defective system. 

"We hope Congress may be induced at length to pay 
some attention to the very common sense recommen- 
dations of the Commissioner. The reforms urged by 
him are imperatively necessary, and, if carried out, 
would be worth millions of dollars to the manufactur- 
ing and commercial interests of the country. But as 
the interests of the country are apparently the very 
last matters that this body of worthies are at all likely 
to attend to, the prospect of an immediate reform is 
not particularly encouraging. Still, it may be some 
satisfactien to Gen. Leggett to know that his efforts 
are appreciated by the large and worthy class whose 
interests he so ably advocates, and we hope he may 
continue to hammer away at the honorable members 
till he accomplishes the desired result. 



The Page Patent Litigation. 

We have repeatedly referred to the litigation which 
is in progress for the purpose of judicially determining 
the validity or otherwise of the notorious Page patent 
which practically covers nearly every method of tele- 
graphy, except the Automatic, now used. The defend- 
ants in the suits which have been brought by the "West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company against the Manhattan 
Quotation Company and Mr. Charles T. Chester, to 
enforce this patent, have just filed their reply to the 
complainants, in which the priority of invention claimed 
by Prof. Page is very thoroughly examined, and shown 
to be untenable. 

"We know of nothing which is of more importance to 
the telegraph interests of the country than the attempt 
which is being made to reestablish a telegraph mono- 
poly under this patent, and all parties should, without 
delay, unite with the contestants in defeating this at- 
tempt. The contest will, no doubt, be long and expen- 
sive, and as an adverse decision will be of general and 
great value, it is but just that those who are to be bene- 
fited should contribute to secure it. 



The Dominion Telegraph Company. 

We publish this week the fifth annual report of the 
Dominion Telegraph Company of Canada, from which 
it will be seen that this company is proving highly suc- 
cessful. It is proposed during the coming season to 
largely extend its lines and increase its facilities, which is 
imperatively demanded by the rapid increase of its busi- 
ness. We. believe this company to be well and honestly 
managed in the interests of its stockholders and the 
public, and are gratified to learn of its continued and 
increasing success and prosperity. ' 



An Enterprising Firm. 

The attention of those who may have occasiou to 
purchase telegraph instruments and apparatus, is called 
to the advertisements of Messrs. Patrick Bunnell & 
Co., of Philadelphia, which will be found in this num- 
ber of The Telegrapher. This enterprising firm, we 
are pleased to learn, are doing a very good business. 
They deserve to succeed— the firm being composed of 
practical telegraphers, well and favorably known to the 
fraternity and the business public. They have receutly 
enlarged their premises and increased their facilities, and 
are now prepared to fill all orders promptly and satis- 
factorily. 



The address of Mr. Charles Mayne is desired. When 
last heard of he was in Illinois. Any one who knows 
"his present address is requested to address " Manager, 
Western Union Telegraph, Cromwell, Iowa." 

Mr. J. J. Frey, heretofore Superintendent of the Se- 
dalia Division, has been appointed Superintendent of 



Telegraph on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway, 
with office at Parsons, Kansas. 

Mr. E. 0. Martin has been transferred from the day 
to the night force in the W. U. Chicago office. 

Messrs. Wm. C. Long, Charles Fortier and George 
Hall, of the Pacific and Atlantic Chicago, 111., office, 
were, upon the consolidation of the lines with the West- 
ern Union, transferred to the day force of the latter in 
the Chicago office. 

Mr. Ed. Dennis, formerly P. & A. night manager, 
Chicago, 111., was transferred to the night force of the 
W. U. office in that city. 

Mr. H. Garner, formerly of the Chicago P. A. office, 
has accepted a position as operator with the C. & 1ST. W. 
Railway, Madison Division, at Tunnel ¥o. 3, North 
End, Summit, Wisconsin. 

Mr. K B. Walker has accepted a position as ope- 
rator with the C. & N. W. Railway Co., Madison Divis- 
ion, at Tunnel No. 3, South End, Summit, Wisconsin. 

Mr. J. H. F. Scholl, formerly in the Traiu Despatch- 
er's office of the Central Railroad of N. J., L & S. Divis- 
ion, at Mauch Chunk, Pa., has accepted the position of 
agent and operator for the U. P. Railroad, at Ogalalla, 
Nebraska. 



The Dominion Telegraph Company. 

The annual meeting of the Dominion Telegraph 
Company, of Canada, was held at the executive office 
of the company in Toronto, Canada, on Wednesday, 
February 11. 

The Hon. John McMurrich, President, presided. 

The Chairman said that the directors and officers of 
the company had passed through another hard year's 
work, but with much less anxiety than on former occa- 
sions, as they had received more encouragement. He 
felt that the shareholders would be satisfied with the 
progress the company had made. 

The fifth annual report of the directors was then read 
by the Secretary, Mr. Small. They congratulated the 
shareholders on the steady increase of business and pro- 
fitable returns which the accounts exhibit, and the fair 
prospects for the coming year. 

" The company was organized, and the first Board 
of Directors appointed in August, 1868. Seventeen 
months after, at the close of 1869, the company had 
been euabled to construct but 147 miles of single wire 
line, and to open six offices in that period ; its growth 
has been steady and most satisfactory. In the course 
of the following year, 1870, the company had increased 
their mileage to a total of 629 miles of pole line and 
1,116 miles of wire, with 35 offices. At the close of 
1871 the company, including the purchase of the Que- 
bec line, possessed 1,510 miles of pole line, 2,933 of 
wire, and 106 offices. During the course of the follow- 
ing year, the pole line mileage had been increased to 
2,177£ miles, the wire to 3,942 miles, with 164 offices. 

"The new lines constructed during the year just 
closed consist of the following: From Sarnia to Kent 
Bridge, intersecting the London and Chatham line, 
over 59 miles ; from Colliugwood to Owen Sound, 39 
miles; from Trenton to Picton, 32 miles; from Whitby, 
through Port Perry, to Little Britain, 36 miles ; from 
Clinton, on the Goderich line, to Kincardine, 56 miles ; 
from Brantford to the town of Simcoe and Port Dover, 
33 miles ; from Mount Forest, through Durham and 
Walkerton, to Kincardine, 50 miles ; from Mount Forest 
to Harriston, 10 miles; and a short connection between 
Ottawa and Aylmer, making in all about 400 miles of 
new extension, with 633 miles of wire. These additions 
bring tip the addition of the company's pole mileage to 
2,585 miles, with 4,574 miles of wire and 251 offices. 

" A portion of this increase of wire mileage has arisen 
from the addition of extra wire on lines already con- 
structed, rendered necessary by the increased business 
of the company; and still further provision will have 
to be made in this direction, partly by additional wires 
on existing lines, aud partly by new lines on fresh 
routes, not only to increase the scope of the company's 
business by embracing fresh districts where these lines 
are called for, but also to add to the facilities of exist- 
ing communications between the business portions of 
the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The general 
manager has prepared with great care a sketch of the 
extensions referred to above, which it is most desirable 
should be provided for with as little delay as possible 
while the season is favorable for getting out poles. 

"To make provision for these, contemplated exten- 
sions a fresh issue of stock will be necessary, and the 
directors recommend that authority for this purpose be 
granted to the extent not exceeding $100,000 for the 
year 1874, to be floated from time to time as the new 
works are proceeded with." 

In conclusion, the directors express their satisfaction 
at the manner in which the General Manager, Mr. J. D. 
Purkis, continues to discharge the important duties of his 
position, aud with the zeal and energy of the Secretary, 
Mr. Small. 



The report of the General Manager, Mr. J. D. Purkis, 
was then read. He calls attention to the fact that, at 
least 500 miles of poles and 1,000 miles of wire will be 
required to be put up the coming season to meet the 
growing business, as well as to open up new routes and 
new offices in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. 

He continues: 

" Tou are aware that greater facilities are becoming 
more necessary every year to meet the steadily increas- 
ing requirements of the mercantile community and the 
press ; and, in order to provide for these and to advance 
our own interests, we must continue our extensions aud 
increase our wires. Tou are aware that the more ex- 
tended our lines are the less will be the ratio of working 
expenses, and I have no hesitation in saying that the 
sooner your lines are extended, not only through On- 
tario and Quebec, but the Lower Provinces, the greater 
will be your success ; but it has not been my aim to 
advise larger extensions during any season than I have 
felt we could place in proper working order. 

" In order that the contractor may avail himself of 
the winter season to procure the poles, and to give time 
to import the necessary wire, it is most desirable that 
arrangements should be come to at once, or with as lit- 
tle delay as possible. 

" So far, our success has been such that I feel confi- 
dent you will cheerfully accede to my request, and pro- 
vide the necessary means to carry it out." 

With the exception of the interruption caused by the 
almost unprecedented storm of Dec. 23, 1873, and the 
sleet storm of Jan. 7th aud 8th last, which did a great 
deal of temporary damage, but was repaired with all 
possible energy and despatch, the wires have worked 
during the past year with great regularity, and the 
lines are now throughout in good condition. 

He closes his report with a graceful and deserved 
compliment to his assistants and the employes and 
agents of the company generally, who have, he says, 
" worked heartily and faithfully for the interests of the 
company." 

A comparative statement of the number of messages 
sent during the years 1872 and 1873, showing au in- 
crease'of 88,579 messages for the latter over the pre- 
vious year. 

The report of the directors was accepted after some 
remarks of satisfaction on the part of gentlemen pre 
sent at its favorable character, and a motion "That 
the directors are hereby authorized to make a fresh is- 
sue of stock, not to exceed $100,000, as asked for in the 
report," was carried. 

Mr. Mackenzie, in commenting upon the report, said 
there was one difficulty which he could not see his way 
out of. By contracts between the railroads and the 
Montreal Telegraph Company the latter had secured ex- 
clusive right of way over their routes. It was very de- 
sirable and almost essential that this company should, 
especially when its lines were extended into the Mari- 
time Provinces, have a similar privilege. He thought 
that the law of the country ought to give an equal right 
to all to coustmct telegraph lines along the railways. 
"The honorable Treasurer of Ontario has at present an 
amendment to the railways act before the local Legis- 
lature, and he thought the directorate of this company 
ought to consult with the Government upon this sub- 
ject. He had no doubt but that, in justice to the coun- 
try, they would give the amendment asked for. The 
importance of the subject would justify their approach- 
ing all the provincial governments with a similar re- 
quest. He did not see why one telegraph company 
should be given a monopoly over another, or why 
two foreign express companies should be privileged 
to the virtual exclusion of companies which we could 
organize ourselves." 

After further debate a motion was made by Mr. Mac- 
kenzie, which was carried, " That the Board of Direc- 
tors be requested to enter into immediate communica 
tion with the Dominion and Provincial Governments 
for the purpose of securing to all telegraph companies 
in the Dominion the privilege of laying down their 
lines upon the different railways in the Dominion, and 
having the same facilities afforded to all on equal 
terms." 

Sheriff Waddell moved a hearty vote of thanks to 
the President, Vicc-Prosidont/jTroasurer aud Directors, 
for their attention to the interests of the company dur- 
ing the past year, which was carried. 

The following gentlemen were then declared unani- 
mously elected Directors for the present year: 

Hon. John McMurrich, John J.Mackenzie, James 
Michie, Hon. Wm. Cay ley, Lewis Moffat, Hon. T. N . 
Gibbs, S. Neelon, A. Copp and Wm. F. McMaster. 

At a subsequent meeting of the now Board tho Hon. 
John McMurrich was reelected President; Mr. John J. 
Mackenzie;, of Hamilton, Vice-President; Mr. James 
Michie, Treasurer, and Messrs. M. II. Cault, of Mon- 
treal, and A. Joseph, of Quebec, were reappointed local 
Directors for the Province of Quebec. 



An Electric BELLE.— ■ A female telegraph operator. 

The best investment for a telegrapher. — Two dollars 
for a subscription to The Telegrapher, 



4S 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[February 21, UU. 



NT, ) 



Enlargement and Improvement of the Indianapo- 
lis, lid., Western Union Telegraph 
Office. 

The Western Union Company in this city has re- 
cently doubled the space occupied by the operating, 
receiving and Superintendent's departments. The ope- 
rators liave been removed to the fourth floor, corner 
room, which is well lighted, cheerful, and a great im- 
provement over the old one. Callaud batteries have 
taken the place of the Grove, some eight hundred cells 
beiug in use, divided into eight main batteries. Inclu- 
ding duplex and repeaters there are about forty instru- 
ments in the operating room, the whole in charge of 
Mr. Winder, as chief, with Messrs Langhorne and Ful- 
ler as assistants. 

The work of changing operating and battery rooms 
was done under the supervision of Mr. C. H. Summers, 
the company's electrician. 

Mr. Whitney remains as right bower to Sup't Wal- 
lick, assisted "by Hinsdale and Moulton, both big 
trumps. 

Manager Butler is happy with Thomas at the books; 
Barnard as receiver, and Swain in charge of delivery. 
Brisbane bosses batteries, and John Hasty keeps the 
spurs of his climbers bright, and things straight gener- 
ally. 

♦ »» 

Bold Forgery of an Official Announcement of In- 
crease of Western Union Stock. 

On Tuesday afternoon an intense excitement was 
created on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange by 
the announcement of a proposed increase of the stock of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company to $50,000,000 
—an addition to the existing capital of $9,000,000. 

A few minutes before one o'clock P. M. a messenger 
boy — one of the regular uniformed messengers of the 
Stock Exchange — handed a letter to Yice-President 
Wheelock, who read out the announcement that the 
Western Union Telegraph Company had increased their 
capital stock from $41,073,410 to $50,000,000. 

The letter was as follows : 

"Western Union Telegraph Company 
New York, Feb. 17, 1874 
Moses H. Wheelock, Esq., Yice-President New York 
Stock Exchange : 

As required by the rules of the New York Stock 
Exchange, you are hereby iufprmed that the Directors 
of this company, after mature deliberation, and acting, 
as they believe, in accordance with the ultimate best 
interests of the company, have decided to increase the 
capital stock of this company from $41,073,410 to 
$50,000,000. The proceeds of the sale of the additional 
stock, together with the proceeds of the sale of $7,295,235 
of stock lately in the possession of the company, will 
be expended in the repairs .and improvement of the 
present lines, and the extension of the lines of the-com- 
pany to nearly all the post-offices in the United States, 
and for the establishment of a line to California and 
Mexico. The Directors beg to state that while the es- 
tablishment of new lines may delay for a little the ex- 
pected dividends to stockholders, they express a confi- 
dent hope that by thus taking possession of the whole 
field, and effectually thwarting the establishment of a 
rival company, the ultimate value of the stock will be 
in no way diminished, and that reasonable dividends 
can be paid at no distant day. Yours truly, 

William Orton, President.'^ 

This letter was written on the official paper of the 
Western Union Company. Directly after the reading 
of the above by Mr. Wheelock a second letter was 
handed to him, purporting to be from the President of 
the Toledo, Wabash and Western Eailway Company, 
also announcing an increase of $10,000,000 of the com- 
mon stock of that company. This letter, like the first, 
was written on the official paper of the company. 

The reading of these letters at once created intense 
excitement, and there was a tremendous pressure to sell 
stocks, especially of the two companies affected. 

Two or three brokers, who were not carried away by 
the excitement, carefully examined the letters and at 
once pronounced them forgeries. The officers of the 
Exchange sent letters to the officers of the two com- 
panies, and soon obtained the following from President 
Orton, of the Western Union Company : 

" New York, Feb. 17, 1874. 
H. G. Chapman, Esq., President New York Stock Ex- 
change : 

I have just learned an announcement has been made 
in the Stock Exchange that the Directors of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company have recently voted to in- 
crease the capital stock to $50,000,000. This announce- 
ment has no foundation in fact. No meeting of the Direc- 
tors has been held for several months, nor has the matter 
of the increase of the capital stock ot the company been 
a subject of consideration at any meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee. Eespectfully, 

William Orton, President." 

Information was also received from the transfer clerk 



of the T. W. and W. Eailway that the notification of 
increase of capital of that company was a forgery, and 
the excitement subsided. 

In the meantime the shares of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company had declined nearly four per cent. ; 
and, doubtless, the rascals who had concocted and car- 
ried out the nefarious scheme had managed to profit 
largely by the successful trick. 

The Governing Committee of the Stock Exchange 
have taken measures to ferret out the villains, who, 
if detected, will be made to suffer for their villany. 

President Orton stated to a reporter who interviewed 
him on the subject, after the excitement was over, 
that the company had no intention of increasing its 
capital stock, and has not had. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

The total number of messages forwarded from postal 
telegraph stations in the United Kingdom for the week 
ended Jan. 24, 1874, was 324,600 — aii increase of 35,- 
427, on the corresponding week last year. 

The West India and Panama Telegraph Company 
have been informed by Sir Samuel Canning, their engi- 
neer, of the successful completion by the Telegraph 
Construction and Maintenance Company of their dupli- 
cate cable between Jamaica and Porto Eico, and they 
state that the interruption on the Cuba Company's 
cable — the repair of which they hope to see announced 
in a few days — is now the only obstacle to direct tele- 
graphic communication with the West Indies. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company announce that their 
direct cable between Cornwall and Lisbon is inter- 
rupted, but messages are sent as usual by the duplicate 
line between these points via Yigo. 

The final meetiug of the United Kingdom Telegraph 
Company, for the purpose of receiving the report of the 
liquidator, and for winding up the company — its lines 
having been taken over by the Government as part of 
the postal telegraph system— was held at the Loudon 
Tavern on the 26th of January. The balance sheet 
was unanimously accepted, and the chairman declared 
the company completely wound up. 



Married. 

Cadmus— Babkalow.— On Tuesday, Feb. 17, 1874, at the resi- 
dence of the bride's father, by Rev. H. M. Taylor, Charles A. 
Cadmus, of the Western Union Telegraph Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 
to Annie E. Barkalow, daughter of Moses V. and Cornelia Bark- 
alow, of Franklin, Warren Co., Ohio. 

Faling— Barrett. — In the City of Portland, Oregon, at the 
residence of the officiating clergyman. Rev. T. L. Elliott, Mr. 
Charles D. Faling, Supt. Telegraph O. & C. R. R., to Miss 
Xaripa J. Barrett, all of Portland. 

It is evident that the bridegroom's name is indication of his 
disposition; but who can blame him for having a "failing," as 
regards the young lady who has favored him with a " permanent 
connection," and, no doubt, he will be able to "barrett" not only 
with equanimity but pleasure. A solitary life must certainly, | 
under the circumstances, have proved an unpardonable "failing " 
on hispart had he continued it longer. May they live long and 
happily together with few "crosses" and no "breaks" to 
trouble them. 

Jones — Dike. — Mr. F. W. Jones, Asst. Chief Operator Wtstern 
Union office, Chicago, 111., to Miss Eliza Bike, operator in the 
tame office. 

Stewart — Scwalka. — At Yreka, California, January 28, 1874, 
Mr. Granville Q. Stewart, of Yreka office, of the Western 
Union Telegraph Co., to Miss Jennie .Scwalka, all of Yerka. 

The matrimonial epidemic among the Pacific CoaBt telegraph- 
ers seems to be spreading. They evidently realize the fact 
that ''It is not meet that man should live alone," and it is cer- 
tainly an act of kindness on the part of the lady to take compas- 
sion on the loneliness of a telegraphic artist. May others find 
sufficient provocation to do likewise for such members of the 
fraternity as have not yet been provided with matrimonial en- 
gagements. 

» • ♦ 

Died. 

Harris. — At St. Paul, Minnesota, January 31, 1874, in the 24th 
year of his age, of hemorrhage of the lungs, George Harris, 
formerly Manager of the Pacific and Atlantio Telegraph Com- 
pany in that city. 

I thought my cup of grief was full, 

But now it's running o'er, 

Though I know my children are not dead, 

But only gone before. 

Three little ones were called away 
To join the angel throng, 
And now another loved one's gone 
To swell the heavenly song. 

My noble son gave up his life 
To God, the just and right ; 
He did not live to suffer long- 
God took him from our sight. 

His Mother. 



Obituary. 

GEORGE HARRIS. 



The deceased, although but in his twenty-fourth year when he 
died, had been engaged in the telegraph business from his 
nfteeuth year. He was a very excellent young man and a good 
telegrapher. His last telegraphic position was as manager of 
the St. Paul, Minn., office of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph 
Company, which position he filled acceptably and creditably to 
himself and the company. 

In April of last year he was taken with hemorrhage of the 
lungs, for which he could not succeed in obtaining relief, and in 



September last, by advice of physicians, went to California, but 
not apparently receiving, much benefit, he returned to St. Paul. 
After his return for a time he seemed somewhat better, but 
gradually declined, and for the last four weeks of his lite was 
unable to leave his bed. 

He was beloved by those who were associated with him in 
business, and, so far as is known, he haa no enemies. His funeral 
took place Feb. 3, from St. Mary's Church, St. Paul, and an affect- 
ing funeral sermon was preached by Rev. L. Cailet. 

The deceased always felt much interested in The Telegrapher, 
urging it upon the attention and support of those with whom he 
was associated, and occasionally contributing to its columns. 

He leaves a kind and affectionate mother, who is greatly afflicted 
at his death, and who has the sympathy of all who knew her 
son. 



[From the N. Y. Tribune and N. Y. Evening Post.] 

THE AMERICAN AUTOMATIC TELE- 
• GRAPH. 

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. 

The AMERICAN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH SYSTEM is now 
being operated in the United States of America by the AUTO- 
MATIC TELEGRAPH CuMPANY, under an agreement with a 
temporary license granted by me, the undersigned (on record in 
United States Patent Office, Liber J, 17, page 73, Oct. 21, 1873). 
I am ready to assign (conditionally) to responsible parties one 
undivided fourth part of all the foreign patents (including Cana- 
da) now in my possession. GEORGE LITTLE, C. E., Assignee 
and Sole Patentee, Bloomfield ave., Passaic City, N. J., U. S. of 
America. 



T 



O TELEGRAPH SUPERINTENDENTS. 



If you are fitting up SHORT LINES or CITY WIRES get 

PARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO.'S 

CHAMPION SETS. 

They are complete, full sized, work beautifully, don't get out 
of order, are substantial, pretty, and very low priced. Send for 



TTTILLIAM BKOWNLEE, 

Dealer in 

CEDAE TELEGEAPH POLES, 

DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 



NEW GALVANIC BATTERY 




Durability, Efficiency, and Economy of Expense 
and Labor at last Secured. 

THE EAGLES METALLIC BATTEKY. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR. 

The undersigned having secured the exclusive Agency for the 
manufacture and sale of the 

EAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, 

now offer them to the public as the best Battery for Telegraphic 
and other purposes yet devised. 

The Battery cell is made of lead, and forms one pole of the 
battery. Sulphate of copper is the only chemical required to be 
used. 

These Batteries have been fully tested during the last year, 
although only recently offered for sale, and have proved to be 
superior to any other as regards efficiency, economy and dura- 
bility. When once set up they require no attention for from 
four to six months, according to the service required of them. 

Two sizes are made at present, but others will soon be ready. 

No. 1 is a large square cell, and can be used as a local or for 
rnnning motors. Price, $2.25. 

On Locals, one No. 1 cell is used in place of two Daniells, at a 
saving of nearly one half in cost. 

No. 2 is a round cell, designed for main line. Price, $2. 

Descriptive circulars and price list forwarded upon applica 
tion to 

P. L. POPE & CO., 



(P. O. Box 6603.) 



3JS TESET 8TKEET, If. T. 



February 21, 1814.1 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



in 



Anson Stageii, 

Pres't. 



Elibha Gray, 
Sup't. 



Enos M. Barton, 

Sec'y. 



w 



ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY. • 



ANIC PRICES. 



No. 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO. 



TELEGRAPH, WIEES, INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, TOOLS, 

INSULATORS and SUPPLIES. 



Annunciators for Hotels, Steamships, Dwellings. 

Our Annunciators are the most extensively used and the most 
perfect in operation. 

Automatic Mercury Fire Alarm, for Hotels, Steam- 
ships, Public Buildings. 

Five years' operation have proved its merits. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMBLET'S ELECTEO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCKS AND 
TIME DIALS. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



TELEaEAPH WIRE , Numbers 8, 9 and 12. 

UNION BRAND, AND 

UNION BRAND EXTRA QUALITY. 

JOHNSON'S WIRE. 

BROOKS' INSULATORS, GLASS INSULA- 
TORS and BRACKETS. 

KENOSHA INSULATORS, all kinds. 

PAINTED CROSS-ARMS. 

KENOSHA CROSS-ARMS. 

OFFICE WIRE, many varieties. 

COPPER & COMPOUND KERITE WIRE. 

CABLES TO ORDER. 

Western Electric M'f'g Co., Chicago. 



L 



ECLANCHE BATTERIES. 



CAUTION. 

All persons are hereby notified that Batteries Infringing upon 
our patents are in the market (some of them nearly worthless). 
The public are warned against using any such infringements, as 
in every case the guilty parties will be prosecuted to the fullest 
extent of the law. The genuine Batteries have the words "Pile 
Leclanch6 " on the carbons and glasses. Any information con- 
cerning such infringements will be thankfully received by the 
Lkolanche Battery Co., 

.Yo. 10 West fSl/i Street. 
New York, October 11, 1873. 



N" 



T I C E . 



In order to save Express Charges to numerous customers for 
our "Champion Learner's and Short Line Apparatus," 
we are about establishing various agencies throughout the coun- 
try, a list of which will soon be published. Those wisiing Agen- 
cies will please send at once for circulars and terms. 

PARTRICK BUNNELL & CO., 

38 South 4th St., 

Philadelphia. 



OUR PROFITS HAVING BEEN AMPLE, 

WE OFFER OUR CUSTOMERS THE 

BENEFITS OF THE RECENT 

REDUCTION 

IN THE COST OF LABOR AND MATERIAL. 



ALL WHO NEED 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS and SUPPLIES, 

IN 

Large or Small Quantities, 

WILL CONSULT THEIR OWN INTERESTS BY PURCHASING 
FROM US. 

SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST. 

A Special Discount given on Cash Purchases. 

GEO. H BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD A VENUE, 

Chicago, 111. 



Gr E0 ' 



H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, III. 



TELEGRAPHIC, ELECTRICAL AND MEDICAL APPARATUS. 



for KIDDER'S MEDICAL APPARATUS. 

" AMERICAN COMPOUND WIRE. 

" JONES' LOCK SWITCH BOARD. 

" ROBERTSON'S BATTERY INSULATOR. 

" HILL'S GRAVITY BATTERY. 

" HILL'S HOTEL ANNUNCIATOR and FIRE ALARM. 

" MCPHERSON'S IRON BATTERY. 

" THE AMATEUR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

" PUTT'S MECHANICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

" KENOSHA INSULATOR. 

" BROOKS' 

" UNITED STATES ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COM- 
PANY. 

" POPE'S RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

" EAGLES METALLIC (RESERVOIR) BATTERY. 

" SELDEN'S PRINTERS. 

" ANDERS' MAGNETIC DIAL AND PRINTER. 



IMPROVED AMATEUR SOUNDERS. 

AN EXTRA FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 

No. 3 $4 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING SOUNDER, 
No. 4 3 00 

A WELL FINISHED AND GOOD WORKING KEY, No. 4. 4 00 



Instruments, Line Material, Office Wire, Magnet Wire, Tools, 

Battery Material, Chemicals, Hooks, Stationery, 

constantly on hand. 

*S~ Special attention glv«n to REPAIRS and MODEL WORK. 



w. 



HOCHHAUSEN, 

Manufacturer of 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

132 WILLIAM STREET (rear), 

Between Fulton and John Streets, NEW YORK. 




m 

One half of actual size 

ELECTRIC BELL, 

PATENT SELF-CLOSING KET, 

(Patented October 27, 1873.) 
Price.... $5 50 

The lever of this Key swings in two directions, vertical and 
horizontal. A spring presses it against an adjustable contaot 
point on right hand side. 

In sending with this key take hold of the knob and move to the 
left, this opens the circuit, then operate in the ordinary way. As 
soon as released the lever swings back against side contact point, 
closing the circuit. 

The Platina Points are large and hard. 
Self-Starting Register, of new design, protected by a Glass 

Shade, complete, with Paper Reel and Weight. . $60 00 

Sounders, from 4 50 to $6 50 

Electric Bells, single stroke or continuous ringing, 

from 5 00 to 8 00 

Relays, from 9 50 to 16 00 

Improved Switch Keys, from 3 00 to 5 50 

Send for Illustrated Circulars. 

The above may also be had of F. L. POPE & CO., 38 Vesey street. 
New York, at Manufacturer's prices. 

JEROME REDDING & CO., 
30 HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

MANUFACTURERS and dealers in 



A FULL ASSORTMENT OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND. 

Telegraph, Magnet, Office, and other Insulated Wires, 

INSULATORS, BRACKETS. 

PATENT ELECTRIC WATCH-CLOCK 

THE BEST IN USE. 

ELECTRIC BELLS AND ANNUNCIATORS, 

At prices which defy competition. 

Batteries of Every Description, 

At unusually low prices. 

Battery Carbons all sizes, with Improved Connection 
Medical Batteries from $4 Upwards. 



ALL GOO'DS 7VAllliAJV2L>D JFISSX CLASS, 
AND PRICES EXTREMELY LOW. 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 



1 ^00 0PEI 

±,0\J\J GERS 



OPERATORS AND MANA- 
WANTED 



TO BUY, SELL, RECOMMEND AND ACT AS AGENTS FOR 

PARTRICK BUNNELL & CO'S 

CHAMPION LEARNER'S AND SHORT LINE APPARATUS. 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS, 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



[February 21, 1814. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 





GAME WELL & CO.. Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

3. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent. 

L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 

J R. DO WELL, Richmond. Va„ 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 

A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 

L. M. MONBOE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San Francisco, Cal„ 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

XEIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL. OFFICE, 

OB 

UPON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

Is now In operation in the following Cities, to which reference is 
made for evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



aiDany, N. ¥., 
Alleghany, Fa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Oonn. 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111. , 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Charlestown, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich., 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N.J. , 
Fall River, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 



New York City, 
New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Quebec, L. 0., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va.; 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. John, N. B.,i 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Mass. 



tne Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First — Tne Automatic Repeater, through whicli the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constan t per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second — Tile Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— The Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 
bells. 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 
the Are Is instantaneously communicated to the members of 
each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OP 

FIRfi ALARM TELEGRAPH 

IN THE WORLD. 

It la a sufficient vindication of the claims which are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub. 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAME WELL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
Important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure Improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 

MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprletois have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

tne introduction and operation of which involves so lit! le ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

PIRE ALAEM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 

EFFICIENCY, 

BELIABILITT and 

ECONOMY 

of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT! 

The amount of property which has been saved from di struc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the general adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, thbee 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
their efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 



Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
gcaphfr, upos application m afcove. 



c 



CHARLES T. CHESTER, 



104 Centre Street, 

NEW YORK, 



TELEGRAPH ENGINEER, 



AND MANUFACTURER OF 



INSTRUMENTS 



BATTERIES, 



AND EVEBI DESCRIPTION OF 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 



BUNNELL'S PATENT REPEATER. 

These instruments are now made in two different styles, at 
$120 and $135 a set, consisting of two Relays, two Sounders, two 
Keys and Governor. 

JONES' LOCK SWITCH-BOARD, 

a most compact and reliable Switch, forming a clean spring- 
locked connection between any number of wires, occupying for 
each different connection only one square inch of space, and 
though made of the largest size, not subject to the warp and 
contraction of wood-work. 



EXCLUSIVE AGENTS OF 
A. G. DAY'S 

KERITE, 

OB 

COMPOUND RUBBER COVERED WIRE 



SUBTERRANEAN & jERIAL WIRES, 

OF THE 

HIGHEST INSULATION. 

Wearenow prepared tofurnish, after an experience of threa 
years, an Insulated Wire which can be burled in the earth or 
exposed to rain and sun, or to the vapor of acids, without injury . 
Professor Silliman, who has exposed it to the most destructive 
agencies, flnds that it remains uninjured in an atmosphere of 
ozone, which would destroy gutta-percha in a few hours. It 
exceeds glass or any other known substance as a non-conductor 

We have made special arrangements to furnish this article 
for office purposes at a reduced rate. 

ALSO, TO FURNISH 

IRON CLAD CABLES, 

of the usual size, with KERITE COVER, believing that it will 
exceed, in insulation for submarine purposes, ANYTHING 
HITHERTO MANUFACTURED. 

We shall be happy to furnish estimates for any amount and 
size of cable, which will be found to compete with any other 
construction, both in quality and price. 

We manufacture the Genuine ELEOTROPOION BATTERY, 
with Patent Platina Connection, Introduced by us eight years 
since; also, THE ALPHABETICAL OR DIAL TELEGRAPH, 
now extensively used in this and other cities for private lines, 
beingeasily and quiokly learned by*any one. 

We offer for sale, among other novelties,* SOUNDEK that 
will w >rk practically with a single Daniell cell, a BATTERY 
that does not require to be taken down but once a year, and the 
very beat MAIN LINE SOUNDERS made 

Our CATALOGUE, embracing a large amount of new matter 
and description, is now ready for distribution. 



February 21, 1874.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



B 



ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH 
INSULATOR WORKS, 

AND AGENCY FOB THE «*T.Tf. 07 



Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVERY VARIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 

DAVID BEOOKS, Proprietor, 
22 South Twenty-first Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

THE PATENT INSULATOR. 

This invention was first introduced into public use in 1867, 
and now hundreds, without exception, attest its perfection as an 
Insulator ; also its economy over all others when maintenance is 
included with first cost. 

Siemens' Universal Galvanometer, 

This instrument for the measurement of ordinary resistances, 
such as relays, sounders, conductivity of line wires, insulation, 
&C stands unrivalled for simplicity and correctness, and is now 
the standard instrument for such work in all countries. 

Siemens' Submarine Cables, Cables for Eiver Cross- 
ings of every description, 

AND 

Insulated Conductors. 

These Cables are unexcelled in construction, and can be pro- 
cured in less time and at about half the cost of those manufac- 
tured in this country. 



A 



SUPERIOR PRINTING TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENT, 

FOE PKIVATE AND SHOET LINES. 

Awarded the First Premium,— Silver Medal— over all others at 
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1872. 

The undersigned is now prepared to supply the improved and 
■uperior 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

manufactured under the patent of Mr. J. E. SELDEN. This 
instrument has already been extensively introduced, and has 
given complete satisfaction to all who have adopted and used it. 
It is simple, reliable, and riot liable to get out of order; can be 
operated by any person of ordinary intelligence after a few 
minutes' instruction and practice. 

PEIYATE LINES 

constructed in the best and most substantial manner, and on 
reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line constructors, 
telegraph employes, &c, for the introduction of the Printer. 

For further particulars, terms, &c, apply to 

MEEOHANTS' MANUFACTURING AND 
00NSTEU0TI0N CO. 

S. J. BURRELL, Superintendent, 

No. 50 BROAD STREET (Rooms 12, 13 & 14). 
P. O. BOS 496. 



A 



MERICAN COMPOUND 

TELEGRAPH LINE WIRE. 
COPPER FOE, CONDUCTIVITY. 

STEEL FOR STRENGTH. 



The superiority of the COMPOUND TELEGRAPH WIRE, 
compared with iron, consists in its lightness, reducing by over 
fifty per cent, the number of poles and insulators required. 

Relative tensile strength, homogeneity and elasticity de- 
creasing the liability to breakage from cold weather, sleet, etc. 

Conductivity— insuring great improvement in the working of 
lines in any condition of the weather. 

And in its dubabilit?, which greatly exceeds that of the best 
galvanized iron wire. 

Altogether resulting in a very great reduction in the cost of 
maintaining and working telegraph lines, while, at the same 
time. Insuring 

EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY. 

Address — 

American Compound Telegraph Wire Co., 
ALANSON GARY. Treasurer, 

No. 234 West 20th St., 

New York. 



M 



AGNETO-ELECTRIC ALPHABETICAL 
DIAL TELEGRAPH, 



FOB 



RAILROADS, GAS COMPANIES AND PRIVATE BUSI- 
NESS PURPOSES GENERALLY. 

MANCFACTXTBED BY 

HOWARD WATCH AND CLOCK CO. 

E. HOWARD, k CO., Proprietors. 
J. HAMBLET, Electrician. 

OFFICES: 

114 TREMONT STREET, BOSTON, Mass. 

IS MAIDEN LANE, NEW TORE.. 

This Instrument is offered to the public as the oldest, most 
rapid, and best. 

MAGNETO-DIAL TELEGRAPH 

In the world. 

It has already been extensively adopted and has invariably 
given entire satisfaction. 
They also manufacture and put up 

THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WATCH CLOCK, 
which is the best watchman's time recorder in the world. Also, 

ELECTRIC AND CONTROLLED CLOCKS 
of aU kinds, 

CHRONOGRAPHS, 

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS, 

REGULATORS, 

ETC., ETC., 
OF ALL KINDS. 
All instruments and work from this establishment guaranteed 
to give satisfaction. 



F 



L. POPE & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 



TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 

OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
38 VESEY STREET, New York. 

NEW AND SUPERIOR PATTERNS OF 

STANDARD TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

These Instruments are elegantly designed, thoroughly well 
finished, and scientifically adapted to the service required. 

RELAYS, 

SOUNDERS, 

REGISTERS and KEYS. 

In addition to these we furnish all descriptions of telk- 

GBAPH MATERIAL AND StTPPLIES, Such as 

BATTERIES, INSULATED WIRES, CHEMICALS 
of all kinds, etc., etc. 

THE NONPAREIL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT, 

For Amateurs and Learners, and Short Lines. 
GLOBE LTQ-HCTIsrilSrO- .A-ZRHESTIERS- 

Bradley's Apparatus for Electrical Measurement. 

We are the Agents for the sale of this new and very superior 
Instrument for Electrical Measurement. 

BRADLEY'S BOX RELAYS AND SOUNDERS. 

BRADLEY'S NAKED WIRE HELICES AND MAGNET 

SPOOLS, 

of any desired size and resistance, will be supplied upon orders 
through us, at the Manufacturer's lowest prices. 
Also, Agents for 

HOCHHAUSEN'S SUPERIOR LOW PRICED TELEGRAPH 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Sole Agents for the 

EAGLES METALLIC GALVANIC BATTERY. 

The demand for this Battery is rapidly increasing, and it is 
conceded by all who have used it to be the Best and moit Econo- 
mical Battery, for telegraphic and other purposes, offered to the 
public. 

Descriptive Circulars and Price List forwarded upon applica- 
tion to 

F. L. POPE & CO., 

(P. O. Box 6503.) 38 VESEY STREET. 



E 



EAD THIS. 

THE CHAMPION SETS 



MAKE THE BEST POSSIBLE OUTFITS FOR 

CITY WIRES OF TELEGRAPH COS. 
Full sized, perfect in all respects, and more substantial than 
any telegraph instruments ever before introduced. 

PARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

PHIL A DELPHI A. 



R 



EDUCTION OF PPJCES. 



POPULAR, EXCELLENT and ECONOMICAL, 

THE NONPAREIL 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS, 

For AMATEURS, STUDENTS and SHOET LINES. 

Since the introduction of this Pioneer Low Priced Telegraph In- 
strument, a little over a year and a half since, nearly 2,000 
have been sold, and they are constantly more and more sought 
after. 

Hereafter we shall furnish them at the following popular rates : 
Single Instruments, including Three Cells Battery, Con- 
necting Wire, Chemicals and Instruction Book $6 50 

Two sets of Instruments, etc 12 00 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



[P. O. Box 5503.] 



F. L. POPE & CO., 

38 Vesey Street, N. Y. 



T3ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

38 SOUTH 4th ST., PHIL A., 

MANTJFACTUREES OP 

UNRIVALLED MORSE INSTRUMENTS 

CHAMPION LEARNERS' APPARATUS, 

with Complete Instructions, Battery, Wire, etc., 

Q-I^JSTT SOTXnNnDDSIE^S, 

Trrvproved Cvurved. JCeySj 

Batteries and Supplies of every Description. 



Send for Circulars and Catalogue. 



D 



R. L. BRADLEY, 

No. 9 Exchange Place, 



JERSEY CITY, N. J., 



Has discontinued the manufacture of Telegraph Instruments, and 
is now giving special attention to the manufacture of his 

UNIVERSAL APPARATUS 



Electric Measurement, 

Which consists of his Tangent Galvanometer and his Rheostat as 
they have been recently improved, which, taken separately or 
unitedly, constitute a means for correctly determining the resist- 
ance of all conductors of electricity ; the resistance and insulation 
of telegraph wires; the location of' breaks, faults, crosses, &e. ; the 
relative specific resistance and conductivity of metals and other 
conducting materials; the resistance and electro-motive force of 
batteries; as well as the strength, quantity, or electro-chemical 
equivalence of all currents of dinamic electricity. The capacities 
of all other instruments for similar purposes combined, are em- 
braced in this one. Its uieasureuion,ts are accurate and absolute, 
and are easily read off in British Association units, without the 
necessity of arithmetical calculations. It packs in a case seven 
inches deep and nine inches diameter, with a handled strap, con- 
venient for safe transportation. < 'onsidering the wide range of its 
capacity, it is cheaper than any other Instruments. 

Price of apparatus complete, is $200 to $280, according to style, 
&c. Price, Tangent Galvanometers, $lo to $60. 

Descriptive pamphlets may be had on application. 



He also pays special attention to the manufacture of his 

CELEBRATED HELICES 

WHICH ARE OF 

Naked Copper Wire, 

So wound that the convolutions arc separated from each other by 
a regular and uniform space of the 1-S00th of an inch, the layers 
separated by thin paper. In Helices of silk insulated wire, the 
space occupied by the Bilk is the L-160th to the l-800th of an inch; 
therefore a spool made of a given length and size of naked wire 
will be smaller and will contain many more convolutions around 
the core than one of silk Insulated wire, and will make a propor- 
tionally stronger magnet, while the resistance will be the some. 

These Helices are now offered for the use of manufacturers of 
Telegraphic and Electrical apparatus, and orders will be filled 
promptly and on reasonable terms. 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 21, 1814 



^HE PERFECT BATTERY. 

CLEANLINESS. CONSTANCY. ECONOMY. 




LOOKWOOD BATTERY, 

PATENTED APRIL 8, 1873, 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., Sole Agents, 

No. 8 Dey Street, N. Y. 

This Battery has been in extended practical use for more than 
a year, and is now acknowledged by leading Electricians 
in this country and Europe to be 

PAK SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS 

for telegraphic purposes, or closed circuits of any description. 

This Battery received the FIRST PREMIUM over 

all competitors for 

POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONOMY 

at the 
CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION OF 1873. 

The size shown in the cut (No. 2), when charged with 5 lbs. 
sulphate of copper per cell, is capable of working two or three 
main circuits of average length for MORE THAN ONE YEAR, 
without any attention whatever. The copper and zino solu- 
tions are perfectly separated, and there is • 

NO LOCAL ACTION, 

and the circuit is absolutely untfobm at all times. It is 

equally well adapted for a 

LOCAL BATTERY, 

or for any purpose requiring a uniform, powerful and constant 

current. 

The number 2 size (price $2.50) is now ready for sale. Other 
styles are in preparation, and will soon be put on the market. 
Send for Circular. 

L.G. TILLOTSON & CO. 

8 Dey Street, New York, 
S O I_i IE AG-ENTS. 



New York, Oct., 1873. 
We have appointed Messrs. L. G. Tillotson & Co. Sole Agents 
for the sale of the Lockwood Battery. 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. 

W. H. Sawyeb, Secretary. 



RTON'S PATENT PENCIL HOLDER. 




TTTATTS & COMPANY, 

47 Holliday Street, 

BALTIMORE, 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

AND 

Material of Every Description, 

RELAYS, KEYS, SOUNDERS, COMBINATION SETS, k, &c. 

Nickel Plated Goods a Specialty. 

A VERY SUPERIOR MAIN IINE SOUNDER, 

ENTIRELY NEW. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PATENT CIRCUIT-CLOSER KEY, 

Which has met with marked success. 



"SATE THE PIECES." 

This HOLDER is intended to save the last half or third of the 
pencil. 

DIRECTIONS. 

When the pencil becomes too short to write with comfortably, 
•have down the butt and screw into the Holder. The screw 
makes its own thread, and will hold the pencil perfectly firm. 

Price, 25 cents each. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price. 

Price per doz., $1.80. 
Agents for towns, and counties wanted. 

"GEO. H. BLISS & CO., Gen'l Agents, 

41 Third ave., Chicago, HI. 




^HE BEST TELEGRAPH MATERIAL 
IN THE WORLD 



IS StTPELIED BY 



Price, $5.50 plain ; $7 nickel plated. 

The following is from a competent judge, written after some 
weeks' trial. 

145 Broadway, New York, \ 
Sept. 22d, 1873. J 

Dear Sir— Your circuit-closing attachment on the key, left 
with me for trial, is pronounced by all who have used it a de- 
cided and much needed improvement on the common form. 
Respectfully, 

A. S. Brown, Manager. 




The Best Form of Battery Insulator Offered. 

SIMPLE AND PERFECT. 

Made of porcelain, handsome in appearanco. Occcupies little 
more space than the cell it supports. Each cell of battery com- 
pletely isolated. Leakage is reduced to the minimum by the 
use of it. 

General Superintendent Van Horn, Southern Division W. U. 
Tel. Co., writes of it : _ ■ • 

" We have now in use a thousand or fifteen hundred of your 
battery insulators, and expect to order many more before the 
close of the year. ... 

We have never used any battery insulator that equals it in 
any respect. In fact, it appears to be as near perfect as we can 
reasonably expect, in a contrivance for that purpose." 

Price 40 Cents. 

We offer a very excellent article of Galvanized Wire, superior 
to any in the market. The linemen on Baltimore and Ohio R. 
R. say they have never seen its equal for toughness and 
flexibility. 

Special attention given to building. 

Estimates given for any amount of material for telegraph 
construction or extension. 

SWITCHES, GALVANOMETERS, RESISTANCE COILS, 
&c, to order. 

Designs for Switch Boards for special service furnished. 

SCOTT'S PATENT ANNUNCIATOR, 
for Hotels and Residences. 



CO. 



L. G. TILLOTSON 

8 Dey Street, New York, 

MAtt UTAGTUKEES, DEALERS and IMPORTERS 

or 

TELEGRAPH MACHINERY, SUPPLIES 

AND 

Line Equipment of every Description 

MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS 

always on hand, for the equipment of lines of any length, at a 

moment's notice. 

We furnish first class goods at low prices. Liberal arrange- 
ments made with Superintendents, Contractors and Builders 
of Telegraph Lines. 

Registers $38 00 to 345 00 

Spring Registers 47 50 

Relays 14 00 to 18 00 

Sounders 3 60 to 7 50 

Keys 4 00to 6 50 

Main Line Sounders 14 00 to 18 00 

Combination Sets 20 00 to 30 00 

Galvanometers, $7 00 upward. 

RATTLER TELEGRAPH SOUNDER, $3.50. 

POCKET INSTRUMENTS, Nickel Plated, in Hard Rubber 

Cases, Ijx2x5 inches. 

CUT-OUTS, Plug, Peg or Button, with or without Lightning 

Arresters, for one, two or more Lines. 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCHES, the best and cheapest in 

use, with or without Lightning Arresters. 

PEG or PIN, CULGAN, REPEATING, GROUND, LOCAL, 

BATTERY and SINGLE BUTTON SWITCHES. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS for any number of wires, of most 

approved patterns. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETS, 

PERMANENT MAGNETS, 

APPARATUS for STUDENTS and 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHERS 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

PRINTING and DIAL 

INSTRUMENTS, 
ELECTRICAL ANNUNCIATORS, 

FIRE and BURGLAR ALARMS, 

ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
RHUMKORFF CODLS, from M to 10 inch spark. 
GEISSLER'S TUBES, from $1.00 upwards 
ELECTRICAL CALL AND ALARM BELLS in great variety, 

from $6.50 upward. 
INSTRUMENTS furnished Nickel Plated at 20 per cent, ad- 
vance on List Price. 
OFFICE WIRES, from 80c. to $1.25 per pound. 
GUTTA-PERCHA COVERED WIRES, all sizes. 
BISHOP'S NEW COMPOUND COVERED WIRE, for running 

into oflices, 4c. per foot. 
MAGNET WffiES, in Silk and Cotton, at Factory prices. 
INSULATED WIRES for special purposes made to order. 
SrLK COVERED SWITCH CORD, one, two or more conductors. 
PATENT MESSAGE HOOKS, the best ever introduced, prices 

65c. and 75c. per dozen. 
MANIFOLD PAPER and AGATE STYLUS at bottom prices. 

CABLES AND SUBMARINE WIRES. 
REPAIRERS' TOOLS AND TOOL BAGS. 

GLASS AND RUBBER WINDOW TUBES. 

KENOSHA AND OTHER INSULATORS 

OF EVERY DESCBIPTION. 

BRACKETS. PINS AND SPIKES. 

HILL, CALLAUD, GROVE, BUNSEN, CARBON, DANIELL8, 

LECLANCHE, NITRO-CHROMIO AND OTHER 

STYLES OF BATTERY IN ANY 

QUANTITIES. 

PURE CHEMICAOS AT LOWEST' PRICES. 

SULPHATE OF COPPER A SPECIALTY, AND PRICES VERY 

LOW. 

CARBON PLATES made to order for Grenil, Smee, Stohrer and 

other Batteries. 

OFFICE FIXTURES AND BATTERY UTENSILS OF EVERY 
DESCRIPTION. 

"Smith's Manual of Telegraphy," .... 30 cents. 

ALL STANDARD WORKS on ELECTRICITY & TELEGRAPHY. 
SOLE AGENTS FOR 

RICHARD JOHNSON & NEPHEW'S celebrated LINE WIRE. 

Catalogue and JPrice List furnished upon application. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DET STREET, NEW YORK. 




Vol X. 



JVew York, Saturday, February 28, 187 4- 



Whole JVo, 898 



jpHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS., 
MANUFACTURER OF 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

OP ALL KINDS, 
GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

JONES' PATENT LOCK SWITCH, 

PATENT ELECTRIC G-ONG-S, 

PRINTING TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

ALSO, ON HAND AND FOR SALE, 

D. W. PUTT & CO.'S Mechanical Telegraph 
Instruments, 

4t Pope's Modem Practice of the Electric Telegraph," 

AND A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 

TELEGRAPH MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES, 

AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 



/CANADIAN TELEGRAPH SUPPLY 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

AH kinds of Electrical Instruments 



TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES. 

All orders promptly filled, at reasonable prices. 
Office and Factory, 

352 and 354 KING STREET, WEST, 

Toronto, Ont. 

1TT7ESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

FURNISH ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

Copper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EVERY VARIETY OF INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company, 

CHICAGO. 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

***' (ESTABLISHED 1856,) 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

has for sale the various kinds of Office and Magnet Wires, In- 
cluding Cotton Covered, Silk, Gutta Percha, Painted, Fancy, and 

DAY'S KERITE COVERED WIRE. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS, 
MANUFACTURER OF 

REED & PHILLIPS' 

PATENT INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRES, 

(PATENTED, NOVEMBER 18TH, 1873.1 

Lock bos 169. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Having recently enlarged our factory, we are now prepared 
to furnish at short notice any style and quantity of 

BRAIDED LINEN or COTTON COVERED WIRE, 

saturated and finished with our Patent Compound, which makes 
the most durable, handsome and best insulated Braided Wire 
manufactured. 

PAINTED, PARAFFINE or SHELLAC WIRES 

also furnished at the lowest prices. Iron or Compound Wires 
covered upon reasonable terms. 

We are also prepared to furnish a new style of 

ELECTRIC CORDAGE, 

which has been pronounced by all superior to any in the market. 

The American District and Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
panies have been supplied from my works with a greater 
portion of the office wire used by them. 

$3f Sample Card and Price List furnished when requested. 
Phillips' Wire can be had of 

L. G. Tillotson & Co ." New York. 

Charles T. Chester " 

F. L. Pope & Co " 

W. HOCKHAUSEN " 

Patrick Bunnell & Co Philadelphia, 

Watts & Co Baltimore. 

Charles Williams, Jr Boston. 

Thomas Hall " 

George H. Bliss & Co Chicago. 

General Superintendent's Office, 

American District Telegraph Co., 

New York, January 1st, 1874. 
E. F. Phillips, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Your office wire is a decided success. We have 
used it exclusively for two years and consider it the best in the 
market. 

Respectfully, 

W. H. SAWYER, Geu'l Sup't. 



TOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 

535 & 537 CHINA STREET, 

(Bolow Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 



OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c. 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Cotton and Silk Covered, &c. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &c. 

We warrant all Wire to bo of the highest conductivity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which compares with the tests of the 
highest authority in this country. 



npiLLOTSON'S EXCELSIOR 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT. 




(PATENTED JUNE 24, 1873.! 

This apparatus is constructed of the best material, and finished 
equal to any Telegraph Instrument, and is warranted first class 
in every particular. It is especially adapted to the require- 
ments of Students of Telegraphy and the operation of Private 
Telegraph Lines. 

Price, complete, Sounder and Key mounted on finely 
finished Mahogany Base, with one Cell Hill's Patent 
Battery, with Chemicals, eight feet of Office Wire, and 

" Smith's Manual of Telegraphy" ". $7 50 

Two sets H 50 

Price of Sounder and Key only 6 50 

" " " with Cut Out and Lightning 
Arrester attached 7 50 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

No. 8 1>ET STREET, N. Y. 



ARTRICK, BUNNELL & CO., 

OF PHILADELPHIA, 



are daily in receipt of letters from everywhere, pronouncing 
their 

CHAMPION SETS 

to be just what they are named, 

"CHAMPIONS OVER ALL COMPETITORS," 

and really worth six to one, as serviceable and pretty instru- 
ments, more than anything of the kind yet introduced. 



AGENCIES WANTED. 



CALLAUD BATTERIES 
KEPT ON HAND. AND ORDERS FILLED BY 

W. MITCHELL M°ALLISTER, 

728 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia, 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., 

109 Court Street, Boston, 

AND BY THE 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING 00., 

AGENTS FOR THE UNITED STATES. 
220 East Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 



WALLACE & SONS, 
MANUFACTURE! 



URERS of 

BRASS. COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Mho, BRASS, COPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 

in the Roll aud Sheet. 

Wo mako the manufacture of Electric Wire a specialty — 
especially the finer sizes of Copper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the conductivity of 
the same in every instauco to bo superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chamber Street, (V. Y. 

MANUFACTORY, 

Aiisonin. Conn. 



11 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[February 28, 1814, 



A LEXANDEK L. HAYES, 

Late Assistant Examiner of Electrical and Telegraphic Apparatus, 
U. S. Patent Office), 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

Ho. 17 PEMBERTON SQUARE, 

{Room 12,) 

BOSTON, MASS. 



s 



ECURITY MESSAGE H0OK. 




PATENT APPLIED FOB. 

The damage from the loss of a single message will equip a line 
many times with our new Hoot, which gives great security. 

Price 30 cents each. 

" per dozen $3.00. 

Liberal terms to the trade. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 Third Avenue, Chicago, 111., 

General Agents. 



s 



ECOND-HAND RELAYS. 



A large lot of well polished and good working Eelays for sale 
very cheap ; also, several sets of 

hi'ces b e p e a t e\b s , 

in perfect order, at a nominal price. 

CEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

41 THIRD AVE., Chicago, 111. 

TJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

"*-*' STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 

17, 19, 21, 23 EOSE STKEET, near FRANKFORT, 

NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND COMMERCIAL FEIMTrJG, 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 
rpHOS. CHALMERS' SONS, 

"*- MANUFACTTJBEBS OF 

ELECTRIC ANNUNCIATORS, 

FOB 

HOTELS, DWELLINGS, STEAMSHIPS, YACHTS, 
etc., etc., 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS, 
BELLS, BATTERIES, WIRE, etc., 

BURGLAR ALARMS, FIRE ALARMS, 
79 YARICK STREET, NEW YORK. 

A HAND-BOOK OF PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHY. 

By R. S. CULLEY, 
ENGINEER TO THE 

ELECTRIC AND INTERNATIONAL 
TELEGEAPH COMPANY. 

Published with the sanction ot the Chairman and Directors of 
the Electric and International Telegraph Company, and adopted 
by the Department of Telegraphs for India. 

FOURTH EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

vol. 8vo, cloth $5 00. 

Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 
My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
eighty pages, 8vo, sent to any address on receipt of ten cents. ' 

D, VAN N0STRAND, Publisher, I 

23 MURRA Y STREET, N Y. 



rpHE AMATEUR'S 

TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

(Patented April 16th, 1872.) 




This is a bona fide Telegraph Instrument, with a full sized 
Trunnion Lever Key, with Friction Circuit Closer and a Pony 
Sounder, both on same base. 

The Battery used is Hill's Patent Gravity Battery, the most 
constant and economical in use. 

With each Instrument is furnished 

ONE CUP OF BATTERY, 

TWO YARDS OFFICE WIRE, 

ONE PACKAGE BLUE VITRIOL, 

ONE PACKAGE SULPHATE ZINC, 
and a "Manual of the Telegraph," for the instruction of be- 
ginners. This is a sufficient outfit for the student. 

In operating a short line there will only be required, in 
addition to the alove, more cups of battery, according to the 
lenglh of line. 

:<§>: 

COMPLETE OUTFIT, WITH BATTERY, CHEMICALS 

AND MANUAL, 

Seven Dollars. 

Sounder and Key only 6 00 

" " with Cut-out and Lightning Arrester. .. 7 00 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO., 

SOLE AGENTS, 

41 THIRD AVENUE, 

Chicago, HI. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



rpHE BISHOP GUTTA PERCH A WORKS > 

422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. Y. 




OHAFFNER'S 

TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 

TO TELEGRAPHISTS. 

I am now revising my " TELEGEAPH MANUAL," and desire 
to make the work complete in its description of the present 
state of 

TELECRAPHIC SCIENCE AND ART. 

There are some Si& Hundred and Twenty-five Dlustra- 
tions in the Edition of 1859, and the present coming Edition will 
contain at least One Thousand, descriptive of the latest 
improvements. 

At present it is my design to iesue two Volumes, containing 
about 600 pages each, separating the Historical from the Ope- 
rative. 

I will thank any one for information suitable for such a work. 

Would like drawings and description of apparatuses. 

Respectfully, 

TAL, P. SHAFFNEE, 

78 and 80 Broadway^ 

NEW YORK. 



M 



ODERN PRACTICE OF THE ELEC- 
TRIC TELEGRAPH. 



A EAND-BOOK 

FOB 

ELECTRICIANS AND OPERATORS. 

By FRANK L. POPE. 

Seventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the addition of 40 
pages of New Matter on 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, 

AND 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED. 
6vo, cloth, • - - - - $8.00 

4Sf Copies sent free by mail on receipt of price. 

My new Catalogue of American and Foreign Scientific Books 
sent per mail, on receipt of ten cents. 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher, 

23 MURRAY STREET and 27 WARREN STREET. I 



S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURER 
OT 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOOD 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 



Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED" 

WIRES OF EVERY VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires for SUBMARINE' 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (thoroughly tested) for underground- 

and out-door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Percha covered, with any number of conductor* 

required. 
Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 
CIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE CABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USE, 

AND FOB 

BLASTING AND MINING PTTBPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 
As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductors 
Gutta Percha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practical Electricians and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and' 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with in- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-five 
years' general use. 

The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at Ms Factory any style of Cable. Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can impoet Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. '■ 

OBDEBS BECEIVED AT THE FACTOBY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 BEY STREET, NEW YORK, 
have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works In New. 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0MLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia,. 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and all goods manu. 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are for- 
sale in New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO.. 363 Broadway,. 
D. H0DGMAN &C0..27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St, 

Address all Communications to 

S. BISHOP, 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. . 



February 28, 1814] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



49 



The Telegraphed 

A. Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. ASHLEY, 



PUBLISHER. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1874. 



VOL. X. 



WHOLE No. 398. 



The Page Patent Litigation .—Answer of the 
Manhattan Quotation Company. 

The answer of the Manhattan Quotation Company 
to the complaint in the suit of Priscilla Page, admin- 
istratrix, etc., and the "Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, which suit is intended to establish the validity 
of the patent granted to Charles Grafton Page, and 
subsequently, on the 10th day of October, 1872, reissued 
to the plaintiffs, has been filed in the Circuit Court of 
the United States for the Southern District of Few 
York. 

The answer admits the Act of Congress under which 
the application of Prof. Page was made, and letters 
patent issued to him, but denies that said Act of Con- 
gress conferred any power, right or authority for issuing 
said letters patent as issued, or that Page then, or at 
auy time thereafter, was the original and first inventor 
of certain new and useful improvements in induction 
coil apparatus and circuit breakers, being the same 
inventions and improvements which are more particu- 
larly described in the said letters patent, or that the same 
had not been known or in use by others at or prior to 
the time of the alleged invention claimed to have been 
made by Prof. Page, or that, by virtue of granting and 
issuing of said letters patent, he became the owner of 
said inventions and improvements, or thereby acquired 
any exclusive rights and privileges, as set forth in the 
complaint; but that, on the contrary, said inventions 
and improvements were previously known and de- 
scribed by divers fand sundry persons in one or more 
printed publications and otherwise, and were described, 
claimed and held by divers and sundry persons under 
letters patent in this country and Great Britain ; for 
which reasons defendant claims and insists that the 
said letters patent, so issued to said Charles Grafton 
Page, are null and void, and ask the Court to so de- 
clare. 

It is also denied that, by the assignment and transfer 
by the said Priscilla W. Page, the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company became the owner of or acquired any 
interest in the improvements and inventions enume- 
rated and described in said letters patent. 

The defendant avers and will insist that the surren- 
der of the original patent was not for any sufficient, 
lawful or valid cause, nor for the reason that the speci- 
fication attached to said first mentioned letters patent, 
and forming a part thereof, was so defective or insuffi- 
cient as to render them inoperative and invalid under 
the statute in such case made and provided; and that 
the Commissioner of Patents had no lawful jurisdiction 
or authority to receive and cancel- the said letters 
patent under said alleged surrender, nor to issue the 
said reissued letters patent, dated October 10, 1871 ; 
and denies that the said amended specification 
attached to the said reissued letters patent is more full, 
clear or exact than the original specification attached 
to the original letters patent. And the defendant 
states and insists that the said amended specification, 
and the said reissued letters patent, include and con- 
tain more and other matters than the improvements and 
inventions described in the said surrendered letters 
patent, or in the application of Prof. Page, on file in 
the Patent Office on the 19th day of March, 1868, and 
include new and additional matters, improvements and 
inventions, more and other than was ever claimed to 
have been discovered or invented by the said Page, and 
that said amendments of said specifications were not 
confined to remedying the defects therein, within the 
meaning of the statute in such case made and provided, 
and do not conform with the description, specification 
or claims of inventions, improvements or discovery 
(claimed to have been made) tff said Page, in his appli- 
cation on file in the United States Patent, Office, March 
19, 1868, and in the said letters patent of April 14, 1868^ 
but, on the contrary, important parts of said descrip- 
tions and specifications, original, of said Charles Graf- 
ton Page, are amended, modified and suppressed, with 
intent to mislead, deceive and defraud, against the 
statute in such cases made and provided; for which 
good and sufficient reasons the defendant claims that 
said reissued letters patent are and were null and void, 
ab initio. 

The answer specifically denies the statements of the 
complaint of the plaintiffs of wrongful infringement of 
the letters patent, and loss and damage arising there- 
from. 



And for a further and separate answer and defence 
to the allegations of the complainants, the defendant 
answers, upon information and belief, " That prior to the 
19th day of March, 1868, and on the 2d day of Febru- 
ary, 1854, the said Charles Grafton Page, claiming to 
have invented aud made discovery of certain new and 
useful improvements in induction coil apparatus and 
in circuit breakers, made application for letters patent 
therefor lo the Commissioners of Patents of the United 
States Patent Office, and which said application was 
on February 23d, 1854, rejected and denied by said 
Commissioner of Patents, upon the ground and for the 
reason assigned, that said Charles Grafton Page was 
then an Examiner of Patents in the United Slates 
Patent Office, and thereby, under the law in such cases 
made and provided, disqualified of the right of receiv- 
ing and obtaining letters patent of the United States ; 
and also for the further reason assigned, that said 
Charles Grafton Page, prior to holding such position 
of Examiner of Patents, and a long time subsequent 
to the time of the alleged inventions for which he 
then made application for letters patent, had made 
known and abandoned to public use the said improve- 
ments and inventions by him claimed to have been made 
as aforesaid, and that the same or material parts 
thereof had been long known and in public use with 
his knowledge and consent." 

The defendant further states that, under the Act of 
Congress by which the disabilities of said Page were 
removed, and he was authorized to apply for and re- 
ceived a patent, he did renew his said application " for 
letters patent for his induction apparatus and circuit 
breakers," then "on file in the United States Patent 
Office, including therewith bis circuit breakers described 
by him prior to said application," and that subsequently 
said Page amended his application, then on file as afore- 
said, as follows : 

Washington, March 31, 1868. 
Hon. A. M. Stout, 

Acting Commissioner of Patents. . 
Sir — I desire to amend my application for letters 
patent for the induction coil and circuit breakers, 
now pending before the Patent Office, as follows, to 
wit: 

Before claim first insert as follows : 
The spark arresting circuit breakers may all be used 
as independent or detached circuit breakers, and these, 
and likewise all the independent electro-magnetic in- 
struments hitherto used aud described by me, for 
opening and closing circuit with other instruments, 
may be operated by batteries separate and independent 
from the batteries which operate the circuits to be 
opened and closed. In fact, this often becomes neces- 
sary when the circuits of the two instruments are 
largely disproportioned in length. 

In using, for instance, the electro-magnetic circuit 
breaker called Barlow's spur-wheel, described by me in 
Yolume XXXI, page 141 of Silliman's Journal, it 
becomes much more efficient when used with a sepa