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TELEPHONE 
CONSTRUCTION 

METHODS AND COST 



.p 



BY 



CLARENCE MAYER 

, Chicago TeUphon* Co, 




NET BOOK -This Book is sup- 
plied to the trade on terms which do 
not admit of discount. 

THE MYRON C. CL4RK PUBLISHING CO. 



instructing 



APPENDIX B 

Miscellaneous Cost Data on Pole Line and Under- 
ground Conduit Construction. 

(Pampii^d by ih. Editors of Engi^ing Contracting) 



CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 

THE MYRON C. CLARK PUBLISHING CO. 

1Q08 



TELEPHONE 
CONSTRUCTION 



Copyright 1908 

By 

Th8 Myron C. Clark Publishing OOw 



PREFACE, 

With the ever increasing knowledge of the value and essen- 
tiality of construction costs, the need of actual cost records and a 
practical and flexible system for their collection is generally rec- 
c^nized. This is especially true of telephone construction. 
Here, more than in almost any other class of construction, the 
need of cost records is felt, because there are generally two or 
more ways of accomplishing the same end. 

The purpose of this book is to supply this need. In its pages 
is explained the most approved method of doing telephone work, 
giving costs of such work in all its details, and presenting a 
simple, comprehensive and practical system for collecting, analyz- 
ing and recording telephone costs. Forms for recoiding costs of 

!^ every division of work are given, and the methods of computing, 

proportioning and prorating costs of all kinds are explained. I 

r- know of no work which treats of any considerable part of the 

field covered by this book. Nearly all the matter is believed to 

- be entirely new. 

^ Beginning with a presentation of the advantages of cost 

records to telephone companies and to contractors for telephone 
work, I have endeavored to describe in successive chapters, the 
methods of construction for pole-line, aerial and underground 

•. cable, cable splicing, removing old line and renewal, underground 

conduit, and miscellaneous structures. Costs are given for every 
part of the work ; the costs being averaged from actual cost 
records kept on mai\y hundreds of jobs by specially trained men 
using a imiform system and working under my supervision. 

The costs on conduit work are averaged from actual costs 

kept on over 250,000 feet of underground main conduit and lat- 

••• 
m 



190849 



iv PREFACE. 

erals and on over 550 vaults. The costs on other classes of 
work are hased on similarly extensive records. Detailed costs of 
installing one of the larp^est multiple duct conduits ever huilt, 
comprising 824,862 duct feet of conduit and 318 vaults, are given 
in Chapter VI. 

Special attention has been paid to the .classification and item- 
izing of the costs so that they may be used by telephone compa- 
nies and contractors for telephone work in the preparation ana 
the checking of estimates. 

In the chapter on pole-line construction, the cost tables not 
only give costs separately for each size and style of cross arm, 
wire, anchor and for each size of pole set in each kind of soil, 
but, in addition, tl^e tables give costs of each detail of construc- 
tion work, such as — in the case of poles — cost of teaming, cost 
of framing, cost of excavating, cost of setting and cost of super- 
vision. The cost tables given in Chapter V give separately, costs 
for each number of duct, each kind of soil and each method of 
constructing main conduit and laterals, and for each size and 
m.ethod of constructing vaults; and, in addition, the tables give 
costs of each detail of work, such as teaming, excavating, mixing 
concrete, laying tile, filling in. and supervision. Costs of almost 
every kind of splice are given in Chapter III. This classifica- 
tion and analysis is carried throughout every division of tele- 
[)hone construction. 

The costs are actual construction costs — not contract prices — 
and have been used for making hundreds of estimates. As the 
rates of wages, construction, and methods and system of collect- 
ing and computing the costs are given for each division of tele- 
phone construction, the costs m.av be easily revised for use bv 
telephone companies and contractors for telephone work, even 
where rates of wages or construction methods diflfer from those 
shown in these pages. 

In Chapter \''III is explained the method of using the costs in 
making estimates, taking an actual job of large size and working 
out the estimate in detail, with clear explanations of all consid- 
erations to be kept in mind. 

I gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Herbert 
J. Dietmeyer, who read the manuscript of Chapter III, and made 



PREFACE. V 

many good suggestions, and to others, to whom I ani indebted 
for photographs. 

Clarenxe Mayer. 
Chicago, 111., July 30, 1908. 

THE APPENDICES. 
The appendices supplement the first part of the book. That 
by Mr. Slippy, the well known telephone cost expert, gives costs 
of both labor and materials for telephone construction. They 
were collected by Mr. Slippy, acting as cost expert, from the 
actual records of various telephone companies. In Appendix B 
the publishers have assembled articles on methods and cost of 
pole-line and underground conduit work from various sources. 
As giving methods and costs of individual jobs these data will be 
found distinctly helpful. 

The Publishers, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. METHODS AND COST OP POLE LINE CONSTRUCTION 1 
Construction Details: Poles — Cross Arms — Anchors. Stubs and 
Anchor Guys— Push Pole Bracea— Wire Stringing. Collecting: and 
Reporting Cost Data: Method of Collecting— Method of Reporting. 
Method of Figuring Line Construction Cost: Method of Proportion- 
ing Lost Time — Method of Proportioning Supervision and E:xpen8e — 
Method of Proportioning Teaming. Construction Cost Data: Wages — 
Classifications of Soils — Construction Costs. 

CHAPTER n. METHODS AND COST OF CABLE CONSTRUCTION... 26 
Construction Details: Sizes of Cable — Erecting Messenger — ^Aerial 
Cable — Equipping Cable or Terminal Poles — Wiring Cable or Ter- 
minal Poles— Roddlng Underground Cable — Main Underground Cable 
— Lateral Underground Cable — Forms for Reporting Costs — Cable 4 
Work Costs. 

CHAPTER in. METHODS AND COST OF CABLE SPLICING 36 

Classification and Definitions: Straight Splices — Bridge Splices — 
Straight -Bridge Splices. Construction Details: Materials — Instruc- 
tions for Making Splices — Straight Splices — Bridge Splices — Straight- 
Bridge Splices — Changing Count — Aerial Cuts — Splicing Toll Cable 
Into Cable Terminating in a Loading Coil on Pot— -Potheads for 
Terminating Aerial Cables — Potheads for Connecting Main Cable to 
Distributing Rack Cables— Connectinar Cables to Distributing Rack — 
General Order of Making Splices. Forms for Reporting Costs: e:x- 
planation — Method of Figuring Cable Splicing Costs. Cable Splicing 
Cos^ Data. 

CHAPTER IV. METHODS AND COST OP REMOVINO OLD LINE 

AND OF RECONSTRUCTION 63 

Removing Old Line — Removing Poles — Removing Cross-Arms — 
Removing Wire — Removing Messenger — Removing Aerial Cable — Re- 
moving Underground Cable. Reconstruction: Method of Recording 
Costs — ^Method of Figuring the Cost of Removing Materials and of 
Reconstruction — Construction Cost Data. 

CHAPTER V. METHODS AND COST OF CONSTRUCTING UNDER- 
GROUND CONDUIT 73 

Hints on Cost Keeping Methods — Organization of Working Force. 
Construction Details. Divisions of Underground Conduit Construc- 
tion — McRoy Tile Conduit — Pump Log Conduit— Sewer Tile Lateral 
Conduit — Vault or Manhole Construction. Forms for Recording Costs 
of Conduit Work — Methods of Keeping Undei ground Conduit Con- 
struction Costs — Method of Figuring Underground Conduit Costs — 
Underground Conduit Cost Data. 
CHAPTER VI. DETAILED COST OF CONSTRUCTING 824.862 DUCT 
FEET OF UNDERGROUND CONDUIT AND 318 VAULTS IN 

ONE JOB 129 

Method of Collecting and Recording Costs — Comparison of Fore- 
men — Vault Construction — Construction Cost Data. 

CHAPTER Vn. MISCELLANEOUS COSTS AND SPECIAL DATA.... 146 

Line Construction. Special Examples — Pulling Cable— Materials 

and Labor Costs — Erecting Terminals— Fusing — Wheelbarrow Loads — 

Shrinkage of Mortar and Concrete — Comparative Cost of Hand and 

Machine Mixing — Materials and Labor In Concrete Vaults — Com- 

garison of Different Duct Sections— Brick Vault Data — Costs Per 
file of Farm Line— Costs Per Mile of Toll Line — Costs of Aerial 
Cable — Costs of Underground Cable. 

CHAPTER Vm. THE PRACTICE OF ESTIMATING - 164 

Discussion of Various Systems for Collecting Cost Data — Esti- 
mating Labor- -Estimating Material— Estimating Material to be Re- 
moved—Summary—Forms for Estimating. 

APPENDIX A. COST OF MATERIALS AND LABOR IN CON- 
STRUCTING TELEPHONE LINE 190 

Messenger Construction — Aerial Cable Construction — Underground 
Cable Construction — Cable Splicing Underground— Terminals — Cable 
Boxes — Exchange Poles Class A — E^Kchange Poles Class B — Exchange 
Poles Class C— Toll Line Poles Class E— Farmer Line Poles— Wood 
Anchor Logs— Wire Stringing— Underground Conduit Specifications- 
Conduit Costs— Manholes. 

vu 



viii TAIII.Ii OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX B. MISCBLLANEOCS COST DATA ON POLE LINE 

AND UNDEKGROUND CONDUIT C0N:3TRUCTI0N Z: 

CoBi of Two Short Telephone Lines— Labor Coat 0( High Power 
TransmlBBlon Line— Cost uf EicavuHng Trolley Pole Holes by Ma- 
chine—Method nnil Cost or Digging BOO Trolley Pole HoIbb- Elec- 
trical Condull Construrllon at Memphla, Tenn.— Cost of ElectHcal 
Conduits. Baltlmnre. Md.— Cost of Conslructlng Conduits In Sub- 
way Retaining Walls. 

LIST OF TABLES. 
Table I. — Showing Standard Poles For Varlotis Kinds of Line Conetnic- 

tion 

Table II.— Showing Depths to Which Poles of Various Lengths are Set 

In Earth and Rock 

Table m. — Showing Dimensions of Anchor Logs Required for Different 

Table IV.— Showing Proportioned Cost of Lost Time. Supervision and 

Table V. — Showing I^portloned Cost of Lost Time. Teaming Supervision 






erage Cost of SO-fl. Street or Alley Poles. - 

_. . )8l ol 3i-ft. Street or Alley Poles 

Table vm.— Cost of <0-ft. Street or AIIct Poles 



Table tX.— Cost of 4S-(t. Street or Alley Poles 

Table X.— Cost of 20-rt. Farm Line Poles 

Table XL— Cost of J5-fl. Farm Line Poles 

Table XII.— Cost Of SO ft. Farm Line Poles 

Table XIII.— Cost of 30-ft. Toll Line Poles 

Table XIV.— Cost of 35-tt. Toll Line Poles 

Table XV.— Coat of <0-fl. Toll Line Poles 

Table XVI.— Cost of 15-ft, Toll Line Poles 

Table XVII.— Cost of SeJf-Sustainlng Poles With Grounfl Braces.. 

Table XVIU.— Cost of 30-ft, Self-sustaining Poles Set In Conerfte in 

Table XIX.— Coal of 35-ft. Self -Sustaining Poles Set In Concrete ZO 

Table XX.— Cost of Cross-ArniB i1 

Table XXI —Cost of Anchors Including Anchor Guys 21 

Table XXII.— Cost of Log Anchors IncUallnB. Anchor Guys 21 

Table XXIII.— Cost of Guying and Setting ^tubs 21 

Table XXIV.— Cost of Guying and Sttting Self -Sustaining Stubs In Con- 

■TPta 21 

jj'lng and Setting Self -Sustaining Stubs With 

22 

Table XXVI.— Cost of Push Pole Btnces 22 

Table XXVII.— Cost of Wire Stringing ,..._ 22 

Table XXVIII.— Cost of Line Ordei-s 22 

Table XXIX.— Cost of Drops 23 

Table XXX.— Cost of Erecting Messenger 34 

Table XXXI.— Cost of Aerial Cnble Per Foot 35 

Table XXXII.— Cost of Equipping Protected Cable Poles 3S 

Table XXXin.— Cost of Eguipping rnprotecled Cable Poles 35 

Table XXXIV.— Cost of Wiring Cable Poles S5 

Table XXXV.— Cost of Rodding 35 

Table XXXVI.-' ' '•"•■ -■ '-~^'- '*■-'-■ "- 



..'Aerial. Tagged.. 

_. nderground 

Table XLI.— Cost of fnderground. Not Tagged.. 



Table XLIV.— Cost < 
Table XLV.— Cost ol 
Table XLVI.— Cost i 
Table XI, VI I, —Cost 
Table XLVIIL— Coat 



rnderground. Tagged. 
—■-l. Not Taggeff... 



Table U, ,. „ =. 

Table Lll.— Cont of Stralght-Bridi 



_'oEt"of"strar8ht-Brrjge Splices. Undergroun'S. Tnggedf.*"!"! 80 

Table LIV.— Coat of Straight -Bridge Splices, Underground, Onto Work- 
ing Cnble 61 

Table LV.— Cost of Changing Counts, Aerial, Not Tagged 61 

Table L\X-Cofit of Changing Counts. AerlaX on Working Cable. Tagged 61 

Table LVII.— Coat of Changing Counts, T"nderground. Not Tagged 61 

Table LVIII.— Cost of Changing Counts, Underground, on Workfng Cnble. 

Tagged 6X 



TABLE OF COXTENTS. ix 

Table LIX.— Cost of AerUl Cuta 62 

Table L.X.— Cost of Underground Cuts 62 

Table L.XI.— Cost of Potheads 62 

Table LXII.—Cost of Connecting Cable to Distributing Rack 62 

Table LXIIL-^Cost of Removing Street and Alley Poles 69 

Table LXl V.—Cost of Removing Farm Line Poles 69 

Table LXV. — Cost of Removing Toll Line Poles 69 

Table LXVI. — Cost of Removing Street and Alley Line Poles 69 

Table LXVIL—Ccst of Removing Farm Line Poles 69 

Table LXVIII.— Cost of Removing Toll Line Poles 70 

Table LXIX. — Cost of Removing Cross-Arms 70 

Table LXX.— Cost of Removing Wire 70 

Table LXXI. — Cost of Removing Messenger 70 

Table LXXIL— Cost of Removing Aerial Cable (Junked) 70 

Table LXXIII.— Cost of Removing Aerial Cable (Recovered) 70 

Table LXXIV.—Cost of Removing Underground Cable (Junked) 70 

Table LXXV. — Cost of Removing Underground Cable (Recovered) 71 

Table LXXVl.--Co8t of Moving Street and Alley Poles 71 

Table LXXVII.— Cost of Moving Farm Line Poles 71 

Table LXXVIIL— Cost of Moving Toll Line Poles 72 

Table LXXIX.— Cost of ReplaoTng Cross- Arms 72 

Table LXXX.— Cost of Rewiring Cable Poles 72 

Table LXXXL— Average Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction in 

Cities 114 

Table LXXXn. — Average Cost of Pump Log Conduit Construction in 

Cities 114 

Table LXXXm. — Average Cost of Sewer Tile Lateral Construction in 

Cities 115 

Table LXXXrv.— Average Cost of Brick Vault Construction in Cities 115 

Table LXXXV. — ^Average Cost of Concrete Vault Construction in Cities. 115 

Table LXXXVL— Average Cost of 68 Concrete Vaults. Size 3 116 

Table LXXXVII.— Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 116 

Table LXXXVUL—Cost of Brick Vault Construction 117 

Table LXXXIX.— Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 118 

Table LXXXIXa.— Cost of Brick Vault Construction 119 

Table XC. — Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 120 

Table XCI.— Cost of Brick Vault Construction 122 

Table XCII.— Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 123 

Table XCIII.— Cost of Brick Vault Construction 124 

Table XCI V.—Cost of McRoy Tile Construction 125 

Table XCV.— Cost of Brick Vault Construction 126 

Table XCVI.— Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 127 

Table XCVIL—Cost of Brick Vault Construction 128 

Table XCVIIL—Cost of Toll Conduit 135 

Table XCIX.--Average Labor Cost of Nine-Duct Class A McRoy Tile 

Conduit Construction 136 

Table C — ^Average Labor Cost of Elight-Duct McRoy Tile Conduit Con- 
struction 136 

Table CL— Average Cost of Six-Duct Class A McRoy Tile Conduit Con- 
struction 136 

Table CII.— Average Cost of Six-Duct Class B McRoy Tile Conduit Con- 
struction 136 

Table CIII.— Average Cost of Four-Duct Class A McRoy Tile Conduit 

Construction 137 

Table CIV.— Average Cost of Four-Duct Class B McRoy Tile Conduit 

Construction 137 

Table CV. — Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vault Construction 137 

Table CVI. — Average Labor Costs of Concrete Vault Construction, Size 

No. 8 137 

Tal}le CVII. — ^Average Labor Costs of Concrete Vault Construction, Size 

No. 1 138 

Table CVIII. — Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction. Size 

No. 4 138 

Table CIX. — ^Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size 

No. 2 138 

Table CX. — Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size No. G 138 

Table CXI. — Labor Costs of Special Brick Vault Construction 138 

Table CXn. — Labor Costs of Special Brick Vault Construction 139 

Table CXIII. — Average Labor (josts of Class A Brick Vault Construction. 139 

Table CXrV.— Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction. Size No. 12 139 

Table CXV. — Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size 

No. 10 , 139 

Table CXVT.— Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction. Size No. 11 139 

Table CXVII.— Labor Costs of Duct and Vaults, McRoy Tile Conduit 

Construction 140 

Table CXVIII. — Average Labor Costs of Conduit Work Done by Fore- 
man A 140 

Table CXIX. — Average Labor Costs of Conduit Work Done by Fore- 
man B 140 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Table CXX. — Average Labor Costs of Conduit Work Done by Foreman C. 141 
Table CXXI — Average Labor Costs of Conduit Work Done by Foreman D.141 
Table CXXlI.--Average Labor Costs of Conduit Work Done by Fore 

man E 142 

Table CXXIII.— Average Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vaults Built 

by Foreman A . ^ 142 

Table CXXIV.— Average Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vaults Built 

by Foreman B 142 

Table CXXV. — Average Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vaults Built 

by Foreman F 143 

Table CxXVI.— Average Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vaults Built 

by Foreman E ^ 143 

Table CXXVn. — Average Labor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vaults Built 

by Foreman E 143 

Table CXXVIII.— Labor Costs Including Vaults, of Three-Duct Classes 

A and B McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 144 

Table CXXIX.— <:ost of Line Construction at Arlington Heights, Feb- 
ruary. 1907 147 

Table CXXX.— Cost of Line Construction, Wilmington District, Farm 

Line, April, 1907 148 

Table CXXXL— Cost of Pulling Underground Cable (Main) 148 

Table CXXXII. — Total and Average Labor Material Costs of Line Orders, 

Including Poles. Cross-Arms, Wire and Miscellaneous Material... 150 
Table CXXXIII, — Comparison of Costs to Erect Drop Wires on Basis of 

100- Ft. Drop Length and Four Drops on a Short Buck Arm with 

Capacfty for Five Drops Each Way^. 151 

Table CxXXrV. — Comparative Cost to Erect 15-Pair Terminal, Not 

Including Fusing or Pole Balcony 152 

Table CXXXV. — Cost of Fusing for Exchange Protection 152 

Table CXXXVL— Miscellaneous Data 153 

Table CXXXVII. — Comparative Cost of Mixing Concrete by Hand and by 

Machine 154 

Table CXXXVIII. — Quantities and Cost of Materials and Labor Required 

In Concrete Vault Construction 156 

Table CXXXIX.— Quantities and Cost of Material and Labor Required In 

Brick Vault Construction 157 

Table CXL. — Quantities and Cost of Material and Labor Required In 

McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 158 

Table CXLI.— Comparative Cost of a Mile of Farm Line on a Basis of 30 

Poles to a Mile 159 

Table CXLII. — Comparative Cost of a Mile of Toll Line on a Basis of 43 

Poles to a Mile 160 

Table CXLIII.— Comparative Labor and Material Cost to Erect 1.000 Feet 

Underground Cable 161 

Table CXLIV.— Comparative Labor and Material Cost to Erect 1.000 Feet 

Aerial Cable 162 

APPENDIX A. 

Table T.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper on Class "A** Pole Line 218 

Table II.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper on Class "B" Pole Line 218 

Table III.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper Class "C" Pole Line 218 

Table IV.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper on Class "D" or "E" Pole 

Line 219 

Table V.— Cost of One Mile No. 12 B. W. G. Steel Wire on Class "D" 

or "E" 219 

Table VI.— Showing Cost per Lineal Foot of McRoy Conduit In Place; 

No Manholes 225 

APPENDIX B. 

Table I. — ^Wages Paid Labor, Baltimore Conduit Work 274 

Table II. — Prices of Materials, Baltimore Conduit Work 275 

Table III.— Cost of All Materials Used, Baltimore Conduit Work 275 

Table IV. — Showing Details of General Construction Account Baltimore 

Conduit Work 276 

Table V. — Showing Unit Cost of Each Item of General Expense and 

Construction Baltimore Conduit Work 276 

Table VI. — Showing Percent. Cost of Labor at Unit Cost Baltimore Con- 
duit Work 276 

Table VII. — Number Cubic Yards of Earth Excavated E3ach Year Bal- 
timore Conduit Work 277 



Telephone Construction Methods 

and Cost. 



INTRODUCTION. 

A system of cost keeping and a careful record of construc- 
tion costs are almost indispensable in telephone construc- 
tion. It is possible by the proper use of such a record of costs 
to estimate the cost of all future proposed work with great ex- 
actness. The advantages of this are manifold. The officers of 
the company, first of all, have certain knowledge of the ex- 
penditure to be provided for. Second, appropriations for new 
work, while made with a fair margin for uncertainties, are 
never excessive ; this holds the cost down, for it is the teach- 
ing of experience, that when more money is allowed than is 
necessary for the work there is a tendency to spend more than 
is necessary. Again, in considering new ideas of construction, 
the adoption of new specifications or tools, or the advisability 
of building aerial or underground line, a decision based on 
correct cost data will not only eliminate many expensive ex- 
periments, but, other things being equal, meets the infallible 
test of expediency. It would be simple to multiply proofs of 
the advantages to the telephone company or to the construc- 
tor for telephone construction of possessing carefully analyzed 
cost data, but it seems needless to do so. 

This volume treats in a practical way of methods of cost 
keeping in telephone work, and gives records of the actual 
labor costs of such work on hundreds of jobs under all ordi- 
nary urban and rural conditions of telephone work. Costs 
of materials are not given, for the reason that these mate- 
rials are standard commodities whose quantities are given in 
specifications and whose prices are obtainable from the manu- 
facturers and dealers upon request. For convenience, the 
labor costs of telephone work will be divided under the fol- 



lowing heads: (i) Cost of Line Work; (2) Cost of Cable 
Work; (3) Cost of Cable Splicing; (4) Cost of Reconstruc- 
tion and of Removing Materials; (5) Cost of Underground 
Work, and (6) Special Cost Data. These actual records of 
cost will consist of both detail and average costs based on 
work done by numerous foremen, under various conditions 
and in both city and country. The system and the forms used 
in collecting and recording these costs are described in detail 
for each class of work. 



CHAPTER I. 
METHODS AND COST OF POLE LINE CON- 
STRUCTION. 
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. 
Line construction as here considered comprises aerial line 
construction only. The items composing aerial lines are: 
Poles, cross-arms, anchors, stubs and anchor guys, push pole 
braces, and wire stringing. 

Poles,— The kinds of poles recorded are: Poles for street 
and alley line; poles for farm line; poles for toll line; self-sus- 



All ita-nt tff f, 



II 
Ji 



"•S"'" J. 



■*! 
U 

ii 



t^l 



i of CuCtlng Roots and Qalns in Standard Potes. 



taining poles with ground brace, and self-sustaining poles 
set in concrete. The size and spacing of the poles 
for these several kinds of lines with co-ordinate data are 
given in Table I. Figure i shows the method of cutting roofs 
and gains in standard poles. Table II shows the depths to 
which poles of various lengths are set in earth and in rock. 
The method of setting self-sustaining poles with ground brace 
is shown by Fig, 2. 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Table I. — Showing Standard Poles for Various Kinds of 

Line Construction. 



Kind op Linb. 

Ultimate ca- 
pacity of line. 



Toll. 
40 to 60 wires 



1-60 pr. 10 ga. 



Alley. 
20 wires. 



Strbbt — (Note) 

20 wires. 

1-100 pr. 22 ga. or- ^ ^ 

2-50 pr. 22 ga. or 1-50 pr. 22 

_ 1-60 pr. 19 ga. ca- g a - cables 

cable on a Ibles on f inch on a No. 4 

in. messenger {messenger. messenger. 



Farm. 



Height of 
poles 



Diameter 
at top ... 



Distance 
between poles 



No. of 
Cross Arms. . 



30 ft. 

to 
40 ft. 



7 in. 

to 

Sin. 



130 ft. 



1 

to 
6 



30 ft. 

to 

45 ft. 



6 in. 
to 

7 in. 



00 ft. 

to 
120 ft 



30 ft. 

to 
45 ft. 



1 

to 
2 



6 in. 
to 

7 in. 



126 ft. 



18 wires. 



25 ft. 

to 
30 ft. 



6 in. 

to 
6 in. 



6 wires. 



20 ft. 



1 or 2 alley 

arms. 
1 buck arm 



160 ft. 



3 



5 in. 



150 ft. 



2 wires. 



20 ft. 



4 in. 



150 ft. 



1 arm 



S 
brackets 



-"":*^-"**- 



V 






Dirw c hon 
of ^tram 






Fig. 2.— Self-Bustalulng Pole with Ground Brace. 



Table TL— Showing Depths to Which Poles of Various Lengths are 

Set in Earth and Rock. 
Length of Pole. Depth In Ground. De,*lh In Rock. 



20 ft, 
25 ft. 
30 ft. 
35 ft. 
40 ft. 
45 ft. 
50 ft. 



ft. 
4% ft. 
5% ft 



3 
3 



ft. 
ft. 



6 
6 



ft. 
ft 



3% ft 



4 

4 



ft 
ft. 



6% ft 
7 ft. 



4% ft 
4% ft. 



Table III.— Showing Dimensions of Anchor Logs Required for 

Different Depths. 

Dimensions of Anchor Log. 



Depth 



of Excavation. 
6 ft 


Length. 
5 ft. 


5 ft 


5 ft. 


5 ft 


8 ft. 


4 ft 


5 ft. 


4 ft 


8 ft 


4 ft 


10 ft 



Diameter. 
10 Ins. 
16 Ins. 
16 ins. 
23 ins. 
14 ins. 
12 Ins. 



POLE LINE, 







ly 



Street Line In Cify 






I I I . I (^ I , I I UUUp 

Aryrfty 






^ 



J. 






{tfr 



rg 



L-L_l 



K 



.1 i . iLg 



r= 



Rwrn^r 



X 



Iblf and ^trf^ Linps - 
Suburbotm 



I.MJ 



1-J— ti 



Line 



) 



Tprminal Pole for 
Loncy, H^ovy Rovt^ 



Fig. 3. — Standard Cross-Arm Construction for Different Kinds of Lines. 



a r^o 










haM Anchor Loq. 

Fig. 4. — Lioa: Anchors. 

Cross-Arms. — Cross-arms are recorded as six-pin, ten-pin, 
ten -pin alley and six-pin terminal arms. Fig. 3 shows the 
standard constructions of cross arms for different kinds of 
lines. 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Anchors, Stubs and Anchor Guys. — ^The kinds of anchors 
and stubs recorded are : Stombaugh anchors, Miller anchors, 
rock anchors, log anchors, anchored stubs, self-sustaining 
stubs with ground braces, and self-sustaining stubs 
set in concrete. Anchor guys, lugs, and pole protec- 




i^pi^ww^w^l 



^*S*H17f 



Fig. 5.~Self-Su8taining Stub with Ground Braces. 

tors are included with the anchor and stub. Log anchors 
and stubs set in different kinds of soil are recorded separately. 
The specified construction requires that anchor guys shall 
be attached as shown by Figs. 4, 5 and 6. All excavation for 
anchor logs is required to be 6 ft. when practicable. If it is 









,.,^J..>.-..^l.AX.^/. \ ^■ >t V. •»-y\ ' /^.\sy<^JJ^.V > \\ -7C l 



tfS^ 






Fig. 6. — Anchored Stub. 



impracticable to obtain this depth on account of the nature of 
the soil, the excavation is required to be not less than 4 ft. 
deep. The size of the anchor log is required to be propor- 
tioned to the strain taken by it and also to correspond to 



POLE LINE. 5 

the depth of the excavation according to Table III. The log 
is required to be firmly anchored by covering it with planks, 
logs or rocks, as shown by Fig. 4. Each guy stub is required 
to be set in the ground to a depth of at least 6 ft. and to be 
anchored, underbraced or set in concrete as shown by Figs. 
5 and 6. 

Push Pole Braces. — Push pole braces are constructed as 
shown by Fig. 7. The butt is required to be set y/2 ft. in 
the ground and to be supported on plank, large stone or solid 
ledge. 

Wire Stringing. — ^The following kinds of line-work are re- 
corded under wire stringing: No. 12 galvanized steel for farm 
line, No. 12 galvanized steel for toll circuits, .104 bare cop- 
per for toll circuits, .104 bare copper for street and alley 




Bolt 



rtie fo¥ 



See f ton A^ 



2 Planff^^r Hfuiva-'^ 



rauch^A 



>0 



Fig. 7. — Push Pole Brace. 



lines, line orders for city and village lines, line orders for 
farm line, and running drops. Tieing-in and equipping is in- 
cluded in wire stringing. Running drops is included in line 
orders and also recorded separately. The methods followed 
in stringing wire and tieing-in are specified as follows: The 
wires shall be run out from reels. They shall be attached to a 
running board, or boards, to the end or ends of which shall 
be attached a running rope or wire. Where there are only 
two wires to be run, the running board may be dispensed 
with. Where a running board is used the reels of wire shall 



6 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

be placed at one end of the section. When a pole is reached, 
the wires shall be carried up the pole and placed inside the 
pins of the proper arm. In the case of stringing wires from 
reels on a wagon, the running board may be dispensed with 
and the wires carried direct from reel w^agon up the pole and 
placed inside the pins on the proper arm, as the poles are 
reached. Wires shall be tied to insulators in the manner 
shown in Fig. 8. 

COLLECTING AND REPORTING COST DATA. 

Method of Collecting. — The data are collected by a time- 
keeper, inspector or cost man by keeping notes on the ground 
in special memorandum books. Loose leaf memorandum 




77e mm Gfms rtmot^d. 




Cornpirft Tie. 




MMiP before comttt^itcinai to WrafK 
Fig. 8.— Manner of Tying Wire to Insulators. 

books are best adapted for taking costs, and pages properly 
ruled should be kept in hand for each kind of construction. A 
sample page from this style of memorandum book is shown 
by Fig. 9. The ruling and headings in the memorandum book 
for any kind of construction correspond exactly to those of 
the report blank for that kind of construction ; the forms of 
report blanks for line construction are shown by Forms I to 
II. Figure 9 shows a page of the memorandum book filled in 
as it would be in the field. It w^ill be seen that when a man 
changes from one division of pole line construction to an- 
other, or when a change is made from one kind of construc- 
tion to another, the time of change is noted opposite the 
name of the man or men making the change and under the 



POLE LINE. 



Date 4/i/07 

Location 

Size S3' 

Kind of Soil Hard Clay 

No. Set 6 



POLE LINE 



Proportional Cost of Team 

Lost Time 

" *' *' Supervision 

and Expense 



Names 



Foreman 



Smith 



Jones 






.60 



M 



Black 



WUson 



Adams 



Johnson 



•40 



Teaming and 
Labor in Haul'g 



Time 



C'st 



.98 



Framing and 
Stepping 



Time C'sl 



9.30 to 10 
10.16 to 
lOJO 

66 M. 



Digging and 
Locating 



Time 



.31 



.2S 



Ji6 



Team 



Totals 



.26 



.60 






31 



.26 



9.30 to to 

"7/2 hr. 



.B6 



.60 



LOO 



U 



9 to 9.30^ 
7/S hr. 



8.30 to 9.30 
10 to 10.16 



11/4 hrs. 



8.30 to 10.16 
'^3/4 hrs. 



8.30 to 9.30 
10 to 10.16 

1 1/4 hrs. 



C'st 



Setting 



.26 



.43 



.70 



Time 



10.40 to 1 1 
IcO M. 



10.16 to 11 
^/4 hrs. 



8.30 to 10.16 
1 3/4 hrs. 



1 6/12 



46 



9.30 to 10.16 
3/4 hrs. 



9.30 to 10.16 
^3/4 hrs. 



8 



10.16 to 11 
3/4 hrs. 



C'st 



.33 



.30 



10.16 to 11 
3/4 hrs. 



10.16 to 11 
o, 4 hrs. 



.19 



2J30 



10.16 to 11 
3/4 hrs. 



4t/l2 



.21 



Total 



Ti'e C'st 



2\ 



«♦ 



.21 



t\ 



M 



1.07 



1-00 



2h 



.19 



19 



t.43 



2h 



2h 



.70 



.70 



.03 



.63 



16h 



.60 



6.48 



Fig. 9. — Sample Page from Memorandum Book. 

proper heading or headings. These data are figured either 
on completion of the day's work or of the job. On account 
of the small size of line gangs, which rarely exceeds 15 men, 
an exact account of the work of each man is kept, five 
minutes being used as the unit of time. 

Method of Reporting. — Reports are made on the blank 
forms indicated as Forms i to 11, on the completion of the 
job. Both the total cost of the work and the average cost per 
pole, cross-arm, etc., are shown for each job. The attempt 
is made in this cost system not only to divide line construc- 
tion into different divisions so that in estimating it will be 



8 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

possible to figure the cost of so many poles, cross-arms or 
miles of wire, but also to sub-divide each division so that the 
data may serve as a check on excessive cost and as a guide 
when considering different methods of accomplishing the 
same work. The sub-divisions of each kind of construction 
are the natural divisions as indicated by the form for setting 
poles, (Form i). Here it will be noted that "framing'* (roof- 
ing, boring and gaining) and "stepping" are not separated; 
this is because the transition from one to the other is almost 
impossible to note, making any division of the two a purely 
arbitrary one. In the report forms each day's work is en- 
tered on one line ; the total and average costs being shown 
at the bottom of the form. 

Referring to the blank forms illustrated : Form i is that 
for setting street or alley poles ; exactly the same form is 
used for farm line and toll line poles and self sustaining 
poles with ground braces. Form 2 is used for recording the 
setting of self-sustaining poles in concrete. In explanation 
of these forms it may be stated that, in "framing" is included 
roofing, gaining and boring and in "setting" is included filling 
and tamping. Under "supervision and expense" is entered, 
(i) cost of the foreman, timekeepers and such other member? 
of the gang as supervise and keep account of work but as do 
no manual labor, or such part of this time as no labor is done 
other than of a supervisory character, and (2) charges for 
car fare and incidentals. Inspectors, special cost men, and 
office expenses are not included in the cost data, the idea 
being to secure rather the cost of setting a pole in a certain 
kind of soil or of erecting a cross-arm than the cost of a par- 
ticular job which would be of little value in estimating. 

The purposes of Forms 3 to 11 are stated in each case. In 
explanation of Form 4 it may be noted that cutting logs and 
attaching anchor rods are included in setting anchors. When 
this form is used for Stombaugh anchors, the column "Dig- 
ging or Drilling" is left blank; screwing the anchor into the 
soil being included as "Setting Anchor." Attaching anchor 
lugs and pole protectors is included in "Placing Guys." In 
Form 5 "Placing Guy" includes the guy from the stub to the 
pole but not the guy to the anchor. 



POLE LINE. 



AS' and Higher 



Fonn 1. 
Data Secured by 

Setting Street or Alley Poles. 

Order No. 

Location Date 

Foreman 



100 



No. of 
Poles 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

1 Hauling 


Framing Digging 

and and 
Stepping Locating 


Setting 


Sup. 
and 
Exp. 


Total 
Cost 


Kind 

of 

Soil 


No. of 

Hours 

Worked 




1 













Remarks 



35' 

46' and Higher 



Form 2. 
Data Secured by 

Setting Self-Sustaining Poles 

(In Concrete.) 



Order No. 



Location Date . 

Foreman 



100 



O tn 
4/ 



I Teaming 
_^ and 
^ o Labor in 
^^ ' Hauling 



Framing 

and 
Stepping 



Digging 

and 
Locating 



Mixing ' 
Concrete 



Setting 

and 
Placing 
Concrete 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



T 



Total 
Cost 



Kind 

of 

Soil 



No. 

of 

hrs. 

W'r'k 



Remarks 



6 Pin 
10 Pin 

10 Pin. Alley 
Terminal 



Form 3. 
Data Secured by 

Erecting Cross-Arms. 

Order No 

Location Date 100 

« 

Foreman 



No. of 
Cross-arms 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 



Putting 
on arms 




Total 
Cost 



No. of 
Hours 
Worked 



No. 

of 

Poles 



Remarks 



Stombaugh 
Miller 
Log 
Rock 



Form 4. 
Data Secured by 

Anchor Guys and Anchors. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



100 



! Teaming 
No. of and 
Anchors Labor in 
Hauling 



'''Sging I s^ i p, i Sup. Total ^^^ 

Dr.mn« ; Anchor Guys | -^1 Cost | ^f„ 

_l I i 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



10 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION: 



16' 

2^ 
3<K 



Form 6. 
Data Secured by 

Guying and Setting Stubs. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Stubs 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 


Digging 


Setting 
Stubs 


Placing 
Guy 


Sup. 
and 
Exp. 













I 



Total 
Cost 



Kind 

of 

Soil 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



15' 
2<K 
25' 
3(K 



No. of 
Stubs 



Form 6. 
Data Secured by 

Guying and Setting Self-Sustaining Stubs. 

(With Ground Brace.) 

Order No. 

Location Date 

Foreman 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 


Digging 


Setting 
Stubs 


Placing 
Guy 


Sup 
and 
Exp 


Total 
Cost 


Kind 

of 

Soil 


No. of 

Hours 

Worked 

1 






• 













190 



Remarks 



Form 7, 
Data Secured by 

Guying and Setting Self-Sustaining Stubs. 

(In Cloncretc.) 

Order No. 

location Date 

Foreman 



16' 
20' 
25' 
30' 



190 



No. 

of 

Stubs 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 


Digging 


Mixing 
Concrete 


Setting 

and 
Placing 
Concrete 


Placing 
Guy. 













Ind iTotal'Kind 



Exp 



Cost 



Soil 



No. 
of 

Mrs. 
W'rk 



Remarks 



20' 

25' 
30' 
35' and Higher 



Form 8. 
Data Secured by 

Setting Push Pole Braces. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Braces 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 



Framing 



Diggmg 

and 
Locating 



Setting 



Sup. 
and 
Exp 



Total 
Cost 



Kind 

of 

Soil 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



POLE LINE, 



II 



Form 9. 
Data Secured by 

Wire Stringing. 

No. 12 Gatv. Steel y .. t^ . 

.080 Bare Copper Location Date. 

. 104 Bare Copper Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



Mi. of Wire 
strung 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Stringing 

and 

Equip. 



Super. 

and 

Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. hrs. 
Worked 



Remarks 



Farm 

City or Village 



Form 10. 
Data Secured by. 

Line Orders. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 

Line 

Orders 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Stringing 

and 

Equip. 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. hrs. 
Worked 




City or Village Line 
Farm Line 



Form 11. 
Data Secured by 

Running Drops. 

E.xchange Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



100 



No. of 
Drops 



Length of 

Wire 

used for 

Drop 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Stringing 

and 
Equipping 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. hrs. 
Worked 



Remarks 



METHOD OF FIGURING LINE CONSTRUCTION 

COST. 

If in a day's work of a line gang, only one size of poles in 
one kind of soil were set — no cross-arms being erected or wire 
strung — the method of figuring would require little explana- 
tion. The entire expense of the team, foreman or lost time, 
would be charged to the particular kind of work done; the 
lost time being prorated and added to the different sub-di- 
visions, as ''Framing," "Digging and Locating" and "Setting," 



12 TELEPfigXE CONSTRUCTION. 

— {lost time never being charged to "Teaming and Labor in 
Hauling.") and the men's time would be charged under the 
columns corresponding with their work. This, however, is 
rarely the case. A day's work of a line gang usually covers 
different divisions of construction, often in various kinds of 
soil. It is therefore necessary to explain tlie method of pro- 
portioning the teaming, lost time, and supervision and ex- 
pense. We will assume the day's work of a line gang, com- 
posed of 6 men, i foreman at $4 and i team at $4, as shown by 
the memorandum data book (see Fig. 9) to have been as 
follows : 



PIK. 10,— view Showing Method of Fig. 11.— View ghowlng Method of 
Raising Pole. Slru;gh(eninB Pole. 

No. of Hours 

Setting 35-ft. poles in hard clay: Worked, Cost. 

Ey men 15 $ 473 

By foreman '/i .25 

By team 1 .50 

Erecting lo-pin cross-arms, by men 12 3.60 

Stringing .104 copper wire, by men 18 5. 17 

Supervision and expense on the work in 

general, by foreman 7J4 3.75 

Teaming on ihe work in general, by team. 7 3.50 

Loss time on the work in general, by men.. 3 .<>o 

Totals 64 $22.40 

In this schedule by "Supervision and Expense on the Work 
in General," is meant such part of the foreman's, assistant fore- 



POLE LINE. 



13 



man's or timekeeper's time not .spent in doing manual labor, 
but used in supervising the work, keeping accounts, etc. It 
is obviously not pos.siblc when part of the gang is stringing 
wire and part erecting cross-arms to say what minute the 
foreman is supervising the wire stringing and what minute lie 
is supervising the erection of cross-arms. 

"Teaming on the work in general" means that part of the 
time of the team which is used to haul the men and tools to 
and from the jobs. If when going to and from jobs, besides 
hauling the men and tools, some cross-arms or wire, etc., are 
also hauled, there being no extra time used in hauling the 
cross-arms or wire, the time should not be charged, entirely 
to cross-arms, but should be charged proportionately on the 
work in general. 



PI,,. 12.— view Showing Method of tJslns Iron Barrel in DisginK Pule Holes 
In Son Ground. 

A line gang loses time getting from its station to a job or 
from one job to another. Such time is charged to "General 
or Lost Time," and \a proportioned over the <hfferent kinds 
of construction work carried on during the day. At times 
the work is in such^gihape that the entire gang cannot be 
utilized. In such cases the men not working are charged 
against the work being done at the time, i e., if waiting on 
men framing, their time should be charged to framing, etc. 
An example will ilhistrate the procedure followed : 

Method of Proportioning Lost Time, — Assuming that the 
lost time on the work in general was: 



14 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Grade, Rate per hr. Hrs. lost. Cost. 

I lineman $.34 ^4 $.17 

1 lineman 40 '/i .17 

2 combination men 28ea. J-^ ea. .28 

2 groundmcn 25 ea. J4 ea. .25 

Totals 3 $.90 

and the number of hours actually worked by the men (ex- 
cluding the foreman) was 6X8 — 3 (lost time) we have 45 
hours. Dividing the cost of lost fime ($0.90) by the num- 
ber of hours actually worked by the men (45), will give the 
cost of lost time per "man hour" as $0.02, which multiplied by 
the hours actually worked by thi* men, on each kind or di- 



FlK- 13.— Removing Iron Barrel with Bars. 

vision of construction, i. e., 15 (number of hours setting poles) 
multiplied by $0.02 (cost of lost time per man hour) equals 
$0.30. Continuing this operation, we have for "Cross-Arms" 
$0.24, for "Stringing Wire" $0.36. 

Now assuming the data on setting 35-ft. poles in hard clay 
to have been as shown in Fig. 9, the cost of the different sub- 
divisions is as follows: 

Framing and stepping $0-45 

Digging and locating 2.60 

Setting 1.43 

Total $44S 



POLE LINE. 15 

Dividing the cost of lost time {$0.30) by the cost of the 
different sub-division {$4.48), we have 0.0669-I-, which multi- 
plied by the cost of each sub-division gives the following: 

Proportional 
Cost of 

Subdivisions. Cost. Lost Time. Total. 

Framing and stepping ?o-45 $003 $048 

Digging and locating 2.60 0.17 2.77 

Setting 1.43 0.10 1.53 

Totals $448 $0.30 $4.78 



Fig. 14.— Removing Iron Barrel with Block and Tackle. 

"Labor in Hauling" being the time consumed in going to a 
store yard, sorting out the proper size poles, cros.s-arms, wire, 
etc., loading them on the wagon and hauling them to the 
job, the time lost by the gang between their station and work 
should not be charged to this sub-division, but to the sub- 
division of construction on which they are employed. If the 
day was spent in setting poles the lost time should be 
charged to "Framing and Setting," "Digging and Locating," 
and "Setting." It sometimes happens that the gang works 
on digging or setting only; in such cases the lost time should 
be charged to digging or setting as the case may he. 



j6 



TELEPHOSE COXSTRUCTIOS. 



Method of Proportioning Supervision and Expense. — To 
find the proportion of cost of the supervision and expense to 
be charged to each division or kind of construction where su- 
pervising and expenses of the work in general i» meant, divide 
the cost of the supervision and expense ($3-75) by the cost 
of the day's work inchiding lost time ($14.40), but not in- 
cluding supervisors (foremen, etc.) or team, and multiply 
by the cost, including lost time of each kind or division of 
construction. The result will be as given in Table IV. 

Method of Proportioning Teaming.— When the team is 
used to haul men and tools to and from work or is standing at 
a job, the expense being on the work in general, is propor- 
tioned in the same manner as the "Supervision and Expense." 

Summary. — The data on the day's work arc therefore as giv- 
en bv Table V. 



Fig. 15.— Retl tor V 



Table IV. — Siioi 





ItPBRV.S.O.N- AN.. Ex 


KNSK. 










Divition* or Kind 


□f Coiulruction. 




P 


1 


IM 


1 


fsWrESJi-i";"' 


an 


!l 


1g 




te.34 


Stringing .104 CDi>|>cr wire 





























POLE LINE. 



Table VI.— Avemace Cost of jo-Ft. Street m Alley Poles. 

Tfiiimlng and Framing DlBglng SupervJslon Average 

Uiborin nnd end and Cn<t 

Hauling. SIei>|>lng. LuintlnB. Setting. Extiensi:, Per Full'. 

Sand nr crr.vcl to r>I 10.20 10.49 t0.2E tO.^8 tI.S3 

Clay and sand 0.57 0.16 0.48 0.2i 0.53 l.Sa 

Sand and wuter D.Tl 0.19 D.:<7 0.3£ 0.30 -i.i^ 

Chty 0.88 0.19 0.69 0.38 0.47 2. SO 

Clay and water 0.94 0.26 0.76 0.36 D.&l 2-83 

Hurd May 1.01 0.17 flS 0.3! 0.39 3.01 

Vpry i-mirKe gnivet. 0.93 0.18 l.£3 0.6O 0.62 3.62 

QuIrkH'd nnd water 1.17 O.M 1.42 0.44 0.T2 4.00 

Ruck 1.31 0.22 Z.48 0.73 1.27 6.01 

Ruck and water 1.56 O.IO 3.39 0.94 l..^l T.60 

Avenigc In nil eoIIb. 0,96 0.20 l.L'4 0.4T 0.71 3.r>8 
Avenigc In nil aull 

exceiit niek 085 0.20 0.82 O.aj 0.54 2.78 

T.VBLE VI [.—Cost of js-Ft, Street oh Alley Poles. 

Tp-irolngand Framing DlBglng Supervision Average 

Labor In and and and Cost 

Hauling. Steii[)lni{. Locating. Setting. Exiicnae. Per Pok'. 

Sand nr gravel lO.r.O 10.26 J0.73 10.34 10.37 12.20 

Sand and water 0.76 0.^7 0.83 0.36 0.57 2. 79 

Clay 1.09 0.24 0.92 0.54 0.43 3.34 

Clay and water 1.28 0.31 0.93 0.4S 0.50 . 3.49 

Hard clay 1.31 0,30 1,07 0.,'p3 0,63 3.34 

Very ooarse gravel. 1.36 0.33 1.34 0.80 O.T.I 4.40 

Hard pan 1.41 0.32 1.36 0.74 0.76 4.39 

guli-kcM nnd water 1.1? 031 1.69 0.67 0.64 ' 4.51 

Rock* 1.47 0.32 2.91 O.M 1,38 6.97 

Rock and water.... 1,59 0.31 3,53 1,04 1,T2 8,19 
Average coat In all 

soils 1-19 0.Z9 l.M 0,63 0,78 4,43 

Average coHt In nil 

soils except rufk, l.ll 0,38 1,12 0,55 0,58 3.64 

•Note: When liolea are blasted the cost of d>'namlte la Included In 
"Supervlaion and Cxiivnse." 

Table VIII,— Cost of 40-FT. Street or Aflev Poles. 

Teaming nnd Framing- Digging Supervision A vera ee 

Labor In and and and Cn-ii 

Hauling. Slopping. Locating. Setting. Expense. Per puliv 

Sand or gravel 10.78 lo."?* 10.79 10,47 ln.,^3 1:^ 1.^ 

Band and waler 0.92 0.27 ' 0.90 0.37 0..-iit 3.25 

Clay and water 1.23 0.2S 0.9S 0.63 O.Gl a.f.l 

Clay 1.02 - 0.22 1.04 0,68 0,54 3,70 

Hard cl.iy LSS 0.28 1.12 0.71 0.68 4.17 

Very (■.inrse gravel. 1.35 0.30 1.42 0,89 O.7.-. 4.71 

Quleks'ii anil water 1,41 0,^9 1,97 0.93 0,76 5.1!i 

Rock 1.60 0,''l 2.99 0.92 1,45 7.27 

Ttork and water 1.S2 27 3.72 1.12 1.71 3.67 

Average ciist In all 

Average cont In nil 

•oils except rock. 1.16 0.27 1.17 0.67 0.64 3.91 



i8 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table IX. — Cost 

lleaming and 
LAbor in 
Hauling. 

Sand or gravel. $0.95 

Sand and water 1.03 

Clay and water.... 1.18 

Clay .: 1.21 

Hard clay 1.45 

Very coarse gravel. 1.47 

Quicks'd and water 1.67 

Rock 1.84 

Average coat in all 

soils 1.35 

Average cost In all 

soils except rock. 1.28 



OF 45-Ft. 


Street ( 


[)R Alley Poles. 




Framing 


Digging 


Supervision Average 


and 


and 


and 


Cost 


Stepping. 


Locating. 


Setting. Expense. 


Per Pole. 


10.33 


$1.08 


10.74 10.70 


13.80 


0.35 


1.20 


0.78 0.76 


4.12 


0.36 


1.25 


0.82 0.72 


4.33 


0.35 


1.32 


0.91 0.74 


4.53 


0.37 


1.39 


0.96 0.82 


4.99 


0.34 


1.60 


1.03 0.87 


5.31 


0.36 


2.17 


1.03 0.93 


6.16 


0.34 


3.46 


0.99 1.67 


8.30 

* 


0.35 


1.68 


0.91 0.90 


5.19 


0.35 


1.43 


0.90 0.79 


4.75 



Table X. — Cost of 20- Ft. Farm Line Poles. 

Teaming and Digging Supervision Average 

LAbor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Framing. Locating. Setting. Expense. Per Pole. 

Sand or gravel $0.23 $0.07 $0.24 $0.12 $0.08 $0.74 

Sand and water 0.23 0.05 0.25 0.14 0.09 0.76 

Black soil 0.20 0.07 0.26 0.16 0.12 0.81 

Black soil and water 0.24 0.06 0.33 0.10 0.11 0.84 

Clay 0.35 0.05 0.32 0.12 0.13 0.97 

Clay and water 0.33 0.06 0.35 0.12 0.15 1.01 

Hard clay 0.35 0.07 0.69 0.17 0.23 1.51 

Very coarse gravel. 0.37 0.05 0.74 0.19 0.26 1.61 

Quicks'd and water 0.41 0.04 0.73 0.16 0.38 1.72 
Average cost in all 

soils 0.30 0.06 0.44 0.14 0.17 1.11 

Note: Farm Lines are rarely built in rock. In the case of one or two 
poles, the spans are lengthened or shortened to avoid rock. Where the 
direct route is mostly rock some other route by which the rock may be 
avoided is taken, although requiring more poles. 



Table XL — Cost of 25- 

Teaming and 
Labor in 

Hauling. Framing. 

Sand or gravel $0.28 $0.12 

Sand and water... 0.32 0.11 

Black soil 0.31 0.14 

Blk. soil and water 0.33 0.11 

Clay 0.37 0.14 

Clay and water 0.39 0.13 

Hard clay 0.44 0.12 

Very coarse gravel. 0.52 0.14 

Quicks'd and water 0.60 0.10 
Average cost in all 

soils 0.40 0.12 



Ft. Farm 

Digging 
and 
Locating. 

$0.32 
0.34 
0.32 
0.39 
0.47 
0.50 
0.75 
0.82 
0.86 

0.53 



Line Poles. 

Supervision 
and 
Setting. E.xpense. 



$0.16 
0.14 
0.18 
0.20 
0.19 
0.17 
0.18 
0.24 
0.28 

0.19 



$0.14 
0.16 
0.19 
0.18 
0.23 
0.27 
0.32 
0.38 
0.43 

0.26 



Av'ge 

Cost per 

Pole. 

$1.02 
1.07 
1.14 
1.21 
1.40 
1.46 
1.81 
2.10 
2.27 

1.50 



Table XII. — Cost of 30- Ft. Farm Line Pole. 

Teaming and Digging SupervLnlon Average 

Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Framing. Locating. Setting. Expense. Per Pole. 

Sand or gravol $0.43 $0.16 $0.37 $0.22 $0.23 $1.41 

Sand and water 0.41 0.17 0.43 0.21 0.26 1.48 

Black soli 0.47 0.15 0.38 0.23 0.31 1.54 

Clay 0.67 0.12 0.57 0.28 0.32 1.96 

Clay and water 0.59 0.13 0.68 0.32 0.43 2.15 

Hard clay 0.71 0.17 0.85 0.37 0.48 / 2.58 

Verv coarse gravel. 0.72 0.14 0.99 0.44 0.37 2.66 
Average cost in all 

soils 0.57 0.15 0.61 0.30 0.34 1.97 

Note: 30 ft. farm line poles cost less to set than city or alley poles 
on account of the average Jobs being larger: poles are more easily located 
and conditions for work better on a country ro^d than on a city street. 



POLE LINE. 



19 



Table XIII. — Cost of 30- Ft. Toll Line Poles. 

Teaming and Digging Supervision Average 

Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Framing. Locating. Setting. Expense. Per Pole. 

Sand or gravel $0.42 $0.19 $0.41 $0.22 $0.29 $1.53 

Sand and water 0^48 0.21 0.44 0.24 0.27 1.64 

Black soil 0.44 0.19 0.46 0.27 0.26 1.62 

Clay 0.61 0.24 0.69 0.35 0.23 2.12 

Clay and wafer 0.63 0.22 0.73 0.37 0.24 2.19 

Hard clay 0.83 0.26 0.84 0.34 0.41 2.68 

Very coarse gravel. 0.91 0.19 0.98 0.38 0.44 2.90 

Quicks'd and water* 1.47 o.2tf 1.4 > 0.92 0.70 4.80 

Rock 1.30 0.27 2.17 0.71 1.08 5.53 

Average cost in all 

soils 0.78 0.23 0.91 0.42 0.44 2.78 

Average cost in all 

soils except rock. 0.72 0.22 0.75 0.39 0.36 2.44 

•In setting poles in quicksand in the country iron sand barrels are used, 

whereas in the city old lime or sugar barrels are used in place of sand 
barrels, and are left in the holes. The cost of the old barrels which are left 
in the holes should be charged to supervision and expense. 



Table XIV.— Cost of 35- Ft. Toll Line Poles. 

Teaming and Digging Supervision Average 

Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. FYaming. Locating. Setting. Elxpense. Per Pole. 

Sand or gravel $0.49 $0.27 $0.67 $0.33 $0.32 $2.08 

Sand and water 0.47 0.29 0.71 O.'do 0.43 2.25 

Black soil 0.62 0.26 0.74 0.38 0.40 2.4t) 

Clay 0.58 0.30 0.80 0.51 0.36 2.55 

Clav and water 0.78 0.27 0.93 0.66 0.43 3.07 

Hard clay 0.92 0.28 1.01 0.54 0.52 3.27 

Very coarse giavel. 1.10 0.30 1.21 0.58 0.61 3 80 

Quicks'd and water 1.46 0.29 1.68 96 0.73 5.12 

Rock 1.38 0.30 2.60 0.79 1.14 6.21 

Average in all soIIh. 0.87 0.28 1.15 0.57 0.53 3.42 
Average in all soils 

except rock 0.80 0.28 0.97 0.54 0.48 3.07 



Table XV.— Cost of 40-FT. Toll 

Teaming and Digging 

Labor in and 
Hauling. Framing. Locating. 

Sand or gravel $0.65 $0.30 $0.65 

Sand and water 0.70 0.34 0.73 

Clay 0.83 0.32 0.84 

Clay and water 0.S7 0.30 0.89 

Hard clay 0.94 0.36 1.06 

Ver>' coarse gravel. 1.20 0.32 1.24 

Quicks'd and water 1.68 0.37 1.70 

Rock 1.80 ' 0.31 3.34 

Average In all soils 1.08 0.33 1.31 
Average in all soils 

except rock 0.98 0.33 1.02 



Line Poles. 




Supervision Average 


and 


Co8t 


Setting. Expense. 


Per Pole. 


$0.49 $0.42 


$2.51 


0.50 0.46 


2.73 


0.54 0.47 


3.00 


0.64 0.45 


3.15 


0.60 0.61 


3.57 


0.69 0.72 


4.17 


1.24 1.10 


6.09 


0.90 1.21 


7.56 


0.70 0.68 


4.10 



0.67 



0.60 



3.60 



Table XVI.— Cost of 45-Ft. Toll Line Poles. 

Teaming and Digging Supervision Average 

I^ibor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Framing. Locating. Setting. Expense. Per Pole. 

Sand or gravel $0.82 $0.35 $0.90 $0.66 $0.60 $3.33 

Clay 1.12 0.34 1.01 0.77 0.58 3.82 

Hard clay 1.30 0.32 1.20 0.88 0.69 4.39 

Quicks'd and water 1.98 0.30 3.86 1.44 1 20 8.84 

Rock and water 2.60 0.34 7.49 1.19 1.82 13.44 

Average cost in all 

soils 1.56 0.33 2.89 0.99 0.99 6.76 

Average cost in all 

soils except rock. 1.30 0,33 1.74 0.94 0.78 5.09 
Note: 45-ft. toll linos not being frequently built, sufficient data on which 

averages could be based could not be had for some kinds of soil. 



20 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Table XVII. — Cost of Self-Sustaining Poles With Ground Braces. 

Teaming and Framing Digging Supervision Average 

Labor in and and and Cost 
Hauling. Stepping. Locating. Setting. E^xpense. Per Pole. 

Clay, poles 30 ft.... $0.7!) $0.47 $1.30 $0.44 $0.53 $3.53 
Hard clay, poles 30 

ft 1.07 0.51 1.53 0.46 0.65 4.22 

Average in all soils, 

poles 30 ft 0.93 0.49 1.42 0.45 0.59 3.88 

Clay, poles S5 ft... O.S-* 0.48 1.24 0.54 0.64 3 74 
Hard clay, poles 35 

ft 1.19 0.50 1.57 0.58 0.71 4.55 

Average in all soils, 

poles 35 ft 1.02 0.49 1.40 0.56 0.68 4.15 

Clay, poles 40 ft.... 1.12 0.54 1.56 0.79 0.72 4.73 
Hard clay, poles 40 

ft 1.54 0.52 1.77 0.76 0.80 5.39 

Average in all soils, 

poles 40 ft 1.33 0.53 1.67 0.77 0.76 5.06 

Table XVIIL— Cost of 30-Ft. Self-sustaining Poles Set in Concrete. 

Teaming Setting Super- Average 

and Framing Digging and vision Cost 

Labor in and and Mixing Placing and Per 

Hauling. Stepping. Locating. Concrete. Concrete. Exp'se. Pole. 

Sand or graveL.$1.10 $0.27 $0.82 $0.35 $0.75 $1.02 $4.31 

Sand and water. 1.07 0.31 0.97 0.33 0.89 0.98 4.55 

Clay 1.26 0.22 1.17 0.36 0.87 1.11 4. 19 

Quicksand and 

water 1.40 0.24 1.45 0.57 1.08 1.20 5.94 

Average cost In 

all soils 1.21 0.26 1.10 0.40 0.90 1.08 4.93 

Table XIX.— Cost of 35-Ft. Self-Sustaining Poles Set in Concrete. 

Teaming Setting Super- Average 

and Framing Digging and vision Cost 

Labor in and and Mixing Placing and Per 

Hauling. Stepping. Locating. Concrete. Concrete. Exp'se. Pole. 

Sand or gravel. .$1.04 $0.30 $0.86 $0.38 $0.79 $1.07 $4.44 

Sand and water. 1.13 0.29 1.01 0.41 1.01 1.10 4.95 

Clay 1.22 0.31 1.13 0.44 1.03 1.01 5.14 

Quicksand and 

water 1.48 0.34 1.52 0.62 1.22 1.28 6.46 

Average cost in 

all soils 1.22 0.31 1.13 0.46 1.01 1.12 5.25 



Table XX. — Cost of Cross- Arms. 

Teaming 

and Labor Putting Supervision Av. Cost 

in Hauling. on Arms. and Expense. Per C.Arm. 

Six-pin $0,024 $0,074 $0,022 $0.12 

Ten-pin 0.05 0.13 0.04 0.22 

Ten-pin alley 0.07 0.20 0.07 0.34 

Terminal 0.06 0.15 0.05 0.26 

Table XXI. — Cost of Anchors Including Anchor Guys. 
Item — Stombaugh. Miller. Hock. 

Teaming and labor in hauling $0.11 

Boring 

Drilling 

Setting anchor 0.20 

Placing guy 0.23* 

Supervision and expense 0.12 

Average cost per anchor including guy 0.66 

•No. 4 galvanized steel wiie used for guys; this anchor used for fann 
line, t %-ln. strand used for guys. 



$0.33 


$0.34 


0.73 


• • • • 


• * ■ • 


0.90 


0.13 


0.19 


0.31t 


0.44t 


0.34 


0.17 


1.84 


2.14 



POLE LINE. 



21 



Table XXII. — Cost of Yjoq Anchors Including Anchor Guvs. 

Average 

Super- Coat 

Teaming and vision perAn- 

I^bor in Setting Placing and chor. Inc. 

Hauling. Digging. Anchor. Guy. Expense. Guy. 

Sand or gravel $0.37 $0.81 $0.31 $0.37 $0.33 $2.19 

Sand and water* .. . 0,56 1.71 0.91 0.20 1.57 4.95 

Black soil 0.43 0.76 0.35 0.44 0.30 ^2.28 

Clay 0.63 1.40 0.60 0.49 0.63 / 3.75 

Clay and water 0.60 1.70 1.00 0.60 0.73 4.63 

Hard clay 0.59 1.75 0.85 0.63 0.59 ;4.41 

Hard pan 0.81 2.04 0.84 0.43 0.67 N«-.79 

Very coarse gravel. 0.96 2.10 0.97 0.55 0.93 5.51 

Quicks'd and water 0.87 2.30 1.19 0.65 1.10 6.20 

Av. cost in all soils. 0.65 1.63 0.78 0.48 0.76 4.30 

•Note — Hole often caves in if not sheeted. 

Table XXIII. — Cost of Guying .^nd Setting Stubs. 

Super- Average 

Teaming and vision Cost per 

I^abor in Setting Placing and Stub. inc. 

Hauling. Digging. Stubs. (3uys, Expense. Guy. 

15 Ft. Stubs- 
Sand or gravel $0.37 $0.74 $0.26 $0.32 $0,36 $2.05 

Clay 0.53 0.88 0.24 0.36 0.50 2.51 

Clay and water 0.49 0.93 0.36 0.41 0.48 2.67 

Hard clay 0.67 0.96 0.37 0.48 0.53 3.01 

Av. cost In all soils. 0.51 0.S8 p.31 .0.39 0.47 2.56 

20 Ft. Stubs- 
Sand or gi-avel 0.41 0.73 0.32 0.31 0.35 2.12 

Clay 0.49 0.96 0.34 0.35 0.48 2.62 

Clay and water 0.54 1.04 0.44 0.42 0.43 2.87 

Hard clay 0.65 1.05 0.42 0.39 0.59 3.10 

Very coarse gi-av-l. 0.72 1.16 0.44 0.41 0.62 3.35 

Av. cost in all soils. 0.56 0.99 0.39 0.38 0.49 2.81 

25 Ft. Stubs- 
Sand or gravel 0.69 0.79 0.47 0.41 0.52 2.88 

Clay 0.76 0.86 0.54 0.39 0.64 3.19 

Clay and water 0.74 1.01 0.59 0.46 0.66 3.46 

Hard clay 0.89 T.IO 0.53 0.42 0.61 3.55 

Av. cost m all soilb. 0.77 0.94 0.53 0.42 0.61 3.27 

Table XXIV. — Cost of Guying and Setting Self-Sustaining Stubs in 

Concrete. 

Setting stubs 
Teaming and Super- Av'go 
and Mixing Placing vision Cost per 
Labor in Con- Con- Placing and Stub Inc. 
Hauling. Digging, crete. crete. Guys. Expense. Guy. 
15 ft. Stubs- 
Sand or gravel.. $0.88 $0.95 $0.38 $0.60 $0.37 $0.83 $4.01 
Sand and water. 0.83 1.16 0.37 0.66 0.41 0.86 4.29 

Black soil 0.77 0.97 0.41 0.69 0.38 0.74 3.86 

Black soil and 

water 0.99 1.00 0.36 0.64 0.39 0.91 4.29 

Quicksand and 

wat3F 1.08 1.41 0.43 0.93 0.43 0.98 5.26 

Average cost in 

all soils 0.91 1.10 .0.39 0.68 0.40 0.86 4.34 

20 ft. Stubs- 
Sand or sravel.. 0.86 1.02 0.45 0.68 0.41 0.89 4.31 
Sand and water. 0.92 1.11 0.46 0.73 0.43 0.90 4.5.' 

Black soil 0.83 0.98 0.40 0.76 0.37 0.86 4.20 

Quicksand and 

water 0.97 1.46 0..^6 1.07 0.36 0.94 5.16 

Average in all 

.soils 0.90 1.14 0.42 0.81 0..^9 0.90 4.56 

25 ft. Stubs— 

Sand or gravel.. 1.02 (L9S 0.52 0.7«; o. U 0.88 4.60 

Sand and water. 1.08 1.06 0.46 0.84 0.37 0.96 4.77 
Quick.sand iind 

water , 1.22 1.50 0.41 1.12 0.43 0.9i' 5.67 

Average in all 

soils 1.11 1.18 0.46 0.91 0.41 0.94 5.01 



.?2 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table XXV. — Cost of Guying and Setting Self-Sustaining Stubs 

With Ground Braces. 

Teaming Super- Average 

and vision Cost per 

Labor in Setting. Placing and Stub. Inc. 

Hauling. Digging. Stubs. Guy. Expense. Guy. 

15 ft.-- 

Clay 10.77 $0.94 |0.42 $0.39 $0.74 $3.26 

Hard clay 0.86 1.18 0.40 0.35 0.83 3.62 

Av. cost in all soils. . 0.82 1.06 0.41 0.37 0.78 3.44 
20 ft.— 

Clay 0.84 0.92 0.46 0.38 0.82 3.42 

Hard clay 1.02 1.12 0.49 0.43 0.87 3.93 

Av. cost in all soils. 0.93 1.02 0.48 0.40 0.85 3.68 
25 ft.— 

Clay 1.01 0.98 0.57 0.41 0.79 3.76 

Hard clay 1.04 1.16 0.64 0.46 1.07 4.37 

Av. cost in all soils. 1.03 1.07 0.60 0.44 0.93 4.07 

Table XXVI. — Cost of Push Pole Braces. 

Teaming Super- 

and vision Average 

Labor in and Cost per 

Hauling. Framing. Digging. Setting. Expense. Brace. 
20 ft.— 

Sand or gravel $0.27 $0.18 $0.22 $0.28 $0.23 $1.18 

Sand and water... 0.34 0.17 0.28 0.24 0.30 1.33 

Black soil 0.30 0.27 0.26 0.29 0.26 1.38 

Clay and water 0.43 0.19 0.31 0.26 0.37 1.56 

Av. cost in all soils. 0.33 0.20 0.27 0.27 0.29 1.36 
25 ft.— 

Sand or gravel 0.28 0.26 0.29 0.25 0.26 1.34 

Sand and water... 0.41 0.21 0.34 0.31 0.38 1.65 

Black soil 0.27 0.14 0.32 0.24 0.23 1.20 

Clay 0.63 0.17 0.38 0.27 0.49 1.84 

Av. cost in all soils. 0.37 0.20 0.33 0.27 0.34 1.51 

Table XXVII. — Cost of Wire Stringing. 



Teaming and 
Labor in 
Hauling 

No. 12 galv. steel for farm lines $0.89 

No. 12 galv. steel for toll circuits... 0.99 

.104 bare copper for toll circuits 1.18 

.080 bare copper for street and alley 
lines 1.22 



Stringing Supervision Average 

and and Cost 

Equipping. Expense, per Mile. 



$3.04 
3.25 
3.65 

3.18 



$0.90 
0.72 
0.80 

0.66 



$4.83 
4.96 
5.63 

5.06 



Note — The cost of trimming trees is not included in wire stringing. This 
cost varies so greatly that averages are of no value. The reel shown in Fig. 
15 was used to string most of the wire on which these costs are based. 
On account of being equipped with a friction brake, adjustable to any size 
coil, and designed for handling either one or two coils, this style reel was 
found to facilitate wire stringing and reduce its cost. 



Table XXVIII.— Cost of Line Orders. 



Teaming and 
Labor in 
Hauling. 

City or village lines $0.49 

Farm lines 0.35 



Stringing Supervision 

and and 

Equipping. Expense. 

$1.60 $0.43 

1.38 0.36 



Average 

Cost per 

Line Order. 

$2.52 
2.09 



Note — Line orders include only the cost of stringing and equipping the 
line wire and drop to the house, necessary for a telephone installation, the 
inside wiring and installation of telephone set being done by "Installers. "* 
As the principal cost of line orders is in the equipping, they are averagfi! 
by number of line orders instead of miles as in stringing wire. It niakcH 
little difference in cost whether two. three or four 8i>ans of win- are strung 
The average line order in ciile.s and villages requires four to five span.** nf 
circuit, and for farm lines seven to eiJ<ht spans. In cities and villages to 
complete the average line order very little work other than stringing win- 
and setting one or two poles and cross arms is necessarj*. The Jobs being 
small, the time lost between Jobs makes tl!H cost higher than on farm 
lines where It usually requires one or two dav.^* woik foi- each line order. 



POLE LINE, 2S 

Table XXIX.— Cost of Drops. 

Teaming and Stringlngr Supervision Average 
Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Equipping. Expense. per Drop 

City and village lines $0.15 $0.54 $0.07 $0.7A 

Farm lines 0.10 0.47 0.10 0.67 

Note — When for a line order the stringing of a drop is all that is neces- 
sary, it is put under "Drops" instead of "Line Orders. ' 

CONSTRUCTION COST DATA. 

The data given in Tables VI to XXIX are average costs 
based. on over io,ooo poles, cross-arms, anchors, etc., erected 
on over 500 jobs in both city and country, and in all seasons 
of the year. In general, winter work is found to average in 
cost with spring work. In winter the frost makes digging 
and setting more expensive and the cold increases the cost 
of stringing wire, erecting cross-arms and work requiring 
men to be on the poles. These drawbacks are balanced in the 
spring by bad roads, muddy tools and slippery footing. Sum- 
mer and fall work costs about 10 per cent, less than winter and 
spring work. 

Wages. — ^The rates of wages paid and on which the costs 
in Tables VI to XXXVII are based are as follows: 

Station gangs: 

Foremen, per month $90.00 to $100.00 

Timekeeper, per 8-hour day 2.25 to 2.50 

Linemen, per 8-hour day ^ 2.95 to 3.25 

Combination men, per 8-hour day 2.25 to 2.50 

Groundmen, per 8-hour day 2.00 to 2.15 

Teams, per 8-hour day 4.00 to 4.50 

Floating gangs: 

Foremen, per month and board 65.00 to 75.00 

Timekeeper, per 8-hour day and board 1.25 to 1.40 

Linemen, per 8-hour day and board 1.80 to 2.od 

Combination men, per 8-hour day and board. 1.25 to 1.40 

Groundmen, per 8-hour day and board i.oo 

Teams, per 8-hour day and board 3.00 to 4.00 

From 50 to 75 cts. per day are allowed for board of team 
and $1 per day, including Sundays, i.s allowed for board of 
each man. In the cost data given, the rate for men in floating 
gangs is found by dividing the board per month. $30 or $31, 
by the number of working days. 26 or 27, and adding the 



24 TELEPHOXE COXSTRUCTION. 

amount to their rate per day. Mistakes in construction such 
as digging a hole in the wrong location are not included in 
these averages. 

Classifications of Soils. — Combinations of soil being almost 
endless, the divisions assumed are necessarily, to some extent, 
arbitrary. Loam is included with clay. When quicksand is 
dry and does not run it is classed as sand. \"ery coarse gravel 
includes clay and cobbles. If the soil is one-half hard clay 
and one-half clay and water, it is classed as hard clay ; if one- 
half hard clay and one-half clay, it is classed as clay and water. 
The "average cost in all soils" and the "average cost of all 
soils except rock" are figured as if each pole was set in a dif- 
ferent kind of soil, whereas in most districts clay predom- 
inates, except in the spring of the year, when the greatest per- 
centage of the digging is in clay and water. In estimating 
work, the average costs in those soils predominating in a dis- 
trict should be used. 



CHAPTER II. 

METHODS AND COST OF CABLE CONSTRIXTIOX. 

While cable requires more careful handling than wire, still 
the percentage of linemen or other skilled labor necessary is 
small, as a foreman at one end of the job and an assistant, or 
lineman, at the other end, can readily supervise and direct the 
work of the men. The average cost of labor per hour is 
therefore 3 cts. to 5 cts. less than for line work. The aver- 
age supervision, however, is higher on accoimt of cable work 
beiny done mostly in large districts where foremen are better 
paid than in small districts. This also applies to foremen 
who install toll cable, they being experienced and highly 
paid — men used for difficult jobs or work requiring very care- 
ful handling. 

Although the specification set forth the manner in which 
cable is to be handled, still there is a greater chance for fore- 
men to display judgment in cable work than in line work, 
especially in the laying out of work. Line work can gen- 
eralh'^ be dropped for the. day at almost any time, whereas, a 
cable reel once opened, the cable must be erected or pulled in 
the same day on account of its liability to injury. 

Cable being the main arteries of a telephone plant in cities 
and towns, no expense is spared to install it in the most ef- 
ficient and permanent manner. The costs given are based on 
high grade work, foremen being held responsible in any case 
where the work is not standard. 

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. 
Sizes of Cable. — The cable referred to in these labor costs 
is loose core, paper insulated, lead sheathed cable. The diam- 
eter, thickness of sheath, and weight are as follows : 

25 



26 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



No. of 
Pairs. 

10 

15 

25 

50 
100 
200 
400 
GOO 

25 

50 
100 
200 
300 



22 B. & S. (;age. 
Outside Diam- Thickness of 



cter, inches. 


Shea 


s« 




t 


€A 




l» 


H 




!». 


n 




l*! 


1 




I'l 


1 




s 

3t 


1 i 




i 


2,'. 




i 


2 * 




i 




m B. 


& S. Gage. 


1 




,'» 


1 i 






m 




i 


2t'. 




i 


2| 




i 



•y»/ 



^^uvu*/^• 



M0t»¥»'tff'~- 



Weight, lbs., 
per 100 ft. 

59i 

70 

93 
132 
212i 
400 
606 
802 

142 
228 
444 
581 
751 




Fig. 16. — Method of RpIicinK Messenuer Stra.id. 

Erecting Messenger. — Messenger is. (i) No. 4 Steel Wire, 
(2) J^-in. Strand, and (3) J^-in. Strand, constructed accord- 
ing to the following specifications : 

A No. 4 steel wire messenger shall be used to sustain 25 
pr. 22 ga. aerial or lighter cables. The messenger shall be 
secured to the pole with a No. 4 messenger support and a 7- 
in. lag screw, tightly but carefully screwed up so as not to 
strip the threads in the wood of the pole. 

A }i'in, strand shall be used for the suspension of 25 pr. 
19 ga. and 50 pr. 22 ga. aerial cables, and for 100 pr. 22 ga. 
and 50 pr. 19 ga. aerial cables in spans not longer than 145 ft. 
The strand shall be attached to the pole by means of a ^-in. 
strand support and one 7-in. and one 4-in. lag screws. 



CWLE WORK. 



27 



The J^-in. strand shall be used to sustain all aerial cables 
heavier than 50 pr. 19 ga. or 100 pr. 22 ga., and for 50 pr. 19 
ga. and 100 pr. 22 ga. in spans longer than 145 ft. The strand 
shall be attached to the pole by means of a J/^-in. strand sup- 
port and two 6-in. lag screws. The method of splicing strand 
is shown by Fig. 16. 

Aerial Cable. — Aerial cable is of the following kinds : 10 pr., 
22 ga.; 15 pr., 22 ga.; 25 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga.; 50 pr., 22 ga. 
and 19 ga. ; 100 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga. ; 200 pr., 22 ga. and 19 
ga. The specifications for aerial cable work are as follows : 

Aerial cable may be erected by the use of capstan, by winch, 
by horsepower, or by hand. The speed should not exceed 50 
ft. per minute, and the armor of the cable should be inspected 
carefully for imperfections as it is unreeled. 




FiR. 17.— Method of Fastening Cable to Pole. 

In setting up, cable should always be taken from the top 
of the reel. The reel should be set up as nearly in line with 
the lead wire as possible. For four spans or less, no lead 
wire will be required. It is not advisable to pull lengths of 
cable in excess of 1,000 ft. 

After the reel is set up and the cable ready to be pulled, the 
lagging shall be removed from the cable reel and the cable 
rope shall be fastened to the end of the cable. In fastening the 
rope to the cable either a clevis, wrapping of wire or marlin 
should be used, depending upon the pull, size of cable, etc. 
The cable rope must be provided with a swivel hook or ring. 
The winch, capstan, or whatever device is used for pulling the 
cable, shall be placed at the farther end of the run and suitably 



28 



TELIiFHOXH COXSTRUCTION. 



braced. The end of the cable rope shall be carried to the 
drum and wrapped about it. 

The cable is attached to messenger wire by means of 
standard cable clips. The clips shall be attached to the cal)le 
by passing the double loop of marlin around the cable and 
drawing the cable up through the loop. The clip shall be 
attached to cable as it is unreeled and shall be spaced 15 ins. 
apart for 200 pr., 22 ga. and 100 pr., 19 ga. cable, and be 
spaced 20 ins. apart for all smaller cables. The method of 
fastening the cable to the pole is shown in Fig. 17. 

Where cable is liable to injury from chafing trees or poles, 
buildings, etc., wooden cleats shall be placed around the cable 
at such points as shown in Fig. 18. If it is necessary to pre- 
vent slipping of cleats, rubber tape may be wrapped around 
the ends of the cleats and cable. 




Fig. 18.— Guard to Protect Cable from Cliaflng. 

Equipping Cable or Terminal Poles. — The equipment used 
on cable or terminal poles is as follow^s: 50 pr. protected ter- 
minal boxes (with ground rods) ; 25 pr. protected terminal 
boxes (with ground rods) ; 25 pr. unprotected terminal boxes ; 
15 pr. unprotected terminal boxes, and pole seats. The speci- 
fications for this w'ork are as follows: 

Protected terminals shall be used where open wire lines 
which are one mile or over in length take cable and where 
cable is in close proximity to electric light or power wires. 
On alley lines the terminal boxes shall be attached as shown 
in Fig. IQ. On center arm lines the terminal boxes shall be 



CABLE WORK. 



29 



attached to the pole below the bottom arm so as to clear the 
lowest wires. Cable poles equipped with 25 or 50 pr. cable 
boxes shall have pole seats which shall be attached as shown 
in Fig. 20. Ground rods for protected boxes shall be a plain 
iron rod !^-in x 5-ft., with 3 ft. of No. 12 N. B. S. soft copper 
wire soldered to one end. Ground rods shall be driven into 
the earth alongside of the pole so that the top shall be on a 
level with the ground. A No. 6 copper wire shall be at- 
tached to the No. 12 N. I'. S. wire and secured to the pole by 
means of staples driven every 2 ft. 

Wiring Cable or Terminal Poles. — This division covers the 
cost of bridling line or open wires to cable boxes. The speci- 
fications are as follows: 




FiB. 19.— Melhod of Attaching T 

No. 18 twisted pair rubber covered bridle or jumper wire 
shall be used ia connecting line wires to cable boxes. The 
bridle wires shall be attached to the pole between the cable 
box and the cross-arms in a neat bunch, and shall he run 
along the under side of the cross-arms through wooden cleats. 

Redding Underground Cable. — The duct in which cable is 
to be placed shall first be rodded. To the end rod shall be 
attached a length of No, 12 steel wire, which shall be used to 
pull into the duct the steel rope, used in pulling the cable. 

Main Underground Cable. — I'ndcrground cable is of the 
following kinds: 50 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga. ; 100 pr,, 22 ga. and 
ly ga. ; 200 pr.. 22 ga. and 19 ga. : 300 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga. : 
400 pr.. 22 ga. : 600 pr., 22 ga. ; 150 pr.. if* ga. : toll cable, and 



30 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



I20 pr., J^-14 ga. and ^-16 ga. toll cable. The specifications 
for underground cable work are as follows: 

Tlie cable may be pulled by capstan, by winch, by horse 
power or by hand, at a speed not to exceed 50 ft, per minute. 
In setting up, the reel should be as nearly in line with the 
duct as possible and ahead of the vault rather than back of 
it, so that the cable will feed from the top of the reel. To the 
end of the N'o. 12 steel wire which is pulled in when rodding 
the duct, shall be fastened a steel rope which in turn shall be 




Fig, 20, —Method of Attaching Pole Smta. 

fastened to the cable by means of a cable clamp, wire hitch 
or other approved method. Skids and sheaves shall he set up 
as nearly as possible in a straight line from the mouth of the 
duct. The cable should be fed in at a uniform speed and the 
armor carefully inspected. Where the cable is z ins. or more 
in diameter, the ducts should be swabbed with soapstone, 
mica or graphite, except in the case of short straight runs. 
Cable in passing through vaults shall be divided so that cable 
entering the vault on either side of the center of the vault 
shall be carried around that side of the vault to the duct 
where it leaves vaults again, as shown in Fig. 21. 



C.-LBLE WORK, 



31 



Lateral Underground Cable. — Lateral underground cable is 
of the following kinds: 25 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga. ; 50 pr.. 22 ga. 
and 19 ga. ; 100 pr., 22 ga. and 19 ga., and 200 pr., 22 ga. and 
19 ga. The specifications for this work are as follows: 

Lateral cable shall be set up and pulled in the same man- 
ner as main cable. Where the cable is i in. or over in diam- 
eter, the duct should be swabbed with soapstone, mica or 
graphite, except in the case of short, straight laterals, 100 ft. 
or less. 

Forms for Reporting Costs. — The manner in which the costs 
are reported is shown by Forms 12 to 18 inclusive. The 
method of collecting the data and figuring cable work costs 
is similar to the method used for line construction, which has 
been explained. 






Flgr. 21. — Diagram Showing Method of Passlnsr Cable Through VaultM. 



CABLE WORK COSTS. 

With the exception of underground toll cable, the following 
cost data. Tables XXX to XXXVTI, are based on work done 
in cities and towns. The data were collected and figured on 
the same principle as "Line Construction Costs,'* data on over 
500,000 ft. of cable and messenger being used in drawing the 
averages. 



TELtFHONE COSSTRUCTIOS. 



Fig. ja— Feeding Cable Into Vault, 



Fig. 24.— PuIUnK Cable. 



Fig. 25.— Placing Cable Box o 



CABLE WORK. 



33 



No. 4 Steel Wire 
I* Strand 
Y Strand 



Form 12. 

Data Secured by 

Erecting Messenger. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



160 



No. Ft. 
Erected 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Erecting 



Super. 

and 

Expense 



Total 
Cost 



No. hrs. 
Worked 



Remarks 



Note: — ^The cost of erecting messenger, besides being reported separately, is included 
in the cost of erecting aerial cable. On the forms used for reporting the cost of erecting 
aerial cable, the teaming and labor in hauling, and supervision and expense of erecting 
messenger are included respectively in the cost of teaming and labor in hauling, and super- 
vision and expe^e of erecting cable. The cost of erecting messenger is reported in the 
special column headed "Erecting Messenger." 



10 pr. 22 Ga. 

15 ** 22 

25 " 19 or 22 Ga. 

50 * 19 " 22 '• 
100 " 19 " 22 " 
200 " 19 " 22 *• 



Form 13. 
Data Secured by . 

Aerial Cable. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



L90 



No. Ft. 

of 
Cable 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 

Hauling 



Erecting 
Messenger 



Erecting 
Cable 



Total 
Cost 



No. hrs. 
Worked 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 



Remarks 



Size of Box.. 

Protected 

Unprotected 



Form 14. 
Data Secured by 

EgiTippiNG Cable Poles. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 

Poles 

Equip'd 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 

Hauling 



Attaching 
Cable Box 

and 
Gr'nd Rod 



Attaching 
Pole Seat 



Super . 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Note: — No seat being attached to poles equipped with 15 pr. boxes the oorresopnding 
column is left blank. When unprotected boxes are attached "Ground Rod" is erased. 



Form 15. 
Data Secured by 

Wiring Cable Polks. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 

Pairs 

Cut in 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Wiring 



Super. 

and 
Expense 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



34 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



City 
Country 



Form 16. 
Data Sectired by 

RODDING. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 

Duct Feet 

Rodded 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Rodding 



Super. 

and 
Expense 



Total 
Cost 



N«.of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



"f 



Notb: — On account of the great dilTerence between the cost of redding conduit built 
through the ootmtry, and conduit built in cities the data are kept separate. The reasons 
for this difference in /wst are that very few vaults in the cotmtry districts have drainage or 
sewer connections as in cities; this makes it necessary to ptunp out sJmost every vault 
before roddtnif. The distance from the station to the work being mtyh greater in the 
cotmtry than in city work, also increases the cost. The cost of rodding besides being re- 
ported separately is included in the cost of installing underground cable; teaming, and 
supervision and expense of rodding being included in the form for reporting "Underground 
Cable" in the columns headed respectively "Teaming and Labor in Hauling," and "Super- 
vision and Expense." Rodding is reported in the special column headed ' jR.odding." 



60 Pr. 19 or 22 Ga. 



100 
200 
300 
400 
600 
160 
120 



19 
19 
19 
19 
19 



22 
22 
22 
22 
22 



From 17. 
Data Secured by. 

UXDKRGROUND CaBLK (MaIN). 



Order No. 



1 g Qn^ Location Date. 

J-14 Ga. and i-16 Ga. Foreman 



190 



No .Ft. 
pulled 
in 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Rodding 



Pulling 




Remarks 



26 Pr. 19 or 22 Ga. 

60 " 19 " 22 
100 " 19 " 22 
200 " 19 " 22 



Form 18. 

Data Secured by 

UXDEKCiROUND CaBLE (LaTKRAI.V 



Order Xo. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



190 



No. of 
Later- 
als 



No. Ft. 

Pulled 

in 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Pulling 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Notb: — ^The average cost of lateral cable is figured per foot and per lateral, the cost 
per lateral being foimd useful in estimating where the exact length of laterals is not known. 
No rodding is necessary for laterals as they are wired when building. 

Table XXX — Cost of Erecting Messenger. 

Teaming and ^Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Erecting. Expense. per Foot 

No. 4 steel wire 10.0015 $0.0050 $0.0015 $0.0080 

%-ln. strand 0.0011 0.0052 0.0010 0.0073 

H-ln. strand 0.0013 0.0057 0.0012 0.0082 

Note — ^No. 4 steel wire costs more to erect, comparatively, than strand 
on account of the former being used to suspend small cable which is fre- 
quently installed where interference from trees is bad. Erecting messenger 
or cable through trees increases the expense considerably. 



CABLE WORK, 



35 



Table XXXI.— Cost or Aerial Cable Per Foot. 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in Erecting Erecting and Cost 

Hauling. Strand. Cable. Expense, per Foot. 

10 Pr.— 22 Ga.« $0.0058 $0.0049 $0.0099 $0.0065 $0.0271 

15 Pr.—22 Ga.» 0.0046 0.0048 0.0135 0.0045 0.0274 

25 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0044 0.0051 0.0130 0.0042 0.0267 

25 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0065 0.0047 0.0108 0.0050 0.0270 

50 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0044 0.0054 0.0128 0.0039 0.0265 

50 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0054 0.0057 0.0114 0.0034 0.0259 

100 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0052 0.0058 0.0116 0.0035 0.0261 

100 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0057 0.0064 0.0126 0.0034 0.0281 

200 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0053 0.0062 0.0128 0.0037 0.0280 

•See note on ''Erecting Messenger." Not sufficient data on 200 Pr, 19 
Ga. to draw an average. 

Table XXXII. — Cost of Equipping Protected Cable Poles. 

Teaming Attaching 

and Cable Box Attaching Supervision Average 

Labor in and Pole and Cost 

Hauling. Ground Rod. Seat. Expense, per Pole. 

25 Pr. Box $0.26 $0.69 $0.32 $0.26 $1.43 

50 Pr. Box 0.32 0.66 0.33 0.3^ 1.61 

Table XXXIIL— Cost of Equipping Unprotected Cable Poles. 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

LAbor in Attaching and > Cost 

Hauling. Cable Box. Expense. per Pole. 

15 Pr. Box $0.17 $0.44 $0.15 $0.76 

25 Pr. Box 0.20 0.46 0.18 0.84 

Table XXXIV. — Cost of Wiring Cable Poles. 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Wiring. Expense. per Pa,ir. 

$0,027 $0,121 $0,019 $0,167 

Table XXXV. — Cost of Rodding. 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Rodding. Expense. per Foot. 

City $0.0010 $0,003^^ $0.0016 $0.0062 

Country 0.0018 0.0061 0.0019 0.0098 

Table XXXVI, — Cost of Underground Cable (Main). 

Teaming Super- Average 

and Labor In vision and Cost 

Hauling. Rodding. Pulling. Expense, per Foot. 

5C Pr.— 19 Ga $0.0048 $0.0034 $0.0061 $0.0017 $0.0161 

100 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0042 0.0037 0.0065 0.0018 0.0162 

100 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0054 0.0039 0.0062 0.0019 0.0172 

200 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0057 0.0036 0.0067 0.0015 0.0175 

200 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0061 0.0031 0.0071 0.0021 0.0184 

300 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0066 0.0036 0.0097 0.0018 0.0217 

?.00 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0073 0.0030 0.0093 0.0024 0.0220 

150 Pr.— 16 Ga. Toll Cable.. 0.0101 0.0058 0.0147 0.0043 0.0349 

120 Pr.— %-14 Ga. and H-16 

Ga. Toll Cable 0.0122 0.0068 0.0158 0.0048 0.0396 

Noce: The weight of a reel of 120 Pr.— H-14 Ga. and '%-16 Ga. averages 
between 3^ and 5 tons. The cable grip shown in Fig. 26 was used on some 
Jobs in pulling in the cable. It reduces the cost, as it may be connected 
and removed instantly, whereas a wire hitch takes some time to attach and 
remove. It also is superior to a wire hitch because it does not injure the 
cable and will rot pull off. 

Table XXXVI I.— Cost of Underground Cable (Lateral). 
Teaming Average 

and Supervision Length Average 

Labor in and Average of Cost 

Hauling Pulling Expense Cost Laterals per 
per Foot, per Foot, per Foot, per Foot, in Feet. Lateral. 

25 Pr.— 22 Ga $0.0044 $0.0112 $0.0029 $0.0185 117 $2.17 

50 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0063 0.0198 0.0042 0.030J 132 4.01 

50 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0071 0.0226 0.0062 0.0359 123 4.42 

100 Pr.- 22 Ga 0.0068 0.0220 0.0059 0.0347 126 4.36 

100 P'-.— 19 Ga O.Olll . 0.0316 0.0064 0.0491 115 5.64 

200 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0109 0,0310 0.0061 0.0480 112 5.39 

200 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0138 0.0354 0.0076 O.O068 117 C 62 

Note: 25 Pr.— 22 Ga. costs much less to install than other cable, as it 
is always pislled in by hand, and its ^mall diameter and light weight make 
it easily handled. 



CHAPTER III. 

METHOD AND COST OF CABLE SPLICING. 

Of all outside construction the most delicate work is cable 
splicing, and it requires the most skilled and careful labor. 
The careless removal of the insulation from conductors has 
been known to cause crosses which cost hundreds of dollars 
to locate and clear. A splice when not properly made is al- 
ways a source of "trouble cases" which are difficult to locate 
and expensive to clear; but even the cost of locating and 
clearing is small in comparison with the loss of revenue and 
the annoyance to subscribers caused by the interruption of 
service, especially when a main cable is in trouble. Above all 
things, good splicing requires conscientious work, and on the 
personnel of the men depends the quality of the splice. Cheap 
splicing is not generally good splicing; therefore in estimating 
the cost of splicing, no attempt should be made to force quick 
work, which is nearly always expensive in the end. 

The organization of splicer gangs is somewhat different 
from line gangs ; the gangs being composed of a head splicer, 
one or two splicers, and an equal number of helpers. Each 
gang is assigned to a district and is stationed in the principal 
town in the district. When necessary a gang is increased by 
drawing from other gangs, and all men receive board when 
working outside of the town in which they are stationed. The 
head splicer usually splices or tests out when the gang is 
small, little supervision being necessary. 

A great deal of overtime is worked because of most splices 
which cause interruption of the service being made at night 
and also on account of splices being often worked on until 
finished. This sometimes makes a splicer's wages per one- 
half month between $60 and $100 dollars. 

CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS. 

Systematizing the costs of cable splicing is more difficult 
than in any other branch of telephone construction ; first, be- 

3^' 



CABLE SPLICIXG, 37 

cause of the jjeneral confusion in the names of the different 
splices, and second, because of the endless combinations in 
splicing. In order to avoid confusion, a leg of a cable box 
will be referred to as a cable and two sections of a cable not 
already spliced will be called two cables ; thus if tw-o sections 
of a ioo-i)r. cable are to be spliced they will be referred to as 
two loo-pr. cables. For the purposes of this chapter the splic- 
ing of conductors will be used to indicate the kind of splice, 
and splices will be referred to as follows : 

Straight Splices. — (i) When all the conductors of two 
cables are spliced together, each joint of conductors being 
composed of tw^o wires ; (2) when the conductors of one 
cable are spliced into a cable containing a larger number of 
conductors, part of which are left **dead,** each joint of con- 
ductors being composed of two wires ; and (3) where either 
part or all of the conductors of two or more cables are spliced 
into part or all of the conductors of another cable, each joint 
of conductors being composed of two wires and the conduce 
tors not spliced being left '*dead." 

Bridge Splices. — (i) When all the conductors of three or 
more cables are spliced together, each joint of conductors be- 
ing composed of the same number of wires; (2) when all 
the conductors of a cable are spliced into a cable composed of 
one-half, one-quarter, etc., the number of conductors, each 
joint of conductors being composed of like number of wires. 

Straight-Bridge Splices. — When some of the conductors of 
a cable are spliced, as described under **Straight Splice" and 
some as described under **Bridge Splice." 

There are endless combinations in splicing, as for example, 
into a loo-pr. cable may be spliced a 10, 15, 25, 50 or 
lOO-pr. cable, etc., or a 10, 15, 25 and 50-pr. cable, etc. Also 
the splice may be straight, bridge, straight-bridge or change 
of count ; it may be tagged or not tagged. In estimating it is 
not necessary to have data on every possible splice. If data 
showing the average cost of common and usual splices is ac- 
cessible a very close estimate of any splice may be made. 

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. 

Materials. — The materials principally used in cable splic- 
ing are: (i) Paper sleeves for covering the joints in each con- 



38 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

ductor. The sleeves may or may not be boiled in paraffin 
before received, but if they are damp, they should be boiled in 
hot paraffin before using; (2) good commercial paraffin or 
beeswax for drying the splice; (3) strips of muslin about 2 to 
3 ins. wide for wrapping the core of the cable and binding 
ends of a cable after the splice; (4) lead sleeves which shall 
be pure lead, ^-in. in thickness. 

The sizes of sleeve to be used for different size cables are 
as follows: 

For 2 Cables in a Straight Line. 



No. 


Inside Diam 


Length. 


:«^ vja. 

Inside Diam. 


Length. 


of prs. 


Inches. 


Inches. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


15 


I 




16 




I 


16 


25 


1/2 




16 




1K2 


16 


50 


2 




18 




2 


18 


100 


3 




18 




2^ 


18 


200 


3/2 




20 




3 


20 


300 


4/2 




22 




3K2 


20 


400 


• • 




• • 




3/2 • 


22 


600 


• • 




• • 




4 


26 




For 2 


^^ables 


Forming 


a "Y." 




10 


I 




16 




I 


16 


25 


1/2 




16 




1/2 


16 


50 


2/2 




18 




2K2 


16 


IOC 


3K2 




20 




3/2 


20 


200 


43^ 




22 




4 


20 


300 


4^ 




-2 




4^ 


22 


400 


• • 




• • 




4/2 


22 


600 


• • 




• • 




4>4 


26 



For splicing intermediate sizes a sleeve for next larger 
size of cable is used. For splicing cables larger than are 
given above, sleeves should be used of a length equal to about 
eight times the outside diameter of the cable and with an in- 
side diameter 01 about 50 per cent, greater than the outside 
diameter of the cable. 

Split sleeves are used in the following cases: (i) Where 
cables form a double "V; (2) where on account of the posi- 
tion or bends in the cables it is impossible to slip a sleeve 
back and run it up in place again over the splice when it is 
completed ; (3) where in splicing a branch cable into a work- 



CABLE SPLICING. ' 39 

ing cable, only the conductors to be spliced are cut, the other 
conductors remaining in service and the old sleeve not being 
used again on making the new splice. 

Instructions for Making Splices. — If it is possible splices 
should be finished and soldered up the day they are begun. If 
the weather be dry, the splice may be left open over night, 
provided it is protected from moisture by having a rubber 
blanket or other suitable moisture-proof substance wrapped 
around it. However, work on a splice in a moist place should 
be continued until completed. It is recommended that the 
splice be boiled out after splicing every 50 pairs, when moist- 
ure is likely to get into the splices. When a cable is cut it 
should be thoroughly dried and its ends sealed tight with 
solder. Just as much care should be taken with a temporary 
job as a permanent one. 

If moisture has entered the end of a cable or if it is even 
suspected that it has, a short piece of the cable should be 
cut off and dipped into hot paraflSn. If moisture is present 
it will be detected by a frying noise. The damp part of the 
cable should be cut away gradually if it can be spared, and 
each piece tested for moisture. If the length of the cable will 
not allow the damp portion to be cut away, the exposed damp 
portion shall be boiled out and then a portion of the lead 
sheath of the cable cut and slipped over it and the new ex- 
posed part boiled out. This process, known as slipping, shall 
be continued until all moisture is expelled. Care must be 
taken not to tear the insulation in slipping the sheath and all 
joints shall be closed by the regular wiped joint. When it is 
found that there is no more moisture present, the cable should 
be spliced. 

Whenever a cable is cut for any purpose and it is necessary 
to leave the cable end, it should be thoroughly dried and 
sealed with half and half solder, or the end turned down and 
securely taped. Care should be taken to see that the joint is 
made just as secure and air tight as if it is to be permanent. 
The following splices namely straight, bridge and straight- 
bridge are made exactly the same way in both aerial and un- 
derground work. The same is true for "changing count" and 
for "cuts." 



40 TELEPHOSE COSSIRUCTION. 

Straight Splices. — The following^ operations, in this order, 
shall be performed in splicing two cables in a straigfht line. 

(i) A light indentation shall be made in the sheath of each 
cable with a clipping- knife to mark the point at which the 
sheath is to be removed. This shall be made at a distance 
from the end of each cable equal to the length of the lead 
sleeve to be used. A portion of the sheath of each cable for 
about four inches beyond this mark shall be scraped bright 
and rubbed with tallow or something equally as good to keep 
the cables clean during splicing. The sleeve for a distance 
of about 4 ins. from each end shall be scraped bright and 
treated in the same manner. The tallow acts as a flux in 
making the joints. 

(2) The lead sheath of each cable shall be cut on the 
marks above described to a sufficient depth to break readily 
on bending, and the ends removed. Care must be used in 
removing the sheath not to injure the insulation. 

(3) The core shall be bound tightly with narrow strips of 
muslin at the end of the cable sheaths, packing the muslin 
under the sheath as much as possible so as to prevent the 
sheath from cutting the insulation on the conductors. 

(4) As soon as possible after removing the lead sheath from 
the cable, the cable should be boiled out with hot paraffin 
until all the moisture is removed. The muslin binding should 
be boiled also. Paraffin remaining in the core will form a seal 
to keep all moisture out during the splicing. The tempera- 
ture of the paraffin shall not be hot enough to scorch or in- 
jure the insulation on the wires. In boiling out cables great 
care must be exercised that the paraffin is not too hot. Paraffin 
when too hot, not only injures the insulation of the cable con- 
ductors, but is dangerous to life. If paraffin be heated so hot 
that white fumes arise it should be allowed to cool before 
being used. The paraffin should never be so hot as to in- 
jure rubber insulated wire when immersed in it for one 
niinute. In drying or boiling out a cable with paraffin, al- 
ways begin at the cable sheath and work towards the center of 
the splice or end of conductors, so as not to force moisture 
under the lead sheath. The paraffin should be poured en 



CABLE SPLICINu. 



41 



with a ladle, a pan or the pot being used to catch the paraffin 
draining off. 

(5) Next the lead sleeve shall be slipped over one of the 
cables and pushed back out of the way. 

(6) If several lengths of a cable are to be spliced at succes- 
sive places, or in making the first splice on any cable, no 
testing or tagging is necessary. The splice shall be made 
without regard to the conductor assignment of the pairs, the 
red wires being spliced to the red wires and the white wires 
to the white wires. 'Pairs in corresponding layers should 





Fig. 27.— Sequence of Operations In Making Straight Splices. 



be spliced together. In all other cases it is necessary to 
splice according to conductor assignment, and a battery shall 
be put on one pair of conductors and this be picked up by the 
splicer at the other end. This pair shall be used as a talking 
pair and then the other pairs in the cable shall be selected in 
a similar manner and tagged. 

When branch splices are made on a working cable, care 
must be taken not to unnecessarily disarrange the lay of con- 
ductors. Particular care must be taken not to nick the wire 
and not to cut the insulation anv more than- is necessarv. If 



42 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

the insulation be cut it is liable to unwind from the wire, 
causing crosses in the splice. 

When a splicer is hunting pairs in a working cable of a 
central battery exchange, he must connect a condenser in 
series with his knife and head telephone. This is to prevent 
him from causing the switchboard lamps of working lines 
which he touches to flash, thus giving signals to the operator. 
In all tagged splices the extra pair shall be so tagged when a 
splice is completed that it may be readily accessible in clear- 
ing trouble. 

(7) The cables shall be lined up straight and securely fast- 
ened, the distance between the ends being about three inches 
less than the length of the lead sleeve. 

(8) After the cables are lined up in position, the conduc- 
tors shall be bent out of the way at the sheath and then 
spliced in the following manner: 

(9) Starting at the center or lower back side of the cables, 
a pair of wires from each cable is brought together with a 
partial twist, as shown in Fig. 27A, thus marking by the bend 
in the pair the point at which the joint is to be made. Re- 
move the insulation from both wires beyond the twist, care 
being taken not to scrape the conductors. Slip on a paper 
sleeve over each wire of one pair of conductors and push back 
out of the way to make room for the joint. 

The wires shall be connected by the ordinary twist joint. 
The like wires from the two pairs to be spliced shall be 
brought together at the point marked in the bend, and given 
two or three twists as shown in Fig. 27B. The two wires are 
now to be bent as shown and twisted together as if turning 
a crank. The ends of the wires shall be cut oflP so as not to 
leave the twisted wires shorter than i in. The twivSt shall 
be bent down along the insulated wire and the paper sleeve 
slipped over the joint as shown on Fig. 27D. The completed 
joint is shown also. 

Care should be taken in picking out pairs to be spliced to 
take the center pairs first and to arrange the outer pairs about 
them neatly. The wire joints shall be distributee! along the 
length of the splice in order to keep the splice uniform in size 
and shape. 



CABLE SPLICING. 43 

(10) When all the wire joints have been made the splice 
shall be boiled out again with hot parafhn until all moisture 
has disappeared. The parafiin should be applied as described 
before, working towards the center of splice. 

(11) The splice (while hot) shall be wrapped with strips 
of muslin 2 or 3 ins. wide and compressed s.o as to be ad- 
mitted into the lead sleeve. The splice must not be com- 
pressed so tightly as to cause crosses in it. It will not be 
necessary to boil the splice out again unless moisture has 
gotten in during the wrapping with muslin. The muslin 
must not be boiled in paraffin before wrapping. 

(12) The lead sleeve shall be slipped into place before the 
splice is cool. The ends of the lead sleeve, which should 
overlap the ends of lead sheath on cables about lyi ins., 
shall be beaten down to conform with the cable sheath and a 
wiped joint carefully made at each end. In making wiped 



Fls- iS.— Completed Cable Splice. 

joints, strips of gummed paper shall be used to limit the 
joints. All wiped joints should be carefully inspected, using 
a mirror, when necessary, to detect any imperfections in the 
seal. Figure 28 shows a completed cable splice. 

The method of making a joint in cable splices where the 
size of the conductor is 16 gage or greater, shall be the 
same as for the ordinary splice described above, except that 
in the process of twisting the conductors together, one wire 
shall be taken in each hand and each wire given five turns 
around the other. 

The method of making a straight splice when three cables 
form a "Y," is generally the same as for splicing cables in a 
straight line. The ends of the cables are prepared in the 
same manner by removing the lead sheath from each cable 
a distance equal to the length of the lead sleeve to be used. 
The two cables forming a straight line are secured with the 



^4 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

ends of the sheaths a distance apart equal to about 3 ins. less 
than the length of the sleeve. Then the third cable shall be 
lashed to one of the other cables (depending upon the direc- 
tion in which the third cable is to be run) with ends of 
sheaths even, and directly opposite to that on the single cable. 

The method of making a straight splice w-hen four cables 
form a double "Y" is generally the same as described above. 
The ends of the cable are prepared in the same manner and 
the cables lashed together as described in the method of 
splicing three cables forming a **Y." The cables running in 
the same direction are lashed together with ends of their lead 
sheaths opposite each other. Spit sleeves shall be used on 
such splice. The seam of the spit sleeve must be carefully 
soldered, and the ends of the sleeve beaten down to conform 
to the sheath of the cables and soldered with a wiped joint 
at both ends. After finishing wiping the ends, the seam 
should be touched up again to make certain that it is tight. 

Bridge Splices.— The method of making a bridge splice is 
the same as for a straight splice except that the wire joints 
are made by twisting together like wires of three or more pairs 
of conductors. 

Straight-Bridge Splices. — Straight-bridge splices are made 
in the same way as straight splices except that some wire 
joints are made by twisting together like wires of three or 
more pairs of conductors as in making a bridge splice, and 
some wire joints are made by twisting together like wires of 
two pairs of conductors as described in straight splicing. 

Changing Count. — When in the redistribution of cable it 
becomes necessary to change the assignment of conductors 
of a branch cable to other conductors of a main cable it is 
known as changing count. This splice is generally a tag 
splice except when the conductors of the branch cable are to 
be spliced into pairs left "dead." 

The joint shall be blown by melting the wiped joint at 
each end of the lead sleeve and the sleeve cut away or slipped 
back if in condition to be reused. .Then a pair of conductors 
shall be disconnected and joined to a pair of conductors on the 
new count, this process" being continued until the change of 
count is complete. The general method of making the splice 



, CABLE SPLICING, 45 

is otherwise the same as for a straij^ht splice, a bridge-splice 
or a straight-bridge splice, depending on the number of wires 
composing each joint of conductors. 

When the change of count on a branch cable is made into 
a working cable of which part of the conductors are not to be 
cut, a split sleeve must be used if the old sleeve is not in 
condition to be reused. 

t is sometimes necessary to lengthen the conductors in 
order to make the wires of sufficient length for resplicing. 
This is done in the following manner: 

A pair of conductors in the main cables is cut. To one 
end of each conductor shall be spliced a short piece of bare 
wire of the same size as the cable conductors. This wire 
should be twisted about the insulation of the wire two or 
three times to prevent its pulling back on the conductors. 
The second end of the main conductor, the free end of the 
bare wire and a like conductor of a pair in the branch cable 
shall be twisted together, in the same manner already de- 
scribed and covered with a paper sleeve, which shall be long 
'enough to cover both ends of the bare wire. 

Aerial Cuts. — When a branch cable is cut off of one cable 
and spliced into another, it is known as a cut. In disconnect- 
ing the cable the joint shall be blown in the same manner as 
described for changing count. The conductors shall be dis- 
connected by cutting or pulling apart and the joint sealed up 
as usual. The branch cable splice is then made into the new 
cable, the method of splicing being the same as for a straight, 
a bridge, or a straight-bridge splice, depending on the number 
of wires composing each joint of conductors. 

Splicing Toll Cable Into Cable Terminating in a Loading 
Coil or Pot. — The cost data on splicing toll cable into cable 
terminating in a loading pot are based on splicing 120-pair, 
14 gage or 120-pair, 16 gage into a 120-pair, 18 gage cable 
terminating in a loading pot — 60 pair being taken from each 
of two 120-pair one-half 14 gage and one-half 16 gage toll 
cables, and splicing the balance (60 pairs from each toll cable) 
straight through. The 14 gage part of the toll cable is spliced 
into a cable terminating in a loading pot about every 7,000 ft., 
and the 16 gage part, about every 9,000 feet. 



46 TELEPIIOXE COXSTRUC'i;iOX. 

Each cable must first be tested for crosses, grounds and 
insulation as is the case in splicing all toll cable. In splicing 
toll cable into cable terminating in a loading pot the method 
will be as follows : 

The sheaths of cables are to be removed in the same man- 
ner as described for three cable forming a Y, except that one 
of the toll cables shall have its sheath removed for a distance 
equal to about twice the length of the sleeve to be used. The 
cable terminating in the loading pot shall be placed on top of 
the toll cable which has had its sheath removed for a distance 
equal to double that of the other toll cable, and shall be lashed 
together with ends of sheaths even with each other. The 
single toll cable shall be secured in a position directly oppo- 
site to the other two cables with ends of sheaths a distance 
apart equal to about 3 ins. less than the length of sleeve. The 
conductors shall then be spliced in the same manner as for any- 
straight splice except in the following particulars: The con- 
ductors of the toll cable which is lashed to the cable terminat- 
ing in the loading pot shall be looped up so as to bring them 
in position for splicing into the cable which terminates in- 
the loading pot. 

In the process of twisting the conductors together one wire 
shall be taken in each hand and each wire given five turns 
around the other. 

Where only part of each toll cable is to be spliced into cable 
terminating in a loading pot and the balance spliced straight 
through, the method of making the splice is the same as de- 
scribed above except in the following particulars: The toll 
cable which is lashed to the cable terminating in the load- 
ing pot shall have the conductors which are to be spliced 
straight through, cut off at a distance from the end of the 
sheath equal to the length of the sleeve to be used and the 
balance of the conductors shall be looped up as described be- 
fore. The conductors of each toll cable which are to be 
spliced straight through, shall be joined together at the bot- 
tom of the splice in the manner described for straight splicing. 

Potheads for Terminating Aerial Cables. — Aerial cables ter- 
minate in a standard pothead on protected terminal boxes. 
The pothead being attached to the terminal boxes when re- 



CABLE SPLICING. 



47 



ceived from the manufacturer very few of these splices are 
made by splicing gangs. Although no data on the cost of 
these splices are on hand, thej- are explained on account of be- 
ing work which cable splicers are sometimes required to per- 
form. 

In making aerial potheads only No. 22 gage okonite, twisted 
pair wires shall be spliced to paper insulated lead covered 
cables. The twisted wires are to have an insulation of 7/114 
in. thick and one of each pair of wires to have a light cover 
to be used as a tracer. The colors of the okonite wire and 
wires of cable to be spliced to match, and the splice staggered 
over a distance. The joints of conductors are to be covered 




by paper sleeves. When the splice is finished, it is boiled out 
with hot paraffin, beginning at the lead sheath ends and 
working towards the center of the splice, in order to expel the 
moisture. Then the splice shall be bound with hot muslin 
just previously having been boiled out in hot paraffin, the 
muslin strip to be about ^-'m. wide. After the splice is 
tightly wrapped with the muslin strip, it is bound up with 
waxed linen twine and the pothead castings pulled over same. 
Care must be taken to see that none of the muslin or twine 
stick above the line shown on drawing of pothead, Fig. 29, 
and that no fibrous material is in the upper layer of the com- 
pound. The pothead and cable are joined by a cast or sol- 



48 TUUiPHOXB COXSTRUCriON. 

dered joint. This must be absolutely tight and carefully in- 
spected. 

After arranging the splice in the pothead casting and ar- 
ranging the okonite wires at the top of the casting so as not 
to be in contact with each other, the pothead casting shall be 
filled with ozite compound, or its equivalent, to within J4 in. 
of its top. As the compound settles more shall be added to 
keep it to height mentioned. The pothead casting should be 
warmed to a temperature of 200° F. before filling same and 
while the ozite compound is settling should be kept at a tem- 
perature of about 140° F. The ozite compound must be a 
perfect insulator, and must not shrink on cooling, or crack 
at a temperature of lo** below zero. The ozite compound, or 
its equivalent, must not flow under its own weight at a tem- 
perature lower than 60° F., and it must be a perfect fluid at 
220** F. The pothead is then filled to the top with Cimmerian 
asphalt, or its equivalent, which seals the ozite, and prevents 
it from flowing in hot weather. This compound must be flexi- 
ble at a temperature of zero deg. Fahrenheit and melting 
point of 200** F. 

When the upper ends of the okonite wires are to be con- 
nected to brass studs in the terminal boxes, both studs and 
ends of wire must have been previously tinned by using acid 
or salt flux, which has been neutralized with wood alcohol. 
The wires can be soldered to terminal stud with plain or resin 
flux solder. 

Potheads for Connecting Main Cable to Distributing Rack 
Cables. — Potheads for connecting main cable to distributing 
rack cables are always made by a splicing gang. It is never 
a tag splice, but is tested to find extra pairs. The distributing 
rack cable shall be silk and cotton insulated, lead covered, 
cither 20-pr. or 40-pr. cable. The method of making a pot- 
head shall be as follows : 

The main cable shall be prepared for splicing in the same 
manner as for a straight splice, with the exception of the boil- 
ing out process. In boiling the cable out, a mixture of about 
one-half paraffin and one-half beeswax shall be used. ThlJ 
ends of the silk and cotton distributing rack cables shall be 
boiled out with the same mixture. When this mixture is used, 



CABLE SPLICING. 49 

the paper insulation is not so likely to crack, and it will not 
be necessary to carry two pots for boiling and during splic- 
ing — the paraffin for the paper insulated cable and the bees- 
wax for the distributing rack cable. The ends of all the cables 
to be spliced will be prepared in the same manner. 

A lead sleeve of the proper size shall be slipped over the 
main cable and the distributing rack cables passed through 
the small wood disc. This disc is shown in Fig. 30, and is 
drilled in each case, to correspond with the number of dis- 
tributing rack cables to be spliced. The holes to be just large 
enough to admit the cables and the disc to fit snugly inside 

ili _„ 




Fig. 30.— Method of Sullclng Underground and Distributing Rack Cable. 

the lead sleeve. The cables are then lined up as straight as 
ixjssible and the splicing done the same as for a straight cable 
splice. The wood disc which had been previously run up 
on the distributing rack cables shall now be slipped down 
just so that the lead sheath on the distributing rack cables 
shall come flush with the bottom of the disc and the lead 
sleeve y then run up so as to bring the top of the disc about 
I in. below the top oi the lead sleeve. The lead sleeve is then 
wiped to the main cable as usual. 

X'pon the top of the wood disc shall be placed a layer of 
fine dry sand one-half of an inch thick. l.'|>on the top of this 



JO TELEPHOSE COSSTRUCTION. 

layer of sand shall be placed a layer of wiping solder in the 
proportions of i part tin to 2 parts lead, flush with the top of 
the lead sleeve. Care should be taken to see that the layer 
of lead is soldered perfectly tight about the lead sheath of 
each cable and the lead sleeve covering the splice. When this 
is done in a neat and mechanical manner the pothead will be 
finished. 

Connecting Cables to Distributing Rack. — From the pot- 
head the distributing rack cables are carried either in a rack 
or runway or vertically upward to the distributing rack, the 
method depending upon the relative position of the pothead 
rack below and the distributing rack alxjve. The pothead is 
' always made after the cables are distributed on the rack. 




The rack ends of the distributing rack cables are prepared 
as follows: The lead sheath is removed from the ends of the 
cables for a distance great enough to allow the conductors to 
fan out properly upon the distributing block. The cable ends 
are boiled out in beeswax until the moisture is removed in the 
same manner as described for boiling out process in splicing 
cables. At the butt of the lead sheath, waxed muslin will be 
crowded under the sheath as closely as possible and the butt 
of the cables wrapped tightly with waxed lacing twine. The 
twine shall extend about Yi-m. back on the lead sheathing and 
about J/j-in. onto the core of the cables. Then the core of the 
cable shall be fanned out upon the distributing block and the 
wire neatly laced in place with waxed lacing twiije. 

After the cable has been prepared for fanning out the con- 
ductors shall be passed through holes in the terminal block 
in line with the clips to which they are to b" soldered. The 



CABLE SPLICING. 51 

wires shall be pulled tight enough to take out any slack and 
cut off so as to project about a J4 '"■ beyond the end of the 
clip to which it is to be soldered. The insulation shall then 
be cut back about ^ in., and the wire brightened by scraping. 
The end of the wire shall then be given one-half a turn 
around the clip in the neck and soldered with one drop of flux 
solder. The end of the wire shall not be soldered to the clip 
but left projecting about 1/32 in. in order to afford plier hold 
in case of removal. The method above described is illustraied 
in Fig. 31. 

The distributing rack cables shall then be taken up vertical- 
ly into the center of the distributing rack and as close as pos- 
sible to the arm upon which it is to be laced. The cables shall 
be laced tightly to the horizontal arms of the distributing rack 



Fig. 32,— View Showing Cable Readv Fig. 33— 
. for Splicing. 

with waxed lacing twine. When the distributing rack cables 
have to cross arms or part of the frame at right angles and in 
such a manner as to rest on them the frame shall be wrapped 
with at least two layers of adhesive tape wherever contact 
with the cable is made to prevent the grounding of the con- 
ductors should the sheath be injured. When the cables are 
carried above the distributing rack in a rack or runway, they 
will distribute down vertically into the center of the dis- 
tributing rack, as clo.se as possible In the block upon which 
they are to be fastened. 

General Order of Making Splices.^Spl icing a cable into a 
working cable or a cable connected with the distributing rack 
or the splicing together of two cables which are connected 



';2 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



with counts, is generally a final splice and it is necessary to 
test and tag all the cables spliced on account of subsidiary 
splices being made prior to this splice. It is unnecessary in 
splicing the leg of a terminal box or in splicing a lateral cable 
into a main cable to tag the first splice when the main cable 
has not been connected or spliced to any other cable. 

After the several lengths of the main cable have been 
spliced a leg of a terminal box or a branch cable — as the case 
may be — is spliced into the main cable. It is generally best 
first to splice in the terminal box or branch cable containing 
the largest number of pairs, as this splice would otherwise 
require the most tagging. The balance of the splices are then 
made, each splice being tested and tagged. The amount of 
pairs tagged depends on the size of the branch cable or ter- 
minal box, and the number of pairs tested depends on the 
size of the cables. 



Diacram of Splice 
Size of Cables 
No. of Prs. Spliced 



Form 19. 
Data Secured by 

Straight Splick. 

(Aerial) 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



100 



No. of Team- 
Splices ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Tagg- 
ing & 
Test- 
ing 



Splic 
ing 



I 



Wip- 
ing 
Joints 



Sup. 
ami 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Note: — "Framing" includes the cost of erecting the platform, cutting the sheath and 
preparing the cables for splicing. "Splicing" includes joining the conductors, Ixjiling out, 
wrapping and getting in shape to put on lead sleeve. "Wiping Joints" includes putting 
lead sleeve in place and wiping joints. 



Diagram of Splice 
Size of Cables 
No. of Prs. Spliced 



Form 20. 
Data Secured by 

Bridge Splice. 

(Aerial) 

Location • Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 









Tagg- 




No. of Team- 


Fram- 


ing & 


Splic- i 


Splices ing 


ing 


Tesi- 


iiiK 








iin? 





WiT»- 
inK 
Joinls 



Sup. 

and 

Kxp. 



Total 
Co.sl 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Note:- Where a s;)Kce is ina<lc on a working cable the blowing of the joint is included 
"Framing." A notation should be made under "Remarks" if the oplice is made on a 



m f rammg 
working cable. 



CABLE SPLICING. 



S3 



Form 21. 
Data Secured by * 

Straight-Bridge Splice. 

(Aerial) Order No 

Diagram of Splice r ^- r^ ^ 

Size of Cables /Straight ^-~»*»°° ^*^« 

No. of Prs. Splioed^Qfj^J^ Foreman 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Tagg- 
ipg & 
Test- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
Joints 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



190 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 

jnarks 



Diagram of Splice 

Size of Cables /Straight 

No. of Prs. Spliced ^Bridged Foreman 



Form 22. 
Data Secured by 

Changing Count. 

(Aerial) 
Location Date. 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 


Fram- 
ing 


Tagg- 
ing & 
Test- 
ing 


Splic- 
ing 


Wip- 
ing 
Joints 


Sup. 
and 
Exp. 


Total 
Cost 


Extra 

Hours 

Worked 


Total 

Hours 

Worked 





















Re- 
marks 



Note: — "Framing" includes the cost of blowing the joint, erecting the platform and 
preparing cables for splicing. 



Diagram of Splice 
Size of Cables 



bizc ot L^aoies /Straight ^^ — 
No.of Prs. Spliced^ Bj4(]^ed Foreman 



Form 23. 
Data Secured by 

Cuts. 

(Aerial) 
Location Date. 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Tagg- 
ing& 
Test- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
Joints 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Note: — "Framing" includes blowing the joint and disconnecting wires, erecting plat- 
form and preparing cables for new splice. 



Diagram of Splice 
Size of Cables 
No. of Prs. Spliced 



Form 24. 
Data Secured by 

Straight Splice. 

(Underground) 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Pump- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tagg- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
J'nts 



Sup. 
and 
Exp 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
masks 



Note: — Splicing of loading pot cables and toll cable are reported on this form. 



54 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Diagram of Splice 
Si«e of Cables 
No. of Prs. Spliced 



Form 26. 
Data Secured by 

Bridge Splice. 

(Underground) 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Pump- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tugg- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
J'nts 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Diagram of Splice 
Size of Cables 



bise ot cables (Straight 
No. of Prs. Spliced^Bridged 



Form 26. 
Data Secured by 

Straight-Bridge Splice. 
(Underground) 

Location Date. 



Order No. 



190 



Foreman. 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



T 



Pump- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tagg- 
mg 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
J'nts 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Diagram of Splice 

Size of Cables ^Straight 

No. of Prs. Spl iced |b ridged 



Form 27. 
Data Secured by 

Changing Count. 

(Undergroimd) 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Pump- 
ing 



I I 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tagg- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
J'nts 



Sup. 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



r 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Re- 
marks 



Diagram of Splice 

Size of Cables /Straight 

No. of Prs. bphcedJBridged 



Form 28. 
Data Secured by 

Cuts. 

(Underground) 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 

Splices 



Team- 
ing 



Pump- 
ing 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tagg- 
ing 



Splic- 
ing 



Wip- 
ing 
J'nts 



Sup. 
and 
Exp 



Total 
CoKt 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Workctl 



Re 

mark*-. 



1 



r 



CABLE SPLICING. 



55 



Diagram of Splice 
Size of Cables 
No. of Prs. Spliced 



Form 29. 
Data Secured by. 

POTHEAD. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Splices 



Fram- 
ing 



Test- 
ing & 
Tagg- 
ing 



Splic- 
mg 



Wip- 
ing 
Joints 



Sup. 

and 

Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Woiiced 



ToUl 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Note: — ^There is no coltunn for teaming on this form as this class of work is done in 
telephone exchanges and the material is hauled by the line gang. 



Form 30. 
Data Secured by , 

Connecting Cable to Distributing Rack. 

Order No. 

No. Pairs Connected Location Date 

Size of Cable Foreman 



190 



Placing 

Cable 

Bet. 

Pothead 

and 

Rack. 

I 



Fram- 
ing 



Distribut- 
ing Wires 
on Rack 
and Con- 
necting to 
Term. 
Blocks. 



Liu:- 
ing 



Solder- 
ing 
Wires 

to 
Term. 
Blocks 



Sup. 
and 
Ex-^. 



Total 
Cost 



Extra 

Hours 

Worked 



Total 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Notb: — ^No column for teaming is put on this form as this class of work is done in 
telephone exchanges and the material is always hauled and stored on the premises by the 
line gang. "Framing" includes stripping armour, boiling out with beeswax and preparing 
cable for frame. "Lacing" includes lacing wires together, lacing cables to rack and to 
runway. 

FORMS FOR REPORTING COSTS. 

The forms for reporting the cost of cable splicing 
are shown in Forms 19 to 30. Very little explana- 
tion of these forms is necessary as the divisions 
compare with the actual division of splicing already de- 
scribed. On most of these forms spaces for entering the num- 
ber of pairs tested and the number of pairs tagged will be 
found. Except in the case of splicing into working cable, no 
separation is made in the cost data between the same kind 
and size of tagged splices whether more or less pairs are 
tested and tagged, as they average about the same in either 
case. On account of it being necessary to pump out some 
vaults before splicing, a special column for recording the 
cost of pumping will be found on the forms for underground 
cable splices. Unlike the forms used for line construction and 
cable work, the forms used for cable splicing do not include 



56 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

"labor in hauling" with "teaming" on account of practically 
no labor being expended in hauling material. 

Method of Figuring Cable Splicing Costs. — ^The method of 
figuring cable splicing costs is the same as described for Line 
Construction and Cable Work except that board is included 
in "Supervision and Expense." This is done on account of 
board being paid in addition to the regular wages only when 
the splicers are working away from their station. Splicers 
are required to return to their station each day when possible. 
In this case board is allowed for one meal only. 

CABLE SPLICING COST DATA. 

Cable splicing costs, Tables XXXVIII to LXII, are based 

on the following rate of wages : 

Per 8-hour day. 

Head splicers $340 to $3.70 

Splicers 3.00 to 3.20 

Helpers 1.75 to 2.00 

Rigs (usually single) 2.50 to 3.00 

Time and one-half is paid for overtime. There being prac- 
tically no difference between the cost of splicing 19 gage and 
22 gage cables they are not separated in the following cost 
data. The cost of making several splices of the same kind 
and size have been found to vary very little. Except when 
the splicing is done by splicers who have worked all night, 
usually splices of the same kind and size will not vary more 
than 10 per cent. 

The cost of splicing into working cable is kept separate 
on account of being more expensive than splicing into other 
cable. The difference is caused by it being necessary to test 
and tag all cables spliced, the care used to prevent unneces- 
sary interruption of service and also because the splice is 
often worked on after regular hours for which splicers are 
paid time and one-half. 

The cost of blowing the joint of a working cable and the 
cost of cutting the sheath off of cables in preparing for a 
splice, are about equal. 

In making a' change of count or a cut it is often necessary 
to lengthen the conductors by splicing on a piece of wire of 
the same gage. This adds considerably to the cost of splicing 
conductors together. 



CABLE SPLICING. 



57 



Table XXXVIII.— Cost of Straight Splices, Aerial, Not Tagged. 

Super- Aver, 
vision Cost 
Number and Size of Cables Wiping and per 

Spliced— Team'g. Fram'g. Spllc'g. Joints. Exp'se. Splice. 

2-15 Pr $0.34 $0.42 $0.35 $0.50 $0.49 $2.10 

2-25 Pr 0.31 0.51 0.52 0.60 0.37 2.31 

2-50 Pr 0.58 0.57 0.82 0.57 0.60 3.14 

2-100 Pr 0.62 0.76 1.44 0.62 1.02 4.46 

2-200 Pr 0.77 0.97 3.08 0.70 1.60 7.02 

1-15 Pr. Into 1-25 Pr., 10 Prs. 

Left Dead 0.29 0.47 0.37 0.56 0.50 2.19 

1-15 Pr. Into 1-50 Pr.. 35 Prs. 

Left Dead 0.34 0.44 0.39 0.52 0.53 2.22 

1-25 Pr. into 1-50 ^Pr., 25 Prs. 

Left Dead jT. 0.41 0.42 0.58 0.54 0.49 2.44 

1-50 Pr. Into 1-100 Pr., 50 Prs. 

Left Dead 0.62 0.64 0.87 0.61 0.64 3.38 

1-15 Pr. and 1-25 Pr. Into 1-50 

Pr., 10 Pr. Left Dead 0.55 0.63 0.85 0.64 0.58 3.25 

2-15 Pr. into 1-50 Pr., 20 Prs. 

Left Dead 0.47 0.59 0.66 0.62 0.50 2.84 

2-25 Pr. into 1-60 Pr 0.61 0.66 0.90 0.59 0.70 3.46 

Note — ^A straight splice Is rarely made on a working cable. When an 

extension Is necessary It is usually made by pulling in a new cable and 

bridging it into a main cable. In the above data each section of cable is 

referred to as one cable. 



Table XXX IX. — Cost 



Number 

and Size of Ca- Team- 

bles spliced. ing. 

2-15 Pr $0.29 

2-25 Pr 0.36 

2-50 Pr 0.59 

2-100 Pr 0.66 

1-15 Pr. into 1-25 Pr., 

10 Prs. Left Dead... 0.31 
1-25 Pr. into 1-50 Pr.. 

25 Prs. Left Dead... 0.39 
1-50 Pr. into 1-100 Pr.. 

50 Prs. Left Dead... 0.60 
1-15 Pr. and 1-25 Pr. 

into 1-50 Pr., 10 Prs. 

Left Dead 0.51 

2-15 Pr. into 1-50 Pr., 

20 Prs. Left Dead... 0.49 



OF Straight 


Splices, 


Aeriai 


-, Tagged 


. 












Av'ge 




Testing 






Supervis- 


Cost 


Fram- 


and 




Wiping ion and 


per 


ing. 


Tagging Splicing. 


Joints. 


Expense. 


Splice. 


$0.46 


$0.44 


$0.36 


$0.44 


$0.62 


$2.61 


0.44 


0.53 


0.49 


0.46 


0.64 


2.97 


0.55 


1.02 


0.77 


0.60 


0.70 


4.13 


0.78 


1.66 


1.49 


0.60 


1.11 


6.30 


0.48 


0.48 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


2.77 


9.50 


0.69 


0.54 


0.46 


0.64 


3.21 


0.60 


1.08 


0.82 


0.60 


0.73 


4.43 


0.63 


0.96 


0.79 


0.66 


0.70 


4.26 


0.58 


0.79 


0.62 


0.65 


0.59 


3.72 



Table XL. — Cost of Straight Splices, Underground. 

(Cost of splicing 60 prs. from each of two 120 pr. %-14 gage and %-16 
gage toll cables into a 120 pr. 18 gage cable terminating in a loading pot. 
and splicing the balance straight through.) 
Part of 



Cable 
Spliced 
Straight 
Through 



Team- 
ing. 



14 Gage $1.04 

16 Gage 1.01 



Pump- Frara- Test- Splic- Wiping 

ing. ing. ing. ing. Joints. 

$0.62 $1.68 $1.80 $8.69 $1.82 

0.64 1.64 1.86 8.88 1.79 



Super- 
vision 
and 
Ex- 
pense. 
$6.47 
6.52 



Average 

Cost 

per 

Splice. 

$22.12 

22.34 



Note — This class of work is generally done In the country. The super- 
vision of a head splicer and board for the gang make the cost of "Supervi- 
sion and Expense" high. 



58 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table XLI. — Cost of Straight Splices, Underground, Not Tagged. 

Av'ire 

Supervision Cost 

Number and Size of Team- Pump- Pram- Spllc- Wiping and per 

Cables Spliced. ing. ingr- ing. ing. Joints. Expense. Splice. 

2-50 Pr $0.46 $0.53 $0.49 $0.80 $0.45 $0.60 $3.33 

2-100 Pr 0.59 0.56 0.60 1.42 0.49 0.86 4.52 

2-200 Pr 0.59 0.58 0.87 2.86 0.57 1.38 6.85 

2-300 Pr 0.61 0.55 0.91 3.67 0.61 1.59 8.04 

1-25 Pr. Into 1-50 Pr.. 

25 Prs. Left Dead... 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.65 0.42 0.54 2.87 
1-50 Pr. Into 1-100 Pr., 

50 Prs. Left Dead... 0.52 0.51 0.52 0.84 0.49 0.72 3.60 
1-100 Pr. into 1-200 Pr., 

100 Prs. Left Dead... 0.58 0.57 0.76 1.51 0.54 0.94 4.90 

Table XLI I. — Cost of Straight Splices, Underground, Tagged. 

Number Testing Supervision Av'ge 

and Size and and Cost 

of Cables Team- Pump- Fram- Tag- Spllc- Wiping Ex- per 

Spliced. In'g. Ing. ing. glng. Ing. Joints, pense. SpUoe. 

2-50 Pr $0.42 $0.49 $0.51 $0.98 $0.78 $0.42 $0.64 $4.24 

2-100 Pr 0.56 0.54 0.62 1.58 1.37 0.51 1.11 6.29 

2-200 Pr 0.59 0.58 0.85 2.80 2.78 0.60 1.72 9.92 

2-300 Pr 0.60 0.57 0.89 4.06 8.69 0.62 2.06 12.49 

2-150 Pr. 16 

Gauge Toll 

Cable 0.96 0.61 0.92 1.56 2.87 0.63 3.17 10.22 

2-120 Pr. H-14 

and ^-13 Oa 

Toll Cable...' 0.94 0.60 0.91 1.39 1.96 0.66 2.89 9.86 

1-50 Pr. Into 

1-100 Pr.. 50 

Prs. Left 

Dead 0.# 0.50 0.54 1.07 0.84 0.59 0.71 4.74 

2-50 Pr. Into 

1-100 Pr 0.57 0.54 0.83 1.62 1.44 0.67 1.16 6.83 

Note — Toll cable is always tested for crosses, grounds and insulation, but 
not tagged. Teaming and supervision and expense are higher for toll cable 
than for other cable on account of the work being done in the country. 

Table XLIII. — Cost of Bridge Spuces, Aerial, Not Tagged. 

Number Supervision Average 

and Size of Wiping and Cost per 

Cables Spliced. Teaming. Framing. Splicing. Joints. Expense. Splice. 

8-15 Pr $0.50 $0.61 $0.52 $0.64 $0.57 $2.84 

3-25 Pr 0.62 0.65 0.87 0.62 0.70 3.46 

3-50 Pr 0.64 0.63 1.61 0.68 0.81 4.37 



Table XLIV. — Cost of Bridge Splices, Aerial, Tagged. 



Number and 
Size of 
Cables 
Spliced. 

3-15 Pr. 
3-25 Pr. 
3-50 Pr. 



Testing 

and Wiping 

Teaming. Framing. Tagging. Splicing. Joints. 

..$0.53 $0.59 $0.74 $0.54 $0.65 

.. 0.59 0.66 0.98 0.84 0.68 

.. 0.66 0.69 1.71 1.58 0.71 



Super- 
vision Average 
and Cost per 
Expense. Splice. 

$0.64 $3.69 

0.76 4.51 

1.06 6.41 



Table XLV. — Cost of Bridge Splices, Aerial, Onto Working Cable. 



Number and Size of Cables Spliced. .S .S 

t t 

1-15 Pr. Bridged onto a Splice of 

2-15 Pr $0.64 $0.66 

1-25 Pr. Bridged onto a Splice of 

2-25 Pr 0.68 0.69 

1-50 Pr. Bridged onto a Splice of 

2-50 Pr » 0.72 0.70 

1-100 Pr. Bridged onto a Splice of 

2-100 Pr 0.78 0.77 



n 
cd . 

C.S 
to W 

HH 
$0.78 

1.04 

2.32 

3.96 



8P 

M 

0. 
CO 

$045 
0.63 
1.08 
2.04 



.?2 

^^ 

$0.68 

0.66 

0.74 

0.81 



:«& 

fcW 

O.'O 
CO OS 

$0.64 
0.72 
1.30 
1.76 



8 
• 2 



$3.85 
4.42 
6.86 

10.12 



CABLE SPLICING. 



59 



Table XL VI.— Cost of Bridge Splices, Underground, Not Tagged. 



Number 

and Size 

of enables 

Spliced. Teaming. Pumping. 


Framing. 


Splicing. 


Wiping 
Joints. 


Super- 
vision Average 
and Cost per 
Expense. Splice. 


3-50 Pr....$0.44 $0.50 
8-100 Pr... 0.53 0.47 
3-200 Pr... 0.58 0.53 


$0.61 
0.76 
0.91 


$1.56 
2.78 
5.37 


$0.65 
0.72 
0.89 


$0.78 $4.54 
1.18 6.44 
1.74 10.02 



Table XLVII. — Cost of Bridge Splices, Underground, Tagged. 

Number and Testing Supervision 

Size of and and A-verasre 

Cables Team- Pump- Fram- Tag- Splic- Wiping Ex- Cost per 

Spliced. ing. ing. ing. ging. Ing. Joints, pense. Splice. 

3-50 Pr $0.46 $0.48 $0.62 $1.52 $1.53 $0.66 $1.27 $6.54 

8-100 Pr 0.42 0.52 0.74 2.39 2.52 0.70 1.58 8.87 

3-200 Pr 0.63 0.52 0.87 3.72 4.39 0.82 2.02 13.47 



Table XLVIII. — Cost of Bridge Spuces, Underground, Onto Working 



Number and Size of ? 

Cables Spliced. g 

1-60 Pr. Bridged onto a 
Splice of 2-50 Pr $0.69 

1-100 Pr. Bridged onto a 
Splice of 2-100 Pr 0.75 

1-200 Pr. Bridged onto a 
Splice of 2-200 Pr 0.69 



Cable. 







•a 






oi 


f 






a 






oc 


O ai 


I 

0* 


Framing. 


Testing a 
Tagging. 


CI 

t 

'.I 


O.P 


Supervisi 
and Bxpe 




$0.53 


$0.68 


$2.26 


$0.97 


$0.76 


$1.27 


$7.16 


0.49 


0.73 


3.79 


1.82 


0.82 


1.83 


10.23 


0.61 


0.86 


5.82 


3.68 


0.81 


2.26 


14.73 



Table XLIX. — Cost of Straight- Bridge Splices, Aerial, Not Tagged. 



Number 
















and size 


Number 










Super- 




of Branch 


and Size 










vision 


Av'ge 


Cables Spliced 


of 










and 


Cost 


into Main Main Cables 


Team- 


F*ram- 


Splic- 
ing. 


Wipirg 


Ex- 


per 


Cables. 


Spliced. 


ing. 


ing. 


Joints. 


pense. 


Splice. 


1-15 Pr. 


1-25 Pr. 


$0.48 


$0.48 


$0.49 


$0.67 


$0.52 


$2.64 


1-15 Pr. 


2-25 Pr. 


0.51 


0.52 


0.63 


0.65 


0.59 


2.90 


1-15 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 


0.54 


0.59 


1.17 


0.68 


0.63 


8.66 


1-15 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.63 


0.72 


1.82 


0.68 


1.05 


4.90 


1-26 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 


0.5" 


0.64 


1.31 


0.66 


0.70 


8.88 


1-25 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.66 


0.75 


1.96 


0.78 


1.09 


6.19 


1-60 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.70 


0.72 


2.24 


0.76 


1.16 


6.58 



Table L. — Cost of Straight-Bridge Splices, Aerial, Tagged. 



No. and size 


















of Branch 


Number 










Super- 




Cables ' 


and Size 






Testing 




1 


i^ision 


Av'ge 


Spliced 


of 






and 




Wip- 


and 


Cost 


into Main 


Main Cables 


Team- 


Fram- 


Tag- 


Splic- 
ing. 


ing 


Ex- 


per 


Cables. 


Spliced. 


ing. 


ing. 


ging. 


Joints. 


pense. 


Splice. 


1-15 Pr. 


2-25 Pr. 


$0.51 


$0.54 


$0.68 


$0.66 


$0.57 


$0.64, 


$3.60 


1-15 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 


0.44 


0.54 


1.24 


0.95 


0.61 


0.90^ 


4.68 


1-15 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.58 


0.59 


1.95 


1.64 


0.67 


1.24 


6.67 


1-26 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 


0.56 


0.57 


1.83 


1.10 


0.63 


1.13 


6.32 


1-25 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.54 


0.64 


2.07 


1.78 


0.75 


1.32 


7.10 


1-50 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.64 


0.67. 


2.29 


1.97 


0.79 


1.41 


7.77 


2-15 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 


0.59 


0.69 


1.46 


1.83 


0.88 


1.19 


6.14 


2-15 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.63 


0.73 


2.10 


1.85 


0.90 


1.37 


7.68 


2-25 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.62 


0.74 


2.40 


2.10 


0.85 


1.46 


8.17 


1-60 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 


0.69 


0.81 


2.57 


2.31 


0.89 


1.65 


8.92 



6o 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table LI.— Cost op Straight-Bridge Spuces, Aerial, Onto Working 

Cable. 



No. and Slse . 














of Branch 












Super- 




Oables 








Testing 




vision 


Av'ge 


Spliced 


Slse Of 






and 




and 


Cost 


into Main 


Main Team- 


■ Fram 


- Tag- Splic- Wiping Ex- 


per 


Cable. 


Cable. 


ing. 


ing. 


ging. ing. Joints, pense. 


Splice. 


1-16 Pp. 


25 Pr. 


10.58 


$0.56 


$0.90 $0.44 


$0.69 $0.66 


$3.83 


1-15 Pr. 


60 Pr. 


0.61 


0.50 


1.43 


0.63 


0.72 0.96 


4.85 


1-16 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


0.67 


0.62 


2.80 


0.74 


0.70 1.19 


6.22 


1-25 Pr. 


50 Pr. 


0.64 


0.59 


1.52 


0.76 


0.74 1.02 


6.27 


1-26 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


0.68 


0.62 


2.69 


0.86 


0.79 1.26 


6.90 


1-50 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


0.78 


0.70 


3.06 


.1.25 


0.84 1.40 


8.03 


Table LII 


. — Cost of Straight- Bridge Splices, 


Underground, Not Tagged. 


No. and Size Number 








• 






of Branch 


and Size 










Super- 




Cables 


of 










vision 


Av'ge 


Spliced 


Main 










Wip- and 


Cost 


into Main 


Cables 


1 


ream- Pump- Fram- 


Splic- 


ing Ex- 


per 


Cables 


Spliced. 




ing. 


Ing. ing. 


ing. 


Joints, pense. 


Splice. 


1-25 Pr. 


2-50 Pr. 




$0.38 . 


$0.46 $0.56 


$1.24 


$0.62 $0.74 


$4.00 


1-25 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 




0.52 


0.51 0.70 


1.83 


0.71 1.06 


5.33 


1-25 Pr. 


2-200 Pr. 




0.46 


0.47 0.78 


3.32 


0.78 1.48 


7.29 


1-50 Pr. 


2-100 Pr. 




0.54 


0.54 9.71 


2.10 


0.72 1.14 


5.75 


1-50 Pr. 


2-200 Pr. 




0.47 


0.59 0.82 


3.58 


0.84 1.60 


7.90 


1-50 Pr. 


2-300 Pr. 




0.60 


0.52 0.91 


5.95 


0.88 1.68 


10.54 


1-100 Pr. 


2-200 Pr. 




0.64 


0.57 0.84 


4.03 


0.82 1.61 


8.51 


1-100 Pr. 


2-300 Pr. 




0.S7 


0.55 0.98 


6.21 


0.91 1.74 


10.96 


1-200 Pr. 


2-300 Pr. 




0.59 


0.61 1.06 


6.86 


0.84 2.06 


12.01 



Table LIII. — Cost of Straight- Bridge Splices, Underground, Tagged. 



No. *nd Blse 
of Branch 
Oftbles Bplloed 
IntolUln 
0»bl«a. 



1-25 

1-25 

1-25 

1-50 

1-50 

1-50 

1-100 

1-100 

1-200 

1-25 

1-50 

1-25 

1-50 

2-25 

2-50 

1-50 

1-100 

1-50 

1-100 

1-50 

2-100 

1-25 

1-50 

1-160 



Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 



Number 

aod Slse of 

Halo Cables 

Spliced. 

2-50 Pr. 
2-100 Pr. 
2-200 Pr. 
2-100 Pr. 
2-200 Pr. 
2-300 Pr. 
2-200 Pr. 
2-300 Pr. 
2-300 Pr. 

2-100 Pr. 

2-200 Pr. 

2-100 Pr. 
2-200 Pr. 

. 2-200 Pr. 
2-300 Pr. 
2-300 Pr. 



Team- 
ing. 

$0.41 
0.47 
0.51 
0.50 
0.60 
0.57 
0.54 
0.62 
0.59 

0.53 

0.56 

0.49 
0.53 

0.61 
0.64 
0.69 



Piimp- 
lug. 

$0.49 
0.53 
0.51 
0.47 
0.54 
0.62 
0.56 
0.61 
0.64 



0.59 

0.56 
0.61 

0.66 
0.«4 
0.68 



Fram- 
ing. 

$0.59 
0.68 
0.79 
0.73 
0.84 
0.94 
0.83 
1.01 
0.99 



Testing 

and 
Tagging. 

$1.13 
2.01 
3.16 
2.18 
3.37 
4.18 
3.67 
4.49 
4.87 



1.03 

0.75 
0.97 

1.14 
1.16 
1.37 



3.48 

2.26 
3.62 

4.04 
4.68 
5.16 



Bpl Ic- 
ing. 

$1.03 
1.69 
2.89 
1.82 
3.16 
4.99 
3.61 
5.48 
6.49 



0.59 0.82 2.39 2.16 



3.47 

1.96 
3.76 

4.54 
5.88 
6.86 



Wiping 
Jolnta. 

$0.56 
0.64 
0.67 
0.62 
0.69 
0.78 
0.72 
0.66 
0.71 

0.83 

U.91 

0.87 
0.91 

0.89 
0.94 
1.17 



Saperri- 

non 

and 
Expeoae. 

$1.02 
1.30 
1.71 
1.36 
1.79 
2.28 
1.84 
2.41 
2.63 



1.87 

1.41 
1.92 



AT'ge 
CoaC 

Splloe. 
$5.M 

7.32 
10.24 

7.68 
10.99 
14.36 
11.77 
15.28 
16.92 



1.50 8.82 



11.91 

8.30 
12.32 



2.20 14.08 
2.68 16.62 
2.91 18.83 



f 



2-200 Pr. 



0.62 0.73 1.26 8.90 4.07 1.10 2.18 13.86 



CABLE SPLICING. 



6i 



Table LIV. — Cost of Straight-Bridge Splices, Underground, Onto 

Working Cables. 



No. and Sice 

of Bimneli 

Cables Spliced 

Into Main Sice of 

Gable. Main Cable. 



1-25 
1-25 
1-25 
1-50 
1-50 
1-50 



Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 



1-100 Pr. 
1-100 Pr. 
1-200 Pr. 
1-25 Pr. 



50 
100 
200 
100 
200 
300 
200 
300 
300 



Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 



1-50 
2-50 
1-25 
1-50 



Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 



200 Pr. 

200 Pr. 
300 Pr. 



Team- 
ing. 

$0.46 
0.51 
0.47 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
0.51 
0.62 
0.57 



0.54 0.62 



Pamp- 


Fram- 


\ng. 


ing. 


$0.52 


$0.53 


0.47 


0.57 


0.50 


0.64 


0.53 


0.55 


0.49 


0.67 


0.61 


0.69 


0.58 


0.74 


0.51 


0.72 


0.67 


0.68 



0.63 
0.58 



0.53 
0.59 



0.89 

1.01 
0.96 



Testing 

and 
Tagging. 

$1.36 
2.74 
3.74 
3.06 
4.19 
5.30 
4.70 
6.82 
7.06 

4.33 

4.17 
6.51 



Splic- 
ing. 

$0.72 
0.80 
0.87 
1.18 
1.23 
1.31 
2.06 
2.14 
3.70 

1.84 

2.16 
1.97 



Snperrl- 
■lon 



AVge 
Cost 



Wiping 
JointB. 


and 
Expense. 


SpliM. 


$0.64 


$1.08 


$5.31 


0.63 


1.29 


7.01 


0.71 


1.44 


8.37 


0.61 


1.39 


7.76 


0.68 


1.57 


9.36 


0.79 


1.80 


11.04 


0.80 


1.76 


11.15 


0.74 


1.99 


12.54 


82 


2.52 


16.02 



0.96 

1.01 
0.97 



1.63 10.81 



1.91 
2.02 



11.42 
12.60 



Note — ^All the data on straight -bridge splices, both aerial and under- 
ground, Is based on splicing branch cables on separate counts. It makes 
little difference in the cost, however, whether the branches are spliced on 
the same or separate counts. In all the data on straight-bridge splices the 
two sections of the continuous cable, when not already spliced, are entered 
In the column, "Number and Size of Main Cables Spliced," as 2-25 Pr., 
2-50 Pr., etc. When the cable is already spliced, as in the data under 
"Working Cables," it is referred to as 25 Pr., 50 Pr., etc. 



Table LV.— Cost of Changing Counts, Aerial, Not Tagged. 



Mo. of 
Ho. and Size Palm No. of 

of Branch 8 ice of Spliced Pairs Team- Fram- 

Cables. Main Cable Straight. Bridged. Ing. ing. 

1-25 Pr.* 100 Pr. 25 $0.68 $1.18 

1-50 Pr. 100 Pr. .. 50 0.75 1.64 

tThese splices were made onto pairs left dead. 

^The main cable ended at the splice. 

Table LVI. — Cost of Changing Counts, Aerial, on Working Cable, 

Tagged. 



Splic- 
ing. 


Wiping 
Joints. 


Superrl- 

Mon 

and 
Expense. 


$1.08 
1.72 


$0.69 
0.64 


$0.91 
1.19 



▲▼*ge 

Cost 

per 

SpUoe. 

$4.54 
5.94 







No. of 








1 


Superri- 


Av'ge. 


Ho. and Slxe 




Pairs 


No. of Test'ng 






slon 


Cost 


of Branch 


Sloe of 


Spliced 


Pairs Team- Fram- 


and 


Splic- 
ing. 


wiping 


and 


Bpfiee 


Cables. 


Main Cable. 


straight. Bridged ing. ing. Tagging. 


Joints. 


Expense. 


1-15 Pr. 


50 Pr. 




15 $0.70 $0.S0 


n.28 


$0.98 


$0.61 


$1.16 


$5.48 


1-25 Pr. 


50 Pr. 


• • • • 


25 0.73 1.07 


1.61 


1.46 


0.66 


1.28 


6.81 


1-25 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


• • • • 


25 0.86 1.24 


2.88 


1.57 


0.71 


1.61 


8.82 


1-60 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


• • ■ ■ 


50 0.84 1.53 


3.21 


3.06 


0.69 


1.90 


11.23 


Table LVIL— -Cost of Changing Counts, 


Underground, Not Tagged. 






No. of 










SaperTl- 
ston 


AT'ge 


Ho. and Size 




Pairs 


No. of 








Cost 


of Branch 


Bice of 


Spliced 


Palm Team- Pump- ] 


fram- 


Spile- ' 


Wiping 
JointB. 


and 


Spfies 


Cables. Main Cable. 


Straight. Bridged, ing. Ing. 


ing. 


Ing. 


Expense. 


1-25 Pr.« 


100 Pr. 


25 


$0.59 $0.43 


$1.11 


$1.M 


$0.58 


$0.96 


$4.70 


1-25 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


m m 


25 0.58 0.52 


1.22 


1.28 


0.67 


1.07 


£.29 


1-50 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


m • 


50 0.67 0.49 


1.62 


1.91 


0.69 


1.30 


6.68 


tThese splices were made onto pairs left dead. 










•The 


main cable ended at the splice. 












Table LVIII.— Cost of 


Changing Counts^ 


, Uderground, on Working 








Cable, Tagged. 












1^ 

8.0 


• 


c 


e 


•o 




« 

•*4 


ci 


S 


o. and Si 
ranch Ca 


ize of 
ain Cabli 


b. of Pai 

pliced 

traight. 


b. of Pai 

ridged. 

earning, 
umping. 
raming. 


esting an 
agging. 


1 


a 


iipervisio 
id Exper 


verage C 
er Splice. 


2PQ 


c/sS 


.^CflW 


sn H (i* b 


HH 


CO 


CO <a 


<a« 


1-25 Pr. 


100 Pr. 




25 $0.63 tO.57 $1.06 


$2.74 


$1.44 


$0.67 


$1.66 


$8.77 


1-26 Pr. 


200 Pr. 




36 0.74 0.62 1.18 


3.79 


1.63 


0.64 


1.79 


10.39 


1-60 Pr. 


100 Pr. 




50 0.83 0.71 1.34 


3.11 


2.99 


0.71 


1.86 


11.66 


1-50 Pr. 


200 Pr. 




50 0.72 0.68 1.43 


4.12 


3.18 


0.69 


2.08 


12.00 


1-100 Pr. 


200 Pr. 




100 0.84 0.61 2.66 


4.88 


6.21 


0.73 


2.67 


17.40 


1-100 Pr. 


300 Pr. 




100 0.79 0.62 2.70 


5.74 


6.63 


0.70 


2.91 


18.89 



62 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table LIX. — Cost of Aerial Cuts. ♦ 



o. and Size oi 
ranch Cables 


ize of Cables 
T of which 
ranches 
ere Cut. 


ize of Cables 
ito which 
ranches 
ere Spliced. 


o. of Pairs 

pliced 

traight. 


b. of Pairs 
ridged. 




mm* 


esting and 
agging. 


• 


• 

« 

c 

1 


apervision 
nd Expense. 


verage Coat 
er Splice. 


^n 


coon > 


co.5m^ 


Zcoco 


zn 


H 


b 


HH 


CO 


CO OS 


<:p4 


1-15 Pr. 


50 Pr. 


60 Pr. 


• • • ■ 


16 


$0.67 


$1.06 


$1.03 


$1.20 


$1.01 


$1.21 


16.18 


1-26 Pr. 


60 Pr. 


60 Pr. 


t • ■ • 


26 


0.78 


1.38 


1.66 


1.04 


1.02 


1.46 
1.70 


8.22 


1-26 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


• • ■ • 


26 


0.70 


1.44 


2.98 


1.07 


1.14 


10.02 


1-60 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


■ • * ■ 


60 


0.87 


1.73 


8.17 


3.77 


1.20 


1.08 


12.72 



•See note on "underground cuts." 



Table LX. — Cost of Underground Cuts. 



No. and Size oi 
Branch Cables 


Size of Cables 
off of which 
Branches 
were Cut. 


Size of Cables 
into which 
Branches 
were Spliced. 

No. of Pairs 

Spliced 

Straight. 

No. of Pairs 
Bridged. 

Teaming. 
Pumping. 

Framing. 


Testing and 
Tagging. 


• 


i 

•a 


Supervision 
and Expense. 


Average Coat 
Per Splice. 


1-25 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


100 Pr. . . 


26 $0.66 $0.51 SI. 32 


$2.82 


11.91 


$1.01 1 


11.67 


$9.90 


1-26 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


26 0.70 0.64 1.37 


3.90 


2.04 


0.94 


1.83 


11.32 


1-60 Pr. 


100 Pr. 


100 Pr. . . 


60 0.02 0.47 1.69 


3.12 


3.64 


1.08 


1.94 


12.48 


1-60 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


60 0.72 0.62 1.71 


4.03 


3.72 


0.96 


2.02 


13.78 


1-100 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


100 0.78 0.68 2.67 


4.80 


5.53 


1.03 


2.66 


18.16 


1-100 Pr. 


300 Pr. 


300 Pr. . . 


100 0.01 0.66 2.93 


6.84 


5.76 


1.01 


2.79 


19.60 


1-200 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


200 0.73 0.69 3.31 


6.89 


8.13 


1.08 


3.24 


22.97 


2-26 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


60 0.81 0.54 2.14 


4.09 


3.96 


1.33 


2.23 


15.10 


2-60 Pr. 


200 Pr. 


200 Pr. . . 


100 0.83 0.63 2.78 


4.74 


6.73 


1.49 


2.58 


18.78 


Note — Cable off of which tl 


le branches are cut is generally a W( 


orking cable. 






• • 




Tabl 


£ LXL— Cost Of Pot heads. 


• 








No. and 


No. 


and 






Super- 






Size of 


Size of 


Testing 




vision 


Av'ge 


Main 


Distributing 


and 


Wiping 


and 


Cost per 


Cable. 


Rack Cables. Fr; 


aming. Tagging. Splicing 


. Joints. Expense. Pothead. 


100 Pr. 


5-20 Pr. 


$0.80 $0.48 $1.93 


$0.86 


$1.46 




$3.63 


200 Pr. 


10-20 Pr. 


1.28 0.61 8.76 


0.99 


3.00 




9.64 


300 Pr. 


15-20 Pr. 


2.80 0.82 4.94 


1. 


70 


3.74 




14.00 


Tabi^ LXII 


.—Cost Q] 


? Connecting Cable to Distributing 


Rack. 








Distrlbating 














Placing 


» 


Wires on 












Slseor 


Cable 




Rack and 


Polderinir Bnperriaion 


AT^ge 


Cable between Foihead Frain- 


Connecting to 


Wires to 


and 




Cost 


Connected. 


and Rack. \ng. 


Terminal Blocks. Lacing. Terminal Blka. Expense. 


per Cable. 


100 Pr. 


$3.90 


$0.72 


$1.22 12.27 


$0.48 




$2.30 


$10.89 


200 Pr. 


6.61 


1.17 


2.01 5.30 


0.72 




4.38 




19.19 


300 Pr. 


6.43 


1.62 


2.94 8.18 


1.32 




7.14 




27.63 


Average Cost of 












Average 


Connecting all 














Cost 


Size Cables 












per Pair. 


per Pail 


• . • .260 


.068 


.103 .263 


.042 




.230 




.962 



CHAPTER IV. 

METHODS AND COST OF REMOVING OLD LINE 

AND OF RECONSTRUCTION. 

Cost data on the removal of old line, or costs of removal, 
as this work will be termed here, are valuable for many rea- 
sons. They are of particular value, however, when consid- 
ering the advisability of making changes in a telephone plant 
or when deciding as to the relative expediency of build- 
ing a line overhead or underground which must ultimately 
be installed underground. This is a point that is often over- 
looked in considering the advisability of keeping such costs. 

In estimating the cost of changing the equipment of a 
route from open wire to cable or from aerial to underground, 
the main items to be taken into consideration are: The cost 
of the new material plus the cost of installation ; the value of 
the old material less cost of removal, and the value of the in- 
crease in facilities. In the case of an exchange in a town or 
village, the population of which is almost stationary and the 
prospects of new business at a minimum, very little allow- 
ance can be made for the value of any increase in facilities; 
therefore, if the route to be changed is still in fair condition, 
the question of expediency in making the change resolves 
down to whether the value of the material removed less the 
labor cost of removing will be much less than the cost of 
the material and labor required in making the change. 

Very often a new sub-division is opened in a section of the 
city which is building up very rapidly, or an extension of an 
elevated railroad or trolley line is built causing immediate 
and prospective demands for telephone service, which neces- 
sitate the building of a main feeding line which must now or 
ultimately be installed underground. The question of the 
most advisable way to build for the present depends upon 
whether the cost of building overhead plus the cost of re- 
moving material, interest on plant ,and depreciation, would 

63 



64 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

cause a saving in the intervening three or five years before 
the line must be put underground. 

Removing Old Line. — Material removed is either "junked" 
or "recovered." When it is to be junked the work of remov- 
ing is usually rough, requiring less skill than any other di- 
vision of telephone work. Material to be recovered, however, 
requires careful and skillful handling. The method of re- 
moval requires very little explanation as in general it is the 
reverse of the methods used for installing which have already 
been explained. The work of removing material is done by 
the construction gangs which are used for line work. 

Anchors are rarely removed as the expense of removal is 
more than the value of the article. Old poles and stub are 
always removed no matter how valueless on account of being 
unsightly and dangerous to traffic, and also, because it is the 
policy of most companies to have as few poles standing as 
possible. 

Removing Poles. — Poles to be removed are dug up when 
they are to be recoverd or when conditions are such that a 
stub left in the ground would be unsightly or objectionable to 
property owners. In other cases the poles are removed by 
chopping so that the top of the stub is on a level with the 
surface of the street or roadway. The method for removing 
poles which are to be dug up is the reverse of the method de- 
scribed for erecting poles. Poles to be removed by chopping 
must be guyed with ropes, when possible, so that they may 
be lowered gradually. 

Removing Cross-Arms.— The method for removing cross- 
arms is the reverse of the method described for erecting cross- 
arms. 

Removing Wire. — ^All wires to be removed are first untied 
from the insulation on each cross-arm, and then test connec- 
tors are removed. The wire must be removed by winding on 
a take-up reel or other suitable appliance, not more than one 
wire being removed at a time. When copper wire is to be re- 
covered, special care must be taken in removing to prevent 
kinks, bends, nicks, etc., in the wire. 



REMOVING OLD LINE. 65 

Removing Messenger. — ^The method for removing mes- 
senger is the reverse of the method described for erecting 
messenger. 

Removing Aerial Cable. — In removing aerial cable, the 
cable must be cut at each splice and securely sealed, unless 
the cable is to be junked. The lead wire must be attached in 
the same manner as in erection and the cable must be pulled 
toward the reel. In transferring the hooks past the poles all 
hooks shall be placed back upon the messenger except on the 
lead wire where every fourth or fifth hook is sufficient. 

Removing Underground Cable. — All underground cable to 
be removed must be cut at each splice and have the ends of 
the sections sealed, before they are removed from the 
duct, unless the cable is to be junked. The apparatus 
is placed at the vault from which the cable is to be pulled. 
In place of the steel rope used in pulling in, a manila 
rope is used on account of its greater flexibility. The vault 
skids and sheaves are placed in the same manner as for 
pulling in cable, and the manila rope passed over them in the 
u^ual manner. To the end of the rope is attached a servage 
strap made of manilla strand about i in. in diameter. This 
strap is placed on the cable in the form of a noose which 
grips the cable when pulled one way, but may be pushed 
along the cable in the reverse direction. The strap is then 
slipped around the end of the cable as close to the duct as 
possible, and power applied to the pulling line. After the 
cable has been moved a foot or two, the rope is slackened off 
and the noose is again pushed forward against the duct. This 
process is known as "luffing." The "luffing" is continued until 
the cable is removed from the duct. As the cable is pulled 
out, if it is to be recovered, it is reeled upon a reel placed 
back of the manhole, so as to avoid unnecessary sharp turns. 
If it is to be junked the cable is usually cut with an axe into 
5 or 6 ft. lengths as it is being pulled out. | 

RECONSTRUCTION. 

Under reconstruction, only moving poles, replacing cross- 
arms, and rewiring cable poles will be treated, as, with the 
exception of these operations, reconstruction work generally 
consists of removing old equipment and then installing new. 



f 



66 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

The data may easily be separated, and when estimating the 
cost of erecting and the cost of removing material, they may 
be more readily figured when the data on the new work and 
old work are separated. 

Moving poles is naturally a division of reconstruction, as 
the poles are not hauled to or from the work as in remov- 
ing or setting poles, or gained and roofed asTn new work. In 
replacing cross-arms and rewiring cable poles the work of re- 
moving the old material and installing the new cannot be 
divided on account of there being no definite separation be- 
tween the two parts of the work. It requires only one climb- 
ing of a pole to remove an old cross-arm and to replace it 
with a new one, or to remove old bridle wires and to replace 
them with new wires. Then again, when replacing cross-arms 
the work of removing is not always completed until after the 
new cross-arm has been secured to the pole. It is therefore 
obvious that it is not possible to compute separately the time 
spent in removing the old equipment and installing the new. 

The methods of moving poles, replacing cross-arms and re- 
wiring cable poles have already been described both in erect- 
ing and removing material, and the methods in general being a 
combination of both, require no further description. 

Method of Recording Costs. — The forms used for reporting 
the labor costs of removing material and of reconstruction are 
shown in Forms 31 to 39. These forms are divided in the 
same style as the forms used for reporting line construction 
and cable work costs. On account of the difference in the 
cost of removing wire and cable when they are junked and 
when they are recovered, caused by the extra skill and care 
required in handling material to be recovered, the words 
"junked and recovered," one of which is to be crossed out, 
are printed on the forms. 

Method of Figuring the Cost of Removing Material and of 
Reconstruction. — The method of figuring the cost of remov- 
ing material and reconstruction is the same as described for 
line construction and cable work. Labor expended in hauling 
removed material from the job to the store yard is included 
in teaming. 



REMOVING OLD LINE. 



67 



Construction Cost Data. — ^The rates of wages on which the 
costs given in Tables LXIII to LXXX are based are the same 
as for line construction costs. No separation is made of the 
data on removing poles in the various kind of soil because the 
quantity of soil excavated is so small that there is very little 
difference in the cost of removing poles of the same size 
whether set in one kind of soil or another. The average cost 
of some divisions is not included in the following costs as 
sufficient data on which averages could be based were not 
available. 



ay 

45' and Higher 



Form 31. 
Data Secured by 

Removing Street and Alley Line Poles. 

Order No.. 
Location Date 



190 



Foreman. 



No. of 
Poles 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Chopping 
or Dimng 

and 
Removing 



Super. 

and 

Exp. 


Total 
Cost 


No. of 

Hours 

Worked 









Remarks 



Notb: — The forms for recording toll line and farm line poles are the same as this 
except that the "size of poles" is different. 



6 Pin 
10 Pin 

10 Pin (Alley) 



No. of 
Cross- 

Arms 



No. of 
Poles 



Form 82. 
Data Secured by 

Removing Cross-Arms. 

Location Date. 

Foreman '. 



Order No. 



100 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Removing 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Form 33. 
Data Secured by. 



Removing Wire. 

No. 12 Gal V. Steel 

.080 Bare Copper t .• t^ . 

.104 Bare Copper Location Date. 

Junked or Recovered Foreman 



Order No. 



100 



No. Miles 

of 

Wire 

Removed 



No. of 
Contacts 
Removed 



Teaming 



Removing 


Super. 
and 
Exp. 


Total 
Cost 


No. of 

Hours 

Worked 








• 



Remarks 



68 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



No. 4 Galv. Steel 
1^ Strand 
r Strand 



Form 84. 
Data Secured by 

Removing Messenger. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



Ho. of Feet 
Removed 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Removing 



Super. 

and 

Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



I 



Notb: — No separation is made in the data between messenger "iunked or recovered" 
as the method for removal is the same in either case. 



Form 36. 
Data Secured by. 



Removing Aerial Cable. 



Order No. 



Size of Cable . . Pr. . . Gauge 
Jimked or Recovered 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



190 



No. of Feet 
Removed 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Removing 



Super. 

and 

Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Form 36. 

Data Secured by 

Removing U. G. Cable. 



Size of Cable. .Pr. .Gauge 
Junked or Recovered 
Cut up or put on reel 



Order No. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



190 



No. of Feet 
Removed 



Teaming 

and 
Labor in 
Hauling 



Removing 



Super. 

and 

Expi 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Sise of Poles. . . . 
Street or Alley Line 
Farm Line 
Toll Line 



Form 37. 
Data Secured by. 

Moving Poles. 



Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Poles 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Digging 

and 
Locating 



Moving 

and 
Resetting 



I 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



Kind 

of 

Soil 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Notb: — "Digging" includes the excavating necessary to remove and reset poles, and 
it also includes back-filling the holes out of which the poles were removed. 



REMOVING OLD LINE. 



69 



6 Pin 
10 Pin 
10 Pin (AlleiT) 



Form 38. 

Data Seciired by 

Replacing Cross-Arms. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of 
Cross- 
Arms 



No. of 
Poles 



Teaming 

and 

Labor in 

Hauling 



Removing 

and 
Erecting 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 



Total 
Cost 



No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Form 39. 
Data Sectired by 

Rewiring Cable Poles. 

Location Date. 

Foreman 



Order No. 



190 



No. of Prs. 
Bridle 
Wires 

cut in 



No. of Prs. 

Bridle 

Wires 

cut out 



Teaming 



Removing 

& Running 

Bridle 

W^res 



Super, 
and 
Exp. 


Total 
Cost 







No. of 

Hours 

Worked 



Remarks 



Table LXIII. — Cost of Removing Street and Alley Line Poles. 

Teaming and Dlgf^ing Supervision Average 

Labor In and and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Pole. 

30 Pt $0.22 $0.58 $0.17 $0.97 

35 Ft 0.26 0.76 0.19 1.21 

40 Ft 0.37 0.96 0.31 1.64 

45 Ft 0.48 1.32 0.40 2.20 

Table LX IV.— Cost of Removing Farm Line Poles. 

20 Ft $0.08 $0.18 $0.06 $0.32 

25 Ft 0.16 0.32 0.12 0.60 

30 Ft 0.24 0.64 0.16 0.94 

Table LXV.— Cost of Removing Toll Line Polks. 

30 Ft $0.26 $0.69 $0.15 $1.00 

36 Pt 0.31 0.72 0.25 1.28 

40 Ft 0.40 0.89 0.82 1.61 



Table LXVL— Cost of Removing Street and Alley Line Poles. 

Teaming and Chopping Supervision Average 

Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Pole. 

30 Pt $0.13 $0.31 $0 11 $0.55 

35 Ft 0.17 0.41 0.13 0.71 

40 Ft 0.24 0.53 0.17 0.94 

Table LXVIL— Cost of Removing Farm Line Poles. 

20 Ft $0.03 $0.09 $0.02 $0.14 

25 Ft 0.07 0.16 0.06 0.29 



70 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION 



Table LXVIIL—Cost of Removing Toll Line Poles. 

Teamlnj? and Chopping Supervision Averaere 

Labor in and and Cost 

Hauling. Remo\ ing. Expense. per Pole. 

30 Ft $0.15 $0.28 $0.09 $0.52 

35 Ft 0.20 0.44 0.14 0.78 

40 Ft 0.27 0.58 0.20 1.06 



Table LXIX.— Cost of Removing Cross-Arms. 

Teaming and Suj)ervi8loii 

Labor in and 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. 

6-Pln $0,015 $0,020 $0,011 

10-Pln 0.025 0.041 0.013 

10-Pln Alley 0.033 0.061 0.018 



Average 

Cost per 

Cross- Arm. 

$0,046 
0.079 
0.112 



Table LXX. — Cost of Removing Wire. 



Junked — 



Teaming and 
Labor in 
Hauling. 



No. 12 Galv. Steel $0.22 

.080 Bare Copper..* 0.29 

.104 Bare Copper 0.26 

Recovered — 

No. 12 Galv. Steel $0.27 

.080 Bare Copper 0.39 

.104 Bare Copper 0.44 



Removing. 

$0.72 
1.07 
1.17 

$1.16 
1.85 
1.92 



Supervision 

and 

Expense. 

$0.16 
0.21 
0.26 

$0.20 
0.32 
0.34 



Av. Cost 
per Mile 
of Wire. 

$1.10 
1.57 
1.69 

$1.63 
2.56 
2.78 



Table LXXL— Cost of Removing Messenger. 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Foot. 

No. 4 Oalv. Steel $0.0003 $0.0021 $0.0002 $0.0026 

%-ln. Strand 0.0006 0.0029 0.0002 0.0037 

H-in. Strand 0.0007 0.0032 0.0003 0.0042 

Table LXXII. — Cost of Removing Aerial Cable (Junked). 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Foot. 

IB Pr.— 22 Ga $0.0026 $0.0072 $0.0018 $0.0116 

25 Pr.— 22 Qa 0.0029 0.0069 0.0022 0.0120 

50 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0025 0.0072 0.0024 0.0121 

50 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0030 0.0076 0.0027 0.0133 

100 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0032 0.0079 0.0027 0.0138 

100 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0034 0.0083 0.0030 0.0147 

Note — Removing aerial cable does not Include cost of removing strand. 
Table LXXIII. — Cost of Removing Aerial Cable (Recovered). 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Foot. 

15 Pr.— 22 Ga $0.0028 $0.0084 $0.0024 $0.0136 

25 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0031 0.0080 0.0026 0.0137 

50 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0029 0.0086 0.0027 0.0142 

50 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0033 0.0089 0.0032 0.0154 

100 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0032 0.0085 0.0030 0.0147 

100 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0038 0.0091 0.0035 0.0164 



Table LXXIV.— Cost of Removing Underground Cable (Junked) 

Teaming and Supervision Average 

Labor in '' and Cost 

Hauling. Removing. Expense. per Foot. 

22 Ga $0.0038 $0.0072 $0.0019 $0.0129 

19 Ga 0.0043 0.0079 0.0021 0.0143 

22 Ga 0.0041 0.0075 0.0017 0.0133 

19 Ga ■ 0.00B4 0.0083 0.0024 0.0161 

22 Ga 0.0056 0.0086 0.0019 0.0161 

19 Ga 0.0061 0.0094 0.0026 0.0181 

22 Ga 0.0073 0.0108 0.0029 0.0210 



50 Pr. 

ffO Pr.— 

100 Pr 

100 Pr 

200 Pr.— 

200 Pr. 

300 Pr.— 



REMOVING OLD LINE. 



71 



Table LXXV. — Cost of Removing 

Teaming and 
Labor in 
Hauling. 

25 Pr.— 22 Ga $0.0034 

50 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0041 

50 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0044 

100 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0050 

100 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0053 

200 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0058 

200 Pr.— 19 Ga 0.0064 

300 Pr.— 22 Ga 0.0077 



Underground Cable (Recovered). 





Supervision 


Average 




and 


Cost 


Removing. 


Expense. 


per Foot. 


99.0073 


10.0018 


$0.0125 


0.0079 


0.0017 


0.0137 


0.0084 


0.0022 


0.0150 


0.0086 


0.0023 


0.0159 


0.0093 


0.0026 


0.0172 


0.0089 


0.0022 


0.0169 


0.0099 


0.0028 


0.0191 


0.0116 


0.0083 


0.0226 



Table LXXVL— Cost of Moving Street and Alley Poles. 

30-FT. poles. 

Teaming and Digging Moving Supervision Average 

Labor in and and and Cost 

Hauling. Locating. Resetting. Expense, per Pole. 

Sand or Gravel $0.42 $0.99 $0.43 $0.48 $2.32 

Black Soil 0.57 0.96 0.42 0.54 2.49 

Sand and Water 0.82 1.11 0.54 0.52 2.99 

Clay 0.80 0.96 0.59 0.61 2.96 

Clay and Water 0.86 1.23 0.51 0.50 3.10 

Hard Clay 0.92 1.64 0.57 0.65 3.78 

Coarse Gravel 0.96 1.95 0.87 0.60 4.38 

Quicksand and Water 1.02 2.16 0.67 0.75 4.60 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.80 1.38 0.57 0.58 3.33 

35-FT. poles. 

Sand or Gravel 0.44 1.12 0.59 0.64 2.69 

Black Soil 0.61 1.08 0.51 0.53 2.73 

Sand and Water 0.81 1.27 0.62 0.59 3.29 

Clay 0.87 1.16 0.70 0.58 3.31 

Clay and Water 0.91 1.32 0.67 0.64 3.54 

Hard Clay 0.97 1.72 0.74 0.70 4.13 

Coarse Gravel 1.04 2.03 0.89 0.73 4.69 

Quicksand and Water 1.11 2.39 0.79 0.79 5.08 

Average in all Soils 0.84 1.51 0.69 0.64 3.68 

40-FT. POLES. 

Sand or Gravel 0.69 1.30 0.87 0.63 3.49 

Clay 0.88 1.42 0.98 0.70 8.98 

Clay and Water 0.94 1.51 1.03 . 0.69 4.1T 

Hard Clay 0.92 1.76 1.17 0.77 4.62 

Quicksand and Water 1.29 2.11 1.99 0.89 6.28 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.94 1.62 1.21 0.74 4.51 

4'5-FT. poles. 

Sand or Gravel 0.78 1.87 1.09 0.76 4.50 

Clay 0.93 2.01 1.11 0.84 4.89 



Table LXXVII. — Cost of Moving Farm Line Poles. 

20-ft. poles. 

Sand or Gravel $0.18 $0.49 $0.29 $0.17 

Black Soil 0.16 0.46 0.27 0.19 

Sand and Water 0.20 0.58 0.31 0.14 

Clay 0.17 0.60 0.38 0.21 

Clay and Water 0.24 0.67 0.34 0.16 

Hard Clay 0.27 0.76 0.41 0.24 

Coarse Gravel !.. 0.25 0.87 0.47 0.26 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.21 0.63 0.35 0.20 

25 -FT. poles. 

Sand or Gravel 0.24 0.67 0.34 0.21 

Black Soil 0.21 0.64 0.36 0.19 

Sand and Water 0.27 0.76 0.40 0.26 

Clay 0.19 0.85 0.45 C.27 

Clay and Water 0.22 0.93 0.42 0.25 

Hard Clay 0.31 1.17 0.44 0.31 

Coarse gravel 0.31 1.24 0.61 0.37 

Quicksand and Water 0.34 1.51 0.53 0.43 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.26 0.97 0.43 0.29 



$1.1.1 
1.08 
1.23 
1.36 
1.41 
1.68 
1.85 
1.39 



1.46 
1.40 
1.69 
1.76 
1.82 
2.23 
2.43 
2.81 
1.95 



72 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table LXXVIIL— Cost of Moving Toll Line Poles. 

30- FT. POLES. 

Teaming and Digging Moving Supervision 

Labor in and and and 

Haallng. Locating. Resetting. Expense. 

Sand or Gravel |0.39 $0.96 $0.45 $0.42 

Black Soil 0.48 0.98 0.47 0.44 

Sand and Water 0.66 1.07 0.51 0.46 

Clay 0.72 0.98 0.54 0.53 

Clay and Water 0.81 1.17 0.60 0.58 

Hard Clay 0.84 1.56 0.58 0.54 

Coarse Gravel 0.89 1.83 0.74 0.62 

Quicksand and Water 0.98 2.07 0.68 0.67 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.77 1.33 0.57 0.53 

35-FT. POLES. 

Sand or Gravel 0.45 1.08 0.52 0.49 

Sand and Water 0.43 1.19 0.59 0.52 

Clay 0.57 1.23 0.57 0.61 

Clay and Water 0.66 1.27 0.68 0.54 

Hard Clay 0.74 1.58 0.64 0.61 

Quicksand and Water 0.98 2.47 0.83 0.70 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.64 1.47 0.64 0.58 

40-FT. POLES. 

Sand or Gravel 0.71 1.34 0.81 0.66 

Clay 0.69 1.39 0.95 0.72 

Hard Clay 0.88 1.67 1.09 0.69 

Average Cost in all Soils 0.76 1.47 0.95 0.69 



Average 

Cost 

per Pole. 

$2.22 
2.37 
2.70 
2.77 
3.16 
3.52 
4.08 
4.40 
3.15 



2.54 
2.78 
2.98 
3.15 
8.57 
4.98 
8.3S 



8.52 
3.75 
4.33 
3.87 



Table LXXIX.— Cost of Replacing Cross- Arms. 

* Teaming and Removing Supervision 

Labor in and and 

Hauling. Erecting. Expense. 

6-Pin $0.06 $0.29 $0.04 

10-Pin 0.08 0.36 0.06 

10-Pin Alley 0.09 0.42 0.07 



Average 

Cost per 

Cross- Arm. 

$0.39 
0.50 
0.58 



Table LXXX.— Cost of Rewiring Cable Poles. 

Removing Supervision Average 

and Running and Cost 

Teaming. Bridle Wires. Expense. i>er Pair. 

.086 .190 .025 .850 



CHAPTER V. 

METHODS AND COST OF CONSTRUCTING UNDER- 
GROUND CONDUIT. 

The value of cost data on conduit construction is so obvious 
to everyone owning, building or using conduit that no ex- 
tended proof of the matter seems necessary. Some discussion 
of cost keeping methods and of the advantages and disad- 
vantages of various cost keeping procedures is desirable 
however. 

Hints on Cost Keeping Methods. — In devising a system for 
obtaining costs of conduit construction special care should be 
taken to avoid numerous, arbitrary, or indefinite divisions. 
While it is desirable to have each division of construction sub- 
divided as much as possible, so that the costs may be 
analyzed and may be useful in figuring on new methods and 
inventions which apply to only part of the work, still any 
attempt to make complicated and arbitrary divisions increases 
the liability of error, and if the subdivisions are too numerous, 
cost men will find it almost impossible to secure accurate data. 
With the large gangs, which are used in constructing conduit, 
any system requiring the taking of costs every few minutes 
must result in failure, as cost men will find their task almost 
impossible of accomplishment and they will soon become dis- 
gusted — no matter how conscientious they may be. In the 
winter season it becomes almost a physical impossibility for 
a man securing data on out-door work to take time and to 
write every two or three minutes. 

Many companies have what is known as a work report cost 
system. In this system the foreman reports at the end of 
each day the work accomplished and the time spent on each 
part of the work. The worthlessness of this system will .be 
readily perceived if we consider that data cannot be correctly 
reported without notes being taken during the day, and that 
it is improbable that any foreman will be able to take correct 

73 



74 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



notes on costs and to properly supervise the work. The task 
may be accomplished in some ideal case, as when only one 
division of construction is worked on during the day — ^which 
rarely happens. 

There are also costs obtained by timing for a few minutes 
the excavating or the laying of tile or the mixing of concrete, 
etc., and drawing conclusions from these data. Such a system 
is so obviously inaccurate that it is hard to conceive how any- 
one would dare to use the costs, yet many contractors and 
telephone companies base their estimates on data secured in 
this manner. The cost of mixing concrete for example, if 
mixed by hand, must include the cost of moving the mixing 
boards and other apparatus, and if mixed by machine, must 
include the cost of moving the mixer, etc. Besides, if water 
is carted to the work, ihis cost must also be included. There 
is in any kind of construction, time expended in preparing for 




Fig. 84. — ^McRoy Tfle, 2-Duct Conduit. Class "A* Construction. 

work, which is as much a part of the cost as any of the time 
spent in actual work, and this time cannot be secured by keep- 
ing account of the work for a few minutes or even a few 
hours. 

In view of the essential nature of conduit construction costs 
and of their recognized value, it is surprising that so few 
attempts have been made to obtain costs based on a system 
which is feasible. Usually data on a conduit job are obtained 
in such a manner that they are of little use in estimating the 
cost of other jobs where the multiple of duct, the soil or the 
other conditions differ. Where several sections of a conduit 
composed of different multiples arc built, no separation of the 
various sections is made in gathering the data, or where a 
separation is made of each different run of duct, no separation 
is made of the sections built in clay, hard clay, sand, etc. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



75 



Then again the data to be feasible should also have the cost 
of each section separated when the pavement or location 
varies. 

Location is a matter of special importance in estimating. It 
appears from a cursory investigation much cheaper to build 
in a wide roadway than in a narrow alley, as in the case of 
the former, the material may be more advantageously placed, 
causing a minimum expense for rehandling. Also the exca- 
vated earth may be placed so as to cause the least interference 
in laying tile, placing concrete, etc., and so as to be most 
convenient for the teams used in carting away the surplus. 
When, however, it is considered that in most cases a trench 
in an alley may be resurfaced in almost any style, while a 
street, even if unpaved, must generally be left in a condition as 
good as or better than the original, we see that the cost of 





"T 


%, 




5 








+ 


— 



s 



building in an alley — other things being equal — may be the 
cheaper, as it often is. The relative position of the conduit 
and street curb will also cause variation in cost. It is cheaper 
to build next to the curb on asphalted streets than 2 or 3 ft. 
away on account of the liability of injury to the asphalt be- 
tween the trench and the curb by the caving in of the side of 
the trench. Dangerous conditions for working, and rehand- 
ling of material incident to its being inconveniently placed 
will increase the cost of building a conduit in a street used by 
a trolley, especially if the street is narrow. Building a con- 
duit in a street where the grade has not been established is 
often more expensive than building in paved streets as it is 
sometimes necessary to excavate the trench 2 or 3 ft. deeper 
than usual in order to provide for future changes in the street 
level. 



76 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



The question of what material shall be used in constructing 
a conduit or the question of the expediency of adopting a new 
device or new method requires a knowledge of the durability, 
the tensile strength, the cost of material, and also the cost of 
installation. Without this last item of information experi- 
ments entailing a great loss of money cannot be avoided. 
Almost every company owning conduits has built sections 
using material which proved so espensive to install as to in- 
crease the cost of conduit, although the reason for adopting 
this material was to reduce the cost of construction. For 
example, a method of installing vitrified clay tile known as 
class "B" construction, which is explained in another part of 
this chapter, has been and still is a standard method of con- 
struction. As this method falls far below what is known as 
class "A" construction in durability, in protection from injury 




FUr. 37.— McRoy Tile, 4-Duct Conduit, 
Class "A" Construction. 




Plgr. 38.— MdRoy Tile. 5 -Duct Conduit, 
Class "A" Construction. 



by foreign excavations and in stability of alignment, the only 
apparent object in building class "B" conduits would be their 
cheapness. Without the assistance of cost data one may 
readily conceive how class **B'' construction might be con- 
sidered much cheaper than class "A," but if data on the cost 
of constructing both classes are available, it is hard to con- 
ceive how any company for the small increase in the cost of 
installing class "A'' would be so short-sighted as to install 
class **B." It is clear that a lack of proper cost data has been 
responsible for the standardizing of the class "B" method of 
construction, as this is the only explanation which accounts 
for the mistake of its adoption. 

Organization of Working Force. — Conduit work is done by 
unskilled day labor. The organization of a gang is composed 
of a foreman, one or more assistant foremen depending on the 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



77 



size of the gang, a timekeeper, watchman, waterboys and 
laborers. Usually the gang if large is subdivided in the same 
order as the work, with an assistant foreman in charge of 
each division. This system has many advantages. The con- 
crete mixers soon learn the proper proportions of material to 
use and the required consistency of the concrete, and also in 
the other divisions of the work each man soon becomes pro- 
ficient in his task; it increases economy in the handling of 
labor, avoiding the loss of time incident to continual shifting 
of men ; it aids assistant foremen in soon becoming acquainted 
with their men, whereby they are able to eliminate men who 
will not do their work ; it puts the foreman in a position to be 
able to hold his assistants responsible for the work accom- 




[■ «/-'' — It] 


i DD 1 


IPDD! 


——'-4 



Fig. ^0— McRoy Tile. T-Duct Conduit, 



plished, and it facihtates the work in general, reduces the cost 
and improves the construction. 

Generally two or three men having had experience or show- 
ing adaptability are selected for the work of laying tile, which 
is the most important part of conduit construction. These 
men are very often paid a trifle more than the balance of the 
laborers in order to induce conscientious work. 

A foreman of conduit construction, while requiring less 
skill and technical knowledge than a foreman of either line or 
cable construction, has more opportunity to exhibit his pro- 
ficiency and ability as a foreman. By capable handling of men 
and good judgment in laying out work, a good foreman may 
complete work 20 per cent, cheaper than a man having equal 
technical knowledge of construction but lacking ability as a 
foreman. A cost man on a job has a tendency to increase the 



78 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 



volume of work accomplished. Rivalry is established between 
the several foremen which spurs them to do their best. It 
may be asserted as a general rule that a cost man on a job, 
irrespective of the value of the data secured, is rather a 
saving than an expense. 

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. 

In the construction of the conduit on which the following 
data are based the tile used for main conduit was either 
McRoy vitrified clay tile or creosoted pump log. The latter 





Fig. 41.— McRoy Tile. 7-Duct Conduit, 
Class **A" Construction. 



Fig. 42.— McRoy Tile. 8-Duct Conduit, 
Class "A'* Construction. 



was installed in comparatively few instances. Its use was 
generally confined to straight lateral built in separate trench 
to a building or in the yards' and plant of a large works, and 
where used the soil was very wet, or subsequent excavations 
were expected, or the conduit was subject to constant shocks. 
Some or all of these conditions were generally encountered 
when installing conduit in the yards, under buildings or on the 
site of prospective buildings in large plants where heavy 
machinery is used, such as in a steel plant. 

The McRoy tile used was i, 2, 3, 4 or 6-duct. Formerly 
tile of larger cross section was used but their use has been 
abolished by most companies on account of their weight, 
which is approximately 8}^ lbs. per duct foot, increasing the 
cost of laying and handling tile, and also on account of the 
large percentage of breakage incident to the handling of 
fragile material of great weight. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT, 



79 



One-duct McRoy tile was used only where conditions re- 
quired a conduit cross section to be built up of a 2-duct and a 
i-duct instead of a 3-duct, or of a 6-duct and a i-duct instead 
of a 4-duct and a 3-duct or a 5-duct and a 2-duct. In no case 
was McRoy tile installed where the conduit cross section was 
one duct. Where main conduit is built one duct is rarely 
installed, as the prospects are that where a main conduit is 
required, eventually a greater multiple may be used, and the 
cost of installing 2-duct is so little more than that of installing 
I-duct that it is poor policy to install the latter. The excava- 
tion, teaming, laying tile, filling in and repaving cost the same 
for I-duct as 2-duct. The only difference in the cost of in- 




z^« 






— t^l' J 



I 
I 



i 




Fig. 43.— McRoy Tile. 8-Duct Conduit. Fig. 44.— McRoy Tile, S-Duct Conduit, 
Claaa '"A" Construction. Class "A" Construction. 



Stalling a i-duct tile and a 2-ducttile being in the cost of the 
tile (.04 + 2% per duct foot) and a small amount for concrete 
material and mixing concrete. 

Except where i-duct tile was required in building up a 
cross section of a specified multiple, the i-duct conduits built 
were laterals constructed exclusively of 3-in. sewer tile or 
creosoted pump log. The latter was rarely used. For the 
benefit of those not familiar with this class of conduit a brief 
description of laterals may be pertinent. 

Lateral conduit, sometimes called subsidiary conduit, is so 
named from the direction in which it runs to the main conduit. 
Laterals are built in order to carry subsidiary cable under- 
ground to a building or a pole. A lateral always ends in a 
vault of the main conduit where the cable it carries is spliced 



8o 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



into the main cable. Where the vault is built at street inter- 
sections the lateral is installed in a separate trench if it runs 
to a pole situated on a street running in an opposite direction 
to the street on which the main conduit is built, or if the pole 
is situated at the intersection of a cross street and an alley 
running parallel to the street on which the main conduit is in- 
stalled. If the lateral is to be built to a pole or building along 
the line of the main conduit it is included in the main trench 
to a point in front of the pole or building and then takes a 
separate trench. Where a pole is situated in an alley running 
parallel to the street on wHicb the main conduit is built« and it 





Fig. 46.'McBoy Tile, 9-Duct Conduit, Fig. 46.— McRoy Tile. 10-Duct Con- 
Cla88 "A" Construction. duit, Class "A" Construction. 

is set midway between two streets, as is the case where only 
one pole is used for block distribution, a lateral built to this 
pole is generally included in the main trench to a point oppo- 
site the pole and then run in a separate trench along the lot 
line, if possible, to the alley. 

Sewer tile is used in lateral construction because it serves 
the purp^ose better than either McRoy tile or pump log and 
because it is cheapest to install. Whereas the McRoy tile re- 
quires a foundation in order to keep its alignment— dowel pins 
not entirely serving this purpose — and both pump log and 
McRoy tile require a trench that has a level bottom and is 
wide enough to permit foot room ; sewer tile requires no con- 
crete foundation, as the bell joints when cemented hold the 
alignment sufficiently well for lateral construction, it may be 
laid in a trench that is excavated in a V-shape, thereby saving 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 8l 

time in excavating. The bottom of the trench may be very 
uneven as the bell ends of sewer tile bridge the parts between 
joints, and the only requirements in laying are that the end 
of one tile shall fit .into the bell end of another. This may 
readily be done by scraping away any excess earth with a 
stick of wood. On account of the usual small diameter of 
lateral cable the lateral conduit may be installed without spe- 
cial regard to alignment, except when the lateral is very long; 
whereas if McRoy tile is laid without care being used in align- 
ment the armor of the cable would probably be cut or caught 
on the ends of the ducts when pulling in the cable. 




Fig. 18.— McRoy Tile, l^-Duct Con- 
duit. Class "A" •CoDstructloti. 

As it is required that lateral shall hav8 a curve of 90° at the 
point where it leaves the main conduit trench and also at the 
pole where the tile lateral ends, and as 90° sewer tile bends 
are made whereas McRoy tile and pump log are only made in 
straight length they do not fill all the requirements of lateral 
construction. 

The difference between the cost of McRoy tile and sewer 
tile is small — generally depending on the freight to point of 
installation. Where small quantities are required sewer tile 
is usually cheaper. Pump log is more expensive than either 
McRoy tile or sewer tile. 

In the construction of main conduit the superiority of 
McRoy tile as against sewer tile is generally conceded. It 
forms a more flexible conduit, being readily increased in mul- 



82 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



tiple; when laid in concrete — ^as is advisable in building con- 
duit having a large cross section — it requires less concrete 
than sewer tile; it forms a smoother duct for the passage 
of large cable; it is not readily thrown out of alignment in 
the work of laying tile or by foreign excavations on account 
of its weight and flat surfaces, and it makes, in general, more 
permanent construction, and it is cheaper to install unless the 
multiple is small. 

The formation of a conduit cross section is an important 
matter, as it makes considerable difference in cost whether 
an 8-duct run is composed of two 4-duct or a 6-duct and a 
2-duct and whether the ducts are laid side by side or one on 





Fig. 49.— McRoy Tile, 13-Duct Cpn- 
dult. Class "A*' Construction. 



Fig. 50.— McRoy Tile, 14-Duct Con- 
duit, Class "A" Construction. 



top of the other. The 4 and 6-ducts are made in 3-ft. lengths, 
the 2 and 3-ducts in 2-ft. lengths. The 4 and 2-ducts require 
one dowel pin and the 6-duct two dowel pins. 

In comparing the cost of 8-duct conduits where one is com- 
posed of a 6-duct and a 2-duct and the other is composed of 
two 4-ducts, it will be seen that on account of the length of a 
2-duct more burlap will be required in closing the joints of a 
6 and 2 formation and more dowel pins are also required on 
account of the use of a 6-duct. On account of its weight 
(about 151 lbs.) the percentage of breakage in handling 6-duct 
is larger than that of 4-duct, and it requires three men in 
laying 6-duct (one man being used to pass the tile down to the 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



83 



two men laying) where two men are all that is necessary for 
4-duct on account of its lighter weight (about Yj less). 

A 4-duct may be laid on any one of its four sides, while 
either a 6-duct or a 2-duct must be laid on one of their two 
narrow sides or two wide sides, depending upon the specified 
formation of the conduit. 

As frequently tile is not level on all sides, it will be seen 
that the chances are a level side may be found when laying a 
4-duct, where in the case of either a 6-duct or a 2-duct a level 
side may not be found. This makes a difference in the cost of 
laying tile, because it is sometimes necessary to throw out a 
6-duct or a 2-duct. or scrape off the concrete foundation in 
order to allow for the hump in tile. 



-f 


«,- , 


1 

'? 

1 

1 

i 




dHHi 


J 





Comparing the methods of laying tile, it will be found that 
a 6-duct laid "flat" (on one of its wide sides) with a 2-duct on 
top, as shown in Fig. 43, requires the excavation of more cubic 
yards of earth and the use of more concrete than two 4-ducts 
laid side by side or one on top of the other as shown in Fig, 
42; or a 6-duct laid on "edge" (on one of its narrow sides) 
with a 2-duct on top, laid "flat" as shown in Fig. 44; or a 6- 
duct laid "flat" with a 2-duct laid on "edge" against it. The 
6-duct and 2-duct being evidently designed for laying "flat," 
when laid on "edge" are readily thrown out of alignment dur- 
ing the progress of construction, especially when placing the 
concrete around them. 



84 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 



Taking all these points into consideration it is clear that 
two 4-ducts are laid with greater facility, form a more stable 
construction and cost less for material and labor than a 6-duct 
and a 2-duct formation, and in deciding whether to lay two 
4-ducts side by side or one on top of the other, the preference 
should be given to the former, because work is easier in a wide 
trench ; and, as a rule, it is cheaper to dig wide than deep even 
if the street is paved — repairing contractors charge for a yard 
although the trench may be 15 ins. wide. 

Materials. — The materials used in constructing the conduits 
on which the costs given are based are as follows: 




T 



//fi* 






DO 
DD 



1 



I 



i 



DD 
DD 
DD 



DD 
DD 
DD 



1 



^/^^, ^-. 



Fig. 53.— McRoy Tile, 18-Duct Con- 
duit, Class "A" Construction. 



Fig. 54.— McRoy Tile, 20-Duct Con- 
duit, Class "A" Construction. 



(i) McRoy tile, used in building main conduits. It is 
made of vitrified clay, in i, 2, 3 and 6-duct sizes. The i, 2 and 
3-duct are 2 ft. long and the 4 and 6-duct 3 ft. long. 

(2) Sewer tile, used in building underground laterals. 
The inside diameter is 3 ins., the shell J4 in., and the length 
2 ft. (See Fig. 79.) 

(3) Creosoted pump log, used in building conduit where 
the soil is very wet and frequent excavations liable. It is 
made of yellow or Norway pine, creosoted. The section is 
4j^ ins. square, with a 3-in. bore. Each log is provided with 
mortise and tenon. Its length is 2 ft. to 8 ft. 

(4) American Portland cement, crushed limestone, washed 
gravel and torpedo sand, used in making concrete. 

(5) Standard sewer brick, used in building manholes. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



8S 



(6) Vault frame and cover, used as the name implies. 

(7) Dowel pins, used to prci-erve alignment of McRoy 
tile. 

(8) Creosoted plank, used in class "B'' conduit construc- 
tion and in lateral construction to protect from injury in sub- 
sequent excavations. The sizes are i^ ins. x 9 ins, and ij/j 
ins. X 45^ ins., various lengths. 

(9) Burlap, used in covering joint of McRoy tile ; strips 
6 ins. wide. 



Tho of canay^ 



r 



/.«' 



■s: 



CO f^ 



an 



N 



t 



D 

n 



pan 



<v 



04 

04 



* —» 



2-0 




Fig. 55.— McRoy Tile. 22-Duct Con- Fig. 56.^McRoy Tile. 24-Duct Con- 
dult. Class "A" Construction. dult, Class "A" Construction. 

(10) St. Louis *'Y," used in connecting lateral to iron 
lateral pipe at the base of a pole when the lateral drains to- 
ward the pole. Fig. 80. 

DIVISIONS OF UNDERGROUND CONDUIT CON- 
STRUCTION. 
McRoy Tik Conduit. — The trench for conduit shall be ex- 
cavated to such a depth as will leave between the top of the 
concrete or protecting plank over the conduit and the grade 
of the street a distance of not le<s than 24 ins. Where con- 
duit is laid in parkways a distance of not less than 18 ins. 



86 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION 



shall be maintained. Where obstructions are encountered and 
it is desirable to construct the conduit above the obstructions, 
the conduit may be so laid, provided that the top of the en- 
closing concrete shall not be less than 12 ins. from the surface 
of the street if such street is permanently paved on a concrete 
foundation, and not less than 18 ins. from the grade of unim- 
proved streets. In case the surface of an unimproved street 
is below grade the conduit shall be so laid that the top of the 
enclosing concrete shall be 4 ins. below the surface of the 
street. A sufficient quantity of dirt shall be placed over the 
conduit to form a covering of not less than 18 ins. 





Fig. 57.— McRoy Tile, 2-Duct Conduit, 
Class "B" Construction. 



Flff. 58.— McRoy Tile, 3-Duct Conduit, 
Class *'6" Construction. 



The width of the trench shall be such as to permit con- 
venient laying of the conduit and to allow between the duct 
and the side of the trench a distance of not less than 3 ins. 
The desirable formations and size of trenches for McRoy tile 
are shown in Figs. 34 to 61, inclusive. 

Before installing conduit the trench shall be opened to its 
full depth for a distance of 200 ft. in advance of the conduit 
being laid. The sides of the trench shall be cut clean and be 
vertical from the bottom to a point level with the concrete on 
the top of the duct formation. From this point to the surface 
of the ground the sides of the trench may slope, if the soil is of 
such a nature as to make this method less expensive than 
shoring. Otherwise, where necessary, the sides of the trench 
shall be shored to prevent caving. 

Where it is necessary to include service pipes in the con- 
crete protection of a conduit, such pipes shall be surrounded 
by a split pipe of iron having a diameter of not less than 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



87 



zyi ins. This method shall be followed in order to avoid dam- 
age to the surrounding concrete through removal or replace- 
ment of the service pipes. 

The bottom of the trench shall be well tamped and leveled. 
The trench shall be graded as follows : The summit shall be 
midway between the vaults and shall be of a depth as will 
allow 24 ins. between the top of the protecting plank or con- 
crete and the grade of the street. The slope toward each vault 
shall be not less than 30 ins. from the grade of the street. 
Where it is impracticable to grade both ways from the sum- 
mit, the grade may be continuous from one vault to the next. 
If practicable, the summit for two consecutive lengths shall be 
at the same vault and then at alternate vaults, so that the duct 
in a vault will enter at the same level. 



K d^—-^ 



^—-^ 





Fig. 69.— McRoy Tile, 4 -Duct Conduit, 
Class *'B" Construction. 



Fig. 60.— McRoy Ttle, 8-Duct Ccndult, 
Class "B" Construction. 



Conduit should be laid in a straight line. Where it is nece*: 
sary to avoid obstructions or to conform to the changes in lint 
of the street or alley, conduit may be laid so as to vary from 
a straight line, but under no circumstances shall the conduit 
be laid so as to form too sharp an angle or an S. 

The method of installing class "A" construction, shown in 
Figs. 34 to 56, inclusive, shall be as follows : 

The trench shall first be prepared with a foundation of 3 ins. 
of concrete, leveled and tamped. Upon this the tile shall be 
laid. Insert the necessary dowel pins and place the next tile 
in line, centering the tile by means of the dowel pins. Cover 
the top and .«ides of each joint with a strip of burlap 6 ins. 
wide to prevent the entrance of concrete into the duct. 

The successive length of tile shall then be laid in similar 
manner. When two or more sections are laid side by side all 



88 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



joints shall be staggered. In joining 2, 3 or 6-duct sections at 
least one dowel pin shall be used, or if the duct is designed for 
more than one, two shall be used. When the tile is laid it is 
enclosed at the sides and top with a wall of concrete 3 ins. 
thick and well tamped. 

If the conduit has a large cross section it will be built up in 
tiers. When the first tier is laid and lined up the sides of the 
trench shall be filled in with well tamped concrete to a thick- 
ness of 3 ins. and to a height flush with the top of the tile. 
The upper tiers shall then be laid successively, one upon the 
other, in a manner similar to the first tier. The complete sec- 
tion shall be covered with 3 ins. of well-tamped concrete, after 
which the trench shall be refilled. In dumping concrete into 
the trench and in laying tile care should be taken not to knock 



r— 




I /s* 

Fig. 61.— McRoy Tile, 8-Duct Conduit, Class "B" Construction. 



off earth into the trench. Any dirt falling onto the work 
shall be carefully removed before proceeding with the con- 
struction. 

In refilling the trench the better part of the material exca- 
vated shall be used. It must be well tamped into place and 
the trench covered with a crown of 3 or 4 ins. If the street 
is paved, all surplus must be gathered up and carried away, 
and the displaced paving material shall be replaced tem- 
porarily. After conduit runs are completed all ducts shall be 
closed with wooden plugs (Figs. 64 and 65). 

Concrete may be mixed by hand or by machine. If mixed 
by hand it shall be done on a timber platform to prevent waste 
of water and material, except where the following pavements 
are encountered: (i) asphalt; (2) brick; (3) macadam; (4) 
creosoted wood block. When mixing concrete on any of these 



UNDERCROUXD COyDUIT. 89 

pavements the street shall be swept clean for a place sufficient 
to allow for mixing the concrete. The stone or gravel shall 
first be placed in a layer about 4 ins. thick ; sand or screenings 
added and spread out evenly, and the cement added and 
evenly distributed. The dry mixture shall be turned over by 
shovels at least three times so that it is thoroughly mixed. 
Sufficient water shall be used so that when placed in a wheel- 
barrow the concrete shall be very moist and in a semi-fluid 
condition. All concrete shall be free from dirt or any foreign 
material. Concrete shall be used within 2 hours of the time it 
is mixed. 




The proportions of materials to be used in mixing concrete 
for conduit construction shall be as follows : If crushc<l stone 
concrete is used, i part of American Portland cement, 4 parts 
;4-in. screenings and 8 parts No. 3 C^-in.) stone. If gravel 
concrete is used, 1 part American Ponland cement, 4 parts 
sand and 8 parts gravel; i bag of cement shall be considered 
I cu. ft. 

The method of installing class "B" construction, shown by 
Pigs. 57 to 61, inclusive, shall be the same as described for 
class "A," except in the following particulars: 

The tile shall be laid on a 4-in. bed of concrete. Upon the 
top of the tile there shall be placed 2 ins. of earth, which shall 
be free from large stone. Upon this layer of earth a Ij4-in. 



90 



TELEPHOSE COXSTRUCTIOX. 



creosoted plank shall be laid of the same width as the conduit 
formation. The tile joints shall be closed by means of strips 
of biirlap which shall be placed around the tile so as to cover 
the top aiid sides. The burlap shall be saturated with a thin 
neat cement mortar, and shall be plastered on the sides and 
top with J/2 in. of cement mortar mixed in the proportion of 
1-2. The burlap shall be 6 ins. wide and of sufficient length 
to overlap the width of the tile. 

Pump Log Conduit. — The trench for pump log shall be ex- 
cavated in the same manner as described for McRoy tile con- 
duit construction. Pump log shall be laid directly upon the 
bottom of the trench. Where two or more ducts are used thev 




ng. 63.— Method of Extending Lateral Up Pole. 

shall be laid so as to break joints. When the pump log is laid 
and well settled in position, a creosoted plank lyi ins. thick 
and of the width of the conduit shall be laid on top of the 
ducts. There shall then be driven, one on either side, 3 in. x 
i>4 in. X 3 ft. creosoted stakes. The stakes shall be sharpened 
to a point and driven at intervals of 6 ft. with a 3-in. face par- 
allel to the line of the conduit. The tops of the stakes shall be 
fastened together by a cleat, of the same size as the stakes, cut 
to length and drilled for two 3^ -in. wire nails. The trench 
shall then be refilled. The method of laying pump log is 
shown by Fig. 62. 

S<wer Tile Lateral Conduit. — Laterals when laid in the 
main trench, or in a separate trench, shall be single duct, 3-in. 



uxniiRCRorxi) /. oxduit. 



91 



sewer tile. Connections between lateral laid in the main 
trench and lateral laid in a separate trench shall be made with 
standard bends of sewer tile. Where lateral is laid in the main 
conduit trench it shall be located at the top of the conduic 
formation and shall be included in the enclosing concrete. 

Where lateral is laid in. separate trench the trench shall be 
wide enough to permit convenient laying and of sufficient 
depth to make the completed lateral with its protecting plank 
at least 18 ins. below the grade of the street. Joints of lateral 
shall be well protected with cement mortar or concrete. Over 
the lateral, when laid in separate trench, shall be placed about 
3 ins. of earth, which shall be free from large stones. This 
earth shall be well tamped, and on top of this shall be placed 
a creosoted plank, i}^ ins. x 9 ins., to prevent injury in sub- 





p-^ 



Fig. 64.— Round Conduit Plug. 



Fig. 65.— Square Conduit Plug. 



sequent excavations. Where lateral is extended up a pole 
with a curve and an iron pipe the manner of making such ex- 
tension shall be that shown in Fig. 63. All lateral shall be laid 
with the bell end of the tile pointing away from the vault. 

Where joints are made between tile and iron pipe the joint 
shall be wrapped with burlap to prevent the concrete from get- 
ting into the interior of the pipe. 

Lateral shall slope toward the vault. This slope, where 
lateral is laid in a separate trench, shall be, when practicable, 
not less than 9 ins. in 100 ft. In case it is impracticable to 
grade toward the vault, the lateral may slope in the opposite 
direction. In this case, if the lateral is to be extended up a 
pole, a St. Louis "V shall be used at the base of the pole in 
place of a curve. The St. Louis "Y" shall be placed with one 
of its curved parts upward with end against the pole, and the 



1,2 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

other curved part shall be placed downward after first having 
excavated a hole of sufficient depth to allow for drainage. 
The bottom of this hole shall be concreted. 

All laterals shall be redded, fish wires of No. 12 galvanized 
steel wire installed and ends closed with wooden plugs 
(shown in Fig. 64), at the time of installation. 



Fig. Sfl.— Cast Iron Cover for Vault. 

Vault or Manhole Construction. — The location of a vault 
shall be barricaded and excavation then made to such a depth 
as to bring the bottom of the concrete too I7V^ ins. below 
street grade. If the vault is built in advance of street im- 
provements, the necessary information as to grade shall be 
obtained from the city engineer. The excavation for brick 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



93 



vaults shall be sufficiently wide and long enough to leave a 
space of 6 ins. around the outside of the wall of the manhole 
when finished. 

In stiff clay, the excavation may be made of the outside 
dimensions of the vault. The standard manhole or vault shall 
be of either brick with a concrete bottom, concrete top and 
cast iron frame and cover, or of concrete throughout, with cast 
iron frame and cover. In size it shall be approximately of the 
inner dimensions specified on the plan of the work. For 





^^v^^ 



51 






'4 



"^K. 









S'o^ '-H 



I m 



8^ 






t y^at "vT 



i' 






Fig. 67.— Vault Size 1 to be Used on Runs of 1 to 3 Ducts of Conduit when 

not Intersected. 



Straight runs the long dimensions of the vault shall be in the 
line of conduit. . For intersections the long dimension of the 
vault shall be in the line of the heavier run. For different 
cross sections of conduit the desirable forms and dimensions 
for vaults are shown by Fii:>s. 67 to ']?>, inclusive. 

In constructing a vault the bottom of the excavation shall 
first be tamped and a layer of concrete of the depth shown on 
vault drawing, and of sufficient width and length to project 
2 ins. beyond the foundation courses of brick, or the bottom 



94 



TELEPHONE COSSTRVCTIOX 



of the concrete wall shall be placed, tamped and graded for 
drainage. A sewer connection or other means of drainage 
shall be provided wherever possible. If the vault is located on 
high, well-drained, sandy soil, drainage may be secured by 
placing one or two lengths of 6-in. sewer tile perpendicularly 
into the ground from the bottom of the vault. Where possible 
the vault shall be drained by a 6-in. sewer "P" trap in the 
bottom of the vault with 6-in. sewer tile connection to the 
sewer. If the water level of the sewer is higher than the bot- 



Flg. 18,— Vault Stie 2 




tom of the vault, sewer connections may be made through the 
wall of the vault using a running sewer trap. A back water 
trap shall be installed in all cases where the bottom of the 
vault is less than 3 ft. above the top of the sewer, by which 
the vault is to be drained. All drainage openings shall be pro- 
vided with cast iron strainers set flush with the floor or wall 
of the vault. Where the vault is drained through the floor, the 
floor shall be laid so as to drain to the trap with a fall of not 
less than i in. in 10 ft. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



95 



In the case of brick vaults, the wall of the vault shall be 
built up of hard burned sewer brick laid in cement mortar. In 
dry weather brick shall be well moistened before using. Walls 
shall be 9 ins. thick. The wall shall be built up, every sixth 
course being laid as headers, to the height required. The top 
course shall be laid as stretchers. The horizontal mortar 
joints shall not exceed ^ in. and the vertical joints ^ in. 
in thickness. 




i 
I 



f \A- lis TV 









to -»'A 

■ 

I 



1 






\ 

% 

> 






J*. I — < . I *■-: L 



I 






9au/yMr 



... 0'ArflMMMi 



Fig. 69.— Vault Size 3 to be Used on Ruds of 4 to 8 Ducts of Conduit when not 

Intersected. 



The brick work shall be racked away around the entrance of 
the ducts to afford room for turning cables when installed. 
As the walls are built up cable support nipples of approved 
type shall be installed in all vaults. No less than two sup- 
ports shall be set in the walls parallel to the conduit run on a 
level with each layer of ducts in non-intersected vaults. The 
supports shall not be nearer than i ft. from the end of the 
conduit and shall be placed symmetrically. All pipes en- 
tering the vaults shall be well cemented into the brick work 
and the inside of the vault walls well pointed up. 



96 TELEPHOSE CONSTRUCTIOS. 

When vaults are intersected at least one support nipple shall 
be set in each wall between conduit runs on a level with each 
layer of ducts and set as nearly as practicable at the central 
point. 

The walls of all concrete vaults shall be 6 ins. thick. The 
concrete in the roof and floor shall be thoroughly tamped. 
The concrete in the walls shall be uniformly and equally dis- 
tributed within the forms, in layers not exceeding 6 ins. in 




8 Ducu of Conduit i 



thickness, each layer being thoroughly tamped in place. After 
this the succeeding layer shall be at once applied, and the 
operation continued until the walls have reached the required 
height. 

When the walls of the vault are finished and filled in and 
around the outside, the wood form far the concrete top shall 
be placed. The form shall he placed so as to make the center 
of the manhole opening as nearly as possible over the center 
line of the ducts, going both ways, and midway l>etween the 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



97 



ends of the vault ; the lon<i; cd^e of the opening being parallel 
to the main line of conduit. 

In case a vault top is 7 ft. or more in length it shall be 
strengthened by ^-in. x 3 x 3-in. T-iron, or other equivalent 
reinforcing irons, placed approximately 2 ft. apart and parallel 
to the short side of the vault top. Where T-irons are used 
they shall be imbedded in the concrete with the st^m of the 
T up and the bottom of the bar within i in. of the lower side 





\j . 



l>•^^•,^> ' •;■*::^ ' ^•:/>•^'■^ -• \ i 



rfpr 

Btkk 



Pig. 71.— Vault Sl«e 5 to be Uaed on Runs of 9 to 12 Dncts of Conduit when 

not Intersected. 



of the concrete. An alternative method for reinforcing con- 
crete roofs of vaults shall be as follows: J^-messenger strand 
shall be cut to the outside width and length of the vault roof 
and shall be set in the concrete on 4-in. centers about i in. 
from the bottom of the concrete roof, both across the length 
and width of the roof. Immediately under the center of the 
bearing surface of the vault frame shall be placed two pieces 
of J/^-in. strand side by side both lengthwise and across the 
width of the vault roof. 



98 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 








Fig. 72.— Vault Size 6 to be Used on Runs of 9 to IS Ducts of Conduit when 

Intersected. 











Fig. 73.— Vault Size 7 to be Used on Runs of 13 to 24 Ducts of Conduit wbMI 

not Intersected. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



99 



The forms used for building vault tops are shown by Fig. 
8i. In the case of concrete vaults, openings for the entrance 
of the ducts shall be made with the forms shown by Fig. 82. 
These forms are made in two styles, collar and block. The 
collar form shall be used where the ducts are already installed, 
and the block form, where it is desired to leave an opening for 
the entrance of future ducts. The collar form shall be placed 
just over the ducts and against the vault form as shown on 
Fig. 81, and shall be removed after the vault form has been 
removed. 





* rftrtrttM 



FiS. 74. — ^Vault Size 8 to be Used on Runs of 13 to 24 Ducts of Conduit when 

Intersected. 



The forms shown by Fig. 83 shall be used to form openings 
for the entrance of sewer tile where it is desirable to have a 
beveled opening as in some cases where large cable is to be 
installed in the sewer tile. These forms are also used to form 
openings for the entrance of circular ducts. 

The method of mixing concrete shall be the same as de- 
scribed for conduit. The proportions of concrete mixtures for 
vaults shall be as follows : If crushed stone concrete is used : 
For floors of vaults, i part American Portland cement, 4 



lOO 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 





FIff. 75. — Vault Size 9. to be Used on Tondult Runs when Intorsooteil. 






--IS 



i« \ 



1 




f!> :iiii 





"I I I ^~t6' — ; n 

( I I ^ a 

«..i — ^ ,.ai- — r^^. 

' if'' • *w# 

I I ■» I 

M^u LJ 1 i?*- 



t 






:LL 



I ~ 



JJ 



>"^. '• ' *'.:«: 



■^ ■»*•■., 



"• * . V' 



ft ■..■ o 



•^•^v4 



Fiff. 76.— Vault Size 10, Used for Installlngr 6 Loading Pots on Conduit Runs 

when not Intersected. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT, 



1 01 



parts y^Aw, screenuigs and 8 parts No. 3 .(j4-in) stone; for 
roofs and sides of vaults, i part American Portland cement, 3 
parts Vj^'in, screenings, and 5 parts No. 3 (^-in.) stone. If 
gravel concrete is used : For floors of vaults, i part American 
Portland cement, 4 parts sand and 8 parts of gravel ; for roofs 
and sides of vaults, i part American Portland cement, 3 parts 
sand and 5 parts gravel. 







I' I 




//• 4' 



Fig. 77.— Vault Size 11, Used for Installing 8 Loading Pots on Conduit Rune 

when not Intersected. 



Cement mortar shall be mixed on a closely laid timber plat- 
form or in a wood box. The sand shall be spread on the 
mixing platform to a thickness of 2 ins., the cement added and 
evenly distributed and the materials turned over 3 times with 
hoes. Sufficient water to make the mortar into a stiff paste 
shall then be carefully added and the mixture turned over 
3 times with hoes to thoroughly mix the material and dampen 
every particle of cement. Mortar shall be used within 30 
mins. of the time of adding the water. Cement mortar shall 
be mixed in the proportion of I part American Portland 
cement to 3 parts sand. 



102 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

FORMS FOR RECORDING COSTS OF CONDUIT 
WORK. 

The forms used for reporting the costs of underground con- 
duit construction are shown by Forms 40 to 44, inclusive. 

In explanation of Form 40 it will be noted that separate 
divisions are not made for handling and mixing concrete, and 




dunipitig into trench, as in the method of accomplishing the 
work it is not often practicable to separate the mixing from 
the wheeling and dumping. On all conduit forms the division 
for the cost of filling in includes the cost of the labor in load- 
ing surplus earth on wagons, reinforcing the trench and clean- 
ing up. The cost of laying tile, plank and placing concrete is 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



103 



included in one division, as their separation would be difficult 
and, on account of the manner in which this work is done, the 




Fig. 80.— 3-in. St. Loula "T." 







39Cfion AA 









Fig. 81.— Forms for Building Vault Tops. 

separation would considerably increase the work of cost men 
without essentially increasing the value of the data. The di- 



104 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTIOX. 



vision for laying tile, on the form used for reporting sewer tile 
lateral construction, includes hiixing concrete or mortar, this 
being such a small item that its separation would be of no 
value. On the form shown in Form 43 the cost of laying brick 
includes the cost of mixing mortar and tending bricklayer. 

The division for the cost of placing floor, on both the con- 
crete and the brick vault forms, includes mixing and placing 




? 



t 



Sectwn c-C ^•ction DO 

Tig. 82.— Forma for Constructing: Openlrgs for tho "Entrance of Ducts Into 

Concrete Vaults. 

concrete ; and the division for the cost of placing top includes 
mixing and placing concrete, filling in and resurfacing, labor 
in loading svirplus earth, and placing frame and cover. On the 
form used for concrete vault construction, the cost of placing 
sides includes the cost of mixing and placing concrete and 
filling in around the sides, when necessary. 




6ecfion F-F. 



5ecfion c-h 



Pig. 83. — Forms for Constructing Openings for the Entrance of Circular 

Ducts Into Concrete Vaults. 

As in underground construction, generally the building of 
vault, main conduit and sometimes laterals are carried on at 
the same time, and large gangs are worked, it is not prac- 
ticable to make more divisions of vault construction than 
those shown in these forms, unless several cost men are em- 
ployed in taking data c:i the job. This may be readily seen 
from the following description of the usual method used in 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 105 

constructing concrete vaults, which is very much the same 
for brick vault construction. 

A vault gang is generally composed of about 12 or 15 men, 
an assistant foreman and a team. This gang either builds 
vaults in advance or following the conduit gang. In either 
case the two gangs are often widely separated. Six or eight 
men are detailed to excavate vault, 2 or 3 being assigned to 
each vault, depending on size and soil. 

When several vaults are excavated, the balance of the vault 
gang follow up the men excavating, and mix and lay the 
concrete bottoms. By the time they have caught up to the 
men excavating, the concrete bottom of the first vault will be 
sufficiently dry for placing the sides. The forms are then set 
up and concrete mixed and placed for all the vault sides. 
The vault gang will then either start at the first vault and 
complete same by placing the form for the concrete top, 
mixing and placing the concrete, setting the iron frame while 
the concrete is still wet, filling in around the top, resurfacing 
the street and loading surplus earth ; or will place bottoms on 
vaults which have been excavated since the sides were placed. 

METHOD OF KEEPING UNDERGROUND CONDUIT 

CONSTRUCTION COSTS. 

In the method described for keeping costs of line and cable 
construction, cable splicing, removing material and recon- 
struction it is required that account shall be kept of the work 
accomplished by each man in a gang. This is readily done, as 
the gangs rarely exceed 12 or 15 men. In conduit work, how- 
ever, this system is impracticable, as the gangs worked are 
generally composed of 56 to 75 men, and sometimes are as 
large as 125 men. The following system is therefore used for 
keeping conduit construction costs: 

A report of each day's work is entered on a conduit, vault or 
laterar form, as the case may be. These reports are either 
sent to the office each day or at the end of a job, depending 
upon whether or not cost men are required to keep time as 
well as costs, and whether the job is large or small. The 
reports are tabulated and when the job is completed arc 
totaled and averaged. 



I06 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

The costs of unloading cars and distributing material, i. e., 
teaming, labor, and supervision, board and carfare, if any, 
are added together and entered on the conduit, vault or lateral 
form, as the case may be, in the column headed "Cost of Un- 
loading and Distributing Material/' This cost is not included 
in the total cost of each day's work, but is kept separate until 
the job is completed on account of it being generally the case 
where conduit and vaults are built on the same job that the 
cost of unloading and distributing the concrete material for 
the conduit and the vaults cannot be separated as cement, 
sand t>r gravel, as the case may be, is not separated when 
shipped. 

The cost of unloading and distributing cement, sand, gravel 
or stone is kept separate from other unloading and distribut- 
ing charges and entered on the conduit form in the column 
reserved for the cost of unloading and distributing material 
with the word cement, sand, gravel or stone written alongside 
of it in the **Remark" column. Upon completion of the job 
this cost is prorated and included in the total cost of unload- 
ing and distributing material for vaults and for conduit. The 
volume of concrete as shown in the specifications for building 
vaults and for building conduit is used as a basis for prorating 
such cost of unloading and distributing concrete material. 

Where mortar or concrete material is unloaded and dis- 
tributed on job which includes conduit, vaults and lateral con- 
structiort no attention need be paid to the proportion of such 
unloading and distributing cost to be charged to lateral con- 
struction, as the quantity of cement, sand or gravel used 
is so small that it is of no importance in estimating. The 
quantity of cement required for a lateral rarely exceeds }i of 
a bag. 

When material has once been distributed on the work, any 
labor in moving material from one part of the job to another 
part is charged, if tile, to laying tile ; if concrete material, to 
mixing concrete, and the team used in such rehandling is in- 
cluded in the cost of teaming on conduit, vaults, or lateral 
construction, as the case may be. 

In taking cost data, the divisions should be the same as the 
form shown in Forms 40 to 44, inclusive. Costs are taken 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. loy 

every J^ hour except when in the judgment of cost keepers 
the conditions of the work require that costs shall be taken 
at more frequent intervals, where the gang is small or where 
a foreman continually shifts his men, where they are taken 
every lo or 15 minutes. 

Separate data are kept for each section of conduit buik 
where soil, pavement or cross section changes, where the loca- 
tion changes from street to alley, or where on asphalted 
streets the relative position of the conduit and curb changes. 

Memorandum books ruled so that there is a column for each 
Yi hour of a working day and a column on the extreme left 
of the page for the date, as shown by Form 45, are used for 

keeping costs of conduit or lateral construction. For conduit 
construction, there should be a page each for teaming; exca- 
vating; handling and mixing concrete and dumping into 
trench; laying tile, plank and concrete; and filling in. Sim- 
ilar pages are used for lateral construction. 

In each V^ hour column, under the proper time heading and 
on the line opposite the proper date on their respective page is 
entered, every Yz hour, the number of teams working, or the 
number of men excavating, etc. The driver is included with 
the team. 

A blue print plan of the work is kept on hand by cost men 
for reference. Each vault on the plan is numbered consecu- 
tively, and in making reports the space on the form reserved 
for location shall be filled out with the numbers of the vaults 
between which the conauit work was installed. 

In filling out the location on lateral forms the vault from 
which the lateral runs and the direction in which it runs from 
the vault is stated. The location on vault forms is filled out 
with the vault number shown on the blue print plan. 

For vault construction, the memorandum books are ruled 
with columns and headings as shown in Form 46. The 
column on the extreme of the page is used for vault number 
instead of date. The cost of each vault is kept separate. 



TELEPHONE COSSTRUCTION. 



Conduit CrouStciLon 

McRoY TiLB Condi 

Located Between Vaults No. . . .and No. . 



. .Est. No....C1as 




Form 42. 




Sewer Tile Lateral Ciinstblitiun. 


loo,ti™p>..,v..iiN... -ys'te? ni' =••."» 




- 


3 ' "3 


• J 










IE 1 !■« 


i 


■ ff 






i !? 


t-S 










i * 








^^ - 


i:« 


s,^ 


s 








' h 


is. 


i '? 


■^s 




1 




4 i 

,1 1 


1 


1 


E 

1 


1 


.^ 


ill 


^1 






1 




1 


Ml: \ 


1 


~ 



UNDERGROVXD COXDUIT. 



Lwktkm 


Bbick Va 


Form tS 
ITLT CoSSTRl-.TlON. 








1 


"I 


Mill 


■ 1 

II 




li 1 


1 


i 

3 
|5 


1 












. 





Form 

Concrete Vai'lt 


)ONRTR1X 


no». 














Ert.No 








1 


, ill 

il is.M 


i 


1 
li 


1 


ll 


1 
1 


ll 

il 


Bill 
iii 


1 












1 





Form 48. 

Excavating. 


'-Uiiul 


» '1 11 

2 i'Sli/'a 


i 


2 


S 


2 


i 


2 


) Hours 




■ 


■ 




Jun* 3 11 30 » » 21 l» 23 K) 22 , 10 » 20 21 21 


" 


20 


30 


»|„ 



Form 40. 1 
Pl-AciNi! Bottom. 


Vault 
No. 


2 


g I* 

i'i 


ill 






2g ■ 3 


(Vorkd 






! 






* 


,1 

e 


•,•'•.. 


S 

■ . . J 



no 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



METHOD OF FIGURING UNDERGROUND CONDUIT 

CONSTRUCTION COSTS. 

Ill figuring the costs of underground conduit construction 
the total Yi hours worked on each division of construction as 
shown in the memorandum books is divided by 2 and multi- 
plied by the rate of wages per hour. This will give the cost 
of excavating, mixing concrete, etc. 




5ecrian D-a 



■^r- 



Sir 



BE 



EC 




* ■ ■ ■ ■ 



' r. ' " ' ~3 I 



■ II I 



I ■ I ■ 



I 



3ectionA'A 



Section C-C 
Fig. 84.— Collapsible Steel Vault Form. 

When during the day more than one kind of construction 
was worked on, or where more than one vault has been built, 
the method of finding the cost of supervision and expense, 
board and carfare is as follows: 

Assuming that 100 men (not including supervisors) have - 
worked 9 hrs. each, and that the memorandum book shows: 

600 hrs. worked on conduit. 

100 lateral. 

100 vault No. I. 

100 vault No. 2. 

900 hrs. worked. 
Divide the total hours worked (900) into the cost of super- 
vision and expense, which assume to be $9.00. This will give 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT, 



I II 



the cost per man-hour ($o.oi). Multiplying the cost of super- 
vision per man-hour ($o.oi) by the number of hours spent on 
each kind of construction, we have as follows : 




Sectiorr B-ft. 




5«c«on C-C 

Fig. 85.— Collapsible Steel Vault Form for Octagonal Vaults. 



No. Hrs. Supervision per Cost of 



Worked. 
600 
100 



Man-Hour. Supervision. 

X $.01 = $6.00 

X .01 =- 1. 00 

X .01 = 1. 00 

X .01 = 1, 00 



Kind of Const. 

Conduit 

Lateral 

Vault No.* I 

Vault No. 2 100 

Carfare and board may be found in the same way. 
UNDERGROUND CONDUIT COST DATA. 

The schedules shown herein comprise data on the labor cost 
of constructing over 250,000 ft. of conduit and lateral, and 
over 550 vaults. 

The rates of wages on which the data given in Tables 
LXXXI to XCVII are based are as follows: 



112 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Per day of 9 hrs. 

Foreman $3-5o to $4.00 

Assistant foreman . : 2.50 to 3.00 

Timekeeper 2.00 to 2.50 

Watchmen 2.00 

Waterboy i.oo 

Laborers 2.00 

Teams 5.00 

Per hour. 

Bricklayers $0.65 to $0.73 

The regular hourly rate was paid for overtime. 




- S'ff' - 



II 
1! 



II 
ii 

44- 



ii 



^ 



II 
II 
-u. 



II 



II 
Ii 
ll 

M 



■4 i 



I 






JJ 



i 

! 
I 

r 












J] 

L 
i 

J 










1 
1 









5«:^Jon AA 

Fig. 8G.— Wooden Vault Form. 



Section B-8 



In the work on which these costs were taken, Mc Roy tile, 
cement, vault frames and cover, creosoted plank and pump 
log was shipped in cars and unloaded and distributed by the 
conduit gang. All other material was bought delivered on the 
job. The cost of unloading and distributing material, there- 
fore, does not include sand, gravel, stone, brick or sewer tile. 

As in excavating almost any trench of more than a few hun- 
dred feet, there are small portions where nature or kind of 
soil varies, in drawing up these schedules, if a small percent- 
age of the soil on a job was sand, wet clay, or hard clay, etc., 
and the balance clay, it is considered clay. No separation is 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 113 

made in the schedules showing the average cost of installing 
the different cross sections of conduit in cities, between the 
conduit built in roadways and parkways, as there is very little 
difference in the cost, because, in cities, the surface of park- 
ways is usually grass and it is about as expensive to remove 
and replace as the pavement of roadways, with the exception 
of asphalt, which is replaced by paving contractors and not 
included in the labor costs of resurfacing. The cost of unload- 
ing and distributing material is not included in the schedules 
showing the average cost of each different cross section of 
conduit in cities, as in many cases cost men were not assigned 
to a job until after material was distributed. 

The data given in Table LXXXVI show the average cost 
of 68 concrete vaults, size 3, the walls of which were built 
with the collapsible steel vault form shown by Fig. 84. 

It will be seen that the cost of these vaults was consider- 
ably lower than the cost of the concrete vaults, size 3, given 
in Table LXXXV. This lower cost is accounted for bv the 
use of the steel form, which proved to be much cheaper to set 
up and remove than the form shown by Fig. 86, which was 
used in building the vaults on which the data given in Table 
LXXXV are based. 

The form is made in two sections, each section forming one 
side of the vault wall and one-half of each end wall. The 
end parts are hinged well back on the side parts so that they 
swing inward immediately, and do not scrape or catch against 
the concrete when opening. One of the two sections has its 
end parts fitted with overlapping bars which are fastened as 
shown, and hold the form rigid so that the use of braces is 
not required. Two of these forms are used for building a 
vault to the standard height. 

Although no data on the cost of building vaults with the 
form shown by Fig. 85 were available, it is given to show the 
style of form used for building octagon shape concrete vaults. 
The style of the form is similar to that shown by Fig. 84, 
the end pieces and method of locking being the same. 

In connection with the tables of averagies given above 
records of cost of several individual jobs are given in Tables 
LXXXVII to XCVII. 



114 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



T.vnLE LXXXL— Average Cost of McRoy Tile Conduit Construction 

IN Cities. 



Conduit 

CTOM 

Rec- 
ti n 
No. 
Dueta CI 

2 A 

3 A 

3 B 

4 A 

i B 

3 A 
6 A 

6 B 



7 A 

8 A 



9 A 

U A 
12 A 



OCMlOf 

Taam- 
ing 
KIn'l of P«r 

BoU Lio-Ft. 

Clay $0.0267 

Haid Clay. 0.0438 

Averaflre .. 0.0352 

Sand 0.0160 

Slay 0.0174 

ard Clay. 0.0223 

Average .. 0.0186 

Sand 0.0167 

Clay 0.0163 

Hard Clay. 0.0198 

Average .. 0.0176 

Sand 0.0298 

Clay 0.0381 

Hard Clay. 0.0259 

Average .. 0.031S 

Sand 0.0253 

Clay 0.0276 

Hard Clay. 0.0301 

Average .. 0.0277 

Sand 0.0300 

Clay 0.0291 

Average .. 0.0296 

Sand 0.0234 

Clay 0.0301 

Hard c:ay. 0.0397 

Average .. 0.0311 

Sand 0.0315 

Clay 0.0296 

Hard Clay. 0.0380 

Average .. 0.0330 

Clay 0.0307 

Sand 0.0246 

Clay 0.0384 

Hard Clay. 0.0401 

Average .. 0.0344 

Sand 0.0311 

Clay 0.0299 

Hard Clay. 0.0471 

Average .. 0.0360 

Sand 0.0402 

Clay 0.0501 

Average . . 0.0452 

Sand 0.0422 

Clay 0.0517 

Hard Clay. 0.0476 

Average .. 0.0472 



Cost or HAodllns 
Mid Mixing 
Ooncret* Cost of 
And LM[imrTil«, 
Coat of Damping l*laiik Cotitof 
BxrmvAt- Into and Fl.llng 

lug Trenoh Ooncreto In 
Per Per P«r Por 

Lln.Fk Un.Ft. LlJuFt. Lln.Ft. 



$0.0629 
0.0705 
0.0667 
0.0588 
0.0663 
0.0770 
0.0674 
0.0593 
0.0652 
0.0781 
0.0675 
0.0904 
0.1291 
0.1547 
0.1247 
0.0917 
0.1194 
0.1601 
0.12.37 
0.1121 
0.1507 
0.1314 
0.0911 
0.1348 
0.1602 
0.1287 
0.1127 
0.1483 
0.1587 
0.1399 
0.1429 
0.1196 
0.1547 
0.1704 
0.1482 
0.1257. 
0.1605 
0.1782 
0.1548 
0.1464 
0.1848 
0.1656 
0.1457 
0.1911 
0.2127 
0.1832 



$0.0297 
0.0386 
0.0342 
0.0441 
0.0536 
0.0425 
0.0467 
0.0172 
0.0189 
0.0166 
0.0176 
0.0529 
0.0490 
0.0560 
0.0526 
0.0294 
0.0282 
0.0201 
0.0259 
0.0649 
0.0620 
0.0635 
0.0614 
0.0603 
0.0583 
0.0583 
0.0227 
0.0259 
0.0204 
0.0230 
0.0693 
0.0686 
0.0702 
0.0603 
0.0664 
0.0743 
0728 
0696 
0722 
0884 
0779 
0.0831 
0.0787 
0.0824 
0.0760 
0.0790 



0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 



$0.0131 
0.0133 
0.0132 
0.0294 
0.0169 
0.0125 
0.0196 
0.0178 
0.0192 
0.0199 
0.0190 
0.0296 
0.0322 
0.0330 
0.0316 
0.0190 
0.0201 
0.0242 
0.0211 
0.0342 
0.0387 
0.0364 
0.0428 
0.0212 
0.0330 
0.0323 
0.0343 
0.0360 
0.0313 
0.0339 
0.0341 
0.0302 
0.0366 
0.0327 
0.0332 
0.0287 
0.0402 
0.0423 
0.0371 
0.0493 
0.0501 
0.0497 
0.0522 
0.0498 
0.0517 
0.0512 



$0.0440 
0.0540 
0.0490 
0.0147 
0.0503 
0.0415 
0.0355 
0.0254 
0.0492. 
0.0521 
0.0422 
0.0201 
0.0384 
0.0602 
0.0396 
0.0350 
0.0521 
0.0572 
0.0481 
0.0501 
0.0604 
0.0552 
0.0514 
0.0820 
0.0834 
0.0723 
0.0576 
0.0801 
0.0740 
0.0706 
0.0701 
0.0717 
0.0642 
0.0823 
0,0727 
0.0733 
0.0839 
0.0876 
0.0816 
0.0812 
0.0934 
0.0873 
0.0786 
0.0948 
0.1014 
0.0916 



Bnpet^ 

TlslOB 

Por 
LikFt. 

$0.0310 
0.0432 
0.0371 
0.0515 
0.0367 
0.0314 
0.0398 
0.0380 
0.0406 
0.0372 
0.0386 
0.0426 
0.0447 
0.0671 
0.0515 
0.0382 
0.0416 
0.0574 
0.0457 
0.0417 
0.0481 
0.0449 
0.0591 
0.0713 
0.0698 
0.0667 
0.0601 
0.0662 
0.0742 
0.0668 
0.0768 
0.0612 
0.0708 
0.0796 
0.0705 
0.0711 
0.0S05 
0.0C73 
0.0730 
0.0804 
0.0902 
0.0833 
0.0781 
0.0829 
0.0887 
0.0832 



Total 

Co«t 

Per 

Un.Ft. 

$0.2074 
0.2634 
0.2354 
0.2145 
0.2412 
0.2272 
0.2276 
0.1744 
0.2094 
0.2237 
0.2025 
0.2654 
0.3315 
0.3969 
0.3313 
0.2386 
0.2890 
0.3491 
0.2922 
0.3330 
0.3S90 
0.3610 
0.3292 
0.3997 
0.4394 
0.3894 
0.3189 
0.3861 
0.3966 
0.3672 
0.4239 
0.3759 
0.4349 
0.4654 
0.4234 
0.4042 
0.4678 
0.4921 
0.4547 
0.4859 
0.5465 
0.5162 
0.4755 
0.5527 
0.5781 
0.5354 



Tomi 

Per 
DactFt 

$0.1037 
0.1817 
0.11V7 
0.0716 
0.0804 
0.0797 
0.0759 
0.0581 
0.0698 
0.0746 
0.0675 
0.0664 
0.0829 
0.0932 
0.082^ 
0.0597 
0.0722 
0.0873 
0.0731 
0.0666 
0.0778 
0.072? 
0.0549 
0.0666 
0.0732 
0.0649 
0.0532 
0.0648 
0.0661 
0.0612 
0.0606 
0.0470 
0.0344 
0.058:: 
0.0532 
0.0449 
0.0520 
0.0547 
0.0505 
0.0442 
0.0497 
0.0469 
0.0396 
0.0461 
0.0482 
0.0446 



Table LXXXI I. —Average Cost of Pump Log Conduit Construction in 

C1TIE.S. 



Conduit Cost 
Crow of 
Rectlon. Team- 
Kind of Sou. Mo. Ducti. ing. 

Sand and Water.... 1 $0.0304 

Clay 1 0.0281 

Clay and Water 1 0.0331 

Average 1 0.0305 

Sand and Water 2 0.0334 

Clay and Water 2 (KOSH 

Average 2 <..032". 

Sand and Water 4 0.0412 

Clav 4 0.0487 

Average 4 0.0449 





Cost of 








Total 


Cost 


Laying 


Cost 




Total 


Cost 


of Pump Log 


of 




Cost 


J*' 


Exoa. 
▼atlng. 


and 
Flank. 


Filling 

ID. 


Buner vi- 
sion. 


per 
Un.rt. 


Duot 
Ft. 


$0.0612 $0.0177 $0.0314 $0.0240 $0.1647 $0.1647 
0.0574 0.0189 0.0247 0.0262 0.1553 0.1553 


0.0818 


0.0213 


0.0386 


0.0341 


0.2089 


0.2089 


0.0668 


0.0193 


0.0316 


0.0281 


0.1763 


0.1763 


0.0843 


0.0278 


0.0397 


0.0299 


O.isial 


0.1076 


o.ior>4 


0.0262 


0.0411 


0.0352 


0.2396 


0.1198 


0.0949 


0.0270 


0.0404 


O.or'26 


0.2274 


0.1137 


0.1401 


0.0411 


0.0319 


0.0496 


0.3239 


0.0810 


0.1482 


0.0490 


0.0.'.37 


0.0312 


0.3308 


0.0877 


0.1442 


0.0431 


0.0328 


0.0304 


0.3374 


0.084t 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



"5 



Table LXXXIII. — Average Cost of Sewer Tile Lateral Constructcon 

IN Cities. 



Kind of Soil. 

Sand 

Clay 

Hard Clay 
Very Hard 
Average 
Clay 



Conduit 

CroM 

Section. 

No. DuotB. 



Clay 



Cost of 
T«*inlnc. 

$0.0099 
0.0167 
0.0234 
0.0408 
0.0227 
0.0201 



Cost of 

Laying Cost 

Cost of Tlle,Pluik of 

and WllUng 

Concrete. In. 



▼fttlnff. 
$0.0364 $0.0201 



0.0467 
0.0581 
0.0720 
0.0533 
0.0709 



0.0156 
0.0198 
0.0178 
0.0183 
0.0223 



$0.0219 
0.0260 
0.0293 
0.0311 
0.0271 
0.0502 



Bnper- 
▼laion. 

$0.0291 
0.0327 
0.0302 
0.0414 
0.0333 
0.0390 



Total 
Cost 

£«r 
in. 
Ft. 

$0.1174 
0.1377 
0.1608 
0.2031 
0.1547 
0.2025 



Total 

Cost 

per 

Duct 

Ft. 

$0.1174 
0.1377 
0.1608 
0.2031 
0.1547 
O.IOU 



Table LXXXIV. — Average Cost of Brick Vault Construction in 

Cities. 

Cofit of Cost of CoMt of Cost of Cost of COKt of 

Size Mo. Team- Beavat- Placioflr L«ylnir flaclng Supervi. Total 

Kind of Soil. of Vaults. Ing. Ing. Floor. Brick. Top. sion. Cost 

Sand 1 $2.80 $3.69 $0.94 $11.23 $3.18 $2.87 $24.71 

Clay 1 3.28 4.56 0.73 11.39 3.69 3.04 26.69 

Hard Clay 1 3.27 5.64 1.04 10.86 3.82 3.16 27.79 

Average 1 3.12 4.63 0.90 11.16 3.56 3.02 26.89 

Sand 2 2.97 3.81 1.15 10.71 3.34 3.01 34.99 

Clay 2 3.47 4.48 0.92 11.22 3.48 3.41 26.98 

Hard Clay.... 2 3.49 5.52 1.14 11.46 3.67 3.28 28.56 

Average 2 3.31 4.60 1.07 11.13 3.50 3.23 26.84 

Sand 3 2.62 3.85 1.12 12.63 2.55 3.10 25.87 

Clay 3 3.64 4.52 1.26 11.47 3.76 3.56 28.81 

Hard Clay 3 3.01 5.71 1.34 13.89 8.58 2.93 80.46 

Average 3 3.09 4.69 1.24 12.66 3.30 3.20 28.18 

Sand 4 3.62 4.54 1.82 14.41 4.07 4.12 32.58 

Clay 4 4.06 5.78 1.76 14.28 5.83 4.57 36.3b 

Hard Clay.... 4 4.85 7.51 2.23 14.12 4.32 4.98 38.01 

Average 4 4.17 5.94 1.94 14.27 4.74 4.56 85.62 

Sand 5 3.48 4.69 2.04 14.47 4.16 4.21 33.05 

Clay 5 4.17 5.54 1.93 14.32 5.94 4.86 86.76 

Average 5 3.83 5.12 1.98 14.39 5.05 4.54 34.91 

Sard 6 4.01 4.76 2.33 - 14.35 4.34 4.51 34.30 

Clay 6 3.90 5.71 2.04 14.57 5.66 4.22 86.10 

Hard Clay.... 6 4.46 7.42 2.11 13.86 5.81 4.91 38.57 

Average 6 4.12 5.96 2.16 14.26 5.27 4.55 86.82 

Sand 8 6.27 6.27 3.06 18.27 5.98 5.64 45.49 

Clay 8 6.90 8.04 2.87 18.94 6.40 6.87 50.02 

Average 8 6.59 7.15 2.97 18.60 6.19 6.25 47.75 

Sand n> 2.49 4.01 1.19 11.63 3.43 3.12 26.32 

Clay 9> 3.57 4.72 1.21 11.22 3.59 3 44 27.75 

Hard Clay 9» 3.68 5.43 1.07 11.56 3.86 3.52 29.12 

Average 0» 3.40 4.72 1.16 11.47 3.62 3.36 27.73 

Sand nt 3.19 4.27 1.26 12.04 4.01 3.61 28.38 

Clay 9t 3.39 4.63 1.19 12.83 4.32 3.97 30.38 

Average Ot 3.2a 4.45 1.23 12.43 4.17 .^79 29.36 

Sand 10 7.94 16.43 3.96 26.14 7.27 10.74 72.48 

Clay 10 9.12 18.74 4.67 24.82 8.02 12.02 77.39 

Hard Clay 10 9.53 22.04 4.09 25.32 7.73 13.81 82.52 

Average 10 8.86 19.07 4.24 25.43 7.67 12.19 77.46 

Clay 11 10.52 26.02 5.34 30.96 8.52 15.11 96.47 

Clay 12 9.93 2-1.64 5.83 32.11 8.36 14.04 95.91 

Hard Clay 12 10.14 28.89 5.15 31.07 8.84 14.41 98.50 

Average 12 10.03 27.27 5.49 31.59 8.60 14.23 97.21 

•For 8 ducts or less. tFor 9 ducts to 12 ducts. 



Table LXXXV. — Average Cost of Concrete Vault Construction in 



Cost of 
KlEONn. of Team- 
Kind of Soli. Vaults. iiigr. 

Kiind 1 $2.44 

Clay 1 3.1« 

Avorage 1 2.80 

Sand 3 2.TS 

Clay 3 3.2:] 

Hard Clay 3 :{..".4 

Average 3 3.18 



Cities. 



Cost of 


Coat of 


Cost of 


Cost of 






Exca rat- 


Placing 


Placing 


P acing 


Super- 


Total 


ing. 


Floor. 


Sides. 


Top. 


vision. 


«:ost. 


$3.79 


$1.02 


$4.41 


$2.44 


$2.11 


$U:.21 


4.:i8 


0.«7 


4.58 


2.83 


2.46 


18 28 


4. OS 


0.9.'. 


4..'')0 


2.6:t 


2.29 


17.2.-, 


3.i»l 


1.22 


5.79 


•> •)') 


2.51 


18.43 


4.60 


1.14 


.f..4S 


:?..'.! 


2.87 


20.83 


r..s.3 


1.18 


5.64 


3. 12 


2.82 


22.48 


4.78 


1.18 


5.64 


3.05 


2.73 


20.56 



Ii6 



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CHAPTER VL 

DETAILED COST OF CONSTRUCTING 834362 DUCT 

FEET OF UNDERGROUND CONDUIT AND 

318 VAULTS IN ONE JOB. 

The following data give the costs of one of the largest 
multiple duct conduits ever installed. It comprises 824,862 
duct feet of conduit and 318 vaults. In securing these data 
special attention was paid to accuracy and uniformity* A 
competent cost man was assigned to each gang, and in some 
cases, where gangs were large, two men were engaged in 
keeping costs. Reports were made daily to the cost statis- 
tician who had an office on the ground and who personally 
supervised the taking of the costs. The work was divided 
into three divisions, each division being subdivided into two 
or three sections with a separate gang for each section. The 
work commenced in June, and with the exception of a small 
part, delayed on account of right of way trouble, was com- 
pleted by November ist. 

The system of figuring these costs and the forms used differ 
in some respects from the forms and system already explained. 
The form used for reporting the cost of concrete vaults has 
a division for setting up and removing forms and a division 
for mixing and placing concrete ; while on the form shown 
by Form 44, the cost of setting up and removing forms is 
included in both the cost of placing side and in the cost of 
placing top, and the cost of mixing and placing concrete is 
included in the three divisions— placing the bottom, the side 
and the top. 

On the form used for reporting the cost of l>rick vaults, the 
cost of mixing concrete and mortar is included in one division, 
and the cost of placing floor and top is included in another: 
whereas, on the form shown by Form 43, the cost of mixing 
mortar is included in cost of laying brick, the cost of mixing 

129 



130 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



concrete is separated and included in both the cost of placing 
floor and in the cost of placing top ; and cost of placing floor 
and top are separate divisions. 

The divisions for entering the cost of placing floor and top 
on the form used for reporting the cost of brick vaults, and the 
divisions for entering the cost of mixing concrete on the form 
used for reporting the cost of concrete vaults include the cost 
of setting up the frame and resurfacing the street. 

It was necessary to make an extra division for entering, the 
cost of erecting and painting posts which were used to mark 
the site of vaults built in country roads. 

On all the forms supervision and expense includes carfare 
and board, and it is entered in a column on the right cf the 
column used for the total cost, because it has been included in 
the total cost by prorating and adding it to the cost of each 
division by the following method: 

Assuming the cost of supervision and expense per man-hour, 
having been found by the method explained in Chapter V, was 
$o.oi, and that the memorandum book shows: 

300 hrs. worked on excavating. 
100 hrs. worked on mixing concrete, etc. 
100 hrs. worked on laying tile. etc. 
100 hrs. worked on filling in. 

Multiplying the cost of supervision and expense per man- 
hour ($0.01) by the number of hours worked on excavating, 
mixing concrete, laying tile and filling in, we have the fol- 
lowing : 

Supervision and Cost 
No. Hrs. Expense per of 

Division of Const. Worked. . Man-Hour. Supervision. 

Excavating 300 X .01 $300 

Mixing concrete, etc.. . 100 X 01 i.oo 

Laying tile, etc 100 X .01 i.oo 

Filling in 100 X .01 1.00 

Adding these proportions of supervision and expense to the 
labor cost of the excavating, mixing concrete, etc., will give 
the total cost of excavating, etc. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 131 

The proportion of supervision and expense for each division 
of vault or lateral construction is found by the same method. 

The rates of wages paid on this work were the same as 
those given in the previous chapter. 

Table XCVIII is a summary of the entire work, showing 
in detail average costs of each of the three divisions 
of the job. The unloading and distributing cost on 
Divisions i and 3 were higher than Division 2 on account of 
having been further away from the freight depot. The freight 
on material for Division i was high on account of being fur- 
ther away from the shipping point than either Divisions 2 or 3, 
and also on account of the quantity of creosote plank used, on 
which freight rates are high. The supervision, traveling and 
livery under the heading of expense were incurred by right of 
way men, superintendent of construction and assistant super- 
intendents. 

Tables XCIX to CIV, inclusive, show the average labor 
costs for installing each class and cross section of conduit by 
the various foremen. 

Table CV is a summary of the total and average labor costs 
of each kind and class of vault built, and Tables CVI to 
CXVI, inclusive, show the average labor costs of each class 
of vault built by the various foremen. 

Table CXVII is a summary of all the work done by each 
foreman, comparing the total and average labor costs. This, 
as well as the succeeding Tables CXVIII to CXXII, inclusive, 
which show the average labor costs in detail of all the work 
done by each foreman, and Tables CXXIII to CXXVII, in- 
clusive, which show the average labor costs in detail of all the 
vaults built by each foreman, are interesting comparisons of 
the ability of foremen and are of value in proving the advisa- 
bility of system in laying out work and handling men. 

Table CXXVIII shows the labor cost of both classes of 
3-duct conduit, with vault corresponding, built on Division i, 
and is a comparison of the cost of the work completed by the 
two foremen in charge. Both of these foremen had practically 
the same soil and physical conditions to contend with. 

Foreman B mixed concrete by hand and had a gang aver- 
aging about 50 men, composed of Italians ; whereas, Foreman 



t32 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTIOK. 

E mixed concrete by machine, had a gang averaging about lOO 
men, composed almost entirely of Americans, ranging in age 
from 20 to 70 years, collected in a city settled by a religious 
sect. The gang was collected in this city under an agreement 
made with the officials in order to secure right of way for the 
conduit. It will be seen that it cost Foreman E more to 
handle, mix and dump concrete than Foreman B, although the 
former mixed by machine where the latter mixed by hand. 
This difference in cost is accounted for by the high cost of 
handling and wheeling concrete incident to a poor class of 
labor such aa employed by Foreman E. 

The difference in the cost of excavation, and laying tile and 
placing concrete is accounted for by the same reasons. The 
lower cost of filling in on the work done by Foreman E is 
accounted for by the method he used of filling in without 
tamping and then running a 5-ton roller over the trench; 
whereas, on the wt>rk done by Foreman B the trench was 
filled in and tamped by hand. 

As weekly reports of the costs and work completed by each 
foreman were made, great rivalry existed between the various 
foremen in an endeavor to make a record. This tended to in- 
crease the amount of work accomplished and to develop ability 
in the foremen. 

Foreman A had more technical knowledge of conduit work 
than any of the other foremen, but had no system in handling 
men or laying out work. He continually shifted both laborers 
and assistant foremen, used too many men in mixing and 
handling concrete, and built vault far in the rear of the conduit 
work. He mixed concrete by machine. He had a gang aver- 
aging 100 men, -but could have accomplished more, propor- 
tionately with a gang of 50 men. 

Foreman B was formerly assistant to Foreman C. While he 
used very much the same system of handling men and laying 
out work as Foreman C, he was lacking in self-confidence 
and in ability to drill men in the work. He frequently went 
into a trench or a vault in order to show the method of accom- 
plishing a task, whereas another foreman could explain the 
work from the bank of the trench. He had gangs for mixing 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 133 

concrete, laying tile and placing concrete, and for building 
vaults. These gangs he rarely shifted, but the balance of the 
men he continually changed from one part of the work to an- 
other. He put little responsibility on his assistant foremen 
and relied on himself to supervise the entire work. He built 
vaults a short distance in the rear of the couvluit work. His 
gang was composed of about 50 men. He mixed concrete by 
hand. 

Foreman C, although having practically no education, was 
a genius in handling men and laying out work. While too 
erratic to handle a large -gang, this foreman with 50 men could 
accomplish more and cheaper work than any other foreman. 
He built vaults along with the conduit, thereby economizing 
in labor and cost. He mixed concrete by hand. 

Foreman D was a competent foreman and had considerable 
system in his method of working his men, but was inclined 
to stretch out the gang over a great distance making it almost 
impossible to supervise all the work. The vault, correspond- 
ing to conduit built by Foreman D, were built by Foreman E, 
but are included in the cost of building his section of conduit 
for the purpose of comparison. The average gang employed, 
by Foreman D was 90. He used a machine mixer. 

Foreman E had at times a gang of 140 men, which he 
handled with the same facility as most foremen would a gang 
of 10 men. He did everything systematically. He divided his 
gang into divisions corresponding with the work, put each di- 
vision under an assistant foreman, and assigned them to a cer- 
tain branch of the work and kept them on th;s branch day by 
day, never shifting either a man or a gang except when re- 
quired by the conditions of the work. He used a machine 
mixer. He built vault as close behind the conduit work as 
possible, it being not practical to build them along with the 
trench on account of the amount of conduit installed each day 
forcing the vaults — which take several days to build — in the 
rear. This foreman installed 12,947 lin. ft. of 3-duct conduit in 
one week with an average gang of 112 men. His highest run 
for any one day being 2,808 lineal trench feet opened and 7,851 
duct feet of 3-duct laid. He rarely gave orders to laborers 



134 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 

direct, as he held his assistants responsible for the men and the 
work accomplished. He completed more work m less time 
than any other foreman, although having the hardest condi- 
tions of soil to contend with and having had a gang composed 
of a poor class of labor, as explained before. 

When it is considered that other things equal, the smaller 
the cross section the more the cost, it will be seen that Fore- 
man E, conditions notwithstanding, installed his part of the 
work almost as cheap as any foreman, and he installed 6-duct, 
Class A, where fair conditions were encountered, at a much 
lower cost than any other foreman. 

Foreman F built only vaults. For the purpose of compari- 
son these vaults are included in the schedules with the sec- 
tions of conduit to which they correspond. 

In these data the conduit built in parkways crosses intersect- 
ing roadways, but no separation was made of the part built in 
roadways, as it was not practicable. There were also sections 
where the soil varied for a short distance, but separate data 
were not kept, on account of the very small difference in cost 
which it made, and also as explained before, a percentage of 
variation is always incident to a trench of any considerable 
length. 

The vaults, the costs of which are given in these tables, 
were built with sectional wood forms shown by Fig. 86. 
It will be seen that these forms are made in four sections, 
two side and two end sections, both side and end sections 
being fitted with grooved iron ends. For convenience in 
handling, these forms are. made one-half the height of the 
vault walls, so that two forms are required for building the 
walls to the standard height. The form shown is used for 
building size i vaults ; a similar form, of larger size, is used 
for building size 3 vaults. In constructing vaults with, these 
forms it is necessary to place braces between the two side 
sections. O'Leary ditch braces are used for this purpose. 

The method and forms used for building vault tops and 
opening for the entrance of ducts were the same as explained 
in the previous chapter. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 



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Table XCIX. — Average Labor Cost of Nine-Duct Class A McRoy 

Tile Conduit Construction. 

(Division 2, Clay Soil, Roadway Unpaved.) 

g ' Total Cost -iij -3 Total Cort. 

^ ^ . . . ;s . ^ii . of Duct, jx-c *^ 



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A 3.004 27.036 .0395 .1793 .1741 .0J48 .2102 .6679 .0742 .0361 .7046 .0782 

Table C. — Aver.ace Labor Cost of Eight-Duct McRoy Tile Conduit 

Construction. 

(Division 2, Hard Clay Soil, Parkway and Private Property.) 

^ « Total Cost -o 

g .^^ .J.J o's o>^gdC o grS o M -^ 3 oa.-s-c 

p ©c «♦. 4*6 ♦-g 4:-gE« ♦^•r^ **.S J Q tiSBs 

o oc 0© oft> Q X OJ35 o o <( c o^ «* » o.r!S.2 

fa ^H Zfa OH oHoSQOu»4 5 Cfa fa fa opq:^ 

SIISI ISIS 

A 10,326 82,608 .0640 .1707 .0717 .0697 .1086 .4847 .0606 .0320 .^167 

B 1,385 11.080 .0509 .2126 .0440 .0866 .0476 .3916 .0490 .0320 .4236 

C 4.301 34.408 .0302 .1351 .0298 .0202 .0384 .2537 .0817 .0320 .2857 .0357 

ToUl 16.012 128,096 .0538 .1647 .0580 .0536 .0845 .4146 .0518 .0320 .4466 .0558 

*Por Lin. Ft. tPer Duct Ft. 

Tadle CI. — Average Cost of Six-Duct Class A McRoy Tile Conduit 

CONSTRUCIION. 

(Divisions i, 2 and 3, Hard Clay Soil, Parkways.) 

9 « Total Cost -o 

s ':a^ q1 » 'I K a Si ^ S .s ^1 .s s^ 







o 
fa 

II I 111111$ 

A 1.053 6.318 .0387 .1308 .1096 .0560 .1923 .5276 .0879.0240 .5516.0919 

C 4.9911 29.949 .0620 .1549 .0479 .0468 .0687 .3803 .0634.0240 .4043.0674 

E 21.325 127.950 .0242 .1381 .0384 .0284 .0490 .2781 .0464 .0580 .3361.0559 

Aver. 

Cost.. 27.369i 164,217 .0316 .1409 .0429 .0329 .0581 .3064 .0510 .0505 .3569.0594 

♦Per Lin. Ft. fPer Duct Ft. 

Kinds of »n and paven.«,t \ IV^ri^^'J^V^cl^/rr^^.y:^^^^^ '*"'■ 

Table CI I. — Average Cost of Si.k-Duct Class B McRov Tile Conduit 

Construction. 

(Divisions 2 and 3, Hard Clay Soil, Parkways.) 

9 « Total Cost •o 

*i ^ ♦. -3 ..ij of Duct. §^ ^ 

fa 2H ^fa UH UW OSQO o J § Ofc fa fa O^^QS * — "^t 

llllllllll 

B 24,692 148.152 .0382 .1436 .0211 .0302 .0002 .2933 .0489 .0240 .3173 .0520 

C 3.620 -21.720 .0345 .1665 .0176 .0276 .0324 .2786 .0464 .0240 .3026 .0504 

D 3.874 23,244 .0267 .1699 .0292 .0420 .0600 .3278 .0546 .0626 .3904 .0050 

Aver. 

Cost 32.186 193.116 .0364 .1493 .0217 .0313 .0571 .2958 .0493 .0286 .3244 .0540 
•Per Lin. Ft. fPer Duct Ft. 



UNDERGROUND COND UI T 



137 



Table CIII.— Average Cost of Four-Duct Class A McRoy Tile Conduit 

Construction. 

(Division 3, Wet Clay Soil, Parkway.) 

t« Total Cost •a 

♦* ^ . ^ « of Duct. S M *: 

^1 ^- ^1 li*H|l|:i^ii -^ I |fll I 

fa S5H S5fa cSh owcSsqoojS oE pu tS o^o^":^ *--A_t 

D ftO 200 1574 .0250 .0822 .0224 .2370 .0592 .0418 .2788 .0697 

B 3.047 12.188 .0182 .0864 .0381 .0414 .0409 .2250 .0562 .0418 .2668 .0667 
Av«r. 

Cost 3.097 12.388 .0179 .0875 .0379 .0413 .0406 .2252 .0563 .0418 .2670 .0667 
*Per Lin. Ft. fPer Duct Ft. 

Table CIV. — Average Cost of Four-Duct Class B McRoy Tile Conduit 

• Construction. 

(Division 3.) 
» « Total Cost -o 

i -a^ H s S £§?•« H s ^. S ill 5 

6 ^-g ^i 'Sf "o? "Sgls og-cS 'Sg J I 'o'Srg-S 5 

£ Zfl Zfc cSh ow-uSQu<S^§ Ufa 0! cK cSpqs *-^— t 

IIIIIIIISS 

D 7.335 29.340 .0074 .1552 .0244 .0331 .0295 .2496 .0624 .0417 .2913 .0728 

E 16.464 65.856 .0371 .1515 .0295 .0243 .0531 .2955 .0739 .0418 .3373 .0843 

Aver. 

Cost 23.799 95,196 .0279 .1526 .0280 .0270. .0458 .2813 .0703 .0418 .3231 .0808 

•Per Lin. Ft. tPcr Duct Ft. 

v\r*A «f er^n ««^ r^ovomjMi* ) FoFcman D. hard clay, parkway. 

Kind of soil and pavement ^ pofen.an E. very hard cUy. macadam roadway. 

Table CV. — L.\bor Costs of Brick and Concrete Vault C )n.struction. 

(Divisions i, 2 and 3.) 

Siae Total Average No. 

Kind. No. Cost. Co.st. Built. Size of Vaults. 

Concrete 3 12.553.16 $22.39 114 5' x 3' 6* x 4' 6" 

Concrete 1 1.567.05 15.07 104 y 6' x 4' 6' x 4' 6* 

Brick 4 1.528.21 36.39 42 6' x 5' ' x 5' 6' 

Brick 2 156.99 26.17 6 4' 6' x 4' 6' x 4' 6* 

Brick 6 25.41 25.41 1 7' x 6' x 5' 6' 

Brick Special 75.27 75.27 1 11' x 9' x 7' 

Brick Special 65.91 65.91 1 T x 5' x 5' 6' 

Brick Class A 182.46 36.49 5 6' x 5' 6* x 3' 6" 

Brick 12 104.12 104.12 1 10' x 10' x 5' 6' 

Brick 10 3.549.22 80.09 42 6' x 9' 2rx Tl" 

Brick 11 115.85 115.85 1 6' xl3' 5'^x 7' 1' 

Concrete and Brick Total $9,923.65 $ 31.21 318 

Tacie CVI. — .Average Labor Costs of Concrete Vault Construction. 

Size No. 3. 
^Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault, 5'x3'6"x4'6" — Divisions 2 and 3.) 

"o c -c^ 

A $9.46 $11.50 $4.30 $18.46 $... $43.72 $9.35 15 132| 11 

B 4.08 6.49 2.32 7.73 1.21 21.83 5.92 5i 50."h 14 

C 1.42 4.63 1.12 3.30 1.22 11.69 2.41 4 35 6 

F 5.02 5.97 1.37 9.32 1.21 22.89 6.26 6,'., 532S 25 

E 3.57 S.iiG 1.42 7.59 1.24 19.38 3 59 9§a 47Ai 58 

Av. Cost of all 4.41 6.29 1.77 8.81 1.11 22.39 4.95 8,V. 56§2 lu 



138 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Table CVII. — Average Labor Costs of Concrete Vault Construction. 

Size No. i. 
(Sand Soil. Size of Vatrit, 3' 6" x 4' 6" x 4' 6"— Division i.) 

B $3.10 13.82 S0.87 $4.41 $2.19 $14.39 $2.69 4 851 47 

B 3.76 3.66 1.84 5.17 1.20 15.63 2.12 4? 38| 57 

Av. ofall.... 3.40 3.78 1.40 4.83 1.65 15.07 2.88 4} 87} 104 

Table CVIII. — Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, 

Size No. 4. 
(Hard Clay Soil. Size 6'x5'x5'6'' — Divifcions i. 2 and 3.) 

A $11.68 $15.26 $5.46 $19.68 $3.89 $...$55.47 $14.34 17 128} 1 

n 5.55 8.75 2.06 23.80 3.61 1.22 44.99 7.97 lO; 90 9 

C 2.00 6.09 2.31 17.31 4.57 1.22 33.50 6.36 8 69i 2 

F 6 50 9.46 5.08 10.92 4.63 1.22 37.81 10.74 10} 81^3 7 

R 5.84 6.22 3.18 11.71 4.52 .54 32.01 6.48 7!i 6711 23 

Av.Costofall 5.85 7.51 3.27 14.62 4.82 .82 36.39 7.69 881 76iS 42 

Table CIX. — Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, 

Size No. 2. 
(Sand Soil. Size of Vault, 4'6''x4'6'' x4'6"— Division i.) 

g |§ ^ l^s ig §g-Sts g 1 

B $2.97 $5.40 $1.45 $13.01 $3.34 $26.17 $1.77 8,', 74i 6 

Table CX. — Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size No. 6. 
(Clay Soil. Size of Vault, 7'xyxo'6" — Division 2.) 



A $6.81 $3.33 $10.61 $4.66 $25.41 $1.00 11 91 1 

Table CXL — Labor Costs of Special Brick Vault Construction. 
(Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault. Ii'x9'x7' — Division 3.) 

bc bc 



M*Sc 0*0. «-*•- s 

OH ow ooS oj ux§ S> H caS'Sh^:^ 2^ 2: 

E $4.98 $80.09 $3.71 $19.50 $8.85 $1.24 $75.27 $9.84 29 286i 1 



6 



UNDERGROUND CONDUIT. 139 

Table CXIL— Labor Costs of Special Brick Vault Construction. 
(Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault, 7' x 5' x 5' 6"— Division 3.) 

« II -3 I • c * c . « S 

£ $1.50 $24.47 $7.91 $18.19 $12.60 $1.24 $65.91 $20.48 19 168} 1 

Table CXI 1 1. —Average Labor Costs of Class A Brick Vault 

Construction. 
(Clay Soil. Size, 6' x 5 J^' x 3 ^"—Division 2.) 

u M 3jl II 111 I ml II ^^1 I 

A $3.05 $9.53 $5.65 $12.90 $5.36 $36.49 $3.79 14] 105! 6 

Table CXIV. — Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size No. 12. 
(Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault, 10' x 10' x 5' 6" — Division 2.) 



3 






A $7.90 $30.99 $15.40 $24.75 $25.08 $104.12 $28.61 39 326 1 

Table CXV. — Average Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, 

Size No. 10. 
(Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault, 6' x 9' 2]//' x 7' i" — Divisions i, 2 and 3.) 

Foreman. „g ^| ^S ^^ JfS g g 3 | &|^ S^ X^ | 

3fi 5w (ScSl cSJ ass l> ^ cgsl^ 1^ ;Sl z 

a $16.31 $40.97 $15.87 $25.60 $9.87 $108.62 $33.77 29 220) 1 

P 20.54 30.46 7.17 27.05 14.88 $1.22 101.32 25.20 251 228| 5 

R 8.20 23.10 2.07 39.26 7.49 .33 80.45 10.85 2U| 199A 11 

C 17.50 40.85 2.27 60.93 3.99 1.22 126.76 13.19 32 293 1 

E 11.97 26.27 5.52 26.82 9.00 .52 80.10 14.70 21/", 196i'e 24 

Av. Cost of 

AU 12.24 26.64 4.98 30.88 9.21 .56 84.51 13.56 2283 203i*« 42 

Table CXVL — Labor Costs of Brick Vault Construction, Size No. ii. 
(Very Hard Clay Soil. Size of Vault. 6' x 13' 5" x / i"— Divi.sion 2.) 

S -5 5 c ea d Ji *-' 5 c .£ «j c 3 

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P $17.00 $36.94 $8.53 $35.63 $16.53 $1.22 $115.85 $22.12 33 310i 1 



I40 



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CHAPTER VII. 
MISCELLANEOUS COSTS AND SPECLAL DATA. 

The tables given in this chapter are a collection of data cov- 
ering many kinds of telephone construction both aerial and 
underground. Some of these tables were drawn up to facili- 
tate estimating and others were used in deciding as to the 
expediency of diflFerent methods. With the exception of those 
showing the cost of certain jobs, the tables are based on data 
collected and records kept on several thousand jobs. Only 
the results of actual records are given, and as exemplified in 
the case of the shrinkage of mortar and concrete shown herein 
the percentage is much greater in the actual mixing than in the 
theoretical mixing. 

In the previous chapters the specifications explained in a 
general way the quantities of materials used in the various 
kinds of telephone construction. These quantities are usually 
familiar to men engaged in constructing and estimating, but 
there are some cases where there is a great diflference of 
opinion as to the average amount of material required. In the 
case of a mile of toll line or farm line, although the general 
specifications may require that poles be set 130 ft. or 150 ft. 
apart, as the case may be, on account of road crossings and 
comers making it necessary to shorten spans, it rarely hap- 
pens that a mile of line is built which does not require more 
poles, cross-arms and other equipment than the number based 
on poles set an equal distance apart. The question, therefore, 
how many poles, cross-arms or anchors to a mile, requires a 
knowledge of the records of many lines. The tables are based 
on average quantities of materials and present prices of 
standard materials of the best grade. 

In gathering the cost data which form the subject of- the 
previous chapters, some remarkably cheap work was, from 
time to time, reported by cost men and. with the object of re- 
ducing the cost of construction without lowering the standard, 
special circular letters containing these data were sent to the 

146 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 



147 



various foremen. They had the eflfect of spurring foremen on 
to make a ^'record*' for cheapness in construction, as shown 
by results of the work of some foremen after the receipt of 
these circular letters. 

Tables CXXIX and CXXX are examples of work of which 
special reports were made; they show the labor costs of 
constructing some farm lines. Although these jobs were very 
cheaply built considering the nature of the soil and other 
conditions, no effort was made by the foremen in charge to 
make a "record,"' or no special kind of tool was used. In the 
case of the jobs shown in Table CXXIX the frozen ground 
was loosened with digging-bars and the balance of the hole ex- 
cavated by means of spoon and shovel. Spoon and shovel was 
used for excavating holes on the jobs shown in Table CXXX. 
Where quicksand was encountered, sand barrels were used. 
All the work was one or more miles distant from the stations 
of the gangs, and on that account considerable time was lost 
each day in getting to the jobs. This time is included in the 
cost of the work. Both tables represent the record of con- 
secutive days' work. 

Table CXXIX.— Cost of Line Construction on Job 1. 



20 ft. — 4 in. top Farm Line Poles. 

Cost Cost Total 

Teaming Cost Super. Cost Kind 

No. Labor in Cost Dig. and Cost and Per of 
Poles Haulisig. Framing. Locating. Setting. Exp. Pole. 



Hours Remarks. 

Soil. Worked. Mi. to job. 



7 
10 

8 
49 
41 


128 104 
.20 .04 
.21 .04 
.25 .03 
.80 .05 


124 
.23 
.26 
.26 
.28 


113 108 172 Soft Clay 9/, 
.10 .11 .74 •• 134 
.10 .08 .69 " lOf, 
.uO .09 .72 " 63 
.06 .10 .79 " 58} 


1 

4 
1 
7 
3} 


6* frost 

6* " 
12* '• 
16' " 

6* " 






25 ft. 


— 5 in. top Farm Line Poles. 








8 

10 
5 

8 


.15 04 
.26 .06 
.33 .04 
.26 .03 


.36 
.35 
.40 
.37 


.13 .15 .83SoftClRy 5,"a 
.15 .20 1.02 " 351 
.11 .11 .99 " 9A 
.12 .11 .89 " llj 


1 
1 

H 
6 


6* frost 
6' " 
16' " 
16* '• 




Cost 




Stombauch Anchors. 








Teaming Cost Total 
and Cost Super. Cost 
No. Labor in Cost Placing and Per Kin'f 
Anchors. Hauling. Setting. Guys. Exp. Anchor. Soil. 


No. 
Hours 
Worked. 


Remarks. 
M». to job. 


1 

11 

H 


107 133 118 
.07 .19 .13 
.05 .13 .09 


lOr, $04 Clay. 
.OJi .4.') 
.O.S .35 


8J 
38 


2 
7 
5 


80^ frost 
12* •• 




Cost 




No. 12 Steel Wire. 








Miles 
Wire 
Strung. 


Teaming Cost 

and Stringini? 
Labor in and 
Haulifig. Eauip. 


Cost 
Super. Total No. 
and Ccst Hours 
Exp. Per Mi. Worked. 


No. 
Lme 
Orders. 




Remarks. 


6i ^ 

5 

4 


176 
.58 
.64 


$2.01 
2.69 
2.88 


139 $3.16 435 
.64 3.91 40 
.60 4.12 33 


3 
4 
4 


2\ Miles to iob. 

4 " 

8 



148 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 

Table CXXX. — Cost of Line Construction on Job 2, Farm Line. 

80 ft. — 6 in. top Poles. 
Cost of Cost of Cost of 

Teaming Digging ' Super. Total No. 

No. of Labor in Cost of and Cost of and Cost Kind of Hours 
Poles. HauHng. Framing. Locating. Setting. Exp. Per Pole. Soil. Worked. Remarks. 

1 8.43 8.06 8.48 8.36 8.16 81.88 Clay & Wat. 3i 3 Mi. to job 

25 ft. — 6 in. top Poles. 
22 .41 .00 .44 .24 .18 1.36 Clay & Wat. 45A UMi. tojcb 

8 .26 .08 .38 .14 .00 .00 Loamft Wat. 15|i^ 1 " 

4 .40 .06 .55 .33 .23 1.56 Quicksand. 12 U " 

used bbls. 
6 .32 .10 .43 .24 .14 1.23 Coarse Grav. llf 2 Mi. to job 

6 in. top Poles. 
45 .86 .06 .84 .18 .11 .05 Sand ft Wat. 74i 2 ' 

to ft. — 5 in. top Poles. 

16 .24 .03 .17 .11 .05 .60 Sand & Wat. 191 3i " 

22 .22 .03 .24 .12 .08 .69 Sand ft Wat. 31 tV Sl " 

22 .25 .03 .23 .09 .06 .66 Sand & Wat. 321 8} " 



321 
15U 



5 .41 .03 .83 .13 .17 1.57 Quicksand. 15U 3i 

4 in. top Poles. used bbls. 

14 .21 .02 .13 .10 .05 .51 Sand & Wat. 14 3i Mi. to job 

Stombaugh Akchors. 

Cost of Cost of ToUl No. of 

No. of Cost of Cost of Placing Super. Cost Per Kind of Hours 

Anchors. Teaming. Setting. Guy. & Exp. Anchor. Soil. Worked. Remarks. 
2 8.02 8.03 8.06 8.02 8.13 Sand. ,\ 3i Mi. to job 

Table CXXXI shows the labor cost in detail of pulling in 
I20 pr. one-half 14-gage and one-half i6-gage toll cable. The 
expense of hauling reels was large as the distance from the 
freight depot averaged 3 miles, the roads were deep in clay 
mud, and on account of their great weight a special team and 
wagon at $7 per day was used to haul the reels. The expense 
of pumping water was high on account of the vaults being 
full of water. In one section of conduit, cable was pulled in 
twice as the first cable had flaws in the armor. The cable 
was pulled in by horsepower. 

Table CXXXI. — Cost of Pulling Underground Cable (Main). 

120 Pr., } - 14 Ga. and 1-16 Ga. 



No. Ft. 
Pulled. 


Cost of 

PulHng. 


No. Men 

Used in 
Pulling. 


Cost of 
Rodding. 


Cost of 

Pumping 

Water. 


No. 

Sections 

Pulled. 


Cost of 
Pulling. 
Rodding and 
Pumping. 


18.902 
Average 


8333.40 
Per Ft. 
8.0175 


93 

Per Day. 

6 1-5 


890.90 
Per Ft. 
8.0048 


879.60 
Per Ft. 
8.0042 


38 

Per Day. 

2 8-15 


8508.00 
Per Ft. 
8 .0866 




Hauling Rk 


BLS. 




Rbtu 


RNING RbBLS. 


No. 

Reels 

Hauled. 


Cost of 
HauHni?. 


No. Men 

Used in 

Hauling. 


No. Reels 
Returned. 


Cost of 
Returning. 


No. Men 

Used in 

Returning. 


Total Coet 

of 
All Work. 


39 


8 2n.do 


67 


39 


865.10 


23 


8 780.60 




Per Reel, 


No. Men 
Per Reel, 




Per Reel, 


No. Men 
Per Reel. 




Average 


85.40 


2 




81.67 


23-39 


8 .0411 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 149 

Table CXXXII shows in detail the total and average ma- 
terial, including poles, cross-arms, wire and other equipment, 
used in constructing line orders in several districts during 
periods of from one month to 1J/2 years. They also show the 
total and average cost of completed line orders for the several 
districts, and the total and average cost in all districts. As the 
cost of a line order is the part of a telephone installation 
on which the most guessing is done, by reason of the indefi- 
niteness of material and labor required, a table of this nature 
will be found to be very valuable in drawing up new rate 
schedules and telephone prospectives. 

On account of the greater number of lines per square mile 
already installed in District No. 2, new line orders required 
less poles, cross-arms, wire and other materials than in any 
other district. This accounts for the comparatively small cost 
of line order in this district. The increase in the cost of mate- 
rial for line orders in District No. 3 for 1907 over 1906 is ac- 
counted for by the increase in the amount of material used per 
line order, caused by a larger percentage of line orders being 
installed in thinly settled sections where comparatively few 
poles existed. An increase of 7 per cent, in wages taken in 
connection with the greater quantity of material installed ac- 
counts for the increase in labor cost. The line orders built in 
District No. 4 were mostly farm lines, which, although requir- 
ing a larger amount of material, cost less for material than city 
lines on account of the smaller size poles and cross-arms and 
cheaper kind of wires used. The labor cost is higher than foi 
the city line orders on account of the greater quantity of 
material installed. 

The average length of drops in the different districts was as 
follows : 

District No. 1 201 ft. 

District No. 2 170 ft. 

District No. 3 106 ft. 

District No. 3 99 ft. 

District No. 4 244 ft. 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 









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152 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Table CXXXIll compares several methods of erecting drop 
wires. Method "A" is the one generally used for erecting 
drops for the line orders in the city districts, on which the data 
in the previous table were based. Method "E" is based on the 
use of comparatively new material, the qualities of which have 
not yet been proven. 

The fuses used are known as No. 46 critical current 8J/2 
amperes, and are installed between the drop wire and rubber- 
covered leading-in wire. 

Table CXXXIV shows the comparative cost of is-pair ter- 
minals. The wooden style has been found to be more acces- 
sible in sleety weather when **trouble" is most frequent, as ice 
does not form as readily on wood as metal. 

Table CXXXIV.— Comparative Cost to Erect is-Pair Terminal, Not 

Including Fusing or Pole Balcony. 

No. 14 

(grace) No. 8 Comparative Cost 

Wooden. Iron. Can. Per Pair. 

Pole Terminal Box $3 90 $4.00 $2.88 No. 8 Can $0.61 

Splicing Material 70 .70 .70 Wooden 67 

All Labor, including lost time 4 01 4 01 4.01 No. 14 Iron 58 

$8.61 $8 71 $7.50 
NoTB. — ^The wooden style permits fusing in the box. This will increase the cost if 
fuses are added $0.14 per pair. 

The cost of fusing for exchange protection is shown in 
Table CXXXIV. The style of fuses used is known as No. 
7-F — critical current Syi amperes. 

Table CXXXIV.— Cost of Fusing for Exchange Protection. 

Installing Fusb at Junction or Aerial and Undbroround. 

Material. Labor. 

One 60 pr. box in place $31 .00 $1 .00 

One Splicing 1.50 8.10 

One Balcony 1 . 60 .... 

Pole Changing 8.00 

$36.00 $7.70 

7.70 



Total ■. $42.70 

Cost per pair . 85 

Puaes per pair 0.14 

$ 0.99 Say $1.00 

The miscellaneous data composing Table CXXXVI will be 
found useful in estimating lalx)r costs and material quantities 
for conduit and vault construction. 

The cost of unloading and distributing material is based on 
data collected on many separate jobs. The average cost of 
teams and labor was respectively $5.00 and $2.00 per day 
of 9 hours. 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 153 

The data on the average load carried in a wheelbarrow are 
based on actual tests made on numerous jobs without either 
foremen or laborers having previous knowledge that the tests 
were to be made. They show the average load carried by the 
average day laborer on conduit work. 

The shrinkage of mortar and concrete shown in this table 
is based on data secured on many conduit jobs. A certain 
percentage of this shrinkage is caused by loss of material while 
mixing, incident to mixing on paved streets, rough boards and 
windy days. 

The quantity of mortar used per 1,000 bricks is based on 
building vaults of sewer brick averaging 8 x 3^ x 2j4 ins. in 
size ; the wall of the vaults being two bricks thick and every 
sixth course being laid as headers, the horizontal mortar 
joints being yi in. and the vertical joints }i in. in thickness. 
Some of the mortar is lost over the back of the wall, some is 
lost in handling and some is used in incidental work, such as 
cementing in a sewer trap, etc. Where these figures have 
been used in estimating the variance in quantity of mortar 
actually used was less than 2 ou. ft. per vault. 

The cost of mortar is based on the use of American Port- 
land cement, washed gravel, and torpedo sand delivered on the 
work. 

Table CXXXVl.— Miscellaneous Data. 

Cost or Unloading and Distributing Matbrial. 

Cement, per bag 1.0228 

Frames and Covers, each 38 

Cost of Unloading and Distributing Tilb, Plank and Concrbtb pbk uvbal 

foot of Conduit. 
Conduit 
Cross Section. Class A. Class B. 

2 $.0092 

3 . 011ft t.OlOO 

4 .0134 .0116 
6 .0180 .0160 

Data on Avbraqb Load Carried in a Whbbl Barrow. 

Capacity of wheel barrow 3 Cu. Ft. 

Sand. Gravel or Stone, average load to wheel barrow 2| to 2| Cu. Ft. 

Finished Concrete, average load to wheel barrow If to If Cu. Ft. 

Data on Shrink agb op Mortar and Concrbtb. 

Shrinkage of Mortar. 3 to 1 33.76 Cu. Ft. - 1 Yd. 

Shrinkage of Concrete. 1-4-8 40 . 60 Cu. Ft. = 1 Yd. /based on washed 

Shrinkage of Concrete, 1-3-6 38 . 63 Cu. Ft. - 1 Yd.\gravel concrete. 

Data on Quantity and Cost of Mortar for 1,000 Bricks. 

Quantity of Mortar to 1,000 Bricks . 00 Cu. Yds 

Cost 2 to 1 Mortar for 1.000 Bricks $6. 81* 

Cost 3 to 1 Mortar for 1.000 Bricks 4 . 88* 

* Based on Cement S0.43i per bag. and sand Si. 00 per yard, 
delivered on work. 



154 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 

Table CXXXVII shows the comparative labor cost of mix- 
ing concrete by hand and by machine. These data were collect- 
ed on conduit work where 6-duct or 8-duct was installed, ana 
where the mixing gang worked all day. They show the cost 
of mixing by several different foremen on five or six jobs each. 
The data were secured without the knowledge of the foremen, 
so that no attempt would be made to accomplish more than 
average work. The days on which these data were taken were 
selected without regard to any other conditions than that con- 
crete be mixed all day and the weather be fair. The cost of 
moving mixing boards and time consumed in getting tools 
when starting work is included in the cost. Supervision and 
expense are not included. 

The advantage of mixing by machine when the work re- 
quires the mixing of more than a small quantity of concrete 
is clearly shown by these data. 

Table CXXXVII.-Comparati\'e Cost of Mixing Concrete by Hand and 

BY Machine. 

Mixing by Machine. Average 

Time used Average 
Proportions No. Cu.Yd. No.of .No, No. of to Mix 1 Cu. Coat 

No. of to a Mixing Concrete Men Hours Mixings Yd.Concrete per Cu.Yd 
Poreman Mixings. Cu. Ft. Mixed. Used. Worked, per Hour. Minutes. Concrete. 

A 1,586 l-3-e 880.87 6 120 13 10 10.385 

B 060 1-3-6 230.54 6 61 26 16 0.382 

C 528 f-3-6 126.80 5 27 10^ 13 0.260 

D 1.140 1-3-6 273.77 5 79 14i 17 0.858 

B 1.804 1-3-6 433.23 7 75 24 10 0.280 

Aver'gs 6.018 1.445.21 52 362 17 15 0.380 

Rates: Engineer, 13.00 for 9 hours; Laborers, $2.00 for 9 hours. 

Mixing by Hand. 

A 135 9-36-72 389.04 5 172 .78 27 10.401 

B 211 3-12-24 202.68 4 133 1.50 39 0.588 

C 604 3-12-24 580.20 5 283 2.13 29 0.543 

D 161 6-24-48 309.31 6 ' 118 1.36 23 0.51 

Aver'gs 1,111 1.481.23 6 706 1.57 20 0.53 

Wages of Laborers. 82.00 for 9 hours. 

In Tables CXXXVIII to CXL are shown in detail the 
quantities of materials required for different size vaults and 
various cross sections of conduit, as well as the labor and ma- 
terial costs. The labor figures are based on the average cost of 
installing over 1,500,000 duct feet of conduit and over 550 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 155 

vaults. The material figures are based on the quantities as 
shown in the specifications in Chapter V on "Underground 
Conduit Construction Costs." To these quantities, shown by 
these tables, should be added 3 per cent, to 5 per cent, for 
waste of material, depending upon the size of the job. As a 
general rule the larger the job the smaller the percentage of 
waste. 

These tables have been used in estimating conduit work 
and have been found to greatly facilitate the work, especially 
when quick estimates were desired. The prices of materials 
include freight, and in the case of sand and gravel include the 
average cost of delivering on the job. 

The comparative cost of a mile of farm line and a mile of 
toll line are shown in Tables CXLI and CXLII, respect- 
ively. The material quantities used in figuring these tables 
are based on average quantities actually used in constructing 
a mile of line as shown by records kept of many miles of both 
toll and farm line. The prices of poles include the cost of 
freight and labor cost of unloading and piling in pole yards. 
The specifications require that poles used in toll construction 
shall weigh 540 lbs. each. The labor cost is based on averages 
shown in Chapter I. 

Tables CXLIII and CXLIV show respectively the com- 
parative cost of 1,000 ft. of underground cable and 1,000 ft. of 
aerial cable, including splicing. These tables, as in the pre- 
vious tables, are based on average quantities of material actu- 
ally used in installing a thousand feet of cable as shown by 
records kept of many miles of cable. The averages shown in 
the chapters on "Cable Construction Costs" and "Cable Splic- 
ing Costs" are used as basis for figuring labor. The number of 
splices per 1,000 ft. is based on the average number shown 
by records kept of cable installation. The labor of splicing 
does not include the cost of cutting in subsidiary boxes and 
cables, as they are cut in from time to time as the demands of 
distribution may require, some of the cable boxes and sub- 
sidiary cable not being cut in until several years after the 
installation of the main cable. 



156 



TF.I.r.l'UOSE COSSTRi'CTlQK. 



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TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

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MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 159 

Table CXLI. — Comparative Cost of a Mile o? Farm Line on a Basis 

OF 30 Poles to a Mile. 

20-ft. Poles, 4- In. Tops, Bracket Line, 2 Wires. 

30 poles Q .75 (freight paid and unloaded) $ 22.60 

2 ml. No. 12 galvanized steel wire @ |4.65 9.30 

4 StombsLUgh anchors @ .50 2.00 

No. 4 wire for anchor guys. No. 6 wire for lightning rods, tie wire, 
Joints, glass, staples, spikes, brackets 2.27 

Total cost material $ 36.07 

Labor 39.30 

Total cost $ 76.87 

20-ft. Poles, 6- in. Tops, 1 Cross- Arm, 2 Wires. 

80 poles 9 .95 (freight paid and unloaded) $ 28.60 

2 mi. No. 12 galvanized steel wire @ |4.65 9.30 

4 Stombaugh anchors @ .50 2.00 

30 6-pin cross-arms @ .41 (complete) 12.30 

No. 4 wire for anchor guys. No. 6 wire for lightning rods, tie wire. 

Joints, glass, staples, spikes 2.51 

Total cost material I 54.61 

Labor 45.80 

Total cost $100.41 

20-ft« Poles, 6- in. Tops, 1 Cross- Arm, 4 Wires. 

30 poles ® .95 (freight paid and unloaded) $ 28.60 

4 mi. No. 12 galvanized steel wire @ $4.65 18.60 

4 Stombaugh anchors ® .50 2.00 

30 6-pin cross-arms @ .41 (complete) 12.30 

No. 4 wire for anchor guys. No. 6 wire for lightning rods, tie wire. 

Joints, glass, staples, spikes . . .' 3.81 

Total cost material $ 65.21 

Labor 55.46 

Total cost $120.67 

26-ft. Poles, 5-ln. Tops, 1 Cross-Arm, 2 Wires. 

30 poles @ $1.35 (freight paid and unloaded) $ 40.50 

2 ml. No. 12 galvanized steel wire @ $4.65 9.30 

4 Stombaugh anchors @> .50 2.00 

30 6-pln cross-arms @ .41 (complete) 12.30 

No. 4 wire for anchor guys. No. 6 wire for lightning rods, tie wire. 

Joints, glass, staples, spikes 2.51 

Total cost material $ 66.61 

Labor 60.80 

Total cost $127.41 

25-ft. Poles, 6- In. Tops, 1 Cross- Arm, 4 Wires. 

30 poles @ $1.35 (freight paid and unloaded) $ 40.50 

4 mL No. 12 galvanized steel wire @ $4.65 18.60 

4 Stombaugh anchors @ .50 2.00 

30 6-pin cross-arms @ .41 (complete) 12.30 

No. 4 wire for anchor guys, No. 6 wire for lightning rods, tie wire. 

Joints, glass, staples, spikes 3. SI 

Total cost material $ 77.21 

Lal>or 70.46 

Total cost $147.67 



l6o TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



\ 



Table CXLII. — G>MPAjtATivE Cost of a Mile of Toll Line on a Basis 

OF 43 Poles to a Mile. 

90- ft. Poles, 7- in. Tops, 36- in. Butt Cireum., 1 CroM-Arm, 2 Wires. 

43 poles 16.70 (freight paid and unloaded) $288.10 

43 10-pin cross-arms ^ .65 (complete) 27.96 

2 ml. .104 bare copper wire @ $36.70 71.40 

4 log anchor rods & .35 1.40 

200' %" strand for anchor guys ® .0091 1.82 

.04 ml. No. 6 steel wire for head guys ® $15.42 62 

Guy lugs, pole protectors, glass. Joints, staples, No. 6 wire for light- 
ning rods, tie wire 4.46 

Total cost material $395.75 

Labor 120.74 

Total cost $516.49 

30-ft. Poles, 7- In. Tops, 36- In. Butt Circum., 1 Cross- Arm, 4 Wires. 

43 poles $6.70 (freight paid and unloaded) $288.10 

43 10-pin cross-arms @ .65 (complete) 27.95 

4 mi. .104 bare copper wire @ $35,70 142.80 

4 log anchor rods ® .35 1.40 

200^ %'' strand for anchor guys @ .0091 1.82 

.04 mi. No. 6 steel wire for head guys @) $15.42 62 

Guy lugs, pole protectors, glass. Joints, staples. No. 6 wire for light- 
ning rods, tie wire 6.93 

Total cost material $469.62 

Labor 132.00 

Total cost $601.62 

30-ft. Poles, 7- In. Tops, 36- In. Butt Circum., 1 Cross- Arm, 6 Wires. 

43 poles ^ $6.70 (freight paid and unloaded) $288.10 

43 10-pin cross-arms @ .65 (complete) 27.95 

6 mi. .104 bare copper wire @ $35.70 214.20 

4 log anchor rods @ .35 1.40 

200' %" strand for anchor guys @ .0091 1.82 

.04 mi. No. 6 steel wire for head guys ® $15.42 62 

Guy lugs, pole protectors, glass. Joints, staples, No. 6 wire for light- 
ning rods, tic wire '. 9.30 

Total cost material .' $543.39 

Labor 141.50 

Total cost $684.89 

30-ft. Poles, 7- In. Tops, 38- in. Butt Circum., 1 Cross- Arm, 8 Wires. 

43 poles @ $6.70 (freight paid and unloaded) $288.10 

43 10-pin cross-arms # .65 (complete) 27.95 

8 mi. .104 bare copper wire @ $35.70 285.60 

4 log anchor rods @ .35 1.40 

200' %" strand for anchor guys @ .0091 1.82 

.04 mi. No. 6 steel wire for head guys @ $15.42 62 

Guy lugs, pole protectors, glass, joints, staples. No. 6 wire for light- 
ning rods, tie wire 11.67 

Total cost malerial $617.16 

Labor 150.50 

Total cost $767.66 

30-ft. Poles, 7- In. Tops, 36- In. Butt Circum., 1 Cross- Arm, 10 Wires. 

43 poles @ $6.70 (freight paid and unloaded) $288.10 

43 10-pin cross-arms @ .65 (complete) 27.95 

10 miles .104 bare copper wire @ $35.70 367.00 

4 log anchor rods @) .35 1.40 

200' %" strand for anchor guys @) .0091 1-82 

.04 miles No. 6 steel wire for nead guys @ $15.42 62 

Guy lugs, pole protectors, glass. Joints, staph's. N.». G win- ft»r light- 
ning rods, tie wire 13.94 

Total cost material ". $690.83 

Labor 159.50 

Total cost $850.33 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. i6i 

Table CXLIII. — Comparative Labor and Material Cost to Erect 1,000 

Feet Underground Cable. 

1,000 ft. 50 Pr.— 19 Qa. 

1,000' 50 pr.— 22 ga. paper insulated cable @ .30 1300.00 

8 vault cable supports & .12 96 

Soapstone, solder, parafflne wax, muslin, candles, pasters, lead sleeves, 

paper sleeves, gasoline, pasters and miscellaneous material 5.75 

Total cost material $306.71 

Labor, including splicing 42.76 

Total cost 1349.47 

1,000 ft. 100 Pr.— 22 Qa. 

l.OOO' 100 pr.— 22 ga. paper insulated cable @ .31 $310.00 

8 vault cable supports @ .12 r .96 

Soapstone. solder, parafflne wax. muslin, candles, pasters, lead sleeves, 

paper sleeves, gasoline, pasters and miscellaneous material 8.15 

Total cost material $319.11 

Labor, including splicing «i4.94 

Total cost $364.05 

1,000 ft. 100 Pr.— 19 Ga. 

1,000' 100 pr. — 19 ga. paper Insulated cable @ .60 $600.00 

S vault cable supports @ .12 96 

Soapstone, solder, parafflne wax, muslin, candles, pasters, lead sleeves, 

paper sleeves, gasoline, pasters and miscellaneous material 9.33 

Total cost material $610.29 

Labor, including splicing 59.34 

Total cost $669.63 

1,000 ft. 200 Pr.— 22 Qa. 

1.000' 200 pr.— 22 ga. paper insulated cable @ .60 $600.00 

8 vault cable supports @ .12 •. . . .96 

Soapstone, solder, parafflne wax, muslin, candles, pasters, lead sleeves, 

paper sleeves, gasoline, pasters and miscellaneous material 9.94 

Total cost material $610.90 

Labor, including splicing 61.70 



I 



Total cost $672.60 

1,000 ft. 200 Pr.— 19 Qa. 

1,000' 200 pr. — 19 ga. paper insulated cable @ .95 $950.00 

8 vault cable supports ^ .12 96 

Soapstone, solder, parafflne wax, mualin, candles, pasters, lead sleeves, 

paper sleeves, gasoline, pasters and miscellaneous material 10.63 

Total cost material $961.59 

Labor, including splicing €9.50 



Total cost $1,031.09 



l62 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Table CXLIV. — Comparative Labor and Material Cost to Erect tooo 

Ft. Aerial Cable. 

1,000 ft. 26 Pr.— 22 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) @ .81 .$ 1.62 

2 % In. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ AS 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 28.00 

4 anchor lugs & .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors @ .031 50 

600 Marlin cable hangers @ .00395 2.37 

1250 ft. %-ln. messenger strand @ .00912 11.40 

250 ft. No. 18 bHdle wire @ .00969 2.42 

1000 ft. 25 pr.— 22 ga. paper insulated cable @ $10.46 104.60 

1 balcony or seat 1.35 

26 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire ^ .03 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports, side braces, ground rod, par- 
afflne wax. lead sleeves, solder, pasters, paper sleeves, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material 3.88 

Total cost material (153.99 

Labor, including splicing 48.10 

Total cost $202.09 

1,000 ft. 25 Pr.— 19 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) @ .81 « . .| 1.62 

2 % in. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ .48 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 23.00 

4 anchor lugs @ .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors (& .031 50 

600 marlin cable hangers @ .00395 2.37 

1250ft. % in. messenger strand @ .00912 11.40 

250 ft. No. 18 bridle wire @ .00969 2.42 

1000 ft. 25 pr.— 19 ga. paper insulated cable @ .18 180.00 

1 balcony or seat 1.35 

25 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire @ .03 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports, side braces, ground rod, par- 
afflne wax. lead sleeves, solder, pasters, paper sleeves, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material 3.99 

Total cost material $229.50 

/^bor, including splicing 48.40 

Total cost $277.90 

1,000 ft. 50 Pr.— 22 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) @ $.81 $ 1.62 

2 % in. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ .48 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 23.00 

4 anchor lugs @ .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors @ .031 50 

600 marlin cable hangers @ .00395 2.37 

1250 ft. % in. messenger strand ® .00912 11.40 

250 ft. No. 18 bridle wire @ .00969 2.42 

1000 ft, 50 pr.— 22 ga. paper insul. cable @ .185 185.00 

1 balcony or seat 1.35 

25 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire @ .08 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports, side braces, ground rod, par- 
atnne wax, lead sleeves, -solder, pasters, paper sleeves, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material 4.08 

Total cost material $234.59 

Labor, including splicing 50.28 

Total cost $284. 87 



MISCELLANEOUS COSTS. 163 

1,000 ft. 50 Pr.— 19 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) ® $.81 % 1.62 

2 % in. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ .48 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 23.00 

4 anchor lugB @ .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors @ .031 50 

600 marlin cable hangers @ .00435 2.61 

1000 ft. 50 pr.— 22 ga. paper Insul. cable @ .30 800.00 

250 ft. % in. strand for anchors ® .0135 3.88 

250 ft. No. 18 bridle wire ® .00969 2.48 

1000 ft. % in. messenger strand @ .00912 11.40 

1 balcony or seat ...* , 1.36 

25 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire # .03 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports, side braces, ground rod, par- 
afflne wax, lead sleeves, paper sleeves, solder, pasters, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material 4.32 

Total cost material $853.45 

Labor, Including splicing 50.33 

Total cost $403.78 



1,000 ft. 100 Pr.~22 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) @ $0.81 1 1.62 

2 % in. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ .48 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 23.00 

4 anchor lugs @ .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors ® .031 50 

600 marlin cable hangers ® .00435 2.61 

1000 ft. % in. messenger strand @ .00912 11.40 

250 ft. H in. strand for anchors @ .0135 3.38 

250 ft. No. 18 bridle wire @ .00969 2.42 

1000 ft. 100 pr.— 22 ga. paper insul. cable @ .31 310.00 

1ft. balcony or seat 1.35 

25 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire @ .03 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports, side braces, ground rod, par- 
afflne wax. lead sleeves, solder, pasters, paper sleeves, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material 4.62 

Total cost material % $363.75 

Labor, Including splicing 52.50 

Total cost $416.25 

1,000 ft. 100 Pr.— 19 Qa. 

2 cable arms (complete) @ .$81 $ 1,62 

2 % in. by 8 ft. log anchor rods @ .48 96 

1 25 pr. protected cable box 23.00 

4 anchor lugs ® .285 1.14 

16 pole protectors @ .031 < 50 

800 marlin cable hangers @ .0048 8.84 

1250 ft. % In. messenger strand @ .0135 16.20 

250 ft. No. 18 bridle wire @ .00969 2.42 

1000 ft. 100 pr.— 19 ga. paper insul. cable @ .60 600.00 

1 balcony or seat 1-35 

25 ft. No. 6 copper ground wire @ .03 75 

Clamps, cleats, messenger supports^ side braces, ground rod, par- 
afflne wax, lead sleeves, solder, pasters, paper sleeves, thim- 
bles, miscellaneous material : 5.28 



Total cost material *^fl*2? 

Labor, including splicing 54.85 

Total cost %711.91 



CHAPTER MIL 
THE PRACTICE OF ESTLMATIXCi. 

In the previous chapters, construction cost data have been 
shown covering the various branches of telephone work, the 
system for figuring and keeping costs has been explained in 
considerable detail, the methods for constructing the work 
on which the costs were based and the form used for report- 
ing the data have been shown. It remains in this chapter to 
describe the practice of estimating, explaining the origin of 
estimates in a large corporation, the system by which they 
are made and handled and the indispensability to estimating j 

of cost data based on a svstem. ! 

Until recent years systematic estimating was practically 
unknown ; and even now, estimating and guessing are almost 
synonymous in a great many instances. 

The waste caused by inaccurate estimating is great. In the 
case of a corporation doing its own construction, too liberal 
estimates result in expensive work, as it being only required 
that construction men shall keep within the estimates, they 
have a tendency to lay out work with that object in view, and 
they believe good results have been achieved if they succeed 
— no matter how large the estimate may have been. On the 
other hand, estimates -which are much too small have a 
tendency to cause construction men to lose interest in the 
work, as they know that the overrunning of an estimate never 
results in any credit to thom, no matter how cheap the work 
is done. Naturally construction superintendents and fore- 
men are guided by the estimate, and they believe to a certain 
extent that the results of their work are shown by the amount 
of the debit or credit balance. In the case of a contractor it 
needs little argument to show the loss caused by inaccurate 
estimating. If the estimate is too large he may lose the con- 
tract ; if too small, he loses his profits. In the first instance 
he often discourages construction ; and in the other, he can- 
not long exist. 

164 



ESTIMATING. 165 

In some cases the estimating is done by men whose long 
experience in construction has given them a kind of intuitive 
knowledge of costs, and although using no systems or rec- 
ords, they are able to estimate fairly accurately ; but such 
methods, being, as they are, dependent upon the personnel of 
the estimators — their retirement and health — sooner or later 
must end in leaving the estimating in a chaotic condition. 

The practice in estimating may be divided into four classes : 
(i) estimating based on time: (2) estimating based on guess; 
(3) estimating based on sporadic costs ; (4) estimating based 
on systematic average costs. 

In the first class, a method of procedure is to divide the 
proposed work into divisions of construction, as where the 
work comprises the building of a toll line, the number and 
sizes of poles, anchors, cross-arms and miles of wire are ascer- 
tained, and the time required to set a pole and an anchor, erect 
a cross-arm and string a mile of wire is used as the basis for 
figuring the total time and the estimate is then made by using 
the average cost, per hour, of a line construction gang to find 
the total cost. 

Another method, and the one most generally used in time 
estimating, is to find, by basing the figures on the number of 
holes a groundman can dig in a day, the number of poles a 
lineman can frame in a day and the number of cros.s-arms a 
lineman can- erect, how many poles, cross-arms, etc., a gang 
composed of a certain number, of linemen, combination men, 
groundmen and a team can install in a day, and use these data 
to figure the number of days required by a gang to complete 
the proposed work. The estimated cost is then found by 
figuring the cost of a gang for the total number of days. 

The first method would require that a record of the time 
expended in setting a pole, erecting a cross-arm, etc., be kept 
for each gang, or tables be made showing the number of poles 
that gangs composed of different number and grades of men 
can set in a day or hour. In one case it is impracticable, as 
the gangs fluctuate too much, and in other cases, tables of 
this character are very difficult to collect and always subject 
to errors, and in both cases it involves more work than the 
collection of data based on cost. 



l66 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

The second method does not take into consideration the 
fact that both groundmen and linemen dig holes, that com- 
bination men sometimes frame poles or erect cross-arms, all of 
which make considerable difference in cost — if not in time. 
This method might work out if all gangs were composed the 
same and certain work was always done by the same grade 
of men. 

Time data to be accurate bases for estimating would re- 
quire records of linemen-hours, combination men-hours, 
groundmen-hours, as well as team-hours and foremen-hours, 
be kept for each kind and division of line construction, and 
the lost time be separated in the same manner, as the differ- 
ence between the wages of the several grades of men is con- 
siderable. The collection of data on average time, based on 
this system is not practical, as the composition of gangs 
varies — often greatly — and the exigencies of work frequently 
require that linemen do the work of groundmen or combina- 
tion men do the work of linemen. 

Data of this character may be collected on conduit work 
where the construction is done almost entirely by men of the 
same grade and receiving the same wages. 

These systems are obviously better than no system, and if 
all conditions such as kind of soil, distance from station and 
size of job are taken into consideration, an estimate of some 
value may be made, especially if a record of the time required 
to accomplish the work has been collected ; but too often 
no records of any kind have been kept, the records are based 
on time consumed in constructing entire lines, no separation 
being made of the time spent in setting poles, erecting cross- 
arms or stringing wire ; or the records are based on fore- 
men's work reports, and these reports are known by men ex- 
perienced in construction costs to be almost valueless, as a 
foreman will report, for example, that the day's work was 50 
holes excavated for 30-ft. poles, whereas 40 holes were exca- 
vated to the required depth and the balance were in various 
stages of completion — perhaps not averaging 2 ft. where the 
required depth is 53^^ ft. Even a work report of this character 
is rare. Usually besides holes excavated for poles, there are 
poles framed, labor spent in hauling poles, etc., and no sep- 



ESTIMATING. 167 

aration is made of the time spent on each division. Any 
record based on data of this character is worse than useless 
because it is misleading. 

No matter how carefully a time system may be devised, the 
hours and minutes spent in preparing for work, in rehandling 
materials, in lost time and in contingencies in general are 
rarely included. A matter of a few minutes used on this or 
that part of construction seems so small that little attention is 
paid to it, but these minutes mean the expenditure on large 
jobs of considerable money. 

The second class of estimates is used almost exclusively 
by small telephone companies and contractors, and in many 
cases by large companies and contractors. 

Small telephone companies doing their own work usually 
advance the argument that the work is to be done no matter 
what the cost, and, therefore, there is no use in spending 
money or time on cost data. They do not take into consider- 
ation the value the data will have when contemplating the 
building of extensions, which, a company in business in a 
small town where the percentage of telephones per capita 
is small, or a company in business in a large town where the 
percentage of plant per telephone is large, often builds 
although the cost of the extension is frequently not justified 
by the income or future prospects. To estimates based on 
guess may be attributed the failure of some small companies 
that have undertaken work which a careful estimate would 
have shown to be unjustified by the size of their capital or 
prospective income. 

Where companies let their work by contract the lack of 
cost records puts them at the mercy of contractors, besides 
subjecting them to the same conditions when making exten- 
sions and adopting new materials, as explained for a company 
doing its own work. 

Comparatively few large telephone companies or contract- 
ors are without some cost system or so-called cost system, 
but many of these "systems," if used in estimating, make the 
estimate a guess. 

With telephone companies most of these systems are de- 
signed with the object of keeping a record of the cost for the 



l68 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 

auditing department, so that expenditures may be checked, 
and the value and amount of the increase and displacement of 
plant may be recorded and charged; and with contractors 
these systems are designed for keeping records of expenditures 
which the exigencies of bookkeeping require. In both cases 
the records of costs are not kept with an idea to facilitate esti- 
mating or to collect systematic cost data. 

While labor and material costs are generally separated, 
under these systems, the labor or material costs of any par- 
ticular kind of equipment cannot be ascertained, and the 
character of soil and conditions under which the work was 
done are not recorded. 

Sometimes the records show the lumped cost of under- 
ground conduit including cable and splices, and other times 
the lumped cost of a job composed of every kind of telephone 
construction is shown. It is rarely that a record of the cost 
of only one kind of construction such as a toll line or a run 
of conduit is shown, and when shown, the only data for future 
estimates which may be gleaned are the cost of a toll line 
composed of a certain number of 30-ft., 35-ft. and 40-ft poles : 
lo-pin and terminal cross-arms ; anchors, and miles of wire ; 
or in the case of a conduit job, the cost of a certain number 
of feet of conduit including vaults, perhaps composed of dif- 
ferent classes of construction, different cross sections and 
several different sizes of vaults. The average cost of a mile of 
toll line or a lineal foot of conduit based on such data might 
be good bases for estimating a similar job; but for general 
estimating, the fluctuations in size of poles, cost of setting 
poles in different soils, number of miles and style of wire, 
number and size of cross-arms, number of anchors and cost of 
setting them in different soil, and conditions ; or the fluctua- 
tion in cross sections, percentage of vaults per foot of con- 
duit, size of vaults, character of soil, and conditions, make any 
attempt to use such data for estimating result in a guess. 

There are, however, systems designed for taking costs 
solely for use in estimating, whose use results in guess. In 
this class may be put the work report systems already ex- 
plained, and systems in which the attempt is made to secure 



ESTIMATING, 169 

costs on arbitrary, infinitesimal, incomplete or insufficient 
divisions. 

An instance of these systems occurred on a job where the 
cost of excavating per cu. yd. was kept on a run of conduit of 
different cross sections, each cross section requiring a trench 
of different dimensions, but no division was made of the cost 
per cu. yd. of each cross section. In another instance, on a 
job where wire was being strung, **costs" were kept on tying- 
in, dead ending, putting on test connectors, fuses and glass, 
making joints, climbing poles, pulling slack and several other 
divisions, although to secure such costs is obviously imprac- 
ticable; and, without a stop watch, a field glass and a cost 
man for each workman, is impossible. 

By the usual and most economical method of stringing 
wire, the act of climbing a pole, putting on glass and tying-in, 
slide so gradually into each other that any attempt to sep- 
arate them is like trying to separate the cost of laying brick 
and the cost of placing mortar in the work of bricklaying. 

It may be said that the stumbling-block in devising a prac- 
tical system for taking labor costs is in the tendency to make 
a division of construction for each different material used. 

New method of construction and new materials cannot be 
adopted by telephone companies or contractors basing esti- 
mates on guess, unless it is clear that the mechanical or elec- 
trical improvement will be great, without hazarding avoid- 
able losses, as it is evident that the question whether the new 
material costs less to install, or the new method cheapens 
construction is a matter of speculation when the cost of in- 
stalling the old material or the cost of the old construction 
method is a matter of guess. 

A contractor basing his estimates on guess is much the 
same as a novice at an auction-^neither knows whether he is 
bidding high or low ; and if he gets his bid, does not know 
whether he made or lost. 

With systematic estimating, even a small, unknown con- 
tractor is able to secure contracts, and contractors whose 
plants are large, and consequent expense great, may in times 
when money is stringent, stimulate business by close 
estimates. 



170 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

In the third class of estimating may be put estimates that 
are based on the cost of a single job, parts of jobs or a few 
hours' work on a job. 

When based on a single, large job, if costs of the divisions 
and subdivisions of construction are separated and accurately 
collected, an estimate may be made that is fairly correct. 

Costs on parts of jobs, whether the part is the start, the 
middle or the finish of a job, are poor data on which to base 
estimates, because, in construction, there is certain prelim- 
inary labor expense, loss of time, and work to be done at the 
start; and at the finish there is often more or less loss by 
reason of a surplus of men, there is cleaning up to be done 
and surplus material to- be returned to yards, all of which 
cannot be correctly charged to the first or last part of a job, 
as the case may be, but are charges against the whole work ; 
and, therefore, if the cost of the middle of the job be taken, 
it will be found to average much less than, the average cost 
of an entire job. 

In line construction, for example, the poles may be hauled 
at the beginning of the work, all anchors and poles may be 
located at one time, holes may be dug one day and poles set 
the next; or in the case of conduit construction at the start 
of a job the gang may be inexperienced, test holes may be 
dug, there may be mixing boards to be made, the percentage 
of laborers per supervisor may be larger than at the middle; 
and at the finish, the streets may be cleaned up, surplus 
material carted away and numerous other things done. 

Costs of a few hours' work, whether on one or many jobs, 
are very crude data for estimating, and being an abridgment 
of the last explained method of taking costs, they increase its 
inaccuracies. The general method of taking these costs is to 
keep a record for a few minutes or for a few hours of the 
amount of lineal feet or cubic yards excavated, the number of 
feet of tile laid, the cubic yards of concrete mixed, and so on, 
and on these data base the cost of the entire work. 

The fourth class of estimates are based on costs such as 
have been shown in the previous chapters. 

Showing the rates of wages and methods of construction, 
based on a uniform system, small and large jobs, different 



ESTIMATING, 171 

conditions and seasons ; separated for each kind, division and 
subdivision of construction, each kind of soil and each size 
and style of material ; easily revised for changes in wages 
6r methods, these costs make estimating facile and accurate. 

The following description of the system used by a large 
telephone company gives some idea of the methods of origin- 
ating, handling and making estimates that are ba: ed on 
systematic average cost data when applied to construction 
or reconstruction. 

Exchange managers have the authority to authorize work 
not to exceed a certain specified amount, usually sufficient to 
string a drop and install a telephone set, or make small re- 
pairs and changes. Work requiring a larger outlay but not 
exceeding an amount usually sufficient to erect a short line 
of poles including necessary wire, anchors, etc., or make pro- 
portionate changes and repairs is authorized by the superin- 
tendent of construction. If, however, the line is for a new 
subscriber, and requires more than 2 or 3 poles and 2 or 3 
spans of wire, it is rarely authorized until the territory has 
been canvassed for future prospects and then only if prospects 
justify. The general manager has jurisdiction in cases re- 
quiring an expenditure of a still greater amount not to exceed 
three hundred dollars, except in the case of repairs such as 
are sometimes required after a sleet storm or a fire. With 
these exceptions all work is authorized by the board of 
directors. 

All estimates ^except those of managers are made by the 
construction cost department. In the case of managers* esti- 
mates, practically no knowledge of costs is required; simply 
a rough estimate is made by the manager or district foreman 
and the manager orders the work done. In the case of a line 
order for a new subscriber, requiring over 2 or 3 poles and 
2 or 3 spans of wire, a rough estimate is first made for the 
guidance of the canvassing or special agents' department, 
and if authorized by that department, it is then carefully esti- 
mated and the superintendent of construction orders the line 
built. 

Except in the case of estimates to be submitted to the 
board of directors or manager's estimates, the district fore- 



172 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

men or managers send an estimate of the number of poles, 
wire and other materials needed for the work in question. 
An estimate of the labor cost of installing this material is 
then made, based on average costs and taking into considera- 
tion previous data secured on work in the vicinity, showing 
kind of soil and conditions of work such as distance from sta- 
tion, etc. In event of no data having been taken in the vicin- 
ity, the information as to the kind of soil is obtained from the 
district foreman or manager. The material is then added to 
the estimate using prices based on latest quotations. The 
forms used for these estimates are shown by Forms 47 to 52, 
inclusive. An order authorizing the construction is then writ- 
ten, showing the lump sums estimated for labor and for ma- 
terial, and two copies are sent to an assistant superintendent 
of construction who in turn sends one to the district foreman. 
The original estimate is filed with the records. 

While work authorized by managers, superintendent of 
construction or general manager usually originates in lines 
for new subscribers, "out orders," "change orders,'* repairs 
and reconstruction, work authorized by the board of directors 
generally has its origin in extensions, redistribution, changes 
from open wire to cable or changes from aerial to under- 
ground, proposed by an exchange manager, the superintend- 
ent of construction, the engineer or a combination of all 
three officers. 

When the proposed plan has been submitted, in the rough, 
to the general superintendent or general manager, plans on 
the style of Fig. 87, showing the proposed work and specifica- 
tions, are made. The construction cost department on receipt 
of the blue print plans has measurements made of the number 
of feet of cable, strand, conduit or other materials, the re- 
quired amount of which are not specified on the blue print; 
and the kind of soil and conditions of work are ascertained. 
An estimate is then made on forms similar to those shown. 

If the estimate is approved by the superintendent of con- 
struction it is typewritten on a form like that shown in No. 52, 
and sent to the various officials whose approval is required. 
The original estimate on the forms like those shown in Nos. 
47 to 51, inclusive, are retained in the construction department. 



ESTIMATING. 173 

and if the estimate is approved by the board of directors, it 
is given to the material and tool clerks to order material and 
tools, and an order authorizing the construction^ showing the 
lump amounts allowed for labor and material is then written. 
This order is made in triplicate. One copy is filed with the 
estimate and two copies are sent to an assistant superintend- 
ent of construction who in turn forwards one copy to a 
foreman. 

The assistant superintendent to whom the order is ad- 
dressed, supervises the construction and is responsible to the 
superintendent for the standard of the work and its comple- 
tion within the estimated cost. 

In event of tlie estimate being overrun more than 10 per 
cent, the assistant superintendent must explain the cause to 
the superintendent of construction and both the latter and the 
general superinendent must in turn explain the cause to the 
general manager. The general manager then asks the board 
of directors for a further authorization to make up the deficit, 
explaining the reasons for overrunning the estimate. 

The expenses occasioned by the supervision of work by an 
assistant superintendent, such as railroad fare, livery, board 
and time, are included in the estimate as "general super- 
vision." If the superintendent of construction inspects the 
works, as is usually the case on a large job, his time and ex- 
penses are also charged to the estimate under "general super- 
vision." 

The organization of the construction department for the 
handling and general supervision of work is as follows : 

There are three assistant superintendents of construction, 
with headquarters at the main office, each being in charge of 
all construction work done in a certain territorial district. 

Each is responsible for the standard of the construction in 
his district and each has an assistant or facility man who 
usually supervises small jobs. In all districts there are fore- 
men, some stationed in large towns and some "floating," who 
report to the assistant superintendent of the respective dis- 
trict. There are also a few foremen under the supervision 
of the first assistant superintendent, that do practically all the 



174 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

conduit construction, irrespective of district, on account of 
their experience in this line of work. 

The usual custom of assistant superintendents is to spend 
one-half hour or one hour every week inspecting the construc- 
tion in conipany with each foreman. The foremen also report 
each day by telephone and consult with the assistant super- 
intendent or his assistant on matters of construction. 

The assistant superintendents and their assistants charge 
their time spent in the office to general accounts, such as 
maintenance and district aerial construction, and time spent 
inspecting and supervising work is charged to the respective 
job. 

General supervision is a small item in an estimate, rarely 
exceeding 2 per cent, or 3 per cent. It fluctuates greatly in 
amount and only very general rules may be given for estimat- 
ing its cost. It is, however, a small and comparatively unim- 
portant item and may be very roughly estimated without ma- 
terially affecting the value of the estimate as a whole. 

In estimating its cost it is necessary to take into -consider- 
ation the size of the job, the kind of construction and the 
distance from main office to the town in which the work is to 
be done. If the jobs are small and ordinary city or farm line 
construction, several are usually inspected on one tour or 
left for the inspection of the facility man. If railroad com- 
munication is infrequent or distance from main office great, a 
job is not often visited unless it is a large conduit job ; these 
are visited almost every day by the assistant superintendent 
and every three or four days by the superintendent of con- 
struction. General supervision is a part of the cost of work 
which is almost entirely dependent upon the system of super- 
vision and inspection of each individual company. 

To explain the method used in estimating from a blueprint 
plan, that shown in Fig. 87 will be taken as an example. It is 
divided into several parts in order to minimize the size of the 
blueprint. The part.* having block lines show the proposed 
line construction, and the other or center part shows the pro- 
posed cable construction. 

It will be found more facile to estimate first the part or 
parts showing one class of construction. 



ESTIMATING, 175 

For the purpose of avoiding useless* repetition, an estimate 
of the proposed work in the alley south of State street and 
west of Hohman street, as shown on Fig. 87, will be used to 
show the method of estimating the whole plan. 

Starting with the part of the plan showing the proposed 
line construction and assuming the measurement from the 
first pole west of Hohman street to the second pole west of 
Morton place to be 1,000 ft., and assuming further, that the 
soil is sand, the estimate would be as follows : 

Estimated Labor. 

24,000 ft. .080 copper wire to be removed. 
27 lo-pin cross-arms to be removed. 
I guy and log anchor to be set in sand. 
5 15-pr. can terminals to be placed. 

5 terminal poles to be wired (say 8 bridle wires to be 

run on each pole). 

Estimated Material. 

1 5^-in. X 8-ft. guy rod. ^ 
40 ft. ^-in. strand. 

2 guy lugs. 

6 pole strand protector strips. 

1 thimble. 

2 3-bolt guy clamps. 
5 15-pr. can terminals complete. 

280 ft. No. 18 twisted pair bridle wire for wiring poles 
(7 ft. is usually considered the average length re- 
quired for each connection). 
Cleats and staples. 

Estimated Material to Be Removed. 

27 lo-pin cross-arms complete. 
24,000 ft. .080 copper wire. 

Estimated Original Labor. 

2j lo-pin cross-arms. 

24,000 ft. .080 copper wire. 

Continuing the estimate to the part of the plan showing 
the cable work and assuming, as above, the distance from the 
lateral pole just west of Hohman street to the pole just west 
of Morton place to be 1,000 ft., the estimate would be: 



For Guy 

and 
Anchor. 



176 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



^™ 



rig: ST.— Typ[<-n1 T\nn i.f T<>1e| 



ESTIMATING. 177 

Estimated Labor. 

1,050 ft. 25-pr., 22-ga. cable including strand, to be erected. 
1 straight splice (not tagged), i — 15-pr. leg into i — 
25-pr. cable with lo-pr, dead (on the pole just west 
of Morton place). 

4 straight-bridge splices (tagged), each 1 — iS-pr. leg 

into 2 — 25-pr. cables. 

I straight splice (tagged), i — 25-pr. cable into i — 50-pr. 
cable (on the lateral pole). 

1 change of count (tagged), 1 — 25-pr. leg into i — 

50-pr. cable (on the lateral pole). 

Estimated Material. 

1,050 ft. 25-pr. 22-ga. cable (50 ft. is allowed for splices 
and sag.) 

1,150 ft. ^-in. messenger strand (125 ft. allowed for the 
span between the pole on which the cable ends and 
the anchored pole and 25 ft. is allowed for wrap- 
ping) • 

2 3-bolt guy clamps (for dead ending messenger). 
9 ^-in. messenger supports. 

800 marlin cable hangers. 

5 1 1/2X 16-inch lead sleeves. 
2 2 X 8-inch lead sleeves. 

20 lbs. solder. 

10 lbs. paraffine. l ^ ,, ,. 

^ , ^ror Splices. 

4 boxes paper sleeves. 

30 pasters. 

10 rolls muslin. 

2 gals, gasoline. 

The style of anchors, wire, messenger and other materials, 
while not shown on the plans, is familiar to the estimator 
through his knowledge of general specifications for city, farm 
and toll line construction. 

The estimator has lists showing materials required for a log 
anchor, a thousand feet of cable, a splice of each kind, etc., so 
that in making up an estimate these (|uantities need only be 
multiplied by the total number of anchors, feet of cable, 
splices, and so on. 



178 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

It is not always possible to tell what splices will be tagged 
or not tagged, but an estimator familiar with splicing can 
judge very closely. 

"Estimated Material to be Removed" and "Estimated 
Original Labor" are separated when estimating and entered 
on a form like that shown (Form 48), and figured on the basis 
of present material prices and labor costs. The object of sep- 
arating these items from the balance of Ihe estimate is in 
order to fill in the "Total approximate value plant displaced," 
shown on Form 52. 

The present labor cost of removing materials is included in 
the estimated cost of new construction on forms like Forms 
47 to 51, inclusive. 

Where more than one form is used the estimated cost of 
labor for all work may be shown on one form only. 

When lists on the style of the above have been made, show- 
ing the estimated labor and material required, it is a simple 
matter to transfer the items to the forms and figure the cost 
of material from a price list and the cost of labor from the 
cost records. 

Form 53, while not a part of estimating, is shown for the 
purpose of explaining the method of keeping account of the 
expenses of the construction cost department. One of these 
forms is kept for each cost man employed. 



ESTIMATING. 



179 



FORM 47. 



,190.. 



Estimate for City and Farm Lino Construction at. 



Items. 



Cost. 



. Feet Top Poles 

. Feet Top Poles 

. Feet .... Top Poles 

. Feet .... Top Poles 

. Feet Top Poles 

. Feet Top Poles 

10 Pin Cross-Arms Complete 

10 Pin Alley Cross-Arms Complete 

10 Pin Alley Cross-Arms Complete 

10 Pin Terminal Cross-Arms Complete 

6 Pin Cross-Arms Complete 

23-Inch Braces 

28-Inch Braces 

%x4 inches Car. Bolts 

%x.... Inches Mach. Bolts 

%x. . . . inches Mach. Bolts 

%x.... Inches Mach. Bolts 

No. 2 Side Braces 

No. 3 Side Braces 

No. 4 Side Braces 

Pair Trans. Glass 

Pony Glass 

Miles 080 Copper Wire, Bare 

Miles No. 12 Steel Wire, Bare 

Miles 080 Copper Wire, Insulated 

Miles No. 12 Steel Wire, Insulated 

080 Joints 

080 Half Joints 

No. 12 Joints /. 

Lbs. 0§0 Tic Wire 

Lbs. No. 12 Tie Wire 

No. 18 Twisted Pair Bridle Wire 

Test Clamps No. 8 

Feet No. 4 Steel Wire 

Feet % Pr. Strand 

Feet % Pr. Strand 

No. 3 Miller Anchors 

5-Inch Stombaugh Anchors 

6-inch Stombaugh Anchors 

%-inch X 8-foot Guy Rods 

Anchor Lugs 

Pole Strand Protector Strips 

Pole Steps 

8 Bolt Guy Clamps 

Thimbles 

4-inch Lag Screws 

Lbs. Shingle Nails 

Line Fuses 

Misc. Material 



• « ■ • 



Total Material 



Labor, Including Board and Teaming. 

Carfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 

Labor Removing Old Material 



Grand Total 



Estimator. 



i8o TELEPHONE COXSTRUCTION. 



FORM 43. 

190.... 

Estimated Material to be Removed at 



KsUmated 
Oiisinal 
Items. Cost. 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr Gauge Cable 

Strand 

6 Pin Cross- Arms Complete 

10 Pin Cross- Arms Complete 

Feet .... Top Poles 

.... Feet .... Top Poles 

-^eet Top Poles 

Feet .... Top Poles 

Miles .... Wire 

Miles Wire 

Misc. Material 



Total Material 

Estimated Original Labor. 



LINE GANG. 

Labor, Board and Teaming.. 

Carfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 

SPLICERS. 

Labor, Board and Teaming. 

C&rfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 



Grand Total 

Ejstlinator. 



ESTIMATING. 



i8i 



FORM 49, 



,190.... 



Estimate for Toll Line Construction, 



Items. 



■ • ■ • • • 



a ■ • • • 



.... Feet .. 


. . Top Poles 


.... Feet ... 


. . Top Poles 


.... Feet .. 


. . Top Poles 


Feet .. 


. . Top Poles 


Feet .. 


. . Top Poles 


.... Feet .. 


. . Top Poles 



10 Pin Cross- Arms Complete, 

l%x7% Pins 

23-inch Braces 

28-lnch Braces 

%x4 inches Car. Bolts 

%x inches Mach. Bolt.s... 

%x.... Inches Alach. Bolts... 

%x Inches Mach. Bolts. . , 

4-lnch Lag Screws 

Lbs. Shingle Nnlls 

Miles 104 Copper Wire 

Miles 080 Copper Wire 

Miles No. 12 Steel Wire 

104 Joints 

104 Half Joints 

080 Joints 

080 Half Joints 

No. 12 Joints 

Lbs. 104 Tie Wire 

Lbs. 080 Tie Wire 

Lbs. No. 12 Tie WIit 

A. T. & T. Glass 

Trans. Glass Pieces* , 

1^x9 Trans. Pieces 

3 Bolt Guy Clamps 

%x8 Guy Rods 

Anchor Lugs 

Pole Strand Protector Strips. 

Pole Stens 

No. 5 Wix Test Connectors.. 
No. 6 Wix Test Connectors.. 
Misc. Material 



Cost. 



Total Material 

Labor, Board and Teaming 

Carfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 

Labor Removing Old Material, 



Grand Total 



Estimator. 



l82 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

FORM 60. 



.190.... 



Estimate for Cable at, 



Items. Coet. 

Feet .... Pr. .... Gaugre Cable 

Feet .... Pr. .... Gauge Cable 

Feet Pr. .... Gauge Cable 

Feet Pr Gauge Cable 

Feet .... Pr Gauge Cable 

Feet Pr Gauge Cable 

Pr, .... Gauge Marlin Hangers 

Pr. .... Gauge Marlin Hangers 

Pr Gauge Marlin Hangers 

Feet % Pr. Strand 

Feet H Pr. Strand 

A. T. & T. Guy Clamps 

A. T. A T. Mess Supports 

%xS Guy Rods 

25 Pr. Unprotected Boxes 

25 Pr. Protected Boxes 

Pr. Boxes 

Feet No. 18 Twisted Pair Bridle Wire 

080 Joints 

Thimbles 

Feet Leather Cleating 

%x..., Mach. Bolts 

%x.... Mach. Bolts 

%x.... Mach. Bolts ;... 

T. No. 2 Cable Arms 

lV4x9 Trans. Pins 

23" Braces ' 

28" Braces 

%x4*' LAg Screws 

%x Car. Bolts 

%x Car. Bolts 

Pair Trans. Glass 

Saddle Balconies 

No. 2 Side Braces 

No. 3 Side Braces , 

No. 4 Side Braces 

Feet No. 6 Copper Ground Wire 

Ground Rods 

Pencil Fuses 

Line Fuses 

Lbs. Marlin 

Test Clamps No. 8 

Feet No. 4 Steel Wire 

Lbs. Soapstone 

Vault Cable Supports 

Pot Head Saddles 

20 Pr. Blocks 

Pot Head Discs 

Balls Lacing Wire 

Anchor Lugs 

Pole Strand Protector Strips 

3 Bolt Guy Clamps 

4H''x.... Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves 

Lead Sleeves.. 



3" x.. 
2%''x.. 



f • • I • I 



m^x.. 
r X., 



ESTIMATING. 183 



Lbs. %xH Solder 

Lbs. Triangular Solder. 

Lbs. Par. Wax 

Lbs. Beeswax 

Rolls* Muslin 

Boxes Tubes 

Candles 

Pasters 

Rolls Tape 

Misc. Material 



Total Mateiial, 



LINE GANG. 
Labor, Board and Teaming. . . , 

Carfare , 

Freight 

General Supervision 

Labor Removing Old Material. 

SPLICERS. 

Labor. Board and Teaming 

Carfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 

Grand Total 



Estimator. 

• • ■ • 1 W • • • • 



1 84 



TELEl'tlOSE COXSTRUCTION. 



FORM 51. 



Estimate for Conduit at, 



Items. 



Cost. 



Conduit 

Conduit 

Conduit 

Conduit V 



Duct Feet 2 Duct 
Duct Feet 3 Duct 
Duct Feet 4 Duct 
Duct Feet 6 Duct 

5/16-lnch Dowel Pins , 

3-lnch Sewer TJl • , 

Sewer Tile* , 

Sewer Tile 

St. Louis Curves 

St. Li'juls Curves , 

Tile Curves 

Burlap 6 inches Wide 

Feet 2x8 Creosotod Plank.. 

Feet 2x10 Creosotf.l Plank. 

Creosoted Plank, 

Lumber 



4-Inch 

6-inch 

3-inch 

4-inch 

3-Inch 

Yards 

Line 

Lire 

Line 

Feet 

Bbls. 

Yards 

Yards 

Yards 

Sewer 

Yards 

6-inch 



2x10 
Feet 2x12 
Common 

Cl'tll'.T.t 

No 

No .... 
Nn 

brU k 

Sand , 

Sev/er Grates 

..p.. Traps 

Vault Frames and Covers 

Vault Small Frames and Covers 



Stone. 
Stonr. 
Stone. 



3 
3 
2% 

21/4 

2 
IH 



Iron 
lion 
Iron 
Iron 
Iron 
Iron 
Iron 



Pipe 
Pipe 
Pipe 
Pipe 
Pipe 
Pipe 
Pipe 



inch 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

Inch 

inch 

inch 
.... to 
.... to 
.... to 
.... to 

Pipe Hooks 

Conduit Plugs 

Ft. Creosote Pump 
Misc. Material 



in 
in 
in 
In 
in 
In 
In 



3- feet 
12-feet 
12-feet 
12-feet 
12-feet 
12-feet 
12-feet 



Lengths. 
Lengths. 
Lengrths. 
Lengths. 
Lengths. 
Lengths. 
Lengths. 



Reducers. 
Reducers. 
Reducers. 
Reducers, 



Log 



Total Material . . . 
Labor, Board and Teaming... 

Carfare 

Freight 

General Supervision 

Repairing 

Labor Removing Old Material 



Grand Total 



Estimator. 



ESTIMATIXO. 



185 



Form 52. 



Estimate No. 

TELEPHONE COMPANY. 

Estimate for ^ork. 



190.... 



(general Manaerer. 
Dear Sir: I request that authority be given for the . . . 

work within described, at an expenditure not to exceed |. 

« 
Yours rcsi)ectfully. 



construction 



Estimate Approved: 



Engineer. 



Superintendent. 



To THB ExBcuTivE Committbe: 

Gentlemen: I recommend that the sum of $. 



• • * ■ 1 «ft| • • • • 



be appropriated for 



Approved ; 



Yours respectfully, 



President. 



General Manager. 



190. 



General Manager. 
Dear Sir: At a meeting of the Board of DirectorK, held this day, it was voted that 

your above recommendation Xo be approved, an<l the and 

exi)ensc amounting to I be authorized. 

Yours resi>ect fully, 



Secretary. 



186 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Furni r»2 Continued. 

Estimate No 

TELEPHONE COMPANY. 

Superintendent. 

Dear Sir: *The following estimate covers the proposed 

work of 



190... 



For recapitulation see page No. 4. Respectfully submitted for consideration. 

Superintendent of Construction. 



Plant 
Displacement 


Material 


Plant Renewed 
OR Added 


Cost in Excess of Esti- i 
mate 


ate 


Quan- 
tity 


Valuet 


Quan- 
tity 


Cost 


6 

1 


Preparation 
of Estimate 


Completion 
of Work 


Preparation 
of Estimate 


: Completion 
of Work 


Description 


i 


9 

1 




1 

< 


1 




• • » • • • 

1 


Ft. Poles 


( ' 




Ft. " : * 












Ft. *' 














Ft. " 




















Pin Arms Complete 
















Pin " •' 






















Pin •• " 
















Mi. No Copper Wire 






















Mi. No •• ■' 




















Mi. No Steel Wire 




1 
















Mi. No " " . 












' 


Miscellaneous Material 










• • ■ « 


i 


Ft Pr Ga. Aerial Cable 




. , , , 






r 




Ft Pr Ga. " " 














Ft Pr Ga. " " 


















Pr. Cable Boxes 














• • • • 


1 


Pr. '• " 










1 




Miscellaneous Material 














Ft. Conduit *. 














■ • ■ • 




Ft. Lateral 














Vault Covers and Frames 














■ a • • 


.•• ' ••• • 


Miscellaneous Material • • 














Ft Pr. Ga. U. G. Cable 


















Ft Pr. " '* 












Ft Pr. " " 






\-"- 








Ft Pr. • " " 








1 








Pr Cable Boxes 












• • * • 


1 
1 


Pr •' " 












Miscellaneous Material • • • 




1 






Labor. Board and Teaming 






1 




Car Fare 














Freight 




1 


, 






i 


Paving 














Right of Way 






••>■,•>■• 










General Suoervlsion • 










• • • • 












1 * " * • 




• • a • 


Total approximate value plant displaced^' • . . 


I 

1 F 






Credit actuallv received for "old" material.. . 




1 








1 ToLrI estimated cost uroDosed work 








....'.... 




• • • • 


,, 1 


Total actual cost 














1 






1 







*In case of reconstruction, give present condition of line, including material to be taksn 
down — also other information pertaining to the subject. 

tTransfer to be made to Maintenance Account. 

Prom Aerial of I (Divided, Material. I Labor. I ) 

Cable (U. G.) of I ( " " I " I ) 

Conduit (U.G.) of I < •* " I •• $ ) 

IBstimated original cost. 

Note: This estimate should be accompanied by a diagram or map indicating the location 
and nature of the woric to be done. 



HSriMATIXC. 187 

Form 52 Continued. 



Superintendent . 

The work described in the foregoing estimate was completed on 100. . ; 

material was used and expense incurred as shown in itemized statement on opposite page. 
For recapittUation of measurements, etc. , see page 4. 



Supt. of Construction. 



General Manager 

The above report on work finished by the Construction Department is respectfully 
submitted. 



190.... 

Superintendent. 



Auditor. 
Noted and respectfully forwarded for your attention and files. 
190.... 



General Manager. 

I certify that the record of construction herein contained has been entered upon 

the books and maps of this office. The work has been done properly, and the characcer and 
quantity of material used in completion of work is as stated. 



• •■• ■•>• •■•• •••• •••• ••••• «n/ •••■ >■•••■•■■•■•■*•■••••■»••••••■••■•■•■«■■■ 

Engineer. 

I certify that there has been reported to me on this ESTIMATE, as per Pay- Rolls and 

Vouchers on file, an EXPENDITURE of I 

And a CREDIT of $ 

which has been distributed as follows: 

Accounts: Dr. ' Accoukts: Cr. 



I. 
I. 






I ' $. 

Plant displaced by this work has been covered by the following entry: 



Accounts: Dr, 

I 

I 

" I 



Accounts: Ca, 

I 

I 

I 



I $. 



Remarks: 



190. 



Auditor 



i88 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Form 52 Continued. 

Estimate No 

RKfAPlTlLATION OF MEASUREMENTS, EtC. 



Pole Line 



Construction 



Reconstruction 



Estimated 



Actual 



No. Miles 

Average size of poles 

Av. No.. pin arms i>er hole 

.Miles No — wire 

Mies No wire 

Miles No wire 

Miles No — wire 



Estimated 



Actual 



Cost. 



Estimated, $ 

Aerial Cable 



Actual, $. 



Xo. Feet 



Estimated 

Actually erected. 

Estimated 

Actually erected. 

Estimated 

Actually erected. 

Estimated 

Actually erected. 



No. of 
Conductors 



Size of 

Conductors 

(B. & S. Ga.) 



Cost 



Estimated. I Actual. I. 

Conduit 



Estimated 



Style of conduit 

No. of feet of trench. 

No. of duct feet 

No. of Manholes 



Actually 
Installed 



Cost 



Estimated, I 

Underground Cable 



Actual, $■ 



No. of Feet 



No. of 
Conductors 



Size of 

Conductors 

(B. & S. Ga.) 



Estimated 

Actually pulled in. 

Estimated 

Actually 0ulled in. 

Estimated 

Actually pulled in . 

Estimated 

Actually pulled in. 
Estimated. 
Actually pulled in. 

Estimated 

Actually pulled in. 

Estimated 

Actually pulled in . 

Estimated 

Actually pulled in. 



Cost 



E^stimatcd. % Actual, S. 



ESTIMATING, 



i8y 



c 
o 

B 

u 

O 



S8 

c 
o 



» 

h 

"< 

H 

Q 

H 
(ft 

O 

o 

o 
u 

(A 
>: 

o 



o 

s. 

M 




a— • 

(2 



1^ M 



c 



> 



■•J 

PC 



c 



< 



1 


c/i 


1 d 




! 

CQ 


Cash 
Car 
Fare 






^« 



.2 c 






1 « 






APPENDIX A. 



COST OF MATERIALS AND LABOR IN CONSTRUCT- 
ING TELEPHONE LINE. 



By J. C. Slippy. 



The following data on the cost of the different classes of 
telephone construction work have been compiled from the 
actual records of a large company, covering a period of five 
years. While the figures may seem unreasonably high when 
compared with figures usually presented, it should be re- 
membered that they include all the expenses in connection 
with the construction work, so that the average costs given 
should hold for the entire plant construction. The percent- 
ages given as cost of freight, supervision, teaming, travel 
and board have in all cases been derived from the actual ex- 
penditures for these items. 

MESSENGER AND CABLE CONSTRUCTION. 

The average wages paid for messenger strand work, aerial 
and underground cable work, and terminal and cable-box 
work were as follows : 

Foreman, strand and cable work, per 9 hrs $3.00 

Linemen, strand and cable work, per 9 hrs 2.70 

Groundmen, strand and cable work, per 9 hrs 1.75 

Teams, strand and cable work, per 9 hrs 3.50 

Cable splicers, cable splicing, per 8 hrs 3.75 

Cable helpers, cable splicing, per 8 hrs 2.50 

Messenger Construction. — The examples of messenger con- 
struction given below each represent 1,000 ft. of 16,500-lb. 
strand in place, including cost of suspending cable but not 
the cost of cable. 

190 



APPENDIX A. 



191 



Example I.^For 400-palr, 22-gage and 200-palr, 19-gage cable. 

1.100 ft messenger strand O $.0229 1 25.19 

10 messenger clamps ^ 1.0578 578 

10 14 In. croBsarm bolts Q $.0456 466 

20 square washers ® $.0086 172 

8 3-bolt clamps e 1.107 856 

850 19 In. marlin clips e 17.93 per M 6.740 

6% freight, incidentals, etc 1.70 

Labor: 

1,100 ft. messenger placed ® $.005 1 6.50 

10 messenger clamps placed @ 1.07 r 70 

850 19 in. marlin clips placed $.0075 6.375 

1,000 ft. cable hung ® 1.016 15.00 

1 bond placed @ $1.25 1.25 

Testing 2.09 

Splicing ^ 8.86 

Supervision, 10%; teaming. 12%; travel and board, 12% = 42%.. 14.395 

Cost of 1,000 feet 84.362 

General expense 10% 8.436 

Total cost of 1,000 feet 92.798 

Cost of one mile 489.98 

Cost of one foot 0.0928 

Example II. — For 200-pair, 22-gage, and 100 and 150-palr, 19-gage 
cable. 

Af aterials * 

1,100 ft. messenger strand 9 $.0229 % 26.190 

10 messenger clamps @ |.0o78 .678 

10 14 in. crossarm oolts O $0.456 456 

20 square washers ® $.0086 172 

8 3-boIt guy clamps @ $.107 856 

850 16 in. marlin clips @ $7.14 per M 6.069 

5% freight, incidentals, etc 1.666 

Labor: 

1,100 ft. messenger placed ® $.005 6.60 

10 messenger clamps placed ® $.07 70 

850 16 in. marlin clips placed @ $.0075 6.375 

1,000 ft. cable hung @ $.015 15.00 

1 bond placed @ $1.25 1.25 

Testing 2.09 

Splicing 3.36 

Supervision, 10%; teaming, 12%; travel and board, 20% = 42%. 14.395 

Cost of 1.000 feet 83.657 

General expense 10% 8.366 



* 



Total cost of 1,000 feet $ 92.023 

Total cost of one mile 485.76 

Total cost of one foot 0.09202 

Example III. — For lOO-pair. 22-gage, and 50 and 25-palr, 19-gage cable 
Material: 

1.100 ft. messenger strand ® S0.0229 $ 26.190 

10 14 in. crossarm bolts <& $0.0456 466 

10 messenger clamps ® $0.0578 578 

20 square washers ® $0.0086 172 

8 3-bolt guy clamps @ $0.107 866 

550 14 in. mailin clips ® $6.67 per M 8.668 

5% freight, incidentals, etc 1.546 

Labor: 

1,100 ft. messenger placed @ $0,005 5.50 

10 messenger clamps placed (^ $0.07 70 

550 14 in. marlin hangers placed ® $0.007') 4.125 

1,000 ft. cable hung ® $0.015 15.00 

1 bond placed e $125 1.26 

Testing 1.39 

Splicing 2.29 

Supervision. 10%; teaming. Vlr',\ tmvel an«l board. 20% = 42%. 12.707 

Cost of 1,000 feet 75.428 

General expense 10% 7.543 

Total cost of 1.000 feet $ 82.971 

Total cost of one mile 438.082 

Total cost of one foot 0.08297 



192 



TELEPHOSE COXSTRUCTION. 



1.100 

10 

10 

20 

8 

550 



1,100 

10 

550 

IpOOO 

1 



Example IV.^Por 25 and 50-pair, 22-gage cable. 

Materials: 

ft. messenger strand @ $0.0229 125.190 

messenger clamps @ $0.0578 578 

14 in. crossarm bolts ® $0.0456 456 

square washers @ $0.0086 172 

S-boIt guy clamps @ $0.107 856 

11 in. marlin clips @ $5.93 per M 3.261 

5% freight, incidentals, etc '. 1.526 

lAbor: 

ft. messenger strand placed @ $0.005^ $ 5.50 

messenger clamps placed @ $0.07 70 

11 in. marlin clips placed @ $0.0075 4.125 

ft. cable hung e $0.015 15.00 

bond placed @ $1.25 1.25 

Testing 1 .06 

Splicing 1.48 

Supervision, 10%: teaming. 12%; travel and board. 20% = 42%. 12.228 

Cost of 1,000 fc-ft 73.382 

General expense 10% 7.338 

Total cost of 1.000 feet $ 80.720 

Total cost of one mile 426.096 

Total cost of one foot 0.08073 



Aerial Cable Construction. — The following figures for 
aerial cable construction give for each siize cable the cost of 
original construction and the junk value of materials, and 
by subtracting the second from the first the total and yearly 
depreciation for the assumed period of life. The selling price 
as junk allowed is $0,056 per pound . 



Example i. — No. 22 B. & S. gage cable. 

First Cost: 

Cost Per Ft. 

Price for Mess. Wire Total First 

Size. F. O. B. and Erec. Per Foot. 

25-pr $0.r84 10.0807 $0.1941 

50-pr 1722 .0S07 .2529 

100-pr 28665 .0830 .3696 

200-pr 5544 .0920 .6464 

300-pr 7413 .0928 .8341 

400-pr 92715 .0928 1.0199 

Junk Value: 

WelKlit 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for 

Size. Lbs. $0,056 Per L.b. Taking Down. 

25-pr |0.9.i $0.0532 $0,025 

50-pr 1.40 .0784 .025 

100-pr. 2.20 .1232 .025 

200-pr 4.15 .2324 .025 

300-pr 5.15 .2884 .025 

400-pr 6.26 .3500 .025 

Depreciation : 

25-pr. 50-pr. 100-pr. 200-pr. 800-pr. 

First cost $0.1941 $0.2529 $0.3696 $0.6464 $0.8341 

Net Junk value 0282 .0534 .0982 .2074 .2684 

Depreciation $0.1659 10.1995 $0.2714 $0.4390 $0.5707 

•Dep. per year 0138 .0166 .0226 .0366 .0476 

•Ba.sed upon a life of 12 years. 



Cost. 

Per Mile. 

$1,025.00 
1,335.00 
1.951.00 
3.413.00 
4.404.00 
5,386.00 



Net Junk 

Value. 

$0.0282 
.0534 
.0982 
.2074 
.2634 
.3250 

400-pr. 
$1.0199 
.325 



$0.6949 
.0579 



APPENDIX A. 



193 



Example II. — ^No. 19 B. & S. gage cable: 
First Cost: 

Cost Per Ft. 

Price for Mess. Wire Total First 

Slae. F. O. B. and Erec. Per Foot. 

2o-pr 10.15645 $0.08297 $0.2394 

60-pr 26775 .08297 .3507 

lOO-pr 5208 .09202 .6128 

150-pr 672 .09202 .764 

200-pr 88685 .0928 .9297 

300-pr 1.1456 ^ .0928 1.2384 

Junk Value: 

Weight 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for 

Sixe. t Lbs. 10.056 Per Lb. Taking Down. 

25-pr 1.80 $0.0728 $0,025 

60-pr 2.10 .1176 .02ri 

100-pr 3.40 .1904 .025 

150-pr 4.80 .2408 .025 

200-pr 5.75 .3220 .025 

300-pr 6.90 .3864 .025 

DepreolRtlon : 

25-pr. 50-pr. 100-pr. 150-pr. 200-pr. 

First cost $0.2394 $0.3507 $0.6128 $0.7640 $0.9297 

Net junk value 0478 .0926 .1654 .2158 .2970 

Depreciation ."$0.1916 '$0.2581 $0.4474 $0.5482 $0.6327 

*Dep. per year 0159 .0215 .0872 .04.'>6 .0527 

•Based upon a life of 12 years. 



Cost. 

Per Mile. 
$1,264.00 
1.852.00 
3.236.00 
4.034.00 
4.909.00 
6,539.00 



Net Junk 
Value. 
$0.0478 
.0926 

.2158 
.2970 
.3614 

300-pr. 

$1.2384 

.3614 



$0.8770 
.073 



Example III.— No. 16 B. & S. gage cable: 
First Cost: 

Cost Per Ft. 
Price for Mess. Wire Total First Cost. 

Size. F. O. B. and Krec. Per Foot. Per Mile. 

25-pr $0.32025 $0.09202 $0.41227 $2,177.00 

50-pr 54705 .0928 .63985 3.378.00 

Junk Value: 

Weight 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for Net Junk 
Size. Lbs. $0,056 Per Lb. Taking Down. Value. 

25-pr 2.1 $0.1176 $0,025 $0.0926 

50-pr 4.1 .2296 .025 .2046 

Depreciation: 

25-pr. 50-pr. 

First cost $0.41227 $0.63985 

Net Junk value 0926 .2046 

Depreciation $0.31967 $0.43525 

•Depreciation per year: 0266 .03625 

•Based upon a life of 12 years. 



Example IV. — 13/16 B. & S. gage composite cable: 
First Cost: 

Cost Per Ft. 
Price for Mess. Wire Total First Cost. 

Slae. F. O. B. and Erec. Per Foot. Per Mile. 

25-pr $0,312 $0.0920 $0,404 $2,133.00 

50-pr 590 .0928 .6828 3,605.00 

Junk Valuo: 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for Net Junk 
Ske. Lbs. $0,056 Per Lb. Taking Down. Value. 

25-pr 3.0 $0,168 $0,025 $0,143 

50-pr 4.8 .2688 .025 .2438 

Depreciation: 

25-pr. 50-pr. 

First cost $0,404 $0.6828 

Net Junk value 143 .2438 

Depredation $0,261 $0.4390 

•Depreciation per year 0218 .0365 

•Based upon a life of 12 years. 



194 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION 



Underground Cable Construction.— ^The figures for under- 
ground cable construction are similar in character and pur- 
pose to those for aerial cable construction. . 

Example l.-^No. 22 B. & S. gage cable: 

First Cost: Price Cost Per Foot Total First Cost. 

Sl«e. F. O. B. for Installation. Per Foot. Per Mile. 

100-pr 10.28665 $0.0339 $0.3206 $1,693.00 

200-pr 5544 .0406 .6950 8,142.00 

300-pr 7413 .04839 .78969 4,170.00 

400-pr 92715 .05699 .98414 5.196.00 

600-pr 1.244 .07103 1.31603 6,943.00 

Junk Value: Weight 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for Net Junk 

Size. Lbs. $0,056 Per Lb. Removal. Value. 

100-pr 2.2 $0.1232 $0.03 $0.0932 

200-pr 4.1& .2324 .03 .2024 

300-pr 5.15 .2884 .03 .2684 

400-pr 6.25 .360 .03 . .8200 

600-pr 8.50 .4760 .03 .4460 

Depreciation: lOO-pr. 200-pr. 300-pr. 400-pn 600-pr. 

First cost $0.32055 $0.5950 $0.78969 $0.98414 $1,315 

Net junk value 09320 .2024 .25840 .32000 .446 

Depreciation $0.22735 $0.3926 $0.53129 $0.66414 $0,869 

•Depreciation per > ear 01136 .0196 .026^6 .0332 .04345 

^Based upon a life of 20 years. 

Example II. — ^Underground Cable, No. 19 B. & S. gage cable: 

First Cost: price Cost Per Foot Total First Cost. 

Size. F. O. B. for Installation. Per Foot. Per Mile. 

100-pr $0.5208 $0.03408 $0.55488 $2,930.00 

150-pr 672 .03642 .70842 3.740.00 

200-pr 83685 .04147 .87832 4.688.00 

300-pr 1.1455 .04986 1.19536 • 6,312.00 

Junk Value: Weight 

Pe* Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for Net Junk 

Size. T^bs. $0,056 Per Lb. Removal. Value. 

100-pr 3.4 $0.1904 $0.03 $0.1604 

150-pr 4.3 .2408 .08 .2108 

200-pr 5.75 .3220 .03 .2920 

300-pr 6.9 .3864 .03 .3564 

Depreciation: 100-pr. 150-pr. 200-pr. 300-pr. 

First cost $0.65484 $0.70842 $0.87832 $1.19536 

Net Junk value 1604 .2108 .2920 .35640 

Depreciation $0.39444 $0.49762. $0.5868 $0.83896 

•Depreciation per year 01972 .02438 .029316 .041946 

•Based upon a life of 20 years. 

Example III. — ^No. 16 B. & S. gage cable: 

First Cost: price Cost Per Foot Total First Cost. 

Size. F. O. B. for Installation. Per Foot. Per Mile. 

25-pr $0.32025 $0,033 $0.35325 $1,865.00 

50-pr... 54706 .03408 .58113 3,068.00 

100-pr 8358 .04147 .87727 4,632.00 

150-pr 1.14765 .04896 1.19661 6,318.00 

Junk Value: Weight 

Per Ft. Junk Value at Deduct for Net Junk 

Size. Lbs. $0,056 Per Lb. Removal. Value. 

25-pr 2.1 $0.1176 $0.03 $0,076 

50-pr 4.1 .2296 .03 .1996 

100-pr 6.1 .3416 .03 .8116 

150-pr 7.6 .4256 .03 .8956 

Depreciation: 25-pr. 50-pr. 100-pr. 150-pr. 

First cost $0.35325 $0.58113 $0.87727 $1.19661 

Net Junk value 0876 .1996 .3116 .8956 

Depreciation $0.26565 $0.38153 $0.56567 $0,801 

•Depreciation per year 01328 .019076 .02828 .04006 

•Based upon a life of 20 years. 



APPEXDIX A. 



195 



Example IV. — Composite 13/16 B. & S. gage cable: 
First Cost: 

Price 
Size. F. O. B. 

25-pr ..10.312' 

50-pr 590 

125-pr 1.162 

Junk Value: 

Weight 
Per Ft. 
Size. Lbs. 

25-pr 3.0 

50-pr 4.8 

125-pr 7.6 

Depreciation : 

25-pr. 

First cost 10.34842 

Net Junk value 138 



Cost Per Foot 

for Installation. 

$0.03642 

.04147 

.04986 



Junk Value at 
$0,056 Per Lb. 
$0,168 

.2688 

.4256 



Total First Cost. 
Per Foot. Per Mile. 



$0.34842 

.63147 

1.21186 



Deduct for 
Removal. 
$0.03 

.03 

.03 



50-pr. 

$0.63147 

.2388 



Depreciation $0.2104 

•Depreciation per year 01052 

•Based upon a life of 20 years. 



$0.39267 
.01963 



$1,840.00 
3.334.00 
6.399.00 



Net Junk 
Value. 
$0,138 
.2388 
.3956 

125-pr. 

$1.21186 

.3956 

$0.81626 
.040&13 



Cable Splicing Underground. — The following eleven ex- 
amples of the cost of underground cable splicing comprise 
both ordinary and high capacity cables and give costs of both 
labor and materials. 

Example I. — 25 pair, 22 gage cable: 
Af aterials : 

1% lbs. wiping metal' e $21 . . . r. $ .315 

H lb. parafflne @ $.0636 032 

50 paper sleeves (g) $.02 per pr 01 

1 l%xl6 in. lead sleeve 22 

10% freight, incidentals, etc /058 



$ .635 
LAbor: 

Splicing $ 1.05 

Testing i .70 

10% supervision, etc 175 



$ 1.925 

Cost of splice $ 2.560 

General expense, 10% 256 



Total cost of splice $ 2.816 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice every 325 ft.$ .00866 
Average cost per pair $ .1126 

Example 11. — 50 pair, 22 gage cable 
Materials : 

2 lbs. wiping melal (g> $.21 $ .42 

% lbs. parafflne ® $.0636 048 

100 paper sleeves @ $.02 per 100 02 

, 1 2x16 in. lead sleeve 352 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 084 



$ .924 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 1.48 

Testing 1.06 

10% Supervision, etc 254 



$ 2.794 

Cost of splice $ 3.718 

Qeneral expense, 10 % 372 



Total cost of splice $ 4.09 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice every 325 ft.$ .01258 
Average cost per pair $ .0818 



196 TEUiPIIOSE COXSTRUCTIOX. 

Example III. — 100 pair, 22-gage cable. 

Materials: 

3 lbs. wiping: metal (&' $.21 $ .63 

1 lb. parafflne (& $.0636 064 

200 paper sleeves (& $.02 per 100 04 

1 2Hxl6 In. load «leeve 432 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 116 

$ 1.2826 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 2.29 

Testing 1.39 

10% supervision, etc 368 

$ 4.048 

Cost of splice 5.331 

General expense. 10% 533 



Total cost of splice $ 5.864 

Average cost per foot of cable: baaed upon splice every 321 ft.$ .018 
Average cost per pair $ ,0586 

Example IV.— 200-palr. 22-srape cable. 

Materials: 

3H lbs. wiping metal ® S.21 $ .735- 

1% lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 09.«>4 

400 paper sleeves & $.02 per 100 08 

1 3x18 in. lead sleeve 465 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 1375 

$ 1.512fl 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 3.36 

Testing 2.09 

1 0% supervision, etc 55 



$ 6.00 

Cost of splice $ 7.513 

General expense, 10% 751 



Total cost of splice $ 8.264 

Average cost per foot of cable: based upon splice every 32'> ft.$ .0254 
Average cost per pair $ .04132 

Example V. — 300-palr, 22-gage cable. 

Materials: 

3% lbs. wiping metal & $.21 $ .735 

1V4 lbs. parafflne ^ $.0636 0954 

600 paper sleeves (R) $.02 per 100 12 

1 3^x22 in. lead sleeve 72 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 167 

$ 1.837 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 4.70 

Testing 2.75 

10 % supervision 75 



S 8.20 
$1 



Cost of splice $10.04 

General expense, 10% 1.00 

Total cost of splice 111.04 

Average cost per foot of cable: based upon splice every 325 ft.| .03396 
Average cost per pair $ .0368 



I 



APPENDIX A. '197 

Example VI. — 400-i>air. 22-gage. 
Materials: 
4 lbs. wiping metal ^ $.21 $ .84 

2 lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 127 

800 paper sleeves @ $.02 per 100 16 

1 4x22 in. lead sleeve / 1.02 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 215 

$ 2.362 
Labor: 

Splicing I 6.05 

Testing 8.47 

10% supervision, etc 952 

$10,472 

Cost of splice $12,834 

General expense, 10% 1.283 

Totol cost of splice $14,117 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice every 32 '> ft.$ .04343 
Average cost per pair $ .03529 

a 
» 

Example VII.— 600-pair, 22 -Rape cable. 
Materials: 

4H lbs. wiping metal @ $.21 $ .945 

2% lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 159 

1,200 paper sleeves & $.02 per 100 24 

1 4Hx22 in. lead sleeve 1.125 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 2469 

I 2.716 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 8.50 

Testing 4.85 

10% supervision, etc 1.84 

- $14.69 

Cost of splice $17,406 

Genera', expense, 10% 1.741 

Total cost of splice $19,147 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice every 32.5 ft.$ .0589 
Average cost per pair , $ .0819 

Example VHI. — 100-pair. IB-gape. High Capacity cable. 
Materials: 

3 lbs. wiping metal (g) $.21 $ .63 

lib. parafflne © $.0636 064 

200 paper sleeves ® $.02 per 100 04 

•1 3x16 in. lead sleeve 485 

10%. freight, incidentals, etc 1210 

I 1.341 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 2.29 

Testing 1.39 

10% supervI.«^ion, etc 368 



Cost of splice. $ 5.389 

General expense, 10% 539 



I 4.048 

$ 5.: 



Total cost of splice $ 5.928 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice every 325 ft.$ .01824 
Average cost per pair $ .05928 



io8 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 



Example IX.— 150-paIr, 19-gage, High Capacity cable. 

Materials: 

3 lbs. wipingr metal @ $.21 | .68 

lib. parafflne ® 1.0636 064 

300 paper sleeves @ |.02 per 100 06 

1 3x18 In. lead sleeve 485 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 124 



I 1.363 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 2.75 

Tefltlng 1.60 

10% supervision, etc 44 



$ 4.79 

Cost of splice $ 6.15 

General expense, 10% 615 



Total cost of splice $ 6.T65 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice of every 

326 ft I .0208 

Average cost per pair $ .0451 

Example X.— 200-palr, lO-ga^e. High Capacity cable. 

Materials: 

3% lbs. wiping metal @ S.21 | .785 

1 % lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 0954 

400 paper sleeves @ $.02 per 100 08 

1 3%xl8 in. lead sleeve 72 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 163 



I 1.793 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 8.86 

Testing 2.09 

10% supervision, etc 55 



I 6.00 

Cost of splice $ 7.793 

General expense, 10% 779 



Total cost of splice $ "8.572 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice of every 

325 ft $ .02637 

Average cost per pair $ .04286 

Example XI. — 300-pair, 19 gage. High Capacity cable. 

Materials: 

4 lbs. wiping metal @ $.21 $ .84 

2 lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 • .127 

1 4x22 in. lead sleeve 1.02 

600 paper sleeves @ $.02 per 100 12 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 211 

I 2.318 
Labor: 

Splicing $ 4.70 

Testing 2.75 

10% supervision, etc 75 

$ 8.20 

Cost of splice $10,618 

General expense, 10% 1.052 

Total cost of splice $11.67 

Average cost per foot of cable; based upon splice of every 

325 ft $ .0356 

Average cost per pair $ .0886 



APPENDIX A. 199 

Terminals. — Four examples of cost of terminals, includinf;^ 
both materials and labor, are given : 

Example I. — Cost of 10-palr Tcriiiinal In Place. 

1 14 A. terminal with 7 ft. D. C. cable $ 3.03 

2 Iba wiplngr metal @ |.21 42 

% lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 0477 

1 2x20 In. lead sleeve 3525 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 885 

Labor: 

114 A. terminal placed $ .50 

1 10-pair tap from 50-pair cable 2.16 

1 10-palr tap tested 36 

10% supervision, etc 302 

Total I 7.557 

Genera! exptaise. 10% 756 

Total cost $ 8.313 

Average cost per pair % .8313 

Example II. — Cost of ll-pair Terminal in Place. 
\ff o t erlals * 

1 14-B Terminal with 7 ft. D. C. cable % 3.12 

2 lbs. wiping metal @ $.21 42 

% lbs. parafflne @ $.0636 0477 

1 2x20 in. lead sleeve 3?2'» 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 394 

Labor: 

1 14-B. Terminal, placed $ .50 

1 11-palr tap from 50-pair cable 2.16 

1 11-palr tap tested 36 

10% supervision, etc 302 

Total $ 7.636 

General expense 10% 766 

Total cost $ 8.422 

Average cost per pair $ .765 

Example III. — Cost of 16-palr Terminal In Plncc. 
Materials: 

1 14-C. Terminal with 7 ft. I>. C. Cable $ 3.788 

2 lbs. wiping metal @) $.21 42 

% lbs. parafflne ® $.0636 0477 

1 2x20 in. lead sleeve 3525 

10% freight, incidentals, »'tc 4608 

Labor: 

1 14-C. Terminal placed $ .60 

1 15-paIr tap from 50-pair cable 2.25 

1 15-pair tested .50 

10% supervision, etc 335 

Total $ 8.754 

General expense, 10% $ .87'> 

Total cost $ 9.C21 

Average cost per pair $ .642 

Example IV. — Cost of 26-pair Terminnl In Place. 
Materials: 

1 14-D. Terminal with 7 ft. D. C. cable $ 5.526 

2 IbK. wiping metal @ $.21 42 

% lbs. parafflne ® $.0636 0477 

1 2*74x20 in. lead sleeve 4325 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 6426 

I^bor: 

1 14-D. Terminal placed $ .76 

1 25-pair tap from 50-pair cable 3.52 

1 25 -pair tap tested 70 

10% supervision, etc 497 

Total $12,536 

General expense, 10% 1.254 

Total cost $13.79 

Average cost per pair $ .552 



200 TliLlirilOSE COXSTRVCTION. 

Cable Boxes. — I'ive examples of cost of cable boxes are 
given including both materials and labor costs. 



Example I. — Cost of 2r»-i)alr Cable B<»x in Plarc. 
Materials: 

1 25-palr cable box. unequipped I 4.175 

2 10-palr 7-A fuse plates, plain @ $2.33 4.66 

1 5-palr 7-A fuse plate, plain @ $1.061 1.061 

50 7-A fuses ® $6.30 per 100 3.15 

2 lbs. insulatingr compound @ $.075 15 

150 ft. No. 20 pothead wire @ $.01198 1.797 

1% Iba wiping: metal (fi $.21 315 

1 2x20 in. lead sleeve 3525 

1 pole seat 2.00 

2 %x4H in. lagr screws @ $.0093 0186 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 1.7S3 

Labor: 

1 25-pair cable box, placed t l.oo 

50 wires soldered on terminals ^ $.01 .^O 

50 wir?s numbered on terminals 'S $.0.1 1.60 

1 2.>-pair pothead made 3.20 

1 25-pair cable tested 70 

1 pole seat placed 75 

10% supervision, etc 765 



Total $27.86 

General expense, 10% $ 2.76 



Total cost $30.62 

Average cost per pair $ 1.224 

For copper back No. 7-A fuse pUite witli liRhtninK arrest- 
ers add $ 4.037 



Example II. — Cost of 50-pair Cable Pnx in I'laee. 
Materials: 

1 50-pair cable bcx unequipped $ 5.04 

4 10-pair 7-A fuse plates, plain, @ $2.33 9.32 

2 5-pair 7-A fuse plates, plain, @ $1.061 2.122 

100 7-A fuses, @ $6.30 per 100 6.30 

3 lbs. insulatingr compound, (S) $.075 225 

300 ft. No. 20 pothead wire, ® $.01198 3.594 

2 lbs. wiping: metal. @ $.21 42 

1 2^x20 in. lead sleeve 4325 

1 pole seat 2.00 

2 */ix4% In. lag screws, (g) $.0093.. 0186 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 2.947 

Labor: 

1 50-palr cable box placed $ 1 .00 

100 wires soldered on terminals (f/> $.01 1.00 

1 00 wires numbered on terminals $i) $.03 3.00 

1 50-pair pothead made 4.8.' 

1 50-pair cable tested 1.06 

1 pole seat placed 75 

10% supervision, etc 1.166 



Total $45,245 

General expanse, 10% 4.524 



Total cost $49,769 

Averag;e cost per pair $ .995 

For copper back No. 7-A fuse j-late with lig^htning: arrest- 
ers, add $ 7.41 



APPENDIX A. 201 

Example III. — Cost of 100-pair Cable Box In Place. 
Materials: 

1 100-pair cable box, unequipped I 5.98 

8 lO-palr 7-A fuse plates, plain, @$2.33 18.64 

4 5-pair 7-A fuse plates, plain, @ 11.061 4.244 

200 7-A fuses, @ |6.30 per 100 12.60 

4 lbs. Insulating compound, @ $.075 30 

600 ft. No. 20 pothead wire, @ $.01198 7.188 

3 lbs. wiping metal, @ $.21 63 

13^x24 in. lead sleeve 72 

1 pole seat 2.00 

2 Hx4% in. lag screws. @ $.0093 .0186 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 5.23 

Labor: 

1 100-pair cable box placed $ 1.50 

200 wires soldered on terminals ^ $.01 2.00 

200 wires numbered on terminals ^ $.03 6.00 

1 100-pair pothead made 8.00 

1 100-pair cable tested 1.39 

1 pole seat placed 75 

10% supervision, etc * 1.964 



Total $79. 154 

General expense. 10% 7.915 



Total cost $87,069 

Average cost per pair $ .8707 

For copper back No. 7-A fuse jilates with lightning arrest- 

ors add $16.50 

Example IV. — Cost of 150-pair Cable Box in Place. 
Materials : 

1 150-ralr cable box unequipped .$ 7.22 

15 lO-palr 7-A fuse plates, plain, @ $2.33 .* . 34.9r> 

300 7-A fuses @ $6.30 per iro 18.90 

5 lbs. insulating compound @ $.075 375 

900 ft. of No. 20 pothead wire @ $.01198 10.782 

4 lbs. wiping metal @ $.21 84 

1 4x21 in. lead sleeve • 1.02 

1 pole seat 2.00 

2 %x4H in. lag screws @ $.0093 0186 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 7.61 

Labor: 

1 150-pair cable box placed $ 1.50 

300 wires soldered on terminals @ $.01 o.OO 

300 wires numbered on terminals @ $.03 9.00 

1 160-pair pothead made 9.00 

1 150-pair cable tested 1.60 

1 pole seat pla ced 75 

10% supervision, etc 2.485 



Total $111.05 

General expense, 10% 11.10 



Total cost - $122.15 

Average cost per pair $ .814 

For copper back No. 7-A fuse plated with lightning ar- 
resters, add $ 23.51 



202 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Example V.— Cost of 200-pair Cable Box In Place. 
Materials: 

1 200-i>air cable box unequipped I 10 665 

20 10-palr 7- A fuse plates, plain, @|2.33 ^ 46 60 

400 7-A fuses & $6.30 per 100 25.20 

6 lbs. Insulating compound & 1.075 45 

1.200 ft. No. 20 pothead wire & 1.01198 uiSTS 

1 4x24 In. lead sleeve 1.02 

5 lbs. wiping metal @ |.21 1:05 



1 pole seat 2.00 

2 Hx4% in. lag screws @ $.0093 0186 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 10.138 

Labor: 

1 200-pair cable box placed $ 1.75 

1 pole seat placed 75 ' 

400 wires soldered to terminals & $.01 4.00 

400 wires numbered to termirals @ $.03 12.00 

1 200-pair pothead made 10.25 

1 200-pair cable tested 2.09 

10% supervision, etc 3.084 

Total $145,441 

General expense, 10% 14.54 

■ 

Total cost $159.98 

Average cost per pair $ .7999 

For copper back, No. 7-A fuse plates with lightning ar- 

restors* add $ 31.35 

Pole Line Construction. 

The organization of the gang and the wages paid per pole 
line construction were as follows: 

Item. Per 9-hr. day. 

1 foreman, at $3 $ 3.00 

3 linemen, at $2.75 8.25 

2 groundmen, at $1.75 3.50 

I team, at $3.50 3.50 

Total .$18.25 

In the costs following the items of "hauling" and ""teaming" 
will be noted. The hauling of poles covers the expense of 
removing them from freight station to pole yard, and the item 
of teaming covers the expense of transporting them from the 
yard to the work. The item of yyi per cent, for travel, board 
and incidentals covers the expense of the entire force while 
employed in travel from one exchange to another. Men 
were not allowed expenses when located in town. 

The divisions of pole line construction are pole erection and 
wire stringing. Pole erection is subdivided into Exchange 
Poles, Toll Line Poles, Farmer Line Poles, Guy Poles, 
Anchors, Cross Arms, etc. 

Exchange Poles, Class A. — Class A pole line is designed 
to carry an ultimate load of 6 cables and 60 toll and trunk 
wires on cross arms. Spans in straight sections are approxi- 
mately 100 ft. in length. 



s 



APPENDIX A. 203 

Example I. — Cost of One Mile 4d-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: Per Pole. Per Mile. 

52 46-ft 7V6 in. top poles, including: freight % 7.68 $394.16 

1,040 iron steps @ $.02367 473 24.62 

260 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.36 

Carbollneum Avenarius 06 3.12 

Spikes, fi-20, 5-60 085 1.82 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft., @) $.17 68 35.36 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire ® $.0086 , 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.226 .90 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 887 47.08 

Labor: 

Unloading $ .40 $20.80 

Shaving 65 33.80 

Cutting one gain 10 5.20 

Cutting roof 10 5.20 

Boring holes or ground 02 1.04 

Driving iron steps @ $.0125...'. 25 13.00 

Placing wood steps (^ $.015 075 3.90 

Placing carbolir.eum 27 14.04 

Digging holes 60 31.20 

Raising poles 1.10 57.20 

Tamping 32 16.64 

Banking poles 05 2.60 

Hauling poles 40 20.80 

Painting poles @ $.0125 per foot 50 26.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ® $3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. @ J-l.SO ... 6.00 

4 guys placed ® $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% ) 

Teaming, 15% \ =30% 1.451 82.03 

Travel and board, 7V4% } 

Total $16,046 $873.36 

General expense, 10% 1.605 87.84 

Grand total $17,651 $960.70 

Exannple II. — Cost of One Mile. 40- ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: Per Pole. Per Mile. 

52 40- ft. 7^ In. top poles, including freight % 6.58 $342.16 

832 iron steps @ $.02367 379 19.69 

260 wood steps @ $.009081 046 2.36 

Carbollneum Avenarius 060 3.12 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.82 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft.. @) $.17 596 80.94 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 , 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 769 40.95 

Tjftbor ' 

Unloading ..'. : % .35 18.20 

Shaving 55 28.60 

Cutting one gain 10 5.20 

Cutting roof 10 5.20 

Boring holes on ground 0?. 1.04 

Driving iron steps @ $.0125 20 10.40 

Placing wood steps ® $.015 075 3.90 

Placing carbollneum 27 14.04 

Digging holes 60 31.20 

Raising poles 63 32.76 

Tamping 22 11.44 

Banking poles 05 2.60 

Hauling poles 30 15.60 

Painting poles @> $.0125 per ft 438 22.75 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ® $3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. @ $1.50 6.00 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7%% ) 

Teaming, 15% [• =30% 1.171 67.48 

Travel, board and Incidentals, 7Vi% ) 



Total $ 13.54 $742.84 

General expense, 10% 1.35 74.28 

Grand total $ 14.89 $817.12 



204 TELEFHOXE COXSTRUCTIOX. 



Example III. — Cost of One Mile, 35-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: Per Pole. Per Mile. 

52 35 ft. 7Vi in. top poles, including freight $ 5.07 $2d3.64 

676 Iron steps ^ $.02367 308 16.00 

260 wood steps ^ $.009081 045 2.36 

Carbollneum Avenarlus 060 3.12 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.82 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft,. G $.17 51 26.52 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps ® $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @> $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 603 32.29 

l*nloading ...* $ .30 $ 15.60 

Shaving 50 26.00 

Cutting one gain 10 5.20 

Cutting roof 10 .^20 

Boring holes on ground 02 1.04 

Diivlng iron steps @ $.0i2:> 163 8.45 

Placing wood steps @ $.015. 075 _3.90 

Placing carbollneum 27 1 4.04 

Digging holes 60 31.20 

Raising poles 47 24.44 

Tamping 18 9.36 

Banking poles 05 2.60 

Hauling poles 25 13.00 

Painting iK)les «i $.012.% per ft 375 19.50 

4 anchor holes dug. earth, (& fS.OO 12. 0« 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, it $1.50 6.00 

4 guys placed ^ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7%% > 

Teaming. 15% ---30'^ 1.04 60.46 

Travel, board and incidentals. 7%% » 

Total $ 11.12 $617.13 

General expense. 10% 1 Jll_ 61.71 

Grand total $ 12.23 $678.84 

Example iV.— Cost of One Mile. 30-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: 

Per Pole. PerMilo. 

r.2 30-ft. 7H in. tor poles, including freiijht $ 3.65 $189.80 

468 iron steps @ $.02367 213 11.08 

260 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.36 

Carbollneum Avenarlus 060 3.12 

Spikes. 5-20, 5-60 035 1.82 

Paint. 1 qt. for 10 ft. ^ $.17 425 22.10 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire <& $.0086 1.72 

8 PTuy clamps ^ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs <^ $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods <ff> $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 443 23.97 

Labor: 

Unloading 25 13.00 

Shaving 35 18.20 

Cutting one gain 10 5.20 

Cutting roof '. 10 5.20 

Boring holes on ground 02 1.04 

Dilving Iron steps @ $.0121 113 5.85 

Placing wood steps @ $.0ir> 075 3.90 

Placing carbollneum 27 14.04 

Digging holes 60 31.20 

Raising poles 35 18.20 

Tamping 15 7.80 

Banking poles 05 2.60 

Hauling poles 20 10.40 

Painting poles @ $.0125 per ft 313 16.25 

4 anchor holes dug. earth (^ $3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth (8i $1..'»0 .... 6.0o 

4 guys placed <2I $1.00 ^. 4.00 

Supervision. 7Vfe% / 

Teaming. 15% [ = Z\ri .882 52.46 

Travel, board and incidentals, 7^% ^ 

Total $ S.694 $490.98 

General expense, 10% .869 49.10 

Grand total $ 9.563 $540.08 



APPENDIX A. 205 

Exchange Poles, Class B. — Class P> pole line is designed 
to carry an ultimate load of 4 cables and 40 bare toll and 
trunk wires on cross arms, or an ultimate of 6 cables, if no 
bare wire is employed. Spans in straight sections are ap- 
proximately no ft. in lenj^th. Four examples of cost are giv- 
en, one each for 25-ft., 30-ft., 35-ft. and 40-ft. poles. It will be 
noted that the costs are for chestnut poles, painted and "pre- 
served" by Carbolineum Avenarius, and include all materials 
for poles in place ready for wire stringing. Traveling ex- 
penses, board of men and incidental expenses are also in- 
cluded. 

Example I.— Cost of One Mile, 40-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Per Pole. Per Mil-*. 
Materials: 

48 40-ft. 7 in. top poles, including freight $ 6.58 $315.84 

768 iron steps @ $.02367 379 18.18 

240 wood Kleps @ $.009081 045 2.16 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.74 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.63 

Paint. 1 qt. for 10 feet ^ $.17 595 28.56 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

4 anchor logs ^ $1.50 6.00 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 769 37.86 

Unloading 35 16.80 

Shaving 55 26.40 

Cutting one gain 10 4.80 

Cutting roofs 10 4.80 

Boring holes on ground 02 .96 

Driving iron steps @ $.0125 20 9.60 

Placing wood steps @ $.015 .075 3.60 

Placing carbolineum 27 12.96 

Digging holes 60 28.80 

falsing poles 63 30.24 

Tamping 22 10.56 

Banking poles 05 2.40 

Hauling poles 30 14.40 

Painting poles ^ $.0125 per ft 438 21.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth @ ;3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, dp $1.50 6.00 

4 guys placed & $1.00 4.00 

Super^'lsion, 7H% \ 

Teaming, 15% V = 30% 1.171 62.80 

Travel, board and Incidentals. 7%% ' 



Total $ 13.54 $688.53 

General expense. 10% 1.35 68.85 

Grand total $ 14.89 $7.'>7.3J$ 



206 rilLEPHONE COXSTRUCTION. 

Example II.— Cost of One Mile. Sri-ft. riiostniit Po\v lAne. 

Materials: Por Pole. Per Mile. 

48 35-ft. 7 In. top poles. Incluflliiff freight $ ."k07 $243.36 

624 iron stepB @ $.02367 308 14.77 

240 wood steps ^. $.009081 04.^ 2.16 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.74 

Spikes. 5-20, 6-60 035 1.68 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10-ft. @ $.17 51 24.48 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

4 gruy clamps & $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logrs «p $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods & $.225 .90 

10% frelsrht. incidentals, etc 603 29.86 

Unloading . . ." 80 14.40 

Shaving 50 24.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.80 

Cutting roof 10 4.80 

Boring holes on ground 02 .96 

Driving iron steps ® $.0125 163 7.80 

Placing wood steps @ $.015 075 3.60 

Placing carbolineum 27 12.96 

Digging holes 60 28.80 

Raising poles 47 22.56 

Tamping 18 8.64 

Banking 05 2.40 

Hauling poles 25 12.00 

Painting poles e $.0125 per foot 375 18.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth @ $3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth @ $1.50 6.00 

4 guys placed <8) $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% i 

Teaming. 15% [ = 30% 1.04 66.32 

Travel, board and Incidentals. 7%% ) 

Total $ 11.12 $572.48 

General expense. 10% 1.11 57.25 

Grand total $ 12.23 $629.78 

Example III.— Cost of One Mile, 30-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: Per Pole. Per Mile. 

48 30-ft. ? in. poles, including freight $ 3.65 $176.20 

432 iron steps @ $.02867 213 10.22 

240 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.16 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.74 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.68 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft. @ $.17 426 20.40 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 !juy clamps @ f.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ fl.50 6.00 

4 anchor rods ® $.225 .90 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 443 22.18 

Ljabor: 

Unloading . . .* 25 12.00 

Shaving 35 16.80 

Cutting one gain 10 4.80 

Cutting roof 10 4.80 

Boring holes on ground 02 .96 

Driving iron steps ^> $.012.^ 113 6.40 

Placing wood steps # $.015 075 3.60 

Placing carbolineum 27 12.96 

Digging holes 60 28.80 

Raising poles 35 16.80 

Tamping 15 7.20 

Banking poles 05 2.40 

Hauling poles 20 9.60 

Painting poles @ $.0125 313 15.00 

4 anchor holes dug. earth (^ $3.00 12.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth @ $1.50 6.00 

4 guys placed © $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7%% > 

Teaming. 15% [■ = 30% .882 48.94 

Travel, board and Incidentals. 1\^% ) 

Total .$ 8.691 $456.03 

General expense. 10% .869 45.60 

Grand total $ o.-'iCO $601.68 



APPENDIX A. 207 

Example IV.— Cost of One Mllo. 2r)-ft. Chestnut tole Lino. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

48 25-ft. 7 in. top poles. Including frelRlU I 2.53 $121.44 

288 Iron steps @ I.C2367 142 6.82 

240 wood steps @ $.009081 •. 045 2.16 

Carbolineum Avenarlus 057 2.74 

Spikes. 5-20. 5-60 035 1.68 

Paint. 1 qt. for 10 ft. @ $.17 34 16.32 

200 ft. 6-M. guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps (6^ $.009081 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 315 16.00 

Labor: 

Unloading 20 9.60 

Shaving 30 14.40 

Cutting one gain 10 4.80 

Cutting roof 10 4.80 

Boring holes on ground 02 .96 

Driving iron pole steps (g) $.0125 075 3.60 

Placing wood steps @ $.015 075 8.60 

Placing carbolineum 27 12.96 

Digging holes 60 28.80 

Raising poles 28 13.44 

Tamping 15 7.20 

Banking poles 05 2.40 

Hauling poles 20 9.60 

Painting poles ® $.0125 per ft 25 12.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth @ $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed ® $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% > 

Teaming. 15% I = 30% .801 42.65 

Travel, board and Incidentals, 7%% ' 



Total $ 6.935 $358.12 

General expense, 10% 1 .694 35.81 

Grand total $ 7.639 $393.93 

Exchange Poles, Class C. — Class C pole line is designed to 
carry an ultimate load of 2 cables, with no bare wires on the 
poles ; or an ultimate of 20 bare wires on cross arms, and no 
cables on the poles; or an ultimate of 10 pairs of outside 
distributing wire, with no bare wires or cables. Spans in 
straight sections are approximately 120 ft. in length. Five 
examples of cost are given, one each for 25-ft., 30-ft., 35-ft., 40- 
ft., and 45-ft. poles, painted, "preserved" and erected with all 
equipment ready for stringing wire. The costs also include 
all incidental items such as traveling expenses, board of work- 
men, freight and haulage expenses, etc. 



2o8 TELEFHOXE COXSTRUCTIOS. 

Example I. — Cost of One Mile. 45-ft. Chestmil Pole lAiw. 
Material: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

44 45-ft. 6 in. top poles. inoludinK freight % 7.08 $311.52 

SNO Iron steps U $.02367 473 20.83 

220 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.00 

Carbolineum Avenaiius 06 2 64 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 l!54 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft. (&' $.17 68 29.92 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps ® $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @> $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 837 37.48 

Labor: 

Unloading 40 17.60 

Shaving 65 28.60 

Cutting one gain 10 4.40 

Cutting roof 10 4.40 

Boring holes on ground 02 .88 

Driving iron steps (f? $.0125 25 11.00 

Placing wood steps @ $.015 075 3.80 

Placing carbolineum 27 1 1.88 

Digging holes. 60 26.40 

Raising poles 1,10 48.40 

Tamping 32 14.08 

Banking poles .05 2.20 

Hauling polos 40 17.60 

Painting poles @ $.0125 per ft 50 22.00 

4 anchor holes dug. earth. (^ $1.50.: 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 ". 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% ) 

Teaming. 15% v = 30% 1.451 68.02 

Travel, board and incidentals. 7%% S 

Total $ 15.50 $707.08 

General expense, 10% 1.65 70.71 

Grand total $ 17.05 $777.79 

Example II.— Co.«*t of One Mile. 40-ft. Chestnui Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

44 40-ft. 6 in. poles, including freight $ 5.93 $260.92 

704 iron steps @ $.02367 379 16.16 

220 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.00 

Carbolineum Avenarius .057 2.51 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.64 

Paint. 1 qt. for 10-ft. @ $.17 595 26.18 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps (S) $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs (ti $.75 S.OO 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 704 31.57 

Labor: 

Unloading 35 15.40 

Shaving 55 24.20 

Cutting roof 10 4.40 

Cutting one gain 10 4.40 

Boring holes on ground 02 .88 

Driving iron steps @ $.0125 20 8.80 

Placing wood steps ^ $.015 075 3.30 

Placing carbolineum 27 11.88 

Digging holes 60 26.40 

Raising poles 63 27.72 

Tamping 22 9.68 

Banking poles 05 2.20 

Hauling poles 30 13.20 

Painting poles ® $.0125 per ft 438 19.26 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, tfi; $1..^0 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, Ca $1 .00 4.00 

4 guys placed ^ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7 %% i 

Teaming, 15% \ - 30% 1.17 55.71 

Travel, board and Incidentals, 1'^% ) . 

Total $ 12.82 $588.69 

General expense, 10% _ ^ -^l 58.87 

Grand total '.$ HJO $647.66 



APPENDIX A. 2og 

Example III.— Cost of One Mile. 35-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

44 35 ft. 6 in. top poles, including freight .$ 4.32 $190.08 

572 iron steps ® $.02387 308 13.64 

220 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.00 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.51 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.54 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft. ^ $.17 51 22.44 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire # $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs ^ $.75 8.00 

4 anchor rods # $.225 .90 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 528 23.92 

I^ahor * 

Unloading ...'. 30 13.20 

Shaving 50 22.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.40 

Cutting roof 10 4.40 

Boring holes on ground 02 .88 

Driving iron steps (g) $.0125 163 . 7.15 

Placing wood steps @ $.015 075 3.30 

Placing carbolineum 27 11.88 

Digging holes 60 26.40 

Raising poles 47 20.68 

Tamping .18 7.92 

Banking poles 05 2.20 

Hauling poles 25 11.00 

Painting poles @ $.0125 per ft 375 16.50 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, (^ $1 ..50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% i 

Teaming. 15% } = 30% 1.036 49.77 

Travel, board and incidentals. 7%% > 

Total .$ 10.29 $478.92 

General expense, 10% 1.03 47.89 

Grand total '.$ 11.32 $526.81 

Example IV.— Cost of One Mile. .lO-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials : Per Pole. Per M lie. 

44 30-ft. 6 in. top poles, including freight $ 3.15 $138.60 

396 iron steps @ $.02367 213 9.37 

220 wood steps @ $.009081 045 2.00 

Carbolineum Avenarius or»7 2 51 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.54 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 ft. @ $.17 .425 18.70 

200 ft. 6-M. guy wire & $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps ® $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 3.OO 

4 anchor rods (Q> $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 393 17.91 

Labor: 

Unloading '. 25 11.00 

Shaving 35 15.40 

Cutting one gain 10 4.40 

Cutting roof 10 4.40 

Boring holes on grround 02 .88 

Driving Iron steps @ $.0125 113 4.95 

Placing wood steps if $.015 075 3.3.) 

Placing carbolineum 27 11.88 

Digging holes 60 26.40 

Raising poles 3."j 15.40 

Tamping 15 6.60 

Banking poles 05 2.20 

Painting poles @ $.0125 per ft 313 13.75 

Hauling poles 20 8.80 

4 anchor holes duj?. earth. <fx $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, eiirtli. <(i $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed <& $1.00 4. 00 

Supervision. l\^9t f 

Teaming, 15% - - 30% .SS2 43.01 

Travek board and incidentals, 7*,^% > 

Total ".$" STm" $383:39 

General expense, 10% .81 38.34 

Grand total $ 8.95 $421.73 



2IO TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Example V.-— Cost of One Mile, 25 ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. PerMlle. 

44 25- ft. 6 in. top poles, including freight | 2.03 $89.31 

264 iron steps ® $.02367 142 6.S6 

220 wood steps @ $.00908i 045 2.00 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.51 

Spikes, 5-20, 5-60 035 1.54 

Paint, 1 qt. for 10 feet & $.17 34 14.96 

200 feet 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs & $.75 S.00 

4 anchor rods @i S.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 266 12.80 

Labor: 

* Unloading 20 8.80 

Shaving 80 13.20 

Cutting one gain 10 4.40 

Cutting roof 10 4.40 

Boring holes on ground 02 .88 

Driving iron steps @ $.0)25 075 3.30 

Placing wood steps & $.015 075 3.30 

Placing carbolineum 27 11.88 

Digging holes 60 26.40 

Raising poles 28 12.32 

Banking poles 05 2.20 

Tamping 16 6.60 

Hauling poles 20 8.80 

Painting poles # $.0125 per ft 26 11.00 

4 anchor noles dug, earth, & $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed & $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% i 

Teaming. 15% >• = 30% .801 39.44 

Travel, board and incidentals. 7%% ) _—— . 

Total $ 6.385 $306.19 

General expense 10% .639 30.62 

Grand total $ 7.024 $336.81 



Toll Line Poles, Class D. — Class D pole line is designed to 
carry 30 or more bare wires on cross arms. Spans on straight 
sections are approximately 130 ft. in length. 

Example I.— Cost of One Mile. 40 ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. PerMlle. 

40 40-ft. 7-in. top poles including freight $ 6.58 $268.20 

Carbolineum Avenarius 057 2.28 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 664 27.19 

Labor: 

Unloading 86 14.00 

Shaving 56 22.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof 10 4.00 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbolineum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising poles 63 25.20 

Tamping 22 8.80 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles 30 12.00 

4 anchor holes dug. earth. U V.^0 .... 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. <?i $1.00 4.OO 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7V6% f 

Teaming, 15% ; - 30% .957 42.48 

Travel, board and incidentals. TVj^yj > 

Total $ 11.448 $483.14 

General expense, 10% 1.145 48.31 

Omnd total $ 12..59 $581.45 



APPENDIX A. 2il 

Example II.— Cost of One Mile, 35-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 35-ft. 7-in. top poles, including freight $ 5.07 $202.80 

Carbollneum Avenarius 057 2.28 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps & $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs w $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 '. .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 513 21.15 

Labor: 

Unloading 30 12.00 

Shaving 60 20.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof 10 • 4.00 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbollneum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising poles 47 18.80 

Tamping 18 7.2u 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles . .25 10.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ® $1.50 ' 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7H% ) 

Teaming. 15% >• = 30% .852 38.28 

Travel, board and incidentals, 7%% ^ 

Total $ 9.332 $398.50 

General expense 933 39.85 

Grand total $ 10.27 $438.35 

Example III. — Cost of One Mile. 30-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 .30-ft. 7-fn. top poles, including freight $ 3.65 $146.00 

Carbollneum Avenarius 057 2.28 

200 ft. 6-M guy wlte (9> $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps (0) $.0958 .' .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 371 15.47 

Labor: 

Unloading 25 10.00 

Shaving 35 14.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof 10 4.00 

Boring holes on ground :02 .80 

Placing carbollneum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising poles 35 14. Oo 

Tamping 15 6.00 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles 20 8.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ® $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, (g> $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed (S> $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7^% ) 

Teaming, 15% V - 30% .732 33.43 

Travel, board and Incidentals, 7%% \ 



Total $ 7.25 $315.22 

General expense, 10% 73 31.52 



Grand total $ 7. 98 $346.74 

Toll Line Poles, Class E. — Class E pole line is designed to 
carry an ultimate load of 20 bare wires on cross arms. Spans 
on straight sections are approximately 130 ft. in length. 



212 TELIIPHOSE COXSTRUCTION. 

Example I.— Cost of One AUle. 45-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 45-ft. 6-in. top poles, includingr freight $ 7. US ^283.20 

Carbolineum Avenarlus 06 2.40 

200 ft. 6-M g:uy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 gruy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods @ $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 714 29.20 

Labor: 

Unloading 40 16.00 

Shaving 65 26.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4 00 

Cutting roof 10 4.0n 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbolineum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising poles 1.10 44.00 

Tamping 32 12.80 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles 40 16.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, (ft) $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed (S) $1.00 4.00 

Supervision. 7%% / 

Teaming. 15% \ = 30% 1.203 62.32 

Travel, board and incidentals, 7%% ) 



Total $ 13.067 $547.91 

General expense, 10% 1.307 54.79 



Grand total $ 14.37 $602.70 

Example II.— Cost of One Mile, 40-ft Chesinut Pole Line. 

Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 40-ft. 6-in. top poles. Including freight $ 5.93 $237.20 

Carbolineum Avenarlus 0.'»7 2.28 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps # $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 .TOO 

4 anchor rods (ft' $.225 .90 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 599 24.59 

Labor: 

irnloHding 35 1 4.00 

Shaving 55 22.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof 10 4.00 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbolineum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising polec 63 25.20 

Tamping 22 8.80 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling Doles 3« 12.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ft $l.riU 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped. <»arth..'?i $1.0> 4.0C 

4 guys placed <(t $1.00 4. no 

Supervision. 7»/^% / 

Teaming. 15% ■ — :?(r; .!*.-i7 42.4S 

Travel, hotird and Incidt ntals. ly^^r ^ 

Tolal $ 10.733 $454.54 

General cxi)cnse, Uk; 1.073 45.45 

Grand tctal $ ll.Sl $499.99 



APPENDIX A. 



213 



Example III. — Cost 
Materials: 



of One Mile, 35-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 



40 35- ft. 6-in, top poles. Including freight. 

CarboUneum Avenarlus 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire @ $.0086 

8 guy clamps ® $.0958 

4 anchor logs @ $.75 

4 anchor rods ^ $.225... 

10% freight, incidentals, etc , 

Labor: 

Unloading 

Shaving 

Cutting one gain ".. 

Cutting roof , 

Boring holes on ground , 

Placing carbolineum 

Digging holes 

Raising poles 

Tamping 

Banking poles 

Hauling poles , 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, djc $1 
4 anchor holes tamped, earth, (g 
4 guys placed (^ $1.00 

Supervision, 7%% 

Teaming. 15 % , 

Travel, board and Incidentals, 



Per Pole. 
.$ 4.32 
,0."»7 



50 

> $1.00. 



7'.^%. 



1 = 



30% 



438 

30 
50 
10 
10 
02 
27 
60 
47 
18 
05 
25 



.852 



Per Mile. 

$172.80 
2.28 
1.72 

wm0m 

.< I 

3.00 

.90 

18.15 

12.00 

20.00 

4.00 

4.0it 

.80 

10.80 

24.00 

18.80 

7.20 

2.00 

10.00 

6.00 

4.00 

4.00 

38.28 



Cost $ 8.507 $366.50 

General expense. 10% 851 36.55 



Total cost $ 9.36 $402.06 



Example IV.— C\»?t i)f One Mile, 30- ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 

Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 30-ft. 6-in. top poles. Including freight $ 3.15 $126.00 

Carbolineum Avenarlus 057 2.28 

200 ft. 6-M guy wire ® $.0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps @ $.0958 .77 

4 anchor logs (ff $.75 3.00 

4 anchor rods (a $.225 ". .90 

10% freight. Incidentals, etc 321 13.47 

Labor: 

Unloading 25 10.00 

Shaving 35 14.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof , .10 4.00 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbolineum 27 10.80 

Digging holes ' 60 24.00 

Raising poles 35 14.00 

Tamping 1« *-00 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles 20 8.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth, ^i $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth. <Q $1.0'» 4.00 

4 guys placed ® $1.00 *-^<* 

Super\'ision. 7»4% / ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

Teaming 15% ^\ =80% .732 33.48 

Travel, board and incidentals, TVjSJ ^ 

Cost * 6 '." *293.22 

Genei-al expense. !(►% ^'« 29.32 

Total cost $ "< -3^ $322.54 



214 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



Example V.— Cost of One Mile. 2o-ft. Chestnut Pole Line. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

40 26- ft. 6-ln. top poles, including: freight $ 2.03 $81.20 

Carbolineum Av enarius 057 2.2S 

200ft. 6-M guy wire e $0086 1.72 

8 guy clamps ® $.0958 .77 

4 anchor rods ® $.225 .90 

4 anchor logs ® $.76 3.00 

10% freight, Incidentals, etc 209 8.99 

Labor: 

Unloading 20 8.00 

Shaving 30 12.00 

Cutting one gain 10 4.00 

Cutting roof 10 4.00 

Boring holes on ground 02 .80 

Placing carbolineum 27 10.80 

Digging holes 60 24.00 

Raising poles 28 11.20 

Tamping 15 6.00 

Banking poles 05 2.00 

Hauling poles 20 8.00 

4 anchor holes dug, earth. & $1.50 6.00 

4 anchor holes tamped, earth, @ $1.00 4.00 

4 guys placed @) $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% ) 

Teaming. 15% \ = 30% .681 31.14 

Travel, board and incidentals, 7V^% > 



Total $ 5.247 $235.10 

General expense, 10% 52") 23.51 

Grand total $ 5.77 $258.61 



Farmer Line Poles. — This line is designed to carry, either 4 

bare wires on brackets, or an ultimate of 10 wires on a 
cross arm. Spans on straight sections are approximately i6o 
ft. in length. # 

POLES: 

Example I. — Cost of One Mile Farmer's Lino with Four Brackets. 

Materials: * 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

33 25 -ft. 5-ln. top poles. Including freight $ 1.20 $39.60 

4 oak brackets @ $.0163 042 2.40 

Spikes, 4-40. 4-60 028 .92 

200 ft. No. 6 .steel wire for guys .56 

4 5-ft. IX guy stubs @) $.60 2.40 

8 i4x4-ln. lag screws @ $.0078 * .06 

10% freight, incidentals, etc.. 127 4.69 

LAbor: 

Digging holes, 4 ft 60 19.80 

Raising poles 28 9.24 

Tamping 15 4.96 

Banking 05 1.65 

Hauling and unloading 20 6.60 

4 brackets placed @ $.01 04 1.32 

4 guy holes dug, tarlh. & $.40 (4 ft) 1.60 

4 guy hole.s tamped, earth, 4-ft @ $.15 .60 

4 guys placed ^ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7H% ) 

Teaming. 15% }■ - .^0% .396 14.94 

• Travel, board and incidentals. 7%% ) 

Total $ 3.113 $116.23 

General expense. 10% 311 11.62 

GTand total $ 3.42 $126.75 



APPENDIX A. 215 

Example II.— Cost of One Mile Farmer's Line With One Cross 
Arm. 
Materials: 

Per Pole. Per Mile. 

33 25-ft. 6-in. top poles, including freisrht | 1.20 $ 39.60 

200 ft No. 6 guy wire .56 

4 ft. 1-x guy stubs @ $.60 2.40 

8 Hx4-ln. lag screws @ |.0078 .06 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 12 4.26 

Labor: 

Digging holes, earth, 4-ft 60 19.80 

Raising poles 28 9.24 

Tamping 15 4.95 

Banking , 05 1.65 

Hauling and unloading 20 6.60 

4 guy holes dug. earth. 4-ft. (g> $.40 1.60 

4 guy holes tamped, earth. 4-ft. @ $.15 .60 

4 guys placed @ $1.00 4.00 

Supervision, 7%% ) 

Teaming. 16% > = 30% .384 14.58 

Travel, board and incidentals, 7%% > 

Cost of 1 crossarm 1.32 43.56 

Total $ 4.30 $163.41 

General expense, 10% 43 15.84 

Grand total $ 4.73 $168.75 

Guy Poles. — The data include the cost of structural iron, 
cast iron pipe and wooden guy poles. 

Example I.— 16-Ft. Structural Iron Pole In Plac**. 
Af aterials * 

1 16-ft. guy pole (891 lbs., m $.029) «...$ -26.839 

1 10-ft. anchor log 1.50 

1 set fittings 5.50 

3 cu. yds. concrete for base In place 18.00 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 6.084 

Labor: $ 65.923 

Placing fittings $ 1.00 

Digging 10-ft. hok, earth 3.00 

Raising pole 2.00 

Tamping 1.50 

Supervision. 7%% \ 

Teaming. 15% \ = 30%.... 2.26 

Travel and board. 7%% J 



Cost of pole $ 66.67 

Oenerel expense. 10% 6.57 

Grand total .$ 72.24 

Example II. — 18-Ft. Structural Iron Pole In Place. 
Itf ate rials * 

1 18-ft. guy pole (1.003 lbs., # $.029) $ 29.087 

1 10-ft. anchor log 1.50 

1 set fittings ' 5.50 

3 cu. yds. concrete for base in place (@i $6.00 18.00 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 5.409 

Labor: $ 59.495 

Placing fittings $ 1.00 

Digging 10-ft. hole, earth 3.00 

Raising pole 2.00 

Tamping 1.50 

Supervision, 7^% 1 

Teaming. 15% \ = 30% 2.25 

Travel and board. 7H% J 



$ 9.75 

Cost of polt $ 69.246 

General expense, 10% j. 6.925 

Grand total * 76.171 






2i6 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Example III. — 20-Ft. Structural Iron Pole in Place. 
Materials: 

1 20-ft. £ruy pole (1.114 lbs.. ® $.029) $32,306 

1 10-ft anchor • log 1.50 

1 set flttlngs 5.50 

3 cu. yds. concrete for base in place ® $6.00 18.00 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 5.73 



$ 63.03 
Labor: 

Placing fittings $ 1.00 

Digging 10-ft. hole, earth 3.00 

Raising pole 2.00 

Tamping 1.50 

Supervision, 7%% 1 

Teaming. 15% } = 30% 2.25 

Travel and board. 7^% J 



$ 9.75 



Cost of pole 3 72.786 

General expense, 10% 7.27D 



Grand total % 80.065 

Example IV.— 20-Ft. Iron Pipe Guy Poles in Place. 

1 20-ft. pole @ $.75 per ft $ 15.00 

U cu. yd. concrete for base in place # $6.00 1.50 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 1.65 



$ 18.15 
Labor: 

Hole dug, earth $ 1.00 

Pole raised 2.00 

Pole tamped 50 

Pole banked 05 

Supervision. 7^% ] 

Teaming, 15% \ — 30% 1.07 

Travel and board, 7%% J 



$ 4.62 



Cost of jx»le $ 22.77 

General expense, 10% 2.28 

Grand total $ 25.05 

Example V.— Cost of 18-Ft. Iron Pipe Guy Pole in Place.. $ 23.23 

Example VI.— Cost of 16-Ft. Iron Pipe Guy Pole In Place. $ 21.42 

Example VII.— Cost of 25-Ft. Wood Guy Pole In Place. 
Materials: 

1 25-ft. Chestnut 7-ln. top pole, including freight $ 2.53 

(^arboUneum Avenarlus 067 

10% freight. Incidentals, «»to 258 

$ 2.84G 
Labor: 

Unloading $ .20 

Shaving 30 

Placing carbolineuni 27 

Digging hole ^ 60 

Raising pole 28 

Tamping 15 

Banking 05 

Supervision. 7V6% 1 

Teaming. 15% \ - -O^v 555 

Travel and b«>»ird. 7 ^^Tu ) 



$ 2.41 



Cti.st of poll* $ 5.25 

(iriKTiii ('X|ion.sr. lu'.j .53 



Total % 5.78 

Example VIII. — Cost (»f 2i> ft. \vo<kI kuv pole in j.lace $ 5.177 



APPENDIX A, 217 

\yood Anchor Logs. — The cost of materials and labor for 
wood anchor log^s in place was as follows : 

Example I. — Wood anchor loii^s. 
Materials: 

1 5-f t. anchor log, IncUidlnK freight S .75 

1 %-ln. X 7-ft. rod 226 

10% frelgrht. Incidentals, etc 098 

$ 1.073 
Labor: 

1 5-ft. anchor hole dug, earth $ 1.50 

1 5-ft. anchor hole tamped l.OO 

Supervision, 7%% ) 

Teaming, 15% \ = 30% 75 

Travel and board, 7%% J 



I 3.2 



o 



Cost of log % 4.S2:J 

General expense, 10% 43 

Total S 4.755 

For rock excavation add |3.58. 

Example II. — 10-Ft. Chestnut Log In Place. 
Materials: 

1 10-ft. anchor log. including freight $ 1.60 

11% In. X 7-ft. anchor rod 225 

10% freight and incidentals 173 

$ \.9dS 
Labor: 

1 10-ft. anchor hole dug, earth $ 3.00 

1 10-ft. anchor hole tamped, earth s 1.50 

Supervision. 7%% ) 

Teaming, 15% \ = 30% 1.35 

Travel and board, 7%% J 

% 5.85 



Cost of loif $ 7.748 

• General exp^^nse. 10% 774 

Total I 8.523 

For rock excavation add $7.15. 

Cross Arms:^-Co8t of 1. 10-ft.. 10 pin cross arm In place. 

Materials: Per Pole. 

1 10-ft., 10-pln cross arm # $.665 $ .665 

10 Standard locust pins @ $.0105 105 

10 6-d Nails <^ $.00015 002 

1 pair 28-in. cross arm braces @ $.08 080 

2 ?ix4-in. carriage bolts @ $.0061 012 

1 Fetter drive screw ® $.0093 009 

1 14-in. cross arm bolt @ $037 037 

2 Square washers (S) $.0068 014 

10% freight, incidentals, etc 0924 

$ 1.016 
I^bor : 

1 cross arm distributed <8> $.03 $ .03 

10 pins placed (g) $.0025 025 

1 pair cross arm braces placed (Si $.03 03 

1 10-pIn cross arm placed <£»» $.15 15 

Supervision, 7%% \ 

Teaming, 15% \ = 30% 0705 

Travel and board, 7%% J 

$ .305 



Cost of one arm $ 1.321 

General expense. 10% 132 

Total $ 1.454 



2l8 



TELEPHOXE COXSTRUCTIOX. 



Wire Stringing. — Tlie followinjj example shows the 
method of arriving at the cost of wire stringing: 

Cost of One Pair No. 14 N. B. S. Gage, H. D. Copper, on One Mile Class 

•A" Pole Line: 
Materials: 

204 lbs. No. 14 copper. A) $.235 $ 47.94 

104 lbs. glass ® $.01885 1.96 

Tie wire, line Joints. e:c 30 

5% freight, etc 2.51 

Labor: $ 52.77 

*2 wires strung one mile ^ $5.81 $ 1 1.62 

1 04 glass placed 9 $.01 1.04 

Supervision, 7H% ] -- ir,« i on 

Travel and board. 7%% J " i^%. . • . i.»u 

$ 14.56 

Cost of one pair $ 67.27 

General expense, 10% 6.727 

Total $ 74.00 

*Team hire Included in cost of stiinging. 

As the number of poles per mile varies with the class of 
line and the cost of stringing with the number of wires, the 
above is given, simply to show the diflFerent items considered 
in arriving at the costs given in Tables I to V. 

Table I.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper on Class "A" Pole Line: 

Cost of Cost of Cost of 

No. 14 No. 12 Cross Total Cost. 

N. B. S. N. B. S. Arms. No. 14. No. 12. 

1 pr $ 74.00 $102,308 $ 75.40 $149.40 $177,708 

2 pr 132.422 202.498 75.40 207.822 277.898 

3 pr 194.907 300.021 75.40 270.307 376.421 

4 pr 258.128 398.280 75.40 333.528 473.680 

5 pr 317.715 492.905 75.40 393.115 568.806 

6 pr 390.780 601.008 150.50 541.580 761.808 

7 pr 448.665 693.931 150.80 599.460 844.731 

8 pr 506.136 786.440 150.80 «>56.936 937.24 

9 pr 660.502 875.844 150.80 711.303 1026.644 

10 pr 617.950 968.330 150.80 768.75 1119.13 

Table 11.— Cost of One Mile H. D. Copper on Class **B" Pole Line. 

Cost of Cost of Cost of 

No. 14 No. 12 Cross Total Cost. 

N. B. S. N. B. S. Arms. No. 14. No. 12. 

1 pr $67,017 $102,058 $69.60 $136,617 $171,668 

2 pr 131.918 202.000 69.60 201.518 271.600 

3 pr 194,151 299.274 69.60 263.761 868.874 

4 pr 257.12 397.284 69.60 326.72 466.884 

5 pr 316.455 491.660 69.60 386.055 561.260 

6 pr 389.268 599.514 139.20 528.468 738.714 

7 pr 446.878 692.165 139.20 586.078 831.365 

8 pr 505.270 785.598 139.20 644.470 924.798 

\) pr 558.234 873.603 139.20 697.434 1012.803 

10 pr 615.430 965.840 139.20 754.63 1105.040 

Table III.— Co.st of One Mile H. D. Copper Class "C** Pole JJne. 

Cost of Cost of Co.st of 

No. 14 No. 12 Cross Total Cost. 

N. B. S. N. B. S. Arms. No. 14. No. 12. 

1 pr $66,700 $101,808 $63.80 $130,500 $165,608 

2 pr 131.554 201.730 63.80 195.454 265.530 

3 pr 193.410 298.524 68.60 257.210 862.824 

4 pr 256.132 396.284 63.80 319.932 460.084 

5 pr 315.220 490.410 63.80 379.02 554.21 

6 pr 387.786 598.014 127.60 515.386 725.614 

7 pr 445.172 690.438 127.60 572.772 818.038 

8 pr 502.144 782.448 127.60 629.744 910.048 

9 pr 556.011 871.353 127.60 683.611 998.963 

10 pr 612.950 963.340 127.60 740..*i5 1090.940 



APPENDIX A. 



219 



Table IV.— Cost of One Mile H. 

Cost of 

No. 14 

N. B. S. 

1 pr $ 66.52 

2 pr 130.925 

3 pr • 192.661 

4 pr 2">o.l34 

5 pr 313.972 

6 pr 3S6.289 

7 pr 443.42> 

8 pr 500.148 

9 pr 553.763 

10 pr 610.463 



P. Copper 

(^ost of 

No. 12 

N. B. S. 

$101,559 
201.002 
297.777 
395.288 
489.165 
596.520 
688.693 
780.456 
869.112 
960.83 



on Class 
Cost of 
Cross 
Arms. 
$ 58.00 
58.00 
58.00 
58.00 
58.00 
116.00 
116.00 
116.00 
116.00 
116.00 



"D" or "E" Pole Lint 



Total 

No. 14. 

5124.520 
l»8.92j 
250.661 
313.134 
371.97« 
502.289 
559.425 
616.148 
669.763 
726.463 



Cost. 

No. 12. 

$159,559 
259.002 
865.777 
453.288 
547.163 
712.52 
804.695 
896.456 
985.112 

1076.85 



Table v.— Cost of One Mile No. 12 B. W. G. Steel Wire on Class "D" or '"E 
Pole Line: 

Cost of No. 12 
B. W. G. Wire. 

1 pr $ 25.318 

2 pr 48.520 

3 pr 69.054 

4 pr 90.324 

5 pr 107.960 

6 pr 139.074 

7 pr 154.508 

8 pr 170.528 

9 pr 182.943 

10 pr 198.440 



$9 



Cost of 

Cross Arm. 

$ 58.00 

58.00 

58.00 

58.00 

58.00 

116.00 

116.00 

116.00 

116.00 

116.00 



Total Cost. 
$ 83.318 
106.520 
127.064 
148.324 
165.960 
255.074 
270.508 
286.528 
298.943 
314.440 



The cost of one mile No. 12 B. W. G. steel wire on farmer's 
line with one cross arm (33 poles to the mile) figures as 
follows : 

Cost of No. 12 • 

B. W. G. Wire. 

1 pr.... $ 24.874 

2 pr 47.632 

8 pr 67.722 

4 pr 88.548 

6 pr 105.740 

The cost of one mile No. 12 B. W. G. steel wire on farmer's 
line with brackets figures as follows: 



1 pr. 

2 pr. 



Cost of Wire. 

$24,874 

47.632 



The cost of No. 14 N. B. S. weatherproof wire on Class A 
pole line was as follows: 

1^/f ft. t ^T*{ft 1 ft * 

364 lbs. No. 14 N. B. S., W. P. @ $.23Vi I 85.54 

104 glass @ $.01885 1.96 

Tie wires, etc 50 

6% freight, etc 4.40 



Labor: 
2 wires strung one mile # 

104 glass placed & $.01 

Supervision. 7%% 

Teaming, 6%% 

Travel, board, etc., 2%%, 



$ 92.40 



$7.83 $ 15.66 

1.04 



= 



15%. 



2.51 



$ 19.21 



Total $111.61 

General expense. 10% 11.16 



Cost of one mile $122.77 

Cost of one foot 0203 



220 TELEPUOKE CONSTRUCTION. 

The cost of No. 14 R. & S. twist on Class A pole line was 
as follows: 

Materlate: 

5.280 ft. twist e $.0187 \$ 97.75 

52 brackets @ $.0367 1.908 

52 knobs @ $.01606 835 

104 la^ screws ® $.0078 811 

52 bolt @ $.0069 359 

Tie wire, etc 1.00 

6% freight 6.132 



$107,775 
Labor: 

One mile twist strung: ^ $7.88 $ 7.83 

62 brackets placed 9 1.02 1.04 

Supervision, 7%% i 

Teaming, 5%...........^ > = 1'.% 133 



mine, 
vel, b 



Travel, board, etc., 2^%. 



$ 10.20 



Cost , $ll7.97i> 

General expense, 10% 11.797 



Cost of one mile $129,772 

Cost of one foot $ .0243 

The average cost of one subscriber's drop, using No. 14 
B. & S. twisted pair, was as follows: 

Materials: 

200 ft. No. 14 B. & S. twisted pair # $.0187 $ 3.74 

5 house knobs @ $.01388 07 

Portion of distributing bracket and knob expense 06 

5% freight and incidentals 194 



S 4.064 
LAbor: 

200 ft. No. 14 twist strung including the placing of rH supports, etc.$ 2.00 

Supervision. 7%% i 

Teaming, 6% >• = 15% 30 

Travel, board, etc., 2%% ) 



$ 2.30 



Cost of one drop $ 6.864 

General expense, 10% 636 



Cost $ 7.00 

UNDERGROUND CONDUIT CONSTRUCTION. 

The costs on underground conduit construction are derived 
from the contract prices paid for this work. In explanation 
it may be said that in the city in which this work was done 
'^politics" made it impossible to do the work in any other way 
then by contract with certain contractors. The specifications 
and contract prices on which the figures given here are based 
are as follows: 



APPENDIX A. 221 

General Specifications. — The specifications were as follows : 

(i) Multiple Duct Conduit with Concrete Protection at 
Top, Bottom and Sides, — The foundation for this conduit 
shall be not less than 4 ins. thick. After the foundation has 
been allowed to set, a layer of cement mortar shall be placed 
upon it and the conduit laid on this cement, breaking joints. 
The joints shall be made by wrapping a strip of muslin 6 ins. 
wide and long enough to make lyi turns around the ends of 
the pieces to be jointed. This muslin wrapper shall be dipped 
into a thin mixture of cement mortar, and after being placed 
on the ducts, shall be covered with J/>-in, cement mortar on 
top and sides. After the requisite number of ducts are laid 
and the joints well formed, 3 ins. of concrete shall be well 
tamped in place on each side and 4 ins. on top. 

(2) Multiple Duct unth Concrete Base and Plank Protec- 
tion at the Top. — The foundations for this conduit shall be 
the same as in Case No. i. After the foundation has been 
allowed to set, a layer of cement shall l"e placed upon it and 
the conduit laid on this cement, breaking joints. The joints 
shall be made by wrapping a strip of muslin 6 ins. wide 
around the ends of the pieces to be jointed. This strip of 
muslin shall be dipped into a thin mixture of cement mortar 
just before being placed. A cement collar shall be formed 
over this muslin wrapper. After these cement collars have 
set, fine dirt shall be well tamped in place on the sides, great 
care being taken not to break the collars. 

After about i in. of fine dirt is placed on top of the con- 
duit, a iJ/2-in. creosoted plank or planks shall be placed on 
top so that the planking shall extend about i in. beyond the 
conduits on each side. 

(3) Multiple Duct Conduit with Plank Protection at Top 
and Bottom. — The foundation for this conduit consists dim- 
ply of ij4-in. creosoted planking. This planking shall be 
placed on the bottom of the trench on an even solid surface. 
The joints shall be sealed by wrapping a strip of canvas 
soaked in a mixture of hot tar and pitch and shall be 6 ins. 
wide and long enough to make V/i turns around the piece* to 
be jointed. The trench shall be filled with fine earth and 
tamped to the level of the top of the ducts, and i^'j in. creo- 



222 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

soted plank or planks shall be placed on the top of the 
conduit. 

Concrete. — Concrete for manholes shall be composed of 2 
parts cement, 5 parts sand and 10 parts of washed gravel or 
crushed limestone. This concrete shall be mixed on a wooden 
or iron mixing board or in a mixer, but in no case shall it be 
mixed on the ground or street. This concrete shall first be 
made by mixing the sand and cement dry and then adding 
the broken stone after the sand and cement are well mixed ; 
then enough water shall be added to bring the mixture to 
such a consistency that when tapped with the back of a 
shovel the water shall appear on the surface. The cement 
used shall be the Atlas brand of Portland cement or its 
approved equivalent. Sand shall be good, sharp sand, free 
from loam, dirt, or other foreign matter. The crushed lime- 
stone shall be of such size that all of it shall pass through a 
ring lyi ins. in diameter in every direction, and none of it 
shall pass through a ring ^-in. in diameter. If gravel is used 
for concrete it shall be well screened and washed and of 
the same dimensions as specified for crushed stone. Concrete 
for duct foundation shall be composed of i part Atlas Port- 
land cement or its approved equivalent, 2 parts fine, sharp 
sand, and 5 parts of crushed limestone or gravel. This lime- 
stone or gravel shall be of such a size that all of it shall pass 
through a ring J^-in. in diameter and none of it shall pass 
through a ring J4-'"- in diameter. This concrete shall be 
mixed the same as specified above for concrete for manholes. 

Cement Mortar. — Shall be made of 2 parts Atlas Portland 
cement and 5 parts good, sharp sand, free from loam, mica or 
other foreign matter. 

Brick Manholes. — All brick shall be first class, hard-burned 
sewer brick, and shall be wet just before being laid. The 
brick masonry shall be laid in cement mortar. The bricks 
shall be laid in a full bed of mortar upon all sides. Every 
third course of brick shall be a course of headers. No bats 
are to be used in the construction of manholes. 



APPENDIX A, 223 

Contract Prices.— The contract prices are as follows: 
City Work— 

E^rth trench excavation down to 8 ft % 1.89 cu. yd. 

Elarth manhole excavation 1.89 cu. yd. 

E^arth trench excavation, 8 ft. to 12 ft 2.00 cu. yd. 

Rock manhole excavation 2.75 cu. yd. 

Rock trench excavation 2.75 cu. yd. 

Earth trench excavation 1.35 cu. yd. 

Earth manhole excavation 1.62 cu. yd. 

Rock trench excavation 2.00 cu. yd. 

Common brick in place in M. H. walls SO.OO per M . 

Concrete in concrete manhole 7.00 cu. yd. 

Concrete in manhole bottoms 4.60 cu. yd. 

Old rails and beams in place 1.85 C. lbs. 

Beams, angles and rails in place 2.20 C. lbs. 

Miscellaneous concrete 5.00 cu. yd. 

Large castings, weighing 1,100 to 1,150 lbs. in place 25.00 ea. 

Taking up and replacing asphalt pavement 2.25 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing asphalt pavement, concrete base 3.00 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing block stone pavement 50 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing block stone pavement, concrete baso. .. 2.50 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing block stone pavement, tarred 85 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing cobblestone pavement 35 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing brick street pavement, old 40 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing brick street pavement, new 1.25 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing flagstone pavement 45 sq. yd. 

Taking up and replacing old granolithic pavement 1.85 sq. yd. 

Sand 06 bu. 

Gravel 05 bu. 

Cement 626 sack. 

Labor 176 hr. 

Foreman 35 hr. 

Team 50 hr . 

Cart 275 hr. 

Conduit Costs. — The cost of McRoy conduit in place for 
three classes of construction is given in Table VI. 

Manholes. — On an average, manholes are 325 ft. apart, so 
that to the cost of every 325 ft. of conduit laid it will be 
necessary to add the cost of one manhole, of the class used as 
given below. ■ 

Concrete Manhole, Tzco IVay. — Prices for material in place: 

10 yds. earth excavation at $1.89 % 18.90 

5.7 yds. concrete at $7.00 39.90 

400 lbs. iron beams at $1.85 per cwt 7.40 

1 large casting 21.50 

1 connection to sewer 20.00 

100 brick for top at $30.00 per M 3.00 

2 cable pulls at $0.50 1.00 

30 hanger sockets at $0.05 1.50 

24 conduit plugs at $0.05 1.20 

10 per cent incidentals, etc 11.44 

Total $125.84 

Note — 43 sq. ft paving additional. 

Concrete Manhole, Three Way, — Prices for material in place : 

11 yds. earth excavation at $1.89 $ 20.79 

6 yds. concrete at $7.00 42.00 

400 lbs. iron beams at $1.85 cwt 7.40 

1 large casting 21.50 

1 connection to sewer 20.00 

100 brick for top at $30.00 per M 3.00 

2 cable pulls at $0.50 1.00 

30 hanger sockets at $0.05 1.50 

24 conduit plugs at $0.05 1.20 

10 per cent Incidentals, etc 11.84 

ToUl $130.28 

Note— 48 sq. ft. paving additional. 



224 TELEFHOSE COSSTRUCTION, 

Brick Manhole, Two Way, p-in. Wall. — Prices for material in 
place : 

11 yds. earth excavation at II. S9 $ 20.79 

.6 yds. concrete bottom at $4.50 2.25 

1700 brick at $30.00 per M 51.00 

400 lbs. iron beams at 11.85 per cwt 7.40 

1 large casting 21.50 

1 connection to sewer 20.00 

2 cable pulls at $0.50 1.00 

30 hanger sockets at $0.05 1-50 

24 conduit plugs at $0.05 1.20 

10 per cent incidentals, etc 12.66 

Total $139.30 

Note— 48 sq. ft. of paving additional. 

Brick Manhole, Three Way, i^-in. WalL — Prices for material 
in place: 

13 yds. earth excavation at $1.89 $ 24.57 

.6 yds. concrete In bottom at $4.50 2.70 

2650 brick at $30.00 per M 76.50 

400 lbs. iron beams at $1.85 per cwt 7.40 

1 large casting 21.50 

1 connection to sewer 20.00 

2 cable pulls at $0.50 1-00 

30 hanger sockets at $0.05 1-50 

•24 conduit plugs at $0.05 1.20 

10 per cent Incidentals, etc 15.63 

Total $172.00 

Note — 48 sq. ft. paving additional. 



APPENDIX A, 



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APPENDIX B. 

MISCELLANEOUS COST DATA ON POLE LINE AND 

UNDERGROUND CONDUIT CONSTRUCTION. 

■ 

The following cost data on pole line and underground con- 
duit construction have been compiled by the editors of En- 
gineering-Contracting from articles published in that journal 
and from other sources as named in the text. 

Cost of Two Short Telephone Lines. — The two lines were 
respectively lo miles long and 14 miles long; their cost pei 
mile was as follows : 

10-Mile Line. 

Labor : Per Mile. 

1.7 days foreman at $4 $ 6.80 

1.7 days sub-foreman at $3 5.10 

4 days climbers at $2.50 10.00 

10.5 days groundmen at $2.25 23.63 

17.9 days total at $3.10 $ 55.53 

Materials: 

28 poles at $1.50 $ 42.00 

28 cross-arms at 15 cts 4.20 

28 steel pins at 4 cts 1.12 

28 glass insulators at 4 cts 1.12 

56 lag screws and washers at i V< cts 0.84 

305 lbs. No. 9 galv. wire at 4.2 cts 12.81 

Total materials $ 62.09 

Total labor and material $117.62 

More than 90 per cent, of the poles were 25 ft. long ; the rest 
were 30 to 40 ft. in length. 

226 



APPENDIX B. 227 

14-Mile Line. 
Labor : Per Mile. 
2.2 days foreman at $3.50 $ 7.70 

2.2 days sub-foreman at $3 6.60 

5.3 days climber at $2.75 14.58 

11.4 dajrs groundman at $2.25 25.64 

21.5 dayfe total at $2.54 .$ 54.52 

Materials : 

32 poles at $1.50 $ 48.00 

32 brackets at i>^ cts 0.48 

380 lbs. No. 8 galv. wire at 4.2 cts 15-96 

10 lbs. No. 9 galv. wire at 4.2 cts 0.42 

lyi lbs. fence staples at 2>4 cts O.04 

32 insulators at 4 cts 1.28 

Total materials $ 66.18 

Total labor and materials $120.70 

2 telephones at $12.50 $ 25.00 

200 ft. office wire 1.40 

Labor Cost of High Power Transmission Line. — ^The line 
was pole line and its total length was 9,500 ft. along a public 
road. The poles and cross-arms were delivered at one end of 
the line by railroad, so the average haul on material was about 
one mile. The poles were from 30 to 33 ft. long, measuring 
from 5 to 9 ins. at the top and from 12 to 18 ins. at the butt. 

The wages paid for a lo-hr. day on the work were as fol- 
lows: Foreman, $3.00; laborers, $1.50; linemen, $2.50; team 
2 horses and driver, $4.50. 

Hauling. — ^The poles were hauled on a two-horse wagon, 
one man assisting the driver in loading and unloading them. 
Naturally a large per cent, of the cost of hauling was in taking 
the poles from the cars and unloading them from the wagon. 
The poles were of chestnut, fairly light, and 8 to 10 poles 
could be hauled at a trip. The cost of hauling the poles was : 

Team $22.50 

Laborers 7.50 

Total $30.00 



228 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 

■ 

Digging Holes, — In digging the holes for the poles, one man 
worked on a hole. He used a digging bar, a shovel with extra 
long handle and a spoon with same length handle. The holes 
were dug 5 ft. deep and were 30 ins. in diameter at the top 
and about 18 ins. at the bottom, making an average diameter 
of 2 ft. From each hole was excavated 0.58 cu. yd. The ma- 
terial was a red sandy clay, and the holes were all dry. There 
were 74 holes dug. The cost was : 

Foreman $17.25 

Laborers 55-50 

Total $72.75 

The cost per hole was as follows : 

Foreman , $0.23 

Men 0.75 

Total $0.98 

The cost per cu. yd. was as follows : 

Foreman $0.40 

Men 1.30 

Total $1.70 

It will be noticed that one man dug 2 holes per day. 

Raising Poles, — The pole raising was done by hand. A 
deadman and a jenny were used, these being manipulated by 
two men. The foreman or a lineman held a metal slide in the 
hole for the butt of the pole to slide against, keeping it from 
gouging into the side of the hole. The rest of the crew used 
pikes to lift the top of the pole, and place it in the hole. The 
crew consisted of the foreman, one lineman and about 7 nien. 

The method of operation was as follows: The pole was 
rolled to the hole by means of bars and cant hooks. The slide 
meantime was placed in the hole. Then the crew lifted the 
small end onto the jenny which held it until the deadman was 
put in place. With the pole resting on the deadman, the pikes 
were brought into play, and as the pole was lifted the dead- 
man was moved up under the pole until the final lift came 
that sent the pole into the hole. Then it was turned and lined 



APPENDIX B. 229 

up, the lineman assisting the foreman in this work, after which 
the refilling of the hole was done. 

A record of this work was kept in detail on a number of 
poles, from which it was found that the average time con- 
sumed in the work was as follows : 

Getting ready to set pole, 3 minutes; raising pole, 6 min- 
utes ; lining pole, 2 m'inutes ; filling and tamping earth in hole, 
I man shoveling and 3 tamping, 10 minutes, several men 
standing by the pikes to steady the pikes ; moving to next 
hole, 4 minutes : total time, 25 minutes. 

When everything is working well this average can be main- 
tained, but a little time is occasionally lost due to unforseen 
obstacles that prevent this speed. The cost of raising the 
poles was: 

Foreman $10.50 

Laborers 37-50 

Lineman 8.75 

Total $56.75 

This, for the 74 poles, gives a cost per pole of the following : 

Foreman $0.14 

Laborers 0.50 

Lineman 0.12 

Total $0.76 

Cross-Arms, — Before raising the poles, and while the labor- 
ers were digging the holes, the linemen were at work dapping 
the poles to receive the cross-arms. The cross-arms used 
were 8-pin arms, two being placed on each pole. At all times 
in the line, double cross-arms were used, that is, a cross-arm 
was put on each side of the poles. This was the case for 
nine poles. For future needs the poles were dapped in 3 
places. This made 240 daps necessary. The poles, as stated, 
were chestnut. The cost of dapping the poles was $22.62, 
making a cost per dap of 9.8 cts. 

One lineman placed the cross-arms, the team hauling them 
along as nee^pd, and the driver acting as the lineman's 
"ground hog." The sketch, Fig. 88, shows how these arms 



230 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, 



were placed, and braced with two pieces of galvanized iron. 
In all, i66 cross-arms were used. The cost of this work was: 

Hauling with team $21.37 

Lineman 6.25 



Total $27.62 

The high cost of this was due to the fact that the team was 
charged to this work for the entire time of placing the cross- 
arms, as it waited at each pole while the arms were being put 
in place. The cost per cross-arm was 17 cts. 

One lineman and a helper placed the insulators. The cost 
of this was : 



I I I LfT.I I I I. 




I I 
I I 

LJ 

£/KfrCttftf 

rig. 88.— Method of Guyin 



Transmission Line Pole. 



Lineman 
Helper . 



$375 
2.25 



Total $6.00 

Only six insulators were put on a cross-arm, thus making 
12 to a pole, except at the turns, as the line was to carry 12 
wires. In all 996 insulators were used, hence the cost per 
unit was 0.6 cts. 

Guy Poles, — In building lines with a number of wires on 
them, it is necessary to guy all poles where there are turns in 
the line, and on long straight lines some of the poles must also 
be guyed. The sketch, Fig. 88, shows the method used in 
guying this line, and is one frequently used. The guy pole 



APPENDIX B. 231 

holes were dug of about the same dimensions as the holes 
for the line poles. The cost was: 

Foreman $i-50 

Laborers 6.75 

Total $8.25 

The cost per hole was: 

Foreman $0.17 

Laborers 0.75 

Total $0.92 

The raising of the poles cost : 

Foreman $3.00 

Laborers 9.00 

Total $12.00 

This makes a cost per pole of $1.33. This is large, owing 
to the fact that the men lost considerable time moving from 
pole to pole and carrying their tools, also to the fact that each 
pole had to be cut and trimmed, as these guy poles were 
made from rejected line poles. 

The method of placing the guy wires to the poles was as 
follows : The wire was fastened to each of the two poles, and 
then brought to the tightening block as shown in the sketch. 
With blocks and tackle fastened to the two poles, the poles 
were brought to a snug bearing and the wires were made fast 
around the tightening block, shown in the sketch. The wires 
go around the block in grooves made for the purpose at right 
angles to each other. While the linemen and their helpers are 
doing this work, the laborers are digging the anchor hole and 
placing the anchor rod. To this is fastened a turn buckle, and 
a wire is run from the guy pole to the turn buckle. The blocks 
and tackle are then fastened to a handy tree or stump, or if 
necessary to the anchor rod and the^uy pole is pulled back, 
tightening the guy wire between the two poles, while the turn 
buckle is screwed up, thus making all the guy wires taut. At 
times, instead of making an anchor as shown, the anchor wire 
can be fastened to a convenient tree. Both kinds of anchors 
wjre used in this case. The cost of this work was : 



232 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Foreman , $1.50 

Linemen 3.75 

Laborers 3.75 

Total $9.00 

This made a cost of $1.00 per pole, making a total cost per 
guy pole of $3.25. 

About one-half of this line ran through the edge of woods 
or by shade trees. A few trees had to be cut down and a 
number trimmed ; some tall bushes were also cut down. The 
foreman looked after this work part of one day when all his 
force was at work upon it, but for the most part linemen were 
in charge of several laborers doing this work. The cost of it 
was as follows : 

Foreman $ 2.25 

Lineman 18.12 

Men 13.13 

Total $33.50 

Stringing the Wires. — As previously stated, 12 wires were 
strung on the poles. The wires were light weight. The team 
hauled the wire, and one horse was used in helping to string 
it, the other horse standing idle. In line work, a team is 
nearly always necessary, yet there are times that it may stauvl 
idle for hours, thus increasing the cost of that item to which it 
is charged. When there is nothing else for the wagon to do it 
is used to carry the tools along the line as the men work. In 
stringing the wire the horse pulled a rope fastened to two 
strands of wire at one time, thus running out two wires, and 
making six trips of the horse to string out the 12 wires. For 
this work 3 linemen were used, but in fastening the wires to 
the insulators only 2 linemen were used, and the wires were 
pulled tight by the helpers with blocks and tackle. The cost 
was: 

Foreman $ 18.00 

Linemen 37- 50 

Laborers 27.00 

Team 36.00 

Total $118.50 



APPENDIX B. 233 

In all 21.6 miles of wire were strung and this made a cost 
of $5.50 per mile of wire. 

Changing Poles. — ^At the ends of the line, where connec- 
tions were made with the old line of poles, some poles had to 
be changed to make them suitable for the new service. There 
were 3 of these at one end and i at the other. The work 
consisted in taking down the old poles and putting in their 
place poles from 40 to 45 ft. long. Cross-arms had to be put 
on the new poles, and the wires changed over to the new 
poles. It took a half dayfor the crew to do each pole, thus 
spending 2 days on the 4 poles. The cost of this was : 

Foreman \ $ 6.00 

Lineman 2.50 

Laborers 39.00 

Team 9.00 

Total $56.50 

This gave a cost per pole of $14.12. In line work the fore- 
man is always a lineman, and in doing odd jobs this fre- 
quently keeps the cost down, as he will often do work that 
a lineman is called upon to do. As the lineman is the higher 
priced man he should be allowed to do only such work as the 
helper is not able to do. 

Total Cost.-^The total cost of the entire work was as 
follows : 

Hauling $ 30.00 

Digging holes 72.75 

Raising poles 56.75 

Dapping cross-arms 22.62 

Placing cross-arms and insulators 33.62 

Guy poles -•.... 29.25 

Trimming trees and bushes 33-50 

Stringing and fastening wires 1 18.50 

Changing old poles 56. 50 

Total $45349 

There being 1.6 miles of line built, the cost per mile for 
each item was: 



234 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

Hauling $ 18.75 

Digging holes 45.47 

Raising poles 35-47 

Dapping cross-arms I4-I4 

Placing cross-arms and insulators 21.01 

Guy poles 18.28 

Trimming trees and bushes 20.94 

Stringing and fastening wires 74.06 

Changing old poles 3S-3i 



^ 



Total $283.43 

For the 74 new poles erected this makes a cost per pole for 
the completed line of $6.13. 

Cost of 28-Mile Telegraph Line. — ^The line was 28 miles 
long with 32 poles to the mile and was built in British Colum- 
bia. The wire was single No. 8 B. B. galvanized iron wire. 
The itemized cost per mile was as follows : 

Labor : Cost. 

I day foreman at $3.50 $ 3.50 

I day sub^foreman at $3 3.00 

2.7 days climber at $2.50 6.75 

2.5 days framer at $2.25 5.62 

0.7 day blacksmith at $2.25 1.58 

4.6 days groundman at $2 9.20 

12.5 days total at $2.40 $29.65 

Materials : 

32 25-ft. poles at $1.25 $40.00 

32 wood brackets at i ^ cts 0.40 

32 glass insulators at 4 cts 1.28 

5 lbs. nails at 2j4 cts 0.12 

1/2 lb. staples at 3 cts. 0.02 

380 lbs. No. 8 B. B. galv. wire at 5 cts 19.00 

2 lbs. tie wire at 3 cts 0.06 

Total materials $60.88 

Total labor and materials $90.53 

Cost of Excavating Trolley Pole Holes by Machine.— The 
machine consisted of an ordinary flat car, at one end of which 



* 



APPENDIX B. 23s 

was stationed a hoisting engine with a small boiler under 
cover. About the center of the car was placed an outrigger 
that projected over the side, containing a vertical shaft about 
3 ins. in diameter, which slid through a bevel gear. This 
shaft had on the bottom an ordinary screw bit 2 ft. in diam- 
eter similar to that used on small hand augers for boring post 
holes. Another bevel gear on a horizontal shaft meshed with 
the one mentioned above and was driven by the hoisting 
engine by sprocket wheel. A wire rope running through the 
hoisting engine was connected with the top of the vertical 
shaft and enabled the operator to raise and lower it at will. 
It required five men to operate the machine — an engineer at 
$2.50, a fireman at $2.00, a foreman at $2.50, and two laborers 
at $1.75. The number of holes bored depended a great deal on 
the character of the soil, but through this section (Ohio) 
would average 50 a day. On the other end of the car was 
placed a mast and boom with which the poles were raised and 
set in the holes. This work could be done by the same number 
of men and they would dig the holes and place about 30 poles 
per day. One axle of the car was connected to the hoisting 
engine with a sprocket chain for the purpose of moving the 
car by its own power. A speed of seven or eight miles per 
hour could be attained. It is stated that the machine would 
have been more efficient had there been a stronger engine 
connected with it. At the wages given above the labor cost 
per hole for boring was 21 cts. The labor cost of digging 
holes and setting 30 poles per day was 35 cts. per pole. 

Method and Cost of Digging 600 Trolley Pole Holes. — ^The 
overhead construction was of two kinds, span wire which 
needs a pole on each side of the track, and single poles with 
a bracket to hold the trolley wire. This divided the work into 
two groups, and the span wire construction was further divid- 
ed into double and single track work. The class of material in 
which the holes were dug, as well as the size of the butt of 
the pole, made additional division of the work. The cost of 
the work will be given under five groups. 

A lo-hr. day was worked and the foreman was paid $3.00 
per day and the laborers $1.50. The work was done during 
the months of February to July. The gang of men worked at 



236 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



digging tne holes, raising the poles, and other overhead work 
during this period of time, but the cost of each item of work 
was kept separate. In digging the holes, the tools that the 
men used were : A digging bar, see Fig. 89a ; a round point 
shovel, see Fig. 89b, and a spoon, see Fig. 89c. The length 
of the handles on these was B ft. The holes were spaced as 
follows: For span construction on tangents, the poles were 
no ft. apart. On 12** curves or less they were from 80 to no 
ft. apart, while on curves of 150 ft. radius or less they were 
spaced from 40 to ;o ft. apart. 



(0 (a) (b) 

Fig. 89.— Tools for Digging Trolley Pole Holes. 



Group I, 111 this lot 82 holes were dug. It was for span 
construction of 4,775 ft. of double track. The poles were from 
12 to 15 ins. in diameter at the butt, so the holes were dug 
about 2 ft. in diameter. The depth of the hole was governed 
by the specifications, which called for all holes to be 6 ft. deep, 
this depth to be in the natural ground. Hence where there 
was an embankment, the hole had to be as much deeper than 
5 ft., as the height of the embankment was above the natural 
ground at the place where the pole was to be planted. 

This is an instance of where conditions surrounding work 
may change; yet specifications are not changed to suit the new 
conditions. When these specifications were first drawn, all 



APPENDIX A. 



237 



the poles on suburban lines uf the company in question, were 
not placed equi-distant from the center line of the track. In 
cuts they were so spaced, but, wherever embankments oc- 
curred, longer poles were used, as the poles were placed out- 
side of the toe of the slope of the embankment. This pre- 
vented having the poles in line, which made the line of poles 
appear unsightly, and it also added to the length of the span 
wire. For these and other reasons^ the arrangement of poles 
was changed and they were set equi-distant from the center 
line on the embankment as well as in the cut. Under these 
circumstances where the embankments had settled and were 



n]-" 



r'lg. 30.— Method or Qrounil Brarlng P^le. 

made of good material, there was no need of making the holes 
more than 6 ft,, but as the specifications called for a greater 
depth, the holes were so dug. They varied from 6 to 12 ft. 
deep. In this group 40 pole holes were dug 6 ft. deep, the 
rest being from 9 to 12 ft., 30 holes being of the last named 
depth. The roadbed on this section was all embankment, 
made of cinders and slag from a steel plant. In digging the 
30 deepest holes the cinders and slag kept running into the 
holes, causing about three to four times as much material to be 
excavated as would otherwise have been taken from the hole. 
It was estimated that this doubled the yardage excavated from 
the 82 holes. 



238 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

In order to brace the poles under ground, an 8 ft. second- 
hand sawed tie was cut into two pieces, one 3 ft. long and the 
other 5 ft. long, and placed as shown in the cut, Fig. 93. The 
short piece was put in the bottom of the hole and the large 
pieces at the top. This also increased the amount of material 
that was taken from the holes. This extra material averaged 
4 cu. ft. for each hole, and the contractor was paid extra for 
this work. When holes were dug of a greater depth than the 
length of the shovel handle, a foot or more of earth was dug 
out of the surface of the ground at the side of the hole, and 
the workman stood in this depression, thus allowing him 
readily to reach with his shovel and spoon to the bottom of 
the hole. 

The cost of digging the 82 holes was : 

Foreman $ 27.90 

Laborers 95-25 

Total $123.15 

The cost per hole was as follows: 

Foreman $ -34 

Laborers 1. 16 

Total $1.50 

This hi<yh cost was due to the cinders as previously ex- 
plained. The cost per cubic yard was: 

Foreman $ .13 

Laborers 47 

Total $ .60 

The cost per lineal foot of double track for the hole digging 
was : 

Foreman S0.006 

Men 0.020 

Total $0,026 

Group II. All of these holes, 88 in number, were 6 ft. deep. 
The poles were a little heavier than those in Group I, so the 
holes were 2^ ft. in diameter. Each hole had 28 cu. ft. of 



/ 



APPENDIX B. 



239 



earth in it, thus making 91 cu. yds. for all the holes. This 
was the first work done, and the men were not accustomed to 
handling their long handled shovels. 

The cost of digging the holes was : 

Foreman ' $ 23.10 

Laborers 83.10 

Total $106.20 

This gave a >cost per hole of the following : 

Foreman $0.27 

Laborers 0.94 

Total $1.21 

The cost per cubic yard was as follows : 

Foreman $0.25 

Laborers 0.91 

Total $1.16 

As there was 4,590 lin. ft. of double track, the cost of dig- 
ging holes per lineal foot was : 

Foreman $0,005 

Laborers 0.018 

Total $0,023 

Group III. This was span wire construction for single 
track work, there being 17,160 lin. ft. of track. In all 320 pole 
holes were dug. The holes averaged 3j4 ft. in diameter, and 
were from 6 ft. to 12 ft. deep. About 20 per cent, were deeper 
than 6 ft., 10 per c^nt. being 8 or 9 ft. deep, and 10 per cent, 
from 10 to 12 ft. deep. From the holes 510 cu. yds. of earth 
were excavated, being 1.6 cu. yds. as an average from each 
hole. This large size hole was heeded because the poles were 
extremely large in diameter and heavy — much larger than 
there were needed. This, too, was owing to the specifications, 
which stated the smallest size in diameter that would be 
accepted, but failed to state the largest dimensions that would 
be taken. Some of the poles furnished by the timber con- 
tractor were 3 ft. or more in diameter at the butt. This not 



240 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



only added to the cost of digging the hole, but also to the 
setting of the poles, and other details of the work. Special 
eye bolts had to be made for a large number of the poles, and 
some longer cross-arms had to be obtained to carry the feed 
wires. 

Ten of the 6-ft. holes were dug in quicksand. These gave 
some trouble, and additional expense. An expedient used in 
digging these holes was to take a barrel and after knocking 
the two heads out of it, to put it in the hole. Then all the 
excavation was done from within the barrel, sinking it as the 
hole was dug. Thus the sides of the hole were sheathed, and 
by means of a hand pump the water was kept out, while the 
digging was going on. If the quicksand occurs for a greater 
depth than the height of one barrel, a second barrel should be 
used on top of the first. This second one should be a little 
larger than the first, so it will go down around the lower one. 
The pole must be set in such holes as soon as they are dug. 

The total cost of digging the 320 holes was as follows : 

Foreman $ 77.80 

Laborers 349-35 

Total $427.15 

This gave the following cost per hole : 

Foreman ? $0.24 

Laborers 1.09 

Total $1.33 

The cost per cubic yard for the 510 cu. yds. was: 

Foreman $0.13 

Laborers •. 0.68 

Total $0.81 

The cost per lineal foot of single track for the hole digging 
was as follows : 

Foreman $0,005 

Laborers 0.020 

Total $0,025 



APPENDIX B. 241 

Group IV, This was for 2,188 lin. ft. of single track, a 
branch of the other line. The curves were sharper, hence the 
poles on the curves were closer than on. the main line. The 
poles were all less than 20 ins. in diameter, so the holes were 
made 2 ft. in diameter. There were 64 poles, and only a few 
of the holes were deeper than 6 ft. About 19 cu. ft. were ex- 
cavated from «ach hole, no underground braces being used. 
This made 45 cu. yds. excavated from the 64 holes. The cost 
of digging the holes was: 

Foreman $ 9.00 

Laborers 40.50 

Total $49.50 

The cost per hole was as follows : 

Foreman $0.14 

Laborers 0.65 

Total • $0.79 

The following was the cost per cubic yard : 

Foreman $0.20 

Laborers 0.90 

Total ; $1.10 

The cost per lineal foot of single track for the digging was 
as follows: 

Foreman $0,004 

Laborers 0.018 

Total $0,022 

Group V, This was side pole construction for single track, 
using a bracket made of pipe, on the pole. There were 5,700 
lin. ft. of this construction, the poles being spaced about 80 ft. 
apart. Only a few of the holes were deeper than 6 ft., but as 
the poles were large ones the holes were 35^ ft. in diameter. 
The bracing blocks were used for these poles. An average 
of 36 cu. ft. was excavated from each hole, and, as there were 
69 holes, 92 cu. yds. were excavated. 



242 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

The cost of digging the holes was : 

Foreman $12.00 

Laborers 54-00 



Total $66.00 

This gives a cost per hole of: 

Foreman $0.18 

Laborers 1 0.78 



Total $0.96 

The cost per cubic yard was as follows: 

Foreman $0.13 

Laborers 0.59 



Total ^ $0.72 

The cost per lineal foot of single track was : 

Foreman $0,002 

Laborers .- o.oio 



Total $0,012 

A comparison of the cost of each group is shown in the 
following table, also the average cost for the entire job : 

Cost Cost Cost per lin. ft. 
Total per per Double Single No. 
cost. hole. cu. yd. track. track, poles. 



Group I . 
Group II 
Group III 
Group IV 
Group V 
Average . 



$123.15 $1.50 $0.60 $0,026 82 

106.10 1.21 1. 16 0.023 88 

427.15 1.33 0.81 $0,025 320 

49.50 0.79 1. 10 0.022 64 

66.00 0.96 0.72 0.012 69 

1.24 0.82 0.0245 0.0235* 



♦Bracket construction (Group V) left out of this average. 

It will be noticed that the cost per hole varied directly with 
the size of the hole. Adding to the diameter and the depth in- 
creased the cost. The cost per cubic yard was high when the 
hole was small and low when the hole was large. The cost 



APPENDIX B. 243 

per lineal foot for span wire construction varied but little. 
Naturally the single track was about the same as double 
track. 

^Electrical Conduit Construction at Memphis, Tenn. — 
Underground conduits for electric wires are coming into such 
general use in our larger cities that information concerning 
the engineering of conduit work and the cost of installing 
conduits must needs be useful to owners and managers of 
electric lighting and other companies who may be called upon 
to remove poles from the streets in certain portions of their 
cities or towns and place the wires underground. 

The preliminary engineering work includes the planning of 
the conduit system, with the street location of ducts and man- 
holes ; deciding on style and number of ducts to be used and 
methods of laying, locating manholes and service boxes, pre- 
paring the drawings, estimating the cost of the work, and 
getting matters in such shape that bids may be asked or the 
work carried out by day labor under the supervision and 
general direction of the company's engineer. As the writer 
recently put in about 250,000 ft. of duct at Memphis, Tenn., 
first planning the system, then making the estimates, and 
finally having all the work done by the day, this article will 
deal with work done in this way. 

The city of Memphis had already a district i J4 x ^ miles 
served by underground conduits. The plant of the Memphis 
Consolidated Gas & Electric Co. is situated ^-mile east of 
the eastern limit of this underground district, and it was 
decided to install a duct system to connect the plant with that 
district, so that the business portion of the city would have 
electric light and power by a complete underground system 
from the generating plant to the customers' premises. For 
this purpose there were required when the work began, 12 
ducts for 2,300-voIt alternating current feeders, 4 ducts for 
500-volt direct current feeders, 2 ducts for three-phase alter- 
nating current feeders and 3 ducts on each run for distribu- 
tion purposes, making 21 ducts if all were run on one street, 
or 24 ducts if runs were made on two streets. 



•Reprinted from an article by F. A. Proutt In Engineering News, April 
14, 1904. 



244 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTIOX. 



The plant is situated on Beale St., some distance east from 
the south end of the old underground district. If all ducts 
were run down Beale St., it would have been necessary, on 
reaching the underground district at Hernando St., to run 
a number of cables to the north end of the district and put in 
enough extra ducts for future business. In time the question 
of distributing the cables from Beale and Hernando Sts. to 
their various terminals would have been a serious one. conse- 
quently it was decided to make two runs from the plant, the 
plant then being at one point of a triangle, as shown in 
Fig. 91 ; and then branching one of the feeders so that three 
sets of feeders are connected with the underground district 
about equally distant apart. This, method requires 24 ducts 
for present requirements. 




Fig. 91.— A£ap of Underground Conduit System. 



As the city is growing very rapidly it was estimated that at 
some future time the load would be double that at present, 
but if it increased more than this it would be better to put 
in a duct line on another street. It was, therefore, decided 
to put 2y ducts on Beale St. to De Soto St. and branch at this 
point, continuing 18 on Beale St. to Hernando St., and run- 
ning 18 to Monroe St. The two i8-duct runs make 36 in 
place of 2y, but the object of putting 18 in each case in place 
of 12 and 15 was that the cost was very little more, and it 
gave a choice of taking 18 cables on either run, which might 
be a great consideration at some future time should heavy 
business develop in some particular locality. On the Adams 
St. run it was decided to put 18 ducts, making a total of 45 
ducts from the plant with present requirements of 24. Decid- 
ing on how many extra ducts to put in is a matter of personal 



opinion and must be determined largely by the amount of 
money that the tlectric company cares to spend. 

After deciding on the number of ducts and the streets on 
which they shall be nm, comes the location of manholes and 
service boxes. -\s a general rule manholes should be placi'd 
at all street intersections and the engineer should, with two or 
three assistants, walk over the proposed duct route. One of 
these assistants should carry a bucket of black asphalt paint 
and the other two a ta])e line. Heginning at one end of the 
line, a manhole should be located and a spot painted on an 



Fig. 92.— SlardBid Manliole and Senice Box, 

adjacent wall or fence to mark its center. For convenience in 
distinguishing manholes from service boxes, a cross for the 
former and a circle for the latter answer very well. 

The men with tape line then start from the first manhole 
mark, and the engineer should have a city map of some kind. 
On this he locales the manholes, then the service boxes be- 
tween the manholes, and marks the distances, so that when a 
section of street has been gone over a rough map has been 
made showing locations of manholes and service boxes and 
<listances between them. When construction begins the paint 
marks give a ready means of finding locations. 



246 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



X 



Manholes should not be over 500 ft. apart, unless in excep- 
tional cases ; but may be 500 ft. without giving trouble in 
pulling the cables, provided, of course, 
that the run between manholes is rea- 
sonably straight. The service boxes 
should be located entirely with refer- 
ence to building along the route and 
should be, as a rule, located so that 
the center of the box is on a line be- 
tween two lots on one side of the 
street or the other. In other words, 
all boxes should be so located that the 
laterals from them may be run to the 
greatest number of buildings with the 
shortest laterals possible. Some boxes 
may be only 80 ft. apart and some 
may be 220 ft., but they will average 
about 150 ft. As already stated, the 
ducts were put in for running feeders 
to the old underground district, but in 
all underground work the distribution 
system along the route should be ta- 
ken care of while the work is being 
done and this is the purpose of the 
ser\'ice box. A manhole artd service 
box are shown in Fig. 92, The service 
boxes, as shown, are 3 ft. square, and 
deep enough to take in only the three 
upper ducts of the conduit. 

After deciding on the streets to be 
used, the number of ducts, and loca- 
tions of manholes and service boxes 
as far as it is possible to locate the two 
latter from the surface of the street (for 
usually street paving covers a number 
of obstacles to conduit work), street 
maps may be got out. as shown in 
Fig. 93 (original scale 50 ft. to i in.) and the estimate on thf 
cost of the work made up. Making an estimate on work of 




APPENDIX B. 247 

this kind is somewhat difficult, for the engineer does not know 
what he may find under the paving, or what kind of weather 
will prevail. These two features are very important factors 
in the cost of the work. 

It is a good plan for the company's engineeer to take the 
City Engineer into his confidence, as either he or some of his 
employes know much about locations of fire cisterns, water 
and gas pipes, sewers, etc. In putting in the work mentioned 
in this article, we found that submitting all our plans to the 
City Engineer before beginning any work, benefited us, not 
only in the good feeling this created, but in the fund of in- 
formation to be obtained from him and his assistants, and in 
the very timely suggestions he often had to offer for overcom- 
ing obstacles that might be encountered in carrying on this 
work. If you find out from the City Engineer which of his 
assistants has been longest connected with the sewer depart- 
ment, this individual can usually tell you not only how to 
drain the manholes but practically where all the pipes in the 
street are located. 

The very first thing to be decided, however, in making up 
the estimate, is the style of duct to be used. There are several 
kinds on the market ; wood, cement, paper, vitrified clay, etc. 
While all are no doubt good, we believe that the vitrified clay 
is the best. We also think that multi-duct section is better 
than single-duct section, and in our work used 6-duct section 
and 3-duct section only. We adopted the practice of entirely 
surrounding the conduit with concrete. As this is only a 
protection against picks of workmen in making other exca- 
vations, and also to prevent dirt from washing in at the 
joints, a really good concrete is not necessary ; still it should 
not be too poor. We used Portland cement concrete, with 
crushed rock (washed gravel may be used with good results), 
making the mixture i part cement, 4 of sand and 8 of crushed 
rock. In any ordinary ground this makes a thoroughly satis- 
factory mixture. The thickness of concrete should be 3 ins. 
all around the conduit. In the above mixture, the finished 
volume of concrete will be practically the same as the volume 
of stone : the sand and cement simply filling the interstices 
between the sloncs, and as Portland cement has practically 



248 TELEFHOSE COSSTRUCTION, 

4 cu. ft. to the barrel, the cost of concrete may be readily 
estimated. 

The next thing will be the amount of dirt to be handled, 
which can be easily estimated. The price of handling will 
depend largely on the disposition to be made of the dirt, and 
the relative amount of backfilling as compared with total ex- 
cavations. In laying multiple-duct conduits it is better io 
make a narrow deep ditch and put the sections one on top of 
the other, than to have a shallow wide ditch. The time 
of laying will be much less in the former case, less dirt will 
have to be moved, less pavement will be torn up. and less 
concrete used. The top of the concrete should not be less 
than 30 ins. below surface of paving. This gives room for 
water and gas services, and puts a good cushion of earth 
above the ducts, so that there is no chance of very heavy 
vehicles crushing the duct material. 

In an i8-duct run made up of multiple ducts of six sections 
each, each section would measure about 9x 13 ins., and laying 
three sections one above the other would require a ditch as 
follows: 3 ins. for lower concrete, 3 ins. for upper concrete. 
2y ins. for ducts, 30 ins. for earth and paving above ducts, or 
a total depth of 5^4 ^t. The width will be 13 ins. for duct and 
3 ins. on each side for concrete, making 19 ins. From this the 
amount of earth to be excavated can be estimated and also 
the amount to be backfilled. 

In the work covered bv this article, manholes are located 
about 500 ft. apart, and the service boxes have 3-duct open- 
ings, so that at any future time the secondary system may be 
changed from overhead to underground without any further 
cUict work, except the running of lateral mains from the duct 
system to the premises of customers. The number of ducts 
provided for is approximately 75 per cent, more than the num- 
ber at present required, and should provide for all future re- 
quirements for an indefinite period. In fact, when the busi- 
ness done in the present underground district reaches the limit 
of the ducts proxided. it would bo desirable to run a third set 
of ducts from the plant to the business portion of the city 
down some other street. This is ])ocause it is undesirable 

t 

to run more than 2S cables over anv one route, as the cost 
uf distribution from the point where the feeders strike the 



APPENDIX B. 



249 



niai4i underground system wotdd, after j^oing a certain dis- 
tance, be greater than the cost of running a new set of feeders 
over another street, and striking nearer the desired center of 
distribution As the city increases in population, of course, 
the amount of current used in the underground district will 
increase and the district will be enlarged from time to time; 
where pgle lines have to be rebuilt, it will be a better invest- 
ment to discontinue them and build an underground service. 

The distances are about as follows: i. Power plant to 
4th Alley and Adams St., 6,000 ft. (18 ducts). 2. Power plant 
to Beale and De Soto Sts., 4,000 ft. (27 ducts). 3. De Soto 
St. and alley north of Monroe St. to 4th Alley, 2,000 ft. (18 
ducts). 4. Beale St., from De Soto to Hernando Sts., 500 ft. 
(18 ducts). In all there will be about 13,150 ft. of conduit, 
with 264,300 ft. of duct, and a summary of the cost of duct 
work will be as follows: 

Trench and moving earth, at $1 per cu. yd. (including 

backfilling, tamping and hauling away surplus) $ 4,550 

Concreting, at $4 per cu. yd 4,180 

Duct material, at 6^4 cts. per duct-ft 16,519 

Duct laying, 3^ ct. per duct-ft IjS^i 

40 manholes, $250 each (this allows $100 for the drain 

from manholes) 10,000 

40 service boxes, $35 each 1 400 

Tearing out concrete in streets 400 

Replacing concrete 700 

Repaving 500 

City inspection of the work 600 

Engineering 2,000 

Incidental expenses (lighting, watching, etc.) i,ooo 

Tools, lumber, etc 1,000 

Total $44*170 

Add 5 per cent, for contingencies 2,208 

Total cost of duct work $46,378 

The total estimated cost of work was $46,378, and as the 
work was done by the day we will next take up the method 
of doing it and compare the actual cost of the different ma- 



250 TliLlirnOXE coxstruction. 

terials with the estimated cost. In this way we can see the 
errors made in estimating and bring out especially the fact 
that in estimating work of this kind, too much care cannot be 
taken in going into the special features of the work, such as 
crossing streams and subways, and making connections at the 
station end. Crossing streams of water is very expensive, as' 
a special structure has often to be built for this work, an 
example of which is described later. In laying out a duct 
system it is well to avoid as far as possible all streets having 
concrete and brick or asphalt pavements, streets passing over 
railway tracks or streams of water, and streets having car 
tracks. Of course some of each must be encountered, but 
often parallel street or alleys will answer for main lines of 
duct systems at a great saving in cost of construction. 

After making up the estimate on the work and having it 
passed by the proper authorities, the next thing to consider is 
whether the work shall be put in by contract or day work. 
The cost of engineering on the work during construction will 
be practically the same (as far as the company is concerned) 
in either case. Cost of inspection will be more for the com- 
pany if work is done by contract, as inspectors will have to 
be employed to see that contractors are complying with 
specifications, while if work is done by the day the foremen 
take the place of the inspectors and are actually pushing the 
work along. Materials and labor can, as a rule, be purchased 
as cheaply by the company as by a contractor, but if a com- 
pany cannot get the proper men to handle the work, it should 
by all means let the work by contract, as day work would be 
a losing proposition. If such men can be had, the chances are 
that the company can do the work as cheaply as a contractor 
and save the contractor's profits. As a rule, however, con- 
tract work will be the cheaper method. In our case, the 
writer had had a somewhat extensive experience in conduit 
work and had several men who had been employed in this 
class of work for several years, so the proper thing seemed to 
be to carry out the work by the day, and this plan was pur- 
sued. All the items of cost quoted hereafter are exact, and 
obtained from practical experience with the work. 

In carrying on the work the first thing to have is a good 
organization of labor. There should be: i. a general fore- 



APPEKDI.K li. 



25' 



man ; 2, a foreman of pipe layers ; 3, a foreman of concrete 
mixing gang; 4, a foreman in charge of digging for manholes 
and service boxes; 5, a foreman in charge of backfilling and 
hauling away dirt. Also, a timekeeper; this position is a 
very important one, and the man filling it should be young, 
well educated and thoroughly reliable. 




FlR. 94.— Portable Tool Box. 

The foreman should not be an engineer, but rather a man 
■who has worked a gang laying sewer, water or gas pipe, or 
had experience in ditching, as this man must take the lead and 
keep the trench opened up. We were fortunate enough to 
obtain a man of this Tcind at $18 per week. We have found 
that a good foreman always has a big following of laborers 
who will go on the work with him, provided, of course, the 



Fig, 95,— Portable Cement House. 

work will last several months. This foreman was hired a 
month before work began, and was kept busy with one or two 
laborers building boxes in which to mix mortar for the brick 
masons, building platforms on which to dump concrete, mak- 
ing gages for the ditchers (which are simply pieces of lath cut 
to the width of the trench), making small platforms to put 



252 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

across the trench at people's jjates. and wide bridges to put 
across the trench at street intersections. All these must be 
got ready before work is begun. 

Then an outfit of tools must be made up. This, in our case, 
consisted of the following: 

2 dozen wheelbarrows. 

7 dozen round point shovels. 

1 dozen square point shovels. 
7 dozen picks. 

30 iron tamping bars. 
36 red lanterns. 

2 axes. 

6 or 8 balls of cotton cord. 

25 lbs. 20-penny nails. 

2 claw hammers. 

3 hand saws. 
I hatchet. 

1 bundle oakum. 

2 "dromedarv" concrete mixers. 

4 or 5 crow bars. 
4 chisel bars. 3 ft. 
6 sledge hammers. 

2,000 ft. common lumber, 1x6 ins., 14 ft. 

We had four large portable tool boxes, made as shown in 
Fig. 94, and a small portable cement house, Fig. 95. The tools 
also included 24 galvanized pails, and 50 ft. of 2j4-in. hose 
with a i-in. faucet in the end. 

While the foreman was making up the platforms, contracts 
were made for stone, sand, cement, water, etc. The ducts had, 
of course, been ordered some time previous, or in fact as soon 
as it was decided to put in the work. The following letter 
was sent out to each of several manufacturers : 

"We are now in the market for 45,000 ft. of 6-duct section, 
making 270,000 duct-ft., and 4,666 ft. of 3-duct section, making 
14,000 duct-ft., or 284,000 duct-ft. of underground conduit 
material. In addition to this we will require 200 pieces of 
6-duct section 6 ins. long; 200 pieces 12 ins. long, and 200 
pieces 18 ins. long. These pieces are for turning curves and 
finishing out at manholes. 



APPENDIX B. 253 

"We will require the necessary dowel pins to use in lining; 
up the ducts. We also require that the 284,000 duct-ft. of 
material be made up in 3-ft. lengths. 

"Kindly quote us price as soon as possible on this material 
delivered f. o. b. cars Memphis, your company to stand all 
breakage that occurs in transit. The material must be thor- 
oughly vitrified and glazed, and be entirely free of scales or 
projections on the inside of the ducts, and all crooked pieces 
will not be accepted. In other words, we want to purchase 
first-class material." 

It will be noted that- the letter calls for 284,000 duct-ft. in 
place of 264,300 as estimated, the excess being intended to 
cover breakages and also for some short lateral runs that it 
was thought it might be advisable to put in with the balance 
of the work. Even should some duct material be left over, 
it would be good stock, not suffering from exposure to weather 
even if carried on hand for a year or two. 

It will be noted also that ducts were to be delivered f. o. b. 
Memphis, and all crooked, broken or badly glazed pieces re- 
jected. When the contract for ducts was finally placed (at 
5^ cts. per duct-ft.) and the material began to arrive, it was 
found that each car would contain from one to a dozen pieces, 
out of which corners would be broken. The engineer then 
agreed to accept all such broken pieces at half the price of a 
sound piece. That is a 6-duct section 3 ft. long would contain 
18 duct-ft. and be worth 99 cts.; but if a corner was broken 
off the section, it would be accepted at 4934 cts. All such 
damaged pieces were used in the top run of ducts in the 
trench and a piece of sheet zinc placed over the hole caused 
by the comer being broken off. Duct and zinc were all finally 
covered with concrete. This method of accepting damaged 
pieces was considered satisfactory by all parties concerned. 

All 6-duct sections were supposed to be 3 ft. long and all 
3-duct sections, 2 ft. long. Owing to uneven shrinkage in 
the clay, however, the manufacturers are unable to make the 
material run exactly to length ; some pieces would come 34 
ins. long, some 35 ins. and some 36 ins. As each car arrived 
it was unloaded, each piece examined and gaged, and shortage 
noted. The shipper was then notified of value of shortage 
and breakage and he issued a credit l)ill covering the amount. 



254 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



These credits run all the way from $i to $10.50 for shortage, 
and from 50 cts. to $20 per car for breakage, so that they 
were well worth considering. The 3-duct sections were 
bought 2 ft. long in place of 3 ft., as the manufacturers claimed 
they could turn out much straighter material in 3-duct sec- 
tions of the shorter length ; as the price per duct-ft. was the 
same in either case, we conceded the point. 

The engineer should not reject crooked pieces, but rather 
put them in a class by themselves, as they will be found most 
useful in making curves where it is necessary to run the duct 
line over or under obstacles that may be encountered in the 
trench. There is, however, one class of duct that should be 
rejected always, and that is the section which measures 9x 13 
ins. at one end and lox 14 ins. at the other. If accepted and 
hauled to the ditch to be laid, much trouble will result from 
attempting to make its big end coincide with the small end of 
a neighboring section. 

The specifications above quoted will be found entirely satis- 
factory to the purchaser, as it gives him the authority to reject 
unfit material and the shipper stands breakage in transit. In 
all such transactions the engineer should be fair minded and 
be willing to pay a fair price for all material that can be 
utilized, thus making the shipper feel that he is at least being 
honestly dealt with. 

It will be noted that the duct specifications call for a certain 
number of short pieces, 6, 12 and 18 ins. long. Agents selling 
ducts will frequently state that their ducts can be cut like 
cheese. But as short sections can be bought at the same price 
per duct-ft. as long sections, it pays infinitely better to buy a 
few short lengths than to find out from experience that cut- 
ting a vitrified clay duct is much the same as cutting a glass 
lamp chimney with a pair of shears. Following up the idea of 
buying pieces of any desired length, when all our duct laying 
had been completed, except evening up the ends in manholes, 
we ordered a lot of short sections,- i, 2 and 3 ins. long to do 
this. So that from beginning to end we decided to let the 
manufacturer do all cutting for us, and we simply butted the 
ends together and put in the dowel pins. 

In work of this kind, all material should be purchased to 
be delivered right on the work if possible. We bought i^-in. 



APPENDIX B. 255 

crushed stone (with the dust not sifted out), delivered on the 
work, at 10 cts. per 100 lbs., or from $2.50 to $3 per cu. yd., 
there being a difference in the weight of different limestones 
per cu. yd. Sand was bought in the same way at $1.25 per cu. 
yd. and "Diamond" Portland cement at $2.10 per bbl. deliv- 
ered. Cast-iron tops for manholes and service boxes were 
bought at $1.90 per 100 lbs., each top weighing 1,150 lbs. 
Hard bricks delivered on the work cost us $7 to $7.50 per 1,000 
and an arrangement was made with a firm of brick contractors 
to furnish us all the masons and laborers we needed at $6 and 
$2 per day, respectively. Teams were engaged at $4 per day 
for two horses and driver, and $3 per day for one horse, cart 
and driver. Two or three private carts belonging to colored 
citizens were hired at $2.50 per day, including a driver. A 
contract was made with the water company to allow the use 
of all the water required on the work for $50, and then per- 
mission had to be obtained from the Fire Department to 
attach hose to the fire hydrants as these hydrants belong to 
the city. 

After all arrangements of this kind had been made, the 
other foremen were employed and work was begun. For a 
timekeeper we engaged a young man who had worked for us 
a year and then entered Purdue University to take an elec- 
trical engineering course. He was then on his vacation, the 
work commencing July 6, 1903. The foreman of concrete 
mixers was also a former employe, and a fellow student of the 
timekeeper. The wages of these men were $2 and $2.25 per 
day, respectively. The foreman who looked after manhole 
and service box excavations received $2 per day, and the same 
was paid to a foreman who looked after hauling dirt, while 
one of our regular men at $16.50 per week saw that conduit 
material was always on the ground and kept up with little 
details of all kinds. 

Everything being ready, a Monday morning was chosen for 
the start. The general foreman lined up his men, and the 
timekeeper took their names. The wagon loaded up the tool 
boxes and placed them along the proposed trench line, and the 
cement house was placed at a point about 300 ft. from the 
starting of the trench. The sand, cement and crushed rock 
men were notified to deliver material, and work was begun. 



256 TliLEPHOSE COXSTRUCTION. 

As soon as the trench was well started, a manhole excavation 
was commenced, and when this was done the brick masons 
began work. Duct sections were hauled out from the storage 
yard (which was located on a railway siding and rented for 
this purpose at $10 per month) on two-horse platform wagons, 
tw-o of them being kept busy all the time. The duct was piled 
along beside the trench in a continuous line, at such a distance 
from it as would leave room for a wheelbarrow to pass be- 
tween the trench and the ducts, with openings about 50 ft. 
apart in the pile of ducts to allow the wheelbarrows to pass 
through. 

The mixer was of the ^'dromedary'* type, in which the con- 
crete is mixed during transportation. It held about -/ji-cu. yd. 
and was charged as follows : A little sand is first put in, then 
iJ4 sacks of cement (which was all delivered in sacks), then 
more sand, then the stone. A test mixture was first made of 
I cement, 4 sand, and 8 stone. After this, the sand was gaged 
by a mark on the mixer, the cement by the bag, and stone 
enough added to fill the mixer. The door was then closed and 
the mixer driven about 150 ft. to the water plug and water 
enough put in to make a good wet concrete. This amount of 
water was from 6 to 8 pails, depending on the amount of dust 
in the stone. It was then driven to the dumping place and 
dumped at these places planks being located close to the trench 
and close to where ducts were being laid. 

The dumping boards were platforms 6x 12 ft., made of two 
thicknesses of i-in. pine, one thickness laid lengthwise and 
one crosswise. At each outside edge of the platform was a 
piece of timber 2x4 ins., and rope handles, so that the plat- 
form could be picked up and carried along as the work moved 
ahead. Two platforms were placed end to end, making a 
platform 24 ft. long, which gave ample room to dump ma- 
terial. On unpaved streets platforms are very essential for 
good work. The mixers required two mules each and cost 
up to $200 per mixer, f. o. b. Washington. They are espe- 
cially suited for conduit work, saving a great deal of labor in 
wheeling by barrows for long distances. 

The ditchers worked close together in the trench. A line 
was stretched 4 ft. from the curb as a rule, and the trench run 



APPENDIX B. 257 

outside this line, each ditcher having a gage 19 ins. long (the 
width of the trench) to work by. 

In laying ducts, the following method was followed : First, 
the 3-in. concrete bottom was put in ; then the boss duct man 
and his helper got in the ditch and laid the lower run. Two 
men on the bank would hand down the sections by means of 
a rope run through one of the holes. As soon as the first runs 
had been started a few lengths, the second run would begin 
and so with the third and fourth and fifth, taking four men 
for each run or layer. The pipe used had dowel pin holes 
on the outside or around the periphery of the duct, which is 
the most convenient place for them as far as the duct layers 
are concerned. In a 6-duct section there were six dowel holes 
on each end. We only used 3 pins, however, in each end, one 
at each side and one on top. 

The joint was made as follows : A piece of cheap domestic 
canvas 5 ins. wide and 5 ft. long was laid on the bottom of 
the ditch before the duct was put in position, then when the 
duct sections were in place there would be a piece lying 
directly under the joint. A boy followed each set of layers 
and wrapped the canvas up around the joint, overlapping the 
end and painting the lap with black asphaltum. This makes a 
firSt-class joint, as the canvas is only to serve the purpose of 
keeping the concrete out of ducts, and the cheaper this pur- 
pose can be accomplished, the better. As about 30,000 of 
these pieces of canvas were used on the work, a method had to 
be devised for cutting them. The canvas was purchased in 
bolts, costing 5 cts. per yd. A rough table was made with a 
?aw-cut in it 5 ins. from one edge, and at this edge was a 
strip against which to push the bolt of cloth. A large butcher 
knife was then run through the saw-cut and cloth, cutting off 
a piece 5 ins. wide and the length of the bolt. This piece 
was wound on a reel whose circumference was 5 ft. and a cut 
through the cloth at the circumference made pieces 5 ft. long. 
This method was original, simple and thoroughly satisfactory. 

In an i8-duct run the method of opening three top ducts 
into the service box was to put in a piece of 3-duct section at 
the box in place of 6-duct section. This made the lower three 
ducts pass through and left the upper three open. 



258 TELEPHOXE COXSTRUCTIO.W 

The only skilled labor employed was for laying brick. The 
brick masons would lay up the walls of the manholes to the 
proper height, then move to the next hole. The gang excavat- 
ing manholes would then return to the hole left by the brick 
masons and put up a temporary wood ceiling laying on it (and 
projecting over the walls) some pieces of old rail ; they then 
put a box where the cover was to be and left it. The concrete 
men would then put on 10 ins. of concrete and the hole was 
complete, ready for the cast-iron cover. This concrete rein- 
forced by old rails makes a first-class top. The rails cost 
about $5 for each manhole, 5x7 ft., and the concrete about the 
same amount. The manholes, Fig. 92, are not square but 
octagonal in shape. 

As it is the intention to use paper insulated cables almost 
entirely in these ducts, and as from past experience we have 
found that paper insulation will not stand sharp bends like 
rubber covered cables, we decided to make the manholes of 
such shape that sharp bends could not be made in the cables. 
In building manholes it is well to have a standard size, but 
this standard cannot always be adhered to. In other words, 
manholes must be made to suit conditions and almost any 
shape will do, but by all means avoid making them too small. 
A manhole should not be less than 5 x 7 f t. inside, and every 
manhole should be drained. We had one case where a man- 
hole drain cost $300, but the average cost was less than $100. We 
would, however, have put in the drains had they cost $300 each. 

In carrying on this work is is well to remember that the 
main point of consideration is laying ducts. Therefore let the 
instructions to foremen morning, noon and night be to "lay 
ducts." Another thing to remember on quitting at night is 
that next day it may be raining; therefore, prepare for the 
morrow. Do not put conduit in 400 or 500 ft. of trench and 
leave it with no concrete around it. Every bit of pipe laid 
during the day should be covered with concrete before it is 
left at night. Following up this idea we had a number of 
times to work concrete men until 8 p. m. to get the work cov- 
ered. For this overtime we paid them time and a half. The 
consequence was that we never had to pull out any work in 
the morning, and we lost less than $100 during the whole work 
on account of bad weather. 



APPENDIX IL 



^59 



Another thing to keep in mind is that seven or eight men 
can excavate and build manholes, but it requires 75 or 100 
men to trench and lay ducts; therefore, do not excavate for 
manholes faster than the masons can build them. Dig the 
trench straight through where the manhole is to be; lay 
ducts up to it on one side, then leave a space for the manhole 
and start laying ducts again on the other side. Always start 
all the duct runs even; that is, if there are four tiers of ducts, 
see that in starting, the ends all even up so that they will be 
flush with the manhole v/all when it is built. But in ending 
the run at the next manhole opening, do not waste time 
trying to get the ends even, get them within 6 ins. or so and 
let them stand. Have the masons, in building around these 
uneven ends, leave the hole slack so that short pieces may be 




Conduit CroMbig a Number of SmoM PIpM. 




mni 




a Manhol« under 
Dtmcumoft. 



Fig. 96.— Examples of Difflcult Work at Obstructions. 

inseited after all other work has been cleared up. Do not let 
masons do any duct fittmg at all. A couple of men can fill in 
short pieces wherever needed in a few days at the windup of 
the work, while they would delay all the pipe layers, bank men 
and concrete men in trying to do so when the whole work is 
being carried on. 

It would be well to have ducts run in perfectly straight lines 
and without dips or pockets, but this in practice cannot be 
done. Perhaps the very first day the engineer will be con- 
fronted by the general foreman with the information that a 
24-in. water main crosses the trench and the top of the main is 
only 6 ins. below the grade of the street. The engineer cannot 
sit down and make elaborate calculations as to the evil results 
of a dip in the duct line. While he is doing that, men are 



26o TELEI'IIOSE COSSTRUCriOS. 

standing idle. He must do the best thing that can be done 
under the circumstances. If running an i8-duct section, put 
12 ducts over the pipe and 6 under, and put 6 ins. of concrete 
on top of the ducts in place of 3 ins. Also arrange the ducts 
as shown in Fig. 96 to save concrete. If the earth is well 
lamped it will not settle after the concrete has set. Again, 
you may strike a lot of pipes, say 4 ft, from the surface and 
right close to a proposed manhole. In our case we had the 
following problem: A large brick culvert crossed the ditch 
about 4 ft. from the surface, also two sewers and a water 
pipe. Two rows of the ducts were carried over the pipes, etc.. 
and after crossing the obstructions, put back in the regular 
form of run, three in a tier. Fig, 96 shows work of this kind. 



In another case, Fig. 97, a bayou had to be crossed under a 
bridge. This bridge was an old one and liable to be pulled 
down and replaced by a new one, so the duct line must be 
put over the bayou in such a way that the removal of the 
bridge would not interfere with the ducts. The method 
adopted was as shown : Four lo-in. channels 50 ft. long were 
purchased and made up into a truss with side lattice bars. A 
manhole was built at one side of the bridge and a pier built 
a+ one end of the manhole, and as part of it, the manhole 
foundation being 12 ins. of concrete reinforced with old rails. 
A pier of concrete 6 x 8 x 4 ft. thick was built on the other side 
of the bridge and the truss rested on these two piers, entirely 
independent of the bridge structure. The ducts were then 
laid through the truss and ducts and truss enclosed in con- 
crete, making practically a reinforced concrete beam. The 



APPBSDIX B. 261 

object of enclosing the truss in concrete was to prevent the 
steel from rusting. 

In cases where we had about 20 sewer pipes crossing the 
ditch in 200 ft., the same means were employed in running the 
ducts as with the large water main. That is, one run of ducts 
was put under the sewers and covered on all sides with con- 
crete, then earth tamped into the top of the sewer pipes, then 
a new concrete bottom put in 3 ins. thick and the balance of 
ducts put in and concrete around. 

It is advisable to have a report each night of the trench-feet 
and duct-feet put in for the day. At the end of each week, 
when the payroll is made up, the duct-feet laid for the week 
should also be made up and the price of labor per duct-foot 
calculated. The greatest amount of work done by us in any 
one day was 15,156 duct-feet in 703 ft. of trench. All our 
trenches were 19 ins. wide, and when 18 ducts were put in the 
depth was 554 ft., while when 27 ducts were put in, the depth 
was 6J4 ft. The 27-ducts run was made up of 4 multiples of 
6 each and one multiple of 3, making 5 sections of ducts in a 
tier. 

Our payroll on the work for all purposes for the 18 weeks 
was from $36 to $1,279, ^^^ with $350 for preliminary work, 
putting in sewer traps, evening up ends of duct lines in man- 
holes, etc., the total cost for all labor was $11,525. Of the 
amount, $1424 was for labor on excavation, building manholes 
and service boxes ; $2,356 for labor on sewer work, and $7,745 
for trenching, mixing concrete, laying ducts, backfilling and 
hauling away surplus dirt. As the amount of duct laid was 
251,991 duct-ft., the cost for labor was 3.07 cts. per duct-ft. 
The total cost of cement used was $2,196, or practically 1,046 
barrels. Of this amount there was used for brickwork in 
manholes, 160 barrels ($336) : for brickwork in service boxes, 
12 barrels ($25.20), and for jointing drain pipe, 5 barrels 
($10.50). This leaves $1,824 as the cost of cement used in 
concrete. 

The total amount of sand used cost $776.54 for 635 cu. yds., 
or an average cost of $1.22 per yd. Of this sand, 74 yds. were 
used for manhole and service-box brickwork, leaving 561 yds. 
for concrete work, the cost of which was $684.42. The total 
amount of broken stone used was 2,713,500 lbs., costing 



262 TELEPHOSE COXSTRUCTION, 

$2,713.50, so that the total cost of all concrete work was 
$1,824 ^or cement, $68442 for sand, and $2,713.50 for stone, 
making $5,221.92 for practically 1,000 cu. yds. of concrete, or 
$5.22 per cu. yd. 

Of the concrete 118 yds. were used for manhole bottoms 
and tops and service-box bottoms. The cost of this was 
$615.96, leaving $4,605.96 as the cost of concrete used around 
conduits, or a cost of 1.83 cts. per duct-ft. The total number 
of bricks used for building manholes and serv^ice boxes was 
118,000, which cost $871. There were 32 manholes and 48 
service boxes built, manholes averaging 3,200 bricks each, and 
service boxes 325 bricks each. Service boxes cost complete 
$30.15 each, or $1447 for 48 boxes. The average cost of man- 
holes was $115, without sewer, and the average cost per sewer 
was $76 for labor and $10 for sewer pipe, making $86. The 
average cost of a complete manhole was thus $201. The aver- 
age length of each sewer was 170 ft., 6-in. pipe being used, and 
the total amount paid for sewer pipe being $309.50. Only 31 
sewers were run, as one manhole was built beside an old man- 
hole and the old drain sufficed for both. 

The total cost for tools of all kinds and keeping same in 
repair was practically $800. The cost of city inspection was 
$195. The cost of engineering was about $1,000. The amount 
paid the city for repairing streets was $1,000. The cost of 
various odds and ends, such as cotton cloth for covering joints, 
asphaltum for painting same, dowel pins for keeping ducts in 
alignment, unloading cars and various other incidentals was 
$2,230.71. The steel truss for crossing the Bayou Gayoso 
cost $700, and the sum of $600 was paid for new sidewalks 
where duct lines ran under sidewalk, making a total cost of 
$41,234.56 for all the work done, as shown by our books. A 
summary of the work as completed shows the following: 



Length of Trench. 


No. of 


Length of Duct. 


Ft. 


Ducts. 


Ft. 


216.2 


60 


12,975 


3415-0 


27 


92,205 


7.226.5 


18 


137.277 


324.0 


24 


7,776 


293X> 


6 


1.758 



11.4747 251,991 



APPENDIX B. 263 

The estimated amount of duct-ft. to be laid was 264,300, 
while the actual amount laid was only 251,991 duct-ft. The 
difference was a short run that was not put in, owing to the 
city having laid an asphalt pavement on the desired street, 
and it was thought advisable to leave out this small run until 
such time as its construction would be required. 

The total amount of duct material bought, however, cost 
$15*564, which at 5>^ cts. per ft., would represent 282,987 ft. 
After completing the work we had in stock 28,506 duct-ft. of 
unbroken material or material undamaged in any way. This 
added to the amount put in accounts for 280,497 duct-ft. and 
the difference of 2490 ft. represents the loss by breakage, this 
loss being less than i per cent, of the total amount purchased. 
The loss through breakage can only be kept so low by buying 
the ducts to be delivered f. o. b. at the place where they will 
be used, and arranging for payment for damaged sections, as 
stated earlier in this article. 

Summing up the total results of our experience in doing our 
own construction, we find as follows: 

Estimated Cost of Work. Actual Cost of Work. 

Trenching $ 4,550 Labor on ducts $ 7,745 

Concrete 4,iSo Concrete for ducts. . . 4,606 

Duct material 16,518 48 service boxes i447 

Duct laying 1,321 32 manholes 3,680 

40 manholes 10,000 31 manhole drains... 2,666 

40 service boxes .... 1,400 Duct material 15,564 

Tearing out concrete. 400 Tools 800 

Replacing concrete in City inspection 195 

streets 700 Repaving streets 1,000 

Repaving 500 Steel truss over bayou 700 

City inspection 600 New sidewalks 600 

Engineering 1,000 Incidentals 2,231 

Incidentals 1,000 

Tools, lumber, etc.... 1,000 Total $41,234 

Contingencies, 5%.... 2,208 



Total $46,378 



264 TELEPHOSR COXSTRUCTIOK. 

In regard to the incidentals, $2,231 seems a large amoant. 
But it cost about $7.50 to unload and inspect a car of ducts 
and there were not less than 50 cars; there were used over 
40,000 dowel pins at J^-ct. each, and about five barrels of 
black asphaltum paint at* about $30 per barrel ; we also paid 
$50 for city water and about $100 to plumbers for mending 
broken water pipes (where in trenching the men would occa- 
sionally drive a pick through the lead service pipe). It will 
be seen, therefore, that the amount would soon be made up, as 
the items enumerated are on) a few of the many items em- 
braced in this account. 

Leaving out the cost of manholes, service boxes and man- 
hole drains, it will be noticed that the cost per duct-ft. of the 
work complete was $33,441.56 divided by 251,991 duct-ft., or 
13.27 cts. Had we put in the entire number of duct-feet esti- 
mated and also the number of manholes and services esti- 
mated, our total cost for ducts would have been 264,300 X 
13.27 or $35,072 for ducts, $1,206 for service boxes, and $8,040 
for manholes, making a total of $44,3 18» plus $1,000 per en- 
gineering, which item has not yet been charged in the account. 
Thus at the prices paid, had the original estimate been ad- 
hered to exactly, the cost would have been $45,318 and the 
estimate $46,378. 

One reason for changing the number of manholes was that 
in certain locations before the street was opened, it appeared 
as if two manholes would be required, one on each side of a 
culvert, for instance, while on opening the street one man- 
hole would be found sufficient, with perhaps an ejttra service 
box. 

One item not estimated at all was the steel truss over Bayou 
Gayoso. This was an oversight, but (fortunately) enough 
manholes were left out to more than pay for its construction. 
Another item left out was the iron pipe required from the 
switchboard floor at the power plant to the first manhole. 
The cost of this will be about $800, but will not have to be 
considered until the cables are to be installed. We have, 
however, a large item of credit that has also not been consid- 
ered in the foregoing figures. There is 28,506 duct-ft. of new 
duct material in stock, the value of which is $1,567, and this 



APPENDIX B. j6s 

credit will almost balance the engineering expenses which 
have not yet been charged up, and also the cost of running 
in the station ends of iron pipe, which were not estimated on. 

In conclusion, I would say that throughout the entire work 
we were exceedingly fortunate as to weather, labor, and ma- 
terial to be excavated : and these are the three items which 
may either make or break a contractor. If all are in his favor, 
he will come out ahead, while if all are against him, he is 
almost sure in work of this kind to come out in the hole. We 
have not enough outside data on conduit work to know 
whether our costs are either abnormally small or abnormally 
large, but we do know the figures given are absolutely correct 
and therefore offer them to the readers of the ''Engineering 
Xews" for consideration. 

Cost of Electrical Conduits, Baltimore, Md. — In 1898 the 
electrical commission of Baltimore, Md., was organized to 
build a conduit system for the city, and thus compel all com- 
panies using the streets for poles to carry their wires, to take 
down these poles and place the wires underground. Prior to 
this several short lines of conduit had been laid- in different 
sections of the city by some of the telephone and electric light 
companies, but the real work of building conduits began in 
1898. 

By law the electrical commission consists of the mayor, the 
city register and the president of the board of fire commis- 
sioners. Mr. Chas. E. Phelps, Jr., was appointed chief en- 
{[(ineer, and has continued in this position, designing and build- 
ing a system that to date has cost nearly $2,000,000. Through 
the kindness of Mr. Phelps, and from his reports as chief en- 
gineer, we are able to give the cost of all work done from 
1898 to 1905, inclusive. 

All the construction work has been done by day labor, but 
very careful cost records have been kept and the engineering 
general expenses have been recorded separately from the cost 
of construction. The organization of the department is shown 
by Fig. 98, which is a chart that is self explanatory. The 
materials, except those purchased in small amounts, are all 
boiight by com])t'titivc bidding. 



266 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



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APPENDIX B. 



267 



The construction work commenced March i, 1899, the five 
months previous to that date being consumed in preparing 
plans and details of the system. The city conduit system, as 
a whole, is divided into two general parts, first, the trunk con- 
duits, which are built for the purpose of carrying trunk lines 
and feeders, whether for telephone, telegraph, electric light, 
street railway or other service,, located generally in thorough- 
fares, feeding different sections of the city. These trunk lines 
are laid out to serve these several territories by the most direct 
and feasible route. Second, as the system was originally de- 
signed, the central or congested district of the city was 'laid 
out to be served entirely underground, with underground con- 
nections, in each separate building. Extensions to this terri- 
tory have been necessary. Figure 99 shows the service and 
distributing conduits on a section of a single street. 




Fig. 99.— Service and Distribution Conduits on a Single Street. 



A high standard of work has been aimed at throughout the 
construction. Vitrified terra cotta conduit has been used in all 
conduit lines. This conduit is enveloped in concrete, which 
for the year 1899 and a part of 1900, was entirely of Rosendale 
cement. For the remaining period Portland cement has been 
used. 

In 1899 the uniform thickness of this enveloping coat of 
concrete was 3 ins., except in a few cases where the bottotr. 
was made 4 ins. Since then the thickness has been increased, 
the sides and top being 4 ins., while the bottom has been from 
4 to 6 ins. In all soft ground the bottom concrete has been 
reinforced with steel rods. The mixture for this work has 
been generally 1-3-6. The mixing has been done by hand 
only to a limited degree, the greater part of it being done with 
a dromedary mixer drawn bv a horse. The concrete is 
dumped on the ground by the mixer alongside the trench, and 



j68 TELEPHOSE COXSTRUCTIOS. 

shoveled into place by the men laying the conduit. No forms 
are needed for this concrete under ordinary circumstances. 

At the very beginning of the work, the joints whi-re the con- 
duits knitted together were wrapped with burlap 6 ins. wide, 
saturated in liquid asphaltum compound. The difficulty in 
making air and gas tight joints has always been recognized, 
and while continued efforts are made to secure this, it is 
realized that so far as gas is concerned, the best result obtain- 
able is to minimize its entrance into the system. 



Fig. 100. —Standard Plan uf Brick ManhoU-. 

Expcrinionts along this line carried on during the year 1899 
resulted in a composition of North Carolina pitch tar, refined 
asphalt and wax tailings, which has proven thoroughly ser- 
viceable. The use of burlap was entirely discontinued and 
cheesecloth substituted, the method of applying the joint being 
to |)aint the end of the conduit pieces with the hot compound 
where the wrapper is to be applied; the wrappers are rolled 
up and i^atiiratt'd in the but conipoiiiul and wrapped on while 



APPENDIX B. 



26g 



hot. This joint is expensive, but it is believed that the results 
have justified its use. 

In the construction of all lines of conduit, two or three fiber 
pipes, depending upon the importance of the line, are laid in 
the layer of top concrete for the purpose of providing some 
ready means for arc lights or similar connections from a 
point of the line remote from a manhole without building an 
extra manhole or breaking the line of vitrified pipe. 

Manholes on trunk lines are all constructed of large size. 
A small conduit line, say of twelve ducts, would have a man- 
hole, elliptical in plan," of a minimum of 5 x 8 ft., and of a 
suitable depth, depending upon the grade of the conduit, the 
minimum being 6 ft. The size of the manholes increases with 
the size of the line up to a plan section of 7x 14 ft., which 



j£trt 




EngrCanh: 



Fig. 101. — Diagram of Concrete Manhole. 



would be suitable for the largest line built, namely a line of 
8r ducts. Fig. 100 shows a standard plan of a brick manhole, 
with various styles of roof forms used. Similar manholes 
have been built of concrete. 

On many of the important lines of conduit where it is 
possible for the operation of workmen in the streets to result 
in damage to the manholes, it has been the practice to con- 
struct the manholes of standard form, but of larger propor- 
tionate width, building one-half of the manhole a distance in 
advance of the other half along the line of conduit, so that 
lateral connections may be made from either half of the man- 
hole either way without the necessity of crossing cables. 
The diagram of such a manhole built in concrete is shown 
by Fig. loi. In building manholes it has been the practice 
to clear all obstructions so that no pipes or other obstruc- 



270 



7 LLErilUXE LOSSTRUCTIOX. 



lions pass through the manholes. Thus nothing appears in 
the manholes except the cables for which they are built. 

For concrete manholes for junction boxes and for distribu- 
tion boxes, sectional wooden forms are made in a substantial 
manner, and these forms are used over and over again. In 
this manner the cost of forms has not been material. 

In the central districts of the city it has been necessary to 
under <lrain, during construction, practically all lines of con- 




duit, and the presence of tide water and the poor condition 
of small house drains in the street has necessitated making 
special provisions. There being no system of public sewers, 
and the storm water drains being on such shallow grades, it 
has rarely been possible to drain manholes by gravity. All 
manholes in the central district are drained by means of 
ejectors, operated by water pressure from the city mains. 
The practice followed has been to construct a sump in the 



APPENDIX B. 



271 



center of the floor in each manhole of sufficient size to contain 
a valve operated by a float which controls the supply of 
water into the ejector. This is necessary to lift the water 
to a grade where it can flow by gravity. 

The distributing system consists uniformly of a lo-duct 
laid 2 ducts deep and 5 ducts wide, encased in 4 ins. of Port- 
land cement concrete, the earth covering being almost uni- 
formly 19 ins.; the conduit line opening at intervals into 




EnqrCanh: 



Fig. 103. — Junction Boxes. 



service boxes which, when in sidewalks, are of terra cotta, 
circular in form and 36 ins. in diameter, having walls 2^ ins. 
thick, and a cast iron frame 5 ins. in depth to allow for side- 
walk paving. 

The main conduits, or trunk lines are laid in the streets 
or alleys, but many of the distributing ducts are laid under 
the sidewalks, and frequently on both sides of the street. The 
house connections are of fiber pipe, each connection consist- 



272 TlilJiPI/OXIi CO XS7N [ACTION. 

iiig of two 2-iii. '^lul two 3-in. pipes; in some of the original 
work lyS-in. pipes were used for service connections, but the 
increase in size of service cables made it unwise to continue 
the use of this pipe. 

Distribution boxes, see Fig. 102, in the street proper, are 
built of brick or concrete, elliptical in form. These boxes 
have a frame casting similar to that used on manholes, but 
smaller and lighter. 

At the intersections of distributing lines, junction boxes 
are built of concrete or brick, see Fig. 103. On distribution 
and junction boxes of all types, the frame casting is set 
directly on the walls, no special roof construction being 
required. 

The digging of the trenches is all done by hand. The 
trenches for the trunk line vary in width and depth. In 
depth they run from 3 to 12 ft. deep, being on an average of 
about 6 ft. In width they run from 2 ft. to 4 ft. For the dis- 
tributing conduits the trenches are all of the same depth, 
about 3 ft., and they are about 2 ft. wide. In the cost of 
excavation are included labor (l>oth men and teams), timber- 
ing, drainage, clearing away obstructions, backfilling, in fact 
all the cost of excavating from tearing up the paving to turn- 
ing the ditch over to the pavers. In many sections of the 
city, trenches 5 ft. or less in depth need but little timbering. 

The foregoing describes the general conditions of the work 
and illustrates the method and plans used. A careful and 
well devised system of unit cost keeping is employed and 
from these records the following costs for 7 years of work 
have been compiled. In considering them the organization 
of forces and the cost keeping system must be explained. 

The system followed in organizing the work has been to 
divide it into two principal parts: First, the part known as 
"(icneral Expenses and Monthly Payroll,'* and, second. "Con- 
struction Costs and Weekly Payroll.'' Under the latter is 
charged all costs and expenses which would be borne by the 
contractor were the work done under contract; under the 
former heading is charged all items of salaries and ex- 
penses which would represent the cost to the city of adminis- 



APPENDIX D. 2Jl 

tering the work and doing the necessary engineering were it 
done under contract. 

Referring to Fig. 98, showing the organization chart, the ex- 
penses of organization and monthly expenses include the 
headings of "Plans and Data*' and **()ffice arid Records." 
"Construction" and ** Paymaster and Records" go to make up 
the construction cost, with the addition of materials. The 
items of ^'Operating and Maintenance," **Cable Inspection'' 
and ^'District Inspection,** are separate accounts that do not 
enter into the cost of construction. 

All foremen and regular employes are charged imder their 
specific subdivisions as governed by the plan of the organ- 
ization. Watchmen and similar expenses in construction 
which cannot be readily subdivided, are charged under the 
general head of "Weekly Material, Tools and Labor,'* which 
is an expense account. 

Labor is checked out and is designated by numbers, and 
also by letters, indicating the particular subdivision under 
which it will be charged, the man himself carrying a brass 
check showing the number and letter. Each laborer also 
carries a time ticket for each week, on which is punched by the 
timekeeper, four times each day, the hours at which time is 
taken. In this way the man carries his own time, and any 
dispute with the timekeeper is avoided. 

All material as purchased is charged to the *'Storeyard Ac- 
count," under the subdivision "Weekly M. T. & L.," and. 
when used upon the work, is then charged to the particular 
subdivision in which used, and credit given the storeyard. 

A man is sent to each construction gang, termed a "line- 
man,'* whose duty it is to be the connecting link between 
"plans and data" and "construction," or. in other words, he 
reports upon printed blanks daily to the chief clerk the labor 
in each subdivision. In addition to this, he records the 
dimensions, both with regard to the construction v^^ork 
proper, and akso all foreign structures met with in the course 
of the work. These latter data are turned in to the chief 
draftsman, where after being checked, they are entered in 
colors upon permanent plats drawn to the scale of 20 ft. 
to 1 in. 



274 



TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 



All of these reports are tabulated in the office and monthly 
summaries made. Permanent entries of the costs under each 
subdivision are made at the end of each month. 

Up to January i, 1906, the summary of all conduit con- 
struction was: 



Table I.- 



-Wagbs Paid Labor. 



Year. 

1809 
1000 
1001 
1002 
1003 
1004 

1005 



Rate 
per hour, 
foreman. 



80.871 
.87i 
.87) 



874 
87| 

ril 1< 



April 10 
.431 
.481 



481 



Rate 
per 
hour, 
gang 
boss. 



80.811 
.81i 
.8U 
81J 
.81} 
.31} 

.81} 



Rate 


Rate 


per 


per 


hour. 


hour. 


pavers. 


brick- 




layers. 


80.43} 


80.43} 


43} 


.43} 


48} 


.481 

.43 
April 25 




48} 




.50 


48} 


.50 




.50 


.43} 


July 1 




.564 
.56} 


43} 


April 5 


April 5 


.50 


.62} 



Rate 
per hour, 
rammers. 



80.31} 
.81} 
.81} 
.81} 
.31} 
.81} 

31} 

April 5 
.37} 



Rate 

per 

hour. 

carts. 



Rate 

per 

hour. 

pipe 

layers. 



,80.81} 

i 28} 

.28} 

28} I 

.28} ! 
.28} 
April 15 
.81} 

81} 



80.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 

.25 



Rate 

per hotir. 

2-horse 

teams. 



80.3' 
.37 
June 2j 
.401 
.40j 
40[ 
August 21 
.451 
■46J 



i 

3 



46} 



Rate 

dcr 

lator. 



180.20; 
.20) 
.203 
.20} 
.205 
.203 

.205 



The wages paid to men and teams are shown by Tabic I. 
Table II shows the prices of materials for each year. 

In addition to materials, Table III also shows the cost of 
tools. In the third column from the end will be ' found 
**amount charged to depreciation, breakage, material and 
tools." In addition to the ordinary breakages and waste of 
material and tools, it has been the custom to charge off each 
year 20 per cent, on the heavier construction equipment. 
Such small tools as shovels, picks, etc., the actual deprecia- 
tion is charged off, because of the short life of such tools. 
The comparatively large amounts charged off in 1904 and 
1905 are accounted for by reconstruction of the conduits in 
the burnt district, where a much larger percentage of material 
was naturally lost. It will be remembered that in February. 
1904, Baltimore suffered from a fire that destroyed a large 
section of the business part of the city. 



APPENDIX B. 



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276 TELEPHOSE CONSTRUCTION. 

The effect of this great fire on the conduit system was quite 
surprising, as it did but little damage. The trunk lines and 
the cables in them were uninjured, in spite of the intense 
heat and the enormous weight of debris, consisting of 
masonry and iron that fell on them. The piles of debris in 
some cases were lO and 12 ft. high. A few service box covers 
were broken by falling walls. 

Likewise the distributing system was uninjured except in 
a few places caused by gas explosions. When it is remem- 
bered that only 19 ins. of earth covers these conduits and 
they are frequently broken by service boxes, it is a matter of 
surprise that the conduits were not injured. The cables in 
them were only injured where they entered the destroyed 
houses. 

As gas pipes were broken throughout the entire burnt over 
area, there was apprehension that gas would collect in the 
system and explosions occur, but so well had the ventilation 
of the system been planned, that no serious trouble of this 
kind occurred, the operating department taking prompt steps 
to prevent the gas from collecting in the system. 

Nevertheless the fire caused much extra work to be done as 
the pole and house connections were destroyed, and not only 
new ones had to be made, but in rebuilding the city, many 
changes were necessary to meet new conditions. The cost 
of this work shows up in the tables under the years 1904 
and 1905. 

Table IV shows the details of the construction account, 
giving the duct feet of conduit laid, divided into terra cotta 
and fiber, also the number of manholes, service and junction 
boxes, house connections, and also special conistruction work, 
which is paid for by parties ordering it. The cost per duct 
foot is given. 

Table V is a general summary of all the costs of work for 
each year, taken from ledger accounts shown in cost per duct- 
foot. Under "General Expense and Monthly Payroll" are 
tj^iven the expenses that would be known as the administra- 
tion expenses of the commission having in charge the work, 
and engineering expenses, if the work was done by contract, 
while under "Construction and Weekly Payroll" are given 



APPENDIX B. 



277 



the expenses that would be the contractor's cost. It will be 
noticed that the general and monthly expenses are divided 
equally between the trunk and distribution conduits, while 
the construction expenses are actual figures of cost for each. 
Under monthly and weekly "M. T. & L/* are listed all items 
that cannot be readily distributed. In the column headed 
"Preliminary Expenses" are expenses incurred in planning 
and designing work for the succeeding construction period. 
Under "Organization" is listed the expense of the commis- 
sion and the chief and assistant engineers. At the end of the 
table is given the cost per duct foot for each year, showing 
the cost of construction, the preliminary expenses, and the 
general expenses, including the engineering supervision. 

Table VI indicates the percentage of labor on the total cost 
under each subdivision of the work. This account is kept for 
readily analyzing the unit costs given in Table IV. 



Tablb VII. — NuMBBR Cubic Yards op Earth bxcavatbd Bach Year. 



Year... 


1899 


1900 ! 1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


Total!.. 


31097.74 


II862.44I 7155.22 


6.S61.07 


11590.45 


1720.73 


15476.20 


9984.835687.19 

1 



Srowino Cost pbr Cubic Yard op Earth Excavatiok por Each Month. 



Month 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


Jan .... 
















' 12.48 


92.22 
2.11 


Feb . . 
















1.26 
1.09 
1.04 
1.61 
1.54 
1.58 
2.01 
1.41 
1.98 
1.61 


Mar.... 
















1.88 


April. . . 


91.36 
2.88 
2.88 
3.73 
2.60 
2.41 
2.40 
2.28 
3.00 






11.3^ 
1.44 
1.84 
2.02 
1.44. 
2.11 
2.50 


11 85 
1.61 
2.28 
2.09 
2.13 
1.73 
2.30 
1.50 
1.85 




132.02 
1.30 
1.53 
1.71 


92.95 
1.64 
1.40 
1.85 
2.00 
1.25 
1.32 
1.20 
1.70 


1.45 


May 

June . . . 
July . . 

Aug 

Sept . . . 

Oct 

Nov. . . . 


91.48 
1.74 
1.64 
2.81 
2.50 
1.40 
4.10 
1.58 


92.12 
1.46 
1.22 
1.80 
2.30 

12.48 


1.28 
1.62 

* 


Dec. . . . 


4.54 












Av« 
each yr. 


12.61 


11.87 


91.88 


91.82 


91.94 


91.79 


91.65 


91.53 


11. «• 



Table VII shows the cost of earth excavation. All the 
material is earth, but it varies much, there being sand, 
loam, clay, debris of made ground, and black mud. These 
costs, as stated, include timbering, drainage, clearing away 
obstruction, backfilling and all items of digging and finishing 
the trench to be turned over to the pavers. 

The item in July, 1904, of $32.02 per cu. yd. was especial 
emergency work, caused as a result of the fire of 1904, and 



278 TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

bears no relation to the general work, being given to com- 
plete the record. The cost of excavation is not only given 
for the years of 1899 to 1905. inclusive, but also for IQ06 and 
up to June, 1907. 

The average cost of the trunk lines for the entire construc- 
tion period is given below per duct-foot for each item, and 
also the per cent, that each item is of the total average cost : 

Per duct Per 

foot rent. 

Organization 10.0088 3.8 

Office 0.0048 2.1 

Plans 0.0048 2.1 

Month M. T. & L 0.0110 4.8 

Prellminan' Kx 0.0098 4.2 

Excavation 0.0452 19.1 

Concrete 0.0182 8. 

Manholes 0.0252 10.9 

Conduit 0.0726 31,4 

P&vlnK 0.0090 3.9 

Weekly M. T. & L 0.0203 8.8 

Terminal Pole Con 0.0009 0,4 

Arc Light Con 0.0012 0.5 

Total 10.2318 100.0 

The average cost of the service and distribution lines item- 
ized with percentages is also listed. 

Average itemized cost of service and distribution lines: 

Per duct Per 

foot cent. 

Organization 10.0088 3.3 

Office .' 0.0048 1.8 

Plans 0.0048 1.8 

Monthly M. T. & L 0.0110 4.1 

Preliminary E.x 0.0098 3.7 

Excavation 0.0683 21.4 

Concrete 0.0281 10.6 

Manholes 0.0421 16.8 

Conduit 0.0663 24.9 

Paving 0.0150 5.6 

Weekly M. T. & L 0.0154 5.8 

Terminal Pole Con 0.0014 0.5 

Arc Light Con 0.0006 0.2 

Total $0.2664 100.0 

It will be noticed that the cost of the conduit material 
runs from about 25 to 30 per cent, of the total cost. 

Cost of Constructing Conduits in Subway Retaining Walls. 

— The following are cost data on the construction of tile con- 
duit embedded in concrete side walls for subways in New 
York City. 

Atlantic Ave, Brooklyn, — The ducts were of standard 3-ft. 
length, having an inside diameter of 2t% ins. Multiple duct 
conduits were laid, being for the most part, four-hole pieces. 
The following clauses from the specifications indicate the 
character of work required : 



APPENDIX B. 279 

"Ends of the duct holes will be slightly bell mouthed. In 
case four-hole conduits are adopted there will be dowel holes 
left at each end, and contractor shall, when erecting same, 
insert iron dowels with central washer into the dowel holes in 
each joint, for truly centering the sections. These dowel 
pins shall be furnished by the contractor. Wooden stoppers 
shall be placed in the free ends of all ducts when the work 
is left at night, when sections are complete, or at other times 
when required. 

"Contractor will unload all conduits and will stack, store, 
distribute and erect same in accordance with the drawings 
and specifications. 

"In erecting conduits, the sections must be kept in perfect 
alignment throughout, and wooden mandrels, 3 ins. diameter 
and not less than 4 ft. long, shall be threaded through the 
holes and remain in place until the surrounding masonry has 
set solid. These mandrels shall have fitted to the ends a 
spring steel tube scraper with flue brush behind same for 
thoroughly cleaning out any foreign matter existing in the 
duct. 

"Butt joints of conduits shall be broken at every tier half 
the length of section, or as may be specially required by the 
engineer. Every btitt joint shall be lapped around with two 
laps of No. 6 cotton duck canvas, burlap or cheese cloth, 6 ins. 
wide, laid 3 ins. on each abutting section, and the canvas, 
burlap or cheese cloth, shall be dipped in neat Portland 
cement grout immediately before lapping. 

"Every tier of conduits is to have a layer of Portland 
cement mortar laid on top, in which the next tier is to be 
bedded, even and fair. In filling concrete or other masonry 
around conduits the same must be worked up evenly on each 
side so that no distortion of any kind may occur in the' 
finished conduits." 

The conduits were unloaded from boats, hauled about lyi 
miles, and piled up ready for use. The cost of unloading, haul- 
ing and piling was 0.8 ct. per duct-ft. ; and, as a duct-foot 
weighs about 8 lbs., this is equivalent to $1.30 per ton. La- 
borers received 15 cts. an hour ; team and driver, 45 cts. 



28o TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION. 

The cost of laying conduits during the year of 1903 was 
as follows: 

Duct-ft. 
laid. 

January 1 .942 

February i ,636 

April 4,512 

^lay 30»563 

June 37715 

J"ly -27,893 

August 15,293 . 

September 14,170 

October 10,037 



Labor, 


Pay- 


Cost per 


<Iays. 


roll. 


duct-ft. 


10 


$ 15 


0.8c 


9 


13 


0.8c 


32 


55 


I.2C 


154 


254 


0.8c 


205 


357 


0.9c 


«79 


288 


I.OC 


92 


142 


3.9c 


63 


108 


0.8c 


43 


74 


0.7c 



Total 1431851 787 $1,316 0.9c 

From this it appears that the cost of laying was a trifle less 
than I ct. per duct-ft., and that the average wages were $1.66 
per day of 10 hrs. This is the average of the common laborers 
delivering ducts and the skilled men laying ducts. It required 
150 bbls. of Portland cement to lay the 143,851 duct-ft, or 
I bbl. per 960 duct-ft. 

During the year of 1904, there were 227.600 duct-ft. laid, 
requiring 240 bbls. of cement, and 975 days labor. The aver- 
age wages paid were $1.71 per day, and the average cost was 
0.8 ct. per duct-ft. for laying. During the best month, 30,700 
duct-ft. were laid at a cost of 0.6 per duct-ft. for laying, which 
indicates that the workmen were not very efficient during the 
previous months. 

Rapid Transit R. R., Manhattan. — The following miscel- 
laneous records have been secured. Phe cost of materials for 
123,483 duct-ft. was as follows: 

123,483 duct-ft., at 4J4 cts $5»556 

6,000 sq. yds. burlap, at 4>4 cts 270 

275 bbls. Portland cement, at $1.58 435 

68 cu. yds. sand, at 50 cts 34 

13 sets mandrils, at $2 26 



Total, 123,483 duct-ft., at 5 cts $6,321 



APPENDIX B, 281 

One barrel of cement was used for every 440 duct-ft. As 
an average of a large amount of work the following data 
were secured : 100 duct-ft. required 0.22 bbl. cement, 0.055 
cu. yd. sand and 4.86 sq. yds. burlap. The conduits used were 
4-duct pieces in 2-ft. lengths, 9 ins. square, built up in ad- 
vance of the concrete side walls which surrounded them. On 
one section of the subway where some 500,000 duct-ft. were 
laid the labor cost of laying was V/j cts. per duct-ft. On 
another section where 60,000 duct-ft. were laid the cost was 
2j^ cts. per duct-ft. Wages were high; bricklayers at $5.20 
per day doing the work. 



INDEX. 



Aerial Cuts <i> 

Anchor Guys, Construction, Stand- 
ard 4 

Anchor Logs, Cost of 217 

Dimensions of 2 

Anchors, Cost of, 20 

Kinds of i 

Log, Construction of 8 

Cable, Connecting to Distributing 

Rack 50 

Fastening to Pole, Method of.. 27 

Sizes of 25 

Aerial, Cost of So. 192 

Erection. Methods of 27 

Guard for 28 

Junk Value of 192 

Kinds of 27 

Price of 193 

Removing, Cost of 70 

Method of 65 

Undei^round, Installing Main, 

Method of 30 

Kinds of 29 

Lateral. Cost of 35 

Main, Cost of 35 

PuUing, Cost of 148 

Removing, Cost of 70 

Method of 65 

Rodding 29 

Installing Lateral, Method of. 31 

Cable Boxes. Cost of 200 

Cable Construction, Characteris- 
tics 25 

Cost of 31 

Cable Splices. 

Bridge. Definition of 37 

Making, Method of 44 

Underground, Cost of 59 

Making, Directions for 39 

Straight. Definition of 37 

Making, Method of 40 

Straight -Bridge, Definition of. . . 37 

Making. Method of 44 

('able Splicing (See also Cable 
Splices). 

Aerial Cuts 45 

Changing Count 44 

Characteristics 36 

Classification of Splices 36 

Cost of 56, 195 

Aerial Cuts 62 

Bridge. Aerial 58 

Onto Working Cable 58 

Bridge, Underground Onto 

Working Cable 59 

Changing Count 61 

Connecting Cable to Distrib- 
uting Rack 63 

Potheads 62 

Straight, Aerial 57 

Straight-Bridge, Aerial 59 

Onto Working Cable 60 

Straight-Bridge Underground. 60 

Onto Working Cable 61 

Straight. Underground 57 

Underground Cuts ^ 62 



283 



Cable Splicing. 

Costs, Method of Figuring 56 

Directions for 39 

Materials Employed 37 

Order of Work 51 

Potheads 46 

Sleeves for. Sizes of 38 

Toll Cable to Cable Terminating 

in Loading Coll 45 

Underground to Distributing 

Rack Cable ^48 

Cement House. Portable 2o\ 

Changing Count. Definition of 44 

Method of 44 

Concrete, Mixing, Cost of loj 

Srinkage of lo3 

Conduit Construction. 

Concreting, Methods of 88 

Construction Details 78 

Cost Keeping Methods, Hints on 78 

Cost of 223 

Baltimore. Md 275 

McRoy Tile Ill, 114 

Aurora. Ill 127 

Evanston. Ill 116 

Irving Park. Ill 118 

Maywood. Ill 128 

South Chicago. Ill 126 

West Pullman. Ill 120 

Memphis. Tenn 249. 263 

Pump Log in Cities 114 

Rapid Transit Railway 280 

Sewer Tile Lateral in Cities. 115 

Costs. Method of Figuring 110 

Methods of Keeping 105 

Formation of Cross-Section 82 

Installing Conduit. Methods of 
^^ 87 89 

Laterals, Sewer Tlie *...'.' *. 79 

Materials Employed 84 

McRoy Tile. Materials and La- 
bor, Quantities and Cost of. .158 

Methods of, Baltimore. Md 265 

Memphis, Tenn 243 

Organization of Working Force. 76 

Plugs for Conduit 91 

Pump Log, Methods of 90 

Sewer Tile Lateral, Methods of. 89 

Specifications for 220 

Tile for, Cross Section of 78 

Trenching, Methods of 85 

Cost Data, Collecting, Memoran- 
dum Book for 6 

Method of 6 

Reporting, Forms for (See 
Forms). 

Method of 7 

Cross Arms, Construction. Stand- 
ard 3 

Cost of 20 

Removing, Cost of 70 

Method of 64 

Replacing, Cost of •. . 72 

Drops. Cost of 28. 161 

Estimating. Forms for 179 

Methods of 164 



284 



INDEX. 



Forma, Cable Construction Costs. 34 

Cable Splicing Costs -.52, 55 

Conduit Construction Costs. 102. 109 

Pole Line Costs 8 

Removing Old Line, Costs 67 

Fusing, Cost of 162 

Guard, Chafing for Cable 28 

Line Construction, Cost of 

147. 148, 159 

Costs, Methods of Figuring 11 

Definition of 1 

Line Orders, Cost of 22, 150 

L,08t Time, Proportioning, Meth- 
od of 13 

Materials, Unloading and Distilb- 
utlng. Cost of 153 

Messenger, Cost of 190 

Erecting, Cost of 34 

Kinds of 26 

Removing. Cost of 70 

Method of 65 

Specifications for 26 

Splicing. Method of 26 

Mortar, Quantity Required fjr 1,- 

000 Bricks 153 

Shrinkage of 1 53 

Pole Line. Cost of 224 

Exchange Poles 202 

Farm Line Poles 214 

Toll Line Poles 210 

Pole Line Construction, Wages of 
Labor 202 

Poles, Cost of 17 

Depths Set 2 

Framing, Method of 1 

Ground Brace, Construction lor 2 

Kinds of 1 

Moving. Cost of 71 

Removing. Cost of 69 

Method of 64 

Sizes of 1, 2 

Spacing of 1, 2 

Terminal. Equipment for 28 

Equipping, Cost of 35 

Renewing, Cost of 72 

Wiring, Cost of 35 

Method of 29 

Pole Seats, Attaching, Method of. 30 

Potheads, Making. Method of 46 

Push Pole Braces, Construction.. 5 
Cost of 22 

Reconstruction, Definition of 65 



Removing Old Line, Cost of 67 

Method of Figuring 66 

Method of Recording 66 

Method of 63 

Rodding, Cost of 35 

Sleeves, Sizes of 38 

Soils. Classification of 24 

Splicing (See Cable Splicing). 

Stubs. Cost of 21 

Self-Sustaining. Construction... 4 
Supervision and Expense. Propor- 
tioning, Method of 16 

Teaming. Proportioning, Method 

of 16 

Telegraph Line, Cost of 234 

Terminal Boxes, Attaching, Meth- 
od of 29 

Terminals, Cost of 152. 199 

Tool Box. Portable 251 

Transmission Line, Cost of 227 

Trolley Pole Holes, Digging. 

Cost of 238 

Methods of 235 

Excavating by Machine 234 

Vault Construction. 

Brick, Materials and Labor. 

Quantities and Cost of 157 

Concrete, Materials and Labor. 

Quantities and Cost of 156 

Cost of Brick, Aurora. Ill 128 

Evanston. Ill 117 

Irving Park, III 119 

May wood, 111 124 

South Chicago, III 126 

West Pullman. Ill 122 

Concrete in Cities 115 

Vaults, Construction of. Methods 

of 92 

Drainage of 93 

Excavation for 93 

Location of 92 

Wages, Cable Construction 23 

Cable Splicing 56 

Conduit Construction 112. 274 

Line Construction .23. 190 

Pole Line Construction 202 

Removing Old Line 67 

Wheelbarrows. Loads, Average. . .153 

Wire, Removing, Cost of 70 

Method of 64 

Tying to Insulators 6 

Wire Stringing, Cost of 22, 218 

Methods of 5 



"Mai" UndergTonnd Cable Consfamction Devices 



Mullln Di 

KliiuuiuiuHi' standard 




CalaloB desCTibing 



Clarence Mayer 

Cost Statistician 
and Facilities Engineer 



Expert Advice and 

Construction Cost Data 

Furnished 



Cost Systems Established 



904 Ellsworth Building 
CHICAGO 



A Moniy Saving Suggestion 

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KLEIN TOOLS are used by all Bucr«»- 



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CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

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