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Full text of "The Telugu mission of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, containing a biography of the Rev. Christian Frederick Heyer, M. D."

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




CHRISTIAN FREDERICK HEYER 



The Telugu Mission 

of the 

General Council 

of the 

Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America 

Containing a Biography of the 

Rev. Christian Frederick Heyer, M. D. 



BY 
GEORGE DRACH - 

GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE 

GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN 

NORTH AMERICA 

AND 

CALVIN F. KUDER 

MISSIONARY AT RAJAHMUNDRY. INDIA 



PHILADELPHIA 

GENERAL COUNCIL PUBLICATION HOUSE 
1914 



Copyright. 1914. by the 

Board of Publication of the General Council of the 

Evangelical Lutheran Church in 

North America 



All rights reserved 




PREFACE 



AT the sixth convention of the General Council of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, held at 
Akron, Ohio, November 7-13, 1872, a resolution was adopted 
instructing the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium, which was then entrusted with the administration of 
the foreign mission work of the General Council, to request 
the Rev. C. F. Heyer "to prepare for publication a history of 
his mission work in India and of the Missions there, with 
which he had been connected." The founder of the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Missions in India made an effort to 
comply with this request and began to copy and compile some 
of the letters which he had written from India to various corre- 
spondents in America; but even the task of copying what he 
had composed in the strength and vigor of his manhood was 
more than the pioneer, at the advanced age of eighty years, 
could accomplish ; and before he had proceeded very far, the 
angel of death called him to his eternal reward. 

Since the death of Dr. Heyer much has been written about 
him, but no serious effort has been made, so far as we know, 
to write a full and complete biography of this remarkable 
man who was not only the first foreign missionary of the 
Lutheran Church in America, but who, also, hi other spheres 
of service as a minister of the Church and a preacher of the 
Gospel, as a home missionary, as a pastor of congregations in 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, as an officer hi a number of 
synods, as a leader in several important movements in our 
Church in his day, and as one of the founders of the General 
Council, proved himself to be a man of unusual ability, great 
initiative, indefatigable activity, strong faith and true piety. 

What Dr. Heyer in the feebleness of old age was unable to 
do, we have attempted to do in the folio whig pages. We 



2 PREFACE 

offer this "history of his mission work in India and of the 
Missions there with which he was connected," convinced 
that the story of this missionary's life and career deserves 
to be remembered and told from one generation to another 
in our Church, not only because it marks the beginning of 
foreign mission work in our Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
America, but also because it furnishes one of the strongest 
incentives which can be held out to our people, both ministers 
and congregations, to give their very best efforts to the great 
task of carry ing the Gospel to all the world, and to serve this 
cause either in person abroad, as called and commissioned 
workers, or as regular supporters at home by earnest prayer 
and systematic contributions, in obedience to the great com- 
mission of the Lord, our Saviour, the Saviour of the whole 
world. 

GEORGE DRACH. 

PHILADELPHIA, Advent, 1913. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

CHRISTIAN FREDERICK HEYER AND THE AMERICAN EVAN- 
GELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

THE BEGINNING OF FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN THE EVAN- 
GELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA 

CHAPTER PAGE 
I. THE FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN THE EVANGELICAL LUTH- 
ERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA 1 1 

II. THE FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, THE REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. . . 22 

III. HEYER'S FIRST JOURNEY TO INDIA 35 

IV. THE SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 42 

V. THE FOUNDING OF THE GUNTUR MISSION 51 

VI. How THE GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF THE GUNTUR 

MISSION 59 

VII. DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE AND His SUCCESS IN THE 

PALNAD DISTRICT 72 

VIII. THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION AND How IT BE- 
CAME AN AMERICAN MISSION 83 

IX. THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 95 

X. A PERIOD OF TRIALS HEYER LEAVES THE MISSION 107 

XI. DR. HEYER A HOME MISSIONARY IN MINNESOTA 114 

XII. THE CRISIS 119 

3 



CONTENTS 



PART II 

THE HISTORY OF THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL 
COUNCIL OF THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN 
NORTH AMERICA 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. THE BEGINNING OF FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN THE GENERAL 

COUNCIL (1869) 133 

II. HEYER COMPLETES His LIFE-WORK (1870) 143 

III. THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 156 

IV. STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 162 

V. DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) 174 

VI. IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 184 

VII. PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 195 

VIII. BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 212 

IX. THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 234 

X. THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 248 

XI. WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 265 

XII. INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 281 

XIII. FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 296 

XIV. THE JUBILEE YEAR (1895) 307 

XV. DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 315 

XVI. RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 330 

XVII. UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 342 

XVIII. MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) .' 356 

XIX. RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 370 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

CHRISTIAN FREDERICK HEYER Frontispiece 

THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA 20 

HINDU SNAKE CHARMERS 21 

A PALANKEEN FOR BRIDES AND BRIDEGROOMS 40 

A' JlNRIKISHA 40 

A BULLOCK BANDY 41 

AN ELEPHANT CART 41 

THE BEGINNING OF A TELUGU LETTER 60 

A HINDU TEMPLE IN RAJAHMUNDRY 60 

A TELUGU BARBER AT WORK 61 

TELUGU WOMAN GRINDING CURRY 61 

CHARLES WILLIAM GROENNING 84 

A TELUGU BRAHMIN 85 

COCOANUT PALMS IN INDIA 102 

A MANGO TREE 102 

CUTTING A BUNCH OF BANANAS 103 

A BANYAN TREE 103 

TELUGU POTTERS AT WORK 120 

TELUGU GOLDSMITHS 120 

TELUGU BASKET MAKERS WORKING IN FRONT OF THEIR HUT 121 

TELUGU CARPENTERS SAWING A LOG OF WOOD 121 

MAP OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S TELUGU MISSION FIELD 130 

MAP OF THE GENERAL SYNOD'S TELUGU MISSION FIELD 131 

PASTOR NELAPROLU PAULUS. ^ 146 

PASTOR TOTA JOSEPH 146 

PASTORS JERIPROLU WILLIAM, VENKATARATNAM, AND PANTAGANI PARA- 

DESI 147 

THE HINDU GODDESS KALI 160 

THE ELEPHANT-HEADED GOD GANESHA 161 

"RIVERDALE" MISSIONARY'S HOME AT RAJAHMUNDRY 174 

"THE DOVE OF PEACE" HOUSE BOAT 175 

'THE AUGUSTANA" MISSION HOUSE BOAT 175 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, RAJAHMUNDRY 184 

MISSION CHAPEL AT VELPUR 185 

THE HINDU TRIAD OF GODS: BRAHMA, VISHNU, SIVA 194 

THE MONKEY-GOD HANUMAN 194 

5 



6 ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

MAP OF RAJAHMUNDRY IN 1910 195 

DYING HINDU HOLDING A Cow's TAIL 204 

A HIGH CASTE TELUCU WOMAN 205 

HINDU FAKIR ON A BED OF SPIKES 216 

THE CAR OF THE GOD OF KORUKONDA 216 

THE SACRED HILL OF KORUKONDA 217 

THE TEMPLE ON KORUKONDA HILL 217 

RELIGIOUS BATHING IN THE GODAVERY RIVER PUSHKARAM 228 

THE BRIDGE OVER THE GODAVERY RIVER AT RAJAHMUNDRY 228 

LOADING RADARI BOATS WITH RICE BAGS 229 

A CONGREGATION OF TELUGU CHRISTIANS (MALAS) 229 

MISSIONARIES SCHMIDT, BECKER, POULSEN, CARLSON, W. GROENNING, 

ARTMAN 246 

A TELUGU FAMILY 247 

A CONFERENCE OF NATIVE CHRISTIAN HELPERS 247 

WOMAN MISSIONARIES: SCHADE, SADTLER, SWENSON, WOERNER, ROHRER, 

NILSSON 264 

"THE ZENANA HOME" FIRST RESIDENCE FOR WOMAN MISSIONARIES.. 265 

A CANAL SCENE IN GODAVERY DISTRICT 265 

MISSIONARIES POHL, ARPS, ISAACSON, KUDER, HARPSTER, FICHTHORN . . 280 
Miss KATE L. SADTLER AND PUPILS OF HER HINDU GIRLS' SCHOOL . . . 281 
PUPILS AND TEACHERS OF Miss E. L. WEISKOTTEN'S HINDU GIRLS' 

SCHOOLS 281 

MISSIONARIES ON TOUR LIVING IN A TENT 296 

THE GORGE OF THE GODAVERY RIVER 296 

AFTER AN EXAMINATION OF VILLAGE SCHOOL CHILDREN 297 

A TELUGU VILLAGE 297 

EMMANUEL CHAPEL AT DOWLAISHWARAM 308 

MISSIONARY'S HOUSE AT DOWLAISHWARAM 308 

AUGUSTANA CHURCH AT SAMULKOT 309 

INTERIOR OF AUGUSTANA CHURCH, SAMULKOT 309 

GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, RAJAHMUNDRY MAIN BUILDING 322 

GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, RAJAHMUNDRY DORMITORIES 322 

GROUP OF MISSIONARIES 323 

AT THE WELL IN THE GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL COMPOUND 323 

MISSIONARIES E. NEUDOERFFER, A. F. A. NEUDOERFFER, WACKERNAGLE, 

WOLTERS, LARSON, ECKARDT 330 

WOMAN MISSIONARIES: WEISKOTTEN, MRS. J. H. HARPSTER, MRS. E. NEU- 
DOERFFER, MRS. O. V. WERNER, TATGE, BORTHWTCK 331 

THE HINDU GIRLS' SCHOOL AT ARYAPURAM, RAJAHMUNDRY 344 

Miss CHARLOTTE SWENSON TEACHING A CLASS OF BIBLE WOMEN 345 

CATECHIST A. ANANDAPPAN, WIFE AND CHILDREN 356 

TEACHERS AND PUPILS, BOYS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, RAJAHMUNDRY, 1912. . 357 

MISSIONARIES SCHAEFER, WERNER, HOLMER, SIPES 360 

COMMISSIONERS C. T. BENZE AND C. W. Foss 360 



ILLUSTRATIONS 7 

PAGE 

A GROUP OF LACE MAKERS 361 

DISPENSARY BUILDING AT RAJAHMUNDRY 361 

BOYS' CENTRAL SCHOOL DORMITORIES, LUTHERGIRI, RAJAHMUNDRY. ... 366 

BOYS' HIGH SCHOOL, PEDDAPUR 366 

WOMEN OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL WHO HAVE BEEN PROMINENT IN 

MISSIONS 367 

BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND 

CHILDREN 376 

HOSPITAL MAIN BUILDING 376 

"MEDICAL HOME" RESIDENCE OF MEDICAL MISSIONARIES 377 

PATIENTS FROM THE CHILDREN'S WARDS AND THEIR AYAHS 377 

THE BOARD'S SEAL OF INCORPORATION 382 

THE CHURCH COUNCIL OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, RAJAHMUNDRY, IN 1910 382 

PRESIDENTS OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 383 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 388 

ALL-INDIA LUTHERAN CONFERENCE OF MISSIONARIES, 1912 389 



PART I 



CHRISTIAN FREDERICK HEYER 

AND THE 

AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS 

IN INDIA 



THE BEGINNING OF FOREIGN MISSION WORK 

IN THE 

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA 



AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS 

IN INDIA 

CHAPTER I 

THE FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN THE EVANGELICAL 
LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA 

IN the earlier history of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in America two dates, a century apart, are especially note- 
worthy. The one, 1742, designates the year of the landing 
of the patriarch of our American Church, Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg, on the shore of this western hemisphere; the 
other, 1842, marks the beginning of our Church's foreign 
mission in India by the first American Lutheran foreign mis- 
sionary, John Christian Frederick Heyer. In the wonderful 
providence of God the original desire of Muhlenberg to preach 
the Gospel to the heathen hi India was eventually fulfilled, 
one hundred years afterward, through the instrumentality of 
the Church which he organized hi the United States; and the 
field which Heyer selected and which has been cultivated ever 
since by our Church, lies not many hundred miles northeast 
of the place where Muhlenberg would have landed and labored, 
had he followed, as he first intended, in the wake of Ziegen- 
balg and Pluetschau. 

During the century from Muhlenberg to Heyer the Lutheran 
Church in the United States was called upon to devote herself 
primarily to the task of gathering into organized congrega- 
tions those of her communion who immigrated by hundreds 
of thousands into the United States. The work of her 
self-preservation rather than that of her extension to other 
lands demanded the first attention and the full vigor of our 
Church during the last half of the eighteenth and the first half 
of the nineteenth century. Even after she began to do foreign 



12 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

mission work, so much of her energy was needed for the 
work of home missions that, up to the beginning of the twen- 
tieth century, she was obliged to expend the greater part 
of her strength and resources in the absorbing effort of caring 
for those of her own household of faith, first of all in the 
mother-tongue of the immigrants as they arrived, and then, 
after the second or third generation, in the English language. 
Now that immigration from Lutheran countries is on the wane 
and the home mission facilities of our Church are more 
numerous and efficient, a notable increase of foreign mission 
spirit and activity is discernible. 

During the early decades of the nineteenth century the 
activities of the Lutheran Church in North America were, 
for the greater part, confined to two bodies, namely, the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania and the General Synod. The 
latter was called into existence mainly through the effort 
of the Ministerium at Frederick, Maryland, in 1821. The 
Ministerium, however, withdrew from the General Synod 
shortly after its organization. These two bodies, almost equal 
in numerical strength, continued to exist side by side and to 
engage in similar or nearly similar lines of work, until they 
reunited in 1853. 1 I ^^6 they again separated. During the 
first period of their separate existence (1823-53) their relations 
seem to have been amicable. To this period we trace the 
beginning of our American Lutheran Mission in India, in 
which both bodies, under a peculiar form of agreement, co- 
operated for a number of years. 

Year by year as Lutheran immigration continued and the 
territory of the Church's operations extended westward in 
line with the territorial expansion of the Union, the increas- 
ing responsibility of the organized bodies in the East to sup- 
ply, as best they could, the destitute portions of the Church 
on the western frontiers with, at least, the occasional admin- 
istration of the means of grace, forcibly impressed itself upon 
these bodies and developed within them not only a growing 
home mission activity but also a sincere purpose to carry 
the Gospel to the heathen. 

To the General Synod belongs the credit of having made 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN LUTHERAN CHURCH 13 

the first united effort in our Lutheran Church in behalf of 
foreign mission work. 

Previous to the year 1833, individuals and congregations 
in various Lutheran Synods sent occasional contributions to 
the "American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions." Indeed, the first organized effort of the General 
Synod was intended to be in co-operation with that Board; 
but hi 1833, at the meeting of the General Synod in Balti- 
more, Maryland, a special committee was appointed, charged 
with the duty of formulating a plan for more energetic 
and extensive mission activity. Meeting in York, Pa., in 
1835, this committee urged the necessity, importance and 
value of both home and foreign mission work and concluded 
with a strong appeal for united endeavor in behalf of for- 
eign missions. Its report led to the adoptioft of resolutions 
looking to the organization of a missionary society. The 
first resolution recommended the holding of a mission- 
ary meeting at Mechanicsburg, Pa., in connection with the 
convention of the West Pennsylvania Synod, in October, 
1835. The second and third resolutions, which were intended 
as inspirational, referred to the labors of Guetzlaff, a German 
missionary in China. The fourth resolution recommended 
to all Lutheran Synods "to give, at their ensuing meetings, 
an expression of their sentiment and feeling respecting the 
establishment of a foreign mission by the Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church in the United States." 

The missionary meeting was held, as arranged, in Mechan- 
icsburg and resulted in the formation of "The Central Mis- 
sionary Society." Its object, as expressed in its constitu- 
tion, was "to send the Gospel of the Son of God to the desti- 
tute portions of the Lutheran Church hi the United States, 
to assist, for a season, such congregations as are unable to 
support the Gospel, and ultimately to co-operate in sending it 
to the heathen world." The Rev. C. F. Heyer was chosen as 
the society's first missionary. He was called to engage in 
mission work for a period of five years, his compensation to 
be five hundred dollars a year. He was directed to devote 
himself primarily to the work of a home missionary, but also 



14 

to hold himself in readiness to be sent out as a foreign mis- 
sionary when the need arose and the necessary arrangements 
could be made. 

The organization of "The Central Missionary Society" 
induced the Pennsylvania Ministerium also to form a synod- 
ical missionary society. On Wednesday evening, June i , 1836, 
the evening before the annual convention of the Ministerium, 
at Easton, Pa., a number of clerical and lay delegates met and 
organized "The Society of the Synod of Pennsylvania for the 
Propagation of the Gospel," electing as its first officers : the Rev. 
Wm. Beates, president; the Rev. J. P. Hecht, vice-president; 
the Rev. C. Miller, recording secretary; the Rev. F. Ruthrauff, 
corresponding secretary, and Mr. C. J. Hutter, treasurer. 1 

During the first year of its existence no effort was made 
by the society to do foreign mission work; but at its second 
meeting in Lancaster, Pa., May, 1837, the executive com- 
mittee was authorized and instructed to spend $150 for the 
spread of the Gospel among the heathen. Moreover, three 
members of the society 2 were appointed delegates to the con- 
vention of Lutherans called to meet at Hagerstown, Md., in 
connection with the meeting of the General Synod during the 
closing week of May, 1837, and to determine what course 
should be pursued in response to appeals for financial aid, ad- 
dressed to all Germans in America by Guetzlaff in China and 
by Rhenius in India. The appeal of the latter, especially, had 

1 Twelve directors were elected, namely, the Revs. J. C. Baker, D. D., 
C. R. Demme, D. D., J. Medtart, G. W. Mertz, E. Peixotto, M. Keller and S. J. 
Brobst, candidate J. Sahm and Messrs. F. Wra. Heckel, Chr. Strack, Fr. Er- 
hard and Chr. Haeger. 

A committee consisting of the Revs. Keller, Ruthrauff and Medtart and 
Messrs. Hutter and Heckel formulated a constitution, an abstract of which 
is here given: Article I. Name. Article II defines the purpose of the society to 
be the employment of a missionary to travel through the country and organize 
congregations, and "as soon as possible to send the Gospel to the heathen." 
Article III fixes the time of meeting to be in connection with the annual con- 
vention of the Synod. Article IV determines the fees, namely, one dollar a 
year for active membership, ten dollars for life-membership and twenty-five 
dollars for life-directorship. Article V regulates the election of officers and of a 
board of twelve directors. Article VI creates an executive committee consisting 
of the officers and three others elected by the board of directors. Article VII 
specifies that the members of the executive committee shall live in as nearly 
contiguous localities as possible. Articles VIII to XII deal with matters of 
government, auxiliary societies and amendments. 

2 The Revs. C. VV. Schaeffer, J. Medtart and Mr. F. Wm. Heckel. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN LUTHERAN CHURCH 15 

created a profound impression throughout the Church. The 
conviction was general that Rhenius should be supported in 
his independent mission work and that his appeal had set the 
time for action by the American Lutheran Church in behalf 
of foreign missions. It was felt "that indifference to the 
leadings of Providence was sinful and that God would have 
the Church engage in the work of foreign missions." Those 
who responded to the appeal of Rhenius in his effort to inter- 
est the Germans in America in his independent Tinnevelly 
Mission could scarcely have realized at that time that his ap- 
peal and their response actually determined, then and there, 
that India should be the field for the foreign mission work of 
the Lutheran Church in America. 

Considerable enthusiasm for foreign missions was manifested 
at the Hagerstown meeting of the General Synod and was 
carried over into the missionary meeting, which aimed at the 
organization of all Germans in America, to whom Rhenius 
had indiscriminately appealed, into one foreign missionary 
society. As a consequence the new society, organized May 
30, 1837, was called "The German Foreign Missionary 
Society." Steps were taken to extend immediate aid to 
Rhenius. Three hundred dollars were appropriated to be 
sent at once; and two semi-annual payments of a thousand 
dollars each were promised. Furthermore, the Rev. Charles 
Philip Krauth, D. D., was requested to write and ask Rhe- 
nius if "he would be willing to be employed as the missionary 
of the society to labor among the Tamils in India." The 
enthusiasm of the Hagerstown meeting spread. "Money 
poured into the treasury of the new society and funds were 
speedily forwarded to India." 

Although the delegates of the Missionary Society of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium took part in the organization of 
"The German Foreign Missionary Society," the former 
society decided to continue its separate existence. At its 
third annual meeting 1 held June 12, 1838, in Philadelphia, 

1 At this meeting besides nine auxiliary congregational missionary societies, 
one "female missionary society" was reported, namely, that of St. Michael's 
Church in Germantown, Pa., the Rev. J. W. Richards, pastor. This was, 
therefore, the first women's missionary society in the Pennsylvania Synod. 



1 6 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

$5<x> 1 were ordered to be sent to Rhenius in Palamcotta. 
This sum, together with $250 contributed by St. John's English 
Church in Philadelphia, was remitted in December, 1838. 
For a while the foreign mission cause overshadowed every 
other interest and the enthusiasm was still at its height, 
when at the fourth annual meeting of the society of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium, held in Allentown, May 29, 1839, 
in a letter addressed to Rev. Fr. Schmidt, secretary, who had 
succeeded Rev. F. Ruthrauff in that office, news was received 
of the death of Rhenius in Palamcotta, June 5, 1836, and of 
the return of his colleague to the service of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. At once the zeal of the society began to 
abate. The Executive Committee 2 was instructed to with- 
hold further support until more definite knowledge con- 
cerning affairs in Palamcotta had been received. 3 

The confirmation of the news of the death of Rhenius 
and of the return of his son-in-law, Mueller, and his associates, 
to the Church Missionary Society, hastened the establish- 
ment of a separate American Lutheran foreign mission. 
The initial steps toward this end were taken by the German 
Foreign Missionary Society in Chambersburg, June 4, 1839, 
when it was resolved "to send forth missionaries into the 
field, either to co-operate with the Palamcotta mission or to 
form an independent station, as the Executive Committee 
might find most expedient." 

The Executive Committee of The German Foreign Mission- 
ary Society, 4 whose attention had been called to the Rev. C. 
F. Heyer, then a home-missionary of the West Pennsylvania 
Synod at work in Pittsburg, as the most suitable person to be 
appointed as the society's foreign missionary, instructed its 

1 The receipts of the society during the current year were $775.14^; the ex- 
penditures, $368.19^. 

1 At this meeting the executive committee was constituted as follows: The 
Revs. Beates, Baker, S. Sprecher, H. S. Miller, J. Haesbaert, G. A. Reichert, 
and Messrs. E. Haeger and J. F. Heinitsch. 

3 The total receipts of the society during the year were $1287.05; the 
expenditures, $962.72. 

4 The members of the committee were: The Rev. Prof. S. S. Schmucker, 
D. D., the Rev. Prof. H. L. Baugher, the Rev. J. N. Hoffmann, Dr. D. Gil- 
bert, Mr. Isaac Baugher, treasurer, and the Rev. Prof. Charles Philip Krauth 
D. D., corresponding secretary. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN LUTHERAN CHURCH 17 

corresponding secretary, the Rev. Prof. Charles Philip Krauth, 
D. D., some time during the spring of 1840, to write to Heyer 
asking him if he would consider a call to become a foreign 
missionary and requesting his opinion "as to the place where 
a mission might advantageously be commenced, whether in 
the far West among the aborigines of America or in the far 
East among the Hindus." Heyer replied as follows : "I have 
no particular choice but would be willing to go wheresoever 
the Lord may direct, even to New Zealand, where missionaries 
have lately been slain and devoured by the savages. How- 
ever, it appears to me that the Coromandel coast, perhaps in 
the Tinnevelly district, where Mr. Mueller, Rhenius' son-in- 
law, is now standing alone, would be the most suitable place 
to commence. If we undertake to establish a mission among 
our Indians, we should, probably, have to go across the 
Rocky Mountains to a place perhaps as difficult of access as 
the peninsula of Hindustan. Moreover, our Indians are of a 
roving disposition, and hence it is very difficult to get hold of 
them or make an impression on them. There exists, also, a 
certain kind of prejudice among many of our people against 
the Indians, which would render them unwilling to do as 
much for a mission among the Indians in America as for an 
undertaking of this kind among the Hindus. But I am willing 
to abide by the decision of the Executive Committee." 

After some further correspondence the committee called 
Heyer in May, 1840. He accepted the call. Then the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners was consulted with regard to 
a suitable field in India, and on their recommendation the 
Telugu country was selected. Meanwhile the time had ar- 
rived for the biennial meeting of the General Synod and, 
in connection therewith, of The German Foreign Missionary 
Society. The society met on Tuesday, May n, 1841, in 
Baltimore, Md. Having realized by this time that the co- 
operation of all Germans in America was impracticable, an 
amendment to the constitution was proposed at this meet- 
ing changing the society's name to that of "The Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
the United States." After the report of the Executive Com- 



1 8 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

mittee had been read, it was unanimously resolved to ap- 
prove of the steps taken in the appointment of the Rev. C. F. 
Heyer as a foreign missionary, to communicate this appoint- 
ment to the Pennsylvania and Ohio synods and to request 
their co-operation. A committee 1 appointed to recommend 
a plan of co-operation with the American Board in the case 
of the proposed Telugu mission, submitted the following 
report : 

"The Evangelical Lutheran Foreign Missionary Society, desirous of avail" 
ing themselves of the facilities afforded by the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions to the churches that have united with it in the work 
of foreign missions and also deeming it important that the efforts of the friends 
of this cause in this country should be more fully concentrated, propose to form 
a connection with said board upon the following general principles: (i) The 
connection of our missionaries with the American Board shall in no degree 
affect their ecclesiastical relations and responsibilities. (2) When desired by 
our society, the American Board is to organize the missionaries furnished by 
us into a mission by themselves to be under their direction; and should the con- 
nection of the Board of Missions of the Lutheran Church with the American 
Board be at any time dissolved, the direction of this mission shall then, as a 
matter of course, be transferred to the Lutheran Board. (3) The Lutheran 
Board shall have the nomination of their missionaries, but the American 
Board may confirm the nomination. (4) The Lutheran Board shall have 
the management of all the agencies for collecting funds, etc., within the bounds 
of the denomination, and also the charge of fostering a missionary spirit in 
the churches and in their candidates for the ministry. (5) All the pecuniary 
responsibilities of the missionaries excepting when acting as agents under the 
direction of the Lutheran Board, shall be wholly under the American Board. 
(6) The receipts of the Lutheran Board after defraying the expenses of agencies 
etc., shall be paid into the treasury of the American Board. Whenever the 
amount paid into the treasury of the American Board shall exceed the sum 
required for the support of the missionaries furnished by the Lutheran Board, 
for the current year, the American Board may apply the surplus to the support 
of other missionaries in their employment. And should the funds furnished by 
the Lutheran Board at any time be inadequate to the support of the missionaries 
furnished by said Board, it is expected that the American Board will afford 
us aid, if they have a surplus of funds. (7) When missionaries are about to 
embark a missionary meeting shall, if possible, be held in some Lutheran 
Church, at which the instructions shall be given by the American Board and 
the charge be delivered by the Lutheran Board; and the missionaries, when in 
the field, shall also maintain a regular correspondence with the Lutheran Board." 

1 The committee consisted of the Revs. Dr. G. A. Lintner, Dr. S. S. Schmuck- 
er, Dr. C. P. Krauth, Henry N. Pohlman and J. Berger. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN LUTHERAN CHURCH 19 

Upon the adoption of this arrangement with the Ameri- 
can Board, which was very distasteful to Heyer, he resigned 
his appointment by the General Synod's society. That there 
were at least some who sided with Heyer and opposed affilia- 
tion with the American Board, is evident from the fact that 
an amendment to the constitution was at once proposed, 
striking out Article 12, which bound the General Synod's 
society to co-operation with that Board. 

About a month elapsed between the meetings of the General 
Synod and of the Pennsylvania Ministerium in 1841. It ap- 
pears that the latter's missionary society had continued to 
send support to Mueller in Tinnevelly, 1 but at this meeting, 
held June 5, 1841, in Harrisburg, Pa., it decided that "whereas 
said society (C. M. S.) had sufficient means to maintain the 
mission under Brother Mueller, this society will give it no 
more support but will look elsewhere in order to propagate 
the Gospel among the heathen." 

At this crucial moment on the afternoon of Saturday, 
June 5th, a letter written by Heyer two days previously was 
read to the society by the Rev. Dr. Demme, its correspond- 
ing secretary. The part which this important letter played 
in the history of our foreign mission work justifies its quota- 
tion in full: 

Baltimore, June 3, 1841. 
Dear Brethren: 

I prefer to go as Missionary under the supervision of 
a Lutheran Missionary Society, rather than to be beholden 
to other Christian denominations. This is the reason which 
constrains me to apply to your society. If the brethren feel 
inclined to send me as their agent to the heathen, the follow- 
ing conditions should be taken into consideration: (i) 
Your society will decide about the place or region of country 
where the mission is to be commenced. (2) The travel- 
ling expenses to the place of destination are to be paid out of 
the funds at present in the hands of your treasurer. (3) 

1 During the synodical year ending June i, 1842, $575, taken from the 
mission treasury, and $275.25, contributed, by St. John's English Church 
in Philadelphia and by the Bible Society of Lebanon County, had been sent to 
Mueller. 



20 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

The surplus in the treasury is to be paid to the mission in 
three equal instalments, if my life be spared that long. (4) 
I will invest 1000 dollars of my own money; the interest of 
this investment shall be applied to the support of the mis- 
sion as long as I remain in connection with the same. (5) 
To meet the other necessary expenses of the mission I rely 
on ministers and other friends of our undertaking, who will 
be ready to assist in the accomplishment of our object. Pray- 
ing the Lord to guide and bless you in your deliberations, I 
remain, 

Respectfully yours, 

C. F. HEYER. 

Dilatoriness and timidity, which so often have harmed 
the interests of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, characterized 
the report of the special committee to whom Meyer's letter 
was referred. 1 The committee expressed its "pleasure in 
perceiving how much Brother Heyer is devoted to the cause 
of Christ and His Church, desiring as he does, to be sent as 
a missionary to the heathen and having declared that it is his 
wish to be sent out by none other than the Lutheran Church." 
The committee, however, regretted that "the missionary 
society had not sufficient means on hand to form and main- 
tain a heathen mission and that it could not rely on the co- 
operation of the Lutheran brethren in the General Synod, 
who had united their efforts with the American Board." It 
therefore concluded that "the Pennsylvania Missionary So- 
ciety could not venture on such an enterprise as proposed by 
Rev. C. F. Heyer, even though it might entertain the hope that 
the Lutheran Church could and would do much for the salva- 
tion of the poor heathen, and was convinced that Heyer 
would be a suitable person to send as a foreign missionary to 
India." 

There were present at that meeting, however, men who 
were not of such little faith. Earnestly and convincingly 
they pleaded for aggressive measures and immediate action. 

1 The committee consisted of the Revs. S. Sprecher, C. Miller and H. S. 
Miller. The two latter signed the report. 




HINDUISM MOHAMMEDANISM CHPISTIANITY 

207,700,000 60,000,000 ^000,000 



THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA 




HINDU SNAKE CHARMKRS 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSION EFFORT IN LUTHERAN CHURCH 21 

Their counsel prevailed. The resolutions offered by the 
Rev. C. R. Demme, D. D., seconded by the Rev. J. C. Baker, 
D. D., and passed unanimously, form the actual starting 
point of our Church's foreign mission in India. They were 
adopted on June 9, 1841, and read as follows: 

"Resolved, That in reliance on divine Providence we 
commence a heathen mission. 

"Resolved, That we receive Brother Heyer as missionary 
into our service; his offer, however, to invest one thousand 
dollars of his own property, the interest of which is to aid 
in the support of the Mission so long as he is connected with it, 
be not accepted. 

"Resolved, That the Executive Committee be solicited 
immediately to enter into correspondence with Brother 
Heyer in order to carry the above resolutions into effect. 

"Resolved, That we recommend to the Executive Com- 
mittee Hindustan, as a mission field for their consideration. 

"Resolved, That the treasurer, the Rev. Dr. Baker, be 
requested to address a circular to the different missionary 
societies of our Church, informing them of the above resolu- 
tions and inviting them to co-operate with us." 

Thus the Pennsylvania Ministerium became the pioneer 
and leader in the work of foreign missions, as it did, at some 
time or another, in almost every other department of church 
work. 



CHAPTER II 

THE FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, THE REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 

THE life of the Rev. C. F. Heyer, M. D., though not that 
of a great man as the world estimates greatness, reminds us 
that we, also, as servants of God, may make our lives sublime 
by the reception and reflection of the light of truth and 
grace, which is perfectly manifested in Jesus Christ. 

By the grace of God Dr. Heyer was a cosmopolitan, a 
fine type of the Christian pilgrim and stranger who, seeking 
to reach the city which is to come, labors, while he journeys 
heavenward, for the extension of the kingdom, power and 
glory of God on earth. In a review of his life and career 
one is led over land and sea, from continent to continent, 
finding traces of his footsteps especially in Germany, the 
land of his birth, in the United States, the land of his adop- 
tion, and in India, the land of his most memorable work. 

Heyer's career teaches us in unmistakable language that 
human life in the fear of God and in the faith of Jesus Christ 
is neither a dream of worldly delight nor a nightmare of hope- 
less despair, but a real and earnest existence, lacking neither 
innocent romance nor beneficent tribulation in the steady 
pursuit of the divinely appointed calling, the dignity, duties 
and destiny of which are determined and developed by faith- 
ful service to Jesus Christ, the divine Redeemer and Lord of 
all men and of all things. 

Heyer was a conspicuous figure in our Lutheran Church 
in America two generations and more ago. Esteemed by his 
cotemporaries for the vigor of his faith and the value of his 
service, the kindly dignity of his manhood won for him the 
unique title of Father Heyer. He has been described as "a 
man of short stature, untiring energy, cheerful disposition, 
unflinching courage and self-denying spirit." Eager and 
zealous to the very last days of his ripe old age to propagate 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 23 

the Gospel, both at home and in the foreign field, the Church 
instinctively turned to him whenever it contemplated a new 
mission enterprise. His success, both as a home and as 
a foreign missionary, entitles him to the first place in the 
list of the great missionaries of the Lutheran Church in 
America; and his name will ever be recalled as an abiding 
inspiration for mission effort in every direction. 

John Christian Frederick Heyer 1 was born in Helmstedt, 
duchy of Brunswick, Germany, July 10, 1793. Europe was 
then in a state of turmoil caused by the rise and spread of 
revolutionary ideas and movements, which had made the 
United States free and independent of England and were 
rapidly demolishing the established institutions of France. 
Napoleon Bonaparte was in the near background of current 
events and was already beginning to shape the course of his- 
tory. Heyer was eleven and a half years old when Napoleon 
was crowned emperor of France. 

The French Revolution was accompanied by a storm of 
religious error, which developed into the tornado of Ration- 
alism, swept over France, Germany, England and America, 
and left in its wake broken faith and buried piety. As a 
student at the University of Goettingen, Heyer faced this 
storm and remained in the faith of the fathers. 

Of greater significance as a world-movement than either 
the French Revolution or Rationalism was the revival of the 
spirit and work of Christian missions to heathen lands. It 
is more than a mere coincidence that the year of Heyer's 
birth was the year in which William Carey landed on the 
soil of India. Forty-nine years later Heyer established 
the Guntur India Mission for the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania. 

John Christian Frederick was the third child and second 
son of John Henry Gottlieb and Sophie Johanna Wagener- 
Heyer. His father was a burgher and master-furrier in 
Helmstedt. His parents were pious Christians and brought 
him up, as he afterward testified, in the nurture and admoni- 

1 He almost invariably signed his letters and articles C. F. Heyer. The 
baptismal record in Helmstedt gives his name as Johann Christian Friedrich. 



24 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

tion of the Lord. He seems to have been a precocious child, 
for he began to attend the village school at the early age of 
three years, and when he was thirteen years old a company of 
French soldiers, quartered in Helmstedt, employed him as an 
interpreter. Fearing, perhaps, that young as he was, he might 
be drafted into the French army, his parents decided to send 
him to an uncle living in Philadelphia. After he had been 
confirmed in St. Stephen's Church, Helmstedt, in 1807, his 
father took him in August, that year, to Hamburg, but find- 
ing that port blockaded by French war ships, proceeded to 
Friedricksstadt, Denmark, where the father entrusted his son 
to the care of Captain Williams, master of the American ves- 
sel "Pittsburg," bound for Philadephia. The voyage across 
the Atlantic Ocean lasted eight weeks, and the passage money, 
amounting to $140, was paid by the Philadelphia uncle. For 
a while the fourteen-year-old immigrant attended Pastor 
Passey's private school, and then he worked in his uncle's fac- 
tory, learning the trade of a furrier. Despite the religious in- 
difference of his uncle and remembering the precepts of his 
parents and pastor in Helmstedt, Heyer regularly attended 
Zion's German Lutheran Church at Fourth and Cherry 
streets, of which the Rev. J. H. Ch. Helmuth, D. D., was 
then the senior pastor. He became a teacher in the Sunday 
school and joined the choir and the Mosheim Society, a lit- 
erary, social and religious association of young men in the 
congregation. The junior pastor of the congregation, the 
Rev. John C. Baker, D. D., awakened in him the desire to 
enter the holy ministry, and in 1809, being in his seventeenth 
year, he joined the little circle of students who gathered 
around Drs. Helmuth and F. D. Schaeffer for theological in- 
struction. For about five years he studied under their direc- 
tion. 

He preached his first sermon in the Almshouse in Phila- 
delphia in 1813, and on Trinity Sunday of the following year 
was permitted to deliver his first sermon in Zion's Church, 
at the afternoon service. His text was Matthew 6:6. Con- 
cerning this maiden effort he wrote long afterward, "In this 
case, also, the word was confirmed, 'The Lord is mighty in the 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 25 

weak.' The sermon made a good impression. After more 
than fifty years I, to-day, still thank God for it." From Sep- 
tember 15, 1813, to May 8, 1815, he taught the parochial 
school which Zion's Church conducted in Southwark, Phila- 
delphia, occasionally preaching on Sunday evenings in the 
schoolhouse. 

In March, 1815, Heyer returned to Germany for the 
double purpose of seeing his parents again and of completing 
his theological studies at Halle. Three weeks after having 
lost sight of the American shord, the "Washington" on which 
he was a passenger, was intercepted by a British man-of-war 
in search of Napoleon who had escaped from the island of 
Elba. Several days thereafter another ship hailed them with 
the news that Napoleon had returned to France, driven the 
king from Paris, and gathered an army to regain his lost pres- 
tige and power. Hamburg was in a state of intense excite- 
ment over the renewal of war; and Heyer, remaining on ship- 
board, wrote and told his parents that he would return to 
America on the same ship, because he feared that, if he pro- 
ceeded into the interior of Germany, he would be forced into 
the army. Carl, his elder brother, hastened to Hamburg and 
persuaded him to accompany him to Helmstedt, overcoming 
his fear by offering to become his substitute in case he were 
drafted. In the old home a joyful reunion of the family was 
held, and the young theological student from America was 
honored with an invitation to preach in the church in which 
he had been baptized and confirmed. Almost two thousand 
townspeople gathered to hear his sermon. 

Instead of going to the University at Halle, which was 
temporarily closed, because the students had left it to form a 
volunteer company under Marshal- General Bluecher, Heyer 
accompanied by his younger brother, Heinrich, 1 went to Gqet- 
tingen, where he was matriculated in 1815. The prevailing 
rationalism of the university only served to strengthen him 
in his faith; and in Pastor Thilo who served a congregation 

1 This brother, although a confessed rationalist at first, afterward became 
an orthodox Lutheran pastor and served a congregation in Gross-Poserin, 
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg, remaining in this pastorate over forty years. 



26 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

near Goettingen, he found a kindred spirit and a good 
friend. 

In 1815, while he was spending a fall vacation of several 
weeks at home, his "good and pious" mother died at the age 
of fifty-seven years. The next year he returned to America 
and was licensed to preach by the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
at York, Pa., in 1817. The synod assigned him work in 
its most northwestern parish, in Crawford and Erie counties, 
Pa., made vacant by the death of the Rev. Mr. Colson. He 
was to serve for three months and receive a salary of $100, 
the synod promising to supplement the contributions of the 
parishioners if they failed to reach that amount. On his way 
to Meadville, where he was to reside, Heyer stopped in Lehigh 
County to preach trial sermons in the congregations of the par- 
ish just vacated by the Rev. Mr. Heine. Two of the congrega- 
tions voted for him and two for the other candidate, the Rev. 
Mr. Trumbauer, whereupon both withdrew as candidates. 
In the Macungie congregation he was defeated, because the 
people objected to a preacher who had studied abroad, wore 
long hair parted in the middle after the manner of German 
university students and, as they believed, forgot his text until 
he had reached almost the middle of his sermon, because he 
announced and recited it only after a lengthy introduction. 
"What trifling circumstances may give one's life a different 
course!" was Heyer's comment on this incident. 

Continuing his journey on horseback through Orwigs- 
burg and Sunbury, Heyer reached an outpost of the Lutheran 
Church in Center County, where Pastor Illgen distributed to 
his widely scattered flock both spiritual sustenance and drugs, 
gotten from Halle, Germany. In Venango County, while 
stopping over night with an English family in whose home 
family prayer was customary, the visiting minister was asked 
to offer the evening prayer. Familiar as he was with the 
English language he had never yet attempted a public 
prayer in that language. His effort to translate the devotional 
expressions of his habitual German prayers was a failure. 
Several months later, however, he preached his first English 
sermon at French Creek. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 27 

His parish consisted of small congregations in Meadville, 
where services were held in the court house; at French Creek 
where a small, frame chapel had been built ; in Erie County 
where a country schoolhouse was used for church purposes; 
and at Connaught Lake, where services were conducted in 
the largest house in the settlement. 

Before the three months of his engagement had expired 
he was elected by the congregations as their regular pastor. 
He remained to serve them for nearly a year. During that 
time he instructed and confirmed thirty-five persons, baptized 
fifty-three children, built a neat frame chapel and bought a 
parsonage with forty acres of land in Meadville. When he 
left Meadville in the summer of 1818, riding 200 miles on 
horseback to attend the meeting of the Ministerium in Harris- 
burg, both he and his parish expected his return; but the 
synod decided that, because he had shown his ability to 
preach in both German and English a very rare accomplish- 
ment in those days and because he had displayed commend- 
able zeal and pastoral wisdom, he was just the man needed to 
reorganize the congregations of the Cumberland parish in 
Maryland. Reluctant as he was to leave his work in north- 
western Pennsylvania, he went to Cumberland, where he 
found the church-building and the congregation in the town 
in a woeful state of collapse. The Methodists had converted 
(?) most of the Lutherans. All but Martin Rizer, a faithful 
deacon, and four other men with their famih'es had deserted 
the congregation. Enthusiastically aided by his loyal deacon, 
Heyer began the work of reconstruction. "My English ser- 
mons, at first," wrote Heyer, "attracted no special attention, 
the proselyters harboring no fear that the little German 
preacher would put a stop to their sheep-stealing; but gradu- 
ally, as through diligence and practice I attained greater pro- 
ficiency, the audience increased. The people were curious to 
hear the strange preacher; the crowds came to us." For six 
years he labored wisely and well in Cumberland, rebuilding 
the dilapidated log church, reorganizing the congrega- 
tion, increasing its membership, and serving seven or 
eight preaching points in the country. His parish ex- 



28 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

tended eighty miles east and west and thirty miles north and 
south. 1 

After having been a candidate for ordination, licensed to 
preach and administer the holy sacraments, for three years, 
he was solemnly ordained a deacon at the Lancaster, Pa., 
meeting of the Ministerium in i82o, 2 and was at the same time 
appointed to undertake a missionary tour through parts of 
Kentucky and Indiana. He spent three months, from July 
to October, 1820, on this tour, covering a territory of twenty- 
five hundred miles, travelling at first on foot and then on 
horseback, preaching wherever he coald gather a few people, 
administering the holy sacraments, and distributing German 
and English tracts. 3 

In September, 1822, the congregation in Cumberland, 
being then in its most flourishing state during Heyer's pas- 
torate, entertained the newly organized synod of Virginia 
and Maryland, which he had joined the year previous and 
which had admitted him as a full-fledged pastor. 

During the fall and winter of 1822 and throughout 1823, 
Cumberland was visited by a prolonged epidemic of fever. 
Not a family escaped. Heyer lost his youngest child and he 
himself contracted the disease. He and his family, as well as 
many of the townspeople, spent the summer of 1823 in the 
mountains near Cumberland. During his absence the Cum- 
berland congregation became sadly disorganized; and, after 
having supplied the congregation in Somerset, Pa., for several 
months, he followed a call to that parish in 1824.* In Somer- 

1 He served either temporarily or permanently the Wellersville (Wellersburg) , 
Combs, Greenville, Uhls, Yough, Glades, Germany and George's Hill congre- 
gations. 

2 Theological students who preached were termed catechists. Then they 
were licensed and tested in some parish, their license being annually renewed, 
until they were ordained deacons. Subsequently they were admitted to the 
Ministerium as regular pastors by the right hand of fellowship. 

3 The synod paid for these tracts and gave Heyer a compensation of forty 
dollars a month for his service. He found Lutherans scattered through Boone, 
Jefferson and Nelson counties in Kentucky, and through Harrison, Boyd and 
Jefferson counties in Indiana. During his absence the Cumberland congrega- 
tion was supplied by the Rev. A. Reck, of Winchester, Va.; the Rev. C. P. 
Krauth, of Shepherdstown, Va., and the Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, of Hagerstown, 
Md. 

4 This parish consisted of congregations in Somerset, Friedensburg, Stoys- 
town and Samuels. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 29 

set he was called upon to wage a spiritual warfare against 
the followers of Alexander Campbell. In the midst of a 
series of sermons directed against the errors of this new sect, 
which disturbed the minds of many in his congregation, the 
frame church-building of the Lutheran congregation was 
destroyed by fire. Suspicion of incendiarism rested on a 
certain Campbellite. The embers of the ruined church still 
glowed when Alexander Campbell himself arrived from 
Washington, Pa., to crush the little Lutheran preacher who 
had dared to call the Campbellite teachings into question. 
The sympathies of the people, however, were with the afflicted 
Lutheran congregation and Campbell got a scant hearing. 
The congregation at once began to build a new brick church, 
the corner-stone of which was laid in 1825; but soon there- 
after the building operations were suspended, and Heyer 
resigned, in 1827, to follow a call to Carlisle, Pa., succeeding 
the Rev. Benjamin Keller. 

While pastor in Somerset he helped to organize the synod 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church west of the Susque- 
hanna River, afterward called the West Pennsylvania Synod, 1 
and at its meeting at York, Pa., in 1828, he was elected 
secretary. Three years later at Indiana, Pa., he was honored 
with the office of president. 

On June 21, 1830, Heyer became the agent of "The Sunday 
School Union of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the 
United States," which had been formed in October, 1829, by 
a number of delegates to the General Synod at Hagerstown, 
Md., at the suggestion of the West Pennsylvania Synod. 
Heyer, who had been the chairman of the committee which 
drafted the constitution of the society, entered on the dudes 
of the newly created office with much enthusiasm. He was 
convinced that what the church needed at that time, above all 
other things, was the organization of a Sunday school in every 
Lutheran congregation. 2 In the course of eighteen months 

1 In the minutes of the first meeting of this synod held at Chambersburg, 
September 4, 1825, he is recorded as a member, absent and excused. 

2 Experience seems to have cooled his ardor. Some years later he wrote: 
"Sunday schools are only small plasters on large sores. We consider it our 
duty to recommend their establishment most heartily, but they are not to be 
considered as substitutes for Christian day schools." 



30 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

he visited about three hundred congregations, travelled over 
3000 miles, advised and aided pastors in the establishment of 
Sunday schools, 1 and distributed and sold about 13,000 Ger- 
man Sunday school hymnals and tracts. 2 

While serving in the capacity of Sunday school agent, 
Heyer assisted in the services of laying the corner-stone 
of the Seminary building in Gettysburg, May 26, 1831, 
and afterward served this institution as a member of the 
Board of Directors. He was, moreover, one of the first mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees of Pennsylvania College. 

Although heartily commended by the German Sunday 
School Union at its meeting, November 13, 1831, for "his 
faithful and successful exertions to promote the object of his 
appointment," he felt constrained to resign at that meeting, 
partly because of a lack of sufficient support and partly because 
of "the weariness and difficulty" of winter travelling in the 
open country. 

The congregation in Somerset, Pa., which had been un- 
fortunate in its selection of Meyer's successor, petitioned the 
General Synod, in 1831, to permit Heyer to return. During 
his absence of over four years the sectarians had wrought 
havoc in the congregation, the church-building had remained 
in the unfinished condition in which he had left it, and the 
church property had a heavy debt resting on it. Heyer re- 
sumed charge in January, 1832. So vigorously did he carry 
on the work of restoration that in five months the debt was 
paid and the new church completed and consecrated. His 
second pastorate in Somerset lasted about four years. After 
he had preached his farewell sermon the officers of the con- 
gregation approached him with a petition to remain, but he 
comforted them with the assurance of the Apostle Paul, "Be- 
hold, the third time I am ready to come to you " (2 Cor. 12 : 14), 
and with many good wishes they let him enter the service of 

1 In 1831 the number of schools connected with the Union was 74; teachers , 
677; and pupils, 4890. 

2 The first German Sunday school Hymnal of the Lutheran Church in 
America was that published by the West Pennsylvania Synod about this 
time. It was revised and enlarged in 1832 and contained 85 hymns, and was 
sold at six cents a copy. Heyer wrote the manuscript of an A B C book for 
Sunday schools, which, however, was never published. 



FIRST FOREIGH MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 31 

The Central Missionary Society of the General Synod as its 
home missionary in the Mississippi Valley. The call of the 
society specified that he should "traverse the principal por- 
tions of the entire Mississippi Valley and ascertain all German 
settlements, spending a short time in each." Starting on De- 
cember 30, 1835, from Somerset, and accompanied as far as 
Laurel Mountain 1 by two of the deacons of his late parish, 
he made the trip from Wheeling to Cincinnati on a steamboat. 
In the state of Indiana he visited the Rev. Mr. Lehmanowsky 
in Henry County and co-operated with the Rev. B. Haver- 
stick, travelling missionary in the service of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium. Following the Ohio River through southern 
Illinois, he crossed the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau 
into Missouri, traversing the eastern part of that state and 
going as far as Iron Mountain. Returning in April, 1836, he 
visited the central counties of Illinois, proceeded as far north 
as Peoria, and then revisited Wabash County in order to assist 
the Rev. Mr. Haverstick in laying the corner-stone of Jordan 
Creek Union Church, west of Mt. Carmel, the members of 
which were mostly Lutherans from Lehigh and Northampton 
counties, Pa. In June he was back in Somerset after an ab- 
sence of six months from his family which had continued to 
reside there. The next month he started for western Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Pittsburgh was then looming up as a center of industry, 
and many Germans had settled there. A German Union 
congregation had been established, but the West Pennsyl- 
vania Synod desired to organize an English church. Heyer, 
together with a number of other pastors, was entrusted with 
the preliminary work. He went to Pittsburgh in November, 
1836, and, with the aid of Mr. G. Weyman, succeeded in 
establishing the First English Lutheran Church. The first 
steps in this direction were taken when Heyer preached to a 
small audience representing seven or eight Lutheran families, 
assembled in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church on the 
first Sunday in November, 1836. Several weeks later he 

1 Here they were hospitably entertained by Mr. J. Gebhart, the treasurer 
of Pennsylvania. 



32 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

revisited Pittsburgh. Meanwhile the Unitarian church build- 
ing in Smithfield Street had been leased for six months and the 
congregation had adopted a constitution. Instructed to 
remain in Pittsburgh, Heyer served the English congregation 
and, also, in January, 1837, organized Holy Trinity German 
Lutheran Church, which worshipped in the same building. 
After the lease had expired a schoolhouse, and then the old 
court-house, were temporarily used by both congregations. 
Heyer also served a German mission in Allegheny, across the 
river, for a time. 

After an amicable separation of the English and German 
congregations, thus begun by Heyer, he continued to serve the 
latter, while the Rev. E. Fry and later the Rev. D. John 
McCron, under the appointment of The Central Missionary 
Society, served the English congregation. Under Heyer's 
energetic leadership the Germans bought a lot at Sixth and 
Grand Streets and planned to build a church. The congre- 
gation, however, was poor, and Heyer undertook a tour in the 
East to collect a building-fund. He returned with enough 
money to erect the church which was consecrated on April 5, 
I840. 1 

While engaged in his mission work in Pittsburgh, Mary, 
his wife, a native of Philadelphia, died at Somerset, Pa., 
January 13, 1839, aged fifty-two years, nine months and 
twenty days. She was the widow of Captain Gash when 
Heyer married her in 1819. Her maiden name was Mary 
Webb. Six children, one of whom died in infancy at Cumber- 
land, Md., were born of their union. The interment was 
made in the cemetery of the Lutheran Church at Friedens- 
burg, near Somerset. 

In May, 1840, Heyer was called by the General Synod's 
Foreign Missionary Society to be its foreign missionary to 
India. He handed in his resignation as the pastor of Trinity 
Church, Pittsburgh, but the congregation was unwilling to ac- 
cept it. Thereupon he requested the male members of the con- 

1 The English congregation also bought a lot on Seventh street near Smith- 
field and built a church, Mr. G. Weyman bearing almost all of the expense. 
It was consecrated at the meeting of the West Pennsylvania Synod in October, 
1840. 



FIRST FOREIGN MISSIONARY, REV. C. F. HEYER, M. D. 33 

gregation to remain after the Sunday morning service. Ex- 
plaining the situation to them, he asked those who were will- 
ing to let him go to take seats on the right side of the church, 
and those who were unwilling, on the left side. The former 
were in the majority, and after a few words of encouragement 
he dismissed them all, thanking them for concurring in his 
decision. 

Directed by the executive committee of The Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society "to turn his attention at once to those studies 
which would be subservient to the work in which he was to 
engage," he left Pittsburgh for Baltimore, where, during the 
fall and winter of 1840-41, he attended lectures in Washington 
University, devoting himself to the study of medicine and San- 
scrit. Meanwhile he had accepted the appointment of the 
Maryland synod of which he again had become a member, to 
take charge of Trinity Lutheran church at Fell's Point, Balti- 
more. A large church property, belonging to Episcopalians, 
was bought and repaired, and Heyer served the congregation 
until the fall of 1841. He preached his farewell sermon on 
Sunday, September 26th The congregation expressed its 
regret over his departure and its sincere appreciation of his 
service in a set of resolutions which were published in the 
church papers. 

We have already learned how, after having declined the 
call of The Foreign Missionary Society of the General Synod, 
Heyer became the foreign missionary of the Pennsylvania 
Synod's Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He left 
Baltimore on September 3oth, going to Gettysburg, where he 
left his youngest son, Theophilus. Then he turned his face 
toward India, where much labor and sacrifice but also great 
honor and blessing awaited him. 

Daring the twenty-four years which elapsed between his 
licensure and his departure for India, Heyer held eight differ- 
ent appointments, averaging three years in each. The reason 
for these frequent changes may be found, in part, in a roving 
disposition; but we must not overlook the fact that the work 
to which he was called in most of his appointments was of a 
temporary character. At any rate, it is evident that the 



34 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Church always displayed confidence in his ability and fidelity, 
regardless of the task which it asked him to undertake. As 
new movements were begun Heyer was selected to do the 
pioneer work, and he never failed to respond to the call even 
though the prospects were not promising. He served in six 
established congregations or parishes and all but one of them 
in some way expressed sincere regret at his departure. To- 
day, after more than half a century, every congregation with 
which his name was in any way associated, refers to that asso- 
ciation with justifiable pride, for Father Heyer is undoubtedly 
one of the great men of our Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
America. 



CHAPTER III 

HEYER'S FIRST JOURNEY TO INDIA 

IN the official call of the Executive Committee of the 
Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 1 Heyer 
was instructed to depart for East India as soon as he could 
prepare himself for the journey, and to begin his work as a 
missionary in India, "whenever the Lord would open the 
way." His travelling expenses were to be paid and he was 
to receive an annual salary of $600. It was agreed that, if 
this sum proved more than sufficient, his salary was to be 
reduced "in proportion to his wants." On the other hand, 
the committee agreed to increase it, if it proved inadequate. 
The sum of $150 was advanced for an outfit and he was per- 
mitted to spend "a moderate sum for the purchase of picto- 
rial representations of Biblical history, if he should consider 
them useful and necessary in the instruction of the heathen." 

A special appeal for contributions addressed to all Luth- 
erans in the United States, written by the Rev. Dr. Baker, 
of Trinity Church, Lancaster, Pa., the treasurer of the society, 
was published in German in the " Kirchenzeitung " and in 
English in "The Lutheran Observer." The appeal reads as 
follows: 

To the ministers and congregations of the Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church in the United States. 

Respected Brethren : The Missionary Society of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Synod of Pennsylvania resolved at its 
last meeting to establish a mission among the Hindus 
in India. The Rev. Mr. Mueller in Tinnevelly, to whose 

1 The executive committee which called him was constituted as follows: 
The officers of the society, namely, the Rev. Wm. Beates, president; the Rev. 
J. Haesbert, vice-president; the Rev. Fr. Schmidt, secretary; the Rev. C. R. 
Demme, D. D., corresponding secretary; the Rev. J. C. Baker, D. D., treasurer; 
and three directors, the Rev. H. S. Miller, Mr. C. Hager and Mr. J. F. Hein- 
itsch. 

35 



36 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

support we heretofore contributed, having again entered 
into connection with the Church Missionary Society, and 
that society being fully competent to sustain that mis- 
sion station, no further aid in his behalf is required from 
us. In order, however, to take an active part hi evangel- 
izing the heathen, which we regard as a sacred duty of the 
Church of God, we have resolved in humble reliance on the 
great Head of the Church to send our beloved brother, C. F. 
Heyer, to the East Indies. He will, accordingly, proceed to 
that region to prosecute the work under the superintendence 
of our mission society. We indulge the hope that our con- 
gregations will effectually support us in this enterprise; and, 
whereas many Lutheran ministers belonging to other synods 
are not in favor of sending a missionary in connection with the 
American Board and have signified their willingness to afford 
assistance to our mission, we assure them that their donations 
will be thankfully received and applied to the above purpose. 
The treasurer of the society will present to the Church an exact 
statement of the receipts and expenditures. It is scarcely 
necessary to assure the Church that we shall not lose sight of 
our dispersed and destitute brethren in this country, espe- 
cially hi the distant West; but we shall continue, as hereto- 
fore, to provide for them to the utmost of our ability. 

May the Lord, our God, bless us and establish the work 
of our hands, yea, the work of our hands may the Lord estab- 
lish. 

Written in the name of the Mission Society of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Synod of Pennsylvania. 

John C. Baker, Treasurer. 

The response to this appeal justified the faith of those 
who thus ventured on this pioneer project. 1 

On Sunday, October 5, 1841, Heyer, then forty-eight 
years of age, was solemnly commissioned at a public service 
in St. Paul's German Lutheran Church, Philadelphia. The 

1 The congregations in York, Pa., the Rev. Mr. Lochmann, pastor, and in 
Baltimore, Md., the Rev. J. G. Morris, pastor, contributed liberally for Heyer's 
outfit. St. John's English Church, Philadelphia, gave him $60 for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of mission schools. 



HEYER'S FIRST JOURNEY TO INDIA 37 

charge was delivered by the Rev. J. C. Baker, D. D., and 
the missionary-elect preached a sermon, choosing as his text 
Jonah 3:2. Heyer spent several days in Boston with a num- 
ber of the members of the American Board and attended the 
service of farewell to that Board's missionaries, whom he was 
to accompany to Ceylon. 

Before sailing Heyer received letters of recommendation 
and credentials from the faculties of Pennsylvania College and 
of the Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., and from the Executive 
Committee of the Missionary Society, which, besides whatever 
other useful purpose they may have served, greatly strength- 
ened the heart of the missionary who was leaving behind all 
that was precious to him, in order that he might follow the 
call of the Lord to a land of which he knew practically nothing, 
excepting only this, that it needed the Gospel of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

In those days it was, indeed, a hazardous undertaking to 
go to a heathen land as a Christian missionary; and, though 
the Hindus were known to be a peaceable people among 
whom a missionary might labor without the fear of martyr- 
dom, the voyage by sea in a sailing vessel around the Cape of 
Good Hope, lasting not less than five months, involved con- 
siderable discomfort and tediousness, not to say danger, as 
compared with our modern methods of rapid, comfortable 
and safe transit over sea and land. Moreover, sixty and 
more years ago, life in South India for an American or Euro- 
pean lacked many of the sanitary safeguards and physical 
comforts of to-day. 

The opening phrase of Heyer's farewell letter written 
in Boston just before sailing, "This being the last Sunday 
which I shall probably spend in the United States," indicates 
that his mind was not entirely free from grave apprehension; 
but that the spirit of heroic faith suppressed all feelings of 
fear is evident from the closing sentences. ' 'All ready to be- 
gin the voyage," wrote the intrepid pioneer. "I feel calm and 
cheerful, having taken this step after serious and prayerful 
consideration. The smiles of friends have cheered, and the 
approbation of the churches has encouraged me thus far. But 



38 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

I am aware that, ere long, amidst a tribe of men whose lan- 
guage will be strange to me, I shall behold those smiles only 
in remembrance, and hear the voice of encouragement only 
in dying whispers across the ocean; and then nothing but the 
grace of God, nothing but a thorough conviction of being in 
the path of duty, nothing but the approving smile of Heaven 
can keep me from despondency. 

' Farewell, a long farewell, 

For we may meet no more, 
Until we're raised in heaven to dwell 
On Canaan's blissful shore.' " 

The good ship "Brenda," under command of Captain A. 
Ward, left the harbor of Boston, October 15, 1841, carrying 
a cargo of ice and eight passengers, all of whom were mission- 
aries or wives of missionaries. In a letter written at sea 
several hundred miles east of Bahia, Brazil, dated November, 
1841, and forwarded to the United States by a whaling vessel, 
Heyer said that the voyage up to that time had been pleasant 
and that he had devoted much time to the study of Tamil. 
December 2oth, the "Brenda" passed the Cape of Good Hope 
under full sail. Two weeks later the southern point of Mada- 
gascar was reached. Several days were spent in the island of 
Zanzibar, where the missionaries enjoyed a visit to the palace 
of Seyed Syed, Ben Sultan and Sultan of Muscat, who enter- 
tained them in oriental fashion. 

Zanzibar and the eastern coast of Africa opposite impressed 
Heyer as a good field for missionary operations. In fact, he 
was strongly inclined to stay and labor there, but decided that 
the instructions he had received from the Executive Com- 
mittee demanded that he should proceed to India. 

On Tuesday, March i5th, just five months after having 
sailed from Boston, the "Brenda" cast anchor in the harbor 
of Colombo, Ceylon, landing her eight passengers the next 
day. Seven of them had reached their field of labor. One 
of them, whom we shall follow farther on his way, still 
had a journey of about a thousand miles before him. 
After spending a number of days in Colombo in the com- 



HEYER'S FIRST JOURNEY TO INDIA 39 

pany of Protestant missionaries laboring in that city, and 
preaching a sermon in the church in which eighty years be- 
fore the venerable Christian Frederick Schwartz had preached 
and administered the sacraments, Heyer boarded the "La 
Felice," which weighed anchor during the night of March 
i gth, bound for Tuticorin on the Coromandel coast of South 
India. In three days that port was safely reached. "The 
dangers of a long sea voyage are overcome," wrote the pio- 
neer. "With heartfelt gratitude to the Father of mercies and 
God of all consolation and grace in Christ Jesus, our Re- 
deemer, I raised my Ebenezer at Tuticorin on March 23, 
1842." 

At Tuticorin Heyer engaged a palankeen and bearers for 
his journey inland. After an all-night run Palamcotta was 
reached. Here, where Rhenius had preached, labored, suffered 
and died, Heyer, on Good Friday, 1842, attended a Tamil 
service in the church built by Rhenius in 1826, and, for the 
first time, heard a Hindu preach. 

The newly arrived missionary was greatly pleased to find 
that he could join the congregation in singing the Tamil 
translation of German hymns sung to their familiar tunes. 
Heyer, moreover, noted the customs, introduced by the 
Halle missionaries, of asking questions during the sermon 
and of writing the heads of discussion on palm leaves. One 
of these leaves he afterward sent, together with other curios, 
to the Seminary in Gettysburg. Under the guidance of the 
Rev. Mr. Hobbs of the Church Missionary Society, he visited 
the seminary for the training of native workers and the 
boarding schools for Christian boys and girls, as well as the 
schools for Hindu children, in Palamcotta, thus obtaining 
valuable information for the work which awaited him in the 
Telugu country. 

After having purchased a second-hand palankeen in Tin- 
nevelly and engaged bearers, he proceeded to Kotaur where, 
most unexpectedly, he met the Rev. Mr. Mueller, Rhenius' 
son-in-law, with whom he was privileged to spend a few hours 
in profitable conversation. At Satur Heyer quietly spent his 
first Easter Sunday in India in a travellers' bungalow. March 



40 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 



he arrived at Madura, once the seat of the powerful 
Pandyan monarchy, where missionaries D wight and Ward 
of the American Board were establishing a mission. 

As he approached Trichinopoly, early Sunday morning, 
April 3d, he looked forward with peculiar joy to a visit to 
scenes and places, which, more than any others, recalled the 
remarkable life and career of the great Schwartz. The Rev. 
Mr. Kohlhoff, his host in Trichinopoly, who had been born in 
India and whose father and grandfather had been missionaries 
there, guided him to the church and to the dwelling of the 
sainted Schwartz, and gave him an insight into the interesting 
life of a Hindu village and an opportunity to attend one of the 
monthly meetings of native workers, which, since the days of 
the first Halle missionaries had been a regular feature of mis- 
sion work in India. The next stage of the palankeen journey 
brought Heyer to Tanjore where he arrived on April 5th. In 
the company of the Rev. Mr. Thompson, a missionary in the 
service of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, he vis- 
ited the chapel in which the body of Schwartz lies buried. 
Standing near the pulpit he reverently viewed the grave 
and read the inscription on the granite stone, which Serfojee, 
the Rajah of Tanjore, had caused to be inscribed on it. 

From Tanjore Heyer went to Tranquebar, where the 
memorials of the beginning of the Danish-Halle Mission by 
Ziegenbalg and Pluetschau, in 1706, occupied his devout atten- 
tion. Entering the New Jerusalem Church, he beheld the 
vault near the altar, which contains the earthly remains of the 
first Protestant foreign missionary, Bartholomew Ziegen- 
balg, and read the Latin epitaph on the copper plate on the 
vault. Continuing his journey northward through Cudda- 
lore and Pondicherry, Heyer finally reached Madras, April 
16, 1842, half a year after his departure from America. Four 
days later he wrote: "Some of the brethren at Colombo told 
me that hi travelling overland at this season of the year I 
should suffer from oppressive heat; also that my road would 
lead through several districts where the cholera raged; . . . 
moreover, that it would not be an easy matter to get along 
with the natives on account of my imperfect knowledge of 




A PALANKEEN FOR BRIDES AND BRIDEGROOMS 
The common palankeen is less ornate. 




A JINRIKISHA 
Dr. Amy B. Rohrer is seated in the Jinrikisha. 




A BULLOCK i:.\M>Y 




AN ELEPHANT CART 



HEYER S FIRST JOURNEY TO INDIA 41 

the language. But the Lord has enabled me to overcome 
these difficulties and I have travelled four or five hundred 
miles in the interior of southern India without enduring any 
great hardships. The heat I found tolerable; the pestilence 
was not permitted to harm me; and with the native Indians I 
made out by words and signs as well as I could." 



CHAPTER IV 

THE SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 

THE Telugus, among whom Heyer had been directed to 
establish the American Evangelical Lutheran Mission in 
India, inhabit that part of the peninsula which extends north- 
ward from the city of Madras along the coast of the bay of 
Bengal almost as far as the Mahanadi River, to the confines 
of Bengal, and far inland into the heart of the Dekkan, cover- 
ing a territory somewhat larger than Spain. 1 

The Telugu country lies in the tropical zone between 13 
and 20 north latitude, on a line with Central America, 
the southern part of Mexico and the islands of Jamaica, 
Hayti and Porto Rico. Two large rivers, the Godavery 
and the Kistna, flow through the Telugu country. The 
delta-land of the Godavery is very fertile, numerous canals 
irrigating the soil and furnishing also a means of travel 
and traffic. The chief products of this country are rice, 
sugar, cotton and indigo. Among the tropical fruits which 
are cultivated the mango is especially prized. "What the 
apple is to the American people the mango is to the people of 
India. It grows everywhere. Often large mango trees line 
both sides of a public road or occupy waste ground near 
villages, and being free to the poor, these become a great boon 
during the fruitage season." Palm trees of all kinds are 
numerous; the teak of the native forests is used in the con- 

1 "This tract of country comprehends the British districts of Ganjam, 
Vizagapatam, Godavery, Kistna and Nellore, the greater portion of the Nizam's 
territory, the districts of Kurnool and Cuddapa, the northern and eastern 
portions of Bellary and the eastern parts of Mysore and North Arcot." 
Arden's "Telugu Grammar." 

"The Telugu or Tenugu nation (which foreigners call Telinga) fills a country 
larger than Spain to the west and north of Madras town. In some English 
books it is called Telingana or Golconda. It is contained in circles which we 
may describe on the map around Kadapa, Rajahmundry and Kondapilli, the 
radius extending to Madras; also one round Visakhapatnam reaching to Gan- 
jam toward Puri (Paory) in Kattack, often called Jagannath." Introduction 
to "Brown's English and Telugu Dictionary," Part I. 

42 



SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN" MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 43 

struction of the better class of houses; and the Indian banyan, 
noted throughout the world, is a familiar object to the natives. 

The Telugus are one of the most numerous of the Dravidian 
tribes which were forced down from the high plateaus of North 
India into the southern plains by the invasion of the Aryans 
through the passes of the Himalaya Mountains. According 
to the census of 1901 the Telugus numbered 20,696,872; all 
Dravidians, 56,000,000. To-day the number of the Telugus 
may be about 23,000,000. Compared with the Aryans of 
North India, the Dravidians have a darker complexion, 
longer heads, flatter noses, more irregular features, and are 
shorter in stature. In lieu of physical strength and vigor they 
possess, to a marked degree, the power of patient endurance. 
By the side of a highly developed mystical sense there exists a 
very low standard of morality, both being largely the products 
of the prevailing religion. 

Like all India, the Telugu country is a land of villages. 
"Ninety per cent, of the population lives in towns or villages, 
which, although differing in size, do not vary much in general 
appearance." Cases of a moral nature are decided by the 
headman of the village, assisted by a clerk and a council of 
four elders. A town is an overgrown village and has a mag- 
istrate and a petty court to manage its judicial affairs. The 
cultivated land around the villages is frequently owned by 
absentee landlords, called zemindars, whose bond-servants the 
farmers usually are. The homes of wealthy natives are large 
bungalows with capacious verandas; those of the middle and 
lower classes are gloomy and unattractive, usually consisting 
of one or two rooms, earthen floor, mud walls and a thatched 
roof of palm leaves. Little furniture is used, and in many 
homes cows, calves, buffaloes and bullocks are received 
on intimate terms. A few brass plates, cups or mugs, earthen 
cooking vessels and water-jars, a knife but no forks are the 
ordinary kitchen utensils. They are kept scrupulously clean 
lest the food should be defiled and the caste broken. 

The Christian home, as we know it, is unknown to the 
Hindu, "there being no equivalent for the word in any Indian 
language." The young husband brings his wife to his father's 



44 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

house, where she becomes subject to her mother-in-law. She 
never appears in public in the company of any man, not even 
of her husband. If a son is born of the wedlock, the husband 
does not, usually, seek a second wife, but the wife who has no 
son is sometimes cast off or, at least, treated with contempt. 
Only a small percentage of the high caste Hindu women are 
secluded in zenanas. Betrothal takes place when the bride is a 
mere child or even a helpless babe; and if the husband be- 
trothed dies, the baby-wife becomes a widow and may never 
remarry. A widower, however, may marry again. Many 
marriages are merely mercenary transactions. The legal age 
of actual marriages was raised from ten to twelve years by the 
"Age of Consent Bill" in 1891. l 

The ordinary daily food of the people is rice with curry, or 
some form of millet. Their clothing is scant, and, as a rule, 
children wear no clothing until they are four or five years of 
age. The passion of the people for jewelry, the love of dis- 
play, feasting at weddings and festivals, and the litigation in 
which they are often involved, frequently leave them for 
years in the clutches of the money-lender. 

The prevailing religion of the Telugus is Modern Hindu- 
ism, an undefinable religious composite of gross polytheism 
and underlying pantheism, with absurd superstitions, innu- 
merable deities, low moral standards, foolish ceremonies and 
a tyrannical caste system. The divisions and sub-divisions 
of caste are altogether too numerous to mention; but, in 
general, we may distinguish between the Brahmins or priests, 
the Sudras or middle-class, the Panchamas (fifth class) or 
outcasts. The following are the principle rales of caste: 
Intermarriage is forbidden; occupation is hereditary; per- 
sons of different caste may not eat together nor drink out 
of the same vessel; no man of an inferior caste may touch 
the food or enter the cook-room; the higher caste-man is 
a vegetarian; an ocean voyage beyond the confines of India 
is prohibited. The caste system has for ages strangled am- 
bition, choked aspiration, and held back progress. It has made 

^n 1901 the widows of India numbered 25,891,936, of whom 391,147 were 
under fifteen years of age. 



SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 45 

unity of thought, purpose or action for the common good a 
practical impossibility, and has fostered suspicion, jealousy, 
and selfishness. It has preserved the position and power of 
the Brahmins as the religious autocrats of India and has been 
the greatest impediment to the work of Christian missions. 



To this land and these people, the Telugus, Heyer was 
sent to preach the Gospel and establish the Church of Jesus 
Christ. Other Protestant missionaries had been there before 
he came and had begun missions. We will let him tell us the 
history of these earlier missions up to the time of his arrival 
in India: 

"The Rev. Dr. Schultze, one of the early Halle-Danish 
Lutheran missionaries, was the first to turn his attention to the 
Telugu people. A large number of the people of Madras are 
Telugus, also called Gunturs. For their benefit Telugu 
schools were established by Schultze. 1 He also translated the 
Bible into Telugu, but, having as yet no means of printing it 
in Madras, he took it to Halle on his return to Germany. The 
manuscript was sent to London, where it is still to be found 
in one of the museums. It is stated that Dr. Schultze's munshi 
or Telugu teacher became a true Christian and may be con- 
sidered as the firstfruits to Christ among the Telugu people. 

"In 1805 the first settled mission to the Telugus was com- 
menced by the London Missionary Society at Vizagapatam, 
where Messrs. Cran and Desgrange were appointed to labor. 
These missionaries were much encouraged by the aid fur- 
nished them by a Telugu Brahmin, who had been baptized by 
the Romanists and afterward was received into the Lutheran 
mission at Tranquebar. 2 

"The second mission among the Telugus was founded at 

1 Schultze began work as a Christian missionary in Madras in 1726. 

2 Heyer continues the history of this first Protestant mission among the 
Telugus as follows: "Mr. Cran died in 1809; Mr. Desgrange, in 1810. The 
London Missionary Society sent out Messrs. Gordon and Lee to continue 
the work at Vizagapatam. They were soon joined by Mr. Pritchett, who had 
been compelled to leave his mission in Rangoon. Mr. Lee left in 1815 and Mr. 
Dawson arrived the same year and took his place. The translation of the New 
Testament was completed and put into circulation before Mr. Pritchett's 
death in 1820." 



46 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Cuddapah in 1822 (London Missionary Society). Until 1836 
Vizagapatam and Cuddapah were the only missions among 
the Telugus. The next station was established at Narsapur 
by Messrs. Bowden and Beer in 1836. These laborers for 
Christ, who had come to India anxious to carry on missionary 
work while supporting themselves by their trades, were two 
young tradesmen from Barnstable, England. The latter part 
of their scheme failed as it does elsewhere, but Christian friends 
took up their cause and sent them support. Both succeeded 
in learning the language well and became very useful in the 
region of the country which they occupied. 

"The London Society established in 1839, at Chicacole, an- 
other mission, which was an offshoot of Vizagapatam. The 
Church Missionary Society was the next to come into the 
field. Two of their agents, Messrs. Noble and Fox, arrived 
at Masulipatam in 1840. Since that time the station has been 
well managed and well supplied and is, perhaps, one of the 
most efficient missions in the Telugu country. Nellore was 
occupied by the American Baptists in 1840, the Rev. Messrs. 
Jewell and Douglass now being the missionaries." 1 

Reaching Madras on April 16, 1842, Heyer was welcomed 
and hospitably entertained by several American, English, 
and Scotch missionaries laboring in that city. They advised 
him to remain a number of months in the city and devote 
himself to the study of Telugu. He decided to follow their 
advice. "The number of Telugu people residing in Madras," 
wrote Heyer, "is estimated at 100,000, and I will endeavor 
during my stay in this place to become acquainted with some 
of them. I have engaged a young Brahmin as teacher who 
is to instruct me in Telugu. A Telugu Brahmin who can 
speak some English called to see me in the afternoon. Among 
other things he desired to know my name. Being told that 
it was Heyer, he smiled, and said, "I do not mean your 
office, but your name." Pointing to himself, he continued, "I 
am an Eyer (i. e., a priest, a Brahmin); your name, sir!" It 

1 Quoted from a letter written to the Sunday School of the First English 
Lutheran Church, Pittsburgh, and published in "The Lutheran Observer," 
July n, 1856. 



SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 47 

was my turn now to explain. I had already been told that 
Heyer signifies a priest, a Brahmin, and, therefore, remarked 
that it was both my name and my office. He thought it was 
rather a strange coincidence, and so it may appear to others, 
that the first Lutheran missionary to the Telugus should be 
a priest, a Brahmin, by name and by office." 

After a month of study Heyer's desire to find, as soon as 
possible, a suitable location for the mission he had been sent 
to establish, impelled him to leave Madras. Early on the 
morning of May igth he was on his way to Nellore, making 
the first stage of the journey, to Sulurpet, in an open boat, 
"depending on the palankeen for shelter from the direct rays 
of the sun." It was a hasty and hazardous step, for May is the 
hottest of all months in southeastern India. In his eagerness 
to accomplish something, Heyer scorned the danger and for- 
tunately remained unharmed. Arriving at Nellore May 23d, 
he met the American Baptist missionaries, Day and Van 
Husen, the former lying on a bed of sickness. Here he 
remained until the hot season was over, meanwhile visiting 
the schools of the mission, diligently continuing his study of 
Teluga, in which he heard the Gospel preached at Nel- 
lore, accompanying the Rev. Mr. Van Husen and his native 
helpers on their rounds of mission work and preaching a few 
times in English to the families of the missionaries and other 
English and American residents. On one occasion he visited 
a heathen festival at lanavada, and besides witnessing the dis- 
gusting scenes of a heathen celebration he had an oppor- 
tunity of noting, also, how such gatherings of idolaters may 
be improved in the interest of mission work. 1 

1 "In the afternoon," wrote Heyer, "I ascended a mountain about two 
miles distant, where a large pagoda had been erected in honor of Narahsimhadu. 
The number of people who gather at this annual festival on this mountain is 
said to amount to 20,000. The Brahmins tell the people that Lakshmi, one of 
the wives of Vishnu, having become dissatisfied with him on account of his in- 
continency, attempted to escape from him; but being overtaken on this moun- 
tain a quarrel took place between them. On one of the rocks a stone surrounded 
by a brick wall is shown, which is said to contain the mark of Lackshmi's footstep, 
made by her stamping violently on the rock. But in this case, as with many of 
the popish relics, the thing contradicts itself, for instead of an indentation in the 
rock, the shape of a large foot appears about an inch and a half above the level 
of the stone; and instead of the under part of the foot, the upper part showing 
the nails is represented." 



48 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Through an interpreter he preached his first sermon to a 
Telugu congregation in Nellore on June 12, 1842. Just before 
leaving this station and after having witnessed the horrible 
practice of the swinging festival of which he gave a graphic 
description, he wrote these significant words: "You may 
think it must be an easy thing to convince these deluded 
people of their folly, but . . . they are joined to their idols. 
... I fear many years will elapse before the strongholds of 
the devil in these regions can be destroyed and the Redeemer's 
Kingdom be built upon the ruins thereof; unless professing 
Christians bestir themselves more in days to come than they 
have done in times past." 

After having studied the situation from Nellore, as a 
point of vantage, Heyer selected three towns as places where 
he might establish his mission, namely, Ongole, eighty miles 
north of Nellore; Guntur, seventy miles north of Ongole; 
and Ellore, sixty miles north of Guntur. The Rev. Mr. Van 
Husen accompanied him on his tour of inspection. They left 
Nellore in July. "We came to Ongole," wrote Heyer, "where 
formerly some government officials with their families had 
resided. The bungalows which they had occupied, we found in 
a dilapidated condition; but they might have been repaired 
for the accommodation of a missionary. My conclusion was 
that I would settle down at Ongole, if the up-country did not 
offer a more favorable station. We went on our way from 
village to village until we reached Guntur, July 31, 1842. 
Here we met with a very kind reception from H. Stokes, Esq., 
an ardent friend of missions and missionaries, as well as a 
very exemplary Christian gentleman. The inducements 
which Mr. Stokes held out and the kind offers of assistance 
which he made, were far preferable to anything I could ex- 
pect at Ongole. Hence I decided in favor of Guntur, and 
after prayerful consideration concluded to commence mission 
operations forthwith." 

Henry Stokes, Esq., Collector of the Guntur District, had 
long been anxious to secure a resident missionary for Guntur. 
As a member of the Church of England he had addressed 
several appeals to the Church Missionary Society, asking that 



SELECTION OF THE FOREIGN MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 49 

one of its missionaries be stationed at Guntur, but the Society 
felt itself unable to comply. After Heyer had introduced 
himself to the Collector, Stokes inquired of The Church Mis- 
sionary Society missionaries in the Telugu country, whether it 
was the intention of the Society to occupy Guntur, and re- 
ceived a negative reply. Moreover, The Church Missionary 
Society missionaries advised Stokes to persuade Heyer to re- 
main in Guntur. Therefore Stokes offered Heyer the use of a 
building in his compound as a dwelling and, early in September, 
1842, formally transferred to him the English-Telugu school 
which for some years had been conducted under the patron- 
age of the Collectors and other English residents in the town. 
The actual beginning of the Guntur Mission, however, may be 
fixed somewhat earlier than the date of the formal transfer of 
the English-Telugu school. The work was really inaugurated 
on the first Sunday in August, 1842, when in the schoolhouse 
in the Collector's compound a service was held, at which ser- 
mons were preached by the Rev. Mr. Van Husen who had 
accompanied Heyer to Guntur, and the Rev. Mr. Porter of 
the London Missionary Society, who had stopped over on his 
way from Vizagapatam to Cuddapah. Thereafter Heyer con- 
ducted a service every Lord's Day, preaching to the Telugus 
through an interpreter. 

This is the true story of the selection of Guntur as the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission field in India. Like 
many another story it has been embellished, but the embel- 
lishments are fictitious. 

After having selected Guntur as the mission field, the 
most interesting, not to say the most romantic period of 
Heyer's life began. Imagine a man nearly fifty years old, pos- 
sessing a burning zeal, large experience, firm faith in God, 
deep devotion to duty, great strength of purpose and inde- 
fatigable activity, entering upon an entirely new and untried 
sphere of labor in a foreign land among a people whose lan- 
guage, mode of life, habits of thought, customs and religion 
were alien to him. A less courageous spirit would have 
shrunk from the task. And what was the task? Nothing 
less than the inauguration of a movement which should change 



50 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

the world of the natives' ideas and ideals their conception of 
the Supreme Being above them, of the earth under their feet, 
of their fellow-men around them, of life and death and eter- 
nity; change them so completely, that the transformation 
would be a re-birth of souls, of lives, of communities, of tribes, 
of the whole nation. Heyer's ministerial experience in Amer- 
ica, rich and varied as it had been, could avail but little in the 
performance of the task of christianizing a heathen commun- 
ity. Though he was zealous, his zeal as a pioneer foreign 
missionary had to be kept up at high pressure in order to 
prevent his spirit from flagging. Though he was vigorous in 
mind and body, he needed to guard his health with scrupulous 
care and devote himself to his daily duties with unquestioning 
fidelity and unabating hope, if his single-handed labor was to 
result in the permanent establishment of the Mission. 

Without doubt Heyer was chosen of God to be the first 
foreign missionary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
America; and it was providential that such a man as Mr. 
Henry Stokes, the highest official in the district, a man of 
Christian faith and unblemished life, noble self-denial, unselfish 
liberality and ardent missionary zeal, should have welcomed 
Heyer to Guntur and given to the Mission in its infancy his 
personal interest and most cordial support. 



CHAPTER V 

THE FOUNDING OF THE GUNTUR MISSION 

RARELY in the history of mission work has a foreign mis- 
sion had such an auspicious and promising beginning as the 
one which Heyer established in Guntur. In many cases pioneer 
missionaries in heathen lands have been obliged to pass 
through a more or less lengthy period of antecedent effort, 
meeting and overcoming hostility, facing danger and death, 
and even suffering martyrdom, before the slightest indications 
of success appeared. In the case of the American Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission in India a certain amount of preparatory 
work had been done by the English Collectors and other 
officials and residents in Guntur, before Heyer came, so that, 
when he began there, he found that some soil had already 
been broken and prepared for the seed of the Word of God. 

Henry Stokes, Esq., the good and godly Collector of Guntur, 
deserves to be remembered by our American Lutheran Church 
with feelings of gratitude and expressions of esteem, because 
of his staunch friendship for Heyer and of his liberal and con- 
tinued benevolence in support of the Mission. Others whose 
names are mentioned by Heyer as friends and benefactors are 
Mr. Newill, the first Assistant Collector, Dr. Evans, Judge 
Walter, General Buckel, Judge Wood, Dr. Smith, Captain 
O'Neil, and Assistant Collectors Hutway and Barlow. 

In his first report to the executive committee of the Mis- 
sionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, after his 
arrival in Guntur, written September 17, 1842, five weeks after 
the formal beginning of the work, 1 he stated that he regularly 
conducted English services every Sunday morning and every 
Wednesday evening for the English officials and residents 
and for others in the employ of the East India Company or 

1 It appears that Heyer wrote a letter immediately after bis arrival in Gun- 
tur, reporting his decision to remain there, which, however, was lost in transit. 

Si 



52 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

otherwise engaged in civil, military and commercial pursuits. 
The average attendance at these services was thirty. At 
the Sunday morning Telugu services there was an average 
attendance of about seventy, most of them being the older 
pupils in the school. Furthermore, there assembled at his 
door every morning, between five and six o'clock, a motley 
crowd of some seventy poor, blind, lame and deformed objects 
of charity, to whom the missionary dispensed alms, amount- 
ing to $14 or $15 a month, generously contributed for this 
purpose by Mr. Stokes and Mr. Newill. Heyer improved 
this opportunity to preach the Gospel and to teach them 
hymns and Scripture passages. In a few months a num- 
ber of them had memorized a morning hymn, a number of 
Scripture passages, the Ten Commandments and the Lord's 
Prayer. 

Besides the English school which had been transferred to 
his charge and which enrolled thirty pupils, he at once 
organized two purely Telugu schools in which were enrolled, 
respectively, twenty-seven and thirteen pupils. For the 
school- work he employed four native teachers, all heathen, 
whose salaries amounted to about twenty dollars a month, 
the greater part of which was contributed by the English 
residents interested in the Mission. 

Soon after beginning the Mission, he took a twelve-year-old 
orphan boy, named Kotalingam, into his house, gave him 
clothes, board and lodging, and taught him, hoping that he 
might be converted and become a mission worker. His hope, 
however, was not realized. This was the first feeble attempt 
at a boarding school for the training of native workers in the 
Mission. 

Strenuous, indeed, was the daily round of the mission- 
ary's duties. After the early morning meeting with the poor 
at his door, he conducted, at seven o'clock, in the school- 
room, an hour of devotion in the Tamil language for the bene- 
fit of the domestics of Mr. Stokes' household, several of whom 
were baptized Christians. Of David, his interpreter, Heyer 
testified that he was a man who had really experienced the 
power of the Gospel in his soul. At eight o'clock the mis- 



THE FOUNDING OF THE GUNTUR MISSION 53 

sionary went to the English school and taught the first class 
for an hour. Between nine and ten o'clock he breakfasted. 
At ten the Telugu munshi came and four hours were spent 
with him in the study of the vernacular. At three he partook 
of a light luncheon (tiffin). The later afternoon and early 
evening were spent in rest and recreation. Sometimes he 
would indulge in a walk with his Telugu teacher. At other 
times he would ride or drive with one or the other of his Eng- 
lish friends. At seven in the evening he was Mr. Stokes' guest 
at dinner. At nine he conducted the family devotion for the 
family and guests of Mr. Stokes. At ten o'clock he retired. 
It does not surprise us, therefore, to read in one of his letters : 
"I have more to do now than when I had charge of a pastoral 
district in America." 

The mission schools, in particular, made rapid and sub- 
stantial progress. Heyer was an excellent disciplinarian and 
a good instructor. By the middle of October he had estab- 
lished and was supervising six schools, enrolling 150 pupils 
and employing seven teachers. The two principal schools 
were conducted in the building in Mr. Stokes' compound, set 
apart for that purpose. A third was held elsewhere in the 
town, Heyer paying the expenses out of his private purse. 
The fourth was located in Prattipadu, twelve miles south of 
Guntur. This he called St. John's Lutheran School, because 
he supported it with the money that St. John's Sunday School 
and Missionary Society in Philadelphia had given him before 
leaving America. The other schools were located in Nallapadu, 
five miles west of Guntur, and in Kottapetta, a suburb of the 
town. These were supported out of the synodical mission 
funds at a monthly expense of ten dollars. All of these schools, 
except the original English one, were purely Telugu schools, 
attended by children of the low castes and outcasts. At 
first a number of Brahmin boys came to the Guntur school 
and to the one in Prattipadu ; but when the parents realized 
that the missionary aimed, above all things, to inculcate the 
truths of Christianity, they not only withdrew their sons from 
the schools, but also showed considerable hostility toward the 
missionary and his work. In November, 1842, Heyer organ- 



54 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

ized the first Hindu girls' school with an enrollment of fifteen 
pupils. For a year, until the time of her death, this school was 
supported by Mrs. Walker, the wife of Judge Walker, whom 
Heyer described as a most pious woman. Desirous of secur- 
ing efficient teachers, Heyer selected five of the more promis- 
ing pupils in the English-Telugu school and devoted himself 
to their instruction in a normal class. By the end of the year 
1842, the number of pupils in the Guntur schools had increased 
to 135, 20 of whom were girls. The examination held on the 
last day of that year in the large hall of Mr. Stokes' house 
showed that, besides adding pupils, Heyer had also developed 
the efficiency of the schools. The program rendered at this 
public examination greatly pleased the audience. After an 
opening prayer the children recited from memory, in English 
and in Telugu, Psalm 115, Luke 2:8-20, and John 4:21-26. 
Then a number of hymns which had been memorized, were 
sung in both languages. Catechetical exercises, conversation 
and an examination in geography were followed by a distribu- 
tion of books and small coins. 

Before the end of the year 1842, Heyer had begun a Sunday 
school with the children who attended the daily instruction, 
and had instituted weekly meetings in his house with hs 
teachers, in order to increase their efficiency and, if possible, 
to win them for Christianity. He also began the erection of a 
small building in Mr. Stokes' compound to be used as a 
school-house, finishing it at a total cost of $15. This little 
school-house, built at the expense of the Missionary Society 
of St. John's Church, Philadelphia, was opened and occupied 
January 4, 1843. "For the friends of the mission in America," 
wrote Heyer, "this day would have been a high day had they 
been able to attend the exercises; and January 4, 1843, ma y 
well be regarded as the day of the actual beginning of the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission hi Guntur." 

For the first nine months of the year 1843 no letter or 
report was received from Heyer, insomuch that the Executive 
Committee, supposing that he had neglected to write, felt con- 
strained at the annual meeting of the missionary society in 
June, 1844, to recommend that he be directed to report more 



THE FOUNDING OF THE GUNTUR MISSION 55 

frequently and to submit a copy of his journal every six weeks 
or every three months. 1 That the mission work had made 
substantial progress during this period appears from a letter 
dated October 16, 1843, which may be regarded as the mis- 
sionary's first annual report. The actual result should 
by no means be judged by the number of converts, for these 
never are numerous during the first years of a mission. 
Indeed, many decades frequently elapse in a foreign mission 
before converts may be numbered by the hundred each year. 
Had Heyer been able to report only a single convert for the 
first year, it would have been sufficient to call for further effort. 
As it was, he reported three adults instructed and baptized, 
who, together with two Tamil Christians employed in Mr. 
Stokes' household, had received the Lord's Supper. The 
most encouraging feature of the first year's work was the prog- 
ress of the mission schools. Their number had risen to seven, 
employing ten teachers and assistants and enrolling 158 boys 
and 22 girls. In the English school grammar, geography, 
history and a Scripture catechism of proof passages had been 
added to the curriculum. The regular Sunday morning 
English service was attended by an average of thirty persons. 
The attendance at the Telugu service on Sunday had in- 
creased to nearly two hundred. Heyer's account of the expen- 
ditures of the first year exhibits both the liberality of the 
Guntur benefactors and the meagre support of the Missionary 
Society : 

English and Telugu books and tracts, paid by Judge Walker Rs. 350 

Books, paid by Mr. Stokes Rs. 225 

Books, on account of Dr. Mayer's congregation, Phila- 
delphia Rs. 50 

Munshi, books, etc., paid by the Missionary Society Rs. 129 

School-teachers paid by Guntur friends Rs. 516 

Teachers, paid by Dr. Mayer's congregation Rs. 200 

Alms distributed, paid by Guntur friends Rs. 350 

Articles of clothing, paid by Guntur friends Rs. 1 20 

School-house, built at expense of Dr. Mayer's congregation . Rs. 30 

Total Rs. 1970 $985.00* 

Missionary's salary, paid by Missionary Society 600.00 

Total expenditure $1585.00 

1 It seems that Heyer did write several letters during the period in question, 
but that they were lost on the way to America. 

2 Heyer estimated a rupee to be equal in value to 50 cents. 



56 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

It is unfortunate that Heyer failed to give an itemized 
account of his income for the first year. We know that when 
he left America he took with him $705.40 of the synodical 
missionary society's money and $60 that had been given him 
by the Juvenile Missionary Society of St. John's Church in 
Philadelphia for the establishment and support of schools. 
His travelling expenses to India amounted to about $300. 
It appears that the treasurer of the synodical missionary 
society sent him, some time during the first year, the balance 
due on his salary and a little, a very little, more, forwarding 
also about $100 contributed by St. John's Church in Phila- 
delphia. It is evident from the expense account, given above, 
that the chief sources of income for the current mission ex- 
penses were the gifts of the Guntur friends who are credited 
as having paid $780 (Rs. 1561) of a total expenditure of $985 
(Rs. 1970). St. John's Church in Philadelphia is credited with 
$140 (Rs. 280) and the synodical missionary society with $68 
(Rs. 129), apart from the missionary's salary. Including the 
salary the Guntur friends paid $112 more than the Missionary 
Society of the Ministerium for the work of the latter's mission. 

In a letter dated September n, 1842, Heyer acknowl- 
edged the receipt of $500 sent by the missionary society of the 
Synod of South Carolina through the treasurer of the General 
Synod, the Rev. Isaac Baugher. It was intended for the pur- 
chase of a printing-press but was subsequently used for another 
purpose. Meanwhile Heyer kept it on deposit with Mr. Van 
Somering in Madras. The regular bankers of the mission 
funds from the very beginning, however, were Arbuthnot 
and Co., in Madras. 

In the list of the Mission's early benefactors the American 
Bible Society and the Madras Auxiliary Society should not be 
omitted. The latter sent Heyer, during .the first year, 800 
copies of the Gospels, Genesis and the Psalms separately 
bound, 500 in Telugu and 300 in Tamil. The former promised 
to furnish the mission with Telugu Testaments as soon as 
they should have been printed. Not only did Heyer himself 
liberally distribute these books, but he also engaged a colpor- 
teur at a monthly salary of $2.50. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE GUNTUR MISSION 57 

In what we have termed his first annual report, he wrote 
an appeal for funds to print Luther's Small Catechism in 
Telugu and made the important announcement that a lot of 
ground containing two acres had been secured for an annual 
ground-rent of $1.25, on which he was commencing the erec- 
tion of a brick building which was planned for use as a chapel, 
schoolhouse and missionary's dwelling. 

The lack of proper support from America for the growing 
mission work added a note of anxiety to some of Heyer's 
earliest expressions of joy and hope; and in later letters 
this note sank to one of keen disappointment. He realized 
that the liberality of the Guntur friends could not continue 
indefinitely, because the English officials were frequently trans- 
ferred from place to place; and he did not hesitate to say that 
unless the support sent from America would be considerably 
increased, the Mission must, at some time, be abandoned. As 
early as October, 1842, less than three months after his arrival 
in Guntur, he wrote: "In case the Church in America is not 
willing to do more than pay the salary of the missionary, I 
cannot remain in Guntur." Again, in December of the same 
year, he said, "There should be a draft already on the way to 
India. I have only a small balance remaining of the synodical 
society's money. You can easily imagine how uncomfortable 
my position would be in a strange land without money. In 
case the Lutheran Church in America is not willing to support 
this mission properly, you must notify me as soon as possible, 
and recall me." A month later, though expressing his joy in 
the work of a foreign missionary and his sincere gratitude for 
the friendship and support of Mr. Stokes, he intimated that the 
meagre support from America caused him to feel uncomfort- 
able, for he wrote: "It seems wrong and unjust that the 
American Lutheran Mission should depend so much for support 
on a member of another ecclesiastical body. " Several times 
he suggested that attempts should be made to enlist the 
co-operation of missionary societies in Germany. Once he 
mentioned as possible contributors the Breslau and Koenigs- 
berg societies, which had formerly helped to support Rhenius. 
Later he drew attention to the North German Society which 



58 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

contemplated a mission among the Telugus. What he urged 
especially, however, was a union of the whole Lutheran 
Church in America in behalf of the Guntur Mission, suggest- 
ing that the General Synod's Missionary Society, as well as the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium's Society, each might support its 
own missionary or missionaries, subject to its own control. He 
proposed a division of the expense connected with the main- 
tenance of schools and the erection of buildings. In January, 
1843, he elaborated this plan, estimating that it would cost 
between $1000 and $1500 to build a mission house, $600 a 
year to support each missionary, several hundred dollars for 
the salaries of native teachers and about $2000 for the other 
mission expenses. This plan was actually adopted when the 
General Synod sent out its first missionary, but it soon proved 
to be impracticable. 

During the closing months of 1843 an d the opening ones of 
1844 the Mission continued to make commendable progress. 
On January i5th of the latter year Heyer baptized three per- 
sons, a man, a woman and a child, Isaac, Ruth and Prakasam, 
making six baptisms in all since the beginning. 

Meanwhile events transpiring in America had already 
started another Lutheran missionary, the second from America, 
the Rev. Walter Gunn, on his way to Guntur. 



CHAPTER VI 

HOW THE GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF THE GUNTUR 

MISSION 

WHILE Heyer was establishing the Mission of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium at Guntur, affairs in America were rapidly 
drifting toward its possession and control by the General 
Synod. 

On the eve of his departure from America, Heyer had 
offered to report regularly to the General Synod's missionary- 
society and to consider himself partly in its employ, provided 
it annually contributed $200 toward his salary. He un- 
doubtedly made this offer with the consent of the executive 
committee of the missionary society of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium and not without some hope that, even though he 
had declined to be the General Synod's missionary, its mis- 
sionary society would co-operate with that of the Minister- 
ium. There was sufficient reason for this hope, for at the 
same meeting of the General Synod's Society, to which Heyer 
sent his resignation, an amendment was offered to strike out 
that article of the constitution which bound the society to 
"the most perfect harmony and co-operation with the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions." Before 
the next biennial meeting of the General Synod and its mis- 
sionary society, in 1843, tne letters of Heyer, published in 
"The Lutheran Observer," as well as the "Kirchenzeitung," 
reporting his successful beginning in Guntur, had materially 
strengthened the position of those in the General Synod who 
desired co-operation with the Pennsylvania Ministerium in 
foreign mission work. 1 The proposed amendment to its con- 

1 In an official letter from the Rev. J. G. Morris, D. D., corresponding 
secretary of the General Synod's missionary society, the society of the Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium was informed at its annual meeting in May, 1842, that 
the former society felt inclined to co-operate with the latter but regretted that 
its constitution forbade it and hoped that the barrier would be removed. At 
the meeting of the society of the Ministerium in Philadelphia, 1843, a plan of co- 

59 



60 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

stitution was adopted by the General Synod's society at its 
meeting May 25, 1843. The barrier of this co-operation hav- 
ing been removed, the society at once elected a missionary 
to labor in conjunction with Heyer in Gontur. 1 

Walter Gunn, the missionary elected, was born June 27, 
1815, in Carlisle, Schoharie County, N. Y. The manner 
in which he was led to enter the holy ministry and become a 
foreign missionary has been described as follows: 2 "The 
starting point of our (the General Synod's) foreign mission 
was in Cobleskill, Schoharie County, N. Y., in the year 1837. 
At the house of Colonel Schaeffer, about half a mile east 
of the old brick church, then occupied by the sessions of the 

operation with the General Synod's society, prepared by the Rev. H. N. Pohl- 
man of the latter society and proposed by a joint committee of the respective 
executive committees, was adopted. It embraced the following articles of 
agreement: 

"The Evangelical Lutheran Foreign Missionary Society, deeming it im- 
portant that the efforts of the friends of foreign missions in the Lutheran 
Church in this country should be more fully concentrated, proposes to form a 
connection with the Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Synod upon the 
following general principles: 

"i. Each society shall, for the present, remain separate and distinct under 
its own peculiar organization, care being taken, however, to promote in their 
several spheres of action the utmost harmony and love. 

"2. Each society shall have the nomination and appointment of its own 
missionaries and shall provide for their embarkation, settlement and support; 
each taking upon itself the whole management of all the agencies for collecting 
funds for this purpose. 

"3. Both societies shall occupy the same field of labor in the heathen world 
and whatever differences of opinion there may be at home, shall endeavor, as 
far as is consistent with the imperfection of human nature, to have but one 
interest and one aim in the foreign field. 

"4. The missionaries of each society shall labor together and under the 
direction of the several executive committees, mutually adopt such plans for 
the furtherance of the Gospel and the upbuilding of the Redeemer's Kingdom 
by the establishment of schools, catechetical lectures and preaching and the dis- 
tribution of Bibles and tracts, as shall seem to be advisable, and shall report 
jointly to the secretaries of both societies. 

"5. This joint mission shall hereafter be known as the American Lutheran 
Mission. 

"6. There shall be an interchange of one or more commissioners at each 
yearly meeting of the several societies for mutual consultation, prayer and 
effort in relation to the interest of the joint mission." 

Unique, amicable, yet clearly impracticable, this plan never went into 
effect. The General Synod's society ratified the agreement May 16, 1845, at 
its meeting in Philadelphia, but before it could be put to a practical test that 
society had gained complete control of the Guntur Mission. 

1 The missionary's salary was fixed at $600 a year. 

2 By the Rev. J. Z. Senderling, corresponding secretary of the General 
Synod's missionary society and pastor at Johnstown, N. Y. 



30 si, ajfcjSe 1907. 



Jfc 



*-, #3bSo Sd&S'* w&^SnoOS 8"*) 



THE BEGINNING OF A TELUGU LETTER 




A HINDU TEMPLE IN RAJAHMUNDRY 




A TELUGU BARHER AT \\ORK 




TELUGU WOMAN GRINDING GRAIN 

The top stone revolves on the lower and larger one, and the grain is ground 

between them. 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 6 1 

Hartwick Synod, four ladies conferred with each other respect- 
ing the importance of doing something for God and His 
Church. One of them was the lady of the house, an elderly 
sister of said church; the other three were wives of clergy- 
men, members of the synod. A proposition was offered by 
one of the latter, saying, 'Let us do something that will cheer 
the hearts of our ministers during these troublous times.' 
Two prayers were offered to the throne of grace, not without 
many tears, when the subject of educating young men with 
the view to labor among the heathen, was discussed. The 
young man subsequently selected and destined for the foreign 
field was Walter Gunn, a pious and active member of Dr. 
Lintner's church hi Schoharie, N. Y. This was the first 
actual move toward the founding of our foreign mission." 

After having studied for a while in Schenectady, N. Y., 
and in Hartwick Seminary, Gunn entered the Theological 
Seminary in Gettysburg, Pa., from which he was graduated 
in 1843. He was licensed by the Hartwick synod and then 
appointed as the General Synod's first foreign missionary. 
Sometime during the summer of 1843 ne was united in mar- 
riage to Lorena Pults, a member of the Lutheran church in 
Ghent, N. Y. 

During the months intervening between his appointment 
and his departure from America, Gunn devoted himself to 
deputation work, delivering mission addresses and gathering 
offerings for the India Mission. He delivered fifty-six mission 
addresses in forty-four different places in Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey and Maryland, arousing considerable interest in the 
foreign mission work of the General Synod, but also meeting 
some opposition and no little indifference. "The report was 
scattered in one community," wrote Gunn, "that my wife and 
I were going to India to set up a store and sell the things 
that were furnished as an outfit." "Others supposed that we 
could have no other object in view than to go out and travel 
and see the country; and others, again, declared positively 
that they knew we should never go so far, many thousand 
miles away, among the heathen, concluding that money con- 
tributed for our support was thrown away." 



62 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

At the public service held in connection with the meeting 
of the East Pennsylvania Synod in October, 1843, the Rev. 
Walter Gimn was solemnly commissioned as a foreign mis- 
sionary, the Rev. Dr. Benjamin Kurtz, chairman of the execu- 
tive committee of the General Synod's missionary society, de- 
livering the charge and the Rev. Dr. J. G. Morris, correspond- 
ing secretary, reading the instructions of the committee to 
its missionary. In his response Gunn, among other things, 
said: "If it is our duty to go to the heathen land, it is yours 
to uphold us there. You give your money, we give more: 
we give our lives." In his case these words were literally 
fulfilled. 

November 18, 1843, the Rev. Walter Gunn and wife sailed 
from Boston hi the "Charles," a sailing vessel bound for Cal- 
cutta. The journey, a circuitous and expensive one, lasted 
exactly seven months, all but the last short stage from Masuli- 
patam to Guntur being by sea. After a brief stay in Maul- 
main, Burma, they proceeded to Calcutta, where seven days 
were spent in the midst of a fearful outbreak of cholera. 1 
Although the plague was not permitted to harm them, they 
found the heat very trying. From Calcutta to Madras and 
again from Madras to Masulipatam, sailing in uncomfortable 
coasting vessels, they endured no little discomfort. On reach- 
ing Masulipatam they found awaiting them a palankeen and 
bearers, and a bullock-cart for their baggage, sent by Mr. 
Stokes. 2 

Joy filled the heart of the pioneer as he grasped the hand 
of his first colaborer and welcomed him at Guntur, June 18, 
1 844 . Heyer rejoiced not o nly because a ' ' Timothy "had been 
sent to him, but also because the second missionary was the 
visible evidence of the active co-operation of the General 
Synod with the Pennsylvania Ministerium in the Guntur 
Mission, for which he had devoutly prayed to God and had 
earnestly pleaded with the Lutheran Church in America. 

1 Gunn reported that 28,000 died of the plague in two months. 

* Gunn had written to Heyer from Calcutta, received an answer in Madras 
and from that city had notified Heyer of his intended arrival in Masulipatam. 
At every stage in the early history of the mission we note evidences of Mr. 
Stokes' liberal interest. 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 63 

For a week, until they were able to rent and occupy a 
bungalow, the Rev. Mr. Gunn and his wife were the guests of 
Mr. Stokes, concerning whose Christian character and good 
works Mr. Gunn had occasion frequently to speak in laud- 
atory terms. They found in Guntur a more pleasant place of 
residence than they had anticipated after their experiences in 
Calcutta and Madras. 1 

Gunn immediately applied himself to the study of Telugu, 
meanwhile teaching English to a class of a dozen Hindu boys, 
conducting a Bible study class, attended by English residents, 
and occasionally preaching at the English services on Sunday. 
Soon after their arrival Mrs. Gunn began to teach English 
and needle-work to a small class of Hindu girls. November 
6th Gunn made his first attempt through an interpreter to 
deliver a sermon to a purely heathen audience of about sixty 
persons who had gathered around him in one of the streets 
of Guntur. He described his experience in the following 
words: "Some of this strange audience was entirely naked, 
most of the others wore only a strip of cloth about their loins 
and another about their heads. A few had an additional 
covering thrown over their shoulders. Several women stood 
off at a short distance with their large chatties (water-pots) 
on their heads and listened to what I had to say. My address 
was short, for I perceived from the movements of the people 
that there was a disposition among them to become turbulent; 
and I passed through the group and went quietly to my home, 
thankful that I had had an opportunity of spreading a few of 
the truths of God's Word before the minds of the benighted. 
They seemed offended at the idea of being saved through 
the merits of another. Poor, deluded men, though immersed 
in guilt, they hope to be saved through their numerous wash- 
ings, fastings and pilgrimages; and the doctrine which strikes 
at the root of their system of salvation by works is rejected by 
them with scorn." 

About February i, 1845, Gunn took charge of a small 

1 Gunn described Guntur as a city of about 16,000 inhabitants, among 
whom were about 3000 Mohammedans, situated in a fertile plain, thirty 
miles in a direct line from the sea, whence cool breezes reached it during 
a portion of each day. 



64 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Telugu school in East Guntur, where he also preached at 
times with the help of an interpreter. While he thus was 
getting acquainted with the work of the Mission, Heyer con- 
tinued to labor with his usual vigor and with no little success. 
The day of the consecration of the first mission-house, built on 
the lot that had been leased from the government, was a mem- 
orable one in Heyer's first term of mission service. On 
June 30, 1844, at eleven o'clock in the morning about 200 
persons assembled in the new brick building for the conse- 
cration service. Heyer and Gunn delivered appropriate ad- 
dresses and Valett preached the consecration sermon. The 
entire cost of construction, about $800, was contributed by 
the South Carolina Synod's Missionary Society, which had not 
only permitted the use of the $500, originally intended for 
a printing-press, for this purpose, but also added what was 
necessary to finish the building. The Guntur schools, enroll- 
ing 90 boys and 25 girls, were moved into the mission house 
which on Sunday was used for church purposes, and Heyer 
occupied a part of the building as his dwelling. Considerable 
surprise was expressed in other missions at the flourishing 
condition of the Guntur girls' school. 1 Heyer had started 
this school in November, 1842, with fifteen girls taught by a 
young Hindu under his supervision. A year afterward its 
supporter, Mrs. Walker of Guntur, died, and the question of 
its continuation became a matter of grave concern to Heyer. 
Then, directed by a special Providence, a letter reached Heyer 
December 2, 1843, containing $60, which had been sent from 
America nine months previously. It had been written by Miss 
S. M. Stoever, the secretary of the missionary society of the 
infant department of the Sunday School of St. Matthew's 
Church in Philadelphia, the Rev. T. Stork pastor, and con- 
tained an offer to support the girls' school. In his letter of 
grateful acknowledgment Heyer described the school as one 
which had an enrollment of twenty-one girls, from four to 

1 A successful Hindu girls' school was a unique institution before the year 
1840. The sacred books (Shastras) forbid the education of women, and they 
themselves consider it a disgrace to be educated. Only temple (nautch) girls 
are educated. Despite the efforts of Protestant Christianity this is still the 
prevailing condition among Hindus. 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 65 

twelve years of age, four of whom were children of native 
Christian parents, three Romanists, two Mohammedans and 
the rest Hindus. Some of the pupils who had been entirely 
ignorant when the school was begun, had learned to read; all 
of them were attending divine worship on Sunday and had 
committed a number of Christian hymns. In honor of its 
patron in America this first girls' school was called St. Mat- 
thew's Evangelical Lutheran School. In July, 1844, it was 
placed in charge of Mrs. Gunn. 

The boys' schools in Guntur continued to prosper during 
the years 1844 and 1845, Heyer reporting an average attend- 
ance of 100; but during this period the school inPrattipadu 
and one in the vicinity of Guntur were discontinued. 1 

The American Bible and Tract Societies, in 1843, con- 
tributed Bibles to the value of $200, and thereafter con- 
tinued to supply the missionaries with Bibles and tracts as 
they were needed. The Madras Auxiliary Society likewise 
furnished a considerable number of Testaments and tracts, 
free of cost, to the mission. 2 

Toward the close of the year 1844, five Lutheran mission- 
aries lived in Guntur. Besides Heyer and Gunn, there were 
Valett of the North German Missionary Society, who had not 
yet decided on a mission field, and two missionaries of the 
Dresden (Leipsic) Society, the Revs. Ochs and Schwartz, 
who had been sent from Tranquebar to select a Telugu field 
near Guntur. The presence of so many Lutheran missionaries 
at one point in the Telugu country revived the thought of a 
printing establishment. In July, 1844, Mr. Stokes offered to 
set apart Rs. 500 for this purpose on condition that a like sum 
should be raised hi America. An appeal was published in 
America; but before a sufficient sum could be raised the 
Dresden missionaries had returned to Tranquebar without 
establishing a Telugu mission, and Heyer had started on his 

1 The money contributed by St. John's Church in Philadelphia was used 
for the support of a Telugu school in Guntur after the one in Prattipadu was 
discontinued. 

2 Heyer's and Gunn's letters show that they were very liberal in the free 
distribution of Bibles, Testaments and tracts. Experience has taught mis- 
sionaries prudence rather than liberality in this direction. 



66 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

return voyage to the United States. The enterprise was, 
therefore, again abandoned. 

The second annual report of the Guntur Mission written 
by Heyer, September 16, 1844, showed commendable prog- 
ress. Besides three children, one of whom was Luther, the 
infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Gunn, Heyer had bap- 
tized seven Hindus of adult age, after having carefully in- 
structed them. The number of communicants was twelve, 
four of whom were converts. The other baptized converts 
were not admitted to the Lord's Supper, because, as Heyer 
puts it, "we do not deem it advisable to administer the Lord's 
Supper immediately to all who have been baptized." Two 
marriages were solemnized. The number of funerals con- 
ducted was four, one for an adult Hindu Christian and three 
for children, two of whom had died unbaptized. Four schools, 
one English and three Telugu, with an enrollment of over 100 
pupils, were being conducted in the Guntur mission house. 
Of the three Telugu schools, the one for girls then enrolled 25 
pupils. The daily instruction in each school was begun and 
ended with devotional and catechetical exercises. Concern- 
ing the English school, apparently Heyer's pride, he wrote at 
some length in April, 1845, describing it as a school of three 
grades, in the first of which, consisting of fourteen pupils, be- 
sides arithmetic, geography and grammar, Biblical History 
was being taught. Of the fourteen pupils, three were Moham- 
medans, one a Rajput, nine Sudras and one a pariah, a 
strange and uncommon mingling of castes for those days. 
Besides the Guntur schools, two others were maintained in 
the vicinity of the city. For one of these, situated a mile 
from Guntur in a village bordering on Old Guntur, a school- 
house costing Rs. 200 was built and opened April 7, 1845. On 
Sunday, May 18, 1845, eleven persons, seven of whom were 
adults, were baptized; and early in July of the same year a 
young man from Devalapilli, 18 miles north of Guntur, was 
baptized, thus raising the number of baptisms since the begin- 
ning to eighteen adults and six children. This was probably 
the total number of baptisms by Heyer, .there being no record 
of additional ones during his last months in India. Although 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 67 



this number is not large, it is not strange that Heyer did not 
baptize more. It must be remembered that he was beginning 
a foreign mission, and many a foreign mission has begun 
with fewer conversions during its first two years. Further- 
more, Heyer had time to learn scarcely more than the rudi- 
ments of Telugu, so that he seldom, if ever, preached in the 
vernacular. To preach through an interpreter is to fail to 
make that direct and personal impression on one's hearers, 
which is so essential to successful missionary work. Heyer's 
chief strength lay in the conduct and control of schools, in 
which he achieved acknowledged success. 1 

The support which Heyer received from the Church in 
America continued to be meagre and inadequate. From the 
treasurer of the Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium, the Rev. J. C. Baker, D. D., he received his salary, 
$600 a year, and two or three hundred dollars a year in ad- 
dition for school work. 2 From friends in Guntur he received 
$1164 (Rs. 2910) up to September 16, 1844. From sources 
in America outside of the Pennsylvania Ministerium he oc- 
casionally received small sums of money. His total income 
from all sources for all purposes varied between $1000 and 
$1500 a year for the first five years of the Mission. 

It must be admitted, however, that despite its meagre in- 
come for foreign missions, the Missionary Society of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium spent the larger portion of its 
funds for the Guntur Mission. The following is an exhibit of 
the society's finances: 





DURING THE SYNODICAL YEAR 


1841-42 


1842-43 


1843-44 


1844-45 


1845-46 


Income from all sources 


$1613.13 
I457-I5 


$1499.61 
1164.43 


$1854.65 
1612.05 


$i577-05 
1048.50 


$1910.96 
1105.09 


Expenditures for all purposes.. 


Receipts for Foreign Missions 
Expended for Guntur Mission 


25.00 
705 -,40 


73-5 
800.00 


580.39 
900.00 


275-48 
goo.oo 3 


3I4-25 
900.00* 



1 In a letter dated November 16, 1844, Gunn wrote: "Brother Heyer is ac- 
knowledged by all around to have an admirable faculty of managing schools 
and advancing the scholars in their studies." 

2 In 1843 Heyer acknowledged the receipt of $800, and in 1844, $000 from 
the Rev. Dr. Baker. 

1 Approximate sum. 



68 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

While Heyer in India was growing discouraged because 
of the insufficient support from America, some of the mem- 
bers of the Missionary Society felt that too large a proportion 
of its funds was being devoted to the foreign mission. In 
an editorial in the " Lutherische Kirchenzeitung," May i, 
1845, a forcible expression of this feeling was published. 

"Brother Heyer," wrote the editor, "left this country in 
November, 1841, and, therefore, will have been absent four 
years next November. His travelling expenses and outfit 
money amounted to $600. He was six months en route for 
India, during which time he was paid a salary of $300. His 
return passage would cost not less than $600, even though his 
salary were to be discontinued during the period of his voyage. 
The total amount of his travelling expenses in four years, 
therefore, would be $1500. The amount expended on the 
mission work during this time is more than $4000, making a 
grand total of $550x3 for the foreign mission which Brother 
Heyer now wishes to forsake without giving a single reason 
which, in our opinion, makes his return necessary. Nothing 
but sickness can or should compel his return. Brother Heyer, 
however, has always enjoyed good health, as Brother Gunn's 
last letter also states. We are, therefore, of the decided 
opinion that the missionary society should not grant the 
request if it intends to carry on the mission. 

"Apart from the effect which a refusal of the request may 
have on the conduct of Brother Heyer, the existing state of 
affairs leads us to raise the question, whether the missionary 
society should continue to spend two-thirds of its income for 
its foreign mission and the other one- third for home mis- 
sions at this time, while, through the natural increase of our 
population and through immigration, the number of our 
brethren in the faith is increasing to an inconceivable extent, 
and, literally, hundreds of thousands are living here without 
any church connection whatever, even though they may 
desire the preaching of the Word; and many of the congrega- 
tions now existing are unable, because of their poverty, to 
pay their pastors and must be satisfied with a divine service 
once every eight or twelve weeks. Seeing that many of our 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 69 

pastors in this country are obliged to live in great want, and a 
considerable number of our congregations are burdened with 
debts resting on- their church buildings or, as yet, have no 
church buildings, could not the $5500 have been used to 
better advantage for home missions and would not this 
money have produced better results here than in India; and 
is it right to have allowed so much money to be diverted for 
the benefit of strangers, whilst our own church in America 
has been bleeding at all points? In our humble judgment 
this is buying the honor of having a foreign mission at too 
great a price, and we believe that our foreign mission should 
be abandoned. Others may be of another opinion, and we 
are ready to be otherwise convinced, wherefore we are willing 
to give them a hearing in these columns. It would please us 
to hear an expression of the contrary opinion before the meet- 
ing of the missionary society, in order that its members might 
weigh the arguments and, after due deliberation, come to a 
final decision. We have not written our judgment hastily. 
Indeed, we said the same thing at the meeting of the synod 
in Harrisburg; nor have we since had reason to change our 
mind. Nevertheless, we embrace this opportunity to call for 
a discussion of the whole matter." 

The first intimation Heyer gave of his desire to return to 
America was written in a letter dated July 6, 1844, not quite 
two years after he had begun the Guntur Mission. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee referred the matter to the Missionary 
Society at its meeting in Reading, May 17-21, 1845, which 
declined to authorize Heyer's return; but Heyer in almost 
every letter continued to refer to his contemplated departure 
from India some time in 1846. The Executive Committee, 
however, finally decided to yield to the missionary's persistent 
request ; and the Missionary Society at its meeting in Orwigs- 
burg, June 8-10, 1846, resolved to pay the expenses of his 
return voyage, but to discontinue his salary as soon as he left 
Guntur. Before he had received the written permission of the 
Executive Committee, Heyer left Guntur, December 22, 1845, 
landing at New York early in August, 1846. His precipitous 
and unexpected return to America was due to a combination 



70 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

of causes. In the first place, he was disheartened because of 
the lack of support for the mission work from America. 
In the second place, he was homesick. Furthermore, his 
restless spirit demanded another change of scene and occupa- 
tion. He wished, also, to come back and stir up the Church at 
home to more vigorous effort for its foreign mission ; and when 
he believed that Gunn had made sufficient progress in Telugu 
to assume the supervision of the Mission, he came home. 
It was a most unfortunate mistake. The Executive Committee 
was right when it maintained that he had no adequate reason 
for leaving the Mission in Guntur, which needed him and 
which gave promise of growth under his supervision. Had 
he remained at his post of duty, despite every discouragement 
and every longing to get back to America, the Guntur Mission 
might not have been lost to the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 
at least not so soon after its establishment. 

After the Executive Committee of the Missionary Society 
of the Ministerium had finally decided to permit Heyer to 
return to America, it made overtures to The Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the General Synod, whose missionary, the 
Rev. Walter Gunn, was to remain in charge of the Guntur 
Mission, to transfer it entirely to that society. The proposal 
was accepted and then ratified by the Missionary Society of 
the Ministerium at its meeting in 1846. 

The Executive Committee of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod in reporting the transfer of the 
Guntur Mission to that society, at its meeting in New York, 
May 16, 1848, said, among other things: "We feel con- 
strained to pay a passing tribute to the Missionary Society of 
the Pennsylvania Synod for their devoted zeal and activity in 
the mission work. To that society we owe the successful 
establishment of the Mission at Guntur. To them belongs 
the proud distinction of having sent the first Lutheran mis- 
sionary from the United States; and right and proper was it 
that the oldest Lutheran synod in this country, the mother 
of us all, should have taken the lead in this noble enterprise. 
It was in strict unison with the spirit which characterized the 
founders of that venerable body in leaving their fatherland 



HOW GENERAL SYNOD GAINED CONTROL OF GUNTUR 71 

to establish a branch of our Lutheran Zion in the then wilder- 
ness of America. It was providential, whether we consider 
the man sent, those who sent him, the time or the section of 
country in which he commenced his labors." 



CHAPTER VII 

DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE AND HIS SUCCESS IN 
THE PALNAD DISTRICT 

AFTER Heyer's return to the United States in 1846, "the 
painful apprehension was felt and suggested by many that, as 
Gunn's health was feeble and he could not be expected to hold 
on for any length of time in India's sultry climate, the Mission 
must soon be abandoned and our promising beginning lost." 
This pessimistic view, however, did not prevail. The Foreign 
Missionary Society of the General Synod continued to sup- 
port Gunn, and after a lapse of two and a half years Heyer 
was permitted to resume his labors in Guntur. 

Although he was not allowed, as he had hoped, to under- 
take a campaign of missionary education and inspiration, visit- 
ing conferences, conventions and congregations in the interest 
of foreign missions, Heyer soon found a field of labor. Before 
the close of the year "The Home Missionary Society of the 
General Synod" 1 called him to start a German congregation 
in the northwestern section of Baltimore, Md. He accepted 
and began his work on the first day of the new year. In 
three months a congregation of seventy families was organ- 
ized, ^and a lot and a building, formerly used by Methodists, 
located in Biddle street, were purchased. A Sunday School 
was begun and a class of four catechumens was confirmed. 
The average attendance at the regular Sunday services was 
three hundred. Such was the auspicious beginning of St. 
John's Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baltimore. 

Besides his work as a missionary in Baltimore, Heyer 
found time to take a special course in medicine at Washington 
University, and at the close of the scholastic year 1847, he 
received the degree of doctor of medicine. He was then fifty- 
four years old. 

1 Organized in Philadelphia May 22, 1845. 
72 



DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE 73 

His connection with the General Synod's Home Mis- 
sionary Society and his location in Baltimore necessitated the 
transfer of his membership from the Pennsylvania to the 
Maryland synod. 

Dr. Heyer continued to cherish the hope of returning to 
India, accompanied by some younger man, perhaps, he 
thought, by his youngest son, Theophilus. 1 Friends in the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium urged him to volunteer to re-enter 
the service of its missionary society. He answered them in a 
letter published in "The Lutheran Observer," April 9, 1847. 

"Various considerations," he wrote, "induced me to ask 
leave to return to the United States during the summer of 
1846. This request was kindly complied with and I made use 
of the permission granted, as various missionaries sent out by 
other societies had done before me. In looking back upon 
that period of my life during which I resided in India, I can- 
not say otherwise than that the time was most pleasantly and 
with gratitude to the Lord, be it stated usefully and profit- 
ably spent. The mission house, the schools and native con- 
gregation in Guntur, erected and collected by my instrumental- 
ity, will tend to prove this assertion. Hence the conclusion 
may readily be drawn that I did not leave the field from any 
dissatisfaction with the place, or the people, or the work. 
Nor has anyone heard me make the assertion, that I should 
be unwilling to spend the remaining portion of my life in pro- 
claiming the gospel tidings among the benighted but other- 
wise interesting people in the Telugu country. My opinion 
is that two or three young men ought to be sent forthwith to 
assist Brother Gunn and to enable him to extend the mis- 
sionary operations in and around Guntur. Should it be 
thought advisable for me to accompany such a reinforcement, 
in order to assist them on the way in studying the Telugu 
language, I should probably not decline the undertaking. 

1 Contrary to Dr. Heyer's fondest hopes, none of his sons entered the min- 
istry. His eldest son, Christian Frederick, after spending some time in Penn- 
sylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa., went to Helmstedt, Germany, where he 
attended a school for nearly five years. He returned to the United States and 
studied law for a while. In 1848 we find his name enrolled as captain of a com- 
pany of volunteers fighting in the Mexican war. He died, aged thirty-four, 
while Heyer was in India. 



74 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

If, on the other hand, it should not be thought best to send 
me back to India, then I am perfectly satisfied to continue 
my residence in Columbia's happy land. I leave it to the Lord 
and to the Church, or to the brethren who are the executive of 
the Church in this matter, to decide." 

The Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
celebrated its anniversary in a public service in St. Michael's 
German Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, on the evening of 
June i, 1847. Heyer was the principal speaker and delivered 
a very impressive address. On the afternoon of June 3d this 
society resolved to ask Heyer to go back to India and pledged 
a sum sufficient to pay his salary, but requested The Foreign 
Missionary Society of the General Synod to bear the expense 
of his outfit and journey to India. To prevent a repetition of 
the misunderstanding concerning furlough or resignation, 
Heyer was asked to promise that he would not leave the mis- 
sion field unless the society failed to pay his salary or ill- 
health compelled him to leave India. 

All the details having been satisfactorily adjusted, Dr. 
Heyer severed his connection with St. John's Church, Balti- 
more, July i, 1847, an d then devoted four months to an itiner- 
ary in the Pennsylvania and New York Ministeriums, present- 
ing the cause of foreign missions and arousing greater inter- 
est in the Guntur Mission wherever he preached. 1 

Heyer's reports of the interest and benevolence of the 
Collector of the Guntur district, J. Henry Stokes, Esq., in- 
duced a number of societies to send gifts of appreciation to 
that gentleman in India. The Women's Missionary Society 
of the congregation in Harrisburg, of which the Rev. C. W. 
Schaeffer, D. D., was the pastor, sent a mahogany rocking- 
chair for Mr. Stokes and a reticule for his wife. The mission- 
ary society of Salem Church, Lebanon, Pa., sent two solar 



1 At the 5 2nd annual meeting of the New York Ministerium held September 
4th, in New Germantown, N. J., Heyer delivered an address and was encour- 
aged by the adoption of the following resolution: "Resolved, That the increased 
interest in our mission in India by the approaching departure of Brother Heyer 
to that field, calls loudly upon our pastors and people to give their hearts with 
more earnestness to the blessed work of spreading the gospel among the 
heathen." 



DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE 75 

lamps. The Executive Committee of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod sent a copy of Harper's Pictorial 
Bible. In his letters of acknowledgment and thanks Mr. 
Stokes' nobility of mind is so strikingly revealed that at least 
one of them deserves to be quoted: 

"To the Misses E. Rauthrauff and L. Young, Lebanon, Pa. 

"Dear Friends: By the good hand of our God upon him, 
our dear brother, Mr. Heyer, reached this place (Guntur) in 
peace and health on the gth of May, and delivered to us your 
elegant note and the beautiful present of the pastor and mem- 
bers of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lebanon. We 
value the present most highly and desire that it may often 
remind us of our unseen friends in the West. Still more do we 
feel grateful for that love of which the present and note are 
the expression, proving that there is among those who desire 
to love the Lord Jesus Christ a bond of union wider and 
stronger than that of language, country or blood. 'There is 
neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there 
is neither male nor female; for ye are all one in Christ 
Jesus.' 

"At the same time we cannot but find this touching re- 
membrance deeply humiliating, reminding us of what we 
ought to have done in His service, whose blood-bought ones 
we profess to be, and encouraged by the kindness we have 
already so undeservedly experienced, beg of yourselves and the 
congregation of Zion's Church the further favor: (i) That 
you will set apart a special season to pray for us, that we may 
have grace to be faithful unto the end and not hinder the 
Lord's work by our deadness and inconsistency, and for the 
Guntur Mission and District; and (2) that you will try and 
send us more help. The fields are white already to harvest, 
adults wishing to listen to the Gospel, boys and girls anxious 
to be instructed, the children asking for bread and no man 
breaketh it unto them. 

"Believe me to be your much obliged and grateful fellow- 
servant, 

J. H. STOKES." 



76 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Besides the gifts intended for Mr. Stokes, Heyer received 
many articles for his personal use and for the Mission, and 
considerable money for school work. He provided himself 
with a daguerrean apparatus with which to take pictures in 
India. 

Less than a month before the date fixed for the sailing of 
the missionary, the money to pay his passage still remained to 
be raised. A call was sent out to all friends of the Mission 
to meet on October 2yth and 28th in St. James' Church, New 
York City, the Rev. Charles Martin pastor, to make a final 
effort, in connection with the farewell meeting, to raise the 
necessary money. Gloom brooded over the beginning of the 
conference. Twelve pastors, representing the Pennsylvania, 
East Pennsylvania, New York and Hartwick synods, were 
present. 1 It was announced that the balance in the treasury 
of The Foreign Missionary Society was $125, and nearly seven 
times that amount was needed to meet the immediate demands 
of the enterprise. The first rift in the overhanging cloud was 
made by a letter from Dr. Mayer, pastor of St. John's English 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, enclosing a contribution of 
$250 from that congregation. The treasurer of the Hartwick 
synod paid over $100; the pastor of St. Matthew's Church, 
Philadelphia, $50; and St. James' congregation, New York 
City, made five of the ministers present at the conference 
life-members of The Foreign Missionary Society by paying 
$25 for each one. After the offering at the public service in 
the evening had been taken, enough money was gathered to 
pay Heyer's passage, send Missionary Gunn six months' 
salary and leave a balance of nearly $150 in the treasury. 
So deep was the impression made by this liberality that the 
conference passed the following resolution: "Resolved, That 
from the gloomy prospects by which we were surrounded 

1 The Rev. F. W. Geissenhainer of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, the Rev. 
Dr. Stork of the East Pennsylvania Synod, the Revs. Dr. H. N. Pohlman, W. D. 
Stroebel, C. F. E. Stohlmann, Chas. Martin, Chas. A. Smith and Wm. B. 
Askam of the New York Ministerium, the Revs. J. Z. Senderling, Wm. N. 
Schol] and Reuben Dederick of the Hartwick Synod. Those who sent letters of 
excuse and good wishes were the Revs. J. Few Smith, McCron, Mayer, J. R. 
Keiser, J. C. Baker, Demme and Reichert. This list includes the staunchest 
supporters of the Guntur Mission. 



DR. HEYER'S' SECOND TERM OF SERVICE 77 

yesterday morning, because of the happy success which 
crowned our efforts ere the evening closed upon us, we feel 
called upon in the spirit of the Apostle to thank God and 
take courage." 

The vessel on which Heyer took passage was delayed in 
Boston harbor until December 4, 1847, when the intrepid 
missionary started on his second journey to India. Madras 
was reached in one hundred and thirty-four days. 1 From 
Madras he sailed in a slow coasting vessel northward, landing 
at Masulipatam May 8, 1848. Here Mr. and Mrs. J. Henry 
Stokes, who were spending the hot months at the seaport, 
welcomed him back to India. Guntur was reached overland, 
Heyer travelling partly on horseback and partly in a one- 
horse bandy. On Tuesday morning, May, 15 1848, the mis- 
sionary reached his destination. 

During Heyer's absence of nearly two and a half years 
Gunn had managed the mission work as well as his feeble 
health had allowed. He had gone to Rajahmundry in Sep- 
tember, 1846, to assist Valett in the ordination of missionaries 
C. W. Groenning and Heise. Directly after the ordination 
Valett and Groenning visited Guntur, and while they were 
there a severe storm which broke during the night of October 
22d, partly demolished the mission house. Mr. Stokes con- 
tributed Rs. noo, about $350, for the immediate erection of a 
new bungalow; and funds were received from The Foreign 
Missionary Society to complete the building into which Gunn 
and his family moved on July 20, 1847. 

In his report, dated September, 1847, Gunn stated that 
since Heyer's departure, almost two years previously, he had 
baptized two adults and three children. One of the adults 
baptized was Stephen, a Mala, a former disciple of a priest, 
whom Heyer had interested in Christianity and who, after his 
baptism by Gunn, was placed in charge of a newly organized 
Telugu school on the outskirts of Guntur, thus becoming the 
first native Christian teacher in the Mission. The first native 
catechist employed was Nicodemus, who was appointed in 
March, 1847. Mrs. Gunn superintended a girl's school in 

1 The voyage to India now takes about thirty days. 



78 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Guntur, teaching the older pupils the art of needlework, for 
which the wife of an English official furnished the necessary 
material. After May, 1846, when the school in Dachepalli 
was abandoned, the mission work was confined entirely to 
Guntur. Gunn's feeble health prevented him from undertak- 
ing extensive touring. Once during December, 1847, an d 
January, 1848, he acompanied Heise of Rajahmundry, and 
Beer of Narsapur, on a trip to the Palnad district, where he 
contracted fever from which he was just convalescing when 
Heyer returned to the Mission. 

After his arrival Heyer waited a month for the extreme 
heat to pass and then, toward the end of June, reopened the 
mission schools. In the English school twenty-six boys were 
enrolled; in the Telugu school, forty-four; in the old Guntur 
school, under Stephen, eighteen boys. Rebecca, Stephen's 
wife, a baptized Christian, took charge of the girls in her 
husband's school, who numbered about twelve. Mrs. Gunns' 
girls' school enrolled thirty. Gunn and his family occupied 
the new bungalow, while Heyer lived in a room in the old 
mission house. Two small buildings, costing $150 each, were 
erected in the mission-compound in September, 1848. One 
was used as a teacher's residence, the other as the girls' 
school. 

Mr. Stokes' assistant collector, Mr. Newill, was, like his 
chief, a generous supporter of the mission work. He con- 
tributed about half as much as his superior. Being more 
familiar with the vernacular than either of the missionaries, 
he translated a number of tracts for them and prepared a 
Telugu hymn book and an almanac for the year 1849. These 
he had published at his own expense for use in the Mission. 

Up to the close of the year 1848, the fruits of the mis- 
sionaries' labors were meagre. The number of native adult 
communicants in the Guntur congregation was less than a 
dozen. The schools proved to be of very little evangelistic 
value, principally because the teachers were Hindus and 
strove merely to make their employment as mission agents a 
stepping-stone to some civil service in government employ. 
The pupils in the English school, moreover, looked forward 



DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE 79 

to the same goal. Heyer's early attempt at a boys' boarding 
school for training native workers had not been repeated. 
Stephen, the only Christian teacher in the Mission, was still 
an experiment; Nicodemus, the other native Christian helper, 
was more of a colporteur than a catechist. Gunn was a 
confirmed invalid and the burden of the work rested on 
Heyer. 

In 1849, God, in a most unexpected manner, opened a 
door of opportunity to Heyer, and he was permitted to enter 
it and begin the most fruitful period of his work as a foreign 
missionary. On January 22d, that year, he left Guntur on a 
tour of the Palnad district, 1 where he spent about a month 
visiting village after village, preaching the Gospel and dis- 
tributing Bibles and tracts. When he returned to Guntur 
he reported having baptized twenty-two persons who had 
received some instruction in the Christian religion from a 
native Christian whose name was John, whom Gunn had 
baptized while Heyer was in America. Twenty of them, 
belonging to five families, all of the weaver caste, were resi- 
dents of Polepalli. 

When Mr. Stokes heard of Heyer's success he advised him 
at once to establish a station in the Palnad district and 
offered to build a house for the missionary. Heyer accepted 
both the advice and the offer and moved to Gurjal, April 12, 
1849, thus establishing the second station of the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Mission in India. 2 

On the Sunday after his arrival in Gurjal Heyer organized 
a congregation there, and on the last Sunday in May he bap- 
tized eleven adults and children living in Polepalli. Schools 
were started in Gurjal and Polepalli, and in Dachepalli, where 
a previous attempt had been made. Each of these schools 
started with about twenty boys. 

Heyer found aboundant opportunity in his new field to 
use his knowledge and skill as a physician. In a letter written 

1 Heyer, accompanied by Valett, had made his first tour of the Palnad dis- 
trict in 1844. 

2 Heyer took with him Nulla Multhu, a Telugu catechist, who afterward 
was dismissed, and a Christian teacher who had been in the employ of the 
American Mission in Madras. 



80 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

two months after his arrival in Gurjal he stated that he had 
occasion to treat as many as two hundred different cases. 

In lieu of trained teachers Heyer employed the more in- 
telligent converts. Samuel was assigned to the Veldurti 
school, opened in August; John, to the Polepalli school; 
Devasikamani, to the Gurjal school; Jacob, to the Tumuru- 
cotta school; and Appiah was employed as a colporteur. 
Heyer realized, however, that in order to make the most of 
the opportunity presented in the Palnad district, it would be 
necessary to train young men for the work. He, therefore, 
took a n amber of promising boys into his home and provided 
for their board and lodging at a monthly expense of Rs. 6 
for each boarder. For this purpose he used funds contributed 
by Guntur friends and the money given him in the United 
States for school-work. The first pupils in this boys' board- 
ing school were Jacob, Matthew, Paulus, Barnabas and 
Rettivardu. 

After eight months of labor Heyer had baptized forty- 
two persons in the Palnad, more than twice as many as in 
Guntur during the first six years. On November 25, 1849, 
the Lord's Supper was administered in Gurjal for the first 
time to fourteen communicants. 

While Heyer was living and working in the Palnad dis- 
trict the third American missionary reached Guntur. 

George J. Martz, a native of Frederick, Maryland, after 
having completed his theological studies in the Seminary at 
Gettysburg, accepted the call of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod and was commissioned on April 
4, 1849, m St. Luke's Church, Valatie, New York, Dr. Wm. 
D. Stroebel, the corresponding secretary of the society, read- 
ing its instructions to the new missionary. He sailed from 
Boston April i9th, and reached Madras August 18, 1849. 
Here he waited for Gunn who was coming thither on sick leave. 
Gunn left Masulipatam the same day Martz reached Madras, 
leaving his wife and children behind in Guntur. Rev. C. W. 
Groenning had gone from Ellore to Guntur to take charge of 
the work in the absence of Gunn. After staying with Gunn 
in Madras for several weeks, Martz left that city on September 



DR. HEYER'S SECOND TERM OF SERVICE 81 

i4th and proceeded to Guntur. Groenning immediately turned 
the work over to the newly arrived missionary and went 
back to Ellore. Mrs. Gunn with her children, Martin Luther 
and Ellen, also left Guntur March 5, 1850, on an overland 
journey to join her husband in Madras. She found him 
greatly improved in health in the home of the kind and hos- 
pitable Dr. Scudder. After an absence of ten months from 
Guntur Gunn and his family returned on June 27, 1850, 
his thirty-fifth birthday; but the pulmonary disease which he 
had contracted could not be permanently checked. The 
strain of preaching and travelling was too great for his weak 
physical condition, and he confined himself almost entirely to 
writing letters to America and to giving counsel and advice 
to the inexperienced Martz. 

Heyer's work in the Palnad continued to meet with suc- 
cess. Although he had gone to the district with some reluc- 
tance, because it was commonly reported that the heat was 
almost unbearable and the danger of getting fever very 
great, he, nevertheless, carried on his work with his usual 
vigor, living in almost apostolic simplicity. It is related that, 
realizing the danger of death in the district, he had a coffin 
made in Guntur and sent to Gurjal, and that soon after his 
arrival in that village he had a grave dug near his house. At 
times, when the roof of his house leaked badly, he slept in the 
coffin. Strange to say, he was not sick a single day, and on 
leaving Gurjal to return to Guntur he burned the coffin, filled 
in the grave and, standing over it, triumphantly exclaimed : 
"Oh, death, where is thy sting? Oh, grave, where is thy 
victory?" 

Tours of fifty miles and more on foot were frequently 
made by Heyer in the district. "Sometimes," he wrote, 
"when I could find no better shelter, I spread a blanket over 
the legs of my table to exclude the night air, and slept beneath 
it, as though it were a small tent." 

By the end of the year 1849 Heyer had baptized thirty- 
two adults and twenty-four children in the Palnad district and 
the number of inquirers was steadily increasing. Six schools 
in as many villages, all having Christian teachers, enrolled 103 
6 



82 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

pupils, some of whom were girls. Small buildings for school 
and church purposes had been erected in Gurjal, Polepalli, 
Veldurti and Macherla. On nine acres of ground, donated 
by Mr. Stokes, Heyer, in 1850, began the experiment of estab- 
lishing a Christian colony near Gurjal, modelled after those 
he had seen in the Leipsic Mission. 1 Reports of his success in 
the Palnad were spread abroad and a number of missionaries 
from other missions visited him in 1850, among others the 
Revs. Sharkey and Darling of the Church Missionary Society's 
mission at Masulipatam. During the year 1850 Heyer bap- 
tized no less than 126 adults and children. Mr. Stokes felt 
that this success ought to be followed up, and in April, 1850, 
offered to contribute Rs. 500 in case the Executive Committee 
of The Foreign Missionary Society sent out a single man from 
America, and Rs. 800 in case it sent out a married missionary 
before the end of the year. His conditions could not be met; 
but before the year had ended one additional missionary had 
been called and was under appointment and the services of 
a second were secured early in 1851. 

The most important event of the year 1850 was the trans- 
fer of the Rajahmundry Mission with its missionaries from the 
North German Missionary Society, which had established it, 
to The Foreign Missionary Society of the General Synod. 
We now, therefore, turn in our next chapter to the early 
history of the Mission at Rajahmundry. 

1 This enterprise, however, was soon afterward abandoned. It will interest 
the reader to know that Gurjal is now the residence and station of an Ameri- 
can Baptist missionary, who is a Swede and was originally a Lutheran. 



CHAPTER. VIII 

THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 

FOUR hundred and sixty miles north of Madras, on the 
Godavery River, one of the twelve sacred streams of India, 
five miles above the point where the river divides to form 
its delta, lies the town of Rajahmundry, the ancient seat 
of an Indian prince (rajah) and the center of Telugu culture 
and literature. Here The North German Missionary Society 
of Hamburg 1 established the second Evangelical Lutheran 
Mission in the Telugu country, to which its attention had 
been drawn by the Rev. Mr. Wyneken and other friends in 
America. 

Two members of the first class graduated from the Mis- 
sion Institute of The North German Society in 1842, were 
selected as its first missionaries to India; but one of them 
after a serious illness was pronounced to be physically unfit for 
work in the tropical climate of South India and was sent in- 
stead to the society's African mission. The other, an in- 
separable friend, asked to be permitted to go with his friend 
to Africa and the permission was given. Then Louis P. 
Menno Valett, a candidate in theology, volunteered to be- 
come the society's first missionary to India. He was accepted 
and duly commissioned. He left Hamburg May 26, 1843, 
and reached Madras October 2d, four months and one week 
later. After Heyer had learned of his arrival in Madras he 
invited him to come to Guntur, live with him in the mission 
house and study Telugu with him. Valett accepted the in- 
vitation and came in February, 1844. A few weeks later, 
however, Valett started northward "to spy out the land" 
and to select the foreign mission field of his society. He 

1 The office of this society was at first in Hamburg. Afterward it was re- 
moved to Bremen. 

83 



84 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

took with him as an interpreter one of the older pupils of 
the English-Telugu school in Guntur. Passing through 
Ellore he went as far north as Rajahmundry, one hun- 
dred and fifteen miles from Guntur. Within a month he 
was back in Guntur, where he remained until, in January, 
1845, ne returned to Rajahmundry to begin his work there 
as a resident missionary. Sir Arthur Cotton and several of 
his assistant engineers, engaged in the construction of the 
dam (anicut) at Dowlaishwaram, pledged their moral and 
financial support and thus greatly encouraged the newly 
arrived missionary. He at once organized an Anglo- vernacular 
school like Heyer's in Guntur, and also a purely Telugu 
school. From the very beginning regular Sunday morning 
services and daily devotional meetings were conducted by 
Valett in Telugu for the benefit of the native servants of resi- 
dent English families, who attended not of their own free 
will but because their English employers made attendance at 
these services compulsory. The intention of these English 
residents was laudable, but compulsory attendance failed to 
win converts. Every Sunday evening the missionary held an 
English service for the foreign residents and Eurasians. 

After Valett had labored thus for a little over a year, 
two additional missionaries, Charles W. Groenning and Ferdi- 
nand August Heise, joined him. After their graduation from 
the Mission Institute of the North German Society, they 
sailed, December 12, 1845, from Hamburg for Calcutta, 
arriving at Rajahmundry July 22, 1846. 

Charles William Groenning was born November 22, 1813, 
in Fredericia, Jutland, Denmark. His father, a metal worker, 
died when Charles was a boy, leaving his mother with four 
children. After her husband's death she moved to Coldring, 
on the boundary line between Denmark and Schleswig- 
Holstein, where Charles, at the age of eight years, was ap- 
prenticed to a weaver named Horn, who treated the lad as 
a son. From Coldring, Horn went to Flensborg, taking his 
apprentice with him. Charles was then fourteen years of 
age. In Flensborg he was confirmed by Pastor Achenfeldt. 
Here he heard Pastors Lorenzen and Vallynarts preach, of 




CHARLES WILLIAM GROENNING 




A TELUGU BRAHMIN 

This Bralimin was converted to Christianity in the neighboring Baptist Mission. He 
has been the native contractor for a number of buildings in the 
Rajahmundry Mission. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 85 

whom he afterward said that they faithfully preached the 
Word of the cross. He regularly attended the monthly 
mission meetings conducted by Pastor Lorenzen. "These 
meetings," he wrote, "were the sweetest ones of my life. . . . 
I put down my name as an annual contributor to foreign 
missions." Because of his interest in these meetings his 
fellow-workmen derided him and called him "one of the 
saints." He bore their derision with patience. From Flens- 
borg he went to Copenhagen to learn how to make damask by 
machinery, and then to Elberfeld, near the Rhine, where he 
worked in a carpet factory and where he was brought into 
contact with Moravians who awakened in him an earnest 
desire to become a foreign missionary. One of the students 
at the Mission Institute at Barmen in the Wupperthal, a 
young Norwegian, Hans Knudsen, almost persuaded him 
to enter that institute; but he returned to Flensborg 
as a young man of twenty-five, having decided to remain 
at his trade as a weaver. He started a carpet factory 
which proved to be financially successful; but the call of 
the heathen world grew stronger and more irresistible, and 
finally in March, 1840, he gave up his trade and entered the 
Mission Institute in Hamburg to prepare for service as a for- 
eign missionary. During his last two years as a student he 
devoted several hours every Sunday to visits among the poor 
of the city of Hamburg and held religious services in their 
homes. He was graduated in 1845, an d together with his class- 
mate, F. A. Heise, was commissioned as a missionary to 
the Telugus in India. 1 

When Groenning and Heise reached Rajahmundry, they 
found Valett busily engaged in the erection of the first mission 
house. It was oddly constructed. In the center of the building 
was a long, wide room, used as a common living room, school 
room and place of public worship. At each of the four corners 
of this large, central room there were two small rooms, each 
suite for the private use of a missionary, so that four mission- 

1 We are sorry that we cannot furnish a sketch of Heise's life before he en- 
tered the Mission Institute. The sources consulted furnished no material for 
such a sketch. 



86 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

aries could be accommodated. The completed building cost 
about $1000. 

Two months after their arrival Groenning and Heise were or- 
dained at Rajahmundry by Valett and Gunn of Guntur. For a 
year and a half they devoted themselves to the study of Telugu 
and English, 1 assisted Valett as opportunity offered, and in 
turn, visited Gunn at Guntur and Heyer in the Palnad district. 

The monotony of the pioneer's life was broken by a joyful 
event in 1848, when Valett married the sister of the Rev. Mr. 
Bowden, a Plymouth Brethren Baptist missionary, then 
stationed at Palkole near Narsapur. After the wedcling the 
erection of a suitable bungalow in Rajahmundry was begun, 
but before its completion, after scarcely a year of married life, 
Mrs. Valett died. 

When both Groenning and Heise were ready to begin 
independent mission work, it was felt that one of them should 
start a new station. Ellore was chosen as the most promising 
place, and in May, 1849, Groenning began to preach the Gospel 
in that town. Three months later he left Ellore to take charge 
of the work in Guntur during Gunn's absence on sick leave. 
Returning to Ellore after Martz reached Gantur, he began 
two Telugu schools, in each of which about twenty pupils were 
enrolled at the start. The year 1850 was the most eventful one 
of his life. In it occurred his transfer to The Foreign Mission- 
ary Society of the General Synod, concerning which more will 
be said later, and his marriage to Henrietta Krug, sister-in-law 
of Mr. Nagel, a merchant of Hamburg, and an intimate friend 
of Amalie Sieveking. They had become engaged to be married 
before Groenning left Germany, but The North German Mis- 
sionary Society had declared itself financially unable to sup- 
port a married missionary, and so Groenning was obliged to 
leave his fiancee behind in Germany and wait until the society's 
finances enabled it to send her after him to India. They 
waited five years without hope, and then came the news of the 

1 Non-English missionaries in India were and still are at a disadvantage, 
because they must learn English as well as Telugu. As a rule, however, they 
are good linguists and overcome the disadvantage. Groenning did. His native 
language was Danish. He spoke German fluently. He gained a fair working 
knowledge of both English and Telugu. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 87 

transfer of Groenning to the American Evangelical Lutheran 
Mission under the direction of The Foreign Missionary Society 
of the General Synod. The American society gave its consent 
to their marriage and in a few months Groenning's fiancee was 
in Madras, where he met her and where they were married on 
October 2, 1850. After a two months' stay in Guntur, Rev. 
and Mrs. C. W. Groenning went to Ellore, where they lived 
and labored until July, 1851, when he was appointed resident 
missionary at Guntur. 

Martz succeeded Groenning at Ellore, but remained there 
only five months, and then hi January, 1852, after a period of 
service as a foreign missionary lasting two years, returned to 
the United States. 

In consequence of Martz's departure, Ellore was abandoned, 
after having been a station of The North German Missionary 
Society for a year and three months and of The Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the General Synod for a year and a half. 
To-day it is in the possession of The Church Missionary 
Society of England. 

At this point it becomes necessary to turn our attention 
from the mission work in India to the progress of affairs in the 
Church in America. 

Heyer's return to India in 1847, perceptibly increased the 
foreign mission interest and effort of the home-church. The 
reports and letters of the missionaries and of the Executive 
Committee of The Foreign Missionary Society, published in 
"The Lutheran Observer" and the "Kirchenzeitung," were 
read with interest. Heyer's bi-monthly letters from Gurjal to 
Andora and Matthias Henry, children of the Rev. J. W. Rich- 
ards, D. D., great-grandchildren of the patriarch Henry 
Melchior Muhlenberg, and to various Sunday schools, which 
appeared regularly in "The Lutheran Observer," were 
especially appreciated. 

The method of conducting mission work was changed in 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium in 1848 (June 2ist), when, in- 
stead of a missionary society, a standing synodical committee 
for foreign and domestic missions was appointed. This meant 



88 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

that the synod as a whole assumed responsibility for the pay- 
ment of Heyer's salary of $600 a year and for such sums as 
he needed to carry on his work. This change in method was 
a change for the better. 1 

For the other missionaries besides Heyer and the rest of 
the work not under his charge, The Foreign Missionary Society 
of the General Synod held itself responsible. It drew most of 
its support from the New York, Hartwick and Pittsburgh 
synods. The greater interest of these synods in the work of 
foreign missions must be ascribed to the fact that the mem- 
bers of the executive committee of The Foreign Missionary 
Society were drawn mostly from the New York Ministerium; 
that Gunn and Snyder were members of the Hartwick Synod ; 
that the missionary zeal of Rev. William A. Passavant, D. D., 
a firm friend of Heyer, pervaded the Pittsburgh Synod; and 
that the First Church in Pittsburg gratefully remembered its 
indebtedness to Heyer by leading all other congregations in 
that synod in the amount of its foreign mission contributions. 

The financial problem in the beginning of the foreign 
mission work in the Lutheran Church in America, as we have 
already had occasion to note, was a serious one. The receipts 
were meagre and, as a consequence, the missionaries few and 
their efforts restricted. To give an idea of the annual receipts 
and expenditures of The Foreign Missionary Society during 
the late forties, we insert here the treasurer's report for the 
year commencing May 16, 1848, and ending May n, 1849: 

RECEIPTS 

From synods, congregations and schools $1695.82 

From American Tract Society 200.00 

Balance from previous year 1.40 

Total $1897.22 

1 In "The Lutheran Observer" of October 18, 1850, Martin Buehler, treasurer 
of "The Foreign Missionary Society," acknowledged receipt of the following 
contributions forwarded through the treasurer of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 
Rev. J. C. Baker, D. D.: Heyer's salary in advance to November, 1851, $600; 
for schools from Rev. Stohlmann's congregation, New York City, $35; Juvenile 
Missionary Societies, St. Michael's and Zion's, Philadelphia, $80; St. John's, Eas- 
ton, Rev. Dr. J. W. Richards, $15.62; Rev. Mr. Mennig's congregation, Potts- 
ville Pa., $18.88. Others who contributed liberally were St. John's, Phila- 
delphia, Rev. Dr. Mayer; Trinity, Lancaster, Rev. J. C. Baker, D. D.; Salem 
Lebanon, Rev. W. G. Ernst. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 89 

EXPENDITURES 

May 19, 1848. To tract distribution $100.00 

Sept. 8, 1848. To 6 months' salary to Gunn 333-oo 

Dec. 16, 1848. To 6 months' salary to Gunn 333.00 

Dec. 16, 1848. To schools, catechists, etc 67.00 

Dec. 16, 1848. To expenses of committee 21.50 

Jan. 12, 1849. To G. J. Martz, > annual salary 100.00 

April 7, 1849. To G. J. Martz, expenses 70.00 

April 7, 1849. To G. J. Martz, outfit 250.00 

April 7, 1849. To G. J. Martz, passage to India 250.00 

April 7, 1849. To schools, catechists, books, etc 146.43 

May 10, 1849. To tract distribution 100.00 

May 10, 1849. To expenses of committee 37.00 

May 10, 1849. To expenses of treasurer 2.47 

May 10, 1849. To balance 86.82 

Total $1897.22 

Estimate of expenses for 1849-50: 

Salary of Gunn $666.00 

Salary of Martz 400.00 

Schools, native workers, books, etc 300.00 

Buildings 500.00 

Contingent expenses at home 50.00 

Total $1916.00 

Although the conditions of Mr. Stokes' offer to pay the 
travelling expenses of an additional missionary could not be 
met, it emphasized the need of sending out more missionaries, 
and, as a consequence, a call was extended to William J. 
Cutter, a student in Wittenberg Seminary. 

William J. Cutter was born in Germany. His parents, 
who were Roman Catholics, emigrated to the United States 
when he was a boy. As a young man he was convinced of the 
errors of Roman Catholicism and, in 1841, united with the 
Evangelical Lutheran congregation at Jeffersontown, Ken- 
tucky, Rev. George Yeager pastor. Persuaded that he ought 
to consecrate himself to the holy ministry, he entered Witten- 
berg Seminary. At the suggestion of the Executive Com- 
mittee of The Foreign Missionary Society whose call to ser- 
vice in the foreign field he accepted, he completed his theologi- 
cal education in Hartwick Seminary, in order that he might 
make the acquaintance of pastors and congregations in the 
East, and was graduated from that institution in 1851. He 
was ordained, married, and was commissioned that same year. 

While the Foreign Missionary Society was striving to 



90 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

increase its force of foreign missionaries, an opportunity was 
offered to enlarge its foreign mission field. During 1848 
and 1849, on account of the disturbed state of political affairs 
in Germany, the treasury of The North German Missionary 
Society became embarrassed, forcing the society to decide 
upon the abandonment of one of its foreign fields. Labor- 
ing under the impression that the much lauded intelli- 
gence and philosophical acumen of the Hindus demanded 
missionaries with a university training, and feeling itself un- 
able to furnish such men, the society resolved to abandon its 
India field. The first step in this direction was made when 
the service of Groenning was offered to The Foreign Mission- 
ary Society. His formal transfer was made in August, 1850. 
In a letter dated Hamburg, August 6, 1850, in which Groen- 
ning's transfer was ratified, John Hartwig Braun, secretary of 
The North German Missionary Society, offered to transfer 
also the Rajahmundry station and missionaries, writing as 
follows: "There are two ordained ministers at Rajahmundry, 
Valett and Heise. An English school supported by English 
residents has, thus far, called for no expenditures on our part. 
Rs. looo have accumulated at Rajahmandry as a school fund. 
There has also been an attempt made to conduct a vernacular 
school, likewise at the expense of residents. Our society's 
annual expenditures for the Rajahmundry station have been 
as follows: Valett's salary, Rs. 1200; Heise's salary, Rs. 1000; 
incidental expenses, Rs. 600; total, Rs. 2800. l Two dwellings 
have been erected. The compound agreement is for ninety 
years with an insignificant rent, payable to the government. 
The houses referred to have cost Rs. 4500. No compensation 
is asked for either of them or for money expended by us on the 
Mission; but we would not be willing to refund the Rs. 1000 
which we borrowed from the school fund. You will be asked 
to assume that debt. To maintain the mission any longer is 
beyond the ability of The North German Missionary Society. 
Its abandonment has been resolved ; and if neither your society 
nor any other will continue the work, it will be discontinued 
at the close of the present year. We are anxious that you 

1 This was approximately $1400. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 91 

should undertake it. We earnestly request that you give this 
offer your serious consideration and we pray the Lord to direct 
your minds according to His good pleasure." 

This offer appealed to the Executive Committee of The 
Foreign Missionary Society, and in an open letter to the 
Church the situation was explained as follows: 

"Here the committee feel in duty bound to pause, not be- 
cause they are at a loss to determine what ought to be the 
answer to this new appeal, but we think it best and proper 
to submit the matter to the churches, whose agents we are, 
and wait for their response. The question is not, what is our 
duty? That question is settled. The Providence of God has 
settled it. The voice of the Lord has been distinctly heard in 
every call that has been addressed to us, and the only question 
to be determined is whether the Church is willing to obey the 
voice, whether the Church is prepared to occupy the field 
which the Lord has made ready to our hands. We are con- 
fident that the answer will be: Go on; continue to follow the 
leadings of Providence, as you have done; promptly answer 
every call and we will stand by you with our contributions and 
our prayers." 

The confidence of the committee was not misplaced. The 
New York and Hartwick Synods at their meetings in the fall 
of 1850 passed resolutions enthusiastically advising the ac- 
ceptance of the offer; and, having received sufficient assur- 
ance of support, the Executive Committee 1 of The Foreign 
Missionary Society, assembled in the study of the Rev. Dr. 
H. N. Pohlmann in Albany, N. Y., October 30, 1850, solemnly 
resolved, "that we accept the transfer from The North 
German Society of their mission in India and that we will 
give each of the missionaries, Valett and Heise, $500 salary 
per annum." 

On January i, 1851, the Rajahmundry mission and mis- 
sionaries passed under the control of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod, which thus doubled the number 

1 The executive committee, as then constituted, included the Revs. Dr. 
Henry N. Pohlmann, chairman; J. Z. Senderling, corresponding secretary; 
Wm. D. Stroebel, Wm. N. Shell and C. A. Smith. 



92 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

of its missionaries and the area and importance of its mis- 
sion operations in India. 

Spurred by the prompt and hearty response of the Church 
to the call for the extension of its foreign mission work, and 
conscious of the need of more missionaries to man its larger 
field, the Executive Committee proceeded, in February, 1851, 
to call another missionary. 

William E. Snyder was born in Allamachy, Warren County, 
N. J., June 27, 1823. His father, Andrew B. Snyder, was 
by occupation a miller. His mother, Charlotte Sophia, who 
died in 1835, was the only sister of the Rev. George B. 
Miller, D. D., professor of theology in Hartwick Seminary. 
After the death of his mother, William went to Hartwick, 
N. Y., where he attended public school, his father having 
meanwhile removed to New Brunswick, N. J., and, in 1848, to 
Paterson, N. J. In 1838 William became a member of the 
Lutheran Church in Hartwick. He completed his classical 
studies in Rutgers College, New Jersey, from which he was 
graduated in 1844. Returning to Hartwick he studied theology 
under his uncle and graduated from the seminary in two 
years. He was licensed to preach by the Hartwick Synod at 
Berne, Albany County, N. Y., in 1849, after which he was 
employed as a teacher in Hartwick Seminary, where a lively 
interest was taken in the foreign mission work of the Church. 

After he had accepted the call to be a foreign missionary, 
he was examined, ordained and commissioned at a special 
meeting of the ministerium of the Hartwick Synod on Wed- 
nesday, July 30, 1851, in Schoharie, N. Y., the Rev. G. A. 
Lintner, newly-elected General Agent of The Foreign Mission- 
ary Society, preaching the sermon. Before his ordination, on 
May 6th, he married Susan Maria, 1 daughter of the Rev. Mr. 
St. John, a Presbyterian minister. Together they sailed in the 
company of Rev. and Mrs. W. J. Cutter from Boston, August 
11,1851, and reached Guntur February 20,1852. Their arrival 
on the field increased the mission force to six ordained mis- 
sionaries and three missionaries' wives. 

1 She was born March 24, 1820, at Milford, Otsego County, N. Y., and was 
educated in Genesee and Cooperstown, N. Y. 



THE FOUNDING OF THE RAJAHMUNDRY MISSION 93 

Gunn had gone to his eternal reward, the first missionary 
from the Lutheran Church in America to lay down his life 
on a foreign mission field. He died of consumption July 5, 
1851, lamented by his widow and two children, Martin Luther 
and Ellen, by all the missionaries, by the English residents 
and by the native Christians in Guntur, some of whom had 
visited him during his last illness and had left his bedside 
deeply impressed with the strength, comfort, courage and 
hope of Christian faith in the face of death. 1 

In the minutes of the Executive Committee of The Foreign 
Missionary Society the following tribute is found: "Our 
brother, Rev. Walter Gunn, had respectable attainments. 
He was evangelical in his views and principles, irreproachable 
in all his conduct, of humble, devoted and ardent piety. In 
his missionary life he was truthful, upright, faithful, courageous 
and persevering. As his motto was, "Rock of Ages, cleft for 
me" his favorite hymn so in his preaching would he have 
Christ presented to the heathen heart and formed therein. 
He has finished his work. He sleeps his last sleep. He 
has gone up to join Ziegenbalg and Schwartz and Martin and 
a host of worthies who have fallen in bloodless battles on 
India's shores." 

His remains were buried in the Christian cemetery in 
Guntur by the side of his infant son, Herman Francke, on 
Sunday afternoon, July 6th. Heyer and Groenning conducted 
the funeral services in English and Telugu. They were at- 
tended by the district judge, the chief magistrate, the assist- 
ant collectors, the commanding officer, the government en- 
gineer, the government physician, and a large number of 
natives, both Christian and Hindu. The coffin was carried in 
a palankeen by twelve bearers from the house to the cemetery. 
At the gate of the cemetery twelve invalided native sepoys 
took up the palankeen and carried it to the grave. Messrs. 
Stokes and Nesbit and other English residents of Guntur 
placed a monument on the grave. Mr. Stokes, who was five 

l To Judge Rohde, who visited him the day before his death, the dying 
missionary feebly whispered: "I know in whom I have believed and am per- 
suaded that He is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against 
that day." II. Timothy 1:12. 



94 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

hundred miles away and could not attend the funeral, wrote 
to the bereaved widow this fine tribute: "His life shone clear 
and steady and many have had reason to glorify God in him. 
His pure and tender spirit, his hearty love for his brethren, 
his meekness, his patient labor, his unrepining sufferings 
in all he has left us a bright and valuable example." 



CHAPTER IX 

THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

AT the close of the year 1851, after Ellore had been aban- 
doned as a station, the American Evangelical Lutheran Mis- 
sion in India, under the control of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod, occupied three strategic points 
in the Telugu country: Guntur on the south, Rajahmundry 
on the north, and the Palnad district, west of Guntur. Apart 
from Heyer's work in the Palnad district, however, practically 
no work was done outside of the towns of Guntur and Rajah- 
mundry. 

Valett left Rajahmundry soon after his transfer to The 
Foreign Missionary Society. He had been in India seven 
years and desired to return to Germany on furlough. He 
was permitted to do so and left Rajahmundry March 9, 1851. 
After the expiration of his furlough The Foreign Missionary 
Society's executive committee dispensed with his services on 
the ground of financial stringency. He returned to India, 
however, as a missionary of the London Missionary Society, 
and labored at Bellary and Chicacole for seven years, from 
1852 to 1859. Later he accepted a pastorate hi Hannover, 
Germany, became Superintendent with residence at Sand- 
stedt, near Bremen, and continued in this office until 1887, 
when he retired on a pension. He died in Bremen on March 
23, 1892, aged seventy-nine years. 

Heise continued the mission work at Rajahmundry. In 
an official communication to Rev. Jacob Z. Senderling, cor- 
responding secretary of The Foreign Missionary Society, he 
wrote, on April 7, 1851, as follows: 

"I shall endeavor to give you, according to your just 
wishes, a brief description of the place and district of Rajah- 
mundry from the missionary point of view, and also a short 

95 



g6 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

account of the mission work and the present state of the 
mission. 

"By the natives the town Rajahmundry is called Rajah- 
mahendrawaram, which means the great King Indrudu's 
gift. It is a very ancient town of about 14,0x30 inhabitants, 
situated on the N. E. side of the Godavery River, and is the 
seat of two judges, one collector and two assistant collectors. 
Four miles to the south is Dowlaishwaram, a place recently 
become of much importance in consequence of the anicut or 
dam, built four miles long across the Godavery, preventing 
the water from flowing into the sea in its natural course and 
leading it by a great system of canals into the surrounding 
country for irrigation purposes. In this great work Col. 
Cotton, a sincere follower of our Lord Jesus Christ, and about 
twelve engineers are employed. Under them are a great 
many sub-officers and about nine thousand native laborers. 
To the south of Dowlaishwaram lies the very fertile Godavery 
delta with its densely populated villages and towns, among 
which there are several of importance for missionary opera- 
tions, such as Coconada and Koringa. Two other important 
places are Pittapur and Peddapur, residences of native 
princes. Only two miles from Peddapur is Samulkot, a large 
place and a military station with one regiment of native in- 
fantry. 

"The population of the Rajahmundry district is about 
700,000. The people generally surround the preacher, seem- 
ingly paying attention, but the larger number of hearers I 
dare scarcely compare with the wayside of our Lord's parable, 
for they do not allow the Word to reach their hearts. There 
are others, however, who are dissatisfied with their philo- 
sophical religion and appear to be more inclined to pay heed 
to the Gospel. In general the people are of a civil and oblig- 
ing disposition and are given to their religion and customs, 
because of their reverence for everything that has come down 
from their forefathers, and because they are carnally minded. 
. . . The visible fruits of our missionary labors are rather 
meagre. Only four adults have been received into the 
Church by Holy Baptism. Considering our unworthiness, 



THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 97 

the difficulties with which we must contend and the power of 
Satan in the land, I have no doubt but that you feel grateful 
with us for these firstfruits. Besides the daily devotions 
with our servants, which others are permitted to attend, we 
conduct a divine service in Telugu every Sunday, and every 
Sunday evening an English service for the English residents 
and East Indians who desire to attend. Recently we also 
began Telugu services in Dowlaishwaram. We did so at the 
invitation of a number of Christian people residing there. 
Since Mr. Valett has left me alone at the station, I have not 
been able to hold regular services there on Sunday, but go 
during the week to preach and examine the school which is 
supported by one of the engineers at work on the anicut. 
Preaching and conversation with inquirers who come to our 
homes occupy most of our time. Though we have not many 
converts, we perceive that the name of our blessed Lord is 
being made known in this district. 

"The number of boys in our English school, which during 
the past two years, in particular, had been in charge of Brother 
Valett, has fallen off since his departure, and at present the 
school enrolls only nineteen boys. Upon the desire of some 
natives, a Telugu school has been begun in a village near Rajah- 
mundry. 1 About twelve boys attend. The teacher is one of our 
converts. His pay is Rs. 5 per month. At present the monthly 
expense of the English school is Rs. 33 (about 15 dollars). Rs. 4 
are paid for a peon and ten annas for a sweeper- woman. The 
regular monthly subscription of English residents toward the 
school fund amounts to Rs. 47. Rs. 1000 have accumulated 
as a school fund, and have been invested. The interest now 
amounts to Rs. 150. I have a balance in hand, not yet 
deposited, of Rs. 395, so that the total school fund amounts to 
Rs. 1545. There are also two other small sums in my hand, 
namely, Rs. 50, given to sink a well in the mission compound, 
and Rs. 53, given to purchase tents. To the mission is also 
entrusted a poor fund, the monthly contributions amounting 
to between Rs. 30 and 40, which the missionaries may dis- 
tribute according to their best judgment. More than thirty 

1 Probably Muramunda. 
7 



98 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

poor people receive alms daily and, at the same time, hear 
the preaching of the Word. Native Christian helpers we 
have, at the present time, none. Last year we were obliged 
to discharge our catechist for neglect of duty. The work at 
the station has never been interrupted. If one of the mis- 
sionaries was out in the district, the other remained at the 
station. Though Brother Valett was obliged to leave the 
station during the hot season, I was permitted by our good 
Lord to remain and attend to the duties here every hot 
season since my arrival in this country. ... I am at present 
alone at this station but hope that He in whose work we are 
engaged will soon by your instrumentality send others to 
help destroy the works of the devil and preach the cross of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, by which alone sinners can obtain that 
which is needed to stand before God and obtain peace, joy 
and life eternal." 

Heise's wish for a co-laborer was soon gratified. He was 
joined, early in 1852, by the Rev. W. J. Cutter and his wife, 
Margaret, for while Snyder remained in Guntur, Cutter pro- 
ceeded at once to Rahjahmundry, where he took charge of the 
Anglo-vernacular school ; and Mrs. Cutter established the first 
girls' school. Cutter worked so zealously that by the end 
of the year five schools were established with a total enroll- 
ment of 175 pupils; and a Mohammedan department was 
added to the English school, only, however, to be almost im- 
mediately abandoned. 

During this period of comparatively rapid development, 
Heyer, still the missionary of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 
was doing splendid work in the Palnad. To the 39 converts 
of his first years' work he added 125 before the close of 1850, 
and soon thereafter, in February, 1851, realizing that the 
growth of the mission depended upon the training and em- 
ployment of efficient native Christian helpers, he reopened the 
boys' boarding school at Gurjal with 12 pupils. The First 
English Lutheran Church, Pittsburgh, to whose Sunday school 
he had written about this school, sent $50 for the education 
of two of the boarding boys, stipulating that the beneficiaries 
were to bear the names of Martin Luther and William Passa- 



THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 99 

vant. Similar conditions, though odd enough, itmust be 
admitted, were not infrequently attached to gifts for the sup- 
port of boys or girls in mission schools. Heyer simply added 
the desired names to the baptismal names of his pupils, calling 
one John Martin Luther and the other William Barnabas 
Passavant. 

Another significant thing that Heyer did, in 1851, was to 
translate Luther's Small Catechism into Telugu, of which a 
small edition was printed in Madras. Hastening to Guntur 
to be with the dying Gunn during the last days of his life on 
earth, he returned to Gurjal immediately after the funeral. 

Three girls were admitted to the boarding school in the 
fall of 1851, for whose support Miss Harriet Weyman of 
Pittsburgh contributed $50 annually for a number of years. 
At the opening of the new school-year in January, 1852, the 
boarding school enrolled 21 pupils. Heyer conducted the 
school in his little house in Gurjal. It is difficult to under- 
stand how, with the meagre accommodations, it was possible 
for him to do so. 

His work in the Palnad district ended in February, 1853. 
In four years he had baptized no less than 243 persons, 1 nearly 
all of them being of the weaver and farmer castes; 35 adults 
were counted as communicants. In Gurjal, Polepalli, Vel- 
durti and Macherla small schoolhouses built of stone at an 
average cost of $40 each had been erected. The lots were 
enclosed by stone walls and used in part as Christian ceme- 
teries. In eight other villages schools had been more or less 
regularly conducted, all of which were attended by Christian 
children only, "the children of heathen parents not being 
excluded but excluding themselves." All of the seven school 
teachers employed were Christian converts, as were also the 
catechist and the two colporteurs of the district. 

At the suggestion of the Executive Committee of The For- 

1 Recorded as follows: Polepalli, February 12, 1849, 22 persons; May 27, 
1849, u; Veldurti, September 23d, 4; Gurjal, October 5th, 2; Polepalli, Decem- 
ber 15, 1850, 29; Kolacotta, December isth, 22; Veldurti, December i7th, 
44; Macherla, December igth, 30; Polepalli, April 13, 1851, i; Gurjal, April 
27th, 4; Veldurti, February 20, 1852, i; Polepalli, February 22d, 8; Gurjal, 
June 27th, 18; Adigopula, August 29th, 19; Macherla, September 26th, 13; 
Gurjal, December aStb, 6; Polepalli, January 15, 1853, 9. 



100 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

eign Missionary Society the missionaries, five in number, 
met and organized on January 31, 1853, in Guntur, the first 
"Lutheran Synod in India" for mutual counsel and encour- 
agement. Heyer was elected president and Snyder secretary. 
The synod decided that Heyer and Groenning should exchange 
stations. Heyer, therefore, remained in Guntur and Groen- 
ning, on February i4th, moved to Gurjal. 

Mrs. Gunn had not left India after the death of her hus- 
band but had remained in Guntur, at the call of the Execu- 
tive Committee, to retain charge of the girls' school at one- 
half the salary paid her deceased husband, thus becoming the 
first regularly called and salaried woman missionary of the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission in India. Her school 
enrolled forty girls to whom she imparted the elements of 
knowledge, the truths of Christianity and some proficiency in 
the art of sewing. She managed the school for a little more 
than a year and then returned to the United States, Mrs. 
Groenning succeeding her. After Mrs. Groenning left with 
her husband for the Palnad district, Mrs. Snyder took charge 
and was the manager of the school for a year and a half, until 
she died at Guntur, September 3, 1854. 

Ten years had now elapsed since Heyer had established 
the mission in Guntur, and he was -again in charge of that 
station; but the progress had been so slow that only fifteen 
adult communicants belonged to the congregation. One 
hundred and fifty pupils were enrolled in six schools, and eight 
teachers, all Christians, were employed. 1 The mission 
property in Guntur consisted of the house which Gunn had 
built, valued at $650, another missionary's bungalow, pur- 
chased for $760, a chapel costing $200, and two schoolhouses, 
each worth about $25. 

Heyer had brought four of the boys from his Gurjal board- 
ing school to Guntur, and with these, together with three 
from Guntur, he began the first regular boarding school for 
boys in Guntur. 

1 Stephen had charge of the Telugu school in the mission house. Aaron 
was his assistant. Peter taught the school at Nevalikanner, Ezra at Kot- 
lamur, Simeon at Moparti. Rebecca, the wife of Stephen, and Walter were 
employed in the girls' school. 



THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY IOI 

Although Mr. Stokes no longer resided in Guntur, having 
been appointed Collector at Madras, he continued to con- 
tribute regularly to the mission, offering, in 1853, to give 
Rs. 1000 toward the erection of two suitable bungalows 
for missionaries in the Palnad district, one to be located 
at Polepalli, and each to cost approximately Rs. 1500, 
provided a second missionary were stationed in the dis- 
trict. His condition could not be met and his offer was 
withdrawn. 

On January i, 1854, all of the missionaries met in Rajah- 
mundry to attend the second meeting of the "Synod," which 
was opened with a service and sermon in Telugu by Rev. C. W. 
Groenning, most appropriately based on John 6:27. The five 
foreign missionaries and fourteen native Christians partook of 
the holy communion. It is more than likely, although not 
expressly recorded, that some of these natives Christians had 
accompanied the missionaries from Guntur and the Palnad, 
for there were not yet so many adult communicants con- 
nected with the Rajahmundry congregation. In the after- 
noon another Telugu service was held, Rev. C. F. Heyer 
preaching the sermon. The business session began the next 
morning and continued until Thursday morning. Groenning 
was elected president and Cutter secretary. In his report 
Heyer recommended that steps be taken to unite all Lutheran 
missionaries hi India in one general synod, a proposal which 
is still, after more than fifty years, a consummation devoutly 
to be wished. It is interesting to note that the following lit- 
urgy was adopted as the one to be used everywhere in the 
mission: i. Hymn. 2. Prayer, kneeling. 3. Scripture lesson. 
4. Hymn. 5. Sermon. 6. Hymn. 7. Prayer, standing. 8. 
Benediction. Three young native Christians were recom- 
mended for training as catechists and future pastors, namely: 
Chinsa Ramurdu of Rajahmundry, aged twenty- two; William 
Barnabas Passavant of the Palnad, aged sixteen; and Joseph 
of Guntur, aged fourteen. 

The following table of statistics was prepared and sent to 
The Foreign Missionary Society. It gives a bird's-eye view 
of the whole mission at the close of the year 1853 : 



102 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Boarding Other 
Baptisms 1 Schools Schools 





o 


stations 


tmunicar 


m 


a 
I 


v\ 


r= 


1 





1 




3 


^_t 


H 


3 


73 




n. 


^4 


a 


-. 




3 

CO 


O 


a 


< 


u 


q "tj 
i-J OO 





Q 


cu 





Guntur 


I 


i 


, 


1C 


Q 


I i 


6 


6 


140 


TO 


Rajahmundry 


I 


2 


i? 


I 


o 


4 


o 


8 


225 


Q 


Palnad.. 


. I 


10 


^6 


I 


2 


4 I 


it 


6 


70 


6 



Totals 3 13 84 17 ii 9 2 21 20 435 25 

Heyer became the Rajahmundry missionary at the begin- 
ning of the year 1855. He was joined by Snyder in February, 
Cutter going to Guntur to assist Groenning with the work 
there and in the Palnad, which was left without a resident 
missionary. Heise left on furlough April i, 1855, on account 
of protracted illness after a trip of three weeks in a steamboat, 
one hundred and forty miles up the Godavery River, as the 
guest of Col. Cotton. 

The minutes of the third annual meeting of the First 
Lutheran Synod in India, held in Guntur, February 3, 1855, 
refer to a terrible epidemic in the Palnad during the hot 
season of 1854, and to the death of 10 Christians from this 
dreadful disease. Other deaths recorded were those of Emily, 
infant daughter of Rev. and Mrs. Snyder, in May; Walter 
Gunn, infant son of Rev. and Mrs. Cutter, in June; and Mrs. 
Snyder in September. The minutes also contain a resolution, 
recommending an allowance of $5 a month for each child of 
a missionary until it had reached the age of twelve years, 
and a fixed allowance to each missionary for furniture. The 
appointment of a treasurer in India was recommended. It 
had been the practice of the Executive Committee up to 
this time to send its remittances through the Rev. Mr. Wins- 
low of Madras, the agent of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions. 

The growth of the Mission during the year 1854 may be 

1 The whole number of baptisms in Guntur from the beginning to July 
1854, was 104. 




COCOANUT PALMS IN INDIA 




A MANGO TREE 




CUTTING A BUNCH OF BANANAS 




A BANYAN TREE 

The elephant under this tree gives a good idea of the size of the tree with its 
numerous aerial roots. 



THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 103 

noted by comparing the preceding table of statistics with the 
following one: 

Baptisms Schools/or Pupils Teachers 





| 

oJ 

I 

3 


ommunica 


S 

3 

Tl 



2 
'J3 


en 

1 

O 


en e 

0* S 


en 


tn 


4) 

15 


w 
3 

s 







U 




U 




PQ C 


PQ 


O 


S 


fa 


Guntur 


. ... I 


32 


o 


7 


2 


6 i 


7o 


20 


6 


_ 


Rajahmundry 


2 


14 


7 


z 


I 


8 i 


176 


27 


8 


j 


Palnad.. 


. IO 


4O 




6 


12 


6 o 


<;? 


7 


6 


n 



Totals 13 86 9 16 15 20 2 301 54 20 2 

The receipts in India for the year, exclusive of the mis- 
sionaries' salaries, were Rs. 1031; the expenditures, Rs. 1116; 
and the estimated expenses for the coming year were Rs. 2100. 
The salaries of the missionaries amounted to $3200, the 
average for each missionary being $650 a year. 

While the congregation in Guntur was larger than the one 
in Rajahmundry, the educational work in the latter place was 
more promising than in the former. Heyer was the manager 
of the Anglo-vernacular school which enrolled 68 pupils in 
1855, and Snyder was the manager of the Telugu schools, one 
of which was a girls' school in charge of Susanna Lavel, a con- 
vert, the wife of Chinsa Ramurdu, a Brahmin. Unfortunately, 
this first native Christian female teacher died in September, 
1855. Heyer also established a boys' boarding school for the 
training of native workers, beginning with three boys who 
had followed him from Guntur, William Barnabas Passavant, 
John Martin Luther and Enoch, who, as the beneficiaries of 
the Sunday school of the First Lutheran Church of Pitts- 
burgh, remained under his personal care and supervision, and 
two boys from Rajahmundry, Jacob and Peeru. 

Snyder remained in Rajahmundry only a short tune. A 
physical collapse, subsequent to his heroic but unsuccessful 
effort to save the life of William Barnabas Passavant, who 
was drowned in a tank in Rajahmundry, forced him to leave 
India, March 24, 1856. About two months earlier Cutter 
with his wife and children had left Guntur on account of 



104 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

Mrs. Cutter's serious nervous depression. They reached 
New York May 30, 1856, and Snyder landed there about 
two months later. Only two missionaries remained in India, 
Heyer at Rajahmundry and Groenning at Guntur. 

A loss as serious as that of any missionary was the 
departure of Mr. and Mrs. Stokes for England in 1856. 
Writing from Denver, Norfolk, England, under date of 
August 31, 1856, Mr. Stokes assured the Executive Com- 
mittee of The Foreign Mission Society of his continued 
interest in its Telugu Mission, encouraged it to send more 
missionaries and money, and relieved it of every financial in- 
debtedness to him. The committee frequently corresponded 
with him in England, consulted him about the Mission and 
received both advice and contributions; but his interest was 
gradually absorbed by the Church Missionary Society, of 
which he became an ardent supporter. He died in England 
in 1889. 

If we seek for the causes of the comparatively slow prog- 
ress of the Telugu Mission during the first decade, we find 
them, first of all, in the small force of foreign missionaries 
and the meagre financial support of the Church in America. 
Had not the English residents in Guntur, led by Collector 
Stokes, and in Rajahmundry, by Colonel Cotton, generously 
supported the missionaries, especially in the educational 
work, the results would, indeed, have been insignificant. To 
what extent the English residents in Guntur aided the mis- 
sionaries there and in the Palnad has already been told. 
What part the English residents in Rajahmundry took in the 
mission work may be observed from the fact that of Rs. 1300 
required in 1854 for the work at that station, Rs. 1000 were 
contributed by Colonel Cotton and others, leaving a balance 
of only Rs. 300 (about $125) to be provided from America. 
Nor was that an exceptional year. Every year the contri- 
butions were proportionately the same. It is really surpris- 
ing how little, apart from the salaries of the missionaries, The 
Foreign Missionary Society spent on the Rajahmundry work. 

Besides their contributions in money, the English resi- 
dents sought to aid the missionaries by demanding of their 



THE FIELD OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 105 

servants regular attendance at the Telugu services conducted 
by the missionaries; but the minds and hearts of such attend- 
ants did not prove to be good ground. In 1853 the con- 
straint was removed from the native servants in Rajahmim- 
dry and, probably also, in Guntur, and though the attendance 
at the Telugu services was decreased, those who attended 
came voluntarily, and the number of converts increased more 
rapidly thereafter. 

Another cause for the slow increase of the number of 
converts was the practical confinement of evangelistic work 
to the towns of Guntur and Rajahmundry. In the Palnad, 
where most converts were made, the missionary toured 
the district; but the Guntur and Rajahmundry missionaries, 
obliged to look after their school work, rarely went out into 
the villages of the surrounding districts to preach. More- 
over, there were no native helpers to prepare the way for the 
foreign missionary or to follow up his work when he did 
preach in the district; and without competent native assist- 
ance district work is practically fruitless. At first the mis- 
sionaries did a good deal of preaching in the bazaars and 
streets of Guntur and Rajahmundry, speaking to any crowd 
which might be attracted and gathered about them; but they 
gradually discontinued this practice as unsatisfactory and 
relied more upon the educational work as an evangelizing 
agency, inasmuch as the children of Hindu, as well as of Chris- 
tian parentage, attending the schools, received instruction 
in Bible truths and facts. 

Before the missionaries could hope for any extensive 
success, it was necessary for them to raise up, train and em- 
ploy a numerous band of competent native Christian helpers 
teachers, evangelists and catechists to work with the mis- 
sionary and, in his absence, under his general oversight and 
supervision. Heyer, as we have noticed, was the founder of 
the boarding schools for Christian boys, which are training- 
schools for native workers, in the Palnad, in Guntur and in 
Rajahmundry; but many years were to elapse before these 
schools furnished native helpers in any considerable number 
and of any competent ability. The first teachers employed 



106 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

by Heyer and Gunn were Hindus, the missionaries supple- 
menting the instruction by devoting several hours daily to 
the teaching of Christian truth. The Christian teachers who 
were engaged at first, were recent converts, raw material, 
uneducated men, untrained workers, even though sincere and 
faithful Christians. Little could be expected of them, and 
they accomplished little. 

Nevertheless, for the time and energy expended, the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission in the Telugu 
country showed as good results as any other mission in South 
India during the first decade of its history. 



CHAPTER X 

A PERIOD OF TRIALS HEYER LEAVES THE MISSION 

AMONG the Hindu girls who attended the Guntur Girls' 
School in the early fifties was Ruth. The Christian teachings 
made a profound impression upon her; but her parents bit- 
terly opposed her baptism. Despite their opposition she pre- 
sented herself for baptism in 1853, and Heyer administered 
the sacrament. Then Ruth's parents agitated against the 
school and most of the Hindu pupils were withdrawn ; but the 
school survived the ordeal, and, in 1856, Ruth was appointed 
a teacher; and three other girls, Christine, Marie and Lydia, 
were baptized by Groenning. 

Hardly had the agitation over their baptism subsided, 
when the Brahmin community was profoundly stirred by the 
conversion of one of their number, the first convert of that 
caste, in 1856. The immediate result of the hostility of the 
Brahmins was the withdrawal of thirty pupils from the 
English Boys' School, reducing the attendance to forty. The 
Brahmins sent in a petition for a Government School, but the 
Inspector, Mr. William McDonald, favored the Mission 
School and offered Groenning a grant-in-aid of Rs. 200 a 
month, if he would secre a qualified English headmaster 
and Rs. 100 were expended each month for teachers' salaries 
and apparatus. Groenning at once submitted the offer of the 
Inspector to the Executive Committee in America with his 
favorable recommendation, suggesting that the Rev. William 
E. Snyder, then on furlough, be appointed headmaster. 
Snyder had fully recovered his health and expressed his 
willingness to accept the appointment; but the Executive Com- 
mittee of The Foreign Mission Society, influenced by the 
adverse attitude of the American Board of Commissioners 
toward the acceptance of government grants, was disposed 

107 



I08 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

to withhold its approval. Groenning argued that the Christian 
character and aim of the school would in no wise be jeopard- 
ized by the acceptance of government grant and requested 
that the final decision be left to the missionaries in the field. 
Heyer sided with Groenning, and the Executive Committee 
reluctantly yielded and sent Snyder back to take charge of 
the school. Snyder formally applied for the grant in August, 
1858, and obtained the Rs. 200 a month promised by the 
Inspector, and the recognition of the government, which went 
with it. 

Similar efforts were made by Heyer in behalf of the Anglo- 
vernacular school at Rajahmundry. Mr. McDonald visited 
his school in November, 1856, and encouraged him to apply 
for grant-in-aid. He did this in the following language: 
"If government will allow Rs. 150 a month and can get a 
trained man from England for this compensation, it will 
answer our purpose; but as it appears difficult to get teachers 
from England, I promise to get an A. M. or an A. B. from 
America. This gentleman, who may or may not be an or- 
dained minister, will share the management of the school 
with the missionary; but the missionary must always be 
regarded as the principal of the school." Heyer failed to 
secure a man from America, and the government proceeded 
to establish a school of its own at Rajahmundry. Thus, 
early in the history of the Rajahmundry Mission, it was 
handicapped in its educational work by competition with a 
government school. 

According to the report of the Executive Committee of 
The Foreign Missionary Society to the General Synod, con- 
vened in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., May, 1857, the mis- 
sion property in Guntur then consisted of about five acres of 
ground, on which two mission houses, a chapel, a school and 
teachers' houses had been built. The Telugu schools at the 
end of the year 1856 numbered six, only one of which was 
conducted outside of the limits of Guntur. Two Telugu ser- 
vices on Sunday and one during the week were usually held 
in the town. A Sunday school for boys had been started 
during the year. Nine native Christian teachers were under 



A PERIOD OF TRIALS HEYER LEAVES THE MISSION 109 

employment, one of whom, Nathaniel, was being prepared 
for the holy ministry. The expense of the Girls' Boarding 
School, by strict economy, amounted to only Rs. 30, less than 
$15 a month. Apart from the salaries paid the missionaries, 
the work in Guntur cost The Foreign Missionary Society 
during the year 1856, about Rs. 800, less than $400; and in 
the Palnad district, Rs. 1091, less than $500. Groenning, 
living in Guntur, had charge of the work in the Palnad, where 
five native Christian teachers were employed: John at Kola- 
gutla, Jacob at Pillutla, Samuel at Veldurti, Simeon at Adi- 
gopula, Joseph at Macherla. 

In Rajahmundry and its vicinity there were seven schools. 
One of the native Christian teachers, Philip, spent part of 
his time as colporteur, selling and distributing Bibles, Testa- 
ments and tracts. His salary was paid by Mr. H. Newill, the 
collector, who, Heyer wrote, "in some measure took the 
place of Mr. Stokes." Five persons were baptized by Heyer in 
1856: Peter, Barnabas, Eliza and two infants. The adult 
communicants numbered 21, the pupils in the girls' school, 32. 
To Miss H. Weyman, Pittsburgh, Heyer wrote concerning the 
Girls' School, May 15, 1856: 

"Our Girls' School at Rajahmundry is in part supported 
by what has been sent from Miss A.'s mission box. We have 
at present two teachers and thirty- two scholars. One of the 
teachers is a young woman, not long married, who can teach 
Telugu reading and writing, the multiplication table and 
plain sewing. Beyond these branches we do not attempt to 
go at present. Her name is Ruth. The other teacher is an 
elderly, motherly woman who was baptized about two years 
ago. She suffered persecution from her heathen relatives, 
and her husband would not allow her to return to his house, 
because she had become a Christian. However, a young man 
who is married to her daughter provided lodgings, and she 
has been living in his family ever since. Of her own accord 
she commenced learning the letters of the Telugu alphabet, 
and, being encouraged to go on, she has since learned to read 
and is now able to teach the smaller children. Her name is 
Joanna. She is a quiet, unassuming person, who acts a moth- 



110 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

erly part toward the younger teacher and all the children 
in the school. The first class contains twelve; the second, 
nine; and the third, eleven children. Perhaps you will be 
amused at some of the strange names. The ages of the 
scholars are from five to fourteen years. Some of the older 
and larger pupils have commenced patch-work for quilts 
and appear to be pleased with the variety of colors which 
they are putting together. They are generally as lively and 
happy as little ducks. The eldest girl in the school is an ap- 
plicant for baptism." 

As early as 1854, while missionary at Guntur, Heyer 
begged for permission to return to the United States, plead- 
ing that, although he was enjoying good health, he was be- 
ginning to feel the approach of old age. As an alternative 
he proposed the sending out of a young man as his assistant, 
suggesting a reduction of his salary by $100 to be applied to 
that of the younger man. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania 
to which he addressed his communication, at its meeting in 
1854, refused to permit Heyer's return and postponed the 
consideration of his proposal. When Heyer was transferred 
to Rajahmundry, Heise left it on furlough. The latter ex- 
pected to return to the field in 1856, when the former hoped 
to be allowed to take his furlough. Heise, however, was 
asked by the Executive Committee to come to America from 
Germany and present his cause in the churches here. He 
came, accompanied by his bride, a daughter of the Rev. Mr. 
Fordhammer of Holstein, Germany, whom he married on 
October 10, 1856. They spent several months in the United 
States. Concerning his visit the Executive Committee 
reported: "The visit of Brother Heise to this country was a 
happy circumstance. The man, his spirit, his modesty, his 
mental and missionary endowments, his zeal, his unwearied 
toil, proved him to be the man for his calling. Not unlike 
Dr. Duff he passed from city to city and from city to country, 
everywhere enlightening and gratifying crowded audiences 
and infusing a new missionary spirit. With his excellent, 
pious and amiable wife he blessed every home he visited, leav- 
ing behind endearments of the purest character, creating solic- 



A PERIOD OF TRIALS HEYER LEAVES THE MISSION III 

itude for their well-being and for the furtherance of the holy 
cause in which they are engaged. His visit would seem 
to have marked a new era in the history of our foreign 
mission." 

They left New York May 5, 1857, sailing by way of South- 
ampton, England, for India, reaching Madras on September 3, 
1857, and Rajahmundry on January 18, 1858. 

Heyer had chafed under the delay of Heise's return to 
India. In a letter to Rev. William E. Snyder, written in 
January, 1857, he said: "If someone does not come soon to 
take my place, I suppose I must give over charge to Captain 
Taylor." The Executive Committee replied that it would 
raise no objection to his "relinquishing his connection with the 
mission and returning home, if he pleased," immediately after 
the missionaries to be sent to India "had been comfortably 
established." But Heyer did not wait. Packing his goods 
and leaving Captain Taylor in charge at Rajahmundry, he 
took passage in the steamer "Bentinck" bound for the Red 
Sea. The first intimation which the Executive Committee 
seems to have had of his leaving the mission was in a letter 
written on board the steamer in the Red Sea near Mt. Sinai, 
dated May 4, 1857. It was addressed to the Sunday school 
children of the Lutheran Church in America. "In one of my 
late communications," he wrote, "it was stated that it would 
not be advisable for me, on account of ill-health, to remain 
another hot season in India, and that I indulged the hope, 
before the end of 1857, to have the pleasure of visiting some of 
the schools and congregations in America, who give and pray 
for the conversion of the heathen. After some hesitation 
and planning the way seemed to be made plain, and on the i5th 
of April, when the hot season had already commenced, I em- 
barked at Madras in the steamer ' Bentinck' for Suez in 
Egypt. The Lord willing, we shall reach Suez on the 6th or 
7th of May. From thence across the isthmus to Cairo we 
are to go in stages, called vans, each carrying six persons and 
drawn by four horses. If time permits, I shall go nine miles 
to the south of Cairo to have a look at the pyramids. From 
Cairo to Alexandria the passengers are carried in railroad 



112 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

cars. My intention, at present, is to go from Alexandria to 
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, the Dead Sea, etc. Then, by way 
of Constantinople and Trieste to Germany, to visit the 
place of my nativity; and I hope to meet an only surviv- 
ing brother, whom I have not seen for nearly half a century. 
If life and health be spared, I shall probably embark at 
Hamburg or Bremen during August, once more to cross 
the Atlantic and to return to the land of civil and religious 
liberty." 

He landed at New York on August 6, 1857, almost ten 
years after he had started from America the second time for 
India, and only three months after Heise had left America. 
Although he was undoubtedly entitled to a furlough, he 
should have waited in India until Heise returned. His second, 
like his first, departure from the Mission was precipitous. 
Only one missionary remained in the Mission, Groenning at 
Guntur. Had it not been for the faithful and efficient super- 
vision of Captain Taylor, who looked after the work for nearly 
nine months, the Rajahmundry Mission might have suffered 
irreparable loss. 

During the years 1856 and 1857 the Executive Committee 
of The Foreign Missionary Society made every endeavor to 
increase the force of missionaries. Arrangements were made, 
as we have noted, for the return of Heise and Snyder, and two 
new missionaries were called, the Rev. Erias Unangst and the 
Rev. Adam Long. But the society lacked sufficient funds to 
pay the passage of all these men to India. The American 
Board of Commissioners was unsuccessfully approached for 
a loan of $1000. Then a strong appeal was sent out to all the 
churches, and the response was so gratifying that, when 
Snyder, Unangst and Long sailed from America in the fall of 
1857, the passage money, amounting in all to $1625, was 
available. 

Most of the foreign mission contributions continued to 
come from the Pennsylvania, New York, Hartwick, and 
Pittsburgh synods. The Minis terium of Pennsylvania regu- 
larly paid Heyer's salary of $600 a year in advance, and a 



A PERIOD OF TRIALS HEYER LEAVES THE MISSION 113 



General 


Foreign 


Foreign 


Synod 


Mission 


Mission 


Meeting. 


Receipts. 


Expenditures. 


1839 


$2,284.79 


$2,222.79 


1841 


1,265.12 


642.82 


1843 


234.17 




1845 


1,137-39 


1,749-15 


1848 


2,790.41 


3,210.90 


1850 


4,230.42 


4,230.32 


I8S3 


14,486.10 


14,478.12 


1855 


ii,797-oo 


11,485.93 


1857 


12,868.33 


12,434.04 


1859 


11,876.18 


11,697.64 



number of its congregations 1 contributed toward the support 
of school-work. 

The following table is interesting as an index of the foreign 
mission activity of the Lutheran Church in America for the 
twenty years from 1839 to 1859: 



Supported. 

Rhenius, Palamcotta. 
Guetzlaff, Heyer. 

Gunn, Guntur. 
Gunn and Heyer. 
Gunn, Heyer, Martz. 
Guntur, Rajahmundry. 
Guntur, Palnad, Rajahmundry 
Guntur, Palnad, Rajahmundry. 
Guntur, Palnad, Rajahmundry. 



The increase of receipts from the year 1853 onward was 
due largely to the greater efficiency of the home administra- 
tion. In 1851 the Rev. G. A. Lintner, of Schoharie, N. Y., 
was appointed General Agent for The Foreign Missionary 
Society. In 1853 the society at its meeting in connection 
with the General Synod, at Winchester, Va., combined the 
offices of General Agent and Corresponding Secretary, elect- 
ing the incumbent of the latter to nil the new position at a 
salary of $700 annually. Resigning his charge at Brunswick, 
N. Y., November 15, 1853, the Rev. J. Z. Senderling entered 
upon the duties of the new office; but on January 21, 1856, 
when the society was financially embarrassed, he resigned as 
General Agent and accepted a call to the church at Johnstown, 
N. Y. He continued, however, to serve as a member of the 
Executive Committee and as the corresponding secretary 
of the Society. 

1 The most liberal contributors were St. John's, Easton, the Revs. Dr. J. W. 
Richards and C. F. Schaeffer pastors; St. Michael's and Zion's, Philadelphia, 
the Revs. Dr. Demme, Reichert and Mann pastors; Trinity, Pottsville, the 
Rev. W. G. Mennig pastor; the Swamp Church, the Rev. N. Yeager pastor; 
Trinity, Reading, the Rev. F. A. M. Keller pastor; and Trinity, Kutztown. 
the Rev. G. A. Hinterleitner pastor. 

8 



CHAPTER XI 

DR. HEYER A HOME MISSIONARY IN MINNESOTA 

IN Father Heyer we have an incarnation of the inner 
unity of Home and Foreign Missions. When he was not a 
foreign missionary he was a home missionary. He returned 
from India and the work of converting heathen to an out- 
lying, newly settled district in the United States to gather 
scattered and neglected members of the Church and organize 
them into congregations; and he was as successful in the one 
as in the other sphere of activity. 

After his second return from India, Heyer visited his 
children and grandchildren in Somerset, Pa., and waited for 
the hand of God to direct him to some field of labor in the 
United States. He had not long to wait. 

Minnesota was then a newly settled territory to which 
many Germans and Scandinavians were migrating. The far- 
seeing eye of the Rev. William A. Passavant, D.D. observed 
this migration, and his sensitive ear caught the sound of the 
call of his brethren according to the faith to help them pre- 
serve and build up the Church of their fathers on the frontiers. 
At the Monday afternoon session of the East Pennsylvania 
Synod in St. John's Church, Lancaster, Pa., October 5, 1857, 
Dr. Passavant, after having presented the Orphans' Home 
cause, added a plea for the scattered Lutherans of Minnesota. 
He was a mighty advocate of any cause he espoused. The 
synod enthusiastically passed the following resolution: " Re- 
solved, That five hundred dollars be appropriated to the 
support of an English Lutheran mission in St. Paul, Minn., 
and that the Executive Committee of the Central Home 
Missionary Society of the General Synod endeavor to secure 
a suitable man for this important post." Dr. Passavant 
proposed the name of Dr. Heyer, whom the synod at once 
elected. The Central Home Missionary Society approved 

114 



DR. HEYER A HOME MISSIONARY IN MINNESOTA 11$ 

the action of the synod and commissioned Heyer in November 
of that year to go to St. Paul, reorganize the church of the 
Holy Trinity in that town and do such other mission work as 
opportunity offered. 1 

Heyer reached St. Paul on November 16, 1857, and threw 
himself with all his vigor into the work. Before the close 
of the year he had gathered seventy communicants, Germans 
and Swedes, baptized eight children and organized a class of 
catechumens, six of whom he instructed in German and three 
in English. In January, 1858, a site for the church was pur- 
chased opposite the capitol building for $1500, Heyer making 
himself personally responsible for the payment of two-thirds of 
the purchase price. Another lot, which ex- Governor Ramsay 
had donated in 1855, was sold, and the proceeds were devoted 
to the building of the basement of the church, where the first 
service was held on October 17, 1858. 

While thus engaged in St. Paul, Heyer also began mission 
work elsewhere, preaching at Red Wing, Shakopee, Jordan 
City and a number of towns in Carver County; but Holy 
Trinity, St. Paul, demanded the bulk of his effort. As many 
as three hundred attended the service in that church on 
Sunday, April 24, 1859; and the report of the first year's 
work showed 44 baptisms, 16 confirmations and 109 commu- 
nicants. The original intention of establishing an English 
congregation, however, had to be abandoned, because most 
of those who were gathered were Germans and preferred 
to be ministered to in their mother-tongue. The Swedes 
were cared for by the Rev. Mr. Carlsson and established a 
small congregation in 1858. Nevertheless, Heyer occasionally 
preached an English sermon, "to prepare the way for some 
younger brother to come West and establish an English 
Lutheran church in St. Paul." 

A number of other Lutheran ministers had started mis- 
sions in other towns in Minnesota, and it was decided that 
the formation of a synod would be advisable. How small 

1 In 1855 Rev. F. W. Wier had begun the establishment of a congregation 
in St. Paul with the aid of Senator Alexander Ramsay, ex-governor of Minne- 
sota. 



Il6 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

was that beginning! Three Lutheran missionaries met on 
July i, 1859, in Holy Trinity Church, St. Paul, and organized 
by electing Heyer president, and Rev. W. Thomson of 
Owatonna, secretary. The third man was Rev. M. Mallinson 
of Minneiska. 

Despite the success of Heyer in St. Paul, the Central Home 
Missionary Society of the General Synod, because of financial 
difficulty, threatened to withdraw its support. Then Dr. 
Passavant personally pledged $300 toward Heyer's salary 
and so insured the continuation of the work, which pros- 
pered and grew, insomuch that at the close of the second 
year Heyer reported 49 baptisms, n confirmed, 35 received 
otherwise, 130 communed and 50 Sunday school pupils. 

The second meeting of the Minnesota Synod in Holy Trinity 
Church, St. Paul, July 6, 1860, enrolled six clerical delegates, 
the three additional ones being Rev. F. W. Wier, St. Paul, 
Rev. A. Brandt, Frank Hill, and Rev. Charles Yough, New 
Oregon. Heyer, though absent, was re-elected president. He 
had gone East on a tour to collect funds for the completion of 
his church. Returning in December, 1860, with about $1200, 
he was able to finish the building, which was consecrated in 
October, 1861. 

After Heyer had installed Rev. G. Fachtmann, his suc- 
cessor, as pastor of Holy Trinity, St. Paul, on Sunday, July 13, 
1862, he became the travelling missionary of the Pennsylvania 
Mimsterium in Minnesota, with headquarters at Red Wing. 
Starting westward from there on September nth, riding in a 
prairie wagon drawn by a blind horse, with supplies for a long 
journey and a spirit lamp on which to cook his food, going 
alone through a region which had but recently been the scene 
of an outbreak of Sioux Indians, he travelled to the extreme 
southeastern corner of the state and back again to Red Wing. 1 

1 He stopped at Northfield, where in the home of Mr. Ludwig Albrecht 
he conducted a service attended by thirty Germans; at East Prairie, where 
Rev. S. Wier was located; Warsaw, then a new settlement of less than twenty 
houses, preaching hi English; Owatonna, Rev. W. Thomson, pastor loci; Marion, 
where the first Lutheran Church in Olmstead County was established by Rev. 
Mr. Mallinson; Hamilton, where a Sunday service was held by Heyer in a 
country schoolhouse about four miles from the town; Brownsville, which he 
reached on October 2d, and where on the following Sunday he held a service in 



DR. HEYER A HOME MISSIONARY IN MINNESOTA 117 

In December, 1862, Heyer went to Stillwater, Minn., and 
organized St. John's Church, confirming ten catechumens and 
administering the Lord's Supper to fifty-six communicants. 
He left again in the month of February following, and started 
from Red Wing on another long tour. The winter was an 
unusually severe one. The lakes and streams were frozen 
over. The snow was deep. On the way to Centreville he lost 
the trail and found it again with great difficulty; and, again, 
near Crow River he lost his way in the forests and had to 
remain out all night. He went as far as Pelican Lake. On 
his return, ten miles from Hastings, he fell into the water and 
barely escaped death by drowning. 

St. John's, Stillwater, made rapid progress. In May, 
1863, it entertained the Minnesota Synod, and in August that 
year it called a pastor, the Rev. F. W. Hoffmann. Minnesota 
had become an important and very promising home mission 
field, of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, which had four home 
missionaries at work there under the general supervision of 
Heyer. 

In 1864 Heyer spent several months in Somerset, Pa., 
where in May of that year he organized a German congrega- 
tion, purchased an old church property and ministered for a 
while to the twenty or more German families who joined in 
the movement. He served them without charge. 

Returning to Minnesota he concentrated his efforts on 
the establishment of a congregation at New Ulm, where a 
brick church was built and consecrated on June 17, 1866. 
After the Rev. Mr. Papp became the regular pastor of this 
flourishing congregation, Heyer planned to go to St. Anthony; 
but an attack of rheumatism forced him to relinquish his 
purpose, and he spent the winter of 1866-67 in Somerset, 
Pa. Then an opportunity presented itself for a return 

a schoolhouse; Crooked Creek, where he left his prairie wagon, walking back to 
Brownsville to take a boat to La Crescent; La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he 
preached to the congregation already established there on the same Sunday that 
the Rev. Mr. Stark, afterward pastor, preached a trial sermon; back to Browns- 
ville by boat, where he administered the Lord's Supper to thirty-eight com- 
municants and baptized five infants, one of whom was brought fourteen miles; 
and then through Caledonia, Preston, Chatfield, Rochester, Greenwood, Min- 
neiska and Wabashaw to Red Wing. 



Il8 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

to the less strenuous life of a settled pastorate, when, in 
March, 1869, the congregation in Cumberland, Md., grate- 
fully remembering the service he had rendered it forty-five 
years before, extended a call to him. But Heyer preferred to 
remain the Pennsylvania Ministerium's travelling missionary 
for Minnesota and resumed his labors in that field. The 
Minnesota Synod had re-elected him president, in 1867, for 
another term of two years, and thus he held this office with- 
out interruption for ten years. During this period he saw 
the synod grow from three to twenty-six clerical delegates. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE CRISIS 

THE history of the American Evangelical Lutheran Mis- 
sions in India has been marked by alternating periods of joy- 
ful activity and dispirited inertia, of elation over good results 
obtained and of discouragement over seeming failure, of com- 
paratively rapid progress and of slow retrenchment, of steady 
gains and of rapid decline; but in and through it all, the work 
of the conversion of individuals, of the establishment of the 
Church and of the christianization of the people has been un- 
interruptedly carried on to its present stage of development. 

A reinforcement of three missionaries reached the field in 
1858, and the prospect looked exceptionally bright. As one 
after the other of the missionaries, however, resigned or died, 
and none were sent to fill the gaps, the work languished, and 
the interest and effort in the Church at home, dissipated by 
the Civil War and by internal dissensions in the General 
Synod, dwindled and almost died out. 

Adam Long, one of the new missionaries sent out in 1858, 
was born December 14, 1825, in Clarion County, Pa. He 
was graduated from the Academy at Zelienople and, in 1850, 
entered Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. After com- 
pleting his college course he studied theology in the Gettys- 
burg Seminary. He was ordained at the meeting of the 
West Pennsylvania Synod at Chambersburg, Pa., September 
29, 1857, and two weeks afterward, November i2th, he mar- 
ried Marie Diettrich, of Ohio. 

Erias Unangst, the other new missionary, was born in 
1824, in Lehigh County, Pa. He entered the Preparatory 
Department, Pennsylvania College, in 1847, and was gradu- 
ated from the college in 1854. He was ordained in 1857, an d 
on September 24th, that year, married Phoebe Milliken of 
Lewistown, Pa. 

119 



120 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

A farewell meeting and service of commissioning for these 
new missionaries and for Rev. William E. Snyder, who was 
returning to India, was held on the evening of October 13, 

1857, in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa. They sailed from 
Boston on December 23, 1857, in the company of four Ameri- 
can Board missionaries, and arrived at Madras on March 14, 

1858, Snyder being accompanied by his daughter, Lottie, as 
well as by his second wife, Mary Jane, the daughter of Jesse 
Orner of Reading, Pa. 

Groenning, who had remained in India twelve years, having 
been promised a furlough after the arrival of the new mis- 
sionaries, at once left Guntur with his wife and four children 
and reached Hamburg on September 13, 1858. 

Snyder took charge of the work in Guntur and the Palnad, 
Unangst remaining with him. Long went to Rajahmundry. 
The educational work occupied most of Snyder's time and 
attention. The English School which, in 1858, began to re- 
ceive grant-in-aid from the Government, enrolled 52 pupils, 
many of them Brahmins. In the Telugu schools of Guntur 
and its vicinity 55 boys were being instructed by seven native 
Christian teachers. Mrs. Unangst succeeded Mrs. Groenning 
as the manager of the Guntur Girls' School in which about 
40 girls were taught by three teachers, Walter, Ruth and 
Rebecca. 1 

Heise, in September, 1857, had succeeded Heyer at Rajah- 
mundry as the missionary of the Pennsylvania Ministerium. 
The number of communicants in Rajahmundry (22) was 
smaller than in Guntur (30), but the number of pupils in 
school continued to be larger, the Anglo-vernacular School 
enrolling 80, the six Telugu schools 160, and the Girls' School 
45 pupils. Thirteen teachers in all were employed. The 
Christian community, including the baptized children, num- 
bered 120. 

The work at Guntur and in the Palnad was just beginning 
to regain headway under the efficient management of Snyder, 
when God removed him suddenly by death. He had finished 

1 Walter was the headmaster; Ruth was the wife of Henry, the missionaries' 
butler; Rebecca was the wife of Stephen. 




TELUGU POTTERS AT WORK 




TELUGU GOLDSMITHS 



The boy apprentice is blowing upon the fire through a bamboo pipe. The master 

goldsmith is a devotee of the god Siva, showing, as do all Sivaites, 

horizontal chalk marks on his chest, arms, and forehead. 




TELUGU BASKET MAKERS WORKING IX FRONT OF THEIR HUT 




TELUGU CARPENTERS SAWING A LOG OF WOOD 



THE CRISIS 121 

a successful tour in the Palnad, accompanied by Joseph and 
Walter, having baptized thirty-nine adults and forty children, 
when, on the day of his return to Guntur, he was stricken 
with cholera. After an illness of only three days he died on 
March 5, 1859. l 

Ten months after his arrival at Rajahmundry, Long moved 
to Samulkot. The advisability of starting a new station 
somewhere in the thickly populated region between Rajah- 
mundry and the coast had been discussed at the conference of 
missionaries, December 25, 26, i858, 2 and the following resolu- 
tion had been unanimously adopted: "Resolved, That we 
proceed immediately to organize a station at Pittapur or 
Peddapur, and that brother Long be requested to occupy 
either of these places as soon as possible." Long decided to 
begin at Samulkot rather than at either of the places recom- 
mended, because Captain Todd, the officer in command of the 
28th regiment of English soldiers, quartered at Samulkot, 
urged him to come there and offered the temporary use of one 
of the officers' houses in the cantonment. On January 31, 
1859, Long occupied Samulkot. Soon thereafter Mrs. Long 
began a school for boys, held on the verandah of their home, 
starting with thirty-five English, Eurasian and Hindu boys. 
Long conducted an English service every Sunday in the can- 
tonment for the officers and soldiers, and preached Telugu 
every Wednesday evening in the bazaar. He also organized 
a Telugu Sunday school. Occasionally he went to Coconada, 
Peddapur and Pittapur to preach. 

The Executive Committee in America sanctioned the 
building of a missionary's bungalow at Samulkot, and a site 
was obtained through the Collector, containing about twelve 
acres, on the road from Samulkot to Peddapur. The work of 
excavating for the foundations had been begun when word 
was received that the lot should not be given to the Mission 

1 His widow and daughter at once returned to the United States, the former 
going to her parents' home in Reading, the latter to her grandfather in Paterson, 
N.J. 

2 Five towns were under consideration, namely, Samulkot, with approxi- 
mately 20,000 inhabitants; Peddapur, with 20,000; Pittapur, with 20,000; Co- 
conada, with 18,000, and Jaggampetta. 



122 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

but should be offered for public sale. Then Long bought it for 
Rs. 240. Meanwhile he had been obliged to vacate the house 
in the cantonment, and for several weeks he lived in a tent. 
William Black, Esquire, headmaster of the Government school 
at Rajahmundry, hospitably entertained the missionary and his 
wife until the Samulkot bungalow was completed, and even 
loaned him money for the undertaking. The house was 
finished in February, 1861. It was a one-story building with 
a verandah, built of rough stone, containing three main rooms, 
a small bedroom, a pantry and a dressing room. The roof 
was tiled and the floor laid with stone and plastered. 

Samulkot has been "stony ground" from the beginning. 
The presence of the English soldiers in the town proved to 
be a disadvantage to mission work. Long reported three 
adult communicants in 1860, five the next year and eight in 
1865. On his tours in 1864 Long visited fifty- three villages and 
towns, and, in 1865, sixty-four, preaching wherever he went 
and distributing hundreds of Bibles, Testaments and tracts. 
Long was the Samulkot missionary for six years. From such 
a short period of residence very little could be expected. Sev- 
eral adult conversions were recorded, and seven infants were 
baptized by him. 

In the fall of 1860 Groenning returned to Guntur. He 
had sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with his wife and two 
younger children, on September 220!, leaving his three elder 
children with relatives and friends in Germany. In March, 
1862, Heise having been forced to resign and leave the Mission 
on account of ill-health, 1 Groenning went to Rajahmundry. 
At his own request and because he was the only experienced 
missionary on the field, the Palnad district was placed under 
his supervision, though it was manifestly impossible for him 
to give it much attention from such a distant point as Rajah- 
mundry. 

Before leaving Rajahmundry Heise joined the other mis- 
sionaries in the submission of the following resolutions to the 
Executive Committee of the Foreign Missionary Society, 
passed at a meeting of the missionaries held in January, 1862: 
1 Heise afterward lived and labored at Kiel Germany. 



THE CRISIS 123 

"i. A native ministry is considered very desirable if we 
could find men of faith and vital piety for it. Such a native 
ministry should receive a salary of Rs. 20 a month. 

"2. English schools are to be considered as a secondary 
means of spreading the truth, wherein the higher castes, desir- 
ing to learn the English language, consent to listen to Bible 
teaching. An English school, however, should not occupy 
more than two hours a day of a missionary's time. The rest 
of the day should be devoted to evangelistic effort. 

"3. Telugu schools are necessary means of disseminating 
the good seed into the hearts of children and parents. 

"4. Public preaching in the bazaars and villages affords 
the best opportunity of learning the difficulties and hin- 
drances which prevent the masses from accepting Christianity, 
and of preparing the way for inquiry concerning the truth as 
it is in Jesus. 

"5. An examination in Telugu for every missionary after 
two years in the country or, under unfavorable circumstances, 
after three or four years, would be desirable. 

"6. Every missionary should be willing to labor where the 
Executive Committee desires, and to spend and be spent for 
the cause of the Master." 

Groenning toured in the Palnad district in September, 1862, 
and again in August, 1863, spending about five weeks each time 
in the district and two weeks on the journey thither and 
back. On his second tour he baptized sixteen persons and 
administered the Lord's Supper to one hundred communi- 
cants in six congregations. 1 In October, 1862, the services 
of a Eurasian catechist, R. E. Cully, were secured for the 
Palnad district, where he did satisfactory work. 

Concerning the educational work Groenning wrote: "The 
worst of it is that, after the pupils have learned a little about 
the Gospel, their parents take them out of school and put 
them to work in the fields, where they can earn a little more 
than we can give them as pupils; and unless we give them 

1 He reported the number of adult Christians in the district to be 196, 
inquirers 130, pupils 89. Johan taught in Polepalli, Zaccheus in Adigopula, 
Samuel in Pillutla, Jacob in Jaggareish, Johan in Mutukuru, Lazarus in Taralla, 
Christian in Mandadi and Samuel in Veldurti. 



124 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

something for coming to school we cannot get them. It is 
different in Denmark, where parents are obliged to send their 
children to school. You might argue that, if Hindu parents 
will not send their children to school without being paid for 
it, they ought to be left to their fate; but the Son of Man came 
to seek and to save the lost, and we, His followers, wish by all 
lawful means to do the same. We even have boarding schools 
in which we provide everything for the pupils." The mis- 
sionaries, it appears, admitted not only the sons and daughters 
of baptized Christians but also unbaptized children, as free 
boarding pupils, a practice which experience has proved to 
be inadvisable. 

Although the financial support of English residents in 
Guntur had practically ceased, Judge J. H. Morris and Cap- 
tain C. Taylor of Rajahmundry contributed liberally toward 
the school work in that town, giving as much as an average of 
Rs. 60 a month. Moreover, the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
sent $150 a year especially for school work in charge of its 
missionary. Consequently the educational work in Rajah- 
mundry continued to make a better showing than that in 
Guntur. Outside of Rajahmundry, Telugu schools were con- 
ducted at Dowlaishwaram and Muramunda, each attended 
by about thirty pupils. 

Groenning was undoubtedly the most successful of the early 
missionaries at Rajahmundry. The records show that, in 
1863 and 1864, he baptized twenty adults and eight children ; 
in 1865, eleven adults and four children ; and on the last Sunday 
which he spent at the station, in September, 1865, eleven 
persons, including infants. Forty native Christians received 
the Lord's Supper that day. 

When Groenning learned that no reinforcements could 
be sent from America for years, he turned to Germany in the 
hope of securing one or more missionaries. He corresponded 
with his brother-in-law, Mr. Nagel of Hamburg, Germany, 
and with Rev. Ludwig Harms, founder of the Hermannsburg 
Missionary Society, urging them to come to the rescue of the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission in India. 

Under date of June 21, 1864, Groenning wrote to the 



THE CRISIS 125 

Executive Committee in America: "On the last day of May 
I received a very cheering letter from Pastor Harms, in which 
he promised to send a man to help as a missionary here. I 
feel very thankful for this kind offer, and I am sure you will 
acknowledge herein the hand of Providence. In the month 
of December ult., I wrote to him to say that on account of 
the war in America it seemed impossible for my society to 
send any reinforcements for some time. If he would send a 
proper man, you would most probably support him by and 
by. To my surprise he has written that he would. If you 
feel that it would tax your resources too heavily to carry on 
this mission station, Pastor Harms, I think, would be willing 
to take it from you; but if you feel strong enough, his society 
may look for some other place in this vicinity. May the Lord 
guide you and me in this important matter. Some tune ago I 
learned from a conversation with an English lady that an- 
other denomination intended establishing a station or two in 
this district." 

The result of this correspondence was that Pastor Harms 
secured and sent out the Rev. August Mylius with instructions 
to arrange with Groenning for the occupation of Rajahmun- 
dry as the field of the Hermannsburg Society in India. My- 
lius reached Rajahmundry in March, 1865. The Executive 
Committee of the Foreign Missionary Society, however, was 
unwilling to make the transfer, and Mylius, acting under in- 
structions, looked for unoccupied territory in the Telugu 
country, and located finally at Sulurpet and Naydupet. 

During the hot season of 1865, Groenning, his wife and 
their two younger sons were seriously ill. One of the children 
died and was buried in the mission cemetery. Physicians 
ordered the return of the missionary and his family to the 
temperate zone. The Executive Committee in America, 
though willing under the circumstances to grant the mis- 
sionary a furlough in Germany, was unable to forward the 
money required for the journey. Friends in Denmark, 
however, to whom Groenning appealed, supplied him with the 
necessary funds, and in September, 1865, he left the Mission. 
He never returned; but he continued to take the deepest in- 



126 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

terest in the Mission to the day of his death and gave one of 
his sons as a missionary. 

Long succeeded Groenning at Rajahmundry ; but scarcely 
had he begun there when death claimed him, on March 5, 
1866, a victim of small-pox, contracted from a little boy whom 
he nursed. Of his three children who were ill with the same 
disease at the time of his death, two died and were laid to 
rest by the side of their father in the mission cemetery. 
Eight years he had been in the field and had been a patient, 
faithful missionary. He laid down his life as a sacrifice to the 
great cause in obedience to the last command of the Saviour. 

One missionary was left, Unangst, at Guntur. He con- 
tinued his residence there and undertook to supervise the 
whole Mission. Cully was the catechist for the Palnad. 
Joseph and Paulus were appointed catechists for the Rajah- 
mundry work, Joseph residing at Rajahmundry and Paulus 
at Muramunda. Judge Morris and Captain Taylor agreed 
to look after the school work in Rajahmundry. 

In July, 1866, Unangst visited Rajahmundry. On the 
evening of the seventeenth of that month he administered the 
Lord's Supper at Rajahmundry to fifty communicants, Judge 
Morris and Captain Taylor communing with the native Chris- 
tians. On the twenty-first he administered the Holy Com- 
munion to three native Christians in Coconada, and the next 
day he was in Samulkot. The following Sunday he spent in 
Rajahmundry. Concerning this part of the Mission he wrote: 
" Rajahmundry needs a resident missionary. The immersion- 
ists, Plymouth Brethren, are enticing our members away, as 
if there were not enough for them to do among the heathen. 
Several of our teachers have been alienated. Unless a mis- 
sionary occupies that place soon, there will be very little left 
for us to look after, and we shall, perhaps, be obliged, whether 
we will or not, to surrender the field to a sect whom we do 
not very much feel like patronizing." 

We may stop for a moment at this critical stage of the 
history of the American Lutheran Missions in India, after 
twenty-five years of work, to see what its condition was 
as shown by statistics. There were four stations: Guntur, 



THE CRISIS 127 

Rajahmundry, Samulkot and the Palnad. The out-stations or 
villages in which Christians resided numbered 29. The 
number baptized from the beginning to the close of the year 
1867, was 1140; the number of Christians 680; of communi- 
cants, about 350. Three catechists, two colporteurs and 
twenty-three teachers were employed. In twenty-two schools 
there were about three hundred pupils. The number of bap- 
tisms reported by Unangst in 1867 was forty-five adults and 
fifty-one infants. 

Now let us turn from the foreign field to the Home-Church. 
The decline of foreign mission interest and effort during the 
seventh decade of the past century must be attributed to 
two causes, namely: first, the Civil War which began in the 
spring of 1861, and lasted four years; and secondly, confes- 
sional differences hi the General Synod, which culminated in 
a division and in the formation, in 1867, of a second general 
body of Lutherans, the General Council. 

The income of The Foreign Missionary Society of the 
General Synod became increasingly inadequate. The Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium contributed annually $900 for the salary 
of a missionary and about $150 in addition for school work; 
but no effort was made to increase the contributions from 
year to year. The other synods in the General Synod dis- 
played no more energy than the mother synod. Moreover, 
some of them allowed the India Mission to suffer by giving 
a large part of their contributions to the mission in Africa, 
which had been started as an independent enterprise but 
afterward had been placed under the care and control of The 
Foreign Missionary Society. The outbreak of the war, in 
the spring of 1861, compelled the omission of the regular 
biennial convention of the General Synod that year, and, as a 
consequence, the treasury of The Foreign Missionary Society 
suffered ; and the close of the year's accounts showed a deficit 
of $3000. Nevertheless, the General Synod at its conven- 
tion in 1862, at Lancaster, Pa., adopted a resolution, pro- 
posed by the Pittsburgh Synod, to begin a mission in China. 
This, surely, was an indication of great faith in the promise of 
the Lord and of confidence in the Church's ability to under- 



128 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

take great things. Rev. R. Neumann, who at one time had 
been a missionary in China and whose plea for that land had 
moved the Pittsburgh Synod to present its resolution, was 
called to be the General Synod's missionary to China and 
was authorized to raise $2000 for the proposed undertaking. 
He, however, declined the call and no further steps in this 
direction were taken. 

For twenty-five years the Executive Committee of The 
Foreign Missionary Society had practically remained intact. 
Its leading members had been the Rev. H. N. Pohlman, D. D., 
the Rev. G. A. Lintner, D. D., and the Rev. J. Z. Senderling. 
It had unquestionably been faithful to its trust. The Gen- 
eral Synod, however, now demanded a change in the admin- 
istration of the affairs of The Foreign Missionary Society, 
and an entirely new committee was elected in 1866. The 
Rev. E. Greenwald was made chairman ; the Rev. L. E. Albert, 
corresponding secretary; and the Rev. A. C. Wedekind, the 
Rev. J. E. Graeff and G. P. Ockershausen, Esq., were the 
other members of the committee. The new committee asked 
the Rev. C. W. Groenning to return to India, but he declined 
and accepted a pastorate at Apenrade, Denmark. Neverthe- 
less, at the solicitation of the committee he took two young 
men, C. F. J. Becker and H. C. Schmidt, into his home to pre- 
pare them for work in the service of the American society. 

After the organization of The General Council, in 1867, 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium and the other synods associated 
with it in the new body, withdrew their support from The 
Foreign Missionary Society whose income fell from $19,346 
for the biennium 1865 and 1866, to $15,875 for the succeeding 
biennium. 

The following letter from India reveals the condition of 
affairs at this crisis, both in the Mission and in the Church at 
home. 

Guntur, December 5, 1868. 
To the Evangelical Lutheran Churches in the United States. 

Dear Friends: I regret very much that we are obliged 
to inform you, that we and our Mission are in want and dis- 
tress. The last letter from our corresponding secretary 



THE CRISIS 129 

gives rather a gloomy picture of the condition of the foreign 
mission enterprise in our Church, so that we have little or no 
hope of a reinforcement of missionaries at present. Our 
treasurer's last letter is dated May 4, 1868. By this letter we 
got only $1000 for us and our Mission. Since that time we 
have received nothing, and yet we have had to live and meet 
all the pecuniary demands of the Mission. Ten teachers and 
a catechist in the Guntur district, Mr. Cully and eight teach- 
ers in the Palnad district, a catechist, a colporteur and five 
teachers in Rajahmundry and Samulkot, had all to be paid 
their salaries. Incidental expenses and our own living had 
also to be met. In order to do all this we have been obliged 
to borrow upward of $1000 (Rs. 2000) from native mer- 
chants. The interest on this amount is $15 a month. The 
annoyance and vexation which thus harass us in consequence 
of our present want and distress may be more clearly imagined 
than described. I do not know what you would do under 
similar circumstances. Perhaps you would resign, attach 
the mission property, clear your debts, secure your own lawful 
share and retire. If not, then do you wish us to go on and 
manage the Mission and conduct its various operations by 
means of borrowed capital? We can hardly believe that 
you have such a wish, nor can we think that your hearts are 
so callous as to be insensible to the loud appeals of humanity 
and the cause of Christ. We, therefore, appeal to you for 
relief. Some new missionaries are wanted in our Mission, 
with several thousand dollars, or else you must give up the 
work to those who would be willing and ready to furnish both 
missionaries and money for this field. Our good work here 
is increasing on our hands, and we feel powerless to take 
hold of it and carry it on vigorously. Only recently news 
came from five villages where there are new inquirers. All 
we can do is to invite the people to come to Guntur. How 
can we incur additional expense for travelling and go to 
see these and other places hi our mission field, unless you 
promptly relieve us and pay the Mission's debt which, by the 
time you see and read this appeal, will have increased to $1500? 
We appeal to you for help, to pray for us and remember us 



130 AMERICAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONS IN INDIA 

before God at the family altar, the fireside, and in the solemn 
assembly. May God be with you and help you to do so, is 
the prayer of 

Yours affectionately in Christ, 

E. UNANGST. 

Matters grew steadily worse in the Mission, especially at 
Rajahmundry. As a last resort Unangst requested the Rev. 
F. N. Alexander, a missionary of The Church Missionary 
Society at Ellore, to take charge of the work at Rajahmundry. 
He consented and appointed his associate, the Rev. Mr. 
Darling, to visit that town and make the necessary arrange- 
ments. This occurred in March, 1869, and two months there- 
after the mission agents began to receive their salaries from the 
funds of the Church Missionary Society in the hands of its 
missionaries at Ellore. 

Meanwhile the Executive Committee of The Foreign 
Missionary Society of the General Synod had received Un- 
angst's report of his proposal to the Ellore missionaries and 
had approved it. At the meeting of the committee in Wash- 
ington, D. C., May 17, 1869, it was resolved to make an offer 
of the formal transfer of the Rajahmundry-Samulkot district 
to the Church Missionary Society of England. Before the 
negotiations were completed, however, God, through his ser- 
vants Heyer and Groenning, interfered and gave this territory 
to the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in North America. 




MAP OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S TELUGU MISSION FIELD 




MAP OF GENERAL SYNOD'S TELUGU MISSION FIELD 



PART II 
THE HISTORY OF THE TELUGU MISSION 

OF THE 

GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE EVANGELICAL 
LUTHERAN CHURCH IN NORTH AMERICA 



CHAPTER I 

THE BEGINNING OF FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN THE GENERAL 
COUNCIL (1869) 

As the delegate of the Minnesota Synod, Dr. Heyer at- 
tended the convention in Reading, Pa., December 12-14, 
1866, which planned the formation of the General Council of 
the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, unequiv- 
ocally founded on the Confessions of the Lutheran Church. 
He served as a member of the first committee on the prepara- 
tion of a hymn book. He took an active part in all the de- 
liberations and was an enthusiastic advocate of the new move- 
ment. At the first convention of the General Council in 
Ft. Wayne, Ind., November 20-26, 1867, he was appointed 
a member of the mission committee of which Rev. Wm. A. 
Passavant, D. D., was chairman, and which "respectfully sug- 
gested that the executive committee of the Pennsylvania 
Synod be requested to effect arrangements for the prosecu- 
tion of the work of missions among the heathen during the 
coming year." Thus, from its very foundation the General 
Council sought to fulfil its obligation as a factor in the ful- 
fillment of the great commission of our Lord. To continue 
to support the India Mission of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod was not possible under the cir- 
cumstances. The executive committee of the mother synod 
decided that it would be most advisable to start a new mis- 
sion in some other non-Christian land. In its report to the 
i2ist annual convention of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 
convened in St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia, June, 1868, it 
offered the following recommendations: 

"Your committee, after a careful consideration of the 
subject, deems it best to propose to the synod the establish- 
ment of a mission in China. They have made application to 
The Foreign Missionary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran 

133 



134 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Church to transfer to this synod the moneys collected for the 
establishment of a mission in China, several years since, most 
of which were contributed by our congregations. We pro- 
posed this in the spirit of peace to avoid all questions of 
claims to the property of the India Mission and all conflicts 
in the foreign field. To this proposal no answer as yet has 
been received." That the Ministerium of Pennsylvania 
might have established its title to much property in Guntur, 
Rajahmundry and the Palnad is certain; that it relinquished 
its claims in that direction and merely asked for the funds 
contributed for a China mission, but not used for that pur- 
pose, was a magnanimous proposal. 

By a rising vote the Pennsylvania Ministerium resolved 
to begin a mission in China, to call the Rev. Robert Neu- 
mann as its missionary, and to educate a young Chinaman 
whom Rev. Neumann recommended in one of the Lutheran 
Seminaries in the United States, to be sent out later as a 
native ordained pastor. Had the Rev. Mr. Neumann ac- 
cepted the call of the synod, the General Council would have 
begun the history of its foreign mission work by an effort in 
behalf of the christianization of China; but the Rev. Mr. 
Neumann declined the call, the Chinese student left the 
country, and nothing further was done to carry out the 
resolution of the synod. It remained for the Swedish Augus- 
tana Synod to undertake, in the year 1908, independently 
of the other synods in the General Council, the original pur- 
pose of those to whom the General Council entrusted the 
inauguration of its foreign mission work; and we cannot re- 
frain, at this point, from expressing the hope that some day 
the whole General Council will be permitted to join in an 
effort to christianize the Chinese republic. 

When the General Council met in its second annual con- 
vention in the First Lutheran Church, Pittsburgh, November 
12-18, 1868, the outlook for foreign mission work was still 
uncertain, and a special committee was appointed to consider 
the whole matter and report to the next meeting. Before it 
could arrive at any definite conclusion, however, God so 
guided affairs as to return to the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 



FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN GENERAL COUNCIL (1869) 135 

and through it to the General Council, a part of the Telugu 
Mission in India, where the mother synod had begun the 
foreign mission work of the Lutheran Church in America. 

While negotiations were pending between The Foreign 
Missionary Society of The General Synod and The Church 
Missionary Society of England for the transfer of the Rajah- 
mundry Mission by the former to the latter, Dr. Heyer was liv- 
ing temporarily at Helmstedt, Germany, whither he had gone 
with a granddaughter to direct her education. When he heard 
of the proposed transaction, he hastened, in April, 1869, to 
Apenrade, to confer with Groenning and, if possible, to pre- 
vent the transfer. Apart from the keen personal interest 
which these pioneers took in the Rajahmundry Mission, they 
were unwilling that the condition should be violated on which 
The North German Missionary Society had transferred it, in 
1850, to The Foreign Missionary Society, namely, that it 
should remain a Lutheran Mission. 

In Groenning's home Heyer met two young men, Hans 
Christian Schmidt and Christian Friedrich Johan Becker, 
whom Groenning had been preparing for service in India 
under The Foreign Missionary Society, which, however, had 
failed to call either one of them. Both expressed their 
willingness to go to Rajahmundry; and it was arranged that 
they should accompany Heyer to the United States and offer 
their services to the Pennsylvania Ministerium in the hope 
that the mother synod would make an effort to assume full 
responsibility for the work at Rajahmundry, and thus pre- 
vent its transfer to a non-Lutheran society. Only Schmidt 
could arrange to leave Germany at once; but Becker agreed 
to hold himself in readiness to go to Rajahmundry as soon 
as he received a call. 

Heyer and Schmidt reached New York just in time to at- 
tend the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Ministerium in 
Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., beginning Trinity Sunday, 
May 23, 1869. The unexpected appearance of the intrepid 
pioneer foreign missionary and his address to the synod 
created a most profound impression. Protesting most earn- 
estly against the transfer of the Rajahmundry Mission to a 



136 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

non-Lutheran Society as a breach of contract, he pleaded for 
the continuation of the work at that station by the mother 
synod, which had sent him out as the first foreign missionary 
of the Lutheran Church in America. He introduced Mr. 
Schmidt, a pupil of Father Groenning, who had accompanied 
him to America because he was willing to become the synod's 
missionary at Rajahmundry; and then, reaching the climax of 
his plea and holding up his travelling bag, he said that he was 
ready to go at a moment's notice, if the synod wished it, even 
though he was seventy-seven years old and it would be his 
third journey to India, in order that he might direct his 
younger brethren in the reorganization of the mission work. 
On Thursday afternoon the special committee appointed to 
consider and report on the threatened transfer of the Rajah- 
mundry Mission to The Church Missionary Society submitted 
the following resolutions: 

"Whereas, A report has reached us that it is proposed to 
transfer the mission stations at Rajahmundry and Samulkot in 
India to The Church Missionary Society of England, and 

"Whereas, We learn from a report of the proceedings of 
the General Synod's Missionary Society at Washington, that 
a transfer of these mission stations to another interest was 
referred to its Foreign Mission Board with power to act as in 
their judgment they should deem most advisable, and 

"Whereas, This synod originally established the India 
Mission and sustained the same successfully for many years; 
therefore, 

"Resolved, That we most solemnly protest against the 
transfer of the Mission to any other than a Lutheran Mis- 
sionary Society, and 

"Resolved, That the Rev. C. F. Heyer be requested to lay 
this protest before the Foreign Mission Board of the General 
Synod, and 

"Resolved, That the executive committee be authorized 
to take such action in consultation with the committee on 
Foreign Missions of the General Council, as they may deem 
proper." 

These resolutions were adopted by the synod, and Schmidt, 



FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN GENERAL COUNCIL (1869) 137 

after having been examined and recommended by the minis- 
terial session, was ordained, together with twelve other candi- 
dates, on Wednesday evening, May 26th. 

The executive committee of the Pennsylvania Minis terium 1 
met on June 15, 1869, delegated Heyer to meet with the execu- 
tive committee of The Foreign Missionary Society and "learn 
whether it was still in its power and whether it were willing 
to transfer the mission stations to the Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania," and elected the Rev. S. K. Brobst, the Rev. B. M. 
Schmucker and Mr. H. H. Muhlenberg as a sub-committee 
on foreign missions. Furthermore, the General Council's 
committee on foreign missions was duly informed of the action 
of the Pennsylvania Ministerium and of its executive commit- 
tee, and its approval was requested and obtained. 

Heyer experienced no difficulty in securing the consent of 
the executive committee of The Foreign Missionary Society 
to the proposal of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, and its 
secretary was instructed to communicate at once with the 
officers of The Church Missionary Society in England and with 
Missionary Unangst in India, directing that the negotiations 
with that society be discontinued. 

At the meeting of the executive committee of the Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium, held in Reading, Pa., August 27, 1869, 
the transfer of the Rajahmundry Mission, formally offered by 
the executive committee of The Foreign Missionary Society, 
was accepted, and Heyer, Schmidt and Becker were called 
to be the Ministerium's foreign missionaries. The resolu- 
tions of the committee read as follows: 

"Resolved, That we accept the transfer of the mission 
stations at Rajahmundry and Samulkot; that the Rev. 
C. F. Heyer, the Rev. H. C. Schmidt and Mr. C. F. J. Becker 
be sent to labor at those places ; that the necessary travelling 

1 This committee then consisted of the officers of the synod, namely, the 
Rev. C. W. Schaeffer, D. D., President; the Rev. B. W. Schmauk, German 
Secretary; the Rev. Jacob Fry, English Secretary; the Rev. A. T. Geissenhainer, 
Treasurer; and the Presidents of the Conferences (among others the Revs. 
W. Rath, F. J. F. Schantz, J. Kapler and J. W. Hassler), and the following addi- 
tional members: the Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., the Rev. F. A. Mublen- 
berg, D. D., the Rev. J. J. Kuendig, the Rev. J. Kohler, the Rev. S. K. Brobst, 
and Messrs. H. H. Muhlenberg, C. Pretz, H. Trexler, J. Henry and F. Lauer. 



138 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

expenses of Heyer and Schmidt be paid; that the sum of $150 
for an outfit be paid Rev. Heyer; that $100 for each of the 
others be appropriated; and that the whole expense do not 
exceed $1500. 

"Resolved, That the salary of each missionary be $500, 
gold; that the missionaries be authorized to expend for native 
missionaries and schools a sum not exceeding $300, gold, a 
year; that information of this action be transmitted to the 
committee of the General Council on Foreign Missions; and 
that the delegates of the Pennsylvania Ministerium to the 
General Council lay this action before that body and offer to 
transfer the mission to their custody and control." 

Heyer felt that no time should be lost in making the transfer 
practically and fully effective by the actual occupation of the 
field; and on the last day of August, 1869, four days after the 
ratification of the transfer, he sailed from New York, bound 
for India by the shortest route. 

The General Council in session in the Swedish Immanuel 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, Chicago, November 4-10, 
1869, heartily endorsed the action of the executive committee 
of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, accepted the custody and 
control of the Rajahmundry Mission, elected as its committee 
on foreign missions the executive committee of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium, and requested the district synods to for- 
ward all their foreign mission contributions to the treasurer 
of the General Council to be applied to the Rajahmundry 
work. 1 

Before leaving America Heyer had been instructed to ascer- 
tain whether the Hermannsburg Missionary Society could be 
induced to co-operate with the General Council in foreign 
mission work in India; and after visiting his brother, Prae- 
positus Heyer, in Plau, Mecklenburg, Germany, he went to 
Hermannsburg for a conference with Pastor Ludwig Harms 

1 The General Council also instructed its foreign mission committee to cor- 
respond with the Leipsic and Hermannsburg Missionary Societies and solicit 
their co-operation in the Rajahmundry Mission; to take the claims of the in- 
creasing Chinese population in the United States into consideration; and, 
through the Swedish Secretary of the Council, to confer with the Finnish 
Lutheran Missionary Society concerning the establishment of a mission among 
the Indians in Alaska. 



FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN GENERAL COUNCIL (1869) 139 

and Inspector Anstaedt. They gave him no encouragement, 
however, and told him that they preferred to work inde- 
pendently in their newly established mission at Naydupet, 
north of Madras. Heyer then visited Groenning at Apen- 
rade, who cheered him with the assurance of Becker's willing- 
ness to follow him to Rajahmundry and with the prospect of 
securing one or two additional missionaries from the Mission 
Institute in Copenhagen. 

From Trieste Heyer crossed the Mediterranean Sea to Suez, 
though the canal had not yet been officially and formally 
opened. He reached Bombay on October 23, 1869, and from 
that city took a train on the newly constructed railway to 
Sholapur, where it terminated. Over two hundred miles to 
the south lay Secunderabad, eight miles beyond that Hydera- 
bad, and still farther south the Palnad, through which he 
wished to pass on his way to Guntur. We will let Heyer 
himself describe his long overland journey from Sholapur to 
Secunderabad, quoting from a letter written to Miss Nora 
laeger, of Reading, Pa.: 

"When the agent understood that I was engaged in mission 
work, he offered, if I would consent to let him put some mer- 
chandise in the body of the bullock-cart and to make a kind 
of bed on the top, to charge me nothing. I accepted, not 
considering or knowing what I would have to endure. Only 
think of an old missionary, seventy-seven years of age, in a 
horizontal position on top of store-boxes in a common country 
cart, carried two hundred miles by day and by night ! If the 
roads had been good and the weather favorable I might have 
endured it without much suffering, but on the second day I 
was caught in a heavy monsoon rain, coming down in Indian 
style. It did seem as if there might have been five hundred 
washer- women in the clouds pouring down rain by the buckets- 
ful. Night came on and the cart stuck fast in the mud. I 
spent a most uncomfortable night in the upper story of my 
cart. Next morning additional bullocks were brought, and 
we started again. After going a mile or two we came to a 
place where a bridge had been washed away and where about 
hundred bandies were waiting to get across. Seeing that 



140 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

it would be a tedious business, I left the cart and walked five 
miles to the next bungalow. Thus it went on for six days, 
travelling at the rate of two miles an hour. The cart stuck 
fast every day, and every day I had to walk from three to six 
miles to reach some bungalow. After six days we got into 
better roads, and for the last three days we went about three 
miles an hour. Passing through the Mahratta and Canara 
regions it was with difficulty that I could get the people to 
understand me. By signs and tokens only could we exchange 
a few ideas. Indeed, I found that I had undertaken more 
than I ought to have done, and only wonder how the Lord 
enabled me by patience and perseverance to overcome the 
difficulties in the way without sinking under them. Novem- 
ber 5th I arrived at Secunderabad and parted with my coach, 
bruised and sore, in a condition which I had never before 
been." 

In Secunderabad Heyer bought a palankeen for $12 and 
engaged bearers to carry him to Bayawarrow, one hundred 
and sixty-six miles. He paid the bearers Rs. 70 or about 
$25. They covered the distance in about twelve days; but 
even this comparatively more comfortable mode of travel 
was wearisome. November i6th, Gurjal was reached. Six- 
teen years had elapsed since he had last been in the Palnad, 
and he rejoiced to find there some of the converts whom he 
had baptized. The bungalow which he had built at Gurjal 
was still standing, and he occupied it again for a few days with 
a devout feeling of gratitude. The catechist, Cully, welcomed 
him most cordially and told him of the progress of Chris- 
tianity in the district, where the Christian community 
numbered six hundred. After spending a week in the Palnad, 
Heyer proceeded to Guntur. " Boniface," he wrote, "could 
not have been received more joyfully and respectfully by his 
German converts than the native Christians received their 
old missionary who had unexpectedly come to visit them." 
December i, 1869, he arrived at Rajahmundry, just three 
months after starting from New York. 

Writing soon after his arrival he said: "My own impres- 
sion before I left America, as well as the opinion of some of 



FOREIGN MISSION WORK IN GENERAL COUNCIL (1869) 141 

the brethren, was that our prospects in India were rather 
discouraging; but from personal observation I am fully con- 
vinced that it is an erroneous opinion. . . . Unangst found 
that he could not attend to all the stations and, being left 
without funds to meet the current expenses of the mission, 
called in the assistance of a neighboring missionary belonging 
to the Church Missionary Society. Last spring (1869) a kind 
of transfer was made to the C. M. S., and since last May to 
December ist, the catechists and teachers connected with the 
Rajahmundry Mission were paid by the C. M. S. This 
money, of course, must be refunded and the sooner the 
better for our credit. The General Synod's Board should be 
held responsible for May, June, July and August. Conse- 
quently, our executive committee will assume payment from 
September ist, the time when the Board made the transfer 
to the Pennsylvania Synod. I have not yet received the ex- 
act statement, but it will amount to about $31 a month for 
catechists and teachers. Besides this the C. M. S. has given 
a monthly allowance of $10 for travelling expenses." 

In Rajahmundry Heyer found ten native Christian families 
and a school of about twenty children taught by a native 
Christian teacher; at Dowlaishwaram, five Christian families; 
at Metta, six Christian families and a school with a teacher 
and sixteen children; at Peddahem, one Christian family; 
at Gowripatnam, three families of inquirers; at Muramunda, 
the oldest congregation outside of Rajahmundry, twelve 
Christian families and thirteen children in a mission school; 
at Jegurupad, six Christian families and twenty-four children 
in school; at Peravaram, five Christian families and a newly 
opened school; at Lolla, one family of inquirers. Counting 
three on an average to each family, the number of Christians 
was 135; counting four, 180. The total number of children 
in all the mission schools repDrted by Heyer was 73. Forty- 
nine persons from Rajahmundry and adjacent villages at- 
tended the first administration of the Lord's Supper by Heyer 
at Rajahmundry on Christmas day, 1869. 

After Christmas Heyer made his first tour of the out- 
stations. From Rajahmundry he walked to Dowlaishwaram 



142 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

on foot. There, in a small building which Groenning had 
secured for the mission, he reopened a school. Then he went 
by canal to Jegurupad and Muramunda, baptizing three 
women and two girls at the latter place. At Samulkot he 
found nothing but the bungalow which Long had built. The 
total force of native Christian workers consisted of two 
catechists, Joseph at Rajahmundry and Paulus at Mura- 
munda, and five teachers. 

That was all with which the General Council had to begin 
in its foreign mission field. From that mustard seed there 
has since grown a sturdy tree with branches spreading wide 
in every direction, and bearing rich fruit in the continual 
conversion of men, women and children, body and soul, from 
gross, gruesome Hinduism to repentance and faith in Christ, 
the divine Redeemer, the Revealer of the True God. 



CHAPTER II 

HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 

ON February i, 1870, the Rev. C. F. J. Becker, the second 
foreign missionary of the General Council, arrived at Rajah- 
mundry; but three months and one week later Heyer rever- 
ently and sorrowfully laid the body of the young man to rest 
in the cemetery of the Mission at Rajahmundry. 

Christian Friederich Johan Becker was born at Kjerteminde, 
on the island of Funen, Denmark, April 17, 1845. After his 
confirmation he was apprenticed to a gardener who said to 
him one day, "Friend, you are better fitted for philosophy 
than for gardening." He continued to work as a gardener, 
however, and, after having served his apprenticeship, went to 
Copenhagen to study landscape gardening. He became deeply 
interested in the Greenland Mission and decided to become a 
foreign missionary. He entered the Mission Institute of The 
Danish Missionary Society at Copenhagen May 4, 1863, 
about a year after it was established. Besides Becker there 
were then only two other students in the school. After a 
four years' course of study he was asked by the Rev. C. W. 
Groenning to enter the service of The Foreign Missionary 
Society of the General Synod in the United States. He ex- 
pressed his willingness to be sent to India and spent about 
a year in the home of Groenning in special preparation, and 
eight months more hi Copenhagen devoted to the study of 
medicine and theology. The call which he expected from 
The Foreign Missionary Society, however, did not come, and 
he was about to offer his services to The Hermannsburg Mis- 
sionary Society when Groenning and Heyer persuaded him to 
volunteer to go to Rajahmundry as one of the missionaries of 
the Pennsylvania Ministerium. The executive committee 
of that synod extended a call to him but decided to postpone 
his departure for India because of a lack of funds. Then, 
through the aid of friends, he secured permission to sail on 

143 



144 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

October 15, 1869, as far as Egypt, on the Danish frigate of 
war "Zealand," which was assigned to participate in the naval 
ceremony at the opening of the Suez Canal. The Danish 
Missionary Society, moreover, advanced him the sum of 
$300 for his travelling expenses from Port Said to Rajah- 
mundry. For the passage through the Suez Canal he paid the 
price of a first-class passage on a French steamer, but he could 
not secure a berth and was forced to sleep on deck. He left 
Suez November 2Qth, reached Madras December i8th, and 
spent six weeks in the latter city. From Madras he went by 
steamer to Coconada and by canal to Dowlaishwaram, where 
he was met by the catechist Joseph, who escorted him on 
foot to Rajahmundry. He at once applied himself to the 
study of Telugu and, as opportunity offered, accompanied 
Heyer on short tours to different out-stations. On May 8, 
1870, at the beginning of the hot season, after a brief illness, 
he passed away, the first General Council foreign missionary 
to lay down his life on the field. His body was buried by 
Heyer and the native Christians by the side of those of Long 
and the children of Long, Groenning and Cutter. Becker 
was only twenty-five years old when he died, and had been in 
India less than six months. 

Heyer was again alone on the mission field, but he was soon 
to be joined by two other young recruits. Some time between 
the ist and i5th of February he began a school for girls at 
Rajahmundry and sent a native teacher, Jeremiah, to Tay- 
lor's petta near Narsapur, thus beginning the work in that 
part of the country, which since has become the most pro- 
ductive district of the mission field. With Rs. 45, contrib- 
uted by English residents at Rajahmundry, he built new 
schoolhouses at Jegurupad and Gowripatnam. Judge J. H. 
Morris, the Collector of the Godavery district, continued to 
contribute Rs. 20 a month, or about $150 a year, for the sup- 
port of the mission work, and his assistant Collector gave 
about one-half that amount. These contributions enabled 
Heyer to pay the salaries of his native catechists, each of 
whom received about $7.50 a month. On February i4th 
Heyer, in a letter from Groenning, got the sum of 100 Prussian 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 145 

thaler, contributed by friends in Denmark for the education 
of three native Christian boys. This made a boarding school 
for boys possible, and Heyer began one at once with Cornelius, 
James and William 1 as pupils. Of these the two latter after- 
ward became native pastors. 

The district evangelistic work under the missionary's super- 
vision was divided between Joseph and Paulus, both of whom 
proved themselves efficient workers. 

Tota Joseph was born at Guntur in 1839. His father was 
a sepoy in one of the native infantry regiments. From Guntur 
the family moved to North Arcot, near Madras, where, after 
a residence of seven years, Joseph's father died of cholera, 
leaving his widow with three children, of whom Joseph was 
the eldest. Returning to Guntur, the children were cared 
for by their maternal grandparents. Joseph was sent to the 
mission schools for boys, then in charge of Heyer. He was 
baptized by Groenning in 1852, at the age of thirteen, despite 
the opposition of his relatives. When the Rev. and Mrs. 
W. E. Snyder came to Guntur they took Joseph into their 
home and treated him, as Joseph himself testified, "like their 
own child." In 1854 Joseph went with Snyder and Heyer to 
Rajahmundry. They and, afterward, Heise instructed him 
and employed him occasionally as a colporteur. On February 
i, 1860, he married Lydia, a native Christian girl. Missionary 
Unangst performed the ceremony at Guntur. Eight days after 
the wedding they came to Rajahmundry, where Joseph worked 
for the Mission as a colporteur in the employ of the Madras 
Bible Society, and his wife assisted in the girls' school. When 
Groenning took charge of the work at Rajahmundry, he made 
Joseph a teacher, and in that position he continued to work 
under Long, after whose death Unangst raised him to the 
rank of a catechist to share with Paulus the responsibility of 
the district work during the absence of a resident missionary. 

Nelaprolu 2 Paulus was born in the Palnad in 1842. His uncle 

1 The family name of William was originally Jerripotu. A Jerri is a sort 
of a centipede. A jerripotu is the male of the species. As the family rose in 
honor the name became Jeriprolu. 

1 Paulus' family name was originally Nallapotu, which means a black buck. 
He metamorphosed it into Nelaprolu. 



146 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

was the first convert from Hinduism in that district baptized 
by Heyer, and became the first school-teacher at Pollepalli. 
His parents, Isaac and Rebecca, were weavers by trade, in 
comparatively moderate circumstances. Paulus was their 
fourth son. The whole family was baptized by Heyer at 
Pollepalli. Paulus became a boarding pupil in Heyer's 
school at Gurjal, accompanied him to Guntur and continued 
his studies there under Groenning and Unangst. During 
Groenning's second term of service at Guntur he occasionally 
employed Paulus in mission work. He married Mary Mag- 
dalene, a pupil in the Guntur Girls' School. When Judge 
Morris, Collector at Rajahmundry, asked the missionaries to 
recommend some one to be employed as a government clerk, 
who at the same time could serve as a Christian teacher for 
the Collector's servants, Paulus was recommended and went 
to Rajahmundry and, afterward, to Masulipatam, when the 
Collector's office was removed to that town. For a while he 
was employed as a colporteur by the Rev. Mr. English of 
Masulipatam, but Groenning persuaded him to return to 
Rajahmundry and serve the Mission which had educated him. 
Under Groenning and Long he worked as a teacher, and when 
Unangst took charge of the Rajahmundry district he made 
Paulus a catechist, with residence at Muramunda. 

Heyer wisely left these two native workers where he found 
them. In Joseph's district the Christians numbered 85 in 
March, 1870, and there were three families of inquirers; in 
Paulus' district, at the same time, there were 76 baptized 
Christians and two families of inquirers. In the whole field 
there were seven Telugu schools, enrolling 200 pupils. 

Every morning, when in Rajahmundry, Heyer conducted a 
devotional exercise. The native Christians living in and near 
the mission compound were assembled in the large room of 
the mission house at nine o'clock. After an opening hymn 
and the Public Confession and Declaration of Grace, the 
children recited a portion of Luther's Small Catechism, be- 
ginning on Monday with Part I, and ending on Friday with 
Part V. On Saturday a part of "The Order of Salvation in 
Questions and Answers," which had been translated by 




NATIVE PASTOR NELAPROLU PAULUS 




NATIVE PASTOR TOTA JOSEPH 




NATIVE PASTORS JERIPROLU WILLIAM, P. VENKATARATNAM, 
PANTAGANI PARADESI 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 147 

Groenning, was recited. After the catechetical work a chapter 
of the Bible was read responsively and a memory-text was 
assigned. Then the previous day's lesson was reviewed, and 
the service ended with a prayer and a hymn. 

Early in April, accompanied by Becker, Heyer made a short 
tour, going first to Dowlaishwaram, where the reopened 
school was found to be in a flourishing condition, as many as 
35 pupils being enrolled. At Jegurupad the new schoolhouse 
was being built. At Muramunda two men and two women 
were baptized on April 3d, and the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered to 21 persons. Five days later at Metta 21 were 
baptized, 4 from Metta, n from Peddahem and 6 from 
Gowripatnam. Returning to Rajahmundry for the Good 
Friday and Easter services, Heyer administered the Lord's 
Supper to 23 persons from the district under Joseph's over- 
sight and baptized a young man from Dowlaishwaram. The 
number baptized by Heyer up to May i5th was 31. He 
spent the hot season at Upparda on the sea-coast as the 
guest of the Collector, Judge Morris. 

When the sad news of Becker's death reached Europe and 
America, Schmidt was already on his way to India. 

Hans Christian Schmidt was the third foreign missionary 
of the General Council. He was born May 25, 1840, in Flens- 
borg, Schleswig, which at that time was a province belonging 
to Denmark; but now it belongs to Prussia. The following 
autobiographical sketch of his early life is very interesting: 

"When my father was married and began housekeeping, 
he got a neighboring artist to paint for him a picture in oil, 
representing Christ on the cross, with this verse painted under 
the picture: 

"'My only boast is in the wounds, 
Thy hands and feet received for me.' 

"Some years later a good bishop asked him if this were 
still his only boast. My father replied in the affirmative, and 
to the day of his death he remained faithful to this confession. 

"I was the eldest of six children. On my baptismal day my 
father dedicated me to the work of the Lord as a foreign mis- 



148 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sionary, and appropriately asked Mr. C. W. Groenning, then 
a student preparing for work as a missionary, to be a sponsor. 
My father had taken the deepest interest in Mr. Groenning 
and also in his companion, Mr. Graff, who afterward went to 
Africa as a missionary. Mission tracts and pamphlets in the 
German and Danish languages were circulated by my father 
and his friends as a labor of love, and many contributions for 
missions were gathered by him. He was familiarly known as 
the pious shoemaker. 

"Missionary Groenning, in a letter written in India, speak- 
ing of my sainted mother, said, 'She always reminded me of 
Mary who sat at Jesus' feet.' As a young woman she was so 
interested in the cause of missions that, as often as her Chris- 
tian friends gathered in her home, she would bring out the 
mission box and ask them to remember the poor heathen. 
She organized a women's missionary society in Flensborg, 
which sent many contributions and garments to Greenland 
and other mission fields. 

"Under the blessed guidance of such parents it is not sur- 
prising that I early learned to know and love the Saviour, and 
that I should ultimately choose to become a missionary. 
Mission tracts were my first literature. I was especially 
interested in the Eskimos; and to be a missionary to these 
people seemed to me to be the greatest calling on earth. My 
father never told me of my dedication to this calling. He 
preferred rather to commit all things to God's overruling provi- 
dence. I was not permitted to hear from my parents the words 
of approval and encouragement which they would have given 
me when I became a missionary, for when I did they had 
already been called to their heavenly home ; yet it is a distinct 
joy to know that a kind Providence led me in the way they 
wished me to go. My mother died in 1849, mv father in 1855. 
I was attending a Moravian school in Christiansfeld when my 
father died, and I left school to return to my home and help 
provide for my stepmother, brothers and sisters. As I left 
the school one of the teachers said to me, "I had hoped that 
you would become a missionary." This hope, however, at 
that time seemed beyond realization. I was led to experience 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 149 

more and more the grace of God and my interest in missions 
constantly increased. 

"Toward the end of 1863, 1 was called to enter the Danish 
military service. Schleswig then belonged to Denmark. I 
was appointed on the general's staff and in this position learned 
a great deal about administrative work, which was afterward 
useful to me as a missionary. We were obliged to remain at 
our desks until late at night, whether we had work to do or not. 
I employed my leisure time making a collection of German 
hymns relating to Inner Mission work, and to the preparation 
of several Danish tracts. One of these was afterward trans- 
lated into German and published together with a collection 
of hymns by the Gossner Missionary Society. 

"When the period of my service in the Danish army had 
expired, the question of becoming a missionary again forced 
itself upon my mind. Just then my godfather returned from 
India, and his account of the mission work there led me to 
think of it as my field of future service. Finally, there being 
no obstacle left to prevent my becoming a foreign missionary, 
I announced my decision to Mr. Groenning, telling him that 
his report of the needs of the India Mission appealed to me as 
a direct call of God." 

For two and a half years Schmidt lived in Groenoing's home, 
preparing himself for work among the Telugus in India. Like 
Becker, he looked forward to service under The Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the General Synod and was disappointed 
in not receiving a call. Then he accompanied Heyer to the 
United States and was ordained by the Pennsylvania Minis- 
terium in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., May 26, 1869, with 
the view of being called by its executive committee as a for- 
eign missionary to India. The call was extended at a meeting 
of the committee on August 27th, but for a number of reasons 
Schmidt's departure was delayed. Meanwhile he served a 
German mission at Carlisle, Pa. Finally, in March, 1870, 
arrangements for his departure were completed. The service 
of commissioning was held in St. Johannis Church, Phila- 
delphia, the Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., pastor. On March 24th 
he sailed from New York on the "Rising Star." Several days 



150 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

were spent in Flensborg where, on May 23d, a farewell meeting 
was held, the Rev. C. W. Groenning delivering an address. 
Groenning advised Schmidt to remain in Europe until the 
early fall, in order to escape the hot and rainy seasons in 
India. Acting on this advice, Schmidt spent some time visit- 
ing the mission institutions at Hermannsburg, Barmen and 
Basle. He then proceeded leisurely through Switzerland, 
Austria and Italy. At Trieste he heard of Becker's sudden 
death and at once decided to run the risk of an earlier arrival 
in India. On July gth, he took a ship at Suez, bound for 
Madras. At Coconada, where he arrived August 3d, he was 
met by a native Christian whom Heyer had sent to escort 
him to Rajahmundry. From Dowlaishwaram they rode in 
an ox-cart, arriving at Rajahmundry on August 4, 1870. 

Two weeks after Schmidt's arrival Heyer wrote to the corre- 
sponding secretary of the executive committee, the Rev. 
B. M. Schmucker, as follows: 

"My personal affairs render it necessary that I should be 
at home during the summer of 1871 ; otherwise I might remain 
longer in India, for I do not dislike the work, and the Lord 
has, thus far, vouchsafed me a comfortable measure of health, 
although I have entered upon the seventy-eighth year of my 
earthly pilgrimage. I have written to you about a young 
man who has finished his studies in Copenhagen, and my 
opinion is that his services should be engaged; but for various 
reasons it is also desirable that a graduate from some one of 
our institutions in America should be sent out. 

"I have made a contract for repairing the old bungalow. 
It will require about $200. When repaired the building may 
be used as a chapel, schoolhouse and dwelling. 

"Every morning except Sunday a class of eight children 
comes to my room to learn English. The most of them ought 
to be trained for service as teachers and catechists. 

"We had formerly a large English school in Rajahmundry, 
with over one hundred pupils; but at present the Government 
supplies the town with English schools. It even has a college 
with eight hundred students. 

"A part of The Church Book has already been translated 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 151 

into Telugu. I should like to have a small edition printed, 
containing the church service and hymns, if you could furnish 
the necessary funds, say, $75 or $100. 

"On the seventh Sunday after Trinity the Holy Communion 
was administered in Rajahmundry, forty-five communing." 

Thus the work of reconstruction was making commendable 
progress under Heyer's supervision. A few weeks after his 
arrival Schmidt left the station, in order to visit the principal 
out-stations and gam an insight at first hand into the work 
over which in a very short time he was to exercise control. 
The catechists, Joseph and Paulus, accompanied him through 
their respective districts, acting as his interpreters. It must 
be admitted that a heavy burden of responsibility was to be 
put on this young man, only thirty years of age, unacquainted 
with the language, the customs of the natives and the work 
of the mission, and that, despite these disadvantages, he 
acquitted himself with ability from the very beginning. 

On August 24th or thereabouts, a delegation from Velpur 
visited Rajahmundry and requested that a school be started 
in that village. Heyer went at once, travelling in an ox-cart, 
and began mission work there. Having promised to visit 
Narsapur, he started for that place on October 7th, accom- 
panied by Joseph and Paulus and a number of servants. 
Captain C. Taylor loaned him a palankeen for the journey. 

Mr. R , a government official in the Department of 

Public Works, sent his private house-boat to meet the mis- 
sionary six miles from Narsapur, and had a tent erected for 
his convenience at Narsapur. Here he held a service on 
Sunday morning, October Qth, at which he baptized 19 men, 
women and children, administered the Lord's Supper, and 
married a couple of native Christians. In the afternoon he 
preached at Taylor's petta in front of a native Christian's 
house. On Monday he went to Argatipalem, where there 
were ten inquirers under the instruction of Jeremiah, to whose 
work the firstfruits in this region must be attributed. One 
infant was baptized at Argatipalem. On Tuesday Jagganath- 
puram was visited. Here there were eight families of inquirers 
and eighteen children in a mission school. From Jagganath- 



152 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

puram he went to Parravalli by canal and then in a palankeen 
to Velpur, where he baptized 25 adults. Returning to Parra- 
valli an incident occurred on the way, which Heyer related 
as follows: "I heard people calling after me and was told 
that seven other candidates had come from another village 
desiring Holy Baptism. Not wishing to disappoint these 
people, who had come so far, I halted and baptized them, as 
Philip did the eunuch, near the road close by a tank." After 
an absence of a week Heyer was back in Rajahmundry. He 
considered this to have been one of his most successful tours 
as a missionary in India. 

On the last day of the year 1870, Heyer wrote the following 
report : 

"One year ago I found one catechist, one school-teacher and 
a dilapidated building at Rajahmundry, one catechist, one 
school-teacher and a schoolhouse at Muramunda, and one 
schoolhouse and a few children at Metta. On Easter Sunday, 
1870, twenty-five communed at Rajahmundry, and on the pre- 
ceding Sunday twenty-two at Muramunda. 

"At the close of this year there are seven schools, namely, at 
Rajahmundry, Muramunda, Metta, Jegurupad, Peddahem, 
Jagganathpuram and Taylor's petta. One hundred and two 
persons were baptized during the year. On Christmas day, 
1870, seventy communed at Rajahmundry. The day before 
Christmas two hundred adults and children gathered around 
a Christmas tree, and on the day after Christmas, Monday, a 
Christmas dinner for all, consisting of rice and curry, vege- 
tables and mutton, was served at the expense of J. H. Morris, 
Esq. Presents of clothing, books and fruits were distrib- 
uted to old and young, principally at the expense of Cap- 
tain Taylor and his daughter-in-law. I also had two weddings 
and baptized five adults. Three lads about sixteen years old 
are being supported by contributions from mission friends in 
Schleswig." 

On January 22, 1871, the fourth foreign missionary of the 
General Council, Rev. Iver K. Poulsen, arrived at Rajah- 
mundry. , 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 153 

Iver K. Poulsen was born September 24, 1846, at Ringk- 
joebing, Jutland, Denmark, He was the seventh of ten 
children. When he was fifteen years of age he became 
a teacher of a village school and taught for three years. 
Through a maternal uncle he became interested in foreign 
missions. By reading mission tracts and reports and by asso- 
ciation with two pious fellow- teachers his interest developed 
into the desire to go to some foreign mission field. He ex- 
pressed his desire to the director of The Danish Mission So- 
ciety, and in August, 1865, he was admitted into the Mission 
Institute of that society at Copenhagen. In 1870 he was 
graduated and at once offered his service through the Rev. 
C. W. Groenning to the General Council of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church hi North America, as a missionary at Rajah- 
mundry, to take the place of his departed friend Becker. He 
was accepted and called, and sailed from London on Septem- 
ber i, 1870. Groenning advanced him $450 for his travelling 
expenses. The voyage to Cape Town lasted eighteen days, 
and ten days were spent there. In Madras, which he reached 
January 12, 1871, he was entertained for a week by the Rev. 
Mr. Kremmer, a Leipsic Society missionary. On January 2ist 
he arrived at Coconada, where Schmidt met him. From 
Dowlaishwaram they walked to Rajahmundry, arriving on 
the 22d. The executive committee of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium had applied in advance to the officers of that 
synod for authority to ordain Poulsen after his arrival in 
India. In the presence of the native Christians and English 
residents, Poulsen, therefore, was ordained at Rajahmundry 
January 26, 1871. Schmidt preached the ordination sermon in 
Danish ; the catechists, Joseph and Paulus, read the Scripture 
lessons responsively in Telugu ; and Heyer performed the act 
of ordination in English. 

After the arrival and ordination of Poulsen, Heyer felt that 
he could leave the Mission with Schmidt in charge, assisted 
by Poulsen. "The New Era" was about to sail from Coco- 
nada, and Heyer lost no time in arranging to sail with her on 
January 3oth, although he was to be the only passenger and 
was obliged to pay $250 for the voyage to England. On 



154 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

April ist the Cape of Good Hope was rounded, and on the 28th 
of that month the ship crossed the equator in the Atlantic 
Ocean. Heyer occupied himself during the long voyage by 
instructing the captain and some of the crew. On Sunday he 
preached to the men on board. "Carl Golden," he wrote, "a 
poor boy who had been very much neglected by his parents 
and who had got a very bad name on board, being considered 
incorrigible, attracted my attention. On one occasion, when 
the captain had beaten him with a thick rope, I asked for 
permission to try if I could do anything with him. Since that 
time he is allowed to leave his work for an hour every morning 
and to come to my room to learn to read, write, cipher and 
repeat the Catechism. I treat him kindly, and this seems to 
have made a more favorable impression on him than all the 
whippings he has hitherto received. Besides this boy there are 
two elder lads on board, who asked for instruction. I attend 
to them in the afternoon. The captain himself desires to learn 
French, and I give him daily lessons." What a blessing the 
presence and influence of this saintly old missionary brought 
to that ship's crew only eternity will reveal. 

The English Channel was reached June i2th, and Heyer at 
once took another vessel for the United States. He spent the 
winter at Somerset, Pa. A call was extended to him by the 
congregation at Frostburg, Md., in April, 1872, but he de- 
clined it. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania at its meeting in 
1872, requested him to visit its congregations in the interest 
of foreign missions; but he did little deputation work. It 
could hardly have been expected of a man of his advanced 
age. 

In October, 1872, he was elected chaplain and house-father 
of the Theological Seminary at Philadelphia. He felt that 
this would be congenial work and accepted the position. 
At the consecration of the enlarged Seminary building in 
Franklin Square, Philadelphia, he offered the prayer of con- 
secration. After the occupation of this building he lived in 
one of the rooms and devoted himself to the duties of his 
office. When on September 4, 1873, the Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., 
was installed as a professor of the Seminary, Heyer assisted 



HEYER COMPLETES HIS LIFE-WORK (1870) 155 

at the service; but almost immediately afterward he was con- 
fined to his bed with illness, and on the night of November 7, 
1873, at the age of eighty years, three months and twenty days, 
he fell asleep in Jesus. The funeral service was held in the 
Seminary building and his mortal remains were buried by the 
side of his wife in the cemetery at Friedensburg, near Somer- 
set, Pa. In his last will and testament he remembered the 
Theological Seminary at Philadelphia and the Rajahmundry 
Mission. 

The Reverend John Christian Frederick Heyer, Doctor of 
Medicine, minister of the True God, servant of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, pastor, preacher, pioneer, patriarch, who spent his 
eventful life on the wild frontiers of the United States, in 
settled pastorates in Pennsylvania and Maryland, in respon- 
sible positions and high offices in several synods, in the home- 
mission fields of many states, and in the American Evangelical 
Lutheran Missions among the Telugus in India who in a 
brief biography could do full justice to this remarkable man? 
We have made an effort, however, to present a clear, true 
picture of his unique character, to furnish a connected descrip- 
tion of his unusual career and to offer a true estimate of the 
high value of his service in the Lutheran Church in America, 
especially in connection with the history of the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Missions in South India. 



CHAPTER III 

THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 

TURN to a map of India and trace the coast-line from Cape 
Comorin to Calcutta. About half-way between these two 
points you will cross the mouths of the Godavery River, one 
of the twelve sacred streams of India. The counties, called 
"taluks," which are situated on the right side of the Vasista 
branch of the river, as it flows to the sea, belong to the Kistna, 
those on the left side, to the Godavery district of the Madras 
Presidency. The territory which is claimed and worked by our 
foreign missionaries embraces parts of both of these districts, 
the whole field having an approximate area of 3370 square 
miles, which is slightly larger than the State of Connecticut. 
The estimated population for whose christianization we feel 
ourselves responsible numbers about two and a half millions. 

Two other missions, both of them Baptist missions, are at 
work in the Godavery delta; and a third, conducted by the 
Church Missionary Society with its center at Ellore, about 
half-way between Guntur and Rajahmundry, carries on its 
work up to the boundary line of our Mission. The Plymouth 
Brethren Mission, centered at Narsapur, was established a 
few years before our own, the Canadian (Ontario and Quebec) 
Baptist Mission, centered at Coconada, several years after 
our own (1874). A number of the inland taluks are claimed 
and worked exclusively by our Mission, others along the coast 
by the Canadian Baptist Mission, while several are worked 
in part by our Mission and in part by one or both, of the 
Baptist missions. 

The field of our Telugu Mission is divided into mission dis- 
tricts, designated by the names of the towns in which the mis- 
sionaries in charge of the district-work reside, or by the names 
of the taluks which comprise their respective districts, as fol- 
lows: Rajahmundry, Korukonda, Jaggampet, Samulkot, 
Dowlaishwaram, east of the river; and Tallapudi, Tadepalli- 

156 



THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 157 

gudem, Bhimawaram and Narsapur districts, west of the river. 
Each missionary confines his work to the district or districts 
over which he exercises supervision. 

The climate of South India is tropical. The Godavery delta 
is on a parallel line with Southern Mexico and Porto Rico. 
During the cool season, which begins in October and ends in 
February, the average temperature is about 80 Fahrenheit. 
In March the winds from the south bring an ever-increasing 
heat, until in May, the hottest month, the temperature rises 
to 115 or even 120 in the shade. During the hot season the 
American or European must carefully avoid over-exposure to 
the direct rays of the sun. The wisest course is to escape to 
the hills for a midsummer vacation, a thing which most of 
the missionaries do. In June the winds from the southwest 
bring rain-bearing clouds, and about the end of the month 
the rainy season begins. This does not mean that there is 
daily rain, but only that this is the season during which 
there is rain. This season continues to about the middle of 
September, when the sun crosses the equator. After a 
month of practically no rain, the northeast monsoon begins 
to blow, continuing for about a month in this part of the 
country, with a varying quantity of rainfall. 

The soil of the Godavery delta is an alluvial deposit, the 
natural fertility of which is enhanced by an extensive system 
of canals below the anicut or dam, built across the Godavery 
River at Dowlaishwaram, forty miles from the mouth of the 
river and five miles from Rajahmundry. In fertility and 
wealth the Godavery delta is surpassed by but one other 
district in the Madras Presidency. 

The larger portion of the population is engaged in the culti- 
vation of the soil and kindred pursuits. Rice and grain are the 
chief products. Bananas, cocoanuts and other tropical fruits 
are extensively grown. The instruments and methods of 
cultivation are very primitive. The ordinary plow of the 
native farmer is nothing but a crooked piece of hard wood 
pointed at the end with a sharpened iron bar. It is pulled 
over the ground by a pair of oxen until the iron point has 
scratched and loosened the soil several inches deep. At the 



158 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

time of harvest the ripened grain is cut down with a sickle, 
trodden out by cattle in the fields, winnowed in the wind and 
carried in baskets on the heads or shoulders of the farm hands 
to the places of storage or market. The majority of the 
farmers are practically serfs in the employ of wealthy land- 
holders called zemindars, or they are in financial bondage 
to money-lenders. 

The home of the average villager is a mud- walled, thatch- 
roofed, earthen-floored hut of one or two low rooms, in which 
frequently cattle, fowl and other domestic animals, as well as 
the members of the family, are housed. A few brass or earthen 
pots for cooking rice or storing water, and several mats, made 
of bamboo or palm leaves, spread on the floor to serve as beds, 
are the only furniture. As a rule children wear no clothing 
until they are three or four years of age. For boys scanty 
garments made from the cheapest cotton fabrics are provided. 
The usual garment of the women is a single piece of cheap, 
light material, which they learn to wind and drape around the 
body from the shoulders to the ankles. Wealth and position are 
indicated by the number and value of jewels and other orna- 
ments worn, especially on festival occasions. The monthly ex- 
pense of a family of the middle class is about 15 rupees or $5. 
Many of the poorer outcasts live on less than half as much. 

As elsewhere in India, the lot of the women in the Telugu 
country is deplorable. Many of them are uneducated drudges. 
Only the nautch girls are educated, in order that they may 
provide entertainment. A woman has no social standing or 
religious destiny apart from her husband. The worst mis- 
fortune that can befall her is to remain unmarried. Matri- 
monial engagements are made by parents when their daughter 
is still a helpless babe, and before she reaches the age of 
twelve years she is married. If the boy or man to whom the 
infant daughter is engaged to be married, dies before the 
wedding takes place, she becomes a widow to whom re- 
marriage is forbidden. The practice of secluding women in 
zenanas is not so common in South India as farther north, 
but among the higher castes it is in vogue ; and the Moham- 
medan portion of the population has preserved the harem. 



THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S MISSION FIELD IN INDIA 159 

According to caste the people may be conveniently divided 
into Brahmins who form the priestly caste; Vaisyas, the 
merchant caste ; and Sudras, the laboring caste, artisans and 
agriculturists. The Sudras are more numerous than all the 
other castes combined. Socially and in civil life Moham- 
medans are ranked as Sudras. The Kshatriyas, the warrior 
caste, ranked between the Brahmins and Vaisayas, are few 
in number, the Telugus having a less warlike nature than the 
fierce Mahrattas or the doughty Rajputs. The hated term 
"Pariah," formerly used to designate the outcasts, has been 
displaced by government decree by that of "Panchama," 
which means the fifth people. The Panchamas again are 
divided into Malas and Madigas, the latter being the lowest 
of the outcasts, so low that "they must reach up to touch 
the bottom of the social scale." But God has chosen the 
poor and the despised rather than the rich and mighty as the 
firstfruits of His saving grace, for most of the converts to 
Christianity in India are Malas and Madigas, who welcome 
the message of redemption and exaltation through Jesus 
Christ. 

The Telugu language, enriched by Sanscrit and to a slight 
degree by Hindustani, Arabic, French and English, is musical 
in sound and elaborate in form. The vocabulary is enormous, 
abounding in synonyms and in terms of philosophical, pseudo- 
scientific and voluptuous character; but it is practically des- 
titute of words which can be used to express the spiritual 
conceptions of the Christian religion. 1 

1 Pure Telugu is formed from roots which in general have a close connection 
with the roots of the other languages of South India, such as Tamil and Cana- 
rese. These cognate languages form a separate family of languages, which is 
distinguished by the term "Dravidian." 

The greater part of Telugu literature consists of poetry, which is written 
in the higher dialect. So different is the higher dialect from the dialect used in 
common conversation that they form distinct branches of study. Telugu is 
remarkable for its melody of sound, which has gained for it the name of the 
Italian of India. It is regular in construction, and, though copious, is often, 
like Tamil, very laconic. In common conversation a single word or short 
phrase is often used to convey the meaning of a whole sentence. While the 
language used in poetry is uniform, local dialects vary. There is a certain 
amount of difference between the Telugu spoken in Rajahmundry and that 
spoken in the Cuddapa district. The language is spoken in its greatest purity 
in the northern circars. Arden's "Telugu Grammar." 



160 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

The original religion of the Telugus, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, was nature worship which degenerated into animal 
worship, demon worship, hero worship and animism. Brah- 
minism adopted the popular cults and Buddhism infused its 
philosophical conceptions into the system. The result is a 
form of modern Hinduism, of which pantheism is the under- 
lying principle and polytheism the universal practice. Maya 
or illusion, karma or fate, the transmigration and reincarnation 
of souls, and nirvana or final absorption into the All-soul, 
are popular doctrines. The most absurd superstitions, the 
grossest sensuality, the subtlest dishonesty and the most in- 
humane religious practices have left their indelible impress 
on the minds and lives of the people. The burning of 
widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands, hook-swinging 
and the like, have been prohibited by the British Govern- 
ment; but practices scarcely less repulsive, performed in 
public by Brahmins and fakirs in the name of religion, are 
usual occurrences. Thus, one of these fakirs may be seen 
lying naked on a bed of sharp spikes, or walking in shoes 
through the soles of which sharp nails have been driven, or 
eating revolting food, or suffering some other form of self- 
torture, all in order to gain merit in the sight of the gods and 
their devotees. 

The most popular gods of the Telugus are Krishna, an in- 
carnation of Vishnu, whose worship allows licentious prac- 
tices and obscene pictures; Siva, the destroyer, and his con- 
sort, Kali, goddess of disease and death, whose image is as 
revolting an object as can be found anywhere on earth. 1 
Other gods which are universally worshipped are Ganesha, 
the elephant-headed god of wisdom and good luck, and 

1 Kali is represented as a naked woman with a hideous countenance. Her 
tongue is protruding from her mouth. Her hair is a mass of writhing snakes. 
She wears a necklace of human skulls and a belt of dead men's hands. She has 
four arms and hands. In the upper left hand she holds a drawn dagger; in the 
lower left hand she holds by its hair the head of a decapitated giant, a victim of 
her wrath; with the upper right hand Kali makes a gesture beckoning her wor- 
shippers to draw near and do her reverence; with the lower right hand she 
makes a gesture warning them away, lest coming unworthily they become the 
objects of her fierce anger and malice. Everything in connection with this 
image is intended to inspire horror and fear. There is also a more benevolent 
but less popular representation of this goddess of disaster. 




THE HINDU GODDESS KALI 




THE ELEPHANT-HEADED GOD GAXESHA 



THE GENERAL COUNCIL'S MISSION FIELD IN INDIA l6l 

Hanuman, the monkey-god. So numerous are the images 
that their number is said to exceed that of the people; and 
their temples and shrines may be found on every side, on 
hills, under trees, near springs or rocks, on the banks of 
rivers, by the side of roads, in the streets of the cities and in 
the squares of the villages; and attached to each temple or 
shrine is the attendant priest or pufari, receiving the offerings 
of the people. 

To the spiritually benighted and morally degraded Telugus 
living in the territory just described as our mission field, the 
General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North 
America has sent and is still sending missionaries, men and 
women, to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and is sup- 
porting their work in behalf of the christianization of these 
people. Slowly but surely the truth is prevailing, the king- 
dom and reign of the Living God are being extended and the 
number of converts to Christianity is increasing; but the 
task will not be finished until there has been established a 
self-supporting, self-governing and self-propagating Telugu 
Lutheran Church in the Godavery and Kistna districts of 
the Madras Presidency in India. 



CHAPTER IV 

STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 

HEYER remained at Rajahmundry only one year and two 
months to reorganize the Mission, and then he left it in charge 
of two missionaries, both of whom were young, inexperienced, 
unfamiliar with the vernacular and unaccustomed to the 
climate. Sickness overtook them; once Poulsen's life hung 
in the balance. The Brahmins opposed them, not, indeed, 
with physical violence but with subtle arguments and with 
the influence of their caste pre-eminence and religious in- 
tolerance. The Baptist missionaries in adjacent districts 
molested them by enticing away their native helpers and 
proselyting their converts. The Church at home failed to 
furnish them with sufficient funds to improve the opportuni- 
ties which presented themselves for the extension of the 
Mission. For seven years they labored patiently and hopefully 
side by side, waiting for other missionaries to come over and 
help them, but waiting in vain; and their effort was little 
more than a struggle for the existence of the Mission. 

Schmidt and Poulsen lived in the old mission house at 
Rajahmundry with such native servants as were required to 
keep house. Schmidt made himself reponsible for the district 
mission work, and Poulsen took charge of the educational 
work. 

Early in 1871 a native Christian teacher was employed at 
Jagganathpuram. His name was Jeremiah. He had scarcely 
begun his work in the village, when the Brahmins incited a 
mob to burn down the schoolhouse and drive the teacher 
from the village. Schmidt hastened to the scene of the dis- 
turbance and, with the aid of government officials, restored 
order. Thereafter Jeremiah was allowed to live and labor 
without molestation at Jagganathpuram. After the hot 
season Schmidt revisited the place and went as far as Narsa- 

162 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 163 

pur, where he baptized 13 persons, most of whom were adults. 
On July ist, at Metta, after having baptized 2 adults, Schmidt 
performed his first marriage ceremony in the Mission. Several 
weeks afterward he took possession of a site at Peddahem, 
secured from the rajah through the efforts of Mr. Gribble, 
the new assistant collector, and work was at once begun at 
this new point. 

In July, 1871, after a visit to Dowlaishwaram, Jegurupad 
and Muramunda, 1 Poulsen became seriously ill with bilious 
fever, which lasted for weeks. Captain Taylor and Schmidt 
nursed him back to health. While convalescing he spent a 
few weeks at Samulkot in the mission house which Long 
had built, but which had long remained unoccupied. Poulsen 
desired to be located there permanently, but the Committee 
and the General Council, in 1871, withheld their permission, 
and the missionaries continued to live together at Rajah- 
mundry. 

In its report to the General Council in 1871, at Rochester, 
N. Y., the executive committee of the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania incorporated the following statistics: 

Pupils in 
Town or Village. Teacher. Christians. School. 

1. Rajahmundry William Amurtayya 30 40 

2. Muramunda Barnabas 40 20 

3. Jegurupad Benjamin 25 16 

4. Metta, ] 

5. Peddahem, > Jacob 50 20 

6. Gowripatnam J 

7. Velpur Nathaniel 16 14 

8. Narsapur Alfred ") 

JataSathpuraJ .Jeremiah}' 

11. Peravaram 

12. Lolla . . 20 8 



Totals 7 241 138 

North and northwest of Rajahmundry, at a distance of 
fifty miles and upward, lies the country of the Kois and 
Reddis, tribes that differ racially and linguistically from the 
Telugus, having less civilization and no caste system. They 
are probably the remnants of aboriginal tribes whom the con- 
1 Here he baptized an infant, his first baptism in the Mission. 



164 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

quering Telugus in their day drove from the lowlands into 
the forest-clad and fever-infested hills. No missionary had 
ever visited them, and Schmidt, believing that he ought to 
begin work among them, started on a journey northward 
from Rajahmundry on January 17, 1872, accompanied by 
Paulus and Jeremiah. They took along such medicines as 
were deemed necessary for protection against the dreaded 
mountain fever, and a number of firearms and ammunition 
for the tigers and other wild animals, which were reported to 
be numerous in the forests. A tent and provisions were sent 
on ahead in a bullock cart accompanied by coolie bearers. 
Schmidt rode a horse. Sixteen miles were covered on the 
first day. From Purushottapatnam the journey was con- 
tinued through Ungalur and Devipatnam to Yaimigalogudem, 
the first Kois village visited. When the people of this village 
heard for the first time the Gospel preached to them in Telugu, 
which they readily understood, they exclaimed: "Manchi 
marta! Entha prema!" (Lovely words! Wonderful love!). 
From Mantur the missionary and his helpers proceeded by 
boat up the Godavery to Katchalur, a Reddi village. The 
region was a wild one, and for fear of prowling tigers and 
other savage beasts a fire was kept burning all night. The 
chief industry of the natives was found to be the cutting and 
preparation of bamboo wood. Their staple food was cholam, 
a kind of millet, eaten instead of rice which does not thrive on 
the hills. In order to reach some of the inland villages a path 
had to be hewn with an ax through the dense jungle. The 
natives had never seen a white man; and once, on approaching 
a village, Schmidt found it deserted and empty, the villagers 
having fled for fear of the paleface. They hid in the sur- 
rounding jungle, armed with their primitive weapons, bows, 
arrows and spears, ready to fight for their lives. Jeremiah 
shouted to them and assured them that the white man had 
come on a mission of peace, whereupon they returned to the 
village and listened to what the missionary had to say to them. 
"It was a cause of joy to us to see with what avidity they 
received the Gospel," wrote Schmidt. "After their first 
timidity was overcome, we found open ears. They said, 'We 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 165 

live like wild beasts, separated from men. No one has cared 
for us or taught us the truth ; but now we will no longer pray 
to stones, but to the Living God.' Some said, 'We are too 
ignorant to be able to believe in Jesus.' Few, almost none of 
them, can read or write, and we could not, therefore, provide 
for their instruction through books left behind." On February 
loth, at Kottapilli, the tour ended, and on the i6th the mis- 
sionary was back in Rajahmundry. Great interest was shown 
by the Telugu converts when the experiences of this tour 
among the Kois and Reddis were related, and four teachers 
offered themselves and were sent to follow up the work of the 
missionary. All contracted jungle fever. One died, another 
lost his reason, and the other two refused to remain and 
continue the work. 

In June, 1872, a small church bell or gong, sent from Den- 
mark by Schmidt's brothers, sisters and friends, arrived at 
Rajahmundry and was placed on the roof of the mission- 
house. Some time during the same month, James and William, 
having been graduated from the Boys' Boarding School, 
began to read in the Government High School at Rajah- 
mundry, their support being continued by patrons in America. 

The following letter, written by Father Heyer at Somerset, 
Pa., to his friend, the Rev. P. Isenschmidt of Wilmington, 
Del., indicates how the system of supporting scholarships in 
India originated in the General Council: 

"Dear Brother in Christ: Gladly will I answer the questions 
you propose. The Christian education of the children con- 
nected with the Mission is certainly of the greatest importance. 
In this respect more should be done than has hitherto been 
done. Every Sunday school of our larger congregations might 
bind itself to care for one particular child. There is no lack 
of children. The board and clothing of a child would cost 
about $18 or $20 yearly. The annual expense of a student 
would amount to about $30 or $35. In the mission school at 
Rajahmundry there are three boys who ought to be pre- 
pared for the holy ministry. Their names are James, Cor- 
nelius and William. The first named is the most talented and 
is about fifteen or sixteen years of age. The second is a son 



1 66 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

of the catechist Joseph. The third is a son of Ruth who has 
hitherto watched faithfully over her children in order to 
bring them up in the fear and admonition of the Lord." 1 

A new missionary's bungalow was built at Rajahmundry 
under Schmidt's supervision in 1872, on a lot opposite the 
mission house. Poulsen took his bride to this new house. 
He had betrothed himself to Henrietta Andersen in Denmark 
before leaving for India, but the executive committee in 
America had felt itself financially unable to send out a married 
missionary at the time, and she remained in Denmark. On 
October n, 1872, however, she was informed through the 
Rev. C. W. Groenning that the committee was prepared to 
send her to India. She started at once, leaving Copenhagen 
on November 22d. From Trieste she took ship on December 
ist for Bombay, being the only woman passenger on board. 
In a month Bombay was reached. The overland journey to 
Madras lasted two days and two nights. Poulsen met her 
there, and they were married by the Rev. C. F. Kremmer, a 
Leipsic missionary, on January 10, 1873. Three days later 
they started for Rajahmundry, arriving on the i7th. Several 
weeks were spent in the bungalow at Samulkot, and then they 
accompanied Schmidt on a trip up the Godavery River. For 
this trip Captain Taylor loaned them his house-boat. Paulus 
and Jeremiah again went with the missionaries. "We went," 
wrote Schmidt, "partly to show those poor people, the Kois 
and Reddis, that we had not forgotten them, and partly to 
see a little more of the field." They visited the Nizam's 
tributary kingdom, going as far as the Saveri, a branch of 
the Godavery. "It was very trying to mark their eagerness 
to be taught," Schmidt reported, "and yet to be unable to 
promise them the opportunity." 

The year 1873 witnessed an important conference of mis- 
sionaries laboring among the Telugus, convened at Rajah- 
mundry, to undertake the revision of the Telugu translation 
of the Bible. Schmidt, who was a member of the Revision 

1 William was assigned to the Rev. Mr. Isenschmidt's congregation in Wil- 
mington, Del., for support, and ever since that congregation has continued to 
contribute $35 a year for the support of a boy's scholarship in India. 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 167 

Committee, was able to assist the Committee by reason of 
his familiarity with the German and Daaish translations. 1 

The house which the missionaries occupied was the one 
Valett had built at the time of his marriage. It was in the 
form of a rectangle and had, as was then customary, a flat 
roof. In 1873, Schmidt altered it, adding a light second story 
and putting on a shingle roof, the first of its kind in South 
India. The work cost over $500. It is interesting to note 
that in connection with this building, Schmidt inaugurated 
the scheme ef industrial mission work, which he afterward 
tried to elaborate. "At my building," he wrote, "I engaged 
as many of our Christians as possible, even from the villages. 
Though it gave me much more trouble to teach them and, 
perhaps, was hardly as cheap as I could have gotten heathen 
laborers, nevertheless I had the satisfaction of seeing that they 
profited by it, and, perhaps, it was also to their spiritual gain, 
for they had an opportunity to come to our daily prayers and 
Scripture readings. . . . The roof is of shingles of teak wood, 
an unseen thing in this country. The first 2000 shingles I had 
to put on with my own hands before my workmen understood 
the work. Had I not got so much experience in building 
Brother Poulsen's house last year, I would not have been able 
to succeed with my house, where I met with not a few engineer- 
ing difficulties. Long ago I found in the house of a native 
merchant a circular saw which I bought as old steel. I have 
now also succeeded in making a bench for it, and cut the 
shingles with it. It is turned by coolies, and the whole machine 

1 This Revision Committee consisted of four ordained missionaries, two of 
whom were Americans. Two native pastors were added to the Committee. 
They worked for a month at Rajahmundry. Besides the old Telugu versions 
they used the Hebrew, Septuagint, Vulgate, Sanscrit, Tamil, Canarese, Mah- 
ratti, Hindustani, English, German and Danish. The Telugu Missions inter- 
ested in this revision and their relative strength at that time are given in the 
following table: 

Adherents. 
Mission. Missionaries. 1861. 1871. 

i. American Baptist, Nellore 5 23 6418 

a. Hermannsburg Lutheran, Naydupet 8 150 

3. General Synod Lutheran, Guntur 3 338 2150 

4. General Council Lutheran, Rajahmundry 2 29 320 

5. Church Missionary Society, Ellore 13 259 1882 

6. London Missionary Society 5 209 

j. Plymouth Baptist, Narsapur 4. 350 1000 



1 68 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

cost me hardly more than $10. All the new wood I have used 
for the building is teak wood. This is generally very expensive, 
but by sitting and talking with the wood merchants near the 
river for half a day at a time I managed to get it cheap. You 
would have been amused to have seen how many people my 
building attracted, but it must naturally be so in a country 
where every one will do only what and as his fathers did." 

One of the twenty-two converts of the year 1873 was a 
Sudra mendicant who, after living for two months among the 
Christians at Rajahmundry, disappeared. A Brahmin who 
attended the mission school, broke his sacred thread and ate 
with the Christians ; but he refused to be baptized for fear of 
being disinherited. At Samulkot Poulsen prepared a number 
of inquirers for holy baptism, but when the hour of decision 
came they held back. The missionaries reported that "no 
extraordinary spiritual movements had happened in the 
field," but rejoiced that among the Christians "the work of the 
Holy Ghost was going on with signs of spiritual life." 

On September 16, 1873, Schmidt started for Madras, 
where he was to meet his fiancee" who was coming from 
Denmark. On the way he visited other missions in order 
to study their methods. October 3d he reached Guntur, 
where he was entertained by Missionaries Uhl, Unangst and 
Harpster, and where, on October 5th, he preached the sermon 
at the ordination of Pastor Cully who had been the catechist 
in the Palnad district. He spent about a month with the 
Hermannsburg missionaries, of whom there were ten. 1 On 
reaching Madras he learned that his fiancee" had been detained 
in Europe about a month, and he, therefore, spent the inter- 
vening time farther south, visiting a number of missions. 

On Christmas Day, 1873, Miss Giovanni Bleshoy landed at 
Bombay, where Missionary Schmidt was waiting for her to 
lead her to the altar as his wife. They were married at 
Madras by the Rev. C. F. Kremmer on January i, 1874. 
It was a double wedding, the other bridegroom being the 

1 He described their field as being about forty miles east and west and fifty 
miles north and south, with missionaries stationed at Gudur (Boettcher, Wahl, 
Kiehne), Venkatagiri (Theo. Peterson), Kalastri (Woerrlein), Naydupet 
(Mylius), Sulurpet (Scriba). The baptized membership was 260. 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 169 

Rev. Mr. Pedersen of the Danish Mission. After the wedding 
the newly married pair received the Lord's Supper. The Rev. 
and Mrs. Schmidt reached Rajahmundry on January i7th. 

While Schmidt was away Poulsen and his wife were 
seriously ill with fever. "My poor wife," wrote Poulsen, "in 
spite of her great distress and anxiety, was not only a nurse 
for my body but also for my soul. How glad I was when she 
now and then repeated a word of love from our dear Saviour's 
lips. The English people were very kind to her and to me. 
To Henry 1 we owe our greatest thanks. After working all 
day he would insist on coming to me every night; and what 
he did, he did with love." 

The year i874 2 began in an atmosphere of gladness and 
hope. Both of the missionaries had loving and faithful help- 
meets at their sides, who shared with them the discourage- 
ments as well as the joys of the work. In the home of the 
Poulsens a happy event occurred on February 2ist, when a 
daughter was born, who was baptized by her father three days 
afterward and given the name Agnes Martha Henrietta. 

Three teachers were sent to the hill country in January, 
1874, two of whom returned to Rajahmundry within a month, 
sick with hill fever. The third, Prakasem, 3 located at Konda- 
modalu, near the gorge of the Godavery, was visited by 
Schmidt in March; but immediately thereafter he also was 
obliged to leave on account of illness. Schmidt made an 
effort to secure a number of boys from the hill country to be 
educated in Rajahmundry, but he met with the opposition of 
their parents who lamented "as though they were asked to 
send their sons to another world." On his way home he paid 
a visit to Peddahem, where at a service in the new schoolhouse 
he administered the Lord's Supper to fifteen persons. So 
greatly were the villagers interested in the visit of the mis- 

1 Jeriprolu Henry was a native convert whom Rev. C. W. Groenning had 
brought with him from Guntur to Rajahmundry. He was the father of a large 
family of which every member has been in the employ of the Mission. His 
wife was Ruth, already mentioned; one of his sons, William, is a native Chris- 
tian pastor in the Mission to-day. 

2 During 1873 nine children and thirteen adults were baptized by the mis- 
sionaries. 

3 This man, Namabattula Prakasem, is still in the service of the mission. 



1 70 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sionary that the schoolhouse was surrounded all day long 
by them, even the headman of the village attending the 
morning service and sitting inside the building among the 
outcast Christians. 

Early in 1874 the Canadian Baptist (Ontario and Quebec) 
Missionary Society established its first station in the Telugu 
country at Coconada on the coast, eight miles from Samulkot. 
The Rev. Mr. McLaurin was their first missionary. He 
offered to buy the mission house at Samulkot, but his offer 
was declined. He refused to agree to any policy of mission 
comity and openly worked against our missionaries. "I 
asked him," Schmidt reported, "whether we could and should 
agree that neither would interfere with the other's work, but 
he did not like to promise to take none of our Christians." 

As indicated in a report of a mission conference of native 
Christian teachers in July, 1874, the missionaries instructed 
their helpers in Bible history, church history, the catechism, 
and in the public reading of the Sacred Scriptures with 
running comments. An explanation of Luther's Small Cate- 
chism, prepared and published by the Hermannsburg mis- 
sionaries, was introduced at this time. 

By the close of the year the two hundredth person was 
baptized, counting all who had received the sacrament since 
the reorganization under Heyer five years before. Among the 
converts of 1874 were two caste women, one of whom had 
been an opium-eater for thirty years. Another convert, an 
old man living at Korukonda, gave one of his houses in that 
village to the Mission for school purposes, and a teacher was 
sent there; but after repeated attacks of fever he returned to 
Rajahmundry. Poulsen, however, regularly visited the village 
to preach the Gospel at the times of the great festivals there. 
When the wife of the Korukonda convert became sick, shortly 
after his conversion, the villagers tried his faith by asking him 
why it was that sickness should enter his home and that the 
Christian teacher should have been obliged to leave on ac- 
count of fever, if the God in whom they believed really forgave 
sins and healed iniquities? Despite their taunts the convert 
remained faithful to Christ. Subsequently, at a heathen 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 171 

festival, Poulsen found the Baptist missionary from Coconada 
and three of his native helpers in the village preaching and 
distributing tracts. One of the Baptist helpers in a conversa- 
tion with the Korukonda convert 1 told him that he was not a 
true Christian, because he had not been properly baptized. 
Deeply troubled, he went to Missionary Poulsen for instruc- 
tion concerning this matter. "In all the villages where we have 
Christians," Poulsen complained, "the Baptist agents try 
to proselyte, and the Baptist missionary contemptuously 
calls us and other Protestants 'sprinklers.' ' 

In the congregations and synods of the General Council 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America foreign 
mission interest and effort grew very slowly during the first 
five years of the history of its Telugu Mission in India. 

The Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Ministe- 
rium, which had been appointed by the General Council to 
act as its committee on foreign missions, experienced con- 
siderable difficulty in providing sufficient money to finance 
the India Mission. 2 Regarding the income it reported, in 

1 This man was subsequently bitten by a snake of a peculiarly virulent poi- 
son, which caused him to lose joint after joint of fingers and toes, until death 
brought relief. Of course this misfortune was attributed to the power of the 
angry gods. This incident hindered the growth of the Mission for many years 
in that locality. 

2 The following is a list of the expenditures during the first fourteen months: 

C. F. Heyer, travelling expenses and outfit $562 

C. F. Heyer, salary, October 23, 1869 to October 23, 1870 500 

C. F. J. Becker, travelling expenses 425 

C. F. J. Becker, salary, February to May 125 

H. C. Schmidt, travelling expenses 400 

H. C. Schmidt, salary, one quarter 125 

I. K. Poulsen, travelling expenses 450 

Salary of two catechists, n months, at $7.50 each 165 

Repairs and taxes 59 

Repairs contracted for 200 

Total $3011 

With regard to the money due the Church Missionary Society, which had 
paid the catechists' salaries before the transfer of the Mission to the General 
Council, the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Ministerium passed the 
following resolution, April 5, 1870: "Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed 
to apply to the General Synod for their proportion of the money due the Church 
Missionary Society, and the treasurer be authorized to pay our part, and that, 
if the General Synod refuses, to pay the whole." It appears that the whole 
indebtedness amounted to $178, in gold, which the Executive Committee 
eventually paid in full. 



172 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

1870, to the General Council as follows: "Your committee 
has with great difficulty secured the money to meet the ex- 
penses. From most of the synods not a cent has been received. 
The treasurer of the General Council, Mr. C. F. Norton, ad- 
vanced $896.69, which has not yet been repaid in full. The 
resolution of the General Council last year, 'that the General 
Council pledges itself vigorously and faithfully to support the 
foreign mission work/ greatly encouraged your committee at 
the beginning of the year; but they greatly regret that their 
hopes and expectations have been realized to so small an 
extent." Nevertheless the committee managed to make ends 
meet. 

During the year 1870-71 the income rose from $2480.49 
to $3065. and the expenditures from $2065.74 to $2861.22. 
The New York Ministerium again contributed liberally during 
this year. The next year the contributions amounted to 
$4352.11, the expenditures to only $2276.29, leaving a bal- 
ance of $2279.50. The account from year to year continued 
to show a balance, due, as one can readily see, not so much 
to a steady increase of income as to the enforcement of econ- 
omy in the mission work. 

The expenditures in India 1 were greater than the amount of 
the remittances from America. They were met, however, by 
contributions of friendly English residents in Rajahmundry, 

1 The following is an exhibit of all expenditures in India: 

1872. 1873. 1874. 

Rs. As. Ps. Rs. As. Ps. Rs. As. Ps. 

Salaries of missionaries 2574 . . . . 4000 . . . . 4244 

Salaries of catechists 500 15 6 500 .. .. 480 

Travelling expenses 147 67 125 9 9 

Hill allowance 20 

Support of pupils by Sunday 

schools 184 .. .. 340 .. .. 420 

Rebuilding Poulsen's house 1597 3 2 

Dr. Heyer's class 10 

Easter presents to helpers 68 

Repairs to mission-house 928 

Taxes, postage, etc 30 .... 12 6 6 

Repairs, taxes, building 764 7 8 

Deficit 199 . . . . 736 .... 459 6 9 



Totals 5283 9 o 6554 6505 14 8 

During these years the value of a rupee was estimated to be 50 cents. 



STRUGGLING FOR EXISTENCE (1871-74) 173 

by the rental of the bungalow at Samulkot, and by special 
efforts on the part of Schmidt who actually resorted to the 
sale of photographs and the repair of watches, sewing machines 
and other mechanical devices in order not to create a mission 
indebtedness. 

The salaries of the missionaries were increased after their 
marriage, each receiving Rs. 2000 or $1000 a year. The 
salaries of the catechists amounted to Rs. 500, each receiving 
Rs. 250 or $125 a year. A third item of expenditure which 
bulked large was for building and repairs. 

The Pennsylvania Minis terium's Executive Committee on 
Missions and Education continued to direct the affairs of the 
Mission in India until the year 1876. This committee con- 
sisted of the four officers of the synod, the president of the 
synod being ex-officio the chairman of the committee, the 
five presidents of conferences and ten additional members, 
five ministers and five laymen, elected annually. The treasurer 
of the General Council was the treasurer of the foreign mis- 
sion funds. 1 

1 Those, therefore, to whom the care and control of the Telugu Mission were 
entrusted during this period were the Rev. C. W. Schaeffer, D. D., chairman 
from 1869 to 1873; the Rev. E. Greenwald, D. D., chairman from 1873 to 1876; 
the Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., English secretary from 1869 to 1875; the 
Rev. J. Fry, D. D., English secretary in 1876; the Rev. J. J. Kuendig, German 
secretary from 1869 to 1873; tne R CV - S. K. Brobst, German secretary from 1873 
to 1876. Although the secretaries of the synod were members of the committee, 
the committee annually elected its own English and German secretaries. Others 
who served for a longer or shorter period on this committee were the Revs. 
B. W. Schmauk, F. Waltz, J. W. Hassler, H. Grahn, F. J. F. Schantz, G. F. 
Spieker and Mr. A. T. Geissenhainer, all by virtue of their offices in the synod. 
The laymen most prominently connected with the work of the committee were 
Messrs. H. H. Muehlenberg, M. D., H. Trexler, F. Lauer, A. W. Potteiger, 
H. L. Mattes and John Endlich. 



CHAPTER V 

DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) 

THE years 1875 to 1877 were crowded with disheartening 
difficulties. Famine and cholera prevailed in the land. Both 
of the missionaries were ill with jungle fever much of the 
time. Little progress was made in the mission work. 

Schmidt clung to the hope of establishing a number of out- 
stations in the hill country. Undaunted by his previous 
failures, he started on another trip up the Godavery River 
in February, 1875, accompanied by his wife, in Captain 
Taylor's house-boat. This time he went farther than before, 
but jungle fever stopped his progress into the interior of the 
Nizam's kingdom and drove him in haste back to Rajah- 
mundry; eleven in his party, including himself and his wife, 
were sick with fever. He was seriously ill for months, and 
years elapsed before he fully recovered. After having returned 
from a vacation at the sea-shore, he undertook the building of 
a house-boat for the Mission at his own expense. Meanwhile 
Poulsen took charge of the district work; but while on a visit 
to Korukonda in October, that year, he also contracted the 
jungle fever. He recovered from it more rapidly than his 
co-laborer. 1 

While at Velpur in November, 1875, Poulsen found the Bap- 
tists there pursuing their usual tactics. "Our Baptist neigh- 
bors," Schmidt remarked, "have lots of money. They almost 
buy our people; and, I am sorry to say, many cannot resist 
the temptation. A teacher whom we paid Rs. 7 a month but 
whom we excommunicated on account of adultery, they em- 
ployed, paying him Rs. 20, almost three times as much. Now 
they have five or six missionary families in our field, one living 

1 Poulsen ascribed his speedy recovery to a nourishing diet. Even Poul- 
sen's horse got the fever. "The heathen," he wrote, "go to their stupid native 
doctors, who tell the fever patients that they must starve. As a consequence 
some actually die of starvation rather than of fever." 

174 




"RIVERDALE" 

Missionary's home at Rajahmundry. 

This house was built by Dr. H. C. Schmidt, who occupied it with his family. It was 

the home of Dr. and Mrs. J. H. Harpster during their residence in 

Rajahmundry. It is now occupied by women missionaries. 




"THE DOVE OF PEACH" 
House-boat built by Dr. H. C. Schmidt 




"THE AUGUSTAXA" 

A mission house-boat, of which there are now three in the mission. In these boats 
the missionaries travel through the canals from village to village. 



DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) J 75 

at Samulkot. I cannot accept it as a comfort when a Baptist 
tells me that people taken by them are still the fruits of our 
work and that, when the Lord will come in judgment, He 
will give us and not them the crowns for these converts." 

Some time in January, 1876, Schmidt left Rajahmundry for 
Madras, on the advice of his physician. There he and his wife 
lived for a while in the mission house of the Leipsic Society, 
its missionary having returned to Germany on furlough. 
They returned to Rajahmundry in April, greatly benefited by 
the change in environment and by the superior medical 
treatment. For the next few months Schmidt devoted 
himself entirely to the building of the house-boat. The 
boarding-school boys and native Christians were employed 
as carpenters and blacksmiths. "The Dove of Peace," as 
the boat was afterward named, was 40 feet long and 12 feet 
wide. A cabin with seven windows and a skylight was built 
near the bow. Amidships were a dining-room and a bath- 
room. At the stern were the kitchen and the quarters for the 
natives. Selected teak wood was used in the construction of 
every part. When the boat was finished it was launched 
under Schmidt's supervision. The river bank was fully half 
a mile away, and everyone said that he could not get the boat 
safely from the yard to the river. "Nobody believed in me 
as a ship-builder, my good wife not excepted," wrote Schmidt. 
"When I caulked the boat before moving it, they predicted 
that this work would be in vain, because of the shaking the 
boat would get on the way to the river. When the day for 
the launching came I had a bad attack of fever. Early in the 
morning I commenced the task with one hundred men. Large 
beams were fastened across the vessel. Trees which stood 
in the way were cut down. A gate and a part of a fence were 
removed. At 8 o'clock I had to lie down and thereafter 
remained in bed. My wife informed me from time to time 
how they got on, and I gave my orders from my bed through 
her. At 4 o'clock the boat was in the water. She did not leak 
a drop !" It must have been like playing chess blindfolded 
and winning the game. 

The "Dove of Peace" made her maiden voyage up the 



176 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Godavery, towed by a steamer, on August 4, 1876, the day 
of the sixth anniversary of Schmidt's arrival at Rajahmundry. 
It cost Rs. 600 to build the boat, which the missionary paid 
out of his private purse, securing the necessary funds by sell- 
ing photographs and by disposing of some property which he 
had bought at Dowlaishwaram. He, therefore, claimed the 
boat as his personal property, and the Executive Committee 
allowed the claim, granting him, moreover, the sum of $40 
a year for the wages of a captain. 

Seventy-two Christians, representing fourteen families, 
were connected with the congregation at Rajahmundry in 
1876; but the old mission house in which they worshipped, 
was falling into a state of decay and needed rebuilding. 
Schmidt appealed to friends in Schleswig, who sent him about 
$300. The Executive Committee in America also appealed 
for funds and authorized the reconstruction of the old 
building. This gave the missionary an opportunity to con- 
tinue his industrial school. Carpenter- and blacksmith-shops, 
a saw-pit and a lumber-yard were soon located in the mission 
compound, which again began to be a place of great activity, 
much to the joy of the missionary. 

Another pet project inaugurated by Schmidt, in 1876, was 
the purchase of land for the endowment of congregations. He 
began by securing some land at Velpur and permitting the 
Christians to cultivate it, with the understanding that they 
were to pay for their several portions in three or four years. 
He also loaned small sums of money to them without interest. 
Because of its bearing on the history of the Mission, Schmidt's 
scheme of land endowment ought to be understood. In a 
letter to the corresponding secretary of the committee in 
America, the Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., under date of 
October 12, 1876, he outlined the scheme as follows: "The 
heathen temples are richly endowed with land ; but our present 
government upholds only the old endowments and gives no 
land to temples or churches now. In considering all this, I 
came to the conclusion that it would be best to procure land 
in connection with the native churches. I shall work toward 
that object; but it is evident that I can do very little personally. 



DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) 1 77 

As far as I can see now, it would require $600 to procure land 
sufficient for the support of a native pastor, with the pay our 
native catechists receive, and at least $400 for a lower grade 
of workers. This means to buy land when there is an oppor- 
tunity to get it cheap. We would then have to build a small, 
substantial church, and procure proper documents that such 
and such land belongs to this or that church, and that the 
minister who should be supported by it must belong to the 
Lutheran Church. Other rules for management could be 
added, as that every member should have to work certain 
days of the year for his minister, etc. The advantages of such 
arrangement would be: i. That independent native churches 
would be established; 2. That the increase of the minister's 
salary would depend on the help of the congregation, and 
that he, therefore, would have to care for them as well as 
they for him. The qualifications of the minister would, in 
course of time, also depend on the pay they raise for him. 3. 
That a more brotherly feeling would exist between the mis- 
sionary and his native ministers in spite of difference in pay, 
as each would draw his pay from his own country and remain 
a son of his own soil, and the one would no longer be the 
servant of the other. We would begin with our present 
catechists, though they would, perhaps, prefer ready money. 
We would then require $1200, and perhaps two rich men or 
two rich congregations in America would like to give us that 
sum. Some may say that such arrangements would entangle 
the minister in worldly business. To such I would say: 
i. That St. Paul could earn his daily bread and still be an 
Apostle, while in our case the minister would only have to 
get his land cultivated by others; 2. That the emoluments of 
the ministers in Denmark are of that kind, and perhaps in all 
Europe; 3. That this leaves sufficient room for the congre- 
gation to act differently afterward, as it would provide for 
only a small pay and either more land or ready money would 
have to be added. An endowment of this kind must remain 
Lutheran even after every Lutheran missionary would be 
gone." 
In 1876 Schmidt and Poulsen agreed on a division of the 



178 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

mission field. The former chose Paulus as his catechist; the 
latter, Joseph. Besides the congregation at Rajahmundry, 
Schmidt took charge of Dowlaishwaram, where there were 
nine Christians; Velpur, where there were thirty- two; Jagga- 
nathpuram, where there were sixteen; Mallipudi, where there 
was one family; and Argatipalem. All of these were south of 
Rajahmundry. His out-stations to the north were Metta, 
where there were three Christians; Gowripatnam, where there 
were ten; and Peddahem, where there were sixteen. He also 
made himself responsible for the work in the hill country, 
whither he sent a teacher, paying him twice the salary usually 
paid this grade of workers, and made another attempt to 
visit the villages of the Kois and Reddis, but with no other 
results than renewed attacks of jungle fever. 

Poulsen's out-stations were Muramunda, where there were 
thirty-eight Christians and a school of ten children; Jeguru- 
pad, where there were twenty-seven Christians and a school 
which was taught by the Muramunda teacher, who devoted 
his mornings to the one village and his afternoons to the other ; 
Dulla, where a Sudra who afterward became an evangelist, 
was baptized in 187 5;* Peravaram, where there were fourteen 
Christians and a school of six children; Lolla, where there was 
a Christian family; and Amalapur, a large village nearer the 
coast, in which the Baptists were very aggressive. Other 
places which Poulsen visited were Samulkot, Jaggampet, 
Gokavaram, Rajanagaram and Korukonda. For some time 
a teacher was stationed at Korukonda. He afterward went 
over to the Baptists. 

The Boys' School at Rajahmundry was in charge of Poulsen, 
assisted by Paulus and Joseph. It was a primary school which 
enrolled thirty pupils, six of whom occupied "the boarding 
house," a small building in Poulsen's compound. Three of 
them attended the Government College, 2 the others the 

1 Having broken his caste by becoming a Christian, his wife left him and 
with their child, returned to her mother's home. 

2 William, James and Raya Paradesi. Some years later the last named lost 
his reason and was placed in an asylum at Vizagapatam, where he is still liv- 
ing. His wife, Anna, became a Bible woman in the zenana work. She died 
of cholera in 1912. 



DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) 179 

Third Elementary School in the town. All of the boarders 
came to Poulsen's house several times a week for one or two 
hours in the morning to receive religious instruction. 

The whole number of baptisms in the Mission from 1869 to 
1876 was 272. The losses by death, removal and backsliding 
during that period amounted to 40. The number of native 
Christian workers had remained about stationary since the 
beginning; but only one of the teachers in mission employ in 
1869 remained in 1876. So slow had been the progress of the 
work that Schmidt wrote in 1876: "Ever since Mr. Groenning 
and Mr. Long ceased their work in Rajahmundry, this station 
and Samulkot have given the impression of decline and decay. 
The property of the Mission and the number of Christians 
remain almost in statu quo. We do little more than keep our 
Mission alive." 

During 1876 and 1877 a fearful famine, accompanied by 
cholera and other diseases, prevailed in South India. 1 The 
Godavery district was not so severely affected as the districts 
farther south ; yet in Rajahmundry the price of provisions rose 
rapidly, and throughout the district cholera, small-pox and 
fever claimed many victims. There was much suffering and 
distress. From one of Schmidt's letters we quote the following 
description: "I had a number of jewels for which I advanced 
money to distressed persons, both Christians and heathen. 
As I do not exact interest, it is a great help to the poor people. 
Many are reduced to skin and bones. I should not wish you 
to witness the sights we see every Sunday, the day I have 
appointed for the poor to come and receive their mites. In 
the south it must be terrible. That mothers offer their off- 
spring for sale frequently happens. Lately poor wretches have 
even been found eating human flesh. The hand of the Lord 
lies heavily upon this land; but a movement toward the True 
God is nowhere to be noted." Nevertheless the charitable 
conduct of the missionaries and foreign residents won the 
gratitude and goodwill of the natives and opened new doors 
of opportunity for mission work. 

1 It was estimated that 5,000,000 people died of starvation during 1877 in 
South India. 



l8o THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

The most notable incident of the work of 1877 was the con- 
version of P. Venkataratnam, a Sudra. Poulsen baptized 
him in July, that year, at Peravaram, where he had been a 
government teacher for six years. His conversion aroused 
the enmity of his relatives, caste people, to such an extent 
that they sought by every possible means to get him away 
from the missionaries. They followed the house-boat in which 
Poulsen took him from Peravaram to Rajahmundry, and met 
it at the landing-place, accompanied by a crowd of two hundred 
persons, intent on getting Ratnam away. Schmidt secured an 
escort of police who conducted Ratnam in safety to the mis- 
sion house. There he was confronted by his relatives, but 
he told them that he had become a Christian because he 
believed in Christ as the Saviour, and exhorted them to be- 
come Christians. They pleaded with him, mocked, scolded 
and threatened him, but all to no avail. 

M. William became teacher at Jegurupad in 1877 ; Peter, the 
same year, being twenty- two years of age, took charge of the 
school at Muramunda. B.John, of the same age as Peter,taught 
a school of five children at Peravaram. Schmidt summed up 
the results of the work of the year 1877 as follows: "With 
fear and trembling we entered the year. The future seemed 
so threatening! The terrible famine had begun, accompanied 
by cholera and small-pox. A time of severe trial lay before us ; 
yet God in His goodness preserved us, while many around us 
fell victims to the famine and to disease. In our neighbor's 
house all but one died of cholera. Our hearts are filled with 
praise and thanksgiving to God. To the south, where they 
looked so long for rain, it rained recently so much that in 
places there were great floods. Here we have had but little 
rain; in Rajahmundry none for two months. The harvest is a 
total failure except where the canals furnished water for the 
fields, and even there only a half-crop was harvested. At 
our church building we employed a number of famine sufferers, 
and we also gave our teachers a little extra pay because of the 
famine. The church has already cost Rs. 1800 and is not 
finished. For two months we stopped building operations 
on account of other work. On tour Brother Poulsen and I 



DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) l8l 

were able to spend more time than usual, each devoting ex- 
actly one hundred days to travelling. We had a very happy 
Christmas; yet because of the famine fewer people came from 
the surrounding villages. As usual, the English judge, a 
friend of our Mission, gave a feast of good things on Christmas, 
which two hundred people attended. Around our large 
Christmas tree, with its 75 candles, seventy-nine children 
gathered. Each got a garment, a bag of cakes, an orange and 
a plaything. A number of garments which had been sent to 
my wife from friends and relatives in Denmark, were dis- 
tributed by her to those of her sewing class who had been 
regular in attendance. Our services were held in the incom- 
plete church, eighty persons partaking of the Lord's Supper 
on Christmas. During the year we baptized thirty-eight per- 
sons." 

The General Expense Accounts of the Mission show ex- 
penditures, in 1875, to the amount of $2651.07; in 1876, $3432; 
in 1877, $4343 - 1 

Only $500 more than the salaries of the missionaries were 
sent to India from America in 1875, and again in 1876; but in 
1877, $2000 in addition to the salaries were sent, which wiped 
out the deficit and left a balance of $54 in the mission treasury 
at the close of the year. 

A notable event of the year 1876 was the visit of the Rev. 
C. W. Groenning to the United States for the purpose of 
urging upon the General Council a more liberal and energetic 
support of its Mission in India. He delivered an impressive 
and effective address at its meeting in Bethlehem, Pa., and 
preached in a number of churches. As a result of his 
agitation the home administration was reorganized, and, as 

1 The accounts in detail are as follows: 

1875. 1876. 1877. 

Salary, Schmidt $1000.00 $1000.00 $1000.00 

Salary, Poulsen looo.oo looo.oo looo.oo 

Expenses, Schmidt's account 890.00 896.00 

Expenses, Poulsen's account 315.00 325.00 

Expenses, Schmidt's and Poulsen's 637.80 

Church building 600.00 

Deficit 13-27 227.00 522.00 

Totals $2651.07 $3432.00 $4343.00 



182 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

just noted, $2000 instead of $500 were sent to India in 1877 
for the mission work. 

In concluding its report to the General Council in 1876, the 
Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Ministerium recom- 
mended the appointment of a special committee for Foreign 
Missions, inasmuch as the large membership of the Executive 
Committee, their residences in widely separated places, and 
the fact that the home mission and educational interests of the 
Ministerium demanded almost all of the committee's time and 
attention, made it practically impossible for the committee 
to do full justice to the cause of foreign missions. Further- 
more, it was recommended that a General Secretary be called, 
who should give his entire time to the interests of the foreign 
mission work of the General Council, furnish mission news, 
visit the meetings of synods and conferences and awaken and 
maintain a greater interest in the cause. A third recommen- 
dation of the committee called for a more intimate relation 
between the "Missionsblatt," edited and published in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., by the Rev. A. E. Frey, and the Mission in India, 
and suggested that an English paper be published to further 
the interests of the India Mission. The General Council 
acted only on the first recommendation. It elected the fol- 
lowing Committee on Foreign Missions: The Revs. A. Spaeth, 
D. D., H. Grahn, B. M. Schmucker, D. D., F. Wischan, 
J. A. Kunkleman and Messrs. Wm. H. Staake and J. C. File. 
This committee met at the Seminary on Franklin Square, 
Philadelphia, and organized on October 31, 1876, by electing 
the Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., Chairman, the Rev. B. M. 
Schmucker, D. D., English Recording and Corresponding 
Secretary, and the Rev. F. Wischan, German Recording Secre- 
tary. The former arrangement, according to which the 
Treasurer of the General Council was also the Treasurer of 
the Foreign Mission Fund, was continued. William H. 
Staake, Esq., a member of the committee, was the newly 
elected incumbent of that office. This committee met regu- 
larly at the Seminary on the afternoon of the fourth Monday 
of each month, and addressed itself at once to the task of in- 
creasing the income for foreign missions. It sought to do 



DISHEARTENING DIFFICULTIES (1875-77) 183 

this, first, by making appeals through the church papers; 
secondly, by an effort to secure the sum of $1000, which 
Father Heyer had bequeathed to the Rajahmundry Mission; 
and, thirdly, by an attempt to secure from the editor of the 
"Missionsblatt" the sums which he had received for foreign 
missions. He was holding these funds until the Committee 
should call and send an additional missionary, claiming that 
they had been collected for that purpose only. The mis- 
sionaries in India also urged the sending of reinforcements 
in the following words: "We would gladly have from the 
General Council more than resolutions. We would have an 
embodied resolution a real flesh and blood missionary." 
The efforts of the new committee were successful, at least as 
far as the increase of foreign mission contributions was con- 
cerned, for the report of the Treasurer at the eleventh con- 
vention of the General Council at Philadelphia in October, 
1877, showed receipts for foreign missions amounting to 
$5877.41, as compared with $2974.46 during the previous 
year. 



CHAPTER VI 

IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 

THE conversion of the old mission house, erected by Valett 
in 1845, mto a church, was an important event in the history 
of the Rajahmundry Mission. The new building by its very 
appearance of churchliness, without and within, testified that 
the Christian religion was beginning to make itself felt as a 
definite and permanent force in the life of the native converts. 
It was built of bricks with a shingle roof, both being made by 
native Christians under the direction of Schmidt. The ground 
plan is cruciform, the length of the building, including the 
tower at the east end, being 70 feet, the width 20 feet. Two 
schoolrooms were attached at the ends of the main building 
on the north side. A resident English lawyer donated the 
pulpit. The baptismal font was purchased with money sent 
from Denmark by friends of Mrs. Schmidt. The first commu- 
nion vessels used in the church had an interesting history. One 
of the cups was the gift of Schmidt's father who gave it to 
Groenning, when he first went to India. A second cup of the 
same size and pattern had been presented by Groenning to 
Poulsen. A third cup had been used by the Wandsbecker 
Bote, Claudius, and had been presented to Schmidt by friends 
in Luebeck, when he passed through that place on his way to 
India. The paten was the gift of friends in Denmark. It 
was the original intention of the missionaries and of the Com- 
mittee in America to build the church as a memorial to Dr. C. 
F. Heyer, using the sum of money he had bequeathed to the 
Mission for its erection; but Heyer's estate was not settled 
until 1879, and then only $290 of the $1000 bequeathed was 
secured. The church was finished in the fall of 1878 and 
consecrated on Christmas day, that year, receiving the name of 
St. Paul's Church. 

Early in 1878 the first lace was sent from Rajahmundry to 
Philadelphia. It was made by the older girls of Mrs. Schmidt's 

184 




ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, RAJAHMUNDRY 




THE MISSION CHAPEL AT VELPUR 

Similar chapels have been built in a number of other villages, but, as a rule, the 
native congregations meet in mud-walled, thatch-roofed prayer houses. 



IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 185 

sewing class. "My sewing class meets every day from 12 to 
2 o'clock," wrote Mrs. Schmidt. "Boys as well as girls come. 
It takes time and patience to teach them, but those who are 
diligent soon learn to do good work. We furnish all the 
material, such as needles, thimbles and thread. The older 
girls crochet and do tracing. I was glad to be able to buy the 
lace made by the women during the time of famine, especially 
because the suggestion of earning something in this way came 
from them. Now I have more lace than I can dispose of here, 
and am going to send some to America, where it may find a sale. 1 

Poulsen undertook a short tour in July, 1878, in the "Dove 
of Peace." He took his wife and children 2 and his catechist, 
Joseph, with him. At Jegurupad he baptized a woman on her 
death-bed, who had left her husband when, several years 
before, he had become a Christian. At the same time he 
baptized two of their children. At Muramunda he baptized 
three young women, daughters of heathen parents, one of 
whom was a widow, and another the wife of a Christian 
absent in Rangoon. 

On September 23, 1878, a daughter was born to Rev. and 
Mrs. Schmidt, who at her baptism received the name of 
Dagmar Inger Dorothea. Two days after her baptism, on 
October 8th, Poulsen with his family left for Vellore and 
Madras on sick leave, and was absent from Rajahmundry 
over two months. 

In March, 1878, a communication from the missionaries 
was read to the Foreign Missions Committee, asking for per- 
mission to ordain the catechists Joseph and Paulus to the 
office of the holy ministry. The Committee granted the re- 
quest at its meeting in May, and the Synod of Pennsylvania 
at Easton, Pa., June 18, 1878, authorized their ordination. 3 

1 The June number of the "Missionsbote," 1878, contained a notice offering 
this lace for sale. It sold readily at 8 and 10 cents a yard. 

2 September 2, 1875, a son had been born to Rev. and Mrs. Poulsen, who at 
his baptism received the name of Aage Iver. 

3 At a conference with the catechists on December ist, Schmidt officially 
informed them of the authorization received from America and had them sign 
the following agreement: 

"i. The end in view in every Mission must be the establishment of independ- 
ent native churches with native pastors. 

"2. In the event of the ordination of Joseph and Paulus, the General Council 



1 86 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

After a serious illness of three weeks Schmidt was again 
well enough on Christmas, 1878, to take part in the services 
of that season, which included not only the usual celebration 
of the festival but more especially the consecration of the 
new church at Rajahmundry and the ordination of Joseph 
and Paulus. These services began at 8 o'clock in the morning. 
More than two hundred Christians were present, and many 
heathen gathered about the doors and the windows of the 
church. Poulsen preached in Telugu and Schmidt in English. 
Then came the formal consecration of the building to the wor- 
ship of the only True God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The 
solemn ordination of the catechists closed the service of the 
morning, which lasted three hours. During the service three 
adults and two infants were baptized. Joseph and Paulus 
wore white gowns; Schmidt and Poulsen black ones. The 
candidates knelt at the altar and were ordained by the mis- 
sionaries by the laying on of hands and by prayer. The 
administration of the Lord's Supper to the congregation fol- 
lowed the ordination, the newly ordained native pastors 
assisting in the distribution. In the afternoon the usual 
Christmas dinner was served to the Christians in the mission 
compound at the expense of the English judge. 

At a conference of missionaries and native pastors, held 
the day after Christmas, it was resolved to ask the Com- 
mittee in America to increase the salary of the native pastor 
to Rs. 25 a month with a travelling allowance of 5 annas for 
each day spent on tour beyond six miles from the pastor's 

promises to pay in future their salaries, namely, Rs. 20 per month and travelling 
expenses. 

"3. They are to reside in a central village and be the pastors of a number of 
surrounding villages, where they are to try to develop an independent ministry. 
A district is to be assigned them for special evangelistic work among the heathen. 
They are to accompany the missionaries on longer mission tours. 

"4. The foreign missionaries are to remain superintendents of these congre- 
gations; but they are to regard the native pastors as fellow-ministers who with 
them are members of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in North America. 

"5. With regard to money received from foreign sources the foreign mis- 
sionaries remain the only agents, but with regard to money collected in their 
own congregations, the native pastors have equal vote with the foreign mis- 
sionaries. 

"6. As soon as a third missionary arrives, church government is to be vested 
in a Conference or Synod." 



IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 187 

residence. It was, moreover, resolved to exact a fee of 
Rs. 2 annually, payable in advance, for each seat in the church 
at Rajahmundry, those paying no fees to have the privilege 
of using the mat. At an adjourned meeting, on December 
2Qth, a system of fees for Christians outside of Rajahmundry 
was devised for the building, repair and maintenance of 
churches and schools; but the Committee hi America disap- 
proved of the system and advised the encouragement of 
voluntary but systematic contributions. 1 

A forward step of far-reaching importance was taken by the 
American Committee in November, 1877, when it resolved 
to publish a German organ "in which the wants and claims 
of our Telugu Mission could find adequate expression, and 
through which our congregations could be interested in its 
behalf." The Rev. F. Wischan was elected editor-in-chief, 
the Revs. A. Spaeth, D. D., and H. Grahn associate editors. 
The first number of "Der Missionsbote," as the new paper 
was called, appeared in the first week in January, 1878, and 
thereafter monthly. The number of subscriptions rose during 
the year to 8000. Every year the accounts showed a profit, 
which was turned into the General Fund. 

But the most important step of the year 1878 was the 
sending out of the fifth foreign missionary of the General 
Council, the Rev. A. B. Carlson, a Swede, and the first man 
wholly trained in America to become a General Council 
foreign missionary. 

Augustus B. Carlson was born in Doedeihult, Sweden, 
August 16, 1846. He emigrated to the United States when he 
was seventeen years of age, and after attending Knox College, 
Galesburg, 111., studied theology at the Evangelical Lutheran 
Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, from which he was 
graduated in 1878. At the close of his senior year he received 
and accepted the call to go to India. He was ordained by the 
Swedish Augustana Synod, June 16, 1878, at Princeton, 111. 

1 The year ended in India with a balance of $379 in the mission treasury, 
$4000 having been received from America and $126 from the friends of the 
Mission living at Rajahmundry. Schmidt's expenditures for district and 
school work had amounted to $973; Poulsen's, to $520; and the new church 
building had required $520 additional, or $1120 in all. 



1 88 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Two weeks after his ordination, on May 3ist, in Philadelphia, 
he married Miss Hilda Linsky. He was solemnly commis- 
sioned for service in our foreign mission on the morning of 
June 24th, at a service held in Zion's and St. Michael's Church, 
Philadelphia. The Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., chairman of the 
Foreign Missions Committee, delivered the charge to the 
missionary, addressing him in the following words: "I ask 
you, dear brother, do you believe and confess the teachings of 
our Evangelical Lutheran Church, and promise to teach in 
conformity with her Confessions as a missionary among the 
heathen, and to adorn the doctrines of the Church by a holy 
walk and conversation? Are you willing and ready to devote 
your life to the holy calling and work of a missionary with all 
your mind and strength, though you may be called upon to 
lay down your life for the Name of Jesus?" 

Thereupon the missionary answered so that all in the church 
heard him: "Yes, the Lord helping me through the power of 
His Holy Spirit." Kneeling, he was commissioned with the 
laying on of hands, Dr. Spaeth repeating John 15:16 in 
German; Dr. Schmucker, Acts 20: 24 in English; and Rev. Mr. 
Lindberg, John 15:4 and Psalm 121 : 8 in Swedish. After the 
missionary had risen, Dr. Spaeth addressed the congregation, 
saying, "And now, dear congregation, forget not this solemn 
hour and all this of which we have been witnesses. He whom 
we have here commissioned for service in our mission field is 
your messenger. Remember him and our Mission in your 
prayers. Pray for him in earnest, continual supplications. 
His work is your work; his conflict, your conflict; his victory, 
your victory." 

The offering at this service was used for the purchase of an 
organ for the Rajahmundry church, costing $155, which had 
been displayed at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. 
The Rev. A. T. Geissenhainer presented the missionary with 
a silver communion set for use in the Mission. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carlson sailed from New York June 26, 1878 
visited his parents in Sweden, took ship at Trieste, passed 
through the Suez Canal, reached Madras January 14, 1879, 
and Coconada eight days later. At Coconada Schmidt met 



IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 189 

them with the "Dove of Peace," and brought them to Rajah- 
mundry. Happy beyond expression were the missionaries on 
the field because, after waiting eight years, hoping almost 
against hope, they could grasp the hand of another co- 
laborer. 

On February 3, 1879, a Mission Conference was formally 
organized, Schmidt being elected President, and Poulsen 
Secretary and Treasurer. It was resolved that Carlson should 
conduct regular English services in St. Paul's Church, Rajah- 
mundry, for the benefit of the English-speaking families. 
Pastor Joseph was stationed at Jegurupad and Pastor Paulus 
at Velpur. Each baptized twenty-five persons by the first of 
May. Joseph visited Muramunda, Peravaram and Lolla on 
the east side of the Godavery River; Paulus was given Malla- 
pudi, Jagganathpuram, Mahadevipatnam and Argatipalem 
on the west side. The wisdom of their ordination and appoint- 
ment to special parishes soon became evident. Unlike the 
foreign missionaries, they had no building operations to super- 
intend, no boats to build, no salaries to distribute, no work of 
any secular kind whatever to do. Accustomed to the climate, 
thoroughly familiar with the habits of thought and modes of 
life in their own country, having a good command of the con- 
versational vernacular, these sons of the soil, Telugus of the 
Telugus, whom all foreign missionaries who had known them 
Heyer, Groenning, Schmidt and Poulsen had recommended 
for ordination, proved to be a power for good in the Mission 
that can scarcely be overestimated. 

Another native Christian, who from the day of his baptism 
was of great service to the missionaries, was Ratnam. After 
having spent a year as Schmidt's Telugu teacher, he was given 
charge of the school at Rajahmundry, when Paulus and Joseph 
left for their respective stations in January, 1879. In April 
he reported an attendance of twenty- three pupils, boys and 
girls, in two classes. In the first class the following branches 
were taught in Telugu : Bible History, New Testament Read- 
ings, Luther's Small Catechism, Telugu Language (Fourth 
Book), Telugu History, Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic 
and Writing. The second class had two divisions. In Divi- 



THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sion A, the Telugu Language (Second Book), Catechism, Old 
Testament History, Arithmetic and Writing were taught; 
in Division B, Telugu (First Book) and Arithmetic to multi- 
plication. The boarding boys, of whom there were eleven, 
attended in part the Rajahmundry mission school and in part 
the Government schools of the town, all of them meeting 
Missionary Poulsen for one hour of religious instruction each 
day. This arrangement was very unsatisfactory. The mis- 
sionaries desired to have a mission school of a higher grade, 
and presented its claims to the Committee in America, 
which, as a consequence, reported to the General Council at 
Zanesville, O., in 1879, as follows: "We are deeply impressed 
with the importance of elevating the grade of our provision for 
instruction. The schools, at present, are entirely Telugu, and 
furnish no means for completing the training of the teachers 
and catechists. This must be done in the Government schools, 
from which all Christian instruction is excluded. We cannot 
hope to obtain qualified teachers from other Missions, and we 
have no training-school of our own. Our present force is not 
adequate. The first necessity, therefore, is more laborers. 
If good teachers could be sent out, the want might be partially 
supplied. The Conference has proposed the re-occupation of 
Samulkot as a place well adapted for an advanced school, there 
being no government school in that place; but the absence of 
a Christian congregation there makes us doubt whether the 
step is advisable until our number of laborers is larger." 
It was hoped that Carlson, because of his familiarity with 
the English language, might fit himself in time to become the 
manager of a training-school for native workers, but this hope 
was blasted by Carlson's early death. 

Schmidt, greatly needing a protracted vacation, left Rajah- 
mundry, with his wife and infant daughter, March 19, 1879, 
for the Nilgiri Hills. From Madras they went to Coimbatore, 
where for three days they were the guests of the Leipsic mis- 
sionary, Sandegren. Then by bullock cart they travelled to 
Coonoor and farther up to Ootacamund, which lies at an ele- 
vation of 8000 feet above sea-level, and where in April and 
May, the hottest months on the plains, the average tempera- 



IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 191 

ture is about 60 Fahrenheit. Here they spent two months, 
thoroughly enjoying the cool mountain air, which renewed 
their health and strength, and the pleasant fellowship of other 
missionaries and their families, as well as of English officials; 
for Ootacamund had become one of the favorite vacation 
resorts in South India. June and July were spent in Banga- 
lore, where Schmidt met and labored with a Commission of 
eleven other missionaries in the revision of the Telugu Bible. 1 
After leaving Bangalore, July 3ist, the Schmidts went to 
the Basel Mission station at Calicut on the west coast, because 

1 The first printed translation of the New Testament into Telugu was done 
by Brahmins under the supervision of William Carey at Serampur in 1818, 
but was entirely useless. The first translation which could be used was made 
by Missionary Gordon and other missionaries of the London Missionary Society 
at Vizagapatam, who translated the Old Testament in 1809-23. This trans- 
lation was published by the Madras Auxiliary Bible Society. A revision of 
this translation made by the Rev. J. Hay formed the basis of the work of the 
commission. Six hours a day were given to the work. At 8 o'clock in the 
morning the commissioners met around a long table, the chairman, Dr. Cham- 
berlain of the American Dutch Reformed Church Mission, sitting at one 
end and the Rev. Mr. Hay at the other. After a Scripture lesson and prayer, 
the day's work began with a review of the previous day's revision. Then new 
work was taken up, Rev. Mr. Hay reading his manuscript sentence by sentence. 
The Greek versions of Tischendorf , Tragelles and Lachmann were used as well 
as the Hebrew original. Dr. Chamberlain compared the translation suggested 
with the originals in every case. Dr. Jewett of the American Baptist Mission, 
had the Sanscrit and De Wette's German translation before him. Dr. Alex- 
ander of the C. M. S., Ellore, had the English versions; Rev. Mr. Clay of the 
Propagation Society, the Tamil; Rev. Mr. Lewis of the London Society, the 
Canarese and Urdu; Rev. H. C. Schmidt of the American Lutheran Mission, 
Rajahmundry, the Danish and Luther's German. Several native pastors 
rendered valuable assistance by suggesting the suitable Telugu diction. 

Mr. Schmidt gives the final revision of Matthew 7 : 21 as a sample of Telugu 
construction, as follows: "Lord, Lord, to me saying everyone not, but in heaven 
being my Father's will who is doing, shall into the kingdom of heaven come." 
Such words as Heaven, Gehenna, Hades, sacrifice, law, judgment gave the 
commission much difficulty, until finally words used in Hindu mythology were 
employed in the hope that their Christian use would eventually sanctify them. 
Where this method seemed dangerous or questionable, Sanscrit terms were 
employed. 

When the close of Matthew's Gospel was reached the Baptists on the Com- 
mission insisted that the participles baptizing and teaching should be rendered in 
the imperative, but the necessity of placing the main verb "make disciples," 
according to Telugu syntax, at the end of the whole sentence, perplexed them 
considerably, for it clearly upset their Baptist theory. For the word "bap- 
tize," however, they did not insist on the use of the Telugu word for immerse, 
for in a figurative sense that also means to deceive. The use of the Greek term 
"baptizo" was rejected and finally the word "snanamu," used by Telugus for 
their ceremonial washings, was adopted. 

The Commission resolved to meet for two months every year, each member 
working independently ad interim, until the revision had been completed. 



THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Schmidt wanted to see their industrial work. They were back 
in Rajahmundry by the end of August. 

While Schmidt was away, Poulsen, who supervised all the 
mission work, had an attack of typhus fever from which 
he could not fully recover, and his return to Europe was urged 
by his family physician. The Foreign Missions Committee 
granted him a furlough, to begin in the spring of 1880. 

In August, 1879, the following table of statistics was sent to 
America: 

Chris- Commun- Pupils. 
tians. 1 icants. Boys. Girls. 

Rajahmundry and Dowlaishwarara, V. Ratnam 86 44 27 18 

Pastor Paulus' Parish : 

Velpur, H. Alfred 34 20 3 6 

Mallipudi, E. John '. 10 4 5 i 

Batlamungutur, K. Prakasam .. 17 5 

Jagganathpuram, C. Matthew 20 n 3 3 

Mahadevipatnam, N. Stephen 14 6 6 

Agartipalem 18 6 

Pastor Joseph's Parish: 

Jegurupad, Pastor Joseph 74 36 6 6 

Muramunda, M. William 44 28 7 

Peravaram, B. John 24 12 . . 3 

Lolla ,. 10 4 

Totals 334 171 74 42 

One of the encouraging features of the closing years of the 
first decade of the history of the India Mission was the in- 
crease of financial support from America. As much as $5525 
was received in India from America in 1879, and the total 
income of the mission treasury, including a balance of the 
previous year and $155 from local contributors, amounted to 
$7103.90. The total expenditures amounted to $4435.68, 
including the salaries of the three missionaries, each of whom 
received $1000, leaving a balance, at the close of 1879, of 
$2668.22. 

The accounts in India did not, however, adequately express 
the actual increase of effort on the part of the Church at home, 
for there were many items of expenditure connected with the 
affairs at home and the sending out of Carlson which were not 

1 The total number of baptisms in the Mission, to the end of the year 1879, 
that is, for the first ten years of the work of the missionaries of the General 
Council, was 400. 



IMPORTANT EVENTS (1878-79) 193 

entered on the books in India. The following table of income 
and expenditure in America will, therefore, serve to give a 
better idea of this increase. The figures are taken from the 
reports of the treasurer of the General Council: 

1870. 1871. 1872. 

Income $2480.49 $3065.00 $4555-79 

Expenditures 2065.74 2861.32 2276.29 

Balance 414-75 203.68 2279.50 

1873. 1874. 1875. 

Income $6148.74 $5368.00 $3385-13 

Expenditures 3879.24 4008.96 2071.66 

Balance 2269.50 i359-4 3 J 3-47 

1876. 1877. 1878, 1879. 

Income $2974.46 $5877.41 $13,003.67 

Expenditures 2806.56 4347.68 12,821.72 

Balance 167.90 1529.73 181.95 

At the convention of the General Council at Zanesville, O., 
in 1879, th e Foreign Missions Committee suggested that its 
membership be enlarged so as to permit some representation 
from the Swedish Augustana Synod, which was beginning to 
contribute several hundred dollars annually. As a conse- 
quence the following members were added: Rev. C. J. Petri 
and Rev. Samuel Laird, D. D. The committee was also 
empowered to fill all vacancies and to add others to its mem- 
bership, if found necessary. Philadelphia was designated 
as the geographical center with reference to which the Com- 
mittee should in the future be constituted. 

The "Missionsbote" had become such a successful venture, 
having increased its subscribers to 13,000, that the General 
Council authorized and instructed its Committee on Foreign 
Missions to publish also an English organ for the development 
of interest among the churches which used that language. 
The Committee at once, in November, 1879, resolved to 
publish a four-page paper, similar to "The Church Messenger" 
in style and form, and elected the Rev. William Ashmead 
Schaeffer editor-in-chief, and the Rev. B. M. Schmucker, 
D. D., associate editor. The first number of this paper, "The 
Foreign Missionary," appeared in January, 1880, and there- 
after regularly every month. 

13 



194 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

As the work in India spread and the interest in America 
grew, the need of more missionaries was more urgently pre- 
sented. The Committee pleaded at Zanesville for men from 
America. It pointed out the fact that the missionaries who 
had been laboring at Rajahmundry, had all been born in 
Europe, and that the General Council had not yet furnished 
one missionary who had been both born and educated in the 
United States. "This," said the Committee, "is surely a cause 
for shame and repentance." Their appeal moved the General 
Council to pass the following resolution: "Resolved, That 
inasmuch as our Telugu Mission greatly needs more laborers, 
and believing that it is the imperative duty of the General 
Council to provide for this need, we, as pastors and delegates, 
earnestly praying to the Lord to send more laborers into the 
field, will work diligently in our synods, congregations, Sunday 
schools and families to awaken a deeper interest in the great 
work of foreign missions." 

God heard the prayers of His Church and soon raised up a 
number of men for the Mission in India. 




THE HINDU TRIAD OF GODS 
Brahma, The Creator; Vishnu, The Preserver; Siva, The Destroyer. 




THE MONKEY GOD HANUMAN 

He has the body and legs of a human being with five arms on each side and the 
head and tail of a monkey. 




KEY 

1. Hindu Temple. 

2. School Inspector 1 ! Office. 

3. Hindu Temple. 

4. An Inn. 
It. Toll-date. 

6. torts' Central School. 

7. l> -Tirt .lull. 

8. TolWJiite. 
9 10. Tank*. 

11. JU'lge'l Court. 

I- 1 . PutiH'anvi school. 

r;. MutiMfsCourt. 

II. R'vcnlale (.'iris' Nchool. 

15. Chkf Kng'r's Bungalow. 

16. Angllcun Church. 

17. Roinnn Catholic Church, 
ix. Bungalow. 

19. fa. Paul's Church. 

20. Vmlarcri JC. K. Station. 
21. .lu.ljte's Bungalow. 

-'.'. An Inn. 

23. Former Post Office. 

24. A ,v B. Hindu Temple*. 

25. Municipal Boys' School. 
26 Government Girls' School. 
27. Municipal Hospital. 

24. A. Police Sta. B. Mosque. 

29. An Inn. 

30. Hindu Temple. 

31. II. R. Freight Station. 

32. Municipal Primary Boys' School. 
33 Government College. 

34-35. Timks. 

36 An Inn. 

31. College Cnmpui. 

38. Edward Primary Boys' School. 

3J. Agency Collector's Office. 

40. Magistrate's Court. 

41. Taluk Co-irt. 

4>. Telegrnph Office. 
43. Art's College. 
41. Toll-Gate. 

45. Rajanmundry R. R. Sta. 

46. Halcott's Garden. 

17. Virlt' School, Jamipetta. 
48. " " Lackahmivarampetta 

19. " " Manoalavarampetta. 

63. Munshlg<tru Sabbarayyudu sH'ae 

51. D'tperuary. A. E L. Million. 

52. (ilrls- School, Bethlrhrm. 

53. Medical Jlomr. Xftv lloip'l Kite 
51. Sunday Nchool (Mia tiwemon). 
55. dirla' School, Aryapuram. 

56. Museum t;nrden. 
:,7. New PosKlftice. 
53. Zenana Home. 
69. Hiverdale Hunoolow. 

60. English Club House. 

61. Cemetery . A. E. L. Mission. 

62. A"u> Bnyt' Central School. 

63. Xtw Boys' Central tichool. Dormitory. 

64. A'ew Boys' Central tichool, Mgr's Bu ngalow 

65. Wnman'tand Children's Temp. Hospital. 

66. .Missionary', Btttiijalow,Church Compoun 

67. Btjif ffiuh Scl',,ol. 

Missionaries' Bin'talnn'. (^frs. Taylor's). 
69-70. Sunday &choi,t, (Miss Swenson). 



RAJAHMUNDRY, 
INDIA. 



MAP OF RAJAHMUNDRY IX 1910 



CHAPTER VII 

PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 

RAJAHMUNDRY in 1880, as described by Schmidt, was _a 
town of about 20,200 inhabitants, of whom 18,000 were 
Hindus, 2000 Moslems and 200 Christians. "The town is 
located about seventeen degrees north latitude and 81 de- 
grees east longitude, on the left bank of the Godavery River, 
40 miles from the sea and 365 miles north of Madras. It 
has one long, main avenue, from which most of the streets, 
which are narrow, run down to the river. The town is an old 
one and is irregularly laid out, excepting in its southern suburb, 
Innespett, which, begun a few decades ago, has broad streets 
crossing at right angles. Many of the wealthier natives live 
in this suburb, at the southern extremity of which are the 
Government College and the telegraph office. 1 

"As one approaches the town, little can be seen except the 
trees which are large and afford abundant shade. The houses 
are nearly all one-story buildings made of mud walls, covered 
with tiles or a palm-leaf thatch. In the western 2 part of the 
town is the Municipal Hospital, where patients are admitted 
free. Near the hospital is an old Mohammedan cemetery, 
near which our mission buildings are located, namely, St. 
Paul's Church (the old mission house), and, on the opposite 
side of the street, Carlson's bungalow. Farther east are the 
cemetery of the Mission and of the Anglican Church. Nearby 
is the residence of that old friend of our Mission, Captain 
Taylor. The northern part of the town is occupied chiefly by 
Europeans. Here the Anglican Church and the Museum are 
located. North of the Judge's bungalow, along the river 
bank, is the public Promenade, where in the evening, many 

1 The telegraph office, connected with the post-office, is now in the heart 
of the city. 

2 At the present time the Municipal Hospital lies rather in the central 
part of Rajahmundry. 

195 



196 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

people resort after the heat of the day. About one hundred 
paces away lies the Museum Garden. The Promenade ends 
on the north with a part of the old walls of a fort; right beyond 
this is the Court House which, being in a state of dilapida- 
tion, is to be replaced by a new building. Close by lies the 
garden which is the site of the new missionary's bungalow 
(Riverdale). On the northern outskirts is the washermen's 
quarter. Between the buildings near the river bank and 
our mission buildings lie the residences of the Collector, 
College professors, English lawyers and Hindus, the Anglican 
and Roman Catholic churches, the district jail and the police 
headquarters. 

"Rajahmundry is a center of considerable trade. The chief 
articles of commerce are rice, tobacco, gall-nuts and teak 
wood. Merchandise and passengers are daily transported 
to Coconada, Narsapur, Koringa, Amalapur and Ellore, as 
well as up the stream to Dummugudem. Hundreds are em- 
ployed at ship-building. The town boasts of a small printing- 
press and several newspapers whose subscription lists, how- 
ever, are small, for the Hindu is too conservative to adopt 
novelties." 

Poulsen, after nine years of uninterrupted service at Rajah- 
mundry, left on a well-earned furlough with his wife and four 
children, sailing from Madras April 16, 1880, and reaching 
Copenhagen early in June. Leaving his family in Denmark, 
he came to the United States on the invitation of the Foreign 
Missions Committee. He secured a free passage across the 
Atlantic in a Danish ship by serving as chaplain during the 
voyage. Reaching Philadelphia on August 25th, he spent 
four months in the United States, met the Committee at its 
September meeting, attended the convention of the General 
Council at Greensburg, Pa., and several of the district Con- 
ferences of the Synod of Pennsylvania, and preached to con- 
gregations in Pennsylvania and New York. He returned to 
Copenhagen in December, again securing a free passage on a 
Danish ship. 

Carlson studied Telugu with the assistance of James and 
other native Christians. He began English services in St. 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 197 

Paul's Church, Rajahmundry, on the first Sunday of the year 
1880, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, immediately after the close 
of the session of the Sunday school which Mrs. Carlson or- 
ganized and superintended, assisted by James and William. 
He also undertook to teach Bible-classes in Rajahmundry 
and Dowlaishwaram, which at first were well attended but 
afterward were discontinued. It was understood that he was 
to take charge of the educational work, and on March i8th 
he started for Masulipatam, where the Church Missionary 
Society conducted two boarding schools, one for boys and one 
for girls, and where Noble High School, afterward raised to 
the grade of a college, was located, in order to study the meth- 
ods used in these schools and work out a plan for the organiza- 
tion and management of a training-school for native workers 
at Rajahmundry. After the hot season, which he spent with 
his wife at Narsapur, he also visited Vizagapatam to see the 
schools of the London Missionary Society. 

Meanwhile Schmidt supervised the work of the entire Mis- 
sion. He left the care of the district work, however, almost 
entirely in the hands of the native pastors. When in Rajah- 
mundry he conducted a devotional exercise every morning 
for the teachers and pupils of the school and such Christians 
as desired to attend, devoted an hour each day to the religious 
instruction of the boarding boys, and conducted the Sunday 
Telugu services in St. Paul's Church, which were held at 
7 A. M. during the hot season and at 8 A. M. during the cool 
season. At these Telugu services the vernacular translation of 
the order of service in the Church of England's Book of Com- 
mon Prayer was used, with omissions and modifications. At 
the English services in the afternoon and on Wednesday 
evenings the Church Book of the General Council and its 
Sunday School Book were used. 

Schmidt was busily occupied during the year 1880 in the 
erection of a new bungalow. He had bought a garden on the 
bank of the river containing two acres for Rs. 400. In it he 
found a part of the ruined wall of the old fortress, containing 
100 cubic yards of hewn stone, which he dug up and used 
for the foundation of his bungalow. The erection of this 



igS THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

bungalow at the expense of the Mission was authorized by the 
Foreign Missions Committee on the condition that as much 
of the ground as needed should be secured as mission property. 1 

After having passed the matriculation examination at the 
Government College, James, in 1880, assisted Ratnam in 
the school work at Rajahmundry. Lizzie, J. William's sister, 
taught the infant class. In August, 1880, three girls at- 
tending the school were placed in homes of native Christians as 
boarders; two, Annamma and Maria, being supported by the 
Ladies' Sewing Society of St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia, 
and the third, Susan, by the Sunday school class of the same 
church, taught by Miss Susan E. Monroe. Mrs. Carlson suc- 
ceeded Mrs. Schmidt as the teacher of the sewing class which 
met daily on the verandah of the Carlson bungalow. After 
his return from Vizagapatam, Carlson took charge of the 
mission school, which was conducted in the schoolrooms of 
St. Paul's Church. 

The sixth foreign missionary of the General Council, the 
first who had been born and educated in the United States, 
reached India in 1880. 

Horace G. B. Artman was born at Zionsville, Upper Milford 
township, Lehigh County, Pa., September 23, 1857. His 
parents moved to Philadelphia when he was a boy, and became 
members of St. Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church on 
Spring Garden Street, in which he grew up and was confirmed 
by the Rev. J. A. Kunkleman, D. D. After having been 
graduated from the High School hi Philadelphia, he entered 
the Theological Seminary at Philadelphia in 1876. At the close 
of his senior year he received and accepted the call of the 

1 In the minutes of the Committee, January 26, 1880, we find the following 
resolution: "Resolved, That Missionary Schmidt shall build a house as the 
property of the Mission. It shall, if at all possible, be erected on mission prop- 
erty. Moreover, it should not be expensively built, but similar to other 
missionaries' houses." In the minutes of the Committee, May 31, 1880, we 
find the following: "Resolved, That Brother Schmidt be authorized to build 
a house in Schmidt's garden, that this house be built at our expense and be our 
property, that the ground on which it is built and the surrounding lot be pur- 
chased by us, and that only after this is the case shall the building be begun. 
As far as the Committee can determine at present, Schmidt is to occupy this 
house; yet we cannot bind ourselves in this matter, because our plans concerning 
the Mission are liable to change." 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 199 

Foreign Missions Committee. He was ordained at the meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Ministerium held at Lancaster on May 26, 
1880. He married Miss Lizzie M. Vaux, also a member of St. 
Mark's Church, Philadelphia, on the evening of June 8, 1880. 
He was solemnly commissioned in that church on June i3th, 
the Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., chairman of the Foreign Missions 
Committee, delivering the commission. The Rev. Mr. Artman 
kneeled at the altar and the hands of the officers of the Com- 
mittee and of Dr. Laird were laid upon him, each reciting an 
appropriate passage of Holy Scripture. Mr. and Mrs. Art- 
man sailed from New York on July yth, spent a few months 
in Europe at their own expense, and reached Madras on Oc- 
tober 8th. Carlson, in the "Dove of Peace," met them at 
Coconada on October zyth. At Rajahmundry Mrs. Carlson 
met them at the landing place accompanied by the teachers 
and pupils of the mission school, who welcomed them with 
hymns of praise and gladness and escorted them to their 
bungalow. 

"It was with great joy and deepest feelings of gratitude," 
wrote Artman, "that we wended our way to St. Paul's Church 
on our first Sabbath morning in Rajahmundry. Our St. 
Paul's Church has been very wisely, substantially, and even 
beautifully built. It has a large, airy audience-room, with 
a handsome pulpit, reading-desk, altar and chancel-rail of 
dark wood, and beautiful hanging and wall lamps for the 
evening services. The walls of the church inside and outside 
are as white as snow. The steeple contains a bell, and from its 
summit a good view of the surrounding country can be ob- 
tained. It would fill our dear mission friends in America with 
joy, if they could assemble with the native Christians in this 
comfortable building. Benches are placed along one side, 
which are used by the missionaries, native pastors, European 
visitors, and a few of the male Christians. The Telugu con- 
gregation always sits cross-legged on the mat, that being 
their usual manner of sitting, in the following order: First, 
the little girls, then the boys, then the women, and lastly the 
men. The people present quite a picturesque appearance in 
their clean, white or gaily colored clothes, jackets and turbans. 



200 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

We were deeply impressed with the neatness and order among 
the Christians, young and old. There are about fifty children 
and forty adults who attend the services every Sunday 
morning at 8 o'clock, and in the afternoon at 4. The singing 
is very hearty and spirited, and is entirely congregational. 
Everyone joins heartily in the responses of the liturgy. Dur- 
ing the entire service, which generally lasts one hour, close 
attention and reverence are maintained. Almost every 
Sunday some heathen come into the church or stand at the 
open doors and windows to see and to listen. They cannot 
fail to be impressed with the great difference between their 
shallow, meaningless idol-worship and our solemn services in 
the house of the Lord." 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Artman at once commenced the study 
of Telugu. On November 2ist they took charge of a Sunday 
school of Eurasian children, which had been started by Miss 
Elizabeth Reade on the verandah of her home, but which, as 
soon as the Artmans took charge of it, met in St. Paul's 
Church. Under their efficient management it soon had sixty 
pupils and seven teachers enrolled. Miss Annie Bilderbeck, 
who served as the organist at the English services, rendered 
them valuable aid in this Sunday school. 

The number baptized in the Mission during the year 1880 
was 124, making 536 since 1869. The adult communicants 
at the close of the year numbered 216. In the Rajahmundry 
school there were 36 boys and 37 girls. The boarding boys 
numbered 16, the boarding girls 13. The Sunday schools, 
one in Telugu and one in English, enrolled 46 boys and 53 
girls, taught by twelve teachers. Eleven native Christian 
teachers were employed in as many village schools in the dis- 
tricts. 

The expenditures in India rose to a total of $7558.23 in 1880, 
including Rs. 6784, or $2917. 23, 1 for general expenses, $3550 
for the salaries of the missionaries, and $1091 for Poulsen's 
travelling expenses on furlough. 

On the removal of the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer to 
Chicago, in September, 1880, his father, the Rev. C. W. 

J The value of a rupee had fallen to about 43 cents. 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 2OI 

Schaeffer, D. D., Professor at the Theological Seminary in 
Philadelphia, who was chosen to take his son's place as a 
member of the Foreign Missions Committee, became the 
editor of "The Foreign Missionary," which then had about 
4000 subscribers. The "Missionsbote" had increased the 
number of its subscribers to 13,500, and reported a surplus 
of $987.27 at the close of the year. 

One of the evidences of an increased interest in the Church 
at home was the organization, in 1880, of a student's mis- 
sionary society at the Evangelical Lutheran Theological 
Seminary in Philadelphia, under the name of "The Father 
Heyer Missionary Society," which from the first devoted 
itself primarily to the study and support of foreign missions. 

Having put a temporary thatch of river-grass on the 
new bungalow, "Riverdale," the Rev. Mr. Schmidt and his 
wife, with their daughter, Dagmar, on January 30, 1881, 
moved into several rooms which they had furnished, and the 
Artmans took possession of the house in the church-com- 
pound, formerly occupied by the Schmidts. 

During January and a part of February the Rev. Mr. Carl- 
son and his wife used the "Dove of Peace" for an extended 
tour of the villages in the delta in which Christians resided. 
Carlson baptized twenty-nine adults and children on this 
tour. He complained of having attacks of headache almost 
every day, and returned in rather bad health. 

In March Schmidt took Artman in the "Dove of Peace" on 
the latter's first mission tour through the canals of the delta. 
The latter's description gives an excellent idea of the manner 
in which these tours are usually conducted: 

"After stocking the mission-boat with provisions and other 
necessaries sufficient for a number of days, we set sail from 
Rajahmundry on February 2ist. The passengers besides 
myself were Rev. and Mrs. Schmidt and their little daughter, 
Dagmar, Rev. N. Paulus, Jeremiah, the colporteur, Jacob, 
the cook, and his assistant. Zachariah was at the helm and 
with the help of four boatmen attended to the navigation of 
the boat. We soon entered the system of canals which spread 



202 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

like a network over the delta of the Godavery, and moved 
along steadily in a southeasterly direction, sometimes using 
the boat's sail and, when there was no wind, being pulled 
along by the boatmen who ran along the tow-path, or being 
propelled by means of long bamboo poles in the hands of the 
men. We sailed on steadily for the first three days without 
making any long stops, in order to reach the most distant 
villages before the canal would be closed. . . . Now and then 
we would pass a village, which always presented a lively 
scene women coming with jars or chatties to carry water 
to their homes, balancing them gracefully on their heads; 
washermen beating away lustily at their clothes; here and 
there a Brahmin carefully and piously attending to his cere- 
monial ablutions. 

"The vegetation along the bank was very beautiful, con- 
sisting of large mango orchards with their partly colored leaves 
and blossoms, stately palmyras and graceful cocoanuts, while 
the banks of the canals throughout were lined with valuable 
shade trees. When the brightness of the sun would not let 
us enjoy the outside world, we spent our time in conversing, 
writing, reading or studying. In the cool of the evening it was 
extremely pleasant to sit on the top of the boat in the bright 
moonlight or to take a little run on the canal-bank for exercise. 
On the evening of the second day we came very near to the 
mouth of the Godavery, so that we could plainly hear the 
waves of the Bay of Bengal breaking on the shore ; and a herd 
of dolphins which had strayed in from the sea passed our boat. 

"On Wednesday evening, February 23d, we anchored at a 
distance of about three miles from Mahadevipatnam, which 
was the farthest point we expected to reach. Tuesday Brother 
Schmidt and I took our breakfast alone and made an early 
start to walk to Mahadevipatnam. We took with us Rev. N. 
Paulus, Jeremiah, Prakasam, the teacher of the village, Luke 
and Samuel, the latter also a native of the village and father 
of the newly baptized Susie Monroe. We had to cross three 
streams on the way. Our men carried us over the first one, 
almost letting me drop into the water. The second one we 
crossed on a loose raft of bamboo sticks, being pushed by a 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 203 

man wading in the water. The third creek we crossed on a 
palmyra log. It was not an easy operation, because the log 
was round and very slippery. When we arrived at the village 
at last, at about 9 o'clock, we were rewarded by the edifying 
service which we had with the Christians, about twenty in 
number, in the village schoolroom. Many heathen also came 
to hear. After preaching to a number of high-caste men, we 
started on our way back to the boat. In the evening we visited 
KummadaveUi a walk of four miles. This is a new village, 
there being as yet only one man and his family baptized. . . . 
In order that no time might be wasted, the boat was taken to 
Bhimawaram during the night. This is a very large village, 
but we have, as yet, baptized none of its people. We started 
on our way to Taderu at about half-past six, walking through 
Bhimawaram and then through rice-stubble fields, a distance 
of more than four miles. Taderu is another new village with 
only six Christians, all of whom had been baptized a few days 
before we came to the village. We returned to the boat and 
went a short distance up the canal to Annakoderu. At about 
4 o'clock we started on our walk from the canal to the village. 
This is, without doubt, one of the most promising and prosper- 
ous villages we have, because Stephen, the teacher, is a very 
energetic and active Christian worker. In about three years 
forty have been baptized, and many more are ready. During 
the devotional meeting the school children and the congrega- 
tion sang some hymns with great spirit, being accompanied 
on a drum and cymbals by the teacher and another Christian." 
There follows a description of visits to Agartipalem, 
Palkole, Jagganathpuram and Vodali. Artman then con- 
tinues: "This morning, March 3d, we arrived at Velpur, which 
serves as headquarters for Rev. N. Paulus and the teachers and 
sub-agents belonging to the villages of his district. For the 
accommodation of the native pastor and his family a large and 
roomy house has been built, one portion of which is used as a 
place of worship by the congregation and as the village 
schoolhouse. . . . Government has given us a grant of 
land along the canal-bank and most of the Christians of 
Velpur have built themselves houses adjoining that of their 



204 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

pastor, thus forming a little colony of their own. Most of the 
inhabitants of the town are Sudras. In the evening we went 
out into the village and preached and sang hymns at three 
different places. Crowds came to listen each time. Under 
the wide-spreading branches of a huge tamarind tree in the 
village the message of salvation had often been proclaimed 
by Father Heyer and other missionaries, and here also the 
oldest Christians of Velpur were baptized. It is undoubtedly 
the largest tree I have ever seen. In walking around it I took 
twenty-six steps." 

Carlson continued to show signs of failing health, and it 
was decided to have him live at Samulkot, which is slightly 
cooler than Rajahmundry. He moved thither on May 4, 
1 88 1, and occupied the old bungalow which Long had built, 
half-way between Samulkot and Peddapur. He made an at- 
tempt to do some mission work, holding Telugu services 
with his servants and some of the townsfolk. While on a 
tour to Coconada after a sunstroke, he developed insanity, 
in September, 1881, and was taken to an asylum in Mad- 
ras, where on March 29, 1882, he died at the early age of 
thirty-six years, seven months and thirteen days. Concern- 
ing the character of his co-laborer Poulsen wrote: "He was 
a faithful servant of God, a zealous and hard-working mis- 
sionary, a dear brother and fellow-worker. It is but fair to 
his memory, fair to his relatives and friends, as well as to 
his supporters as a missionary, that one who has seen him at 
work out there, should bear witness that he was a most faith- 
ful, zealous and self-denying laborer. From all that I can 
gather it was his zeal which gave him the blow exposing 
himself too much to the dangerous heat." Immediately 
after the interment of the body of her husband in the Lutheran 
cemetery in Madras Mrs. Carlson returned to the United 
States. 

Artman took charge of the educational work, for which he 
proved himself to be eminently fitted, and under him it rose 
to a comparatively high plane of efficiency. 1 

1 In the place of Lizzie, who died of consumption in March, 1881, her younger 
sister, J. Lorah, was appointed; in the place of P. V. Ratnam, who was trans- 




DYING HINDU HOLDING A COW'S TAIL 

This is a superstitious ceremony frequently practiced in India. It is done in the 

hope of having the soul after the death of the body pass 

over into a happy future state. 




A HIGH CASTE HINDU WOMAN 
Note the many ornaments which she wears, one appearing even in her nose. 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 205 

In the boys' boarding department Artman introduced strict 
discipline, against which some rebelled and were expelled. 
The boarding boys attended a meeting for prayer every 
morning at 6 o'clock in St. Paul's Church. After school 
hours, from 4 to 5 in the afternoon, they worked in the mis- 
sionaries' gardens or made themselves useful in some other 
way. At 8 o'clock in the evening they and the boarding 
girls attended evening prayers on the verandah of Artman's 
bungalow. The boarding boys and girls did their own cooking, 
taking turns, two by two, each day. J. Henry, one of the 
oldest and most trustworthy Christians, who was a warden 
in the district jail, assisted in the oversight of the boys. 

In June, 1881, a separate girls' boarding house was opened 
in a house back of Artman's bungalow, and N. Deborah, a 
Christian widow, was placed in charge as matron. Thirteen 
girls were cared for in this way. Besides their school work, 
they spent one or two hours a day in sewing under Mrs. 
Artman's instruction. 

A new door of opportunity was opened for mission work 
in August, 1881, when the district munsiff, Narasimham, ad- 
mitted Mrs. Schmidt and Mrs. Artman to his home for the 
purpose of instructing his wife and daughter. Mrs. Artman 
described their first zenana visit as follows: "When Mrs. 
Schmidt and I reached the residence of the munsiff we found 
five women there besides the munsiff's wife and daughter. 
After talking with them for a while it was easy to see that they 
only wished to be taught certain accomplishments. They ob- 
jected to plain sewing and did not care for Telugu. They were 
anxious to learn English and fancy-work, and even hinted 
about our teaching them music. We thought it better that 

ferred to the newly established caste girls' school, M. Alfred was appointed. 
M. Amelia was made teacher of the second division of the first class, and J. 
William became the headmaster of the school. In August, 1881, 36 boys and 
37 girls attended. English grammar, reading, penmanship and translations 
were introduced hi addition to the branches taught in Telugu. The first hour 
every Monday morning was devoted to a review of the sermon of the previous 
day. On Saturday morning two hours, from 7 to 9, were set aside to drill the 
children in singing hymns committed to memory, and an explanation of the 
hymns learned was given by the teacher. The regular instruction each day was 
given from 7 to n in the morning with fifteen minutes recess, and from 2 to 4 
in the afternoon with ten minutes recess. 



206 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

they should learn Telugu first and that those who could read 
it might begin English." 1 After opening with the Lord's 
Prayer Mrs. Schmidt taught Bible history in Telugu and 
assigned a Scripture text to be memorized. Then Mrs. Artman 
taught English, and finally both gave instruction in needle- 
work. Two afternoons a week were devoted to this first 
zenana class of caste women. 

In 1 88 1 the translation of a Church Book in Telugu was 
made and printed. It included a modified form of the Chief 
Service of the General Council's Church Book, together with 
the Communion Service, the Old Evening Service, The Litany 
and the Tables of Gospels and Epistles. The orders for Holy 
Baptism and Marriage were taken from the Lueneberg Ord- 
nung as translated by the Hermannsburg missionaries; the 
orders for Confirmation and Burial, from the Liturgy of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium. The book formed a small i2mo 
volume and was dedicated to the Rev. F. W. Geissenhainer, who 
before his death had provided for the cost of its publication. 

On December 26, 1881, a Conference of missionaries and 
native agents was held at Rajahmundry. "When Father 
Heyer was here in India," wrote Artman, "he established 
the practice of holding a Conference of all the mission agents 
on the day after Christmas. The custom was kept up pretty 
regularly until the last few years. This year seemed to por- 
tend such great things for our Mission that both Brother 
Schmidt and I thought it necessary that these Conferences 
should be resumed and regularly conducted hereafter. We 
accordingly called the Conference to meet on Monday morn- 
ing, December 26, 1881." Schmidt was elected President, 
Artman, English Secretary, and J. William, Telugu Secretary. 
Artman, by the appointment of The Foreign Missions Com- 
mittee, in January, 1880, was the Treasurer of the Mission. 

Besides the foreign missionaries the two native pastors and 
fifteen native agents were present at the Conference. Com- 
plaint having been entered against some of the village teachers, 
C. James was appointed Inspector of Schools. He was to visit 

The native women, even of the high castes, were formerly not only not 
allowed, but were forbidden, to learn to read their own vernacular. 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 207 

each school at least twice every year and hold semi-annual 
examinations. 1 

To encourage self-support the Conference resolved that each 
agent drawing a salary should pay at least one "dub" (f cent) 
for each rupee (40 cents) of salary received each month. 
Those who received no salary were to make a yearly contribu- 
tion of money or grain at the harvest time. An offering was 
to be taken every Sunday in St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry, 
by passing around a basket or bag, so as to give every one an 
opportunity to contribute something. 2 

In a review of the year (1881), Schmidt reported that 170 
persons had been baptized, and that six new villages had been 
occupied, one of which was Tallapudi. The number of native 
workers had risen to 23 at the close of the year. The total 
expenditure in India for the year amounted to $6503.07, of 
which $3300 were for missionaries' salaries. 

Progress was made in every direction during the year 1882. 
Especially in the department of education a marked advance 
over former years was made. 

Early in January, 1882, the Caste Girls' school building in 
the Riverdale compound was finished at a cost of $200. 
The day after the formal opening the teachers assigned for 
this special work came but found no pupils. Then Schmidt 
and P. V. Ratnam, who had been made headmaster, canvassed 
the neighborhood to solicit pupils. Four were secured in this 
way, and the number gradually rose to sixty enrolled pupils, 

1 The following rules, drawn up by Father Heyer in his time, were adopted: 
i. The village teachers must attend to their schools faithfully five days in the 
week, and spend Sunday and any other day of the week available in preaching 
in their own and neighboring villages. 2. The village teachers are allowed to 
have one month's leave every year. If they take more than a month their pay 
will be lessened according to the number of days absent. 3. A series of Gospel 
lessons for the year 1882, one lesson for each month, to be used as texts for 
sermons, was agreed upon. 4. It was resolved that each village teacher should 
write a short sermon every month upon a Gospel lesson for that month and 
also a paper upon a subject to be assigned by the Inspector of Schools, who was 
to examine the papers and report on them to the officers of the Conference. 5. 
No children were to be admitted to the boarding schools without the written 
application of an ordained native pastor and the Inspector of Schools. 

2 Other resolutions passed by the Conference were: that Sunday schools 
should be organized in every village, and that a Christian "satram" an inn or 
rest-house should be built at Rajahmundry, the funds to be gathered among 
the native Christians. 



208 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

with an average daily attendance of twenty. Mrs. Schmidt 
acted as the supervisor of this branch of work and taught 
sewing in the school. The brighter pupils soon learned to read 
and write Telugu. 

Poulsen, after having spent a year and nine months on fur- 
lough, returned to India, leaving Copenhagen on December 5, 
1 88 1. Three of his children were left in Denmark, and the 
fourth was taken to India. The Foreign Missions Committee 
had assigned Poulsen to Samulkot, and directly after reaching 
Rajahmundry on January 9, 1881, he moved to that town. 
He succeeded in employing a number of teachers who had 
previously served at Masulipatam. Lakshmiah was ap- 
pointed catechist; Amelia, his wife, teacher at Peddapur; 
David, teacher at Rajagopalem; and Francis, teacher at 
Katlamur. In October Poulsen baptized his first convert at 
Samulkot. Gudaparti, Ragampet and Gorinta were also 
occupied before the close of the year. Nine adults and three 
children were baptized during the year hi the new district. 
In seven village schools 38 boys and 5 girls, and in six night 
schools 49 pupils were enrolled. No schoolhouses were 
built, but in one or two places the school met on the verandah 
of a temple. Services were conducted in Telugu every Sunday 
at the missionary's bungalow, the teachers and Christians 
coming from the several villages to attend them. Sixteen 
communed on the Sunday before Christmas. 

Two young ministers, the Revs. E. Pohl and H. Bothmann, 
graduates of the newly established Mission Institute at 
Breklum, Schleswig-Holstein, arrived at Rajahmundry in 
March, 1882. They were the first foreign missionaries sent 
out by the Schleswig-Holstein Missionary Society to India. 
They were bound for Bastar, a tributary kingdom, several 
hundred miles to the north of Rajahmundry, which had 
been chosen by their Society as its field on the recommenda- 
tion of our missionaries, who offered to assist them in the 
establishment of a Mission. They started from Rajah- 
mundry on March i5th, accompanied by Schmidt, Artman, 
Mr. Heelis, a Plymouth Brethren missionary of Narsapur, 
and a number of native assistants and servants. The journey 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 209 

led at first up the Godavery River and its tributary, the 
Saveri, as far as they could take their boat, then across the 
country to Jugdalpur, the capital of Bastar. Here, on the 
banks of the Indravaddi, they had hoped to locate the first 
station. The Rajah received them with protestations of wel- 
come and promises of assistance, but his real attitude was 
one of hostility, as they soon learned. Several of the party 
were ill with fever, Mr. Heelis for a while being at death's 
door. The Rajah refused to provide bearers for their luggage. 
Supplies of food and material for a mission house, paid for in 
advance, were withheld. A plot to massacre the whole party 
of whites was discovered. The Rohillas, a robber-band, who 
brought intelligence of this dastardly plot, helped the mis- 
sionaries to get bearers, and during the night before the day 
set for the massacre the whole party fled to Koraput in the 
province' of Jeypur, seventy miles away. Mr. Heelis was 
carried all the way on an improvised stretcher. There Pohl 
and Bothmann were left to begin their Mission. The return 
of the others to Rajahmundry proved to be extremely diffi- 
cult. When they reached the lowlands the heat became in- 
tolerable. Once Heelis, Artman and several of the servants 
were so prostrated that they lapsed into delirium. When 
at last Rajahmundry was reached, the missionaries were ac- 
tually reduced to a pitiful condition of weakness and illness ; 
and it was some time before they were able to resume their 
work. 1 

The Madras Auxiliary Bible Society established a Bible 
Depot at Rajahmundry in 1882 , placing it in charge of Schmidt, 
who engaged colporteurs for Rajahmundry and Samulkot. 

The school at Rajahmundry made rapid progress under 
Artman. At the beginning of the year 1882 he graded the 
school into three departments: an Upper Department with 
four grades, a Lower Department with four grades, and a 

1 In their isolated hill-station Missionaries Pohl and Bothmann suffered 
from fever and privation. Weak and emaciated, they left the place and sought 
medical attention at Madras. In April, 1883, they again visited Rajahmundry, 
and then bravely went back to their mission field, locating their station at Salur. 
After the missionaries had reported their experience and treatment in Bastar, 
the English Government sent an expedition to Jugdalpur and deposed the 
Rajah. 

14 



210 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Primary or Sand-writing Department. After his return from 
Jeypur in July, he added a Senior Department of two 
grades, for the benefit of the married men who wished to 
prepare themselves for work as teachers. Although this 
arrangement for an abbreviated course of training was con- 
tinued for only a few years, and the hope of the missionaries 
really centered on the young men who were regularly trained, 
it is, nevertheless, true that some of the best agents the Mis- 
sion ever had, were secured through this temporary arrange- 
ment. In September, 1882, five teachers besides Artman, 
1 20 enrolled pupils and an average attendance of 100 in the 
school were reported. 

By the end of the year a new boarding house for boys had 
been completed at a cost of $200. The front rooms were 
occupied as a residence and book-store by T. Barnabas, book- 
binder and sexton of the church. The younger students 
occupied the rest of the building, while the old boarding 
house was used for the accommodation of the older students. 
Three or four families were lodged in a separate building, an 
old shed, divided into rooms by large bamboo mats. 

"This year again," wrote Artman, "loud calls are made 
upon us for a mission school for higher castes with higher 
classes, like the Noble School in Masulipatam, the High 
School in Guntur, the Mission School in Narsapur, in Amala- 
pur and other places. We can hardly resist the calls. We are, 
however, trying to await patiently the guidance of Providence, 
and even if we should deem it necessary and advisable to begin 
this work, we would not allow it to interfere with the Govern- 
ment School, nor would we be able to undertake more than 
two higher classes." Artman was really attempting single 
handed to undertake this higher education, for he met fifteen 
or more Brahmin boys every day for an hour's instruction in 
English and religion. 

At the Mission Conference on December 26, 1882, the 

former officers were re-elected. Artman reported Rs. 16 

received for the satram, but not a single pice 1 for self-support. 

Collections, however, had been taken every Sunday in St. 

1 The pice is one-fourth of an anna, or one-half a cent. 



PROGRESS IN EVERY DIRECTION (1880-82) 211 

Paul's Church, which amounted during the year to Rs. 41.2.9. 
This was regarded as encouraging. James reported that he 
had visited all of the village schools twice during the year, 
that the teachers had written their sermons and papers, and 
that 200 children were attending the mission schools. Seven 
new teachers, graduates of the Rajahmundry Training School, 
were given employment and admitted as members of the 
Conference. 1 Schmidt advocated the employment of teachers 
in the district from which they came, and only in villages 
in which there were at least ten Christian families. The 
Conference, however, finally decided to distribute them as 
evenly as possible in all the districts. For the sake of better 
order and records a book was to be kept in each village, in 
which the teachers were to record all important events and the 
results of examinations. 

After the Conference the missionaries met as a Ministerium 
and among other things decided on a revision of the Catechism. 
The total number of baptisms during 1882 was reported to 
have been 262, of which 160 had been performed by Pastor 
N. Paulus in the Velpur district. 

Three new members were added to the Foreign Missions 
Committee by the General Council in 1881, namely, the Revs. 
R. F. Weidner and F. W. Weiskotten of Philadelphia, and 
Mr. B. Lilja. In November, 1881, the Rev. William Ashmead 
Schaeffer who had returned to Eastern Pennsylvania, was again 
made a member of the Committee, and was elected associate 
editor of "The Foreign Missionary" in the place of Dr. B. M. 
Schmucker, resigned. The Rev. Mr. Weiskotten was elected 
an associate editor of the "Missionsbote," which had a surplus 
of $800. 

At the meeting of the General Council in 1882 the Rev. 
C. G. Fischer of Germantown, Pa., who had been acting as 
business agent for the Board's newspapers since October, 1881, 
was elected a member of the Committee to fill the vacancy 
created by the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Weidner. 

1 Four N.Isaac, T. Samuel Joseph, B. John and J. John Henry had been 
trained in the school since their childhood; three G. Cornelius, R. Johannu 
and B. David Appayyah had been students in the school for only six months 



CHAPTER VIII 

BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 

ON January 2, 1883, the seventh foreign missionary of the 
General Council arrived at Rajahmundry. 

Franklin S. Dietrich was born in 1853, in Albany Township, 
Berks County, Pa. He was graduated from the Evangelical 
Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia in 1882, and 
was ordained at the convention of the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania that year, on June 5th, in St. John's English Church, 
Philadelphia. He had received the call of the Foreign Mis- 
sions Committee in August, 1882, and, having accepted it, was 
commissioned in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., Tuesday 
evening, October 3d. Twenty-five ministers occupied seats 
in the chancel and front pews of the church, and the auditorium 
was filled to overflowing. The Rev. J. A. Seiss, D. D., and the 
Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., conducted the services. The 
Rev. Samuel Laird, D. D., preached the sermon in English 
and the Rev. H. Grahn, D. D., delivered a German address. 
The Chairman of the Foreign Missions Committee, the Rev. 
A. Spaeth, D. D., commissioned the missionary, calling on him 
to answer the following questions: 

"Are you now willing and ready, after careful and prayer- 
ful consideration, to enter the service of our Evangelical 
Lutheran Church as a missionary to the heathen? 

"Will you preach the pure Word of God according to the 
Confessions of our Church, and adorn her doctrine by a holy 
life? 

"Are you willing and ready to sacrifice all things to your 
holy calling, if so be even to lay down your life for the Name 
of our Lord Jesus Christ?" 

In a clear, firm voice the missionary answered: "Yes, with 
my whole heart, the Lord helping me with the power and 
grace of His Holy Spirit." Kneeling, the missionary received 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 213 

the laying on of the hands of the officers of the Committee. 
Then Dr. J. Fry, the pastor of the congregation, presented the 
missionary with a communion set, which was the gift of the 
Sunday school of Trinity Church. 

Dietrich left New York on October 16, 1882, and arrived 
at Rajahmundry on the second day of the new year. 1 Two 
days after his arrival the missionaries met at Rajahmundry 
to revise Luther's Small Catechism. The native pastors, 
together with C. James and J. William, and a Telugu pundit, 
Subbarayadu, assisted the missionaries in this revision. After 
four days of incessant labor the work was done. 2 

Dietrich, besides studying Telugu under Subbarayadu, 
gave two or three hours' instruction each day in English 
branches in the Rajahmundry school and preached English 
every other Sunday in the church, alternating with Artman. 

In January, 1883, Artman accompanied Schmidt on a tour 
through the district north of Rajahmundry. After visiting 
Metta and Peddahem they went to Tallapudi to select a 
site for a missionary's bungalow. Artman wrote: "Brother 
Schmidt and I are convinced that it is necessary to enlarge 
our work in this direction on this side of the Godavery River. 
. . . The missionary in Tallapudi should attend to the work 
as far as Polavaram. The whole district is in a very flour- 
ishing state and many are inquiring about the way of 
salvation." 

Another town in which it was desired soon to locate a 
missionary was Dowlaishwaram. Had Carlson lived, Poul- 
sen would have been assigned to this station. The few 
Christians who resided at Dowlaishwaram were obliged to 
attend services in Rajahmundry, five miles away. The 
school which Heyer had begun in Dowlaishwaram had been 
abandoned. A retired engineer, Mr. Theodore Van S tavern, 
however, had established and maintained a number of schools 
in the town at his own expense, and, in 1883, offered to co- 
operate with the Mission and at his removal or death to 

1 His travelling expenses to India amounted to $320.50. 

2 The revision was published in a form to correspond with that of the Telugu 
Church Book, so that they could be bound together. 



214 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

transfer his schools to the Mission. Moreover, he gave 
Rs. 300 toward the purchase of ground and the erection of a 
school-building for the use of the Mission. The site pur- 
chased was on the main road in a caste quarter. Artman 
undertook to preach in the town every Sunday evening except 
when on tour. 1 

On January 28, 1883, a bell for St. Paul's Church, donated 
by friends in St. Michael's Church, German town, Philadel- 
phia, and packed with other gifts for the missionaries in the 
so-called Christmas boxes, arrived at Rajahmundry. Schmidt 
superintended the hanging of this bell in the tower of the 
church, where it displaced the gong which had been in use up 
to that time. 

The Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Schmidt with their daughter Dag- 
mar left Rajahmundry on March 27, 1883, on a well-earned 
furlough, Schmidt having been in India nearly thirteen years. 
He was accompanied by Duncan McCready, an orphan, whom 

1 Artman described the festival of Juggernaut at Dowiaishwaram as follows: 
"I walked through the crowded streets till I came into the very center of the 
excitement, where the huge car of Juggernaut stood at the foot of the great 
stairway which leads up to the top of the hill on which the temple stands. 
The streets were full of devotees of all ages, sizes and descriptions, from all the 
villages within a circuit of thirty or forty miles, some on their way to make their 
offerings of fruit and money to the idol, others intent on enjoying the gay scene 
and making purchases of fruits, toys and confectionary from the stands which 
had been erected all along the streets. The number of people was great when I 
arrived, and it increased apace as evening drew nigh, when the great car was to be 
be dragged through the streets. This huge structure on wheels is built very 
strongly and is very ponderous. It has stages or stories, about five in all, which 
grow smaller toward the top. During the intervals between the annual festivals 
these cars are generally allowed to stand out in the open air. Sometimes, 
however, they are covered with a shield of palmyra leaves to protect them a 
little. On festival occasions the rough and uninviting appearance of the wood 
is quite hidden by the gaily colored cloth, plantain and cocoanut leaves, flowers 
and other decorations. At the apex of the car I saw a strange figure in brass 
with a gay purple umbrella over it, as if to protect it from the sun's rays. I 
concluded that this must be the representation of the god. I found a party of 
our boarding boys busily engaged in preaching to a number of heathen close to 
the car, and at once joined them to assist them to close the mouths of the im- 
pertinent, bigoted young Brahmins. Some of the teachers from Rev. Joseph's 
district also joined us, and we at last succeeded in closing the mouths of the two 
brawlers, so that those who were willing to listen could do so. We preached 
in four or five other places, always singing hymns to gain silence and attention. 
We also went up the stairway to the temple wall but were not allowed to enter 
its precincts. Our colporteur, Venkataswami, our unpaid evangelist, Isaiah, 
Rev. Joseph and some of our Christian women and boarding girls were also 
present, so that there was a large force of Christian workers at hand to preach 
to the great multitude of heathen present." 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 215 

Mr. and Mrs. Artman sent to America to receive an educa- 
tion. 

After the departure of the Schmidts the Artmans moved 
into the "Riverdale" bungalow, Dietrich remaining in full 
possession of the one in the church compound. Poulsen 
lived at Samulkot. 

Concerning the Hindu Girls' School, of which Mrs. Artman 
had charge after the departure of Mrs. Schmidt, she wrote in 
1883: "The fact that a missionary's wife spends one hour in 
the school every day teaching the children needle- work proves 
to be one of the main attractions of the school. At present 
there are at least seventy pupils, but there is an average at- 
tendance of only forty. This is due to the innumerable feasts, 
weddings, etc., which the children attend. At present sore eyes, 
a disease peculiar to this country, is keeping many away. 
There are two classes. The first, taught by P. V. Ratnam, 
has finished the Telugu First Book, which is a Christian book, 
has learned a little arithmetic, and is ready to begin geography. 
In the second class, taught by Venkayya, the Brahmin, some 
are studying the alphabet and some have begun to spell. 
As soon as they can spell they are allowed to join the sewing 
class. Most of the children are very young, none over twelve 
years of age, and some are as young as four, so that Mrs. 
Schmidt and I found it necessary to engage a person to bring 
the little ones to and from school. . . . The little Christian 
sentences which many have learned, carelessly perhaps now, 
and the hymns they sing, may take a hold in their young 
minds, which will have a bearing on their future lives and, we 
hope, may bring some to the true life. . . . The girls are very 
dirty, even though they are caste girls. Upon occasion, how- 
ever, they can look well, and load themselves with jewelry; 
but, as a rule, they have very little idea of cleanliness and can- 
not understand our scruples on this point. As soon as the girls 
come to me I send them to the Godavery with a piece of soap, 
and if their hair still looks untidy I do not allow them to sew, 
which is a great punishment. As they never have been in 
school before it is hard to teach them how to behav^ properly. 
At first they act as if they were in the street, talking, laugh- 



2l6 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

ing and quarreling with each other. They show their caste 
prejudice strangely in regard to water. They will not drink 
our well-water but must have water brought from the Go- 
davery by a caste man especially for them. Our well-water is 
filtered, clear and cool, while the Godavery water is muddy; 
but I suppose they receive their instructions at home. Occa- 
sionally, if it is impossible to get other water, they will taste 
ours, if buttermilk is put into it, which is supposed to be very 
purifying. They will, however, eat oranges, plantains and 
candy, which we give them, without hesitation." 

As helpers in the woman's work Mrs. Artman engaged 
Miss J. G. McCready, a sister of Mr. F. J. McCready, and 
Miss M. A. Payne. In her letters to America she urged the 
sending out of single ladies as woman missionaries, but the 
Church was not yet ready for such a step. 

Artman rapidly developed the educational work of the 
Mission during the year 1883. On February 27th he organized 
his class of Brahmin boys into the sixth grade of the mission 
school, beginning with twenty-one pupils. They were taught 
in all branches necessary to matriculation. The Telugu 
pundit, Subbarayadu, was engaged as the Telugu teacher 
with a salary of 20 rupees a month. Artman and Dietrich 
took the English branches, each giving two hours instruction 
daily. One hour each day was spent in reading the Bible 
with comments by the missionaries. The class met in a room 
of the bungalow opposite the church compound and in one of 
the schoolrooms of St. Paul's Church. The pupils were 
also obliged to attend the English services in St. Paul's Church 
every Sunday and Wednesday and were expected to come to the 
English Sunday school. This was, therefore, the first attempt 
in our Mission to conduct a Boys' High School, the organiza- 
tion and maintenance of which became a source of much dis- 
cussion and difference of opinion both in India and in America; 
but Artman undertook the work with the sincere desire of 
influencing the higher classes in Rajahmundry through this 
Brahmin school. 

Artman also started a Normal Department on June 2oth, 
beginning with fifteen teachers whom he wished to give a nor- 




HINDU FAKIR LYING ON A BED OF SPIKES 

One of the many practices of Hindu fakirs who seek to gain merit by enduring 

self-inflicted pain. 




THE CAR OF THE GOD OF KORUKONDA 

When the festivals are observed the idols are drawn about through the streets in 
procession in cars like this one. 




THE SACRED HILL OF KORUKONDA 




THE TEMPLE ON KORUKONDA HILL 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 217 

mal training. This department was divided into two classes 
and was taught by three teachers, namely, J. John Henry, 
N. Sriramulu and N. Isaac. 

Despite his special interest in the educational work Artman 
did not neglect the district work during Schmidt's absence on 
furlough. In March, 1883, he visited Korukonda at the time 
of the annual festival of the god Narasimham, accompanied by 
Pastor Joseph and a number of Christian teachers, preaching 
to the multitudes which congregated there on that occasion. 1 

1 "Korukonda," wrote Artman, "is noted for its peculiar cone-shaped hill 
about 700 to 800 feet high, on the summit of which a large heathen temple has 
been built, which is annually made the center of a great heathen festival, the 
pilgrims coming from a great distance to worship the god. The steep stone 
steps leading up to the temple were covered with devotees going up to make their 
offerings of rice, fruit or money to the god, and then returning. The stairway 
being steep and difficult of ascent, and as there are over 600 steps, it is considered 
a work of merit to ascend them. We found the steps lined with beggars of both 
sexes and all ages and descriptions, who were continually calling out to the 
passers-by for alms at the top of their voices. Some charitable women dropped 
a few grams of rice or a few cowries (shells used in exchange, much less in value 
than a United States mill) into each outstretched hand or basket. About 
7.30 P. M. the great heathen car of Juggernaut was pulled along the rough and 
crooked streets with a heavy rumbling noise as of distant thunder, amid the ac- 
clamations of the multitudes and showers of plantains, which were being hurled 
up at the idol in the car from all sides and greedily grabbed and stored away for 
sale by the fat Brahmins who were riding in the car. At the same time the 
dancing or nautch girls were disporting themselves in their slow, unanimated 
and uninteresting attempt at dancing before the car. Here and there priests 
in dirty red robes and tinsel ephods were going about among the poor, ignorant 
people and extorting money from them by various superstitious and deceitful 
methods. In one place we saw one of the weirdest and most fanatical scenes 
of the occasion. A large circle of people had been formed, within which ten or 
a dozen men were jumping and capering about. Several had a network of 
flaming fire-brands on their heads, the flames almost enveloping their heads and 
shoulders as they made upward leaps, and the sparks frequently fell upon their 
bare skin. It was the duty of the attendants in the circle, who carried brooms 
or dusters, to brush away the sparks from the bodies of these fire-fiends. We 
made our way with some difficulty to our cart and started homeward, not without 
admiring the illumination of the hill and temple by means of small oriental 
lamps of a very simple pattern, which were placed one on each end of every step 
and all around the temple wall. I must not forget to relate an incident which 
occurred to-day. John and I were standing at a corner speaking to a crowd of 
men who were anxious to learn something about the way of salvation, when, as 
is often the case, a bigoted, caste-bound and most insolent upstart, a young 
Brahmin, made his way into the crowd and put an end to all preaching by his vile 
and unreasonable remarks and sarcasm. At last, when we threatened to hand 
him over to the police, he went a short distance away and, mounting a slight 
eminence, began to blaspheme and mockingly tried to imitate our preaching 
and manners. At this juncture one of our old Christian women in Rev. Joseph's 
party came to the rescue. She walked straight up to the young brawler, and 
although he abused her and tried to drive her away, she stood firm and spoke 
so earnestly to him about Christ and his love and showed the wickedness of 



2l8 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

After closing the schools for the hot season he toured in the 
Tallapudi district and took possession of sites for school- 
houses granted by the government in Guddigudem, Nandamur 
and Kovur. 

The parochial reports at the end of the first half of the year 
1883, showed that the work in the Velpur district under the 
direction of Pastor Paulus was making much more rapid 
progress than in any other district. While Pastor Joseph 
in the Jegurupad district reported fifty-seven baptized Chris- 
tians and thirty-three inquirers in twelve villages, and Rev. 
I. K. Poulsen in the Samulkot district, twenty- three baptisms 
for the whole year, Pastor Paulus reported as many as one 
hundred and thirty-nine baptisms during the year, one 
hundred and six communicants, twenty- five villages in 
which Christians or inquirers resided, and one hundred and 
seventy-seven children in thirteen village schools. 1 

At the annual Conference of missionaries and native agents 
held January 3-5, 1884, a number of important matters were 
discussed and decided. The Rev. I. K. Poulsen was elected 
chairman of the Conference. Forty persons were enrolled 
as members, among them two lay delegates. The question 
of admitting a person into the Church by Holy Baptism if 
he had more than one wife, was discussed and finally left to 
the discretion of each missionary. The motion to permit 
government school-inspectors to visit and examine village 
schools with a view to their receiving grants was defeated. 
C. James resigned as the Mission's Inspector of Schools, and 
that office was left vacant. The problem of caste was dis- 

his conduct so convincingly to all present as well as to the fellow himself, that he 
turned about and slunk away in the crowd, followed by the laughter and jeers 
of his companions. To-day I also saw a genuine devotee or fakir, whose 
method of gaining merit was in lying full-length upon the ground and propelling 
himself from place to place by his knees and elbows. He was attended by a 
little girl who looked dirty and neglected. The miserable man held a small pot 
in one hand to receive alms, and it was wonderful to see with what skill he 
managed to keep his pot upright as he rolled along without spilling its contents 
of rice and cowries. Is not this a heart-rending commentary on the sad and 
lost condition of the Hundus? " 

1 The total expenditure in India during the year July i , 1882, to June 30, 1883, 
was $7225.01, of which $3600 were for the salaries of the four missionaries, 
$J373-72 for the salaries of native agents, $697.65 for schools in Rajahmundry, 
$1307.98 for buildings and sites and $245.66 for miscellaneous expenses. 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 219 

cussed, and it was resolved, as the sense of the Conference, 
that among Christians there can be no caste distinctions; 
nevertheless, in the treatment of caste people the admonition 
of the Lord should be observed, "Be ye as wise as serpents and 
harmless as doves." In the matter of self-support it was 
resolved that every mission agent should give one pice more, 
namely, four pice for every rupee of salary. 

After the adjournment of the Conference the ordained mis- 
sionaries met as a ministerial committee, and resolved, among 
other things, that the district lying north of a line drawn from 
Polavaram to Guddigudem to the left of the Godavery River, 
and between Purushottapatnam and Gokavaram to the right 
of the river, should be regarded as the fever district (manyam), 
and that teachers stationed in this fever district should 
receive higher salary. 1 

The salary of a catechist was fixed at Rs. 10 a month, that 
of a Bible woman or female teacher at Rs. 3 to 5 a month. 
The erection of a schoolhouse and church at Samulkot was 
recommended, and Poulsen was given authority to begin a 
boarding school for boys and girls in the Samulkot district. 
The missionaries requested the Foreign Missions Committee 
of the General Council to formulate rules and regulations for 
the better government of the Mission. 

The year 1884 proved to be the most eventful one in the 
history of the Mission up to that time. With Artman as 
acting director of the Mission, in fact though not in name, 
it began to assume the position of a recognized and influential 
factor in the life of Rajahmundry and its environs. The 
natives, unaccustomed to such zeal and activity as Artman 
displayed, were amazed at his untiring efforts in every depart- 
ment of the work. On January i, 1884, he formally organ- 
ized a Mission High School for Boys, beginning with seven 
teachers, all of whom were non-Christians, and fifty students, 
ten of whom were Christians and the rest Brahmins. The 
classes met in the bungalow opposite the church compound. 
Dietrich helped him to organize and conduct this school. 

1 N. Timothy, B. Prakasam, K. Joseph, P. Moses and A. Samuel, graduates 
of Class A., Normal School, were examined and assigned work as teachers. 



220 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Of the 74 boarding boys reported in January, 1884, 25 were 
supported by patrons in America, 58 lived in boarding houses 
on the mission compound, 6 with parents or relatives in town, 
and 9 were married men. Of the 28 boarding girls, 9 were 
supported by patrons in America. Three Sunday schools 
continued to support as teachers those whom they had sup- 
ported as pupils in the boarding school, thus inaugurating 
this system of supporting native Christian workers. 

Artman felt that some effort should be made to reach the 
Mohammedan population of the town and, therefore, began a 
school for Mohammedan boys on January 10, 1884, starting 
with thirty pupils and three teachers, all of whom were 
Mohammedans. Hindustani was taught instead of Telugu. 
In order to give it some semblance of a Christian school, 
Artman, Dietrich and, in their absence, J. William Henry, 
gave an hour's instruction each day in the Old Testament. 

After the girls had been moved into their new boarding 
house and the Normal Department had been reopened, 
Artman spent the closing week of January in the Tallapudi 
district, where he visited nine villages, baptized twenty-four 
persons 1 and confirmed three. He administered the Holy 
Communion to over forty persons in these villages. Some 
time during February he dedicated a chapel at Dowlaish- 
waram, which he called St. Mark's Chapel. Then for ten 
days he itinerated with Dietrich in the Velpur district, going 
as far as Narsapur. 2 After the government inspection of 
the Rajahmundry schools by Mr. Grigg, about the middle 
of March, Artman and Dietrich took a trip up the Godavery 
River in the "Dove of Peace," going as far as the gorge. 

After the Easter festival 3 Mr. and Mrs. Artman with their 
two little sons went to spend the hot season at Bimlipatam 
on the coast; but Artman was not content to remain idle for 
any length of time, so, leaving his family there, he journeyed 

1 Six at Sringaram, eight at Guddigudem, one at Peddahem, eight at Penaka- 
lametta and one at Tallapudi. 

2 They visited Agartipalem, where sixteen persons were baptized by them; 
Palkole, where five were baptized; Jagganathpurara, Pennagonda, Vodal 
and Mallaishwaram. 

3 Two infants were baptized and eighty-six communed at this time. 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 221 

to Salur to pay a visit to Missionaries Pohl and Bothmann 
of the Breklum Mission. Returning by way of Vizagapatam, 
he got back to Rajahmundry with his family on June i4th, 
in time to reopen the schools after the summer vacation. 
Speaking of the High School he wrote: "The High School is a 
great and acknowledged success, and we will have no more 
trouble hereafter about the higher education of our most 
promising Christian boys. I hope the Committee will not 
hesitate in giving their full sanction to such an important and 
indispensable branch of mission work." 

On July ist Artman wrote the following report: "To-day 
a new venture was commenced in the shape of a Mission Mo- 
hammedan Girls' School. This is the first time that such a 
school has been attempted here, but we have every reason 
to hope for success. The great thing needed now is a lady 
who will be able to devote her whole time to such schools and 
to zenana work, as the unmarried ladies of other Missions do." 
The Mohammedan Girls' School was held in the same build- 
ing as the Mohammedan Boys' School, which was divided by a 
bamboo mat, used as a partition. A Mohammedan woman 
was engaged to teach Hindustani, a few primary branches were 
taught by J. William Henry's wife, and another Christian 
woman taught the girls to sew. 

Artman undertook to raise enough money to support the 
Mohammedan schools without expense to the Mission. 
From interested friends he succeeded in getting about n 
rupees a month for the boys' school and 7 rupees and 7 annas 
a month for the girls' school. Moreover, the municipality 
of Rajahmundry offered a grant of Rs. 400 a year for these 
schools, which were estimated to cost approximately Rs. 70 
a month. They failed to succeed but proved, nevertheless, 
to be an interesting venture. 

The annual reports of the missionary, submitted on July 
i, 1884, showed good progress everywhere, especially in the 
Velpur district. The Rajahmundry district reported 170 
Christians, 93 communicants, 47 inquirers and 25 baptisms 
for the year; the Tallapudi district, 162 Christians, 87 com- 
municants, 44 inquirers and 15 baptisms; the Jegurupad dis- 



222 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

trict, 218 Christians, in communicants and 34 inquirers; 
the Samulkot district, 195 Christians; the Velpur district, 
360 communicants. 

The receipts in India during the fiscal year, from July 8, 
1883 to July 8, 1884, showed a number of interesting items. 
English residents contributed $i 1 1 .50, and Mr. T. Van Stavern 
$171.68 in addition for Dowlaishwaram schools. From the 
sale of bricks made by Christians $67.85 were realized, 
and $40.44 from rents. The expenditures were as follows: 
Salaries of missionaries, $3700; of native agents, $1854.89; 
for boarding schools, $920.05; new buildings and repairs, 
$1422.99; miscellaneous, $632.52; a total expenditure of 

$8530.45- 

Under Artman's zealous leadership the Mission was forging 

ahead rapidly, when suddenly he fell, stricken with fever, a 
severe loss to the work in India and to the cause in America. 
He had reopened all the Rajahmundry schools for the work 
of the second half of the year 1884, the Boys' High School 
with an enrollment of over two hundred pupils, and then left 
early in September for a short visit to the Tallapudi district 
of which he had charge. On his return he had an attack of 
fever, which he treated lightly as his "annual fever/' for it 
seems that since his trip to Bastar he had suffered about once 
a year from this illness. This time, however, the symptoms 
became alarming. Dietrich and Poulsen were called to his 
bedside and found him delirious. In this condition he re- 
mained until, on September 18, 1884, his spirit returned to 
God who gave it. He died at the age of twenty-seven years, 
having been in India less than four years; but the impression 
which he made upon the community remained for many years 
and still remains. Poulsen wrote: "Our Mission, according 
to our short-sightedness, has sustained an irreparable loss. 
He had his heart fully set on his work. He had a very good 
knowledge of Telugu and was always willing to work and 
co-operate with us all. He really undertook too much and 
overworked himself." In America a memorial service was 
held on November 5th, in St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia, 
the Rev. Samuel Laird, D. D., pastor. The Father Heyer 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 223 

Missionary Society of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at 
Philadelphia, which he had helped to organize, passed resolu- 
tions of respect, and money began to be raised for the build- 
ing of a missionary's dwelling or bungalow at Dowlaish- 
waram as an Artman memorial. 

Just one month after Artman's death the eighth foreign 
missionary of the General Council began his labors at Rajah- 
mundry. The Rev. Frederick James McCready, a Eurasian 
by birth, had been sent to America by Artman to prepare 
for the holy ministry. He took the regular three years' 
course at the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, 
was graduated in 1884, and was ordained on June loth, that 
year, at the convention of the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa. Five days afterward he 
was commissioned at a solemn service in the Church of the 
Transfiguration, Pottstown, Pa., of which the English secre- 
tary of the Foreign Missions Committee, the Rev. B. M. 
Schmucker, D. D., was then the pastor. He sailed from New 
York on August pth, and reached Rajahmundry on October 
icth. Dietrich, who was given charge of the Mission with 
the exception of the Samulkot district, needed McCready's 
assistance in the educational work at Rajahmundry, and so 
the latter at once began to teach, daily giving three hours in 
Luther's Catechism, Church History and Bible Study in 
Telugu, and one hour in English in the Boys' Boarding 
School. McCready also preached Telugu in St. Paul's, 
Rajahmundry and in Dowlaishwaram. 

After her husband's death Mrs. Artman was requested by 
the Foreign Missions Committee to remain at Rajahmundry 
and superintend the Girls' schools and the zenana work. 
The Committee agreed to pay her $600 a year as a salary 
and give her the use of the "Riverdale" bungalow until the 
Schmidts returned. Mrs. Artman accepted the offer and 
thus became the first salaried woman missionary of the Gen- 
eral Council in India. 

Poulsen had begun a boys' boarding school at Samulkot 
early in the year, because he could not get the teachers he 
needed from the school in Rajahmundry. Those who were 



224 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

graduated from that school, having been sent in from other 
districts, were not willing to be assigned positions in the 
Samulkot district; and the boys who attended school in the 
Samulkot district were not allowed by their parents to go as 
far away as Rajahmundry for further training. Nine boys 
and two girls were attending Poulsen's boarding school at the 
close of the year. On September yth a new school and 
prayer-house, located in the Mala section of Samulkot and 
costing $235, was consecrated. Mrs. Poulsen did a little 
zenana work in Samulkot and taught the boarding pupils to 
sew; but her duties in her home prevented her from doing 
any regular mission work. 

The success of Pastor Paulus in the Velpur district, where 
at the close of 1884, he had raised the number of Christians 
to nine hundred, had aroused the antagonism of a certain 
native society, calling itself the "Rama dandu." "On the 
Sunday after Christmas, 1884," wrote Paulus, "while we were 
making preparations for our morning service in Velpur, cer- 
tain enemies of Christianity, mischievous devotees of Hindu- 
ism, amounting to nearly two hundred in number, came all 
of a sudden and fell upon me. I frightened them away some- 
how and escaped their hands by the grace of God. The con- 
spirators call themselves the army of Rama. They seek to 
force those whom they meet to utter the word "Govinda," 
which is one of the names of Krishna, their god. The con- 
spirators made every effort to seize me and force me to join 
their army. They, with much passion, uprooted the young 
plants and small trees, and destroyed the palmyra verandah 
of our church. In the afternoon they made another attempt 
to reach our house but were forced to go away by our friends. 
I wrote to the police for help and three constables were sent. 
Nevertheless, in the evening they made a third attempt to 
harm us, but the constables and some Hindu friends prevented 
them. They are troubling our Christians everywhere and 
doing all sorts of mischief. In one village they burned the 
Bible and some school-books at night and also destroyed 
the schoolhouse. In another village they destroyed some of 
the houses of Christians." 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 225 

Pastor Joseph in the Jegurupad district l also had enemies 
with whom he was forced to contend. "For two or three 
years," he wrote, "the Canadian Baptists from Coconada 
have been against my work. They try their best to come into 
my villages. I know that the Gospel should be preached to 
sinners by the children of God from different Missions, but 
I guess the Baptists forget that every child of God must 
serve the Lord in the beauty of holiness. In a number 
of villages the Gospel is not yet preached. They may go 
and preach it there. I have sustained a great loss by the 
Baptists." 

During the summer and fall of 1884, the Rev. and Mrs. H. 
C. Schmidt were doing deputation work in America, stirring 
up a deeper and more extensive foreign mission interest. In 
consultation with Schmidt the Foreign Missions Committee 
prepared the first Rules and Regulations of the Telugu Mis- 
sion, adopted February 23, 1885, and subsequently approved 
by the Mission. Moved by an appeal from Mrs. Schmidt, the 
Junior Missionary Society of Holy Trinity Church, Lancaster, 
Pa., the Rev. Dr. Greenwald pastor, contributed $400 for a 
mission printing-press and type, and, beginning with the 
year 1885, the women's missionary societies of St. John's 
and St. Mark's churches, Philadelphia, undertook the sup- 
port of the Riverdale Hindu Girls' School, each contributing 
one-half, or $15 a month, for this purpose. 

Despite the fact that the contributions for foreign mis- 
sions during the year 1884 had been over $3000 more than the 
previous year, 2 the Foreign Missions Committee was obliged 
in December, 1884, to borrow $1000 to pay expenses, and to 
issue an appeal for larger offerings. 

Artman, by showing what could be accomplished by a 
vigorous educational campaign in the Mission, had demon- 
strated the need of a missionary for the educational depart- 
ment alone. The Foreign Missions Committee was not pre- 

1 At the end of the year 1884 he reported 250 Christians, 146 communicants 
43 inquirers, 8 schools and 91 pupils. 

2 The "Missionsbote" accounts continued to show good balances which were 
turned into the General Fund, while the accounts of "The Foreign Missionary" 
showed deficits which had to be met from the General Fund. 



226 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

pared to endorse and authorize the entire educational program 
which Artman had outlined and to some degree carried into 
effect, holding that chief stress should be laid on the evan- 
gelistic and pastoral work, and that the educational depart- 
ment should be conducted with the special view of training 
native Christian workers, teachers, catechists and pastors. 
The maintenance of schools of a higher grade, which were 
patronized by the non- Christian portion of the population 
and which had a staff of non-Christian teachers, was not 
regarded with favor. Some one, however, had to be secured 
to follow up the work which Artman had so successfully 
inaugurated. While Schmidt was on furlough in America 
he had suggested the name of William Groenning, a son of 
the Rev. C. W. Groenning, then the Inspector of the Brek- 
lum Society. He was authorized to confer with him and, if 
he were willing to go to Rajahmundry, to extend a regular 
and formal call in the name of the Committee. Schmidt did 
so, and the call was officially ratified by the Committee on 
January 26, 1885. 

At the Annual Conference of missionaries, native agents 
and representatives of congregations, 1 held January 5 to 6, 
1885, the Rev. I. K. Poulsen was re-elected president ; the Rev. 
F. S. Dietrich, English secretary; and C. James, Telugu 
secretary. Dietrich had been appointed by the Foreign 
Missions Committee to succeed Artman as the treasurer in 
India. J. William Henry became the headmaster of the 
Boys' Boarding School. The question of starting an indus- 
trial school was discussed, and it was resolved that, while 
such a school might be of value to the Mission, the men 
and means needed to conduct it were lacking. The native 
agents had neglected voluntarily to pay 4 pice for every 
rupee of salary received during the year; but the Confer- 
ence insisted on the payment and the dues were then and 
there collected. It was resolved to devote the money thus 
raised to pay the salary of a catechist or evangelist in the 

1 Five Jay-delegates were received as members of this Conference, namely, 
A. Abraham, of Mahadevipatnam; P. Samuel, of Gorlamudi; V. Daniel, of 
Mallaishwaram; Abraham, of Korrapadu, and Kokiri Guriah, of Ragampetta. 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 227 

"fever district." 1 Thus the so-called "Rampa Fund" was 
established. Four graduates of the Normal Department of 
the Boys' Boarding School 2 and seven married men who 
had been boarding pupils were given work as teachers. It 
was resolved that "as there was no longer so great an ur- 
gency in sending out teachers, no more married men should 
be entered in the school as boarders, except in very special 
cases." The number of boarding boys in January, 1885, was 
67; of boarding girls, 23; and 31 day-pupils were enrolled in 
the Anglo- vernacular school in which McCready had been 
teaching seventeen hours a week. The Conference decided, 
however, that McCready could best be used in the district 
work, and he was assigned to the Tallapudi district and 
authorized to begin at once the erection of a bungalow in 
the town of Tallapudi. 

Among the incidents of the year especially reported by the 
Conference was the conversion of a young caste-man, a former 
pupil in the High School, Vungara Sriramulu, the son of a 
pensioned government official, belonging to the weaver caste, 
who, though his relatives alternately threatened him and 
pleaded with him, nevertheless remained firm in his allegiance 
to Christianity. After serving for some time as a teacher 
in the Hindu Girls' School, he assisted McCready as an evan- 
gelist in the Tallapudi district. 3 

1 The "fever district" was redefined as extending from the Godavery to the 
Zellam River, above a line drawn from Polavaram through Gokavaram to 
Yellaishwaram. 

2 The regular graduates that year were: A. Isaac, P. Caleb, B. Gnananan- 
dam and P. David. The married men were: P. Samuel, Daniel, P. Benjamin, 
K. Philip, V. Samuel, K. Venkataswami and G. John. 

3 "This young man," wrote McCready, on April 2, 1885, "spent last Satur- 
day with me and toward evening expressed his willingness to take up his cross 
and follow Christ, braving all the trials such persons become subject to on em- 
bracing Christianity. I communicated his wish to Rev. Poulsen who was here 
at the time on a visit. We decided to act at once. While I was away seeking 
the assistance of the police to protect him, Mr. Poulsen, in the presence of a few 
Christians, baptized him in my study in Riverdale bungalow. Two policemen 
were ordered to guard our house and prevent any disturbance. We were per- 
mitted to rest in peace that night. The news did not spread and his relatives 
did not know of his conversion until he informed them by letter. ... At 
length, in the company of a policeman, we visited his father's house. The object 
of this visit was to seek a public interview with his wife. She refused to ac- 
company him, being under the influence of her parents. His child they would 
not give up. Having satisfied ourselves that she would not for the present join 



228 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

After the death of their baby, born shortly before the death 
of Artraan, Mrs. Artman decided to return to America. She 
wrote: "It is with much sorrow that I leave India and the 
work here, for it has been a happy home to me for more than 
four years. It is painful to leave when I think that I must go 
when laborers are so much needed. After much prayer, 
however, this seems the only way, and all the missionaries 
agree with me." She left Madras with her two remaining 
children on May 4th, and arrived in Philadelphia on June 25, 
1885. 

The furlough of the Schmidts lasted over two years. On 
August 9, 1885, they were back in Rajalimundry, having left 
their daughter, Dagmar, in Denmark to receive her educa- 
tion. Eleven days after their arrival Captain C. Taylor, a 
consistent friend of the Mission, who every year contributed 
toward its support, died at the advanced age of nearly eighty 



us, we returned home. Some days thereafter Sriramulu's brother who made 
believe he was working in our behalf, came and begged that our convert be al- 
lowed to go home and intercede with his wife. Rev. Poulsen and I accompanied 
him, not suspecting anything. We were treated cordially, the father especially 
being very respectful. An hour passed away in conversation. We then hinted 
that it was time to take leave. Word was sent to the back part of the house 
where Sriramulu was talking to his wife and mother. We were told that if we 
were in a hurry we should not wait for him; he would follow us at 3 o'clock. We 
were alarmed by this announcement. In the meantime the courtyard of the 
house was being thronged by men. The truth dawned on us that he was in 
danger. We had fallen into a trap. I immediately ran in the direction in which 
the crowd was moving. They crowded around the door at the back of the 
house. I pushed my way through and reached the door. A large padlock was 
on it. Sriramulu was locked in. I lifted the Venetian blinds and could dis- 
cern a figure sitting with several females embracing him. I called his name. 
He answered me. I asked him if he were there of his own choice, and if he wished 
to remain. He answered in English: 'I am a prisoner; my wife and others 
have hold of me. I wish to be free to follow you.' The question was asked 
several times and he always answered the same. Mr. Poulsen went for the 
police. I remained behind. As soon as he left the mob turned on me and with 
anger in their eyes ordered me to leave the premises. I declined to do so until 
requested by the master of the house. He befriended me, quieted the mob and, 
rising from his sick-bed, begged that if Sriramulu wished to go, he should be 
set free. They would not hear him. The trial was a hard one for Sriramulu, 
but the pleadings of wife, mother, brother and friends could not change him. 
They wept, promised, threatened; but all endeavors to keep him from Christ 
were futile. I thank God for the strength given him during these hours of trial. 
He was released. The crowd followed us with hisses and curses. This man in 
taking up his cross gave up all dear ones, friends, property, worldly standing, 
everything, and followed Christ. At his request I cut his hair short or, rather , 
removed the Hindu top-knot." 




RELIGIOUS BATHING IN THE GODAVERY RIVER 

The Godavery is one of the twelve sacred streams of India. Every twelve years, 

therefore, multitudes from all parts of India come to bathe in its waters to 

wash away their guilt. The festival of bathing is called Pushkaram. 




THE BRIDGE OVER THE GODAVERY RIVER AT RAJAHMUNDRY 

There are fifty-five solid masonry piers, fifty-six spans of steel girders, 
forming a bridge a mile and a half long. 




LOADING A RADARI I5OAT WITH RICE BAGS 




A CONGREGATION OF TELUGU CHRISTIANS 

These people are Malas or outcasts, who constitute the majority of the membership of 

our mission congregations. Notice the thatch-roofed prayer 

house in which they worship. 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 2 29 

years, having lived in India without interruption for sixty 
years. 

After the return of Schmidt the Mission was redistricted. 
Schmidt took charge of the work in Rajahmundry except the 
schools, which were given to Dietrich, who also preached at 
Dowlaishwaram. The Velpur district, with N. Paulus as 
pastor in charge, was placed under the general oversight of 
Schmidt; the Jegurupad district, with Pastor Joseph in charge, 
under the general oversight of Dietrich. McCready took the 
Tallapudi district and Poulsen the Samulkot district. 

Dietrich did good work at Dowlaishwaram. He preached 
there every Sunday or sent a catechist as his substitute. The 
congregation, at the close of the year 1885, numbered eighteen 
communicant members, and during the year eleven persons 
had been baptized. The school enrolled thirty pupils. Luth- 
er's Small Catechism, reading, writing, arithmetic and singing 
were taught, the older and more advanced pupils receiving 
some instruction also in geography and history. Evangelistic 
work was done during the week in the Mala section of the 
town. 

While in the other districts the majority of the converts 
were Malas, those in the Tallapudi district were mostly 
Madigas. "To the pariahs, the Chucklers," wrote McCready, 
"and other people of low caste and no caste the Gospel is a 
welcome message. They are simple and uneducated people. 
The women join the men in the audiences. Most, if not all, 
of the converts come from these classes, hence we work 
chiefly among them. Few Christians in the Tallapudi dis- 
trict are Malas. We have Mala Christians only in two vil- 
lages. This is to be accounted for in this way: When Chris- 
tianity first enters a place, should those who first embrace it 
be of the Mala caste, which is one of the lowest castes, others still 
lower will join us; but should the first converts be Chucklers, 
the Malas keep aloof." Concerning the character of the new 
converts he wrote: "It is a sad fact that there is a lack of 
piety among the people. In the hour of trial they are weak. 
When temptations come they surrender without a struggle. 
Many bad habits, such as drinking, falsehood, getting into 



230 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

debt, spending their earnings thoughtlessly and uncleanness 
in their personal and household life, are common. Having 
abandoned heathenism they have left much behind them as 
overcome, but much still remains to be conquered." Mc- 
Cready followed the practice in the Mission not to baptize 
an adult until the Ten Commandments, the Creed and the 
Lord's Prayer had been learned. "Many in their old age," 
he said, "learn some hymns. The young people can sing the 
'Gloria in Excelsis.' The order of the service has become 
very familiar to them. The services, consequently, grow 
more interesting to them and more orderly." He introduced a 
Sunday school at Tallapudi, induced the Christians to give a 
day's wages every year for the building fund of the Christian 
Inn proposed for Rajahmundry, and encouraged the children 
to spend their Saturdays at work earning something for the 
Mission. Every Monday, being market day, he and his cate- 
chist or a teacher preached in the market-place. Thirty-one 
persons were baptized during 1885, raising the total number of 
Christians in the district to 172, of whom 68 were communi- 
cants. 1 

In St. Paul's, Rajahmundry, Schmidt preached Telugu, 
assisted by P. V. Ratnam and C. James. The English ser- 
vices and Sunday school were discontinued. An unsuccessful 
attempt was made to introduce a church council or Panchayet. 
The time for self-government had not yet come. The number 
of communicants at the close of the year 1885 was 94. An 
evangelist was engaged for the district north of Rajah- 
mundry, called the Korukonda district. In the Velpur, Jegu- 
rupad and Samulkot districts the work was slowly progress- 
ing, the number of communicants at the close of the year being 
respectively 325, 117 and 37.2 The total number of baptisms 
in all districts during the year was 311; the total number of 

1 In the largest congregation, Tallapudi, there were 46 Christians and 20 
communicants; in Peddahem, 33 Christians; in Nandamur, 14 Christians; in 
Tutigunta, 18 Christians, and in Guddigudem, 35 Christians. In five village 
schools 29 pupils were enrolled. 

* Pastor Paulus reported 211 baptisms for the year, 40 villages in which 
Christians resided and about 300 pupils in school. Pastor Joseph reported 16 
villages, 289 Christians and 68 pupils in eight schools. Rev. I. K. Poulsen 
reported 25 baptisms, 147 Christians, 84 pupils and 13 teachers. 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 231 

baptisms in the Mission from January i, 1880, to December 31, 
1885, was reported to have been 1705. 

The report of the Foreign Missions Committee to the 
Eighteenth Convention of the General Council, held in Phila- 
delphia, October 15-21, 1885, included the recommendation 
that for the better government of the Mission the Rules and 
Regulations, after their adoption by the General Council, 
should go into effect on January i, 1886. Another recom- 
mendation was that more laymen be added to the Committee. 
"There would be a great gam to the work entrusted to us," is 
the language used, "if we were given the presence, counsel, 
practical tact and hearty interest of a number of prudent, 
devoted, earnest laymen. There are now but three laymen 
on the Committee, and even these are scarcely ever able to 
attend. Would it not be well to seek out men of the kind 
desired, who have such command of their time as to enable 
them to give one day each month to this work?" As a con- 
sequence the Committee was given power to add six laymen 
to its membership. The former committee was reappointed, 
with the exception of the Rev. Samuel Laird, D. D., who was 
succeeded by the Rev. E. E. Sibole, D. D. The Rev. F. 
Wischan was elected the Committee's German secretary in the 
place of the Rev. H. Grahn. Otherwise the officers remained 
the same. 

Under the head of "missionary organizations in the con- 
gregations" the Committee sanely remarked: "The General 
Council has expressed its conviction that the Church, as an 
individual congregation or as a combination of congregations, 
is the proper agency through which the mission work should 
be done, enlarged and directed; but within the congregation 
it is often found of great advantage that the mission work 
should engage the special attention of organizations. Some- 
times the Sunday school takes up the work; sometimes mis- 
sionary societies are formed. Sometimes these associations 
are of young people; sometimes of women; sometimes all 
kinds may be found. The congregations which have shown 
the greatest interest in missions and wherein that interest has en- 
dured longest and been most constant, have such associations." 



232 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

A large part of the Committee's report was devoted to a dis- 
cussion of the educational work of the Mission, especially to 
the Committee's attitude toward the Hindu High School 
organized by Artman. The Committee had requested him to 
furnish full information concerning it, but before he could 
comply death had claimed him. Then, in November, 1884, 
the Committee had resolved to abandon the enterprise. The 
missionaries were forbidden to teach in this school and were 
directed to send such Christian boys as were capable of higher 
education to the Government High School at Rajahmundry. 
The thorough and careful training of native workers in 
Biblical knowledge was emphasized. All the missionaries, 
however, except Poulsen urged that the Mission High School 
be continued. The Committee then advanced four reasons 
for abandoning it: "i. We have not a sufficient force of men 
at Rajahmundry to allow that their time should be occupied 
with this work. 2. It is not desirable to maintain a school 
in which the whole staff of teachers is non-Christian." "If 
the Christian influence of the school were the controlling 
one," said the Committee, "our views might be different; 
but with only one hour a day given to it by a mission- 
ary, while the corps of teachers is heathen, we feel very 
doubtful of the Christian influence of the school." 3. The 
maintenance of such a High School, it was claimed, would 
place the Mission in opposition to the Government school, 
and array the English officials and their influence against the 
Mission. 4. The school threatened to become an expensive 
undertaking. "Instead of being self-supporting, as Mr. Art- 
man first believed it would, it cost, beyond its receipts for the 
first year, $500, although occupying our mission house gratis." 

Considerable correspondence passed between the Mission 
and the Committee concerning this school. Dietrich and 
McCready wrote long letters. They asserted that the school 
was a necessity, that no successful Mission was without such a 
school, and that it was the only agency by which Brahmins 
and high castes could be reached and influenced. Before 
reaching a final decision the Committee, in September, 1885, 
passed the following resolutions: 



BETTER ADMINISTRATION (1883-85) 233 

"Resolved, i. That as the care of the schools at Rajah- 
mundry has been assigned to Rev. Mr. Groenning, he be 
requested very carefully to examine into the whole school 
system at Rajahmundry, and, after full consultation with the 
other missionaries, propose a plan for the school system in all 
branches, but especially with reference to the Hindu High 
School, the Mohammedan Schools and the Caste Girls' 
School, and their relation to the Mission. 

" 2. That this plan when prepared shall be submitted to the 
Mission Council, and, after full consideration, an opportunity 
be given the several missionaries to send their views to the 
Committee. 

"3. That until the submission of such a plan and action on 
it by the Committee, the missionaries may continue to give 
religious instruction in both the Hindu High School and the 
Mohammedan School, and that the High School may occupy 
the mission house in which it is now located, unless it should 
be needed for the use of our missionaries; but that no other 
expense of these schools be borne by our treasury." 

The financial argument of the Committee was all the more 
emphatic because the Committee was forced in December, 
1885, to make a special appeal for contributions to wipe out 
an accumulated indebtedness of $2500. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 

DURING 1886 and 1887 five ordained missionaries were at 
work in the Mission, each one busily engaged in his district 
or department, and steady progress was made; but the 
Church at home lagged behind in its support of the Mission. 

The Rev. William Groenning was the ninth foreign mis- 
sionary of the General Council. He was born September 29, 
1852, at Guntur, Madras Presidency, India, where his father, 
the Rev. Charles William Groenning, was then stationed as 
a missionary of The Foreign Missionary Society of the Gen- 
eral Synod. When he was six years old William, with his two 
younger brothers, was taken by his parents to Europe to be 
educated. He was left in the family of Mr. Dierks, a teacher 
in Gross-Borstel, near Hamburg. At the age of eleven his 
uncle, Mr. Nagel of Hamburg, took him into his home and 
sent him to a private school. When his parents returned 
from India, having permanently given up the missionary 
life, the whole family was reunited and lived for a while in 
Hadersleben, North Schleswig, where William attended the 
gymnasium. At the age of nineteen he entered the Uni- 
versity, studying in turn at Leipsic, Erlangen and Kiel. At 
Erlangen he spent a year in military service in the Sixth 
Bavarian battalion. He took a special course in theology at 
the North Schleswig-Danish Theological Seminary at Haders- 
leben. After serving as an assistant to Inspector Hoeber of the 
newly established Breklum Mission Institute, he was chosen 
to succeed the latter after his death in March, 1879. On 
August 6, 1880, he married Caroline, daughter of Valen- 
tine L. Meyer, a merchant of Hamburg. Called by the 
Foreign Missions Committee of the General Council to enter 
its service as a missionary in its Telugu field in India, January 
26, 1885, he accepted the call and left Breklum on April ist 
to spend six months in Berlin in the study of medicine and 

234 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 235 

pharmacy, having been advised that some knowledge of these 
sciences would be useful in mission work. He was ordained 
on August 23d, in Bruegge, Schleswig, by Consistorialrath 
Claussen, assisted by Pastors Langreen and Selk. The Rev. 
Mr. and Mrs. Groenning sailed from Liverpool, England, 
September 26th, and reached Colombo, Ceylon, October 28th. 
From Madras they went to Tripaty to visit the Mission High 
School of the Hermannsburg Mission, and to Mayavaram, 
Tranquebar, Poriar, Tanjore, Trichinopoly and Kumbakonam, 
to study the educational work of the Leipsic Mission. 1 On 
December 3d Dietrich met the Groennings at Coconada with 
the "Dove of Peace." Henry who thirty years before had 
been a servant in the household of the elder Groenning in 
India, who had carried William as a babe in his arms, and who 
had been one of the first converts of the elder Groenning, had 
insisted on being one of the first ones to welcome the son at 
Coconada, and was there to meet him. A visit of a few days 
was paid the Poulsens at Samulkot, both of whom Groenning 
had learned to know in Europe. Here and at Ragampetta, 
whither Groenning accompanied Poulsen and his catechist 
Lakshmiah, he got his first glimpse of mission work in our 
Mission. Rajahmundry was reached on December 6th. 

Groenning at once took charge of the Rajahmundry Mis- 
sion school when it was reopened on January 15, 1886. He 
found it graded into three classes. Instruction was given in 
religion, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, 
history, music and drawing. Thirty-four boys were accommo- 
dated in the boarding house in which they slept on the floor, 
side by side, "packed like herring in a box." Twelve older 
boys were housed in a shed in the Riverdale compound. 
Groenning and his wife were entertained by Mr. and Mrs. 
Schmidt until the bungalow in the compound of St. Paul's 
Church had been repaired. Groenning planned to add, in the 
course of time, three higher grades with some instruction in 
the main branches of theology, at least in an elementary man- 
ner, so as to make the institution a reasonably efficient train- 
ing-school for native workers. He did not include the Hindu 

1 The expense of this trip was borne by Groenning. 



236 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

High School nor the Mohammedan schools in his educational 
program, and the Caste Girls' School remained in charge of 
Mrs. Schmidt, assisted by Mrs. Groenning, who also helped 
Mrs. Schmidt in the zenana work in the munsiff's house. 

The Hindu High School for boys was continued in the bun- 
galow opposite the church compound to the close of the year 
1886, when its relation with the Mission was severed. It 
was moved to another part of the town and existed for a while 
as a private school, Dietrich being able to get Rs. 700 for it 
annually as a grant from the government. In February, 1888, 
it was combined with two other Rajahmundry High Schools, 
and the union school was managed by a board of trustees, one 
of whom was Dietrich, and another E. P. Metcalf, Esq., the 
principal of the Government College. In 1893 it became a part 
of the Government School. 

On February 5, 1886, the first sheets were printed on the 
press which the Junior Missionary Society of Holy Trinity 
Church, Lancaster, Pa., had sent to India. They contained 
the Lord's Prayer in Telugu, two boarding pupils having set 
the type under the direction of Schmidt. Schmidt also began 
the publication of a small sheet in English, called "Rajah- 
mundry Mission News." Luther's Small Catechism in a 
small form and "The First Telugu Book" were published in 
the course of the first year. 

On February 24, 1886, the Rev. Mr. McCready and Miss 
Catharine Taylor, a granddaughter of Captain and Mrs. C. 
Taylor, were united in marriage at Rajahmundry. 

During the month of February Schmidt toured in the Vel- 
pur district. Extracts from his account of this tour are here 
given because they furnish an insight into the methods of dis- 
trict work. "The Christians of Vandra have built a nice 
schoolhouse with mud walls and palmyra-leaf roof. Most of 
the Christians of Vissakoderu (66) gathered with us for 
divine service in the same place where we met in 1883. It 
was at one time a cattle-shed, and is now used for school and 
church purposes. During the ten days we stopped at Vissako- 
deru Paulus and I visited twelve villages within a radius of six 
miles. In some places, like Gorlamudi, the school is held in an 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 237 

open yard and divine services are conducted there. The huts 
of the Christians are very small and have generally only one 
opening which serves as a door, so that it is impossible to 
conduct services in them. We have, therefore, no alternative 
and must frequently conduct divine services in streets, lanes 
and yards. I have found it very awkward under such circum- 
stances to administer the Holy Sacraments. Paulus, however, 
manages it very well. It does not seem to disturb him if a 
calf runs through the audience or a bird flies over our heads. 
He waits quietly until order is restored. . . . No bells are 
rung to gather the people, for the simple reason that there are 
none. In some places, like Velpur, the teacher blows a whistle 
a little while before service begins. The people are generally 
lacking in punctuality, and several opening hymns must be 
sung so as to allow the stragglers plenty of time for gathering. 
On Sunday morning the service of our Telugu Church Book 
is used. ... I naturally consented in every place to preach 
to the congregation, as my visit was a kind of inspection; but 
because Paulus is the pastor, I never baptize any of the people 
in his field. The Christians must be taught that there is no 
difference between the office of a missionary and that of a 
native pastor, in spite of our difference in nationality, edu- 
cation and other respects. . . . The natural center of this part 
of the country is Bhimawaram, where the Government is build- 
ing a court-house and where the native judge will live. Paulus 
is very anxious to build a church for all the surrounding vil- 
lages in this place. ... As far back as 1875, some people of 
Gorlamudi asked me for a teacher. How glad we now are to 
find here the largest congregation in Rev. Paulus' district." 

Some effort was made by Schmidt in the Korukonda district, 
north of Rajahmundry. In March, 1886, he visited a number 
of villages, going in a bullock cart. At Balladupadu, eighteen 
miles north of Rajahmundry, near Korukonda, after staying 
a week he baptized five persons. 

About this time V. Jacob, a convert of the Madiga or 
Chuckler caste, 1 passed his matriculation examination at the 

1 Madigas or Chucklers are workers in leather, shoe-makers or tanners, and 
are regarded as the lowest and most despised people. 



238 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Madras University, probably the first one of this caste in the 
Telugu country to pass. Schmidt said that he came to him 
full of joy and pride, saying, "I and three other Brahmins 
passed the examination!" "Just as if his success entitled him 
to rank with the Brahmins," was Schmidt's comment. 

la Dowlaishwaram Dietrich started a separate girls' 
school with Annama as teacher, early in 1886. It enrolled 
twenty pupils. During the first six months of the year he 
spent fifty-two days on tour in the district. 

Most of McCready's time was occupied in superintending 
the erection of the bungalow at Tallapudi. He instituted a 
monthly teachers' meeting on the first Monday of each month, 
hoping thereby to increase their efficiency. He prepared for 
them in advance a schedule of duties, hours and lessons of 
instruction, and of preaching appointments on Sunday and 
during the week, in an endeavor to systematize the work. It 
was almost a hopeless task, for the teachers were generally 
lazy and inefficient. The same conditions prevailed in other 
parts of the field. Dietrich wrote: ''The children are few in 
number, irregular in attendance and carelessly taught. The 
teachers are indifferent. ... I am anxiously looking forward 
to the time when we can obtain the men who are now being 
trained by Rev. Groenning." Schmidt, dealing with the same 
subject, said: "There are many who wish to enter mission 
employ, but, alas, very few of them are fit for the work ! They 
hardly satisfy the most meagre expectation as to Scriptural 
knowledge and gifts of teaching. Our mission work constantly 
reminds us of Luther's saying, that we must plow with asses 
until we get horses." 

Poulsen described the moral life of the Telugus in the follow- 
ing language: "The longer I live among these people, the more 
corrupt I find them, especially the low castes. Here at Samul- 
kot there are a great many Malas; but few live with their real 
wives. Free love is in practice an established doctrine. Those 
who practice it, however, must pay a fine of Rs. 2 or be ex- 
communicated. In the hot season, when we come to a Mala 
village in the evening, they are all drunk. Samulkot is known 
for its dancing girls and its burglars. . . To have enough rice 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 239 

without working for it seems to be the people's idea of bliss. 
It often reminds me of what I was told in my school days; how 
when the Chinese desired to picture eternal happiness they 
drew a man with chop-sticks in his hands, eating rice as fast 
as he could from a huge heap in front of him. But when I see 
the many pretty children, their innocent and bright faces 
seem to tell me that of such is the kingdom of heaven." 

The parochial reports at the close of the fiscal year, ending 
June 3, 1886, showed progress everywhere, but again especially 
in the Velpur district. 1 

So busy was Schmidt with the supervision of repairs on the 
bungalow in the church compound and on the "Dove of Peace" 
that he spent only seven days on tour from July to December, 
1886. Referring to this work he wrote: "Want of funds pre- 
vented me from engaging experienced workmen, and I had to 
do much of the repairing of the boat with my own hands. 
It is especially gratifying to see, however, how much of the 
work has been done by native Christians, who thus are edu- 
cated for honest labor; and every step onward to civilization 
is a small victory won." Schmidt was very proud of his 
industrial school. The Rev. W. P. Schwartz of Guntur, after 
a visit at Rajahmundry in 1886, wrote in the Guntur Mission 
Journal that on the evening of the first day in Rajahmundry 
he was conducted by Schmidt to the lime-kiln and brick-yard 
along the river bank, which Schmidt had "established for the 

1 The following is a summary of the reports: Foreign missionaries, 5; mission- 
aries' wives, 4; native pastors, 2; catechists and evangelists, 7; teachers in 
Rajahmundry, 10; in other places, 46; pupils in boys' boardjng department, 48; 
in girls' boarding department, 10; day pupils: boys, 33; girls, 21; total pupils 
in Rajahmundry schools, 112; baptized in 1885: Rev. Schmidt, 6; Poulsen, 25; 
Dietrich, 24; McCready, 31; N. Paulus, 211; T. Joseph, 14; total, 311. From 
January to June, 1886, 457 persons were baptized, of whom 276 were in the Vel- 
pur district. The total number of Christians, adult and children, was 1901, dis- 
tributed as follows: Rajahmundry town, 194; Korukonda district, 12; Dowlaish- 
waram town, 28; Jegurupad district, 276; Velpur district, 1044; Samulkot dis- 
trict, 147; Tallapudi district, 200. The total number of pupils in the village 
schools exclusive of Rajahmundry was 587, of whom 325 were in the Velpur 
district. 

The receipts in India for this fiscal year were $6227.91; the expense, not 
including the missionaries' salaries, $5415.77, divided as follows: Rajahmundry, 
$1089.56; Boarding department, $648.20; Velpur and Korukonda, $947.33; 
Samulkot, $588.54; Dowlaishwaram, $489.50; Jegurupad, $438.95; Tallapudi, 
$380.45; miscellaneous, including part payment for Tallapudi bungalow, 
$833-24- 



240 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

benefit of the Mission and native Christians." "Besides this," 
wrote Schwartz, "brother Schmidt has a carpenter-shop, a 
blacksmith's forge and a saw-pit. He tells me that in this way 
he is able to make the Christian community less dependent 
upon the heathen and hence more truly Christian ; that their 
sons learn useful trades and become, what is so uncommon in 
India, artisans who can read and write and cipher; that the 
dignity of labor is shown and the community in general is 
benefited by these works; and that all this is accomplished 
without expense to the mission treasury and without hindering 
him in his work in the district." 

Concerning the progress at Dowlaishwaram Dietrich wrote 
on January i, 1887: "The Dowlaishwaram schools are three 
in number, namely, our boys' school and our girls' school 
in town and a boys' school just outside of town. There are now 
40 girls and 50 boys in these schools. I put them under govern- 
ment grant, because it does not in any way interfere with their 
Christian character and much improves them. They are 
visited monthly by a government school inspector. The grant 
received this year was sufficient to pay off the expenses of the 
three schools for two months. As Mr. Van Stavern paid the 
head teacher for the year 1885, this grant went to him." 
Concerning the congregation he wrote: "When I look back 
two years and see the few (6 or 8) who came then, and now look 
at the crowded room, I feel very thankful to our Heavenly 
Father." Before the close of the year Dietrich had secured one 
and a half acres of government land in Dowlaishwaram at a 
rental of Rs. 5 a year, was negotiating for the purchase of an 
adjoining three and a half acres and had sent plans for a 
missionary's dwelling to the Committee in America. 

Poulsen spent seventy-one days on tour during the last six 
months of the year 1886. His boarding school enrolled only 
5 boys and 3 girls, and could scarcely be called a success. 
His report contained the following description of the effect 
of the caste system: "He who has not seen the workings of 
this system can have only a faint idea of it. The prevalent 
conception of sin is not immorality but the breaking of any 
of the many absurd caste rules. Let a man live ever so wick- 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 241 

edly, he is honored according as his caste is high or low; but 
let him drink water out of a pot belonging to a lower caste 
man or eat what is prohibited, and he is ostracised. Educa- 
tion, however extensive, has not been able to change this. 
Hindu graduates, college professors, judges and collectors 
observe their caste rules as well as others." 

Despite the efforts of the Foreign Missions Committee to 
increase the home income so as to meet the increasing ex- 
penses of the Mission, the indebtedness of the treasury 
remained. 1 

In one direction, however, the outlook for increased inter- 
est in foreign missions was very favorable, for in many con- 
gregations missionary societies were being organized. The 
General Council at its meeting in Chicago, in 1886, encouraged 
the formation of such societies. 2 

Because of its financial embarrassment the Foreign Mis- 
sions Committee was unable to pay the salaries of its mis- 
sionaries promptly and to remit regularly in advance, as usual, 
for each quarter of the year the sums required for the general 
expenses of the mission work. The missionaries were asked to 
exercise every economy, while reduced amounts were sent for 
general expenses. How this affected the work may be learned 
from a quotation taken from one of Schmidt's semi-annual 
reports: "For the first three months of the year I was able 
to pay only a few mission agents. Rev. N. Paulus and others 
lost much time by coming to Rajahmundry and waiting for 
money. P. V. Ratnam, the headmaster of the Caste Girls' 
School, thought it best to resign and seek government em- 
ployment. As soon as funds arrived in April our prospects 
improved. Somewhat later Ratnam withdrew his resignation, 
and at the end of the summer holidays he returned to the 
Caste Girls' School; but the number of pupils had dwindled 

1 To cancel this indebtedness the Rev. H. Grahn generously loaned the Com- 
mittee $1000 without interest. 

2 With the exception of the Rev. C. G. Fischer and Mr. J. C. File the Foreign 
Missions Committee was re-elected by the General Council in 1886, and the 
following were added as new members: the Revs. J. P. Deck, H. V. Hilprecht 
and Messrs. H. Frank and F. R. Bauer. To these the Committee at its meeting 
in November added Mr. J. Washington Miller whose name, however, does not 
appear in the Minutes of the General Council. 

16 



242 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

during his absence, some of the girls having gone to the 
Maharajah's school." 

The first Mission Conference held after the new Rules and 
Regulations went into effect convened in St. Paul's Church, 
January 4-6, 1887. Besides the five missionaries and the 
two native pastors about 60 agents and lay-delegates were 
present. Schmidt was elected chairman; Poulsen, English 
secretary; and C. James, Telugu secretary. Groenning ex- 
plained to the Conference that only promising boys should 
be sent from the districts to Rajahmundry, that all who ap- 
plied would be required to pass an entrance examination in 
the Second Telugu Book, and that girls would be admitted 
as boarders only after having reached the age of eight years, 
and would not be allowed to remain after having passed the 
age of twelve years. Dissatisfaction was expressed with the 
use of Dawson's Telugu hymn-book in the Mission, because 
its language was not sufficiently simple and intelligible. The 
evil of drunkenness was severely condemned and measures 
were proposed to check it among the Christians. The treasurer 
of the Rampa Fund (Groenning) was instructed to deposit 
this fund in a bank and secure the same rate of interest as the 
Postal Savings Bank allowed. One-half of this fund was to 
be used for the support of an evangelist or catechist, while 
the other half was to be expended for teachers' widows and 
poor Christians, no district, however, having the right to 
claim more than one-half of the amount contributed by it to 
this fund. 

None of the pupils of the Anglo-vernacular School in Rajah- 
mundry were graduated at the close of the year 1886, because 
Groenning had added a fourth class and introduced a new plan 
of instruction. 

A Brahmin was employed as the Telugu teacher for the two 
higher classes. "I could, perhaps," wrote Groenning, "have 
secured a graduate Christian teacher from the South for 
Rs. 30 a month, but believed that this Brahmin would teach 
equally as well for Rs. 6. As he gives instruction only in lan- 
guage, there is little danger of his doing injury to the Christian 
character of the school." The text-books of the Government 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 2 43 

in Telugu reading and grammar, English and history were 
introduced as being superior to any others; and an effort was 
made to secure a number of copies of the Telugu Bible History 
published by the Hermannsburg Mission, but that Mission 
declined to sell any of them, whereupon Groenning prepared 
a similar book. 

When the school was reopened in the repaired bungalow 
opposite the church compound on January 10, 1887, so many 
applied for admission that 25 had to be refused, principally 
because of the lack of accommodations. The average attend- 
ance during the first half of the year was 114; 47 boys and 
1 1 girls were boarders ; the others were day pupils. Stricter 
discipline was introduced and soon every phase of the 
school work showed the marks of Groenning's master- 
hand. 

That a missionary naturally becomes a center of missionary 
interest for the community from which he comes may be 
clearly seen in the case of Groenning. Through his father, 
then pastor in Ballum, Schleswig, regular and liberal contri- 
butions were received by the Mission, especially for the 
Rajahmundry school. 1 He used the money, thus sent, for the 
repair of the schoolhouse, for a brick wall enclosing the com- 
pound and for gymnasium and scientific apparatus and charts. 

Early in 1887 Mrs. Schmidt again began sending lace to 
America, having received many orders while on furlough in 
America. 

Schmidt spent almost a month from March icth to April 
7th on a mission to Guntur, whither he was sent by the 

1 In July, 1887, Groenning reported the following receipts: From Mr. Stokes, 
Bath, England, Rs. 60; Mr. Knuth, Flensborg, Rs. 60; Christian Thomsen, 
Ballum, Rs. 10; Miss Helem, Ballum, Rs. 5. All but Mr. Stokes' contributions 
were for the repair of the schoolhouse. Rev. C. W. Groenning also sent Rs. 
67.6, collected at a mission festival in Ballum for the erection of a church at 
Velpur. Mr. Val. Lor. Meyer, Hamburg, Groenning's father-in-law, sent 
Schreiber's wall-charts and other school apparatus. "Since January last," 
wrote Groenning, "my father has sent in addition, from Neils Neilsen, Rs. 37.8; 
Helena Mickelsen, Rs. 22.8; Sewing Society, Rs. 22.8; from his own mission box, 
Rs. 67.8. Lorenz Meyer, brother of Mrs. Groenning, sent Rs. 40, and Pastor 
Schelig of Hamm, Rs. 138.5.4. All of these contributions were placed at my 
disposal for the mission school." During the second half of the year 1887 
Groenning received through his father and brother Rs. 211 ($100); and during 
the first half of the year 1888, from the same sources, $394.61. 



244 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Foreign Missions Committee to help the General Synod's 
missionaries settle certain problems in their Mission. 

Dietrich spent sixty days on tour during the first six months 
of the year 1887. He arranged that Pastor Joseph should meet 
all of his teachers in the Jegurupad district one day each 
month to review the lessons they had been teaching, and that 
they should spend from two weeks to a month during the 
long vacation in the study of the branches they were required 
to teach. He purchased as the site for his proposed bungalow 
four and a half acres of land at Dowlaishwaram for Rs. 600, 
adding them to the lot secured from the government and 
making six acres in all. A small organ was purchased for the 
Dowlaishwaram congregation and the full liturgical service 
of the Telugu Church Book was introduced in that congre- 
gation. 

Poulsen wrote: "When I first came here I got no workers 
at all from our old fields, so I had to take dismissed and 
rejected ones from the English Church Missions and from our 
boarding school in Rajahmundry. As one might expect, 
some were unfit. Here I am with only a few workers and 
no prospect of getting more for a long time to come. The 
pastors in the old fields, Velpur and Jegurupad, naturally 
want their own boys back again when they have been gradu- 
ated." 

McCready, after having practically completed and occu- 
pied his new bungalow at Tallapudi, devoted himself to work 
in the district. He made a special effort to reach the Mala 
population, and succeeded in making 4 converts from that 
caste. In addition he baptized 21 Madigas during the first 
half of the year 1887. 

The statistics submitted at the close of the fiscal year, 
ending June 30, 1887, showed only a slight increase over the 
previous year, but gratifying progress had been made in the 
matter of increased benevolent contributions from the native 
Christians. 1 

1 The total amount of benevolent contributions during the year 1877 was 
Rs. 226.13.1, of which Rs. 34 was contributed in Rajahmundry, Rs. 68.1 1 in 
the Velpur district, Rs. 20.2.10 in the Tallapudi district, Rs. 19.15 in the Jegu- 
rupad district and Rs. 15.5.3 m the Dowlaishwaram district. 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 245 

Pastor Joseph's house at Jegurupad was finished before the 
close of the year at an expense of Rs. 350, about $125. Imagine 
a minister in the United States being satisfied with a parsonage 
costing as little as that! 

The Gorinta congregation in the Samulkot district was 
severely tried during the year 1887. "A young man from a 
village in which the Baptists have converts returned to 
heathenism and came to live in Gorinta. 'Do as we did in our 
village,' he advised, 'excommunicate .e Christians and they 
will soon give in, and we shall all be one, as before.' One 
young man from among the Christians joined him and became 
the chief enemy of the congregation. It is not possible to get 
a lot of ground to build a prayer-house, so the Christians of 
Gorinta have been meeting in an open place, whither the 
villagers frequently resort. When they were not left to worship 
in peace, they retired to the teacher's house which belongs to 
the head Mala, the principal Christian of the village. Even 
then the mob broke in during prayer and abused the Chris- 
tians, especially the women, in all the foul language in which 
Telugu is so rich and of which the low people are so fond. . . . 
The heathen no longer acknowledge this Christian as their 
headman and threaten to fine him for being a Christian. If 
he pays the fine, it is a sign that he renounces Christianity; 
if he does not, they will shut him out of their community. 
Nobody must then visit him, or give him fire, or work for him; 
and if anyone dies in his house, no one must help him to carry 
out the dead. He has hitherto bravely resisted all tempta- 
tions but has been obliged to lodge a complaint in court 
against the disturbers; yet justice for the few Christians here 
is a rare thing, and no one has scruples about swearing falsely 
against his neighbor. Of course, the caste people, Brahmins 
and Sudras, are behind the disturbers and uphold them, while 
they, in turn, are dependent on the caste people for a liveli- 
hood." 

The schools for Mohammedan boys and girls, which Mc- 
Cready after Artman's death succeeded in keeping up with 
the aid of some government grant, were little more than an 
experiment. The boys' school enrolled 39 pupils taught by 



246 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

four teachers; the girls' school, 26 pupils taught by two 
teachers. The Caste Girls' school in charge of Mrs. Schmidt 
closed the year 1881 with 40 pupils. P. V. Ratnam was still 
the headmaster. In this school, as well as in the Christian 
schools in Rajahmundry, Christmas was celebrated as usual in 
a manner resembling, as far as possible, the celebration of the 
festival in Christian lands. The chief attraction was always 
the distribution of clothing, toys and other gifts sent to India 
from America in so-called Christmas boxes, or provided by 
the missionaries out of their private purses, or with money 
contributed by friends in India and America. On one of the 
days immediately preceding or following December 25th, all 
the Christians in Rajahmundry and its vicinity were given a 
dinner of rice and curry, usually at the expense of the English 
judge of the district. 

"We generally use a tamarind branch as a Christmas tree," 
wrote Mrs. Schmidt, describing the celebration in the Caste 
Girls' Schools, "but because they are so crooked, Mr. Schmidt 
this year tried to improve on nature and made a frame with a 
point, on which he tied leaves and branches so as to look more 
like our Christmas trees at home. Each child got a basket 
made of palmyra leaves decorated with colored paper, the 
skirts and jackets being tied around them; and inside the 
baskets were fruits and sweets and the dolls standing on the 
toys. The children came in a procession, singing a hymn. It 
is a fine sight to see them in their bright clothes and loaded 
with jewelry. Sometimes, I think, all the jewels of a family 
are displayed on a child. Generally the jewelry is the one valu- 
able possession of a family. After some singing Rev. Dietrich 
delivered an address on the Christmas tree. Then there were 
some recitations of the Christmas story and the smaller 
children repeated some Scripture texts. After another hymn 
the regular and best pupils received their prizes and the 
others their presents from the tree. Next day we went to 
Dowlaishwaram for the celebration there." 

The giving of alms to beggars, inaugurated by Valett, fol- 
lowing Heyer's example at Guntur, had not yet entirely 
ceased, for Dietrich in a letter under the date of December 8, 





HANS CHRISTIAN SCHMIDT 



AUGUSTUS B. CARLSON 





WILLIAM GROENNING 



IVER K. POULSEN 





HORACE G. B. ARTMAN 



CHRISTIAN F. J. BECKER 



MISSIONARIES IN INDIA 




A TELUC.U FAMILY 
A native Christian teacher, wife and chile 




A CONFERENCE OF NATIVE CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
This picture was taken on the north side of St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry, in 1910. 



THE HOME-CHURCH LAGS (1886-87) 247 

1887, wrote: "On the first and second of every month I give 
the beggars that gather in my compound their 'dubs.' Quite 
a number gather on the mornings of these days. When I had 
charge of the school and had a Bible reading in Rajahmundry, 
I made them sit down and listen to preaching for half an hour 
or so. I often wished that man would be as anxious for the 
Gospel as he is for money; how soon every soul on earth would 
be converted!" 

In its report to the General Council at Greenville, Pa., in 
1887, the Foreign Missions Committee, after stating that the 
indebtedness of $1600, reported the previous year, had not 
yet been canceled, continued as follows: "We are persuaded 
that, notwithstanding the urgent demands of all the various 
objects of benevolence presented to our people, they are ready 
to give to the cause of foreign missions the funds needed to 
maintain and enlarge the work of our Mission. Two things 
seems to us to be chiefly necessary to secure these funds. 
The first is to bring the subject more fully to their attention; 
the second, to secure a more complete organization of the 
agencies for collecting funds and distributing information. 
The two papers issued by the General Council devoted to 
foreign missions, one in English and one in German, have done 
much and could do much more were they more generally cir- 
culated. ... It is greatly to be desired that the Council 
should devise some mode of securing for the work a more 
active and efficient administration." 

What the Committee sought to accomplish was done in the 
ninth session of the Council, when it was resolved, "That the 
Foreign Missions Committee at their discretion appoint a 
Secretary of Foreign Missions, assign his duties and fix his 
salary." The Council, furthermore, sought to relieve the finan- 
cial burden of the Committee by resolving that one-third of 
the surplus income of the German and English publications 
of the Council should be turned into the treasury of the 
Foreign Missions Committee. 



CHAPTER X 

THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 

UNDER the Rules and Regulations which went into effect 
in the Mission at the beginning of the year 1887, the adminis- 
tration on the field was placed in the hands of the foreign 
missionaries who met semi-annually as a Mission Council. 
To this Council was delegated the duty of considering and 
recommending to the Home Committee, with whom the final 
decision rested, whatever measures were necessary for the 
proper administration and development of the mission work, 
the erection of buildings, the appointment of native agents, 
the schools and whatever pertained to the care and control 
of the Mission. At each meeting of the Council each mission- 
ary was required to submit a written semi-annual report of all 
official acts and expenditures, and an estimate of expenses for 
the coming six months, to be approved by the vote of the 
Council and sent as an official communication to the Com- 
mittee in America for its sanction or amendment. 

The Rules and Regulations also provided for an Annual 
Conference of foreign missionaries, native agents and dele- 
gates of native congregations, which was to receive the written 
reports of the pastors, catechists and evangelists, and oral 
reports of the teachers, and consider such matters as per- 
tained to their work. 

The Conference met January 1-4, 1888, beginning on 
Sunday with divine services in St. Paul's Church. After the 
formal opening on Monday morning Schmidt was elected 
President; Dietrich, English Secretary; and C. James, Telugu 
Secretary. Business sessions were held every morning and 
public meetings every evening. The Conference expressed 
its gratitude to Sir Arthur Cotton for his continued interest 
in the Mission as evidenced by his support of a colporteur 
(Talluri Joseph) during the year. The holding of weekly 

248 



THE HAND OP DEATH (1888-89) 2 49 

prayer-meetings at the homes of Christians was recommended. 
With regard to the Widows' Fund it was resolved that if a 
widow marries again or has a son sixteen years of age or a 
married daughter, her stipend shall cease. On the subject 
of the baptism of a man having more than one wife, the 
opinion was expressed that the admission of such a person 
into the Christian Church is contrary to the Word of God 
and the practice of the Church of all ages, and that those who 
have already been admitted "while in this unfortunate and 
unrighteous state" should be urged to abandon all but one 
wife or forfeit all rights to Christian communion. 

The Mission Council met January 6-10, 1888. Poulsen was 
elected President and Schmidt, Secretary. Regulations with 
regard to the transfer of members from one congregation to 
another, and to discipline, were adopted. The minimum of 
required knowledge was fixed for such as applied or were pro- 
posed as teachers and had not been graduated from the 
Ramahmundry Training-school. 1 Mark and Prakasam were 
examined, passed and assigned positions as teachers. Srira- 
mulu was appointed evangelist under Schmidt, on trial for one 
year. 

In April, 1888, Poulsen withdrew from the Mission and came 
to the United States with his family, stopping on the way in 
Denmark. He had been the missionary at Samulkot for six 
years and had spent seventeen years in the service of the 
General Council as a missionary in India. He had been a 
faithful pioneer, and his permanent withdrawal was the first 
of a series of misfortunes which within two years over- 
whelmed the Mission and left it badly crippled. He served 
Danish congregations in Portland, Me.; Omaha, Neb., and 
Marinette, Wis. He died September 26, 1913, at Marinette, 
having reached the age of sixty-seven years. 

1 The following were to be the requirements: Reading, the Telugu Bible! 
Writing, a fair hand in Telugu; Composition, expressing thoughts properly; 
Arithmetic, notation, numeration and the four simple rules; Geography, a 
general knowledge of the Godavery district; Bible History, a general outline 
of Bible History from the birth of John to the imprisonment of Paul and from 
the creation of the world to the death of Solomon; Catechism, the principal 
parts by heart and a fair understanding of the whole; Hymns, ability to start 
at least four tunes. 



250 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Dietrich took charge of the Samulkot district after Poulsen's 
departure, attempting to look after it in addition to his work 
in the Jegurupad district. Concerning the Jegurupad con- 
gregation and school Dietrich wrote: "Here we have a nice 
congregation, a substantial church building and a house for 
the pastor. Rev. Joseph's daughter teaches the school, 
which numbers about 25 pupils. She has done real good work. 
Of all the schools in the out-stations hers stands first. In 
the congregation we have introduced the full liturgical service." 

Concerning the work at Muramunda he said: "At Mura- 
munda, also, we have a nice congregation and a substantial 
school building. Owing to the lack of a qualified teacher 
the school is in a poor condition and the congregation 
not what it might be." In other villages of the Jegurupad 
district the so-called congregations "are not yet worthy of 
the name," is the missionary's language. Dowlaishwaram, 
however, was fast approaching the state and character of a 
regular congregation, for in 1888 the chapel was enlarged 
so as to seat about two hundred persons, sitting cross-legged 
on the floor. 

As a result of the decreased income from America the 
boarding schools in Rajahmundry were closed during January 
and February, 1888. Groenning took advantage of this 
vacation to make a visit to the Schleswig-Holstein Mission 
stations at Salur and Jeypur. On the first of May the 
schools were reopened with several new teachers. V. Jacob 
left the Government College to devote a year to teaching 
in the Mission School. Paradesi, a graduate of the school, 
took Alfred's place 1 as teacher of the two lower classes. 
Subbarayudu was substituted in the place of Perayya as the 
Telugu teacher in the higher classes. All of the 41 boarding 
boys and 12 boarding girls attending the school in 1888, were 
supported by patrons in America; 17 boys and 15 girls, in 
addition, were day-pupils. 2 

1 Alfred had died in the service. "Though not a gifted man, he was a pious 
and upright Christian," is the testimony given concerning him. 

2 The following is a summary of the parochial reports for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1888: Foreign missionaries, 4; missionaries' wives, 3; native pastors, 2; 
catechists and evangelists, 7; teachers at Rajahmundry, 8; at other stations and 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 

McCready closed the Mohammedan Boys' School on March 
15, 1888; but it was continued for a while longer by the 
School Union of Rajahmundry. On June ist the Moham- 
medan Girls' School was transferred by McCready to 
Groenning who took charge of it in the name of the Mission 
with the understanding that its "gosha," or secluded char- 
acter, was to be abolished, because that prevented direct 
supervision by the missionary. Rather than comply with this 
requirement the parents of the girls forbade their daughters 
to attend the school, and it was temporarily closed. 

Dietrich who, in 1888, baptized as many as 33 persons 
in Dowlaishwaram, cast an interesting side-light on the 
mission work in the following language: "The Hindus seem 
never so happy than when they are engaged in a wedding, in 
a law-suit or in making debts. The Christian converts seem 
unable to shake off this characteristic. It is pitiable to note 
that nearly two-thirds of our mission agents are in debt. 
I have taken special notice of this evil during the last six 
months and am fully persuaded that it has had a baneful 
influence on our mission work. Agents contract debts and 
then allow the exorbitant interest to accumulate, until it be- 
comes impossible for them to liquidate them. The conse- 
quence is that they shirk their debts, litigation follows, and 
in the end they disgrace the Christian name." 

On November 26, 1888, McCready laid the corner-stone 

out-stations, 54. Baptisms during 1887, 235; from January to June, 1888, 170; 
confirmations, 7; communicants, 810. 

Contributions. 
District. Christians. Communicants. Pupils. Rs. 

1. Rajahmundry 153 83 132 15.4 

2. Korukonda 23 13 

3. Dowlaishwaram, town. 70 30 86 20. 9. 6 

4. Velpur 1331 321 333 77.10 

5. Jegurupad 294 191 112 25. o. 4 

6. Samulkot 122 84 n 2. 4 

7. Tallapudi 176 107 124 64.4 



Totals 2169 816 811 204.15.10 

The income in India for the fiscal year, exclusive of missionaries' salaries, 
amounted to $5019.04, which, though somewhat larger than the income of the 
previous year, was still less than that of 1886, and much too small for the work 
in hand, not to speak of the opportunities for expansion which, consequently 
were lost. 



252 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

of the new St. Peter's Church at Tallapudi. He had secured 
quite a number of subscriptions from relatives and friends in 
India and in America, as well as a little money from his dis- 
trict teachers and Christians; but the funds came in slowly 
and the completion of the building was considerably delayed. 
With money sent by the Rev. C. W. Groenning, Schmidt, 
on September 28th, secured three lots in the village of Bhima- 
waram as a site for a proposed church, paying Rs. 600 for 
them. From the same source Groenning received sufficient 
funds to erect an addition to the school building at Rajah- 
mundry. At the close of the year 12 young men were per- 
mitted to leave the school to be assigned positions as teachers, 
although they had not actually finished the course outlined 
by Groenning. They were welcomed as the first addition to 
the corps of native workers in two years. 

More than a passing notice must be given at this point to 
the value of the service of the Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., 
whose death occurred on October 15, 1888, at Phcenixville, 
Pa., while on his way from Pottstown to Philadelphia. He 
was born on August 26, 1827, at Gettysburg, Pa. Ordained 
in 1844, he served congregations at Martinsburg and Shep- 
herdstown, Va., Easton, Pa. (St. John's), Reading, Pa. 
(St. James'), and Pottstown, Pa. (Church of the Transfigura- 
tion). He was a recognized leader in the General Council 
and served on a number of its most important committees, 
notably the Church Book and the Foreign Missions Com- 
mittees. All of the reports of the Foreign Missions Committee 
to the General Council from the beginning until 1887 were 
prepared by him. He was the English Recording and Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the Committee without interruption 
for twelve years, from the time the Committee was first ap- 
pointed in 1876; and before that he had served in the same 
offices on the Executive Committee of the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania. 

With regard to his influence in the Committee the editor 
of "The Foreign Missionary" wrote: "Dr. Schmucker had 
been so long connected with the work at Rajahmundry, so 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 2 53 

familiar with all its details, so heartily devoted to its earnest 
and judicious administration and so hopeful of great success, 
that he seemed to his colleagues largely to concentrate in 
himself the life of the Committee. His counsels were judi- 
cious, his action was wise and prompt, and he appeared to 
them to be indispensable." 

The Foreign Missions Committee adopted the following 
minute on October 226.: "The Committee on Foreign Missions, 
under a deep sense of personal bereavement, shares in the pro- 
found sorrow which has been awakened in many hearts by the 
decease of their late English Secretary, the Rev. Dr. B. M. 
Schmucker. They hereby bear testimony to his personal 
worth and to the value of his service in the official position 
which he filled so faithfully and so long in connection with 
this Committee. Thorough in his acquaintance with our 
foreign mission work, familiar with all its details, prompt 
and diligent in all the divers labors of his office, he commanded, 
as a co-laborer, our fraternal love and highest esteem, and was 
acknowledged as a leader who knew what ought to be done, 
and whom it was safe for us to follow." 

How Dr. Schmucker was esteemed in India may be learned 
from President Schmidt's report to the Missionary Confer- 
ence, held at Tallapudi in January, 1889, from which the 
following is quoted: "He was the home-leader. Since 1869 
all orders went through his hands, and he remitted all money 
contributed for our Mission. . . . The principal leader of 
our Mission has ceased to work for us; but we are not left 
destitute while God abides with us." 

In its report to the General Council at Minneapolis, Sep- 
tember 13-19, I888, 1 the Foreign Missions Committee incor- 
porated this significant passage: "In some parts of our 
Church we may mention the Pittsburgh Synod especially 
there seems to be an increased interest in our work, and 
earnest efforts are put forth and faithful prayers are offered 

1 In the place of the Rev. M. J. England the General Council, in 1888, elected 
the Rev. P. J. O. Cornell, and added the following members: The Revs. W. J. 
Mann, D. D., L. P. Bender and E. J. Pohle. The Rev. William Ashmead 
Schaeffer was elected by the Committee to succeed Dr. Schmuckler as the 
English recording and corresponding secretary. 



254 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

in behalf of the great cause of bringing the heathen to know 
the true God and Jesus Christ, Whom He hath sent. Never- 
theless, we are convinced that a still more generous interest 
in foreign missions should be manifested by the congregations 
and people connected with the General Council. That we 
have but one mission station in heathen lands is hardly to the 
credit of our part of the Church; and that this station is not 
better supported, so that its boundaries might be yet more 
widely extended, is a fact that, we respectfully submit, should 
engage our earnest attention, if haply measures might be 
adopted, commending themselves to our people, which would 
secure for this work such a generous support as would enable 
us to send out more missionaries, locate new stations, erect 
the necessary churches, schoolbuildings and dwellings, and 
in every possible way develop the field to the glory of God 
and the salvation of souls." 

The gratification of the Committee at the increasing in- 
terest and effort of the Church at home was caused by the 
increased income, which amounted to $10,288.20, as com- 
pared with $9066.88 during the previous year. Nevertheless, 
there was a deficit of $19.69, and an indebtedness of $1000 
to Mrs. A. Spaeth of Philadelphia, who had loaned the 
Committee that sum. 

The year 1889 began auspiciously both in the Mission and 
in the Church at home. A strong appeal of the Foreign 
Missions Committee, printed in the March and April issues 
of "The Foreign Missionary" and "Missionsbote," copies of 
which were distributed broadcast throughout the Church, 
resulted in increased contributions, so that in June it was 
resolved to increase the quarterly remittances to the Mission 
for general expenses from $1000 to $1300. The Committee, 
moreover, agreed to give two rupees for every one contributed 
by the native Christians for the Tallapudi church. Further- 
more, Dietrich was authorized to proceed with the erection of 
a house for his catechist, J. William, and to begin what was 
intended to be the Artman Memorial bungalow in Dowlaish- 
waryam, the cost of which was estimated at $1800. Nearly 
$1000 had already been collected. 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 2 S5 

In the Mission the year began, as usual, with the meetings 
of the Mission Conference and the Council, which were held 
for the first time outside of Rajahmundry, in Tallapudi. 
McCready had planned to finish the church in time for these 
meetings, but his plans miscarried, for the masons had done 
their work so poorly that the walls of the new building had to 
be torn down again. As a consequence the meetings were 
held in a temporary structure of palm leaves. 

About sixty native agents attended the Conference, which 
lasted from Sunday, January 5th, to Thursday afternoon,, 
January pth. It was resolved "that those who do not attend 
the Preparatory Service be excluded from the Lord's Table, 
except under exceptional circumstances." After a lengthy 
discussion on the policy to be adopted with regard to the 
use of wine and "toddy," the Conference resolved "that this 
Conference is of the opinion that although the use of wine and 
fermented liquor is not in itself sinful, nevertheless, it should 
be observed, as a rule, that all mission agents should abstain 
from strong drink and not take part in any feast where strong 
drink is used to excess. Also, that they should endeavor to 
teach all converts to live soberly; and that if a mission agent 
goes for drink to a toddy or liquor shop or is found drunken, 
he must be disciplined, and if he does not discontinue such 
habits, he must not remain in the service of the Mission." 

An important decision was reached by the Mission Council, 
held directly after the Conference, when it was resolved to 
place all mission schools under government supervision after 
November, 1889. Groenning's finished manuscript in Telugu 
on the History of the Old Testament was recommended for 
publication. 1 Many plates used for illustrations in this book 
had been sent from America in the Christmas boxes which 
were being shipped each year under the direction of Mrs. R. 
A. Diehl and other women of Allentown, Pa. 

When the Rajahmundry schools were reopened for the year 
1889, another attempt was made with the Mohammedan Girls' 

1 This Old Testament History was published by the Mission in 1895. It 
was printed in Madras by the press of the Society for the Propagation of Chris- 
tian Knowledge. 



256 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

School. Instead of being driven from their homes to the 
school in a bullock bandy, as formerly, the girls were asked 
to walk, and did so, but not without complaining somewhat 
of the public exposure which it necessitated. At first the 
Mohammedan teacher, Abdul Rahim Sheriff, agreed to teach 
the Christian religion in Hindustani; but a day or so after the 
school opened he declared that as an honest Mohammedan 
he could not possibly do so. He offered, however, to interpret 
into Hindustani whatever instruction in Christianity might be 
given by a Telugu teacher. Thereupon Mrs. Groenning de- 
voted an hour a day to teaching Old Testament history and 
Scripture passages translated by the Mohammedan. After 
this hour in religion Mrs. Groenning spent another among 
the girls, teaching them how to sew. Under her direction and 
that of Mrs. Schmidt in the other Rajahmundry schools 
as many as 250 or 300 garments were made in a year, which 
were distributed as Christmas presents in the districts. 

The Samulkot boarding school was discontinued, and the 
5 boys and i girl remaining in it were sent to Rajahmundry. 

On January 23, 1889, Mr. and Mrs. Schmidt started on the 
"Dove of Peace" for a trip through the canals of the delta. 
"Mrs. Schmidt," wrote her husband, "makes it her special 
work when we are on tours to conduct the examination of the 
schools, and we get through considerably more work by this 
divided labor." The school children were usually brought by 
their teachers to the boat, accompanied by their parents, 
relatives and friends. A school examination, described as 
follows, may serve as a typical example: "To-day the school 
marched up to the side of our boat and the examination began 
at once. Sriramulu had brought the school register from the 
village. The attendance had been noted down as fair. Half 
a dozen boys were still at spelling, and many had begun to 
read the First Telugu Book. The best pupils could repeat the 
Lord's Prayer and a part of the Apostles' Creed. They also 
knew a little about the birth of Christ and his death, and 
something of his miracles. About twenty men and women 
and some children stood on the shore, evidently feeling quite 
proud that these children had mastered the first steps of 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 2 57 

knowledge. Every boy got a jacket and the best girls a 
skirt, besides some fruit, sweet-meats and a picture card. 
The little girl who had attended 180 days in seven months 
received a doll as a special prize." 

At Chittipet, ten miles from Rajahmundry, our mis- 
sionaries, as they passed in their house-boat, saw the Plymouth 
Brethren missionary located there, actively engaged in super- 
intending the erection of a church. The Plymouth Brethren 
mission intruded even farther into our field by locating Mis- 
sionary Miles at Dowlaishwaram, less than five miles from 
Rajahmundry, and building a bungalow for him there, close 
to the one which Dietrich was beginning to erect. 

In March Schmidt went to Korukonda to preach to the 
multitudes at the annual festival there. He was assisted by a 
number of native agents and accompanied by the Rev. A. 
Theophilus, the superintendent of colporteurs for the Madras 
Bible Society. Missionary Heelis from Narsapur also went 
to the festival. "We missionaries," wrote Schmidt, "had 
large crowds around us, and my wife sat under a tree with the 
wife of B. John, our teacher in Korukonda, and they had a 
large crowd of women around them, who were not a little 
astonished to hear a native woman read the Word of God." 
On the way farther north a visit was paid to Srirangapatnam, 
where a school enrolling 20 pupils had just been begun. N. 
Prakasam was the teacher. He is still working at that place. 

In Kovur, on the bank of the Godavery River opposite 
Rajahmundry, where McCready had succeeded in making a 
number of converts from the Madiga class, he induced the 
Christians to build a large prayer-house and a smaller building 
for the teacher on ground donated by two brothers, one of 
whom was a convert. In Tallapudi work on the new church 
was slowly progressing. In April, 1889, McCready made a 
trip up the Godavery River to the gorge (Bison Hill) , visiting 
every village on the right bank of the river on the return voyage. 

Summoned to appear at court hi Madras as a witness against 
a man who had forged his name to a check, Schmidt, accom- 
panied by his wife, left Rajahmundry on April 6, 1889. While 
in Madras he purchased type and other material for the 
17 



258 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

printing-press at Rajahmundry. The funds for the necessary 
outfit of the printery had been contributed by Mrs. C. W. 
Schaeffer. Mrs. Schmidt proceeded to Kotagiri, Nilgiri Hills, 
whither her husband followed, to spend the hot season. 

"Dietrich died June nth." This was the sad and sudden 
intelligence which was telegraphed by Groenning at Rajah- 
mundry to Schmidt at Kotagiri, and cabled by the latter from 
Madras to America. 

Saturday, June 8, 1889, had been an exceptionally hot day. 
The thermometer registered 150 degrees in the sun at noon. 
Dietrich was busily engaged at Dowlaishwaram superintend- 
ing the laying of the foundation of the new bungalow. He 
worked in the hot sun all day long. Robust and strong, he 
believed he could endure as much as the natives. 1 Tired 
and overheated, he lay down on the little verandah of the 
catechist's house to rest for the night. While he slept the 
monsoon broke over the land with cyclonic force. The 
rain fell in torrents. The temperature dropped many de- 
grees. At midnight Dietrich awoke chilled and wet through 
and through. He called his catechist who helped him to a 
chair from which he fell in a swoon. The symptoms at once 
became so alarming that Groenning was summoned from 
Rajahmundry. Although it was Whitsunday, Groenning 
came, leaving Pastor Paulus who happened to be in Rajah- 
mundry, in charge of the services. Dietrich was removed 
to Groenning's home in Rajahmundry, and the assistant 
surgeon was called in. He diagnosed the case as not seri- 
ous and said that the patient would be quite well again 
after a few days' rest. Dietrich seemed to improve under 
medical treatment; but suddenly, on the morning of the nth 
of June, his temperature rose to 107 degrees, and before noon 
he passed away. Because the city officials insisted on it, his 
body was buried before sun-down in the mission cemetery. 
Pastor Paulus conducted the service in the church and 
Groenning at the grave. 

1 Groenning wrote that he was prone to take risks. If the house-boat was 
not handy, he would travel in an ordinary radari boat. If he happened to be 
travelling without a tent, he would sleep over night under a tree like the natives. 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 2 59 

Dietrich was a missionary in India only six and one-half 
years. Endowed with an even temperament, sturdy health 
and a happy disposition, it seemed as though he were emi- 
nently fitted to endure the hardships of the climate and of the 
mission work in India. Groenning described him as a gen- 
erous, affectionate, sociable, contented and cheerful man, a 
noble friend, a faithful counsellor, an indefatigable worker. 
His affectionate and cheerful voice and manner won the 
hearts, especially of the children; his earnestness impressed 
the young men, especially the Brahmins. The high esteem in 
which he was held was shown by the fact that wherever the 
physician who attended him went, he had to answer solicitous 
inquiries concerning the sick missionary. He died unmarried; 
but at the time of his death he was engaged to be married to 
a young lady who was a member of Holy Trinity Church of 
Philadelphia, and was looking forward to her coming to India, 
and the completion of the Dowlaishwaram bungalow in which 
they were to live. 

The Foreign Missions Committee adopted the following 
minute on his death: "Information of the death of our late 
missionary, the Rev. F. S. Dietrich, awakened in the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Missions a sense of profound sorrow; and 
whilst we humbly bow to the Divine Will that has taken 
him to his rest and his reward, we shall long lament our loss 
and the loss the Mission has sustained in his departure. 
We cherish with fondness and gratitude to God the memory 
of the excellent traits that marked him as a man, and of the 
happy endowments which he exemplified as a Christian mis- 
sionary. His agreeable manners, his studious habits, his 
unaffected sincerity, the earnestness and purity of his heart, 
and his devout consecration to the service of our Lord, were 
known and seen of all men who moved within the sphere of 
his companionship in his native land. His missionary life 
was a growth that developed itself into a correct apprecia- 
tion of the needs of the heathen and of the best methods for 
meeting them; in an enterprise of spirit that was at once 
varied and successful; in an activity that never tired; in a 
hope that was always rejoicing; and in plentifully sowing the 



260 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

good seed of the Word, that will bear fruit unto eternal 
life." 

After Dietrich's death McCready took charge of the Samul- 
kot district in addition to his work in the Tallapudi district; 
Schmidt, besides his other work, continued the building of 
the Dowlaishwaram bungalow; Groenning, in addition to his 
school work, took charge of the Dowlaishwaram congrega- 
tion and the Jegurupad district. Moreover, Groenning was 
elected a member of the municipal board of Rajahmundry, 
and during the absence of its chairman he assumed the duties 
of that office. He also was a member of the Local Fund 
Board. 

Scarcely had the Church at home recovered from its bereave- 
ment over the loss of Missionary Dietrich, when the news of 
another death reached it. Groenning died even more suddenly 
than Dietrich. Mrs. Groenning communicated the sad in- 
telligence as follows: "On the ninth of July my dearly be- 
loved husband, William Groenning, fell asleep. In firm 
faith and with a clear confession he went home to his Saviour. 
The cholera took him off in a day." 

On July 7, 1889, Groenning had preached at Dowlaishwaram 
and baptized six persons. The next day he signed an ordi- 
nance, as acting chairman of the municipality of Rajahmun- 
dry, directing that certain measures be carried out to prevent 
the spread of cholera, which had broken out in the city. He 
personally directed the work of scavengers as they filled up a 
hole in his yard with refuse gathered from the city. Here he 
must have contracted the dreaded disease. Monday afternoon 
he became very ill. By seven in the evening all the symptoms 
pointed to cholera. Without having removed his clothing 
he lay on a couch in his home, while the physicians fought 
the disease. At half-past ten on Tuesday morning, July Qth, 
he died in the faith of Jesus Christ. 1 

1 Schmidt wrote of this sad event as follows: "I repeated a stanza of a pre- 
cious hymn, which speaks of Jesus as His people's strength, through Whom they 
are more than conquerors, because He redeemed them with His precious blood. 
Then Mr. Groenning said to his wife, 'If I die, go to your home soon. Tell our 
friends in Germany that I hope to meet them in a better world; to-day is the 
anniversary of my mother's death.' I could not, as yet, yield to the thought 
that his end was approaching, and said, 'You may get well again. The Lord 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 261 

At four o'clock in the afternoon his body was interred by 
the side of that of his brother Charles, who had died of the 
same disease in Rajahmundry, as a child, in 1865. "Crushed," 
said Schmidt, "we all stood around the grave. Our Mission 
had lost a force the like of which we never had before and 
may not soon have again." 

The Foreign Missions Committee paid him a very high 
tribute. "In the sudden and unexpected death of our dear 
brother," reads the minute, "we experienced the heaviest blow 
which our Mission has ever suffered. ... In the few years 
during which in God's providence he was permitted to work in 
our Mission, particularly as superintendent of our educational 
institution, he had done most noble and effective service in all 
faithfulness and conscientiousness, with a clear insight into 
the character of the work, with great energy and unselfish 
devotion to our Mission, the fruits of which we may hope to 
reap in coming years." 

Mrs. Groenning left Rajahmundry for Bremen on August 
22d. Before leaving, at a farewell service in St. Paul's Church, 
a boy handed her a bag containing 50 rupees as a gift of love 
and esteem on the part of the native Christians. 

Before the news of Groenning's death had reached the 
Foreign Missions Committee the Rev. Emanuel Edman, M.D., 
had volunteered to take the place of Dietrich and had been 
accepted. 

Emanuel Edman, the eleventh foreign missionary of the 
General Council, was born in Sweden in 1857. While pastor 
of the Swedish Lutheran Church in New Haven, Conn., he 
studied medicine for three years. He then went to Prince- 
may yet restore you. Do you trust in Him, that He will do all things right? ' 
' Yes, He will do all things right,' was the dying man's reply. Mrs. Groenning 
then repeated Psalm 23 : 4, and asked him, 'Is your Saviour with you?' 'Yes,' 
said he, 'yes, He has redeemed me; that is my faith and my comfort. For me 
to die is gain, salvation salvation!' While suffering from the cramp and the 
difficulty of breathing, he said, 'He was more patient when He died for us.' 
When Mrs. Groenning began, saying, 'I am the resurrection and the life; 
he that believeth in me' Mr. Groenning continued, 'shall never come into 
condemnation,' and Mrs. Groenning finished the sentence, 'but has passed 
from death to life.' After Mrs. Groenning had repeated the verse, 'I have 
loved thee with an everlasting love; therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn 
thee,' Mr. Groenning replied, saying, 'Abba, Father.'" 



262 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

ton, III., and from that place he was called to go to India as a 
missionary. He was commissioned on the evening of October 
10, 1889, in the First Church, Pittsburgh, in connection with 
the convention of the General Council. Rev. and Mrs. Edman 
with their little daughter sailed from New York on October 
1 6th, visited Sweden and arrived at Rajahmundry on January 
18, 1890. 

Early in July, just before Groenning's death, the Rev. 
E. Pohl started from Salur in India, where he had been at 
work as a missionary of the Schleswig-Holstein (Breklum) 
Missionary Society for seven years, to bring two boys to 
the Anglo-vernacular School in Rajahmundry to be trained 
by his former teacher, Groenning, to be Christian workers. 
He arrived at his destination to find Groenning dead and 
buried. His presence in Rajahmundry, however, at once 
directed the attention of Schmidt to him as a most suita- 
ble person to take Groenning's place and carry Groenning's 
plans of educational work to completion. Pohl expressed 
his willingness to undertake the task, provided his Society 
gave its permission. The Foreign Missions Committee seized 
the opportunity thus offered and was overjoyed to receive a 
communication from Inspector Fiensch of Breklum, in which 
he said, among other things: "Groenning's death caused us 
deep sorrow, and we are very much concerned about the sad 
plight of your Mission. We rejoice in our fellowship with 
you who are of the same faith and confession with us. More- 
over, our Mission has received from your missionaries many 
evidences of love and help. The American Lutheran Missions 
must serve as the binder for the Missions north and south of 
them on the eastern coast of India. We cannot allow them 
to be separated by a wedge of the Baptist sectarians. What- 
ever we can do to avoid this, we will do out of love for our dear 
Lutheran Church, our common mother." 

The agreement was that the Breklum Society should loan 
to the Rajahmundry Mission the service of Mr. Pohl for a 
period of one year, and that Mr. Pohl's travelling expenses 
to Rajahmundry and his salary of $1000 should be paid into 
the treasury of the Breklum Society. It was understood, how- 



THE HAND OF DEATH (1888-89) 

ever, that Pohl would be subject to the control of the Foreign 
Missions Committee under the Rules and Regulations of its 
Telugu Mission. 

Pohl began his work at Rajahmundry on November 12, 
1889, moving into the bungalow in the church compound, 
and taking charge at once of the school, in which he taught 
two or three hours a day. He also preached at the Telugu 
services in St. Paul's Church and in Dowlaishwaram when- 
ever Schmidt needed a substitute. He tried to carry out the 
plans of Groenning in the educational work, and concen- 
trated his efforts on making the Anglo-vernacular School a 
training-school for the education of native agents. 

In 1889 the Foreign Missions Committee fixed on a schedule 
of salaries to be paid the missionaries, which was adopted by 
the General Council in session at Pittsburgh that year. This 
schedule, which is still in force, is as follows: 

For an unmarried man, unacquainted with the language, 
for the first two years' residence in India, $600 a year. For 
a married man in the same position and for same time, $800 
a year. 

For an unmarried man from the third to the fifth year of 
his residence in India, inclusive, $700 a year. For a married 
man for the same time, $900 a year. 

For an unmarried man from the sixth to the tenth year of 
his residence hi India, inclusive, $800 a year. For a married 
man for the same time, $1000 a year. 

For an unmarried man after ten years' residence in India, 
$1000 a year. For a married man for the same time, $1200 
a year. 

In December, 1889, the Rev. F. W. Weiskotten succeeded 
the Rev. F. Wischan as the editor of the "Missionsbote." 
The latter had ably edited this paper for twelve years and had 
increased the number of its subscribers to 18,000. The ac- 
counts had shown an annual balance, and each year a surplus 
could be turned into the treasury of the Committee. 1 

1 The total amount paid over by the "Missionsbote" into the treasury of 
The Foreign Missions Committee during the years 1886-89 was $855.80. The 
Foreign Missions Committee extended a vote of thanks to the Rev. Mr. Wischan 
for "his earnest and faithful labors in behalf of the cause of foreign missions." 



264 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

The Rev. C. G. Fischer, who had faithfully served as the 
business agent of the "Missionsbote" and "The Foreign 
Missionary," and whose compensation for this work had been 
only $100 a year, was succeeded in this office by the Rev. H. 
Grahn on December i, 1889. 

Up to this time the Foreign Missions Committee had used 
a room in the Theological Seminary on Franklin Square, 
Philadelphia, as its place of meeting, but the removal of the 
Seminary to Mt. Airy obliged it to seek another place. After 
meeting a number of times in the vestry room of Zion's 
Church, it received and accepted an invitation in November, 
1889, to hold all of its meetings in the Mary J. Drexel Home 
and Motherhouse of Deaconesses in Philadelphia. 





CHARLOTTE SWENSON 



KATE L. SADTLER 





BETTY A. NILSSON 



AGNES I. SCHADE 





LYDIA WOERNER 



AMY I?. ROIIRER 



WOMEN MISSIONARIES 




"THE ZENANA HOME" 
First residence built at Rajahmundry for women missionaries. 




A CANAL SCENE IN THE GODAVERY DISTRICT 



CHAPTER XI 

WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 

As the work of a foreign mission develops it becomes more 
complex. New departments of work are added and new insti- 
tutions are founded. The district mission work is augmented 
by educational and philanthropic efforts for the improvement 
of the mental and material as well as the moral and spiritual 
welfare of the converts to Christianity. Primarily and funda- 
mentally, mission work is the preaching and teaching of the 
truth of the Word of God, in order that the heathen may be 
converted from their idols to the worship and service of the 
One, True, Living God, the Triune God, the Father, Son and 
Holy Spirit. Nevertheless, such preaching and teaching leads 
inevitably to the establishment of institutions and depart- 
ments of work which, though subordinate to the primary 
purpose of the Mission, are essential to its growth and de- 
velopment in every direction. 

Next in importance to the establishment of congregations 
is the establishment of schools for the education of the children 
of converts in the knowledge of the principles and practice 
of the truths of Christianity, and in such branches of secular 
knowledge as will fit them to be intelligent and useful citizens. 
Such mission schools also serve the purpose of bringing 
children of heathen parents under the influence of the Gospel, 
and of reaching, to some degree at least, the parents of such 
children. The educational program of every mission, further- 
more, must include institutions for the training of native 
converts for work in the mission as teachers, evangelists, 
catechists and pastors. Some missions believe that they must 
also maintain High Schools and Colleges, but the existence 
of such schools of higher learning is justifiable only when the 
management and staff of the school is distinctly Christian. 

265 



266 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Institutions of mercy, such as hospitals, dispensaries, or- 
phans' homes and asylums of various kinds often become 
auxiliary departments of mission work in its developed stages. 

Mission work in India calls for a large number of trained 
native workers. On them depend the character and growth of 
the Mission. The foreign missionary who increases the number 
and efficiency of his native Christian assistants is making the 
best possible contribution to the success of the Mission. 

The lowest grade of native Christian workers in a mission 
in India, apart from the Bible colporteur, is the village school- 
teacher. It is his duty to teach the children of the Christians 
of his village and such children of heathen parents as may be 
sent to his school the elementary branches of secular knowl- 
edge required by the government, and, above all things, to 
impart such Biblical knowledge as he may be able to teach 
and the children may be able to learn. He is also, as a rule, 
the lay-preacher for the Christians of the village in which he 
resides; and sometimes he is placed in charge of a number of 
villages. He conducts the Sunday and mid-week services, 
prepares the inquirers for adult baptism and the catechumens 
for confirmation by the foreign missionary. His immediate 
superior is the catechist of his circle, to whom he reports, and 
who, in turn, is responsible to the foreign missionary for a 
given circle of ten or more villages. The evangelist who, also, 
is subject to the direction of the catechist under the foreign 
missionary, works in new and unoccupied villages, preaching 
and conversing with non- Christians in order to bring them to 
Christ. The extension of the mission depends to a large 
extent on the work of the evangelists. 

The foreign missionary who is in charge of a district visits 
the villages of his district in which Christians or inquirers 
reside and in which schools are conducted, as often as possible 
each year. If his work lies along the river or canal, he uses a 
house-boat, furnished by the mission; if he must travel over- 
land, he uses a horse or a bullock-cart and takes with him a 
tent and such utensils, provisions and servants as may be 
necessary for the journey. From some central point, where 
the boat is moored or the tent is pitched, he goes to sur- 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 267 

rounding villages on foot or, sometimes, on a bicycle or a 
pony. He is generally accompanied by the catechist of the 
circle in which he is working at the time and by one or 
more native assistants. Where there is no native pastor, 
he performs all the ministerial acts, examines the school 
children, the catechumens and inquirers, and baptizes or 
confirms them, if found to be properly prepared; he adminis- 
ters the Holy Supper to the communicants and exercises 
whatever discipline may be called for in a congregation; he 
directs the work of the school-teachers and other native 
Christian helpers, whose employment, dismissal or transfer 
lies in his hands; and, as time and opportunity are given 
him, he preaches to the heathen. This district work is, 
therefore, partly pastoral and partly evangelistic. 

Besides ordained foreign missionaries, woman missionaries 
are also employed in almost every mission in India, because 
of the peculiar position of women in India. Many of these 
are confined in zenanas or women's apartments, which they 
are not permitted to leave unless accompanied by some male 
member of the household, and to which no man outside of 
the household is admitted. The only way to reach these 
zenana women is through woman missionaries, who may 
enter the zenanas to instruct them and their children. Usu- 
ally a Bible-class is formed in each zenana, and one or more 
hours of instruction are given each week. Besides the religious 
instruction, the woman missionary may undertake to teach 
the zenana women and children sewing, needle-work, English, 
Telugu or music, in order to gain and hold their attention. 

Associated with this zenana work are the Hindu Girls' 
schools, sometimes called Caste Girls' schools, because, at 
first, outcast children were not allowed to attend them. 

Medical work for women and children is another depart- 
ment in which woman missionaries are engaged. This work 
calls for hospitals and dispensaries for women and children, 
and for visits to private homes to attend patients. Daily 
devotional exercises are conducted in the various institu- 
tions of this department, and Sunday schools are established 
for the caste children who can be induced to come. 



268 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

In the zenana and medical work native Christian women 
are employed as so-called Bible-women to assist the woman 
missionaries in teaching the classes or as nurses. 

For the higher education of Christian girls, Central Schools, 
in charge of woman missionaries, are established, usually with 
a Normal Training Department to fit some of the pupils for 
work as village school-teachers. These Central Schools are 
boarding schools, and their primary object is to raise the 
standard of the education of the Christian women. 

Where industrial work is carried on in a mission, it aims 
to furnish converts with a means of livelihood or, at least, 
with some opportunity to improve their time and their con- 
dition in life by remunerative occupation. 

The credit of having begun women's missionary work in 
Rajahmundry is due to Mrs. Schmidt and Mrs. Artman, when, 
in 1 88 1, they started to teach a class of zenana women in 
the home of the munsiff Narasimham. Then in January, 
1882, Mrs. Schmidt began the Hindu Girls' School at River- 
dale. In 1884, after her husband's death, Mrs. Artman took 
full charge of the zenana work and the Hindu Girls' School, 
as the first salaried woman missionary in the service of the 
General Council. The wives of the other missionaries also 
rendered some assistance in teaching the boarding boys and 
girls to sew; and, as early as 1878, Mrs. Schmidt had begun the 
industrial work of lace-making with the older girls in the 
boarding school. 

The question of sending woman missionaries to labor by the 
side of the ordained missionaries and their wives was first 
raised in December, 1879, when Mrs. Emma Victoria von 
Noxendorf offered her service to the Foreign Missions Com- 
mittee; but the Committee replied as follows: "Resolved, 
That the Rev. Dr. A. Spaeth, chairman of the Committee, 
inform her that we have not yet progressed far enough in 
our school work to send out a woman teacher, but hope to 
be able to do so at some future time." 

Ten years later a similar application was received from Miss 
Agnes I. Schade, then a teacher in the Orphans' Farm School 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 269 

at Zelienople, Pa. Still the Committee hesitated. The mis- 
sionaries on the field were asked for their opinion and unan- 
imously declared in favor of sending a single lady as a woman 
missionary. The Committee, however, decided to delay the 
matter until it had ascertained the mind of the Church at 
home. In an editorial in the May, 1890, issue of "The Foreign 
Missionary" every friend of the Mission was invited to write 
on a postal card his or her view of the matter of sending out 
woman missionaries. All of the replies received favored the 
undertaking. Meanwhile Miss Kate S. Sadtler, daughter of 
the Rev. Dr. B. Sadtler, of Baltimore, Md., also volunteered 
to serve in the India Mission as a woman missionary. Finally, 
at its meeting in June, 1890, the Committee resolved in the 
name of the Lord to begin zenana work, and called Miss 
Agnes I. Schade and Miss Kate S. Sadtler "as assistants in 
the mission work in India." 1 

After the Committee had called its first woman missionaries, 
it published and distributed the following circular: 

11 To the Members of our Ladies' and Dorcas Societies: 

"At the last convention of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania 
it was unanimously resolved that the pastors of the Minis- 
terium be instructed to call the attention of their congrega- 
tions, and particularly of the Dorcas and Ladies' societies, 
to the fact that the Foreign Missions Committee of the 
General Council is about to undertake the establishment of a 
zenana mission among the Telugus, and that the special in- 
terest and co-operation of our devout women in this work is 
solicited. There was also a full report of the committee on 
Woman's Work in the Church, received by the Synod and 
referred to the Conferences for consideration, in which the 
organization of women's missionary societies under the con- 
trol and direction of the Ministerium and congregations, in 
which such societies exist, is strongly recommended. 

"The undersigned Foreign Missions Committee of the 
General Council takes the liberty to call the attention of our 

1 The salary of a single lady sent out as a woman missionary was fixed at 
$500 a year; $100 were allowed for an outfit. Miss Sadtler, however, provided 
her outfit at her own expense. 



270 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Dorcas and Ladies' societies to the action of the Pennsylvania 
Synod and solicit, through the kind assistance of their respec- 
tive pastors, their hearty and prompt co-operation. 

"The word 'zenana' is used by the Hindus to designate that 
part of the house, particularly among the wealthy classes, 
which is assigned to the female members of the household 
the wives, mothers and daughters of the Hindu families. As 
throughout the Orient, so in India also, this part of the dwell- 
ing is considered the most secluded and inaccessible, to which 
no stranger and, above all, no man, is ever admitted. Zenana 
Mission, then, in general designates that mission work which 
is carried on in the zenana; but how can the Gospel ever 
enter these places if no missionary or evangelist, no minister 
of the Gospel, is ever admitted into them, and the inmates 
are forbidden to meet with the Christians in their preaching 
stations and churches? The importance of reaching these 
sanctuaries of the family life with the regenerating influences 
of the Gospel will not be denied by any one, for in India, as 
well as in America, England or Germany, the nursery is the 
place from which the whole life of the nation grows out to its 
future development. . . . 

"In one of the last meetings of our Foreign Missions Com- 
mittee of the General Council, held at the Mary J. Drexel 
Home and Motherhouse of Deaconesses, Philadelphia, the 
resolution was unanimously passed that, in the name of the 
Lord, we undertake the establishment of a zenana mission in 
Rajahmundry; and Miss Kate Sadtler and Miss Agnes Schade 
were called to go out as the first laborers sent by our Com- 
mittee in this field. Both have accepted the call, and on the 
sixteenth of October we expect to hold a solemn service in 
St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Race Street, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth Streets, . Philadelphia, and send them 
out with our prayers and benediction to their distant field of 
labor. 

"On the day following, at 2.30 p. M., we propose that a Con- 
ference be held at St. John's Church, of ladies delegated by 
the Dorcas, Ladies' and Missionary Societies of our congrega- 
tions in and around Philadelphia say, three from each con- 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 271 

gregation to take into consideration what could be done by 
the harmonious and simultaneous action of these different 
societies toward the support of our zenana work in India and, 
if possible, to organize a general society in aid of this particular 
mission branch. The ladies of the Lehigh Valley 1 have shown 
to the Church how much can be accomplished by the united 
and hearty co-operation of our devout women. Let those of 
the city of brotherly love not stand back. Come to the service 
and remember in your prayers the sisters who are to go out 
to Rajahmundry. Come to the Conference. Let us have a 
full discussion of this subject of woman's work. Let us 
organize it and carry it forth in humble faith and unremitting 
devotion. Surely the Lord will be with us and establish the 
work of our hands for His Name's sake. 

THE FOREIGN MISSIONS COMMITTEE." 

Agnes I. Schade, daughter of Michael Schade and his wife 
Justina nee Klotz, was born at Water Cure, Pa. When she 
was six years of age her parents moved to Monaca on the 
Ohio River, thirty miles from Pittsburgh. After a public 
school education she entered the State Normal School at 
Millersville, Pa., from which she was graduated in 1886. 
In 1889 she became a teacher in the school connected with the 
Orphans' Home at Zelionople, Pa. In June, 1890, she was 
formally called by the Foreign Missions Committee to go 
to India as a woman missionary. 

Katharine S. Sadtler, the eldest daughter of the Rev. 
Benjamin Sadtler, 2 D. D., of Baltimore, Md., was born at 
Shippensburg, Pa. During her early childhood her parents 
moved to Easton, Pa., where her father served as the pastor 
of St. John's Church. In 1862 her father became the Principal 
of the Lutherville Female Seminary, from which she was 
graduated. In 1889 her cousin, Miss Amy Sadtler, offered 

1 At the call of the Rev. C. J. Cooper, D. D., and under the leadership of 
Mrs. E. Pfatteicher, Mrs. R. A. Diehl, Mrs. J. A. Bauman and others, the 
Women's Missionary Society of the Second or Allentown Conference was or- 
ganized in March, 1885, in St. Peter's Church. South Bethlehem. 

2 The Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., the secretary of the Foreign Missions 
Committee, was Miss Sadtler's uncle. 



272 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

her services as a woman missionary to the Foreign Mission 
Board of the General Synod and was accepted. This revived 
an old desire within her to serve in the General Council's 
Mission in India, in which she had become deeply interested 
after a visit of the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Schmidt at her 
father's house during the summer of 1885. She was accepted 
and called by the Foreign Missions Committee of the General 
Council at the same time Miss Schade was called, on June 9, 
1890. 

The commissioning service for these two zenana sisters 1 
was held on the evening of October 16, 1890, in St. John's 
Church, Philadelphia. The Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., Chairman 
of the Foreign Missions Committee, in delivering the charge, 
said: "I ask you, dear sisters in the Lord, are you willing 
and ready to go out as helpers in our Mission and to give your- 
selves wholly to this service, into which you now enter, for 
Jesus' sake, who loved you and gave himself for you?" To 
this question the sisters responded, saying, "Yes, I will by 
the help of God." Thereupon the Rev. Dr. Spaeth took the 
hand of each one, and said: "God, the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, bless, protect and sanctify you in your service, filling 
you with faith, wisdom, love and humility, to serve Him to 
the honor of His Holy Name and the good of His Holy Church. 
Amen." Appropriate passages of Holy Scripture were recited 
in German by the Rev. H. Grahn, D. D., and in English by 
the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D., and during the 
prayer of commissioning the sisters knelt before the altar. 

The next day the woman missionaries-elect left for New 
York, where the Rev. G. F. Krotel, D. D., pastor of Holy 
Trinity Church, had arranged with the women of his congre- 
gation for an informal farewell meeting. 

As arranged, the women of the Lutheran congregations of 
Philadelphia and its vicinity met on October lyth, the day 
after the commissioning, to organize a Women's Missionary 
Society. Ninety women, representing fourteen congregations, 

1 On the motion of the Rev. A. Cordes, pastor of the Deaconesses' Home, 
the title of "zenana sisters" was applied to these woman missionaries after 
November, 1891. 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 273 

assembled in St. John's Church for this purpose. At an ad- 
journed meeting on November i4th a constitution was adopted 
and officers were elected. 1 

The Misses Schade and Sadtler sailed from New York 
on October i8th, reached Colombo on December 6th, Madras 
on the nth, and Rajahmundry on the 2oth of December, 
1890. 

During the year 1890 Schmidt, McCready, Pohl and Ed- 
man carried on the work of the Mission. At the meetings of 
the Mission Conference and Council in January of that 
year, held in Tallapudi, the new church, though not entirely 
completed, was consecrated on January 8th. The bell had 
been donated by Mrs. Mary Hunter of New York, who also 
contributed several hundred dollars toward the building fund. 
About Rs. 2200, or $750, had been secured by McCready from 
friends, relatives and native Christians in India, and at least 
$700 from friends in America. 

Pohl, as the superintendent of the educational work in 
Rajahmundry, proved to be a worthy successor of the lamented 
Groenning. His mildness and gentleness won for him the 
confidence and love of his pupils and their parents; his piety 
and spiritual-mindedness, their esteem and respect; his 
ability as a teacher, their obedience and loyalty. 

The school opened with an unusually large number of 
pupils hi January, 1890. An additional class, the sixth 
standard, was organized, and the school was awarded a govern- 
ment grant. That no change was contemplated or expected 
in the character of the school as a training-school for native 
workers, even though financial aid was received from the 
government, is evident from the following explanation of 
the manager: "Because the preaching of the Cross and not 
the spread of scientific knowledge is the chief aim of the 
Mission, our school is of great importance. It is our purpose 
to train our Christian youth so that they may be able to sow 

1 The first officers of the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Philadelphia Conferences of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania were: Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Samuel Laird; Secretaries, Mrs. J. L. Sibole, Mrs. H. M. Vanderslice 
and Miss C. Probst; Treasurer, Mrs. H. E. Jacobs. 

18 



274 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

the good seed of the kingdom. We wish to instruct them so 
that they may give a reason for the hope that is in them. 
We are very careful to make them familiar with the precious 
treasures of divine truth which the Lord has given to our 
Church, so that they may hold up the banner of our Con- 
fessions faithfully unto the end. To this, then, is added such 
general knowledge as they may be able to gain." 

Pohl described the schoolbuildings as well adapted to their 
purpose. The main building contained three smaller and four 
larger rooms, the largest having been added by Oroenning. 
The lowest class, however, had to meet on the verandah; 
103 boys and 42 girls were enrolled in January, 1890. They 
were taught by six teachers, all but one of whom were Chris- 
tians; 95 boys and girls were housed in the boarding depart- 
ment, consisting of four small buildings in the church com- 
pound, which were filled to overflowing. Pohl furnished the 
following interesting description of a day in the life of the 
school : 

"Before sunrise the children, after washing, eat the cold 
rice that was left from the supper of the previous day. At 
sunrise the church bell summons them for morning prayer. 
The school begins at 7 o'clock and closes for the morning at 
11.30. At noon dinner is served. At 2 p. M. the girls and 
some of the boys spend some time at sewing and mending 
under the direction of my wife. During the afternoon some 
of the children are employed in sweeping the schoolrooms and 
putting them in order for the next day. The larger pupils, 
however, spend the hour from four to five in class. After 
that comes the recreation hour. Some engage in gymnastics, 
others in some useful work on the grounds, watering the 
plants, removing rubbish, etc. Some go to Mr. Schmidt's 
compound to learn carpentering. The girls, carrying vessels 
on their heads, hasten to the Godavery River to bring drink- 
ing-water, filling up five large vessels for the next day. At 
6 o'clock the boys go to bathe in the Godavery. The evening 
is spent in study or singing, and evening prayers in the several 
boarding houses close the day." 

Soon after coming to Rajahmundry Mrs. Pohl took charge 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 275 

of the Mohammedan Girls' School which was now called the 
Artman Poor Mohammedan Girls' School. Sarah, a Christian, 
assisted her by giving some instruction in the Christian re- 
ligion in Telugu. The teachers in the Hindu Girls' School 
were P. V. Ratnam, Ramachandra Rao and a Hindu, while 
Goraza conducted the girls to and from the school. 

Edman and his family at first occupied Mrs. Taylor's 
bungalow, which was leased by the Mission. On June 16, 
1890, they moved to Samulkot, Edman having been assigned 
to that district. 

Besides touring in the Velpur district, spending most of his 
time in and around Bhimawaram, where within a radius of 
five miles over 1000 Christians resided and where he planned 
to build a large church for them, Schmidt erected a house in 
the Riverdale compound, adjoining the Caste Girls' School, for 
use as a printery and book-store. The latter enterprise was 
managed by Mrs. Schmidt who, in 1890, sold as many as 4238 
Bibles, books and pamphlets. Schmidt also began the erec- 
tion of the so-called Zenana Home, the residence of the zenana 
sisters, and continued the building of the Dowlaishwaram 
bungalow. 

On Pentecost, 1890, an unusually interesting ceremony 
was performed in St. Paul's Church, when a Brahmin, Jaga- 
natham, and a Mala, Veera Emmanuel Razulu, were baptized 
at the same time, thus showing how Christianity breaks down 
the caste distinctions. 

The parochial reports for the fiscal year, ending June 30, 
1890, were summarized as follows: 1 

Rajahmundiy, Tallapudi, 

Korukonda. Jegurupad. Velpur. Samulkot. Totals. 

Villages 6 20 55 19 100 

Christians 201 356 1580 296 2433 

Communicants 95 229 426 155 905 

Baptisms, six months n 17 178 39 245 

Schools 4 10 26 9 49 

Teachers 9 25 8 52 

Pupils 224 195 393 117 899 

1 At the July, 1890, Mission Council meeting the missionaries requested that 
they be granted allowances to enable them to spend the hot season at some 
health resort. The Board granted the request. This allowance now is Rs. 75 
for each adult and Rs. 25 for each child. 



276 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

In August, 1890, Mr. John G. Haas of Lancaster, Pa., whom 
Dr. Schmidt on his visit to America and afterward through 
correspondence had interested in the enterprise, began to 
send money to him for the endowment of a Christian com- 
munity, centered around a church with a native pastor. 
Schmidt selected Lankapuram near Mahadevipatnam as the 
location of the community and began the purchase of land 
there and elsewhere in the Bhimawaram taluk, which he 
arranged to rent or to sell on easy terms to poor but deserving 
Christians who were to form the community. Gradually 
this enterprise, financed entirely by Mr. Haas, assumed con- 
siderable proportions; but it was altogether a private under- 
taking, of which the Foreign Missions Committee had no 
official knowledge and over which it never attempted to 
exercise control. 

According to the agreement between the Breklum Society 
and the Foreign Missions Committee Pohl had been loaned 
to the Rajahmundry Mission for only a year. At the end of 
the year, however, no one had been found to take his place 
as the head of the educational work, and the Breklum Society, 
at the earnest solicitation of the Committee, extended the 
period to the close of the year 1891. 

March 4, 1891, was a high day in the history of the Rajah- 
mundry school which that year received the name of The 
Seminary, when twenty-one students, the largest number 
sent out from this school up to that time, were formally 
and solemnly installed as teachers. "On Tuesday," wrote 
Pohl, "the schoolhouse was tastefully decorated with palm 
branches, and the students who were to be graduated gave 
what may be termed a farewell luncheon to the pupils who 
were to remain in the school. What impressed me most 
favorably was the fact that, as they were now all together 
for the last time, they, first of all, united in singing to the 
Lord a hymn of praise and, then, on bended knees, offered 
prayers and suppli cations. In the evening we all attended 
the Preparatory Service in the church, for we wanted to mark 
the ending of our past work and the beginning of the new with 
the assurance of the divine pardon of our sins. The solemn 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 277 

commissioning of the teachers to their respective fields of 
work occurred on Wednesday morning. After we had all 
joined in prayer once more in our home, we proceeded to the 
church. After the regular liturgical service and the lesson, 
Brother Schmidt addressed the young men. Then I, who had 
taken so much delight in teaching them, delivered a brief 
address. After the chanting of Psalm 100 the teachers- 
elect came to the altar and Brother Schmidt asked them: 
"Dear Brethren in the Lord, in the presence of Almighty 
God and of this congregation, I now ask you: Are you ready 
and willing to devote yourselves fully and sincerely to the 
service to which you have been appointed this day; and, for 
Jesus' sake, Who gave Himself for you, will you fulfill your 
calling with all fidelity, and adorn it with a holy life in con- 
formity with the teachings of our Evangelical Lutheran 
Church?" Each in turn answered: "Yes, with the help of 
God." Then they were set apart for their work as teachers 
by the laying on of hands and the following form of consecra- 
tion: "God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy 
Ghost, bless, protect, sanctify and cause you to abound in 
faith, wisdom, love and sincerity, in order that you may serve 
Him for the glory of His Name and for the edifying of His 
Holy Church; and in the end may you obtain everlasting 
life through Jesus Christ, our Lord." Thereupon the congre- 
gation said, "Amen." Then I laid my hand on the head of 
each one, repeating appropriate passages of Holy Scripture. 
Prayer was offered by Brother Schmidt and the Holy Com- 
munion followed. The service closed with the benediction 
and the hymn "Abide with us, our Saviour." 

At the special request of the teachers who had graduated 
from the Seminary and with the approval of the Mission 
Council, Pohl devoted the months of June and July to a special 
normal course for their benefit. Thirty-three attended this 
course, which was pronounced to have been a decided suc- 
cess. In recent years more attention has been given to the 
normal training of teachers, which has been found to be a 
necessary preparation for efficient work on the part of the 
native assistants. 



278 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Miss Schade took charge of the Artman Poor Mohammedan 
Girls' School in April, and Miss Sadtler, of the Caste Girls' 
School in July, 1891. Both resided with the Schmidts in the 
Riverdale bungalow until the Zenana Home was completed. 

Some time in 1891 "The Telugu Lutheran," a four page 
sheet, 8 by 13 inches, was begun as a regular publication of 
the Mission. 

Before the close of the year a new missionary was on the 
field to take the place of Pohl. The Rev. Calvin F. Kuder was 
the twelfth ordained missionary sent out by the General Coun- 
cil to India. He was born April 10, 1864, at Laurys, Lehigh 
County, Pa. After having been graduated from Roanoke Col- 
lege, Salem, Va., he entered the Evangelical Lutheran Theo- 
logical Seminary at Philadelphia. While a member of the 
middle class in the Seminary he volunteered to go to India in 
the service of the Foreign Missions Committee. He was called 
subject to his ordination which occurred at the meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium in Emmanuel Church, Pottstown, 
Pa., on May 26, 1891. On August i8th, that year, he was 
united in marriage to Mattie, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. 
A. Ferguson, at Salem, Va. The service of commissioning 
was held on August 3ist, in St. John's Church, Allentown, 
Pa., the chairman of the Foreign Missions Committee, the 
Rev. A. Spaeth, D. D., delivering the charge to the mis- 
sionary. The Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Kuder sailed from Phila- 
delphia on September 2d, and reached Rajahmundry on 
November 14, 1891. 

The year 1891 marked quite an advance in the foreign 
mission activity of the Church at home, due largely to the 
increase of women's missionary societies, mission leagues and 
kindred organizations. A beginning had been made, also, in 
the publication of special literature on our foreign mission 
work. Mrs. J. A. Bauman, of Allentown, Pa., published a 
small catechism on foreign mission work in India with special 
reference to. the Telugu Mission of the General Council, which 
was prepared by the Rev. Dr. and Mrs. H. C. Schmidt; 
and the Rev. G. H. Trabert, D. D., wrote and published a 
book on "Missions Among the Telugus." Both appeared 



WOMAN MISSIONARIES (1890-91) 279 

with the hearty endorsement of the Foreign Missions 
Committee. 

In its report to the General Council at Buffalo, in 1891, the 
Foreign Missions Committee, besides giving the names of 
forty-two individuals, schools and societies supporting boys' 
scholarships, and eighteen supporting girls' scholarships, 
reported twenty teachers and other native workers supported 
by patrons in America. The Riverdale Hindu Girls' School 
was being supported by the Sunday schools of St. John's 
and St. Mark's churches of Philadelphia; the Mohammedan 
Girls' School, by the Young Ladies' Society and the Sunday 
school of Holy Trinity Church, New York City; the school at 
Gorlamudi by the Children's Missionary Society of Emmanuel 
Swedish Church of Chicago, and the school at Srirangapatnam, 
by the Ladies' Missionary Society of the church last men- 
tioned. 1 

The average annual contribution from all sources for the 
biennium 1890-91 was $12,675.80; the average annual ex- 
penditure, $12,989.32, showing an excess of expenditure. The 
floating indebtedness of $1000 remained unpaid. Among the 
items of income noted were several hundreds of dollars each 
year, derived from the net proceeds of the German and 
English publications of the General Council. 2 

The committee of the General Council on Woman's Work 
presented a report to the convention at Buffalo, which, in view 
of the development of the Women's Missionary Society, 
is of unusual interest. It reads, in part, as follows: 

"Whereas, In the providence of God a wide and effective 
door has been opened for zenana work, inviting effort and giv- 
ing encouragement to the labors of those who are concerned 
for the elevation and christianization of heathen homes, we 

1 The plan of supporting schools, stations or districts is now being preferred 
by Mission Boards to that of supporting teachers and other native workers. 

2 From October, 1889, to October, 1890, the cash transferred from the Genera 
Council's general expense fund to the treasury of the Foreign Missions Com- 
mittee was: One-third of the net proceeds of the German publications, $139.82, 
and one-third of the net proceeds of the English publications, $46.61: From 
October, 1890, to October, 1891: One-third of the net proceeds of the German 
publications, $333,34, and one-third of the net proceeds of the English pub- 
lications, $166.66. No income is derived from this source to-day. 



280 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

earnestly call upon the women of our churches to embrace 
the opportunity presented of bearing the precious Gospel to 
those who can be reached only through their instrumentality. 

"Whereas, In view of the enlarged demands made upon the 
churches for the home and foreign fields, it is recommended 
that missionary societies be established in all our congrega- 
tions, wherever practicable, as a means of fostering a fervent 
missionary zeal through the collection of mission intelligence, 
of quickening responsibility in regard to mission work and of 
securing more general contributions to the treasuries of our 
various boards. 

"We further recommend the organization of local societies 
within the bounds of a Conference into one central body; and 
these Conference organizations shall unite in forming a general 
body, composed of delegates from the Conference societies, in 
such ratio as may be determined. 

"We recommend that the constitutions of the local societies 
be submitted to the Councils of the respective congregations 
for approval, and those of the Conference societies to the re- 
spective Conferences, and that of the general body to the Gen- 
eral Council. 

"We recommend that specific work undertaken by the 
general body shall be with the approval and under the direc- 
tion of the proper committee or board of the General Council." 

It is necessary to notice that, at the 1891 convention of the 
General Council, the official title of the Foreign Missions Com- 
mittee was changed to that of the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the General Council. In the place of the Rev. Dr. Mann 
and the Rev. G. C. Gardner, the Revs. A. Cordes and E. R. 
Cassaday were chosen, and in the place of Mr. F. Bauer, Mr. 
W. F. Monroe. The Board reorganized after the convention 
of the General Council by re-electing its former officers, the 
office of English recording secretary having already, in 
February, 1891, been separated from that of corresponding 
secretary, the Rev. J. L. Sibole having been elected to fill the 
former, and the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D., 
the latter office. 




JOHN H. HARPSTER 





CALVIN F. KLTER 



RUDOLPH ARPS 





ANDREW S. FICHTHORN 



HANS ERIC ISAACSON 



MISSIONARIES IN INDIA 




KATE L. SADTLER AND HER HINDI" lilKJ.S' SCHOOL 

. 




TEACHERS AND PUPILS OF EMILY L. WEISKOTTKN'S HINDU 
GIRLS' SCHOOLS 



CHAPTER XII 

INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 

IN order to secure the necessary funds for the Zenana Home 
which was being built to accommodate the zenana sisters, 
a unique method of raising money was proposed by Schmidt 
and adopted by the Board of Foreign Missions. The cost of 
construction was divided as follows: 

Masonry, 18 shares, at $20 a share $360.00 

Doors, 16, at $8 a door 128.00 

Windows, 10, at $6 a window 60.00 

Pillars, 10, at $10 a pillar , 100.00 

Beams, 12, at $6 a beam '. 72.00 

Rafters, 200, at $i a rafter 200.00 

Staircase 40.00 

Roofs, 4, at $80 a roof 320.00 

Roof, i, at $100 100.00 

Trusses, 4, at $15 a truss 60.00 

The responses to this method of appeal were prompt and 
enthusiastic, and by the time the building was completed 
enough money had been contributed to pay the total cost of 
construction, which was approximately $1500. The Misses 
Schade and Sadtler moved into the Zenana Home in May, 
1892. 

As usual, the new year began with the conventions of the 
Mission Conference and Council, beginning on the first Sun- 
day in January. 1 

Church Missionary Society missionaries from Dummugu- 
dem had gone into the hill country and made a number of con- 
verts, but, realizing that the territory in that direction really 
belonged to our Mission, urged our missionaries to provide 
for a more thorough and systematic evangelization of the dis- 
trict. Some time during the first half of the year 1892, there- 
fore, Edman visited that part of the field and baptized a few 
persons. In September Schmidt went up the Godavery River 

1 Schmidt, as the senior missionary, was continued in the office of president 
McCready was elected English secretary. 

281 



282 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

beyond Sitanagaram, accompanied by his wife. Mrs. Schmidt 
described this tour as follows: 

"On the morning of September 27th 1 we started up the 
Godavery. At this time of the year the water is high and the 
current strong. Six sturdy men were engaged to take up the 
house-boat. Not one of them would go without the promise 
of double wages. It was hard work. At evening we an- 
chored near a sand-bank. The gorgeous sunset, covering the 
mountains with golden light, was followed by a fine moon- 
light. The coolies got out their prepared rice which they had 
brought from home wrapped in a piece of cloth, and sat 
down on the sand and ate it. Afterward they stretched them- 
selves out on a cloth spread on the sand to rest for the night. 
The boat started in the morning before we arose. While 
we were eating our breakfast, which we had to take without 
milk, because none could be gotten, we reached the village of 
Moonakodavelli. We went up to see the Christians who lived 
in this village. Many people gathered as we sat on the veran- 
dah. After singing a hymn Mr. Schmidt read the parable of 
the shepherd leaving the ninety-nine to seek the one lost 
sheep, and used it as a text for a sermon. The sermon was 
followed by a conversation during which the people asked for 
a teacher, because they wanted to be instructed in the truth. 
They had a teacher some time ago, who got the cholera, from 
which he recovered; but he had not the courage to remain. 
Nobody has since been found willing to go up there. 

"We went to Sitanagaram, where the Christians came to 
the shore to welcome us. In the evening we went to Vangala- 
pudi and sat down under a large tamarind tree in an open place, 
where a large crowd gathered . Mos t of them were caste people . 
The pariahs stood apart on one side. The catechist William 
played the violin and we commenced to sing 'Raro janulara' 
(Ye sinners come). Mr. Schmidt preached on the text, 'Come 
unto me, all ye that labor and are heavily laden.' When we 

1 Her description begins with an interesting paragraph. "There is gener- 
ally nothing we enjoy so much," wrote Mrs. Schmidt, "as going out on mission 
tours. Not for the sake of the pleasure or the comforts of travel, but because 
the missionary feels himself at such times in his real element, proclaiming the 
blessed word of salvation to the masses of various people wherever he goes." 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 283 

returned to the boat a large crowd followed, among them the 
village munsiff. The next day Rapaka and Rahitavaram 
were visited in the morning, and Mr. Schmidt addressed three 
crowds of people in these places. Saturday morning Konda- 
pudi was visited, and in the evening we went again to Vangala- 
pudi. There is a school here with about twenty boys enrolled. 
Not a single girl could read. The munsuTs daughter, who is 
about twelve years old, and a few other girls of her age had 
mastered a few words; but the boys read fluently and wrote 
correctly on the ground as we dictated to them. 

"Sunday morning we went to the house of the evangelist 
Joseph, where the Christians from other places had gathered 
to partake of the Holy Communion. In a stable under a roof 
of palm leaves supported by a number of posts, with a little 
bench for a communion table, Mr. Schmidt using a box and 
I a bench for seats, mats being spread on the floor for the 
Christians, one could not help being reminded of Him who 
for our sakes was born in a stable. We felt assured that He 
was just as near to us gathered there in His name, few though 
we were, as in any other hallowed place of worship. Beautiful, 
large trees shaded us from the hot sun, and the birds seemed 
to join in the singing. Only two heathen were present, one an 
old man who confessed his faith in Christ and wished to be 
baptized, and the other an elderly woman who sought salva- 
tion through the Redeemer. 

"As we passed Tallapudi on our way down we made a call 
there, and reached home at noon on Monday, where we at 
once found plenty to do, as it was the beginning of the month, 
when all agents had to be paid." 

Correspondence was opened by Schmidt, in 1892, with the 
missionaries of the Ontario and Quebec Baptist Mission, 
which was beginning to encroach on the territory of our 
Mission, asking for an amicable adjustment of boundary lines, 
but fourteen years were to elapse before an agreement could 
be effected. 

J. John, who had been a teacher in the Seminary, became 
Edman's catechist in the Samulkot district, and together they 
visited one hundred and twenty-five towns and villages during 



284 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

the first half of the year 1892. Those in which Christians 
resided were districted, so that each teacher had charge of 
from ten to fourteen villages, in each of which a service was 
held at least once a month. 

Pastor Joseph, who for a number of years had suffered from 
a disease of the eyes, became totally blind in one eye in 1892, 
and in other respects began to show signs of advanced age. 

St. Peter's Church at Tallapudi was completed in 1892. 
A baptismal font, donated by Professor and Mrs. Garber of 
Allentown, and a pulpit, the gift of Mrs. Mary Hunter of 
New York, were placed in the chancel. As a consequence of 
his supervision of the erection of the buildings at Tallapudi 
McCready became interested in the manufacture of tiles, 
and proposed to the Board of Foreign Missions that industrial 
work along this line should be begun at Tallapudi. Most 
of the converts in his district, he argued, being of the Madiga 
or Chuckler caste the lowest and poorest people desired 
after their conversion to better their conditions. McCready 
was convinced that this problem could be solved by teaching 
them to make tiles. The Foreign Mission Board, however, 
declined to finance the undertaking or to include it as a 
regular branch of mission work. Mrs. McCready taught 
some of the Christian women and girls in Tallapudi and 
neighboring villages how to crochet, knit and make lace. 
In 1892 she had a class of about twenty at work. 

In March, 1892, the Board of Foreign Missions authorized 
the erection of a church at Bhimawaram, which was to be a 
memorial to the late Rev. Dr. B. M. Schmucker and was to 
receive the name of The Church of the Transfiguration, 
because Dr. Schmucker at the time of his death was the 
pastor of a church of the same name in Pottstown, Pa. A 
scheme for raising funds in America similar to that employed 
for the Zenana Home was adopted, but it met with less pro- 
nounced success. The church was planned to seat 1000 
people and to cost $300x3. l 

1 Building operations in the lower portions of the Godavery delta are more 
expensive, because all the building material must be brought from Rajahmundry 
a distance of nearly fifty miles, in boats or bullock-carts. 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 285 

The excellent condition of the Seminary at Rajahmundry 
under the supervision of Pohl was attested by the result of 
the examination by the government school-inspector, in 
January, 1892, when seventy-five of the ninety pupils in the 
school passed creditable examinations, and a government 
grant of 600 rupees was allowed. Pohl left the Mission on 
March 2, 1892, bound for Germany, on furlough. He had 
raised the standard of the Rajahmundry school from the 
grade of a Primary to that of a Lower Secondary school. On 
the last Sunday he spent in Rajahmundry, February 28th, he 
consecrated seven graduates of the school for work as teachers 
in the Mission. As a farewell token of esteem the teachers in 
the Seminary gave him a watch charm in the form of a gold 
cross. 

"On Monday we left the house," wrote Pohl, "where we 
had experienced so many hours of good fortune and peace 
hours filled with consolation in times of need and with joy in 
the pursuit of duties. Tuesday afternoon we went aboard 
the 'Dove of Peace' which, ten years ago, when I first came to 
India, carried us a good part of the way to our destination. 
The whole congregation and school assembled at Riverdale. 
Brother Kuder spoke a few farewell words in English, the 
people sang 'Jesus still lead on,' Pastor Paulus offered a 
prayer and I pronounced the benediction. A last warm hand- 
shake, a last kiss, and the bond of our common labor was 
severed. Many waded into the water a short distance after 
the boat to shake our hands again. As long as we could see 
the mission compound the people stood on the river-bank wav- 
ing us adieu. The setting sun plated the town with a golden 
glow. . Oh, how beautiful will be that city of golden streets, 
in which there will be no more farewells!" 

How much the service of Pohl was appreciated may be 
learned from the following letter, dated January 19, 1892: 

"The Board of Foreign Missions of the General Council to 
the Rev. E. Pohl, Greeting: 

"Reverend and Dear Brother: Your active connection 
with our Mission in Rajahmundry, that has been accom- 
panied by such happy results, being now terminated to our 



286 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sincere regret, we take occasion to express to you our estimate 
of your work and our sense of what we owe you for the good 
and valuable service you have been enabled to render. The 
confidence with which we were led to trust in you from the 
beginning has been fully justified; and the satisfaction we 
have felt in your mode of working and in its results con- 
tinued to increase to the end. You have co-operated with 
your colleagues in the spirit of intelligent enterprise, Chris- 
tian harmony and brotherly love. Your care of the schools 
has been wise, unwearied, devoted and successful; and we 
fondly cherish the hope that the results of your faithful 
administration of the schools will, by the divine favor, prove 
to be a blessing for many years. 

"We thank you with our whole heart and commend you 
to the favor of Him whose we are and whom we serve, trusting 
that wherever your lot may be cast, every blessing may rest 
upon you and upon all your work of faith and labor of love." 1 
, The Rev. and Mrs. C. F. Kuder moved into the old mission 
house after the Pohls had vacated it, Kuder taking charge 
of the school and Mrs. Kuder succeeding Mrs. Pohl as the 
supervisor of the sewing-class. 

When Kuder assumed charge of the Seminary on March i, 
1892, there were 10 teachers and 150 pupils of whom 50 
were day pupils and 26 boarding girls, the rest being boarding 
boys. That was the largest number of pupils in the school up 
to that time. For a young man just arrived in India and un- 
familiar with the vernacular, the supervision of the Seminary 
was anything but a light task. A number of changes in the 
staff of teachers was unavoidable. M. Devadas was em- 
ployed in the place of J. John who had become Edman's 
catechist at Samulkot; R. Charles took V. Jacob's place, who 
resigned; C.James, the headmaster, M. William and Gopalam 
were retained. 

In a description of the Seminary written a few weeks after 
taking charge, Kuder wrote: "The school is under the rules 

1 To the Breklum Missionary Society the Board of Foreign Missions addressed 
a communication expressing its deep gratitude for the loan of the Rev. E. Pohl 
whose work had been so satisfactory as to merit its praise. 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 287 

of the educational department of the Madras Presidency. 
This body annually issues carefully prepared curricula 
to which all schools receiving aid from government must 
conform. The curriculum for our class of schools is thor- 
oughly suited to the work to be done, and we receive yearly 
a grant of several hundreds of rupees. The Department 
divides schools into Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Lower 
Secondary and Upper Secondary. The Seminary embraces 
the first three of these divisions, the highest class being the 
seventh standard, called also the third form. For this class 
or standard the curriculum demands a knowledge of arith- 
metic up through present worth and discount, thorough 
familiarity with Telugu and ability to write well. Under 
optional branches of study are a general knowledge of the 
geography of the world with special attention to Asia and 
India, English and English history, the four simple rules in 
Algebra, about fifty propositions in elementary geometry, 
simple physics, and an acquaintance with English grammar, 
reading and writing. The boys who pass out of these stand- 
ards are fairly well equipped to teach. They are well edu- 
cated in comparison with the masses whom they are to teach; 
and our school, it is hoped, will constantly improve, so that 
still better men may be sent out. The immense progress made 
since Mr. Groenning's coming and especially during Mr. 
Pohl's time, may be judged from the fact that we now have 
boys of twelve years more than twice as far advanced than 
men of twenty were then. This is due in part to better schools 
in the villages. We are now beginning to insist on having 
only young boys in the school, who have passed the second, 
if not the third, standard in the village schools." 

Speaking of the boarding department, Kuder said: "The 
greatest obstacle to thorough work is the uncomfortable and 
insufficient accommodations we have for our boys. There are 
three boarding houses, one for girls and two for boys. The 
one for girls has two stories, of which the lower is used as a 
dining-room for the boys and the upper for the girls' sleeping 
room. Of the six rooms for our boarders only one has a table, 
and chairs are not to be found at all. In all the rooms but one 



288 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

the only furniture is a small kerosene-oil lamp and a number of 
little boxes in which the children keep their clothes and 
books. There are no beds. Nearly all the boys sleep on the 
floor, often in dust half an inch thick, lying down in the 
panchis and coats which they wear during the day and expect 
to wear the next day." 

At the close of the fiscal year, June 30, 1892, the missionaries 
reported 4 stations, 149 out-stations or villages, 93 native 
Christian workers, 2 church buildings, 97 adults baptized 
from January i to June 30, 1892, 118 children and infants 
baptized during the same period, 3388 Christians of whom 
1205 were communicants, 84 schools, 1465 pupils in school, 
4 married ordained foreign missionaries and 2 woman mis- 
sionaries. The estimates for the first half of the year 1892 
called for Rs. 7100; for the second half, Rs. Sioo. 1 

During the year 1892 S. Abraham, the evangelist supported 
by the Rampa Fund, brought quite a number of inquirers from 
the Rampa district to Rajahmundry to be examined, and 
Schmidt baptized twenty-four of them, three from the village 
of Rampa and the rest from the Yellavaram Division. Edman 
also baptized a number from the region around Addatigula. 

Concerning the future of the Seminary Schmidt wrote in 
1892: "It will and must develop into a Theological Seminary 
and ought to have proper buildings and endowment. I 
bought land for its endowment many years ago and am 
ready to present our Seminary with this lot of about thirty 
acres as soon as our Conference and the Home Board are pre- 
pared for operations in this direction and decide to accept 
my offer." 2 

Schmidt was still deeply interested in his industrial mission 
work. "When I left for India the second time," he wrote, 

1 The estimates for the several districts and departments were as follows: 
First half: Velpur, Rajahmundry, Dowlaishwaram and Jegurupad districts, 
Dr. Schmidt, Rs. 4000; Tallapudi district, Rev. McCready, Rs. 600; Samulkot 
district, Dr. Edman, Rs. 900; The Seminary, Rev. Kuder, Rs. 1600. 

2 The Board at its meeting on February 27, 1893, instructed its corresponding 
secretary to write to Dr. Schmidt and say that it had heard with pleasure his 
proposal of a gift of thirty acres of land in our Mission in India, and that when 
the time had come for more definite action, the Board would gladly take such 
action. This land is now the site of the Boy's Central School. 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 289 

"I expressed it as my wish and aim during my second term of 
service to see an independent native congregation established. 
The last part of my second term is ebbing away, and still the 
steadily growing native church makes no visible effort toward 
self-support. By industrial training some have become useful 
artisans, but they show little pride in their church and hesi- 
tate to sacrifice a portion of their income for its support. To 
the Mission the industrial work has brought no profit, not 
even the lime-kiln. By land endowments and investments 
in land we have come so far that one or two native pastors 
can be supported by local funds. If we had two candidates 
for the ministry we would be able to pay them each a salary 
of Rs. 25 or 30 a month from the income of landed property 
and investments." 

In 1892 Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa., conferred the 
degree of doctor of divinity upon the Rev. H. C. Schmidt, in 
recognition of his long and successful labor as our missionary 
in India. 

A decided forward step was taken by the Board of Foreign 
Missions when, in November, 1891, it called the Rev. J. 
Telleen, a member of the Swedish Augustana Synod, then 
located at Lindsborg, Kan., to be "Missionary Superintend- 
ent" to visit synods, conferences, congregations, missionary 
societies and individuals, to deliver addresses on foreign mis- 
sions and endeavor to increase the interest of the Church in 
the work of the Board. He was instructed to take up col- 
lections for the foreign missions of the General Council, to 
solicit contributions from individuals, to pay over all 
moneys received to the treasurer of the Board at least once 
a month, and to report monthly to the Board about his 
work. He entered upon the duties of this office on March i, 
1892. 

In 1892 the Rev. Prof. A. Spaeth, D. D., resigned as Presi- 
dent of the Board of Foreign Missions, having served in that 
position for sixteen years. The Rev. Prof. C. W. Schaeffer, 
D. D., was elected as his successor. 1 

1 In the place of the Rev. P. J. O. Cornell, resigned, the Rev. C. Elofson, 
Ph. D., was chosen a member of the Board in 1892. 



290 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

McCready was given a leave of absence from the Mission 
in 1893. He had cabled to the Board in May, 1892, and 
afterward written to explain that he desired to study the 
manufacture of tiles in various parts of India with the view of 
establishing a factory at Tallapudi, where Christians could 
secure work. In granting the desired permission the Board 
said that "under the circumstances, if Mr. McCready's con- 
science assures him that such a course is right, he is justi- 
fied to do so, in which event he will be expected to report to 
the Board every three months as to his whereabouts and work, 
and to return to his position in the Mission at the end of 
the year, and that this leave of absence be without pay." 
McCready accepted the conditions, leaving Tallapudi in Feb- 
ruary, 1893. After his return he established a small private 
tile-works at Tallapudi. During his absence Kuder and 
Edman looked after the mission work in the Tallapudi 
district. 

Dr. Schmidt spent the month of February on tour in the 
Velpur-Bhimawaram district, visiting more than thirty-four 
villages in which Christians and inquirers resided. 1 In April 
he toured the Jegurupad district and then went up to Rampa, 
where he had not been for twenty years. "A prayer meeting 
was held in Peter's house, who was baptized in Rajahmundry 
last Christmas with his two children. Several expressed the 
wish to become Christians, among them a young man who had 
been in our mission school which was kept there for some time 
about twenty years ago. Peter had also attended this school 
at Rampa. It was a wonderful thing to us that the seed sown 
so long ago had not been sowed in vain but had borne fruit 
after so many years," wrote Mrs. Schmidt. The evangelist 
Abraham gathered a number of Christians from the district 
at Chodawaram, where a service was held, "very likely the 
first ever held in that place." Gokaram, Gonegudem and 

1 The villages mentioned are: Mahadevipatnam, Annawaram, Kowada, 
Narasimhapalam, Gollalakoderu, Undi, Agraharam, Kolamur, Cheraigudem, 
Garrakaparru, Chilukur, Sagapadu, Aredu, Gutlapad, Annakoderu, Seesali, 
Kamarada, Bhimawaram, Ennamaduru, Dirusumarru, Peddamiram, Chinna- 
miram, Jakkaram, Bondada, Kopella, Ballasamudi, Gunapudi, Komadavelli, 
Vissakoderu, Srungavruksham, Konitallapalli, Taderu, Korapad. 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 291 

other villages were visited and the Gospel preached to the 
villagers. 

Edman revisited Addatigula in March, 1893, and preached 
there and in the surrounding villages, where there were about 
fifty baptized Christians. Among those whom he interested 
was a rajah. "I have visited him twice," wrote Edman, 
"and preached in his house. He called all of his servants for 
the services and they listened attentively. He gave me a 
piece of land on which to build a schoolhouse and another in 
Addatigula to be used as a cemetery. I have two boys from 
the hills in the school at Rajahmundry." On this tour Ed- 
man baptized twelve persons. 

The growth of the Mission 1 led the Mission Council at its 
meeting in July, 1893, to pass the following resolution: "Re- 
solved, That we suggest to the Board that two stations be 
opened, one at Pittapur, nine miles northeast of Samulkot, 
the other at Tadepalligudem, a railway station half-way 
between Rajahmundry and Ellore." Pittapur was never 
occupied, but Tadepalligudem became a regular station 
several years later. 

In August, 1893, Dr. Schmidt went to Bellary to attend a 
meeting of the Telugu Bible Revision Committee and to 
arrange for the shipment of the India boxes sent from America, 
which were held at Madras for the customs duty. Among 
other things sent in the boxes that year was a solid silver 
communion set for the church of the Transfiguration, about 
to be built at Bhimawaram, donated by Mrs. Hunter of New 
York. 

Edman, who had studied medicine in America and secured 
a physician's certificate, found abundant opportunity to use 
his medical knowledge and skill. He claimed, moreover, that 
the government hospitals with their high caste native dressers 
were of little benefit to low caste people, and he urged the 
establishment of a Mission Hospital. 

Three additions were made to the force of ordained mis- 

1 The total number baptized by the missionaries during the year 1893 was 
1224; confirmed, 42. There were 3757 Christians and 1441 communicants 
reported. The number of pupils in all schools was 1794. 



THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sionaries in 1893; an ^, moreover, the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions succeeded in securing the continued service of the Rev. 
E. Pohl after the expiration of his furlough in Germany. 
The Schleswig-Holstein Society agreed to transfer him to 
our Board with the understanding that in case of emergency 
he was to be recalled to serve in the Society's field in 
India. 

Paul Baehnisch was called by the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions to enter its service as a foreign missionary while he was 
a senior in the Theological Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadel- 
phia. He was ordained by the New York Ministerium in 
1893. He was commissioned on July 23, 1893, in St. James' 
German Lutheran Church, Philadelphia. Three days later 
he sailed for Germany, where he married, his wife accompany- 
ing him to India. They reached Rajahmundry on December 
15, 1893. 

Rudolph Arps, a son of Hans Adolph Arps, and his wife, 
Matilda Jeanette, nee D'Aubert, was born in Neuminster, 
Holstein, Germany, March 20, 1869. He was about to be 
graduated from the Mission Institute of the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein Society at Breklum, when, in October, 1892, he received 
and accepted the call of the Board of Foreign Missions of 
the General Council. Shortly after his graduation he married 
Anna, a daughter of the Rev. Edward Reuss. He came to 
the United States in the company of the Rev. E. Pohl, arriving 
in New York on September 6, 1893. He was ordained by the 
officers of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in St. John's 
German Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, on Sunday, Sep- 
tember 24th, the Rev. E. Pohl preaching the ordination 
sermon. He was commissioned, together with the Rev. 
H. E. Isaacson, in St. Luke's English Lutheran Church, 
Philadelphia, on October 2d, and sailed from America two 
days later. 

Hans Eric Isaacson, a son of Isaac Eden, and his wife, 
Johanna, n6e Lundgren, was born in Odalslinden, Sweden, 
April 27, 1862. He attended Hermosamd College, Surden, 
Sweden, and then came to the United States. He studied 
theology at Augustana Theological Seminary, Rock Island, 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 293 

Illinois. He married Olivia, a daughter of Alfred and Annetta 
Lundgren, who was born in Youngly, Sweden. After his 
ordination by the Swedish Augustana Synod he served a con- 
gregation at Port Allegheny, Pa. He was called in April, 
1893, by the Board of Foreign Missions to go to India, and 
accepted the call. He was commissioned at the same time 
and place as the Rev. R. Arps. 

During their sojourn in America Pohl and Arps visited a 
number of conferences and congregations and presented the 
cause of our India Mission. They sailed from New York 
in the company of the Rev. and Mrs. Isaacson, on Octo- 
ber 4, 1893. In Europe the missionaries separated to meet 
again at Genoa, where they took ship for Colombo. Pohl took 
his two younger daughters to India, but left his three elder 
sons at Liegnitz, Germany, to be educated. Coconada was 
reached on Christmas Day. Mr. and Mrs. Isaacson remained 
for some time at Samulkot, while the rest went on to Ra- 
jahmundry, the Pohls going to Riverdale bungalow as the 
guests of Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt, and the Arps finding tempo- 
rary shelter in the Zenana Home. 

Urgent representations had been made by the missionaries 
in 1892, asking the Board to rule that new missionaries should 
be free during the first two years of their residence in India 
to study the language and customs of the natives. It was felt 
that a vital mistake had been made in assigning them work 
at once and thus burdening them with heavy responsibilities 
before they were familiar with Telugu or the mission opera- 
tions. The Board accordingly ruled that new missionaries 
should devote one year or, if possible, two years after arrival 
in India to the study of the vernacular. The Mission Council 
prescribed a curriculum under native munshis (teachers) and 
appointed an examining committee. After having passed an 
examination at the end of the first year, the missionary was to 
become the assistant of some older missionary and to con- 
tinue his study of Telugu during the second year. At the 
end of the second year, after having passed a second and final 
examination, he was to be given independent charge of some 
district or department. It was also decided that a missionary 



2Q4 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

should be allowed a vote in the Mission Council after having 
passed his first examination. 1 

As a result of the progress and growth of the Mission in 
India and the sending out of three ordained missionaries 
and their wives in 1893, the cause of foreign missions attracted 
more attention and aroused more interest in the Church at 
home. The treasurer of the General Council, who was still 
the treasurer of the Board of Foreign Missions, 2 reported 
receipts for the biennium, ending September 28, 1893, amount- 
ing to $32,856.52, which was $7504.92 more than during the 
previous biennium, and a total expenditure of $30,844.30. 
While the "Missionsbote" account showed a balance of 
$1923.81, turned into the General Fund, "The Foreign Mis- 
sionary" account had a deficit of $301.36, which was drawn 
from the General Fund of the Board. With the September, 
1893, issue of "The Foreign Missionary" the Rev. Professor 
C. W. Schaeffer, D. D., and the Rev. William Ashmead 
Schaeffer, his son, severed their relations with the paper as the 
editor and associate editor, respectively; the Rev. E. E. 
Sibole, D. D., was elected editor and the Rev. E. R. Cassaday, 
associate editor. 3 

In 1893 the General Council decided to set apart the first 
Sunday in Epiphany, each year, for the holding of foreign 
mission services and the collection of foreign mission offerings 
in every congregation and Sunday school. 

The introduction to the report of the Board of Foreign 
Missions to the convention of the General Council in 1893 
ends as follows: "In this connection it must be remarked that 
the missionary societies and leagues in our congregations, 

1 These regulations are still in force, except that the missionary is given a 
vote only after having passed the final examination, and that the curriculum of 
the Board of Examiners of the Protestant Missions hi South India has been 
adopted and that the examinations are conducted by a committee of the South 
India Missionary Association. 

2 Mr., now Judge, William H. Staake, of Philadelphia. 

3 The General Council at its meeting in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, October 5-10, 
1893, elected the Rev. J. F. C. Fluck, the Rev. S. A. Ziegenfuss and the Rev. G. 
Nelsenius in the places of the Revs. M. C. Horine, A. Cordes and H. V. Hilprecht, 
Ph. D. The only layman retained on the Board, apart from the treasurer, 
William H. Staake, Esquire, was Mr. J. Washington Miller, Mr. William F 
Monroe having withdrawn some time during the biennium. 



INCREASING FRUITFULNESS (1892-93) 295 

many of which are united in general bodies and hold conven- 
tions, have been of very great assistance in the presentation 
of our work. They keep the cause constantly before all the 
members of the churches they represent, they circulate our 
papers, they send out Christmas boxes, and some of them 
the leagues of the Pittsburgh Synod and the women's societies 
of the First and Second Conferences of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium contribute toward the salaries of the two 
zenana sisters, the Misses Schade and Sadtler. 

"On every side it seems to be possible to discern a widen- 
ing and increasing interest in the work of the Board. Word 
comes to us of young men and young women, who are con- 
sidering the question of preparing themselves for the service 
of the Lord in the foreign field. New names appear on our 
list of contributors. The cause of foreign missions is more 
generally recognized as entitled to a place among the works 
of the Church, claiming the attention of all her faithful 
members." 



CHAPTER XIII 

FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 

A PERPLEXING question which had been debated at the 
Mission Conference in previous years was again discussed 
in 1894, namely, whether a man with more than one wife 
should be baptized; and this time the answer was a decided 
negative. The ornamentation of the houses of the natives 
with chalk designs, however, was declared to be commendable 
because it promoted cleanliness. The rule was established 
that boarding boys should not be allowed to wear jewels in 
their noses and ears, and girls none in their noses. As for 
this custom among adults, it was resolved to discourage the 
wearing of nose jewelry at the Lord's Supper. All heathen 
rites and ceremonies at weddings and funerals were con- 
demned. 

After the convention of the Mission Conference the native 
agents and delegates from congregations, about one hundred 
and thirty in number, were given a reception at the Riverdale 
bungalow. Large heaps of rice and curry were served, the 
guests, according to Hindu custom, being seated in long 
rows on the ground in the open air, and eating their portions 
from fresh mango leaves spread out before them. 

On January 5, 1894, nine Danish Lutheran missionaries 
visited Rajahmundry. Divine services were held the next 
day in St. Paul's Church, at which four languages were used, 
namely, Telugu, German, Danish and English. After the 
Mission Conference a missionaries' picnic was held on January 
i yth, described by Mrs. Kuder as follows: "On the morning 
of the seventeenth of January at six o'clock a merry party, 
consisting of seventeen adults and three children, left River- 
dale wharf. The party consisted of Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt, 
in response to whose invitation the party had assembled, 
eight visiting Danish missionaries, Dr. Edman, Mr. Pohl, Mr. 

296 




THE GORGE OF THE GODAYERY RIYER 




MISSIONARIES LIYIXG IN A TENT \VHILE ON TOUR 




AFTER AN EXAMINATION OF VILLAGE SCHOOL CHILDREN 




A TELUGU VILLAGE 



FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 297 

Isaacson, Miss Sadtler, Miss Schade, Mr. Kuder and the 
writer. Those of our mission circle whose names are not 
mentioned remained at home from choice or necessity. All 
aboard the 'Shamrock,' a river steamer, the 'Dove of Peace' 
fastened securely at one side and carrying the cooks a most 
important part of the excursion we started on our way up 
the beautiful Godavery River, our destination being the justly 
famed gorge of that river. . . . From our starting place and 
beyond Tallapudi the river is very broad and the country on 
either side comparatively flat; but the scenery is not monoto- 
nous. Many villages could be seen along the shore, and they 
were at sufficiently enchanting distances apart to render 
them picturesque, while beyond in the distance were the 
'rare blue hills,' toward which we were going. As we neared 
them the river became narrower and the scenery very lovely, 
oftentimes grand giant hills towering above us, clothed in 
tropical verdure. The bamboo is a very graceful, feathery 
looking tree, and many of the mountain sides were covered 
with them. At sunset the first day we anchored just this 
side of the gorge to spend the night. We were glad of the 
opportunity to go ashore here. Some of the gentlemen went 
to a neighboring village, where, Dr. Schmidt told us, many 
years ago we had a teacher; but he had to leave on account of 
the fever which prevails here. Some of the gentlemen took 
a small boat and gave the zenana sisters a boat ride to the 
other side of the river. Mrs. Schmidt and I walked on the 
sandy shore and watched the little children of our party 
playing in the sand. We were certainly far away from the 
'madding crowd'; and with no sound to disturb us save the 
cry of some lonely bird, and with the charming landscape 
of river and mountain on which to feast our eyes, it was very 
restful to both mind and body and a delightful change from 
the perpetual 'tom-tom' of Rajahmundry. 

"Early the next morning we entered the gorge. Here the 
river is narrow and seems to have cut its way in and out 
between the lofty mountains which rise many hundreds of 
feet on each side. The effect of the light and shade of the early 
sunlight heightened the beauty of the scene. At the other 



298 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

side of the gorge we again anchored and amused ourselves 
climbing the mountain side and hunting ferns. Coming 
upon a beautiful mountain stream, we seated ourselves on 
the rocks, and the man with the kodak took a shot at us. 
Our homeward way was enlivened by the sight of several 
alligators and crocodiles sunning themselves on the sand. 
At tea that afternoon many a vote of thanks were tendered 
our kind hosts. After a little delay, caused by sticking on a 
sand-bar, we reached Rajahmundry about 9 o'clock on the 
evening of the second day, a little tired, but congratulating 
ourselves that we had gone on this missionaries' picnic." 

During the first two weeks of February Mr. and Mrs. 
Pohl with their children, in a hired boat, accompanied Dr. 
and Mrs. Schmidt in the "Dove of Peace" on a tour of the 
Velpur-Bhimawaram district. The following extracts are 
taken from Pohl's diary. 

"Unikili, February 5th. Day before yesterday, the wind 
being favorable, we reached Velpur. . . . Directly after 
sunrise on Sunday a boy went out along the canal where the 
Christians live in their huts, ringing a small bell, which 
was a signal for a public service in the little, unadorned 
chapel. Several Christians came from neighboring villages, 
and the chapel was filled to its capacity. We preached of the 
wonderful love of God in Christ Jesus. In Arjulupalem, where 
five families had been baptized since I last went there, we 
held an evening service. 

"This morning Brother Schmidt and I went to Mallipudi, 
where as yet we have no school. Meanwhile the school 
children from Velpur and Arjulupalem had come to the 
boats to be examined and receive their Christmas presents 
of jackets, dolls and pictures. Quite a number of adults 
had come with the children, and while the children were 
being examined in the boat, Brother Schmidt attended to 
the sick who had come for medicine. At one o'clock in the 
afternoon we sailed farther down the canal in our boats and 
reached the locks at four o'clock. Brother Schmidt and I at 
once walked over to Konitivada, a distance of four miles, 
over crooked and rough roads. It was late and dark when 



FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 299 

we returned, and it was fortunate that we carried a lantern, 
for several of the ditches which had been dry in the afternoon 
were filled with water, and we were obliged to walk around 
them. In Konitivada we have only a few Christians but are 
sowing the seed in hope. We visited the zemindar to ask for a 
school-site and a parcel of ground to be used as a cemetery. 
If we only had a sufficient number of efficient native workers 
we could make much better progress everywhere. 

"February 6th. A busy day lies behind us. At sunrise 
Christians from Unikili arrived. They had been on their way 
to work in the fields when they spied the mission boat in the 
canal and, dropping their hoes and spades, came over to us. 
In the village we have a school but not a schoolhouse. Three 
years ago there was not a single Christian in the village. M. 
Lazarus was our first teacher there, and he did his work 
quietly and faithfully. Now we have quite a good congre- 
gation in Unikili, and all of them gathered this morning for 
service. We crossed the Gosta Nadi on two tree-trunks bound 
together and laid across the stream. . . . We went to Kinera- 
pur, where we have a few Christians but no school. The yards 
of the Christians were much better kept than those of other 
Malas. They brought mats and spread them on the ground 
for the audience. We spoke especially to the non-Christians. 
. . . The Christians of Kinerapur accompanied us to Kanza- 
mur, carrying us on their shoulders over a number of wide 
ditches filled with water. After a long search a shady place 
was found in Kanzamur, where we could hold a service. 

"Weary and hungry, we got back to our boats at two o'clock 
in the afternoon. The school children of Unikili and Koniti- 
vada were waiting to be examined. It was 4 o'clock when, 
finally, all of the children had been examined and received 
their presents. Then we went to Vandra, where at 8 o'clock 
we conducted a service in the roomy schoolhouse, forty Chris- 
tians being present. It had been a busy day, and yet we felt 
that much more should have been done; but how could we 
have found time to visit the other villages or to preach to the 
higher caste people in the villages we did visit? 'The harvest 
truly is great, but the laborers are few; pray ye, therefore, the 



300 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Lord of the harvest that He would sent forth laborers into the 
harvest.' 

"February yth. This morning we visited the Christians of 
Vandra in their homes and also preached to the non- Chris- 
tians in the street. The rest of the forenoon we spent in ex- 
amining the school children of Vandra and of the evening 
school in Unikili, which enrolls seventeen persons. In the 
afternoon we sailed to Vissakoderu. ... It made us glad to 
see the large heap of stones intended for the new Bhimawaram 
Church. They were brought all the way from Dowlaish- 
waram in boats, and from Vissakoderu they are to be 
carted two or three miles in bullock-carts to the site of the 
church. 

"Gunapudi, February 8th. This morning we went to Vissa- 
koderu, where we have many Christians who live close to 
each other and quarrel a good deal. We stopped on our way 
at Kalamudi, where we have neither Christians nor a school. 
In the shade of several huts we preached the Gospel of the 
crucified and risen One. In Vissakoderu we held a service 
and examined the Vissakoderu and Srungavruksham school- 
children. All day long we were occupied receiving Christians 
of the vicinity who wished to speak with us, and we gladly 
gave them the opportunity. Toward evening we went to 
Gunapudi, where, somewhat late, we held an evening service. 
The schoolhouse was crowded and many stood on the outside, 
without, however, being prevented from hearing us, for the 
schoolhouse has no walls, being constructed of four poles 
on which a roof of palmyra leaves is stretched. Teacher C. 
Joseph had put up the motto 'Welcome' and decorated the 
interior with chains of colored paper. Many non-Christians 
were present, to whom also we addressed a few words after 
the Bible lesson. It was a good day and the evening was 
beautiful; and I am glad to be able to report about it, even 
though I must do so in the dim light of a lantern surrounded 
by innumerable insects. 

"February gth. This morning we were driven to Bhima- 
waram, whither the Gunapudi school children had been 
directed to come for their examinations. Near Gunapudi 



FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 301 

lies the site of the church. The excavation has been finished, 1 
and in a few days the first stones will be laid. From this 
place we can reach many villages and at the same time 
superintend the building operations. This evening we held a 
service in Bhimawaram. 

"February loth. Here in Bhimawaram it will not be diffi- 
cult to gather over two thousand Christians for the consecra- 
tion of the church. The villages all lie within a narrow radius 
and everywhere the Gospel is rinding entrance. To be sure, 
only the Malas accept the message, the Madigas, a still lower 
caste, being converted by the Baptists. 

"Bhimawaram, February i4th. To-day the first stones of 
the foundation of the new church were laid. Brother Schmidt 
was fully occupied superintending the work, while I went to 
Chinnamiram and from there to Peddamiram. In the latter 
we have 120 Christians. 

"February i5th. The way to Vaimpad was a long one. 
P. Barnabas came to meet me with the school children. One 
after another of the Christians joined us as we entered the 
village. The little palm-leaf schoolhouse is altogether in- 
adequate. In this village sixty-five persons were baptized one 
day last year. They are near relatives of our Christians at 
Gorlamudi. After the Gorlamudi Christians had been bap- 
tized, one family after the other, their Vaimpad relatives 
refused to associate with them, and were very angry at them. 
Meanwhile our teacher continued to preach in Vaimpad. Pas- 
tor Paulus visited the village, and then the ice broke, and 
many came and asked to be admitted to holy baptism. 

"February igth. Day before yesterday work on the 
Bhimawaram Church had progressed so far that Brother 
Schmidt's personal supervision was no longer necessary. The 
corner-stones were laid and then the work was temporarily 
discontinued for lack of mortar. 

"February 2ist. My wife went with me in the evening to 
Vaimpad. The 'white lady' attracted the attention of the 
whole village. We grasped the opportunity to preach to the 

1 The work of digging for the foundations had been begun on December 13, 
1893. 



302 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

non-Christians. William played the violin and we sang to 
his accompaniment. We trust our effort was not entirely 
fruitless. If we only had more time for such preaching! 

"February 23d. After a night enlivened by the songs and 
stings of mosquitos my wife and I went to Kopilla, where the 
Christians gathered around us. Many non-Christians looked 
over the wall or stood in the compound listening. We sang 
a hymn and then I preached to them. We prayed together 
and after the service visited the Christians in their homes. 
We also went to the noisy heathen temple and invited the 
Hindus there to come to Christ. ... In Kopilla the women 
are learning to sew, but the men had learned the art better 
than the women and showed us their work with pride. The 
teacher, S. Prakasam, had been an apt pupil in the sewing 
class in Rajahmundry. When we got back to the boat the 
Peddamiram school children were being examined by Mrs. 
Schmidt. 

"February 24th. We stopped at Gollapalem, where there 
are a number of inquirers. The principal industry here is the 
raising of cocoanuts. Through cocoanut gardens we walked 
down to the sea, where the breakers rolled, foam-crested 
and thundering, upon the shore. In the thick shade of palm 
trees we were treated by one of the inquirers to fresh cocoanut 
milk. It was delicious. The soil here is so fertile that the 
cocoanut trees bear fruit six times a year. It was nearly noon 
when we got back to our boats, and then we had to say fare- 
well to this beautiful spot and also to Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt 
and the 'Dove of Peace/ for, while they went to Taderu, we 
hastened to Narsapur and from there homeward." 

When Pohl got back to. Rajahmundry he found that Mc- 
Cready had returned to Tallapudi and resumed charge of that 
district, and that the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Arps had moved into 
the finished bungalow in Dowlaishwaram, which they shared 
for a while with Mr. and Mrs. Baehnisch. 1 

Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt left Rajahmundry on their third 
furlough toward the end of March, 1894, bound for Denmark, 
where they had left their daughter, Dagmar, to be educated. 

1 Schmidt had finished the building at an approximate cost of $1800. 



FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 303 

From Gjelstedt, where they resided during the fall and winter, 
Schmidt was frequently called away to deliver missionary 
addresses in the interest of the Danish Missionary Society; 
and he did so gladly, because of the indebtedness of our 
Mission to that society for its first missionaries. 

Mrs. Edman developed symptoms of mental disorder, and 
Dr. Edman was obliged to bring her back to America. They 
left Rajahmundry with their two daughters on April 6, 1894. 

After Schmidt and Edman had left, Pohl was given general 
supervision of all the territory from Rajahmundry to the 
sea, including the Velpur, Jegurupad, Samulkot and Bhima- 
waram districts, and was appointed treasurer in India to 
succeed Schmidt. Isaacson and Arps, besides studying the 
vernacular, assisted him in the mission work, the former 
moving to Samulkot and the latter living at Dowlaishwaram. 
In Germany Arps had learned the Franz Otto system of 
medicine, which he practised in India and with which he 
succeeded in relieving many natives of minor ills and aches. 

At Muramunda a new chapel was built and consecrated on 
December 6, 1894. All the missionaries except Isaacson were 
present and took part in the services of consecration. Pohl 
described the new building as follows: "It is fifty feet long 
and sixteen feet wide. The window-frames are filled in with 
so-called bee-hive work, made of round tiles, allowing air 
and light to enter. The floor, made of mud, is covered with 
a bamboo mat for the congregation to sit on. The elevated 
altar space is decorated with a window one foot wide and 
five feet high, constructed of stained glass, the work of one 
of our boys, Alexander. On one side of the window are the 
words, 'I am the way, the truth and the life, saith the Lord'; 
on the other side, 'Him that cometh to Me, I will in no wise 
cast out'; and above the arch, 'Behold the Lamb of God, 
Who taketh away the sin of the world.' The altar table is 
covered with a white cloth that has a red velvet border in 
which my wife embroidered the words, 'Lord have mercy upon 
us.' Of course, all these verses are in Telugu. The altar, 
pulpit and baptismal font were made in Rajahmundrv by our 
carpenter-boys." 



304 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Concerning the Artman Poor Mohammedan Girls' School 
Miss Schade wrote: "In spite of the opposition or indifference 
shown by the different factions among the Mohammedans, 
the work has been carried on; but after a year's trial the 
prospects remained the same and it was thought that the 
time, strength, energy and money expended on this school 
might be much more profitably spent elsewhere, and that its 
present state rather hindered than furthered the cause among 
the Mohammedans. It has, therefore, been decided to dis- 
continue the school after August ist." The school, however, 
was continued somewhat longer. 

During the year 1894 the zenana work was reorganized 
by the Misses Schade and Sadtler. The former wrote : "When 
it was understood that we were prepared to begin work, 
we were visited by some of the native gentlemen, Brahmins 
and Sudras, who were anxious to have their wives taught. 
We agreed to come to their homes if they would form classes 
by getting other women to join their wives. To this they 
consented. We now spend two hours, from three to five in 
the afternoon, with each class. The women are very happy 
while we are with them. They listen quite willingly to the 
Bible lesson and are also taught sewing and fancy work. 
As our work grows we will certainly have to use native women 
as helpers." 

At the close of the year 1894 Kuder furnished the following 
resume of the work in the boarding schools: "The year just 
closing was a good one for the Seminary. For the first time 
in its history it has closed with over 100 boarding boys in 
attendance. The total number on the rolls on the last school 
day was 240. We accept the patronage of Hindu boys most 
unwillingly. To shield ourselves we imposed fees. These 
were, however, cheerfully paid. The number of Hindus in- 
creased almost daily until we were obliged to refuse admission 
to any more. The Hindu boys are required to attend Bible 
instruction and also some religious lessons, and seed may fall 
into waiting soil. A step in the right direction, that we hope 
soon to take, is the separation of our boys and girls into two 
distinct schools. Since we have zenana sisters who are willing 



FROM A MISSIONARY'S DIARY (1894) 305 

and competent to assume control of the girls' schools, we will 
put an end to the co-educational system. The girls' boarding 
school is then to be made a medium for the preparation of 
Christian girls and women to assist in zenana classes. For 
this purpose we are trying to rent a house easily accessible 
from the Zenana Home. Another separation we would like 
to make is the divorce of the school from the present school- 
house. We have thirty acres of land in a lovely situation for 
the site of our new Seminary. The plans have been prepared 
and all that is now wanting is the command to go up and 
possess the land." 

In 1894 the need of a hospital and medical work in con- 
nection with our Mission began to be seriously agitated. 
At its meeting in November, that year, the Board of Foreign 
Missions resolved, "that we, as a Board, proceed to move in 
the direction of providing a hospital at such a place within 
our field in India as may hereafter be determined, and that the 
Mission Council be requested to give us its views on the sub- 
ject." 

The organized women's missionary societies in the General 
Council responded enthusiastically to this proposal of the 
Board and began at once to raise funds for a hospital for 
women and children at Rajahmundry, the Board having 
decided that if the women's societies furnished the necessary 
funds, the hospital should be for women and children only, 
for whose medical and surgical treatment the Government 
hospitals and dispensaries made no adequate provision. 

At the suggestion of the Board the Women's Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Philadelphia Conferences 
of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania made an effort to secure a 
woman physician to be sent to India at once. The following 
appeal was published in the December, 1894, issue of "The 
Foreign Missionary": "Wanted, a woman medical mis- 
sionary. For some time past it has been well known to the 
executive committee of the Women's Home and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the Philadelphia Conferences of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania that there is 
urgent need of a woman medical missionary within the 



306 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

General Council's Mission in India. A committee was ap- 
pointed last August and instructed to secure the medical mis- 
sionary, if possible. Thus far the efforts of the committee 
have been unsuccessful, and, therefore, this public appeal is 
addressed to the women physicians in the General Council 
of the Lutheran Church. Will not one earnest, Christian 
woman volunteer for this important work? Address Mrs. 
H. E. Jacobs, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, or Miss Mary Welden, 
871 Holly Street, Philadelphia." 

No one volunteered, and so the society reverted to the first 
suggestion of the Board and began to look for a young lady 
willing to take a course in medicine with the view of becoming 
a medical missionary. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE JUBILEE YEAR (1895) 

THE year of the Jubilee of the foreign mission work of the 
General Council in India, 1895, came and went without any 
special celebration in America; but in India a three days' 
celebration was held in November at Rajahmundry, at which 
quite a number of missionaries from other Lutheran Missions 
in India were present. 1 The Guntur and Breklum Missions 
were well represented. Among those who delivered addresses 
were the Provost of the Leipsic Mission, the Rev. K. 
Pamperrien, and the Rev. Harless of the Breklum Mission. 2 

At its meeting in February, 1895, the Board of Foreign 
Missions resolved to "instruct the Mission Council in India 
to take steps to provide a Seminary building, look up a proper 
site and send plans, with a view of laying the corner-stone 
this Jubilee Year." The condition of the school really de- 
manded new and more adequate buildings. Kuder wrote in 
1895: "When I came here four years ago the number of 
pupils I found in the Seminary was between 125 and 150. 
It was then already generally admitted that the building was 
inconvenient, too small and too poorly equipped. Two years 
ago it became necessary to overhaul an old room adjoining 
the church building. Last year it was again necessary to 
repair another room, and when this was not found sufficient, 
a cheap shed, the walls of which are bamboo mats and the 
roof of palmyra leaves, was rushed up. This year a similar 
but larger shed will have to be erected. The school now 
contains 265 children and they are still coming." 

1 At the same time the twenty-fifth anniversary of the arrival of Schmidt at 
Rajahmundry was celebrated. 

2 In the following spring the Rev. Mr. Harless, on his way back from 
Madras, whither he had gone to send his wife and children home to Germany, 
was taken seriously ill at the railway station in Rajahmundry and was removed 
to the home of Rev. E. Pohl, where he died of fever on March 26, 1896. 

307 



308 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

A tract of land containing thirty acres just outside of 
Rajahmundry, presented to the Mission by Dr. H. C. Schmidt, 
was selected as the site of the new buildings. Plans were sub- 
mitted to the Board and approved by it. A building com- 
mittee in India was appointed by the Board, consisting 
of Kuder, chairman, Schmidt and Pohl. Kuder began by 
digging a well to insure a good supply of water. Material 
was being gathered and the foundations were about to be 
laid, when Schmidt again reached the field after a furlough in 
Germany and America. He objected to the arrangements 
which had been made and to the plans, some difficulty arose 
with regard to the transfer of the site to the Mission, the 
Board's treasury became somewhat embarrassed because of 
a lack of funds and the whole undertaking was indefinitely 
postponed. 

In India the Jubilee Year was inaugurated by the consecra- 
tion of the new Emmanuel Chapel a Dowlaishwaram, 1 
on the gth of January, during the meeting of the Mission 
Conference. All the native agents, 160 in number, attended 
the service of consecration. McCready and Arps conducted 
the last service in the old schoolhouse. Ten missionaries, 
including a number of visiting missionaries, all in clerical 
robes, led the procession to the door of the new building, 
where the 24th Psalm was read responsively by Arps and the 
school children. Baehnisch read the first Scripture lesson 
(Genesis 28:16-19); Kuder, the second (Psalm 122); Isaacson, 
the third (Psalm 84); Pastor Joseph, the fourth (Luke 19:1- 
10); Pastor Paulus, the fifth and sixth (Psalm 51 and I Kings 
8:1-13, 22-30). Pohl preached the sermon and performed the 
act of consecration. Arps offered the prayer of consecration 
and baptized an infant, his first baptism as a missionary. 
Missionary Schultze of the Breklum Mission pronounced the 
benediction. In the evening a supper of rice and curry was 
served. 
All of the Rajahmundry missionaries attended the First 

1 This chapel is 45 feet long and 15 feet wide with an altar niche 8 feet wide. 
It has now become entirely inadequate, and a larger building, for which plans 
and specifications have been approved by the Board, should be provided. 




EMMANUEL'S CHAPEL AT DOWLAISHWARAM 




THE HOME OF THE MISSIONARY AT DOWLAISHWARAM 




AUGUSTANA CHURCH AT SAMULKOT 




INTERIOR OF SAMULKOT CHURCH 



THE JUBILEE YEAR (1895) * 309 

Joint Conference of Lutheran Missions in the Telugu country, 
held at Guntur, January 17-19, 1895. Besides the Guntur 
and Rajahmundry Missions the Schleswig-Holstein or Brek- 
lum and the Hermannsburg Missions sent delegates. 1 

After this Conference Arps went back to Dowlaishwaram 
to take independent charge of that district, assisted by 
Pastor Joseph and 18 teachers. "Here in the town of Dow- 
laishwaram," he wrote, "four different denominations have 
congregations, namely, the Roman Catholics, the Plymouth 
Brethren, the Canadian Baptists and the Lutherans. This 
is to be deplored, but being the case it becomes necessary for 
our Christians and especially for our teachers to know what is 
Lutheran." Arps got a box of medicines for epileptics from 
Bielefeld, Germany, in January, 1895, and began the treat- 
ment of 19 persons afflicted with this dread disease, some of 
whom he was able to relieve. Concerning the work of a foreign 
missionary he wrote: "It is, indeed, a high honor to be a mis- 
sionary among heathen; but only for one who can accept the 
darker hours with a grateful heart and can subdue the evil 
powers with patient confidence of faith. Believe me, there are 
times when a missionary would rather break stones than do 
the work of a missionary. Nevertheless, love for the poor 
heathen will finally overcome all hindrances, all their wiles 
and wickedness, all their pride and blindness, all their un- 
gratefulness and hardness of heart." 

Miss Sadtler left Rajahmundry on April 8th, the Board 
having given her special permission to return to the United 
States in order to attend the golden wedding anniversary 
of her parents, the Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Benjamin Sadtler, of 
Baltimore, Md. "Holy week," wrote Pohl, "saw the depar- 
ture of Miss Sadtler. Palm Sunday afternoon the congre- 
gation at Rajahmundry assembled for an hour of prayer, and 
we prayed God to give our sister a safe journey home. Our 
Christians presented her, whom they all respect and love, a 

1 Those who took part in the program were Unangst, Uhl, Wolf, Harpster, 
Aberly, Dr. Anna Kugler and Miss A. L. Sadtler, of the Guntur Mission; Kuder, 
Pohl and Miss Agnes I. Schade, of the Rajahmundry Mission; Schultze and 
Harless, of the Breklum Mission; Woerrlein and Maneke, of the Hermannsburg 
Mission. 



310 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

beautifully bound Telugu Bible. We shall miss her very 
much. She has the happy faculty of seeing the bright side of 
things." 

After Easter Pohl made his first trip to Gonegudem, 
Chodawaram and Rampa in the hill country. Of Choda- 
waram he wrote: "I had imagined it to be a small village, but 
it consists of nothing more than a police-station, a rest-house, 
a hospital of three little rooms, unoccupied, half a dozen small 
buildings for native officials, also unoccupied, and a few huts. 
Around each building a bamboo fence is built to about a man's 
height, as a means of defence against the possible attack of 
jungle tribes." Rampa he found to consist of only twenty 
huts built in two separate clusters of ten each, about half a 
mile apart in the midst of the jungle. Of the hill tribes he 
said, "How different they are from the Telugus in physiog- 
nomy and customs! With fiery patriotism they speak of the 
times of the Pituri, the rebellion and the loss of their ancient 
rights, which led them to rebel. In Rampa and Durachin- 
tapalem, ten miles apart, we have twenty-five Christians, 
nine of whom are communicants." 1 

In accordance with a resolution of the Mission Council 
adopted in January, 1894, and approved by the Board, the 
boarding girls were withdrawn from the "Seminary" and or- 
ganized as a separate school under the direction of Miss Agnes 
I. Schade. A building was rented at 60 rupees a month, and the 
school was opened June 1 8, 1895, with 19 boarders and 25 day 
pupils. By the end of the first month the number of boarders 
had increased to 29. The school building contained but three 
rooms, each 14 feet long and 12 feet wide. The verandah had 
to be used to accommodate some of the classes. Besides 
her work in connection with this school, Miss Schade under- 
took to manage the Hindu Girls' School at Riverdale, 
the Artman Mohammedan Girls' School and the zenana 
work. 

After the girls had been withdrawn, the Seminary was con- 

1 Pohl baptized two persons on this visit to Rampa. On his homeward way 
he visited Jembupatnam and Srirangapatnam, where a few inquirers resided; 
Nallakonda, where a service was held; Kateru and Gadala, where a few Chris- 
tians lived. 



THE JUBILEE YEAR (1895) 311 

tinued as a Boys' Boarding School under Kuder; 134 boys 
were enrolled, 1 changes were made in the staff of teachers, 2 
and the promising graduates of the Lower Secondary Depart- 
ment were sent to the Government High School in the town. 
A new curriculum of Bible studies for those who expected to 
become teachers in the Mission was introduced, including 
Biblical History, Church History, Biblical Introduction, 
Bible Geography, Catechism and a little Homiletics. 

The question of Industrial Schools in connection with the 
Mission was revived at this time, and the Board was pressed 
for a decision. Lace-making had been begun again; Mc- 
Cready continued to carry on the industry of tile-making at 
Tallapudi; and Schmidt had developed the work of the prin- 
tery at Rajahmundry. The Board discussed this question in 
its report to the General Council hi 1895, as follows: "Our 
missionaries, some hold, are sent out to preach the Gospel, 
and to allow them to spend their tune in the carrying on of this 
or that industry seems to them to be, to say the least, a misuse 
of their time and talents. On the other hand, it is said, they 
must necessarily do other things besides that of preaching the 
Gospel, as for instance, the erection of houses for themselves, 
of schools and churches; and whether the supervision of an 
industrial school is not only another branch of the work of a 
missionary is a question that is not so easily answered." 
The Board refused to assume any responsibility for the indus- 
trial work already established, discouraged its development 
and declined to approve any new industrial enterprise. 3 

1 Of these, 120 were supported by scholarships in America. The school 
received Rs. 310 government grant during 1894-5. 

2 R. Samuel took K. Gabriel's place. M. William was discharged and L. 
Johann employed in his stead. N. Charles, a son of Pastor Paulus, was added 
to the staff. M. Devadas was sent to the local Normal School; K. Gabriel and 
B. Anandam to the Government High School. A gymnastic master was em- 
ployed at Rs. 1 2 a month. 

3 On January 27, 1896, the Board adopted the following resolutions: "This 
Board is not in a position either to institute anything new or to continue work 
now hi operation, unless it can be done without expense to this Board. Re- 
solved, therefore, That this Board in accordance with its action taken at its 
meeting July 15, 1895, will not institute any new industrial schools or continue 
those already established unless they can be continued or instituted without any 
expense to this Board at this time for financial reasons; and be it further 
Resolved, That if a missionary thinks it proper and desirable to continue or 
organize an industrial school such schools at no time to be an expense to our 



312 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

The question of building a sanitarium for our missionaries and 
their families somewhere on the hills or at the seashore was 
also decided adversely by the Board, because "the demands 
of other parts of the work seemed to be of greater importance." 

Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt with their daughter came to America 
from Denmark in the spring of 1895, reaching Philadelphia 
April ipth. He was in great demand as a lecturer on our 
Telugu Mission in India and carried out an extensive itinerary. 
He met with the Board six times during the year, and his advice 
concerning the proposed hospital, sanitarium, Seminary site 
and buildings, new rules and regulations for the Mission and 
other matters was very useful. Among other matters that of 
establishing a High School for boys at Peddapur was dis- 
cussed, but no definite conclusion was reached. Dr. Edman, 
who had drawn the attention of the Board to this subject at a 
conference with the Board in April, urged that the boys' 
school which he had begun at Peddapur in 1891, as a primary 
school, and which was attended by a large number of Brahmin 
boys, should be raised to the standard of a high school or 
college, and Schmidt seconded the proposal, but the Board 
hesitated. 1 

Another interesting subject which Schmidt discussed with 
the Board was his land endowment scheme. At its meeting 
on July loth, a letter was read to the Board from Mr. John 
G. Haas of Lancaster, Pa., in which he stated that he had 
given Dr. Schmidt the sum of $3000 with which to build a 
church in India, in memory of his departed wife, Charlotte 
Sophia, and $5000 in addition to be kept as a trust fund, the 
proceeds of which were to be used for the support of a native 
pastor who should serve the congregation worshipping in the 
memorial church. "Dr. Schmidt," continue the Board's min- 

treasury such work shall be under the supervision of the Mission Council, 
reports of its progress shall be made regularly to the Council, and all profits 
accruing therefrom shall be paid into the Mission treasury." 

1 This school at Peddapur was continued by Isaacson, who, in March, 1895, 
raised it to the grade of a Lower Secondary School, and placed it in charge of 
Ramo Rao, as headmaster. This school met all of its expenses from fees and 
government grant and from the private purse of the Isaacsons. In 1897 a 
large building was rented and occupied by the Lower Secondary Department, 
the Primary Department remaining in the old building as a separate department. 



THE JUBILEE YEAR (1895) 313 

utes, "explained that he had received these $8000 at differ- 
ent times for the purpose specified, that he had placed the 
money at interest, and that the reason he had not mentioned 
it before was that it was Mr. Haas' expressed desire not to 
have it mentioned. Dr. Schmidt stated that he had com- 
menced building the memorial church near Mahadevipatnam, 
which by resolution he was authorized to complete according 
to the desire of the donor; and the balance of the $8000 was to 
be invested in land in India." It was, furthermore, resolved by 
the Board to request the Mission Council in India to suggest 
some one who might be called as the native pastor of the con- 
gregation, when organized; and the thanks of the Board was 
expressed to Mr. Haas for his generous gifts. 

Other gifts for special objects received during 1895, were 
those of the Sunday school of St. Johannis' Church, Reading, 
Pa., and of two brothers, members of the same congregation, 
for the support of the native pastors Joseph and Paulus, and 
one of $600, secured through Mrs. H. E. Jacobs from two 
unnamed donors, husband and wife, for a new mission-boat 
which was named the "Margaret" and was used by Arps in 
the Dowlaishwaram district. 

While the Women's Missionary Society of the Philadelphia 
Conferences was looking for a woman physician willing to go 
to India, it learned of the desire of Miss Charlotte Swenson 
of Axtell, Kan., to become a foreign missionary, and presented 
her name to the Board. Upon the recommendation of mem- 
bers of the Swedish Augustana Synod and after having passed 
a satisfactory medical examination, she was called by the 
Board on May 27, 1895. 

Charlotte Swenson, the third woman missionary of the 
General Council, was born January 8, 1870, in Langhult, 
Himryd, Sweden. She was taken to America by her parents, 
Anders and Anna Maria Swenson, when she was eight years 
old. The family lived at Axtell, Kansas, where her father 
died in 1879. She was confirmed in the Swedish Lutheran 
Church near Axtell. She attended Bethany College, Linds- 
borg, Kan., and was graduated from its Normal Department. 
Having accepted the call of the Board of Foreign Missions, 



314 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

she was commissioned on July 17, 1895, ' m St. James' German 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia. This service was also a fare- 
well meeting with Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt, in whose company 
Miss Swenson sailed from New York on July 2oth. They 
reached Rajahmundry in the midst of a cyclonic storm on 
September 5th. 

After his arrival in India Schmidt resumed charge of the 
Bhimawaram and the Rajahmundry-Korukonda districts, 
Pohl taking the oversight of the newly formed Tadepal- 
ligudem district with headquarters in the town of the same 
name, where he supervised the erection of a missionary's 
residence. Unable to secure the material which he wanted, 
it became necessary for him to choose and cut down trees, 
have them sawed into boards and carted to the building place, 
make the lime and the bricks under his personal supervision, 
and, indeed, give his personal attention to every detail of 
construction. 

The Board reported the following statistics for the Jubilee 
Year at the convention of the General Council in Easton, 
Pa., October 9-15, 1895: 

Foreign missionaries .......... 8 Number of Christians ........ 4484 

Wives of missionaries ......... 8 Communicants .............. 1 763 

Woman missionaries .......... 3 Stations and out-stations ..... 198 

Native pastors ............... 2 Schools ..................... 102 

Native workers .............. 143 Pupils in school .............. 1893 

In May, 1895, the Board increased the amount allowed 
per quarter for general expenses in India to $1400, and in 
October, to $1500. The receipts of the Board for the bien- 
nium, 1893-95, were $40,783.61; the expenditures, $37,333.39. 
This was an increase of receipts over the previous biennium 
of $7927.09, and an increase of expenditures amounting to 



1 The Rev. Carl A. Blomgren, Ph. D., and the Rev. J. J. Heischmann, D. D., 
were elected by the General Council to take the places of the Revs. G. Nelsenius 
and E. Elofscn. At its reorganization meeting after the General Council the 
Board re-elected its former officers. 



CHAPTER XV 

DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 

POHL was busily engaged during the year 1896 in the erec- 
tion of the Tadepalligudem bungalow and chapel. In Sep- 
tember he finished the latter, and occupied it temporarily with 
his family as a dwelling. On one of the last Sundays in 
February, 1899, while Miss Sadtler was on a visit to Tade- 
palligudem, the first service was held in the chapel. "Building 
is slow in India," she wrote, "especially as our missionaries 
have usually had the bricks and tiles burned, the logs sawed 
and then made into doors and windows under their personal 
supervision. This was the case with Mr. Pohl. When work 
was first begun on the site he sometimes lived in a small boat 
which he had fitted up, and later he slept in a shed with a 
palmyra-leaf roof. Still later he occupied the church which 
was the first building finished. During my recent visit Mr. 
and Mrs. Pohl and their children were living there. While the 
necessary supervision of the work went on, the Christians of 
neighboring villages were visited. It was odd to see the in- 
genious contrivances which were made to answer the purpose 
of necessary furniture. The box, for instance, in which the 
church bell came from Philadelphia, was converted into a 
table. During my visit we were only one day in the church, 
when Mr. Pohl proposed that we move to the kitchen. We 
moved Saturday afternoon and took possession of the three 
small rooms in it. ... The new bungalow is conveniently 
arranged, differing from most houses hi having gothic arches 
above the windows and on the verandahs, which greatly add 
to its appearance. The iron trusses which support the roof 
have just been placed, and as soon as the necessary carpenter 
work is done the tiles can be laid. After we moved from the 
church it was all cleaned and prepared for the service next 
day. Mr. Pohl had just had the altar, made of teak wood with 

315 



316 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

carving on it, brought from Rajahmundry. This was put in 
its place. On Sunday morning the new bell from Philadelphia, 
which has a clear, pleasing ring, called the people from Tade- 
palligudem and a neighboring village to service. A few 
benches were put in the rear and so placed as to allow room for 
the school-children and women, who prefer sitting on the 
floor. The altar cloth sent by Miss Emma Endlich was used, 
and Mr. Pohl wore the gown. A white gown is used during the 
hot season. It was the first service at which all was in order. 
The Telugu Church Book was used, the carpenter boys from 
Rajahmundry rendering good assistance in the singing. Mr. 
Pohl spoke to the congregation in the form of a catechisation, 
as this method suited the comprehension of the people better 
than a regular sermon. The church was well filled with 
Christians, and he made the parable of the sower very plain 
to them. At three o'clock he held a Sunday school for the 
children. At 4.30 p. M. I accompanied him to Pentapad, four 
of our Christian carpenters going with us. Reaching the 
place, we walked through the bazaar or market place, where 
grain, tobacco, cloths and other materials were for sale. 
Tracts, Telugu and English, were given to the people who 
could read and would take them. Mr. Pohl, the Christian 
boys and I, seated on a chair, were soon hid from view by the 
crowd of men and boys who listened to the singing of our 
hymns, and Mr. Pohl spoke earnestly to them. There was no 
disturbance. Occasionally questions were asked. It was 
quite dark when we again reached the house. At eight o'clock 
in the evening Mr. Pohl again held a service in the church, 
some Christians from a distant village being able to come 
then better than in the morning. After church, at 9.45 P. M., 
while we were seated in the house conversing, half a dozen 
men came to talk to Mr. Pohl about religion. He took a chair 
and a candle and went into the unfinished bungalow and 
talked with them until nearly eleven o'clock. They were 
earnest inquirers and wanted a teacher to be sent to their 
village, but their request could not be granted because, at 
present, instructions from the Board tell us not to undertake 
any new work. Do you not call this a full Sunday's work?" 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 317 

The Board and the Mission entertained the hope that Pohl 
would be allowed to remain indefinitely or, at least, long 
enough to complete the building operations at Tadepalli- 
gudem; but the Schleswig-Holstein Mission Society, after 
having given notice a number of times of its desire to recall 
him, insisted, in 1897, that he should withdraw from the 
Rajahmundry Mission; and in August, that year, he left the 
field to go to Parvatipur, Vizagapatam district, a station in 
the Breklum Mission. In its report to the General Council 
in 1897 the Board bore him the following testimony: "His 
seven years of labor before he came to our Mission gave him 
an experience that made him a valuable and efficient mission- 
ary, and his fidelity to his calling and his Lord secured for his 
labors a blessing from God that none could fail to recognize." 

Toward the close of the year 1895 Baehnisch was granted 
a six months' leave of absence in order to take his wife back 
to Germany, in the hope that her impaired health would be 
restored; but while in Germany he resigned and his resigna- 
tion was accepted to take effect on January 31, 1897. 

Mrs. Kuder, on account of weakness and desirous of pro- 
viding for the education of the elder children, came to the 
United States in the spring of 1896, and, after having made 
arrangements for their care and education, returned to India 
with a child who had been born in Virginia, in October, 1897. 

To take the places of Pohl and Baehnisch the Board called 
Mueller and Holler, neither of whom, however, remained in 
the Mission long enough to render any lasting service. 

Rev. Edward Hans Mueller was born at Augsburg, Bavaria, 
Germany, and received his preparatory training in Germany. 
He was called by the Board while still a student at the Theo- 
logical Seminary in Philadelphia, in 1896, was ordained that 
year at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Ministerium in St. 
John's Church, Allentown, Pa., was commissioned June 3, 
1896, in St. Michael's Church of the same city, and sailed 
directly afterward for Germany, where during the summer 
he took a short course in medicine at Strassburg, and mar- 
ried. He reached Rajahmundry early in October, 1896, lived 
and studied Telugu at Samulkot and then at Tadepalli- 



318 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

gudem, and after having passed his final examination in 
Telugu at the end of his second year, he assumed independ- 
ent charge of the Tadepalligudem district, and continued to 
look after its interests until his resignation in 1899. 

Rev. Peter Holler, pastor of a congregation at Schuyler, 
Neb., was called by the Board at its meeting on August 30, 
1897. He was commissioned on October 5th, in St. Michael's 
Church, Germantown, Pa., sailed the next day, and arrived at 
Rajahmundry on December 21, 1897. He was the first mis- 
sionary to take his Telugu examination before a committee 
of the South India Missionary Association. After the return of 
Kuder to the United States in 1898, he was associated with Dr. 
Schmidt in the care of the Boys' Boarding School. He resigned 
on June 14, 1901, and his relation to the Board terminated a 
month and a half later. 

Miss Kate L. Sadtler returned to the Mission in 1896, and 
reaching Rajahmundry on November i2th, she resumed 
charge of the Hindu Girls' School in the Riverdale compound 
and assisted in the zenana work, until she finally left the 
field March 15, 1902, to come to the United States and care 
for her mother in her declining years. Just before leaving 
Rajahmundry she furnished the following review of her work 
as a foreign missionary: "The Caste Girls' School was started 
by Mrs. Schmidt in 1882 with four scholars. ... I was given 
charge of the school in July, 1891. Many girls have entered 
and left in the twenty years since it was opened. There have 
been even more changes than there would be at home, for 
in India girls are not, as a rule, allowed to remain in school 
after they are considered grown, that is, after twelve years of 
age. ... In October, 1893, I opened a Sunday school for 
the girls, which, except during my absence in America from 
1895 to 1896, has continued uninterruptedly. ... I have 
formed a number of classes in the homes of former pupils of 
the school. I have always found them delighted to sing the 
Christian lyrics learned in school and to continue the Bible 
lessons. I find it very hard to leave many of these former 
school girls, now married women with children of their own, 
as I am attached to them and they to me. I also think some 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 319 

of them believe in Christ as their Saviour but have not the 
courage to confess Him before men. ... It was eleven years 
ago last December since I came to India. ... I find that my 
first zenana classes were formed in June, 1893. I began with 
three classes. The first of all was among some Sudra girls 
who had been pupils in the school, and I still teach them. 
There have been changes, but two of the young women are 
those with whom I started. They are married now and have 
children but still wish to be taught. Another class was com- 
posed of four Brahmin women, the wives of professors in the 
Government College here. The husbands asked me to come 
and teach their wives. When we began zenana work, not 
having so many classes, we also taught, after the Bible lesson, 
some fancy work. As the classes multiplied I could no longer, 
as at first, give an afternoon to a class, and the fancy work 
had to be discontinued. I have now twenty-four classes to 
attend to in five afternoons, and either teaching Bible lessons 
or singing Telugu hymns from 2 o'clock to half past five is very 
tiresome, but when the women are interested one forgets the 
fatigue. Since Miss Swenson left for America, now two years 
ago this month, I have had the oversight of all the zenana work. 
Ruth, Pastor Joseph's widow, is employed as a Bible-woman. 
Miss Dagmar Schmidt very kindly came to my assistance and 
took a number of Miss Swenson's classes, to which she has 
added many new ones. She does the teaching in the zenanas 
gratuitously for the love of the work. I regret greatly that 
circumstances should have arisen that call us both away from 
the work at the same time. Owing to Miss Strempfer's long- 
continued illness, she is unable to take charge of the zenana 
work at present. If Miss Schade, who has agreed to give the 
work oversight until Miss Strempfer is better, is successful in 
finding Bible- women, the work may be continued; otherwise, 
I fear, many classes will have to be dropped. We have now 
eighty-nine houses in which 290 pupils are taught. I have six 
classes in Dowlaishwaram, where I drive every Wednesday 
afternoon, leaving here at one o'clock and returning at six. 
These, I fear, will have to be dropped. . . . When the first 
trying years in which you can only study Telugu and feel 



320 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

that you are not very useful, are passed, the work grows 
increasingly interesting. It is with regret that I leave India 
and the zenana work, for I am greatly attached to some of 
my women and girls, but I am called home for reasons which 
I cannot disregard. I have taught these women and prayed 
for them. I must now leave them in God's hands. If He will, 
He can cause the seed planted and watered to spring up and 
bear fruit. I may see them no more on earth; may God grant 
that I may see some of them in heaven!" 

Miss Charlotte Swenson was associated with Miss Sadtler 
in the zenana work from November, 1896, until she left the 
field in February, 1900, on account of ill health. 

During the hot season in May and June the missionaries 
usually take a vacation of six weeks on the hills, for which 
the Board grants an allowance. 1 The most popular summer 
resorts for missionaries are Waltair, Kodaikanal on the Pul- 
ney Hills, and Kotagiri on the Nilgiri Hills. Miss Swen- 
son and Miss Sadtler spent the hot season of 1899 at Kodai- 
kanal, and Miss Sadtler furnished the following interesting 
description of the journey to that resort: "We are fortunate 
in now having a short route to Madras, only twenty-four hours 
by rail. From there we continued southward from Madras 
about 350 miles, where our railroad journey ended. Then 
we rode for 30 miles by bullock bandy. 2 Straw is put in the 
cart, over which we spread our rugs and lie down. The jolting 
makes man)' people sea-sick. Starting at 4.30 p. M., we reached 
the foot of the Ghats at 2.30 A. M. There at a dak-bungalow 
we had lunch, previously ordered, and after putting on 
heavier clothing we started at 4.30 A. M. by starlight to ascend 
the Ghats, a distance of 12 miles. The ascent is made on a 
pony or by being carried in a chair to which poles are attached, 
the poles resting on the shoulders of the bearers. I chose a 
chair which broke when I was half-way up the mountain and 
had to be tied together with ropes, after which I felt uneasy, 
especially on the steep ascents. However, I reached our 
cottage safely at 10.30 A. M. It is beautifully situated on the 

1 Rs. 75 for an adult and Rs. 25 for a child. 

* A "bandy" is a cart with or without springs; any vehicle. 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 321 

brow of a hill, with a fine view of the valley and surrounding 
hills. Sometimes we are far above the clouds which fill the 
valley with a billowy, fleecy effect like high banks of snow. 
The air is bracing and cool, the thermometer ranging from 58 
to 72 degrees above zero." 

Besides the recreation afforded at the summer resort, there 
are many conferences and meetings of missionaries, which 
always prove to be helpful and inspiring. The weeks spent 
at these resorts are both a physical and spiritual refreshment to 
the tired missionaries, who return to their work on the plains 
with new vigor and interest. Several Missions have pur- 
chased property and erected cottages at Kodaikanal and 
Kotagiri for their missionaries. 1 

Closely associated with the zenana work is the medical 
work for women and children, and the beginning of such work 
in our Mission was made during the period under review 
in this chapter, by the sending out of Dr. Lydia Woerner. 

Dr. Lydia Woerner, a daughter of the Rev. Gottlob Fried- 
erich Woerner and Friederica, nee Woern, was born at Spring 
Station, Tex., while her father served a congregation at that 
place. The family afterward moved to Roxboro, a suburb of 
Philadelphia. She studied medicine at the Woman's Medical 
College, Philadelphia, for three years at the expense of the 
Women's Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, 
and was graduated in 1899. The Board called her to go to India 
that year as the first medical missionary of the General Council, 
pledging itself to establish a Dispensary and a Hospital in 
Rajahmundry for women and children. Dr. Woerner was 
commissioned for her work on Friday evening, October 13, 1899, 
in St. John's English Lutheran Church, Phialdelphia, sailed 
from New York four days later and arrived at Rajahmundry 
on November 29th, having taken the overland route from 
Bombay. She applied herself to the study of Telugu, spent 

1 In 1912 Mrs. J. H. Harpster donated a choice building site at Kotagiri to 
the Boards of the General Council and of the General Synod, giving each one- 
half or about an acre. The bungalows erected on this site are memorials to 
Dr. Harpster. The funds for the bungalows of the General Council's mis- 
sionaries were secured through Mrs. F. A. Kaehler's activity from women's 
missionary societies throughout America. 



322 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

some time at Guntur, took Miss Schade's place as manager 
of the Girls' Boarding School while the latter was on furlough 
in 1901, and began the medical mission work in Rajahmundry. 
Before taking her first furlough 1 Miss Schade was able to 
complete the erection of new and adequate buildings for her 
boarding school for girls, which in 1897 enrolled fifty Christian 
boarders, twenty-three Christian day pupils and twenty 
Hindu day pupils. In December, 1896, a site of four acres 
was secured from the Government through Mr. Brodie, the 
Collector of the District, as a grant, by merely paying for the 
trees which grew on the lots. Miss Schade contributed from 
her private purse sufficient funds to build the main school 
building, and the Board appropriated Rs. 8100 ($27oo) 2 
for the dormitory building. McCready supervised the 
building operations. The corner-stone of the Dormitory 
was laid April 22, 1898, and that of the main school building 
July i3th of the same year. On October 31 , 1898, Miss Schade 
and her pupils moved into the new dormitory. Miss Schade 
described the occupation of the building as follows: "All 
arrangements having been previously made, we started 
out in procession seventy-five strong, each child taking her 
belongings with her. In two hours we were quite settled and 
ready for the dedication service. The missionaries present at 
the station and many of the native Christian attended. First 
we assembled on the west verandah and the blessing of God 
was invoked upon the children who were to occupy the rooms. 
We next proceeded to the prayer-room where an interesting 
little service was held. A few addresses were made, and then 
one of the girls, after rehearsing some of the difficulties en- 
countered during the time of building, thanked Rev. Mr. 
McCready in behalf of all the girls for his great interest in 
the school and his untiring labors in erecting this building for 
them. We next went to the well, the kitchen, the work- 

1 Miss Schade remained in India ten years and three months before taking 
her first furlough which lasted only eight months. In Sept., 1896, the Board 
passed a rule making the term of service for woman missionaries five years. 
It has since been lengthened to six years. 

. 2 Besides the Board's appropriation, Miss Swenson contributed Rs. 500; 
Miss Sadtler, Rs. 200, and Rev. Isaacson, Rs. 20, making a total 'of Rs. 8820 
(or $2940) contributed and used for this building. 




MAIN BUILDING OF THE GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL AT RAJAHMUNDRY 




DORMITORIES OF THE GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, RAJAHMUNDRY 




A GROUP OF MISSIONARIES 

E. Pohl Dagmar Schmidt H. E. Isaacson 

Mrs. E. Pohl Mrs. H. C. Schmidt H. C. Schmidt Mrs. H. E. Isaacson 
Sister Pohl Kate L. Sadtler 




THE \VELL IX THE COMPOUND OF THE GIRLS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, 
RAJAHMUNDRY 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 323 

room and the sick-room, and in every place appropriate 
prayers were offered. Finally, we reached the rooms of the 
zenana sister in charge, and there a very fervent prayer was 
offered for her who was to teach and guide all those who for 
a longer or shorter period of time would find their home within 
these walls. After a prayer at the gateway this simple and 
pleasing service was brought to a close with the Lord's Prayer, 
the doxology and the benediction." 

The main school building was completed and occupied 
on June 18, 1899. The estimate for this building was Rs. 5700 
($1900), of which the government gave Rs. 1900 as a building 
grant, so that it cost Miss Schade about $1300. 

Despite the commendable progress which was made in 
India the Board found itself unable to finance the work ade- 
quately on account of a lack of income. In September, 1896, 
it became necessary to negotiate a loan of $30x30 from the 
Board of Directors of the Theological Seminary in Philadel- 
phia on a note endorsed by the Rev. William Ashmead Schaef- 
fer and William H. Staake, Esq. A special appeal for larger 
contributions was published in the church and missionary 
journals, and the General Council at Erie, Pa., in 1897, re- 
solved to urge the synods to raise $50,000 a year for 
the next two years. These efforts, however, failed utterly, 
and the next two years actually showed a decrease of income. 1 
By strict economy, however, the Board was able to liquidate 
its indebtedness in 1899. It was exercised in two directions, 
namely: first, in a systematic reduction of the estimates 
for the regular work of the Mission and in stringent orders to 
the missionaries not to begin any new work; and, secondly, in 
dispensing with the full services of the Missionary Superin- 
tendent, the Rev. J. Telleen, who voluntarily withdrew to take 
charge of a congregation in Chicago during the year 1897, 
giving only a part of his time and attention to the Board on a 
greatly reduced salary. He again resumed his work in full 

^he income for the biennium 1897-99 was $39,476.64, as compared with 
$41 ,051.12 for the previous two years. While the report of tie treasurer in 1897 
showed receipts of $1333.33 from the proceeds of the German and English pub- 
lications of the Board of Publication, no such receipts are recorded in the treas- 
urer's report of 1899. This to some extent accounts for the reduced income. 



324 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

on June i, 1898. On this subject the Board reported to the 
General Council in 1899, as follows: "To keep the subject 
before the people is the idea of the Board as well as of the 
General Council, and this can only be done by having a man 
constantly employed, as Mr. Telleen is at present, in visiting 
synods, conferences, missionary conventions, Luther leagues, 
congregations and individuals in the interest of the work. 
The activity and intelligent zeal of our Superintendent, who 
has headquarters both at Rock Island and Chicago, have been 
put to good service in the effort to increase the interest of the 
Church in the work of bringing the heathen to the knowledge 
of Christ Jesus." 

A number of important changes occurred in the Board 
during the period under review in this chapter. The Board 
sustained a decided loss in the death of its President, the Rev. 
Professor Charles W. Schaefler, D. D., on May 15, 1896. 
He had served as a member of the Board since August, 1880, 
a period of almost sixteen years, and had been its President 
since September, 1892. The Rev. H. Grahn was elected his 
successor on May n, 1896. 

The Rev. E. H. Pohle was elected the German Secretary 
of the Board June 12, 1896, succeeding Dr. Grahn in that 
office, but he resigned a year and a half later, Mr. Conrad 
Itter becoming his successor. Mr. J. Washington Miller, of 
Philadelphia, an efficient lay member of the Board, who served 
since the beginning of 1887, died in March, 1900, the Board 
paying him a just tribute for his service. Quite a change was 
made in the membership of the Board by the General Council 
at Erie, Pa., in 1897, when it was resolved that the Board 
should consist of eight clergymen and eight laymen. As a 
result the following new members were elected: Messrs. 
Albert Oettinger, Conrad Itter, J. A. Bremer, F. Veit, 
George W. March and Henry S. Cassel, taking the places 
of the Revs. E. Niedecker, J. F. C. Fluck, S. A. Ziegenfuss, 
J. J. Heischmann, and C. W. Schaeffer, D. D., deceased. 
Those who remained in the Board were the Revs. Carl A. 
Blomgren, E. H. Pohle, E. R. Cassaday, F. W. Weiskotten, 
W. A. Schaeffer, J. L. Sibole, E. E. Sibole, H. Grahn, and 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 325 

Messrs. J. W. Miller and W. H. Staake. Mr. L. Heist was 
elected by the Board in the stead of Mr. Cassel, who declined 
to serve. In 1899 the General Council elected Mr. Chas. A. 
Smith in the place of Mr. F. Veit and the Rev. L. G. Abraham- 
son, D. D., in the place of the Rev. August Fischer, who had 
filled the unexpired term of the Rev. E. H. Pohle. To fill 
the vacancy created by the death of Mr. J. W. Miller, Mr. 
Chas. B. Opp was elected by the Board, and when the Rev. 
J. L. Sibole resigned in September, 1900, the Rev. S. A. 
Ziegenfuss was restored to membership in the Board. 

Pastor N. Paulus died May 25, 1897, and less than two 
years later, on Palm Sunday, March 26, 1899, Pastor T. 
Joseph also fell asleep in Jesus. 

Concerning Pastor Paulus Dr. Schmidt wrote: "He was a 
remarkable man and one of the most influential native pastors 
in these parts of India. He dated from olden times when 
education was at a low ebb in India, especially among his 
class of people. He could not write English well enough to 
compose glorious reports, else the missionary journals would 
have printed them and not forgotten to record that this native 
pastor in little more than eighteen years baptized close to 
five thousand persons, not to speak of other ministerial acts. 
. . . He was a good speaker, had a powerful voice, and his 
language was plain and easily understood, even by the most 
ignorant. The secret of his success was his love for the people, 
even the poorest. He worked with great self-denial and to his 
end never grew tired of seeking the lost. He would go to the 
Mala quarters and preach to them, and when they were 
friendly he would go into one of their houses, put up with 
them for the night, sit on their cot and tell them of God's 
wonderful plan of salvation. That was his mode of working 
even after his ordination and to his very end. Pastor Paulus 
never was discouraged in his work and often said, 'It is only 
a question of time. They will all come. We must only wait a 
little.' For eight years he worked under me as a catechist, 
and when he was ordained at Christmas, 1878, he took charge 
of a large part of my field, where I considered him as the 
pastor loci. Although it remained part of my work and I 



326 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

came twice a year to visit the Christian villages, examine the 
schools and congregations, still I never performed ministerial 
acts or interfered with his work, except as supervisor. He 
always consulted me on important matters, and he never did 
anything without my consent. He managed the work remark- 
ably well and showed as much sound judgment as if he had 
grown up in congregational work at home. He paid all the 
teachers and preachers, between fifty and sixty of them, and 
looked after buildings and repairs. I always found that he 
got more help and labor out of the Christians than a mis- 
sionary could have done. But he was principally an evan- 
gelist and understood how to bring the people into the 
Church." 

Pastor T. Joseph's health for some time before his death 
was such as to interfere with his activity. For years he was 
almost blind. Still his ministry was abundantly blessed up 
to the last, and he preached the Sunday before his death. 
After his death Dr. Schmidt wrote: "Oh, that we had more 
such native pastors! When we see so many missionaries 
leave on account of ill health and for other reasons, we 
cannot but pray that the vacancies caused by the deaths 
of these native ministers may be filled soon, and that we 
may get even more of them to look after the growing con- 
gregations." 

For the better administration of the Mission a revised set 
of Rules and Regulations, which had been worked out by the 
Board while Dr. Schmidt was on furlough in the United States, 
was adopted and published in 1895. Under these Rules the 
Mission Council in India, composed of all missionaries, women 
as well as men, who had been placed "in charge of mission 
work," constituted the governing body, "the executive com- 
mittee of the Board on the mission field." Through official 
correspondence between this Council and the Board the 
mission work was to be regulated; but unfortunately several 
of the missionaries wrote private letters to certain members 
of the Board, and these letters were sometimes read to the 
Board and made the basis of its action. The inevitable result 
was dissension among the missionaries, which came to a head 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 327 

in connection with the ordination of J. William Garu; 1 but it 
is due Mr. William to state that he was the innocent cause 
of the trouble. It was not his fitness for the holy office, but 
the manner in which his ordination was effected, that was in 
question. 

After the death of Pastor Paulus the need of ordaining 
some one to take his place in the Bhimawaram district 
was strongly urged by Dr. Schmidt. The first native worker 
suggested for this high honor was P. V. Ratnam, who, how- 
ever, just at this time withdrew from the Mission and went 
over to the Church Missionary Society. 2 

At a meeting of the ordained missionaries held at Dr. 
Schmidt's residence, "Riverdale," in October, 1897, it was 
moved to license J. William to perform marriages rather than 
to ordain him at once. Three of the missionaries voted for 
this motion and three against it. In due form and order this 
meeting and its action was reported to the Board ; but in pri- 
vate letters two of the missionaries urged the immediate ordi- 
nation of J. William. The Board decided to have him ordained 
and, after having obtained the authorization of the President 
of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, directed the officers of 
the Mission Council in India to perform the act of ordination. 
This action of the Board was taken on January 24, 1898. The 
officers of the Mission Council, Kuder and McCready, joined 
by Arps and Mueller, thereupon wrote to the Board, explain- 
ing that the Mission Council, as such, had not yet acted on 
the question of ordination, and that the only question then 
before it was that of licensing to perform marriages. However, 
when the Mission Council again met, in April, 1898, the ques- 
tion of the ordination of J. William was formally presented 
and debated, and the final vote stood two for the motion to 
recommend for ordination and three against it. Schmidt, who 
was absent from this meeting, was known to favor the ordina- 
tion, and as a matter of courtesy his vote was recorded in the 
affirmative. The officers of the Mission Council now declared 
themselves ready to ordain J. William, if the Board so ordered; 

1 "Garu" signifies Mr. 

2 Subsequently he returned and was ordained at Rajahmundry. 



328 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

but instead of renewing its former action, it rescinded it, at 
a meeting held May 23, 1898, and authorized and instructed 
Schmidt and Isaacson "to ordain J. William to the office of 
the holy ministry, said ordination to take place in the presence 
of the missionaries or at such time and place as the circum- 
stances of the case may demand." It was this order of the 
Board that led to the resignation of four of its missionaries, 
Kuder, McCready, Mueller and Arps, who resented the 
Board's nullification of the constituted authority in the 
Mission. 

Kuder, who had not been well for some time, left Rajah- 
mundry on November i, 1898, and returned with his family 
to the United States. He sought and obtained an audience 
with the Board at its meeting on January 16, 1899. The 
Board, however, refused to hear him concerning the matter 
in question between the Board and four of its missionaries, 
whereupon Kuder handed over the written resignations in his 
charge. Arps meanwhile had written to the Board, asking that 
his signature to the paper presented by Kuder be erased, and 
that his resignation be withdrawn. 

Jeriprolu William was ordained, as ordered by the Board, 
on January 8, 1899, by Dr. Schmidt and Rev. Mr. Isaacson, 
assisted by the Revs. P. Holler and E. Pohl. He was forty 
years old when he was ordained, having been born at Guntur 
in 1859. 

At a special meeting of the Board, on January 30, 1899, 
the resignation of Kuder was accepted to take effect on Decem- 
ber ist, that year, with sick-leave allowance of one-half salary 
and with permission to deliver addresses in America in the 
interest of foreign missions under a special financial arrange- 
ment with the pastors of congregations inviting him. Mc- 
Cready's and Mueller's resignations were also accepted to take 
effect on April i, 1899. At its meeting on February 26th, 
that year, the Board resolved to cut the Gordian knot by sus- 
pending the Mission Council in India, and the notification of 
its suspension was cabled to the Mission. 

This most unfortunate state of affairs was reported in full 
by the Board to the General Council at Chicago, in 1899, 



DISSENSION IN THE MISSION (1896-99) 329 

which resolved to direct the Board to send a suitable person 
to India as a special agent to settle the difficulties there. 
The action of the Board in accepting the resignations of three 
of its missionaries was approved, as was also the ordination of 
J. William, with an expression of regret that such an im- 
portant step had been taken "while the Mission Council in 
India had postponed its final vote on the recommendation 
of the candidate." 1 

J The General Council adopted the following resolution: "When native 
pastors are needed for the pastoral care of congregations, the ordained mem- 
bers of the Mission Council, who are entitled to vote, shall examine and pro- 
pose the candidate for ordination to the Board of Foreign Missions; and if 
two-thirds of said ordained members of the Mission Council agree in such 
recommendation, and if the Board of Foreign Missions, by a two-thirds vote, 
decide in favor of the applicant, the Board shall authorize the ordained officers 
of the Conference to ordain the candidate as a member of 'The Telugu Synod 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in India.' No one shall be ordained 
except for the direct ministration of the pastoral office." 



CHAPTER XVI 

RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 

THE re-election of the Board of Foreign Missions at the 
Chicago Convention of the General Council, in 1899^ was an 
expression of willingness on the part of the Council to give 
the Board an opportunity during the next two years to cope 
with the unfortunate conditions in the Mission and to demon- 
strate its ability to bring order out of chaos. 2 

To reinforce its greatly depleted force of missionaries 3 
the Board, in 1900, called two new men and two woman mis- 
sionaries, and finally yielded to the repeated requests of Dr. 
Edman to be returned as a missionary to India. 

The Rev. Gomer B. Matthews was called by the Board of 
Foreign Missions while he was a senior in the Theological 
Seminary at Philadelphia. He was commissioned and sent 
out in August, 1900, and reached the field hi India in October, 
that year. A few months after his arrival his health failed, 
and in a letter under date of May 31, 1901, he informed the 
Board that he would leave India the next day. The Board 
terminated its relation with him on June i, 1901. 

The Rev. Ernst William Neudoerffer, the nineteenth foreign 
missionary of the General Council, was born in Brazil, South 

1 Before the next convention of the General Council the following changes 
in membership took place: Rev. J. L. Sibole resigned and Rev. S. A. Ziegenfuss 
was elected in his place; Rev. F. W. Weiskotten died and Rev. R. Bielinski was 
elected to fill the unexpired term. 

2 It was during this period that the Board began mission work in the island 
of Porto Rico. The original motion to make this beginning was made by the 
Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D., on February 16, 1899; and the first 
missionaries, the Rev. H. F. Richards and B. F. Hankey, sailed from New York 
for Porto Rico on October 23d, that year. Inasmuch as this book deals only 
with the history of the mission work in India, and inasmuch as the General Coun- 
cil, in 1 901, created a separate Board to administer the affairs of the Porto Rico 
Mission, we omit every reference to that Mission in these pages. 

3 Only the following missionaries remained in India: Dr. Schmidt, Isaacson, 
Arps, Holler, Miss Schade and Miss Sadtler. 

330 





ERNST NEUDOERFFER 



OSCAR L. LARSON 





KARL L. WOLTERS 



OLAUS O. ECKARDT 





FREDERICK W. WACKERNAGEL 



AUGUST F. A. NEUDOERFFER 



MISSIONARIES IN INDIA 




AGATHA TATGE 




MARY S. BORTHWICK 




SlGRID EsBERHN 





MRS. OSCAR V. WERNER 




MRS. ERNST NEUDOERFFER 




EMILY L. WEISKOTTEN 




HEDGWIG WAHLBERG MRS. JOHN H. HARPSTER 

WOMEN MISSIONARIES 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 331 

America, while his father was a missionary in that country. 
The date of his birth is November 5, 1877. His father is now 
the pastor of congregations in and around Neustadt, Ontario, 
Canada, where he has served for many years. His mother's 
maiden name was Barbara Spohn. After having been gradu- 
ated from Wagner Memorial Lutheran College, Rochester, 
N. Y., he entered the Theological Seminary at Philadelphia 
in 1897, and was graduated in 1900. While still a student in 
the senior class he received and accepted the call to go to 
India. He was ordained on June 17, 1900, in his father's 
church at Neustadt, Ontario, at a convention of the Canada 
Synod. He received his commission, together with Miss Emily 
L. Weiskotten and Miss Martha Strempfer, at a service held 
hi St. James' German Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 2, 1900, and formed one of the missionary party which 
sailed two days later from New York City on the steamship 
"Deutschland." 

When Miss Charlotte Swenson, on account of ill health, 
left Rajahmundry in April, 1900, the zenana work which she 
had developed was left in charge of Miss Kate Sadtler, whom 
Miss Dagmar Schmidt voluntarily assisted. Miss Agnes I. 
Schade's furlough was overdue. The situation, therefore, 
looked quite as ominous for the women's work as for the dis- 
trict evangelistic work. The Board at this crisis published an 
appeal for additional woman missionaries, and almost imme- 
diately Miss Emily Weiskotten and Miss Martha Strempfer 
volunteered to go to India as missionaries. Both were called 
on July 30, 1900, and were commissioned, as already noted, 
on September 2d, that year. This commissioning service was 
unique and interesting from more than one point of view. All 
of the new missionaries were children of Lutheran pastors : the 
Rev. E. Neudoerffer, a son of the Rev. E. Neudoerffer, Sr., of 
Canada; Miss Martha Strempfer, a daughter of the Rev. J. 
Strempfer, then of Toledo, O., and Miss Emily L. Weis- 
kotten, a daughter of the Rev. Frederick W. Weiskotten of 
Philadelphia. Moreover, at the same service the Rev. Mr. 
Weiskotten, the pastor of the congregation, was publicly com- 
missioned and sent out by the Board of Foreign Missions, of 



332 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

which he was a leading member, 1 to "investigate the work of 
the missionaries and carry out the order of the resolution 
adopted by the General Council." 

The following letter of instruction was given to the Rev. 
Mr. Weiskotten: 

"The Board of Foreign Missions of the General Council 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America has 
appointed the Rev. F. W. Weiskotten to visit our mission 
field in India, in order to gain a clear insight into its condi- 
tions, workings and necessities, and to devise, in conjunction 
with our missionaries, plans and means by which pending 
questions may be settled, difficulties removed, and, by a 
harmonious working together, the prosperity of the field 
under the blessing of the Lord may be enhanced. 

"As the representative of the Board Rev. Weiskotten is 
authorized to confer with our missionaries and co-workers, 
severally and in meetings called by him. He may decide 
questions before them, give instructions and settle disputed 
points. 

"He is to examine into the financial system and into docu- 
ments and books belonging thereto, and also into the accounts 
of any member of the Mission who keeps such accounts. 

"He is to examine the school system of the Mission as to 
appointments of teachers, plans of instruction, location of 
buildings, etc., and is empowered to make changes, if consid- 
ered desirable by him; the same with reference to the indus- 
trial interests of the Mission. 

"He is to visit the different stations of our field and ac- 
quaint himself, as far as possible, with their conditions and 
wants. 

"He will also give our brethren opportunity to make sug- 
gestions as to improvements in our Rules and Regulations. 

"Finally, we commit to his discretionary action whatever 
seems to be necessary without being specified in the foregoing, 
whilst the Board has the assurance that our brother under- 
takes such an important and responsible task with an eye 

1 He had been a member of the Board since October, 1881, and editor of the 
" Missionsbote " since December, 1889. 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 333 

single to the blessed cause of Christ and the saving of souls, 
and with a loving heart to the brethren in particular. 

"We trust they will honor in him the authority of the 
Board, receive him with confidence and brotherly affection 
and work with him in Christian harmony, so that all they do 
may redound to the glory of God and to a lasting blessing 
to the Mission. 

By Order of the Board, 
H. Grahn, President, 

A. Oettinger, English Secretary. 
Philadelphia, August 30, 1900. 

Inspector Weiskotten and his party of missionaries started 
from New York on September 4, 1900. They were enthu- 
siastically welcomed at Rajahmundry on October 2oth. 
Dr. Edman, who had joined the party, at once took charge of 
the Tallapudi district, and the four new missionaries began 
the study of Telugu. The Inspector spent thirty-six days in 
the Mission and, among other things, ordained C. James 
to the office of the holy ministry, the ordained missionaries 
assisting in the service. Having finished his work of inspec- 
tion, he left India about December ist, and started on his 
homeward way; but soon after leaving Marseilles, France, a 
port at which the ship called, he died at sea on December i5th, 
and his body was committed to the waters of the Mediter- 
ranean. "At home were loving hearts awaiting his return and 
an anxious Board expecting great results from the journey on 
which it had sent him. Imagine, then, the shock they all sus- 
tained when on the last day of December, 1900, the news 
reached them that, two weeks before, he had departed this 
life and his body had been consigned to a watery grave. 
The expectations of the Board were all dashed to the ground." 
"The time of his sojourn- hi India was too short," the Board 
acknowledged in its report to the General Council, "and the 
work in hand too vast for him to engage in any lengthy corre- 
spondence, and consequently his letters to the Board were few 
and brief, fully expecting, as we all understood, to give, on 
his return, a full and detailed account of all he had seen and 



334 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

done. One thing, nevertheless, he did. ... In consultation 
with the missionaries he prepared a revised form of the Rules 
and Regulations. . . . Apart from these, little was found that 
could assist the Board in its work or relieve the situation on 
the field." 1 

In connection with the visit of the Rev. Mr. Weiskotten 
to the Mission the Board learned of the desirability of having 
the titles of all the properties of the Mission held by the 
Trustees of the General Council for the Board, which was 
as yet an unincorporated body, instead of by the individual 
missionaries, as had been customary; and the Rev. H. E. 
Isaacson, on July 12, 1901, was duly appointed the attorney 
in India to take charge of the matter of obtaining the legal 
transfer of titles. A list of properties in the Mission thus 
transferred appeared in the report of the Board of Foreign 
Missions to the General Council in 1901. Considerable 
difficulty, however, was encountered in the transfer of the 
titles of some of the property held by Dr. Schmidt, and 
years elapsed before this matter, which developed into 
an unpleasant controversy, was finally and satisfactorily 
settled. 

Arps left Dowlaishwaram on furlough in March, and Miss 
Schade left Rajahmundry on furlough in May, 1901. Both 
appeared before the Board and reported concerning their re- 
spective departments of work and the Mission as a whole; 
and both were directed to attend the convention of the 
General Council at Lima, O., at which a thorough investiga- 
tion of the affairs of the Mission was anticipated. 

The main topic of discussion at the Lima Convention of the 
General Council was the difficulties in which the India Mission 
was involved and which had aroused a great deal of dissatis- 
faction with the administration of affairs both in the Mission 
and in the Board. The report of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
After the death of the Rev. Mr. Weiskotten an " F. W. Weiskotten Memorial 
Fund " was suggested by his family and congregation, and, in 1005, contributions 
for such a fund began to flow into the treasury of the Board. Up to the present 
time (1914) two thousand dollars have been raised and invested; but the fund 
is intended to reach the sum of ten thousand dollars, the interest of which is to 
be devoted to the education of native workers. 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 335 

sions was referred to a special committee 1 which was author- 
ized to go over the whole matter, hear the missionaries on fur- 
lough and any complaints or representations that any member 
of the General Council might desire to make, and propose a 
plan of action which would unravel the tangled skein of 
mission difficulties. 

After reviewing the peculiar difficulties of the Mission the 
committee submitted the following recommendations which 
the General Council adopted: 

"Even though it should involve increased expense the Board 
is advised to seek the services of a man of experience and 
standing in the Church, who would be willing and able to 
labor in our Mission for a term of years. He should be a man 
of such wisdom and tact that, although not put over his fel- 
low-workers, his example would soothe the present irritation 
and his experience would inform the Board and the Church. 

"It is imperative that more missionaries be sent into the 
field and that they should be men and women from our 
own churches and speaking our own tongue. 

"The. Board is directed to recall the Senior missionary, 
Rev. H. C. Schmidt, D. D. 

"We advise that in the election of the new Board of Foreign 
Missions one-half of those nominated and elected shall be new 
men. 

"The committee has noted with satisfaction and thanks- 
giving that the contributions to Foreign Missions during 
the past two years have reached the amount of $50,000. 
The care of a distant Mission, the direction and maintenance 
of 125 workers, the supervision of various stations, have 
occupied the diligence of the Board; and when to this is 
added the discouragements to which reference has been 
made, the Board deserves our sympathy. The work of 
Foreign Missions should engage our sincere interest. We 

1 The committee consisted of the Rev. Edward T. Horn, D. D., chairman; the 
Revs. J. A. W. Haas, D. D., G. W. Mechling, D. D., C. A. Evald, D. D., E. Bel- 
four, D. D., M. L. Wagner, Prof. C. W. Foss, Ph.D., J. Boyd Duff, Esq., Messrs. 
Wm. Hengerer, James M. Snyder, I. G. Romig, L. W. Kaufmann. Another 
committee, to which that part of the report which related to the Porto Rico 
work was referred, recommended a separate Board for that work, and its recom- 
mendation was adopted by the Council. 



336 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

hope for God's blessing upon our Mission in India. We, 
therefore, commend it to the prayerful co-operation of our 
churches." 

It may be noted that the number of Christians in the 
Mission had risen to 6159 at the close of the year 1900, and 
that there had been no less than 1157 baptisms during the 
years 1899 and 1900. The number of out-stations was 210, 
and, in 120 of these, schools were being conducted, attended 
by 3500 children. The blessing of God was, therefore, evi- 
dent, despite the chaotic condition of the administration in 
India and the disagreements between the Board and some 
of its missionaries. 

The new members of the Board elected by the General 
Council for four years were: the Revs. Edward T. Horn, 
D. D., and C. E. Slaett and Messrs. Samuel C. Seiple, M. D., 
James M. Snyder and James Dangler: For two years: the 
Revs. Prof. Henry E. Jacobs, D. D., and J. J. Heischmann, 
D. D., and Philip S. Zieber, Esq. Those re-elected for four 
years were: the Revs. Edward E. Sibole, D. D., and R. C. G. 
Bielinski, and William H. Staake, Esq.: For two years: the 
Revs. William A. Schaeffer, D. D., Carl A. Blomgren, Ph.D., 
and Ernest R. Cassaday, and Messrs. Conrad Itter and 
Albert Oettinger. These met on October 31, 1901, and re- 
organized by electing the following officers: the Rev. Prof, 
Henry E.Jacobs, D. D., President; the Rev. Wm. A. Schaef- 
fer, D. D., Coriesponding Secretary; Mr. Albert Oettinger, 
English Recording Secretary; Mr. Conrad Itter, German 
Recording Secretary. Mr. Oettinger resigned in June, 1902, 
and Mr. James M. Snyder succeeded him as English Record- 
ing Secretary. Mr. Staake who by virtue of his office as 
treasurer of the General Council had served as treasurer of 
the Board of Foreign Missions for a period of twenty-five 
years, resigned both as treasurer and member of the Board, 
Mr. Philip S. Zieber succeeding him as treasurer and Mr. 
William F. Monroe as member of the Board. Dr. Grahn, 
the retiring President, was made business manager of the 
"Missionsbote," and the Rev. E. R. Cassaday was continued 
as business manager of "The Foreign Missionary." The 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 337 

Rev. R. Bielinski who had succeeded the Rev. F. W. Weis- 
kotten as editor of the "Missionsbote," was re-elected to that 
position, and the Rev. E. E. Sibole, D. D., who had been the 
editor of "The Foreign Missionary" since 1893, was continued 
in that office. 

The Board, thus reorganized, set itself resolutely to solve 
the problem of reconstruction. It began by notifying the 
Senior Missionary, the Rev. H. C. Schmidt, D. D., of the 
action of the General Council recalling him. It appointed 
the Rev. H. E. Isaacson Treasurer in India in the stead of Dr. 
Schmidt, and the Rev. E. Neudoerffer temporary manager in 
charge of the Boys' Boarding School. 1 All books, papers, 
accounts, moneys and properties were ordered to be trans- 
ferred to Mr. Isaacson by August i, 1902, in order that Dr. 
Schmidt might leave India as soon as possible after that date. 
Nine hundred dollars were sent to defray the travelling ex- 
penses of Dr. and Mrs. Schmidt and their daughter Dagmar 
to the United States. 

While the Board interpreted the recall of Dr. Schmidt as a 
summons to withdraw from the field and return to America 
for the further consideration of his case, Dr. Schmidt inter- 
preted it as a dismissal, arbitrarily and unjustly ordered by the 
General Council, without any formal charges brought against 
him and without giving him the least opportunity to state his 
side of the case. He demanded a trial in India before an im- 
partial tribunal; but the Board replied that the only course 
it could pursue was to insist upon his leaving the field and com- 
ing to America, assuring him that every opportunity would be 
given him here to present his side of the case. He declined, 
however, to come to the United States. 

After the return of Miss Schade from furlough Dr. Woerner 
gave all her time and attention to the beginning of the medical 
work. A Dispensary was opened on March 26, 1902, in 
Bazaar Street, Rajahmundry, in a rented house. The sign- 
board over the door of this house read: "A. E. L. Mission 
Dispensary for Women and Children. Open daily from 
8 to 10 A. M." The attendance from the opening day to the 

1 The name Seminary had been dropped as a misnomer. 



338 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

first of July, that year, was 1914; and during that period 
Dr. Woerner made 138 house visits. 

On February 20, 1902, a part of Halkett's Garden, on the 
road from Rajahmundry to Dowlaishwaram, containing eight 
acres, surrounded by a substantial stone wall and including a 
bungalow, was purchased as the site of the proposed hospital, 
the Board having previously cabled its acceptance of the terms 
of purchase. The price paid for this site was Rs. 13,000, or 
$4500, which, with the exception of less than $500, was de- 
frayed by contributions of $2000 each, from the Women's 
Missionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium and the 
Women's Missionary Society of the Swedish Augustana 
Synod. These two societies and that of the New York and 
New England Synod began at this time to contribute $125 
each, annually, toward the equipment and expenses of the 
medical work. The bungalow on the premises was fitted up 
as a residence for the medical missionary and was called 
"The Medical Home." 

On Sunday, March 2, 1902, P. V. Ratnam was ordained 
in St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry, by the order of the 
Board. The Rev. Ernst Neudoerffer conducted the Telugu 
service. The Rev. E. Edman, M. D., preached the sermon 
and performed the act of ordination. 

As soon as Neudoerffer took charge of the Boys' Boarding 
School in Rajahmundry, he aimed to raise its standard to that 
of a High School and succeeded in doing so on April i, 1902. 
The school was recognized by the educational department 
of the government as a High School in September, that year. 
When Neudoerffer, by order of the Board, handed over the 
school to his successor, Fichthorn, there were 120 pupils en- 
rolled in the High School department, and 194 in the Primary 
and Lower Secondary departments. 1 

While negotiations with Dr. Schmidt were pending, the 
Board secured the services of a tried and experienced 
missionary to direct the work of reconstruction at Rajah- 
mundry. 

1 The Lower Secondary Department corresponds approximately to the 
Grammar School in the United States. 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 339 

The Rev. J. H. Harpster, D. D., brother-in-law of the 
Rev. Prof. H. E. Jacobs, D. D., a foreign missionary of the 
General Synod, who had served in its Mission in India from 
1872 to 1876, and again from 1893 to 1901, happened to be 
in the United States on furlough, and the attention of the 
Board was called to him as a most suitable man to entrust 
with the reorganization of the General Council's Mission. 
"It was not, however, an easy matter to secure his consent 
and that of the Board he was serving, as it interfered with 
plans that had been formed, called for many sacrifices on his 
part, and offered a most uninviting prospect in a field so 
thoroughly confused and discordant." After a committee 
of the Board had made a presentation of its extreme need 
to the Board of the General Synod in Baltimore, they most 
cordially consented to arrange to have Dr. Harpster give 
his services to the Rajahmundry Mission for a period of not 
less than three years. 

Dr. Harpster was called by the Board on March 6, 1902, 
to be the "Temporary Director" of the Rajahmundry Mis- 
sion. He accepted this call and entered upon his work on 
April i st. During the spring and summer he visited a num- 
ber of synodical and other conventions, besides a large number 
of congregations, and delivered addresses in the interest of 
foreign missions. He was eminently successful as a speaker 
and everywhere aroused increased interest in the cause 
of christianizing the heathen. He met with the Board and 
aided in the administrative work in the home-land. In 
consultation with him, as well as with Miss Schade before her 
return to India in November, 1901, l the Board went over the 
Revision of the Rules and Regulations, which had been made 
in India daring the visit of the Rev. F. W. Weiskotten; 
and they were adopted by the Board in their final form and 
printed in August, with the understanding that they were 
to go into effect on the arrival of the "Temporary Director" 
on the field. "Whatever temporary authority of an extra- 
ordinary character was committed to Dr. Harpster was in- 

1 Miss Schade reached Rajahmundry again on December 18, 1901, after a 
furlough of only seven and one-half months. 



340 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

tended only to prepare the way for reconstructing the entire 
administration in accordance with the revised rules." "The 
chief change made by these Rules in the administration in 
India was to transfer the responsibility for decision from the 
Mission Council to an Executive Committee, composed of a 
chairman, appointed by the Board, one member for every 
seven ordained missionaries or fraction of that number in the 
field, elected by the missionaries, and representatives of zenana 
sisters in the same proportion." 

Among other changes made by the new Board was the 
abolition of the office of Missionary Superintendent on June i, 
1902, "since its maintenance was found to involve the ex- 
penditure of about 10 per cent, of the income of the treasury, 
and its duties were not really those of superintendence, but 
almost exclusively those of collections and the diffusion of 
information among a very limited number of congregations. 
In dispensing with the office the Board duly recognized the 
zeal and fidelity with which for nearly ten years, excepting 
two interruptions, the Rev. J. Telleen, D. D., had discharged 
its duties." 

Several new missionaries were called in 1902, to accompany 
Dr. Harpster to India and assist him in the work of recon- 
struction. The first one called was the Rev. Andrew S. Fich- 
thorn, who was born at Lewistown, Pa., in 1859. He was a 
graduate of Pennsylvania College of Gettysburg, Pa., and of 
the Theological Seminary of the same place. He taught the 
classical languages at Carthage College, 111., for a short time 
and served brief pastorates at Lutherville, Md., Cairo, Pa., 
and Allegheny, Pa. On June i, 1894, he became pastor of 
Trinity Church, Norristown, Pa. 

The second one called was Miss Hedwig Wahlberg, a trained 
nurse from Chicago, who was sent out with special reference 
to the hospital and medical work. She left America early 
in August, in order to visit her home in Sweden before pro- 
ceeding to India. 

The third one called was Miss Susan E. Monroe, of Mt. 
Airy, Philadelphia, who offered her services to the Board as a 
woman missionary to labor under the Rules but to provide 



RECONSTRUCTION (1900-02) 341 

for her own travelling expenses and support. Her offer was 
most gratefully accepted. 

The fourth one called was the Rev. F. W. Wackernagel, the 
eldest son of the Rev. Prof. William Wackernagel, D. D. of 
Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa., who had been graduated 
from that college and from the Theological Seminary in 
Philadelphia, and for five years had served a congregation at 
Millersville, Pa. Trinity Church, Lancaster, Pa., pledged 
itself to provide for his support. 

All of the outgoing missionaries, with the exception of Miss 
Wahlberg, were commissioned at an impressive service in 
St. Mark's English Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, on 
October 14, 1902. "In the morning there was a full service 
with communion and a sermon by the Rev. Prof. A. Spaeth, 
D. D. In the evening, with an audience crowding the church, 
addresses were made by the departing missionaries, Revs. 
Harpster, Fichthorn and Wackernagel, and the President of 
the Board, the Rev. Prof. H. E. Jacobs, D. D., with a few 
words from the Rev. G. Sholl, D. D., Secretary of the Board 
of the General Synod, who had been sent as its representa- 
tive to testify to its interest and sympathy in our work." 

Two days later the whole party sailed from New York. 
At Naples they were joined by Miss Wahlberg and the Rev. 
and Mrs. Arps, who had left their son and daughter in Ger- 
many to receive an education. Rajahmundry was reached 
on Christmas Day, 1902. 

Dr. Harpster carried with him a letter of instructions, which, 
after defining his position and duties as the special agent of 
the Board and the appointed Chairman of the Executive 
Committee in India, called for the reorganization of the Mis- 
sion under the new Rules as soon as convenient after his 
arrival at Rajahmundry, and charged him with an inspection 
of all the departments of the work of the Mission. 1 Dr. 
Harpster's mission was an exceedingly delicate and difficult 
one, and he fulfilled it as a faithful servant of the Board and 
the General Council. He rendered our Telugu Mission a great 
and lasting service. 

1 See General Council Minutes, 1903, pages 38-40. 



CHAPTER XVII 

UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 

AFTER the arrival of the reinforcements of 1902, no time was 
lost in organizing the Mission under the new Rules and 
Regulations. The Mission Council of all the missionaries 
was reconvened on December 30, 1902, elected officers and 
thereafter met regularly every third month. Arps was 
chosen as the representative of the ordained men and Miss 
Schade as the representative of the woman missionaries in 
the Exectuive Committee. 1 Dr. Harpster, as the chairman 
of this committee appointed by the Board, was the official 
correspondent. He succeeded Dr. Schmidt as the missionary 
in charge of the Bhimawaram and the Rajahmundry-Koru- 
konda districts. Fichthorn was the treasurer in India and 
the superintendent of the boys' schools in Rajahmundry and 
Peddapur. He also conducted an English service every 
Sunday evening in St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry. 

At Peddapur, an almost exclusively Brahmin town, about 
two miles west of Samulkot, a boys' school had been begun, 
in 1891, by Edman as a private school of the primary grade. 
When Isaacson succeeded Edman as the missionary in charge 
of the Samulkot district he continued the school and devel- 
oped it, until in April, 1903, it was handed over to the Mis- 
sion as a High School, recognized by the Government. The 
Board accepted it on condition that a Christian Bible teacher 
should be employed. This condition was met the next year 
by the appointment of Pastor P. V. Ratnam to that position. 
The teaching staff, with M. Ramo Rao as headmaster, then 
consisted of eighteen qualified Hindu teachers. The enroll- 
ment for the year 1904 was 475, most of the pupils being 
of the Brahmin caste. Two buildings were used, one for the 
Primary, the other for the Secondary and High School depart- 

1 Later Isaacson was added to the committee. 
342 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 343 

ments. The school grew so rapidly that the accommodations 
soon became inadequate, and a new site was purchased, in 
1904, for $200 (Rs. 600). 

After his return to the Mission Arps resumed charge of 
the Dowlaishwaram district but devoted a good part of his 
tune for about a year to the building of a new bungalow on a 
new site, purchased for $500. The old building had been con- 
structed on black cotton soil and had to be condemned as 
not tenantable. The new bungalow, completed in 1904, to- 
gether with the digging of the well and some improvements, 
cost $2937. Meanwhile Arps also superintended the con- 
struction of a new mission house-boat which cost $600, and 
was named "The Augustana." It was used by Dr. Harpster 
in the Bhimawaram district. The old "Dove of Peace" was 
rebuilt for Neudoerffer's use in the Tanuku taluk. 

Dr. Edman, who after Arps' return devoted himself entirely 
to the Tallapudi district, employed more native Christian 
workers than he could pay with the mission funds appro- 
priated for his district, and contracted a considerable debt. 
The Board officially disapproved of his course of action and, 
when it learned that he nevertheless continued to increase the 
amount of his indebtedness, it requested his resignation. 
He left the Mission in May, 1903, and returned to the United 
States. 

Miss Martha Strempfer, who gradually succumbed to the 
trials of the climate, left Rajahmundry March 8, 1903, and 
returned to her home in Toledo, O. 

Miss Weiskotten, who succeeded Miss Kate Sadtler as the 
manager of the Hindu Girls' School at Riverdale in 1902, 
was assisted by Miss Monroe, who also aided Miss Schade 
in the zenana work. 

On January 25, 1904, a Training School for Mistresses was 
opened in connection with the Girls' Central School, 1 which 
in May, that year, was recognized by the Government. 
Before that Miss Schade had been obliged to send the gradu- 
ates of her school to Guntur for training. Five girls were 

1 In 1904 the names of the boarding schools were changed to " Boy's Central 
School" and "Girls' Central School." 



344 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

enrolled in the first training class which was of a lower 
secondary grade. In order to make provision for this new 
department an addition was made to the main school build- 
ing, in 1905, at an expense of $740, Miss Schade contributing 
$140 out of her private purse. 

Miss Schade also began a school for Hindu girls of the 
weaver and shepherd castes in Jamipetta, Rajahmundry, in 
January, 1904, which commenced with an enrollment of 
thirty-five pupils, and another for girls of the Sudra caste in 
Mangalavarampetta, Rajahmundry, in March of the same 
year, which enrolled forty-three pupils. Both schools were 
conducted in rented buildings and with both Sunday schools 
were connected. 

Meanwhile Miss Weiskotten organized three additional 
schools for Hindu girls : one in Old Rajahmundry, in Decem- 
ber, 1903, which was called the Bethlehem School, because 
it was supported by Bethlehem Lutheran Church of Phila- 
delphia; 1 another in Lakshmivarampetta, Rajahmundry, in 
January, 1904, for girls of the Panchama caste; and a third in 
Aryapuram, Rajahmundry, in March, 1904, for girls of the 
Brahmin caste. These also were held in rented buildings and 
Sunday schools were connected with them. At the close of 
the year 1904, the enrollment in these schools was as follows: 
Bethlehem, 90; Lakshmivarampetta, 13; Aryapuram, 35; 
Riverdale, 70. The pupils in these schools are not Christians 
but Hindus. The teachers, however, are, as far as possible, 
Christian teachers, though the headmasters, as a rule, have 
been Hindus, it being a difficult matter to secure qualified 
Christian headmasters. 

For the Aryapuram school a site was purchased with funds 
contributed by Miss Weiskotten's friends in America and 
Germany, and a fine school house was erected by a Brahmin 
lawyer, M. Achutaramayya, as a gift from his wife. This 
building was opened with impressive exercises on January 23, 
1907. 

1 The Riverdale School was still being supported by the Women's Missionary 
societies of St. John's and St. Mark's churches, Philadelphia. After Miss 
Weiskotten's furlough in America," Riverdale School was assigned to St. John's 
alone, and St. Mark's assumed the support of the Aryapuram School. 




THE ARYAPURAM HINDU GIRLS' SCHOOL 
This building is the gift of a Brahmin lawyer. 




PUPILS OF THE ARYAPURAM SCHOOL 

This school is attended by Brahmin girls. 




CHARLOTTE SWEXSON TEACHING A CLASS OF BIRLE WO.MKX 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 345 

Isaacson with his family came to the United States on 
furlough in May, 1903, and Arps, in addition to his own dis- 
trict, assumed temporary charge of the Samulkot district. 

Neudoerffer, who went to Tadepalligudem in March, 1903, 
took charge also of the Tallapudi district after Edman's 
departure two months later. 

One of the first achievements of Dr. Harpster was the 
settlement of the difficulty with Dr. Schmidt with regard to 
the transfer of certain mission property to the Trustees of the 
General Council for the Board. Writing from Rajahmundry 
under date of January 19, 1903, he communicated the follow- 
ing to the Board: 

"In the letter of instruction given me for my guidance 
when I should arrive in India, occurs the following: 'Dr. 
Harpster may note and report to the Board any proposition 
Dr. Schmidt may make with reference to the property which 
he has not yet transferred to the Mission.' In another letter, 
dated October 31, 1902, the following instruction is given: 
'Resolved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to 
treat with Dr. Schmidt, first, to decide what properties belong 
to this Board; and, secondly, what is the just value of Dr. 
Schmidt's interests in any property to which our Mission 
has a claim, and to report to this Board at what price Dr. 
Schmidt's interests may be purchased, itemizing the proper- 
ties.' The properties in which Dr. Schmidt claims an interest 
are the following: i. The Riverdale land, which he values at 
Rs. 36,300. 2. The parcel of ground once selected as a site 
of the 'Seminary' and containing thirty acres, more or less, 
which he values at Rs. 3000. 3. The plot of ground on which 
the mission church at Velpur stands, containing two acres, 
which he values at Rs. 400. 4. The land along the street 
opposite the Rajahmundry church, occupied by some native 
houses, valued at Rs. 400. 5. Mission property or so much 
of it as required by the Mission, no value fixed. Total, 
Rs. 40,100 ($13,367). All the above property Dr. Schmidt 
agrees to convey to the Mission, under a duly executed con- 
veyance, on the following conditions: i. That the General 
Council, acting through its Board of Foreign Missions, pay 



346 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

to his wife and himself, or to the survivor during life, three 
hundred dollars ($300) annually. 2. That it pay to his 
daughter, Miss Dagmar Schmidt, one years' salary, viz., 
five hundred dollars ($500). 3. That it pay him the salary 
which was due him at the rate which he had hitherto received, 
up to August i, 1902, viz., six hundred dollars ($600). 

"Yours faithfully, 

J. H. Harpster." 

"I hold myself in readiness to carry out in good faith 
the above agreement, provided the General Council, through 
its Foreign Mission Board, will, under a formal document, 
guarantee to myself and wife, or the survivor during life, the 
annual payment of the sum of three hundred dollars. 

"H. C. Schmidt." 1 

After mature consideration the Board resolved: "That 
in consideration of the transfer by Dr. Schmidt to the Gen- 
eral Council by good and sufficient title, clear of all incum- 
brances, of the properties mentioned, this Board agrees that 
Miss Dagmar Schmidt be allowed the sum of $500, and Dr. 
Schmidt be allowed the sum of $600, and that the same be 
paid by the appropriation of $900 out of the $1000 pre- 
viously sent Dr. Schmidt, and a cash payment to Dr. Schmidt 
for the balance, viz., $200; and that the Board recommend 
to the General Council that it agree to pay annually to Dr. 
Schmidt and wife, or the survivor of them during life, $300, 
from the date of the conveyance of the properties and giving 
possession thereof." 

Dr. Schmidt vacated Riverdale bungalow in March, 1903, 
and moved to Kotagiri, Nilgiri Hills, where he had built two 
houses. Dr. and Mrs. Harpster at once moved into this 
bungalow and continued to occupy it as long as they remained 
in India. The payment of the stipulated annuity began in 

1 After having read over the correspondence one cannot avoid the impression 
that Dr. Schmidt felt that he had to bring pressure to bear upon the Board in 
order to secure a pension. The Board would unquestionably have granted the 
pension without such pressure. Moreover, it must be remembered that the 
property to which he laid claim, was largely such as he had already donated to 
the Mission, but which had not yet been legally transferred. 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 347 

April, 1903, although the deed of transfer was not actually 
executed until April, 1904. 

During the first year of medical work substantial progress 
was made. As many as 2026 new patients came to the Dis- 
pensary, making 4998 visits. Dr. Lydia Woerner also made 
432 visits to patients in houses and performed 84 surgical 
operations. Sunday schools were conducted for patients and 
Eurasian children in the Dispensary and Medical Home. 
A temporary hospital was opened in 1904 in a rented build- 
ing in Rajahmundry. 

In 1903 the Board began to pursue a more liberal policy in 
the matter of allowances to missionaries. A horse was pur- 
chased for each missionary needing one, and horse allowance 
of $80 a year was granted. The summer vacation was length- 
ened to eight weeks. The heavier furniture in the bungalows 
was provided. Munshi (teacher's) allowance was granted new 
missionaries while studying the language, and additional batta 
(travelling allowance) was allowed for missionaries on tour. 
The travelling expenses of the members of the Board, when 
attending meetings, were also paid. When Isaacson returned 
to the Mission in 1904, the allowance for each child of a mis- 
sionary, over seven years of age, separated from its parents 
to be educated, was raised from $50 to $100 a year. 

At the convention of the General Council 1 in the church of 
the Trinity, Norristown, Pa., on Friday evening, October 9, 
1903, the Rev. Edward H. Trafford, then pastor of the Pike- 
land charge near Kimberton, Pa., was commissioned as a 
foreign missionary. He arrived at Rajahmundry in Decem- 
ber, that year, and after having studied the vernacular and 
assisted several of the older missionaries, he resigned in 
January, 1908, and returned to the United States. 

The Rev. Karl L. Wolters, called as the missionary to be 
supported by the Luther Leagues of Buffalo, was commis- 

1 Several changes occurred in the membership of the Board in 1903. The 
Rev. J. J. Heischmann, D. D., and Mr. James Dangler resigned. The General 
Council that year elected the following new members: The Revs. John A. W. 
Haas, D. D., and George Drach, and Messrs. P. A. Rydberg, W. F. Monroe and 
J. Martin Rommel; but the last named declined to serve and the Board elected 
Mr. Charles B. Opp to fill the vacancy. 



348 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

sioned on Sunday evening, June 12, 1904, in Christus Church, 
Buffalo, the Rev. T. H. Becker pastor, in the presence of the 
New York Ministerium. He was born October 26, 1863, in 
Hamburg, Germany. He is a son of the Rev. Karl J. Wolters 
and his wife Mary Louise, nee Averdieck. His father served 
as a pastor of St. Peter's Church, Hamburg, for many years. 
After having studied at the Imperial Gymnasium, Flensborg, 
Germany, he came to the United States when he was twenty- 
four years of age. He studied theology in the Lutheran 
Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, from which he was 
graduated in 1890. For three years he served the Lutheran 
congregation at Phcenixville, Pa., and then went to Utica, 
N. Y., where he served eleven years. On his way to India 
he spent several months with his father in Hamburg, Germany, 
and then he proceeded to Rajahmundry, which he reached in 
December, 1904. 

Mr. and Mrs. Isaacson with their four younger children 
left the United States October 3, 1904, to return to the Mis- 
sion. Their two sons were left in Bethany College, Linds- 
borg, Kansas. The daughters who were taken to India were 
later sent to a school at Kodaikanal. 

Fichthorn, having suffered severely from the climate of 
South India, asked to be permitted to return to the United 
States. Permission was given, and after the Board had 
heard him at its meeting on April 21, 1904, it accepted his 
resignation in the following resolution: "Resolved, That the 
Board accepts the resignation of the Rev. A. S. Fichthorn 
with regret, the resignation to take effect May ist, and hereby 
gives expression to its sense of the value of the service he has 
rendered, and its deep regret that he has been unable to con- 
tinue in its employment." By contributions from his private 
purse and by largely increased offerings from the influential 
congregations which he afterward served the church of the 
Holy Communion, Philadelphia, and the church of the 
Trinity, Norristown, to whose pastorate he returned in 
November, 1907 he more than made up what the Board 
had expended to send him to India and bring him back. 
From October, 1905, to October, 1907, he served as a member 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 349 

of the Board. He died on January 29, 1912, in Norristown, 
aged fifty- three years. 

Wackernagel succeeded Fichthorn as the treasurer in India 
and the manager of the boys' schools. 

After the title to the property just outside of Rajahmundry, 
which Dr. Schmidt had donated as the site of the new build- 
ings for the Boys' Central School, had been established 
beyond all uncertainty, it was decided to proceed at once 
with the erection of the much-needed buildings. Ten acres 
of adjoining land, containing a lime-kiln, were purchased for 
$458. Plans and estimates for a main building, a dormitory 
and a missionary's dwelling, prepared in India, were approved 
by the Board in September, 1904. Mr. F. J. McCready, 
formerly one of the missionaries, was employed as the super- 
intendent of construction. The corner-stone of the main 
building was laid with appropriate ceremonies on July 25, 
1905, and the contract called for the completion of all the 
buildings in eighteen months, but the illness of Mr. Mc- 
Cready from cholera, and other matters, delayed the building 
operations. 

Charges were preferred against Pastor C. James and were 
investigated by the ordained missionaries, meeting as a 
Ministerium on February 2, 1905, the result being the definite 
suspension of James from the office of the holy ministry by 
the Board of Foreign Missions on the recommendation of the 
Ministerium. 

In 1905 Neudoerffer purchased for the Mission a house- 
boat for $200, giving it the name of "The Canada." 

The year 1905 was marked by the return of Miss Charlotte 
Swenson to the Mission, and the addition of two ordained 
men and one woman missionary to the force in India. 

Miss Swenson, after having regained her health in Cali- 
fornia and having been pronounced by competent physicians 
to be entirely free from every trace of tuberculosis, requested 
the Board to send her back to the Mission. Recalling her 
excellent work during her first term of service in India, and 
being very much in need of some one to take charge of the 
zenana work, the Board decided to send her back. A fare- 



350 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

well service was held in the Gustavus Adolphus Swedish 
Lutheran Church, New York City, January 13, 1905. Miss 
Swenson reached Rajahmundry on February 24th. She threw 
all her restored energy into the zenana work and managed it 
with marked success for over a year. In 1906 she reported 
four Bible-women at work in Rajahmundry and one in Dow- 
laishwaram, 230 houses visited weekly in the former and 40 
in the latter town, and over 1200 women and children re- 
ceiving regular religious instruction from her and her Bible- 
women. She also began and conducted a number of Sunday 
schools in different parts of Rajahmundry. Her health, 
however, suffered under the strain of her work, and in 
January, 1908, she was granted a sick-leave in Australia. 
She returned from this trip in a few weeks only slightly 
benefited and gradually succumbed to consumption, which 
caused her death on July 20, 1908. Her life was a beautiful 
example of self-sacrificing ministry to her Lord. All the mis- 
sionaries and native Christians paid tributes to her noble 
character and her valuable service. She was the first woman 
missionary to lay down her life on our foreign mission field. 
Her body was buried in the Christian cemetery at Rajah- 
mundry. In her last will and testament she bequeathed all 
her earthly possessions to the Mission which she had so 
faithfully and lovingly served. 1 

As the time of Dr. Woerner's furlough drew near, the neces- 
sity of sending out a woman physician to take her place during 
the time of furlough and to co-operate in the medical work 
became pressing. Neither Miss Amy B. Rohrer nor Miss 
Betty A. Nilsson, under preparation as medical missionaries, 
were ready to be sent out at this time. Fortunately the 
Board heard of the willingness of Dr. Julia Van der Veer to go 
to India at once, and after having been introduced to the Board 
by Dr. Mary Baer of the Guntur Mission, then on furlough, 

1 In the Arbuthnot failure of 1906 she suffered the loss of all her deposits in 
that bank, but generous friends in the United States reimbursed her account. 
Six hundred dollars of the Charlotte Swenson Fund have been invested by the 
Board in the United States. Several of the women's missionary societies are 
gathering money to increase this fund in the hope that ultimately enough will 
be secured to erect a Charlotte Swenson Memorial. 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 351 

she was duly called. She was born in Bushnell, 111., but 
afterward moved with her parents to Peabody, Kan., where 
she attended the public school and was graduated from the 
High School of that place. She took her medical course 
in the Woman's Medical College, Baltimore, the Woman's 
Medical College, Philadelphia, and Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. She then entered the Deaconess Home and Motherhouse 
of the General Synod at Baltimore, and was a consecrated 
sister in that institution when she was called to go to Rajah- 
mundry. The Baltimore Motherhouse released her from 
every obligation in order to permit her to accept the call 
of the Board. She was commissioned on September 24, 
1905, in St. Mark's English Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, 
and arrived at Rajahmundry November 23d, that year. 
She took Dr. Woerner's place in the medical work at Rajah- 
mundry while the latter was on furlough in America. She 
was married on January 22, 1907, to the Rev. Ernst Neu- 
doerffer in St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry, by Dr. Harp- 
ster, the ceremony being performed in the presence of the 
missionaries and a large congregation of native Christians. 
This was the first wedding of General Council missionaries 
on the field. 

The three years of the special arrangement with the Board 
of Foreign Missions of the General Synod for the services of 
Dr. Harpster expired on April i, 1905. The General Council's 
Board requested that he be permitted to remain at Rajahmun- 
dry, inasmuch as his removal would be disastrous to the work. 
Upon this representation the General Synod's Board very 
courteously decided not to disturb the arrangement and to 
make it indefinite in its duration. In 1906 Dr. Harpster 
transferred his membership from the Maryland Synod to the 
Pennsylvania Ministerium and thus became a missionary of 
the General Council in the service of its Board. 

The two ordained men sent out in 1905 were the Revs. 0. L. 
Larson and O. O. Eckardt. 

Oscar Leonard Larson, son of Lars Peter Larson and his 
wife Maria, nee Johnson, was born July 2, 1876, in Mead, 
Neb. He studied at Luther Academy, Wahoo, Neb., and 



352 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

then entered Augustana College, Rock Island, 111., from 
which he was graduated in 1902. Three years later, having 
taken the theological course in Augustana Seminary, he was 
ordained at the meeting of the Augustana Synod, June n, 
1905, in Stanton, la. Ten days afterward he married Lillie 
Olivia Liliedahl of Swedesburg, Neb. Having accepted the 
call of the Board of Foreign Missions, he was commissioned 
at the convention of the General Council in the church of the 
Redeemer, Milwaukee, Wis., October 12, 1905. In the com- 
pany of the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Eckardt they sailed from 
Philadelphia, and, after spending a few weeks in Sweden, 
they proceeded to Rajahmundry, which was reached January 
16, 1906. 

Olaus Olson Eckardt, son of Olaf Martin Anderson and 
his wife Agneta, nee Anderson, was born May 19, 1872, in 
Lur, Bohnslaen Province, Sweden. He came to the United 
States at the age of seventeen. He studied at Upsala Col- 
lege and completed his classical course in Augustana College. 
After having begun his theological studies in the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, Chicago, he finished at Augustana 
Seminary from which he was graduated in 1905. He was 
ordained at the same time as the Rev. Mr. Larson. On 
September 27, 1905, he married Julia Amelia Swanson, of 
Cambridge, 111. Commissioned together with Mr. Larson, 
he accompanied him to India. The Young Ladies' Foreign 
Missionary Society of the First Swedish Lutheran Church, 
St. Paul, Minn., for a number of years has contributed a 
part of Mr. Eckardt's salary. 

Parallel with the development of the Mission and the in- 
crease of missionaries an effort was made by the Board, in 
1905, to provide for a more efficient home administration by 
the distribution of its members into standing committees, 
each charged with some particular branch of the mission work. 

On the recommendation of the Finance Committee a special 
fund was created and maintained in India, in 1905, known as 
the Emergency Fund from which small, incidental expenses 
are paid as needed, thus obviating the necessity of continually 
sending little sums of money for special purposes. A form of 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 353 

contract between the Board and its missionaries, still in use, 
was adopted in 1905.* 

The business management of "The Foreign Missionary" 
was transferred on July i, 1905, to the Board of Publication 
of the General Council. At the close of that year the Rev. 
E. E. Sibole, D. D., resigned as the editor of "The Foreign 
Missionary," after twelve years of efficient and faithful service 
in that capacity. The editorship of this paper, after a brief 
period under the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D., 
was entrusted to the General Secretary of the Board, the Rev. 
George Drach. 2 

During the early part of 1905, much attention was given 
by the Board to the matter of securing some one who could 
attend its meetings and who should give all his time to its 
interests and act as its executive. This officer was to be 
called the General Secretary and his duties were defined as 
follows: 

"He shall give the President, Secretaries and Editors of 
the papers, such clerical assistance as the Board may deter- 
mine from time to tune. 

"He shall present at each meeting of the Board a list of all 
letters and reports received from the missionaries since the 
former meeting, together with an outline of the contents and 
a statement of the points requiring action; and he may offer 
suggestions for proper action and shall be ready to furnish 
any letters included in the list, for consideration by the Board. 

"He shall file and preserve an index of all letters etc., to 
and from the missionaries, also copies of all correspondence 
from the Board, and he shall keep for reference an account 
of the business, treasury, schools and other work of the 
missionaries. 

"He shall represent the Board before the synods, conven- 
tions and congregations, as directed by the Board, or during 
the interval by the President. 

"He shall devise and recommend means to the Board for 

1 See General Council Minutes, 1905, page 45. 

2 In the place of Dr. J. A. W. Haas, resigned July, 1904, the Rev. John A. 
Weyl was elected a member of the Board, and in the place of Dr. C. A. Blomgren, 
resigned October, 1904, Dr. G. Nelsenius was elected. 

23 



354 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

increasing the income and developing the interest of the 
Church. 

"He shall, as circumstances may require, gather and pre- 
sent to the Board information as to the methods of other 
Missions. 

"He shall at every meeting of the Board give a detailed 
report of his work. 

"He shall be ready to spend at least six months and not 
more than a year in India, to study the conditions, in case the 
Board should so require." 

The Rev. George Drach, a member of the Board, then pastor 
of St. Stephen's Church, West Philadelphia, was chosen to fill 
this new office. 

George Drach, eldest son of John Peter Drach and his wife 
S. A. Pauline, nee Simon, was born September 3, 1873, ^ 
Greenport, Long Island, N. Y. After having attended the 
public school in that village and passed through the two 
lower grades of the High School, he went to Rochester, N. 
Y., to study in Wagner Memorial Lutheran College from 
which he was graduated in 1892. He studied theology in 
the Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, and was ordained in 
1895, a * the meeting of the New York Ministerium, in St. 
Peter's German Lutheran Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. After 
having supplied the pulpit of the church of the Ascension, 
Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, during the summer months of 1895, he 
became the assistant pastor of Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., 
remaining, after the resignation of the Rev. J. Fry, D. D., to 
supply the pulpit until a successor had been elected. Having 
received and accepted a call to become pastor of St. Stephen's 
Church, West Philadelphia, he began his pastorate there in 
June, 1897, serving for eight years, until he became the Gen- 
eral Secretary of the Board. He married on October 19, 
1899, Marie Douglas Sterr of Philadelphia, a granddaughter, 
on her mother's side, of the Rev. C. F. Welden, D. D. 

In its report to the General Council in 1905, the Board 
recommended "that November 29th or a date near then be 
duly commemorated in our churches as a bicentenary of the 
sailing of Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Pluetschau 



UNDER DR. HARPSTER'S LEADERSHIP (1903-05) 355 

to India and of the foundation not only of Lutheran but of 
Protestant Foreign Missions." This recommendation was 
heartily adopted and in many churches the bicentennial was 
observed. The Board issued a special appeal for its obser- 
vance, and its President and General Secretary delivered a 
number of commemorative addresses at large gatherings in 
Philadelphia and elsewhere. 

In the Introduction of the Report of the American Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Mission in the Godavery District, India, 
for the year 1904, presented by the Board to the General 
Council in 1905, Dr. Harpster wrote: "We call especial atten- 
tion to the statistical exhibit of the year. Unless this is given, 
an intelligent grasp of the work cannot be gained. In almost 
every item our report shows an increase. The additions by 
baptisms during the year were 2056. Our baptized mem- 
bership now numbers 11,938. The number of inquirers, viz., 
the number undergoing instruction in the fundamental doc- 
trines of Christianity, with more or less earnestness on their 
part, is 2228. The pupils in our mission schools number 
5227 a very gratifying increase over the previous report. 
In money and in kind our people gave during the year Rs. 
2577-9-11 ($859), or an increase of Rs. 1779-7-2. The num- 
ber of congregations according to the statistical table increased 
by 24." 

The following table of statistics shows the notable increase 
in every department of the mission. 

1890. 1893. 1900. 1905. 

Foreign missionaries 4 7 5 9 

Woman missionaries 2 3 5 7 

Native pastors 2 2 2 2 

Native helpers 89 138 140 235 

Congregations 127 200 210 270 

Christians 3056 5036 6159 12,822 

Pupils in school 1473 2719 3500 5>736 



CHAPTER XVIII 

MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 

Miss Emily L. Weiskotten and Dr. Lydia Woerner took 
their first furloughs in 1906, the former leaving Rajahmundry 
on February i9th, that year, and returning on December 22, 
1007; the latter leaving on April 13, 1906, and returning on 
January 28, 1908. In the United States and Canada they 
delivered many addresses to women's missionary societies, 
congregations and conventions, and succeeded in developing 
a deeper and wider interest in woman's work for women in 
India. 1 

After Dr. Harpster, in 1906, had urged that a catechist be 
sent from Rajahmundry to Rangoon, Burma, to care for the 
Telugu Lutheran Christians employed in and near that city, 
he was sent personally to inspect the field, and having reported 
favorably, Vungara Sriramulu of Rajahmundry was located 
in Rangoon, in May, 1907, but after six months of fruitless 
effort he returned to Rajahmundry. It was felt, however, that 
something further ought to be done for the Christian Telugus 
in Rangoon; and when the Mission Council recommended a 
second attempt, Kuder was directed to investigate the field 
anew. He went to Rangoon in May, 1911, and six months 
later, on the recommendation of the Ministerium in India 
and with the Board's authorization, Catechist A. Anandap- 
pan of Tallapudi was sent to make a second effort to gather 
and organize a congregation. He arrived in Rangoon on Nov. 
14, 1911, and in a year he gathered a congregation of 238 
Telugu Lutherans, of whom 194 were communicants. 

On January 6, 1906, representatives of our Mission and that 
of the Canadian (Ontario and Quebec) Mission met and 
formulated an agreement on boundary lines and principles of 

1 Dr. Woerner was painfully injured in an accident on the Lake Shore Electric 
Railway near Toledo, Ohio, September 19, 1907, but recovered in time to leave 
the United States on December 10, 1907. 

356 




CATECHIST A. ANANDAPPAN, WIFE AND SONS 

This catechist is now stationed at Rangoon, Burma, where he has organized 
a large congregation of Telugu Lutherans. 




TEACHERS AND PUPILS OF THE BOYS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, 
RAJAHMUNDRY 

This picture was taken in front of the Main Building in 1913. 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 357 

mission comity, which was ratified by both of the Boards 
in America. In the Ramachendrapuram and Bhimawaram 
taluks certain boundary lines between the two Missions were 
established. The following principles were adopted: i. 
"Neither Mission will receive any agent or member from the 
other without the full and written consent of the missionary 
of such agent or member. 2. Neither Mission will enter a 
village to do mission work where the other has established 
itself and is making a fair effort to bring the people to the 
knowledge of the truth." The Lutheran Mission agreed not 
to locate a station at Pittapur on condition that the Baptist 
Mission agreed not to put a station at Jaggampetta. All 
issues relating to this agreement are to be referred, first of all, 
to a committee of six missionaries, three from each Mission. 
On February 14-16, 1912, committees of both Missions met 
at Samulkot and drew up a further agreement, fixing addi- 
tional boundary lines, providing for a territory common to 
both Missions and arranging for the sale of the bungalow 
at Peddapur to the Lutheran Mission for $2,640.00 and the 
withdrawal of the Baptists from that town. 

After Dr. Harpster's appeal for a new Mission Press had 
been presented at the convention of the General Council in 
1905, Mr. James G. Finley of Philadelphia secured the dona- 
tion of a double demy press from the firm of R. Hoe and Co., of 
New York City, which was shipped to Rajahmundry in 1906. 
Mr. William P. M. Braun of Philadelphia supplied the Print- 
ery with a first-class outfit of type and other material, and has 
become the patron of this important branch of the Mission, 
which has received the name of The Braun Industrial Mission 
Printery. Under the efficient management of Kuder the 
Printery did admirable work in the dissemination of Chris- 
tian literature in the Telugu language, and by the publication 
for a number of years of "The Gospel Witness," the English 
organ of the Lutheran Missions in India, of "Bible Story," 
Stump's "Catechism" and other publications in the vernacu- 
lar. In 1912 a second-hand and larger press was ordered 
and sent from England, Mr. Braun furnishing a portion of 
the necessary funds. 



358 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

"A financial disaster that came upon the Mission like a 
bolt out of the blue sky was the failure of the banking-house 
of Messrs. Arbuthnot & Co., in October, 1906. For upward 
of forty years the Mission had been depositing its funds with 
this firm which had back of it a record of 106 years of honor- 
able business. At the end of a century and more this honored 
house of Arbuthnot, under the criminal manipulation of a dis- 
honored scion, became the greatest confidence game of modern 
times. It has been designated as one of the most gigantic 
insolvency cases ever known in the world. Eight thousand 
creditors went down in the crash, many of them reduced to 
absolute poverty. The Mission, together with a number of 
the missionaries, lost upward of twenty thousand dollars. 
Several of the missionaries lost every cent they had in the 
world." 

When the Church at home learned of this calamity, many 
friends of the Mission and of the missionaries at once came 
to the rescue, and in a few months more than enough to make 
up the loss to the Mission, amounting to $6,000.00, was con- 
tributed, and the private purses of the unfortunate mission- 
aries were replenished either wholly or in part. Later, about 
twenty-five cents on the dollar were paid back by the bankrupt 
firm. 

Dr. Harpster met with a painful accident on July 2, 1907, 
while on a vacation at Kotagiri, Nilgiri Hills, when he fell from 
a bicycle and sprained his thigh. Fortunately his recovery 
was complete. After his return to Rajahmundry he resigned, 
in September, 1907, as "Temporary Director" of the Mission, 
inasmuch as the work by that time had been thoroughly reor- 
ganized under the Rules. He continued, however, to discharge 
the duties of Chairman of the Executive Committee. The 
missionaries, dissatisfied with certain features of the form of 
government in the Mission, petitioned the Board, in 1907, for 
the abolition of the Executive Committee in India and for 
more autonomy in the administration of the Mission. This 
led eventually to a revision of the Rules. 

The cause of missions in the Church at home sustained a 
severe loss by the death of the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 359 

D. D., on July 27, 1907. He had served continuously as a 
member of the Board of Foreign Missions for a period of more 
than twenty-five years. He was identified with "The Foreign 
Missionary," as editor or associate editor, with occasional 
brief interruptions, from the tune of its first publication, hi 
1880, to the day of his death. He was the Board's English 
Recording and Corresponding Secretary from October, 1888, 
to February, 1891, and then its Corresponding Secretary 
until November, 1906, when he resigned on account of the 
illness which eventually caused his death. He served in these 
positions without the slightest remuneration. He was always 
willing and ready to sacrifice his time and give his talents for 
the cause of foreign missions, and his familiarity with the 
history, problems, needs and prospects of the Telugu mission 
gave him a commanding position in the counsels of the Board. 
In his last will and testament he generously remembered the 
Mission which he had so faithfully served during his life. 

In 1907 the long drawn-out negotiations with Dr. Schmidt 
concerning the transfer of all the mission property to the 
Trustees of the General Council for the Board were finally 
ended by the completion of the transactions relative to the so- 
called "Haas lands." Two hundred and eighty-eight acres of 
land were transferred under secure title, registered in the land 
office at Bhimawaram. In 1912 the "Haas Lands" were 
sold for $8,335.00 (Rs. 25,000) to M. Ramanayya and the 
proceeds were devoted to the erection of a building for the 
Boys' High School at Peddapur, which is known as the Char- 
lotte Sophia Haas Memorial. 

The development of the lace industry in the Mission was 
surprisingly rapid under the personal, efficient management 
of Mrs. Harpster. In her last report of this department, 
made at the close of the year 1908, Mrs. Harpster gave a 
brief account of some of the features of the work. "In 
February, 1904," she wrote, "we sent two small, sample 
boxes of lace to America. The lace met with great favor, 
and orders for more were at once received. From that tune 
on the industry has gradually grown, until to-day employment 
is given to 240 women. For several years the industry was 



360 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

carried on with private funds which we ourselves advanced; 
and no assistance has ever been received from any outside 
source. In March, 1906, all indebtedness was paid and 
the industry became self-supporting, and ever since then it 
has been well supported by the sales of lace in America. In 
addition we have been able to undertake some work, beside 
that of the direct work of the industry. In 1907 three women 
from the Bhimawaram district were sent to the Lace School 
of the Church of Scotland Mission in Madras for a number of 
months to learn better and more advanced patterns. Our 
object in sending these district women was, that they might 
afterward organize classes and teach in certain centres in the 
district, for our plan has always been that the advantages of 
this industry should be especially for our Christian village 
women. As the work progressed and the receipts increased, 
we found that there was money to contribute to some other 
object of mission work ; and after consultation with the Lace 
Committee in America, we offered Rs. 1000 toward the erec- 
tion of a new building for the Bethlehem Hindu Girls' School. 
Our offer was accepted and Rs. 1000 were handed to the 
Mission Treasurer for this object." This contribution was 
made in 1907. The next year two girls, ten years old, were 
sent to Madras to the United Free Church of Scotland Mis- 
sion School, to be trained to fill any positions in which they 
might be needed in our Mission. "A number of women," 
continued Mrs. Harpster, "have received help from the 
funds of the industry. Sometimes it has been a lone widow 
with no means of support; and sometimes a widow with a 
family of children, whose monthly earnings for lace-making 
will not support the family; sometimes it has been the old 
widowed mother who feels she is a burden to those with whom 
she lives. To many aid has been given, now and then a rupee 
or two or three. . . . Forty boxes of lace have been sent to 
America. ... To the Lace Committee in America and, 
especially, to its chairman, Mrs. A. Woll of Philadelphia, is 
largely due the success of the industry. Without their part 
in the work it could not have been carried on." In 1912, 
the sum of $2175, and again in 1913, the sum of $2,000.00, 





FREDERICK W. SCHAEFER 



OSCAR V. WERNER 





THURE HOLMER HIRAM H. SIPES, JR. 

MISSIONARIES IN INDIA 





REV. C. THEODORE BENZE, D. D. PROF. CLAUDE W. Foss, Ph. D. 

COMMISSIONERS TO INDIA IN 1909 







A GROUP OF LACKMAKKKS 




BUILDING IX RAJAHMUXDRY RENTED FOR USE AS A MISSION 
DISPENSARY 

Dr. Betty A. Nilsson is standing in front of the Dispensary with a group of 

her patients. 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 361 

profits of the industry, were contributed for the purchase 
of sites for the Bethlehem, Mangalavarampetta and Laksh- 
mivarampetta Hindu Girls' Schools. The industry is now 
under the supervision of Mrs. E. Neudoerffer. It should be 
a pleasure, as it doubtless is, to the patrons of the industry 
at home, to know that they are helping to raise the Christian 
women socially, morally and religiously; socially, because 
poverty is the great problem in India among the non-property 
possessing classes to which our Christians belong; morally, 
because a good deal of truth and character-building are in- 
volved in earnest and honest lace-making; and religiously, 
because it teaches cleanliness, self-help and self-reliance, and 
affords constant opportunity to speak to the women about 
all manner of spiritual subjects, especially the Ten Com- 
mandments. . 

Another project which Mrs. Harpster inaugurated is the 
sale of India Pictorial Post Cards for the benefit of the Book 
Store in Rajahmundry, which also was under her supervision. 
Several sets of twelve views of our mission field and mission 
work were made in India, sent to America and sold for fifty 
cents a set. Mrs. William P. M. Braun has attended to the 
sale of these cards. 

For many years Women's Missionary and Young People's 
Societies throughout the Church sent a number of boxes 
each year to India containing clothing, toys, food, etc., which 
were either used by the missionaries or distributed by them 
to school-children and Christians as Christmas presents. At 
a meeting of the Mission Council in India, held December 
30, 1907, it was unanimously resolved, "that in view of the 
effect upon our native Christians of the gifts of clothing, etc., 
which have been sent so liberally each year from the Home- 
Church in the so-called 'Christmas boxes,' we, as a Mission 
Council, respectfully ask that our kind donors present their 
gifts in money to the Foreign Mission treasury, and that this 
arrangement begin, if possible, with the year 1908." Never- 
theless, material which could be used in the lace industry, 
and articles which were of use in the Hospital and medical 
work, were solicited and sent through Miss Mary Miller of 



362 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Philadelphia, the chairman of the India Box Committee of the 
Women's Missionary Society of the General Council. 1 

Several protests and petitions from individual missionaries, 
sent directly to the President of the General Council, were 
by him presented in his report to the General Council at 
Buffalo, N. Y., in 1907, and then submitted to a special 
committee whose report, as amended and finally adopted, 
was, in part, as follows: 

"i. That the General Council direct its Foreign Mission 
Board, after consultation with the Mission Council in India, 
at once to revise its present Rules, especially in the direction 
of giving the missionaries and the Mission Council better 
facilities to communicate with the Board, and leaving the 
matter of local government, as much as feasible, in the hands 
of the Mission Council. 

"2. That two practical, well-qualified men, one of whom 
shall be a layman, be sent out as soon as possible, as a Com- 
mission of Inspection, to visit the field, and to report to the 
Board and through it to the General Council at its next con- 
vention. These men shall be of different synods and shall 
be selected by the Board of Foreign Missions, subject to the 
approval of the President of the General Council; but neither 
of these commissioners shall be a member of the said Board." 

Both of these items of instruction were carried out. 

In the place of the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D., 
deceased, the General Council, in 1907, elected the Rev. 
Lars G. Abrahamson, D. D., and in the stead of the Rev. 
Andrew S. Fichthorn, D. D., the Rev. William E. Frey, 
re-electing all others whose terms had expired. The Rev. 
Prof. Henry E. Jacobs, D. D., who had served as President 
of the Board since October, 1901, declined a re-election, when 
the Board was reorganized in October, 1907, and the Rev. 
Edward T. Horn, D. D., was elected to succeed him. Mr. 
Philip S. Zieber resigned as Treasurer of the Board in Novem- 
ber, 1908, having served since November, 1901, and Mr. James 

1 The Mission Council in India in October, 1913, again requested that the 
sending of Christmas boxes be discontinued and that, instead of clothing, 
sheets and pillow cases, contributions of money should be solicited and sent 
by the Board. 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 363 

M. Snyder was elected his successor. The duties of English 
Recording and Corresponding Secretary were entrusted to the 
General Secretary, the Rev. George Drach. 

In 1907 the third medical missionary, Dr. Amy B. Rohrer, 
was sent to India. Amy Belle Rohrer, daughter of Israel B. 
and Anna Elizabeth Rohrer, was born near Eden, Lancaster 
County, Pa. She attended the public school at Eden until 
she was sixteen years of age, and then became a student in the 
State Normal School at Millersville, Pa. In September, 1895, 
she was baptized and confirmed in Zion's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church at Leacock, Pa. Three years later, on removing 
with her parents to Lancaster, Pa., she united with Grace 
Lutheran Church of that city. From April, 1900, to October, 
1901, she lived at the Mary J. Drexel Home and Motherhouse 
of Deaconesses, Philadelphia. After nursing for several 
months in the Ladd Hospital, Carlisle, Pa., she accepted the 
position of an assistant in the Lutheran Orphans' Home, 
Germantown, Philadelphia, remaining in this position from 
March, 1902, to June, 1903. In the fall of 1903, she entered 
the Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, to prepare for 
work as a medical missionary in India. She was supported as 
a medical student by the Women's Home and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium. She was 
graduated in 1907, later took the Massachusetts State Medical 
Board examination and, having accepted the call of the Board 
of Foreign Missions, was commissioned by the President of 
the Board on December 3, 1907, in Grace Church, Lancaster, 
Pa. In the company of Dr. Woerner she sailed from New 
York on December 10, 1907, and arrived at Rajahmundry on 
January 28, 1908. 

September 26, 1907, the Rev. C. F. Kuder was again called 
to go to India and, having accepted the call, was commis- 
sioned by the General Secretary of the Board on December 29, 

1907, in Trinity Lutheran Church, Lehighton, Pa., served 
by his brother, the Rev. John H. Kuder. Leaving his family 
behind in Salem, Va., he sailed from New York on January i, 

1908, and reached Rajahmundry twenty-six days later. 
The Board agreed to allow him to return after five years of 



364 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

service, should circumstances in his family demand it. Soon 
after his arrival at Rajahmundry he took charge of the Boys' 
Central School, Wackernagel having resigned in November, 
1907. Three months later Wackernagel returned to the 
United States, accompanied by Trafford. 

Miss Susan E. Monroe left on furlough, accompanied by 
Miss Hedwig Wahlberg, in April, 1908. Miss Wahlberg 
remained for a while in Sweden , recuperating from an illness 
contracted in India, and in November, 1908, wrote from 
Sweden, resigning as a missionary under the Board. The 
Board accepted her resignation to take effect on April i, 1909, 
and paid her expenses to the United States. Miss Monroe 
reached Philadelphia on July 7, 1908. She spent some of her 
time on furlough delivering addresses and toward its expira- 
tion again offered to return to the Mission on the same 
terms as before, namely, at her own expense but subject 
to the Rules of the Mission. The Board most gratefully 
accepted her offer, and after her return to Rajahmundry in 
December, 1909, she was placed in charge of the zenana 
work, which Miss Schade had managed after the death of 
Miss Swenson. 

After a serious epidemic of cholera in the Girls' Central 
School, in the fall of 1906, during which five pupils died of 
this dread disease, the school was closed for several weeks. 
Miss Schade then planned a separate Epidemic Ward to the 
School, which was begun in 1908 and finished in 1912, the 
First General Council Mission League of Monaca, Pa., 
assisted by other leagues of the Pittsburgh Synod, furnishing 
the sum of $600 for this purpose. 

In 1908 two woman missionaries were added to the force 
in India. 

Sigrid A. Esberhn, daughter of Bud Petersen Esberhn and 
his wife Sigrid Anna, was born in Koebenhavn, Denmark. She 
received her education in Copenhagen. With her parents she 
emigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago. She 
was called by the Board in May, 1908. 

Betty A. Nilsson of Rockford, 111., received her medical 
education in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Uni- 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 365 

versity of Illinois, where she was supported by the Women's 
Missionary Society of the Augustana Synod. After her 
graduation in June, 1907, she served for a year as interne in 
the Cook County Hospital, Illinois. 

Both of these young ladies were commissioned by the 
President of the Board, the Rev. Edward T. Horn, D. D., 
on October 15, 1908, in the Immanuel Swedish Lutheran 
Church, Chicago. On their way to New York they stopped 
in Philadelphia for a farewell service on Sunday evening, 
October i8th, in St. Mark's English Lutheran Church of 
that city. They left New York several days later, and 
after spending a few weeks in Europe they proceeded on 
their journey to India, reaching Rajahmundry December 9, 
1908. 

After Wolters had passed his second examination in Telugu, 
in 1907, he was assigned to take charge of the Korukonda 
district with residence at Rajahmundry. Shortly thereafter 
he was seriously ill with typhoid fever, but recovered, and 
took a voyage to China to recuperate and visit his sister, the 
wife of a merchant in that country. In 1909, after the de- 
parture of Dr. Harpster and Rev. E. Neudoerffer's transfer 
to the Bhimawaram district, Wolters became the missionary 
in charge of the Tadepalligudem district. Larson, in 1908, 
moved to Tallapudi and took charge of that district. At the 
same time Eckardt, living at Rajahmundry, became the mis- 
sionary in charge of the Jaggampetta district and extended 
his work into the Korukonda district. 

The Boys' Central School buildings at Luthergiri, 1 just out- 
side of Rajahmundry, which had been begun in January, 
1905, were finally finished in May, 1908, but the school 
was removed from the old building to its new quarters in 
February, 1908. The new buildings, consisting of a main 
school building, a dormitory and a residence for the missionary 
in charge, occupy an elevated site, giving a commanding view 
of the Godavery River, and can be seen for miles. The 
main building has a frontage of 100 feet facing the river. It 
is flanked at either end by a massive tower. The lower story 

lu Giri" is a Telugu word signifying hill. 



366 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

is divided into class rooms, while the upper story is devoted 
to the purposes of a chapel and assembly room. The Hostel 
or Dormitory furnishes accommodations for 150 boarders. 
It is a one-story structure, built in the form of a quadrangle. 
The outer wall is solid with no break in it except for the small, 
barred apertures near the top for purposes of ventilation. 
All the sleeping rooms, living rooms, bath rooms, granaries, 
cook rooms, storerooms, hospital rooms, etc., open into the 
inner quadrangle. The cost of the buildings was as 
follows : 

Main Building Rs. 22,600 $ 7,533-34 

Dormitory 17,700 5,900.00 

Bungalow 13,94 4,646.66 

Out-houses 825 275.000 

Total Rs. 55,065 $18,355.00 

At the close of the first year in the new buildings Kuder 
wrote: "Our plant is quite new and is located on a plot of 
ground containing forty acres, lying on a gentle eminence 
about a mile north of Rajahmundry. Probably few mis- 
sions in the Madras Presidency have anything superior. 
This institution is meant to be the power-house of the Mis- 
sion. Its agents, or, at least, its male agents receive their 
training for future usefulness here. The school ranks, at 
present, as an Incomplete Secondary, the highest form being 
the third; but we have higher aspirations. As is cus- 
tomary in institutions of this kind, there are taught, besides 
the usual branches of secular knowledge, also religious sub- 
jects, according to a curriculum that is the outgrowth of a 
moderately long experience. By the time a boy entering 
the third standard our lowest class passes out of the third 
form, he will have gone through two explanations of the 
Small Catechism (Loehe's and Stump's, supplemented from 
Nissen), and also twice through Bible History, from specially 
prepared text-books, in the standards, and from the Bible 
itself, following Buchrucker, in the forms, together with the 
introduction to each book in the Sacred Volume, as it is 
taken up. It is primarily the aim of the educational work of 




DORMITORIES OF THE BOYS' CENTRAL SCHOOL, LUTHERGIRI, 
RAJAHMUNDRY 




THE HIGH SCHOOL FOR BOYS AT PEDDAPUR 





MARY WELDEN 



LAVRA V". KECK 





EMMA A. ENDLICH 



MRS. SAMUEL LAIRD 





MRS. CHARLES L. FRY 



MRS. EMMY EVALD 



WOMEN OF THE GENERAL (HH'NCIL WHO HAVE I'.EEX PROMINENT IN 
THE WORK OF MISSIONS 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 367 

the Mission, at present, to prepare a body of teachers possess- 
ing a fair general education, a good knowledge of Christian 
truth, and normal training. No excursions into theological 
lore are as yet being attempted. The course mapped out 
contemplates special instruction in religious subjects for a 
year or two after students have passed out of the third form; 
and that is to be followed by a course in normal training, 
prescribed by the Educational Department of the Presidency. 
We have not been able as yet to add the year or two for 
religious instruction exclusively, but we did succeed in estab- 
lishing a normal training-school in the beginning of the year, 
of which not only our own youths but also a respectable 
number of the teachers in the Mission, as well as some out- 
siders, have availed themselves." 

After the Boys' Central School had been removed to 
Luthergiri, the High School Department was discontinued 
by order of the Board, and a Normal School, called the 
Training School for Masters, was established. Twenty-one 
normal pupils were enrolled during the first year of its history, 
eight in the Higher elementary class and thirteen in the Junior 
elementary lower class. Kuder succeeded in getting a govern- 
ment grant, in 1909, for the Normal School, amounting to Rs. 
1288, in addition to Rs. 1800 for the Boys' Central School. 
During the second year 55 pupils were enrolled in the Normal 
School and nearly Rs. 4000 were received in grants from the 
government. 

The Boys' High School at Peddapur was continued under 
the direction of the missionary of the Samulkot district, 
Isaacson, and, in 191112, a new building was erected, cost- 
ing over $14,000, one-fourth of which was given by the govern- 
ment as a building grant. The corner-stone of the new build- 
ing was laid with impressive ceremonies on November 25, 
1911, and the completed building was opened and dedicated 
on October 29, 1912. 

In order to carry out the instructions of the General Council 
the Board of Foreign Missions selected Prof. C. W. Foss, 
Ph. D., of Augustana College, Rock Island, 111., and the 
Rev. C. Theodore Benze, D. D., then pastor of St. Stephen's 



368 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Evangelical Lutheran Church, Erie, Pa., and President of 
the Pittsburgh Synod, afterward President of Thiel College, 
as the Commissioners of Inspection, the President of the 
General Council having sanctioned these selections. The 
Commissioners were given a letter of instruction by the 
Board to define their duties and work in India, and after 
having met in Colombo, Ceylon, on December 8th, and arrived 
at Rajahmundry on December 28, 1908, they spent six weeks 
in the Mission, finished their work of inspection and returned 
to the United States. They submitted a carefully prepared 
report to the Board covering every district and department 
of the Mission, making a number of recommendations con- 
cerning the government of the Mission, urging an increase of 
missionaries and funds as imperative for the proper develop- 
ment of the work, and concluding with the following para- 
graph: 

" Notwithstanding human frailties and error and the 
insufficient supply of laborers and means, the Lord has sig- 
nally blessed and prospered our Mission, and thereby indi- 
cated that the work is His and not of men. There is much 
that is successful and much that is encouraging, and from this 
point of view the outlook for the future is bright. Let the 
Church give thanks to her Redeemer for thus prospering her 
feeble efforts, and awaken to a great sense of her respon- 
sibility and duty." 

The expenses connected with the sending out of this com- 
mission amounted to $2466, but the money was well spent, for 
the report of the Commission set the mind of the Church at 
rest, created new confidence in the Board and in the mission- 
aries, and won a more hearty support for the cause of foreign 
missions. This attitude of the Church was indicated, more- 
over, by the election of the commissioners as members of the 
Board at the next meeting of the General Council. 

The service of the Rev. E. E. Sibole, D. D., who had been 
a member of the Board for nearly twenty-five years and the 
editor of "The Foreign Missionary" for twelve years, ceased 
with the convention of the General Council in 1909. The 

'General Council Minutes, 1909, pages 160-169. 



MANIFOLD ACTIVITY (1906-09) 369 

Board adopted a minute, expressing its high appreciation of 
his long and faithful service. 1 

The Rules and Regulations of the Telugu Mission, as revised 
by the Mission Council in India in 1908, and endorsed by the 
Commissioners, slightly amended by the Board, were adopted 
in 1909, and the Mission is now being administered under 
these Rules. 2 They provide for the government of the Mission 
by a Mission Council, consisting of all missionaries in charge 
of work in the Mission, and by a Ministerium of the ordained 
missionaries, to which the affairs of the district evangelistic 
work are referred. 

1 At its meeting in 1909 the General Council elected the Revs. M. C. Ranseen, 
D. D., and S. C. Franzen, the latter in the place of the Rev. C. E. Slaett, re- 
signed; and retired Samuel G. Seiple, M. D., and R. A. Rydberg, Ph. D., who 
had served faithfully since 1001 and 1903, respectively. Dr. Seiple, however 
has continued to be the Medical Adviser of the Board. 

2 See General Council Minutes, 1909, pages 137-153. 

24 



CHAPTER XIX 

RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 

DR. and Mrs. Harpster left Rajahmundry on furlough, 
April 7, 1909, and after having visited the Rev. Frisby D. 
Smith in Tokyo, Japan, they crossed the Pacific Ocean, land- 
ing at San Francisco, and reaching Redlands, Cal., in June, 
1909, where they were entertained by a friend until they came 
East to attend the convention of the General Council in 
Minneapolis that fall. Thereafter Dr. Harpster travelled and 
delivered addresses in the interest of the General Council's 
Telugu Mission. He was an exceptionally able speaker and 
his presentations won the interest of a large circle of sup- 
porters. While on a tour of the churches in Ohio, in January, 
1911, he contracted a severe cold and hastened back to his wife 
who was visiting her brother, the Rev. Henry E. Jacobs. D. D., 
at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. There he died on February i, 1911, 
after a brief illness. The funeral service was held in the 
Schaeffer-Ashmead Memorial Church, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, 
on February 3, the General Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the General Synod, the Rev. L. B. Wolf, D. D., 
and the General Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the General Council, the Rev. George Drach, delivering 
the addresses. The service was conducted by the Rev. Prof. 
J. Fry, D.D., and the Rev. A. S. Fichthorn, D. D. His 
body was interred in the cemetery at Gettysburg, Pa. 

The following is a brief sketch of his life up to the time of 
his becoming a missionary of the General Council. 

John Henry Harpster, the son of George and Frances 
Harpster, was born at Centre Hall, Pa., April 27, 1844. 
His education was interrupted by the Civil War, through 
which he served. He was captain and staff officer of the 
Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, and twice was danger- 
ously wounded in battle. After the war he resumed his 

37 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 371 

studies at Selinsgrove and Gettysburg, Pa., preparing for the 
holy ministry. He was ordained in 1871, and went at once 
as a foreign missionary of the General Synod to its Telugu 
Mission in India, in which he served until 1876. Impaired 
health led to his return to the United States, and he served 
congregations in Ellsworth and Hayes City, Kan., Trenton, 
N. J., and Canton, O. He married Julia, daughter of Pro- 
fessor Michael Jacobs, of Gettysburg, Pa., in 1882. In 1893 
he returned with his wife to India and served as a missionary 
in the Guntur and Sattenappalli Taluks of the General 
Synod's Mission until 1901, when he came home on furlough. 
The next year he entered the service of the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the General Council. 1 

1 The following resolutions were passed by the Board at its meeting in March, 
1911: 

Whereas God in his Providence removed by death on the first day of February, 
1911, at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Reverend John Henry Harpster, D. D., our 
missionary on furlough in America, and 

Whereas Reverend John Henry Harpster, D. D., one of the great foreign 
missionaries of the Lutheran Church in America, began his career as a foreign 
missionary in 1872, when the Board of Foreign Missions of the General Synod 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States sent him to its Telugu 
Mission at Guntur, India, where he labored until 1876, returning to this Mission, 
after having served congregations in the United States, in 1893, for a second 
term lasting eight years, and then at the urgent call of the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North 
America, went to its Telugu Mission at Rajahmundry, India, in 1902, with the 
special titles and commission of "Temporary Director" and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, then the highest office in the Mission, to re-organize it 
under new rules and regulations, and having fulfilled his mission and resigned 
his special office and position, returned to America in 1909, where he was spend- 
ing his furlough in the service of our Board which had called him to return to 
Rajahmundry as a regular missionary, and 

Whereas, while he served our Board in its India Mission, he labored faith- 
fully and well, erected new and adequate buildings for the Boys' Central School 
at Rajahmundry, extricated our mission property from the confusion of un- 
certain titles, improved the mission plant, and won many converts to Christian- 
ity, and 

Whereas, while on furlough in America, in 1909-1910, he attracted the 
interest of many by his addresses and efforts, spread information, deepened 
the sense of our foreign mission obligation, and won the prayers and consecra- 
tion of those who learned to know him; Be it 

Resolved, that we, the Board of Foreign Missions of the General Council, 
express our high appreciation of his long and successful career as a foreign 
missionary in India, and especially of his service, both in our Telugu Mission 
and at home in our churches, and our sense of the great loss we have sustained 
in his death, and 

Resolved, that we express our deep sympathy to his widow whom we com- 
mend to the tender love of our Heavenly Father, through Jesus Christ, His 
Son, Our Lord. 



372 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

After his removal from Rajahmundry Dr. Schmidt had lived 
in retirement at Kotagiri, Nilgiri Hills, India, where he died 
on March 6, 1911, about a month after Dr. Harpster's death. 
His body was interred in the Basle Mission cemetery at 
Kotagiri. 

The Mission Council in India adopted the following minute 
of appreciation : 

"Three men in the history of the Rajahmundry Mission 
have, in the eyes of the Church, stood out among their fel- 
lows. Of these, the first, Dr. C. F. Heyer, has long since been 
gathered to his fathers and his works do follow him. 

"The second was the Rev. Hans Christian Schmidt, D. D., 
who departed this life on March 6, 1911. Others in other 
places have given the salient facts of his life. Our endeavor 
shall be to fix the place of Dr. Schmidt in this Mission and the 
value of his services to it. He came first to Rajahmundry on 
August 4, 1870, when the only missionary to greet him was 
Father Heyer. Six months later Father Heyer, under the 
weight of many years, left the country never to return. 
The strength of the Mission then was 241 adult Christians 
living in nine villages, and nine teachers. The buildings were 
dilapidated and the Mission had but a slender hold on the in- 
terest and support of the Church at home. It was the most 
critical time in the entire history of the Mission, and during the 
first decennium a living martyrdom for its missionaries. But 
in spite of every discouragement Dr. Schmidt and his col- 
league remained at their posts of duty; and God mightily 
blessed their slender means, so that before the close of the 
decade another bungalow, a church and a house-boat had 
been added to the material equipment of the Mission, and the 
number of adherents had been more than doubled. It seems 
to us, that it was in this period that Dr. Schmidt rendered 
the most valuable service in his life. The temptation to leave 
the work amidst so much discouragement and apathy on the 
part of the Church that had inaugurated it can scarcely have 
been wanting; and had he left, the probability is very strong 
that the work would have been permanently abandoned and 
the foreign mission activity of the General Council diverted to 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 373 

some other field. The credit of being the real founder or, at 
least, savior of the mission, belongs far more truly to him than 
to Father Heyer. The latter was a bird of passage; the former 
came to stay and give permanence to the work. 

"In the eighties reinforcements began to come, and with 
their advent interest in the work grew at home. The path, 
therefore, became easier; but the economy and the careful 
expenditure Dr. Schmidt had been forced to practice in the 
first decade of his service adhered to him always. He was a 
wise buyer, a cheap builder, a shrewd manager; and much of 
the excellent property now owned by the Mission is the fruit 
of his foresight. As a fellow-missionary he was genial and 
easy to get along with. His long experience with new mis- 
sionaries, all of whom for a period of thirty years he was here 
to welcome, made him patient and sympathetic with them. 
He was quick to recognize merit and rejoiced in it for the sake 
of the Mission. His judgment was safe and his tenacity of 
purpose great. Connected for so many years with the Mission, 
there is scarcely a phase of its work to-day that does not, to a 
greater or less extent, bear his impress. After his withdrawal 
from the Mission he lived in dignified and contented retire- 
ment, dividing his time between his home on the hills and 
that of his daughter in the Breklum Mission. His failing 
health was quite obvious to his many friends throughout the 
last year of his life, and the end was quiet and peaceful. 

"The third of the three was the Rev. John Henry Harpster, 
D. D., whose connection with this Mission dated from 1902. 
That was a time of great difficulty, and the task set him was 
one of unusual responsibility, involving transfer and reor- 
ganization. Friction seemed inevitable. Frequently he had 
to shape his course to fit rules for which he had not been 
responsible; and the wonder is, that with such burdens on his 
shoulders, he succeeded as well as he did. Ninety-nine other 
men in a hundred would have failed utterly. Had his dis- 
position been less generous, his spirit less sanguine, his patience 
less lasting, he would have left the field in confusion worse 
confounded, instead of on the highroad to harmonious co- 
operation and general good-will. Arguments there were, to 



374 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

be sure, but through them all strongly pulsed the beat of a 
courteous man's warm friendship. As a missionary he was 
indefatigable, as a preacher eloquent and inspiring. He 
labored in season and out to inculcate self-support. Alto- 
gether this was a man to love. He left the work, worn out by 
his many burdens; and when the news of his passing came, 
there was not a heart in the Mission that was not the sadder 
for it." 

Miss Agnes I. Schade came to the United States on fur- 
lough in 1909, leaving Rajahmundry June 26th, and arriving 
at New York on August 3d, that year. On account of an 
affliction of the eyes she was under treatment in Philadelphia 
for some time and was unable to do much travelling. Never- 
theless, she found opportunity before the expiration of her 
furlough to help the cause at home by a number of addresses 
at different places. Before the close of the year 1910 she 
had returned to her work at Rajahmundry as the manager of 
the Girls' Central School. During her absence Dr. Amy 
B. Rohrer served temporarily as manager of the school. 

Furloughs were given E. Neudoerffer in 1910-1911, R. 
Arps in 1911-1912, and H. E. Isaacson in 1912-1913. Neu- 
doerffer, with his wife and child, came to America by way of 
the Pacific Ocean and spent the most of his time in the United 
States and Canada delivering sermons and addresses, especially 
to German and German-English congregations, in order to 
arouse them to greater effort in behalf of foreign missions. 
He also succeeded in interesting a number of young pastors 
to such an extent that two recruits were secured and sent 
out with him to India, the Revs. Oscar V. Werner and F. W. 
Schaefer; and his younger brother, August, followed him a 
few months later. Arps spent a year in Luebeck, Germany, 
with his son and daughter, who were being educated there, 
before coming to America in May, 1912, with his wife and 
daughter. 

Among the more recent events of importance in the Mis- 
sion have been the erection of the Augustana Church at 
Samulkot, the gift of the Foreign Missionary Society of 
Augustana College and Seminary, Rock Island, 111., which 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 375 

was consecrated on January 15, 1911, while the Conference of 
missionaries and native workers was in session at Samulkot. 
The building cost $2700. 

The same day that this new church was consecrated the 
sixth native Christian pastor, Pantagani Paradesi, was or- 
dained by the officers of the Ministerium in India, the Rev. 
H. E. Isaacson, D. D., 1 and the Rev. Karl L. Wolters. 

Pantagani Paradesi was born at Mahadevipatnam, Bhima- 
waram taluk. He attended the Boys' Central School at Rajah- 
mundry, from which he was graduated, and then went to the 
Mission College at Guntur. After having served for a while 
as teacher in the Girls' Central School, he was added to the 
staff of teachers in the Boys' Central School, where he was 
at work when the call came to become the pastor of St. 
Paul's Church, Rajahmundry. He was installed as the native 
pastor of the congregation in Rajahmundry, under the super- 
vision of the missionary in charge, on Sunday, February 5, 
1911, by the Rev. C. F. Kuder, assisted by the Rev. R. Arps. 
Under the direction of Kuder the congregation became self- 
supporting and agreed to pay its pastor's salary. 2 Self- 
government, also, was introduced under a panchayet or 
council, consisting of the missionary in charge, the native 
pastor and five members of the native congregation. The 
membership of the congregation at the close of 1910 was 
356, exclusive of boarding-school children and teachers at- 
tending the Training School. 

Before Kuder returned to the United States in April, 
1913, he nearly finished the preparation of the Telugu 
Lutheran Church Book, a translation of the Church Book 
of the General Council, not however including all of the 
hymns, the publication of which is an event of far-reaching 
significance in the history of the Mission. 

One of the outstanding events of importance within the 
past few years was the erection of the Hospital for Women 
and Children at Halkett's Garden, about half-way between 

*In 1911 the Rev. H. E. Isaacson received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kansas, in recognition of his long and faith- 
ful service as a foreign missionary. 

* The pastor's salary is Rs. 40 ($13) a month. 



376 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Rajahmundry and Dowlaishwaram. This site, as we have 
already had occasion to narrate, was purchased in 1902, for 
the sum of $4500, and plans for a building had been drawn 
and approved by the Board in 1905, but they proved to 
be unsatisfactory and Dr. Woerner's furlough delayed the 
preparation of new plans until the year 1009, when they 
were finally approved by the Board in August of that year. 
Arps was appointed superintendent of construction. He se- 
cured the service of M. Ramanayya, a converted Brahmin, 
as contractor, and inasmuch as the women's missionary 
societies of the General Council had already gathered most 
of the funds needed, the building operations, once begun, 
made rapid progress. The corner-stone of the main building 
was laid on January n, 1910, by Mrs. E. B. Elwin, the wife 
of the Collector of the Coconada district. The Collector 
delivered an address in English, and Missionary Arps an ad- 
dress in Telugu. After the buildings were completed, the 
Hospital was opened and dedicated on July 20, 1911, the 
Collector of the District again taking part in the exercises. 
Concerning this occasion Dr. Woerner wrote: "At last we have 
realized our long-desired hospital. The formal opening day 
was a day of joy and gladness. Crowds of people were present. 
A portion of the second floor was reserved for Hindu ladies. 
It was remarkable how many attended this public function. 
Some years ago hardly one would have been present. The 
people, as they went about the place, were full of praise and 
admiration. On July 24th the sick were moved over from 
the nurses' quarters, where they had been kept temporarily, 
and filled the first large ward. The second is now filling up 
with new patients. After years of cramping in small, incon- 
venient rooms, the work of arranging is a great pleasure. We 
feel very grateful to all who have worked so long and faith- 
fully to give us this abiding place for the sick." 

The Hospital buildings consist of a two-story main build- 
ing, a separate, one-story building used as a Maternity 
Ward, and a number of smaller buildings for use as 
kitchen, contagion ward, Eurasian and native helpers quar- 
ters and stables. They are built of stone with dressed 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 
RAJAHMUNDRY 




MAIN BUILDING OF THE HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 
RAJAHMUNDRY 




"Till-: MEDICAL HOMK" 
The residence of our medical missionaries at Rajahmundry. 




PATIENTS OF THE CHILDREN'S' WARDS. HOSPITAL FOR \VOMEX AND 
CHILDREN, RAJAHMUNDRY. WITH THEIR NURSES 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 377 

stones at all angles of the buildings. The iron girders and 
steel beams used in the construction were shipped from 
England. The cost of the buildings was as follows: Hospital 
Main Building, $21,315; Isolation Ward, $500; Native 
Helpers' Quarters, $333; Morgue, $133; European Nurses' 
Quarters, $1000; Kitchen, $200; Stables, $166; Compound 
Wall, $533; Hospital Total, $24,180. Maternity Ward, 
$3533; Grand Total, $27,713. The Women's Missionary 
Society of the Pennsylvania Ministerium gathered and con- 
tributed one-half of the amount required to build the Main 
building, and the Women's Missionary Society of the Swedish 
Augustana Synod the other half. The Women's Missionary 
Society of the New York and New England Synod, assisted 
by the Women's Missionary Society of the Synod of Central 
Canada, paid for the Maternity Ward. A number of socie- 
ties and individuals provided the furniture of the hospital 
buildings, which cost $2900. 

The growth of the medical work in our Mission has been 
truly remarkable. The total number of visits at the Dispen- 
sary in Rajahmundry during the year 1910 was 21,394. The 
number of new patients treated was 6488. In the temporary 
hospital 1 88 cases were treated, while 316 private patients 
were visited 1470 times. The dispensary minor operations 
numbered 140, the hospital general operations 100. The 
average daily attendance at the Rajahmundry Dispensary 
in 1912, varied between fifty and ninety. Counting the rela- 
tives of patients probably one hundred people each day 
heard some message from God's Word in this Dispensary. 
A Dispensary was begun by Dr. Betty A. Nilsson in Dow- 
larshwaram in August, 1911, which was open three after- 
noons each week. The number of patients in the Rajah- 
mundry Hospital rose to 738 in 1912. About Rs. 3000 
($1000) were received that year as medical fees. 

After having demonstrated their unity of spirit and effort 
in the completion of the hospital without a cent of debt, and 
in other united work, the various synodical women's mission- 
ary societies felt that the time had arrived for a federation in 
one General Council Society. A preliminary step in this 



378 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

direction was taken by a number of women who met in Minne- 
apolis and St. Paul, Minn., Friday and Saturday, September 
lo-n, 1909, in connection with the convention of the General 
Council. They represented the various synodical societies, 
and resolved to recommend to their respective societies that 
a General Council society be organized. All of the synodical 
societies adopted this recommendation and sent delegates to 
the Federation Convention, held in connection with the 
meeting of the General Council, September 11-12, 1911, in 
Trinity Church, Lancaster, Pa. A constitution was adopted 
and officers were elected as follows: President, Miss Laura V. 
Keck, Allentown, Pa. ; Recording Secretary, Mrs. G. L. Eck- 
man, Jamestown, N. Y. ; l Corresponding and Statistical Sec- 
retary, Mrs. Frank E. Jensen, Buffalo, N. Y.; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. N. Miller, Columbus, O. ; 2 Literature Secretary, Mrs. Charles 
L. Fry, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Mission Study Chairman, Mrs. F. 
A. Kaehler, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Life Membership Chairman, Mrs. 
L. K. Sanford, Lancaster, Pa.; Foreign Missions Chairman, 
Mrs. F. F. Fry, Rochester, N. Y. ; Home Missions Chairman, 
Mrs. G. H. Schnur, St. Paul, Minn.; Porto Rico Mission 
Chairman, Mrs. A. E. Anderson, St. Paul, Minn.; India Lace 
Chairman, Mrs. A. Woll, Philadelphia, Pa.; Mission Exhibit 
Chairman, Mrs. S. C. Weiskotten, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Organ- 
izing Chairman, Mrs. M. J. Bieber, Toronto, Can.; Inner 
Mission Chairman, Mrs. A. J. D. Haupt, Albert Lea, Minn.; 
Junior Work Chairman, Miss Bertha Ziebarth, Frankford, 
Ind. "The Lutheran Mission Worker," which for many 
years had been published by the society of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium, under the editorship of Miss Emma A. 
Endlich and Mrs. Charles L. Fry, was made the official 
organ of the General Council Society and Mrs. Fry was 
continued as the editor of this excellent quarterly. The 
Augustana Society publishes a separate quarterly in Swedish, 
called "Missions Tidning." 

The Rev. Theodore R. Beussel, a graduate of the Theological 
Seminary at Kropp, Germany, serving a congregation in 

1 Mrs. Walter C. Weier, Toledo, O., is now the Recording Secretary. 

2 Mrs. M. A. Reeb, Buffalo, N. Y., is now the Treasurer. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 379 

Bristol, Conn., was called by the Board and commissioned as 
a foreign missionary in St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., October 9, 1910. He reached 
Rajahmundry on November 23, that year. Four months later 
he resigned, and his resignation was accepted to take effect 
July i, 1912. 

The largest number of foreign missionaries ever sent out 
by the General Council at one time was commissioned in 1911. 
Three ordained missionaries and two woman missionaries 
were sent to India, and one ordained missionary and his 
wife were sent to Japan. Those sent to India were the Revs. 
Oscar V. Werner, Frederick W. Schaefer and August F. A. 
Neudoerffer, and the Misses Margaret C. Haupt and Agatha 
Tatge. 

Oscar Victor Carl Werner was born November 9, 1886, in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. He attended the German Parochial School 
of St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brooklyn and 
the public school in that city. Then he went to Tuebingen, 
Germany, where from 1896 to 1901 he attended the Royal 
Gymnasium. Returning to the United States he entered 
Wagner Memorial Lutheran College, Rochester, N. Y., from 
which he was graduated in 1904. He took his course in the- 
ology at the Evangelical Lutheran Seminary, Mt. Airy, Phila- 
delphia, was graduated and then went to Columbia College, 
New York City, where he took a special course. He was 
ordained in 1909, and followed a call to become pastor 
of Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church, Freeport, Long 
Island, N. Y., which he served until in September, 1911, 
he resigned to accept the call of the Board of Foreign 
Missions to go to India as a missionary of the General 
Council. 

Frederick William Schaefer was born in New York City, 
November 22, 1883. He attended public schools in New York 
City, and then went to Wagner Memorial Lutheran College, 
Rochester, N. Y., from which he was graduated in 1902. He 
studied theology in the Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, 
was graduated and was ordained in 1905. After serving a 
congregation at Lockport, Pa., from 1905 to 1907, he became 



380 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

pastor of the Church of the Ascension, Brooklyn, N. Y., where 
he was serving when called to go to India. 

Both of these missionaries were commissioned by the Presi- 
dent of the Board, the Rev. Professor Edward T. Horn, D. D., 
Sunday evening, September 10, 1911, in the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, New York City. 

On the morning of that day the President commissioned 
Miss Agatha Tatge in the Church of the Advent, New York 
City, and the General Secretary, the Rev. George Drach, 
commissioned Miss Margaret Haupt in the First Lutheran 
Church, Pittsburgh. 

Agatha Marie Dorothea Tatge was born in Chicago, 111. 
Her mother died when Agatha was twelve years old. She 
was confirmed the next year by the Rev. Zenan M. Corbe. 
When she was fourteen she was taken out of school by her 
uncle and aunt, her guardians, but later went to the Lutheran 
Ladies' Seminary, Red Wing, Minn., where she took the regu- 
lar four years' course, being graduated in 1906. That fall 
she entered the Hackley Hospital Training School for Nurses, 
Muskegon, Mich., and was graduated three years later. Then 
she entered Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York 
City, majoring in Hospital Economics, and was graduated on 
June 7, 1911. Her special work in the Mission is the manage- 
ment of the Department of Nursing in the Hospital for Women 
and Children, Rajahmundry. 

Margaret Cecelia Haupt is a daughter of the Rev. Dr. and 
Mrs. A. J. D. Haupt. She was born in St. Paul, Minn., while 
her father was pastor in that city. She spent the fall, winter 
and spring of 1910-1911 at the Mary J. Drexel Home and 
Motherhouse of Deaconesses, Philadelphia, as the first student 
in the special course arranged for the training of woman mis- 
sionaries in that institution. 

For all of these outgoing missionaries, as well as for the 
Rev. Edward T. Horn, Jr., and his fiancee, who were going 
to Japan, and for the Rev. and Mrs. Ernst Neudoerffer, who 
were returning to India after furlough, a farewell service was 
held in connection with the convention of the General Council, 
in Trinity Church, Lancaster, Pa., Thursday evening, Septem- 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 381 

her 14, 1911. Those who had the privilege to attend that 
service will never forget it. The President of the Board 
in a most admirable manner introduced each missionary in 
turn and each in well-chosen words responded. Finally the 
President of the General Council, the Rev. Theodore E. 
Schmauk, D. D., in a most happy manner acknowledged for 
the whole General Council the introduction of the missionaries 
and encouraged them with the assurance of the presence of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, to whom all power is given in heaven and 
on earth. During the service, as one after the other of the 
missionaries spoke, tears came to the eyes of those who heard 
their solemn and impressive words; not tears of sorrow but 
of joy, because such a numerous and noble band of young men 
and women had been found willing and ready to carry the 
Gospel to the heathen. 

At ten o'clock on Saturday morning, September i6th, those 
bound for India sailed from New York, six adults and two 
children, and reached Rajahmundry, October 25, 1911. Two 
or three days later the new missionaries began their study of 
the Telugu language. 1 

After this band of missionaries had sailed away, the Rev. 
August F. A. Neudoerffer, a younger brother of the Rev. 
Ernst Neudoerffer, whom the Board had twice called to go to 
India, offered to follow his elder brother to the mission field, 
was accepted and commissioned in St. Johannis' German 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Wednesday evening, Novem- 
ber 29, 1911. 

August F. A. Neudoerffer was born June 18, 1896, at Santo 
Leopolidina, Brazil, where his father, the Rev. Ernst Neudoerf- 
fer, Sr., was a missionary for seven years. About a year after 
the birth of August the family went to Germany, and from 
there to Canada, where his father has since served, at Neustadt, 
Ontario. He attended public school at Normandy, Ontario, 
and in the fall of 1897 he entered Wagner Memorial Lutheran 
College, Rochester, N. Y., from which he was graduated hi 

1 New missionaries devote the entire first year to the study of the vernacular. 
During the second year, while continuing their language study, they are associ- 
ated with an older missionary. After having passed the second examination 
at the end of the second year, they are placed in charge of work. 



382 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

1 902. After the regular course in theology at the Seminary 
in Philadelphia, he was ordained June 19, 1905, and then took 
charge of St. Paul's Church, Hainesport, N. J., which he served 
six and one-half years. He left New York December 9, 1911, 
and reached Rajahmundry January 17, 1912. 

Among the more recent developments in the home admin- 
istration was the incorporation of the Board. In accord- 
ance with the instruction of the General Council, convened in 
Minneapolis in 1909, the Board sought and secured a Charter 
of Incorporation, which was granted by the Decree of Judge 
William H. Staake of Philadelphia, on November 18, 1910, 
and accepted by the Board at its meeting on February 2, 
1911. In this charter the Board is given the following Con- 
stitution : 

" i . The name of the Corporation is and shall be ' The Board 
of Foreign Missions of the General Council of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in North America.' 

"2. The object for which the said Corporation is formed 
shall be to conduct the foreign missions of the General Council 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, and 
maintain the same in accordance with the Confessions of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church as accepted by the General 
Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, 
in such places as may from time to time be determined by the 
said Corporation, and provide ways and means for the carry- 
ing on and extension of said work, and to perform such other 
duties as are usually incumbent upon and pertain to a Board 
of Foreign Missions. 

"3. The business of said Corporation shall be transacted in 
the city of Philadelphia, Pa. 

"4. The said Corporation has no capital stock and is to 
exist perpetually. 

"5. The management and control of said Corporation shall 
be vested in a Board not exceeding sixteen members, who shall 
be elected by the said General Council of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in North America, for a term of four years, 
one-half of this number being chosen at each biennial conven- 




CORPORATE SEAL OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE 

GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN 

CHURCH IN NORTH AMERICA 




THE CHURCH COUNCIL QF ST. PAUL'S CONGREGATION, RAJAHMUNDRY 



R. Charles M. Devadas 

Pastor P. Paradesi V. Sriramulu Rev. C. F. 



A. Paul 
Kuder M. Samuel 





REV. PROF. ADOLPH SPAETH, D. D., LL.D., 
1876-1892 



REV. PROF. CHARLES W. SCHAEFFER, D. D., LL.D. 
1892-1896 




REV. HUGO GRAHN, D. D. 
1896-1901 





REV. PROF. HENRY E. JACOBS, D. D., LL.D., 
1901-1907 



REV. PROF. EDWARD T. HORN, D. D., LL.D., 
since 1907. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 383 

tion of the said General Council, provided, however, that the 
said Board shall have the power to fill any vacancies that may 
occur in its membership between the conventions or meetings 
of the said General Council." 

At the subsequent meeting of the Board the following action 
was taken: "In accepting the Charter of Incorporation this 
Board interprets the clause, 'in accordance with the Confes- 
sions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church as accepted by the 
General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North 
America/ to mean, that all the work of this corporation shall 
be on the basis of the Principles of Faith and Church Polity 
of the General Council, according to the directions of the 
General Council in session at Minneapolis, September 9-14, 
1909." 

Under this Charter and Constitution the Board re-organized 
by the election of its former officers and the adoption of the 
former by-laws. 

The Rev. H. Grahn, D. D., resigned as business manager 
of the " Missionsbote " at the close of the year 1910, having 
served in that capacity since 1901, and the Rev. R. C. G. 
Bielinski, editor of that paper, took charge also of the business 
management. The Rev. Prof. H. E. Jacobs, D. D., resigned 
as a member of the Board in February, 1911, and the Hon. 
Frank M. Riter was elected to fill the unexpired term. In 
August, 1910, the Rev. P. J. O. Cornell succeeded the Rev. 
S. C. Franzen as a member of the Board. The General Coun- 
cil in 1911 elected the following new members of the Board: 
The Rev. F. Jacobson, Ph. D., and Messrs. A. Raymond Bard, 
Robert Gaskell and B. F. Cressman. 

The present officers of the Board are: President, the Rev. 
Prof. Edward T. Horn, D. D., LL.D.; Treasurer, Mr. James 
M. Snyder; English Recording Secretary, the General Secre- 
tary, the Rev. George Drach, by appointment; German 
Recording Secretary, the Rev. R. C. G. Bielinski; Swedish 
Recording Secretary, the Rev. P. J. O. Cornell. Dr. S. C. 
Seiple, of Centre Square, Pa., a former member of the Board, 
is the Board's Medical Adviser. The other members of the 
Board are the Revs. L. G. Abrahamson, D. D., S. G. 



384 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Youngert, D. D., 1 C. A. Miller, D. D., 1 W. E. Frey, John A. 
Weyl, R. C. G. Bielinski, and Messrs. Prof. C. W. Foss, W. 
F. Monroe, Frank M. Riter, A. Raymond Bard, Robert Gas- 
kell and B. F. Cressman, making sixteen members, represent- 
ing five different synods of the General Council. 

A Swedish District Secretary of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions was elected in 1911. The first incumbent of this 
office, the Rev. Carl Solomonson, began his work December 
15, 1911, but one year later obtained leave of absence for 
a year or more to act as a solicitor of funds for Gustavus 
Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minn., his alma mater. The 
duties of this office are denned as follows: i. To represent 
the Board in the congregations of the Augustana Synod. 
2. To spread information, awaken interest and solicit funds 
for the support of the foreign missions of the General 
Council. 3. To interest and recommend young men and 
women for service in our mission fields. 4. To keep the people 
informed of our work at home and abroad through the papers 
of the Augustana Synod and such literature as may be ap- 
proved by the Board. 5. To perform such other duties as the 
Board from tune to time may determine. 6. The relation 
of the Swedish District Secretary to the Board shall be (a) 
to labor under the direction of the Board and report to it at 
each regular meeting through the General Secretary concern- 
ing his work and expenses ; (b) to attend the regular meetings 
of the Board as often as possible and to be present whenever 
called by the President of the Board ; (c) to remit monthly all 
money received for our foreign missions to the treasurer of 
the Mission Board of the Augustana Synod, and report the 
same to the Board of Foreign Missions. 

Among the sure indications of a more intense and wide- 
spread interest in foreign missions is the support of individual 
missionaries by societies and congregations. Those now being 
supported are: 

The Rev. C. F. Kuder by the Men's Bible Class of Holy 

1 The Rev. Dr. Youngert and the Rev. Dr. Miller were elected by the Gen- 
eral Council in 1913, taking the places of the Rev. M. C. Ranseen, D. D., and 
the Rev. C. Theodore Benze, D. D., the latter having been elected American 
professor in the Theological Seminary at Kropp, Germany. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 385 

Trinity Church, Buffalo, N. Y., the Rev. F. A. Kaehler, D. D., 
pastor; the Rev. Karl L. Wolters by the Luther Leagues of 
Buffalo; the Rev. Edward T. Horn, Jr., by the Men's Foreign 
Missionary Society of Holy Trinity Church, Reading, Pa.; 
the Rev. O. O. Eckardt by the First Swedish Lutheran Church 
of St. Paul, Minn, (in part) ; Miss Sigrid Esberhn by the Ice- 
landic Evangelical Lutheran Synod; Miss Susan E. Monroe 
by herself; Miss Betty A. Nilsson, M. D., by the Women's 
Missionary Society of the Augustana Synod; Miss Lydia 
Woerner, M. D., by the Women's Missionary Society of the 
Eastern Conference of the New York and New England 
Synod; Miss Agatha Tatge by the Church of the Advent, 
New York, the Rev. William M. Horn, pastor; Miss Agnes 
I. Schade by the Women's Missionary Society of the Pitts- 
burgh Synod; Miss Amy B. Rohrer, M. D., by the Missionary 
Society of the Church of the Reformation, Rochester, N. Y., 
the Rev. Frank F. Fry, pastor; Rev. Oscar V. Werner by 
St. John's Church, Allentown, Pa., the Rev. A. Steimle, 
pastor. 

There has been a decided increase in the income of the 
Board of Foreign Missions during the past few years. In 
1905 the income was $29,552.87; five years later (1910) it was 
$48,451.57; in 1911 it rose to $60,263.13, and in 1913, to 
$66,546.41. These figures do not include the sum raised by 
the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Societies for the 
new hospital, which flowed into the Board's treasury in 1910 
and 1911, and amounted to over $30,000. 

The expenditures have steadily kept pace with the income, 
due in part to the increase of the number of missionaries, and 
in part to increased appropriations for the expanding mission 
work. Thus, while hi 1905, $8000 were sent to India for the 
regular expenses of mission work, $18,000 were sent for that 
purpose during 1911, and $20,625.00 in 1913. These figures 
do not include the salaries and allowances of the mssionaries. 

Two of the main factors in the development of the foreign 
mission spirit and effort in our churches have been the organ- 
ization of women's missionary societies and the Laymen's 
Missionary Movement. 

25 



386 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

The following table of statistics shows the growth of our 
Telugu Mission since it became the General Council's Mission: 

1870. l88o. 1890. IQOO. I9OS. IQIO. IQI*. 

Christians 160 335 1056 6159 13,823 16,953 19,751 

Communicants 70 216 978 3000 6,135 9.9 2 6 10,845 

Foreign missionaries 24 4 5 16 12 21 

Native workers 9 16 90 142 314 347 411 

Pupils in school 138 440 1473 3500 5,275 6,099 6,559 

In 1912 the Rev. and Mrs. Arps returned to India and Dr. 
Lydia Woerner left Rajahmundry on sick-leave and furlough; 
and the Revs. Thure Holmer and Ivar F. Witting and Miss 
Mary Borthwick were sent out as missionaries. Rev. Ivar 
F. Witting, after a residence of four months in India, re- 
signed and, although urged to reconsider his resignation, 
insisted on it and returned to the United States. 

The Rev. Thure Holmer was born in Sweden, June 5, 1882, 
and came to the United States with his parents when he 
was eight years of age. The family settled at Falconer, 
N. Y. Mr. Holmer entered Augustana College in 1902, and 
was graduated from the Theological Seminary and was or- 
dained in 1912. On July I'jih, that year, he married Miss 
Pauline Celia Bjork. Sailing from New York on July 3ist, 
Mr. and Mrs. Holmer reached Rajahmundry on October 23, 
1912, the day on which the Rev. O. V. Werner and Miss 
Margaret C. Haupt were married in St. Paul's Church, Rajah- 
mundry. 

Miss Mary S. Borthwick was born in Chestnut Hill, Phila- 
delphia, where she was baptized and confirmed in Christ 
Church. She took the one year's course at the Mary J. 
Drexel Home and Motherhouse of Deaconesses, and was 
commissioned in her home congregation on October 15, 1912, 
by the President of the Board. She accompanied the Rev. 
and Mrs. Arps to Rajahmundry, arriving November 21, 
1912. 

Mr. Hiram H. Sipes, Jr., a graduate of Thiel College, 
class of 1913, accepted the call of the Board to go to our 
Telugu Mission in India and assist in its educational work. 
He married Miss Elsie Ashe of Greenville, Pa., on Aug. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 387 

21, 1913, was commissioned on Sunday evening, October 
1 2th, in Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Greenville, Pa., and 
reached Rajahmundry in November, 1913. During that 
month Dr. H. E. Isaacson returned to India, leaving his 
wife and children in Lindsborg, Kansas, and Dr. Betty A. 
Nilsson came back to America on furlough. 

The year 1912 opened at Rajahmundry with the con- 
vention of the All-India Lutheran Conference, December 
31, i9ii-January 4, 1912, which was attended by 93 dele- 
gates. "They represented the Leipsic, Swedish and Danish 
Missions of the Tamil country, the Hermannsburg, Schleswig- 
Holstein, Rajahmundry and Guntur Missions of the Telugu 
country, and the Gossner Mission of Chota Nagpur in the 
North. Greetings were received from the Santal Mission, 
the Missionary Society of Stockholm and the Moravian Mis- 
sion. If not in the strictest geographical sense, at least as 
far as Lutherans go, the comprehensiveness of the term "All 
India" was justified. The delegates came from the South 
of India, where the breezes have not yet spent all their spicy 
fragrance, of which, softly blowing, they robbed Ceylon's 
isle; they came from the sun-scorched plains of Central 
India, where great rivers roll seaward in tepid sluggishness; 
they came from the far North, where the vast, snowy reaches 
of the Himalayas abruptly bound the view. There were 
young men still in the newness of the first years of their 
service, still studying the respective vernaculars of their fields 
of work; men in the prime of life, who had tested their strength 
upon the tasks God gave them to perform amidst surround- 
ing heathendom, and who were wise in counsel and strong in 
deed ; older men whose whitening hair confirmed the story told 
by their battle-scarred faces, of decades of service against the 
forces of Satan, and who yet burned at heart with the zeal of 
young warriors. Moreover, there was not a department of 
woman's work in missions that had not its representative 
among the goodly complement of women present at the 
Conference. Finally, by the type of their manhood and by 
their faith, the twelve Indian delegates, almost all of them 
ordained ministers of the Lutheran Church, gave proof of the 



388 THE TELUGU MISSION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

quickening power of the Gospel of Christ, and were distinct 
encomiums upon the work for the furtherance of which the 
Conference and its individual members were human agencies." 
"Federation" was the main topic of discussion, and the 
desire for closer co-operation and union, especially in educa- 
tional and literary work, found expression in a set of resolu- 
tions and in the appointment of a permanent committee, each 
Mission being represented by one member, to which was 
entrusted, among other things, the duty of the furtherance of 
the federation of Lutheran Missions in India, which, accord- 
ing to the census of 191 1 , have a constituency of nearly 250,000. 

One of the resolutions of the All-India Lutheran Con- 
ference, held at Rajahmundry, reads as follows: "The All- 
India Lutheran Conference, in session at Rajahmundry, 
strongly urges and approves of the establishment of a United 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Madras. It recommends 
that every mission represented in the Conference, uniting in 
the establishment and maintenance of such a united insti- 
tution, pay its share of the original cost involved in the 
starting of such an institution, including the land and 
buildings, set aside and support a missionary professor, if 
desirable, and pay its part of the salaries of Indian teachers 
and other general expenses. It recommends that, as soon as 
possible, the first class be formed. It recommends that all 
professors and teachers in this Seminary be bound to an 
acceptance of the Bible as the infallible rule of doctrine and 
life, and that they be required to subscribe to the Augus- 
tana Invariata. It recommends that the Synodical Books 
be an essential part of the curriculum of studies." 

The General Council at its convention in Toledo, O., 
September 11-16, 1913, discussed this project and adopted 
the following recommendations of the Board of Foreign 
Missions : 

"Resolved, that we approve the resolution adopted by 
representatives of the Lutheran missions in India, namely, 
that the All-India Lutheran Conference become a permanent 
body; but the details of its organization should depend upon 




REV. B. M. SCHMUCKER, D. D. 
Secretary, 1876-1888 





REV. WILLIAM ASHMEAD SCHAEFFER, D. D. 
Secretary 1888-1906 




REV. F. W. WEISKOTTEN 
Commissioner to India in 1900 



REV. T. TELLEEN, D. D. 
Agent and Superintendent, 1891-1902 





REV. GEORGE DRACH 
General Secretary, since 1905. 



MR. TAMES M. SNYDER 
Secretary 1902-"l908; Treasurer, since 1908. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 



,", A 




THE ALL-INDIA LUTHERAN CONFERENCE OF MISSIONARIES 
Held in St. Paul's Church, Rajahmundry. in January, 1912. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT (1909-12) 389 

the further action of the Boards concerned. In reference 
to co-operation in this Conference, as well as to the Joint 
Theological Seminary proposed for all Lutheran missions in 
India, the General Council advises, as precedent to all action 
on the subject, an amendment to the Confessional Statement, 
to wit, the acceptance of the Old and New Testaments as 
the infallible Rule of Faith and Practice, the adoption of 
the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and the Small Cate- 
chism of Luther as the statement of our faith, and the rec- 
ognition of the other Confessions contained in the Book of 
Concord as a correct answer to the questions concerning the 
faith which arose in the Lutheran Church after the adoption 
of the Augsburg Confession. 

"The Board of Foreign Missions is hereby authorized, 
upon the approval of our suggestions by all the other Boards 
or a number of them, to proceed to the consideration of the 
further propositions of the All- India Lutheran Conference." 



If the Home Churches in America and Europe will do their 
full share of foreign mission work by sending a sufficient num- 
ber of missionaries and furnishing an adequate financial sup- 
port, the day cannot be far distant when the Lutheran Church 
in India, united, strong and vigorous, will stand in the front 
rank of the great army of the Lord Jesus Christ, righting 
with the spiritual armor and weapons which He furnishes, for 
the Christian conquest of India; and one of the largest and 
strongest divisions of the Lutheran part of this army should 
come from the field of the Telugu Mission of the General 
Council in the Godavery and Kistna districts of the Madras 
Presidency. 



INDEX 



AARON, too 

Aberly, J., 309 

Abraham, S., 288, 290 

Abrahamson, L. G., 325, 362, 383 

Achutaramayya, 344 

Addatigula, 288, 291 

Adigopula, 99, 109, 123 

Advent, Church of, N. Y., 385 

Agartipalem, 151, 178, 189, 203, 220 

Agraharam, 290 

Akron, O., 5 

Albert, L. E., 128 

Alexander, B., 303 

Alexander, Canon F. N., 130, 191 

All India Lutheran Conference, 387 

Allen town, Pa., 16 

Allowances, 347 

Amalapur, 178 

Amelia, M., 205 

American Baptists, 46 

American Bible Society, 56, 65 

Anandam, B., 311 

Anandappan, A., 356 

Anna, R., 178 

Annakoderu, 203, 290 

Annawaram, 290 

Appiah, 80 

Arbuthnot & Co., 56, 350, 358 

Aredu, 290 

Arjulapalem, 298 

Arps, R., 292, 302, 303, 309, 327, 328; 

first furlough, 334, 342, 343, 345, 374 
Artman, H. G. B., 198-200, 201, 204, 

209, 213, 216, 219, 220; dies, 222 
Askam, Wm. B., 76 
Augustana Foreign Mission Society 

(Rock Island), 374 

B 

BAEHNISCH, Paul, 292, 317 

Baker, J. C., 14, 16, 21, 35, 37, 67, 76, 



Ballapadu, 237 



Ballasamudi, 290 

Baptists. See Canadian Baptists. 

Bard, A. R., 383, 384 

Barlow, 51 

Barnabas, 80, 101, 103 

Bastar, 208 

Bauer, F. R., 241 

Baugher, H. L., 16 

Baugher, Isaac, 16, 56 

Bauman, Mrs. J. A., 271, 278 

Beates, Wm., 14, 16, 35 

Becker, C. F. J., 128, 135, 143; dies, 

144 

Beer, 46, 78 
Belfour, .,335 
Bender, L. P., 253 
Benze, C. T., 367 
Berger, J. 18, 

Bethlehem School and Church, 344 
Beussel, T. R., 378-9 
Bhimawaram, 157, 203, 252, 290, 

300-1, 365 

Bhimawaram Church, 284, 301 
Bible Society of Lebanon County, Pa., 

19 

Bible, Telugu, 166-7, iQ r 2 9 r 

Bible women, 319 

Bielinski, R., 330, 336, 383, 384 

Black, Wm., 122 

Blomgren, C. A., 314, 324, 336, 353 

Board incorporated, 382-3 

Bondada, 290 

Book Depot, 209, 361 

Borthwick, Miss M., 386 

Bothmann, H., 208, 220 

Bowden, 46 

Boys' Boarding School, 80, 99, 100, 
145, 178, 189, 204, 209, 216, 220, 
226, 235, 242-3, 250, 273, 276, 285- 
6, 287, 288, 304, 307-8, 311, 349, 365 

Boys' Schools, 65 

Braun, Wm. P. M., 357 

Bremer, J. A., 324 

Brenda, 38 

British Bible Society, 56, 65, 209 

Brobst, S. J., 14 



391 



392 INDEX 



Brobst, S. K., 137, 173 

Buckel, Gen., 51 

Buehler, Martin, 88 

Buffalo Luther Leagues, 347, 385 



CALEB, P., 227 

Canadian Baptists, 156, 162, 170, 171, 

173, 225, 283, 356 
Cape Girardeau, Mo., 31 
Carey, Wm., 191 
Carlisle, Pa., 29 
Carlson, A. B., 187-9, J 96, 201; died, 

204 

Cassaday, E. R., 280, 294, 334, 326 
Cassel, H. S., 324 
Caste Girls' Schools, 207, 215, 225, 233, 

235, 246, 275, 278, 310, 318, 344 
Catechisms (Telugu), 57, 99, 213. See 

Publications. 

Central Missionary Society, 13, 15, 32 
Chamberlain, J., 191 
Chambersburg, Pa., 16 
Charles, N., 311 
Charles, R., 286 
Cheraigudem, 290 
Chilukur, 290 
Chinnamiram, 290 
Chinsa Ramurdu, 101, 103 
Chittipet, 257 
Chodavaram, 290, 310 
Christine, 107 

Christmas Boxes, 246, 255, 295, 361 
Church Book (Telugu), 206, 375 
Church Missionary Society (Anglican), 

46, 130, 156, 171 
Coconada, 121, 126 
Combs, Md., 28 
Commissioners, 362, 367-8 
Conference, 189, 206, 210, 218-19, 

226, 242, 248, 255, 273, 296 
Cooper, C. J., 271 
Cordes, A., 272, 280, 294 
Cornelius, 165 

Cornell, P. J. O., 253, 289, 383 
Cotton, Sir Arthur, 84, 104, 248 
Cran, Mr., 45 
Cressman, B. F., 383, 384 
Cully, E. R., 123, 140 
Cumberland, Md., 27, 28 
Cutter, Wm. J., 89, 98, 102, 103 



DACHEPALLI, 79 
Dangler, 336, 347 



Darling, Mr., 82, 130 

Dawson, Mr., 45 

Day, Mr., 47 

Deck, J. P., 241 

Dederick, R., 76 

Demme, C. R., 14, 19, 21, 35, 76, 

"3 

Desgrange, Mr., 45 
Devadas, M., 286, 311 
Devalapilly, 66 
Devasikamani, 80 
Devipatnam, 164 
Diehl, Mrs. R. A., 255, 271 
Dietrich, F. S., 212, 216, 220, 226, 229, 

238, 240, 244, 248, 250-1, 254; dies, 

258-9 

Dirusumarru, 290 
Douglass, Mr., 46 
"Dove of Peace," 175 
Dowlaishwaram, 84, 96, 97, 124, 141, 

156, 178, 213, 220, 238, 240, 244, 

250-1, 254, 257,308,309 
Drach, George, 347, 353, 354, 37, 383 
Duff, J. Boyd, 335 
Dulla, 178 
Durachintapalem, 310 



EASTON, Pa., 14 

Eckardt, O. O., 351-2 

Edman, E., 261, 281, 290, 291, 303, 

312, 330, 343 
Eglund, M. J., 253 
Ellore, 48, 80, 86, 87, 95, 130 
Elofson, C., 289 
Elwin, E. B., 376 
Endlich, John, 173 
Endli:h,Miss E., 316 
Ennamaduru, 290 
Enoch, 103 
Erhard, Fr., 14 
Ernst, W. G., 88 
Esberhn, Miss S., 365 
Evald, C. A., 335 
Evans, Dr., 51 
Executive Committee, 342 
Ezra, loo 



FAMINE, 179-80 

Father Heyer Missionary Society, 201 

222 

Fell's Point, Md., 33 
Fever line, 291, 226 
Fichthorn, A. S., 340, 342, 348, 370 



INDEX 



393 



File, J. C., 182, 241 

Financial exhibits, 16, 19, 55, 56, 67, 
88, 89, 103, 107, 113, 127, 171, 172, 
181, 193, 200, 218, 221, 225, 239, 

279, 2 94, 3i4, 323, 385 
First Church, Pittsburgh, 88 
Fischer, Aug., 325 
Fischer, C. G., 211, 241, 264 
Fluck, J. F. C., 204, 324 
"Foreign Missionary, The," 193, 201, 

225, 254, 204, 337, 353, 368 
Foreign Missionary Society (G. S.), 

17, 18, 59, 60, 182 
Foss, C. W., 335, 367, 384 
Fox, Mr., 46 
Frank, H., 241 
Franzen, S. C., 369, 383 
Frederick, Md., 12 
Friedensburg, Pa., 28 
Frey, A. E., 182 
Frey, Wm. E., 362, 383 
Fry, E., 32 
Fry, J., 137, 173, 213, 370 



GABRIEL, K., 311 

Gadala, 310 

Garrakaparau, 290 

Gaskell, Robt., 383, 384 

Gebhart, G., 29 

Geissenhainer, A. T., 137, 173, 188 

Giessenhainer, F. W., 76, 206 

General Council: organized, 133; early 

mission efforts, 133-4 
General Secretary, 182, 247, 289, 323, 

340, 353 
General Synod: early history, 12, 13, 

IS 

George's Hill, 28 

German Foreign Missionary Society 
(G. S.): organized, 15; early oper- 
ations, 16-17 

Germany, Md., 28 

Gilbert, D., 16 

Girls' Central School, 310, 321, 343, 
364 

Girls' Schools, 54, 64, 77; in Rajah- 
mundry Mission, 98, 100, 109, 120, 
205, 220, 305 

Glades, Md. 28 

Gnananandam, B., 277 

Godavery District, 156-9 

Godavery gorge, 296-7 

Gokavaram, 178, 219, 290 

Gollalakoderu, 290 

Gollapalem, 302 



Gonegudem, 290, 310 

Gopalam, K. V., 286 

Gordon, Mr., 191 

Gorinta, 208, 245 

Gorlamudi, 236, 279, 301 

Gowripatnam, 141, 144, 178 

Graeff, J. E., 128 

Grahn, H., 173, 182, 187, 212, 231, 241, 

264, 324, 336, 383 
Greenville, Pa., 28 
Greenwald, E., 128, 173, 225 
Gribble, Mr., 163 
Grigg, Mr., 220 
Groenning, C. W., 77, 84-5, 86, 120, 

122, 123, 124, 125, 128, 139, 144, 

184, 243, 252 
Groenning, Wm., 226, 233, 234, 242, 

258; dies, 260-1 
Gudaparti, 208 

Guddigudem, 218, 219, 220, 230 
Guetzlaff, Carl, 13, 14 
Gunapudi, 290, 300 
Gunn, Walter, 58, 77, 78, 80; dies, 93 
Guntur, 48, 51, 63, 70 
Gurjal, 79, 80, 82, 99 
Gutlapad, 290 



HAAS, J. A. W., 335, 337, 353 

Haas lands, 276, 289, 312, 359 

Haeger, Ch., 14 

Haeger, E., 16 

Haesbert, J., 16, 35 

Hager, C., 35 

Hagerstown, Md., 14, 15, 29 

Hapler, J. 137 

Harpster, J. H., 309, 321, 338-40, 341, 
342, 345, 351, 356, 358, 365, 370-1, 
373-4 

Harrisburg, Pa., 19 

Hartwick Synod, 61, 88 

Hassler, J. W., 137, 173 

Haupt, Miss M., 380 

Hay, J., 191 

Hecht, J. P., 14 

Heckel, F. W., 14 

Heelis, J., 208, 257 

Heinitsch, J. F., 16, 35 

Heischmann, J. J., 314, 324, 336, 347 

Heise, A., 77, 78, 84, 85, 86, 102; fur- 
lough, no; in India, in, 120; 
resigns, 122, 145 

Heist, L., 325 

Hengerer, Wm., 335 

Henry, J., 137, 169, 235 

Hermannsburg Mission, 124, 138, 168 



394 



INDEX 



Heyer, C. F. (Father): chosen mis- 
sionary of Central Missionary So- 
ciety, 13; early life, 22-25; early 
ministry, 26-29; agent of Sunday 
School Union, 29-30; pastor at 
Somerset, Pa., 30; home missionary, 
30^32; in Pittsburgh, 31-33; ap- 
pointed as foreign missionary, 17, 19, 
33; first journey to India, 35-41; 
arrival in Guntur, 46-50; early 
labors in Guntur, 51-58; returns to 
United States, 69; first furlough, 72- 
74; returns to India, 74, 77; labors 
in Palnad, 79-82, 98, 99; in Rajah- 
mundry, 102-111; returns to United 
States, in; again home missionary, 
114-18, 132; hears of transfer of 
Rajahmundry Mission to Church 
Missionary Society, etc., 134; third 
journey to India, 137, 139-140; in 
Rajahmundry the last time, 144, 
146, 147, 150; returns to United 
States, 153-4; dies, 154-5. 165 

Heyer, C. F., Jr., 73 

Heyer, Mrs. C. F., 32 

Heyer, Theophilus, 73 

Hilprecht, H. V., 241, 294 

Hinterleiter, G. A., 113 

Hobbs, Mr., 39 

Hoffmann, J. N., 16 

Holler, P., 317, 318, 328 

Holmer, T., *86 

Horine, M. C., 294 

Horn, E. T., 335, 336, 362, 365, 383 

Horn, E. T., Jr., 380, 385 

Hospital, 375 

Hunter, Mrs. Mary, 273, 291 

Hutter, C. J., 14 

Hutway, Mr., 51 

Hymn book, 242 



ICELANDIC Synod, 385 

Industrial work, 311 

Iron Mountain, Mo., 31 

Isaac, A., 227 

Isaac, N., 211, 217 

Isaacson, H. E., 292, 303, 312, 322, 

328, 334, 337, 345, 348, 367, 374 
Isenschmidt, P., 165 
Itter, Conrad, 324, 336 



JACOB, 80, 103 
Jacob, V., 237, 250 



Jacobs, H. E., 336, 362, 383 

Jacobs, Mrs. H. E., 273, 313 

Jacobson, F., 383 

Jaggampetta, 121, 156, 178, 365 

Jagganathpuram, 151, 152, 162, 178, 
189, 203, 220 

Jaggareish, 123 

Jakkaram, 290 

James, C., 145, 165, 178, 206, 211, 213, 
226, 230, 242, 248, 286, 349 

Jegurupad, 141, 142, 144, 152, 178, 185, 
218, 221, 225, 229, 290 

Jembupatnam, 310 

Jeremiah, 144, 162, 164, 201 

Jewell, Mr., 46 

Jewett, Mr., 191 

John, 80 

John, B., 1 80 

John, J., 211, 217, 283 

John, Martin Luther, 103 

Joint Conference, 309 

Joint Theological Seminary, 388-9 

Joseph, 1 01 

Joseph, K., 219 

Joseph, Pastor T., 142, 145, 178; or- 
dained, 185-6, 189, 218, 225, 229, 
230, 250, 284, 313, 328 

Joseph, T. Samuel, 211 

Jubilee, 397-8 

Jugdalpur, 209 

Juggernaut, 214 



Kaehler, F. A., 385 
Kaehler, Mrs. F. A., 321 
Kamarada, 290 
Kanzamur, 299 
Katchalur, 164 
Kateru, 310 
Kaufmann, L. W., 335 
Keiser, J. R., 76 
Keller, F. A. M., 113 
Keller, M., 14 
Kinerapur, 299 
Kohler, J., 137 
Kohlhoff, 40 
Kois, 163 
Kolacotta, 99, 109 
Kolamur, 290 
Kondamodalu, 169 
Kondapudi, 283 
Konitalapalli, 290 
Konitivada, 298 
Kopella, 290, 302 
Korapad, 290 






INDEX 



395 



Korukonda, 156, 170, 178, 217, 230, 

237, 257, 365 
Kotagiri, 258, 320, 324 
Kotalingam, 52 
Kotlamur, 100, 208 
Kottapetta, 53 
Kottapilli, 165 
Kovur, 218, 257 
Kovvada, 290 

Krauth, C. Philip, 15, 16, 17, 18, 28 
Kremmer, C. F., 166, 168 
Krotel, G. F., 272 
Kuder, C. F., 278, 286, 290, 304, 307, 

3(39, 327-8, 356, 363, 366-7, 375 
Kuendig, J. J., 137, 173 
Kugler, Dr. Anna S., 309 
Kummadavelli, 203, 290 
Kunkleman, J. A., 182 
Kurtz, Benj., 28, 62 



Lace, 184-5, 3n, 359-6* 

Laird, S., 193, 212, 222 

Laird, Mrs. S., 273 

Lancaster, Pa., 14 

Land endowment, 177 

Lankapuram, 276 

Larson, O. L., 351, 365 

Lauer, F., 137, 173 

Lavel, S., 103 

Lazarus, M., 299 

Lee, Mr., 45 

Lehmanowsky, Mr., 31 

Leipsic Mission, 235 

Lewis, Mr., 191 

Lilja, B., 211 

Lintner, G. A., 18, 61, 92, 113, 128 

Lochmann, Mr., 36 

Lolla, 178, 189 

London Missionary Society, 45 

Long, A., 112, 119, 120, 121, 122; dies, 

126 
Lydia, 107 

M 

MACHERLA, 82, 99, 209 

Madagascar, 38 

Madras, 40 

Madura, 40 

Mahadevipatnam, 189, 193, 202, 290 

Mallaishwaram, 220 

Mallipudi, 174, 189, 298 

Mandada, 123 

Mann, Wm. J., 113, 250 

Mantur, 164 



March, Geo. W., 324 

Marie, 107 

Martin, Chas., 76 

Martz, G. W., 80, 87 

Masulipatam, 62 

Matthew, 80 

Matthews, G. B., 330 

Mattes, H. L., 173 

Mayer, Dr., 55, 76, 88 

Meadville, Pa., 26, 27 

Mechanicsburg, Pa., 13 

McCready, F. J., 223, 227, 229, 236, 

238, 244, 251, 257, 269, 284, 290, 

302, 311, 321,327 
McCron, D. J., 32, 76 
Mechling, G. W., 335 
Medical work, 305, 321, 337-8, 347, 

349, 350, 375-7 
Medtart, J., 14 
Mennig, Mr., 88, 113 
Mertz, G. W., 14 
Metcalf, E. P., 236 
Metta, 141, 152, 162, 178, 213 
Meyer, Val. L., 234, 243 
Miller, C., 14, 19 
Miller, C. Armand, 384 
Miller, N. S., 16, 19, 35 
Miller, J. Wash., 241, 294, 324 
Ministerium Missionary Society, 14, 

15, 19-21, 59-60, 87 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 12, 14, 

136, 137, 171, 173 
Mission Council, 249, 255, 273 
Missionsblatt, 182, 183 
Missionsbote, 185, 187, 201, 211, 225, 

254, 263-4, 294, 337 
Mohammedan Schools, 220, 221, 233, 

235, 245, 251, 255, 275, 278-9, 304, 

310 
Monroe, Miss S. E., 198, 340, 343, 

364 
Monroe, W. F., 280, 294, 336, 347, 

384 

Moonakodavelli, 282 
Moparti, 100 

Morris, Henry, 124, 126, 144, 152 
Morris, J. G., 36, 59, 62 
Moses, P., 219 
Mueller, E. H., 317-18, 327 
Mueller, Mr., 16, 19, 39 
Muhlenberg, F. A., 137 
Muhlenberg, H. H., 137, 173 
Muhlenberg, Henry Melchior, n, 87 
Muramunda, 97, 124, 141, 142, 146, 

152, 178, 185, 189, 250, 303 
Mutakuru, 123 
Mylius, Aug., 125 



396 



INDEX 



NAGEL, Mr., 86 
Nallakonda, 310 
Nallapadu, 53 
Nandamur, 218, 230 
Narasimhapalem, 290 
Narsapur, 46, 78, 151, 157, 162 
Nellore, 46-7-8 
Nelsenius, G., 294, 353 
Neudoerffer, A. F. A., 374, 381-2 
Neudoerffer, E., 330, 337, 338, 345, 

3Si, 365, 374 
Neumann, R., 128, 134 
Nevalikanner, 100 
Newill, Mr., 51, 52, 78, 109 
New York Synod, 88 
Nicodemus, 77 
Niedecker, E., 324 
Nilsson, Dr. Betty A., 350, 364 
Nizam's kingdom, 174 
Noble, Mr., 46 
North German Missionary Society, 

83 86, 90 
Norton, C. F., 172 
Noxendorf, Mrs E. V., 268 



OCHS, Mr., 65 

Ockershausen, G. P., 128 

Oettinger, Albert, 324, 336 

O'Neil, Capt., 51 

Ongole, 48 

Opp, C. B., 325, 347 

Organization in India, 248, 265-8 



PALAMCOTTA, 16, 39 

Palkole, 86, 203, 220 

Palnad, 78, 79, 98-9 

Pamperrien, K., 307 

Paradesi, P., 375 

Paradesi, Raya, 178 

Parravalli, 152 

Passavant, Wm. A., 88, 114 

Paulus, Pastor N., 80, 142, 145-6, 164, 
178; ordained, 185-6, 189, 211, 218, 
224, 229, 230, 237, 313; dies, 325-6 

Peddahem, 141, 178, 213, 220, 230 

Peddamiram, 290, 302 

Peddapur, 121, 152, 169, 208 

Peddapur High School, 312, 342, 359, 

367 

Peeru, 103 
Peixotto, E., 14 



Penakalametta, 220 

Pennagonda, 220 

Pentapad, 316 

Peravaram, 141, 178, 189 

Peter, too 

Peter, 180 

Petri, C. J., 193 

Pfatteicher, Mrs. E., 271 

Pillutla, 109, 123 

Pittapur, 121, 291 

Pittsburgh, 31 

Pittsburgh Synod, 88, 253 

Pluetschau, n, 40, 354 

Plymouth Brethren, 156, 257 

Pohl, E., 208, 220, 262-3, 273, 276-7, 
285-6, 292, 298, 303, 309, 310, 314, 
315-17, 328 

Pohle, E. J., 253, 324 

Pohlmann, H. N., 18, 60, 76, 91, 128 

Polavaram, 213, 219 

Polepalli, 79, 80, 82, 99, 123 

Pondicherry, 40 

Porter, Mr., 49 

Potteiger, Mr., 173 

Poulsen, I. K., 152-3, 162, 163, 166, 
169, 174, 178, 185; furlough, 192, 
196; returns to India, 208, 218, 223, 
226, 227, 229, 230, 238, 240, 242, 
244; retires and dies, 249 

Prakasam, N., 164, 219 

Prattipadu, 53 

Pretz, C., 137 

Pritchett, Mr., 45 

Printery, 236, 257, 357 

Probst, Miss C., 273 

Publications, 255, 278, 357 

Purushottapatnam, 164, 219 



RAGAMPET, 208, 235 
Rahitapuram, 283 
Rajagopalem, 208 
Rajahmundry, 77, 83, 90, 96 
Rajahmundry (under General Coun- 
cil), 141, 168, 178, 195, 221, 229 
Rajanagaram, 178 
"Rama dandu," 224 
Rampa, 288, 290, 310 
Rampa Fund, 227, 242, 288 
Ramsay, Gov., 115 
Rangoon, 356 
Ranseen, M. C., 369 
Rapaka, 283 
Rath, Wm., 137 
Rebecca, 78 
Reck, A., 28 



INDEX 



397 



Reddis, 163 

Reformation, Church of, Rochester, 

N. Y., 385 

Reichert, G. A., 16, 76, 113 
Rettivardu, 80 
Rhenius, 14, 15, 16, 39 
Richards, J. W., 15, 87, 88, 113 
Riter, F. M., 383, 384 
Riverdale, 197, 201 
Rohillas, 209 

Rohrer, Dr. Amy B., 350, 368, 374 
Romig, I. G., 335 
Rules and Regulations, 219, 225, 248, 

326-7, 339-40, 362, 369 
Ruth, 58, 107, 1 20, 166 
Ruthrauff, F., 14 
Ruthrauff, Miss E., 75 
Rydberg, P. A., 347 



S 



SADTLER, Miss K. S., 269, 271, 278, 
304, 309, 318, 321, 322 

Sagapadu, 290 

Sahm, J., 14 

Salary scale, 263 

Salem Church, Lebanon, Pa., 74, 88 

Salur, 209, 221 

Samuel, 80 

Samuel, A., 219 

Samuel, R., 311 

Samulkot, 121, 122, 126, 178, 208, 218, 
219, 222, 223, 229, 235, 238, 240, 
250, 260, 374 

Satur, 39 

Schade, Miss A. I., 268-9, 271, 2 ?8, 
304, 309, 310, 322, 334, 343-4, 364, 
374 

Schaefer, F. W., 374, 379-80 

Schaeffer, C. W., 14, 74, 137, 173, 200, 
289, 294, 324 

Schaeffer, Wm. Ashmead, 193, 200, 
211, 253, 294, 323, 324, 336, 358-9 

Schantz, F. J. F., 137, 173 

Schmauk, B. W., 137, 173 

Schmauk, T. E., 381 

Schmidt, Fr., 16, 35 

Schmidt, H. C., 128, 135, 147-9, J 62, 
167, 168, 175, 178, 191, 197; first 
furlough, 214, 225, 228-9, 236, 239, 
242, 243, 248, 256, 257, 275, 281-3, 
288-9, 290, 291; second furlough, 
302, 308, 312, 314, 328; recalled, 
335, 337, 34S-6, dies, 372-3 

Schmucker, B. M., 137, 173, 182, 193, 
223, 252-3 



Schmucker, S. S., 16, 19 

Scholl, Wm. N., 76, 91 

Schultze, Dr., 45 

Schwartz, C. F., 39, 40 

Schwartz, Mr., 65 

Scudder, Dr., 81 

Seesali, 290 

Seiple, Dr. S. C., 336, 369, 383 

Self-support, 187, 207, 211, 226, 244 

Senderling, J. Z., 60, 76, 91, 113, 128 

Sharkey, Rev., 82 

Sibole, E. E., 231, 294, 324, 336, 353 

368 

Sibole, J. L., 280, 324, 330 
Sibole, Mrs. J. L., 273 
Simeon, 100 
Sipes, H. H., 386 . 
Sitanagram, 282 
Slaett, C. E., 336 
Smith, C. A., 325 
Smith, Chas. A., 76, 91 
Smith, Dr., 51 

Snyder, Jas. M., 335, 336, 362, 383 
Snyder, Wm. E., 92, 102, 103, 107, 120; 

dies, 1 20, 145 

Somerset, Pa., 28, 31, 114, 117 
Solomonson, C., 384 
Spaeth, A., 149, 154, 182, 187, 212, 

272, 278, 289 
Spieker, G. F., 173 
Sprecher, S., 16, 19 
Sringaram, 220 

Sriramulu, V., 227, 249, 256, 356 
Srirangapatam, 257, 310 
Srungavruksham, 290, 300 
Staake, Wm. H., 182, 294, 323, 324-5, 

336 
Statistics, 66, 102, 103, 163, 179, 192, 

200, 221, 225, 230, 239, 250, 275, 

288, 291, 314, 336, 355, 386 
Stephen, 77, 78, 100 
Stoever, Miss S. M., 64 
Stohlmann, C. F. E., 76, 88 
Stokes, H., 48, 51, 52, 55, 62, 65, 74 

75, 79, 8,2, 101, 104, 244 
Stork, T., 64, 76 
Stoystown, 28 
S track, Chr., 14 

Strempfer, Miss M., 319, 331, 343 
Stroebel, W. D., 76, 80, 91 
St. James', N. Y., 76 
St. Johannis' Church, Philadelphia, 

Pa., 149, 292 
St. Johannis' Church, Reading, Pa. , 

3i3 

St. John's, Allentown, Pa., 278, 385 
St. John's, Baltimore, Md., 72 



INDEX 



St. John's, Easton, Pa., 88, 113 

St. John's, Philadelphia, Pa., 16, 19, 

36, S3, 55, 76, 88, 225, 272, 344 
St. Luke's, Philadelphia, Pa., 292 
St. Mark's, Philadelphia, Pa., 198, 

222, 225, 344 
St. Matthew's, Philadelphia, Pa., 64, 

76 
St. Michael's, Philadelphia, Pa., 15, 

88, 113, 214 

St. Paul's, Rajahmundry, 184, 230 
St. Peter's, Tallapudi, 251, 254, 255, 

273, 284 

Subbarayudu, V., 213, 216, 250 
Sultan of Muscat, 38 
Sunday School Union, 29 
Swamp Church, Pa., 113 
Swedish District Secretary, 384 
Swedish Emmanuel Church, Chicago, 

279, 363 
Swedish Lutheran Church, St. Paul, 

Minn., 385 
Swenson, Miss C., 313-14, 310-20, 

321,322, 331,349-5 
Synod in India, 100, 101, 102 
Synod of South Carolina, 36, 64 



TADEPAIXIGUDEM, 156, 291, 314, 315, 

317, 345, 365 
Taderu, 203, 302 
Tallapudi, 156, 213, 218, 220, 221, 227, 

229, 230, 244, 289, 345, 365 
Tanjore, 40 
Taralla, 123 
Tatge, Miss A., 380 
Taylor, Capt., in, 112, 124, 126, 151, 

166, 228 

Taylor's petta, 144, 151, 152 
Telleen, J., 289, 323, 340 
Telugu: country, 42-45; examination, 

293-4; language, 159-61 
Thompson, Mr., 40 
Timothy, N., 219 
Tinnevelly, 19 
Todd, Capt., 121 
Trabert, G. H., 278 
Trafford, E. H., 347 
Training School for Masters, 367 
Tranquebar, 40 
Trexler, H., 137, 173 
Trichinopoly, 40 

Trinity Church, Buffalo, N. Y., 385 
Trinity Church, Kutztown, Pa., 113 
Trinity Church, Lancaster, Pa., 88, 

225, 236, 380-1 



Trinity Church, New York, 279 
Trinity Church, Pottsville, Pa., 88, 113 
Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., 113, 

i 20, 385 
Tumurucotta, 80 
Tuticorin, 39 
Tutigunta, 230 



UHL, L. L., 309 

Uhl's, Md., 28 

Unangst, E., 112, 119, 120, 126, 129, 

130, 39 
Undi, 290 
Ungalur, 164 
Unikili, 298-9 



VAIMPAD, 301 

Valett, 64, 65, 77, 83, 84, 95 

Vanderslice, Mrs. H. M., 273 

Van der Veer, Dr. Julia, 350-1 

Vandra, 236, 299-300 

Vangalapudi, 283 

Van Husen, 47 

Van Somering, 56 

Van Stavern, T., 213, 222, 240 

Veit, F., 324 

Veldurti, 80, 82, 86, 99, 123 

Velpur, 151, 178, 203, 218, 220, 222, 

224, 229, 298 
Venkataratnam, P., 180, 189, 207, 215, 

230, 241, 275, 327, 338, 342 
Vissakoderu, 236, 290, 300 
Vodali, 203, 220 

W 

WACKERNAGEL, F. W., 341, 349, 363 

Wagner, M. L., 335 

Wahlberg, Miss H., 340 

Walker, Mr., 54, 55 

Walter, Judge, 51 

Walz, F., 173 

Wedekind, Mr., 128 

Weidner, R. F., 211 

Weiskotten, F. W., 211, 263, 324, 330, 

332, 333 
Weiskotten, Miss E. L., 331, 343, 344, 

356 

Wellersville, Pa., 28 
Werner, O. V., 374, 379 
West Pennsylvania Synod, 13, 29 
Weyl, J. A., 353, 384 
Weyman, G., 31 



INDEX 



399 



Weyman, Miss H., 99, 109 

Widows, 44 

Widows' Fund, 249 

William, J., 145, 165, 178, 206, 213, 
220, 220, 254, 327-8 

William, M., 180, 286, 311 

Wischan, F., 182, 187, 231, 263 

Witting, I. F., 386 

Woerner, Dr. Lydia, 321, 337, 347, 
35, 356, 3?6, 386 

Wolf, L. B., 309, 370 

Wolters, K. L., 347, 365 

Women's work, 267-8, 269-71 

Women's Societies, 15, 273, 278, 279- 
80, 295, 305-6, 321; federation, 
377-8; of Augustana Synod, 385; 
of New York and New England 
Synod, 385; of Pittsburgh Synod, 

385 

Wood, Judge, 51 
Wynekin, Mr., 83 



YAIMIGALOGUDEM, 164 
Yeager, N., 113 
Yellaishwaram, 227 
Yellavaram, 288 
York, Pa., 13 
Yough, Md., 28 
Young, Miss L., 75 
Youngert, S. G., 384 



ZACCHEUS, 123 
Zanzibar, 38 
Zenana Home, 281, 318 
Zenana work, 205, 304 
Zieber, Philip S., 336 
Ziegenbalg, 11,4, 354 
Ziegenfuss, S. A., 294, 324, 325, 330 
Zion's Church, Philadelphia, Pa., 88 
"3 



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