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Full text of "Tennessee historical magazine"

BINDING LIST 



1928 




TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 









Published under the Authority of 





The Tennessee Historical Society 




VOLUME V. 

Nashville 
1919 




<f 



THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



1849 
INCORPORATED 1878 



OFFICERS 



President, 
JOHN H. DEWITT. 

V ice-Presidents, 

E. T. SANFORD, 

PARK MARSHALL, 

J. P. YOUNG, 
MRS. B. D. BELL. 

Recording Secretary and Treasurer, 
J. TYREE FAIN. 



Assistant Recording Secretary, 
HALLUIM W. GOODLOE. 

Corresponding Secretary 
W. A. PROVINE. 



FORM OF LEGACY 



"/ give and bequeath tat The Tennessee Historical Society 
the sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V. 

NUMBER 1. APRIL, 1919. 

PAGE 

FOREWORD 3 

HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE WITHIN THE LIMITS OF 

TENNESSEE 5 

Sam'l C. Williams. 

SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY'S "ANNALS" AND OTHER 

HISTORIANS 28 

J. Tyree Fain. 

LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION: How NASHVILLE RECEIVED THE NEWS 38 
William H. Gay. 

BEDFORD'S TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO AND MIS- 
SISSIPPI RIVERS 40 

W. A. Provine. 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 70 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 71 



NUMBER 2. JULY, 1919. 

PAGE 

PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG 75 

Hon. Robert Ewing. 

BATTLE OF SHILOH 81 

Rev. T. M. Hurst. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES UPON SOUTHERN ESTATES An 

Echo of Slave Days in the Southland 95 

DeBow's Industrial Resources of the Southwest. 

BEDFORD'S TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO AND Mis- 

SISSIPPS RIVERS. (Concluded) 105 

W. A. Provine. 

AN EPISODE IN THE BOYHOOD OF GENERAL FORREST 131 

Document. 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 133 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 135 



NUMBER 3. OCTOBER, 1919. 

PAGE 

IN MEMORIAM COL. GEORGE C. PORTER 137 

Nashville Banner. 

AN EARLY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY AT NASHVILLE IN 1829 142 

Document. 

COL. JOHN MONTGOMERY 145 

Hon. A. V. Goodpasture. 

THE FIRST LAUREL OF JEFFERSON DAVIS 151 

Mrs. J. H. Kenzie. 

THE BATTLE OF FORT DONELSON 152 

Report of by Gen. John B. Floyd, 1862 

JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 156 

John H. DeWitt. 

A DAVIDSON POLITICAL CIRCULAR, 1843 195 

Document. 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 197 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 198 

NUMBER 4. JANUARY, 1920. 

PAGE 

TENNESSEE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCESTRY 201 

Blanche Bentley. 

"THE CONQUEST OF THE OLD SOUTHWEST" 212 

Sam'l C. Williams. 

SOME EARLY ARCHEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TENNESSEE 216 

W. A. Provine. 

WHY THE FIRST SETTLERS OF TENNESSEE WPRE FROM VIRGINIA. . . 229 

A. V. Goodpasture. 
JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER. (Continued) 232 

John H. DeWitt. 

HISTORICAL NEWS AND NOTES 267 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 268 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 



JOHN H. DEWITT, Business Manager, 
Stahlman Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

DR. WILLIAM A. PROVINE, Editor. 
Presbyterian Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

J. TYREE FAIN, Treasurer, 
Watkins Hall, Nashville, Tenn. 



THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



FOUNDED 1840 
INCORPORATED 187S 



OFFICERS 



President, 
JOHN H. DEWITT. 

Vice-Presidents, 

E. T. SANFORD, 

PARK MARSHALL 

J. P. YOUNG. 
MRS. B. D. BELL 

Recording Secretary, 
J. TYREE FAIN. 

Assistant Recording Secretary, 
HALLUM W. GOODLOE, 

Corresponding Secretary, 
W. A. PRO VINE 

Treasurer and Financial Agent, 
COL. GEORGE C. PORTER 



FORM OF LEGACY 

"I' give and bequeath to The Tennessee Historical Society 
the sum of dollars." 



1 



V 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

FOREWORD 3 

HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE WITHIN THE LIMITS OF 
TENNESSEE. Sam'l C. Williams 5 

SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY'S "ANNALS" AND OTHER 
HISTORIANS. J. Tyree Fain 23 

LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION: How NASHVILLE RECEIVED THE NEWS. 
William H. Gay 38 

A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI 
RIVERS. J. R. Bedford 40 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 70 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 71 



Committee on Publications 

JOHN H. DEWITT, Chairman. 

J. TYREE FAIN W. A. PROVINE 

Editor of Magazine 

DR. W. A. PROVINE, 

Corresponding Secretary of Tennessee Historical Society. 

Business Manager 

JOHN H. DEWITT, 

Stahlman Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

Neither the Society nor the Editor assumes responsibility for the 
statements or the opinions of contributors. 



TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. 5 APRIL, 1919 No. 1 

FOREWORD 

In presenting the first number of this magazine to the pub- 
lic March, 1915, the able editor, Dr. St. George L. Sioussat, 
announced in a foreword the ideals of the Tennessee Historical 
Society in its venture of publishing a quarterly magazine. 
After making mention of the excellent publication formerly 
issued by Messrs. Garrett and Goodpasture the American 
Historical Magazine the aspiration and plan of its successor 
was set forth as follows: 

The purpose of the magazine will be that common to its prede- 
cessor in Tennessee and to the many similar journals of other states. 
It is designed, first, to transfer to permanent form as much as pos- 
sible of that manuscript material, so liable to destruction, upon which 
the historian must ever place his first dependence; secondly, to afford 
a means of publication of papers and articles of an historic nature, 
and, thirdly, to be a medium for the publication of news as to all 
the historical activities of individuals or associations in the state. 

How successfully the discerning judgment of the editor car- 
ried out these ideals is abundantly shown in the three volumes 
of the magazine that were issued in 1915, 1916 and 1917. At 
that date it is known that the society lost, as a local member, 
the talented editor by his removal to the chair of Americans 
History in Brown University, and in addition the absorbing: 
problem of the world war was upon us, adding to everyone ad- 
ditional and immediate responsibilities. Under the circum- 
stances, in keeping with the policy adopted by many other simi- 
lar journals, the magazine was issued occasionally as the local 
committee had opportunity to give attention to its publication. 
Thus as to date of issue we have been some months behind in 
the calendar, the December number for 1918 having been issued 
at the beginning of the summer of 1919. 

As to the future of the magazine, the action of the society 
at its May meeting, 1919, will explain : 



4 FOREWORD 

"The following were elected as a publishing committee of the 
TENNESSEE HISTORICAL MAGAZINE: Dr. W. A. Provine, Editor; Hon. 
J. H. DeWitt, Manager; J. Tyree Fain, Assistant." 

It is unnecessary to say that the newly appointed editor is 
in thorough sympathy with the original ideals for the magazine 
along which lines it has been issued during these four years, 
and it will be his endeavor to so continue it, with such added 
features as may be deemed appropriate. It is very much de- 
sired that the cordial co-operation vouchsafed in the past will 
be continued and that the cause of State, and Southern history 
in general, will be promoted by succeeding volumes. We an- 
nounced with satisfaction that many valuable contributions 
are either on hand, or promised, for future numbers, and it is 
hoped that promptness shall characterize their issuance. In 
this connection it may be said that it has been decided to 
change the dates of issuance to correspond with those com- 
monly observed by similar quarterly journals, viz: To Jan- 
uary, April, July and October, this number being denominated 
Vol. V, No. 1, April, 1919. EDITOR. 






HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE WITH- 
IN THE LIMITS OF TENNESSEE 

The significance of the treaty of purchase negotiated at 
Sycamore Shoals of Watauga River, about six miles from 
Johnson City, Tennessee, on March 17, 1775, by Richard Hen- 
derson and his associates with the Cherokee Indians has been 
treated of in a fairly adequate manner by the historians of 
Kentucky. The acquisition by means of this treaty of the 
title of the Cherokees to lands south of the Kentucky River 
and the formation and fate of Henderson's Transylvania col- 
ony in the Kentucky country have been given weight as fac- 
tors in the opening of Kentucky to the westward expansion 
of civilization. For some reason, not easy of explanation, those 
who have written the history of Tennessee have overlooked 
or ignored the significance of the purchases of Cherokee lands 
that lie within the present limits of Tennessee, and of Rich- 
ard Henderson's part in the efforts to open up and develop 
them. 

For many years prior to the Revolutionary War there were 
many and repeated efforts on the part of leading and enter- 
prising men of the Atlantic seaboard to acquire lands and 
effect colonizations west of the Alleghanies. As early as 1747 
a number of the most prominent men of Virginia formed the 
Ohio Company to which two years later was granted a do- 
main of 500,000 acres to which Christopher Gist was sent as 
locating agent from his home on Yadkin River in North Caro- 
lina. About the same time the Loyal Land Company of Vir- 
ginia was organized and it received a royal grant of 800.000 
acres of land. Dr. Thomas Walker, who later came in contact 
with Richardson Henderson in the survey of the Virginia- 
North Carolina state line west of the mountains, was sent 
to explore the lands of the company. 

Encouraged by the apparent ease with which these two 
companies secured such extensive grants, many other schemes 
were set on foot for westward expansion and colonization. One 
of these was the plan projected by Samuel Hazard, a mer- 
chant of Philadelphia, in 1754-5 to procure "a Grant of so 
much land as shall be necessary for the Settlement of an ample 
colony . . . to be divided from Virginia and Carolina by 
the Great Chain of Mountains that run along the Continent 
from the North Eastern to the South Western Parts of Amer- 
ica." 1 

a Alden's Governments West of the Alleghanies, p. 2. 



6 SAMlKJ. C. WILLIAMS 

Following the termination of the war between the British 
and French in favor of the former, to the British Ministry 
fell the task of formulating policies respecting the trans- Al- 
legheny territory. As the result of the cabinet's considera- 
tion, on October 7, 1763, King George III issued a proclama- 
tion declaring that the lands west of the mountains were re- 
served "for the present" for the hunting grounds and homes 
of the Indian tribes. This proclamation for awhile was a 
deterring influence, although it fell short of being an abso- 
lute prohibition of white settlements in that settlements were 
only forbidden when made "without our special leave and li- 
cense for that purpose first obtained." One of the chief pur- 
poses of the proclamation was the quieting of the fears of the 
several tribes that the advance of the whites would displace 
them. 8 

The hopes of promoters revived when in 1768 Sir "NVil- 
liam Johnson in the treaty of Ft. Stanwix purchased of the 
Six Nation of Indians a large domain claimed by the Chero- 
kees. This purchase was made under authority of the British 
government and the act was susceptible to the construction 
that the door was open for the westward advance of settlers 
provided the Indians could be satisfied in respect of their 
claims to the soil. 

It seems quite certain that Richard Henderson from Gist, 
directly or through Boone, a neighbor of Gist on the Yadkin, 
had learned of the Ohio Company and of Hazard's scheme: 
and in regard to the influence the treaty of Ft. Stanwix had 
on him Archibald Henderson says : 

"In the Virginia Gazette of December 1, 1768, a newspaper 
in which he advertised, Henderson must have read with aston- 
ishment, not unmixed with dismay, that the 'Six Nations and 
all their tributaries have granted a vast extent of country 
to his majesty, and the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, and 
settled an advantageous boundary line between their hunting 
country and this, and the other colonies to the southward as 
far as the Cherokee river, for which they received the most 
valuable present in goods and dollars that was ever given 
at any conference since the settlement of America. It was 
now generally bruited about the colony of North Carolina 
that the Cherokees were deeply resentful because the North 
ern Indians at the treaty of Fort Stanwix had been hand- 
somely remunerated for territory which they, the Cherokees. 
claimed from time immemorial. Henderson, who had consulted 
often with Boone and reflected deeply over the subject, fore- 

*/&., p. 14. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE. 7 

saw that the western lands, though ostensibly thrown open 
for settlement under the aegis of Virginia, could only be legally 
obtained by extinguishing the Cherokee title." 3 

The House of Burgesses of Virginia, seeing the advantages 
offered by the situation, addressed a memorial to Governor 
Botetourt praying that the southern line of the colony be ex- 
tended due west to the river Ohio, which it was then thought 
would be reached instead of either the Tennessee (Cherokee) 
or Mississippi rivers. 

John Stuart, the Southern Superintendent of Indian af- 
fairs, wrote a letter of protest to Governor Botetourt 4 and 
also filed with the House of Burgesses (December, 1769) a 
formal protest, in which he urged: 

"It is not necessary for me to observe on the claim derived 
from Sir William Johnson's purchase of the Cherokee lands 
from the Northern Tribes, but I humbly conceive it to be 
his Majesty's intentions by ordering the line from Holston's 
River to the mouth of Great Kanhaway to be run and marked 
to prevent the settlement of Lands to the westward of it; 
which although a very fine country is absolutely necessary 
for the Cherokees and Chickesaws as Hunters. Individuals 
would reap great advantages by the establishment of the Line 
proposed by the House of Burgesses but the Cherokees and 
Chickesaws would be distress, and all the Indian Nations on 
the continent would be alarmed by such an Extension of Ter- 
ritory. I humbly submit it as my opinion that the commerce 
of the mother country would not be encreased by the settle- 
ment of the Cherokee Hunting Grounds for those Indian* 
would lose their Deer with their Land. . . . 

"I humbly confess that I can not see how the Incursions 
of the Western or Northern Tribes can be prevented by set- 
tling the Lands on the lower Parts of the Ohio and Cherokee 
Rivers, their Road to the interior parts of Virginia and other 
settlements on the upper part of the Ohio can not be through 
that Country. . . . There is nothing more certain than 
that the Cherokees have and still do claim the Lands between 
the Kanhaway and the Cherokee river, and I am convinced 
they never will relinquish their claims to the extent of the 
wishes of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, and I humbly 
conceive it does not follow as a certain consequence that his 
Majesty's true Interests are to suffer by the total loss of this 

'Forces in American Expansion, 20 Am. Hist. Review, p. 86. 

Mackson's John Stuart, 3 Tenn. Hist. Magazine, p. 183, summarizes 
their letter from Journal of House of Burgesses 1770-72 (January 13, 
1770). 



8 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

country because Adventurers from Virginia are not immediate- 
ly put in possession of it. 

"I can with some degree of certainty affirm that none of 
his Majesty's subjects were settled to the Westward of the 
Point where the division line of Virginia and North Carolina 
intersects Holston's River in 1763 when his Majesty's Procla- 
mation was published. Whatever Warrants have been obtained 
since that Period to settle those Lauds must be irregular and 
expressly contrary to said Proclamation. I will further ven- 
ture to affirm that all the settlements to the Westward of 
Samuel Harnacres which is 50 miles to the east of said point 
have been made since Sir William Johnson's purchase of Fort 
Stanwix. . . ." 6 

Stuart was in position to know the claims of the southern 
Indian tribes, and his memorial may be taken to be strong 
corroboration of the insistence of the Cherokees and Chicka- 
saws from the standpoint of a British official. 

Another attempt at the colonization of the western coun- 
try which evidently influenced Henderson directly was that 
of the promoters of the Vandalia Colony, Benjamin Franklin, 
John Sargent and Samuel Wharton, of Pennsylvania being the 
leaders. The activities of these men began in 1769, following 
the treaty at Ft. Stanwix, and were on the point of succeed- 
ing in 1773. The American newspapers printed much about 
this colony in 1773-4. 6 That the scheme and the boundaries 
of Benjamin Franklin's Vandalia were known to Henderson 
and associates is made clear by the fact that the northeastern 
boundary of Henderson's Path Deed was made the southwest- 
ern boundary of Vandalia, the purpose manifestly being to 
have the two adjoin. 7 

The treaty of Sycamore Shoals effected the execution of 
two deeds on the part of the Cherokee chiefs, led by Oconostata 
and Attacullaculla to Richard Henderson and his eight asso- 
ciates. One of these deeds, commonly known thereafter as the 
"Path Deed," conveyed the following boundary: "Beginning 
on the Holstou river, where the course of Powell's mountain 
strikes the same; thence up the river to the crossing of the 
Virginia line; thence westerly (easterly?) along the line run 
by Donelson to a point six (6) English miles east of Long 
Island of Holston river; thence a direct course toward the 
mouth of the Great Kanawha until it reaches the top of the 

B Mss. Division N. Y. Public Library. 

'Alden's Governments West of the Alleghanies, p. 28. 

76., p. 54. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 9 

ridge on Powell's mountain; thence westerly along said ridge 
to the beginning." 

Two errors on the part of the draftsman of this deed ap- 
pear. Powell's mountain lies between Powell's and Clinch riv- 
ers, and does not touch the Holston. The first reference to 
'Powell's mountain" should be Clinch mountain, which does 
strike or nearly close in on Holston river about the mouth of 
Cloud's creek near Rogersville. Another error was in assuming 
that the Virginia line was farther south than after-surveys 
showed it to be. The uortherinost point in this deed is about 
ten (10) miles easterly from Wise C. H., Virginia. 

The second deed from the Cherokees to Henderson and 
his associates covered a far vaster territory and was well 
called the "Great Grant." Its calls were: "Beginning at the 
Ohio river at the mouth of Kentucky, Cherokee, or what, by 
the English, is called Louisa river; thence up said river and 
the most northerly fork of the same to the head spring thereof; 
thence a southeast course to the ridge of Powell's mountain; 
thence westwardly along the ridge of said mountain to a point 
from which a northwest course will strike the headspring 
of the most southwardly branch of Cumberland river; thence 
down said river, including all its waters, to the Ohio river; 
thence up said river as it meanders to the beginning." 8 

This deed covered that immense area that lies between 
the Kentucky and Cumberland rivers. The boundaries of the 
"Path Deed" and the ''Great Grant" adjoin, and conjointly 
they cover a principality as rich in material resources as can 
be found in America in equal limits. The calls of these two 
deeds included the rich coal fields of Wise and Lee counties, 
Virginia; the equally valuable eastern Kentucky coal fields, 
as well as oil fields all then undreamed of; timber belts 
beyond one's power to estimate, not to mention the agricul- 
tural possibilities (which Henderson did properly estimate 
from Daniel Boone's glowing descriptions of the region). Hen- 
derson visioned a Transylvania. Were he living today to see 
the remarkable developments going forward in the purchased 
territory, he would deem it an El Dorado. 

Richard Henderson was born in Hanover county, Va., 
April 20, 1735, but his father removed to Granville county, 
N. C., in 1745. Henderson was a lawyer of high rank, and com- 
bined business acumen, the result being a rapid rise in his 
profession and in wealth. Previous to this venture he had been 
elevated to the bench in the superior court in North Carolina. 

In 1774 he learned, through Daniel Boone, of the desire 

"Mann Butler's Appeal, p. 26. 



10 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

of the Cherokee Indians to realize on their claim to western 
lands; and he conceived a design of forming a syndicate to 
purchase a large boundary and colonize it. He associated with 
him John Williams and Leonard Hendly Bullock, of Qranville; 
William Johnston, James Hogg, Thomas Hart, John Luttrell, 
Nathaniel Hart and David Hart, of Orange county, N. C. 

Daniel Boone had visited the western wilds and had a 
clearer conception of the fine bodies of land in the west than 
any other person; and the imparting of this knowledge to 
such men of means and influence furthered a project dear to 
Boone's heart the planting of a colony in the "Caintuck coun- 
try" notwithstanding the fact that the colony of Virginia, 
winch then included what is now Kentucky, and early in the 
century passed an act forbidding purchasers of land by pri- 
vate persons from the Indians. 

Boone writes in his autobiography that he was "solicited 
by a number of North Carolina gentlemen, that were about 
purchasing the lands lying on the south of the Kentucky river 
from the Cherokee Indians, to attend their treaty at Watauga, 
in March, 1773, to negotiate with them and mention the boun- 
daries of the purchase. This I accepted, and at the request 
of the same gentlemen undertook to mark out a road in the 
best passage from the settlement through the wilderness to 
Kentucky, with such assistance as I though necessary to em- 
ploy for such an important undertaking." 

Two of the syndicate, Judge Henderson and Col. Nathaniel 
Hart, in company with Btoone, had visited the Cherokee towns 
and arranged for a council at Watauga for the negotiation 
of a treaty; and, on March 17, 1775, at Sycamore Shoals, and 
doubtless at Fort Watauga, about twelve hundred Indians 
assembled, to treat through their chiefs Oconostota, Attacul- 
laculla, Tennessee Warrior and Willinawaugh. A treaty was 
concluded, and signed by the Indian chiefs who for their peo 
pie granted an immense territory, including parts of Kentucky 
and Tennessee, to the syndicate which took the name of Tran- 
sylvania colony. The bounds of the grant began at the mouth 
of Kentucky river, thence with that stream and its northerly 
branch to its source; thence following the crest of the Appa- 
lachian (Cumberland) mountains to the source of the Cum- 
berland river; thence down that river to the Ohio; thence up 
the Ohio to the beginning. It contained approximately twenty 
million acres, and cost the syndicate, according to the con- 
sideration expressed in the treaty, the sum of ten thousand 
pounds sterling a little above $50,000.00 or about one-fourth 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 11 

of one cent for each acre granted. The cloud upon the convey- 
ance, incident to the prohibitory act of Virginia, had its ef- 
fect to depress the consideration sum. 

It is said that one of the chiefs told Judge Henderson at 
Watauga that the lands south of Kentucky river were "bloody 
ground and would be dark and difficult to settle"; and that 
another chief, Ocouostota, for awhile demurred to the sale, 
making a pathetic speech. 

"He began with the very flourishing state in which his 
nation once was, and mentioned the encroachment of the white 
people, from time to time, upon the retiring and expiring na- 
tions of Indians. Whole nations had melted away like balls 
of snow before the sun. . . . The whites ha.d passed the 
mountains and settled upon Cherokee lands, and wished to 
have their usurpations sanctioned by the confirmation of a 
treaty. . . . New cessions would be applied for, and the 
small remnant .of his nation would be compelled to seek a 
retreat in some far distant wilderness." 9 The other chiefs 
overruled this venerable prophet of his race and the treaty 
was signed. 

The Henderson associates employed Daniel Boone to blaze 
the way and make a road into the lands so acquired by the 
syndicate. Boone started upon the perilous undertaking. He 
followed the trail of the buffaloes and Indians through Cum- 
berland Gap and opened up a road long known as the "Wilder- 
ness road" into Kentucky over which countless thousands of 
settlers rushed in after years to find homes in the blue grass 
regions. 

Felix Walker, who for a time was clerk of the Watauga 
court, residing on Sinking creek near Johnson City (after- 
wards a member of congress from North Carolina) was one 
of Boone's road-blazing party. Walker afterwards (about 
1824) wrote an account of this journey, describing the diffi- 
culties encountered by Boone's own party, and their relief 
and delight on discovering "the pleasing and raptuous appear- 
ance of the plains of Kentucky. A new sky and strange earth 
seemed to be presented to our view." 10 

A short time after Boone had started. Judge Henderson 
formed a party to follow in Booue's trail, setting out from 
the settlement about March 18th. Henderson kept a diary 
of the journey, in which under date of "Friday, April 7th" 
this entry is found : "About brake of da} T begun to snow. About 

"Haywood's History of Tenn., p. 58. 
"DeBow's Review, 1854. 



12 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

11 o'clock received a letter from Mr. Luttrell's camp that were 
five persons killed on the road to Cantuckee by Indians. Capt. 
Hart, upon the receipt of this news retreated back with his 
company and determined to settle in the valley to make corn 
for the Cantuckey people. The same day received a letter from 
Dan. Boone that his company was fired upon by Indians. 
Killed two of his men though he kept the ground and saved 
the baggage, &c." 

"Saturday 8th. Started abt. 10 o'clock; Crossed Cumber- 
land Gap about 4 miles. Met about 40 persons returning from 
the Cantuckey on Acct. of the Late murder by the Indians. 
Could prevail on one only to return. Memo. Several Virgin- 
ians who were with us returned. 

"Monday 10th. Dispatcbrd Capt. Cocke to the Cantuckey 
to inform Capt. Boone that we were on the road. Continued 
at Camp that day on acct. of the Badness of the Wether." 11 

On the 30th the party reached Boonesborough or as Hen- 
derson noted in his diary, "Fort Boone. 1 ' 

The Capt. Cocke referred to by Henderson was Wm. Cocke, 
who afterwards became one of the first senators in the con- 
gress of the United States from Tennessee on its organization 
as a state in 1790. 

A litigation growing out of the incident noted in the Hen- 
derson diary was begun by Wm. Cocke in the superior court 
of equity of the territory of the United States south of the 
Ohio, at Jonesborough, in 17J)(>. The writer has before him 
the original bill filed by Cocke initiating the suit. It is a 
most interesting document, drafted evidently by and in the 
handwriting of Cocke, but signed by his brother lawyer, John 
Rhea, as solicitor. Rhea was the first member of congress 
from the first district, a resident of Blountville. 

This bill in equity filed against Richard Henderson and 
his associates sets forth : That after purchasing the Transyl- 
vania boundary of the Cherokees, Henderson for his company 
employed Cocke to enlist or hire men to assist in clearing a 
road to Kentucky and in finding provisions for the workmen ; 
and that while Cocke was so engaged the Henderson party 
came up, and arranged to shift from wagons to pack-horses 
near Cumberland Gap; that starting out again a number of 
wounded men retreating towards the settlements met them, 
'among which was two of the name of Inman ; and said Hen- 
derson seemed much dispirited and seeing that all the men 
who had gone on before him, being about three hundred, had 

"Hulbert, Boone and Wilderness Trail, p. 102. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 13 

fled except Daniel Boone and a party of about fifteen who 
stayed to take care of the wounded; and on being informed 
that William Twitty and a number of others was killed and 
fearful lest Boon and the men with him should abandon the 
country, made your orator (Cocke) an offer of twenty thou- 
sand acres of land in any part of the companies' purchase 
that he might choose provided that your orator would go 
forward from Cumberland river to Kentucky river and pre- 
vail on Boone and the men that was with him to make a 
stand until the said Richard and the men that was with him 
could join him on Kentucky river. Your orator was induced 
as well by the tears of said Henderson as the reward which 
he offered, the said Henderson shedding tears in the presence 
of your orator and saying that himself and company was 
ruined if they did not succeed in making a settlement in the 
Kentucky country, etc." Cocke sets forth that he engaged 
to do and did the service, but complains that the agreement 
to convey him the land as his reward was never kept. 12 

A third party under Capt. Hart followed in the wake of 

12 This bill in equity was filed Oct. 1, 1796, and dismissed at the 
September term, 1799. It has never been printed, and follows: 

Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio. 

Washington District, 

Superior Court of Equity, etc. 

The Bill of Complaint of William Cocke against Richard Hender- 
son, Thomas Hart, John Williams, James Hogg, Leonard Henley Bul- 
lock, William Johnston, Nathaniel Hart, David Hart, John Luttrell in 
company. 

Humbly showeth unto your Honors that in the year of Our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five the said Richard Hen- 
derson and Company purchased a large tract of country of the 
Cherokee Indians on the waters of Kentucky, Cumberland and Ten- 
nessee and employed your orator to inlist or have men to assist in 
clearing a road and sending provisions for the said workmen while 
they were imployed in cutting a road from a place called the Block 
house to Martin's station in Powell's Valley and your orator doth 
expressly charge that he imployed a number of men to assist in cut- 
ting the said road and worked himself and found two negro fellows 
who worked on said road untill Richard Henderson, One of the Com- 
pany and chief director of the Companies consarns overtook your 
orator & Samuel Henderson who had been employed as aforesaid 
together with a Number of men in the said Hendersons employ and 
to whome your orator had furnished provisions for at the Special 
instance and request of the said Richard Henderson who being in- 
formed that the way to Kentucky was so intolerable that it would be 
with great difficulty that waggons could be taken to Kentuck who 
then directed the Waggons to be unloaded and the horses packed and 
the said Richard Henderson, Nathaniel Hart, John Luttrell, your 
orator and a number of men as well as your orator recollects to the 
number of about forty or fifty men set out for the purpose of Settling 



14 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

Boone towards the promised land, and William Calk, one of 
the number, kept a journal. Abraham Hanks, the father of 
Nancy and maternal grandfather of President Lincoln, was 
of this party, which joined with Henderson's party at the 
home of Col. Joseph Martin in Powell's valley in which is 
Cumberland Gap the valley skirting the eastern base of Cum- 
berland mountains, in Claiborne county, Tennessee. 

Calk's diary is interesting as a sidelight upon the diffi- 

the Kentucky Country and was met near Cumberland Gap by a num- 
ber of wounded men among which was two by the name of Inman. 
The said Henderson seemed much dispirited and seeing that all the 
men who had gone on before him as your orator believes being 
about three hundred had fled except Daniel Boon and a party of 
about fifteen who stayed to take care of the wounded and being 
informed that William Twitty and a number of others was killed and 
fearful! lest Boon & the men with him should abandon the Country 
made your orator an offer of Twenty Thousand Acres of Land to be 
taken by your orator in any part of said Companies purchase that he 
might choose provided that your orator would go forward from Cum- 
berland river to Kentuckey river and prevail on Boon and the men 
that was with him to make a stand until the said Richard and the 
men that was with him Join the men that was with the wounded that 
was on Kentuck river. Your orator consented to go for Ten Thou- 
sand Acres of Choice Land provided he the said Henderson could get 
any person to go in company with your orator and the said Henderson 
made offers through out his camp then being at Cumberland river of 
ten Thousand Acres of Land to any person who would go with your 
orator to Boons Camp on Kentuck river since called Boons Borough 
about a hundred miles distance whare the wounded men lay but no 
person would consent to go but your orator who was partly induced 
as well by the tears of the said Henderson as the reward he offered 
of ten Thousand Acres of Land which he promised to give unto your 
orator the said Henderson then sheading tears in the presence of 
your orator and saying that himself and Company was ruined if they 
did not Succeed in making a Settlement in the Kentuck Country. And 
your orator doth expressly charge that he set out from Cumberland 
river by himself and performed the service which he had undertaken 
for the said Company and that the said Henderson when he Joined 
Boons Company expressed himself to be much oblige to your orator 
for the service he had rendered to himself and Company and said 
your orator should have the Lands he had promised him and the said 
Henderson for himself and Company promised to your orator that he 
should have five Thousand Acres of Land for the services he had 
rendered the work which himself and hands had done in Clearing the 
road at twenty Shillings Sterling money or the value thereof for each 
hundred acres to be paid for in the provisions which your orator fur- 
nished the said Company and the Labour of his negroes and the Sale 
of a servant man Named/ Joseph Leech which your orator purchased 
of Andrew Greer and Let the said John Luttrell have. And your 
orator doth expressly charge that in consequence of the payments 
made to said Henderson and Company as above set forth for the 
five Thousand Acres of Land so purchased and paid for that entries 
for the same was made in a Book kept by said Richard Henderson & 
Company called Their Book of Entries and titles promised your orator 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY^ PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 15 

culties that beset the adventurers : ''Tuesday, 4th April. Raney. 
We start about 10 o'clock and git down to Martins in the 
valey where we over take Coin. Henderson & his Company 
Bound for Caintuck & there we camp this Night, there they 
were Broiling & Eating Beef without Bread. 

"Wed. 5th. Breake away fair & we go down the valey & 
camp on indian Creek, we had this creek to cross maney times 
& very bad banks. Abram's (Hank's) saddel turned & the 
load all fell in. we got this out this Eavening & kill two Deer. 

for the five Thousand Acres of Land By Richard Henderson for him- 
self and Company. Your orator doth further expressly charge that 
said Richard Henderson after the State of Virginia had allowed the 
said Richard Henderson and Company two hundred thousand acres 
of Land and as the said Richard Henderson was returning from the 
assembly at the house of John Mitchell in Virginia and in presence 
of William Johnson the said Richard Henderson Complained that the 
State of Virginia had taken a way from himself and Company the 
greater part of the Land claimed by them but said it should not effect 
his promise to your orator and told William Johnson one of the 
partners that the Company could never have made their settlement 
the year they did had it not have been for the assistance of your 
orator; and the said Richard Henderson and William Johnston then 
Both assured your orator that he should have the whole fifteen thou- 
sand Acres of Land which Had been promised to your orator. And 
your orator doth expressly charge that the said Richard Henderson 
at many times after, and shortly before his death repeated the same 
promises. Shortly after the death of the said Richard your orator 
made his demand for said Land or compensation for them of James 
Hogg at Fayettville who promised to do all in his power that your 
orator should obtain Justice from the Company & said he was sorry 
that the Company had so long delayed to do Justice to your orator & 
said that he James Hogg would lay your orators claim before the 
Company who he informed your orator was to meet at Hilsborough 
about twelve months after & desired your orator not to make himself 
uneasy for that he your orator should obtain full sattisfaction for all 
the services he had rendered the Company but your orator does not 
know or has he any reason to beleave that the said Hogg gave him 
self any trouble to settle amicably with your orator as he the said 
Hogg had promised. And your orator further expressly charges 
that about the month of December 1794 your orator see Thomas Hart 
one of the Company at Lexington at Kentuckey and informed the said 
Hart that the Company had not fulfilled their promises made to your 
orator, that they had deceaved your orator by repeated promises and 
delays. The said Hart then informed your orator that he Thomas 
Hart was indebted to the Company and that if your orator could 
Obtain an order on him that he should not be treated as your orator 
had been but that he would punctually pay your orator to his sattis- 
faction. Your orator shortly after wrote Letters to James Hogg wish- 
ing to know what the said Hogg had done or was likely to do in the 
matter but has receaved no answer which Induces your orator to 
beleave that the promises made by James Hogg has not been fullfilled 
by him or that any conclusion is made by the Company to sattisfy 
your orator for the great expence danger and trouble to which he 
has been exposed and subject to. Now may it please your Honors as 



16 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

''Friday, 7th. this morning a very hard snowy morning 
we still continue at ('amp Ileiiig in number about 40 men & 
some neagroes, this eaveu Comes a letter from Capt. Boone 
at caintuck of the Indians doing mischief and some turns back. 

"Satrd April 8th. We all pact up and started cost Cum- 
berland gap. We met a great nianey people turned back for 

all such actings & doing of the said Richard Henderson and Company 
and the heirs and representatives of such of the said Company has 
have desceased is contrary to Equity and good consciance and tend 
greatly to injure and Oppress your orator who is wholly with Out 
remedy save only by the aid and assistance of your honorable Court 
whare fraud of this kind is only conisable and releaveable to the end 
therefor that they may true and perfect answer make to all and sin- 
gular the premises as plainly fully and absolutely as if hearin agin 
repeted and interogated and that they may answer and say 

Did not the said Richord Henderson for himself and Company 
promise to give unto your orator ten thousand acres of good land on 
the Cantuckey provided your orator would go and inform Daniel Boon 
& the party that lay with him at Boonsborough that the said Richard 
and the men that was with him at Cumberland river at the time of 
making of such offer was on their way to Join the said Boon for the 
purpose of settling the Kentuckey Country. Did not the said William 
Cocke under take to go for the land aforesaid and did he not perform 
the service and not the said Richard often times in his life time 
inform the Company or some of them of the great service your orator 
had done them and also inform them of the promises he had made 
your orator for such service. Did not your orator pay unto the said 
Richard Henderson fifty pounds Starling money for five thousand 
acres of Land and enter the same on a book kept by the said Richard 
or how much did your orator enter and pay for & what has become 
of the entry books of said Company in whose hands and possession are 
they what is the value of the money paid by your orator to the said 
Company and what is the value of the provisions found & labour done 
and what the value of the Land entered and paid for. Is it not 
worth thirty thousand dollars if not how much is it worth. 

May it please your Honours to grant unto your orator your writ or 
writs of subpona direct to the said Richard Henderson & Company 
their heirs and representatives and each and every of them com- 
manding them and every of them under sertain pain to be therein 
limited to appear before your Honours at a certain day to be ap- 
pointed to answer the premises and then and there that your Honours 
will decree that that they make unto your orator a good and indefeas- 
ible right and title to the above described Land or in lieu thereof 
that they be decreed to pay unto your orator such damages as shall 
be agreeable to equity and Good Conscience and your orator as in 
duty bound shall ever pray &c. 

JOHN RHEA, 
Attorney for William Cocke. 

Demurrers were filed by Hugh Lawson White as solicitor for 
James Hogg, John Umstead and Walter Alves, John Williams, and 
Richard Bullock as executor of Leonard Henley Bullock. George W. 
Campbell demurred for James Watson "a claimant under Richard 
Henderson." 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 17 

fear of indians but our Company goes on Still with good cour- 
age, etc." 

Again "Abram's mair ran into the River with Her load 
& Swam over, he followed her & got on her & made her Swim 
Back agin." "We met another company going back, they tell 
such News Abram & Drake is afraid to go aney further and 
turn back, we go on, etc."^ 3 

As indicative of the spirit that animated these stalwarts, 
in a few days after Henderson's arrival at Boonesborough, 
the Transylvania proprietors called a convention to assemble 
on May 23, 1775, and by the convention a legislative council 
was organized with Daniel Boone, Squire Boone and Win. 
Cocke as three of the members. 

Virginia asserted authority and title over the lands so pur- 
chased that lay above the North Carolina line, and the offi- 
cials of that colony held the deeds inoperative so far as vesi- 
ture of title in the grantees was concerned, in that such pur- 
chases from the Indians were inhibited by the royal procla- 
mation of King George III, wherein also all colonial govern- 
ors were forbidden to grant lands or issue land warrants 
locatable west of the mountains. 14 In the contest over this 
matter, which was waged personally by Henderson before the 
Virginia legislature, he came into contest with George Rogers 
Clarke, who was then becoming an active factor in the Ken- 
tucky country. Both of these men were stalwarts, and em- 
bodied much of the modern American spirit of aggressiveness^ 
initiative and projective force colonial prototypes of our pres- 
ent day captains of industry. The result in Virginia was that 
Henderson and his associates took nothing by virtue of their 
two deeds, but instead they were granted 200,000 acres of 
land in what is now Henderson county, Kentucky. 

It may be thought thati Whi. Cocke delayed for a long time in 
bringing suit. It appears that but a few years previous others inter- 
ested in Transylvania lands began to concert plans to protect their 
interests. In the Charleston (S. C.) Gazette of February 18, 1789, 
the following advertisement appeared under the heading TRANSYL- 
VANIA: 

"The proprietors of land in Transylvania, alias Kentucky, par- 
ticularly those who purchased of Col. Dry, under Henderson's grant, 
are requested to meet at Williams's Coffee-house, on Friday evening, 
the 20th instant, at 6 o'clock, in order to determine on such measures 
as may be deemed necessary for having their lands located and se- 
cured; it being apprehended that unless something to this effect is 
done very speedily, their property there, already become so valuable 
as to he worth a dollar per acre, will be irretrievably lost." 

13 Hulbert, p. 113. 

14 2 Martin's No. Carolina, p. 339. 
-2 



18 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

As early as the fall of 177G, the inhabitants of the 
ern district filed a petition with the general assembly of Vir 
ginia, setting forth that a North Carolina company had nunlr 
a purchase of the Cherokee title, convened an assembly and 
opened a land office. The validity of the purchase was at- 
tacked; and the petitioners prayed for the extension over 
them of Virginia's jurisdiction. Accordingly Kentucky county 
was at that session created and civil and military officers 
appointed. It was later, at the October session, 1778, of the 
general assembty of Virginia, that the act was passed grant- 
ing to Henderson & Co. the above mentioned twelve and one- 
half square miles of land on both sides of Green river near 
its mouth by way of compensation for services in the extin- 
guishment of the Indian title, and in helping to settle the 
country. 

This action of Virginia left Henderson freer to devote 
himself to the husbanding and development of his company's 
acquisitions in North Carolina (later Tennessee). 

Taking on himself the management of the company's bus- 
iness and governmental affairs in the Kentucky country, Hen- 
derson, within a few days after the treaty (March 31, 377.">) 
gave a power of attorney to Col. Joseph Martin, empowering 
him to settle the company's lands in Powell's Valley, in Leo 
county, Virginia, extending southward into Tennessee. About 
the same time a proclamation was issued offering favorable 
terms to settlers in that valley. 15 

Martin, it seems, had already moved into this valley (Lee 
county), with a small band of settlers. 

Henderson, writing from Kentucky to Martin, July 20, 
1775, expressed concern that settlers would locate too low 
in the valley, provoking the Cherokees to incursions: ''Keep 
your men in heart if possible; now is the time; the Indians 
must not drive us ... We did not forget you at the time 
of making laws; your part of the country is too remote from 
ours to attend our convention. You must have laws made by 
un assembly of your own. I have prepared a plan which I hope 
you'll approve, but more of that when we meet which I hope 
will be soon." 16 

Martin's station in Powell's Valley was too far removed 
from the Holston and Watauga settlements for safety and 
the beginning of an Indian war caused an abandonment of 
the station in the spring of 177G. 



"Haywood, p. 514. 
"Week's Martin, p. 419. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY^ PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 

Iii July, 1777, when the North Carolina commissioners ap- 
pointed to make a treaty with the Cherokees met at Long Island 
of Holston (Fort Patrick Henry, now Kiugsport, Tenn.), Hen- 
derson and his associates filed with them a memorial, of date 
June 18, 1777, setting forth their purchase at Sycamore Shoals, 
March 17, 1775, the fact that the Virginia assembly would con- 
sider the validity thereof at its approaching session, "at which 
time your memorialists have no doubt but that the assembly 
will disclaim all pretensions to the lauds in dispute, and the 
title of your memorialists become firmly and indisputably 
established"; and praying that no line be run within the 
bounds of their purchase and that no part of the lands be 
yielded to the Cherokees. 

Evidently induced by this interest of himself and his as- 
sociates in the protection of the treaty-purchase on the Cum- 
berland, Henderson, in 1779, accepted the appointment as 
one of North Carolina's commissioners appointed to extend 
the North Carolina- Virginia state line from the western ter- 
minds of the Fry and Jefferson line at Steep Rock creek (now 
Laurel Fork of Holston), west of Stone mountain, westward 
to the Tennessee river, the legislature of Virginia having, the 
year previous, appointed a like commission to co-operate with 
one from North Carolina. Henderson became the master spirit 
of the North Carolina commission, and Dr. Thomas Walker 
took the lead in the Virginia commission. 

An interesting phase of the history of this survey is the 
fact that it was more immediately occasioned by an election 
contest in the Virginia general assembly of 1778 between An- 
thony Bledsoe and William Cocke, on the one part, and Col. 
Arthur Campbell and William Edniiston, on the other, re- 
specting seats in the Virginia house of delegates. The princi- 
pal ground urged by the two latter as contestants was that 
Bledsoe and Cocke resided south of the Virginia line and were 
elected by citizens of North Carolina participating in the elec- 
tion. The assembly was loath to adjudge against the common- 
wealth's claim to the disputed territory, and Bledsoe and 
Cocke retained their seats, though in fact North Carolinians. 
James Robertson, while a resident of what is now Carter coun- 
ty, Tennessee, had several years before acted as magistrate 
under the jurisdiction of Virginia Botetourt county. 17 

Naturally, Henderson, who had the year before been de- 
prived by the Virginia assembly of the full fruits of his ef- 
forts in making the Transylvania settlements in Kentucky, 

"Summer's S. W. Virginia, pp. 108, 264. 



20 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

stood ready to see that North Carolina got at least justice in 
the projection of the state line. By so far as the line could 
be located to the northward, the lands of the Henderson asso- 
ciates above the Cumberland river and also in Powell's Valley 
would be increased. 

The Walker-Henderson survey was commenced September 
6, 1779, running westward. The commissioners proceeded 
about forty miles, and crossed the north fork of Holston near 
Long Island (Kingsport). "At this time the pilots and hunt- 
ers gave it as their opinion that both Cumberland Gap .in<l 
the settlements on Cumberland river, at the French Lick 
(Nashville), would both fall into Virginia. A halt was made 
and several days passed in making observations, debating, and 
even abusing one another." (Col. Arthur Campbell's report 
to the governor of Virginia, 1787). 

"The Carolina gentlemen conceived that the line was far- 
ther south than it ought to be. ... It was proposed by 
us, and agreed to by the Carolina gentlemen, that as we dif- 
fered so much in observation we would each run his own line, 
and let future observers hereafter to be appointed determine 
which was right.-' (Walker's Report of Survey, 1780.) 

Henderson and Walker persisted in their respective con- 
tentions, and made separate surveys and locations, their lines 
lying about two miles apart. 

By March 31, 1780, Henderson had carried his line to the 
Cumberland river below Nashville, as appears from the diary 
left by Col. John Donelson, during his voyage from Fort Pat- 
rick Henry (Kingsport) down the Holston and Tennessee riv- 
ers, thence up the Cumberland river to French Lick, in ''the 
good boat Adventure." 

"Friday 31st Set out this day, and after running some 
distance, met with Col. Richard Henderson, who was running 
the line between Virginia and North Carolina. At this meet- 
ing we were much rejoiced. He gave us every information we 
wished, and further informed us that he had purchased a 
quantity of corn in Kentucky, to be shipped at the falls of 
Ohio (Louisville) for the use of the Cumberland settlement. 
We are now without bread, and are compelled to hunt the 
buffalo to preserve life." 18 

James Robertson had the year before, the spring of 177!>, 
led a band of Wataugans to French Lick to settle that region. 
The conclusion is irresistible that Henderson had influenced 
Robertson to lead this movement, as he had in previous years 

"Putnam's Middle Tennessee, p. 75. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY^ PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 21 

influenced the intimate friend fellow adventurer of Robertson, 
Daniel Boone, to take the lead into Kentucky. 

James Robertson's connection with the Sycamore Shoals 
treaty has gone all but unnoted by our historians. Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson, a descendant of Richard Henderson, says that 
Robertson after feeling out the Cherokees informed Boone, 
who was then acting as Henderson's confidential agent, that 
his belief was that the Cherokees would sell if the induce- 
ment was made large enough. 10 Thus early was Robertson in 
contact with the movement. 

Robertson was on the ground when the treaty was made 
at Sycamore Shoals. The treaty ground was but a few miles 
from his residence. When proof was being taken in 1776-7 
by commissioners appointed by the Virginia legislature touch- 
ing the merits of a petition of Henderson and associates, (to 
the effect that no settlements under the authority of Virginia 
be allowed within the limits of their treaty purchases) Rob- 
ertson left his home on the Watauga river and went to Abing- 
don, Virginia, to give his deposition which was distinctly fa- 
vorable to the Transylvania promoters. 

It is noteworthy that his testimony is clear and pronounced 
on a point much debated in later years that the southern 
boundary of the great grant was not the Cumberland river 
proper but that there were included the waters flowing into 
the Cumberland from the south. Robertson, deposing April 
16, 1777, said: 

". . . Upon the second day of the Treaty the Indians 
proposed to sell sd Henderson the land upon the north side 
of the Kentucky, to which said Henderson replied, he would 
not have that land, as it was already claimed by the Virgin- 
ians, and that if he could not get the lands asked for, he would 
keep his Goods, upon which the Dragging Canoe got angry 
and withdrew himself from the Conference. And the other 
Indians immediately followed him and broke up the Confer- 
ence for that day Some person in the hearing of Deponent 
told John Williams one of the co-partners not to pay any at- 
tention to Dragging Canoe's going off in a passion as the 
head men might be still got to sign a deed privately. Col. 
Williams replyed, he would not give anything for every Indian 
there to sign a Dteed unless it was done in open Treaty. When 
the Indians met sd Henderson the third day of the Treaty, 

"Henderson's Forces in Westward Expansion, 20 Am. Hist. Re- 
view, pp. 85, 105. 



22 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

told them that the lands he had mentioned before were the 
lands he had brought his goods for. 

"The Indians then by their talk seemed inclined to let 
Henderson have some land but complained that the goods 
were too few for the number of persons who were) there, and 
if they gave up the land they hoped he would consider them 
at another time. Henderson answered that thej' had seen the 
goods and that if they gave him the lands he would give them 
the! Keys of the House in which they lay, and he could prom- 
ise no more. The Indians then agreed to sell the lands as 
far as the Cumberland river, and sd Henderson insisted to 
have the Cumberland river and the Waters of Cumberland 
river which the Indians agreed to after telling Henderson 
them were their hunting grounds and their children then grow- 
ing up might have\ reason to complain also observing it 
was a Moody country and if he went to it they would 
not hold him by the hand any longer, and must do it at his 
own Risque and must not blame them if anything happened 
to him. 

"On the Fourth day of the Treaty a deed was produced and 
read and interpreted sentence by sentence which was signed 
by them." 20 

Robertson thus substantiated the claim of Henderson's com- 
pany to the lands on the south of the Cumberland river, where 
was later laid out the town of Nashborough. 

On completion of the running of the state line, Hender- 
son went to Nashborough (Nashville) to open a land office 
for the sale of the company's lands. We find him there head- 
ing the settlers (whom he had been so solicitous to succor 
with supplies from the Ohio) in the formation of a govern- 
ment, he becoming the draftsman of the "compact of govern- 
ment" or constitution, which he and his associate in the com- 
pany, Nathaniel Hart, and a brother, Nathaniel Henderson, 
signed along with two hundred and forty-three settlers, on 
May 13, 1780. Henderson's impress, as a lawyer and the only 
lawyer then on the Cumberland, is stamped on this document 
(compared by Roosevelt to an ancient "Court Leet"), and the 
interests of his company were treated of and carefully guard- 

"Va. Col. State Papers, Vol. I, p. 285. Among those present at 
Sycamore Shoals when the treaty was executed were: Wm. Farrar, 
Sam'l Wilson, John Lowry, John Reid, Charles Robertson, Thos. Price, 
Thos. Houghton, Abraham Kite, Nathaniel Gist, Isaac Shelby and 
James Robertson. The depositions disclosed that of his associates, 
John Williams, Nathaniel Hart and Thos. Hart were with Richard 
Henderson at the treaty place. 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 23 

cd. Twelve men from the various stations were provided by 
this compact to be elected, "which said persons, or a majority 
of them, after being bound by the solemnity of an oath to 
do equal and impartial justice between all contending par- 
ties, according to the best of their skill and judgment, having 
due regard to the regulations of the land office herein estab- 
lished" the land office of Henderson & Co., the entry taker 
in which Henderson reserved the right to appoint by express 
stipulation in the compact. This constitution for the infant 
settlement further recited: "That no consideration money for 
the lands on Cumberland river, within the claim of the said 
Richard Henderson and company, and which is the subject 
of this association, is demanded or expected by the said com- 
pany until satisfactory and indisputable title can be made, 
so we think it reasonable and just that the twenty-six pounds, 
thirteen shillings and four pence, current money, per hundred 
acres, the price proposed by the said Kichard Henderson, shall 
be paid according to the value of the money on the first day 
of January last, being the time when the price was made pub- 
lic and settlement encouraged thereon by said Henderson, etc." 

On these fair terms settlers on the Cumberland took and 
held under the Henderson and company title until its annul- 
ment by North Carolina, and "the purchasers were never urged 
to make any payments on contracts into which they had en- 
tered. Old settlers ever retained for Henderson a very high 
regard as a gentleman and a patriot." 21 

In May, 1783, the Henderson syndicate memorialized the 
North Carolina legislature for a recognition of the validity of 
their Cherokee conveyances. The petition was referred to a 
committee which reported that the purchases were illegal, but 
that by means of the conveyances obtained by Henderson from 
the Cherokees peaceable possession might be obtained from the 
Indians, and that compensation should be made the company. 

Accordingly, by act of N. C., 1783, Ch. 38, entitled, "An 
act to vest certain lands in fee simple in Kichard Henderson; 
and others," it was enacted: 

"Whereas, it has appeared to this assembly that Richard 
Henderson, Thomas Hart, John Williams, William Johnston, 
James Hogg, David Hart and Leonard Henly Bullock, Nath- 
aniel Hart and John Luttrell, John Carter and Robert Lucas, 
have been at great expense, trouble and risque, in making a 

"Putnam's Middle Tennessee, p. 89. 

22 Am. State Papers, Ind. Affairs, Vol. I, pp. 40, 628. 



24 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

purchase of lands of the Cherokee Indians; and whereas, it 
is but just that they should have adequate compensation. 

"Be it therefore enacted by the general assembly of the 
state of North Carolina that two hundred thousand acres be, 
and are hereby granted to said Kichard Henderson, Thomas 
Hart, James Hogg, David Hart and Leonard Henley Bullock, 
the heirs and assigns and devisees of Nathaniel Hart, deceased, 
and their heirs, devisees and assigns of Johu Luttiell, de- 
ceased, to Landon Carter, heir of John Carter, deceased, his 
heirs and assigns forever, and the heirs and devisees of Robert 
Lucas; the said two hundred thousand acres to be laid out 
in one survey and within the following boundaries, to wit: 
Beginning at old Indian town in Powell's Valley, and running 
down Powell's river not less than four miles in width on one 
or both sides thereof to a junction of Powell's and Clinch riv- 
ers, then down Clinch river on one or both sides not less Hum 
twelve miles in width for the aforesaid complement of two hun- 
dred thousand acres; provided same is laid out and surveyed on 
or before last day of next November, otherwise and entered 
shall obtain title. 

"Ten thousand at the lower end to vest in Landon Carter 
and his heirs, assignee of Robert Lucas; one-eighth each to 
Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, John Williams, William 
Johnston, Jarnes Hogg, Nathaniel Hart and John Luttrell, de 
ceased; and one-sixteenth each to David Hart and L. H. Bul- 
lock. 

"To hold the aforesaid portions in severalt}' as tenants in 
common and not as joint tenants." 

As this act indicates there had been sales of interests and 
parts of interests of the copartners intermediate the deeds 
of 1775 and 1783. There were at the outset eight full shares, 
Henderson, Williams, Johnston, Hogg, Thomas Hart, Luttrell 
and Nathaniel Hart taking full shares; and Bullock and David 
taking half shares. It would appear therefore that Robert 
Lucas, an early Wataugan and with Henderson a signer of 
the Cumberland compact, had purchased the shares of Wil- 
liams and Johnston, and assigned a portion of his holding to 
.John Carter, for whom Carter county, Tennessee, was named 
the county of his residence. 

The state of North Carolina issued a grant in accord with 
this act; and, the grantees proceeded to have the lands sur- 
veyed and platted by Stokeley Donelson, surveyor. The bound- 
ary was divided into lots, "A," "B," etc., beginning at the 
extreme northwest or at Old Town Creek in Claiborne county, 
Tennessee. The eastern boundary of the granted tract begins 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 25 

about five miles (direct line) from Cumberland Gap, and tlie 
western boundary of that portion that lies on Powell river 
is just east of Jacksboro. The surveyor in running the south- 
western boundary caused it to run off at an acute angle from 
the northeastern boundary (patently contrary to the spirit 
of the legislative act and the grant), the evident purpose being 
to leave out of the grant to Henderson and associates a very 
fine body of agricultural laud between the southwestern boun- 
dary and a line that very nearly is represented by the pres- 
ent line of the Knoxville & Ohio branch of the Southern 
railway at Caryville, Tenn. The tradition is that Donelson, 
who was affected by land lust, and who was. perhaps the larg- 
est owner of acreage in the west, so ran the lines that lie 
might acquire, under a later grant to himself, the tempting 
lands in this angle. This he proceeded to do; and the tradi- 
tion further runs that Donelson's action in this matter led 
to a breach between him and Henderson. 

A part of the grant to Henderson and associates was lo- 
cated on Clinch river, and on streams south thereof extend- 
ing south of Bull Run creek, which is near Heiskell station, 
in Knox county. The grant covers land in the present coun- 
ties of Claiborne, Union, Campbell, Anderson and Knox. The 
northwestern boundary skirts the foothills of the Cumberland 
mountains, which rise abruptly from Powell's valley. The 
object of the grantees was to so lay the grant as to include 
Powell's and Clinch rivers and their fine bottoms, little dream- 
ing that they were thus purposely avoiding and excluding a 
section in the Cumberland mountains that has since proved 
to be of immense value because of its coal seams. 

The plat of the partition survey shows allotments as fol- 
lows: Richard Henderson, four parcels; Thomas Hart, three 
parcels; Nathaniel Hart, four parcels; David Hart, two par- 
cels; L. H. Bullock, two parcels; James Hogg, two parcels; 
John Williams, four parcels ; Walter Alvis, three parcels ; Rob- 
ert Barton, one parcel ; John Umstead, three parcels the par- 
cels being of various sizes. Thus are indicated further trans- 
fers of interests between the dates of the act of North Caro- 
lina, 1783, and the partition. Partition deeds were executed 
inter partes, and this title has always been recognized as the 
superior title and prevailed as such. 

At first blush the two consolation grants to Henderson and 
company, by Virginia and North Carolina, aggregating 400,- 
000 acres, may appear to have been adequate compensation. 
In this connection, however, it should not escape notice and 
comment that neither of these commonwealths hesitated to 



26 SAMUEL C. WILLIAMS 

treat the Path Deed and Great Grant to the Henderson syndi- 
cate as having virtue to quiet the Indian title so far as these 
sovereign states were concerned; but voidable so far as vesti- 
ture of title in the vendees was attempted good against the 
Indian, invalid as to the Indian's vendee. Later on the United 
States of America assumed to itself the function of sole treaties 
with the Cherokees as a nation, and the national government 
in like manner availed itself of the benefit of the Henderson 
and company purchases as against the Indians. 

Thus, at the treaty of Hopewell (South Carolina), the first 
negotiated under national authority (Nov. 17, 1785), the Cher- 
okee chiefs made claim to a vast territory, and roughly drafted 
a map showing the limits of the territory their nation claimed, 
including the greater portions of Kentucky and Tennessee. 
Being reminded by the government's commissioners that "this 
claim covered the country purchased by Colonel Henderson, 
who was now dead, and whose purchase must not therefore 
be disputed, the chiefs consented to relinquish that portion 
of it." The commissioners, as they declared, adopted certain 
lines of the Henderson purchase as boundary calls of the 
treaty (Ib., p. 38) it not being deemed necessary to treat in 
respect of lands, title to which had passed from the Chero- 
kees to the syndicate. 

In the light of these after contentions and the benefits de- 
rived from the Henderson grants from the Cherokees, it may 
will be doubted whether the syndicate received fair treatment 
and compensation at the hands of Virginia and North Caro- 
Mna. 

There can be less doubt that the Tennessee historians have 
not given adequate credit, or even explicit recognition, to Rich- 
ard Henderson as the projector of the Cumberland settlement, 
and as the author of the Cumberland compact. Less than that 
is less than his desert. 

The true greatness of Richard Henderson is in no other 
way more amply demonstrated than by the selections he made 
of able lieutenants. A man who could find and put to the 
service of his company such forceful men as Daniel Boone, 
James Robertson and Joseph Martin must have possessed dis- 
cernment, mastery and projective power to an unusual de- 
gree. Strange to say, of these three agents Boone, the least 
endowed with mentality and ability to mould events to his 
will, has become the greatest national figure. The work of 
Robertson and Martin was, in large part, in less romantic 
fields and roles as Indian agents and community builders, 



HENDERSON AND COMPANIES PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 27 

and much of their most effective service brought but little of 
glamor to their names. 23 

Henderson's part in the treaty by which Transylvania was 
acquired does not measure in full the benefits his labors 
brought to the western country and its first settlers. Availing 
themselves of Henderson's efforts in bringing the Cherokees 
to Watauga for negotiation, the Watauga settlers two clays 
after the main treaty was signed followed in the step and 
negotiated a second treaty with the Cherokees by the terms 
of which, for a consideration of two thousand pounds, there 
was ceded to Charles Robertson (as trustee) the land on Wa- 
tauga and Holston rivers then settled and being settled. 

Even a third treaty entered into on March 25, 1775, at the 
same place, quieted the title of Jacob Brown to a veritable 
principality, lying west of the Watauga's purchase, and on 
Nolachucky river comprising much of the best land now in 
Washington and Greene counties, Tennessee. Richard Hender- 
son signed this last conveyance as a witness, and in all prob- 
ability he was the draftsman of all the treaties. 

It seems quite certain also that the name of Nashville 
(Nashborough originally) was fixed by Henderson, and in 
honor of Gen. Francis Nash who had served as the clerk of 
the Orange County (N. C.) Superior Court over which Hen- 
derson presided as judge. Several of the Transylvania asso- 
ciates, Thomas Hart, John Williams and William Johnston, 
resided in Orange county. 24 A brother of Richard Henderson, 
Pleasant Henderson, also lived in that county and he was 
at French Lick with Col. Henderson in 1779. 2r> . The then 
recent death of Gen. Nash in action October 4, 1777, in the 
battle of Germantown, Penn., appealed to his fellow Carolin- 
ians for commemoration. The suggestion has been well made 
that a tablet be erected in the city of Nashville commemorating 
Richard Henderson's connection with our early history. It 
seems fitting that this should be taken in hand by the Colonial 
Dames of Tennessee in conjunction with the Tennessee His- 
torical Society. The memory of no other colonial figure is 
worthier of preservation. 

SAM'L C. WILLIAMS. 



"It is worthy of notice that Henderson also brought into the service 
of his company two other forceful men, then young, Wm. Cocke, as has 
been noted, and Isaac Shelby the latter as surveyor in the Kentucky 
country. 

"Wheeler's North Carolina, p. 334. 

25 Putnam's Middle Tennessee, p. 101. 



SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY'S 
"ANNALS" AND OTHER HISTORIANS 

[The writer of this article is the highly esteemed Recording Sec- 
retary of the Tennessee Historical Society. At the urgent request 
of a number of the members of this society he agreed to undertake 
the difficult task cf making an index to Dr. Ramsey's valuable "An- 
nals of Tennessee." The work he has about brought to a successful 
close, and it is hoped that some means may be devised to put in 
print at no distant date this much-to-be-desired accessory to study of 
the history of the Volunteer State. In carrying forward the work of 
indexing this volume it became necessary to attempt to solve some of 
the seeming riddles of the book occasioned by certain indefiniteness of 
statement, and at times confusion of names, entailing a wide research 
through the literature of Tennessee State history, as well as that of 
neighboring states. On request of the society, the author read before 
its March meeting, 1919, a paper dealing with his experience in mak- 
ing the index, and such was the interest aroused by it an immediate 
demand was made for the publication of at least some of the data 
therein contained. The article that follows is an adaptation of the 
manuscript, but necessarily the matter is very much abbreviated, 
with details of arguments left out. Ed.~\ 

SURNAMES AND INDIAN NAMES. 

This noted volume of Dr. Ramsey lias a serious fault, or at 
least presents difficulties in that largely he is accustomed to 
use surnames only in his narration of interesting events. He 
writes of times of "Col. Montgomery," "Col. Sevier" and other 
military heroes and civil personages, but is not careful to iden- 
tify, for far-away readers, the individuals referred to. Thus 
we find mention made of three Col. Montgoinerys and at least 
iii'o Col. Seviers, while there are a number of other characters 
left us to place as best one can. 

Further, in the use of Indian names, he is at times difficult 
to follow owing to either obscurity or his method of using In- 
dian names interchangeably. Sometimes he makes use of the 
names originally given by the pioneers or traders in their at- 
tempt to represent phonetically the words in the Indian lan- 
guage. These names are varied in accordance to the ability of 
the Americans to correctly represent the sound ; thus it is 
found that the noted Cherokee chief's name is variously 
spelled, viz.: "Atta-Culla-Culla," etc. Then again Dr. Ramsey 
at times prefers to use the English translation of the Indian 
word; thus for the same character, "Atta-Culla-Culla," we 
have "The Little Carpenter," etc. 

Of course, the distinguished author well differentiated in 
his own mind these several or identical personages, but he pre- 
sumed too much on the ability of the average reader to follow 



HENDERSON AND COMPANY^S PURCHASE IN TENNESSEE 29 

him. Thus it devolves on the indexer of such a volume to 
clearly understand these matters in order to be of help to the 
general reader by proper classification. 

MILITARY AND OTHER TITLES. 

The history of the Revolution as given in the Annals neces- 
sarily embrace many names noted for their military connec- 
tion, here again, in the miscellaneous use of titles, some of 
which changed during the period of the war, there is at times 
confusion demanding research in other histories and contem- 
porary documents in order to clearly mark the distinctions. 

Another like confusing period is that of the "State of 
Franklin." Here again, both in civil and military matters, 
certain names are difficult to define, likewise demanding the 
help of other histories to clearly identify. 

However, Ramsey is not alone in thus failing to make clear 
always the individual meant. Other Tennessee historians and 
occasional writers are guilty along this line of indefiniteness. 
It is proposed to cite a few of these difficulties which will serve 
to show some of the obstacles that must be overcome by one 
attempting to make an intelligent index to such volumes. 

JOHN TIPTON. 

One of the oft-noted confusions is occasioned by the con- 
founding of the history of John Tipton and Jonathan Tipton, 
or identifying the two characters as one and the same indi- 
vidual. 1 

John S. Mathes, writing in the Chattanooga Times a "His- 
tory of the State of Franklin," says in Chapter XIII : 

"Judge O. P. Temple of Knoxville, in his 'East Tennessee and the 
Civil War,' says : 'It is singular how writers, and even relatives, have 
been confounded as to the Christian name of John Tipton. In Lyman 
Draper's exhaustive 'History of King's Mountain and Its Heroes' 
the only full history of that battle ever written the major second in 
command under Sevier in that and other battles was called Jonathan 
Tipton.' Draper says that Jonathan Tipton died in Overton County, 
Tennessee, in 1833, age 83. Haywood and Phelan, both historians of 
Tennessee, call the officer who was major under Sevier John Tipton. 
Ramsey, another historian, while generally calling him John, in two 
or three places speaks of Major Tipton as Jonathan Tipton. Seeing 
this discrepancy, and knowing the general accuracy and high charac- 
ter of Draper as a historian, I was naturally led to an investigation 
of the question: Which is the correct name? For this purpose I 

'"Kings' Mountain and Its Heroes," L. S. Draper, p. 48. See also 
"History of Tennessee," Garrett and Goodpasture, p. 350. It will 
be noted in the last instance the confusion is in the index rather than 
the text; the name of "Jonathan" Tipton does not appear. The Tipton 
at Boyd's Creek is called "Major," the one who imprisoned Sevier 
"Colonel." 



30 J. TYREE FAIN 

set on foot an extensive inquiry. This, for a while, resulted in worse 
confusion. One direct descendant, who had traced out the history 
of Tipton with great care, said that John and Jonathan were the 
same person, known by both these names. Another person, who pro- 
fessed to. know all about the Tiptons, and who had studied the early 
history of upper East Tennessee more minutely than anyone within 
my knowledge, said very positively that the true name was Jonathan 
Tipton, and that he died while a member of the legislature, in Nash- 
ville in 1836, and was buried there, receiving the honor of a public 
funeral on the part of the State. A number of relatives and intelli- 
gent gentlemen, to whom I applied, were unable to give any informa- 
tion. Finally I was indebted to Dr. A. Jobe of Elk Park, North Caro- 
lina, a great-grandson of John Tipton, a gentleman of education and 
intelligence, for a solution of this question. He says the name was 
John and not Jonathan Tipton. He does not say in so many words 
that John Tipton was never called Jonathan until recently, but it is 
clear from his statement that he was not. Instead of dying in Over- 
ton County in 1832 or in Nashville in 1836, and being buried in one 
of those places, or in both, according to the different accounts, he 
died and was buried on his farm in Washington County, Tennessee, 
one and one-half miles south of Johnson City, where he lived at the 
time of battle with John Sevier. He had nine sons, two of these 
were Jonathan and John. The first settled in Blount County, Ten- 
nessee, and represented that county in the legislature again and again. 
According to the account I have, he was no doubt mistaken by some 
persons for his father and confounded with him. It is probable that 
he was buried at the public expense when he died, as a member of 
the legislature. John Tipton, the youngest son, remained in Carter 
County and became somewhat distinguished. He served on the staff 
of General Jackson at New Orleans, and was complimented by the 
old hero for his daring and courage. It is a reproach to the State, 
or the people of the State, or to his numerous friends and relatives, 
that no rock shows the last resting place of one of the bravest heroes 
and best patriots of the Revolution." 

The above goes quite a way towards clearing up the con- 
fusion of John and Jonathan Tipton, of the first generation, 
but lacks clearness as to the two brothers, Jonathan and John 
the sons of the elder Major John Tipton. A citation from a 
series of articles contributed by Selden Nelson to the Knox- 
ville Sentinel on the "Tipton Controversy," will go further in 
clearing up the confusion, viz. : 

"The writer will show by documentary evidence that Jonathan 
and John Tipton were two different men; some historians claim they 
were one man, and some have claimed that the John Tipton buried 
at Nashville was the Tipton that had the trouble with Sevier. It will 
also be shown who that Tipton was. 

Colonel John Tipton, the first, came to Tennessee in October, 1782. 
He first came into prominence in Washington County in 1784, when 
the proposed State of Franklin was organized. . . . After the fall 
of the State of Franklin, and when Tennessee was a territory, John 
Tipton was a member of the territorial legislature . . . when the 
State was organized he was elected from Washington County to 
attend the Constitutional Convention which met at Knoxville, June 11, 
1796. 

John Tipton and James Stuart were the members from Washing- 



SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY^S "ANNALS" 31 

ton County of the committee which drew up the State Constitution. 
. . . John Tipton was elected as a senator from Washington 
County and continued to represent that county as long as he would 
serve. 

Letter of Jonathan Tipton, son of Col. John Tipton, to Lyman 
Draper, dated Eves Mill, Tennessee, November the 24th, 1842 : 

DEAR SIR: Your letter dated the 25th of May, last, came to hand 
and would have been answered sooner. Wm. Tipton, from whom I 
get the greater part of this information, lives some distance from me, 
and I have not the opportunity of seeing him. 

You ask what time of the year father removed from Shenendoah 
to what is now Tennessee. I think it was in October. I don't recollect 
any particular occurrence on the journey. Father was always a very 
industrious and good farmer. He owned three good farms on the 
Shenendoah River, State of Virginia. I don't recollect any skirmishes 
he was engaged in after coming to the western country. As soon 
as eligible, he was elected a member of the legislature of North Caro- 
lina from Washington County, and continued so until Tennessee be- 
came a State, which was after the Indian wars were over. He was 
one of the members that formed the first Constitution of Tennessee, 
and continued a member of its legislature till old age admonished 
him to retire from public life. I have often heard him say that 
he had been elected twenty-seven years to the legislature and con- 
ventions, and was never left out when he offered. He was a member 
a great many years in Virginia from Shenendoah County. You ask 
his birthday. I probably made a mistake before. I heard him say 
he was born the same year General Washington was, which appears 
to be 1732. I think he died in 1813, August, and was buried at his 
residence in Washington County, where he first settled in Tennessee; 
his step-mother was buried there. In October, 1774, he was at the 
Battle of 'Big Cannaway,' as captain under General Lewis. Grand- 
father Butler was killed by the Indians on his farm on Cedar Creek, 
Shenendoah County. Grandmother, by some means, made her escape 
from them. Uncle James was exchanged as a prisoner. My father 
was married at about twenty-one years of age to my mother, Mary 
Butler, on Cedar Creek, Shenendoah County. She bore him nine 
sons, to wit: Samuel, Benjamin, Abraham, William, Isaac, Jacob, 
John, Thomas, Jonathan. 

My father married a second wife, Martha Moore, the widow of 
Dr. James Moore of Shenendoah County, Virginia. By her he had 
another son whom he called Abraham, who died at about thirty years 
of age. I don't recollect of ever seeing any of father's brothers ex- 
cept Joseph and Jonathan. 

Father was the eldest of them; Joseph next, I think, though I 
think grandfather was married twice. Uncle Joseph moved to Watau- 
ga, Washington County, then to Warren County, Tennessee, and 
there died. 

Jonathan moved to Houston, Washington County, Virginia, before 
father, and was at the Battle of King's Mountain, under General 
Campbell. Then moved to Washington County, Tennessee, and was 
major under Colonel Sevier in the Indian wars. General John Tipton 
of Indiana I suppose was son of Joshua Tipton, who was killed by 
the Indians on Little Pigeon, Sevier County, East Tennessee. It is 
likely he was son of Mordecai. The last account of Uncle Jonathan 
he was living in Overton or Fentress (County), Tennessee. My 
mother died in Shenendoah County, the 8th of June, 1776. At that 
time father was in the legislature. Tipton County, Tennessee, was 



32 J. TYREE FAIN 

called after brother Jacob Tipton, who was killed by the Indians in 
St. Glair's defeat. Brother Abraham was killed by the Indians near 
the falls of the Ohio. Both of them had the command of captain, and 
each of them about 26 years of age. John Tipton, my brother, repre- 
sented Sullivan County, and Samuel represented Carter County sev- 
eral years each. I think the three sons of Governor Sevier that were 
taken prisoners were James, John and Richard. I expect, on reflec- 
tion, Haywood is right about the time of the battle. You inquire 
about General Rutledge Scott and others. I expect they are dead, 
from what I can learn. I removed from that section where they 
lived and where I was raised, and where all these circumstances took 
place, in 1808, distant 150 miles, which prevents me from giving 
a correct account as possibly I otherwise could have done. 
I am, with highest respect, Your friend, 

JONATHAN TIPTON. 

From this last document it is clearly shown that there was, 
as a matter of fact, a Jonathan Tipton at the Battle of King's 
Mountain. However, he was not, as stated by Dr. Draper, 
under Col. Sevier, 2 but was under Gen. Campbell, and, further, 
he was a brother of the Major John Tipton who figured so 
greatly in the Sevier controversy, but wliQ did not settle in 
Washington County till sometime after the Battle of King's 
Mountain, viz., 1782. It is made clear, furthermore, that this 
Jonathan Tipton, brother of Major John Tipton, was the Tip- 
ton that figured at the Battle of Boyd's Creek, and, still fur- 
ther, he was the Tipton who afterwards lived in Overton or 
Fentress Counties, Tennessee. 

Now, with reference to the second generation of Tiptons, 
these documents are not so clear. The writer of the letter to 
Mr. Mathes (Dr. A. Jobe) says in reference to the sons of 
Major John Tipton the elder: "John Tipton, the youngest son, 
remained in Carter County and became somewhat distin- 
guished, etc." The letter to Dr. Draper (from Jonathan Tip- 
ton) says: "John Tiptou, my brother, represented Nullivan 
County, and Samuel represented Carter County several years 
each." The records of the Nineteenth Assembly show that John 
Tipton at the time of his death was a representative from 
Washington County. 3 

CHARLES ROBERTSON. 

On page 107 of the Annals the name of Charles Robertsoii 
is first mentioned. He was a pioneer at Wautauga, and ac- 
cording to this reference, came originally from South Carolina. 

2 With reference to Major John Tipton's being at the Battle of 
King's Mountain, in a letter dated August 19, 1839, by James Sevier, 
to Dr. Draper, it is pointedly said by Sevier, who was himself in this 
battle, that "Colonel John Tipton was not there, nor was he a citizen 
of the western country until several years after the war was over." 
American Historical Magazine, Vol. VI, pages 40 and 45. 

"See Appendix. 



SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN EAMSEY^S "ANNALS" 33 

In the above reference he is mentioned as one of the trustees 
of th Wautauga Association, and was the original lessee or 
purchaser of the Wautauga lands from the Cherokees. As far 
as known, he seems to have always lived in Washington Coun- 
ty, Tennessee. 4 The Charles Robinson of Green County, men- 
tioned in the Annals on page 402, is another individual and 
served as speaker of the "State of Franklin" in 1787. 

GEN. JAMES WHITE AND DR. JAMES WHITE. 

While the Annals do not confuse these two names, yet the,' 
are found confused in some of the other historical writings Ox 
the State, as well as general historical publications. Nancy 
Scott, in her "Memoir of Hugh Lawson White," page three, in 
speaking of Gen. James White says, "He was elected to the 
first Territorial Assembly at Knoxville in 1794, and serving 
in that body, introduced a bill creating a literary institution, 
which measure was the origin of Greenville College." On this 
authority the statement is frequently found repeated; thus in 
Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography under article 
"James White," the writer citing as his authority the volume, 
"Memoir of Hugh Lawsoii White." As a matter of fact Gen. 
James White was not a member of the Territorial Assembly, 
and he is here confused with another noted man of the State, 
Dr. James White, then of Davidson County, the representative 
of his county in that Assembly. With this exception the 
sketch in the above cyclopedia is correct as to Gen. James 
White. A lucid article clearing up this confusion with especial 
reference to Dr. James White has lately appeared in this maga- 
zine by Hon. A. V. Goodpasture. 5 

J. TYREE FAIN. 
APPENDIX 

The following additional matter is submitted with reference to the 
Hon. John Tipton, Jr., in which it will be found that further mistakes 
and errors are set forth. Editor. 

HON. JOHN TIPTON, JR. 

The Nineteenth General Assembly of Tennessee convened in the 
third story of the old court house, Nashville, September 19, 1831. 

The County of Washington was represented by John Tipton and 
he was present at the opening session. He was appointed a member 
of the following committees: Committee on Internal Improvements, 
Committee on Banks. It does not appear that Mr. Tipton attended 
any other than the first sessions of this body. He was perhaps taken 
sick shortly after his arrival at Nashville. He died on Saturday, 
October 8, at the Nashville Inn. The following record appears on 
the Journal of the House: 

"'Genealogy of the Charles Robertson Family," American Histori- 
cal Magazine, Vol. Ill, p. 21. 

^Tennessee Historical Magazine, Vol. I, p. 282. 

3- 



34 J. TYREB FAIN 

OCTOBER 9TH, 1831 (SUNDAY). 

At a special meeting of the House of Representatives this day, 
convened by order of the Speaker: 

Mr. Carriger" rose and addressed the House as follows: 

Mr. Speaker: It becomes my painful duty, as a colleague and 
friend, to announce to the House the death of Col. John Tipton, the 
representative from the County of Washington. The services and 
merits of the deceased are too well known to this House to render 
it necessary for me to enter into any detail of them here. Suffice it 
now for me to say that he was a friend of his country and an honest 
man the noblest work of God. I will conclude, sir, by offering the 
following resolutions: 

Resolved, That this House will attend the funeral of the Hon. John 
Tipton this evening at such time and place as may be directed by the 
committee on arrangements. 

Resolved, That the Senate be respectfully invited to join this 
House in the funeral of the Hon. John Tipton. 

Resolved, That the Speaker appoint a committee of arrangements 
and pallbearers for the occasion of said funeral. 

Resolved, That the members of this House wear crepe on the left 
arm for thirty days, as a mark of respect for the memory of the 
deceased. 

And the question being taken on agreeing to the said resolutions, 
it was unanimously determined in the affirmative. 

Ordered that the clerk acquaint the Senate therewith. 

Whereupon Messrs. McLean, Dunlap, Inge and Alexander E. Smith 
were appointed a committee of arrangements, in pursuance of the 
third resolution. And Messrs. Watkins, Claiborne, Gillespie, Rogers 
and Hardin were appointed pallbearers in pursuance of said reso- 
lution. 

A message from the Senate by Mr. Hill, their clerk. 

Mr. Speaker: I am directed to inform the House that the Senate 
will join the House of Representatives on the occasion of the funeral 
of the Hon. John Tipton, deceased, late a member of this House. 
And then he withdrew, when 

Mr. McLean, from the committee of arrangements appointed to 
superintend the funeral of the Hon. John Tipton, made the following 
report, to wit: 

The order of proceeding in the funeral of the Hon. John Tipton 
shall be as follows, to wit: 

That the two houses assemble in the Representatives Hall at 
half after 2 o'clock p. m. and that the committee of arrangements 
and pallbearers proceed to the Nashville Inn, and conduct the body 
from thence to the Hall of Representatives, where prayers will be 
said over it by the Rev. Robert Hardin, after which the order of 
procession shall be: 

The body of the deceased. 
Relations and attending physician. 

Clergy. 

Speakers of the two Houses. 

Officers of the two Houses. 

Members of the House of Representatives, two abreast. 

Members of the Senate, two abreast. 

Governor and Secretary of State and staff. 

Treasurers. 

'Christian Carriger was the representative from Carter and Sulli- 
van Counties. 



SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY^S "ANNALS" 35 

Mayor and Aldermen of Nashville ^nd officers. 

President and Trustees of the University. 

Judiciary. 

Citizens. 

Ordered that the clerk acquaint the Senate therewith. And then 
the House adjourned. 7 

At 3 o'clock the funeral took place agreeable to the above arrange- 
ments. A large concourse of citizens accompanied the body of the 
deceased to the city burying ground, where it was intered with proper 
solemnities. 8 

Mr. Matthew Stephenson was the successor of John Tipton in the 
House of Representatives, being admitted as a member November 7, 
1831. 9 Shortly afterward he introduced and had passed the following 
bill: 

AN ACT FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE HEIRS OF 
COL. JOHN TIPTON. 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, 
That the Treasurer of West Tennessee pay to the heirs of John 
Tipton, late representative from the County of Washington, one hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars and thirty cents, the per diem pay and 
mileage due to said Tipton for his services from the 19th day of 
September to the 8th of October, 1831, inclusive; also the sum of 
twenty-seven dollars to Charles D. McLean, chairman of the com- 
mittee of arrangements, the expenses incurred by said committee in 
the interment of the deceased Colonel Tipton; and the receipt of said 
heirs and of the said Charles D. McLean, shall be good vouchers in 
the hands of said treasurer, in the settlement of his accounts.'' 10 

A beautiful monument stands in the old City Cemetery to the 
memory of Col. John Tipton, erected, it is supposd, by the voluntary 
subscriptions of his fellow members of the Assembly. The location 
is in Section S-E and Lot No. 73, and consists of a round, dignified 
shaft located on an appropriate pedestal, with the following inscrip- 
tion: 

To the memory of 
Col. John Tipton 

Born in Washington County, Tennessee 
Died October 8, 1831 

Erected by order of 
The Forty-ninth General Assembly 

"How sleep the brave who sink to rest 
By all their country's wishes blest, 
When Spring with dewy finger cold 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould 
She then shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than fancy's feet have ever trod." 

"This monumental slab, sacred to the memory of the late Colonel 
John Tipton, of Washington County, in the State of Tennessee, was 

7 Printed Journal of the House of Representatives, Nineteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1831, pages 97-98. 

8 Report of the House Proceedings for October 9, as printed in the 
"Nashville Republican and State Gazette," issue of October 11, 1831. 

"Journal of House, page 190. 

M Acts of Nineteenth Assembly, page 219. 
placed here by the members and officers of the 19th General Assembly 



3G J. TYBEE FAIN 

of that State as a token of regard for the talents and excellences of 
the deceased. 

An early adventurer in this country, Col. Tipton was distinguished 
for his daring intrepidity in the sanguinary Indian wars of the day. 

He gave promise of the future by the deeds of his youth, and veri- 
fied public expectations by the lofty stand assumed and always sus- 
tained. In the councils of the State he was an incorruptible patriot, 
bold in conception and fearless in execution. Covered with honors 
and with years, he descended to the grave on the 8th day of October, 
1831, in the 64th year of his age." 

Judge William B. Reese, in the chapters contributed to "History 
of Nashville," 1890, p. 101, says, after speaking of the monument 
erected in the old City Cemetery to the memory of Gov. John Sevier: 

"It is rather remarkable that all the recent histories of Tennessee 
assume indeed, assert that while John Sevier became a more promi- 
nent figure in our State, having been six times elected governor of 
the State and twice sent to Congress, his rival and opponent and cap- 
tor, John Tipton, became more and more obscure and unknown. Now 
the fact is after Tennessee became a State John Tipton was elected 
ten times a member of the Legislature, while that body consisted of 
not more than thirty or forty members, adding both House and Senate 
together. He was eight times a member of the House, twice a mem- 
ber of the Senate; was Speaker of the House of Representatives on 
1811-12, President of the Court of Impeachment of Judge Haskel in 
1831, and died Oct. 8th, 1831, while a member of the Legislature in 
Nashville. His death occurring on Sunday, both branches of the 
Legislature convened in extra session, in honor of the deceased. His 
body was carried from the Nashville Inn, where he died, to the capitol, 
where his remains lay in state. The funeral services were held in the 
capitol, and the governor, both houses of the Legislature, the State 
officers, judiciary, city officials, and citizens generally followed his 
remains to the old city cemetery, where they now lie interred. The 
writer recently looking over the monuments in that old graveyard, 
came across one erected by the State of Tennessee to John Tipton. 
He was shocked to find that it had fallen down, and lies now in four 
or five pieces. It was therefore impossible for him to get the inscrip- 
tion, as it is carved on the detached pieces of marble, but he could see 
enough to make out that the monument was erected by the State of 
Tennessee in honor of John Tipton. It is to be hoped that the State 
will restore the monument to its former condition. But there John 
Tipton lies, midway between General James Robertson's and John 
Sevier's monuments." 

The editor of the above history, J. Woolridge, in Chapter XIX., p. 
344-345, continues the subject matter: 

"It will perhaps be a surprise to many to learn that such an ap- 
preciative epitaph as the following should be found dedicated to the 
memory of Colonel John Tipton, inasmuch as he is set forth in such 
an unenviable light in certain histories of the State. In Chapter VII., 
p. 101, it is stated that on account of the monument to Colonel Tipton 
being broken into four or five pieces it was impossible for the writer 
to get the inscription. Since that chapter was written the writer of 
this chapter, with the writer of that, arranged the pieces of he broken 
slab in such a manner as to render it easy to copy the inscription, 
which is presented below. However, it is proper to state that the 
inscription was made public in the newspapers of that day, and it was 
also stated that it was written by Hon. Ephraim H. Foster." 



SOME CONFUSING STATEMENTS IN RAMSEY'S "ANNALS" 37 

That the monument was later rebuilt will be seen in a later con- 
tribution from the gifted pen of Will Allen Dromgoole, who gave in 
the Nashville Banner, October 19, 1907, the following description of 
the tomb, accompanied with a fine photographic representation of 
same: 

"The tomb is a noteworthy one, standing some feet against the 
blue. It is a shaft of pure white marble, exquisitely designed and 
executed, one side showing a sword and battle flag and cannon 
ball. . . . This handsome and valuable monument is in great and 
immediate danger of destruction, the slender shaft having been twisted 
almost from the pedestal (itself too tall and slender for perfect safety) 
by the storm which left many an unsightly mark upon the historic 
burying ground." 

The errors and confusions that have ever haunted the narratives 
of the noted Major John Tipton seem to have been further visited 
upon the noteworthy son. 

In the above inscription a number of errors have been made per- 
manent in marble. First, he is represented as a member of the "49" 
General Assembly, when it was in the Nineteenth Assembly that his 
labors closed. Again, on one side, his death is given as having oc- 
curred in "1813" instead of 1831. Possibly these are mistakes of the 
workman, chiseling in the first a "4" for a "1" and in the latter 
getting 1 his "1" before his "3" rather than after it. Or, indeed, it 
may represent the traditional mistakes in, the history of these Tip- 
tons, as "1813" was the correct date for the death of Major John 
Tipton, the father of the man to whose memory the monument was 
erected. 

Note how Judge Reese confuses the history of father and son! 

Perhaps this will explain the confusion of another noted Ten- 
nessee writer as he strolled through this old cemetery and was im- 
pressed to write his pensive thoughts as follows: 

"Every student of Tennessee history is acquainted with the early 
career of Col. John Tipton. He was the implacable foe of General 
Sevier, and is one of the most roundly abused characters in the an- 
nals of the State. He was born in Washington County and died 
in 1831. Perhaps not a half dozen persons know that he lies in the 
old City Cemetery under a beautiful monument erected by the order 
of the Forty-ninth General Assembly. His tomb and the shaft erected 
to General Sevier may both be seen from Summer Street. . . . 
The feud between Sevier and Tipton was bitter and of long duration, 
etc." Will T. Hale (in old clipping from a Nashville paper). 



LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION; HOW NASHVILLE 
HEARD THE NEWS. 

[In the Journal of Illinois Historical Society for October, 1914, 
is found a very interesting article written by Captain William H. 
Gay of Quincy, Illinois. This officer was stationed at Nashville dur- 
ing the winter and spring of 1864-5. His description of how the 
news of President Lincoln's death was received in Nashville is indeed 
worthy to be recorded in our annals. Ed.] 

I was at the time of this, our crowning disaster, stationed with 
my company at Nashville, Tenn., where we were quartered during the 
winter and spring of 1864-65. Here Thomas had met Hood on the 
15th and 16th of December and well nigh annihilated his army. Sher- 
man had marched to the sea with little opposition, making clear the 
weakness of the Confederacy; Grant was moving to capture Lee, all 
of which gave hope and promise that the end was near. And now 
we were hourly looking for news of surrender. 

On the morning of April 10, 1865, the anxious waiting was brought 
to rest by the glad news of the surrender. The end had come, and 
the ojy of it brought out wild demonstrations of delight and shouts 
of victory from thousands of Union soldiers encamped at Nashville. 
Immediately an order to fire a salute of fifty guns was issued to cele- 
brate this great victory, and my battery had the honor to be selected 
to perform this service. 

My company occupied Fort Negley. This fort was situated on 
the highest point, a short distance south of the city, and was mounted 
with guns of heavy and light caliber, which covered all the southern 
approaches to the city. 

We must celebrate! was the spontaneous sentiment of the loyal 
army and the loyal citizens of Nashville; and Saturday, the 15th of 
April, was fixed as the day to give expression to the exultation of 
triumph that took possession of us all; for it seemed that the winter 
of our discontent and the glorious summertime of peace had come. 

And so on the appointed day Nashville put on her brightest robes 
to shine beautiful in this hour of the nation's joy. It was a rare 
spectacle of patriotic splendor, well fitting the occasion. The army 
was to march in grand review, accoutred as for war. It was a bril- 
liant and inspiring sight to see the different commands marching to 
taek possion in the great line of march. Bands of music and fife and 
drum broke the air with soul-stirring music. The infantry and artil- 
lery were marching in separate columns. I was riding at the head of 
the column of artillery. When turning in College Street to take the 
position assigned us I looked down the street and saw a horseman 
riding toward me at a rapid gallop. As he drew near I recognized 
General Thomas' chief of artillery, and I noticed at once he was moved 
by some deep and powerful emotion. When he reached my side he 
said, in a voice of deepest intensity, "Have you heard the dreadful 
news?" 

I then realized that something terrible had happened, and, halting 
my command, I replied, "No; what is it?" He replied, "President 
Lincoln and Secretary Seward were assassinated last night!" 

For a moment this appalling announcement so staggered me and 
benumbed my senses that I was speechless and reeled in my saddle, 
nearly overcome. It was a dreadful moment to meet, and the shock 
of it affected me the remainder of the day. 

I do not remember that I gave utterance to a single word but 



LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION 39 

rode silently down to the Public Square, where I met Governor Brown- 
low, Mr. Rodgers, president of the State Senate, and the speaker of 
the House of Representatives. "Parson" Brownlow had recently been 
inaugurated Governor of Tennessee. It was a gloomy meeting. The 
Governor was seated in his carriage, looking the embodiment of mis- 
ery. His strong, honest face showed the marks of distress he felt 
within. In a low, faltering voice he gave me all the facts then known, 
and I passed on to learn more, if possible, at headquarters. 

The rank and file were now getting hold of the dreadful news, and 
the glad acclaim of the morning soon subsided into subdued mutter- 
ings of resentful discontent. The beautiful flags, which had floated 
triumphantly in the breezes, were dropped to half-mast. Joy was 
turned to sorrow and hilarity to grief. Further proceedings in the 
program of the day was stopped, and the troops were sent back to 
their quarters. Minute guns were ordered to be fired till sundown, 
and the First Iowa and another battery at Fort Johnson were de- 
tailed to perform this service. 

And now came a rallying from the first shock of this awful calam- 
ity, and with a deeper sense of irreparable loss, and it awakened the 
deepest indignation, increasing as the hours passed on, till it reached 
the flood gate of such intensity that many of the well-known southern 
cities sought safety in hiding. Some less cautious in speech declared 
their satisfaction and were shot dead on the spot by an outraged 
soldiery. 

I remained in my quarters the most of the day pondering over the 
possible consequences of this unexpected crisis at such a critical mo- 
ment in the affairs of the nation. Abraham Lincoln gone! This man 
of the hour! This man who held in his. hands a divine mission to 
humanity to solve the problem of the unshackled bondsmen, and to 
finish the great task still remaining, to uplift and make a place for 
a ransomed people. Gone! 

And this is the man whose birthday all the people unite to honor 
each year. And for his deeds and for his humanity he will forever 
stand out the grandest figure in American history. His is the type of 
greatness that will endure, for he was the incarnation of human 
rights. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO 
AND MISSISSIPPI RIVERS FROM NASHVILLE 

TO NEW ORLEANS. 

By Du. JOHN R. BEDFORD. 

Introductory.* 

Readers will find in the document that follows not only an 
intensely interesting and well-written narrative of one hun- 
dred and ten years ago, but also a real contribution to the 
economical and social history of the times when it was written. 
Acknowledgements are here made to later members of the 
Bedford family and friends for the use of the manuscript and 
for valuable data of personal history concerning the writer 
of the journal. 

In description of the manuscript book it should be said that 
it was made no doubt by the author, and consists of sixty-two 
unruled sheets of durable paper, doubled and stitched so as 
to make a volume of one hundred and twenty-four pages, the 
sheets being cut six and a half by sixteen inches in size. 

Pages 1-4 were left blank, page 5 records the title, pages 
6-10 blank, pages 11-13 introductory, page 14 blank, pages 15- 
86 the journal, pages 87-124 blank. The volume, though long 
without the protection of a cover, is well preserved, the writing 
is neat and fairly legible and is intact, with the exception of 
pages 7-10 (blanks) torn out, pages 4144 of the journal torn 
out, doubtless purposely "expurgated," pages 99-114 (blanks) 
torn out, likewise pages 117-118. 

The journal, or at least the preface or introduction, seems 
to have been written after making the journey; possibly the 
whole book in its present form was rewritten from notes and 
placed in permanent shape subsequent to the voyage. That the 
writer never dreamed it should appear before many readers is 
disclosed in the aversion to publicity set forth in the intro- 
duction. 

There is an account of ascending the Cumberland River 
dated Dec. 14 Jan. 19, 1795-6, by Andre Michaux, also of de- 
scent of the Ohio and Mississippi, by F. Cuming, just about 
a year later than Bedford's, viz., May -June, 1808 (supplement- 
ing his tour from Bayou Pierre to New Orleans by a narrative 
of an anonymous writer). 

A still later tour of this same period from St. Louis to New 
Orleans was made December, 1810, by John Bradbury. Re- 
prints of all three of these narratives are found in the Early 
Western Travel Series, edited by R. G. Thwaites, viz.: Vols. 
Ill, IV and V. 

|"*The introductory matter and foot-notes arc by the Editor.] 



A TOUK IX 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 41 

DR. J. E. BEDFORD. 

Dr. John R. Bedford was the son of Captain Thomas Bed- 
ford, a Revolutionary officer of the Virginia line, and his wife, 
Ann Robertson. He was born in Mecklenburg County, Vir- 
ginia, January 18, 1782. His parents in 1795 emigrated from 
Virginia, coming to Tennessee, making settlement on a planta- 
tion near the village of Old Jefferson, in Rutherford County, 
a very refined and cultured community, so influential in after 
years as to receive votes for the location of the state capital. 
John R. Bedford making good use of the opportunities of 
the day, prepared himself for the vocation of medicine, and 
accordingly entered upon his profession in the neighborhood 
of his father's plantation. An influential family in this same 
community was that of General Coffee, and by friendship and 
marriage relations the Coffees and Bedfords were ever after- 
ward closely associated. 

Mr. Thomas Bedford, the father, died about 1804 and it de- 
volved on his son, Dr. Bedford, to administer on his large 
estate. 1 About this time a local interest was started at Jef- 
ferson in the way of freighting the commerce of the community 
to New Orleans by way of Stones River and the Cumberland, 
which awakened an interest in the community for river travel, 
etc. It seems also that at this time members of the Bedford 
family were interested in the grocery and commission business 
at Nashville, including Dr. Bedford, with perhaps his brothers, 
William and Stephen. The following notice in the local Nash- 
ville paper indicates the preparation made for the trip to New 
Orleans, the relation of which is found in the subjoined nar- 
rative : 

MESSERS Bedford & Co. having suspended business until the 
next season, earnestly REQUESTS THE FEW, who are in arrears 
to be punctual in payment by the 1st of January, otherwise coercive 
measures must necessarily be adopted. In the occasional absence of 
J. R. Bedford, accompts will be left with Mr. George Poyzer, who is 
authority to settle and receive payment, and to whom we sold the 
stock of Groceries remaining on hand. 2 

It has been questioned as to whether it was Dr. J. R. Bed- 
ford or his brother William who was the author of the diary 
or journal, but when it is closely read with the number of 
allusions made to his special fellowship with and friendship 
for the physicians met, it discloses beyond a doubt that the 
writer was himself a physician or specially interested in the 
profession of medicine. Possibly he expected to add to his 
knowledge in this profession by his opportunities in New Or- 
leans and the South. 

In the Impartial Review, a paper published at Nashville, 

1 Haywood, Tenn. Reports, Vol. V, p. 155. 
impartial Review, Dec. 12, 1806. 



42 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

there appeal's in the issue of April 11, 1807, a letter ''from a 
citizen of this place, dated New Orleans, March 27, 1807,'' 
that is most probably from his pen. 

It is not known how long Dr. Bedford remained in the 
South probably but a few months, as advertisements of stock 
sales, etc., on his plantation at Jefferson appear in a local 
paper of October -2, 1S07, 3 likewise announcement of his 
removal to Nashville for the practice of his profession. Dr. 
Felix Robertson, one of the oldest and most influential prac- 
titioners, had occasion to spend the winter in Philadelphia, so 
he offered his office and drug business to Dr. Bedford, viz : 
In a notice printed October 29, 1807, 4 Dr. Robertson says: 

He has obtained the kindness of Dr. J. R. Bedford of Rutherford 
County, to assume charge of his shop, who will be found ready to 
obey the calls of his friends with promptitude and fidelity. 

Followed by the printed announcement: 

MEDICINE. 

J. R. Bedford occupies the shop of Doctor F. Robertson, and pro- 
poses to exercise in the practice of his profession. He therefore ten- 
ders his services as a physician, etc., to the citizens of Nashville and 
its vicinity. As to any claim in public patronage, to which merit 
may entitle him; he awaits, free of apprehensions, the decision of 
experience. 

The same paper, issue of April 28, 1808, announces : 

Dr. Robertson informs his friends and the public that he has just 
returned from Philadelphia, and has again commenced business at 
his former shop in Nashville, etc. 

In 1818 lands in Alabama Territory having been cleared 
as to Indian titles, etc., began to be sold at public sale by the 
United States Government, new counties were soon formed and 
many new towns laid out and lots sold. What is now Flor- 
ence, Alabama, in Lauderdale County was the particular ex- 
ploit of a land company headed by Gen. Coffee, Jas. Jackson 
and others. The following advertisement of the day tells the 
story of Cotton-Port, afterwards so well known as Florence, 
the first settlement on or near the Tennessee River. Dr. Bed- 
ford was a member of this laud company : 

THE TOWN OF COTTON-PORT/- On the 16th day of March, 
1818 (being the next Monday r\fter the close of the Public Land Sales 
at Huntsville) will be offered for sale to the highest bidder on the 
premises; A part of the lots laid out for the new town of Cotton-Port. 

The Town is laid out on the West Bank of Limestone River; one 
mile above its junction with the Tennessee and a little below the 
south Beaver Dam and the Piney Fork. 

3 Ibid. 

ibid. 

'Documentary History of Industrial Society, Phillips, Vol. II, p 263. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 43 

The situation is high and dry, promises to be as healthy as any 
other place in Alabama Territory, as near the Tennessee, is suffi- 
ciently level, and elevated above the reach of the highest floods of 
the Tennessee. 

^Within the limits of the Town are two never-failing springs of 
good water. The appearance of the Land and the success of similar 
experiments in the country adjacent, justify a belief that on almost 
every lot a well of good water may be had at a moderate depth with- 
out blowing rock. 

Limestone River from the Tennessee to this place is navigable by 
the largest Keel and flat Bottom'd boats used in the Navigation of 
the Tennessee. Limestone here affords a safe harbor of deep still 
water, in which the greatest floods, boats will be entirely free from 
the dangers to which at such times apprehended from the strong and 
rapid current and sudden risings and fallings of the Tennessee. 

The situation at which Cotton-Port is laid out, has in fact long 
since been proved by the observation and experienced of the planters 
of the western and north-western parts of Madison county, to be the 
place which Nature has distinctly marked out for the commercial 
centre of the very fertile country adjacent. It includes the well- 
known old boat landing Limestone. At this place for several years 
past, not an inconsiderable part of the cotton from these parts of 
Madison county, has been embarked in flat bottom'd boats, which 
ascended with ease from the Tennessee and with full cargoes de- 
scended from this place to New Orleans. The saving in the expense 
of Land carriage, altho' the country for more than 15 miles around 
the boat landing was then unsettled and the Indian claim to it un- 
extinguished, caused the produce of this quarter of Madison county 
to be embarked at this place in preference to any other. The same 
reason must naturally render Cotton-Port the place of embarkation 
for all the produce of the country north of it, as far as the southern 
boundary of the state of Tennessee, & for a considerable distance to 
the West and to the East. 

The country whose trade seems decreed by Nature to centre here, 
includes one of the finest cotton districts North of Tennessee river. 
Of its fertility and probable wealth and produce something like 
definite ideas may be formed, when it is known that at the Public 
Sales now going on at Huntsville, the lands in the Township in which 
Cotton-Port has been laid out, and the next to the North, sold at 
from 2 to 70 dollars per acre and at an average of 16 dollars per 
acre. In the two next townships to the east and north-east at about 
the same prices. 

The 2 nearest townships to the W. and N. W. of Cotton-Port are 
to be sold during the present week. The greater part of the Land in 
these is not less fertile and inviting to wealthy and industrious settlers. 

To people at a distance who may not have enquired into the system 
pursued in surveying and selling Public Lands of the United States, 
it may be proper to observe, that a township is six miles square, in 
each of which after the reservation for Schools there are 22,400 acres 
to be sold in quarter sections of 160 each of rich and high priced 
Lands just mentioned the most remote is but twelve miles from 
Cotton-Port. 

Men of Industry, Enterprise & Judgement in almost every walk of 
life, who seek to better their condition, in a new and unoccupied field 
of action, will not be slow in forming their conclusions if they can 
rely upon these statements. Let them examine the records of the 
Land office and see if they are correct, let them examine the account 
of sales and calculate what must in all probability be the produce of 



44 DR. JOHN R, BKDFORD 

a district in one half of which, capital to so large amount has been 
vested by prudent men in the purchase of Lands at the Public sales 
of government, let them examine a Map of the country and ascertain 
the point at which the commerce of this district must centre. 

To the merchant it must occur that for the exportation of the 
produce of such a country there must be buyers at the point where 
it will be collected that to supply such a country in foreign articles 
of consumption there must be sellers at the place to which consumers 
come to sell their produce. 

Trade cannot stagnate here. Industrious and ingenious mechanics 
must see that the inhabitants of such a country will want houses, 
furniture, farming utensils, leather, saddles, boots, shoes, &c. and 
will be able to pay good prices for them. The upper country on the 
Tennessee and Holston rivers and their branches will afford, at a 
very trifling expense for water carriage down the river, abundant 
supplies of provisions, iron, lumber and other raw materials. 

A good dry road can be had from Cotton-Port, north to Elk river. 
The proprietors of the land laid out for the town intend to build 
a bridge across Limestone; r.nd to make a good road for several miles 
towards the rich country about the Big Prairie. 

From Cotton-Port to Falls of the Black Warrior, as good a road 
can probably be had as from any place on Tennessee river. The dis- 
tance is about 100 miles. 

The trustees of the town will reserve for public benefit, two lots 
including the two springs, two or more lots for a place of public 
worship, a school house, and such other public buildings as the pros- 
pects of the place may seem to require. 

In the plan of the town the Trustees have endeavored to avoid 
everything which will tend to bring all its population and business 
into one span, and leave the rest of the lots unoccupied. They have 
endeavored so to arrange the streets, lots, etc., as to secure to the 
future inhabitants as far as practicable the benefits of shade and 
free circulation of air, and to every family a piece of garden ground. 

A plan of the town and a map of the adjacent country, will be 
left for public inspection at John H. Smith's store in Nashville, and 
a plan of the town with Brice M. Garner Fayetteville, T. and with 
John Brahan in Huntsville as soon as they can be prepared. 

The sale will commence precisely at 12 o'clock. The trustees are 
induced to commence the sale at so short a notice, in order to meet 
the wishes of many now waiting and anxious to commence improve- 
ments in the town immediately.' If the demand for lots requires it, 
the sale will be continued from day to day. 

Terms eight months credit. 

Bond and approved security to be given. 

John Coffee, James Jackson, John Brahan, Jas Bright. Trustees. 

In addition to the town exploit large investments were 
made by these parties in fanning lands, much of it purchased 
directly from the hands of its original occupants, the Indians. 
On a beautiful site three miles from the town of Florence, on 
lands bought of the Indian Chief Doublehead, he built his 
family home and thus became the first resident physician of 
this new settlement, his family joining him there in April, 
1818. In connection with Gen. Coffee and others he was in- 
strumental in the organization of the Marion Land Company, 
among whose stockholders were a number of men of national 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 45 

note, including a president of the United States. On account 
of impaired health, it became necessary for Dr. Bedford to 
spend his winters in the South, commonly at New Orleans. 

Here he made investments in banking and commission busi- 
ness, the firm bearing the names of Bedford, Breedlove & 
Eobertson and Bedford & Mac-key. On his return from the 
South, in 1827, having reached Athens, Ala., he suddenly ex- 
pired, March 24, his remains being brought to his plantation, 
"Mt. Hope," and there interred. 

Thomas Eastin, editor of the Examiner, published at Nash- 
ville, said of Dr. Bedford : 

He was a man of much philosophical research, and of a refined and 
scientific mind, and although somewhat skeptical in his opinions on 
points not clearly demonstrable, was much to be relied on for the 
keeness of his mental perceptions and the liberal exercises of his 
views. 6 

EXPEDITION OF COL. AAEON BURR. 

It is well to note the setting of this narrative in the history 
of this period in the southwestern country. The absorbing 
issue of the day was Col. Aaron Burr and his expedition to 
the Southwest. The crisis of his exploit was reached at Nat- 
chez almost on the same date that commences this journal. 
While little data is furnished in the journal for romantic sur- 
mises or exercise of the imagination, yet it is appealing strange 
that two bright young physicians lately located in Nashville 
should choose the rough weather of winter and the rougher 
method of transportation, to follow Col. Burr's expedition so 
closely to the Southwest just at this time. After all, how- 
ever, perhaps the trying river voyage, accompanied, as we shall 
see, with many dangers and much physical suffering, was little 
less than was promised by the horseback journey over the 
Natchez Trail, characterized as it was in those years by daily 
robbery, and often murder. 

Nashville had gotten itself no little in the limelight of the 
public in the few weeks that preceed the opening of this jour- 
nal by its reception to Colonel Burr. The following appears 
in conspicuous print in a local newspaper of the town : 
COMMUNICATION. 

Col. Aaron Burr the steady and firm friend, of the State of Ten- 
nessee, arrived in this place on Friday the 28th inst. (Sept. 1806) 
and on the next day a dinner was given him at Talbott's Hotel at 
which were convened many of the most respectable citizens of Nash- 
ville and its vicinity. There appeared an union of sentiment on this 
occasion. Many appropriate toasts were drank, and a few of the 
most suitable songs given, when the company retired quite gratified. 7 

It is further related that during this visit Col. Burr was 

e "It Happened in Nashville," W. E. Beard, p. n. 
''Impartial Review, Oct. 4, 1806. 



46 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

graciously received at the Hermitage and likewise dined and 
wined at the residence of Gen. James Robertson's. 

After taking certain ones into his confidence as to plans 
of future operation, arrangements were made for the purchas- 
ing of supplies and their transportation down the river to 
join other portions of the flotilla when the date of embarka- 
tion should be definitely known. The same local newspaper 
later notes: 

Col. Burr left this place on Monday last (Oct. 6th) for Kentucky. 8 

A writer who has presented some features of this period ill 
an earlier number of this magazine says: 

Leaving Nashville for the more immediate scene of his prepara- 
tions, Col. Burr sent back to Jackson $3,500 to be expended for him 
in boats and provisions. Later an additional $500 was despatched 
to Nashville. He left the impression behind him that his enterprise 
contemplated a settlement on the lands recently acquired upon the 
Washita, and in the event of a war with Spain, a warlike expedition 
into Mexico. 9 

On his arrival at Lexington, Kentucky, Col. Burr found his 
political enemies busy at work to discount the sincerity of his 
expedition before the bar of public opinion. Affidavit was 
made before the federal judge seeking to have his plans looked 
into. Later a jury at Frankfort gave investigation to the 
charges but exonerated him, whereupon he again received high 
social recognition by his friends and was equally cried down 
by his Federalist enemies. 

A short time later he again returns to Nashville. Note : 

Col. Burr arrived in town on Wednesday last (Dec. 17th). It is 
said he intends proceeding in a few days to Natchez. 10 

Col. Burr embarked from this place for New Orleans on Monday 
last (Dec. 22nd) with two large flat boats, which did not appear 
to be loaded. 11 

After 1'resident Jefferson issued his proclamation against 
Col. Burr his popularity necessarily somewhat waned in Nash- 
ville. Many of his intimate followers, and largely the popu- 
lace, turned against him. So great was the change of senti- 
ment as that it culminated in a scene described in the follow- 
ing: 

COMMUNICATION. 

Last night (Dec. 30th) at the hour of nine, commenced burning 
the Effigy of Col. Aaron Burr, by the citizens of this town. This 
proceeding is justified by the ardent emotions of Patriotism felt by 
the people, and excited from a deep conviction that the said Burr is 
a TRAITOR. This conviction is produced from the conduct of Col. 
Burr himself in these Western states, and even in this town the 
Proclamation of the President his Message to both houses of Con- 

*Ibid. 

"Col. Burr's First Brush With the Law," W. E. Beard, Tennessee Hist. Mag., 
Vol. I (1915), P. 8. 

"Impartial Re-ciev>. Dec. 20, 1806. 
"Ibid., Dec. 27, 1806. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 47 

gress, and the Statement of Gen. Eaton. And we have the utmost- 
confidence in assuring pur Atlantic brethren that the idea of a 
separation is spurned with indignation and horror. That our lives 
and 'our property are pledged to support the General Government of 
the United States, as the safeguard to our own personal security, 
and as the only asylum for oppressed humanity. 12 

Embarassment was faced, of course, by Gen. Jackson and 
public sentiment caused him to summon the military to pre- 
paredness and secret couriers were sent to and fro for infor- 
mation. One, John Murrell, was despatched in the first days 
of January to the mouth of Cumberland River and beyond to 
Fort Massac. He reported: 

I arrived at Centerville on the 4th inst. Jan. 1807. Heard a 
report that Col. Burr had gone down the river with 1,000 men. I 
arrived at the mouth of the Cumberland that evening, and made 
inquiry concerning Col. Burr, and was informed that he left that 
place on the 28th of Dec. with ten boats of different description and 
sixty men aboard. I left there on the 5th, and arrived at Fort Massac 
the same evening, delivered your letter to Captain Bissell and re- 
ceived his answer, made some inquiry of him and was informed that 
Col. Burr left that place on the 30th of Dec. . . . there are about 
fifty men stationed at the mouth of Cumberland under the command 
of Col. Ramsey. 13 

Reply of Captain Bissell to Gen. A. Jackson. 
Ft. Massac,, Jan. 5, 1807. 

On or about the 31st ult. Col. Burr passed here, with about ten 
boats, of different description, navigated with about six men each, 
having nothing on board that would suffer a conjecture, more than 
a man bound to market. . . ,"' 14 

In the meantime the doughty Colonel proceeded on his way 
with many wild and exaggerated reports preceding him. The 
postmaster at Natchez gave out that he had received positive 
information from the postmaster at Nashville that two thou- 
sand of Burr's recruits were on the river. The sequel is told 
in the following: 

"1807. Early in January. . . . Colonel Burr with nine boats 
arrived at the mouth of Bayou Pierre, and tied up on the western or 
Louisiana shore. He crossed over to the residence of Judge Bruin 
(whom he had known in the Revolutionary War) and there learned 
for the first time that the Territorial authorities would oppose his 
descent, though his landing on the Louisiana side would seem to in- 
dicate that he apprehended some opposition. 15 

Col. Burr submitted to arrest on the 16th, gave bond for 
appearance before the Superior Court on February 2. His 
escape to the Mobile River country and later arrest close his 
history in the South. 

12 Ibid., Jan. 3, 1807 

^Impartial Review, Jan. 10, 1807. 

u lbid., Jan. 10, 1807. 

15 "Mississippi Province, Territory and State," J. F. Claiborne (1880), p. 278. 



48 DB. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

NOTES OR MEMORANDUM OF A TOUR FROM NASHVILLE TO 

NEW ORLEANS DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO AND 

MISSISSIPPI RIVERS IN THE YEAR 1807. 

The following memorandums or Notes were written for two rea- 
sons only: viz: 

1st. To banish ennui and keep at bay the "taedium vitae" of idle- 
ness, either of the body or mind. The scene on this tour is ever 
regular and almost invariable. The banks of the Mississippi seem 
to be of the same height from the mouth of the Ohio to N. Orleans 
a few places excepted, perfectly level, and covered with the willow 
& cotton wood and sometimes decorated with verdure of the cane, 
which occasionally catch the eye and engage it for 1, 2 or more miles. 

The meandering of the channel, is nearly as regular and invariable. 
It is round one large bend on the right, pass a point, into another 
large bend on the left turn this point, into another large bend and 
thus we are continually passing bends and points all exhibiting such 
little differences to the view, that they would barely be observed by 
any, but the lanscape painter, & then, merely for the punctillious 
accuracy of representation, if indeed, any part of the Mississippi 
merited representation. Under every point, which is the end of a 
bend, is either the beginning of an island, a sand-bar, or flat willow 
beach. A large island in the middle of the river covered with large, 
lofty cotton wood, sometimes catch and interest the attention. There- 
fore little interesting employment is supplied to any of the faculties 
of the mind. Such is the uniformity of scenery on the uninhabited 
banks of the Mississippi that fancy and observation are enlivened 
only at the commencement of the voyage. Interesting novelty soon 
wears away, and insipid uniformity soon succeeds. The mind sinks 
into apathy, and at distant intervals only, is aroused by the dread of 
danger or apprehension of difficulty. 

2dly. They are written for my own personal amusement and satis- 
faction. The recollections of past scenes and transactions, in which 
we were intimately concerned, though attended with circumstances, 
that were difficult & unpleasant, never fails to interest & concern our 
own feelings. But it is very improbable that others will be at all 
concerned, but those whose feelings, from intimacy, sympathize & 
vibrate with our own. He, who expects a general concern for his pri- 
vate individual situation or circumstances betrays great ignorance of 
mankind and the secret springs that actuate them. Little minds, big 
with the conceit of their own superiority and importance, imagine 
that every eye points to their persons with respect and every mind 
contemplates their excellencies with admiration. Hence they vainly 
intrude their every thought and action upon others who would not 
otherwise even turn to the right or to the left to notice their greatest 
exploit. Hence proceeds arrogance & vain ostentation, personal de- 
fects, that are so despicable in the eyes of the intelligent, and so 
cautiously shuned by the deserving & modest. 

JANUARY 14th. Four or five days being busily spent in prepara- 
tion for the voyage, went on board the BARGE MARY 10 with Doctr. 
Claiborne, 17 a fellow voyager, accompanied with the friendly wishes of 
a few friends a few friends because we might be under a mistake 
to receive every compliment indiscriminately given us, as springing 
from pure fountains of candour and sincerity. Inquiries into health, 

"See Appendix A. 
"See Appendix B. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 49 

good wishes and other similar compliments, like most manual motions, 
acquire ease and fluency from mere custom and habit. 

Between 1 and 2 o'clock p. m. weighed anchor and sailed, Capt. 
Duffy commander or Director of the voyage and 3 hands at oars 
proceeded very pleasantly 14 miles encamped on the North shore 
weather cold. 

15th THURSDAY Proceeded without interruption 30 miles and 
unexpectedly grounded on the Harpeth Shoals, 18 2 or 3 miles above 
the mouth of Harpeth River, 3 o'clock P. M. With the aid of two 
other Boat's crew, endeavored to get again on float but without effect. 
Passed over to North shore and encamped. 

FRIDAY, 16th. With the same as yesterday made exertions the 
whole of this day to get on float & with no more effect. Our perplexity 
and unpleasant sensations more easily felt, than described. 

SATURDAY, 17th. From the low stage of water in the Cumber- 
land were sensible of the impossibility of floating the Barge and cargo 
to the Ohio. Anxious to proceed with the least delay, deliberated 
and resolved to load two Keel Boats 19 which were at our command, 
send to Nashville for another and float the Barge down to the mouth 
of C d, empty. 

Doct. Claiborne returned for another Boat, I proceeded on to the 
Ohio with the two, loaded from the Barge, and Capt. Duffy remained 
in charge of the balance, to await the arrival of Doct. Claiborne from 
N.ville. 

18th, 19th, 20th, 21st & 22nd. These days with the 17th were 
spent in the passage from the Harpeth Shoals to the mouth of Cum- 
berland, arrived 3 o'clock P. M. was advised of a large sand bar, of 
very difficult passage in low water at the entrance of the Cum Id 
into the Ohio. Therefore passed three miles below it, to Lower Smith- 
land 20 lodged the load on the beach dismissed the boats and procured 
Cumberland being called Upper Smithland. 21 Lodged the load on the 
beach dismissed the boats and procured comfortable boarding at 
John McKay's, half mile above the landing. McKay has been an 

"Between the mouths of Sycamore Creek on the north and Harpeth River on 
the south, the Cumberland River is interrupted by a rough reef of limestone rocks 
that were for long years a great danger to boating, especially in low water. This has 
been overcome in later years by the erecting of Lock "A." which has raised the 
water permanently above the reefs so that they are no longer visible. The steamboat 
General Jackson was wrecked here by running into a snag in 1821. "Hist of Nash- 
ville," Crew, p 307.) 

"See note 16. 

^"This town contains only ten or a dozen houses and cabins, including two 
stores, two taverns and a billard table. There appear to be only about 30 acres of 
land, badly cleared and worse cultivated, around it, though the soil seems very good, 
but as it is as yet only considered as a temporary landing to boats bound up and 
down the Cumberland River, the inhabitants depend on what they can make by their 
intercourse with them, and are not solicitious to cultivate more land than will suffice 
to give them maize enough for themselves and their horses. They live chiefly on 
bacon, which comes down the two rivers, and corn, being too indolent to butcher and 
to fish, though they might raise any quantity of stock, and doubtless both the Ohio 
and Cumberland abound in fish. One the whole it is a miserable place,, and a traveler 
will scarcely think himself repaid by a sight of the Cumberland, for stopping at 
Smithland. There is an old Indian burying ground at the upper end of the town, 
where we found several human bones enclosed in their flattish stone tombs close to 
the surface. Cumberland River mixes its clear blue stream, with the muddy Ohio at 
an embouchure of about three hundred yards wide." 

("Tour in the Western Country," F. Cuming, p. 275.) 

"See Appendix C. 

-4- 



50 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

inhabitant of this place 9 years an adventurer with the famous 
Zacariah Cox, 22 from the lower part of Georgia, is a hospitable, 
industrious, honest man. Nothing worth noting after leaving the 
Barge to this place, but the intense severity of the cold, 23 which on 
the 19th was almost insupportable, occasioning a very thin skim of 
ice on the river the morning of the 20th, which is very unusual, 
not having happened for many years. Passed Clarksville 24 on the 
right, Palmyra 25 on the left 12 miles below, Dover 26 on the same side, 
all of little importance or notoriety, only that they are county towns. 
Eddyville 27 some distance lower on the North bank, is in the State of 
Kentucky, Livingston County, 28 and remarkable only for Ship build- 
ing which is carried on with some spirit, 3 schooners being on the 
stocks of about 160 tons, one launched & nearly finished the other two 
not in such forwardness, also two Gun Boats for the U. States, under 
the superintendence of Matt. Lyon. 29 Two others were compleated at 
this place & forwarded on in November last. 

^Concerning Zacariah Cox, the Settlement of the Big Bend of Tennessee River, 
the Yazoo Land Company, etc., see "Annals of Tennessee," J. G. Ramsey, p. 549-55 ' 
"History of Georgia," Stevens, Vol. II., p. 457-496. 

"See note 52 . 

"Established in 1785 by Martin Armstrong, being the second town established in 
Middle Tennessee Nashville being the first in 1784. It is located on the northern 
bank of Cumberland River just above the mouth of Red River. Was named in honor 
tf Gen. George Rogers Clark, no doubt, through the influence of Col. John Mont- 
gomery, one of Gen. Clark's commanders in his expedition against the French of 
the Illinois, who was one of the first settlers there. When the State of Tennessee 
was erected, the County of Tennessee gave up its name to the State and took the 
name of "Montgomery" in honor of Col John Montgomery, who had met death at 
the hands of the Indians. The U. S. Gazateer, of 1795 says: "It contains about 
thirty dwellings, a court house and a jail." 

(Hon. A. V. Goodpasture, in Amer. Hist. Mag., Vol. VIII., p. 197-199.) 

^The first settlement made in Montgomery County on the south side of the 
Cumberland River. It is located at the mouth of Deason's Creek, and the settlement 
was made under the auspices of Dr. Morgan Brown, being erected by legislative en- 
actment in 1796. It was the first port of entry opened west of the mountains. In 
1802 Dr. Brown built in this neighborhood the first iron works in Montgomery County, 
also kept a general store and run a water mill. He removed to Kentucky in 1808. 

(Amer. Hist. Mag., Vol. VIII., p. 200 ) 

^The neighborhood of which the town of Dover is the center was settled r.s 
early as 1795, by George Petty, Joseph Smith, Larry Satterfield and others, their 
homes being located at the foot of the Cumberland Hills on Lick Creek. The county 
of Stewart was formed in 1803, when commissioners were appointed to locate the 
county seat, it being specified that its name should be "Monroe." In the fall of 
1805 the site of the new town was settled upon, thirty acres being bought of Rob- 
ert Nelson. The name of Dover, however, was given to it instead of that desig- 
nated in the act of the Legislature. The courthouse built was of logs, two rooms 
and one story high, costing about $600. In 1806 George Petty was issued a license 
tc keep an "Ordinary" (tavern). 

,"HistOy of Tennessee," Goodspeed. p. 897.) 

"The site of Eddyville was visited by the French traveler, Michaux, in 1795 
He makes mention of the locality in his Journal, under date of December 22, says: 

"Rowed about seven leagues, and slept at the Great Eddy, which is considered 
to be at a distance of forty-five miles from the mouth (of the Cumberland)." 

"Western Travels," Thwaites, Vol. III., p. 81.) 

_ The town was founded by Col. Matthew Lyon. and was given its name because 
of its location between the two large eddies in the river at that point, one being 
just below and the other two miles above the site of the town. As noted in the 
jcurnal, this place was famed for its boat-building industry. The Nashrille Impartial 
Review has this notice in the issue of March 21, 1807: 

"The brig Melinda was launched at Eddyville -on Friday (28 ult.) and will -,et 
sail in a few days for New Orleans. She is a handsome vessel of 150 tons, the 
property of Messrs. Bullock and Ficklin, of this town." (Copied from a paper pub- 
lished at Russellville, Ky.) 

"Established in 1798 out of part of Christian County, Ky., and named in honor 
of Robert R. Livingston, of New York 
"See Appendix D. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 51 

FRIDAY, 23rd. Light Rains, covered cotton on the beach with 
staves near at hand washed and exchanged clothes. After dinner 
set out for Upper Smithland mistook the way and would unavoid- 
ably have been bewildered, till, God knows when! but for McKay 
whom I accidentally met returning from a hunt was persuing a 
small trail, that led from the Ohio towards the Cumberland river, 
above Upper Smithland in which direction were no inhabitants for 
many miles. Returned home with McKay, glad at having so luckily 
escaped such a difficulty. 

SATURDAY, 24th. Clear and cold. After breakfast set out 
again for Upper Smithland, which was three miles above arrived 
without embarrassment was unknown to any of the inhabitants, but 
a Mr. Cribbs, with whom I had a slight acquaintance was destitute 
of a cent of money, having paid all in hand to the boatsmen for their 
services and required still more to comply with engagements with 
them, not anticipating difficulties, set out from N-ville with only 30 
dollars which was deemed sufficient for contingent expenses, that 
usually occur on similar voyages. Among strangers without money 
and dunned for money justly due! ! my feelings are too painful to 
describe! Cribbs seeming inattentive and little disposed to render 
my situation pleasant, even as a stranger in the place, my feelings 
certainly forbade presuming on his good offices. Quite unexpectedly, 
but very luckily met with Robt. McConnell, now living in Centreville, 30 
Kentucky, formerly in N-ville with whom I was .acquainted when 
a lad. He has ever been remarkable for his goodness, generosity and 
gentlemanly deportment. Did not hesitate to disclose my situation 
and wants to him. He had not money, but made arrangements with 
Woods & Hicks 31 at Upper Smithland, for my accommodation. Ob- 
tained from them money and articles necessary for the voyage of 
which we were already destitute, to the amt. of 75 dollars, for which 
gave a Bill on Mr. G. Poyzer, Mercht. 32 Nashville. Returned to Mr. 
McKay's, examined pork and cotton on the beach, all safe. 

'"This place was in Livingstone County, Ky. The name no longer is in use. 
Perhaps was changed. "Eddyville was made the seat of justice of Cal dwell when 
that county was established in 1809. It was removed to Centerville, returned to 
Eddyville, but again removed and fixed permanently at Princeton." 

("School Hist, of Ky.," Collins, p. 491.) See page 47. 

31 Both of these names stand high in the commercial and social history of 
Nashville. Joseph, Robert and James Woods' names appear in connection with 
nearly every commercial enterprise undertaken in the early days of merchant life 
of Nashville. Reared in central Kentucky, Joseph and Robert married sisters, daugh- 
ters of the noted Kentucky inventor, Edward West, who it is claimed really in- 
vented the first steamboat, giving it a try-out at Lexington in the 179 . 

Another daughter of West became the wife of Moses Norvel, who came to 
Nashville in 1807, and a son, William Edward West, was the well-known artist and 
portrait painter. 

Whether the result of association with Mr. West, who was so interested in 
river navigation or for pure commercial reasons, we find the Woods brothers at an 
early date engaged in the river trade, having a noted commission house at Smith- 
land. Later they moved to Nashville, where they continued for many years in the 
same business. 

"The early experience of these men as commission merchants on the river, in 
receiving and forwarding goods of various kinds, gave them great advantage over 
all others, and they were very successful in their business, and held the confidence 
of the entire community." So wrote the Hon. Willoughby Williams in his "Recol- 
lections of Nashville." 

^Clayton's Hist, of Dav. Co., p. 199.) 

S2 George Poyzer came from Lexington, Ky., to Nashville. He was an English- 
man by birth, and had lived at Lexington some years. His was the first cotton 
''factory" in Nashville, located on what is now 3rd Avenue, from Phillips & Buttorff 
Co down to Church Street. He did not manufacture cloth, only thread. When 
offered for sale, his factory was described as follows: 

"One mule of one hundred and forty-four spindles, a double throttle of seventy- 



52 DR. JOHN EL BEDFORD 

SUNDAY, 25th. Clear and pleasantly warm, passed the whole 
of this day in repose, occasionally examined the load on the beach. 

MONDAY, 26th. Weather as yesterday. Wrote Mr. George Poy- 
zer, Parry W. Humphreys 33 & Dr. James L. Armstrong. Half after 
3 o'clock P. M. while writing, Doct. Claiborne arrived with the wel- 
come intelligence that the boats were in 12 miles and approaching, 
all safe & well conditioned. Closed my letters and returned with him 
to Upper Smithland continued here this night in company with Mr. 
Kirkman 34 & Murrell 35 from N-ville Mr. Cobb of Eddyville & Mr. Mc- 
Nair 36 of St. Louis. No occurrence worth attention. Upper Smithland 
is situated 'on the South bank of the Cumberland River at its junc- 
tion with the Ohio, and Lower Smithland on the South bank of the 
Ohio three miles below. The situation of these places, gives them 
superior commercial advantages, which at present are enjoyed in 
a more limited degree by a Mr. Hamlin Hicks, the only Inn Keeper 
and Merchant of Upper Smithland, indeed of both ' Smithlands. No 
establishment being at the lower. 

The whole exportation, of Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, West Penn- 
sylvania and the greater part of Indiana Territory now pass this 
place, and events of a few years will very probably draw the im- 
portations to all these places, but West Pennsylvania, by this place. 
These circumstances, with well regulated establishments founded on 
good capital, will certainly give Smithland great importance in the 
Western country. Little doubt exists, but that Lower Smithland is 
far more eligible and advantageous than Upper Smithland, and for 
evident reasons, viz: the obstruction occasioned by the large Sand Bar 
and an Island which divided the current of Ohio immediately opposite 
the mouth Cum Id. The nearest current is impassable except in 
high water, of course that on the opposite side of the Island is in 
far greater use. Large crafts from N. Orleans bound above this 
place, seldom proceed further up, except in very high water, Deposit 
& freight in smaller crafts. Therefore in consequence of Upper 
Smithland being measurably blocked up by this Island and Sandbar, 
except in high water, equal establishments at Lower Smithland would 
have preference and become the place of more general deposit and 
resort. It seems a providential regulation that one place shall not 
be endowed with every benefit or advantage, wherefore this possesses 

two spindles, and two single throttles of thirty-six spindles each, with the necessary 
carding machine, etc." 

In addition to the factory, he alsd conducted a store. Likewise his residence 
was in the same plat. 

(Clayton's Hist, of Dav. Co., p. 198. Hist, of Nashville, p. 215. "Old Days in 
Nashville," Thomas, p. 23.) 

"Distinguished lawyer and jurist of Tennessee Appointed an additional judge 
of the Superior Court in the fall of 1807, continued in office till the abolition of 
those courts, January ist, 1810. The fall preceding he had been appointed one of 
the judges of the Circuit Courts In April, 1813, was elected a member of Con- 
gress, thereupon resigning the office of judge. 

(Clayton's Hist, of Dav. Co., p. 93.) 

**A prominent family in the history of Nashville. 

"See p. 47. 

"First Governor of the State of Missouri, b. in Derby Township, Dauphin 
Co., Pa., in 1774. d in St. Louis, March 18, 1826. Educated at Derby and the 
College of Philadelphia (U. of Pa.). In 1794 was a lieutenant in charge of a com- 
pany from Dauphin Co. in the Whisky Rebellion of Western Pa. Went to Missouri 
Territory in 1804, settling at St. Louis, where he served for several years as U. S. 
Commissary. Was an officer in the War of 1812. Elected Governor of Missouri, 
holding office from the foundation of the State in 1820 to 1824, thereafter held an 
important office in the Indian Department 

(Appleton's Cycle, of Amer. Biog.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 53 

such, only as results from its relative situation with the places above 
named by means of the Ohio & Cumberland Rivers. The country 
around, is 

The country around is greatly interspersed with marshes, ponds or 
lagoons, which render it unhealthy much subject to fevers of differ- 
ent types intermittents more generally. And it has not the ad- 
vantage of a fertile soil or good water. But for these Smithland 
would be a very desirable situation in every respect. The settlements 
around will probably ever be of inferior respectability. 

TUESDAY, 27th. Morning cloudy, windy and cold. 9 o'clock 
A. M. Barge and boat in company hove in sight arrived all safe 
and well conditioned continued on for lower Smithland violent head 
wind detained till afternoon then set out. Barge grounded on the 
sand-bar with five bales cotton and 16 or 20 barrels pork only after 
two hours' labor worked her off by a mis-step in haste fell overboard 
on the sand-bar water waist deep. Arrived at lower Smithland un- 
loaded the boat and dismissed her commenced reloading the barge. 

WEDNESDAY, 28th. Weather as the day before. Engaged in 
reloading. 

THURSDAY, 29th. Weather more moderate finished reloading 
and other preparations for an early start tomorrow. 

FRIDAY, 30th. Weather as yesterday weighed anchor and set 
out with very alarming apprehensions of again grounding Ohio still 
falling proceeded 12 miles 1 mile below the mouth of Tennessee 
encamped on the south side of the Ohio. Had a light snow. 

SATURDAY, 31st. Morning quite clear and not very cold. With 
difficult and tedious progress proceeded to Fort Massac, 37 only nine 

37 Some have thought that the site of Fort Massac was first occupied by the 
French when Juchereau established his trading station and tanneries on the "Oua- 
bache" at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Others state that as early as 
1711 the site was occupied by the French as a stockade fort for the protection of 
the Jesuit missionaries andi the fur traders who were subject to marauding Cherokee 
Indians. 

Pownall's map of 1751 shows the location of a fort or post here, and in 1757 
Aubry, Governor of the Illinois country, erected a fort here on his way to re- 
inforce the garrison at Fort Duquesne, giving it at first the name of Fort Ascension. 
On the approach of the English under General Forbes, in 1758, the commandant at 
Fort Duquesne evacuated the fort and destroyed it with fire, a portion of the forces 
went north to Canada, the other part descended the Ohio one thousand miles to 
Fort Ascension, where they strengthened it and left a garrison of one hundred men, 
changing its name in honor of the Marquis de Messiac, Minister of the Marine, to 
Fort Messiac, shortened in use to Massac. Later the English perpetuated a tradi- 
tion of an Indian massacre at this point from which it is said the name Massac 
originated. When the French surrendered the country east of the Mississippi to the 
English in 1763 this fort was dismantled and evacuated. The English never rebuilt 
it, though it was afterwards appreciated by them that it) was the key to the North- 
west country, since it was from, near this site that George Rogers Clark, having; 
landed his company of soldiers, took his departure for the Illinois towns, resulting 
in the end of the English occupation of the country. When, in 1793-1794, the 
French agent, Genet, was fomenting his scheme for capturing Louisiana and Florida 
from Spain by the help of filibusters from Tennessee and Kentucky, the site of old 
Fort Massac was designated as the place for the base of supplies, etc., but General 
St. Clair's proclamation of March 24, 1794, ordering General Wayne to fortify and 
restore the post, defeated their purpose and prevented the passing down the river 
of the expedition A year later this same old fort began to figure in another similar 
project. This time it was the Spaniards, through their agent, Thomas Power, who 
attempted to separate the western states from the Union and ally them, with Spain. 



54 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

miles strong head winds opposing progress. Boat examined by the 
sergeant. Delivered a letter of introduction in behalf of Doctor Clai- 
borne and myself from General A. Jackson" to Capt. Daniel Bissel," 
commander of the Fort. Was received with much politeness and ac- 
commodated with great hospitality partook of an excellent dinner, 
and by the friendly invitation, perhaps solicitation, mor properly, of 
Capt. Bissel, after having taken leave, returned and tarryed all the 
night. Capt. Bissel is of tall straight, commanding stature o genial 
deportment converses with good sense, but not with ease and fluency 
quick and considerably stammering positive and confident, a cir- 
cumstance not unusual with those long accustomed to military com- 
mand he is a native of N. England and has been an officer in the 
U. S. Army 16 or 18 years. Mrs. Bissel is amiable, genteel, polite and 
affable possessing great female delicacy. Hair and eyes black and 
skin somewhat brown. 

Fort Massac is situated on a considerable eminence on the north, 

of a Tour to the Western country," F. Gumming, 1807-8, published in Early West- 
ern Tratcls, Vol. IV, pp. 276-277: 

"On fastening the boat a corporal from Fort Massak, just above the landing, 
came on_ board and took a memorandum of our destination, etc. We landed and, 
approaching the fort, we were met by Lieutenant Johnson, who very politely showed 
us the barracks and his own quarters within the fort, in front of which, is a beau- 
tiful esplanade with a row of Lombardy poplars in front, from whence is a view up- 
wards to Tennessee River, downwards about two miles and the opposite shore, which 
is about one mile and a quarter distance the Ohio being now so wide. The fort 
is formed of pickets, and is a square, with a small bastion at each angle. The sur- 
rounding plain is cleared to an extent of about sixty acres, to serve for exercising 
the garrison in military evolutions, and also to prevent surprise from the enemy. 
On the esplanade is a small, brass howitzer and a brass caronade two-pounder, both 
mounted on field carriages, and a sentinel is always kept here on guard. The 
garrison consists of about fifty men. Some recruits were exercising They were 
clean and tolerably well clothed, and were marched into the barracks yard preceded 
by good drums and as many fifes. The house of Captain Bissel, the commandant, 
is without the pickets." 

Fort Massac continued to be used by the government as a military post until the 
close of the Wbr of 1812-15, an d tne remains that exist today are the remnants of 
this period. A modern traveler by boat down the Ohio in 1894 gives the following 
present-day picture of the site: 

"No doubt the face of this rugged promontory of gravel has, within a century, 
suffered much from floods, but the remains of the earthwork on the crest of the 
cliff, some fifty feet above the present river stage, are still easily traceable through- 
out. The fort waa about forty yards square, with a bastion at each corner. There 
are the remains of an unstoned well near the center; the ditch surrounding the earth- 
work is still some two and a half or three feet below the surrounding level, and the 
breastwork about two feet above the inner level; no doubt palisades once surrounded 
the work, and were relied upon as the chief protection from assault. The grounds, 
a pleasant grassy grove several acres in extent, are now enclosed by a rail fence 
and neatly maintained as a public park by the little city of Metropolis, which lies 
not far below. It was a commanding view of land and river which was enjoyed by 
the garrison at old Fort Massac. Up stream there is a straight stretch of eleven 
miles to the mouth of the Tennessee; both up and down the shore lines are under 
full survey, until they melt away in the distance. No enemy could well surprise 
the holders of this key to the lower Ohio." (On the Storied Ohio, Thwaites, pp. 285- 
288.) 

Andrew Jackson wts elected major-general of the militia in the State of Tennes- 
see in 1801 at the age of thirty-four. His principal opponent was Governor John 
Sevier. He was elected by a majority of one vote. (Brady's The True Andrew 
Jackson, p. 65 ) 

"Daniel Bissel was appointed a cadet from Connecticut in September, 1791; became 



rv \) t ioiu t ic ** 03 n iu%, " -- * - _ , . D - 

in 1821; died at St. Louis, Mo., May i 4 th, 1833- Appleton s Cyclo. of Biog.) 




army 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 55 

or Indiana, 40 side of the Ohio. It is the only eminence between Smith- 
land and the mouth of the Ohio has a very commanding and beauti- 
ful prospect of the Ohio above extending at least 7 or 8 miles all 
this distance the river is from three-quarters to a mile in width. Capt. 
Bissel has commanded here 3 or 4 years. The stockading is strong 
and well executed within and round about the Barracks is covered 
with small pebble making handsome dry walks. Houses of logs neatly 
erected and pretty well finished neat and comfortable. Without the 
Barracks round about at some distance are several smoky huts in- 
habited by miserable wretches who get subsistence some way or other, 
I cannot tell how one or two Indian traders this being a place of 
considerable trade with the Indians Chickasaws and Cherokees," prin- 
cipally. This place has been inhabited many, many years first by 
the French, when claiming all the country west of the Ohio a fort 
was established by them about this time. They were attacked, the 
whole murdered and fortifications burnt by the Indians whence the 
significant name Fort Massac or the massacred fort. 42 The country 
round about not very fertile and much of it flat and marshy. It is 
not deemed healthy. 

FEBRUARY 1st. Rose a little before the dawn of day agreeable 
to the Capt's orders good fires were continued in our rooms the whole 
of the night^-and breakfast ordered by sunrise, soon after rising 
Doctor Claiborne yet in bed Capt. Bissel entered, having been in- 
formed of our rising breakfast was soon ready, Mrs. Bissel appeared 
and served breakfast. Exchanged ceremonies and civilities, went on 
board and started by an hour's sun, with great and alarming appre- 
hensions of grounding or rather, of wrecking, on what is called the 
Little and Grand chain 43 of rocks proceeded six miles, saw three flat 
boats on ground and narrowly escaped grounding ourselves were 
saved only by the sight of them, which warned us of danger and 
prompted us to sound. This apprized us of shallow water and we cast 
anchor obtained aid from the boats on ground, ascended the stream 
above the large sand-bar on the north and passed on the north side 
of it, where there was abundance of water. Then, attempting to 
land, was grounded on shore made exertions with the poles these 
ineffectual, leaped into the water and with prizes forced her off. I 
could not hesitate being the first out, as exemplary for the others. 

Wind continued raging, deemed it unsafe to proceed and en- 
camped. Night extremely cold and tempestuous unsafe to bring the 
boat to shore, therefore anchored 20 yards off passed and repassed 
in a canoe. 

MONDAY, 2d. Wind continued violent without abatement till a 
half hour's sun. Set out and proceeded 4 miles just below what is 

40 In the year 1800 Congress divided the Northwest Territory and established out 
of that portion of it west of the present State of Ohio the INDIANA TERRITORY. 
In 1809 Indiana Territory was divided and that portion west of the Wabash River 
was erected into the ILLINOIS TERRITORY. 

"Fort Massac was the natural trading place of the French with the Cherokee and 
Chickasaw Indians. At an early date the French commenced to designate the Ten- 
nessee River by the name of "Cherokee River," since it had its sources in the region 
of their settlements and was used by them as the highway of intercourse with the 
nations of the west. Likewise it was equally convenient for the Chickasaws, as they 
were located in what is now northern Mississippi and western Tennessee. It re- 
mained a rendezvous for Indian trade after the English took possession of the coun- 
try and remained such until the removal of the Indians west of the Mississippi. 

* 2 This is an echo of tha familiar tradition as to the name "Massac" explained in 

"Well-known localities to the boatmen, called by the French "La Petite Chaine" 
and "La Grande Chaine." 



56 DR. JOHN K. BEDFORD 

culled the Little Chain of Rocks, a place before viewed with such ter- 
ror, and encamped on the north, or Indiana, shore night very cold, 
but moderately calm. . 

TUESDAY, 3d. Set out early and proceeded rapidly 36 miles to 
the mouth of Ohio, where we arrived at an hour's sun in the evening 
passing Wilkinsonville" and the Grand Chain of Rocks, places so 
terrible and alarming by information before given us. Lodged at the 
junction of the Ohio and Mississippi, in a comfortable house not quite 
completed and thence unoccupied. Fort Wilkinsonville was erected 
and occupied 6 or 7 years past and is the place where the troops then 
stationed, first heard and received the extravagant, arrogant and fan- 
tastical orders for cropping their hair." The order was obeyed by all 
but Col. Thomas Butler, 40 who saw and was determined to resist the 
tyranny of the mandate attended with circumstances the most arbi- 
trary. This exciting the violent animosity of Wilkinson, Col. Butler 
finally fell a sacrifice to his malicious persecution not condemnation. 
Fort Wilkinsonville is now the abode of a few Cherokee Indians only 
inhabiting a few little huts The fort and appendages wrecked and 
tumbled to ruins the same fate probably will ere long attend its 
cognomen. 47 

WEDNESDAY, 4th. Cloudy and clold entered the Mississippi 
with the anticipation of a more pleasant and unembarrassing progress 
considerable quantities of ice were floating passed on smoothly and 
easily, fearless of any difficulty, but such as might be avoided with 

""(leaving Ft. Massac.) At three miles passed a new settlement on the right 
where the river is two miles wide, with a very gentle current. The current carried 
us twelve miles and a half further, without our perceiving any signs of inhabitants 
on either shore. We then rowed into Cedar Bluffs or Winkinsonville, where we 
found an eddy making a fine harbor, and an ascent up a low cliff by sixty-two steps 
of squared logs to a beautiful savannah or prairie of about one hundred acres, with 
well-frequented paths through and across it in every direction. We observed on it 
the ruins of the house of the commandant and the barracks which were occupied 
by a small United States garrison, until a few years ago, the buildings were destroyed 
by the Indians. Though our harbour here was a good one, yet we did not spend 
our night with perfect ease of mind, from the apprehension of an. unwelcome visit 
from the original lords of this country, recent vestiges of whom we had seen in the 
prairie above us. May 22nd, at daybreak we gladly cast off, and at a mile below 
Wilkinsonville turned to the left into a long reach in a S. W. by S. direction, where, 
in nine miles, the river gradually narrows to half a mile, 'and the current is one- 
fourth stronger than above. (Cuming's Tour, p. 278.) 

^'In 1798 the first United States troops that came down the Mississippi were 
quartered at Fort Adams. General Wilkinson, Colonel Hamtrack, Major Butler, 
Captain Guion and other officers became rather merry over their punch one night, 
and the General, by some accident, got his queue singed off. Next day he issued an 
order forbidding any officer appearing on parade with a queue Major Butler re- 
fused to obey, and was put under arrest. He was soon after taken sick, and when 
the surgeon, Dr. Carmichael, informed him that he could not live, he made his will 
and gave directions for his burial, which, he knew, would be attended by the whole 
command. 'Bore a hole,' said he, 'through the bottom of my coffin, right under my 
head, and let my queue hang through it, that the d-^d old rascal may see that, even 
when dead, I refuse to obey his orders.' These directions were literally complied 
with." (Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State. Claiborne, p. 362.) 

"Thomas Butler, soldier, born in Pennsylvania in I754I died in New Orleans, 
La., September 7, 1805. While studying law in Philadelphia in 1776 he joined the 
army, soon obtained a company and was in almost every action in the middle states 
during the Revolution. At Brandywine, September n, 1777, he received the thanks 
of Washington on the field for intrepidity in, rallying a retreating detachment. At 
Monmouth he was thanked by Wayne for defending a defile in the face of a Heavy 
fire. After the war he retired to a farm, but in 1791 was made a Major, and com- 
manded a battalion at St. Clair's defeat, where he was twice wounded. He became 
Major of the 4th sub-legion April n, 1792, Lieutenant-Colonel July i, 1792, ana, c< 
reorganization of the army on a peace basis in June. 1802, was retained as Colonel 
of the 2nd Infantry. In 1797 he was ordered by President Washington to expel 
settlers from Indian lands in Tennessee, and made several treaties with the Indians 
*"ile in that country. (Appleton's Cyclo. of Biog ) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 57 

care and caution passed the Iron and Chalk 48 banks on the south, or 
Indian, side, about 16 miles below the mouth of the Ohio, 9 miles be- 
low which on the same side encamped on the sand beach immediately 
at the water's edge the banks being too high and perpendicular to be 
ascended. The south boundary 49 line of Kentucky and the north bound- 
ary line of Tennessee begins at the Iron banks and passes thence due 
east. 

THURSDAY, 5th. Set out early with prospects of making New 
Madrid passes a flat boat lodged on the sand-bar of Second Island 50 
spoke the master was informed they had been grounded twenty days 
boat belonging to C. Stump & Co., 51 of Nashville was 6 or 7 feet 
above water which was then falling proceeded without difficulty 
within five miles of New Madrid, when tempestuous wind forced to 

""The career of General James Wilkinson is as remarkable as his character is 
despicable. His adroitness and power of inspiring confidence maintained him in 
his intrigues, and gave him the opportunity of playing a prominent part in the 
early western affairs. His share in the Revolution was indicative of the man, he 
being concerned in the Conway Cabal and other questionable movements. At the 
close of the war he migrated to Kentucky and engaged in mercantile business. His 
commercial connection with New Orleans furnished the opportunity for his intrigue 
with the Spaniards, whose paid agent he became, for attempting to dismember the 
Union. In this position he first embarked upon, and then betrayed the schemes of 
Aaron Burr. Not able entirely to clear himself of suspicion, Wilkinson was re- 
moved from his Western position at the outbreak of the War of 1812-15; and after 
a futile and mismanaged campaign against Montreal demanded an investigation by 
court-martial. This being ine&ciently conducted, Wilkinson was acquitted, but he 
soon (1815) retired to extensive estates which he had acquired near the City of 
Mexico, where he died ten years later." (Note by R. G. Thwaites, to Cumins' s 'lour, 
Early West. Travel, Vol. IV, p. 245.) 

^On the old French maps this is denominated "Mine de Fer," and mention is 
made of it in the voyage of Marquette and Joliet in 1673, LeSeur in 1700, Gravier 
in 1702, Charlevoix in 1720. etc. Cuming, the contemporary of our traveler, in his 
tour of 1808 says: 

"At fifteen miles from the Ohio . . Five miles lower down we passed 

the Iron Banks on the left. These are very remarkable, being a red cliff near the 
top of a high ridge of hills about a mile long, where the river is narrowed to little 
more than a quarter of a mile wide. From the Iron Banks a fine bay of a mile in 
breadth is terminated by the chalk bank, which is a whitish brown bluff, rising 
from the water's edge, surmounted by a forest of lofty trees." (Cuming, p. 280.) 

40 The history of the controversies concerning the state line between Tennessee, 
Kentucky and Virginia with the final agreements is best told in "History of the 
Northern Boundary of Tennessee," by W. R. Garrett, A.M., Nashville, 1884. The 
locating of the Mississippi terminus of the line at the Iron Bank was a mistake, being 
too far north, but was popularly regarded as such till officially surveyed. 

BO The ancient "Baedeker" of the Mississippi Valley was one Zadoc Cramer, of 
Pittsburg, who, about 1800, had put in print a guide book to the river routes west. 
Harris' "Journal of a tour," 1803, mentions "a little pamphlet published at Pitts- 
burg, called the "Ohio Navigator" that served him as a reference book. Its title 
page (fifth edition, 1806) affirms the book to be: 

"The traders' useful guide in navigating the Monongahela, Allegheny, Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers, containing an ample account of these much-admired waters, from 
the head of the former to the mouth of the latter, a concise description of their 
towns, villages, harbours, settlements, etc., with particular directions how to navi- 



mouth of the Ohio, viz: "Island No. i," etc. {Early Western Travel, Vol III, 
p. 334. "Historic Highways," A. B. Hulbert, Vol. IX, p. 74.) 

51 That this boat eventually reached its destination may be inferred from the fol- 
lowing "ad": 

Money. 

By our last arrival per the Barge Willing Maid, from New Orleans, we have 
received the following articles, viz: A large quantity of Brown and Loaf Sugar, 
Coffee Rum, Brandy, Teneriffe, Malaga and Sherry Wines, Claret in Bottles, Shad and 
Mackrel, Spanish Segars, Chocolate, Patent Shot off different sizes, a large quantity 
of Queens and Glass Ware. all will be sold for cash. . . . 

C. Stump & Co. 

(Itnpar. Rev. April 18, 1807.) 



r>S DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

put in. It continued without abatement till night encamped on the 
beach with prospects of setting out early in the morning, by which 
time the wind might probably abate. 

FRIDAY, 6th. Wind very high, without any sensible abatement, 
coming from the north, continued till the dusk of evening, too late to 
make any progress moved our encampment on the bank above in 
the midst of very thick and lofty cane, which was a great protection 
from the cold north wind that yet continued with little abatement 
cold almost insupportable'"' 1 ' wind abated about 8 o'clock in the night 
were therefore sure of proceeding in the morning. 

SATURDAY, 7th. The intense severity of the weather yesterday 
and last night froze the water to an extraordinary degree far beyond 
what is usual in this latitude, viz, 30, 30'. The Mississippi was 
blocked up from bank to bank with thick and extensive flakes of float- 
ing ice which rendered the river impassable by crafts of any kind, 
great or small. We had therefore no other prospects but to remain 
in statu quo this day out at least how much longer could not be 
anticipated but hope, ever accommodating to our will and wishes, 
pointed to the shortest probable time and flattered us with a de- 
parture tomorrow morning. Stuck close to the fire the whole of 
this day, moving to the river at intervals, with anxious looks on the 
ice, which seemed to come thicker and thicker, if possible. 

SUNDAY, 8th. Weather and ice as yesterday no prospects of 
departure this day but surely tomorrow. This day spent as yester- 
day moved camp about twenty or thirty yards for the greater con- 
venience of getting wood having consumed all adjacent to the other. 

MONDAY, 9th. Weather moderated and the quantity of ice 
greatly diminished but yet unsafe to proceed have great hopes to- 
morrow. Much wearied with 4 days posture in a very narrow space 
which confined the view to a few paces and the weather becoming more 
mild set out on a short ramble with Doctor Claiborne to give action 
to the body and a little life to the mind. For the greater safety we 
pursued the margin of the river, as a guide rambled about 4 or 5 
miles below opposit New Madrid. Spoke a boat crew on the op- 
posite side but the roaring of the ice confounded our voice on the 
way about a mile below camp found our canoe that had broke away 
the day before. On the return to camp caught a wild goose rejoiced 
at the prize on examination, found it had a wound in the wing which 
disabled it from flying it was in consequence very poor but had be- 
fore rudely killed it. Returned to camp after 4 or 5 hours absence, 

'"The winter of 1806-7 was memorable in the annals of the people for its severity 
At Nashville, on February 6th, the mercury stood at five degrees above zero, and the 
next day by 10 a-m. it was down to the zero mark. As far south as Natchez it was 
unusually severe and had been at times during the preceding month of January. 
February 7th in Kentucky was remembered as the "Cold Friday." An account re- 
lates: "On two occasions only since the commencement of the present century the 
mercury has been caused to sink sixty degrees in twelve hours by these cold winds. 
The first occurred on the evening of the 6th of February, 1807, which was Thurs- 
day. At nightfall it was mild but cloudy; after night it commenced raining, with a 
high west wind. This rain soon changed to snow, which continued to fall rapidly 
to the depth of some six inches; but the wind, which moved at the rate of a hurri- 
cane, soon lifted and dispersed the clouds, and, within the short space of twelve 
hours, from the close of a very mild Thursday, all Kentucky was treated to a gentle 
rain, a violent snow-storm, and a bright, sunshiny morning, so bitterly cold that by 
acclamation it was termed COLD FRIDAY." (Claiborne's Hist, of Miss., p. 278. 
Impartial Reiiew, Nashville, February 7, 1907. History of Ohio Falls Counties, Vol. 
I, p. 819.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 59 

extremely fatigued with the excursion ventured out from the river 
and was somewhat bewildered hastily sought the margin of the river 
and stuck close to the beach the balance of the way home. 

TUESDAY, 10th. Cut through the ice that blocked us up, about 
forty feet and set out, under great dread and alarm at the floating ice 
that yt continued pretty thick floated only 3 miles and, alas! stuck 
fast on a large sand-bar 2 1-2 miles above New Madrid. The bar ex- 
tended obliquely up the river nearly to the north shore. It was inter- 
sected by 4 or 5 channels of water thereby making small islands of sand 
which, being covered with ice to the height of 4 or 5 feet, exhibited a 
singular view. At a distant view we were apprehensive that they 
might be collections of sawyers and drift wood on which had lodged 
these vast quantities of ice and therefore thought it safest to pursue 
the broadest channel but, by the by, was the shallowest and we run 
hard on ground about 2 o'clock P. M. Neglecting to secure our canoe 
when found, no means were left us to gain the shore. Slept on board 
above deck without a shelter. In the night came a cold rain, to which 
were every how exposed were wet under and above. 

WEDNESDAY, llth. Still raining rose from our lodging, hav- 
ing a buffalo rug and blankets under the two blankets above, wet, cold 
and with heavy hearts and sad fears, not knowing when relief could 
be obtained. Our lungs were sore and overstrained by hallooing and 
blowing the trumpet the night before, but without any benefit. New 
Madrid being in view we had hopes of aid from there but now de- 
spaired. In this state of extremity a plan was devised and adopted, 
which gave some hope of reaching land viz, a raft of 4 or 5 cotton 
bales, sufficient to bear two adventurers who were to be determined by 
lottery and were to procure aid from Madrid after landing. One 
of the crew, eccentric and fanciful, proposed to saw off the legs of a 3 
by 4 table that was on board, set that on float and he alone would 
be the adventurer on board for the shore and the messenger of our 
unpleasant condition and forlorn situation. Having no need then of a 
messenger to the world of spirits, this rash and visionary scheme was 
ridiculed and rejected. 

At 9 o'clock P. M., just at the moment when about to begin the raft 
of cotton bales, descried two persons through the misty rain, who 
seemed approaching towards us whether on the sand beach or in a 
canoe we could not determine or whether they were directing towards 
us could not be positively ascertained but hope persuaded us they 
were, and for our relief. On nearer approach it was ascertained that 
they were in a canoe and directing towards us after some interval 
they arrived all elated with joy, saluted them with overflowing cor- 
diality and gratitude as our deliverers from this deplorable dilemma 
in which we must either have perished by cold, wet and hunger or 
submitted to a very perilous hazard on an unmanageable raft of cot- 
ton bales in a very rapid current, perhaps more expressively, riffle. 
Immediately after their arrival, having no time to lose, Capt. Duffy 
passed over to the south bank for the canoe, which Doctor Claiborne 
and I had found lodged on the bank while on the excursion to opposite 
New Madrid from our cane camp perhaps from the circumstances, 
more properly our icy or frozen camp. The hands were transported 
to the north shore with the cooking utensils and bed clothes to warm, 
dry and cook. Doctor Claiborne and I passed on in the canoe with the 
two Frenchmen, who relieved us, to New Madrid. Dirty, wet and 



60 DR. JOHN K. BEDFORD 

shivering with cold, we entered the town enquired for . Mr. Jos. 
Humphreys," an acquaintance and friend was advised of his lodgings 
at a Monsieur DeOlive's, and pursued the street hither. As we passed, 
the door of every house in sight was crowded by their inmates gap- 
ing and staring at us with unmannerly, vulgar curiosity we were un- 
certain whether our condition, which could not be made worse by draw- 
ing through a dirty puddle, was so ludicrous as to excite their un- 
mannerly risibility or whether their curiosity was of that kind which 
is common to the rude, impertinent and vulgar of all nations and 
country a little more observation of their general manners and ap- 
pearance, justified the latter conjecture. In sight of these gaping, 
unmannerly loungers we passed and arrived at Monsieur DeOlive's. 
Saw Mr. Humphreys after an interchange of mutual civilities and 
enqi iries, scrubbed off some of the dirt that abounded on our skin 
and exchanged our dirty, wet clothes for more cleanly. Then some 
plan to get the barge afloat was to be devised. The Frenchmen, Lo 
whom we at first attributed great benevolence and disinterested hu- 
manity, had already intimated a proposition to relieve the barge, by 
job, which, and other expressions, betrayed low motives and convinced 
us they were not as pure and benevolent as at first very willingly be- 
lieved. They were exclusively mercenary for we might have floated 
on our cotton bales been drowned if he had not expected to surprise 
us into a good fee for executing the job exaggerated the difficulties 
and increased our alarms, until he secured a promise of 50 dollars for 
the safe delivery of the barge and cargo at Madrid as speedily as 
practicable. We were afterwards informed that this is a kind of 
profitable business with him he is a masterly swindler, and, of 
course, destitute of common honesty. Our suspense and anxiety were 
now much diminished returned to the society of our friend Humph- 
reys, who, being clerk of the district, had intercourse with a variety 
of persons were introduced to the most respectable and worthy. It 
cannot be therefore presumed we made many new acquaintances. 
Monsieur DeOlive is a decent, polite Frenchman a native of Paris. 
He is a justice of the peace and by occupation a baker and inn-keeper 
possesses great moral rectitude. His wife, also a native of Paris, 
is decent and civil attentive to the duties of her station. Had a com- 
fortable lodging this night far more so than the previous night on 
board above deck. , 

THURSDAY, 12th. Rose early saw the Frenchman set out for 
the barge returned passed our time more contentedly with our 
friend Humphreys, Olive and family, and some others, new acquaint- 
ances among whom were a Doctor Dorsey, notable for his long time 
residence here only about 14 or 16 years a native of Maryland, 

"In "Recollections of the West," H. M. Brackenridge, mention is made of like 
courtesies shown by Mr. Humphreys, whom he speaks of as the "cadi," "alcade" or 
local justice of the peace in 1809. See pp. 226-229 of above mentioned volume. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 61 

and a Mr. S. F. Bond, 54 judge of the district of Cape Gerrado, 1 * then on 
a voyage to New Orleans. Hie is a singular character, and somewhat 
eccentric but polite, affable, sensible and interesting views con- 
siderably enlarged and extended by travels to various parts of the 
globe to South America, many parts of Europe and most of the 
United States discovered much observation and reflection possesses 
notion of the nature of mankind, and their moral relations, etc., etc. 
spoke the French language with ease and fluency and from his gen- 
eral good sense, presumed he spoke it correctly among the French 
his manners and gestures indicated him to be a Frenchman by birth 
and education but is a native of Maryland of or near Baltimore. 
12 o'clock, we walk with Mr. Humphreys to Doctor Waters, 56 1 1-2 miles 
from Olive's were introduced to the Doctor and lady and received 
with a distant politeness sat about half an hour, when the object of 
our visit was made known to him aside by Humphreys. It was to bor- 
row money of him to make good the engagements before entered into 
with the Frenchman and to obtain some other little necessary supplies 
for we were 

(Here two whole pages are missing and a small portion of a 
third.) 

FRIDAY, 13th. Weather cloudy, but not very cold. The barge 
and cargo arrived at Madrid last night Capt. Duffy and the hands 
engaged in reloading. We walked to Doctor Waters to breakfast and 
to make the necessary arrangements with him were satisfied of our 
misconception yesterday, as to his disposition and intentions towards 
us were received politely and very hospitably had an excellent 
breakfast had our engagements with the Frenchman adjusted were 
furnished the little necessary (four or five lines torn out.) prep- 
arations too a farewell of Olive and family received their friendly 
wishes and passed down to Doctor Waters were entertained with 
much attention and great hospitality by him and his lady. 

New Madrid is situated on the north bank of the Mississippi about 
sixty miles below the mouth of the Ohio contains sixty or seventy 
families the greater number of whom are French more properly 
Creole, with few exceptions number Americans some Dutch. They 
are mostly abject and degenerated wretches many of the Americans 
are respectable and but few of the French. The houses are generally 
miserable looking tenements many are built in French style, with 
piazzas extending round the whole house, which is but one story in 

M This was in all probability Shadrack F. Bond, afterwards the first Governor of 
the State of Illinois. Born at Fredericksburg, Md., November 28, 1778; died at 
Kaskaskia, 111., April 12, 1832. Having received a liberal education, he came to 
Illinois, where an uncle of the same name had lived for many years, since he was 
a member of G. R. darks' expedition to the Illinois. He was elected a member of the 
first legislature of Illinois Territory and represented the Territory in Congress during 
the years 1812-1814, when he was made receiver of public monies for the territory, 
with headquarters at Kaskaskia. In 1818 he became the! first Governor of the new 
state, serving until 1822. 

'"'This is a provincial spelling of Cape Girardeau. The first settlement was made 
here by Don Lui Lorimer in the year 1794. He* was appointed commandant of the 
post by the Spanish Governor with full civil and military authority. {"History of 
ihe Mississippi Valley," Rosier, p. 189.) 

56 During the Spanish regime at New Madrid many prominent men settled there, 
viz. : Pierre A. LaForge, Jean LaValle and Dr. Richard Waters, who acted in official 
capacities. "They were men of considerable energy, generally highly educated, easy 
in circumstances, endowed with good sense, affable manners, and soon acquired great 
influence in the community, and became leading spirits of the infant colony." (Rosier, 
pp. 193-198.) 



62 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

height. This description includes the best houses most of the houses 
look old and upon the verge of tumbling to ruins Madrid is situated 
on a perfect plane. The river makes annual encroachments on the 
town and in the course of time threatens to subvert its whole founda- 
tion. The neighborhood is said to be of good fertile land, very favor- 
able to the growth of cotton is inhabited most entirely by industrious 
Americans. 57 

SATURDAY, 14th. Breakfasted with Doctor Waters embarked 
and passed on well 10 miles came up with Bond, who embarked the 
proceeding day for New Orleans passed him 4 or 5 miles and again 
grounded. Oh! what perplexity! Two hours' laborious struggle 
luckily set us once more on float proceeded 10 miles further and en- 
camped on the Louisiana shore the night stormy and tempestuous 
my hat was blown overboard and not recovered. 

SUNDAY, 15th. Wind subsided at an hour's sun this morning 
moved on without impediment 30 miles encamped on the L. shore at 
a late Indian camp, where was quite a comfortable shelter. At sunset 
hove in sight a barge under sail supposed to be from New Orleans 
they encamped two miles below us. 

MONDAY, 16th. The barge discovered last night passed us be- 
fore sunrising spoke her, but received no distinct reply. Immediate- 
ly departd ourselves proceeded not more than 100 yards struck a 
large and stubborn sawyer," two or three feet below the surface of the 
water in a rapid current stern wheeled with rapidity barge tottered 
so much as to threaten an overthrow. Bow stuck fast the lar-board 

37 New Madrid was originally the site of a Delaware Indian town. Here in 1780 
two Frenchmen by the name of Le Seur established a trading station. The sur- 
rounding country was a paradise for hunters, abounding in all species of game, etc. 
Such was this station as a depot of slaughter, etc., as it received the nickname of 
"L'Anse a la Grais-se" "Cove of Fat," "Greasy Place," etc. In 1787 Col. George 
Morgan of New Jersey sought to obtain from the Spanish authorities a large con- 
cession at this place and laid out the town, which he named "New Madrid. After 
inducing some fifty emigrants to locate there, trouble arose between the Spanish au- 
thorities and Morgan, resulting in their annulling his partial grants and the occupation 
of the place as a military post by the Spanish themselves, who built a fort there to 
which they gave the name of Fort Celeste. When the United States Government 
took possession of the place after the cession of Louisiana in 1804, the population 
was reckoned as about 1,400. Later, in 1811-12, the whole locality was almost de- 
stroyed by the noted earthquake disturbance. 

""The following obseivations apply to the Mississippi, and point out the greatest 
impediments and the most imminent dangers attending the navigation of this heavy- 
watered and powerful river: These are: ist. The instability of the banks. This 
proceeds from their being composed of a loose, sandy soil, and the impetuosity of 
the current against their prominent parts, which, by undermining them unceasingly, 
causes them to tumble into the river, taking with them everything that may be above. 
And if when the event happens boats should be moored there, they must necessarily 
be buried in the common ruin, which has unfortunately been sometimes the case." 

2nd. Planters^ sawyers, and wooden' islands. Planters are large bodies of trees 
firmly fixed by their roots in the bottom of the river, in a perpendicular manner, and 
appearing no more than about a foot above the surface of the water in its middling 
state. So firmly are they rooted that the largest boat running against them will not 
move them, but they frequently injure the boat. Sawyers are likewise bodies of trees 
fixed less perpendicularly in the river, and rather of a less size, yielding to the 
pressure of the current, disappearing and appearing by turns above water, similar 
to the motion of a saw-mill, from whence they have taken their name. Wooden 
islands are places where by some cause or other large quantities of driftwood has, 
through time, been arrested and matted together in different parts of the river." 
"The Navigator," Cramer; 'Historic Highways." A. B. Hulbert. Vol. IX, p. 74. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 63 

side raised 1 1-2 feet gave signal of distress to the barge crew just 
passed, and ask for aid inhuman monsters ! continued on as if they 
neither saw nor heard us. No practicable means were untried to 
loosen her but all without effect. The sadness and gloom on every 
countenance indicated despondence at ever reaching New Orleans 
for it seemed as if our impediments were never to cease. The slow 
rising of the water, discovered not till after the misfortune, alone 
gave hope but calculated under the most favorable events, to camp 
another night at this place. Therefore some of the crew had passed 
over to the shore, to raise fire, etc., and the canoe was returning for 
the others just at this moment, as if providence interposed, the barge 
moved, at first imperceptibly afterwards was discovered certainly 
on float. There were luckily on board the Capt., a hand and I who 
safely directed her to shore amidst very dangerous sawyers on every 
side. All things again on board, departed at half after two o'clock- - 
proceeded ten miles encamped on the Louisiana shore. Slept com- 
fortably till 12 o'clock rain came on stretched tent and slept pretty 
well the ballance of the night though little wet bed clothes more so. 

TUESDAY, 17th. Morning rainy river rising slowly proceed- 
ed 12 or 14 miles, were forced to put in by cold rain and wind, which 
was heavy the balance of the day and whole of the night very 
rainy blankets wet impossible to dry them or ourselves of course, 
night very uncomfortable snow ensued in the latter part of the 
night. 

WEDNESDAY, 18th. Set out at eight o'clock after breakfast 
wind very high proceed with great apprehension of grounding the 
river being very wide, much interspersd by large, extensive sand-bars 
and islands consequently, divided into separate channels passed 20 
miles safely, nearly through the whole but at last, in spite of all 
our vigilence, grounded at 1 o'clock P. M. our exertions to set her 
floating were fruitless. Oh! what perplexity and embarrassment! 
are we to stick and ground every 2 or 3 days? Some fatality seems 
directed to us particularly, which, after torturing and perplexing us 
almost out of life, will sink and drown us ! Sorely lamented ever at- 
tempting the voyage with these are a thousand other reflections, 
more painful, if possible cast anchor, trained the barge up with the 
current and passed over to the S. shore to encamp how long, could 
not be foreseen or anticipated perhaps never to proceed further. 
Being restless and not disposed to sleep, I rose 10 o'clock P. M. and 
discover the barge to have moved 30 or 40 yards hallooed with great 
gratification, observed more particularly and anxiously, and saw her 
floating slowly, anchor being out, retarded her progress and retained 
her in a right position with great joy roused the hands indeed, all 
were up and much gladdened at the fortunate event. The Capt. and 
two hands hastened in the canoe on board and towed her safely to 
land. Slept the ballance of the night more pleasantly. , 



APPENDIX. 

A. RIVER COMMERCE. 

The part played by the barge and keel-boat in the commerce of 
the South at this period of history is well illustrated in the story of 
adopting and making the Great Seal of Tennessee. When the matter 
was up for consideration by the Legislature of the new State and the 
committee's report, adopted on November 14, 1801, among other pro- 
visions, it was specifically ordered : 

"That in the lower part of the lower semi-circle there be the word 
COMMERCE; and said lower semi-circle shall contain the figure of 
a boat and boatman." [American Historical Magazine, Vol. VI, p. 
207.] 

"Prior to the introduction of steamboats on the Western waters, 
the means of transportation thereon consisted of keel-boats, barges 
and flatboats. Keel-boats and barges ascended, as well as descended 
the stream. The flatboat was an unweildly box, and was broken up 
for the lumber it contained on its arrival at the place of destination. 

"The keel-boat was long and slender, sharp fore and aft, with a 
narrow gangway just within the gunwale, for the boatmen as they 
poled or warped up the stream, when not aided by the eddies that 
made their oars available. When the keel-boat was covered with a 
low house, lengthwise between the gangways, it was dignified with 
the name of 'barge.' 

"The only claim of the flatboat or 'broad-horn,' to rank as a vessel 
was due to the fact that it floated upon water and was used as a 
vehicle of transportation. Keel-boats, barges and flatboats had 
prodigious steering oars, and oars of the same dimensions were hung 
on fixed pivots on the sides of the last named by which the shapeless 
and cumbrous contrivance was in some sort managed." 

("Miss. As a Province, Terr. & State," Claiborne, p. 537.) 

It was about 1805-6 that merchant barges began to make periodic 
trips from Nashville to New Orleans and return. It took them about 
ninety days to make the trip each way, or a total of six months or a 
round trip. 

Because of low water in the Cumberland at certain seasons of the 
year these barges or boats only made on an average one round trip, 
commonly leaving Nashville in December or January and returning 
in May or June. They usually went down loaded with cotton and pork 
and returning brought sugar, coffee and other groceries. The time 
of departure and arrival of these boats were gala days in the history 
of the town and community, great crowds assembling to bid them 
good-bye and to welcome them on their return. 

Among the earliest firms that owned barges and keel-boats run- 
ning regularly to New Orleans was that of James Stewart and James 
Gordon. It is said they were the first to bring a barge from New Or- 
leans to Nashville. Stump, Rapier & Turner was another firm having 
boats in the New Orleans trade. This same barge "Mary" was ad- 
vertised by George Poyzer in October, 1807, as "the fast going Mary" 
then lying near the Upper Ferry and ready to take on freight for 
down the river. 

Either the same barge, or one bearing a like name "Mary." was 
advertised to leave Nashville December 10, 1817, by the firm of Joseph 
and Robert Woods. (Hist, of Nashville Crew, p. 302-304, Hist, of 
Davidson County, Clayton, p. 203, etc.) 

In addition to the boats in the New Orelans trade there were keel- 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 65 

boats ptying between Nashville and the mouth of Cumberland River to 
bring up salt from the salt works in the Saline region of the Illinois, 
also such goods as were brought from the East over the Allegheny 
Mountains and down the Ohio to the Cumberland. The freight price 
from Philadelphia or Baltimore by this route was $10 per hundred- 
weight. , 

B. CLAIBORNE FAMILY. 

Dr. Thomas Augustine Claiborne was one among a number of 
brothers who came from Virginia to Tennessee and the further South 
about the beginning of the nineteenth century all of whom became 
social and civic leaders. General Ferdinand Leigh Claiborne, born 
in Sussex County, Virginia, 1772, died 1813 at Natchez, was noted in 
military and civic matters. Gov. William Charles Cole Claiborne, 
after living in Tennessee a number of years was appointed Governor 
of Mississippi Territory, then later of the Louisiana Territory, born 
1775, died 1817. Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne lived in Virginia, served, 
in Congress 1825-1837. 

Dr. Thomas Augustine Claiborne, the companion of Dr. Bedford on 
his tour to New Orleans, was born in Virginia. Came to Nashville 
and married, April 20, 1801, Sarah, eldest daughter of William Tir- 
rell Lewis, their children were: Ferdinand, born 1804, died 1832; 
Mary E. T., born 1806, married Hon. Abram Maury; Micajah Lewis 
Claiborne, born 1808, died 1878. 

Dr. Claiborne was in every way a distinguished citizen and took 
an important part in public leadership and civic service. In 1806, 
with others, he served as commissioner to build the new town jail; in 
1807 he joined Dr. Bedford in his tour South. On his return, in 
October of same year, we find his leadership in organizing one 
of the earliest literary clubs of the town, viz: "The Nashville Discus- 
sion Society." 

"On the northeast corner of Market Street and the Square was 
the first brick 'office-house' in Nashville. This was built by Dr. Clai- 
borne. ... It was two rooms deep and two stories high, the 
front room downstairs being used as an office, while the other three 
were used as his residence." (Mrs. Thomas, "Old Days in Nash- 
ville," p. 13.) 

Dr. Thomas Claiborne is not to be confused with his relative, 
Major Thomas Claiborne, member of Congress and the first Grand 
Master Mason of the State of Tennessee. He also married into the 
Lewis family, the daughter of Hon. Joel Lewis, brother of Wm. Tirrell 
Lewis. 

C. LOCATION OF SMITHLAND. 

Letter of John Sappington 1 , Red River 2 , Tennessee, September 20, 
1791, to Major William Croghan 3 . MS. in Wise. Hist. So. Draper 
Collection, XX Vol. V., No. 24. Printed in American Industrial So- 
ciety (Doc. Hist, of) Phillips, Vol. II., p. 262. 

J Qne among a number of brothers of this name who settled in Kentucky and 
Tennessee. This letter to Maj. Croghan was written from "Red River," possibly at 
this time he was a citizen of Tennessee County (Montgomery). Afterward he re- 
moved to Missouri and settled in Saline County, where his family were very promi- 
nent in social and political circles. 

(Mo. His. So. Collec's., Vol II., No. 2, p. 2.) 

2 A branch of the Cumberland entering in from the north near Clarksville, the 
writer lived in Montgomery County, Tenn. 

3 Ma.jor William Croghan came to America from. Ireland when quite young. He 
was a nephew of the noted George Croghan, who was long employed by the British as 
Indian agent under Sir William Johnson. Unlike his uncle, he gave his service to 



06 DR. JOHN K. BEDFOUI) 

Dr. Sr: I, with pleasure, embrace this opportunity by Coin. 
James Ford', to inform you that I am well at present and have en- 
joyed a good state of health since I left the Falls of the Ohio. 

I also have the pleasure to introduce to you Coin. James Ford, a 
person anxious to make a purchase near the mouth of Cumberland 
River. There are a number of families that would wish to (buy) any 
land adjacent to the town. Moses Shelby 5 requests me to inform you 
he would give cash for five or six hundred acres of land near the 
Town five or six miles distant. He would wish to know by this op- 
portunity what you would take per hundred for land in that distance 
from the Town. Also several others wish to know what you would 
take for Land near the Mouth of Little River', or Ramsey's Camp, 
particularly a Mr. Desha 7 , he would wish to purchase two or three 
thousand acres. He can make you good pay in Beef Cattle, as he has 
a large Stock of Cattle. He is a very punctual man. I have not the 
least Doubt provided you would engage Land at a certain fixed price 
your Town would be established at the Mouth of Cumberland im- 
mediately. I have drew up an article for the settling of sd Town & 

the colonies in the Revolution and at its close married Lucy, daughter of John and 
sister of George Rogers Clark. This family had in 1785 moved to Kentucky and 
settled near the Falls or Louisville. Here, at "Locust Grove," Major Croghan lived 
till his death at the age of seventy years, September, 1822. The close of the letter 
gives remembrance to different members of the Clark family, viz: the father, John 
Clark; Col. Richard Clough Anderson, who married another sister of G R. Clark; 
Dr. James O'Fallon, a finely educated Irishman who came to America after the Revo- 
lution and married Francis Eleanor, another sister of G. R. Clark. This family 
afterwards moved to St. Louis The "Falls of the Ohio" is the older name for 
the location of Louisville. 

(History of Indiana, English. Vol. II , p. 1002.) 

*"Perhaps the most striking figure of the country, in the pioneer days, was 
Colonel James Forde. He was about six feet tall, rather fleshy and of commanding 
appearance. He sat a horse perfectly, and in the saddle he was the admiration of all 
the settlements. Personally, he was kind and affable, as well as bold, outspoken and 
independent in his sentiments. He was thrifty and successful in business affairs. 
!< urtli Captain in the Davidson County militia in 1784, he became a Colonel in the 
militia of Tennessee County and had a command in both the Coldwater Expedition 
of 1787 and the Nicojack campaign of 1794. He was the representative of Tennessee 
County in the Legislature of the Southwest Territory in 1793 to 1796; and repre- 
sented Montgomery and Robertson counties in the Senate of the First and Second 
General Assemblies of the State of Tennessee. He died in May, 1808." 
(Hon. A. V. Goodpasture, in Amer. Hist. Mag. Vol. VIII., p. 197.) 
'General Evan Shelby of "Kings Meadows" had three very distinguished sons. 
Major Evan Shelby L killed by the Indians in Montgomery County, Tennessee; Gov- 
ernor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky and Col. Moses Shelby. These sons were all in the 
Battle of King's Mountain, and before this in numerous expeditions against the 
Indians. In 1782 Col. Moses Shelby, with other adventurers, came to the Cumber- 
land settlement in central Tennessee, later followed the frontier settlers further down 
the Cumberland River to Montgomery County, where he was living when the above 
letter was written. Later he moved still further down the Cumberland to the new 
County of Livingstone in Western Kentucky, where, at the unanimous solicitation of 
the people, he was appointed Colonel of the County After the acquisition of the 
Territory of Louisiana, he removed to the west bank of the Mississippi, settling a 
plantation two miles below New Madrid, where he lived till his death, September 17. 
1828. His brother, Governor Shelby, wrote in a letter dated Danville, Ky., June 16, 
1823: 

"Covered with the scars of thirteen deep wounds, received in defense of his 
country, for which ha is too proud to receive a pension, always disdaining to apply 
for one. ln_ youth he was of a warm and ardent disposition, always ready to risk his 
life for a friend, and profuse of his property (of which he had a considerable inheri- 
tance), even to a fault. It would exceed the bounds of a letter to give' you a state- 
ment of the many hair-breadth and eminent dangers through which he passed Soon 
after his marriage., he became impressed with religious sentiments, joined the Metho- 
dist Church, liberated his slaves, and, so far as I know and believe, has always sup- 
ported a good character." (Dr. Archibald Henderson's "Isaac Shelby," in North 
Carolina Booklet, July 1918, p. 28.) 



APPENDIX 67 

find that if you would give an out Lott of about five acres with the 
two Lotts in Town the Settlement would be established this Fall. 
Indeed, provided you would fix a reasonable price on the Twenty 
acre Lotts at the expiration of the ten years, I have the promise of a 
Number of Adventurers sufficient to establish a permanent Settle- 
ment. I shall expect to hear from you fully and particularly on the 
above head as I intend to become an Adventurer myself I conceive 
it must be a place of Trade at present and a future day a place of 
Consequence as it is the key of the Settlements on Cumberland & the 
Ohio above & as it lies near the mouths of several Capital Rivers also 
near the present Spanish Settlements. I conclude with presenting my 
compliments to Mrs. Croghan, Mr. Clark's family, Colin Andeson & 
his Lady Doctr James Ofallon & his Lady & my Acquaintaintances in 
generall in the neighborhood of the Falls & with subscribing myself 
Yr. Mst. Obt. Servt &c. 

JNO. SAPPINGTON. 

APPENDIX D. 
MATTHEW LYON. 

"Col. Matthew Lyon, the most remarkable character among the pub- 
lic men of Southwestern Kentucky, was born in Wicklow County, Ire- 
land, in 1746, and died at Spadra Bluff, Arkansas Territory, August 
1, 1822, aged 76. 

His father, while Matthew was a small boy, engaged in a con- 
spiracy against the British crown, for which he was tried, condemned 
and executed. His widow soon married; and Matthew, at the age of 
19, fled from the cruelty of a step-father to America. To secure his 
passage, he bound himself to the captain to work for twelve months 
after his arrival. The captain sold him to a farmer in Connecticut 
for two bulls; he served his time faithfully and became a free man; 
but ever after his favorite by-word was "By the bulls that bought 
me." Subsequently he became a citizen of Vermont; and in 1776, 
when the Revolutionary war broke out, entered the army of the 
colonists as a lieutenant in a company of "Green Mountain Boys." 
In the latter part of that year, he was reduced to the ranks for dis- 
obeying orders by leaving his command on Onion River (to visit his 
sweetheart) ; but he subsequently served as temporary paymaster of 
the Northern army in 1777, and in 1778 as deputy secretary of the 
Governor of Vermont, and also clerk of the court of confiscation; and 
eventually rose to the rank of Colonel of militia. 

At the close of the war he married the girl who cost him his lieu- 
tenancy; but she soon died, leaving one child. He founded the town 

6 A tributary of the Cumberland from the north side, it flows through Trigg 
County, Ky._, in a northwest course, emptying into the Cumberland at the northwest 
corner of the county. It has been declared a navigable stream up seventeen miles to 
the county town of Cadiz. 

7 This was probably Joseph Desha. His father. Robert Desha, of French descent, 
came from Pennsylvania to Kentucky in 1781, the next year he settled further south 
in Tennessee, four miles east of where the town of Gallatin, Sumner County, was 
afterwards located. Here he reared a noted family. His son, Joseph Desha, was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1768, but was reared in Sumner County, Tenn.; was a suc- 
cessful farmer and stock raiser. In 1792 he removed from Tennessee to Mason 
County, Ky. Served with General Wayne in 1794, represented his county in the 
Legislature for several terms from 1797-1807. Made a Major-General in the War 
of 1812 In 1824 was elected Governor of Kentucky. His wife, Margaret Bledspe, 
was the eldest daughter of Col. Isaac Bledsoe, of Sumner County, Tenn. He died 
at Georgetown, Ky., 1842. 

("Historic Sumner County," J. G. Cisco, p. 170-171.) 



68 AITKNDlX 

of Fairhaven in 1783, where he built saw mills, grist mills, an iron 
foundry, engaged in paper making from basswood, and in a variety 
of other occupations; and at one time edited a newspaper, to which 
he gave the strangest of names "THE SCOURGE OF ARISTOC- 
RACY AND REPOSITORY OF IMPORTANT POLITICAL 
TRUTH," it was of an ultra-Democratic character, and part of the 
types and the paper were manufactured by himself. He served that 
town in the Vermont Legislature ten years; in 1786 he was Assistant 
Judge of Rutland County. 

Becoming an active poltical leader, he was elected to Congress in 
1797 by the anti- Federal party; and during his service, married Mrs. 
Beulah Galusha, a widowed daughter of Governor Thomas Chitten- 
den, of Vermont. He was extremely bitter against the administra- 
tion of President John Adams; and in October, 1798, under the alien 
and sedition law, was convicted of a libel on the President, fined 
?1,000, and confined for four months in the Vergennes goal. An at- 
tempt to expell him from Congress as a convicted felon failed for 
want of a two-thirds vote. 

During this congressional term, he had a violent personal alterca- 
tion on the floor of the House, caused by spitting in the face of Roger 
Griswold, of Connecticut, ending in blows; but the motion to expell 
them was defeated. In 1799, while a prisoner in goal, he was re- 
elected for two years, 1799-1801, and taken from prison by his friends 
to represent them in Congress. Just before the close of this term, on 
February 17, 1801, on th 36th ballot, Col. Lyon decided the painful and 
protracted seven days' voting for President, by casting his vote and 
that of Vermont for Thomas Jefferson making him President in 
preference to Aaron Burr. 

In the spring of 1801, with him family, and his sons-in-law, John 
Messenger and Dr. Geo. Caldwell, and their families, Col. Lyon sailed 
down the Ohio River and up the Cumberland in Livingston County, 
and founded Eddyville. He became a large land holder, and owned 
many slaves. He served in the Legislature of Kentucky and again in 
Congress for eight years, 1803-1811. Through his instrumentality 
Eddyville became a place largely known for boat building, not only of 
barges and keels, but gun-boats, etc. (See note "Eddyville"). In 
1811-1812, Col. Lyon was employed by the United States War Depart- 
ment to build gun-boats for the war with England, but he became 
bankrupt from the speculation. In 1820, he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Monroe a factor among the Cherokee Indians in Arkansas; and 
when, that territory was organized in 1822, was elected the first dele- 
gate to Congress, but did not live to take his seat. His remains were 
interred at Eddyville." 

(Collin's "School Hist, of Ky." p. 491). 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 



Isaac Shelby, Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero, Parts 
I and II, pages 79 and 75. By Dr. Archibald Henderson, University 
of North Carolina. 

Some very original research and finely written historic matter 
is set forth in these two late booklets from the Den of this noted his- 
torical student. Originally printed in the North Carolina Booklet, 
January, 1917, and July, 1918, this valuable contribution to western 
border life has been re-issued, well illustrated and finely printed. 
Nothing has been put in print since the issue of Draper's "King's 
Mountain" that is so valuable concerning Isaac Shelby. An interest- 
ing setting is given to this worthy character in the history of his time 
and many new documents appear for the first time in print. The 
booklets can be had on application to the author. 

Historia, the quarterly publication of the Oklahoma Historical 
Society, has as its leading article for the July number, "Sam Houston 
In Indian Territory." It is with regret that we note the article as 
hardly in keeping with the general character of historic matter issued 
in this publication. While it contains interesting data concerning the 
life of Houston among the Indians, the article is written in a style 
and vein wholly lacking in historic appreciation. As Tennessee lays 
claim to Houston's early history, readers of the article in this state 
will be greviously disappointed. It is to be hoped that the author of 
this article in Historia is better posted on Oklahoma history than he 
seems to be in Holy Writ. Speaking of the devotion of Houston to 
his first wife, he says: "For her he lived, his life, his all, his pillow 
of fire by day and burning bush at night!" The confusion of figures 
reminds ug of the Hibernian who gave expression to his suspicion in 
the words: "Sir, I smell a rat, I see it hovering in the air, and, by 
heavens, I'll nip it in the bud." or, as cited by our local Tennessee 
press, descriptive of an accentuated period in the speech of a local 
politician, using the proverbial spider and the fly, said: "John went 
into the parlor, poor fellow, and they tied the knot in his tail that he 
liked never to have got out!" 

The South Atlantic Quarterly for April has its usual fine list of 
contributions. One, "Walter Hines Page; Friend of the South," is 
a very sympathetic estimate of the late publisher and printer by Dr. 
Edwin Mimms of Vanderbilt University. Another appreciation, 
"George W. Cable," by Dr. Edwin W. Bowen, will be widely read. 
Announcement is made that the editorial management of the maga- 
zine has changed. Dr. Wm. K. Boyd, Professor of History, and Dr. 
Wm. H. Wannamaker, Dean of Trinity College, succeed as editors. 

The State Historical Society of Iowa has issued a pamphlet en- 
titled, "A Descriptive List of the Confederate Flags in the Possession 
of the State Historical Society of Iowa." Inasmuch as so far it has 
not been possible to give the history and original owners of these 
much-revered relics, the publication of this list may lead to the iden- 
tification of some of them. 

The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine for April gives as 
frontispiece a picture and sketch of Old St. Thomas Church in Wash- 
ington County, Pennsylvania, with the statement: "It is not general- 
ly known that the Episcopalians organized the pioneer church west 
of the Allegheny Mountains where the English language was used, 



70 APPENDIX 

and erected the first house of worship in that entire territory, viz: 
1770." 

The society that fosters this magazine finds itself in deep sympathy 
with the Wyoming Historical Society, in that as yet, in all of its long 
history, it has not been able to impress itself upon the consideration if 
the State to the end that a modicum of financial aid might be received. 
With this plea the Wyoming Society issues a very creditable pamphlet 
entitled "Miscellanies," 1919. Two of the contributions have much 
more than a local State interest, viz.: the "Texas Trail" and "Some 
of the Newspapers of Wyoming." In the latter article note is made 
that the widely-known Bill Nye, as early as 1876, located at the fron- 
tier post of Laramie, and soon became connected with the "Weekly 
Sentinel," issued at that place. His enjoyable wit and humor is re- 
called in the reproduction of his famous "Ode to a Cucumber," and 
"Resignation" as postmaster of that "coming" city! 

Another worthy volume is added to the list of the publications of 
the Iowa Historical Society in "Legal and Political Status of Women 
in Iowa, 1838-1918," by Ruth A. Gallaher. The preface states: "The 
writer has attempted to present a general survey of the status of 
women in Iowa by pointing out the distinctions between men and 
women which have been established by law or sanctioned by judicial 
rulings. The status of women with reference to activities which are 
not regulated either dirctly or indirectly by the government is out- 
side the scope of this monograph." 

Volume XIV, 1915-1918, of the Kansas Historical Collections is a 
large handsome double number, edited by W. E. Connelly, Secretary, 
with 896 pages, well indexed and finely illustrated. Articles of note 
are: "Indian Occupancy of the Great Plains," "Kansas Penitentiary 
Its Building and Operation," "Early Missionaries of the Kansas and 
Platte Valley," "Territorial Kansas and Civil War," and "Biography." 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORI 
.CAL SOCIETY. 

MEETING OF JANUARY 14, 1919. 

New Members Elected: George Phillips, Dr. Wilbur Nelson, State 
Geologist, Mrs. Robert F. Weakley, and Prof. Chas. B. Caldwell of 
Montgomery Bell Academy, all of Nashville. 

Gifts Received: A silhouette likeness of Hon. Felix Grundy, by 
Mrs. Whiteford Cole, his great-granddaughter. A bronze medal 
given to Maj. John L. Brown of the Third Tennessee Infantry for 
services on the battlefield in the Mexican War, by Mrs. W. M. Duncan, 
per her brother, Mr. Chas. H. Eastman. A handsome volume, "The 
Boddie & Allied Families," by the author, Hon. John T. Boddie, 
Chicago. "The Killing of Adam Caperton & Sketch of the Caperton 
Family." The Catholic Historical Magazine, Vols. I, II, III, IV, to 
current number, by Catholic University, Washington, D. C. "Hill's 
Tenn., Ala. & Miss. Almanac and State Register" for years 1853-1856 
and 57 (loaned), by Mr. Charles Waddle, Fayetteville, Tenn., per Mr. 
R. H. Gray. "Order" issued from the Provost Marshal's Headquar- 
ters, Tupelo, Miss., January 12, 1865, to Capt. T. J. Gray, Starnes' 
Escort, 41st Tennessee Cavalry (loaned). Postal card showing "Old 
House in Fayetteville, Tenn., where Gen. Andrew Jackson was quar- 
tered on his way to the battlefields of Alabama, and the monument 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 71 

erected by the local D. A. R. Chapter to commemorate the site where 
his army was mobilized, Camp Blount; presented by R. H. Gray. 
Pocket Testament carried by Capt. T. J. Gray during the war, 1860- 
65, given by his son, R. H. Gray. Also by same, eighteen unbound 
volumes, Acts of Tennessee, Journals of Senate and House, being 
loan of D. L. Conger, Esq., Fayetteville, Tenn. 

Dr. A. E. Parkins, of the department of geography, George Pea- 
body College for Teachers, read a highly interesting article on "Geog- 
raphy as Related to the World-War." 

MEETING MARCH 11, 1919. 
(No meeting was held in February.) 

New Members Elected: Mr. Lee J. Loventhal, Nashville; Rev. 
Francis Tappy, Shelbyville; Mr. Robert W. Green, Manchester, Tenn. 

Gifts Received: A hand-carved wood-cut of the State Capitol 
building, by the Nashville Banner, per E. M. Foster, with statement 
that the cut was originally made on order of Mr. A. J. Wheeler of 
this city, some thirty years ago and had been given by him to the 
Banner company. 

"A History of Schenectady During the Revolution," by the author, 
Willis T. Hanson, Jr. (privately printed). "Introduction to English 
History," by the author, John L. Sandford, Baltimore, Md. "Biography 
of Governor Wm. B. Bate," by the author, Hon. Park Marshall, Frank- 
lin, Tenn. A copy of the "Memorial Edition" of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal, containing interesting matter concerning the Hon. Henry 
Watterson, many years editor of same; presented by Judge Robt. 
Ewing. 

The special event of the evening was hearing read an interesting 
paper on "My Experience Indexing Ramsey's Annals," by the Record- 
ing Secretary, Mr. J. Tyree Fain. 




GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG. 



THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



FOUNDED 1849 
INCORFORA.TKD 187S 



OFFICERS 



President, 
JOHN H. DEWITT. 

Vice-Presidents, 

E. T. SANFORD, 

PARK MARSHALL 

J. P. YOUNG. 
MRS. B. D. BELL 

Recording Secretary andTreasurer, 
J. TYREE FAIN. 

Assistant Recording Secretary, 
.HALLUM W. GOODLOE, 

Corresponding Secretary, 
W. A. PRO VINE 



FORM OF LEGACY 



"I give and bequeath to The Tennessee Historical Society 
the sum of dollars." 



1 






CONTENTS 



Page 

PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG 75 

Hon. Robert Ewing. 

BATTLE OF SHILOH 81 

Rev. T. M. Hurst. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES UPON SOUTHERN ESTATES An 

Echo of Slave Days in the Southland 95 

DeBow's Industrial Resources of the Southwest. 

TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI 

RIVERS (Continued) 105 

Dr. J. R. Bedford. 

AN EPISODE IN THE BOYHOOD OF GENERAL FORREST 131 

Document. 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 133 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 135 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 



JOHN H. DfiWiTT, Business Manager, 
Stahlman, Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

DR. WILLIAM A. PROVINE, Editor, 
Presbyterian Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

J. TYREE FAIN, Treasurer, 
Watkins Hall, Nashville, Tenn. 






TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. 5 JULY, 1919 No. 2 

PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG. 

(The extract published in a former number of the magazine of 
the Minutes of the meeting of the Tennessee Historical Society for 
November, 1918, made mention of the presentation to the society of 
the portrait of Gen. Armstrong, in behalf of his grandaughter, Miss 
Catherine Vaulx, by the Hon. Robert Ewing. The details of this 
occasion were ably reported in the local press of Nashville, and the 
interest of the matter is so worthy and wide that a permanent record 
in this magazine is deemed appropriate. To this end an extract of the 
Nashville Tennesean of November 18, 1918, with an appended paper 
of Dr. J. H. Calendar of an earlier date, is herein set forth. Ed.) 

"The Tennessee Historical Society held its first meeting for 
this season Tuesday evening in its rooms in the Watkins Build- 
ing, the prevalence of the influenza having caused a postpone- 
ment of the October meeting. There was no set address de- 
livered, though the meeting was rendered quite interesting 
by the receipt and examination of many valuable gifts of a 
historical nature. The principal one of these was a splendid 
portrait in oil of General Armstrong, the life-long friend and 
staff officer of General Andrew Jackson at the battle of New 
Orleans, the gift of his granddaughter, Miss Catherine C. Vaulx 
of this city. In presenting this portrait in behalf of the giver,. 
Mr, Kobert Ewing, a member of the society, spoke as follows: 

"Mr. President : Miss Catharine C. Vaulx, granddaughter 
of Joseph Vaulx, Sr., who is well remembered by the older- 
citizens of Nashville as a man of great character, has author- 
ized and requested me, in her name, linked with that of her 
family, and in tender memory of her mother, to present to this 
society the portrait of her distinguished grandfather, General 
Robert Armstrong. This I now do with a feeling of very great 
pleasure and honor. The portrait was painted by George Dury, 
a Nashville artist of no mean ability, whose works are now 
highly prized, gaining daily in artistic appreciation. So that 
in this gift the society receives a very distinct addition to its 
collection of valuable portraits, historic and artistic." 

"You are aware that the society already has in this room, 
hanging prominently on its walls, a splendid portrait of Gen- 



76 HON. ROBERT SWING 

eral Andrew Jackson in his old age. There also hangs near 
this portrait an interesting sketch of his death scene. If I 
may be pardoned for doing so, I suggest that this portrait of 
General Armstrong, which the society is now about to receive, 
be hung as near as possible to that of our great hero, for the 
strong reason that in life they were very closely associated, 
and now that they have long since gone to their reward, we, 
who cherish the memory of their glorious deeds, should not 
separate them, for they were admirable in their lives, and in 
death should not be divided. 

"That such action of the society would have the earnest 
sanction of General Jackson himself, if he were here, there 
can be no sort of doubt, for I hold in my hand a copy of a 
letter from Chief Justice and United States Senator A. O. P. 
Nicholson to General Lewis Cass, which recites that shortly 
before General Jackson came to die, when he realized that 
death was near, he sent for Judge Nicholson, who was his 
close friend, and put into his hands the sword which he had 
used at the battle of New Orleans, with instructions to deliver 
it to General Armstrong as a testimonial of his warm personal 
friendship and as evidence of his high appreciation of his 
military services and his patriotic devotion to the honor of his 
country. Higher testimony than this as to the personal worthi- 
ness of him whose picture you now receive it would be impos- 
sible to obtain, for General Jackson had ample opportunity 
to know; was abundantly capable of passing correct judgment, 
and, above all things else, was sincere in his expressions." 

INDIAN FIGHTER. 

"By birth General Armstrong was a Virginian, the son of 
Trooper Armstrong of that state, who took a very prominent 
part in the Revolutionary War which established the freedom 
of his country. In his twentieth year General Armstrong came 
to Tennessee, and immediately joined an artillery company 
under General Jackson, and rendered notable service in the 
Creek War, turning the fortunes of the day in the battle of 
Enotochapko, as General Jackson himself testified. He was 
severely wounded in that battle, and throughout his life suf- 
fered from the effects of that wound. The extraordinary gal- 
lantry of action, which he displayed caused General Jackson 
to take him on his staff that he might have very close to him 
so brave and dependable an officer. In the following year he 
served as aide-de-camp to General Jackson at New Orleans, 
fighting there bravely to defend and forever preserve the liber- 
ties of the people whom his father had helped to free." 

"In civil life General Armstrong served his state and coun- 



PORTRAIT OP GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG 77 

try as actively and efficiently as he had done as a soldier. He 
was postmaster of Nashvlile for sixteen years, and afterwards 
proprietor of the Washington Union, a paper which ably advo- 
cated the political views of his beloved chieftain. He was 
serving the national government in an honorable capacity at 
the date of his death, February 23, 1854, and his loss w;as 
severely felt. The House of ^Representatives took appropriate 
official notice of his death, and President Pierce and his cab- 
inet attended his funeral in a body, with members of the House 
and Senate as pall-bearers." 

HEROIC LIFE. 

"General Armstrong may be said truly to have heroically 
lived a life heroic, and so it must now appear eminently proper 
that this society should gladly receive, take charge of, and 
always carefully protect, this excellent representation of him 
as he appeared in life. He chose this State as his mother, 
and served her nobly in dangerous days. It behooves those 
citizens of Tennessee who follow him to be inspired by his 
example to noble deeds, willingly at this perilous juncture in 
national affairs to answer her call asi a part of our beloved 
country. That citizens of the State may cherish her glory most 
truly represented by such men as General Armstrong, is the 
higher purpose of the Tennessee Historical Society, and this 
purpose it always steadily keeps in view, for men and their 
glorious deeds constitute the state." 

"I feel highly honored that the granddaughter of this great 
patriot, who now does her full part to this end by placing 
this portrait where it can be seen by every citizen who visits 
the capital of the State, should have honored me by appointing 
me, her friend, to present this portrait, which I feel sure the 
society will gladly receive, properly prize and guard and cher- 
ish as it so fully deserves to be." 

In speaking of the receipt of the gift Mr. Ewing said : 
"The portrait of General Armstrong, which the Tennessee 
Historical Society has received, is one of the very best samples 
of the excellent work of George Dury, a Nashville painter. It 
is, in fact, worthy of the subject. The very strong features 
of General Armstrong are forcibly and clearly presented. 
Hung as this portrait will be, on the wall near that of General 
Jackson, it will be seen by every visitor to the society's rooms, 
and it will do much to enhance the reputation of the artist 
who, though he left many very beautiful samples of his work 
in pictures of the beautiful women of Nashville, is not appre- 
ciated as keenly as the very artistic nature of his work amply 
merits." 



78 IIOX. ROBERT EWINO 

"Many years ago Dr. John H. Callender, well remembered 
as a newspaper writer of considerable power, when writing of 
General Armstrong, and particularly of this portrait, said that 
it should, and indeed prophesied that ultimately it would be 
given to the Historical Society for safe-keeping and a proper 
display, Miss Vaulx, the granddaughter of General Armstrong, 
by her magnanimous act, now verifies this prediction. This 
portrait will constitute a notable addition to the already large 
number owned by the society. They are lifelike representa- 
tions of the most distinguished men of the nation and state, 
embracing the well-known ones of Presidents Jefferson, Madi- 
son, Van Buren, Fillmore and others, besides those of the three 
which Tennessee gave to the Union Jackson, Polk and John- 
son." 

"The walls are also adorned with admirable portraits of 
such statesmen as Henry Clay, Felix Grundy, George W. Camp- 
bell and others. Those of Tennessee's orators and distin- 
guished jurists, men like the brilliant Haskell and profound 
Catron, also have their appropriate places." 

MANY VISITORS TO ROOMS. 

"Though there are a number of daily visitors to the rooms 
of the society to see these pictures of the great ones of the 
past, and also the innumerable other objects of historical in- 
terest there to be found, it is to be doubted whether, in these 
very exciting days, citizens of Tennessee place the value they 
should on the preservation and cherishing of things which tend 
to keep in memory actions worthy to be remembered. These 
men made the State great, and gave it its glorious and in- 
teresting place in history, Tennessee has always had citizens 
of strong character and worth, men who did things of note, 
and who were always ready to their country's call, and who 
by their quick response crowned it with the name it now bears 
that of the Volunteer State. Great deeds, and also the great 
men who performed them, should be remembered. "Hand Im- 
memor" not forgotten, the old Roman legend, has cheered and 
inspired its thousands. The Historical Society was organized 
and is maintained to keep keenly alive a just and continuing 
appreciation of the acts of those men who really constitute 
the State, as well as to secure and properly preserve valuable 
documents and other things of historic interest relating to 
them. Every citizen from any part of the State is always 
cordially welcomed and made to feel that he has his individual 
part in ownership. Those who have such things are being 
assured constantly that if they will commit them to the care 
of the society they will be carefully protected and placed where 
they can be seen by those whom they will interest. 



PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ROBERT ARMSTRONG 79 

A LEAF FROM HISTORY.* 
A Portrait of Gen. Robert Armstrong. 

The eminent artist of this city, Mr. George Dury, has recently 
completed for the family a portrait of the late Gen. Robert Arm- 
strong, for many years a distinguished citizen of this State, and a 
resident of this city. More than the period of a generation has 
elapsed since his death, and the term "the late" we have used will 
only be significant to the minds of older citizens, who remember him 
as a conspicuous figure in this community and a prominent actor in 
the civil and military history of the State and the nation. Many 
of these who have examined the portrait pronounce it an admirable 
likeness and a work of art which will add to the reputation of the 
painter. In due time it will probably be presented to the Tennessee 
Historical Society, to take its place in the galaxy of those who have, 
conferred renown on the State, and a brief review of his life will be 
interesting to his surviving contemporaries, and instructive to the 
younger generation. 

Gen. Robert Armstrong was the son of Trooper Armstrong, of 
Virginia, a valiant soldier of the war of the Revolution, noted for 
his superb figure and great physical strength, as well as skill and en- 
terprise as a partisan fighter in the struggle of that period in Virginia 
and the Carolinas. His son, who inherited in great degree these 
personal characteristics, was born in Abingdon, Va., on September 
28, 1792. The father removed with his family early in the present 
century to Knox County, Tennessee, where descendants still reside. 
Besides the subject of this memoir, two brothers Maj. Frank Arm- 
strong and Maj. William Armstrong were men of high character 
employed in the Indian service of the United States Government 
in the Southwest, both of them serving as Superintendent of the 
Indian Territory after the removal of the tribes west of the Missis- 
sippi River. They were beloved by the red men for their justice and 
humane treatment, and their service was recognized by the Govern- 
ment as of great value. 

Robert Armstrong's education was chiefly obtained at a school 
in his native place, Abingdon, but before its completion and in his 
twentieth year, he returned to Tennessee and was made Lieutenant 
of a company of volunteer artillery, and soon joined the command of 
Gen. Andrew Jackson, engaged in what is known as the Creek war. 
At the battle of Enotochapko, January 24, 1814, one of the decisive 
engagements of that war, he displayed conspicuous courage and 
qualities as an officer, arresting a formidable movement of the Indian 
forces, and by the report of Gen. Jackson, turning the fortunes of the 
day. He was wounded severely and carried the missile through life, 
at times suffering greatly from its effects. His gallantry endeared 
him to his commander, and he was appointed on his staff and was his 
aide-de-camp in the battle of New Orleans the following year. At 
the conclusion of hostilities he became a citizen of Nashville. On 
June 9, 1814, he had married Margaret D., daughter of Josiah Nichol, 
a leading merchant. A daughter, the widow of Joseph Vaulx, who 
died in 1878, a resident of this city, survives him. 

In 1829 he was appointed postmaster of Nashville by President 
Jackson, and held the office for sixteen years. In 1836, while in this 
position, he was made Brigadier General of the Tennessee Mounted 

* Written by Dr. J. H. Calender, Oct. 28, 1888. 



80 HON. ROBERT BWING 

Volunteers, and commanded them when sent by the United States 
Government against the Seminole Indians in Florida. This was 
a brief campaign and ended in the battle of Wahco Swamp, in which 
the Indians were defeated. Politically, he was a warm adherent of 
President Jackson and the measures of his eventful administration, 
and in 1837, after his return from Florida, was the candidate for 
Governor of Tennessee against Gov. Newton Cannon, who represented 
that portion of the people of the State who had become alienated from 
the Jackson influence under the lead of Hugh L. White and John Bell. 
In this contest he was defeated. Upon the advent of Mr. Polk to the 
Presidency in 1845 he was appointed United States Consul to Liver- 
pool, one of the most important positions in the foreign service, which 
he held until 1849. Before his departure for Europe in the spring of 
1845, and a few months preceding the death of Gen. Jackson, he was 
the honored recipient at the hands of his old commander of the 
sword worn by the latter at the battle of New Orleans, as a testimonial 
of his personal friendship and his estimation of Gen. Armstrong's 
military service. This sword, after Gen. Armstrong's death, was 
formally presented in 1855 by his family to the United States Gov- 
ernment, and is deposited in the archives of the War Department. 
In 1851, Gen. Armstrong and Maj. Andrew J. Donelson, of Tennessee, 
became the proprietors of the Washington Union newspaper, and 
shortly thereafter, Gen. Armstrong became the sole proprietor, and 
in this capacity was made printer for the National House of Repre- 
sentatives. In this service he died, of congestion of the brain, Febru- 
ary 23, 1854. The House of Representatives took notice of his death, 
and his funeral was attended by President Pierce and his cabinet, 
with a corps of pall-bearers from the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives. In January, 1855, his remains were removed to Nash- 
ville for final interment, which was conducted under the direction of 
a committee of prominent citizens appointed at a public meeting. The 
civic orders and military bodies and citizens generally composed the 
funeral escort and his body lies in the Nashville cemetery. 

Born amidst the warm and recent memories of the revolutionary 
struggle for the independency of the country, and an enthusiastic 
and gallant participant in his manhood's prime in the war of 1812, 
the virtue of patriotism shone conspicuously in Gen. Armstrong's 
character, and was admired by all in later life, even when his tem- 
perament made him a stern, unbending partisan in a period of acri- 
monious political controversy never exceeded in this country, and in 
which he bore a notable part. 

Ardent in convictions, unquailing in courage and devoted in at- 
tachments, he maintained the esteem and friendship of his fellow- 
citizens through confidence inspired by his candor and honorable 
dealing, not less than by his kindness of heart and gracious manners, 
and was at all times personally popular with men of all classes. He 
was of imposing and dignified carriage, commanding respect, and bore 
himself with credit, in every sphere in which he figured. He died 
in his sixty-third year, when the shadows falling from the west were 
growing long in an active and exciting life, and perhaps left no 
personal enemies, but instead a great troop of loving friends. 



THE BATTLE OF SHILOH 

(The interesting document that follows was written by a former 
citizen of Tennessee, Rev. T. M. Hurst, now pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church, Arnot, Penn. Mr. Hurst is a native of Hardin County, Ten- 
nessee, grew up in the vicinity of "Where the Battle Was Fought," 
and during his residence in our State made numerous contributions 
to the press of both literary and historic worth. A number of years 
ago he read the document that follows before the Tennessee Historical 
Society and afterwards portions of it was published locally. The 
entire article is of such an interesting nature and created at the time 
such wide notice that permanent record is given to it in the maga- 
zine. Ed.) * 

In the evolution of civilization and the progress of human 
government, wars have been necessary. By them the genius 
and energy of the ages have been aroused, and with the blood 
of human sacrifice nations have been made great. Every 
great war has had one decisive battle in which a contrary event 
would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all 
its subsequent scenes, and these battles have for men an actual 
interest, both in the investigation of the chain of causes and 
effects by which government has reached its present standard, 
and in speculation on what probably should have been if any- 
one or all of them had come to a different termination. 

In studying these battles, or any of them, in all of their 
reaches, it is probable that we would not all agree in the 
details that lead to nor the effects that followed them. Dif- 
ferent minds will naturally vary in the impression which par- 
ticular events make on them, and in the degree of interest 
which they reflect on the importance of the principles involved 
and watch the career of the men engaged in them. 

These battles that mark epochs and form new outlines of 
history are always fought in obscure places that live only in 
history because they are the altar places 011 which men gave 
up their lives for the perpetuation of an idea ; because they are 
the places where some current of fate is turned back, and 
where new impulses originate. 

BATTLES BACK OP CIVILIZATION. 

The culture of Athens stands between us and the Asiatic 
despotisms that rise before us through the twilight of primeval 
history, dim and indistinct, but massive and majestic like 

*Since this article was set in type it has been discovered that it appeared as a 
contribution to the American Historical Magazine, Vol. VII, Jan., 1902. However, a 
period of eighteen years having elapsed it will probably be new to the larger number 
of the readers of this periodical. Ed. 



82 T. M. HURST 

mountains in the early dawn, but back of Athens lies the 
crescent plain of Marathon with its Miltiades and his van- 
guard of European liberty, making possible the intellectual 
splendor of the age of Phidias and Pericles, and that secured 
to the future the growth of free institutions, the liberal en- 
lightenment of the Western World, and the gradual ascend- 
ency of the great principles of European civilization. When 
Calimachus laid down his life on the coast of Attica, he reared 
a monument of fame that will live in song when the mound 
and columns of Marathon are leveled in the dust, and when 
the golden mantle of Pallas Athenae rests in the forgotten 
archives of everlasting oblivion. 

The backward thoughts of every lover of the beautiful 
delight to linger in and around! Athens, but it is the heroic 
achievements of the Spartan three hundred in the wild Thes- 
salian Mountains that fires the patriotic heart and incites to 
deeds of heroism the lovers of freedom and liberty in every age. 

The English student regards with pleasure the growth of 
English ascendency, and points with pride to English achieve- 
ment in all that tends to make nations great, but back of 
English greatness lies the field of Hastings which determined 
the course of English history for centuries, and marked the 
beginning of a decisive future for the English-speaking people. 
The field whereon was begun the building of new nations, 
capable of every form of action from the union of Norman and 
Saxon thought, that afterwards gave to the world the Magna 
Charta, and sent out influences that will still be felt in deter- 
mining the course of the world long after the valley of the 
Amazon shall be more thickly inhabited and better known than 
today is the valley of the Danube. 

For centuries the culture and energy of England have con- 
gregated in London, and the fashions and art of France have 
sought an abiding place in Paris, but on the open plain near 
the village of Waterloo was fought the great battle that made 
a new map of Europe necessary, and that gave to the nine- 
teenth century the history 1 that shall outlive the British Mu- 
seum or the towers of Notre Dame. 

When the crumbling walls of feudalism shook medieval 
Europe from center to circumference there came a western 
tidal wave that landed the Puritan and the Cavalier on the 
strange shores of an unexplored continent, and left them there 
charged with the task and duty of building a new government 
that should demonstrate the practicability of triumphant 
democracy a government broad as humanity and comprehen- 
sive enough for every human interest, wherein the fullest de- 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 83 

velopment of a cosmopolitan citizenship would be possible, 
and whereby every man could be made a peer and any man 
might enjoy the possibilities of kingship. Not a government 
for the Puritan alone, nor yet for the Cavalier, but a broader, 
higher government in which should be blended the good in 
Puritanism with the heroism of chivalry, both merging with 
whatever else is noble in man into a comprehensive citizenship 
whose history is yet to be written. 

This work was taken up and prosecuted under difficulties, 
and with conflicting differences of opinion that grew as it 
progressed until they finally culminated in the great Arma- 
geddon of the western hemisphere the battle of Shiloh. The 
decisive battle in which were centered the vexing differences 
and by which were determined the conflicting issues of this 
new civilization. A battle that shall be catalogued along with 
Marathon, Chalons, Hastings, Blenheim, Pultawah, Valmy and 
Waterloo. 

THE ARMAGEDDON OF THE WEST. 

When the time had fully come for the baptism of fire and 
blood that were necessary for the blending and remoulding of 
the nation, and when the uniformed hosts under flaunting ban- 
ners stood ready to do the bidding of the god of war, they 
were not marshalled at Castle Garden nor in the streets of 
the national capital, nor yet at the Golden Gate ; neither were 
they deployed along the restless shores of the great lakes or 
called to bivouac under the perfumed orange groves down by 
the gulf, but amid the scrubby oaks and the broom sedge of 
the quiet woods, in the midst of which nestled a spireless 
meeting-house whose name will live in history when the flaring 
electric light flickers and grows dim in our Broadways, and 
when the twenty-story buildings crumble in our bustling State 
streets. They gathered at Shiloh ! 

In presenting a paper covering a study of this greatest of 
modern battles, I am not unmindful of the fact that it has 
been the subject of more animated discussions than have been 
indulged in on account of all other battles of the war of 1861, 
and in naming it as the "greatest battle," my estimate is made 
up from what I conceive to be its relative influence on future 
history rather than on the number of men engaged or the heavy 
slaughter that resulted. More men met on other fields during 
our war, and they fought longer and sustained heavier losses 
of human life, but these battles were all either preparatoiy to 
or confirmatory of this decisive struggle at Shiloh. 

Neither is it the purpose of this paper to name the hero of 
Shiloh nor to undertake to settle the controversies concerning 



84 T. M. HURST 

the generalship of any leader in that battle, nor to give credit 
to, nor bring a charge against any man for the part he took 
in it, but to deal with the battle as it appears to me from a 
study of the incidents that lead up to it, and to its general 
final result. 

When the first gun; was fired, General Grant was several 
miles away from his army on an opposite bank of a river and 
the army of General Buell had not yet made the expected 
junction with Grant's army. At the close of the first day the 
Confederate army rested where the Federal army had slept 
the night before, and General Albert Sydney Johnston had 
fallen in the vanguard of an advancing host. At the beginning 
of the second day a part of Buell's army had reached the field, 
and at the close of the second day General Beauregard was 
leading the Confederate forces southward. In these facts one 
man sees the surprise and defeat of Grant, another sees an 
unnecessary and reckless daring that cost the life of Johnston, 
another sees the lack of generalship on the part of Buell, and 
still another sees in Beauregard an absence of the military 
prowess that brings success out of aggressiveness, and that 
might have changed the general result and thereby given to 
the world what is now an impossible history. Like all decisive 
battles, this battle seems to have turned on accidental or provi- 
dential incidents that are apparent only to the student of war. 
These accidents, if you call them by that name, are left to your 
own study. 

No matter how varied our differences concerning the inci- 
dents of the battle, or the wisdom of the generals who lead its 
contending forces, we must agree that it was a conflict of 
heroes whose valor was only equalled on other American battle- 
fields. The victorious soldier is not always the bravest, nor 
is the successful general necessarily possessed of the greatest 
military tact. Cataline was as brave a soldier as Leonidas 
and a much better general. Alva surpassed the Prince of 
Orange in the field, and Suwarrow was the military superior 
of Kosciusko. But a just comparison of American general- 
ship is not possible to an American, and there are no grades 
of heroism among American soldiers. American soldiers are 
all heroes. The men of Shiloh were Americans all, and the 
unmarked resting place of the man in gray, and the terraced 
tomb of his brother in blue testify alike to the unflinching 
heroism of American soldiering, and the man who would dare 
snatch from either a single laurel is a coward and an ingrate. 

EXONERATION OF GENERAL GRANT. 

Leaving the military course pursued by each of the generals 
at Shiloh to the just vindications and criticism of history, I 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 85 

venture to take advantage of this opportunity to settle one 
question concerning General Grant that has been the source 
of much controversy the charge of drunkenness. General 
Grant was not under the influence of any intoxication, either 
at the beginning of, or at any time during the battle. On this 
point I simply beg to submit and file with this paper the fol- 
lowing letter from a resident of this city in reply to an in- 
quiry on the subject : 

Corner Spruce and Demonbreun Streets,* 

December 6, 1892. 
Mr. T. M. Hurst: 

Dear Sir: Your letter of inquiry concerning "General Grant's 
physical condition the morning the battle of Shiloh began" was re- 
ceived several days ago. You will please pardon my seeming negli- 
gence, and accept my assurance, gladly given, that on the date men- 
tioned, I believe General Grant was thoroughly sober. He was at 
my breakfast table when he heard the report from a cannon. Hold- 
ing untasted a cup of coffee he paused in conversation to listen a 
moment at the report of another cannon. He hastily arose saying 
to his staff-officers: "Gentlemen, the ball is in motion, let's be off." 
His flag-ship (as he called his special steamboat) was lying at the 
wharf, and in fifteen minutes he, staff-officers, orderlies, clerks and 
horses had embarked. 

During the weeks of his occupancy of my house he always de- 
meaned himself as a gentleman; was kind, courteous, genial and 
considerate, and never appeared in my presence in a state of intoxi- 
cation. He was uniformly kind to citizens, irrespective of politics, 
and whenever the brutality to citizens, so frequently indulged in 
by the soldier, was made known to him he at once sent orders for 
the release of the captives or restoration of the property appropriated. 
As a proof of his thoughtful kindness I mention that during the battle 
on Sunday he wrote and sent to my mother a safeguard to prevent 
her home being used for a hospital. Yielding to the appeals of human- 
ity she did, however, open her home to the wounded and sick for three 
months in succession, often administering to their wants and necessi- 
ties in person. In such high esteem did General Grant hold such 
magnanimity, under the most aggravating circumstances, that he 
thanked her most heartily, assuring her that considering the great 
losses and gross indignities she had received from the soldiers, her 
nobility of soul was more to be admired than the fame of a general 
leading an army of victorious soldiers. 

On one occasion he asked to be introduced to my mother and 
family, saying: "If you have no objections to introducing me, I will 
be much pleased." I replied: "Not because you are a great general, 
but because I believe you to be a gentleman I will introduce you to 
them unhesitatingly." In deference to the fact that I was a Southern 
lady with Southern proclivities, he attired himself in a full suit of 
citizen's clothes, and touching himself on the shoulder said: "I 
thought you would like this best," evincing delicate courtesy and 
gentlemanly instincts of which the horrors of war nor merited pro- 
motion had not deprived him. 

Nashville, Tennessee. 



86 T. M. HURST 

I feel that it is due the surviving members of General Grant's 
family to mention some evidences of his great-heartedness as shown 
in kindness to Southern people. "Military necessity" was not to 
him a term synonymous with unlicensed vandalism or approval of 
terrorism. He was too great and too true to his manhood to be fet- 
tered by prejudice. 

I am pleased that I can give these reminiscences of a man who 
as a soldier and statesman received and merited the homage of a 
nation for they are testimonies of his inner life and innate char- 
acteristics, worthy to be recorded with the magnimity of "kingship 
over self" as manifested on the day of General Lee's surrender. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) Mrs. W. H. Cherry. 

And also the following from Colonel Douglas Putnam of the 
Ninety-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, who accompanied Gen- 
eral Grant in the battle as a volunteer aide, and who now 
lives at Ashland, Kentucky. Writing under date of January 
15, 1892, he says : 

"I was with him in fact rode by his side during the forenoon and 
until 2 p.m., on Sunday, when I gave up my horse to Lieutenant Col. 
McPherson, then Chief-of-Staff of General Grant, whose horse had 
been shot under him. I saw General Grant several times during the 
evening and next morning, and staid on the Tigress with him that 
night, and it now gives me pleasure to state again, as I have re- 
peatedly done before, that the charge that he was in any manner 
or degree during any of that time under the influence of liquor is 
wicked and unfounded, as well as absolutely false. It was so cruel 
under the circumstances that I knew it caused a noble and true a 
heart as ever throbbed to bleed. In fact, so great was his feeling, 
that strong and grand as was his character on one occasion sometime 
after, he broke into tears, and told a circle of devoted friends that 
he should end his military career then and there by tendering his 
resignation They persuaded him not to do so, and when his decision 
was finally made he said: 'I have tried to do my duty, and I believe 
that history will do me justice.' " 

But this is only a personal diversion that carries with it 
a vindication that will no doubt be welcomed by every true 
American heart. 

THE ARMADA OP THE TENNESSEE. 

The Union army with a fleet) of 167 vessels, excelled only 
in number by the Spanish Armada, and in tonnage by no 
flotilla that ever broke the foam, was plowing its way up the 
Tennessee River, which was then full to overflowing, and Gen- 
eral Buell was marching westward with an army of 60,000 
to 80,000 men to form a junction with this army on the west 
bank of the Tennessee River at Hamburgh, Tennessee. 

There is nothing in American history that compares with 
this fleet that carried the Federal army up the Tennessee, and 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 87 

yeti history has made no record of it so far as I have read. 
The student staggers in wonder at the stupendous proportions 
of the royal navy and the Spanish Arinada under the leader- 
ship of Lord Howard and the Duke, de Medina Sidonia, but 
perhaps he has never been told that in our own late Civil Wai' 
there gathered in the beautiful Tennessee River a grander 
spectacle than either of these. 

Under the convoy of fourteen men-of-war there came a fleet 
of 153 steamers (giving the river when at their moorings at 
Savannah) the appearance of a grand floating city of splendid 
palaces. For the benefit of the future student of our history, 
I take the liberty of copying the names of the boats that com- 
posed this fleet, and file the list with this paper as follows: 

MEN-OF-WAR. 

1. Alfred Robb 8. Key West 

2. Carondelet 9. Undine 

3. Conestoga 10. Taw Waw 

4. Brilliant 11. Paw Paw 

5. Tyler 12. Peasca 

6. Lexington 13. St. Glair 

7. Fair Play 14. Naumkeg 

TRANSPORTS. 

1. Autocrat 30. Charley Miller 

2. Argyle 31. City of Alton 

3. Aurora 32. City Belle 

4. A. McDowell 33. Charley Bowen 

5. Alex Scott 34. Crescent City 

6. Anglo-Saxon 35. Clarionet 

7. Americus 36. Coronett 

8. Athy Watham 37. Countess 

9. Armada 38. Diamond 

10. Adam Jacobs 39. Duett 

11. Belle of the West 40. D. A. January 

12. Bostonia No. 1 41. Dunleith (or Demleith) 

13. Bostonia No. 2 42. D. J. Taylor 

14. Boston 43. Evansville 

15. B. J. Adams 44. Elenora 

16. Baltic 45. Emma 

17. Bay City 46. Emma No. 2 

18. Ben South 47. Empress 

19. Black Hawk 48. E. W. Fairchild 

20. City of Memphis 49. Eugene 

21. City of Madison 50. Equinox 

22. Clara Poe 51. Edward Walsh 

23. Choteau 52. Empire City 

24. Commercial 53. Emerald 

25. Champion No. 2 54. Emlie 

26. Champion No. 4 55. Fort Wayne 

27. Chancellor 56. Fanny Bullitt 

28. Continental 57. Falls City 

29. Commerce 58. Forest Queen 



88 



T. M. HURST 



59. Fannie Barker 

60. Golden State 

61. Grey Eagle 

62. Gossamer 

63. Glendale 

64. Gladiator 

65. Hiawatha 

66. Hazel Dell 

67. Horizon 

68. Havanna 

69. Henry Fitzhugh 

70. latan 

71. Iowa 

72. Izetta 

73. Imperial 

74. Indiana 

75. Jewess 

76. J. W. Chapman 

77. Jno. D. Roe 

78. J. B. Ford 

79. John Taines 

80. J. C. Swan 

81. J. B. Dickey 

82. J. W. Kennett 

83. Jesse K. Bell 

84. John Gait 

85. John Bell 

86. John Warner 

87. J. W. Hailman 

88. J. S. Pringle 

89. Jonas Powell 

90. Jas. H. Trover 

91. Jacob Poe 

92. Liberty 

93. Lady Pike 

94. Leonora 

95. Lewellen 

96. Lancaster No. 3 

97. Lancaster No. 4 

98. Lizzie Simmons 

99. Louisana 

100. Leni Leota 

101. Masonic Gem 

102. Meteor 

103. Memphis 

104. Manhattan 

105. Mary E. Forsythe 



106. Mussulman 

107. Minnehaha 

108. Marengo 

109. Marble City 

110. New Uncle Sam 

111. Nashville 

112. Nebraska 

113. Niagara 

114. Ohio 

115. Ohio No. 3 

116. Oriental 

117. Planet 

118. Poland 

119. Prairie Rose 

120. Pink Varble 

121. Phantom 

122. Rocket 

123. Rose Hamilton 

124. Rebecca 

125. Sunny South 

126. South Wester 

127. Saline 

128. S. W. Thomas 

129. Sir William Wallace 

130. Sallie List 

131. Shenango 

132. Spread Eagle 

133. Silver Moon 

134. Sunshine 

135. Sciota 

136. Silver Wave 

137. St. Clair 

138. St. John 

139. Sam Orr 

140. Telegram No. 3 

141. T. L. McGill 

142. Tecumseh 

143. Tycoon 

144. T. J. Patton 

145. Tribune 

146. Tigress 

147. Umpire 

148. Universe 

149. Wisconsin 

150. Wild Cat 

151. White Cloud 

152. Westmoreland 

153. Yorktown 



The Lexington and the Tyler were the first gunboats that 
went up the Tennessee River. The Tigress was General Grant's 
flagship, and as he went down the river bank to embark on 
Sunday morning, April 6, he was leading with his own hand 
the cream-colored horse that he rode on the field that day. 
This statement is made from memory. History records Gen- 
eral Grant as using- crutches at the time. 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 89 

The Henry Fitzhugh was the first boat to carry wounded 
Federal soldiers back from Pittsburgh Landing, and as she 
came steaming around the bend above Savannah that dreadful 
Sunday with one of her smoke-stacks literally riddled with can- 
non balls, she presented an appearance quite in contrast with 
what she had shown but a few days before. In this great fleet 
but one boat The Glendale had on it a calliope. 

While at Savannah, Governor Harvey of Wisconsin, who 
was visiting officers in the 16th Wisconsin Regiment, stepped 
from the steamer Demlieth into the river and was drowned. 
But these are only incidents remembered by a boy. Please 
pardon their indulgence. 

THE FAR-FLUNG BATTLE LINE 

The causes that brought about the war that gave to history 
our Shiloh are familiar to every American citizen, but a study 
of the movements that brought the two armies together there 
has perhaps been undertaken by but few of the present gen- 
eration. 

The fact that we are not a military people is seen in nearly 
every movement made by either army during the first few 
months of the war, but as war preparations progressed, and 
as the magnitude of the struggle became apparent, the mili- 
tary genius of the contending forces in seeking strategic points 
developed a leadership on both sides that compare favorably 
with the military leadership of nations trained to war. 

Much speculation and criticism have been indulged concern- 
ing the first line of battle drawn up by the Confederate au 
thorities in the Southwest ; some taking the position that the 
line should have been an aggressive line drawn further north, 
thus forcing the fight into Ohio and Indiana, while others are 
of the opinion that the line should have been drawn as far 
south as the Memphis andi Charleston Railroad, and made a 
defensive line with the view of controlling the lower Missis- 
sippi and protecting the states actually and actively in the 
Confederacy, but it is not the purpose of this paper to settle 
these mooted questions but to deal with things as they were. 

A Confederate line with its right wing resting on Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, and extending westward to cover St. Louis, 
Missouri, would have materially changed our war maps and 
perhaps our national history, while a line resting its right 
wing on Knoxville, Tennessee, and its left on Memphis, Ten- 
nessee, might have been made more effective as a line of de- 
fense, but in speculating on either of these possibilities we 
should remember that between these two extremes lay the 
three states that made possible the perpetuation of the union 

2 



90 T. M. HURST 

of states. Kentucky, Missouri and Tennessee did more to save 
the union than any other ten states in the great federation, 
and if blame attaches to particular states for the fall of the 
Confederacy, or if glory accrues to them, history will place 
a large portion of it to the account of this trio that nestled 
around the junction of the Ohio, Cumberland and Tennessee 
and Missouri Rivers with the Mississippi River. These were 
the three stones that supported the arch. Within the radius 
of this territory was the key to the situation. More impor- 
tant than Washington or Richmond. Here the decisive battle 
must be fought, and to the victor in this battle was to be 
given the control of the country. 

Preparatory to this battle the Confederate line was actually 
drawn from Mill Spring, Kentucky, via Bowling Green, Donel- 
son, Henry and Columbus on to Pea Ridge, Arkansas. 

* t the beginning of the year 1862, General Beauregard was 
in Virginia, General Zollicoffer was in Eastern Kentucky, Gen- 
eral Albert Sydney Johnston was at Bowling Green, Kentucky, 
with a part of his army under General Buckner at Fort Donel- 
son, and another division of it under General Tighlman at Fort 
Henry, and still another division of it under Major-General 
Polk at Columbus, Kentucky, guarding the Mississippi River 
at the great iron banks. General Van Dora was at Van Buren 
or Pocahontas, Arkansas; General Bragg was at Pensacola, 
Florida, and General Pope was somewhere in Missouri. Up 
to this time there had been no fighting in the South and South- 
west, and neither army had been thoroughly organized the 
Confederate army especially being then in progress of organ- 
ization and equipment. Late in January General Beauregard 
was sent to the assistance of General Johnston, and on the 
4th day of February, 1862, they met for the first time, at Bowl- 
ing Green, Kentucky. General Buel was at this time march- 
ing southward from Louisville. Kentucky, and was only forty 
miles north of Bowling Green. General Grant was at Cairo, 
Illinois, preparing to move on Henry and Donelson, and Gen- 
eral Hal leek was! at Saint Louis with a general oversight of 
the movements of the Union troops in the Southwest. Three 
days after the first meeting of Beauregard and Johnston, Fort 
Henry fell into the hands of the advancing Union hosts, and 
on the llth day of February the Federal army moved towards 
Fort Donelson. Then began the great movements of two tre- 
mendous armies that culminated in the battle of Shiloh. On 
that same night General Johnston evacuated Bowling Green, 
and on the 13th day of February took up his headquarters in 
Edgfield, Tennessee.* On the nights of the 15th and 16th 

East Nashville. 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 91 

Fort Donelson fell, and in a few days afterwards the move- 
ment of the Federal army begun with the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroadf near luka and Corinth, Mississippi, as 
the objective point, with the expectation of separating the 
two wings of the Confederate army and fighting them in detail. 

On the 23rd day of February the rear guard of General 
Johnston's army left Nashville by way of Murfreesboro, Ten- 
nessee, and Stevenson, Alabama, for Corinth, Mississippi, and 
on the 25th day of February, General Polk left Columbus, 
Kentucky, to form a junction with Johnston at some point on 
the Memphis & Charleston Railroad.f Four days before this 
calls had been made by the Confederate authorities on the 
Governors of Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana 
for from 5,000 to 10,000 men each and the plantation bells, 
church bells and irons and candlesticks of the South were 
rapidly converted into belching messengers of death. Men 
armed with a medley of small arms wholly unadapted to war, 
and men without uniform or drill, were hurried to the scene 
of action. The divisions of Polk and Brag and Pope and Van 
Dorn were directed to a common center, and it was soon 
apparent that) the great battle of the Mississippi Valley was 
shortly to be fought somewhere near the line that divided the 
States of Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. 

BATTLE ALIGNMENT. 

After the fall of Donelson, General Grant had for some 
cause been relieved of his command, and during this time the 
Federal army under General C. F. Smith had reached Savan- 
nah, and disembarked to await the arrival of General Buell. 
The 46th Ohio Volunteers, under Col. Thomas Worthington, 
being the first to disembark, which was done without orders, 
and for which this officer was afterwards tried by a court- 
martial. On the 17th day of March, 1862, General Grant re- 
sumed command) and took up his headquarters at Savannah. 
General Wallace then being at Crump's Landing, four miles 
above and on the west side of the river, and General Prentiss 
being still further up at Pittsburgh Landing on the west side 
of the Tennessee, and separated from General Wallace's di- 
vision by the backwater then standing in Snake and Owl 
Creeks, while the Confederate armies were being marshalled 
at Corinth, Mississippi, which was only twenty-eight miles 
away from the headquarters of General Grant. 

The first day of April, 1862, found the armies occupying 
these respective positions, with General Buell moving from 

tNow, Southern Rail Road. 






92 T. M. HURST 

Columbia to join General Grant, and from these conditions 
have come more severe criticisms than grew out of any other 
battle of our Civil War. General Buell has been severely 
criticized because he consumed all the days from March 15 
to April 6 in moving his army a hundred miles. General 
Grant has been severely criticized for allowing his army to "lay 
for two weeks and more in isolated camps with a river in its 
reatf and a hostile army, claimed to be superior in numbers, 
twenly miles distant in its front, while the commander made 
his headquarters and passed his nights nine miles away on 
the opposite side of the river, leaving his army with no line 
or order of battle, no defensive work of any sort, no outposts 
and no avenue of escape by retreat." General Johnston has 
suffered criticism because he did not move forward and strike 
and crush Grant before Buell could possibly come to* his as- 
sistance, and General Beauregard has been mercilessly criti- 
cized because he did not press the battle to a decisive termina- 
tion on Sunday after he learned of the death of General John- 
ston. 

All of these criticisms rest no doubt on what seems to the 
critics to be good grounds, but every one of them may be 
materially modified when the facts are understood. 

Up to this time the Confederate army in the Southwest 
had not been aggressive, but simply defensive. The Federal 
army at and near Savannah occupied about the same position 
in! which General Grant found it when restored to his com- 
mand. General Grant had good reason to expect General Buell 
any day after he took up his headquarters at Savannah, while 
General Buell might plead bad roads, high waters and the 
absence of a proper engineering corps as the cause of his delay, 
and this same plea might avail for General Johnston. Men 
who were with him at Corinth, Mississippi, are living today, 
and can testify as to the almost impassable condition of the 
roads on the 1st to the 6th days of April, 1862. 

THE "IFS" OP BATTLE. 

The critic on a cushioned seat by his own fireside, scanning 
the map of a battlefield, may move an army with much greater 
ease and rapidity than can the best-trained general at the 
head of his column in muddy weather with incessant rains 
and swelling water courses interfering with and obstructing 
his plans. If the rains, muddy roads and high waters had 
all been east of the Tennessee River from the first day of Feb- 
ruary to the first day of April, 1862, the attack and defeat 
of General Grant might have been accomplished before Gen- 
eral Buell left Nashville; while if the rains had all fallen 



BATTLE OP SHILOH 93 

south and west of the Memphis and Charleston Road during 
the time, there would perhaps have been no battle of Shiloh ; 
but neither of these things happened. The rains fell then on 
the just and the unjust alike, just as they always fall. If the 
unknown boy had led Grouchy instead of Blucher to the field, 
or if it had not been for the Ohain road, or if something else 
had not happened that did happen, Napoleon would never have 
been the monarch of Elba's Isle; but because of these "ifs" 
history will continue her efforts to record these things as they 
were, regardless of the fine-spun theories of a thousand un- 
epauletted generals with deploying brigades of vision-made 
soldiers moving on every hilltop and in every valley. 

The battle of Shiloh was not fought on the 2nd day of 
April, 1862. General Johnston did not move forward and 
crush General Grant's army before Buell came up, but he no 
doubt moved as early and as rapidly as he could move under 
the circumstances, and this brought on the battle April 6 
instead of at an earlier day. General Johnston did his best 
and he did well for his cause, and his heroism will be honored 
as long as heroism has an advocate and self-sacrifice has a 
votary. Mr. Davis says that in the fall of Johnston the great 
pillar of the Southern Confederacy was crushed and beneath 
its fragments the best hopes of the Southwest lay buried. 

A combination of circumstances that could not be wholly 
controlled by Grant and Johnston and Buell and Beauregard,, 
brought together in deadly conflict these powerful armies who 
for two entire days stubbornly and bravely contested every 
point involved, and the fact that these noble men made such 
determined resistance argues that the victory was in no sense 
an easy one to the victor. 

The purpose of this paper is not to recount the details of 
this battle. These are familiar to many a living soldier whose 
closest friend sleeps tonight on the quiet hills of Shiloh, and 
through these living heroes to their children, they are familiar 
to the student of American history, and they lie open to all 
of us in every library in this country. And yet there is a 
temptation that almost leads me to indulge in recollections 
of incidents as they were impressed on the mind of a thirteen- 
year-old boy by the" fire and blood of that terrific tragedy that 
necessary conflict of brothers. But I suppress the wild stac- 
catto of the blazing musketry that still rattles in my ears, 
the sullen roar of the thundering artillery and the weird music 
that broke the silence of Sunday night, and drawing the cur- 
tain over the dead and dying I spare you. 

Neither do I enter into lengthy reflections or speculations 
concerning what might have been. If allowed to indulge in 



94 T. M. HURST 

such a course I would feel disposed to ask why Generals Grant 
and Johnston should have been the subjects of such violent 
criticisms from the house of their friends on the eve of this 
impending crisis, and then I should try to find some satisfac- 
tory answer. As is stated in this paper, General Grant was 
relieved of his command by the Federal authorities after the 
fall of Donelson, and left at Fort Henry, while it is a fact 
that about this same time a committee headed by G. A. Henry 
of Tennessee was actually in Richmond demanding the re- 
moval of General Johnston, who was protected in his place 
largely by the friendship and confidence of Mr. Davis, who 
said to the committee, "If Sydney Johnston is not a general, 
the Confederacy has no generals." But I leave even these 
curious yet important facts for the study and speculation of 
those who are interested in them. 

SHILOH DECISIVE. 

My object is to call attention to Shiloh as the decisive 
battle in a war that has no historic parallel, and to leave you 
to study its details if you choose. 

Other wars have settled the disputed questions of posses- 
sion, or the right of possession of territory claimed by the dif- 
ferent nations; they have settled questions of religious and 
political expansions whereby one sect or nation was made 
greater while the other was extinguished as a civilizing or con- 
trolling force, but no other great war has been fought by a 
great people among themselves for a great country in order 
that they and their country might be made greater. 

The miracle and marvel of history ! One great people with 
one great country, moved by one controlling idea, but simply 
differing as to methods, pass through the greatest fratricidal 
war the world has ever known, and come out still one people, 
with one flag, one patriotism and one country, only with an 
enlarged plan for the future, and an intensified devotion to 
popular free government. 

Shame on the man who dares impugn the motives of the 
hero who offered his life a sacrifice on the altar of the Southern 
Confederacy, and cursed be he who would tear a single star 
from the grand banner that hangs its protecting folds today 
over 65,000,000 of free and happy people! 

T. M. HURST. 



BATTLE OF SHILOH 95 

EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER. 

(Under date of February 2, 1918, from Arnot, Perm., Mr. Hurst 
adds other interesting facts here appended.) 

"I am handing you the original letter of Mrs. Cherry to be filed 
in the archives of the Society. . . . Mrs. Cherry refers to her moth- 
er without naming her. Her mother's name was Mrs. Nancy Irwin, 
and she had two sons in the Confederate army at the time, one of 
whom, Capt. J. W. Irwin, is shown in the Confederate monument 
dedicated at Shiloh last May. Mrs. Cherry was the oldest daughter 
of Mrs. Irwin, and a cousin of mine married her youngest daughter, 
now dead. 

"At the time I delivered the address before the Society, this let- 
ter of Mrs. Cherry's was copied in one of the Nashville dailies, from 
which it was copied and commented on by many papers throughout 
the nation. Among others, in the Evangelist, edited at that time by 
Dr. Henry M. Field. This agitation led to a letter of inquiry from 
Mrs. Grant to Mrs. Irwin, and finally to a visit from General Fred 
Grant, with his daughter Nellie, to my cousin who married Mrs. 
Cherry's youngest sister. I happened to visit my cousin in July after 
General Grant had been there, and found that he was as much ad- 
mired as was his father by Mrs. Irwin." 

"Concerning General Grant's drinking, I have a letter from Col. 
Douglass Putnam, who was with Grant at Shiloh and stayed with 
him until about the middle of the afternoon of Sunday (April 6, 
1862) when McPherson's horse was shot, when he gave his horse 
to him and walked back to> the river and slept with Grant that night 
on the "Tigress," the flag ship to which Mrs. Cherry refers. Thus 
Col. Putnam corroborates what Mrs. Cherry says." 

"The facts about General Grant's drinking are about these: Up 
to the time Fort Donelson was attacked General Grant was drinking. 
After the battle he was removed from his command by General 
Halleck for 'disobeying orders,' or something of the sort, when Gen- 
eral Smith took the Federal army 1 to Savannah, where Grant was 
restored to command not long before the battle of Shiloh was fought. 

"The report that General Grant was drunk at Shiloh was per- 
sistently circulated all through the war, and led to the saying of 
Lincoln, 'I wish I could get a few barrels of the same kind of whisky 
Grant drinks for my other generals.' Grant was much disturbed by 
these reports after the battle of Shiloh and at one time midst the 
shedding of tears said, 'I am doing my best, and I am not going to 
stand it any longer, but will send in my resignation and go home.' 
However, Putnam, McPherson, Lew Wallace and other friends per- 
suaded him not to do so." 

"I have a lot of matter that interests me, but it is gathering moss 
and will soon become rubbish. During the period in which I lived 
at Nashville I knew some men from whom I heard many interesting 
stories. One story told by General Frank Cheatham I recall: 

' 'Old Frank' often comes to my mind, and I think of him and 
George Pickett and General Grant with intense interest. They were 
together with the old army in Mexico and preserved their personal 
friendship through the Civil War. After the war Grant offered to 
make Pickett marshal of Virginia, when Pickett said : 'You cannot af- 
ford to do it.' To which/ Grant replied: 'I can afford to do anything 



96 T. M. HURST 

that is right.' (See Mrs. Pickett's Reminiscences.) After the war, 
when Grant was President, he wrote to General Cheatham, begin- 
ning his letter, 'Dear Frank,' and among other things he said, 'Old 
boy, you have played in hard luck, and I am sorry for you, and I 
wish I might favor you in some way.' Then suggested that he ap- 
point Cheatham to some place in the diplomatic service, adding that 
'I could not give you an office in the South because the Radicals 
would want to lynch me if I did.' And 'Frank' replied, saying, 
'Dear Lis: I appreciate your good feeling; but if I should accept 
an appointment at your hands, these Rebels would lynch me before I 
got across the line.' Old Frank used to tell that and laugh. When 
General Cheatham died, the Grand Army Post was given the place 
of honor at his head when he lay in state at the capitol at Nashville. 
This, I think, was one of the prettiest things that happened in Nash- 
ville while I was a resident there. Gen. Cheatham had been in the 
National Army before he was in the Confederate service; and when 
lying in state, a representative of the G. A. R. stood at his head, 
while a representative of the Confederate Veterans stood at his feet." 

"After Libby Prison was removed to Chicago, I went through it, 
and on its roster found; the name of Col. W. C. Kendrick, who es- 
caped and was supposed to have been lost, but I traced that man 
from Libby to Washington City, thence to Cincinnati, Paducah and 
to his grave in Waynesboro, Tennessee, where his remains sleep 'un- 
wept, unmarked, unhonored, and unsung.' His father and five broth- 
ers were in the Confederate army. W. C. Kendrick, though he organ- 
ized a regiment in the Union army and was elected its colonel, 
was never sworn in, and hence lost his pay, as well as his pension 
for his family. . . . O, the tragedies, the unwritten tragedies, that 
came into the Southland as the result of the war can never be fully 
known." 



MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES UPON SOUTHERN 

ESTATES AN ECHO OF SLAVE DAYS 

IN THE SOUTHLAND. 

(The Tennessee Historical Society has lately been presented with 
two interesting volumes dealing largely with industrial, economic 
and social conditions in the South some seventy-five years ago, viz: 

Industrial Resources of the Southwest, by J. D. B. DeBow, Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy in the University of Louisiana. 

Few remain that participated in the institution of slavery, and 
such as survive remember those days from the standpoint of child- 
hood. The immediate problems of that day, of course, passed away 
with the industrial situation of which they were a part, nevertheless 
the present generation needs to study a number of phases of modern 
life in the South in the perspective of this past. In the light of this 
interest two articles appearing in the above volumes are reproduced 
representing views of the larger and smaller slave-holder in reference 
to proper care of those whom they regarded as providentially placed 
under them. ED.) 

I. 

Some very sensible and practical writer in the March num- 
ber of The Review, under the "Agricultural Department," has 
given us an article upon the management of negroes, which 
entitles him to the gratitude of the planting community, not 
only for the sound and useful information it contains, but 
because it has opened up this subject, to be thought of, written 
about, and improved upon, until the comforts of our black 
population shall be greatly increased, and their services be- 
come more profitable to their owners. Surely there is no sub- 
ject which demands of the planter more careful consideration 
than the proper treatment of his slaves, by whose labor he 
lives, and for whose conduct and happiness he is responsible 
in the eyes of God. We very often find planters comparing 
notes and making suggestions as to the most profitable modes 
of tilling the soil, erecting gates, fences, farm-houses, ma- 
chinery, and, indeed, everything else conducive to their com- 
fort and prosperity; but how seldom do we find men comparing 
notes as to their modes of feeding, clothing, nursing, working 
and taking care of those human beings intrusted to our charge. 

From the vast amount of experience in the management of 
slaves, can we not deduce some general, practicable rules for 
their government, that would add to the happiness of both 
master and servant? I know of no other mode of arriving at 
this great desideratum than for planters to give to the public 
their rules for feeding, clothing, housing and working their 
slaves, and of taking care of them when sick, together with 
their plantation discipline. In this way we shall be continual- 



98 A MISSISSIPPI PLANTER 

ly learning something new upon this vitally interesting ques- 
tion, filled, as it is, with great responsibilites ; and while our 
slaves will be made happier, our profits from their labor will 
be greater, and our consciences be made easier. 

I would gladly avail myself of the privilege of contributing 
my mite to the accomplishment of this end, by giving my own 
system of management, not because there is anything novel in 
it that it is better, or differs essentially from that of most 
of my neighbors but because it may meet the eye of some man 
of enlarged experience, who will necessarily detect its faults, 
and who may be induced to suggest the proper corrections, 
and for which I should feel profoundly grateful. 

HOUSING THE "QUARTER." 

To begin, then, I send you my plantation rules, that are 
printed in the plantation book, which constitute a part of the 
contract made in the employment of the overseer, and which are 
observed, so far as my constant and vigilant superintendence 
can enforce them. My first care has been to select a proper place 
for my "quarter," well protected by the shade of forest trees, 
sufficiently thinned out to admit a free circulation of air, so 
situated as to be free from the impurities of stagnant water, 
and to erect comfortable houses for my negroes. Planters do 
not always reflect that there is more sickness, and consequently 
greater loss of life, from the decaying logs of negro houses, 
open floors, leaky roofs, and crowded rooms, than all other 
causes combined ; and if humanity will not point out the prop- 
er remedy, let self-interest for once act as a virtue, and prompt 
him to save the health and lives of his negroes, by at once 
providing comfortable quarters for them. There being up- 
wards of 150 negroes on the plantation, I provide for them 
24 houses made of hewn post oak, covered with cypress, 16 by 
1.8, with close plank floors and good chimneys, and elevated 
two feet from the ground. The ground under and around the 
houses is swept every month, and the houses, both inside and 
out, whitewashed twice a year. The houses are situated in a 
double row from north to south, about 200 feet apart, the 
doors facing inwards, and the houses being in a line, about 
50 feet apart. At one end of the street stands the overseer's 
house, workshops, tool house, and wagon sheds; at the other, 
the grist and sawmill, with good cisterns at each end, pro- 
viding an ample supply of pure water. My experience has 
satisfied me that spring, well and lake water are all unhealthy 
in this climate, and that large underground cisterns, keeping 
the water pure and cool, are greatly to be preferred. They 
are easily and cheaply constructed, very convenient, and save 



MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES IN THE SOUTHLAND 99 

both doctors' bills and loss of life. The negroes are never per- 
mitted to sleep before the fire, either lying down or sitting 
up, if it can be avoided, as they are always prone to sleep 
with their heads to the fire, are liable to be burnt and to con- 
tract disease; but beds with ample clothing are provided for 
them, and in them they are made to sleep. . . . 

POOD AND REST. 

I allow for each hand that works out four pounds of clear 
meat and one peck of meal per week. Their dinners are cooked 
for them, and carried to the field, always with vegetables, ac- 
cording to the season. There are two houses set apart at mid- 
day for resting, eating, and sleeping, if they desire it, and they 
retire to one of the weather sheds or the grove to pass this time, 
not being permitted to remain in the hot sun while at rest. 
They cook their own suppers and breakfasts, each family being 
provided with an oven, skillet, and sifter, and each one having a 
coffee-pot (and generally some coffee to put in it), with knives 
and forks, plates, spoons, cups, etc., of their own providing. 
The wood is regularly furnished them, for I hold it to be abso- 
lutely mean for a man to require a negro to work until day- 
light closes in and then force him to get wood, sometimes 
half a mile off, before he can get a fire, either to warm him- 
self or cook his supper. Every negro has his hen-house, where 
he raises poultry, which he is not permitted to sell, and he 
cooks and eats his chickens and eggs for his evening and morn- 
ing meals to suit himself besides, every family has a garden, 
paled in, where they raise vegetables and fruits as they take 
a fancy to. 

CARE OF CHILDREN NURSERY. 

A large house is provided as a nursery for tbe children, 
where all are taken at daylight, and placed under the charge 
of a careful and experienced woman, whose sole occu- 
pation is to attend to them, and see that they are properly 
fed and attended to, and, above all things, to keep them as 
dry and as cleanly as possible under the circumstances. The 
suckling women come in to nurse their children four times 
during the day, and it is the duty of the nurse to see that they 
do not perform 1his duty until they have become properly cool, 
after walking from the field. In consequence of these regula- 
tions I have never lost a child from being burnt to death or, 
indeed, by accidents of any description; and although I have 
had more than thirty born within the last five years, yet I 
have not lost a single one from teething, or the ordinary sum- 
mer complaints so prevalent amongst the children in this 
climate. 



100 A MISSISSIPPI PLANTER 

CLOTHING AND SPENDING MONEY. 

I give to my negroes four full suits of clothes with two 
pair of of shoes, every year, and to my women and girls a 
calico dress and two handkerchiefs extra, I do not permit 
them to have ''truck patches" other than their gardens, or to 
raise anything whatever for market ; but in lieu thereof I give 
to each head of a family and to every single negro, on Christ- 
mas day, five dollars, and send them to the county town, under 
the charge of the overseer or driver, to spend their money. 
In this way I save my mules from being killed up in summer, 
and my oxen in winter, by working and hauling off their 
crops; and, more than all, the negroes are prevented from ac- 
quiring habits of trading in farm produce, which invariably 
leads to stealing, followed by whipping, trouble to the master, 
and discontent on the part of the slave. I permit no spirits 
to be brought on the plantation or used by any negro, if I can 
prevent it ; and a violation of this rule, if found out, is always 
followed by a whipping and a forfeiture of the five dollars 
next Christmas. 

SICKNESS HOSPITAL. 

I have a large and comfortable hospital provided for my 
negroes when they are sick ; to this is attached a nurse's room ; 
and when a negro complains of being too unwell to work he 
is at once sent to the hospital, and put under the charge of a 
very experienced and careful negro woman, who administers 
the medicine and attends to his diet, and where they remain 
until they are able to work again. This woman is provided 
with sugar, coffee, molasses, rice, flour, and tea, and does not 
permit a patient to taste of meat or vegetables until he is re- 
Riored to health. Many negroes relapse after the disease is 
broken and die, in consequence of remaining in their houses 
and stuffing themselves with coarse food after their appetites 
return, and both humanity and economy dictate that this 
should be prevented. From the system I have pursued I have 
not lost a hand since the summer of 1845 (except one that 
vas killed by accident), nor has my physician's bill averaged 
fifty dollars a year, notwithstanding I live near the edge of 
the swamp of Big Black River, where it is thought to be very 
unhealthy. 

1 cultivate about ten acres of cotton and six acres of corn 
to the hand, not forgetting the little wheat patch that your 
correspondent speaks of, which costs but little trouble, and 
proves a great comfort to the negroes; and have as few sour 
looks and as little whipping as almost any other place of the 
same size. 



MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES IN THE SOUTHLAND 101 

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. 

I must not omit to mention that I have a good fiddler, 
and keep him well supplied with catgut, and I make it his 
duty to play for the negroes every Saturday night until twelve 
o'clock. They are exceedingly punctual in their attendance 
at the ball, while Charley's fiddle is always accompanied with 
Ihurod on the triangle and Sam to "pat." 

I also employ a good preacher, who regularly preaches to 
them on the Sabbath day, and it is made the duty of every one 
to come up clean and decent to the place of worship. As 
Father Garritt regularly calls on Brother Abram (the fore- 
man of the prayer meeting) to close the exercises, he givs out 
and sings his hymn with much unction, and always cocks his 
eye at Charley, the fiddler, as much as to say, "Old fellow, 
you had your time last night; now it is mine." 

I would gladly learn every negro on the place to read the 
Bible, but for a fanaticism which, while it professes friendship 
to the negro, is keeping a cloud over his mental vision, and 
almost crushing out his hopes of salvation.* 

These are some of the leading outlines of my management, 
so far as my negroes are concerned. That they are imperfect, 
and could be greatly improved, I readily admit ; and it is only 
with the hope that I shall be able to improve them by the ex- 
perience of others that I have given them to the public. 

Should you come to the conclusion that these rules would 
be of any service when made known to others, you will please 
give them a place in the Review. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF A 
SOUTHERN PLANTATION. 

1. There shall be a place for everything, and everything shall 
be kept in its place. 

2. On the first days of January and July, there shall be an 

*Among other things the Revised Code of Mississippi passed in January, 1823, 
intending as it was said, as matters of police and as safeguards against insurrection, 
provided that: 

"All meetings or assemblies of slaves or free negroes or mulattoes mixing or 
associating with such slaves, above the number of five, at any place or public resort, 
or at any meeting-house or houses, in the night, or at any school or schools, for 
teaching them, reading or writing either in the day or night, under whatsoever 
pretext, shall be deemed and considered an unlawful assembly. . . . Provided, 
that nothing herein contained shall be ' so construed as to prevent the master, em- 
ployee or overseer, of any slave or slaves, from giving permission in writing to 
his, her or their slave or slaves to go to any place or places whatever, for the pur- 
pose of religious worship; Provided, that such worship be conducted by a regularly 
ordained or licensed white minister, or attended by at least two discreet and repu- 
table white persons, appointed by some regular church or religious society." 

The disfavor and disapproval of this legislation by the best classes of citizens 
and slave holders was shown in the following election by the defeat of some of 
the most prominent politicians for office, notedly the Hon. George Poindexter for 
Congress, a majority of the voters interpreting this law as substantially excluding 
the colored people from religious privileges. 

"Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State," Claiborne, p. 385. 



102 A MISSISSIPPI PLANTER 

account taken of the number and condition of all the negroes, stock, 
and farming utensils of every description on the premises, and the 
same shall be entered in the plantation book. 

3. It shall be the duty of the overseer to call upon the stock- 
minder once every day, to know if the cattle, sheep and hogs have 
been seen and counted, and to find out if any are dead, missing or lost. 

4. It shall be the duty of the overseer, at least once in every 
week, to see and count the stock himself, and to inspect the fences, 
gates, and water-gaps on the plantation, and see that they are In 
good order. 

5. The wagons, carts, and all other implements, are to be kept 
under the sheds, and in the houses where they belong, except when 
in use. 

6. Each negro man will be permitted to keep his own axe, and 
shall have it forthcoming when required by the overseer. No other 
tool shall be taken or used by any negro without the permission of 
the overseer. 

7. Humanity on the part of the overseer, and unqualified obe- 
dience on the part of the negro, are, under all circumstances, indis- 
pensable. 

8. Whipping, when necessary, shall be in moderation, and never 
done in a passion; and the driver shall in no instance inflict punish- 
ment, except in the presence of the overseer, and when from sick- 
ness, he is unable to do it himself. 

9. The overseer shall see that the negroes are properly clothed 
and well fed. He shall lay off a garden of at least six acres, and 
cultivate it as a part of his crop, and give the negroes as many vege- 
tables as may be necessary. 

10. It shall be the duty of the overseer to select a sufficient num- 
ber of the women, each week, to wash for all. The clothes shall be 
well washed, ironed, and mended, and distributed to the negroes on 
Sunday morning; when every negro is expected to wash himself, 
comb his head, and put on clean clothes. No washing or other labor 
will be tolerated on the Sabbath. 

11. The negroes shall not be worked in the rain, or kept out 
after night, except in weighing or putting away cotton. 

12. It shall be the duty of the driver, at such hours of the night 
as the overseer may designate, to blow his horn, and go around and 
see that every negro is at his proper place, and to report to the 
overseer any that may be absent; and it shall be the duty of the 
overseer, at some hour between that time and daybreak, to patrol 
the quarters himself, and see that every negro is where he should be. 

13. The negro children are to be taken, every morning, by their 
mothers, and carried to the houses of the nurses; and every cabin 
shall be kept locked during the day. 

14. Sick negroes are to receive particular attention. When they 
are first reported sick, they are to be examined by the overseer, and 
prescribed for, and put under the care of the nurse, and not put to 
work until the disease is broken and the patient beyond the power 
of a relapse. 

15. When the overseer shall consider it necessary to send for 
a physician, he shall enter in the plantation book the number of 
visits, and to what negro they are made. 

16. When the negro shall die, an hour shall be set apart by the 
overseer for his burial; and at that hour all business shall cease, and 



MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES IN THE SOUTHLAND 103 

every negro on the plantation, who is able to do so, shall attend the 
burial. 

17. The overseer shall keep a plantation book, in which he shall 
register the birth and name of each negro that is born; the name 
of each negro that dies, and specify the disease that killed him. He 
shall also keep in it the weights of the daily picking of each hand; 
the mark, number, and weight of each bale of cotton, and the time 
of sending the same to market; and all other such occurrences, relat- 
ing to the crop, the weather, and all other matters pertaining to the 
plantation, that he may deem advisable. 

18. The overseer shall pitch the crops, and work them accord- 
ing to his own judgment, with the distinct understanding that a fail- 
ure to make a bountiful supply of corn and meat for the use of the 
plantation will be considered as notice that his services will not be 
required for the succeeding year. 

19. The negroes, teams, and tools are to be considered under the 
overseer's exclusive management, and are not to be interfered with 
by the employer, only so far as to see that the foregoing rules are 
strictly observed. 

20. The overseer shall, under no circumstances, create an account 
against his employer, except in the employment of a physician, or 
in the purchase of medicines ; but whenever anything is wanted about 
the plantation he shall apply to his employer for it. 

21. Whenever the overseer, or his employer, shall become dis- 
satisfied, they shall, in a frank and friendly manner, express the 
same, and if either party desires it, he shall have the right to settle 
and separate. A MISSISSIPPI PLANTER. 



104 A SMALL FARMER 

II. 

The public may desire to know the age of the writer, tne 
length of time he has been managing negroes, and how long 
he has tried the mode of management he recommends. It is 
sufficient to say I have had control of negroes in and out of 
the field for thirty years, and have been carrying out my pres- 
ent system, and improving it gradually, for twenty years. . . . 

Housing for negroes should be good ; each family should have 
a house, 16 by 18 feet in the clear, plank floor, brick chimney, 
shingle roof: lloor elevated two feet above the earth. There 
should be no loft, no place to stow away anything, nut pins 
to hang clothes upon. Each house should be provided with a 
bedstead, cotton mattress, and sufficient bedclothes for com- 
fort for the heads of the family, and also for the young ones. 

Clothing should be sufficient, but of no set quantity, as all 
will use or waste what is given, and many be no better clad 
with four suits than others with two. I know families that 
never give more than two suits, and their servants are always 
neater than others with even four. 

CLOTHING ALLOWANCE. 

My rule is to give for winter a linsey suit, one shirt of best 
toweling, one hat, one pair of shoes, a good blanket, costing 
$2 to $2.50, every other year (or I prefer, after trying three 
years, a comfort). In the summer, two shirts, two pair pants, 
and one straw hat. Several of my negroes will require two 
pair pants for winter, and occasionally even a third pair, de- 
pending mostly upon the material. Others require another 
shirt and a third pair of pants for summer. I seldom give 
two pair of shoes. 

Food is cooked by a woman, who has the children under 
her charge. I do not regard it as good economy, to say noth- 
ing of any feeling, to require negroes to do any cooking after 
their day's labor is over. 

The food is given out daily, a half pound to each hand 
that goes to the field, large and small, water carriers and all ; 
bread and vegetables without stint, the latter prepared in my 
own garden, and dealt out to the best advantage, endeavoring 
to have something every day in the year. I think four pounds 
of clear meat is too much. I have negroes that have had only 
a half pound each for twenty years, and they bid fair to out- 
live their master, who occasionally forgets his duty, and will 
be a gourmand. I practice on the plan, that all of us would 
be better to be restrained, and that health is best subserved 
by not overeating. 



MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES IN THE SOUTHLAND 105 

My cook would make cotton enough to give the extra one 
pound. The labor in making vegetables would make another 
pound. I say this to show I do not dole out a half pound per 
day from parsimony. 

HOURS OP LABOR. 

My hours of labor, commencing with pitching my crop, is 
from daylight until 12 a.m.; all hands then come in and re- 
main until 2 o'clock p.m.; then back to the field until dark. 
Some time in May we prolong the rest three hours, and if a 
very hot day, even four hours. Breakfast is eaten in the field, 
half an hour to an hour being given, or they eat and go to 
work without being driven in and out, all stopping when my 
driver is ready. 

I give all females half of every Saturday to wash and 
clean up, my -cook washing for young men and boys through 
the week. The cabins are scoured once a week, swept out 
every day, and beds made up at noon in summer, by daylight 
in winter. In the winter breakfast is eaten before going to 
work, and dinner is carried to the hands. 

DISCIPLINE. 

I do not punish often, but I seldom let an offense pass, 
making a lumping settlement, and then correct for the servant's 
remembrance. I find it better to whip very little. Young 
ones being rather treacherous in their memory, pulling an 
ear, or a sound box, will bring everything right . . . 

I have a fiddle in my quarters, and though some of my 
good old brethren in the church would think hard of me, yet 
I allow dancing; aye, I buy the fiddle and encourage it, by 
giving the boys occasionally a big supper. 

I have no overseer, and do not manage so scientifically as 
those who are able to lay down rules; yet I endeavor to man- 
age so that myself, family and negroes may take pleasure and 
delight in our relations. 

It is not possible in my usual crude way to give my whole 
plans, but enough is probably said. I permit no night work, 
except feeding stock and weighing cotton. No work of any 
kind at noon, unless to clean out cabins, and bathe the chil- 
dren when nursing, not even washing their clothes. 

RELIGIOUS SERVICES. 

I require every servant to be present every Sabbath morn 
ing and Sabbath evening at family prayers. In the evening 

Q 



106 A SMALL FARMER 

the master, or sometimes a visitor, if a professor,* expounds 
the chapter read. Thus my servants hear 100 to 200 chapters 
read each year anyhow. One of my servants, a professor,* is 
sometimes called on to close our exercises with prayer. 

Owning but few slaves, I am probably able to do a better 
part by them than if they were one or two hundred. But I 
think I could do better if I had enough to permit me to sys- 
tematize better. 

I would keep a cook and a nurse. I would keep a stock 
feeder, whose whole duty should be to attend to stock in gen- 
eral, to clean out the stable, have troughs filled with feed, so 
that the plough hands would have nothing to do but water, 

A SOCIAL BUILDING. 

clean down, and tie up the teamts. I would build a house large 
enough, and use it for a dance house for the young, and those 
who wished to dance, as well as for prayer meeting, and for 
church on Sunday, making it a rule to be present myself oc- 
casionally at both, and my overseer always. I know the re- 
buke in store about dancing, but I cannot help it. I believe 
negroes will be better disposed this way than any other. I 
would employ a preacher for every Sabbath. One of my negroes 
can read the Bible, and he has prayer meeting every Sabbath 
at four o'colck p.m. ; all the negroes attend regularly, no com- 
pulsion being used. 

I have tried faithfully to break up immorality. I have 
not known an oath to be sworn for a long time. I know of 
no quarreling, no calling harsh names, and but little stealing. 

A SMALL FARMER. 



A f-rofes.Miig Christian. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND, OHIO 
AND MISSISSIPPI RIVERS FROM NASH- 
VILLE TO NEW ORLEANS. 

BY DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD. 

(Continued from April No. Vol. V. page 63.) 

Before continuing the text of this Journey it is well to call 
attention to a few errors appearing in the first installment, 
and give record to other items of interest with reference to 
Dr. Bedford. 

On page 42 appears a document with reference to the ex- 
ploiting of the town of Cotton-Port, and it is incorrectly iden- 
tified with the present town of Florence. The latter place i& 
not located on Limestone Creek, but on Cypress Creek, and 
while the exploiters were not identical, yet some of the per- 
sonnel were the same as is shown by the following: 

PUBLIC SALE OF LOTS 88 
IN FLORENCE. 

On the 24th day of July next, at the town of Florence, the TRUS- 
TEES of the CYPRUS LAND COMPANY, in conformity with the 
articles of association, will commence the sale of the property belong- 
ing to the company, to the highest bidder, on a credit of eighteen and 
thirty months, and continue from day to day until all is sold. Much 
of the property yet to be sold is very desirable and valuable. The 
large Brick Tavern and purtenances, all the unsold Lots in the town, 
a great many out-lots and small tracts of land, the ferry lot on the 
north side of the river, and Campbell's ferry and the fraction of land 
attached to it on the north side of the river, and the house and lot 
now in the occupation of Dr. Woodcock, will then be offered for sale. 
The terms of sale, one half of the purchase money payable in eighteen 
months and the other half in thirty months from the day of sale- 
Bond and approved security will be required. 

Leroy Pope, 

Thomas Bibb, 

John Coffee, 

James Jackson, 

Dabney Morris, (by John Craig, his atty. in fact) 

J. McKinley. 

Trustees. 
Nov. 27, 1822. 

On page 61, footnote 54, error is made in identifying the 
Mr. Bond mentioned in the text, with Hon. Shadrack F. Bond, 
first Governor of Illinois. Re-examination of the much-blurred 
text discloses that the name is "E. F. Bond" and refers to Ed- 
ward F. Bond, one of the appointees of Gen. Wilkinson, first 

"(Nashville Whig. Wednesday morning, Feb. 5, 1823. Vol. XI, No. 25.) 



108 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

Governor of Louisiana Territory, in the District of Cape 
Girardeau. 

"General Wilkinson was visited by representatives of the several 
districts, and among others by one Edward F. Bond, a delegate from 
Cape Giredeau District. Wilkinson received him, so Bond says, with 
'politeness and complacency' and bestowed on him 'a small share of 
his confidence' in giving him several appointments 'within his gift'."** 

COLLECTOR OP INTERNAL REVENUE. 

On January 9th, 1815, Congress passed a revenue will pro- 
viding for a direct revenue tax on certain personal properties 
of each citizen of the United States. Dr. Bedford was ap- 
pointed collector for what was designated the Fifth Collection 
District of Tennessee, embracing the counties of Lincoln, Bed- 
ford, Rutherford, Williamson and Davidson. 

In connection with this office the following notice appeared : 

PUBLIC NOTICE* 1 
IS HEREBY GIVEN 

To the Citizens & owners of property in the 5th. collection district 
subject to the direct Tax, that I will attend at Fayetteville in Lincoln 
county on the llth & 22nd, at Shelbyville in Bedford county on the 
23rd and 24th, at Murfreesborough in Rutherford county on the 26th. 
and 27th, at Franklin in Williamson county on the 30th days of June 
& 1st. day of July, and at Nashville in Davidson county on the 3rd. 
and 4th days of July, to receive appeals relative to any erroneous or 
excessive valuations or enumerations, which will be determined ac- 
cording to law and right, and in the manner prescribed in the 14th 
section of the act of Congress of the 9th. of January 1815; which 
requires that the question to be determined by the Principal Assessor 
shall be, whether the valuation complained of be, or be not, in a just 
relation or proportion to other valuation in the same assessment dis- 
trict; and that all appeals shall be made in writing, and shall specify 
the particular cause matter or thing, respecting which a decision is 
requested, and shall moreover state the ground or principle of inequal- 
ity or error complained of. 

My Assistant Assessors are hereby notified and requested to at- 
tend at the time and places above specified for each county, in which 
they severally act. 

J. R. BEDFORD, 
Principal Assessor, 

June 11. 1815. 5th Collection District. 

In respect to this special tax and its collection, the Hon. 
Park Marshall submits further interesting data : 

"On Jany 18, 1815 Congress passed a very peculiar revenue act. 
It taxes watches and household furniture. Each silver watch $1, 
gold watch $2. Furniture valued from $200 to $400, $1 ; $400 to $600, 
$1.50, and so on. 

There were exemptions from taxation the following: (1) All 
watches not in use; (2) Furniture and goods to value of $200; (3) 

""History of Missouri," Louis Houck, Vol. II, p. 403. 

"("Nashville Examiner," Tuesday, June 37th, 1815. Vol. II, No. 8.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 109 

Kitchen furniture and bedding; (4) All articles made from the prod- 
ucts of Tennessee. 

Capt. Thos. P. Henderson has a list of these articles dated Dec. 17, 
1815, signed by M. R. Bedford, Principle Collector of Revenue for the 
Fifth District of Tennessee'. The list covers only Williamson county, 
and appears to be the original tax list, with Bedford's original sig- 
nature. 

The number of persons thus listed for taxation in Williamson 
county is only 138. The number of watches listed on it is 112, of 
which 16 were gold. 

Of course the names of these taxpayers are given, and that makes 
it quite interesting locally. There was one citizen of Franklin, a 
merchant, whose household goods were valued at as much as $850, 
after allowing (presumably) the exemptions above mentioned. There 
were others whose household goods were valued at $200 to $300. 

Watches were taxed without reference to value. 

This law is peculiar, especially for that day, in view of the fact 
that it was very direct in its operation and application." 82 

REMOVAL 98 
J. R. Bedford, 

Has removed his Medicine and Drug Store a short distance up 
College Street nearly opposite to Doctor Robertson's brick house. 

He has just received from Philadelphia, in addition to his former 
supply, an extensive assortment of Medicine, Patent Medicine, Medical 
Books, Surgical Instruments, Glass Furniture, Paints, Oil and Hat- 
ters Materials. 

Physicians orders for Medicines, will be thankfully received and 
promptly attended to. 

Nashville, 14th. of June, 1815. 

TOUR 

THURSDAY, 19th. Started at an hour's sun morning very cold 
and frosty after the morning weather greatly moderated and became 
clear, warm and serene more pleasant than any day since our de- 
parture from Nashville. Sailed 64 upwards of 30 miles passing the 
1st, 2d, 3d Chickasaw Bluffs, and the Devil's race ground, 65 so-called 
from the rapidity of the current and multiplicity of snags and sawyers 
supposing every thing vile and dangerous and alarming is, some- 
how or other, subject to the Devil encamped 5 miles below this place 
on I. 86 shore. 

FRIDAY, 20th. Sailed thirty miles without any impediment, but 
occasional head winds and made the 4th, or lower, Chickasaw Bluffs 

"Letter to Editor, date, Franklin, Tenn., Sept. 28, 1919. 

63 (Nashville Examiner, Vol. II, No. 8, June 27, 1815.) 

. **The country west of the Tennessee River is a large plateau gradually rising until 
it breaks off near the Mississippi River inta the bottom land. This highland plateau 
touches the river at four points, forming what appears from the river view, four 
bluffs. 

In the Indian days these four points were known as the Chicasaw Bluffs and were 
numbered one, two, three and four as you descend the river. The first is 1 near the 
town of Fulton, the second Randolph, and the third near the boundary between 
Tipton and Shelby counties and the fourth the site of the city of Memphis. 

85 Name given the sound between the island! and mainland, about three miles long. 
Called by the French "Chenal dti Diable." (Bradbury, p. 203.) 

"The abbreviations used are, "I." for Indian shore and "L." for Louisiana shore. 



110 DR. JOHN E. BEDFORD 

at an hour's sun. At the lower end of which, two miles from their 
commencement, which is at the mouth of Wolf River," is a garrison 
built some years ago by Capt., now Major, Pike called Fort Picker- 
ing," in honor, I suppose, of Timothy Pickering" and in imitation of the 
absurd and insignificant custom, which has become now very preva- 
lent, of adopting the names of living characters to places of public 
notoriety. 20 soldiers are stationed here commanded by a Lieut. 
Jackson, who kindly invited Doctor Claiborne and myself to his quar- 
ters to lodge this night which was gladly accepted being heartily 
sick of the rough fare offered at the barge. We arrived here with- 
out money, without a single acquaintance and without many necessary 
articles of diet being detained on the voyage so much longer than 
calculated on supped and had a very comfortable lodging with the 
Lieut. 

SATURDAY, 21st. Breakfasted with Lieut. Wrote Parry W. 
Humphreys, Doctor J. L. Armstrong, Nat. W. Williams and Wm. Cur- 
ry. Procured from Mr. Vanhorn, Deputy to the U. States Factor, 
petrican whiskey, sugar, coffee and other small articles 12 o'clock, 
sailed cloudy and prospects of rain proceeded 15 miles and en- 
camped on L. shore. 

SUNDAY, 22d. Passed an uncomfortable night rain yery heavy, 
accompanied with much thunder and lightning bed clothes wet rain 
continued until 9 o'clock abated was joined by a flat boat having 
African negroes commanded by a Mr. Harrison from Washington 
County, Kentucky, proceeded on together 10 miles rain and wind 
forced us in encamped on the L. shore trampling around camp 
worked up mud 3 or 4 inches deep full of water Doctor Claiborne 
and I slept on board Harrison's boat, having a shelter of plank 
slept soundly. 

MONDAY, 23d. Weather clear river rose last night 8 or 9 
inches sailed 10 miles stormy wind forced us in on south side of 
Island No. 55 wind continued very high till night, frequently beating 
the barge on ground encamped on the bank wind abated about sun- 
setting weather moderate and pleasant. Harrison was forced to 
shore about a mile above us. 

TUESDAY, 24th. Rose before day morning clear and little cold. 
Set out just after twilight proceeded 6 miles, passed a boat which 

"This stream has received various designations. It was first known as Riviere de 
Mayot, the French giving it this name from the* circumstance that at this point a 
Loup (Delaware) Indian of the party of La Salle bearing this name was lost here. 
The French map-makers of the earlier date, however, term it Riviere de Margot. 
Since a trail lead from the Mississippi up this stream over the watershed to the Chick- 
saw villages in what is now northern Mississippi, other Frenchmen called it Riviere de 
Chichicha Chicasaw River. To the English it was known as Wolf River. Possibly 
this is an echo of the original French tradition of the "Loufi" French for wolf 
Indian. 

"See Appendix "E." 

Timothy Pickering was born at Salem, Mass., July i7th, 1745, and died at the 
same place Salem, January 29th, 1829. 

Graduated at Harvard in 1763, admitted to the bar in 1768. 1775 made colonel 
of local militia and served in the Revolutionary War. In 1780 was appointed Quar- 
termaster General of the American Army to succeed Gen. Greene, resigned. 1793, 
on resignation of Knox, Secretary of War, he succeeded him. Founded West Point 
Military Academy and superintended the building of the frigates CONSTITUTION, 
UNITED STATES and CONSTELLATION. On the resignation of Randolph as 
Secretary ol State, he served in his place and after three months was duly appointed 
to that office, which he held until dismissed by President Adams. May 12. 1800. (Ap- 
pleton's Cycle, of Biog.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 111 

had been wrecked 3 weeks load, flour and apples, and a considerable 
quantity of peltry, received on freight from the U. States Factor at 
Chicka^aw Bluffs wreck was repaired and expected to set out in the 
course of this day no special damage to load 10 miles further ar- 
rived at what is called the Big Prairie, 70 3 miles below the mouth of the 
St. Francis River, 71 which enters the Mississippi 75 miles below Fort 
Pickering. This river is of considerable size and well adapted to 
boating a considerable distance up were informed the land adjacent 
to its waters not fertile, hilly and poor 12 or 14 families live at and 
about the Prairie possess little property partly hunters and partly 
cultivators sell their little surplus produce to the boats passing and 
repassing. No other settlement nearer them than the village of Ozark, 72 
which is sixty miles distant. This place was first settled five years 
ago passed 18 miles beyond Prairie and encamped on L. shore, 10 

TO The Big Prairie was some seven miles above the present site of Helena. "It is a 
natural savannah of about sixty acres open to the river on the right bank. It is 
covered with a fine rich short herbage, very proper for sheep. Immediately behind it 
at less than a half a mile from the river, is a small lake eight or nine miles in circum- 
ference, formed in the spring and summer by the Mississippi, which in that season 
rising, flows up a small canal (or in the language of the country, bayou) and spreads 
itself over the prairie. As the river falls the lake discharges its waters again by the 
bayou, and becomes a luxuriant meadow, covered with a tall but nutritive tender 
grass. While a lake, it abounds in fish of every species natural to the Mississippi, 
and when a meadow it is capable of feeding innumerable herds of cattle. It is then 
watered by a rivulet which descends from some low hills about three miles to the 
westward of the river bank. From its regular annual inundation, this appears to be a 
fine situation for rice grounds, if the water goes off soon enough to allow the rice to 
ripen." 

(Cuming. Early West. Travels. Vol. IV, p. 297.) 

n St. Francis River. The headwaters of this stream are found not a great distance 
southwest of the city of St. Louis, and pass southward in a general parallel direction 
at times through swamps and enlarged into considerable lakes, some three to four 
hundred miles to where it empties into the Mississippi. From the earliest days of 
the French and Indian hunters this region was looked upon as a paradise of game, and 
even today the hunter's lodge can be found here and there near its banks. The 
tongue of land lying between the St. Francis and the Mississippi ranges from six to 
twenty miles in breadth and during the wet season is largely inundated. Further 
north the western bank of the St. Francis consists of a chain of hills and in them is 
located the lead mines so long known as the Genevieve field, which in the early days 
practically supplied the inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley. (Cuming, ibid.) 

n "Village of Ozark." This is commonly reckoned the oldest white settlement in 
the south Mississippi valley. However, it is probable that the earliest post or settle- 
ment was further down the river, and closer to the Mississippi than what was later 
known as Arkansas Post, or Village of Ozark. The French designated the country of 
the Arkansa Indians as "Des Arcs," and the post or settlement was commonly referred 
to as "aux Arcs," which was Americanized into OZARK. This later post was located 
up the Arkansas river about fifty miles from its mouth and by those descending the 
Mississippi was commonly reached either by landing at Big Prairie and proceeding in 
a southwest direction overland about seventy miles, (crossing White River at thirty- 
five), or by descending! the river to the mouth of White River, thence up this stream 
a few miles to the Cut-Off, a bayou eight or nine miles in length leading to the 
Arkansas River and then up the latter to the post. After the transfer of Louisiana 
to the United States the Americans occupied this post in 1804. The Louisiana Cession 
was divided at first into two territories, the lower known as Territory of Orleans 
extended north to the present boundary of the State of Arkansas, the remainder was 
known as Upper Louisiana and at first was placed under the jurisdiction of the 
Indiana Territory, as a "district." Later, March 3rd, 1805, it was erected into a 
separate government as "Louisiana Territory," Gen. James Wilkinson being appointed 
the first governor, with headquarters at St. Louis. This territory was then divided 
into districts, and that portion north of the present south boundary of the State of 
Arkansas extending into what is now the southern part of Missouri, became the Dis- 
trict of New Madrid, the next year the Territorial Legislature of Louisiana divided 
the District of New Madrid, constituting the lower part into the District of Arkansas, 
viz: all that portion north of the present south boundary of the State of Arkansas to 
a point opposite the Second Chicasaw Bluff. 

(Hemstead's School His*, of Arkansas, pp. 46-47. Houck's Hist, of Mo., Vol. II, 
p. 412.) 



112 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

miles down a 20 mile stretch having run upwards of 40 miles this 
day. 

WEDNESDAY, 25th. Set out a little after twilight morning 
cloudy and every prospect of rain progressed rapidly without diffi- 
culty between 40 and 50 miles encamped at hour's sun on I. shore 
light rain ensued which abated at 8 o'clock night warm and pleasant 
restless and not disposed to sleep walked frequently to the boat to 
examine a hook I cast out for fish it was taken off about mid-night 
and the hempen rope to which it was suspended bit squarely asunder. 
The fish must have been a huge one. 

THURSDAY, 26th. Morning clear and calm. The pleasant tem- 
perature of the atmosphere, the various and lively musical notes of 
the birds, and the shrill sound of the frogs, indicated a speedy ap- 
proach of spring proceeded rapidly to White River 7 * 15 miles 20 
miles further to Arkansas or Ozark River 74 both emptying into the 
Mississippi on the north or Louisiana shore, opposite mouth of the 
latter river on the south or I. shore, were encamped 12 or 15 Indians 
of the Ozark, or Arkansas, tribe, accompanied by two Frenchmen, 
hunters, with them, from the village of Ozark near which live this 
tribe of Indians. This village 72 is said to be fifty miles up the Ozark 
river, from its mouth inhabitants almost exclusively French con- 
tains fifty or sixty families ignorant and little ameliorated by civ- 
ilization generally without any uniform or steady means of sub- 
sistence agriculture extremely imperfect and limited land generally 
beautiful and champlain but not fertile U. States have established 
a Factor for the benefit of the Indian tribes and citizens under the 
directions of Jos. M. Treet, who is also chief magistrate of the court 
of the district of Arkansas, and is said to be arbitrary and oppressive 
to the inhabitants. If this be true, the policy is extremely bad and 
unlucky and such is calculated to injure and degrade our govern- 
ment in these distant provinces prevent their forming national at- 
tachment, but instead thereof, engender resentment and enmity. 
White River enters the Mississippi behind a large island lying close 
to that shore, wherefore did not see its mouth. It is said to be a little 
larger than the Cumberland of deep and very gentle current, which 
renders navigation up more easy. It is said to be without obstruction 
a long distance up. The Cherokee Indians 75 have a village or settle- 

"The White River is now regarded as emptying into the Mississippi, but the older 
authorities represent it as a northwest branch of the Arkansas River, the region 
bounded by the Mississippi, the two rivers and the "cut-off" being regarded as an 
island. Hutchins' map of 1778 so notes it. 

T4 So named by Marquette as he found the Arkansa tribes of Indians located near 
its mouth. 

re As early as 1775 the Spanish Governor at St. Louis speaks of the Cheroket 
Indians as having been west of the Mississippi and of their having driven the miners 
away from the lead mine, Mine La Motte, on the headwaters of the St. Francis River. 
Again in 1782 certain Cherokee chiefs visited St. Ixxuis. The Bowl's party of Chero- 
kees settled on the lower part of the St. Francis River in what is now Arkansas in 
1794. Their story is that' a party of Cherokee Indians was returning from the Agency 
at Tellico and had encamped on the side of the Tennessee River near the Mussel 
Shoals. A party of whites under one Scot, stopped 1 to trade with them and finding 
they possessed an amount of money soon caused them to be drunken and swindled 
them out of all of it. When the Indians sobered they demanded the return of their 
money, which was not only refused but they were attacked and two of them killed 
by the whites. Whereupon the Indians killed all the men in Scot's party, took pos- 
session of his boat, together with the women, children and slaves. Proceeding down 
the Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi till they reached the mouth of the St. Francis, 
where the women and children were placed in their boat with slaves to care for them 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 113 

ment on this river 60 miles above its mouth 300 of this tribe having 
emigrated hither. Spoke, this morning, two men on the bank about 
5 miles above the mouth of White River, who live near the village 
they were hunters. Between these two rivers is a more fertile body 
of land than usual in this country it is extensive enough for a large 
country encamped 22 miles below the mouth of Arkansas on the I. 
shore, near a camp of Indians tribe of the same name having made 
a run this day of 57 miles purchased of the Indians 2 large buffalo 
perch, a turkey and some venison sleped moderately well little rest- 
less night cloudy and windy. 

FRIDAY, 27th. Weather cloudy and indication of rain wind 
sometimes very high was forced to make shore detained an hour 
and sailed^ it being calm and 2:30 o'clock wind again very high 
heavy rain ensued fog became so dense as to make every spot but 
where we were invisible therefore floated without knowing in what 
direction afterwards was some little dissipated and we made shore 
with much difficulty and hazard. Rain continued very heavy until 8 
o'clock in the night. Doctor Claiborne and myself again lodged with 
Mr. Harrison and Doctor Mallory, whose boat was yet in company. 
Sleped moderately well was again restless. Run only thirty miles 
this day. 

SATURDAY, 28th. Weather very cloudy and somewhat colder 
than yesterday. Set out at sunrise weather soon after became cold 
and windy run about 6 or 8 miles and were forced to the shore 
continued without alteration till 2 o'clock P. M. then became tem- 
pestuous, which obscured every prospect of proceeding further 
weather was quite chilly encamped on the Indian or Chickasaw 
shore in a cane thicket. 

SUNDAY, MARCH 1st. Weather clear and cold, the north wind 
having continued nearly the whole night standing water froze nearly 
half an inch this encampment is little upwards an 100 miles above 
the Walnut Hills and about 200 miles above Natchez with the mean- 
derings of the Mississippi which is extremely winding reducing the 
direct course to Natchez, to, perhaps, 130 miles. Therefore our camp 
was probably 33 50' N. Latitude. Run upwards of fifty miles this 
day and encamped on the L. shore. The day was quite clear and only 
moderately warm the night cold, again froze very considerably. 

MONDAY, 2d. Morning cold, having froze considerably last night. 
Sleped better last night than the three preceding nights, although was 
colder. Set out at twilight weather moderated and become warm 
and pleasant, about the meridian of the day. Run without interrup- 
tion, about fifty miles encamped on the Indian shore 20 miles above 
the Walnut Hills the distance found to be greater than calculated 
on yesterday. Evening become quite warm and cloudy promising 
rain we are in a climate perceptibly milder saw a large quantity of 
black briar, with leaves green all the last winter, and others about 
half grown and evidently the growth of the present season likewise 
discovered the elder to have vegetated leaves one-third grown and 
the buds of the box-elder to be springing two kinds of weed names 
unknown to me, though have often seen them before, of considerable 

and sent on down the river to the settlements. The Bowl and his party ascended 
the St. Francis and made settlements over this part of what is now the State of 
Arkansas. 

(See Houck's Spanish Regime, I. p. 100 & Hist, of Mo. I. p. 221.) 



114 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

growth already, and dispersed pretty thickly about the bottom which 
afforded a pleasant and enchanting view, similar to the springing of 
the tender grass in the meadows of Kentucky or Tennessee, early in 
the spring. 

TUESDAY, 3d. Set out as usual at twilight the moderate tem- 
perature of the weather and the clouds indicate speedy rain these 
and the lucid intervals of sun-shine, still resemble the commencement 
of spring. Run ten miles to the mouth of the Yazoo a river so cele- 
brated by means of a fraudulent speculation in lands on its waters by 
a company of speculators, mostly of Georgia 7 * the validity of which 
has been so warmly and doubtfully contested in Congress the two last 
sessions. This river at its mouth is fully an half mile in width and 
is said to run nearly parallel with the Mississippi its source being 
near the Great Bend of the Tennessee. As to the general size of this 
river, its facility or difficulty of navigation, or the nature and fertility 
of the soil adjacent to its waters, I possess no information. It exhibits 
a beautiful view at its entrance into the Mississippi, which extends 
probably two miles up 9 or 12 miles further is the Walnut Hills 77 on 
the east side of the Mississippi and is a part of the Mississippi Terri- 
tory. Doctor Claiborne and I went on land and tarried a few 
moments purchased some tobacco and made some enquiries of one 
of its inhabitants who was so extremely ignorant, as not to be able 
to inform us the name of the county including the Walnut Hills 
only "that they lived there and the one half of the Walnuts Hills be- 
longed to one Turnbull in Charleston, S. C., and that the other half 
belonged to themselves" four or five families live on or about the 
Hills in log houses or rather huts most of them were m view they 
were preparing for planting cotton having chopped up and collected 
the stocks of last crop into small parcels, ready for burning. We saw 
but one peach tree and that very small which was in full bloom. 
This was the only fruit tree to be seen. The Walnut Hills is the most 
beautiful place on the Mississippi above, (Natchez) more elevated 
and more romantic not having seen any place above it worth notice 
but the lower Chickasaw Bluffs. They are perhaps 150 feet above 
water, going off in a plane The Walnut Hills is perhaps 300 feet 
above water and variegated by gentle elevations and depressions 
sometimes very abrupt. They continue about a mile down the river 
where lives a family in a tolerably comfortable house far superior 
to the others. Twenty-five miles below the Walnut Hills is a settle- 
ment on the east side of the river in the Mississippi Territory, ex- 
tending down the river about three miles, immediately on the bank 
about twenty families compose this settlement who are nearly all 
Yankees and live in some more respectable style and decency than 
those about W. Hills possess little property besides their land, which 
is rich and admirably situated for culture, which they pursue with 

"See note 22, p. 50. Also Claiborne's "Miss, as a Province," etc., p. 98. "The 
Yazoo Land Company," Amer. Hist. Asso. Papers, N. Y., Vol. V, pp. 395-437. 

" Walnut Hills. Present site of Vicksburg. The territory between 31 and 32}$ 
decrees north latitude was for many years in dispute between Spain and the United 
States from 1783 to 1795. In 1789 the Spanish built here Fort Nogales, but even 
after the treaty of 1795 was concluded they refused to vacate their posts and pursued 
dilatory tactics until 1798, when the United States forces finally occupied the fort, 
changing its name to Fort McHenry in honor of the then Secretary of War. Cuming, 
in 1807, speaks of the place as: "Where are seen the earthen ramparts of Fort Mc- 
Henrv, now abandoned." This locality was involved in the land schemes of the fraudu- 
lent Yazoo Company, entailing much litigation with regard to titles, etc. The present 
city of Vicksburg was laid out in 1811. 

(Cuming's Tour, Early West. Travel, IV, p. 306.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 115 

great diligence cotton is almost the exclusive article of agriculture 
corn, &c., barely sufficient to support them. A citizen of this settle- 
ment, which is called Palmyra, 78 informed us that from 16 acres of 
ground, he gathered the last season 26000 Iba of seed cotton, or 6500 
ginned cotton, which he sold for $18 cash in Natchez, the whole 
amounting to $1170. therefore every acre of ground produced $69.37. 
The active preparations for planting cotton, the bloom of the peach 
trees, which are pretty numerous here, and the general springing of 
vegetation, evince the actual presence of spring and the greater mild- 
ness of the climate than that of Tennessee. From a little above the 
W. Hills to opposite this place on the west side of the river are scat- 
tered a number of little huts few more than 10 feet square and more 
the resemblance of fowl-houses than human tenements. However, 
even these gratified the sight and revived us from dulness, after hav- 
ing traversed such a distance of uninhabited wilderness. Reluctant 
to leave this settlement so soon, we encamped at the lower end and 
last house of it at nearly an hour's sun and were kindly favored with 
room for our pallet in the house Fearful rain would come on in the 
course of the night sleped moderately was affected with feelings 
of great lassitude and perturbed dreams. 

WEDNESDAY, 4th. Morning cloudy and rain beginning Set out 
very early and proceeded through wind and rain 30 miles to Colo. 
Bruin's, 78 a mile below Bayou Pierre having been once forced into 
shore about two hours. Doctor Claiborne and I procured lodging at 
Colo. Bruin's night being cold and somewhat rainy. Being strangers 
we would not expect to be received with cordiality therefore were 
entertained with reservedness and formal civility we were inquisi- 
tive being so long without society and feeling an interest in the 
transactions and news of the Territory were here informed of Colo. 
Burr's arrest about the mouth of Bayou Pierre, his trial and acquittal 
by grand-jury his flight and subsequent apprehension on the Tom- 
bigby. 

^Palmyra. A settlement of New England emigrants commenced about 1801. Was 
most favorably situated on a peninsula in a four-mile bend of the Mississippi on which 
some sixteen families occupied a frontage of forty rods in a straggling village. The 
soil was exceedingly fertile, producing as much as five hundred pounds of clean cot- 
ton per acre, which exceeded that of West India or Georgia, where two hundred and 
seventy-five pounds was esteemed a good crop. The place is characterized as "one 
of the most beautiful settlements in Mississippi Territory, the inhabitants having used 
all that neatness and industry so habitual to the New Englanders." 

n Col. Peter Brien Bruin. His father having become implicated in the Irish rebel- 
lion of 1756, he paid the usual penalty of having his property confiscated and he 
himself exiled. The Irish spelling of the name was doubtless O'Brien. The father 
brought with him to America an only son, Peter Brien O'Bruin, who on the outbreak 
of the Revolution joined in with the Colonies, entering the army as a lieutenant, in 
Morgan's company of riflemen. He was present at the siege of Quebec, being the 
first officer inside the barrier, where he was wounded badly by the same discharge of 
grape shot that killed Gen. Montgomery, being near where he stood at the time. 
Taken as a prisoner he was kept in rigorous confinement aboard a prison-ship, be- 
came infected with small-pox and was not exchanged for six months. Rejoining the 
army he was promoted to rank of major in the Virginia continental line, which posi- 
tion he retained through the rest of the war. After the Revolution General Morgan 
conceived a plan for an American colony in the Spanish domain west of the Mississippi 
and laid out the town of New Madrid. He was followed here by Col. Bruin, but he 
was not pleased and later settled at Natchez as a planter near the mouth of Bayou 
Pierre. Under the Spanish government he served as the local officer or alcalde and 
on the organization of the Mississippi Territory became one of the three judges ap- 
pointed by the government. When Burr planned his operations in the southwest he 
visited Col. Bruin and won him over, greatly deceiving him. He remained in office 
till 1 8 10, when he retired to plantation life on his lands at Bruinsburg near the mouth 
of Bayou Pierre, where he died. 

(Claiborne's Miss, as a Province, etc., p. 161.) 



116 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

THURSDAY, 5th. Rose very early before any of the family were 
out of bed and proceed morning cloudy and strong threat of rain 
proceeded with some difficulty on account of the strong winds clouds 
at length dispersed and weather become very cold, strongly resembling 
winter Arrived at Natchez* 3 o'clock P. M. Barge stationed about 
two hundred paces above the upper end of the town and twice that 
distance above the navaJ forces stationed there in the river to guard 
the pass, and prevent the conveyance of arms or ammunition below, 
for the vile purposes of the Burrites. Immediately after landing 
throwed off our very dirty clothes, that had not been in contact with 
water since Nashville, except when we were wet with rain or by an 
accidental tumble into the river dressed in the best and cleanest we 
had, barely then reaching common decency and tripped up into the 
town. Doctor Claiborne to see a brother who resides here, I without 
any specific object separate from those of a stranger who has nothing 
to do but esquire, observe and add to my little stock of information of 
places, persons, &c. Went together to Colo. Claiborne's 81 he was 
absent a considerable distance from home were introduced by the 
principal clerk in Colo. Claiborne's store (for he is a merchant of ex- 
tensive business) to Mrs. Claiborne, who received the Doctor with the 
most ardent cordiality and affection of a brother, and me, with all the 
ease and affability of an accomplished and amiable woman and the 
sincerity inseparable from chaste and virtuous sentiments. The 
solicitation of the Doctor, in the absence of his brother, and the polite 
civilities and affable condescension of Mrs. Claiborne manifested some 
inclination that I too should be a sojourner at her home. Therefore, 
not dreading the risk of the imputation of intrusion, was placed per- 
fectly at ease and did not feel the customary solicitude for lodgings 
at an Inn was flattered to consider myself as a temporary member 
of the family and this appearance of welcome was not, as is often 
the case, deceitful but its sincerity was indubitably realized. 

This evening and night were entertained by the company not only 
of Mrs. C. equal to that of any, but of Doctors Speed, Latimore** and 
McCreary, all the most pleasant and excellent of men. A particular 
intimacy soon sprang up between Doctor Speed and myself, both 
natives of the same county, students of the same professional man, 
Doctor Brown, and an early and permanent attachment having sub- 
sisted between our fathers. Retired to bed about 12 o'clock and re- 
posed very comfortably in a well furnished bed room. 

FRIDAY, 6th. Passed the morning within doors with that com- 
fort and pleasurable security irresistably inspired by chaste and amia- 
ble intercourse. After breakfast, visited Doctors Speed and Latimore 
who are partners in the business of their profession. Two hours were 
here beguiled away. Then visited Mr. G. Bell, Thos. Maury and Nat 

See Appendix "F." 

"Gen. Ferdinand Leigh Claiborne. See Appendix "B," p. 65. 

**Drs. David and Wm. Lattimore from near Norfolk, Virginia, settled at Natchez 
in 1801 and became eminent in the practice of medicine. Were men of cultivation 
and wrote with fluency and force and in private life highly esteemed. Wm. Lattimore 
settled in that part of Wilkinson County which subsequently became the county of 
Amite; was elected to Congress in 1805 and re-elected a second time, when he was 
succeeded by George Poindexter. The latter after serving four years declined a re- 
election, when he was succeeded in turn by Dr. Lattimore, who served until Mississippi 
Territory became a State in 1817. His last service rendered was serving on a com- 
mission to locate the State capital, which was decided in favor of Jackson. Dr. Latti- 
more died in Amite County April 3, 1843. 

(Claiborne, Miss, as Province, etc., p. 263.) 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 117 

McNairy, 83 who lodged at Mickie's they were from Tennessee. Re- 
turned to Colo. Claiborne's where was a considerable company of gen- 
tlemen specially invited none remarkably interesting but the three 
doctors mentioned last night: the rest being civil enough. Ate of a 
sumptious and grateful dinner after quaffing a great deal of the best 
of Madeira, almost to inebriety and gulping down of three courses at 
table 1st, meats and sallads of every kind, most delicious in quality 
2d, sweetmeats of the finest flavor and 3d, pastry, apples, cheese &c, 
I felt constrained to abscond the company rather abruptly, with Mr. 
G. Bell, whose disposition at this moment happened to be similar to 
my own strolled about the suburbs of the city viewing the scenery 
as attentively and correctly as our deranged faculties would permit 
until somewhat restored. Returned and gladly, because luckily for 
ourselves found the balance not quite so fond of repetition in the tak- 
ing of glasses it being supplied with a liberal hand till near the close 
of the evening. This was the night of an assembly dance. Having 
a wish to see a collection of the most genteel and respectable persons, 
males and females, of the Territory, presuming this to be the most 
favorable place and time, presuming on what I knew of their place and 
its customs, resolved to be one of the party and prevailed on my Ten- 
nessee friends for their company We went was introduced by Mrs. 
Thos. Maury to the principal manager, John Wood, who, it was ex- 
pected would render my situation, as a stranger to all but a few, some- 
what more pleasant and agreeable. But was noticed by him no more 
during the evening no more than were I a vagabond his civilities 
ended with the ceremony of introduction without even a word to me 
afterwards. About forty men and fourteen or sixteen women made 
the party. They began preparation for a country dance about 8 
o'clock. I was requested by a friend to get a number for the dance 
replied, the manager would visit us presently with the numbers to be 
drawn no, he said, the drawing was going on in the other room and 
he pulled me in by the elbow to the drawing in an adjacent apartment, 
which I should probably never have seen, otherwise, nor others who 
were equal strangers with me. Entered the room saw a red-headed, 
hump-shouldered, hard looking fellow, resembling the baboon tribe, 
perched on an elevated step of a flight of stairs, with something in 
his hand, something of which a numerous crowd that pressed round 
seemed extremely anxious to obtain, and when obtained, some looked 
on the prize, as I did not know what else to esteem it, with pleasur- 
able emotions others with discontented and grim faces. They dis- 
persed after a little, and I was pulled up by my friend to draw a 
ticket Now the mystery was explained, and I understood this was 
drawing tickets for the country dance. I intruded my hand to his, 
which contained the tickets. He admitted me to draw with the care- 
less indifference, inseparable from rusticity -drew No. 10 The part- 
ners, according to the lottery, were arranging I was called out to 
face the lady whose number corresponded with mine met her with 
some confidence but my modesty was as much ruffled as hers, when 
the manager introduced her by a wrong name and me by no name at 
all. Finding an unobjectionable apology in his unaffected want of 
politeness, regained my confidence, which inspired some more confi- 
dence in my very modest partner and flirted through the dance, with 
all the little gracefulness and activity that I possess seated my 
partner and returned to the society of Doctor McCreary and one or 
two more conversation miscellaneous Shortly after, Doctor Speed 

^George Bell and Nathaniel McNairy were both representatives of very prominent 
families at Nashville. 



118 DK. JOHN H. BEDFORD 

appeared before me said he did not learn of my being there till a 
few moments before and that he had come for my accommodation 
my thanks of course could not be otherwise than numerous and cor- 
dial. He introduced me to only a few gentlemen and two ladies one 
a married woman Mrs. Lintot and Miss Reed, her relative then 
replied, aside, that these only merited an introduction and were inter- 
esting. And thus I was enabled to account for the inattentive and 
selfishness that prevailed generally this evening which was a source 
of some ease and comfort of sensation, and observing others in a 
similar situation meet similar affability from the managers and others. 
Supper came on about 12 or 1 o'clock not a word from the managers 
after the ladies supped all flocked like hungry shoats to a stye 
little and big young and old, without distinction took two cups of 
coffee in the corner without anything else, with Doctor McCreary 
Heavy rain, which began about 10 o'clock, detained the company till 
after four o'clock in the morning Lodged the balance of this night 
with my Tennessee acquaintances at Meckie's. 

SATURDAY, 7th. Rose this morning at 9 o'clock Breakfasted 
with Tennessee friends at their boarding house saw Mess. Speed and 
Latimore awhile then Mrs. C. Sat and talked of last night's scenes 
awhile. Then withdrew to the counting room to address my corre- 
spondence in Tennessee wrote Robert White, Nat W. Williams, Thos. 
Talbot Doct'r J. L. Armstrong, Alex Porter and (Stephen Bullock, 
of Port Gibson, M. Territory) while writing, Colo. Claiborne arrived 
but that I should not interrupt the meeting of him and his brother, 
after finishing the letters, walked over to Speed & Latimore's and 
returned at the dusk of evening was introduced to him by Mrs. C. 
and received with great cordiality and politeness. Supped and con- 
versed till past 12 o'clock reposed badly restlessness great. 

SUNDAY, 8th. Rose early, although after a restless night morn- 
ing very rainy and extremely wet passed the day within doors 
dined very sumptuously with a large company Doctor Lyon, Mr. 
Hardin, the most eminent attorne of the Territory, Judge Brookes 
and others, mostly of the party of the other day. Rain continued the 
whole of this day, with but little abatement. 

MONDAY, 9th. Passed another sleepless night know no other 
cause but too free indulgence in meat and drink which clogs diges- 
tion and oppresses the vital powers. Weather clear breakfasted, 
closed my letters, delivered them to the care of Colo. C., prepared some 
little supplies for the balance of the voyage, took leave of Colol. C. and 
Lady, whose kindness and polite hospitality, I hope never to be so 
degenerate as to forget, also of Doctors Speed and Latimore and 
made for the boat in company with Thos. Maury, who joined us for 
the balance of the voyage. Delayed two hours for Doctor Claiborne, 
who seemed very tedious and reluctant to depart. In the mean time 
was boarded by a small party from the navy to examine our loading, 
&c to ascertain whether we were of the party of Burr. They seemed 
satisfied and intimated their report would be satisfactory to the com- 
mander, if not they would again board us in their skift without the 
inconvenience to us of going to shore This seemed generous and lib- 
eral as our large craft was far more unmanagable than their small 
one, which was more of the resemblance to a terrapin's shell than to 
anything else Therefore when all other things were in readiness, we 
put out and passed on without any more notice of the navy than if 
they had been so many traffic barges in the Mississippi, for although 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 119 

they at first excited the attention of curiosity, this motive to observa- 
tion had ceased, from its frequent operation before We passed then 
near half a mile, and heard the report of a musket the ball whistled 
over head presumed they were amusing themselves only with the 
implements of their profession but that they were impertinent with 
all soon after another fired ball again whistled over head cursed the 
officers silently for not chastizing the rascals for their rude impertt- 
nence that seemed to threaten danger to us not all presuming that 
they designed to bring us to continued on without further notice, 
still thinking they were unmannerly enough to amuse themselves at 
our hazard Soon after off went a cannon with a sound that seemed 
as great as the rending of earth and Heaven, and the ball buzzed over 
head and struck the water two hundred yards beyond the bow of the 
boat. This was a strong hint to put in and although much irritated 
because their conduct seemed inconsistent, we obeyed, them choosing 
rather to submit to the over-bearing spirit of the military than to be 
hurt by their incivility. Two of their boats well manned and armed 
boarded us and forbid our continuing without a scrap of permission 
from the commander which could not be obtained without returning 
to the fleet near two miles back adopted the only alternative and 
was honored with a seat in the officers boat not bound hand and foot 
as civil prisoners but unfettered, in the presence of men, guns and 
bayonets, like prisoners of war Some little sensation of degredation 
could not be restrained but that it might be divided as much as pos- 
sible and thereby diminished, Doctor C., Thos. M. and I, all went on 
board the little bark, sailed up to the fleet and was conducted aboard 
the schooner Revenge, which was the guardship of the day. The 
commanding officer, Capt. Reid happened to be an acquaintance of 
Doctor C. and Mr. M. we were therefore received with great polite- 
ness and apparent cordiality, with an apology for their previous mili- 
tary salute, after being informed of the previous visit before we had 
left the wharf were invited under deck, partook of two bottles of 
excellent Madeira and entertained with much politeness became ac- 
quainted with Capt. Bainbridge, a younger brother of the celebrated 
Capt. Bainbridge of the Mediterranean as genteel and gentlemanly 
young man as I ever saw, and if he lives a length of time and con- 
tinues in the navy, I have little doubt of his future celebrity. He 
might shine as a statesman and warrior were those talents advan- 
tageously cultivated. After one and a half hours' stay, when the bot- 
tom of the two bottles were uncovered, were conveyed across to land 
and trudged on foot to the barge Run 12 miles by night. 

Natchez is situated on the east side of the Mississippi a small 
part of the town immediately on the bank and under the hill the 
houses here are small being little else but hucksters' shops- The 
main body of the town lies an half mile from the river after rising an 
elevated bluff of 100 or 150 feet by a serpentine road winding obliquely 
up the hill. The site of the town is not a plane, but much diversified 
but gentle elevations and depressions which, where houses are not 
erected, are covered with verdue giving the town, and suburbs 
especially, an appearance considerably picturesque All stores, tav- 
erns, and families of any importance or respectability are here most 
of the houses are of wood and in the French style elevated 7 or 8 
feet from the ground above which is one story only and piazzas or 
galleries all round under the galleries are their storerooms which 
have a great resemblance to cellars Natchez contains about 2000 
inhabitants Merchants of considerable wealth some retail $70. or 
$80,000 worth of goods per annum. The Mississippi Territory con- 



120 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

tains a great deal of wealth many planters sell annually 100 or 200 
bales of cotton which is their staple article. The general produce in 
cotton is 250 nett per acre. 

TUESDAY, 10th. Set out early, having run last night 15 or 20 
miles after dark, narrowly escaping a dangerous sawyer that nearly 
touched the stern becoming very cloudy, were forced to put in about 
mid-night run 12 miles this morning to Loftus Height" 4 or Fort 
Adams, which is on the east bank of the river 45 miles below Natchez 
Here is a garrison a store of considerable importance kept by a 
Mr. Evans & Co. The neighborhood of this place is wealthy, produc- 
ing much cotton. It is remarkable for being one of the loftiest pin- 
nacles on the whole of the Mississippi a bottom extends up and down 
the river a long way and off about 100 yards then commences a bluff 
similar to that at Natchez, rising and falling in an undulating man- 
ner but in a sudden freak bounded and formed the pinnacle called 
Loftus Height, two hundred feet above water mark, on which stands 
a block house only, under which is the barracks and arsenal in the 
bottom Sauntered about here 2 or 3 hours just before departing 
was very agreeably surprised by the sudden appearance of Thos. But- 
ler on board the barge, in company with a Capt. Sample Sincerely 
regretted the necessity of setting out so soon, because I wished to have 
much conversation with him, as I esteem him a good and sensible 
young man and one every way interesting to me He had lately ar- 
rived in the Territory and then intended to settle thereabouts The 
best of friends must part and therefore took an affectionate farewell 
and set out from Fort Adams about 11 o'clock A. M. run 16 miles 
and passed the mouth of Red River,- emptying in on the west or 
Louisiana side so much celebrated latterly for the fertility of its 
soil and salubrity of its climate It probably derives its name from 
the red colour of its waters, which is very perceptibly redder than 
that of the Mississippi and continues perceptibly different for a 
considerable distance below the mouth It is % of a mile wide at its 
entrance. Came up with Hunt & Foreman from Natchez in two 
barges, laden with cotton. Stopped at sun-set, procured some wood, 
put out again and drifted till about an hours before day 30 miles 
to Point Coupee." 

WEDNESDAY, llth. Morning quite chilly. Put off at sunrise 
and un four miles to the mouth of Bayou Sara in West Florida and 
opposite Point Coupee settlement, included in the county of the same 
name. This country is included in the Territory of Orleans, in which 
is said to be more wealth than in any other county of the Territory. 
Great appearance of opulence was exhibited in the settlements on the 
margin of the river which continued ten or twelve miles and is said 
to extend thirty or forty miles back good dwelling houses in the 
French style, the inhabitants being almost exclusively of that nation. 
Negro houses innumerable being disposed almost contiguous to one 
another in a hurdle and adjacent to the manor house exhibit the view 
of small towns with their capitals. For the planters live generally 
not more than one half mile from each other. All are opulent, having 
from fifty, to one hundred or one hundred and fifty negroes, whose 

"See Appendix "G." 

K Point Coupee. An old settlement on the west side of the Mississippi. The French 
originally gave the name because the course of the river here at an early date was 
changed, forming a "cut-off" from the longer detour of its ancient bed. The Spanish 
term it Punta Corda, and it is represented today as a village and the name given to 
the parish. 



A TOUR IN 1807 DOWN THE CUMBERLAND 121 

houses are arranged in lines parallel to one another, one or two hun- 
dred yards from the manor. 

While at Bayou Sara 80 the wind ble whigh, which checked further 
progress the balance of the day. Ellis & Stewart reside here, mer- 
chants in copartnership and very jovial, generous Irishmen to whom 
I was introduced by Mr. M. and liberally entertained. This is the 
first time that my feet ever trod Spanish soil and perhaps it may 
not be the last time. Walked an half mile off from the river to view 
something of the country and saw Mr. James Carpenter, a school 
mate of 6 or 7 years ago who was then a merchant. An half mile 
from the river the land rises above 60 or 80 feet from which, the 
land is said to make off quite level and rich continuing thus 40 or 50 
miles in every direction constituting the best and most productive 
cotton land in all the Mississippi country and was it emancipated 
from the Spanish government would be the most pleasant and desir- 
able country in this quarter. Its elevated situation so far above the 
river probably constitutes its health the rich soil must be a great 
source of wealth. It extends down from the Mississippi territory 60 
miles, to the Bayou Manchac 87 which makes from the Mississippi to 
Lake Pontchartrain and which with the Mississippi forms the Island 
of New Orleans below. The settlements of this part of West Florida 
are rich much cotton is produced here, and is a desirable place by 
all who I heard speak of it. 

THURSDAY, 12th. Rain very heavy therefore could not pro- 
ceed. The liberal hospitality of Messrs. Ellis & Stewart seemed undi- 
minished, therefore the detention was not so disagreeable as on a 
desert shore. There was an acquisition to our numbers of Mr. Hoggatt 
& Dunbar from Natchez, bound to New York. Ate and drank this 
day and yesterday very sumptuously. Rain ceased considerably and 
got under way about four o'clock P. M run 9 miles likely to be 
very dark put in to camp on Point Coupee side The ground was 
wet prospects of rain continued walked to a house close by to get a 
bed for the night It belonged to a widow who was not within. Saw 
a grave gentleman walking the piazza addressed him and communi- 
cated the object of our coming he replied the house belonged to a 
widow woman she was rich and did not keep tavern and at any 
rate the French did not like to entertain strangers. He pointed out 
a negro tavern in view, where we might obtain lodgings. Indignant 
at this impertinence we returned to our boat suspecting him to be 
a Priest or Father, whose amorous desires had for the moment got 
the better of his devout forbearance and that if we staid we might 
spy him. After the hands had cooked and ate supper, we concluded 
to drift this night, and immediately made off. 

FRIDAY, 13th. Found ourselves four miles above Baton Rouge 
having drifted near 30 miles last night continued on to the Fort and 
landed to report ourselves to the commandant detained here 3 or 4 
hours and put out again were introduced to the commandant Grand- 
prie, a man of polite address and reverend countenance upwards 
of 50 years old. 

Baton Rouge is situated on the Florida side, on a considerable emi- 
nence, which commands an extensive prospect up and down the river. 

se Bayou Sara. The first settlement over the old Spanish line in the present parish 
of New Feliciana. The stream from which the settlement takes its name is a small 
one, only about thirty yards wide. 

87 See Appendix "H." 

4 



122 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

Proceeded from here about 12 o'clock, run upwards of 20 miles and 
encamped on the east shore. The settlements here commence on both 
sides of the river pretty thick being some distance below Bayou 
Manchac. 

SATURDAY, 14th. Run 40 miles Settlements on both sides of 
the river, resembling the sides of a street on which inhabitants are 
numerous 50 or 60 and sometimes more, manor houses are in view 
Seventy miles above N. Orleans is the first sugar plantation, which 
is on the west side 10 or 12 miles further, they become more numer- 
our and orange trees decorate almost every garden. 

SUNDAY, 15th. Drifted last night 30 miles within 9 leagues, or 
27 miles of New Orleans continued on till 10 o'clock and was forced 
in by head winds wind abated and attempted to proceed again run 
4 or 5 miles and was forced in a second time wind high the balance 
of the day Continued here, 12 miles above New Orleans, this day 
and night. 

MONDAY, 16th. Set out at twilight and run to New Orleans by 
half after eight o'clock passing every mile, large sugar plantations 
with buildings and other appendages that indicated great wealth. 
Fine gardens finely decorated with orange groves, which seem larger 
as we approach the city. Attended the unloading the barge this day. 



[THE END.] 



APPENDIX E-Fort Pickering. 

Manuel Gayosa de Lemos, commandant of the Natchez District 
in the spring of 1795, ascended the Mississippi and occupied a place 
opposite to the Chicasaw Bluffs with a post which he called Fort 
Esperanza (Hopefield). After secretly providing all necessary ma- 
terial for the building of a block-house and stockade he suddenly 
on May 30th moved across the river to the site of the Bluffs, where 
in twenty-four hours he erected a post to which he gave the name of 
Fort Fernando. 

On the signing of the Treaty between the United States and Spain 
October 27th, 1795, arrangments were soon made for the official mark- 
ing of the boundary decided on between Spain and the United States. 
For this purpose Andrew Ellicott, an experienced engineer with 
twenty-five woodsmen and a small military escort commanded by 
Lieutenant McCleary, left Pittsburg to descend to the Mississippi 
country. Stopping at Fort Washington (Cincinnati) and Fort Massac 
en route, they arrived at the mouth of the Ohio on November 18th, 
1796. Here an accurate survey of the locality was made, when they 
dropped down the Mississippi to New Madrid, arriving there Decem- 
ber 2d. Thence they descended to the Chicasaw Bluffs Fort San 
Fernando where he remained from December 8th to the 10th, pro- 
ceeding from here to Fort Nogales and later to Natchez. 

Ellicott's party did not go to occupy the new domain in the name 
of the United States army; it was a civil, not military errand. 

The first regular military detachment to go on Spanish soil was 
under Lieutenant Pope. He, in the fall of 1796, was sent by Gen. 
Wayne to Fort Massac with orders to remain there until further 
command was given him. However, hearing after the descent of 
Ellicott that the flag of the U. S. had been raised at Natchez and that 
the company of surveyors were in eminent danger of attack, Lieuten- 
ant Pope set out to the relief of the situation, not waiting for orders, 
and arrived at Fort Nogales April 15th, 1797, later joining Ellicott at 
Natchez. 

It is to be noted that even this military movement was not official 
as to occupation of Spanish soil, for it was not until Capt. Isaac Guion 
of the Third Regiment, was ordered by Gen. Wilkinson (who had suc- 
ceeded to the command of the U. S. Army on the death of Wayne 
in December, 1796) on May 20th, 1797, to prepare to descend to the 
Mississippi, that the first real military occupancy was provided for, 
and even this was conditional, and to be attempted in a most cau- 
tious manner. Guion's orders were to proceed from Fort Washing- 
ton on May 26th down the Ohio to Fort Massac, where the com- 
mandant, Captain Zebulun Pike, would provide him a detachment, 
etc., with which he should descend South, provided he was not hin- 
dered by the Spanish. If impediment was put in his way, he was to 
officially offer protest, and return to Fort Massac, or if his judg- 
ment prompted such a measure, to occupy some location on the Ameri- 
can side of the Mississippi. If no objection was made to his descent, 
Guion was authorized to proceed to the mouth of Wolf River, just 
above the Chickasaw Bluffs, where certain presents of supplies, etc., 
destined for the Chicasaw Indians were to be distributed. This done, 
further descent was to be made to Fort Nogales, which was to be occu- 
pied, or in case it had not been evacuated by the Spanish, due demand 
for same should be made. 



124 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

On reaching New Madrid, the Spanish commandant objected to 
his proceeding further down the river, but on promise by Guion that 
he would not go further than the Chicasaw Bluffs, he agreed for him 
to go on, in the meantime each was to hear from their superiors. 

Accordingly Guion on July 20th occupied the Chicasaw Bluffs, 
made distribution of the gifts to the Indians and built a fort to which 
he gave the name of Fort Adams, in honor of John Adams, the sec- 
ond President. The Spanish having before withdrawn and dismantled 
Fort San Fernando. 

Later, in the summer of 1798, General Wilkinson himself came 
South and occupying Natchez, built below a short distance, at Loftus 
Heights, a fort to which he gave the name Fort Adams. 

After this the name of the fort at Chicasaw Bluffs was changed 
to Fort Pickering, in honor of the Secretary of State. Just exactly 
when this took place is not to be gathered from the data at hand. 
However, a letter from Gov. Claiborne of Mississippi Territory, dated 
shortly after his arrival at Natchez, viz: November 23rd, 1801, says: 

"On the eastern or American bank of the Mississippi, the only im- 
provement until I reached the Walnut Hills (Fort Nogales) was our 
Fort Pickering at the Bluffs below Wolf River." 

Mention is made by Cuming of a fort built on the site of the 
Chicasaw Bluffs, to which the name of Fort Pike was given. He says: 

"Foy was the first settler fourteen years ago (1794). . . . Soon 
after Foy's settlement, and very near it, the Americans erected a 
small stockade fort, named Fort Pike, from the major commandant. 
After the purchase of Louisiana by the United States from the Span- 
iards, Fort Pickering was erected two miles lower down at the end 
of the bluffs and Fort Pike was abandoned (page 292). Evidently 
there is some confusion in this data. 

In the "History of Memphis and Shelby County," by J. M. Keat- 
ing, 1888, it is said (page 202) : 

"In 1805 he (Gen. Wilkinson) was ordered to relieve General Pike, 
there since 1803, in command of the Chicasaw Bluffs. Upon his ar- 
rival there his first work was to dismantle Fort Pike (formerly Fort 
Adams) and move the troops three miles further south to the vicinity 
of the mound on which the old chief Chisca lived when De' Soto first 
came to the Mississippi River." 

Here there is without doubt further confusion. That Fort Pick- 
ering had been in existence since 1801 is shown in the reference given 
in the above letter of Gov. Claiborne. Just when any fort on the 
Bluffs bore the name of Fort Pike is difficult to determine. Cuming 
says it was named "from the comandant," and it was not until 1803 
that we find Pike stationed here. 

Further, it has been said that this "Pike' was the afterwards well- 
known General Zebulun Montgomery Pike for whom "Pike's Peak" 
was named. We know that Capt. Zebulun Pike, the father of Gen. 
Zebulun M. Pike, was the officer in charge at Fort Massac when 
Capt. Guion descended to build the first Fort Adams on the Bluff. 
At the same time it is possible his youthful son (born in 1779) was 
a member of his garrison there, and it is further possible that it was 
this youthful son who was in charge at Fort Pickering in 1803-5. Yet 
there is room for grave confusion here. It should be remembered that 
the older Zebulun Pike served in the army till 1812, and lived many 



APPENDIX 1 25 

years longer, dying at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, in 1843; while the 
brilliant son, known as General Zebulun M. Pike, who explored the 
source of the Mississippi and the regions of the far West, was killed 
by the explosion of the magazine at York, Canada, April 27, 1813. 

APPENDIX F NATCHEZ. 

"I was much struck with the similarity of Natchez to many of the 
smaller West India towns, particularly St. Johns Antigua, though not 
near so large as it. The houses all with balconies and piazzas some 
merchant stores several little shops kept by free mulattoes, and 
French and Spanish Creoles the great mixture of colour of the peo- 
ple in the streets, and many other circumstances, with the aid of a 
little fancy to heighten the illusion, might made one suppose, in the 
spirit of the Arabian Knights Entertainments, that by some magick 
power, I had been suddenly transported to one of those scenes of my 
youthful wanderings.- 

When the illusion was almost formed, a company of Indians meet- 
ing me in the street dispelled it, so bidding adieu to the romance of 
the fancy, I sat down to supper at Mickie's tavern, or hotel, by which 
appelation it is dignified. ... I arose early, and sauntered to the 
market-house on a common in front of the town, where meat, fish and 
vegetables were sold by a motley mixture of Americans, French and 
Spanish Creoles. Mulattoes and Negroes. There seem to be a suf- 
ficiency of necessaries for so small a town, and the price of butcher's 
meat, and fish was reasonable, while vegetables, milk and butter were 
extravagantly dear. 

Natchez, in latitude 31 degrees 33 minutes N longitude 91 de- 
grees and 29 minutes W. of Greenwich, contains between eighty and 
one hundred dwelling houses, as nearly as I could enumerate them. 
It is situated on a very broken and hilly ground, but notwithstanding 
the irregularity and inequality of the surface, the streets are marked 
out at right angles, which makes them almost impassable in bad 
weather, except Market street and Front street which are leveled as 
much as the ground will permit. A small plain of a hundred and fifty 
yards wide in front of the town rising gradually to the edge of the 
high cliff or bluff which overhangs the river, veils the view of that 
interesting object from the inhabitants, but at the same time contrib- 
utes to defend the town from the noxious vapours generated in the 
swamps immediately on the river banks, yet not so effectually as to 
prevent it being sometimes subject to fevers and agues, especially 
from July to October inclusive, when few strangers escape a season- 
ing, as it is called, which frequently proves mortal. The surrounding 
country at a little distance from the Mississippi, is as healthy as most 
other countries in the same parallel of latitude. The landing, where 
are a few houses immediately under the bluff, is particularly fatal to 
the crews of the Ohio and Kentucky boats, who happen to be delayed 
there during the sickly season. 

Though Natchez is dignified with the name of a city, it is never- 
theless but a small town. It is however a place of considerable im- 
portance in consequence of it being the principal emporium of the 
commerce of the territory, and of its having been so long the seat of 
government, under the French, English, and Spaniards, which caused 
all the lands in the vicinity to be cultivated and settled, while those 
more remote were neglected, though in general a much better soil. 
There is a Roman Catholic church, which is an old wooden building 



126 DR. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

in decay, and there is a brick meeting-house for either Presbyterians 
or Anabaptists, I am not sure which. These, and an old hotel de ville, 
or court-house, are the only public buildings the city boasts, except it 
be an old hospital, now fitting up as a theatre for a private dramatick 
society. Several of the houses are new and very good, mostly of 
wood, and I am informed many (more than half) have been added 
within the last four or five years. Fort Panmure, on the edge 
of the bluff, is now in ruins, but the situation, and the extent of the 
old ramparts, prove it to have been a post of considerable consequence. 
It effectually commands the river, without being commanded itself, 
and the view from it is very extensive, particularly over the flat 
swamps of Louisiana, on the opposite side of the Mississippi. 

The first permanent settlement on the Mississippi was made in 
1712, and notwithtanding many misfortunes, particularly the failure 
of the celebrated Mississippi company, founded by John Law, during 
the regency of the Duke of Orleans, the settlements extended in 1727 
to Natchez, and a fort was erected there. In 1731 the Indians, dis- 
gusted with the tyranny and cruelty of the French colonists, massa- 
cred most of them, for which, in the following year, the French took 
ample vengeance, almost extirpated the whole Natchez race. The few 
who escaped took refuge amongst their neighbors, the Choctaws, 
where becoming naturalized, they soon lost their original name. The 
French kept possession of the country till 1763, when it was ceded to 
the British. It continued under the British government until 1779, 
when it was surrendered by Col. Dickson, the commander of the 
British troops at Baton Rouge, to the Spaniards under Don Bernando 
de Galvez. In 1798, in consequence of arrangements between the 
United States and the government of Spain, the latter gave up all 
claim to the country east of the Mississippi to the northward of the 
31st degree of north latitude, in favor of the former, who erected it 
into a territorial government, under the name of Mississippi Territory. 

(Note.) Fort Panmure was the British name of the Natchez 
Post, which had been called Fort Rosalie by the French. The English 
garrison found the latter in a ruinous condition when sent to take 
possession in 1764. Fort Panmure was the scene of a struggle be- 
tween English Tories and American sympathizers in 1778-79." 

(Cuming Tour. Early Western Travels. Vol. IV. L. 320-323.) 

CAUTION. 

"Sometime during the night of the 4th instant, some person or 
persons entered a Flat Bottomed Boat, lying at the landing within 
the City of Natchez, belonging to the undersigned, and feloniously 
carried away a CHEST, containing between two and three hundred 
dollars in cash, promissory notes to the amount of 20,00 dollars or 
upwards . . . none of the notes indorsed by us, etc. . . . 

Joseph Erwin. 
Abraham Wright. 
(Impar. Rev. Nashville, May 23, 1807.) 

APPENDIX G LOFTUS HEIGHTS. 

Before D'Iberville founded his colony on the Gulf, as early as the 
Spring of 1698, the Seminaire des Etrangeres decided to send mis- 
sionaries to the Indians of the West. Fathers Montigny, Davion and 
St. Cosme were selected to found the mission which was divided into 
three ptations on the Lower Mississippi. Father Antoine Davion 
chose the Tonica Indians as his field, this was at first near the mouth 



APPENDIX 127 

of the Yazoo river, but a little later they removed to the bluffs south 
of the present city of Natchez which site was known under the French 
domination as "Roche de Davion," Davion's Rock. When the English 
began to occupy the Mississippi forts after the treaty of Paris in 
1763, General Johnstone in command at Pensacola ordered Major 
Loftus with a part of the 22nd. Regiment to ascend the Mississippi to 
occupy the forts of the Illinois country. Proceeding from New Or- 
leans Feb. 27, 1764, with 350 men on the 20th. of March he reached 
the point opposite Davion's Rock, where he was severely attacked by 
the Indians, having six men killed and four wounded, whereupon re- 
treat was made to New Orleans. From this incident the place under 
the English rule was known as Loftus Heights. When the Americans 
occupied the former Spanish territory on the lower Mississippi, by 
order of Gen. Wilkinson in 1798 a fort was built at Loftus Heights to 
which the name of Fort Adams was given and since there has ever 
been a settlement of that name at this site. In 1808 Cuming thus 
describes the village: 

"Fort Adams or Wilkinsonbourg is a poor little village of a dozen 
houses, most of them in decay, hemmed in between the heights and 
the river. The fort from which it derives its first name, is situated on 
a bluff overhanging the river, at the extremity of the ridge of Loftus 
Heights. It is about one hundred feet above the ordinary level of the 
Mississippi, which is not more than three hundred feet wide here, so 
that the fort completely commands it, with several small brass canon 
and two small brass howitzers mounted en barbette. The fort which 
is faced with brick, has only a level superfices large enough for one 
bastion, with a small barrack inside, the whole of which is commanded 
by a block-house a hundred and fifty feet higher, on the sharp peak 
of a very steep hill, which in time of war might serve as a look out, 
as well as a post, as it commands a most extensive view over the 
surrounding wilderness of forest, as well as the meanders of the 
river for several miles." Cuming's Tour, p. 329. 

APPENDIX H MANCHAC. 

Manchac, "strait" or "pass". Designation of a small bayou lead- 
ing off from the Mississippi river in a southeast direction connecting 
with the Amite river, Lakes Maurepas, Pontchartrain and the Gulf. 
First used, it is said, by d'Iberville on his descent from his earliest 
exploration voyage up the Mississippi, March 24, 1699. Pennicut, his 
historian, says: 

"It was very narrow and some five feet deep in low water. Was full of logs, so 
that in many places we were obliged to make portages. After awhile it connected 
with other streams and the navigation became good." 

The term as used by some of the early geographers designated only 
the bayou connecting the lakes of Maurepas and Pontchartrain, the 
Amite being called "ou riv' d'Iberville" and the bayou connecting it 
with the Mississippi, "Akankia." On this same tour of exploration 
d'Iberville game names to the local waters, "Amite" in token of the 
friendship of the neighboring Indians, "Maurepas" and "Pontchar- 
train" after two noted French ministers. Because of shortened dis- 
tance and directness the route by way of Manchac was largely used 
by the earlier French in going from their settlements on the Gulf to 
the posts on the upper Mississippi, the "Illinois." 

By the dismemberment of Louisiana at the close of the French and 
Indian war all of the Gulf region from the Atlantic to the Mississippi 



128 DE. JOHN R. BEDFORD 

was given England except the "Isle of Orleans," the region inclosed 
between the Manchac and Mississippi River, and it was organized 
into two provinces, East and West Florida, with separate governors 
and capitals at St. Augustine and Pensacola. West Florida according 
to the King's proclamation was bounded on the north by a line drawn 
from the mouth of the Yazoo river to the GJiattahoochy. 

At once both Spain and England sought to protect their new pos- 
sessions by the erecting of forts at the mouth of the Manchac, Spain 
building on the Mississippi just below the entrance of the bayou and 
England on the east side of the bayou near its entrance. 

This English fortification, a small stockade, was erected by the 
21st. Regiment, "Scotch Fusileers," in 1766, and was called Fort 
Bute, in honor of the Earle of Bute, Prime Minister of England. 

Around it there grew up a considerable village, which became an 
important trading station, representatives of large English firms 
being located here who carried on an extensive trade, much of it 
illicit. In those days there was heard much about New Orleans a 
proverbial expression, "by way of the little Manchac," which was 
used to designate anything of illicit and smuggling trade, especially 
with reference to the trade by the English at Mnnchac with the 
French planters in Guinea negroes, which the Spanish authorities 
tried to prohibit. 

Fort Bute was evacuated and demolished by the English in Dec. 
1768, but the way of Manchac continued to be the highway of com- 
munication between Pensacola and Natchez during the occupancy of 
the Province of West Florida, which was lost to the English during 
the Revolution by capture of the Spanish under Galvez, 1779-1781. 

Bartram, who visited this region in 1777, found the trading sta- 
tion at Manchac still quite a business situation and describes it as 
follows : 

"Ascending the Amite to the west fork where the Iberville (Bayou Manchac) 
comes in on the left hand, and proceeding briskly, we soon came to the landing where 
there are warehouses for depositing merchandise, this being the head of the schooner 
navigation. From this point to Manchac on the Mississippi just above the outlet of 
the bayou is nine miles by land, the road straight and level and passing through a 
grand forest. The buildings established by the English, particularly those of Swanson 
& Co., Indian traders, are spacious and commodious. Over Fort Bute floats the Brit- 
ish flag, while just across the bayou, on the bank of the river, is a Spanish post. 
There is a foot-bridge between the two fortresses." 

The importance of this location practically ended when Gen. Jack- 
son closed the route through the Manchac in 1814 to prevent British 
occupation, and it has never since been re-opened. 

(French Hist. Collec. of La., Vol. Ill, p. 15. Claiborne's Miss. As a Province 
etc., p. 105. Houck's Spanish Regieme, Vol. I, p. 3 n. 8. Cuming's Tour, p. 359. 
D'Anville's "Carte de la Lousianae"-Windsor's Mississippi Basin, p. 49. Monette's 
Valley of the Mississippi p. 77. Pittman's "Mississippi Settlements," pp. 64-71.) 



AN EPISODE IN THE BOYHOOD OF GENERAL 
FORREST. 

[Among the files of the Historical Society the following correspondence is found 
with reference to an episode in the boyhood days of General Bedford Forrest. ED.] 

NASHVLLE, TENN., January 20, 1905. 
Hon Jos. D. Porter, President Tennessee Historical Society, 

Normal College, City. 
DEAR GOVERNOR: 

I intended to mail you the original of the enclosed, but mutilated 
it slightly by cutting off some purely private matter and pasting the 
remainder, without noticing that it was written on both sides a 
thing an old printer and editor would never suspect a thing, in fact, 
a crime, to do. The part obscured, marked illegible, is of no conse- 
quence. 

Tully Brown says Forrest went to Mississippi at about 13. Miller 
may have erred, or be misled, as to his age. Few can be accurate 
as to ages, dates or figures. I feel sure that no doubt can exist as to 
the occurrence at Chapel Hill at what age matters little. It was 
too well verified to Miller, who is a most careful man, by eye-wit- 
nesses, and is too well established in traditions in Marshall County 
to be a mistake. 

It may have less value than I think. Believing all papers of his- 
torical import should be in no private keeping, I send it. If you 
think it valuable, present it; otherwise burn it. 

Sincerely your friend, 

H. M. DOAK. 
LEWISBURG, TENN., March 25, 1896. 

H. M. Doak, Esq., Nashville. Tenn. 

DEAR DOAK : Our Circuit Court is in session, and some of 
my friends are here from the Chapel Hill district, and I have 
been talking with them about the Forrest family, and especial- 
ly Gen. Forrest. I fail to find any one now living, old enough 
to tell the facts and circumstances, having seen them, but, 
like myself, they simply remember them as told by others, 
now dead. 

The persons whom I heard talk of the difficulty between 
Gen. Forrest and Mr. A. L. Adams are all now dead Dr. J. 
H. Robinson, Maj. J. B. Fulton, Maj. J. M. Wilson, D. V. Chris- 
man, C. H. Lavender, J. M. Patterson. Consequently, I can- 
not refer you to any one now living who saw the trouble or 
was at Chapel Hill at the time it occurred. I expect that 
J. B. Boyd, who now lives at Holt's Corner, D. V. Chisholm 
(rest illegible), could tell you something about it. I expect 
also that Mrs. Eliza Putnam, who lives at Chapel Hill, could 
also give you the facts as they were told her by her brother, 
J. M. Patterson, and I expect she would be apt to remember 
them from the fact that Jonathan Forrest, an uncle of Gen. 



130 DOCUMENT 

Forrest, married her sister. It was this uncle also that was 
killed in a fight at Hernando, Miss., in which the General also 
was engaged. 

The little log house where Gen. Forrest was born was about 
one and one-half miles north of Chapel Hill, at the point 
where the Nolensville and Eagleville turnpikes intersect, about 
one hundred yards to the left of the road going north from 
Chapel Hill. It was standing there when I was a boy, and 
the wreck of the chimney and logs are fallen down, and a 
heap was there during, and for some time after, the war. It 
has since been cleared away and ploughed over and cultivated, 
but I could go to the exact spot today. Gen. Forrest left here 
when he was quite young perhaps before he was twenty-one. 
He had two uncles who lived at Chapel Hill Nelson Forrest 
and Elisha G. Forrest. Nelson was a trader. Elisha G. was 
a tailor by trade, and it was at his tailor shop where the 
difficulty between Gen. Forrest and Mr. Adams occurred. Gen. 
Forrest was young at this time perhaps not over 17 or 19 
and had never given any evidence of his cool bravery and 
intrepid daring which so much characterized him in after life. 

Adams was a large and powerfully built man, and was a 
daring and brave fellow, but considered insulting and over- 
bearing in manner, and especially when he was drinking. It 
seems that on this occasion he was in his cups largely, and 
in company with some associates who were equally as trouble- 
some as himself. Forrest was quiet and inoffensive and would 
not fall in with the noisy, row-making set when they entered 
the shop, where he was sitting on the table where his uncle 
was at work. 

Adams and his crowd became offended at him for some 
imaginary cause and began to abuse and curse him. They 
were remonstrated with by those present who were sober and 
more prudent, but they persisted in their abuse. 

Young Forrest, it seems, had little to say, more than that 
he was attending to his own business and wanted no diffi- 
culty, and, in his quiet way, asked them to go off and let him 
alone. In the meantime, he had carelessly picked up his un- 
cle's tailor shears and worked them in such way as to sep- 
arate the parts. Adams, it seems, had reached the highest 
point in his tirade and, concluding that young Forrest was 
cowardly and an easy prey, made a start for him, when, to 
his and his associates' surprise, the lion-like young fellow 
sprang to his feet, armed with a half of the shears in each 
hand and without a word, but with a look that presaged war 
to the death, started towards Adams and his crowd, who 
turned terrified and fled in dismav. I have heard it said that 



AN EPISODE IN THE BOYHOOD OP GENERAL FORREST 131 

had it not been for the interference of his uncle and some 
others of the good citizens who were present, Adams and his 
fellows would have been badly hurt. 

This little occurrence lionized him in the neighborhood, 
and the bullies and their like kept their distance ever after. 
This is substantially the matter as I have often heard old citi- 
zens tell it, and those I have talked with since receipt of your 
letter remember it about the same way. 

I remain Yours truly, 

A. N. MILLER. 

I certify, under my hand and seal of court of which I am clerk, 
that the foregoing is a true and perfect copy of a letter, in my pos- 
session, received from A. N. Miller, whom I know to be one of the 
most careful and painstaking of men, thoroughly trustworthy as to 
facts and no way likely to be mistaken as to what he has heard or 
seen. He has told me that he had the facts from several eye-witnesses 
and that he has verified them as they are traditionally remembered 
in the neighborhood. H. M. DOAK, 

Clerk of U. S. Court, Nashville, Tenn. 

For verification, I attach the original as I have mutilated it. 

H. M. DOAK. 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 



"Calvin Jones, Physician, Soldier and Freemason, 1755-1846." By 
MARSHALL DEL.ANCEY HAYWOOD. 

This is a reprint from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of 
N. C., reissued 1919, by James W. Jones of Bolivar, Tennessee. 

Calvin Jones was born in Massachusetts, came to North Carolina 
in 1795 and in 1799 participated in the organization of the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, a 
large landholder and planter residing in N. C. till 1832, when he 
removed to near Bolivar, in Hardeman County, Tennessee. His plan- 
tation in Tennessee, consisting of 2500 acres, was known as "Wake 
Park," later changed to "Pontine." Being a prominent communicant 
of the Episcopal Church, he claimed as intimate friends Bishops 
Ravenscroft, Otey, Polk and Green. It is interesting to note that the 
plantation owned in North Carolina became the grounds and location 
of Lake Forest College, while a part of the Tennessee plantation 
furnished a location for the Western Asylum for Insane an institu- 
tion under the care of the State of Tennessee. 

Two articles in THE CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW for 
July- Aug. (two numbers in one) of especial interest are: "A Great 
Franciscan in California," by Dr. Chas. E. Chapman of the University 
of Calif., and "Paul de St. Pierre, the First German-American Priest 
of the West," by Rev. John Rothenstein. In the former article Dr. 
Chapman seeks to divide the honor and reputation, heretofore com- 
monly given wholly to Father Junipero Serra in the history of Cali- 
fornia Missions, with Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, whose 
valuation and work has evidently been neglected or unknown by writ- 
ers in this field. The second article on Paul de St. Pierre brings to 
light many interesting facts as to Catholic history in the Illinois 
country of early date, and is worthy to be placed by the valuable 
material that has hitherto been associated with Father Gibault and 
other worthies of this period. 

In "William Peters Hepburn," by John Ely Briggs, the Iowa His- 
torical Society adds another elegant volume to its series of publica- 
tions. 

As a soldier, citizen and politician Congressman Hepburn made 
for himself a worthy name. It will be interesting to Tennessee read- 
ers to know that his war service was rendered largely with the Fed- 
eral army in the western part of the state, Jackson, Lag-range, Mem- 
phis and north Mississippi. Though his family were opposed to the 
war, he himself entered the army in the early days of the conflict. 
He came South immediately after the close of the war with the inten- 
tion of settling and did remain at Memphis for a few years, his war 
service and his intense hatred of the South, with active part in recon- 
struction days made him very unpopular with the Southern people. 
His biographer says: 

"In the South undeveloped natural resources furnished splendid chances for in- 
vestment . . . There, too loyal men with political aspirations worked zealously 
in behalf of the Republican administration. And so, long before the Union armies 
were withdrawn, the South was invaded by a host of Northern fortune-seekers, and 
politicians. Resolved to take advantage of reconstruction in the South, and realizing 
that his military associations would attract the legal business of the army men, Col. 
Hepburn removed with his family to Memphis, Tenn., in the autumn of 1864 and 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 133 

opened a law office. Fortune seemed to have smiled upon the Colonel, for by the 
end of a year he had established a profitable law practice. Working faithfully to 
maintain national authority and courageously seeking to prevent the disloyal element 
from gaining control of the local government, he became one of the political leaders 
of the city. Indeed, at one time he contemplated the organization of a party under 
the banner of Republicanism, the better to resist the concerted attempt of Southern 
politicians to rob emancipation of its fruits." 

Pursuing this course it will not surprise the reader to know that 
his stay in the South was limited, his wife and children returned 
North in about a year, and he himself followed after another year, 
"finding the feeling against Northern men becoming stronger every 
day and the spirit of ostracism more manifest." 

EXTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

APRIL MEETING, 1919. 

A number of valuable contributions were made to the society, 
including a Civil War Scrap-book kept by a Confederate soldier, 
donated by Mrs. Francis W. Ring. An old pistol found on the Shiloh 
Battlefield, presented by Mr. E. H. Skinmon of Lawrence County, 
Tenn. 

The address of the evening was by Hon. Robert Wing, who in a 
very interesting manner discussed the history and purpose of the 
great Watkins Institute foundation for social and educational pur- 
poses in Nashville. He set forth among many other interesting mat- 
ters the fact of how this original fund placed in trust by Samuel 
Watkins had been so managed by the trustees as to become at this 
<iate a most creditable amount, and through it a wide ministration of 
good was being accomplished. 

A resolution offered by Col. Porter was unanimously adopted pro- 
viding a committee to prepare a suitable petition to be sent Governor 
A. H. Roberts calling his attention to the urgent need of this society 
for suitable quarters in order to provide ample protection for the 
invaluable collection now the property of the society; also for such 
additional arrangements, as that the same may be properly displayed 
to the interested public, etc. 

The resolution asked that the Governor include the matter of the 
above petition in his special message to the Legislature now in session, 
urging that provision be made by same for a building or annex that 
would house the society, as well as other vital departments of the 
State administration. 

Further, it was suggested that the present title of the office of 
State Archivist be changed to that of State Archivist and Historian, 
and that a suitable office be assigned to that official in that part of the 
contemplated new building in which this society is also to be cared 
for, that a reasonable salary be appropriated for said official, and an 
individual of undoubted qualification be chosen to act in said place, etc. 

MAY MEETING. 

This being the time for the annual election of officers, the follow- 
ing were selected to fill the various places : 

John H. DeWitt, President; Judge E. T. Sanford, Hon. Park Mar- 
shall, Bon. J. P. Young and Mrs. B. D. Bell, Vice-Presidents ; J. Tyree 
Fain, Recording Secretary; Hon. Hallum Goodloe, Assistant Rec. Sec.; 



134 TENNESSEE HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Dr. W. A. Provine, Corresponding Secretary, and Col. George C. Por- 
ter, Custodian and Treasurer. 

Attention of the society was called to the coming celebration in 
Memphis of the centennial of her history, and the picture of Gen. 
Winchester, one of its founders, was ordered loaned, and a local com- 
mittee was appointed to represent the society on this special occasion. 

The committee appointed to locate the grave of Charles Dickerson, 
killed in duel by Gen. Andrew Jackson, presented some interesting 
historical data. 

A most valuable relic in the way of a letter written by Hon. W. C. 
C. Claiborne in 1801 to Edward Saunders referring to the election 
of Jefferson as President, was presented to the society by Miss Louise 
Lindsley of Nashville. 

The following publishing committee for the Tennessee Historical 
Magazine was elected: Dr. W. A. Ptovine, Editor; Hon. J. H. De- 
Witt, Business Manager; J. Tyree Fain, Assist. Manager. 




COLONEL GEORGE C. PORTER. 



THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



OFFICERS 



President, 
JOHN H. DEWITT. 

Vice-Presidents, 

E. T. SANFORD, 

PARK MARSHALL 

J. P. YOUNG. 
MRS. B. D. BELL 

Recording Secretary andTreasurer, 
J. TYREE FAIN. 

Assistant Recording Secretary, 
HALLUM W. GOODLOE, 

Corresponding Secretary, 
W. A. PRO VINE 



FORM OF LEGACY 



"7 give and bequeath to The Tennessee Historical Society 
the sum of dollars." 



I 



CONTENTS 



Page 

IN MEMORIAM 137 

Colonel George C. Porter. 

AN EARLY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY 142 

At Nashville, 1829. 

COL. JOHN MONTGOMERY 145 

Hon. A. V. Goodpasture. 

THE FIRST LAUREL OF JEFFERSON DAVIS 151 

Mrs. J. H. Kenzie. 

THE BATTLE OF FORT DONELSON 152 

Report of by Gen. John B. Floyd, 1862. 

JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 156 

John H. DeWitt. 

A DAVIDSON POLITICAL CIRCULAR, 1843 195 

Document. 

HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 197 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 198 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 



JOHN H. DEWITT, Business Manager, 
Stahlman, Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

DR. WILLIAM A. PROVINE, Editor, 
Presbyterian Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

J. TYREE FAIN, Treasurer, 
Watkins Hall, Nashville, Tenn. 






TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. 5 OCTOBER, 1919 No. 3 

COLONEL GEORGE C. PORTER. 

^RESOLUTIONS ON THE DEATH OP COLONEL PORTER. 

(Extract from the Minutes of the Tennessee Historical 
Society. ) 

Col. George Camp Porter, Custodian and Treasurer of the 
Tennessee Historical Society, died at eight o'clock P.M., on 
Saturday, the 20th day of September, 1919, at the Protestant 
Hospital in the City of Nashville. 

The following day the Nashville Banner, a newspaper to 
which Col. Porter was a frequent and valued contributor, 
published the following notice of his death, and sketch of his 
life: 

DISTINGUISHED CITIZEN DIES 

COL. GEORGE C. PORTER; WAS DELEGATE TO CONSTITUTIONAL CONVEN- 
TION OF 1870 LAWYER AND SCHOLAR 
COLONEL SIXTH TENNESSEE. 

Col. George C. Porter, well-known Tennessean, and a delegate to 
the constitutional convention of 1870, a gallant Confederate officer, a 
former member of the house of representatives and the state senate, 
died at his residence, 2119 Hayes Street, Saturday night shortly after 
8 o'clock. Col. Porter was in his 85th year and had undergone an 
operation only a few days ago, first reports from his bedside follow- 
ing the operation being that he was getting along nicely. 

The remains will be conveyed to Brownsville Monday morning and 
burial will be Monday afternoon. He is survived by a daughter, Miss 
Neppie Porter. 

SKETCH OF HIS LIFE. 

Col. George Camp Porter was born in Fayette County, Tennessee. 
His father was Charles Bingley Porter, a native of Orange County, 
Virginia, born at the family mansion on the Rapidan, which served 
as Gen. Lafayette's headquarters during the revolutionary war. Col. 
Porter's grandfather was Charles Bingley Porter, Sr., who com- 
manded a Virginia infantry regiment under Gen. Washington at 
Yorktown, and who also defeated James Madison in a race for the 
legislature in Virginia. 



138 IN MEMORIAM 

Col. Porter's father removed to Tennessee in 1826. His mother 
was Miss Mary Scott of Haywood County, who had come to Tennessee 
from Halifax County, Virginia. There were three children by this 
marriage, George C., Robert Scott and Mary Bingley Porter. Col. 
Porter's parents died when he was still a boy and he and his brother 
were reared by their uncles and aunts. 

Col. Porter's first job was with a party of civil engineers who sur- 
veyed the L. & N. Railroad from Memphis to Paris in 1854. In the 
fall of that year he was sent to the Kentucky Military Institute, one 
of the most noted schools of the time and second only to West Point 
as a military academy. He graduated with the rank of captain in 
1857 with first honors, being valedictorian of his class. 

Upon his graduation, Capt. Porter entered the law office of Yergen 
& Farrington in Memphis and there became associated with some of 
the most noted lawyers, politicians and literary men of the day. He 
secured his license to practice law in 1860 during the great political 
campaign which resulted in the election of Lincoln. After the be- 
ginning of the secession movement, in April, 1861, young Porter, 
with his uncle, Junius P. Howell, went to Philadelphia, where they 
were at the time of the fall of Ft. Sumpter and witnessed in Balti- 
more the shedding of the first blood of the Civil war in the clash be- 
tween citizens and the first Massachusetts infantry regiment. 

) THE "HAYWOOD BLUES." 

Capt. Porter then returned to Tennessee and at once organized in 
Brownsville, his old home, a company known as the "Haywood Blues," 
which became a part of the Sixth Tennessee regiment, having been 
sworn into state service May 15, 1861. Capt. Porter was elected 
major. All the West Tennessee troops were shortly brigaded under 
Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham, the Sixth Tennessee remaining under 
his command during the rest of the war, and having its share in 
Cheatham's division one of the most noted commands in the Army 
of Tennessee. After the battle of Shiloh, when the army was reor- 
ganized, Major Porter was made a colonel. Among the famous battles 
in which his regiment took part were Perryville, Stones River, Chick- 
amauga, Missionary Ridge; all of the battles under Joseph E. Johns- 
ton against Sherman in the retreat from Dalton to Atlanta; and the 
battles of Franklin and Nashville. After the battle of Nashville and 
the retreat from Tennessee, Col. Porter's Sixth Tennessee was trans- 
ferred with the remnants of the Western army to North Carolina, 
where it was surrendered under its old commander, Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston, in April, 1865. 

From first to last, Col. Porter was with his own regiment. He 
was an active figure in all the great battles of the Army of Ten- 
nessee under Albert Sidney Johnston, Bragg, Joseph E. Johnston 
and Hood. 

One of the most striking tributes to his gallantry as a soldier and 
a leader was paid him by the late Gov. James D. Porter, who was 
adjutant with the rank of colonel under Gen. Cheatham, and who 
was in no way related to him. When sent with an order to Col 
Porter, when he was standing at the head of his army, holding in 
check the center of Rosencrans' army, Gov. Porter said of him that 
had he been commanding a regiment in the army of France under 
Napoleon, he would have been made a marshal on the field of battle 
for gallant and heroic conduct. 



COLONEL GEORGE C. PORTER 139 

BATTLE OF SHILOH. 

Another high compliment from Gov. Porter was on Col. Porter's 
story of the battle of Shiloh, read before the Tennessee Historical 
Society and printed at Gov. Porter's request in the Banner, which 
Gov. Porter declared the most accurate and interesting description 
of that battle he had ever read and as a battle narrative second only 
to Hugo's description of Waterloo. The late Gen. Gates P. Thurston, 
who also participated in the battle of Shiloh as a Federal officer, 
gave the story the same high estimate. 

At the close of the war Col. Porter returned to Brownsville, where 
he again entered law practice. In 1869 he was elected a member of 
the constitutional convention, which met in Nashville in January, 
1870. He represented his district in the state senate in 1871 and 
his floterial district in the general assembly in 1877. He also served 
as president of the board of railroad commissioners and property 
equalizers and in 1897 was appointed chief deputy in the office of 
Internal Revenue Collector Frank Bond in Nashville, serving until 
the end of President Cleveland's term. In 1903 he was appointed 
superintendent of the state capitol by Gov. Frazier and served till 
Gov. Patterson was elected. 

He has served as president of the Frank Cheatham bivouac, his- 
torian of that body and historian of the state association of United 
Confederate Veterans. 

Col. Porter was a man of exceptional educational attainments and 
a writer of ability. His history of the Tennessee infantry regiments 
in the Confederate army is conceded to be one of the most valuable 
contributions to the military history of the war between the states. 
It was some time ago published serially in the Banner. 

Col. Porter became a Mason shortly after the war and took all 
of the degrees in York masonry. He attended the grand encamp- 
ment of Knights Templar in Nashville in 1866 and was the first man 
who ever drilled that body in the manuel of Templar tactics. He 
was a member of Cumberland Lodge, A. F. & A. M., and a member 
of the order of Knights of Pythias. 

In 1871 he was married to Miss Mollie P. Bond, of Brownsville, 
who died in Nashville in 1907. 

With Col. Porter's passing, the thin ranks of the gallant army 
of the Confederacy lose one of the most distinguished soldiers and 
one of the highest officers in the state of Tennessee. 

This combined statement is correct as far as it undertakes 
to go, but it fails to mention the fact of Col. Porter's member- 
ship in this society, and his official connection with it, which 
marked his well-rounded life. To supply this essential lack, 
Hon. Eobert Ewing, a member of this society, who, through- 
out Col. Porter's term of service, occupied conjointly with 
him this room of the society and who in this way had the op- 
portunity to see how efficiently Col. Porter discharged his 
official duties, and also how active he was in making the so- 
ciety helpfully instructive to the youth of the State and agree- 
able for all citizens to visit, contributed the following card 
to the Banner: 



140 IN AIEMORIAM 

COL. GEORGE C. PORTER. 

To the Editor of the Banner: 

After reading in Sunday's Banner the satisfactory biographical 
sketch of Col. George C. Porter, who died in Nashville, Saturday 
night, will you allow me to add that he served the last few years of 
his long and honorable life as custodian and treasurer of the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society, of which he was one of the earliest members? 

The commissioners of Watkins Institute, impressed with the fact 
that the society is a valuable arm of education, grants it the use of 
a room in the Watkins Institute building for the display and proper 
care of its valuable holdings, consisting of many fine portraits of 
the distinguished men of the state and nation, and also of rare his- 
torical documents and interesting relics. These could not have been 
placed under the care of one better fitted than CoU Porter, for no 
one in the state, perhaps, was better acquainted with the state's 
history, particularly as illustrated in the careers and characters of 
its great men. Nothing gave him more pleasure than to see to it, 
as far as he was able, that succeeding generations in the state kept 
memories of these men alive. He was peculiarly gifted with the 
power to describe, in a very interesting way, what these men had 
done to make glorious in history the name of Tennessee. Standing 
with him under the portraits of men like Jackson, Campbell, Catron, 
Haskell and many others it was really inspiring to hear him instill 
into the minds of the younger visitors to the society's room the 
importance of emulating their example and keeping the name of 
Tennessee, as the producer of great men, in th very front rank. 

As custodian, Col. Porter always endeavored to have the monthly 
meetings of the society well attended, and, at the same time, ques- 
tions of true historical moment discussed. He spent much of his 
time persuading citizens over the state to entrust to the safekeeping 
of the society rare documents and other things of historical value 
which were calculated to shed needed light or instruct and interest 
visitors from over the state. He labored diligently for years, seeking 
to have the state make a suitable provision for the care and proper 
display of the society's holdings, advocating successfully before the 
society the transfer of these, in their entirety, in trust to the state, 
provided such provision was made. 

Col. Porter enjoyed and availed himself of the opportunity of 
acquiring a classical as well as technical education. He continued 
through life to broaden this by a systematic course of reading of the 
books of the best authors. He kept fresh his knowledge of Latin and 
Latin writers. He was a close student of Shakespeare and knew by 
heart his greater tragedies. He was also a great admirer of the 
writings of Byron and Macauley and perfectly familiar with them. 
This familiarity, but, far more, a very keen appreciation, frequently 
evidenced by opportune quotations, gave an added charm to his own 
acceptable contributions to the historical literature of our state. 

Col. Porter was first a Christian and then a philosopher. He had 
no fear of death. A day or two before the operation, the extreme 
gravity of which he thoroughly understood, and which he hardly 
expected to recover, he conversed cheerfully with his friends and 
gave no sort of sign that he feared the result. He needed not to 
have done so, for he had lived as he should have done. Many will 
miss him. 

Perhaps these two publications in themselves were suffi- 
cient to inform the general public of what a loss the State 



COLONEL GEORGE C. PORTER 141 

had sustained by Col. Porter's death. However this may be, 
the members of this society, now assembled for .their first 
meeting since Col. Porter's death, having known him so inti- 
mately and appreciating his extraordinary virtues as highly 
as they did, feel that not only should these public accounts 
of his life and death be spread on the society's minutes, but 
that they should be accompanied by a word of final farewell 
from them to a loved associate, who will never again sit with 
them. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the Tennessee Hitorical Society, that the 
death of Col. Porter, though it came at a ripe age, is never- 
theless a serious loss to the society, because of his continued 
and active interest in the society while he was with us, and 
also his keen appreciation and full understanding of the so- 
ciety's high and unselfish purposes, and especially because of 
his efficient service as an official in making the society and its 
valuable historical holdings inspiringly helpful to the youth 
of the State, as well as a valuabe aid to al citizens of the State 
in acquiring a knowledge of the glorious history of Tennessee. 
Be it further 

Resolved, That this final parting with so genial a gentle- 
man, such an ardent patriot, and so true and tried a friend, 
causes the members of the society genuinely felt sorrow. Be 
it further 

Resolved and ordered. That the aforementioned extracts 
from the Nashville Banner, accompanied by these resolutions, 
be spread on the minutes of the society, and that a certified 
copy thereof be furnished by the secretary of the society to 
Col. Porter's devoted daughter. 



AN EARLY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY AT NASHVILLE. 

(In these days of National Prohibition readers may find interest in some of 
the "beginnings" of temperance sentiment in this South country in the long ago. The 
following article from the National Banner, published at Nashville, Tennessee, Oc- 
tober 10, 1829, discloses the representative character of one of the earliest organi- 
zations for the furtherance of this great reform. Ed.) 

At a meeting of the friends of Temperance, held in the Masonic 
Hall in the city of Nashville, pursuant to public notice, on Monday 
evening, August 31, 1829, for the purpose of organizing a Temperance 
Society, Robert C. Foster, Esq., was on motion called to the chair 
and Hugh Elliott appointed secretary. 

When, on motion, 

Resolved, That this meeting deem it expedient to form a society 
for the promotion of Temperance. 

The following preamble and constitution was then presented by 
Henry A. Wise (in support of which he delivered an appropriate ad- 
dress), which, on being read, was adoted, to wit: 

Perceiving and lamenting the incalculable evils which have re- 
sulted and are still resulting from the improper use of distilled spirits, 
and wishing to adopt some means more efficient than have ever yet 
been employed to arrest this torrent of evil and produce a change in 
public sentiment respecting the use of Ardent Spirits: 

We, as friends of order, individual and social happiness, and 
sound morals, resolve to form ourselves into a society for the promo- 
tion of Temperance, and adopt, as the bond of association, the fol- 
lowing Constitution : 

Art. 1. This Society shall be called the Nashville and Davidson 
County Temperance Society, auxiliary to the AMERICAN TEMPER- 
ANCE SOCIETY. 

Art. 2. The business of this society shall be transacted by a 
board of managers, consisting of a President, a Vice-President, a 
Treasurer, a Corresponding Secretary, a Recording Secretary, and 
twelve Managers, five of which shall be a quorum. 

3. Any person may become a member of this Society by subscrib- 
ing this Constitution, and especially the following pledge: 

We, the undersigned, do hereby agree that we will abstain wholly 
from the use of distilled spirits ( except for medicinal purposes); 
that we will discourage the use of them in our families, not provide 
them for the entertainment of our friends, or for persons in our 
employment; that we will abstain from the business of making them 
or selling them by large or small, and that in all suitable ways we 
will discountenance the use of them in the community. 

Art. 4. Any member wishing to withdraw from this Society may 
do so, on signifying the same in writing to the Secretary, when it 
shall be publicly declared at the next quarterly meeting. 

Art. 5. It shall be the duty of this Society to hold public meet- 
ings quarterly, to receive any communications that may be brought 
before them, relating to the success of Temperance Societies through- 
out these UNITED STATES. 

Art. 6. The Society shall meet annually on the second Monday in 
October, for the election of its officers, and at any other time when- 



AT NASHVILLE, 1829 143 

ever it shall be judged necessary by the Board of Managers; and 
that the first annual meeting be held on the first Monday of October 
next. 

Art. 7. A majority of the members of this Society, at any an- 
nual meeting, shall have power to alter or amend this Constitution. 

The following persons then became members by signing the Con- 
stitution: Robert C. Foster, Obadiah Jennings, William Hume, John 
Estell, Hugh Elliot, J. Roane, William Edmiston, R. H. McEwen, 
Joseph McCoy Sitler, G. R. Fall, T. J. Mulhallan, Wm. McCombs, 
John Thomson, George Holton, A. A. Caseday, John P. Aertsen, D. 
L. Thompson, Wm. Shaw, H. W. Abrams, Wm. A. Eichbaum, R. P. 
Hays, Henry A. Wise, John Scott, R. W. Graham, A. Simon, S. B. 
Snowden, Wm. P. Lawrence, Robert Whyte, Thomas C. Trimble, 
James C. Robinson, James Wilson, J. K. Fane, F. E. Fisher, James 
Avkipyd, Henry B. Milliken, Shadrack Nye, W. Russell, Thomas R. 
Jennings, Thomas Iredel, Philip Lindsley, Francis Newsom, William 
White, P. S. Fall, W. F. Tannehill, C. C. Norvell, P. W. Maxey. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Editors of the different papers in this city be 
requested to publish the Constitution and organization of this So- 
ciety, also, that the Editors in the adjoining counties be pleased to 
copy the same into their papers. 

Resolved, That Robert C. Foster, Rev. O. ennings, James Roane, 
Robert H. Mc'Ewen, William A. Eichbaum, Henry A. Wise, John 
Estell, Hugh Elliot, Geo. Holton, John Scott, William McCombs, 
Joseph McCoy Sitler, and John P. Aertsen be a committee to procure 
signers to the Constitution. 

Resolved, That the publication of the proceedings of this meet- 
ing be postponed until after the annual meeting, and that the Rev. 
O. Jennings, James Roane and Hugh Elliott be a committee to pre- 
pare a brief statement for immediate publication. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the 
Chairman and Secretary for their attention to the business of this 
meeting. 

Resolved, That we now adjourn to meet in this house on the first 
Monday of October, at 7 o'clock P.M. 

R. C. FOSTER, Chairman. 
HUGH ELLIOTT, Secretary. 

The first annual meeting was held according to adjournment on 
Monday evening, October 5, 1829. 

Robert C. Foster was appointed Chairman and Hugh Elliott, Sec- 
retary. Henry A. Wise, Esq., addressed the meeting on the utility 
of such associations, and in answer to the objections urged against 
them. It was, on motion: 

Resolved, That this meeting now go into the election of officers, 
and that it be by nomination, when the following gentlement were 
elected : 

Robert C. Foster, President. 

Hon. Robert Whyte, Vice-President. 

W. A. Eichbaum, Treasurer. 

Henry A. Wise, corresponding Secretary. 

A. A. Caseday, Recording Secretary. 



144 AN EARLY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY 

Managers: James Roane, John Estell, Wm. Edmiston, Robert 
H. Mc'Ewen, John Thomson, George Holton, J. P. Aertsen, R. P. 
Hays, Francis Newsom, Wm. McCombs, Wm. White, G. R. Fall. 

Resolved, That a standing committee of three be appointed by the 
President, whose duty it shall be to select information on the sub- 
ject of temperance and to submit the same, as frequently as they 
may deem it fit, to publication in the newspapers of this city. 

The President appointed Shadrack Nye, Henry A. Wise and James 
Roane to compose said committee. 

Resolved, That it be the duty of the Corresponding Secretary of 
this Society to address a circular, forthwith, to the friends of tem- 
perance throughout this State, on the subject of forming similar so- 
cieties to this. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting with the proceed- 
ings of the former meeting be published in the newspapers of this 
city. 

Resolved, That we adjourn, to meet on the second Monday of 
January, next, in the City Hall. 

R. C. FOSTER, Chairman. 
HUGH ELLIOTT, Secretary. 



COLONEL JOHN MONTGOMERY. 

John Montgomery, founder of Clarksville and eponymist of 
Montgomery County, Tennessee, was a native of Southwest 
Virginia. An officer in the militia of Augusta County, he 
took part in the Sandy River expedition against the Indians, 
under the command of Maj. Andrew Lewis, in 1756. 1 He was 
a justice of the peace of Botetourt County from its organiza- 
tion in 1770, 2 until it was divided in 1772, 3 when he became 
a justice of Fincastle County, which office he continued to 
hold under the State constitution of 1776.* He was also a 
member of the Revolutionary Committee of Safety of Fin- 
castle County. 5 

Being brave, restless, and adventurous, like most of our 
earlier pioneers, in 1771 6 he explored the Cumberland Valley, 
in company with Mansker, Drake, Bledsoe and others, dis- 
tinguished in the annals of its settlement. But events in the 
course of the Revolutionary War changed, for the time, the 
current of his activities. 

In 1777 George Rogers Clark conceived his bold scheme 
for the conquest of the Northwest, and immediately repaired 
to Williamsburg to lay his plans before Gov. Patrick Henry. 
Gov. Heniy at once recognized the immense possibilities of 
such an enterprise. He conferred the rank of Colonel upon 
Clark, and gave his authority and unqualified support to his 
Northwestern campaign. But the success of his operations 
required absolute secrecy; and the exigencies of the war on 
the seaboard forbade the withdrawal of troops from that quar- 
ter. He, therefore, authorized Col. Clark to enlist seven com- 
panies, each of fifty men, to be raised from the frontier coun- 
ties west of the Blue Ridge, without disclosing to them the 
true object of his campaign. 

When the call reached the frontiers of Holston Capt. Mont- 
gomery enlisted a company of volunteers, and was ordered to 
the Falls of the Ohio, for the defense of Kentucky. He moved 
with such promptness that his company was the first to reach 
the place of rendezvous, where he waited until May 27, 1778, 
when Col. Clark arrived with his Kentucky troops. 7 Here, 

'Summers' Southwest Virginia, p. 61. 
2 Summers' Southwest Virginia, p. 108. 
'Summers' Southwest Virginia, p. 130. 
4 Summers' Southwest Virginia, p. 242. 
5 Summers' Southwest Virginia, p. 201. 
'Ramsey's Annals of Tennessee, p. 105. 
T Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 441. 



146 COLONEL JOHN MONTGOMERY 

for the first time, Capt. Montgomery's men learned that they 
were intended for service in the Illinois; they were surprised 
and disappointed, and many of them deserted, but with those 
who remained he embarked with Col. Clark, June 24, 1778. 

The first phase of the expedition was a complete success 
Kaskaskia was taken without firing a gun, Cahokia and Vin- 
cennes submitted and took the oath of allegiance to America, 
and Fort Jefferson, south of the Ohio in the Chickasaw coun- 
try, was erected and garrisoned. After remaining in the 
country until circumstances seemed to permit his absence, 
Capt. Montgomery returned home with his volunteers, being 
instructed to wait upon the Governor as soon as possible with 
letters and verbal messages which Col. Clark had entrusted 
to him. 8 

Having reached the seat of government and communicated 
with the Governor, Capt. Montgomery was commissioned Lt. 
Colonel, and ordered to raise three hundred men and rejoin 
Col. Clark as soon as possible. He succeeded in raising the 
greater part of the troops authorized, and embarked them down 
the Holston River, on his way to the Illinois. 9 

In the meantime, news of Col. Clarks successful campaign 
against Kaskaskia having reached the British Governor Hajn- 
ilton at Detroit, he determined not only to drive Col. Clark 
from the Mississippi Valley, but to deliver a blow against our 
northwestern frontiers that would prevent a repetition of his 
bold exploits. Leaving Detroit with a strong force, he took 
Vincennes, December 17, 1778; but instead of pushing for- 
ward and destroying Col. Clark, as he might have done, he 
devoted the winter to planning and organizing a great spring 
campaign, in which he expected the assistance of five hundred 
Cherokee, Choctaw and other Indians, who were to rendez- 
vous at the mouth of the Tennessee River. British agents col- 
lected a supply of stores and goods at Chickamauga to the 
value of *125,000 for distribution at that meeting. Before 
the arrival of spring, however, Col. Clark, after one of the 
most arduous and difficult marches on record, retook Fort 
Vincennes, February 25, 1779, and sent Gov. Hamilton a pris- 
oner to Virginia. 

Their spring campaign in the northwest having thus failed, 
the Chickamauga Indians determined to invade the frontiers 
of Holston. Warning of their intentions having reached the 
settlements, a force of some three hundred and fifty men were 

"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, pp. 441-2. 
'Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 442. 



HON. A. V. GOODPASTURE 147 

embodied under Col. Evan Shelby, which united with the troops 
of Col. Montgomery, then on their way to the Illinois, and 
proceeded down the Holston and Tennessee Eivers to the 
Chickamauga towns, which they surprised and destroyed. Col. 
Montgomery then continued on his way to the Illinois, and ar- 
rived at Kaskaskia May 29, 1779. 10 He was then ordered to 
Fort Yinceimes on the Wabash. 

Clark had now been promoted to the office of Brig. Gen- 
eral, and finding the public interest required that he should 
reside at the Falls of the Ohio, until provision should be made 
for a campaign against Detroit, by general order dated Aiigust 
5, 1779, Lt. Col. Montgomery was ordered to take command 
of the troops in Illinois, and the Indian agents there were 
directed to report to, and take orders from, him, at Kaskaskia, 
to which point he proceeded, August 14. 17 

In the spring of 1780 the American positions were threat- 
ened by an invasion of the Indians, and were saved from seri- 
out danger only by the timely arrival of Gen. Clark with re- 
inforcements from the Falls of the Ohio. In June, Gen. Clark 
having again returned to Kentucky, Col. Montgomery marched 
three hundred and fifty men up the Illinois River to Lake 
Michigan, and thence across to Rock River, destroying the In- 
dian towns and crops, the enemy, who had lately disbanded, 
not being able to raise a sufficient force to meet him. 12 

After this expedition he started home, by way of New Or- 
leans, but finding no immediate passage to Virginia, returned, 
leaving New Orleans March 15, and reaching his command 
May 1, 1781. Finding the garrison at Fort Jefferson in a 
starving condition, with no goods or property with which to 
purchase supplies, the credit of the State being long since ex- 
hausted, and no supplies coming from the Falls of the Ohio, 
he was obliged to evacuate Fort Jefferson June 8, 1781. 13 It 
is worthy of notice, in passing, that the erection of Fort Jeffer- 
son caused the Chickasaw invasion of Cumberland in 1780, 
that resulted in the abandonment of the first settlement made 
within the limits of Montgomery County, and the massacre 
of a large part of its inhabitants. Its evacuation at this time 
restored peace with the Chickasaws, which was never after- 
wards disturbed. 

July 2, 1781, Col. Montgomery returned to the Falls of 

'"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 442. 

"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 1, p. 324. 

"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 443. 

"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 313 ; Vol. 3, p. 443-4. 



148 COLONEL JOHN MONTGOMERY 

the Ohio, where he found conditions almost as bad as at Fort 
Jefferson. There was not a mouthful for the troops to eat, 
nor any money to purchase supplies. He was compelled to 
billet his troops through the country in small parties, except 
the little guard he kept in the garrison. August 10, he repre- 
sented these matters to the Governor by letter and also by a 
special courier. 14 

At the conclusion of his military services in Kentucky and 
the Illinois, Col. Montgomery came to the Cumberland settle- 
ments to make his permanent home in the land of his early 
explorations. Just when he reached the Cumberland is not 
definitely known. He signed the Cumberland Agreement; but 
the time is indefinite, as signatures to the Agreement were 
made from time to time as long as the Association continued; 
that is, from May 13, 1780, to the organization of Davidson 
County, October 6, 1783. He was present, however, at the or- 
ganization of the Committee for the Government of the Cum- 
berland Association, January 7, 1783, and was by the Com- 
mittee elected sheriff of the District. 15 But his affairs con- 
nected with the Western army requiring his attention, he ap- 
pointed Thomas Fletcher deputy sheriff, and returned to Ken- 
tucky. February 22, 1783, he was with Gen. Clark at New 
Holland, 10 and having learned that reports prejudicial to his 
character had been circulated by his enemies, he. defended him- 
self in a vigorous and manyly letter to the Virginia Board of 
Commissioners for the Settlement of Western Accounts, which 
seems to have silenced his critics in that direction. 

But while he was defending himself before the Virginia 
Commissioners, his enemies attacked him in a new quarter. 
James Colbert, a Scotchman who had married a Chickasaw 
woman and adopted the Indian life, had for some years been 
conducting extensive piratical practices against the Spanish 
on the Missisippi River, which gave them great annoyance, 
and caused much uneasiness on the Cumberland lest they 
should make it a pretext for inciting Indian hostilities against 
them. Col. Montgomery was now charged with being con- 
nected with Colberts operations. March 15, 1783, the Com- 
mittee of Cumberland annulled his appointment of Fletcher 
to be deputy sheriff, and themselves elected him sheriff; 17 and 
on June 3, sent two men to the Illinois, with letters to be 

"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, pp. 313, 315. 
"American Historical Magazine, Vol. 7, p. 116. 
"Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 441. 
"American Historical Magazine, Vol. 7, p. 123. 



HON. A. V. GOODPASrURE 149 

transmitted to the Spanish Governor, denying any connection 
or sympathy with Colberts proceedings. 18 Moreover, this 
charge was carried to the Governor of North Carolina, who 
issued a proclamation for Montgomery's arrest. Accordingly, 
the County Court of Davidson County, at its first term in 
1784, placed Col. Montgomery under bond to appear at the 
next term of the Court, and answer the charge of aiding and 
abetting Colbert. 19 But before the next term of the Court, 
the Governor, being better informed, withdrew his proclama- 
tion, and the proceedings in the County Court were dismissed 
as a matter of course. 20 

In the meantime the discerning eye of Col. Montgomery 
had discovered in the rugged hills that crown the forks of Cum- 
berland and Red Rivers a superior site for the location of a 
town ; and at the very time the County Court was ruling him 
to bond, to-wit, January, 1784, he and Martin Armstrong were 
entering the land on which the city of Clarksville is now lo- 
cated. In the fall of the same year they had it surveyed, and 
Armstrong, who was a practical surveyor, laid off the plan of 
a town on it. The town was named Clarksville, in honor of 
Gen. George Rogers Clark, the commander and friend of Col. 
Montgomery in the Northwestern campaign, and was estab- 
lished by legislative authority in 1785. Col. Montgomery, who 
made his home there, was the first named among its Commis- 
sioners. It was the second town established in Middle Ten- 
nessee, Nashville, chartered in 1784, being the first. Martin 
Armstrong never lived in Clarksville. 

Col. Montgomery was one of the justices of Tennessee 
County from its establishment in 1788 until his death. In 
1794 he commanded the territorial troops in the Nickajack 
campaign, the last, and one of the most important and suc- 
cessful enterprses undertaken against the Indians, in which 
the towns of Nickajack and Running Water were destroyed, 
and the power of the Chickamaugas completely broken. This 
was Col. Montgomery's last public service. 

A party of Creek Indians from Tuskegee were doing much 
mischief on the Cumberland in 1794. It was the same party 
who had killed Maj. Evan Shelby in 1793. They began their 
operations this year on upper Red River, where they killed 
Miss Betsy Roberts on the twelfth, and Thomas Reasons 
and wife on the fourteenth of September. Soon afterwards 

18 American Historical Magazine, Vol. 7, p. 134. 

"Putnam's Hist. Mid. Tenn., p. 211. 

20 American Historical Magazine, Vol. 7, p. 218. 



150 COLONEL JOHN MONTGOMERY 

they moved down to the mouth of Red River. Col. Valentine 
Sevier, after the fall of the Franklin Government in 1788, had 
emigrated to Tennessee County and erected a station on the 
north side of Red River, near its mouth, and about a mile 
from Clarksville. The Indians surprised his station on the 
eleventh of November, and massacred many of its inhabitants. 
They then retired to the country around Eddyville, Kentucky. 

After his return from Nickajack, Col. Montgomery led a 
hunting excursion to the neighborhood of Eddyville, where 
the party of Creeks were lurking. November 27, 1794, they 
surprised him in his camp. His party, taken at a disadvantage, 
retreated, when Col. Hugh Tinnon, one of the party, who was 
impeded by a wound, asked Col. Montgomery not to leave 
him. With the courage and devotion so often found among 
the pioneers, he threw himself between Col. Tinnon and the 
Indians, until a bullet from one of their guns took effect in 
his knee, when, finding him disabled, the Indians rushed upon 
him and killed him with their knives. John Rains, on his 
way from Fort Massac, reaced Eddyville on the day of the 
tragedy, and met Julius Sanders, one of the hunting party, 
who had escaped, though shot in four places. Sanders told 
him the last he saw of Col. Montgomery an Indian was stab- 
bing him repeatedly with a huge knife. The next day Rains 
went with a party, including a son of Col. Montgomery, and 
found his body, which they buried where a tree had been up- 
rooted by the storms. 21 

Two years later, when Tennessee County gave up its beau- 
tiful name to the State, it took the name of Montgomery, in 
honor of the brave Col. John Montgomery, who had been her 
leading citizen, and was second in command of the national 
heroes, who, under Gen. George Rogers Clark, had conquered 
and saved to the United States the great West, from the Alle- 
ghany Mountains to the Mississippi River. 

ALBERT V. GOODPASTURE. 



"Southwestern Monthly, Vol. 2, pp. 266-7; Haywood's Hist. Tenn., 
pp. 424-5. 






THE FIRST LAUREL OF HON. JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

(In 1830 an English-Canadian, Mr. Kenzie, went to Fort Winne- 
bago or the "Portage," in what is now the State of Wisconsin, as 
Indian Agent. His wife, a young New England woman, accompanied 
him and afterwards wrote up her experiences of their early married 
life in a most interesting and spicy volume published in 1856 under 
the title "WAU-BUN, the Early Days in the Northwest." The fol- 
lowing incident is narrated in this work and gives us an early glimpse 
of a young West Point lieutenant that later became a national fig- 
ure. Ed.) 

"After dinner Mrs. T. showed me the quarters assigned to us, on 
the opposite side of the spacious hall. They consisted of two large 
rooms on each of the three floors or stories of the building. 

On the ground floor the front room was vacant. The one in the 
rear was to be the sleeping apartment, as was evident from a huge 
unwieldly bedstead, of proportions amply sufficient to have accommo- 
dated OG, KING OF BASHAN. with Mrs. Og and the children 
into the bargain! 

We could not repress our laughter, but the bedstead was nothing 
to another structure which occupied a second corner of the apart- 
ment. This edifice had been built under the immediate superintend- 
ency of one of our young liutenants, and it was plain to be seen that 
upon it, both he and the soldiers who fabricated it had exhausted all 
their architectural skill. 

The timbers of which it was composed had been grooved and 
carved; the pillars that supported the front swelled in and out in a 
most fanciful manner; the doors were not only paneled, but radiated 
in a way to excite the admiration of all unsophisticated eyes. 

A similar piece of workmanship had been erected in each set of 
quarters to supply the deficiency of closets, an inconvenience which 
had never occurred, until too late, to the bachlors who planned them. 

The three apartments of which each structure was composed, 
were unquestionably designed for clothes-press, store-room, and china- 
closet; such, at least, were the uses Mrs. T. had appropriated the one 
assigned to her. 

There was this slight difficulty, that in the latter, the shelves were 
too close to admit of setting in even a gravey-boat, but they made up 
in number, what was wanting in space. We christened the whole 
affair, in honor of its projector, a 'DAVIS'; thus placing the first 
laurel on the brow of one who was afterwards to signalize himself 
at Buena Vista, and in the Cabinet of his country." 

("Early Days in the Northivest," Mrs. J. H. Kenzie, p. 83. Writ- 
ten, July, 1855.) 



2 



THE BATTLE AT FORT DONELSON. 

Those who were interested in the "Battle of Shiloh" article of the July, 1919. 
number of the Magazine, will find further interest in this article, especially with ref- 
erence to General Grant, etc. It is reproduced fromj the Daily Nashville Patriot, 
March 26, 1862, Vol. i, No. 14. Ed. 

GENERAL FLOYD'S REPORT. 

Camp Near Murfreesboro, 

February 27, 1862. 
General A. S. Johnston: 

Sir: Your order of the 12th of this month, transmitted to me at 
Cumberland City, reached me the same evening. It directed me to 
repair at once, with what force I could command, to the support of 
the garrison at Fort Donelson. I immediately prepared for my 
departure and effected it in time to reach Fort Donelson the next 
morning 13th, before daylight. Measures had been already taken by 
Brigadier-General Pillow, then in command, to render our resistance 
to the attack of the enemy as effective as possible. He had, with 
activity and industry, pushed forward the defensive works toward 
completion. These defenses consisted in an earthwork in Fort Donel- 
son, in which were mounted guns of different caliber to the number 
of thirteen; a field work, intended for this infantry supports, and 
constructed immediately behind the battery and upon the summit 
of the hill in rear. Sweeping away from the field-work eastward, to 
the extent of nearly two miles in it windings, was a line of intrench- 
ments, defended on the outside, at some points, with abattis. These 
intrenchments were occupied by the troops already there, and by the 
addition of those who 'came upon the field with me. The position of 
the fort, which was established by the Tennessee authorities, was by 
no means commanding, nor was the least military significance at- 
tached to the position. The entrenchments afterwards hastily made, 
in many places, were injudiciously constructed, because of the dis- 
tance they were placed from the brow of the hill, subjecting the men 
to a heavy fire from the enemy's sharpshooters opposite, as they 
advanced to or retired from the entrenchments. Soon after my 
arrival the entrenchments were fully occupied fro mone end to the 
other, and just as the sun rose the cannonade from one of the enemy's 
gunboats announced the opening of the conflict, which was destined 
to continue for three days and nights. 

In a short time the fire became general along our whole lines, 
and the enemy who had already planted batteries at several points 
around the whole circuit of our entrenchments as shown by a dia- 
gram herewith sent, opened a general and active fire from all arms 
upon our trenches which continued until darkness put an end to the 
conflict. They charged with uncommon spirit at several points along 
on the line, but most particularly at a point undefended by entrench- 
ments down a hollow which separated the right wing under Brigadier- 
General Buckner from the right of the center commanded by Col. 
Heiman. This charge was prosecuted with uncommon vigor, but was 
met with a determined spirit of resistance, a cool, deliberate courage 
both by the troops of Brig-Gen. Buckner and Col. Heiman, which drove 
the enemy, discomfited and cut to pieces, back upon the position he 
had assumed in the morning. Too high praise cannot be bestowed 
upon the battery of Capt Porter for their participation in the rout 
of the enemy in this assault. My position was immediately in front 



MRS. J. H. KENZIB 153 

of the point of attack, and I was thus enabled to witness more dis- 
tinctly the incidents of it. 

The enemy continued their fire upon different parts of our entrench- 
ments throughout the night, which deprived our men of every oppor- 
tunity to sleep. We lay that night upon our arms in the trenches. 
We confidently expected at the dawn of day a more vigorous attack 
than ever. But in this we were entirely mistaken. The day ad- 
vanced, and no preparation seemed to be making for a general onset. 
But an extremely annoying fire was kept up from the enemy's sharp- 
shooters throughout the whole line of entrenchments, from their long 
range rifles. While this mode of attack was not attended with any 
considerable loss, it nevertheless confined the men to their trenches 
and prevented their taking their usual rest. So stood the affairs of 
the field until three o'clock P.M. when the fleet of gunboats in full 
force advanced upon the fort and opened fire. They advanced in the 
shape of a crescent, and kept up a constant and incessant fire for one 
hour and a half which was replied to with uncommon spirit and 
vigor by the "fort". Once the boats reached a point within one 
hundred yards of the "fort" at which time it was that three of their 
boats sustained serious injuries from our batteries, and were com- 
pelled to fall back. The line was broken and the enemy discomfited 
on the water, giving up the fight entirely, which he never afterwards 
renewed. I was satisfied from the incidents of the last two days that 
the enemy did not intend again to give us battle in our trenches. 
They had been fairly repulsed, with very heavy slaughter, upon 
effort to storm our position ; and it was fair to infer that they would 
not again renew the unavailing attempt at our dislodgement, when 
certain means to effect the same end without loss were perfectly at 
their command. 

We were aware of the fact that extremely heavy reinforcements 
had been continually arriving, day and night, for three days and 
nights, and I had no doubt whatever that their whole available force 
on the western waters could and would be concentrated here if it was 
deemed necessary to reduce our position. I had already seen the im- 
possibility of holding out any length of time with our inadequate num- 
ber and indefensible position. There was no place within our entrench- 
ments but could be reached by the enemy's artillery from their boats 
or their batteries. It was but fair to infer that, while they kept up 
a sufficient fire upon our entrenchments to keep our men from sleep 
and prevent repose, their object was merely to give time to pass a 
column above us on the river, both on the right and on the left banks, 
and thus to cut off all our communications and to prevent the possi- 
bility of egress. I thus saw clearly that but one course was left by 
which a rational hope could be entertained of saving the garrison, or 
a part of it. That was to dislodge the enemy from his position on 
our left, and thus to pass our people into the open country, lying 
southward towards Nashville. I called for a consultation of the 
officers of divisions and brigades, to take place after dark, when this 
plan was laid before them, approved and adopted, and at which it 
was determined to move from the trenches at an early hour on the 
next morning, and attack the enemy in his position. 

It was agreed that the attack should commence upon our extreme 
left, and this duty was assigned Brigadier-General Pillow, assisted 
by Brigadier-General Johnson, having also under his command com- 
manders of brigades, Colonel Baldwin .commanding Mississippi and 
Tennessee troops, and Colonel Wharton and Colonel Clausland, com- 
manding Virginians. To Brigadier-General Buckner was assigned the 



154 THE BATTLE AT FORT DONELSOX 

duty of making the attack from near the center of our lines upon the 
enemy's forces upon the Wynn's Ferry road. The attack on the left 
was delayed longer than I expected, and consequently the enemy was 
found in position when our troops advanced. The attack, however, on 
our part was extremely spirited, and although the resistance of the 
enemy was obstinate, and their numbers far exceeded ours, our peo- 
ple succeeded in driving them discomfited and terribly cut to pieces 
from the entire left. The Kentucky troops, under Brigadier-General 
Buckner, advanced from their position behind the intrenchments upon 
the Wynn's Ferry road, but not until the enemy had been driven in a 
great measure from the position he occupied in the morning. 

I had ordered on the night before the two regiments stationed in 
"Fort Donelson" to occupy the trenches vacated by Brigadier-Gen. 
Buckner's forces, which, together with the men whom he marched to 
assist in this purpose, I thought sufficient to hold them. 

My intention was to hold, with Brig.-Gen. Buckner's command, the 
Wynn's Ferry road, and thus to prevent the enemy during the night, 
from occupying the position on our left, which he occupied in the 
morning. I gave him orders upon the field to that effect. Leaving 
him in position, I started for the right of our command to see that 
all was secure there, my intention being, if things could be held in 
the condition they then were, to move the whole army, if possible, to 
the open country lying southward beyond the Randolph Forges. 
During my absence, and from some misapprehension, I presume, of 
the previous order given, Brig.-Gen. Pillow ordered Brig.-Gen. Buck- 
ner to leave his position on the Wynn's Ferry road and to resume his 
place in his trenches on the right. This movement was nearly exe- 
cuted before I was aware of it. As the enemy were pressing upon 
the trenches, I deemed that the execution of this last order was all 
that was left to be done. The enemy, in fact, succeeded in occupying 
an angle of the trenches on the extreme right of Brig.-Gen. Buckner's 
command ; and as the fresh forces of the enemy had begun already to 
move toward our left to occupy the position they held in the morning, 
and as we had no force adequate to oppose their progress, we had to 
submit to the mortification of seeing the ground which we had won by 
such a severe conflict in the morning occupied by the enemy before 
midnight. The enemy had been landing reinforcements throughout 
the day. His numbers had been augmented to eighty-three regiments. 

Our troops were completely exhausted by four days and nights 
of continued conflict. To renew it with any hope of successful result 
was obviously vain, and such I understood to be the unanimous 
opinion of all the officers present at the council called to consider what 
was best to be done. I thought, and so announced, that a desperate 
onset on the right of the enemy's forces on the ground where we had 
attacked them in the morning might result in the extrication of a 
considerable proportion of the command from the position we were in, 
and this opinion I understood to be concurred in by all who were 
present. But it was likewise agreed, with the same unanimity, that 
it would result in the slaughter of nearly all who did not succeed in 
effecting their escape. The question then arose whether, in point of 
humanity and a sound military policy, a course should be adopted 
from which the probabilities were that the larger portion of the 
command would be cut to pieces in an availing fight against over- 
whelming numbers. I understood the general sentiment to be adverse 
to the proposition. I felt that in this contingency, whilst it might be 
questioned, whether I should, as commander of the army, lead it to 
certain destruction in unavailing fight, yet I had a right individually 



REPORT OP BY GENERAL JOHN B. FLOYD, 1862 155 

to determine that I would not survive a surrender there. To satisfy 
both propositions, I agreed to hand over the command to Brigadier- 
General Buckner, through Brigadier-General Pillow, and to make an 
effort for my own extrication by any and every means that might 
present themselves to me. 

I therefore directed Col. Forrest, a daring and determined officer, 
at the head of an efficient cavalry regiment, to be present for the pur- 
pose of accompanying me in what I supposed would be an effort to pass 
through the enemy's lines. I announced the fact upon turning the 
command over to Brigadier-General Buckner, that I would, bring away 
with me, by any means I could, my own particular brigade, the pro- 
priety of which was acquiesced in on all hands. This, by various 
modes, I succeeded in accomplishing to a great extent, and would have 
brought off my whole command in one way or another if I had had 
the assistance of field officers, who were absent from several of the 
regiments. The command was turned over to Brigadier-General 
Buckner, who at once opened negotiations with the enemy, which 
resulted in the surrender of the place. Thus ended the conflict run- 
ning through four days and four nights; a large portion of which 
time it was maintained with the greatest fierceness and obstinacy, in 
which we, with a force not exceeding 13,000, a large portion of whom 
were illy armed, succeeded in resisting and driving back, with discom- 
fiture, an army of more than 80,000 men. I have no means of accu- 
rately estimating the loss of the enemy. From what I saw upon the 
tattle-field ; from what I witnessed throughout the whole period of the 
conflict; from what I was able to learn from sources of information 
doemed by me worthy of credit, I have no doubt that the enemy's loss 
in killed and wounded reached a number beyond five thousand. 

Our own losses were extremely heavy, but for want of exact returns 
I am unable to state precise numbers. I think they will not be far 
from 1500 killed and wounded. Nothing could exceed the coolness 
and determined spirit of resistance which animated the men in this 
long and ferocious conflict; nothing could exceed the determined 
courage which characterized them throughout this terrible struggle, 
and nothing could be more admirable than the steadiness which they 
exhibited, nature itself was exhausted in what they knew to be a 
desperate fight against a foe very many times their superior in num- 
bers. I cannot particularize in this report to you the numberless 
instances of heroic daring performed by both officers and men, but 
must content myself for the present by saying, in my judgment, they 
all deserve well of their country. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) JOHN B. FLOYD, 

Brigadier-General Commanding. 



JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER. 

After the lapse of one hundred and five years, John Sevier, 
hero of thirty-five victories, first governor of Tennessee and 
founder of a great commonwealth, comes before us in the frag- 
mentary diary of his last twenty-five years. It is the intimate 
story of much of his daily private life, the modest notations 
of his personal concerns, his domestic associations and, to 
some extent, his public services. It is a quaint document, full 
of interesting personalia of bygone folks and reflections of 
pioneer conditions. It records curious dreams and sets forth 
prescriptions based on primitive notions of the nature and 
causes of disease. It pictures Sevier the farmer and trader 
much more than Sevier the soldier and statesman. It hardly 
purports to be a diary, being rather a series of memoranda 
for the personal use or amusement of the writer. And yet in 
main' aspects it is worthy of him who many times delivered 
our forefathers from the murderous savage ; who led the valiant 
"over-mountain men" to victory at King's Mountain; who pre- 
sided over the abortive state of Franklin ; who was for twelve 
years governor of Tennessee ; who sat for six years in the lower 
house of Congress; who served his people for forty years with 
almost no pecuniary reward; and who finally gave up his life 
in a distant wilderness while laying the foundations for per- 
manent peace with the red man and progress in civilization for 
the white man. 

One who ponders this multifarious journal must remember 
that the hand that made these entries was directed by the 
same great mind and spirit that guided and developed our 
early civilization ; that these are generally but the common- 
places of a life that was projected with a noble vision, guided 
by a great destiny and led along an unswerving path of duty. 
He must always read with the inspiring knowledge of the 
great soul and the splendid deeds of him who is so inadequately 
even so faintly portrayed by himself. It is a privilege to 
this generation to get these hitherto unnoticed and unpub- 
lished gleanings from life and times that are now Homeric in 
our historical perspective and our patriotic esteem. 

Its not amiss here to present a summary of the career of 
the author of this journal. 

John Sevier, son of Valentine and Joanna Goode Sevier, 
was born September 23, 1745, in Augusta, now Rockingham 
County, Virginia; attended school at Staunton; was married 
to Sarah Hawkins in 1761; founded the town of Newmarket; 
was farmer, merchant, innkeeper and soldier; moved to Mil- 
lerstown, in Shenandoah County, in 1770; moved to the Wa- 



JOHN H. DEWITT 157 

tauga settlement in 1773 ; moved to the Nolichucky settlement 
in 1778 ; was there an extensive farmer ; was married to Kath- 
erine Sherrill in 1780; co-operated with Shelby McDowell, 
Campbell, Cleveland and other leaders in resisting the in- 
vasion of Western North Carolina by the British forces under 
Ferguson; commanded the regiment of "over-mountain men" 
at King's Mountain, October, 1780; commanded in thirty-four 
battles with Indians, his only battle order being, "Here they 
are, boys, come on, come on" ; was governor of the independent 
state of Franklin, 1784-1788 ; was arrested for treason to North 
Carolina and never prosecuted; was a member of the North 
Carolina state senate; member of the First Congress; briga- 
dier-general for the Washington District; governor of Ten- 
nessee, 1796-7801, 1803-1809: member of Congress, 1811, unitl 
his death, September 24, 1815, which occurred near Fort Deca- 
tur, Alabama, while he was acting as commissioner in running 
the boundary line of the cession made by the Creek nation. 

The following opinion of Sevier, from Phelan's "History 
of Tennessee/' is quoted as a just characterization of the man : 

"John Sevier is the most prominent name in Tennessee History, 
and within these limits and upon this field he is the most brilliant 
military and civil figure this State has ever produced. Jackson at- 
tained a larger fame upon a broader field of action, and perhaps his 
mental scope may appear to fill a wider horizon to those who think 
his statesmanship equal to his generalship. But the results he ac- 
complished affected the history of Tennessee only in so far as it 
formed a part of the United States. Sevier, however, was purely a 
Tennessean. He fought for Tennessee, he defined its boundaries, he 
watched over and guarded it in its beginning, he helped form it, and 
he exercised a decisive influence upon its development. It is safe to 
say that without Sevier the history of Tennessee would in many im- 
portant respects not be what it now is. ... His chief claim to 
a high order of ability is justified by his clear vision of the present 
needs of his people, and of the future requirements of the State 
whose greatness he foresaw." 

This diary was kept in the custody of George W. Sevier, the 
oldest child of the governor's second marriage. He was for 
some time an officer in the United States Army and became 
secretary to William C. C. Claiborne, governor of the Missis- 
sippi Territory. He carried the diary with him to Mississippi, 
and finally gave it to Col. J. F. H. Claiborne for use in the 
first volume of his history of Mississippi; but it was never 
published. Through Col. Claiborne the diary, with many other 
Sevier papers, came into the custody of the State of Missis- 
sippi. All these papers are now in the State Department of 
Archives and History at Jackson, Mississippi. Years ago Hon. 
W. A. Henderson, of Knoxville, Tennessee, caused a copy to be 
made and later he presented it to the Tennessee Historical 



158 JOURNAL OF JOHN 8EVIER 

Society. It is, therefore, due to the patriotic interest and 
splendid generosity of Col. Henderson that the TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE is able to present this diary of our first 
governor. 

It is fortunate that this manuscript has been carefully 
examined and annotated in part by Col. H. M. Doak and Judge 
John Allison, both of whom came from the region where Sevier 
lived and had a vast knowledge of the history of Tennessee, 
especially of those communities of East Tennessee which are 
mentioned in the diary. The footnotes furnished by Judge 
Allison and Col. Doak are designated at the end of each by 
the letters "A" and "D" respectively; otherwise the notes are by 
the writer. The following observations were made by Col. 
Doak: 

"Queer how the diaries of our ancestors never throw any light 
upon the very things their descendants 'want to know, you know.' 
I once bought Asbury's Journal, hoping to find something about the 
country and its early settlers from a man who'd tramped every pig- 
path of English-settled America. Asbury was a very intelligent man, 
a marvelous organizer. His journal is barren of all later men 'want 
to know, you know.' The country he traversed, by plain, mountain, 
flood and field, might be Asia, Africa, or the moon, for any descrip- 
tive trait of it he gives. It might have been inhabited by Chinese, 
chimpanzees, or angels or devils for any human trait, or sugges- 
tion of social life he gives except barrenly in connection with the 
'saving of souls.' 

"If my revered great-grandfather, Rev. Samuel Doak, D.D., had 
kept a diary it would probably be as barren of all human interest 
for the modern man. It might have contained references to highly 
entertaining sermons preached at Old Salem, almost under the eaves 
of Washington College. 

"Asbury and Doak were pioneers of two vast systems profound 
thought at the base of each: Free-will and Fixed-Fate the latter 
modified by Election. These are Being's two opposite poles of thought, 

" 'Twixt which life hovers like a star.' 

Each system was great in its way. These pioneers failed to look at 
unfolding social life as we wish they had done. If they did, they neg- 
lected to record it in extant journals and diaries. 

Sevier's diary is interesting and valuable, not as a record of social 
progress, but as an example of the daily life, routine and thoughts of 
one who was a great soldier, a thoughtful, practical statesman, a good 
farmer, a man of aaffirs, a thorough business man and a courtly gen- 
tleman, equally at home on the battlefield and in the ballroom. His 
journal is the mere unconscious record of daily details, without a trace 
or a suspicion of the vanity of him who writes to be read. As a record 
of daily goings and comings over wide spaces of a man of boundless 
impulse and restless energy and enterprise it is of incalculable value. 

The manuscript is here reproduced without any change in 
spelling or punctuation. It was not the fashion of the pioneers 
to spell or punctuate correctly. Sevier was a man of fair 



JOHN H. DBWITT 159 

education for those days, as well as of great intelligence. It is 
natural that in this journal he should be given to abbreviation. 

It is hoped that the explanatory notes will aid the reader 
in visualizing the characters, customs and events of those 
heroic times. 

The diary begins when the author was forty-five years of 
age, about two years after the collapse of the State of Frank- 
lin. It continues intermittently until a few days before his 
death, twenty-five years and four months later. 

JOHN H. DE\VITT. 



JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1835). 

May, 1790. 

Left home 1 Wednesday, 19th May, 1790, at 10 o'clock. Rained on 
us in the evening. Lodged that night at my father's 2 . 25 m. 

20. Sent my horses to Z. Abdis & got them shod, cost 10 . 

2 o'clock set out, & lodged all night at Mr. John Keewoods 3 . 20 
mis. 

Left this place 10 o'clock, received of Mr. John Keewood 9500 Dol- 
lars Virginia paper money called the forty for one money 4 , which I 
am to endeavor to exchange for Hard money. 

21. Lodged at Col. Wm. Edmistons 5 in Washington County, Vir- 
ginia. Called on Saml. Edmiston, Esqr., and dined on our way to 
the Cols. 28 mis. e 

22. Set out at 12 o'clock, fed at Genl. Campble's 6 plantation, pd. 

*Mt. Pleasant on the Nolichucky River. Sevier moved there from Wautauga in 
1778. His father, Valentine Sevier, lived at the first Wautauga settlement. He 
died at Carter's City, December 30, 1803, at the age of one hundred years. He 
was born of Huguenot parents in England. The name was originally Xavier. John 
Sevier's mother was Joanna Goode. Valentine Sevier, with his wife, his four sons, 
Robert, Joseph, Abraham and John and their families, and his daughters, Polly and 
Catherine, arrived at the Watauga settlement from the Shenandoah Valley on 
December 25, 1773. 

Sevier's trip here outlined was from his home to New York to take his seat in 
the first Congress elected after the adoption of the Constitution. He had been 
elected to represent the westernmost district of North Carolina, which included all 
of what is now Tennessee. There is no record that he had any opponent. 

2 His father, at this date, resided on the south side of the Holston River, probably 
two or three miles below the present Kingsport, near old Fort Patrick Henry. A. 

3 "Keewoods." Keywood, in Sullivan County, near Bristol. A. 

*"Forty for one money." Curiously, Confederate currency reached forty-for-one 
in 1864-5, at Richmond, gold basis. D. 

5 "Edmiston's." Near Abingdon, Va., probably Edmondson, a prominent Virginia 
family, largely represented later in Tennessee. D. In early political records I 
found Edmonson, Edmondson and Edmiston. A. 

6 "Campbles." The well known Campbells, many of whom were in the Revolu- 
tion. D. 

It is worthy of note that Sevier paid 8d at General William Campbell's "for 
some green wheat." General Campbell was at King's Mountain along with Sevier. 
Generals Charles and Joseph McDowell and many others "lodged" and were en- 
tertained without charge at Sevier's home for some time preceding the King's Moun- 
tain expedition. It seems that no charges were made for "lodgng" at Col. Arthur 
Campbell's. A. 



ICO JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

8d for some Greene wheate, proceeded from thence to Col. Arth. Camp- 
bles 7 . Lodged there all night. 18 ms. 

23. Set out in the morn. Sat. 10 o'clock. Fed our horses & dined 
at Engledoon 8 , paid 2-6. From thence to Capt. Robt. Sawyers on Reed 
Creek. Lodged there all night. 33 miles. 

(Monday, 24th). Set out from Capt. Sawyers at 8 o'clock in the 
morning. Fed Horses at Mr. Carters, pd. 1 . Crossed the Ferry at 
Englishes, pd. 1-3. Lodged all night at Mr. Harrises. Chpacked (?) 
my horse ( ?) in the morning, paid for expenses 3-8. 34 miles. 

(T., 25th). Set out at 10 o'clock. Dined at McCraigs (Hans Mead- 
ows 9 , pd. 4. Fed at Mrs. Kemps, pd. 4d. Lodged at Col. I. Robert- 
sons, P. O., 21 miles, Wednesday, 26th. 

Set out at 7 o'clock. Breakfast at Mrs. Aierly (?), pd. 2-6. 
Lodged all night at Mrs. Brackenridges 10 , pd. 2-6. 25 miles. 

Set out on the 27th, Thursday morning. Breakfasted at Mr. 
Leatherdales. Called on D. Wood & got white vitrol for my eyes. Fed 
at Andersons Ferry, pd. 1-3. Lodged at Mr. Berkleys, pd. 4-8. 30 
miles. 

Fryday, 28th. Set out 9 o'clock. Arrived at Lexington 1 
o'clock. Tarried all night. 12 miles. 

Saturday, 29th. It rained. Lay by till Sunday morning, the 
30th. At 9 o'clock set out for Staunton", arrived there 8 o'clock. 
Lodged all night (rained, went in the morning to visit Mr. McClana- 
han (?), Colonel Alexr. McClanahan, Mrs. Reed & some other acquains. 
Bought of Col. Gamble a pr. Boots, price 40 , paid Mr. Herschal with 
whom I lodged for Epenses 15-9. 35 miles. 

7 The Campbells here mentioned are General William Campbell, of King's Moun- 
tain fame, and his cousin and brother-in-law. Col. Arthur Campbell, who was im- 
peached as judge of the Washington County, Virginia, court for an attempt to have 
all that part of Virginia west of the Blue Ridge joined to> the State of Franklin. 
He was never tried on these charges. These kinsmen lived near Abingdon, the 
county seat of Washngton County, in earlier times known as "Wolf Hills." A. 

Note that Sevier says, "fed at Gen. Campbell's plantation." William Campbell 
had died 1 nine years before this time, just before the siege of Yorktown. He held 
the chief command at King's Mountain and possessed much military genius. He 
and Col. Arthur Campbell composed their rivalries by agreeing to alternate with each 
other in command on military expeditions. This is why Col. Arthur Campbell was 
not at King's Mountain. It was Col. William Campbell's time. Col. Arthur Camp- 
bell was a kindred spirit to Sevier. They were associated in many Indian fights, 
notably the Chota expedition soon after the King's Mountain battle. Col. Campbell 
aided Sevier and his Watauga riflemen in destroping the settlements of the 
Cherokees even as far as Lookout Mountain. Col. Arthur Campbell was a fanner 
and was prominent in all the political and military movements of the time. At the 
age of sixteen, while fighting Indians in Augusta County, Virginia, he was captured 
and kept a prisoner near the Great Lakes for several years until he escaped. He 
died in 1811 on Yellow Creek, Kentucky, where he had removed a few years before. 

General William Campbell's home was near the seven-mile ford of Holston, at 
"Aspenvale," twenty-two miles east of Abingdon. 

"Engledoon." Kngle's Ferry, or ford, on New River, in Wythe County, Vir- 
ginia, on the main road between the Southwest and the East. A. 

'"Hans Meadows," should be "Max Meadows," as that is the name by which 
it has always been called. A. 

10 "Mrs. Brackenridges," should be "Breckenridges," as records at Abingdon 
and in other parts of southwest Virginia have it. A. 

"Staurrton, Augusta County, Virginia, whence came Rev. Samuel Doak, D.D., 
after referred to by Sevier. From Augusta and the adjoining county of Rockbridge 
came to Tennessee the Doaks, Cowans, Alexanders, Montgomerys, Paxtons, Hous- 
tons, Tates, Walkers, Caruthers. Lilys, Mitchells and many others, mostly Scotch 
or Scotch from northern Ireland. D. The route was down the Shenandoah Valley. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 161 

Monday, 31st. I left Staunton about 3 o'clock. Arrived at 
Rockingham at 8 o'clock (evening) . Lodged all night at Mr. Ruth- 
erfords, being 25 miles, pd. for Oats 1-. 

JUNE, 1790. 

Tuesday, June 1st day. Set out at 11 o'clock fed and dined at 
Reuben Harrison, pd 1-. From thence to New Market 12 , there fed, pd. 
for Wine & Oats 4-6. From thence to Mr. H. Goarn. Lodged all night. 
20 miles. 

2d day. Wednesday, 10 o'clock, set out for Mrs. Hawkingses, 
12 o'clock Lodged that night at Mrs. Hawkins. 13 

3d. Thursday 2 o'clock went to Woodstock. Lodged at Col. O. 
Browns. 17 miles. Tarried there till Saturday, the 15th. Had made 
by the tailor a Jacket & britches, cost 9-, paid for trimings 5-. Paid 
for Wine and Expenses 10-. Paid Col. Brown a dollar he lent Mrs. 
Sevier in Jones (?). 10 17 miles. 

Saturday, 5th day. Set out from Woodstock a (t) 2 o'clock in 
company with Mrs. Pugh, dined and fed at Stovers town with Mr. 
Huffman pd for Expenses 2-6. Lodged that night at New town paid 
for Expenses 7-6. 22 miles. 

Sunday, 6th day, 7 o'clock. Brakfirsted at Edmonses in Win- 
chester 14 paid for Expenses 6-. dined & fed at Slaughters old 
place 15 pd. 3-6. rained on us, Lodged at Myers pd. 8-1 41 miles 

Monday, 7th day. Set out at half after six o'clock in the morn- 
ing very cloudy Crossed at Wadkins Ferry 16 paid 2-. Brakfirsted at 
Mr. Porters in the town at this place (fed our Horses, pd. 3-10. Set 
out from this place half after 9 Fed in Greene Castle town 17 pd 
3-6 Fed in Chambersburgh 18 pd 2-6. had the stallions shoes removed, 
pd 8d. Expenses gifts & 8-6. Lodged all night with Joseph Campble 
Shippensburgh 42 mis. 

Tuesday, 8th day. Tarried in town, bought five yds callico, got 
a Gound made cost 20 shillings, paid for Wine Expenses &c 4-. 

Wednesday, 9th day. Set out at 11 o'clock from Shippensbugh 
fed at McClarys pd. 2-9 Dined and fed at Carlyle 19 pd 4-3 lodged at 
Betts tavern pd 8-11 Gave a byer (?) 2- 26 miles 

Thursday morning. Set out at 12 o'clock (Some what wearid 
(?) Fed at Harrises Ferry 20 (Fergs. Expenses &c 5-. Lodged all 
night at Eliz Town paid Expenses 13-. 30 miles. 

12 Sevier had founded the town of Newmarket before he removed from Virginia. 
He lived there for some time prior to 1770. 

13 Sevier's first wife was Sarah Hawkins. She died in 1780, leaving ten children, 
Joseph, James, John, Elizabeth (m. W. H. Clark). Sarah (m. Benjamin Brown), 
Mary and (m. Joshua Corlin). Valentine, Richard, Rebecca (m. Waddell), Nancy 
(m. Walter King). 

"Winchester, the county seat of Frederick County. Virginia. 

""Slaughter's old place" was near Harper's Ferry. A. 

""Wadkins Ferry," above Harper's Ferry on the Potomac River. A. 

""Greene Castle town," in Pennsylvania. 

I8 Chambersburg, Pa., of fame as being (so alleged) burned by Confederates on 
Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania. A. 

19 "Carlyle," Carlisle, Pa., originally. "Belt's Tavern." My grandparents, John 
and Mary Greer Chester, came from Carlisle, Pa., to Jonesboro in 1796. A. 

^''Harrises Ferry," now Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, on the Susque- 
hannah. A. 



162 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Fryday morning. Set out * o'clock. Fed & Brakfirsted at 
Dazeys 3-4. Dined in Lancaster- 1 at Turkshead 22 paid Expenses 6-6 
Set out at 4 o'clock Towards Philadelphia Lodged at Capt. Craw- 
fords. that night rained till 2 o'clock pd. for Expenses 15-. 29 miles. 

Saturday morning, 12 days. Set out at 3 o'clock lodged that 
night at Mr. Millers. (Foggy in the morning pd for Expenses 7-8 
19 miles. 

Sunday morning, 13th day. Set out 6 o'clock. Fed at Brahpd at 
Fouchan pd for Expenses 3-7 left there half after 9 o'clock at Sign 
of Eagle Dined &c pd 3-6 Lodged at Millers Sculkill 23 Ferry. 

Monday, 14th day. I went into Philadelphia, bought a beaver 
hat 7 dollars price. 3 Hand & pair of cotton stockings cost 16-. . . 

. Two N.papers 3d. paid to Mr. Jacob Miller for Expenses 5-8. 
Went to Philadelphia this evening Left our Horses with Mr. Miller 
to pasture and be fed till I return from Congress paid for wash- 
ing 2-. pd. for fare in stage 6 dollars Expenses Philadelphia 11-3. 
Tuesday morng 15th day set out in stage 3 o'clock Brakfirsted at 
Teasitors (?) pd 4-. 30 miles. Set out from thence 9 o'clock dined 
at Brunswick pd 4-. Wine &c on the road 8-. Crossed the ferry & 
Arrived in New York 9 o'clock. Lodged all night at Stair Ferry pd 
Expenses 10-4. 

Wednesday morning, 16th day. Took a seat, in the House, and 
that day took up lodgings at Mrs ........ at 6 dollars pr week. 

Thursday morning, 17th day. 

Fryday, 18th. Josiah Parker" Dr To cash won at whist 1 guinea 

Mrs Burns Dr To cash at sundry times ten Dollars. - 

1 July Col. Josiah Parker Dr. To cash lent 20 silver Dollars. 

[From July i, 1790, to October 9, 1793, there is no entry in the diary. The 
following notes relate to the Etowah Campaign, the last in which Sevier was en- 
gaged. Etowah was where the present city of Rome, Georgia, is located. On 
November 21, 1789, President Washington commissioned Sevier as Brigadier-General 
of the Watauga District, and he held this commission during the Etowah Campaign. 
It was the only military service for which he ever received any compensation from 
the government. His force consisted of six or seven hundred men under Colonel 
John Blair, of the Washington District, and Col. Christian, of the Hamilton District. 
The expedition resulted in complete victory. The Creeks and Cherokees were terribly 
punished and were never again a menace to the settlements in Tennessee. Sevier's 
official report rs found on pages 587-8 of Ramsey's Annals.] 



the region of Lancaster, Pa., came many of the Scotch Irish to Virginia 
and North Carolina. 

^"Turkshead," a tavern. Evidently named for the celebrated meeting place 
of Burke, Garrick, Reynolds, Johnson, Goldsmith and others in London. 

I have read somewhere that there is a room in this old town which was occupied 
by General Washington in which remain the old bedstead and bureau which were 
there when he occupied it. A. 

""Sculkill Ferry," on the Schuykill River which flows by Philadelphia into Chesa- 
peake Bay. A. 

24 Col. Josiah Parker, of "Macclesfield," Isle of Wight County, Virginia, member 
of the Virginia conventions of 1775 and 1776; colonel in Continental line, partici- 
pated in important battles under Washington; member of House of Delegates, 
1780-1784; member of Congress, 1789-1801; married Mary Bridger; died 1810. 
His kinsman, Nathaniel Parker, went from Hampshire County to Tennessee about 
1785 and became one of the first settlers of Sumner County. His second wife 
was the widow of Anthony Bledsoe. 

It is very disappointing that Sevier's journal gives no account of this memorable 
first Congress. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 163 

Memo, that John Hartwell Lives on Walkers Creek Montgomery 
County Virginia. 

G Return 9th October 1793. 

Col. Doherty officers & privates 179 

Col. Kenedy 108 

Kelly 183 

9th Octo 1793 

Officer of the day Colo. Doherty 
Par. Blount 
S. Smith cap. Taylor Vann & 

Magahee rearguards. 

Smalls place 10 Octo. 93 
parole Burke 25 
C. S Christian Col. Kenedy officer of the day 

Cap. Evans van & King rearguards. 
7 miles 30miles 

Creek half way from 

Tenesee to Highwassee HOct. 1793 
P. Washington 

C. S. Greene Col. Christian off. of the day 

Capt. Beard & Gillaspy vann & Blair Rearguards. 

Saturday 29th October 1793 
Camp at Springstons town 

24 miles. 
P. Jefferson 
C. S. Knox Col. Kelly officer of the day. 

Cap. Richardsons cavalry & Harrisons Infantry van & Carsons 

rearguards. 

Curreys place 25 miles 

Sunday 13th October 1793 
P. Hawkins 
C. S. France Officer of day Col. Blair 

Cap Gest & Allison Van & Harrisons Rearguards 

Camp east Vinesty ( ?) 16 miles. 

Monday 14th Octb. 1793. 
Parole King 

C. S. Judson (?) Officer of the day Maj. Taylor & King Guards 

Fired on the army Gen. orders. 

It is ordered that from this time forward no person presume to set 
on fire any Indian Hutt or town in which there is corn or ... 
provision without there is orders from me to do the same. No firing 
of guns in or out of camp except leave from me or a field officer be 
first obtained, and as the officers of everv rank is sensible of the bane- 
full Consequences of such unwarrantable Conduct It is earnestly re- 
quested that they will use their utmost exertion to prevent the same. 

Easternoly 26 14 October 1793. Lewey Gant & Breed wounded last 
night Colonel Kelly with Knox Reg is detached to Coosacootee re- 
turned & burnt and destroyed the place. 

^"Parole Burke." In military usage there was a countersign and also a parole. 
D. 

M "Easternoly" should be "Oostanaula" a little stream in McMinn County. 



14 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Easternoly Tuesday 15 Octo. 1793. 
P. Kenedy 
C S. Doherty Col. Doherty officer of the Day. 

Evans & Carson guards 
Fired on the army last night. 

Frost last night Easternoly 16th Octo. 1793. 

Easternoly 16th Octo. 1793. 
P. Columbia 
C S. America Col. Kelly Off. of the day. 

Harrison van & Gillespy & Richardson rearguards. 
Fired on by the enemy in the morning no damage done. 

Camp Spring Creek 16 miles 17 Octo. 1793. 
Par. Boston 27 
C. S. New York Col. Blair off of the day. 

Makehee Van Taylor rearguards. Knox Reg. at- 
tacked Cap (?) 8 Hightower Weir & Pruit killed John Wallace 
wound. 

Fryday 12 miles 18th Octob. 1793. 

Camp Forks of Coon & Hightower. 
Parole Knoxville 
C. S. Jonesbo. Col. Kenedy 28 off of the day. 

Evans Charles Allison Van & Tany rearguards. 

Camp Nuo town 4 miles below the forks 

Coon & Hightower 19 Oct. 1793. 
Par. Washington 
C S. Greene Col. Christian off. of the day. 

Carson van Blair & Beard rearguards. 
Wallace died of his wounds last night. 

Your murders and savage Barbarities have caused me to come into 
your Country Expecting you would fight like men, but you are like 
the Bairs and Wolves. The face of a white man makes you run fast 
into the woods and hide, u see what we have done and it is nothing to 
what we shall do in a short time. I pity your women & children for I 
am sure they must suffer and live like dogs but you are the Cause of 
it. You will make War, & then is afraid to fight, our people whiped 
yours mightily two nights ago Crossing the river and made your peo- 
ple run very fast. 

Copy. J. S. 

To the Cherokees and their warriors if they Have Any. 

Camp Head of Amutekah Creek 25 miles from 

last encampment 20 Octo. 1793. 
Parole Sullivan 

C S. Liberty Maj. Kelsey officer of the day 

Taylor van & Harrison rearguards. 

''"Par. Boston, C. S. America." These are the parole and countersign of the 
day. Old army regulations explain how both are selected and how written and folded. 
There is always supposed to be a relationship between parole and countersign. If 
countersign be "Jackson," parole might be "New Orleans." D. 

"Of these names of soldiers many are familiar names of Washington County 
families at date of 1856, such as Doherty, Carson, Kelley, Harrison, Gillespie, Rich- 
ardson, Blair, Macghie. Taylor, Kennedy, Allison, Kelsy, Mac Farland, Beard. 
Hammond, Gamble, McKee, Murphey, etc. D. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 165 

Camp 2 miles from Big Spring 25 miles from 

last camp 21 Octo. 1793. 
Parole Doherty 
C. S. Kelly Maj. McFarland officer of the day. 

Cap. King van & Allison & Evans rearguards. 
Some sentinels fired on the enemy 

Camp 25 miles from big Spring and 4 
from Chiestown (?) 22 Oct. 1793. 
Parole Blount 
C S. Smith Maj. Taylor off of the day. 

Cap Magehee van & Carson & Beard rearguards. 

Camp half way between Highwassee and 
Tenesee 21 miles from last camp. 23 Oct. 1793. 
P. Philadelphia 
C S Boltimore Col. Doherty officer of the day 

Capt. Richardson & Gillaspy van & Harrison rearguards. 

Camp Henry, Fort 24 October 1793. The army dis- 
charged. 

John Chism 89 Esq. told me in presence of Col. Christian that the 
Indians in Easternoly hung up seven Green scalups the time he was 
first there August was a year by Gov. Blount to hold a talk (Mr. Ish & 
Wife present also as well as Col. Christian) . 

24 October 1793 

Returned to Ish's Fort 30 . Gave leave to ensign Hammond & Four 
privates to return to Washington. 

October 25th 1793 
Returned to Knoxville. 

[The diary is from this time a curious intermixture of incidental data, weather 
notations, dreams and social happenings. Sevier lived from 1778 to 1794 at Mount 
Pleasant, on his farm on the Nolichucky River, about ten miles southwest of Jones- 
boro and about eight miles southeast of Washington College, in Washington County. 
He was in the heyday of hisf popularity. What follows gives some indication of a 
peaceful domestic life.] 

Memo of Due bills money &c Taken by Jno. Sevier Junr. with him to 
the No. Ward the 23 deccem, 1793 

dols cents 

James King to Page Sims 55 23 

Do. to Genl. Sevier 194 40 

Do. Michael Harrison & Co 328 86 

Sundry small due bills on James King 140 

David Allison note to Col. Christian . . 266 80 



985 29 

In bank bills 320 

In cash with Jno. Sevier Junr 136 

Dr. Luclholas ( ?) act 438 



1879 29 

Drafts from Gov. Blount . . 8000 



9879 29 

^"Chism" should be "Chisholm." Chisholm's Fort was on the north side of 
South Fork of Holston River, a few miles above Kingsport, then called the "Boat 
Yard." A. 

'"Ish's Fort was across the Tennessee River from Cavert's Station, about eight 
miles west of Knoxville, Ramsey, p. 581. At this place, on October 25, 1793, Sevier 
wrote his official report of the campaign. 



166 JOURNAL OF JOHN SBVIER 

George North Dr. to Cash lent at Knoxville 20-10 (2 Crowns 1 
dollar 1-4 of dollar). 

Capt. Harrison Cr. By his due bill 328 dolls & 86 Cents, 
do do 
To Cash 10 dollars. 1 due bill on King 9 dollars. 

dol ct 

George North Cr. By due bill on King 8 64 

9th Dec. 1793. 
Capt. Harrison to one due bill 8 dols. 64 cts. 

Staid at Gambles the 12, 13, & 14 of Septr. at Do the 1st 2d 3d of 
Novr. 

Staid at Woods 7th Deer & 5th 

January 1794. 

January begins on Wednesday 1794. 
W. 1 Mr. KcKee & lady dined here, (Fair day) 

T. 2 M. Lovely & Mrs. Murphy Dp. (Fair day) (also David Brown 
& John Set up a bed stead for which I gave him 30- in cash pd a 
guinea down. 

F 3 Rained today. 

S 4 Fair day Jack Sevier Junr. came here with Miss Mary Ann* 1 

Sun 5 Fair day. Jack Sevier 32 went away. Mrs. Sevier 83 & Kitty 
went to meeting. 

M 6 Cloudy. Mr. Weir fell off his house. Val Sevier lay here all 
night & took me Fulltons horse away. 

Tu 7 Went to see Mr. Weir & let him blood (Snowed today) (Tobys 
sow piged last night and three of mine) . 

W 8 Snowed last night 2 Inches deep, cloudy. Gillaspy J. Gal- 
liher" and Mr. Condlig lay here. 

T 9 cloudy. Frank came here. Blooded Mr. Weir, G. Gillaspy 
served (ex 'o) Jno Sevier Junr vs Taylor execr. 

3t Mary Ann Sevier, sixth child of John and Sarah Sevier, born about 1771. 
She married Joshua Corlin and moved to Overton County. 

^John Sevier, Jr., the third son. was born June 20, 1766, and married Sophia Garrett. 
Their daughter, Anna, married Henry Hoss, and their son was the late Bishop E. E. 
Hoss. 

"Mrs. Sevier was Katherine Sherrill, beloved 5n history as "Bonny Kate." The 
romantic story of her rescue from the Indians by Sevier is well known. They were 
married on August 14, 1780, the year in which the first wife died. Katherine Sherrill 
Sevier was eminently worthy to be the wife of her great husband. She was the 
helpmeet and inspiration of thirty-five years of public service marked with great 
vicissitude. They had eight children: George Washington, Samuel, Ruth (m. first 
Col. Richard Sparks, then Daniel Vertner), Katherine (m. first Archibald Rea, then 
Mr. Campbell), Polly Preston (m. Wm. Overstreet), Joanna Goode (m. Windle), 
Eliza Con way (m. Major Wm. McClellan), and Robert. The names of the daugh- 
ters are frequently mentioned in the diary. 

After the death of Governor Sevier his widow moved to a secluded place, called 
"The Dale," in Clay County, and lived there for many years. Governor Sevier lo- 
cated two grants for something over 57,000 acres in Overton and Clay counties 
On this land many members of his family settled. Mrs. Sevier, his sons, George 
W. Sevier, Dr. Samuel Sevier, Valentine Sevier, and daughters, Katherine Camp- 
bell, Joanna Windle, Mary Overstreet, Sarah Brown and Ann Corltn. Mrs. Kath- 
erine Sherrill Sevier died October 2. 1836, at Russellville, Alabama, where she had 
recently gone to live with her son, Dr. Samuel Sevier. 

*Th "J. Gelliher" here mentioned was probably the father of James Gallaher, 
the clergyman and author of "Western Sketch Book." A. 



JOHX H. DEW ITT 167 

F 10 cloudy & rainy (Self poorly) (Mr. Weir some better) 
S 11 cloudy 

Sun. 1.2 went to see Mr. Weir he is some better Received letter 
from G. Blount sent by James Gallispie 12th Mr. Harrill dined here 
on his way to Guare (?) 

Mon 13 cloudy Blooded Mr. Weir (Snowed) 

Tues. 14 Mr. Murphy dined here 86 

On the 14th Jany John Sevier Genl Dreamed he was in an un- 
known country Supposed from some immagination that it was france, 
at which place his son Dickky came to see him, & welcomed him 
there, thought that his son Dickky was in a military Service Dressed 
in dove couloured Silk cloth trimed wth blue sattin & said to me 
I will go with you to head quarters & introduce you to the Com- 
mander in Chief to which proposal I agreed & as we went there 
appeared the largest number of people ever beheld & all in quiet 
being some distance I conversed with him on the way respecting his 
fare and how he liked the service, to which he repled that the fair 
was better than he could describe the officers had taken great notice 
of him, and he was well contented to remain there all his days. I 
thought we gradually asscended towards the top of a high Hill of 
beautiful ground where there stood a large building which appeared 
to be built of either Diamond or Glass as I could see through the 
walls with doors & windows all round. The same we entered in, 
and immeadeately asscended the first pair of stairs. My son going 
before me, then proceeding up the second, then the third &c till we 
go to a very great height, the building still appearing to be a great 
height above us, he then told me they had the best station that was 
ever formed, for says he, we can from this place see all the nations 
in the world & what the armies are doing pointed out at the same 
time Large Countrys & Cities. Told me that such a place was Russia, 
another that was Germany, then prussia England, Holland, Denmark 
Turky and as well as I can remember all the Countries in the known 
world. They seemed to lye at a great distance, looking like great 
piles of old buildings, both in Cities & Countries & of different sizes, 

^The Sevier farm on Nola Chuckee, home and buildings were a marvel of fer- 
tility, comfort, convenience and tools for all kinds of farm work and production. 
The following is a fair sample of the old Sevier establishment. The Cowan house, 
about twelve miles north from the Sevier farm was built by John Cowan from 
Virginia, a soldier of 1812. It was a large two-story frame, with long upper and 
lower porches and ample back porch, gigantic rock chimneys, roof of walnut shingles, 
fastened on with walnut pegs. A big two-story rock springhouse contained all 
needful dairy paraphernalia, although only the family and farm hands were to be 
supplied. A vast double-log barn contained hay mows, threshing floor, graneries, 
and horse stalls. There were stored plows, harrows, harness, flails for threshing 
grain, sickles, reaping-hooks, the long English scythe blade and crooked snead, the 
clumsy Dutch scythe with short blade and straight snathe. There were two kinds 
of English scythes, a broader blade and a long narrow blade, known as the "black- 
snake scythe." There were many antiquated implements, known to Scotch farmers. 
At the house and in outhouses were all that pertains to the household, all that goes 
with production of flaxen and woolen fabrics, hackles, scutches, with long, swordlike 
wooden scutching-knives, brakes, small spinning-wheels for flax thread with "flyers" 
all that pertains to flaxen thread, cloth and weaving. There were the "big wheel" 
for woolen yarns, smaller spinning wheels for fine yarns, reels for "hanking" woolen 
yarns in "crets." There were looms for weaving all kinds of cloth. In the garret 
were John Cowan's old leathern helmet, sword-belt and sabre, old muskets and 
flint-lock pistols. Scattered on the floor were numerous Irish, English and a few 
American periodicals. 

This description is by an eye-witness and frequenter of the Cowan house and 
is fairly descriptive of the John Sevier place, only that ft is reputed to have been 
upon a larger scale of provision for everything. D. 

3 



168 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

lying all around the place we stood which appeared to be so high 
that we had an easy view of all the world, notwithstanding we were 
not near the top my son told me I could not see the commander in 
chiefe at that time, but he would introduce me some other time. I 
then began to take great notice of the beauty of the palace, I thought 
I was then in; everything appeared to be all light & beauty & won- 
dered that I had never seen nor heard of such a building before & 
that other nations had not built in the same advantagious manner, 
on which I awaked. 

Wed. 15 Fair & cold 

Thu. 16 cloudy towards evening (Rained) 

Fry 17 Rained & cloudy all day (John MaMahon borrowed one 
Gall of Linseed oil killed three Hoggs 

Sat 18 Rained & Cloudy also warm 

Sun 19 Fair and warm, Mrs. Sevier and Nancy went to meeting. 
Cap. Brown Dined here 

Monday 20 Warm, & Rained in evening & night; Mr. Waddle 
lay here all night went to see Mr. Weir who is geting better. 

Tues. 21 Rained in the morng. Mrs. Sevier Betsy & self dined 
at Mr. Sherrills John Fuhky put a floor in the stable. 

Wednes. 22. Rained & snowed, cleared up in the night & turned 
cold John Fuhky put a floor in the stable. 

Thu. 23 Fair day & pleasant for the season (John Fuhkee went 
to Gillaspys). 

Fry. 24 Fair & cold. Jo. Greer & Ben parker was here all night. 
Self & wife went to see Mr. Weir 

Sat. 25 Fair and pleasant (in the night Thundered & rained, 
Col. King L. here, 1. night. 

Sun. 26 Cloudy in the morning. 

Mon. 27 my father came here (Fair day & warm) 

Tues. 28. Rained & cloudy day 

Wed. 29 Snowed & Rained cleared up in the night & turned cold. 

Thur. 30 Father went to Mr. Sherrills (Clear day & cold) 

Fry. 31 Fair & cold (Sylva delivered of a Female child in the 
night. 

February, 1794. 

Sat 1st. day of Feby Father set out for home (a good day) dined 
at Mr. Sherrills 11 * with Mr. McKee and wife, Mrs. Sevier along 

Sun. 2d. Pleasant, son Jo. wife & Sally Keewood came here turned 
cloudy in the night. 

Mon. 3 cloudy (Jo. set out for Knoxville wrote by him to Meek 
& Simms. 

"Probably the father of Mrs. Sevier. 

"Rev. Samuel Doak, one of the first preachers west of the Alleghanies, founder 
of Washington College, today a flourishing Presbyterian institute. He was a man 
of great courage and wide influence. He was born in Augusta County, Virginia, 
1749, and died in Bethel, North Carolina, in 1830. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 169 

Tues. 4 Pleasant. The girls went to Ben Browns 

W 5 Warm, self wife Jos. wife Miss Sally Keewood, Mary ann & 
Ruth went to Jonesbo. & came home in night Wind rose high & 
rained in night. Bought 8 Ibs. shugar from May 1 bottle mustard 
2 pr. w. shoes & sundry other things. 

Th. 6 Cloudy but warm 

Fry. 7 Pleasant, Bavildin (?) Harrill lay here all night. 

Sat. 8 Pleasant, went to Wm. Colliers & dined there, stopped at 
Mr. Lovelys Charles lay here all night. 

Sun. 9 Went to meetg. self wife & Ruth a Mr. Doake text 
5 Ch. Ephesians 15 & 16 verses. Cloudy & like for rain. 

Mon. 10 Warm & pleasant 

Tues. 11 Warm Rob. Mcfarland & polly lodged here. 

Wed. 12 Rained & turned cold transplanted two old apple trees. 

Thur. 13 Snowed & rained 

Fry 14 Cold & Cloudy 

Sat. 15 Clear & cold 

Sun. 16 cold 

Mon. 17 went to Greene lodged at Cs. Richardsons. 

Tues. 18 Brak. at store. 

Wed. 19 Rained nothing Extraordinary. 

Thur. 20 Cold & Snowed at night 

Fry. 21 Very cold & some snow. 

Sat. 22 Pleasant came home in comp. with Mr. Simms & wife, 
who went to Mr. Sherrills bro. home 12% Ibs. maple sugar 6 yds 
plains 9 yards check 1 bott (?) (?) drops Do Brittish oil & pepper- 
mint spirit 1 Ib Raisons 

Sun. 23 Rained 
Mon. 24 very cold. 
Tues. 25 very cold. 
Wed. 26 cold. 
Thur. 27 Rained 
Fry. 28 Moderated 

March 1794. 

Sat 1st. Warm & pleasant. 
Sun. 2 Warm. 

[March 3-21. No record.] 

Tuesday 22 July rained 

Wednes. 23 Worked on road. Rained 

Thur. 24 rained nothing extraordinary 



170 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Fry. 25. Self & Mrs. Sevier wt to J. Seviers & retd same day 
a light shower in eveng. 

Sat. 26 Rained heavily; Rebecca & nancy came here. Washingn 
wt. to town* 1 & came home. 

Sun. 27 Rained. 
Mon. 28 Rained 

Tues. 29 rained, self & wife wt. to Mr. McCallisters returned the 
next day. 

Wed. 30 Light shower of rain (Dog days began 
Thur. 31 Fair, began to drink & diet drink 

[April- July. No record.] 

August 1794. 

Fri. 1 day of August 1794. 

Sat. 2 day of August Mr. Mckee & lady dined here 
Sunday 3d wt. myself wife & girls to meeting to Mr. Doaks 
Mon. 4 Dry weather, Creek Indian hung Knoxville 
Tues. 5 Dry weather. Wed. 6 Ditto. Thur. 7 Ditto. Fry. 8 Ditto. 

Sat. 9 dry. (Self wife Ruth" Betsy & Tobe went to Jonesbo. in 
carriage. 

Sun. 10 return from Jonesbo (Dry) 

Mon. 11 Fine Small rain 

Tues. 12 A. Sherrill & d. Murphy came up 

Wed. 13 rained. 

Thur. 14 Fry. 15 rained 

Wed. 20 Set out to Knoxville, my wife & Ruth went as far as 
Greene Staid till Fryday when we all left. 

Thu. 21st Staid at Greene. 

Fry. 22d Ditto Lodged at Hoskins. B. C 

Sat. 23 Lodged at Brasiltons. 40 

Sun 24 arrived at Knoxville. 

Mon. 25 Assembly met, dined with Governor. 41 

Wed. 27th dined with Governor 

Thu 28th drank tea at Mr. Summervilles 

M This was probably Jonesboro, eight miles distant. 

"Ruth, the sixth daughter. She married first Col. Richard Sparks, U. S. A., 
then Daniel Vertner, of Mississippi. She died in 1834. (Heiskell's "Andrew Jack- 
son and Early Tennessee History," p 204). "Betsy" Elizabeth, the eldest daughter. 
She married W. H. Clark and died early, leaving one child, Sarah Hawkins Clark, 
who married General James Rutherford Wyly. (Heiskell, p. 203.) 

40 A Brazzleton was a wealthy man of Newmarket, in Jefferson County, in 1848. 
His son was a colonel of cavalry in the Confederate Army. This was probably 
an ancester. D. 

4t William Blount, the governor of the Territory south of the Ohio. KnoxvilU 
became the residence! of the governor in March, 1792. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 171 

Fry. 29 brakfirsted with Mrs. Duncan 

Sat. 30 drank tea with Mrs. Blunt 

Sun. 31 rained, rode out to J. Jackson C. O. with Cap. Richard. 

(Remarks) this month was uncommonly warm with one or two 
Cool evenings. 

September 1794. 
Mon 1 Dined with Governor 
Tues. 2 brakfirsted with C. Richard. 
Wed. 3 Supered at Mr. Somerviles. 

Thu 4 Brakfirsted & dined with Jo Sevier. 42 Fry. 5 Do. Do. Do. 
Sat. 6 dined with Governor. 
Sun 7 Drank tea at Mr. Sommervilles 
Mon. 8 Drank tea with Mrs. Blount 
Tues. 9 played Billiards 43 at Mr. Duncans. 
Wed. 10 Lodged at Mr. Woods. 
Thu. 11. Suppered at Mr. Chisoms 

Fry. 12 dined &c at Jo. Seviers. Sat 13 Do. Sun. 14 Do. Mon 15 Do. 
Tues. 16 Dined at Governors. 
Wed. 17 Drank tea at Governors. 
Thur 18 drank tea at Mr. Somervilles. 
Fry. 19 dined at J. Seviers. Sat. 20 Do. 

Sun. 21 Do with Governor wt. to meeting with him & his lady 
to hear Mr. Carrick." 

Mon. 22 Dined with Governor 

Tues 23 took tea Mrs. Blounts. 

Wed. 24 Brak. at C. Richards. 

Thur 25 Dined &c Jo. Seviers. Fry. 26 Do. 

Sat. 27 Dined at Mr. Stones. 

Sun. 28 Dined with Governor, wt. to meeting with Gov. & his 
lady. 

Mon. 29 ditto. 

Tues. 30 Assembly was peroughed 45 till first Monday next Octor 

^Joseph Sevier, born 1763, was the oldest child. He married an Indian woman. 
His son, Rev. Jack Sevier, was a Methodist preacher. (Heiskell, p. 201.) 

"'Tis worthy of note that billiards was played in Knoxville in 1794. It shows 
how the backwoods kept up in the graces of civilization. Not many centuries have 
elapsed since an advanced Frenchman was burned at Paris as a wizard for billiard 
shots that would be commonplace now and perhaps Sevier might have made. D. 

"Rev. Samuel Carrick, 1760-1809, a Presbyterian minister; native of Pennsylvania, 
educated in Virginia; president of Blount College, later the University of Tennessee, 
from its beginning in 1794 until his death. 

45 "Poroughed," prorogoved. The word has not come down to this day and was 
seldom used then in political speech. We would say, adjourned, in almost any case. D. 



172 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Members collected with the Governor at (?) (?) and drank wine 
that evening. 

October 1794. 

Wednesday 1 day of October dined at Governors 
Thurs. 2 dined at Governors. 

Fry. 3 dined with Governor set for home from Knoxville Accom- 
panied by the Governor & Dr. White about 6 miles, also Maj. Lovely 
& Mr. Harrill came all the way Lodged that night at Mr. Meeks 
(Frost) 

Sat 4 Lodged with M. Lovely at Judge Andersons." 

Sun. 6 Lodged with ditto at Col. H. Conways." 

Mon. 6 Lodged at Mr. Wyleys in Greenville Bro. home a loaf of 
sugar. Tues. 7 came home. Wed 8 Thur. 9 hard frost. Fry. 10 ditto. 
Sat. 11 ditto (began to take medicine) Sun. 12 Mon. 13 Mrs. Sevier 
went to Embrees" & her mothers. 

Tues. 14 Rained in the night & in morning (killed sm. Beef.) 

Wed. 15 frost. Thur 16 Do. Fry. 17 Do. Sat. 18 Do. Sun. 19 
Mon. 20 Tues. 21 Wed. 22 Thur. 23 Fry. 24 Snowed in the night. 
Sat 25 rained. Sun. 26 Fair. Mon. 27 Fair. Tuesday 28th Wed. 
29 Thur 30 Memo. An order on J. Richardson in favour of Rogers 
for 15 dated 10th August 1792. Fry 31. Rained. 

November 1794. 
Sat. 1 day of November 

Sun. 2 Fair. Mon. 3 Dry began to pull corn. Tues 4 Dry & warm. 
Wed. 5 warm & dry. Th. 6 warm & dry Fry. 7 warm. Sat. 8 rained 
a little. 

Sun. 9 Mrs. Sherrill much better. Mon 10. Mrs. Sherrill taken 
suddenly. Tues. 11 rained finished halg. corn. Frank ran 48 away. 
Wed. 12 fair & warm. Thur. 13 warm. Fry. 14 cloudy. Sat. 15 
rained & snowed at night. 

Sun. 16 cold and Fine snow Mon. 17 clear & pleasant. John Rich- 

*Joseph Anderson, 1757-1837, one of the territorial judges appointed by Presi- 
dent Washington. Born near Philadelphia, served in the Revolution; member con- 
stitutional convention of 1796; senator from Tennessee, 1797-1815; comptroller of the 
U. S. Treasury, 1815-1836. 

47 The wife of James Sevier, the second son, was Nancy Conway, of Washington 
County. 

^"Mrs. Sevier went to Embree." Embreeville was a furnace village in sight from 
the Sevier farm on Nola Chuckee River, said to have been named for Elihu Embree, 
who edited the first abolition newspaper in America, at Jonesboro. His son, Elihu 
Embree, Jr., served in the I9th Tennessee, C. S. A. D. 

Embreeville, or "Embree," as it was sometimes referred to, was then, and stilt 
is, on the south side of the Nolo or Noli Chucky River right at the foot of the 
Unaka, a spur of the larger Iron Mountain, both part of the Appalachian Range; 
and the Sevier home place was about two miles down the river on the north side. 
It is very probable that smoke from the old time furnace stack and from charcoal 
pits was "in sight" of the Sevier home, but not in sight of buildings or Embreeville 
Village. A. 

""Frank ran away." While a horse gifted with the name of Franklin quite 
popular in 1794 might have been the Frank that ran away, we are enlightened 
further along on page 17 that the "run-away nigger" had come to be a feature of 
that early day. D. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 173 

mond came this day and set in for the year at 25. Put up our 
Fattening Hoggs. Tues. 18 I went to court. Wed. 19 rained. Thur. 
20 cold Thos. Young died suddenly at Frank Allisons. Fri. 21 snow. 
Sat. 22 cold, negroes began to grubb. 

Sun 23 came home from Court Reed, from Jno. Sevier Junr 10 
dollars. Mon. 24 Fair & pleasant. Tues 25 Fair. Jas. Oliver Died. 
Wed. 26 Fair & pleasant Thur 27 same. Fry. 28 cloudy, gave L. 
Peters order for 3 to the store. Sat 29 cloudy & light rain. Mrs. 
Sherrill Died. 3 o'clock at night. 50 

Sun. 30 Mrs Sherrill buried in evening (rainy) 

December 1794. 

Mon. 1. first December, rained a little. Tues 2 snowed at night. 
Ruthy went to the Wheelrights. Wed. 3 fair. Th. 4 Joseph Sevier sit 
out for Knx & catey & his wife wt. to Greenville. Toby wt. to bring 
some things from there clear & cold Killed a beef Cone reed this day 
from Mr. Sherrill. Fry. 5 fair (sick myself) Sat. 6 Fair. Self & 
wife dined at Mr. Sherrills. 

Sun. 7 Fair, rained in night. Negro Bet delivered of a Female 
child. Mon. 8 rained in the morning, cloudy & cool sent J. Richmond 
to shoemakers. Sent by him 2 dollars to shoemaker. Tuesd. 9 Wm. 
Greene Co. 180 Ibs. pork. John Richmond 2 pr. overals 24. John 
Fickee 1 pr Do 12. 3 yds linen a 3. 3 yds of check some time ago. 
Wied. 10 warm & pleasant. Thur. 11 went to Jonesbo. Fry. 12 staid 
at Jonesbo. the Comissrs for town sit. Sat 13. staid at Jonesbo. 
Mr. Sims came up. 

Sun. 14 came home. Mr. Sims wt. home. Mon 15 cloudy. Negro 
Frank run away. Tues. 16 Fair & pleasant. M. Seviers wife de- 
livered of a son. Wed. 17 fair & pleasant. Mrs. Sevier went to 
Jonesbo. Thur. 18 warm. Fry 19 rained & snowed in the evening & 
in the night 6 inches deep. Sat. 20 cloudy & flying snow. Snowed 
in the night. 

Sun. 21 Cloudy & flying snow. Mon. 22 Fair & Pleasant. Killed 
8 fatning Hogs. Tues. 23 clear & pleasant. Mrs. McCallister Mrs. 

J. Gillaspy Miss Daisy & Miss came here wt. home next day. 

Wed. 24. pleasant weather self & Mrs. Sevier dined at Mr. Sherrills. 
Mrs. McCallister 51 & Young ladies wnt home. Thur. 25 cloudy & 
some rain. Mr. Sherrill Mr. Sherrill Mrs. Beard Mr. Andrew Bears 
Mr McKee Mrs. McKee Miss Peggy McKee Mr. Weir & wife Mai 
Murphy dined here today Came up a thuder Gust with Hail & small 
rain. Fry. 26 Fine day Sat. 27 Washington & Fickee wt. to Greene 
Fair day. 

Sun. 28 pleasant day. Mon. 29. wt. Jonesbo self & Washington 
cloudy. Tues. 30 rained a little returned from Jonesbo. Wed. 31 
Fair. 

w Probably the mother of Mrs. Sevier November 30, 1794. 

B1 The McCalister mentioned liver near McAlister's Schoplhouse, two miles down 
Hominy Branch from Washington College. They were kin to the McAlisters of 
Nashville, of whom is Hon. W. K. McAlister, lately of our Supreme Bench. In 
East Tennessee the name is still pronounced with the broad Scotch "a," "McOlister," 
while at Nashville it has the flat "a," "McAlister." D. 

The civil district in Washington County, where the McAlisters resided is still 
called "McAlister's District." A. 



174 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

January 1795. 

Thurs. 1 Janry 1795. Rained. Self wife Catery" Rutha Chatty 
& Betsy dined at Mr. Weirs. Friday 2 Mr. King came here George 
Gillaspy" came here. I wt. with him to Cap. Browns to take in the 
list of taxes. Sat. 3 Dry weather. 

Sun. 4 dry. Mon. 5th wt. to Jonesbo to meet the commissrs for 
the town. Rained in the night. Tues. 6th rained. Wed. 7 ditto. 
Thur. 8 wt. to Colo. Carters rained. Fry. 9 rained, returned to 
Jonesbo. Sat. 10 came home very cold. 

Sun. 11 snowed at night, Jos. Sevier Retd from Knoxville with 
letter from G. Blount. Mon. 12 day Fair & cold killed some fatted 
Hoggs. Tues. 13th snowed in the night. Wed. 14 warm & thawing. 
Thur. 15 rained, wt. to Greene with col. Robertson. Fry. 16 rained 
& snowed. Sat. 17 clear came home from Greene. 

Sun. 18 clear & cold Mon. 19 Fair & pleasant. Tues. 20 Fair & 
pleasant. Mr. Keeler Brought Home the Hoggs I Bought from him. 
Wed. 21 rained & cloudy. Th. 22 cloudy & cold. Fry. 23 rained 
lightly Mrs. Sevier Ruthy & betsy went to Jonesbo. Sat 24 cloudy 
& some rain. 

Sun. 25 Some rain & snow. Mon. 26 cloudy Washington & John 
Fickee carried horses to Jonesbo That run away from Sevier & Ruthy 
Col. Carter came home with them. Tues. 27 set out myself. Wash- 
ington & Col. Carter, Lodged at Greene all night. Wed. 28 we all 
Lodged at Col. Carters. Thur. 29 it rained We all Lodged at Jesse 
Reeves. Fry. 30 we all lodged at Mr. Perkins. Sat. 31 wt. to Knox- 
ville (cold) 

February 1795. 

Sun. 1 Feby. Fine day. Mon. 2 fine day. Tues 3 ditto. Wed. 4 
ditto. Thur. 5 ditto. Fry. 6 rain. Sat. 7 Rained set out in evening 
self Col. Carter & Washington, from Knoxville lodged that night at 
McBee's Ferry. 

Sun. 8th we lodged at Col. Cakes (?). Mon. 9 we lodged at 
Greenville. Very cold. Tues. 10 lodged at Greene. Wed. 11 ditto 
Thur. 12 ditto. Fry. 13 dittor. Sat. 14 we came home very cold. 

Sun. 15 cloudy & cold. Mon. 16 wt. to Court to Jonesbo. Tuesday 
17 very cold & snowed. Wed. 18 cold. Thur. 19 Mr. King & Nancy 
married. 8 ' Maj. & Jimmy Weirs family here Mr. Harrill Mr. Waddle, 
Mr. Claiborne Mr. Weirs family was here. Cousin Jack & Mr. 
Doake. Fry. 20 clear weather. Sat. 21 self & Mr. King wt. to 
Jonesbo and came home that night. 

Sun 22 wt. with John Sherrill & wife to Woods foard. Mon. 23 
rained, col. Conway & James Sevier 55 came here cloudy snowed & 

"Probably his daughter, Katherine, who was then very young. She married 
first Archibald Rhea, then Mr. Campbell. "Betsy," Elizabeth Sevier, N. Ante. 

"The George Gillespie mentioned lived near the Sevier farm. Of this family 
came the Jonesboro Gillespies, James of which served in th C. S. A., and also 
Col. Hal. Gillespie, a dashing Confederate colonel of cavalry, who married Miss Cocke, 
of Knoxville, now living at Nashville. D. 

"Nancy Sevier, the fifth daughter. She married Walter King, February 19, 1795. 
King operated some ironworks near the Sevier home. 

"James Sevier, the second child, 1764-1847. He lived on his farm near that of 
his father, and was clerk of the court of Washington County for forty-seven years. 
(Heiskell, p. 201.) 



JOHN H. DEWITT 175 

rained in the night. Tues. 24 snowed in the morning. Wed. 25 
cloudy. Thur. 26 cold Rebecca Sevier 58 & John Waddle married. 
Fry. 27 cold. Sat. 28 very cold came home from Rebecca weding. 

March 1795. 

Sun. 1st March 1795 Mon. 2 wt. to Jonesbo cold. Tues 3 self & 
son John went to Mr. Kings works (warm). Wed. 4 warm Mr. 
King & myself came home. Thur. 5 warm. Fry. 6 warm. Sat 7 
high winds & rain. 

Sun. 8 Fair & pleasant. Mon. 9 warm snowed at night. Tues 

10 snowed in the morning. Bought of Mr. Paine 150 B. corn at 2. 

Paid him 7 Wed. 11 clear & cold. Thur cold snowed at night. Fry. 
13 cold. Jno. Fickee 1 pr overals 12. Sat. 14 very cold. 

Sun. 15 pleasant. Old Frank returned, snowed in the night. 
Mr. Sherrill &Wm. Dined here. Mon. 16 Genl. Muster Washington 
Fickee & Richmond wt. rained & snowed. Tues. 17 went to court 
Wed. 18 pleasant. Tues. 19 Cox had his tryal Fry. 20 pleasant, 
wife & Girl came to town in carriage. Sat 21 pleasant. 

Sun. 22 Ditto. Mon. 23 Pleasant & Fair Tues. 24 ditto 

Wed. 25 ditto. Thur. 26 ditto. Fry. 27 came home from Court. 
Sat 28 Judge Campble 67 his lady & Mr. Claiborne 58 & Doctor Reed 
came here, tarried till Monday morning. Sun. 29 Judge Campble & 
lady Mr. Claiborne & Doctor reed came here. Mon. 30 pleasant self 
& Claiborne went to court. Tues. 31 pleasant. 

April 1795. 

Wed. 1st day April came home from Court. Thur 2 pleasant & 
warm. Fri. 3 ditto. Sat. 4 ditto. 

Sunday 5 ditto John Richmond 1 soldiers shirt. Mon. 6 ditto 
planted potatoes. Tues. 7 Rained & warm began to plant corn this 
day. Sylva delivered of a Female child. Memo. pd. John Keele 
3 Dollars Do. to John Silburne 2 Doll. Do to Chairmaker 3 Doll 18-8. 
Wednes. 8 planted corn, frost. Thur. 9th went to Jonesbo Frost that 
night. Fryd. 10th returned from Jonesbo Let Wed. King have 6. 
4. for the use of the iron works 59 received from Major Sevier 30. 
Sat. 11 Fair & cool w. King & wife went to the Iron works. 

Sun. 12 Rained Mrs. Sherrill & son William dined here. Mon. 13 
Fair & pleasant. Tues. 14 ditto. Let John Lellburne have 6-8. 
Wed. 15 ditto. Thur. 16 Rained that night. Fry. 17 cool. Sat 18 

M Rebecca Sevier, the fourth daughter, married 5 John Waddle, February 26, 1795. 
The Waddles lived at Broyles Ford, some eight or ten miles down Nola Chuckee from 
the Sevier farm. While Waddle is the correct spelling, it is now mostly written 
Waddell and the, accent laid on the last syllable. D. 

"David Campbell, one of the territorial judges appointed by President Washington. 
He was a judge of the superior court, 1797-1809. 

^Probably Hon. W. C. C. Claiborne, who was then practicing law in what is 
now upper East Tennessee. Born in Sussex County, Virginia, 1775, died in New 
Orleans, 1817; member of Constitutional Convention of 1796; judge of the Superior 
Court of Law and Equity; member of Congress, 1797-1801; Governor of Mississippi 
Territory, 1803; Governor of Louisiana Territory, 1804, until its admission as a 
state, then was governor of the state of Louisiana; elected U. S. Senator, but died 
before he could take his seat. 

w lron works mentioned is either Blair's Furnace at Embreeville, in Greasy Cove, 
or Bumpass Cove Furnace. D. 






176 JOURNAL OF JOHN 8EVIER 

Frost at night Reed, a horse from Tom Greene (a bay at about 
20 price) 

Sun. 20 Wintry & cool Mr. Sherrill & son Wm. dined here. Mon. 

21 dry weather. Tues. 22 ditto. Wed. 23 ditto. Thur. 24 ditto 
Fry. 25 cloudy. Sat 26 warm & dry. 

Sun 27 light shower self Wm. Sevier & Catsey went to Mr. 
Doakes" meeting. Mon. 28 dry weather. Tues. 29 ditto. Frost that 
night. Wed. 30 ditto. 

May 1795. 

Thurs. 1st day of May dry & Hot. Fry. 2 went to Jonesbo staid 
all night. Sat 3 wt. to Greene staid all night. 

Sun. 4 came home with Maj. Sevier. brought from the store 
20 Ibs. tree suger. Mon. 5 Mrs. Sevier Rutha Nancy & Mr. King wt. 
to Jos. Seviers. Began to plant our New Ground Corn. Tues 6 of 
May 1795 very warm Mr. King went to Iron works. Wed. 7 very 
warm & dry. Thur. 8 ditto. Fry. 9 ditto began to weed corn. Sat. 
10 rained a fine shower. Memo. Reed from Joseph Hanna* 1 600 feet 
of poplar plank, 280 ditto of pine, 108 laths, 12 feet long each, 

22 Rafters, 14 feet long each. Memo. Reed, from Mr. Bains planta- 
tion 100 feet of plank. 

Sun 11 Rained. Mon. 12 Rained. Tues. 13 Fair. Wed. 14 
Rained in Evening. Mrs. Sevier Catery & Sammy went to Doctor 
Holts, the Doctor sent for Sammy" half a viol of castor oil & a 
small viol of drops. Memo, gave to old N. Frank a pair of overalls. 
Thur 15 went to Greene court. Reed a horse of Wm. Willson price 
30. Fry. 16th Rained. Sat. 17 returned from Greene. 

Sun. 18 dry & hott. Mon. 19 ditto. Tues. 20 ditto. Wed. 21 
went to Jonesbo court. Thur. 22 rained. Fry. 23 warm & wet in 
the morning. Sat. 24 came home from Jonesbo. Bought from Mr. 
keel 24 Hoggs 1 sow 11 year olds marked with Crop in right Ear a 
hole & nick in under part of the left year. 12 piggs unmarked 
all of which is since marked with my own mark. One of the sows 
has since 6 piggs. Memo, lent unto Said (?) Gayer a Land war- 
rant no. 2728 for 200 acres in name of Jos. Sevier Located at No. 
of Little lick Creek the warrant returned 

Sunday 24 warm. Monday 25 ditto. Tues. 26 ditto. Mr. Carson 
sent horse to pasture is to work corn two times dry. Wed. 27 ditto 
& dry. Mr. Weir & wife returned from river. Thur. 28 fine rain 
Mr. Lilburn (?) hauled (?) of plank from Embrees paid him 1 
dollar Fair. Memo, paid Tho. Embree for John Fickee 4. paid Mr. 
Sherrills Jane 4 for Do. sent to Shoemaker Mr. Messer by John 
Fickee 3 dollars 18. John Richmond 1 pr shoes, made by Messer. 
John Fickee 3 pr. shoes made by Messer. Fry. 29 warm & dry. 
Sat. 30 do. Sun. 31 do. 

June Mon 1 Dry. Tues 2 do. Wed. 3 went to Iron Works. Th. 4 
small shower, C. L. B. Fry. 5 Do. See. Do. Sat. 6 Do. See Do. 

"Rev. Samuel Doak, D.D., President of Washington College and pastor of Old 
Salem church, a stone's throw from the college building. At date of this diary it 
was Washington College, founded by Doak in 1778 as Martin Academy. D. 

"The Hannahs were prominent people living between Washington College and 
Sevier's farm. One of the family was captain in the Nineteenth Tennessee; C. S. A., 
and became colonel of another regiment. He was father of Col. Harvey Hannah of 
the Public Utilities Commission. D. 

"Samuel Sevier, the seventh son. He became a physician, lived in Overton County 
and later at Russellville, Alabama. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 177 

Joune 1795. 

Sun. 7 staid at M. Seviers. Mon. 8 came home from Works Tues. 
9 very warm. Wed 10 small shower. Mrs. Sevier & Kitty went to 
Jonebo. Thur 11 Fine rain & rained all night began to lay by corn. 
Fry. 12 Shower in morng. Mrs. Sevier & Kitty went to meeting a 
very High flood in the river Rained in afternoon. Sat 13 Mrs. Sevier 
Rutha & Sammy went to meeting, rained in the morn. Memo, when 
at the Iron Works let Mr. King have 2 dollars 16. 

Sun. 14 rained. Myself, wife, Rutha & Catery & Joanna went 
to meeting the sacrament was administered by the Rev. Doake, Balsh 
& Hueston. 03 Mon. 15 self Catery Rutha & Mrs. Sevier went to 
meeting Dined at D. Holts (rained). Tues. 16 rained. Mrs. Sevier 

6 Catery went to Mr. Sherrills. Reed from Jos. Hannah 720.10 Ibs. 
at 22-6 per M. 260.8 ditto at 15 per M. 130 Feet pine plank some 
time ago. Wed. 17 Hot & Dry. Thur. 18 ditto. Fry. 19 went to 
Jonesbo. rained in evening. Sat 20 staid at Jonesbo. Sun. 21 Sot 
off for Col. Carters & met him near home seting out for Assembly 
Staid all night at Maj. Loviers with Col. Carter. Mon. 22 came 
home Reaped wheat Rained in the night Frank run away. Tues 
23 Rained went to Jos. Seviers Rained all night Reed from Jos. 
Sevier 22% dollars. Wed. 24 Rained (planted cabbage) Thur. 25 
rained Fry. 26 cleared up & cool set out for the Assembly Lodged at 
Greene Memo, to bring for Betsy a pr of shoes 7 Inches long. Sat 
27 sit out in the morning in company with Col. Hardin (rained) 
Eat dinner & fed at Parks Reed from H. Conway Junr 2 Guineas & 
1 dollar Lodged at Evans Painter Spring. 

Sunday 28 Brak. at Mr. Reeses Dined at Mr. Meeks Arrived 
in Knoxville & Lodged at Mr. Stones. Mon. 29 Assembly met. 84 
Tues. 30 L. Council agreed to conference Representatives did the 
same. Memo. 219 P. below Little River in the county desired to 
be laid off amt of Taxes in same, 148 dollars 84 cents. 

July 1795. 

Wed. 1 July both ohuses met both Houses unanimous for change of 
Government except Tho. Tardiman of Davidson county Dined at Judge 
Campbles. Thur 2 Nothing extraordinary. Fry. 3 nothing extra. 

Sun. July 5 Nothing Extrao. Mon. 6 hott & Dry weather. Tues. 

7 ditto. Col. Tho. Blount arrives in Knoxville. Wed. 8 a bill for 
(?) of (?) Rejected in Council. Thur. 9 nothing E. Fry. 10 N. E. 
Sat. 13 Assembly adj sine die. 

Sunday 14 N. E. Mon. 15 N. E. Tues. 10 N. E. Won at whist 85 

M "Doak, Balch and Houston," all were prominent Presbyterian clergymen of the 
day, and all are yet represented by descendants in Tennessee. Rev. Houston was 
very prominent in the early politics of Tennessee, a profound political scholar. D. 

, "Rev. Houston" took an active part in organizing the last state of Franklin, 
was the author of a proposed constitution for the state, under the provisions of 
which it was said there were few persons but preachers who could have qualified as 
state or county officials. See Haywood and later histories of Tennessee. A. 

Rev. Hezekiah Balch founded Greeneville College in 1794, and was its first 
president; Tusculum College was begun as Tusculum Academy in 1818 by Samuel 
Doak. 

*This was an extra session of the territorial legislature which met June 29, 1795. 
Upon nomination of this body, President Washington commissioned John Sevier, 
Griffith Rutherford, James Winchester, Stockly Donelson and Parmenas Taylor as 
the Council. 

"'Tis gratifying to know that the noble game of whist had not yet given way for 
the vulgar game of poker. D. 






178 JOURNAL OP JOHN SEVIER 

from S. Milche (?) & Somerville (?) Dollars. Wed. 15 N. E. Won 
of Mitchell & Duncan 213 dollars. Thur. 16 N. E. Fry. 17 very 
Hott. Dined at Governs. Sat. 18 dined at Gov. Blounts. 

Sun. 19 set out for home from Knoxv. in company with Governor, 
Willie" & Tho. Blount, Mark & Sam Mitchell, dined at Jas. Kings 
Lodged at Brasiltons paid 4-6. pd. Mr. Stone his bill 7. 1. 6. 
Mon. 20 Dined & Fed at Mrs. Smith paid 7-6. Lodged at Colo. Roddies. 
Tues. 21 Brakfirsted at Greenville came home at sunset. Mr. Sherrill 
Raised his house" 7 this day. Wed. 22 went to Jos. Seviers house 
Raising in Company with Mrs. Sevier & Betsy. Thurs. 23 Small 
shower of rain Sowed some Cellery & Radishes. Mr. Sherrill dined 
here. Memo. Saml. Mitchell" is indebted 15 dollars being part of the 
money won from Mr. Crawford C. by 15 dols. sent pr. Brother Joseph. 
Fry. 24 rained. Sat 25 Set off to Col. Carters. Staid at Col. all 
night. 

Sund 26 Stayed at my Fathers; rained, Monday 27. Returned 
to Col. Carters, rained. Tues. 28 staid all night at Mr. Greer. 
rained. Wed. 29 Retd. to Col. Carter staid all night rained. Thur. 
30. Rained Came to Jonesbo with Colo. Carter.** Fry. 31 staid at 
Jonesbo in company with Colo. Carter. 

August 1795. 

Sat. 1st. came home in company with Walter King & George 
Gordon. 

Sun. 2 went to hear a sermon preached by Mr. Cobler at James 
Seviers. Mon. 3rd. Sent 150 land warrants" 640 acres each By 
Geo. Gordon to No. Carolina to Get Titles for the same, to be laid 
on Each Side of Cumberland near the mouth of Obias 71 River (sup- 

"Willie Blount, half brother of Gov. Win. Blount, was governor of Tennessee, 
1809-1815. His later home was in Montgomery County. Thomas Blount, brother 
of Gov. Wm. Blount, was an officer in the Revolutionary Army and was afterwards 
a member of Congress from the Edgecomb District (N. C.) until his death in i8ia. 
(Heiskell. p. 82.) 

"Gov. Sevier attends house-raisings on two successive days. House-raisings, corn- 
shuckings, and log-rollings were altruistic neighborly festive occasions. Closely re- 
lated were quiltings and "apple-butter bilin's." D. 

"Mark and Sam Mitchell lived at Brownsboro, a few miles below the Sevier 
farm. They were close kin to the Miss Mitchell who married the father of Rev. 
Samuel Doak and also kin to Hon. John Mitchell, the "Irish Patriot," a very eloquent 
Irish exile, who canvassed Tennessee as a democrat, 1856 to 1860, edited a demo- 
cratic paper at Knoxville, served in C. S. A., went back to Ireland and was elected 
to parliament, refused his seat, re-elected and died. A son was born in Richmond, 
Va., during the Civil war, whose son, Jno. Purroy Mitchell was Mayor of New York 
until 1918. In 1850 Sam and Gum Mitchell, bachelors, were living at Brownsboro, 
managing the farm and the mill. D. 

**Col. John Carter, famous in the! history of the Watauga settlement. He was 
chairman of the convention which drew up and signed the Watauga articles of gov- 
ernment, "the first written constitution adopted by the consent of a free and inde- 
pendent people of America." (Garrett and Goodpasture's History of Tennessee. 
He was the first colonel of the militia of Washington County. He lived about half 
a mile north of "Watauga Old Fields," now Elizabethton, in Carter County. Landon 
Carter was at this time (1795) entry taker for the- district. 

"This recital of land warrants recalls the celebrated controversy which was in- 
stigated by Sevier's enemies in 1802 when Governor Roane cast the deciding vote 
between Sevier and Andrew Jackson in favor of Jackson for the position of Major- 
General of Tennessee militia. It became the principal issue later in that year when 
Sevier ran successfully against Roane for the governorship. (See Garrett and Good- 
pasture's History, p. 143; also the case of Polk vs. Windle, 2 Tenn., 118, 433.) 

TI Obey River. It rises in Fentress County, flows northwestwardly through Fentress 
and Overton and empties into Cumberland River in the central part of Clay County. 
The 57,000 acres which were owned by Sevier and later owned and occupied by his 
widow and children, were probably a part of the lands described in the grants men- 
tioned. These grants were dated August 28, 1795. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 179 

plied 100 dols. to Walter King for use of the working Tues. 4 
Rained self & Mrs. Sevier Dined at Mrs. Sherrills. Bt. 60 Is. Bacon 
from Mr. Mathews. Wed 5. Bought of John Green 2 Cows & 10 
Geese at 20 dollars, he was indebted to me 11 doll. J. Fickee 7 & 
pd him 7 dollars. Willie Blount came here. Thurs. 6 Settled with 
Willie Blount for Major Scorers, notes given to David Allison in 
November 6, amounting to 6,594 dols. 78 Cents & 584 dolls. & 50 
Cents, the interest due thereon, which notes I have paid unto Mr. 
Willie Blount in Land Warrants to the amount of twenty Eight thou- 
sand Eight hundred acres at 250 dollars per thousand, which has 
Over paid the same 23 dollars. Maj. Willie Blount then set out for 
Jonesbo in the evening accompanied by myself as far as Mr. Slygars. 
Fry. 7 cloudy in morning. Yesterday I sent unto John Hunter 5 
dollars pr. J. Richmond, self Mrs. Sevier Catery & Ruthy Dined at 
Mr. Sherrills. Sat 8 rained in afternoon. Memo, on 6th. I put into 
the hands of Walter King a 300 acre & 640 acre warrant to be laid 
on lands in Sullivan Opposite the Iron Works on No. side holsen 
(Holston) also, a 200 acre & 640 acre warrants to be laid on vacant 
land adjoining the lands on Kendricks Creek. 

Sun. 9 rained. Monday 10 went to Greenes Court. Tues. 11 went 
to Mr. Bennetts staid at night. Wed. 12 rained. Thur. 13 ditto 
Fry. 14 rained. Sat 15 set out for home Dined at Mr. Aitkens. Came 
home in evening. 

Sun. 16 Staid at home. Mon 17 ditto. Began to pull blades 72 
Mr. Stygar came to my house. Tues. 18 went to Washington Court. 
Wed. 19 nothing Extra. Mr. Barlaben came to my house. Thur 20 
rained. Fry. 21 dry. See Mrs. A. B. at night. Sat. 22. played 
at ball 73 self & son John vs. Messrs. Aitken & Anderson beat them 
four Games. Paid Mr. Carson schoolmaster 12. 2 dollars, came home 
eveng. Memo, put in the hands of Geo. Gordon 640 Land Warrants 
to be his if he brings me a patent for 96 thousand acres of land from 
Secy, of No. Carolina. 

Sun. 23 nothing Extra. Mon. 24 began to pull blades in the New 
Ground. Tues. 25. Fair a cow died. Sent n. Corn to mill. Wed. 26 
a cow died at night. Uriah Sherrill came to P. Grove. Thur. 27 
rained. Fry. self, Washington, Bardelebin & p. Steiger went to W. 
Kings. Stayed there until Sunday Sunday & returned. Sat. 29th 
I See S. B. 

Sun. 30 came home R. Campble came here from Wains 74 Army. 
Mon. 31 Rained began to sew wheat. 

September 1795. 

Tues. 1 September. Bardelebin sit for South Carolina (rained). 
Wed. 2 Thurs. 3 Memo, paid unto Colo. Christians Estate to this 
date 112 D. 16 C, Fry. 4 self Mrs Sevier & &Betsy went to Jonesbo 
staid all night at Mr. Waddells. Sat. 5 Brak. at Maj. Seviers. Dined 
at Mr. Cashties (?) & Returned home in Comp. with R. Campble. 

Sun. 6 Rained. John Fickee Cr. by Jno. Greene 2 dollars. Some 
time ago. Memo. Geo. Gordon receited to Wai. King for 96000 acres 

T2 "Began to pull blades." This is August and that is a quaint way of saying 
they were "pulling- fodder" get green corn blades to dry for feed. D. 

78 "Played at ball." Sevier and son beat their antagonists four games. There 
were not enough for town-ball, not for baseball, evolved from town-ball, and not 
yet evolved. There were not enough for bullpen. The game was probably cat-ball. D. 

"General Anthony Wayne, who had routed the Indians in Ohio. 



180 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIBR 

of Land Warrants, which I furnished to W. K. which Gordon is to 
bring me titles for. Mon. 7 Rained Tues. 8 fair A. Readerson 
Drowned in Nolcuhooky River." Wed. 9 Ditto Sett off to Greene self 
& W. King staid all night at W. Gillaspies Thur. 10 arrived at Green- 
veill in the morng. began to take an Inventory of the Goods Fry. 11 
finished taking the Inventory of the Goods amount to 700 & odd 
pounds. Sat 12 we returned home & was caught in a heavy rain. 
John Richmond cash 3 dollars 18. 

Sun. 13 Fair. Mon. 14 went to Jonesbo to G. Muster. 7 * Staid there 
till Sunday. Tues. 15 court began being the 15th, nothing Extraordy. 
Wed. 16. Thur. 17. Fry. 18. Sat. 19. Sun. 20 nothing Extraordinary- 
Mon. 21 went to Jonesbo Frost at night. Tues. 22 Frost. Wed. 23 
Lodged at Bakers W Moth. Thur. 24 Fry. 25 Rained heavily in 
evening. Sat. 26 rained all day. caused great flood in New River 
& other places in Virginia. 

Sunday 27 came home in Comp. with Mr. Claiborne, Mr. King & 
wife went to Washington Colledge to the Exhibition J. Anderson 
Trimble" Sam Sevier 3 best speakers. Tues. 29 Mr. Claiborne set 
out for N. Fork Hasket came to work. Wed. 30 W. King & wife 
set out for Home. 

October 1795. 

Thurs. 1st nothing Extra. Fry. 2 went to Board Vendue Bought 
3 sheep 13 geese & 12 ducks. Sat 3 nothing Extra. 

Sun. 4 cloudy Memo, sent to Tho. Brown by Washington Sevier 

5 dollars some time ago. Memo, paid Mrs. Handly 2 dollars for 

6 geese pd. Al. Moore for 2 C. & 12 ducks & An. Beard, for 13 & 12 
ducks Mon. 5 Tues. 6 went to Jonesbo with R. Campble who set 
off to Virginia. Wed. 7 Thur. 8 Fry. 9. began to haul corn shut up 
the hogs got from Keele. Sat. 10 cloudy. 

Sun. llth clear. Mon. 12 ditto. Tues. 13 ditto. Wed. 14 clear. 

re This river, from where it ceases to be Toe River in North Carolina, down to 
Cocke County, Tennessee, with its succession of falls, rapids and dangerous fords, 
and with its rapid "freshets," probably has the record among American rivers for 
drownings of unwary travelers. D. 

One of the most dangerous of these fords was "Red Bank" in what is now 
Unicoi County (but Washington before Unicoi was established), even during my time 
and knowledge of it persons were drowned in that ford constantly. There is now 
a bridge near where the "Red Bank" was. A. 

"August ii, 1795. "Went to G. muster." Doubtless "grand muster" is meant. 
From 1850 td 1860 musters were called "big muster," or "battalion muster," and 
"pettit muster." As training for war they were, doubtless, useful in Sevier's day 
when they were for definite war ends in sight. Later they were merely holiday 
occasions, where "stud-horses" were shown, women showed their finery and men 
drank '"simmon beer" (persimmon), honey-locust beer, apple-brandy and whiskey and 
everybody ate ginger-bread. 

In 1862, perhaps the last muster was seen by a Confederate soldier who had been 
wounded at the battle of Shiloh. Bent on recruiting a company in his old county, 
dressed in full Confederate uniform, he was riding by McCalister's School House. 
Rising the long hill he saw in the woods that lined the road a federal flag flying and 
a big company drilling, his old college-mate, George Wilson, in command. The 
situation was perilous, although "bushwhacker" outrages had not yet begun. The 
Confederate soldier said, as cooly as he could, with cold chills running down his 
spine: "Good morning, George!" George replied: "How are you, Mel?" Nothing 
more was said and nothing was done. George was killed in the Federal service, 
reputed a gallant soldier. D. Col. Doak says, "Everybody ate ginger bread," and should 
have added, "and washed it down with apple cider." A. 

"The Trimble mentioned was probably an ancestor of Hon. John Trimble, an 
able lawyer of Nashville, who married a sister of Gov. Neil S. Brown. The Trimbles 
were kin to the Jordan* and Doaks of Washington County. D. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 181 

Thur. 15 went to Jonesbo (clear) Fry. 16 came home from Jonesbo. 
Sat. 17 hard frost at night. 

Sun. 18 Cool light Frost. Memo. Deberlabins horse & negro 
brought & left here. Mon. 19 pleasant. Mr. Messer the shoemaker 
brought forward his account up to this date amounting to 5.3 out 
of which had before received 5 dollars, & at this time 4 more dollars. 
Tues. 20 fair & pleasant. Wed. 21 raised the corn house. Thurs. 
22 Mr. Stengar set out for So. Carolina. 78 Fry. 23 rained. Sat. 24 
Hard Frost. 

Sun. 25 Fine day hard Frost that night. Mon. 26 Jno. Keele 
came to cover the corn house. Self Mrs. Sevier & Betsy went to 
Jonesbo. Washington bro. home 3 bushels of salt from Mrs. Matthews 79 
Tues. 27 staid in Jonesbo. Wed. 28 came home Thurs. 29 Genl. 
Kennedy Dined here. Fry. 30 John Fickee pr. stockings from Mr. 
Mays store 6-6. Memo. Settled with Joseph Hanna & there is due 
to him 3 dollars & I am yet to Receive from him 700 Joint shingles 
& some blocks 250 Feet pine planks 1 Inch thick 200 feet % Inch 
poplar Ditto. Sat. 31 clear & pleasant. 

November 1795. 

Sun. 1 Do. Mon. 2 Do. Tues. 3 Do. Wed. 4 Do. Thur. 5 Do. Fry. 6 
rained. Sat. 7. Do cloudy. 

Sund. 8th clear. Mon. 9 Ditto, John Richmond cash 6 Dollars. 
Tues. 10 Do. Went to Gollehen (?) Vendue Mrs. & Mr. Cowan came 
home with me staid all night & set out in the morning for the Secys 
office I furnished Mr. Gordon with Land Warrants to the amt. of 
40000 acres & lent him cash 10 Dollars. Alex. McKee to Cash lent 
3 Dollars John Fickee 4 yds Foistos (?) out of Harrisons store 
3-6 pyd. 5 yds. Rusha sheeting from Deadricks at 4-6 pr. yd. Wed. 
11 Digging potatoes began yesterday, cloudy. Thur. 12 reed, from 
Wm. Collier 2 Gallons honey at 5 pr. Gallon. 4 Gble Beeswax at 
1-3 pr. (?) pd. to him 3 Dollars 18. Fry. 13th warm & pleasant 
Sat. 14 self Rutha Mary Ann Saml Joanna & Betsy & negroes wt. to 
J. Sevier s husking of Corn. Rained at night. Mr. Claiborne came 
here. 

Sun. 15 rained at night. Mr. Ward staid all night. Mon. 16 court 
began at Jonesbo. Tues. 17th went to Court. Wed. 18 Staid at Court. 
Th. 19 ditto. Fry. 20 ditto. Won of Gerum 5 pr. Stockgs. Sat. 21 
came home in evening. 

Sun. 22 Find day. Mon. 23 Jos. Allen, the Mason came to work 
on kitchen chimney. Tues. 24 began to haul stones. Wed. 25 Lilbarns 
waggon came to. Thurs. 26 Lilbarns waggon worked. Fry. 27 Lil- 
barns went home. Self Mrs. Sevier Ruthy & Betsy went to Mr. 
Aitkins worked 2 days in all rained. Quilla Sherrill was here to 
brakft. Memo. Solomon Horket (?) cash 4 dols. his work amounts 

78 Mention of South Carolina here and in many places. In those early days and 
down to 1 86 1 relations, especially trade relations, were close between East Tennessee 
and South Carolina, intermarriages frequent. There were always many students from 
South Carolina at Washington College. Trade with Augusta and neighbor South 
Carolina marts was quite large. D. Especially Charleston. A. 

"Mention of Matthews. The reference is probably to a "Mathes" a very large 
family. Perhaps as many as a dozen Mathes heads of families owned farms within 
a few miles of Washington College, leading members of Old Salem church a very 
enterprising, energetic and progressive stock. D. 

They were elders in Old Salem churcll continuously for 120 years. A. 



182 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIEB 

to 210. Sat. 28 Returned from Mr. Aitkins Dr. Holts son Wm. 
fell off from horse Tho. Talbett his wife Mrs. Johnson & Polly Greer 
Lodged all night. Capt. James Ward in Meyon (?) county near 
to Washington town (2) Memo, to cure the Scratches, an equal 
Quantity of Wine, oil & Lime, made into a poletice & left on 24 
hours at a time. 

Road to Charleston. 

To Iron Mountain 20 miles 

Turky Cove 40 miles 

Lincoln Ch 50 miles 

York Ch 40 miles 

Winsbo 50 miles 

Col. Thompson 60 miles 

Ustane (?) Spring 35 miles 

Charleston 60 miles 



255 miles 

Memo. Kitt Bullard has in possession Rachel old Wench, Arthur 
Aggy children, Wm. Gest Lear, Wt. Reed Mary, John Bullard Violet, 
Austin in possesso. of Kitt Bullard for his sister Sally. (Hulday a 
girl dead) Widone Bullard has Ned. 

Sun. 29 pleasant Self Mrs. Sevier Mary An & Rutha accompanied 
Mr. Talbot &c as far as Mr. Holts. Mon. 30 pleasant day. 

December 1795. 

Tues. 1st of Decem. Very warm. Wed. 2 some cooler Thur. 3. fine 
day Fri. 4th paid to Allen Gillaspie for John Picker 10 dollars. 3. 
Sat 5 fair & pleasant. Richard Campble returned from Virginia. 

Sun. 6 cold & clear in the day at Stormy & began to rain towards 
day, sent Jim to Jonesbo for R. Camples negroes. Mon. 7 remarkable 
high winds with some rain. Josiah Allen began the kitchen Cellar. 
Tues. 8 more moderate. Wed. 9 Mr. Debardelabins family arrived, 
& took their Horse & negro boy away & Got 2 bushels of corn & 
half bushel of meal. Mrs. Davis wife of Nathanl. Davis died & is 
to be buried on the llth inst. Self & Mrs. Sevier (?) Dined at Mr. 
Sherrills. Thurs. 10 I went to Jas. Seviers to Hunt turkys. R. 
Campble Rutha & Washgn. went to Jonesbo. Fry. 11 cold morng & 
hard Frost. James Anderson came here in the evening & tarried at 
night. Sat. 13 windy Washington R. Campble & Js. Anderson went 
to Jonesbo & Returned in the evening & tarried all night. Rained in 
evening & all night. 

Sun. 13 cloudy in morng. Mon. 14 Some snow in morng. began 
to kill Hoggs. Tues. 15 cold, Killed Hoggs 16 in the 2 days. John 
Fickee to 1 pr. stockgs got in Harrisons store price 16. Finished 
walling & plastering the Cellar of the Kitchen. Wm. 200 Is. Flour of 
Wm. Clarke at 12 pr. ct. Wed. 16 James laid the kitchen flour 
Mrs. Sevier & R. Campble wt. to Jonesbo. Thurs. 17. I killed a large 
turkey cocke. cloudy. Fry. 18 went to the Election. Sat. 19 tarried 
at Jonesbo Let John Keele have 2 dollars. 

Sun. 20 came home Mon. 21 Pleasant weather. Mr. Collier sent 
5 Fine Fish by his son. Tues. 22. Ditto. Wed. 23 Windy. Thur. 24 



JOHN H. DBWITT 183 

very warm. R. Campble & Kitty Sevier 80 married by Mr. Doake. 
Maj. Sevier his lady Mrs. Waddle Mr. Harrill Mr. Gordon Mr. J. A. 
Anderson Mr. McKee & his lady Miss Peggy Mr. Sherrill Mr. & Mrs. 
Weir James Sevier & lady, Mrs. William Clarke Benj. Brown & wife 
Josiah Allen John Fickee at the wedding. Fry. 25 Christmas. Most 
of the gest staid Brakefirst & went home. High wind in the night. 
Sat. 26 very warm Mr. Sherrill came to Brak. I went to Mr. De- 
barbelebins & Dined. High winds in the night & Rained. Doctor 
Chester came in evening & Tarried all night & lanced a little negro 
girls imposthumes (?) called Sarah. Mr. R. Campble his wife & 
Mary Ann went to Mr. Doakes meeting. 

Sun. 27 Warm & pleasant. Mon. 28 cooler & frost that night 
Tues. 29 Myself Mrs. Sevier Betsy Mr. & Mrs. Campble set out for 
the Iron Works, arrived there that night & staid till fryday & came 
to Jonesbo & tarried all night. Next day came home. Rained in 
the evening. Wed. 30 rained. Thur. 31 Fair & Warm. 

January 1796. 

Fry. 1 day of Jany. 1796 a warm & pleasant day. Mrs. Thompson 
arrived at Jonesbo. Sat. 2 a fine day. 

Sun. 3 Rained, Josiah Allen set out for home paid him off for his 
work by giving him up his note of 6.19, that I got from J. Lacky 
Let him have 2 coats for which he is to wall in a Cellar in Feby. 
next. Paid Josiah Allen for John Richmond 7 dollars, for James 
Sevier at Mr. Mays store 3. 2. 9. also cash 4 dollars. John Rich- 
mond Dr. to cash paid Jos. Allen 7 dollars. John Fickee 1 blk. Handkf 
got at Mr. Deadrick 81 store. Mon. 4 warm, the violets in the garden 
bloomed. Tues. 5 very warm & pleasant in the night snowed. Wed. 6 
snowed all day. Thur. 7 clear & windy set out for knoxville. styd. 
at Greenville, pd. Expenses 6. Ferryed at Lick Creek (?) (?) 
to pay Gray 9d. Fed at Parks & owe him 1. Lodged at Wm. Mur- 
phys. Sat. 9 Dined at Mr. Reeses Lodged at Browns pd. for ex- 
penses 5. 

Sun. 10 Crossed Holeson at McBees Ferry pd. 1. Traveling in 
Co. with Jn. Anderson Colo. Roddey & Arc. Rowan 82 esq. Arrived in 
Knox. in the evening & put up at Stones. Mon. 11 The convention 
met, 83 & a heavy rain fell that day & night. Tues. 12 sent our horses 
to Cains. Wed. 13 Rained & the river very high. Thur. 14 Rained 
Fry. 15 the committee reported the bill of rights. Sat. 16 cold. 

"Marriage of Katharine Sevier (sixth daughter) to R. Campbell, the veteran of 
Wayne's Campaign, December 24, 1795. Her first husband was Archibald Rhea. 

81 The Deaderick family have long been prominent. James W. Deaderick, born 
at Jonesboro in 1812, was a justice of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, 1870-1886, 
and was chief justice, 1876-1886. His nephew, William V. Deaderick, 1836-1883, a 
noted lawyer, was one of the judges of the Court of Arbitration for East Tennessee. 
(Caldwell's Bench and Bar of Tennessee.) 

M Archibald Roane, born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1760; admitted to the 
bar at Jonesboro and Greeneville, 1788; judge of the Superior Court; governor of 
Tennessee, 1801-1802; circuit judge, 1811-1815; judge of the Supreme Court, 1815 
until his death in 1818. 

w The constitutional convention of 1796, which framed the first constitution of 
the State of Tennessee. Sevier was not a delegate, but he must have been generally 
looked upon as the coming governor. His son, John Sevier, Jr., was reading and 
engrossing clerk of the convention. The convention met on January ir, and ad- 
journed on February 6, 1796. It was composed largely of the ablest men in Ten- 
nessee. (See Caldwell's Constitutional History of Tennessee.) 

4 



1S4 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Sun. 17 ditto. Mon. 18 Rained heavily. Tues. 19. Rained. Wed. 
20 Very Thur. 21 Do. Fry. 22 Do. Sat. 23 Snowed in the night 

Sun. 24 very cold. Mon. 25 ditto. Tues. 26 clear & cold. Wed. 27 
cold. A ball at Mr. Dunlaps. 84 Thur. 28 cold & clear. Fry. 29 
ditto Sat. 30 ditto. Sun. 31 very warm & pleasant. 

February 1796. 

Mon. 1 Feby. 1796. Rained. Tues. 2. rained all night Lodged at 
Woods. Wed. 3. clear & cold. Th. 4 ditto. Fry. 5 some warmer. Sat. 
6 cloudy. Convention adjourned. 

Sun. 7 very warm rained in the night. Mon. 8 Cumberland mem- 
bers set out. I sent with them many letters to sundry persons. 
Tues. 9 warm & pleast. Rained in the night. Wed. 10 dined at 
Govs. Thur. 11 left Knoxville in Company with Colo. Carter & Wm. 
McGinn (?). Lodged at D. Halys. Fry. 12 we lodged at Maj. Pres 
(?). Sat. 13 at Colo. Cockes. 

Sun. 14 at Colo. Coils. Mon. 15 at Rogersville. Tues. 16 Lodged 
at Capt. Anies. Wed. 17 Lodged at Ar. Galbraths. Thur. 18 at 
Walter Kings S. B. deld. Fry. 19. ditto Lent John Christian 7-6. 
Sent to him pr. his wife. Sat. 20 Snowed, went to Abel Morgans. 

Sun 21 Lodged at night at J. Yancys. Mon. 22 came to Sullivans 
court, put up at Mr. Greghams. Tues. 23 Court. Wed. 24 ditto. 
Snowed 3 Inches Deep. Thur. 25 rained in the night. Fry. 26 cloudy, 
raid, yesterd. From Maj. Sevier 1 guinea & 4 Dollars. Sat. 27 came 
home from Sullivans swam our horses at Widow Ducanes (?) over the 
River holes on Sun. 28 Cold & Frosty. Mon. 29 ditto. 

March 1796. 

Tues. 1 day of March wt. to Jonesbo. Wed. 2 came home. Thur. 
3 staid at home. Fry. 4th cold & clear. Sat. 5 went to Mr. Sherrills. 

Sun. 6 Set out for Jefferson Election. Lodged that night in Green- 
ville. Mon. 7th lodged in Company with Capt. Js. Stinson & Alex 
Carmichael at Parks on Bent Creek, very cold. Tues. 8th lodged at 
Mr. Fitzgeralds. Cold. Wed. 9 lodged at A. Wilkins. Thurs. 10 went 
to Jefferson Election & from their wt. to Wilcoxes. Lodged there 
in Comp. with Capt. Cauzby. Fry. 11. wt. to Sevier Election. Lodged 
at J. Thomas. Brakfirsted at Do. Sat. 12 Set out for home lodged 
at John Naves (?) 

Sun. 13 Braket. at Capt. Fines. Dined at Greenville & Lodged 
there all night. Mon. 14 came home at night. Tues. 15 cold & Dry. 
Wed. 16 Ditto. Ja. Sevier Lodged at my house. Thur. 17 cold & 
Dry. Fry. 18 self & Mrs. Sevier with Betty wt. to Jonesbo. Sat. 19 
staid at Jonesbo. cold. 

Sun. 20 came home. cold. Mon. 21 cold. Tues. 22 Mr. & Mr. 
Casson, Mr. and Mrs. Weir & Miss Jinmy & Betsy, Mr. McKee & 
his Lady, Mr. Debardeliben, James Sevier his Lady, Mrs. Jack Sevier, 
Capt. Harrison, Mr. Evans, & Mr. Sherrill Dined here. Mr. Waddell, 
Capt. Harrison & Mr. Evans staid at night. Wed. 23 Capt. Harrison, 

*The first male child born in Knoxville, and the most prominent member of the 
Dunlap family, was General Richard G. Dunlap, who was a zealous friend of Andrew 
Jackson. He served at Mobile and Pensacola under Jackson, practiced law, was 
brigadier-general of militia in 1836, member of the legislature, and was a member 
of the cabinet of the Republic of Texas. (Caldwell's Bench and Bar, p. 101.) 



JOHN H. DEWITT 185 

Mr. Wddle & Mr. Evans took Brak. & set out for Jonesbo. Rained 
some in the evening. Thur. 24 Rained some in the evening. Thur. 
24 rained in the morng. Frost in the morng. Memo. Paid Mr. Doake 
for schooling Washington & Saml. a half Joe (?). Paid Mr. James 
Paine towards Rye had some time ago 1 Guinea. Memo. Paid Alex 
Nelson for Expenses at Rodgers pr. order for Rogers 34-9. Put 
into the Hands of Walter King a patent of 25060 acres on waters of 
Cumberland. Ditto into the Hands of Capt. M. Harrison for 10500 
on Sequatchie River, to see if any person will purchase the same. 
I pd. Jos. Young 15 bushls. Fry. 25 cold & Dry Frost at night. 
Sat. 26 cloudy. Colo. Carter & self set out for Knoxville Lodged in 
Greenville cool & Dry. 

Sun. 27th set our from Green & lodged that night at Painters 
Springs. 86 Mon. 28 Brak. at Haines, & arrived in Knoxville in the 
evening. Assembly met. Tues. 29 cool & Dry. Reed, message by 
committee that I was duly elected Governor of the State of Tennessee. 
Wed. 30 was attended by a committee to the House of Representatives 
Chamber & was there Qualified as Governor. 86 16 round of cannon 
was Discharged. Thurs. 31 Dry & cool, Dined at Gov. Blounts. 

April 1796. 

Fry. 1st day of April, cool. Sat. 2 ditto. 

Sun. 3 ditto. Mon. 4 ditto. Tues. 5 ditto. Wed. 6 ditto. Thur. 7 
the members of Assembly, the elks., the Judges, the Senator Mr. 
Blount, Col. Henly & a number of Gentlemen Dined with me at 
Mr. Stones. Fry. 8 warm & Dry. Sat. 9 ditto. 

Sun. 10 ditto. Mon. 11 Went to Mariesville in Compy with Colo. 
McKee. After granting Corns, to Judge McNairy" 7 & Blount. Lodged 
all night at Mr. Wallises. Tues. 12 Rained, went to P. Simmes, 
staid all night. Wed. 13 Returned to Knoxville. Thur. 14 rained 
heavily. Fry. 15 very warm. Sat. 16 accompanied by Gov. Blount 
as far as Cains on his way to Congress. McClung 88 McClellan & self 
Returned same evening. 

Sun. 17 Self Col. Ford, Maj. Johnson & Cak (?) went out to 
Loves 3 miles. Mon. 18 removed from Cap. Stones to the house of 
Col. Carter in Knoxville. Col. Carter set off home; I sent with him 
Wm. Willsons bond for 63 for to Collect. Tues. 19th cloudy. Wed. 
20 Dry & warm. Thur. 21 Ditto. Took tea at Mrs. McClungs in 

^"Painter's Spring." Panther Springs, a well known station then and later, 
between Greeneville and Knoxville. The panther is still called "painter" in the 
mountain regions. D. 

Panther Springs, not a railway station. Col. Doak has it confused with Blue 
Springs, now Mosheim, nine miles west of Greeneville. A. 

88 The old warrior, statesman and thorough business man makes far less noise 
recording his inauguration as governor than was made by the sixteen-round salute 
fired in his honor. The honor is recorded about as record is made of the sale of 
a hog. The inaugural ceremonies occupy less space than weather changes. D. 

"Judge John McNairy of Nashville, judge of the Superior Court for Mero District, 
1789; one of the territorial judges until 1796; member for Davidson County of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1796; judge of the United States District Court, 1797- 
1834. He was here commissioned as a judge with Archibald Roane and Willie Blount, 
as a judge of the Superior Court. 

^Mention of McClungs. An old Virginia family, ancestral to McClungs of later 
Cowan & McClung, afterwards Cowan & Dickinson, a great mercantile house, trading 
with almost the entire South and with New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. D. 
The McClung here mentioned was probably Charles McClung, who was president of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1796. 



186 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Co. with Col. Gest & lady & Colonel White. Fry. 22 Very warm & 
sultry. Sent in an address to the Assembly*. Sat 23 Assembly ad- 
journed. Doctor Cabel & Deleon arrived. 

Sun. 24 very sultry & cloudy. Mon. 25 Knpx. Court begun. Tues. 
26 Fine rain, and rained in night. Mrs. Smith was here Wed. 27 
very cloudy in the morng. Cool in the night river raised also. Thur 
28 very cool for the season. Fros. Fry. 29 light Frost. Sat. 30 some 
warmer. 

May 1796. 

Sun. 1 day of May some warmer. Mon 2d. Mr. Barrow brot news 
from Mrs. Sevier all well, cloudy & some rain. Judges Blount & 
Roane 88 Messrs. Dillen, Johnston, Terrill, Barrow, Maloy, Ross 88 & 
others set out for Nashville, 2 o'clock afternoon. Tues. 3 to Natl. 
Hays. Warm & Dry. Wed. 4th lent unto James Hankins 5 dollars, 
he being the workman who is building the school house in Knoxville. 
(lent in presence of Secretary Maclin) ^ Thurs. 5 fine shower. Fry. 
6 warmer Dined at D. Whites. Sat. 7 Left with Mr. McCrory. 
James Kings receipt for cask powder, wt. 101 Is. Gross, which powder 
he is to get out of the public magazine, & give me Cr. for at 4/ per Ib. 
Sat. set out for home, left with Secretary Maclin Morgans reports. 
Simms military guide, the public papers & 2 Coats & 1 Hatt & a 
looking-glass. Lodged at Mr. Hains. pd. 5/. heavy rain. 

Sun. 8th Fed at Mr. Cheeks Rode in company with Pegg Forest. 
Lodged at Greenville. Hard Frost Mon. 9 tarried in Greene. Dry & 
cold Tues. 10 ditto, dry & cool. Wed. 11 tarried in Greene. Thu. 12 
ditto. Fry. 13 came home in company with Mr. Claiborne. Sat. 14 
Fine rain. 

Sun. 15 Some light showers. Mon. 16 went to Jonesbo to Court. 
Tues. 17 staid at Jonesbo at Mr. Waddles. Wed. 18 ditto, rained. 
Thur. 19 ditto ditto. Fry. 20 came home Frost in morng. Mr. 
Norvel & Geo. King came home with me. 21 all of us went to Mr. 
Leaks meeting. Mr. Balch, his lady & daughter came home with us. 

Sun. 22 Went to meeting. Sacrament. Miss Balch & Mrs. 
Hammes came home with us. Mon. 23 self & Mrs. Sevier wt. to meet- 

"This address was brief and mainly salutatory. It is to be found on pp. 659 and 
660 of Ramsey's Annals. 

"Willie Blount, Archibald Roane and John McNairy were the judges of the 
Superior Court. McNairy lived at Nashville. He was appointed United States 
judge in 1797 and held that position until 1834. Blount resigned from the Superior 
Court in 1796. He was governor of Tennessee, 1809-1815. He became a resident 
of Montgomery County and died there in 1835. His name is especially illustrious 
for his great ability and efficiency as governor during the War of 1812 and the 
Creek War. 

"The early records of Davidson County show the names, Thomas Dillon; Isaac, 
John, David, Robert, Joseph, Peter, James, George, and Alexander Johnston; James, 
William. Daniel, and David Ross; William Terrill; Tohn, Sherrod, Micaiah. and 
Willie Barrow; and Thomas Mulloy, who shared with fcdward Douglas the honor of 
being the first lawyer at Nashville. Mulloy was one of the signers of the Cumber- 
land compact. He died about 1816. Willie Barrow was a son of Micajah Barrow 
and father of Washington Barrow, prominent in business and politics in the suc- 
ceeding generation. 

The route then traveled from Knoxville to Nashville was the old road which 
began at Leas Springs in Grainger County and ran through the present counties of 
Knox, Roane, Morgan, Fentress, Overton, Jackson, Smith, Trousdale, Sumner and 
Davidson. It was opened by militia in 1787. The Walton Road, which ran mainly 
through the tier of counties just southward, was opened about 1799. 

William Maclin, secretary of state of Tennessee, 1796-1807. Little is known of 
him. He seems to have removed finally to Davidson County and died there. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 187 

May 1796. 

ing. Tues. 24 a violent Hale & rained gust, did much damage to every- 
thing growing. Wed. 25 very cool for the season. Thur. 26 rained & 
cool. Memo, to send Doctor Holt some different articles to make 
bitters. Memo, paid to Mr. Saml. May for Saml. Sherrill in part pay 
of negro man named Will. Saml Sherrills own acct. with Mr. May 
29.10.7 to Mr. May for goods to Josiah Allen on Mr. Sherrills acct. 
47.10.0 Virginia money. Memo. pd. Mr. May for Charles Waddell 
pd. Mr. Doake on the 23 May 1796 6 dollars. Reed, from James Sevier 
20 May 1796 12i dolls. Memo. Let a Quaker near Rogers mill have 
a bushel of corn. 

Fry. 27 rained & cool went to Jonesbo. Self & Mrs. Sevier. let 
Mr. Balch have 18 bushels corn, reed. 9 dollars for the same. 81 Sat. 
28 came home from Jonesbo. 

Sun. 29 some more warm & pleasant. Mon. 30 rained lightly. 
Tues. 31 dry & some warmer, Brown & others dined here, 

June 1796. 

1st warm & dry Let Mr. Hunt (B. J.) have 2 bushels of corn. Thur. 
2 dry & hot let Miss Balch have half bushel corn. Fry. 3 rained in 
the morng. let Mrs. Kennedy (widow) have 1 bush. corn. Sat. 4 
rained. Memo. Jane Newman departed this life on 25th inst. at 
night buried 27th. Jacob Embree rendered an account against John 
Fickee for 

Lyquor Amt 0.13.6. 

John Richmond for Do 0. 6.0. 

Myself 1 qt. brandy 0. 1.3. 

To his mother Gallon Do . . .0. 5.0 



1. 5.9. V. M. 
4 Chairs 12.0 82 

Gave Jacob Embree an order to Walter King for 150 Is. Iron. 
Sat. 4th rained in evening. 

Sun. 5 Self, Mrs. Sevier, Mrs. Campble & betsy went to Mr. 
Doakes meeting rained. Mon. 6 dined with Mr. Sherrill rained. 
Michl. Woods & wife Lodged here all night. Mrs. Waddle also lodged 
all night here. Memo, of corn delivered to sundry persons. To Mr. 
Sec. K. pr. order from Mr. Doake 8 bushels. To Andrew Lilburns 
sundry times 12 bushels. To 2 men living at the Hotts (?) place 4 
bushels. To Moses Hocket 2 bushels of rye. To William Celry 5 
bushels. Mrs. Kenedy Corn 1 bushel. Mr. Hunt (B. Smith) 2 bush- 
els. Tue. 7 Dry & warm. Wed. 8 very warm. Thurs. 9 light shower 

June 1796. 

Fry. 10 A Gust in the evening. Mrs. Sevier & self dined at James 
Seviers myself wt. to W. Colliers & got cherys. Mr. John Waddle 
Junr. Lodged here all night Rained in the night. Sat. 11 rained in 
the morng. 

81 Corn fifty cents a bushel. In 1856 it was about forty cents a bushel. D. 

82 The account here given, in the proportion paid for chairs and for brandy and 
whiskey recalls Falstaff's itemized account as to which Prince Hal descants upon the 
intolerable "deal of sack" to the small bit of bread. D. 



188 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Sun. 12 Ditto. Mon. 13 Went to Jonesbo & returned horn. Tues. 
14 rained. Wed. 15 dry & hot. Thurs. 16 rained. Fry. 17 small 
shower. Sat. 18 Rained. 

Sun. 19 Dry & hot. Mon. 20 warm & dry began to p. corn. 2nd 
time. Tues. 21 rained Eliz. Handly Died. Wed. 22 rained. Eliz. 
Handly buried, began to reap wheat. Tues. 23 reaped wheat" & 
finished, rained. Memo. Wm. Colyer 2 bushels corn. Mr. Haislet 
Junr. reaped part of the day. Haislet Senr. a whole day paid by 
Richmond to Gen. Burget for 2 Gallons of whiskey 87. Wm. Collier 
2 bushels of corn. Mr. Hunt (B. S.) 2 Bushels. Thos. Hutson on 
lick Creek near James Mauhons Dr. to 2 Bushels corn. Fry. 24 very 
hot. Sat. 25 Doctor Cathcart of Philadelphie & Mr. McCollister, Brak. 
here, and then we all went to Jonesbo. Tarried all night & Sunday 
night. 

Sun. 26 tarried at Jonesbo. Mon. 27 paid John Hunter 14/.6. in 
full of his (B. Smiths) account vs. me. Came home in Company 
with D. White who tarried all night, W. King also. Tues. 28 Doctor 
White left here, hauled in our wheat, W. King returned home. Sold 
unto Doctor Cathcart Lead mines for 750 V. M. very warm Day. 
began to hoe corn in the lower field on the river. Wed. 29 Mrs. Geo. 
King came to my house Thur. 30 self Mrs. Sevier, & Betsy in Com- 
pany with Mrs. Sherrill & Mr. Geo. King set out for knoxville" 
arrived in Greenville that Evening Lodged all night at Mr. Purdues 
pd. Expenses 3 dollars. Memo, left with Mr. Richd Campble 7 Dollars 
to purchase plank & salt. Let Mr. Richd. Jones have one Bushl. corn. 
Richd. Jones son & 2 daughters of Joshua Green died on the 29th with 
the flux 

July 1796. 
Fry. 1 July lodged at parks, pd. Expenses 167. Gave him 2 Dollars. 

Sat. 2 Brak. at Col. Rodies Expenses 6/ rained Lodged all night 
Hains Exps. 28/. 

Sun. 3d crossed at Magbees Ferry pd. Expenses 47. left with a 
dollar Ball due me 2/. Arrived at Mr. Cains Lodged their all night 
Expenses 217 left 1/6 unpaid. Mon. 4 arrived in Knoxville 10 o'clock. 
An Elegant Ball at Mr. Stones, very warm & Dry. Tues. 5 warm & 
Dry. Wed. 6 Ditto, a ball at Mr. Stones, sent our horses to Mr. 
Cains. Thur. 7 warm & Dry. Fry. 8 Bt. of Crozier 6 pr. stocks. 
Silk & buttons. 207 cotton plain. Memo. pd. at Greenville as we 
came Down, to a Mr. Right, 9 Dollars for a muslin Habbitt bought 
by my Daughter Catery some time ago. Sat. 9 very Hott. 

Sun. 10 some rain at night. Mon. 11 cloudy & sultry. Tues. 12 
very fine rain, cool at night. Wed. 13th cool & pleasant. Thur. 14 
something more sultry. Fry. 15 Mrs. Sevier Mr. Sherrill & Mr. Geo. 
King set out for Washington. Mrs. Sevier took with her 10 Dollars 
for Expenses, &c. Sat. 16 very warm, & Dry. 

""Reaped Wheat." Grain was reaped with sickles, with finely tempered edge 
formed of very fine teeth. Later a reaping-hook was used, with a sharp knife-edge, 
much cheaper than the sickle. The cradle does not seem to have been yet used, at 
least for wheat. D. 

"The first governor had thus been at his Nolichucky home since April 7. This 
diary shows that he had not changed his residence to the farm near Knoxville, as 
averred by some biographers. This journey lasted four days. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 189 

Sun. 17 My son Washington 85 & Saml. arrived in evening. Mon. 
18 cloudy & some rain in the morning, went to a dance at Mrs. 
Blounts. Tues. 19 very hott. Wed. 20 Sent a dispatch to the Secy, 
at War by the post. Thur. 21 fine rain in the morng. A Genl. 
muster of the light horse in Hamilton District. S. Greer, G. Mr. Clai- 
borne & Mr. Miller arrived. Fry. 22 reed, a letter from Saml. May 
Sat. 23 cool. , 

Sun. 24 Self, Rutha, etsy, Washington, & Sammy wt. to meeting. 
Last night Mr. Miller had stolen from him 5 gall peas & Maj. Clai- 
borne 1 Dollar. Mon. 25. cool for the season. Maj. Nelson & Brak. 
with us at Mr. Stones Knox county court began today. Tues. 26 
Blount Election began for a representative in room of J. Hueston 
resigned. 

Wed. 27 nothing Extraordinary. Thur. 28 a Gust of rain in after- 
noon. Fry. 29 Mrs. Sevier & family arrived. Sat. 30th Mr. Hanly 
came in with Waggon we moved to Carters house Lent Mr. Claywell 
3 dollars, the Assembly met this day. 

Sun. 31 very warm. pd. unto Joshua Phipps 10 dollars in full 
of an old debt due William Crone. 

August 1796. 

Mon. 1 Settled with John Handly in full up to this date. & the 
Amt. of acct. Driving the waggon home included is 11 Dollars. Out 
of which he reed. 4 dollars & set out for home. Tues. 2 Election for 
Senators was held by the Assembly. Blount, & Cocke,* 5 elected. Wed. 
3 Reed, from Maj. Claiborne 4 dollars paid to Mr. Holt 2 Dols. 
Thurs. 4 Dry & &cool Fry. 5 ditto. Sat. 6 warm & clear. 

Sun. 7 ditto. Mon. 8 ditto. Tues. 9 Assembly broke up. Wed. 10 
rain. Thur. llth rained pd. Mr. Hope in full for work done &c. &c 
Fry. 12 rained. Col. Henly, Capt. Rouse & Capt. Cunzby dined here, 
pd. for 2 pails & a w. Tubb 9/6. Let Suza Haiston have 1 dollar reed, 
from her melons &c to the amt. of 4/. Sat. 13 rained. 

Sun. 14 clear. Mon. 15 Went to the Plant. & returned. Tuesday 

95 George Washington Sevier, the eldest child of the second marriage now about 
fifteen years old. He was Circuit Court clerk of Overton County; served for many 
years in the army and became a colonel in 1814. He married 1 Katherine Chambers 
and had eleven children, the second of whom married A. W. Putnam, the author 
of a history of Middle Tennessee. Col. Putnam, at his own expense, erected a 
monument to John Sevier in the City Cemetery at Nashville. (Heiskell, p. 203.) 

M August 2, 1796. William Blount and William Cocke elected as the first United 
States Senators from Tennessee. Blount was the handsome, courtly and popular 
territorial governor. He had been a member of the Federal Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1787. In July, 1797, he was epelled from the Senate for writing a letter 
to James Carey, an Indian interpreter, which, it was charged, was for the purpose 
of employing him "as an engine to alienate the affections and confidence of the 
Indians from the public officers of the United States residing among them." His 
hold upon the confidence of the people was unshaken. He was elected to the state 
senate and was made speaker. He died March i, 1800. 

William Cocke was a remarkable man. He 1 was born in Virginia in 1748 and 
died in Mississippi in 1828. He was a companion of Daniel Boone on one of his 
exploring expeditions into eastern Tennessee and western Kentucky; was employed 
by Richard Henderson to aid in establishing settlers in Transylvania; was in the 
Kings' Mountain campaign; was a leader in the State of Franklin; member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1796; served as United States Senator until 1805; was 
Sevier's most valued and trusted adviser; was elected circuit judge in 1809; moved 
to Mississippi in 1812; at the age of 65 volunteered for the War of 1812 and 
served with efficiency and gallantry; was a member of the legislature of Mississippi, 
lie was an effective orator. (Caldwell's Bench and Bar, p. 24; Life by Wm. God- 
rich, American Historical Magazine, Vol. III.) Andrew Jackson was the representa- 
tive in Congress from Tennessee at this time. , 



190 JOURNAL OF JOHN SBVIER 

16 Mr. Hlancocke reed 2 Dols. for which he is to furnish 6 bushls. of 
seed Oats on the plantation to sow in the spring. Wed. 17 a refresh- 
ing shower Washington Swaped off his mair for a bay horse Set- 
tled with the butcher due to him 3.12.8. Sent the money to him 
the next morng by Tobee. Thur. 18 very hott. Fry. 19 ditto. 
Chickasaw Indians came here. Sat. 20 Ditto. S 

Sun. 21 self Mrs. Sevier & betsy wt. to Mr. John Sherrills. rained 
in eveng. Mon. 22. Staid at Mr. Sherrills. Wm. Sherrill came to 
Knoxville. Tues. 23 came home, in compy with Mr. Sherrill & wife. 
Wed. 24 Mr. Sherrill and wife wt. home. Thurs. 25 Wm. Sherrill & 
P. Simms Dined here. Fry. 26 Morng Foggy. Memo. Chickasaw 
Indians came to Knoxville. Self, Washington & Sally Clarke sit out 
for Washington. Lodged all night at Mr. Hains. paid for expenses 
7/6. 

Sun. 28 Lodged at Colo. Conways. Mon. 29 lodged at Mr. Pur- 
dems. Tues. 30 rained very heavily. Wed. 31 came home, rained. 

September 1796. 

Thur. 1 Sepr. came to Jonesbo. Fry. 2 staid in Jonesbo rained. Sat. 
3 rained, staid in Jonesbo. 

Sun. 4 rained came to the plana. Mon. 5 returned to Jonesbo. 
Sent Washington to Greene. Tues. 5 Was taken ill in the morng. 
before Mrs. Mays store, Washington returned with 175 Dollars from 
G. Conway, on a warrant on the Treasury for part of my annual 
service lodged all night in Col. Robertsons house. Wed. 7 some better 
came to Mr. Waddells. Let Muhl. Harrison have 100 dollars to pay 
the waggoners for bringing goods from Richmond. Thurs. 8 Mr. 
Stuart went off to Knoxville Sent by him to Mrs. Sevier 10 dollars. 
Fry. 9 lent Wm. Cox 6 dollars (Dry & Cool) Sat. 10 paid John 
Doake' 7 6 Dollars for his father for schooling the boys Washington 
& Saml. 

Sun. 11 cloudy & light frost. Mon. 12 ditto light frost. Tues. 13 
Some warmer. Wed. 14 blistered by Doctor Chester. Thur. 15 took 
off the blisters, kept my bed. Fry. 16 Kept my bed & very sick. 
Sat. 17 ditto ditto. 

Sun. 18 Mrs. Sevier came to Jonesboro this day I walked a little 
about. Mon. 19 got some better. Tues. 20 Fair & cool, Supr. Court 
began. Wed. 21 ditto.. Thur. 22 cool. Fry. 23 ditto. Sat. 24 paid 
John Waddle 10 Dollars which he lent me sometime ago & lent him 
2 dollars beside. 

Sunday 25 Pleasant & warm. Mon. 26 ditto. Tues. 27 ditto, 
pd. Saml. Handly* 8 7 dollars in full of all his demands. Wed. 28 ditto. 
Mrs. Sevier came to P. Grove.** Thur. 29 I came to ditto, Major 
Claiborne appointed a Judge P. Tern. & Qualified. Francis Baker 

""John Doak," Rev. John Whitfield Doak, D.D., later president of Washington 
College and pastor of Old Salem Church, for a time pastor of a church in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., father of Rev. Archibauld Alexander Doak, D.D., last Doak president of 
Washington College. D. 

Probably Capt. Samuel Handly, who was captured by the Indians in a fight 
near Crab Orchard while marching with his company of forty-two men for the relief 
of the Cumberland! settlement. See account of his adventures and captivity in Ram- 
sey's Annals, pp. 57'-573- In his later years he lived at Winchester, Tenn., where 
he died. 

"P. Grove Plum Grove, the name of Sevier's farm and residence, on the Noli- 
chucky (or Nola Chuckee, as Col. Doak spells it). 



JOHN H. DEWITT 191 

whipped at Jonesbo. Fry. 30 Bealer whiped, Groped, Branded & 
pillored for H. Stealing. 

October 1796. 

Sat. Octo. 1st Self, Mrs. Sevier & Mrs. Campble set out for 
Knoxville lodged that night at Col. Conways. 100 

Sun. 2 Set out from C. Conways & lodged that night at Brach- 
haws, head of Dumplin. Mon. 3 arrived in Knoxville in evening/ all 
well/ Tues. 4 dispatched Commissioners to Cumberland Mero Dis- 
trict 101 for Field officers & for the Cavalry by Maj. Miles. Wed. 5 
rained in the morng. paid to Mr. Hancock 1 dollar. The Butcher 
brot in his acct. 3.16.6. pd. him out of it 2.11.0. Thur. cool Frost 
at night. Fry. 7 red. of James Greenaway 5 dollars in part pay of 
powder some time ago Frost at night. Sat. 8 Frost at night. Mrs. 
Blount & family sit out for Philadelphia. 

Sunday 9th clear & pleasant. Memo, purchased from Alex Cun- 
ningham 100 bushels of corn to be delivered on my plantation pd. 
him in Croziers store 10.0. Mon. 10 cool. Tues. 11 Superior Court 
for Hamilton District begins. Wed. 12 cool. Thur. 13 cool. Fry. 14 
rained. Sat. 15 clear & cool. 

Sun. 16 Cool & pleasant. Mon. 17 ditto. Tues. 18 ditto, pd. 
Alex. Cunningham 100 dollars. Wed. 19 cool Jesse Geffrys whiped 
for Horse stealing. (Branding & Pilloring pardoned). Memo, lent 
the butcher in Knoxville 30 dollars. Thur. 20 Dry & cool, paid unto 
Mrs. Hairston 3 dollars in full of all accompts. Fry. 21 dry & cool. 
Sat. 22 Self Mrs. Sevier & Betsy wt. to Mr. Simms Tarried there 
all night. (Dry weather). 

Sun. 23 Staid all night at Mr. Simms (D. W.) Mon. 24 came 
home (Dry weather) Tues. 25 let Mr. A. Crozier, have some time 
ago, a Draft on P. Garts in Baltimore Drewby Jos. Ennwer (?) for 
250 V. money. Wed. 26 (Dry) Bought of Geo. Gordon a black mare 
8 years old 16. price. Thurs. 27 Bought of Jas. Anderson a bay 
horse 70 dollars, price. 5 years old. gray star branded n. shoulder J ^ 
Fry. 28 dry & warm. Sat. 29 ditto. 

Sun. 30 ditto. Mon. 31 ditto. 

October 1796. 

Tues. 1 November 1796 hard rfost Wed. 2 dry & cool. Thur. 3 
ditto Fry. 4 ditto. Sat. 5 ditto. 

Sun. 6 Settled with Delancy the butcher & there is due to me 3 
dollars & one 8th, & so settled in his books & my acct. crossed out. 
Memo, paid for Alexr. Cunningham unto N. P. Perkins 10 dollars. 
& 25 Cts. to Thos. Hamilton 20 dollars. Mon. 7 Dry the waggon & 
carriage set off for Home from Knoxville, Rutha Joanna & polly 
came on to Mr. McCains myself Mrs. Sevier Mrs. Campble & betsy 
tarried at Capt. Stones (Hoggs put up). Tues. 8 we set from 
Knoxville lodged that night at Breiziltons, paid Expenses 15/. Wed. 

100 Was this the George Conway who was major-general of Tennessee militia and 
whose death in 1801 brought about the contest between Sevier and Jackson for the 
office, which was decided by Governor Roane's vote for Jackson? 

101 "Mero District." Part of Middle Tennessee was once so called, named for 
Mero, Spanish governor of Southwest territories, at New Orleans. Robertson had 
this compliment paid Mero as a diplomatic tribute, during negotiations concerning 
navigation of the Mississippi. The early settlers of Middle Tennessee were sadly 
hampered by Spanish trade and navigation relations. D. 



192 JOURNAL OK JOHN SEVIER 

9 Fed our horses at the painter Springs pd 9d. Tarried all night at 
Col. Boddys pd Exps. 2 dollars. Thurs. 10 Tarried at Greenvill pd. 
4 Dolls. Fry. 11 came home all well. Sat. 12 warm & pleasant. 

Sun. 13 ditto. Mon. 14 ditto went to Jonesbro. Tues. 15 rained 
in the morng. came home from Jonesbro. Wed. 16 pleasant Thur. 17 
ditto. Fryday 18 Settled with Jno. Richmond & there is due unto 
him 3.14.0. Sat. 19 Sowed Timothy seed rained all night. 

Sun. 20 Finished sowing Timothy seed rained. Mon. 21 very 
warm. Tues. 22 went to Jonesbo. rained in evening & in the night 
snowed. Wed. 23 cold. Thur. 24 Genl. muster & very cold, all the 
little brooks Frozen, & part of escloctucky"" (?) Fry. 25 Rutha 
takes very sick. Mrs. Sevier came home, continued very cold. Sat. 
26 very cold. Court adjourned. 

Sunday 27 very cold, snowed at night. Mond. 28 came home from 
Jonesbro. cold. Tues. 29 sent the waggon & horses to Jonesbro to 
sit out for Richmond (Some warmer, but still very cold) Wed. 30 
some warmer, rained in the night. Peter Turny came to P. Grove 
with Petitions Letters &c for a pardon for Jacob Turney staid all 
night. a pardon granted. 

December 1796. 

Thur. 1st of December cold & snowy day. John Fickee 1 dollar 
to pay the shoemaker. Fry. 2 Mrs. sevier came home rained. Sat. 
3 very cold. 

Sun. 4 Some more moderate. Mon. 5 pleasant Rutha came home 
from Jonesbo. Tues. 6 cold, & some snow. Wed. 7 very cold & flying 
snow. Thurs. 8 Snowed in the night. Fry. 9 very cold. Mr. Gillom 
came here. Sat. 10 some milder weather, pd. Isaac Embree 2 Dol- 
lars for plank. 

Sun. 11 Very cold. Mr. Gillom left here. Sun. 11 cold & clear 
Maj. Sevier, Mr. Sherrill, Wm. Sherrill & wife dined here. Mon. 12 
Settle with John Wei esquire for sundries unto this date & there is 
yet due unto him 3.13.8 Virga. Money., which he has from under 
my hand today on demand (Clear & cold) day but some more mod- 
erate than yesterday. Memo, to get Clarks Jud. vs. Denton from 
Major Sevier. Gave Clarke an order on Colo. Taylor (Columbia) for 
143 dollars & 9 Cents being the ball, of Redins Debt. Memo. 15, 
20, or 30 drops of the acid Elixir of Vitrol, 2 or 3 times a day. 
Good to expel wind & promote digestion. Memo, to Commissioners 
Joseph Demoson (?), & Fedance Lane Capts out of Lanes sla. compy. 
which is divided into 2, near unto Colo. Roddys, Jefferson county, 
this division was set on Foot first by, Outlane & Major Mcfarland. 
Memo. Take a single handfull of the white shoemake root bark, boil 
it in water till it is strong & little more than a spoonfull then take 
out the root & add a spoon of tarr & a spoonfull of honey & mix it 
well together, then put to it a pint of new milk & Drench the horse 
a sure curt for worms a sixth part, for a child or half as much 
for a grown person, or nearly as much as for a horse proved & a 
Certain cure, remark of Smith 3 vol. 15 page. 

Nations, like France, & England consist in great measure, of pro- 
prietors & cultivators, can be enriched by industry & enjoyment on 
the contrary like Holland & Hamburgh, are composed of merchants, 

1M This reference is clearly to Nola Chuckee. D. 



JOHN H. DEWITT 103 

artificers & manufacturers, can grow rich only through parsimony & 
privation as the interests of nations are so differently circumstanced, 
so is the common character of the people the former liberality frank- 
ness & good fellowship, mark their character, in the latter, narrow- 
ness, meanness, & a selfish disposition, averse to all social pleasure 
& enjoyment. 

Mon. 12 Genl. Smith Joseph Greer & Hugh Nelson came to P. 
Grove to get certificates of their being elected Electors of President 
& Vice-President of the United States.. 03 Tarried all night. Tuesday 
13 rained went in Co. with Genl. Smith to Jonesbro. Richard Camp- 
ble Hawkins Windle & Mr. McCory came to town in evening. Staid 
all night & came to my house next day. Wed. 14 I came home 
rained. Thur. 15 very pleasant day. Paid off John Richmond for 
his 2 years work 3.14.1. Fry. 16. rained killed 5 fatted Hoggs. 
Sat. 17 Fine & cold. 

Sun. 18. rained in the morng. Dined to-day at Mr. Sherrills in 
Company with H. Windle Mr. Campble & his wife. Mon. 19 wt. to 
Jonesboro (cold) Tues. 20 Walter King came here. Wed. 21 snowed 
& rained. Thur. 22 Extremely cold froze very hard the river across 
& all the small streams. Fry. 23 W. King set out, (very cold). Gave 
him an order on Jno. Waddle for the ball, of a 200 dollar warrant 
on the treasurer having reed, of Waddle 100 out of it, also an order 
on Mr. Montgomery for goods. Sat. 24. Very cold paid Allen 
Gallaspie 5 dollars for John Fickee as pr. receipt. 

Sun. 25 very cold Dined at Mr. Sherrills Mon. 26 V. cold. Dined 
at Mr. McKees. Tues. 27 Reuben Paine set in to be Overseer at 40 
pr. annum, pd. Ruble th B smith 1/9. in full of all dues for S. work 
pd. Richd. Campble 147. for a pr. shoes. Wed. 28 very cold Thur. 
29 ditto/ Fry. 30 ditto. Sat. 31 ditto. 

January 1797. 

Sun. 1 day January 1797 some m. moderate. Mon. 2 very cold. 
Tues. 3 ditto Flying snow. Wed. 4 a little rain & Freeze at night. 
Thur. 5 myself in co. with son Rector sit out for Knoxville Lodged 
in Greenville that night pd Expenses 9/. Reed, from Wm. Conway 
a Dappled Gray horse which he reed from J. Richardson at the price 
of 130 dollars in part pay of a debt Richardson was indebted to our 
store Keeped at Greenville. Memo, left with R. Campble an order I 
obtained from Charles Robertson of 70 Dollars on Acquilla Sherrill ; 
which R. C. is to collect & send me the money. Fry. 6 lodged at H. 
Conways very cold Sat. 7 snowed lodged at Wm. Conways. 

Sun. 8 Lodged at John Bradshaws very cold Mon. 9 clear & 
some more moderate Lodged at J. McCains pd Expenses 4/6. Tues. 
10 came to Knoxville rained very much in the night turned warm. 
Dined with Secy. Muclin. Wed. 11 Cloudy & windy the weather mod. 
Came to Capt. Stones last evening. Thur. 12 very warm & pleasant. 
Mr. Campble & his wife arrived & Mr. Arthur Crozier & his wife. 
Fry. 13 warm & pleasant a comp. of regulars arrived, pd. to Seth 
Johnson 5 dollars. Rained in the night. Richd. Campble reed, the 
70 dollars on my acct. from Acquilla Sherrill cash for myself 2 dol- 
lars. Sat. 14 cloudy & warm. 

103 These three electors cast the vote of the State for Jefferson for President and 
Burr for Vice-President. 



194 JOURNAL OF JOHN SEVIER 

Sun. 15 very warm. Mon. 16 ditto. Tues. 17 cloudy & rained in 
the night Wed. 18 cloudy & some rain in eveng. Sent to Richard 
Campble 15 dollars. Reed, from Secretary Pickering by way of Cum- 
berland 7 acts of Congress. Thurs. 19 Rained. Fry. 20 cloudy & 
rained in eveng. Sat. 21 cloudy. 

Sun. 22 clear & warm. Mon. 23 clear & cool. Tues. 24 clear & 
pleasant. Wed. 25 clear & pleasant. Thur. 26 ditto, pd. A. Char- 
michael 5 & a half dollars in full of his account. Fry. 27 ditto & 
pleasant. Sat. 28 warm & a violent storm Loud thunder Large 
hail & rained. High winds, & constant flash of Lightning the greater 
part of the night. 

Sun. 29 some cooler & fair 

Mon. 30 rained, court began paid Hickey the B. smith 3 dollars 
for a grubbing hoe. 

Tues. 31 cloudy & some rain. 

February 1797. 

Wed. 1 February 1797 wet day. dined with the officers & a num- 
ber of other gents at Mr. Campbles 

Thurs. 2nd cloudy & some cooler 

Fry. 3 rained 

Sat. 4 clear & warm 

un. 5 ditto 

Mon. 6 ditto 

Tues. 7 ditto 

Wed. cloudy & some rain 

Thur. 9 clear & warm 

Fry. 10 ditto 

Sat. 11 ditto 

Sun. 12 ditto 

Mon. 13 warm & rained heavily all night went to a ball at Capt. 
Stones being President Washingtons Birthday. 

Tues. 14 warm & pleasant, Danced in the evening again at Capt. 
Stones pd. Mr. Hancocke 5 dollars for 2 acres of ground Grubed 
by Hitchcock 

Wed. 15 clear & cold night 
Thur. 16 clear & pleasant 
Fry. 17 cloudy & rained 
Sat. 18 Cloudy & like for rain 

Sun. 19 dined at Mr. cains in Co. with W. Rector on his way to 
Virginia who took with 163 Virga money, rained all night. Rutha 
Sevier arrived. 

Mon. 20 rained in morng. 

'"February 13, Washington's birthday; doubtless old style. D. 



A DAVIDSON COUNTY POLITICAL CIRCULAR. 

1843. 
TO OUR WHIG BRETHREN OF DAVIDSON COUNTY: 

The names of the undersigned were selected to fill the blank in a 
resolution passed unanimously in the WHIG COUNTY CONVEN- 
TION, which met on the 18th ult., appointing a committee to prepare 
a suitable address to the Whigs of this county, and urge them to unite 
upon the nominees of said Convention. Previous to the nominations 
by the Convention, there were two or more Whig candidates in the 
field for each of the county offices. Had all of them continued to run 
until the election, the defeat of each one would most certainly have 
ensued, and success have crowned the efforts of our political oppon- 
ents. The Whig party would have been torn asunder by divisions, 
whilst our political adversaries would have repaired to the polls and 
voted for their most available men with their usual concert and una- 
nimity. Hence to secure the election of some one of the Whig candi- 
dates to each of these offices, we perceive the necessity and propriety 
of the Whig County Convention, which was composed of delegates 
chosen by the Whigs from all the districts in the county, whose duty 
it was to ascertain the Whig strength of each Whig candidate in 
their respective districts. The principles on which the Convention 
proceeded in making its nominations, were the fairest and most satis- 
factory that could be suggested. The names of the delegates were 
called by the Secretary in numerical order, commencing with those 
from District No. 1, whereupon one of the delegates gave in the vote 
of his particular district. The whole vote being noted down, a com- 
mittee was appointed to sum up the same, and those candidates 
receiving a plurality of the aggregate county vote, were proclaimed 
by the Convention as its nominees. The following candidates ob- 
tained the greatest number of votes of those aspiring to the same 
office, (to wit) : 

THOMAS T. SMILEY, for Circuit Court Clerk. 

CHURCHILL LANIER, for Sheriff. 

EGBERT A. RA WORTH, for Register. 

JOHN RAINS, for County Trustee. 

Although the mode adopted by the Convention in its nominations, 
was the most republican that could be mentioned, yet we did not 
expect it to meet the approbation of our political opponents, especially 
those that were candidates. We knew that they in their harangues 
to the people would denounce the whole affair as a mere caucus, or 
junto of men assembled together with assumed powers to obliterate 
the fair prospects of those candidates that were defeated in receiving 
the nominations. It is easy to perceive that the object they have in 
view, in making these assertions in the face of reason and truth is 
to secure their own elections by sowing broadcast the seeds of dissen- 
tion and disunion in the Whig ranks. 

Three Districts, (viz:) the 4th, 8th and 25th were not represented 
in the Convention. At each meeting previous to the 18th ult., they 
were earnestly requested by the convention, through the Whig papers 
of Nashville, to appoint delegates, and on the 4th ult. the Secretary 
was directed to correspond with some of the known Whigs in each 
of these Districts, urging upon them the propriety of having delegates 



196 DOCUMENT 

in attendance. Their omission to act upon this subject, after such 
repeated solicitations, we think implied an acquiescence on their part 
to support the nominees of the other districts. 

In this county we have a Whig majority of near 600 votes, never- 
theless all the county offices with a single exception are filled by those 
of the opposite party. Why is this the case? Simply because our 
opponents in the county elections have voted upon party considera- 
tions alone, whilst the Whigs in casting their votes, have been in- 
fluenced by friendship, courtesy, and things of a like nature. It is 
now high time this game which has been so successfully played, should 
be stopped and the rights which a majority in numbers give, be 
maintained. If the products of our soil are prohibited from entering 
the ports of Foreign Nations, by an imposition of onerous duties, we 
believe in reciprocal acts prohibiting the fabrics of their manufac- 
ture from entering our ports. Upon the same principle, if the 
Democrats oppose the election of Whigs to county offices, merely be- 
cause they are Whigs, we think it our duty to oppose the election of 
Democrats, especially when we have in the field Whig candidates 
who are clever, and in every way capable of filling the offices to 
which they aspire. 

In the next Presidential election, we may expect a hot and fierce 
contest, and our opponents to put into action every influence within 
their reach. If such be the case, and these county officers who are 
in daily intercourse with the people contribute anything to the politi- 
cal complexion of this county, we believe it the duty of every true 
Whig to vote for the candidate of his own party, so that this influence 
may not be brought to bear against a cause, on the success of which 
depends in a great measure the happiness and welfare of the Ameri- 
can people. 

In performing the duty allotted to this committee, we take great 
pleasure in saying, that the Whigs in different portions of the county 
have manifested a disposition to support in good faith and harmony 
the nominees of the Convention. To our Whig brethren we say, be 
firm be united, and a glorious result will attend our efforts. 

S. V. D. STOUT, Chairman; 

THO. S. KING, 

M. C. GOODLETT, 

M. M. MONOHAN, 

JNO. HUGH SMITH, 

E. P. CONNELL, 

Committee. 
Nashville, Dec. 5, 1843. 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 



The Rhodes Family in America, Vols. 1 and 2, is a very pains- 
taking genealogical study that is put forth by Nelson Osgood Rhoades 
of Los Angeles, Calif. Most detailed and interesting matter is here 
collected of worthy representatives of this family in Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New York, etc. The 
writer seems to be engaged in a labor of love and is sparing no time 
or means to bring his work to a worthy finish. Other volumes will 
follow. 

Early History of Huntsville, Alabama, was published in 1916 by 
Edward Chambers Betts, Esq., and presents a most readable volume 
of local history. From the first days of settlement in what was then 
the "Mississippi Territory," Madison County, of which Huntsville is 
the county seat, was the most important. It seems that the place 
was first known as "Twickenham," but later took permanently the 
name of one of the first settlers who tarried near its noted great 
spring. The South furnishes no more interesting place for original 
study of economic and historical situations than this old cultured 
center of north Alabama. 

The Star of Empire is another most valuable monograph that 
comes from the versatile pen of Dr. Archibald Henderson of the 
University of North Carolina. Again it is "Phases of the Westwood 
Movement in the Old Southwest 1 ' that is under consideration, the 
field where Dr. Henderson has already distinguished himself in con- 
tributions made. The basis of this special monograph is a series of 
articles originally contributed to the Charlotte (N. C.) Observer, 
but the issuing of the matter in this permanent form carries with 
it the resultant of much further research and pertinent criticisms. 
The story largely centers about the career of the two great men, 
Isaac Shelby and Richard Henderson, one a surveyor, hero of many 
battles and first Governor of Kentucky, the other an eminent jurist, 
pioneer and president of the Colony of Transylvania. It must be 
admitted that the contributions of Dr. Henderson in this special field 
have reopened many historical situations that for a hundred years 
have been practically settled, and new valuations must be given in 
this day of larger perspective and access to original sources. 

ITEMS FROM THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

The Society holds no meeting during the summer months. The 
first meeting of the fall was held at the rooms of the Society in the 
Watkins Building, October 14, 1919. Among the donations recorded 
were: 

History 1 of the Chicasaw Indians, by the author, Hon. James H. 
Malone, of Memphis, Tenn. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History, by the author, 
Hon. Samuel G. Heiskell, Knoxville, Term. In a personal note to 
the Society from Mr. Heiskell accompanying the volume he says: 

"The preparation of my work was greatly aided by the Tennessee 
Historical Society and the archives in your custody. . . . Your 



society is doing the best work that was ever done for the neglected 
history of Tennessee, and every lover of the State hopes that its 
activities may receive that appreciation which it deserves from all.'' 

Industiral Resources of the South and Southwest, by Dr. DeBow, 
published many years ago, together with "The Law of Slavery" by 
the same author, were presented to the Society from the private 
library of Mr. Robert Dyas. 

The Battle of Shiloh, an official document published by the United 
States Government, Washington, D. C. 

The Northwest Company, by Gordon Charles Davidson. 

A Catalogue of Materials in the Archives de Indies, by Charles 
A. Chapman. 

A proper minutes recording the passing away of the Hon. George 
C. Porter, former Treasurer and Custodian of the Society, was made 
and appropriate remarks offered by members present. See article in 
this number of the Magazine. 



THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



FOUNDED 1849 

1875 



OFFICERS 



President, 
JOHN H. DEWITT. 

Vice-Presidents, 

E. T. SANFORD, 

PARK MARSHALL 

J. P. YOUNG. 
MRS. B. D. BELL 

Recording Secretary and Treasurer, 
J. TYREE FAIN. 

Assistant Recording Secretary, 
HALLUM W. GOODLOE , 

Corresponding Secretary, 
W. A. PRO VINE 



FORM OF LEGACY 



"/ give and bequeath to The Tennessee Historical Society 
the sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS 



Page 

TENNESSEE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCESTRY 201 

Blanche Bentley. 

"THE CONQUEST OF THE OLD SOUTHWEST" 212 

Sam'l C. Williams. 

SOME EARLY ARCHEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TENNESSEE 216 

W. A. Provine. 

WHY THE FIRST SETTLERS OF TENNESSEE WERE FROM VIRGINIA. . 229 
A. V. Goodpasture. 

JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (Continued) 232 

John H. DeWitt. 

HISTORICAL NEWS AND NOTES 267 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 268 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 



JOHN H. DEWITT, Business Manager, 
Stahlman Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

DR. WILLIAM A. PROVINE, Editor, 
Presbyterian Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

J. TYREE FAIN, Treasurer, 
Watkins Hall, Nashville, Tenn. 



; 




V*" 



A NORTH IRELAND PLANTATION-HOUSE WITH BAWN BUILT BY JAMES 

SHAW IN 1626. 

(See page 203.) 



5.6' 

TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. 5 JANUARY, 1920 N . 4 

TENNESSEE SCOTCH IRISH ANCESTRY 

[We are pleased to present to our readers the accompanying con- 
tribution from the accomplished pen of Mrs. Blanche Bentley, of 
McMinnville, Tennessee. For some years she has devoted her spare 
moments to cultural and historical pursuits, as well as to leadership 
in many worthy local objects, to the social betterment of her resi- 
dence town. Her historical studies embrace local history of the 
South, with special emphasis on Tennessee and its county of Warren, 
together with wide research in genealogical matters. A residence 
for quite a period in Washington City furnished opportunity for 
study in the Library of Congress, libraries of Baltimore and other 
valuable eastern collections. The article that follows was planned 
as an introductory chapter to a larger work on the History of War- 
ren County, and the reader will be amply persuaded that such a 
worthy enterprise is in most fitting hands as to painstaking ac- 
curacy and discriminating historical judgment. EDITOR.] 

In the years intervening between the first settlement upon 
the soil of Tennessee and the first settlement in Warren 
County, two most important events had occurred in the his- 
tory of our country : a war for independence had been fought 
and won, and a permanent peace and security for the white 
race had been wrested from the Indian after a struggle of 
nearly two hundred years. The region lying immediately west 
gof the Appalachian Mountains, extending from the Scioto 
and Miami rivers to the Tennessee, had long been set apart by 
the great tribes as a hunting ground, the "theatre of bloody 
conflicts between the savage warriors." Much the greater part 
of this territory was afterward included within the states of 
Kentucky and Tennessee, and became the scene of the last 
desperate stand made by the Indians to hold their old pos- 
sessions. Tennessee received the baptism of fire at her very 
birth, and fully won her right to become a great state amid 
scenes of lofty courage and heroic daring. 

"Tennesseans, as the breed runs in 1806, can go anywhere 
and do anything," wrote Aaron Burr. A people who "can go 
anywhere and do anything" are not the result of chance; 
they are in truth the product of influences, experiences and 



202 TENNESSEE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCESTRY 

traditions extending through many generations. To find the 
forces at work which produced the Teimessean, one must go 
back to a time before the word "Tenasee'* was known to any 
save the Indians living along that river's banks, and to events 
occurring in years, long gone by, in lands beyond the seas. 

FIRST IMMIGRANTS. 

The first immigration to the territory afterward known as 
Tennessee came chiefly from Virginia and North Carolina, and 
was drawn almost entirely from the English and Scotch-Irish 
nationalities, the Scotch-Irish composing, it has been esti- 
mated, one-half the early population. "Scotch-Irish" is a term 
belonging to the usage of America, and coined by those who 
bore it to distinguish between the native Irish and the Scotch 
who, though living in the Irish province of Ulster for more 
than a century, remained a separate people. From Ulster 
came the second tide of immigration to Virginia This im- 
migration, entering the colony from the northeast, flowed down 
the valley lying between the Alleghanies and the Blue Ridge, 
and passed outward, through the great southwestern gateway 
opening through the Cumberlands, in to the vast land beyond. 

ULSTER. 

The province of Ulster lies in the extreme northeastern 
corner of Ireland, and is washed by the waters of the North 
Channel. Ulster is a country of dense woods and ferny glens ; 
of old plantation-houses with towered gates and walls; of 
plain, bare churches of the Covenanters, surrounded by moss- 
grown stones bearing the arms and histories of those lying 
beneath them; of Irish ruins, wild legends and heroic memo- 
ries. A place, too, of interest to many men and women of 
the South as the cradle of their lives. The cradle, not the 
birthplace, for that must be sought in Scotland, which lies so 
near across the narrow channel that the lowlands of Ayr can 
be seen, white in winter and blue in summer. 

Rebellion in the Province of Ulster gave unceasing trouble 
to the last Tudor monarchs. The gallant, hopeless struggle 
culminated in the reign of Elizabeth in a series of fierce up- 
risings, with the result that immense estates belonging to the 
Irish nobles reverted to the English Crown. A plan attempted 
by Elizabeth for colonizing Protestants upon the conquered 
lands had no permanent result, and is chiefly known to us as 
the occasion of Edmund Spencer's residence in Ireland. 

James Stuart, as the descendant of one of their own Mi- 
lesian kings, and believed by them to be, though a professed 



BLANCHE BENTLEY 203 

Protestant, at heart a Catholic, was the first king of Great 
Britain acknowledged by the Irish as their lawful sovereign. 
In response to this feeling, James, upon his accession, wiped 
out all old scores by publishing his ''Act of Oblivion and In- 
demnity," and for the first time gave Ireland the protection 
and benefit of English law. But the extension of this very 
privilege became the source of new misunderstandings, and 
about the year 1610 another great revolt broke out in Ulster, 
the old battle ground. The earls implicated fled beyond seas, 
and their estates, embracing some six counties, were declared 
forfeited to the Crown. 

SCOTS SETTLE IN ULSTER. 

The escheated Irish lands were opened to Scotch and Eng- 
lish colonists, ' under the terms of the following plan drawn 
up by King James, with the aid of his legal adviser, Francis 
Bacon : 

The attainted land was to be divided into tracts of two thousand, 
fifteen hundred and one thousand acres, each, only Scotch and Eng- 
lish being eligible for the larger grants. The grantee of a two- 
thousand-acre tract was required, within four years from the date 
of his entry into possession, to build a stone castle, or plantation 
house, with surrounding bawn; he who received a grant of fifteen 
hundred acres must, within two years after entry upon his land, 
build either a stone or brick house and bawn. Armed, able-bodied 
Scotch or English tenants, twenty-four to each thousand acres, must 
be maintained perpetually, to build up and protect the estate. Bond 
was required and an annual report by the grantee; and every fourth 
year deputies of the Crown made rounds of inspection. 1 

For the grants of a thousand acres, the Irish, upon fulfill- 
ing certain conditions, were made eligible as well as English 
and Scotch. 

The "bawns" were strong stone walls with towered gates 
and angles, surrounding the dwelling-houses and enclosing 
sufficient space to receive tenants and cattle in times of stress. 
That such times would come soon and often, James well 
knew, and he wished to have in Ulster the aid of a people, 
living within the law, yet tenacious and warlike as the Irish 
themselves. Having given the colonists a legal right to pos- 
session of the attainted lands, James left them in many a fierce 
encounter to defend that right at the point of the sword. 

To the "Corporation of the City of London" was assigned 
the County of Coleraine, upon condition that the corporation 
would build the fortified cities of Coleraine and Londonderry; 
and county Coleraine became county Londonderry. , 

1 Foote's Sketches of North Carolina." 



204 TENNESSEE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCESTRY 

The counties of Down and Antrim, most fertile and beau- 
tiful of all the Ulster counties, were so near Scotland that, 
even in those days of steamless vessels, Ayrshire, Argyle and 
Wigtown could be reached within five hours. Many Scotch- 
men came to Down and Antrim in response to the land offer 
of James. The very terms of this offer excluded all but men 
of fortune and influence, and the records show that most of 
those who came were younger sons or connections of noble 
families many of them driven from Scotland by the religious 
disorders of the time. 

Sir Arthur Chichester, the English deputy of King James 
in Ulster, in his first report to the Crown, says: 

The Scotchmen are come with better port, are better attended 
and accompanied, than even the English themselves. From the best 
parts of Lowland Scotland have come these picked men to Ulster to 
become Britain's colonists. But these proud and haughty strangers, 
with their high heads and new ways, are held as aliens and harried 
by the Irish. The scorn of the Scot is met by the curse of the Celt. 

Another authority, writing at a late date, says of the 
Scotch colonists: 

In Lowlander and Ulster-man is the same racial pride, the same 
hauteur and self-assertion, self-reliance and firm will. 

PARISH OF RALOO. 

One small community of these colonists is of especial in- 
terest to us, as the ancestors of many families who came, with- 
in the next hundred years, to the southern Valley of Virginia, 
and at a later time to Tennessee and other states of the South 
and West. Near Larne, on the eastern coast of Antrim, is 
the parish of Raloo, and belonging to Raloo Parish are the 
town-lands of Glenoe, Ballycarry, Ballyvallagh, Bellahill and 
others; north of Larne is Ballygally bay and the town of 
Cairncastle all localities in such proximity that they might 
be included within one old country "neighborhood." From 
the vicinity of Larne and Cairncastle came many of those 
families which emigrated to the' Valley of Virginia. 

From parish registers and county records, deeds and fam- 
ily papers, the place is known where many of these families 
made their homes, the graveyards where they are buried and 
the churches in which they worshipped. 2 From the town of 
Cairncastle came the Doaks. Shaws and Wilsons: from the 

'Facts relating to Raloo Parish and Irish pictures contributed by M. Semple, 
Mount Hill, Larne, Ireland, historian and genealogist. 

[NOTE. A great deal of local Irish-Scotch history concerning this immediate 
neighborhood in Ireland is furnished by the valuable collection of genealogical data 
in the volume, the "I.YLE FAMILY,'* by Oscar K. Lyle, New York. 1912. One 
of the main authorities cited here is the same Miss Mary Semple, whose picture 
also is given on page 325. This volume also styles the parish mentioned as that 



BLANCHE BENTLEY 205 

parishes nearer Larne caine the Alexanders, Agnews, Adairs, 
Breckenridges, Brices, Blairs, Buchanans, Blacks, Campbells, 
Colvilles, Craigs, Crawfords, Donalds, Edmondstones, Hav- 
rous, Hays, Houstons, Grahams, Kennedys, Keys, Gordons, 
Lyles, Pattons, Prestons, Thompsons, Todds, and many others. 
Edward Brice, one of the first seven ministers sent by the 
Church of Scotland into Ulster, preached at Ballycarry church. 
At Bellahill, near Ballycarry, was the home of the Jacksons, 
where the house still stands that was the birthplace of An- 
drew Jackson's father. At Gramoney, south of Larne and 
nearer Carrickfergus, lived the Donelsons. In 1730. Isaac 
Donelson, the ancestor of Rachel Jackson, "of a venerable age 
but still a leading man in the parish," signed a call to the 
Reverend Mr. John Thomson to the Gramoney church. 

The McDowells, Irvins, Knoxes and Wylies were living at 
Glenoe previous to the colonization of Ulster by the Scotch. 
The mill built by them in 1584, near Glenoe, still grinds the 
oatmeal of the families living near it; and in one of Glenoe's 
shady, winding streets stands the house in which Ephraim 
McDowell, the pioneer of the Virginia Valley, was born. In 
an adjoining street of the same little village is the home of 
the Irvins, who accompanied him to America, and standing 
by the doorway of the house is a great yew tree, planted by 
one of the Irvins family three hundred years ago. 

In Cairncastle was a parish church of the Covenanters; 
and not far from the place stands one of their "meeting- 
houses," with an old sun dial over the entrance, "still telling 
the hours, although unmindful of the passing years." At 
Ballycarry, in the church where Edward Brice first preached, 
is the stone which tells that 

of Larne and Inver, consisting of four townlands (something similar to our term 
"township"), viz: Browndodd, Ballyvallagh, Ballpsnoddy, 

THE LYLE HOMESTEAD. 

Some two and a half miles southwest of Larne, in the townland of Browndodd, 
on the road that leads from Larne to Raloo, there branches off a lane to the right 
on the north side which, after a short distance, leads to the ancestral dwelling place 
of the large family of Lyles. This ancient homestead is now over three hundred 
years old and still stands in good repair and continues to give shelter to descend- 
ants of this Lyle family, being occupied in 1911 by John Snoddy. The building 
is a very substantial one of stone, two stories high and plastered on the outside. 

In its earliest days it was covered with thatch but as far back as 1750 this 
gave place to slate. At o'ne end of the building! and forming an integral part of 
it, is the barn or stable, for in the ancient day of robbers and marauding it was 
as necessary to have the stock near for protection as it was the members of the 
household. On the grouna floor there is a hall dividing the house; on one side of 
it are two rooms used for kitchen and storeroom, on the other side is a parlor and 
sitting-room. Upstairs are four bed rooms. In early days the window panes were 
set in lead frames. These, however, have long since been removed. In front is 
a yard devoted to flowers, also ornamented with a sun dial. About one-fourth of 
a mile east of the Lyle homestead is the townland of Ballyvallagh, where lived the 
Blairs, Houstons and others, who subsequently settled with the Lyles at Timber 
ridge, in the Valley of Virginia. The Houston homestead was on high ground over- 
looking the sea, from which, on clear days, there is a beautiful view or the North 
Channel of Scotland. EDITOR.] 



206 TBNNE8SKE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCESTRY 

Nearc This lyeth the Body of that Faithful and Eminent Servant 
of God, Mr. Edward Brice, who Begun preaching the Gospel in this 
Parish 1613: Continuing with quiet success while 1630 in wh: he 
Dyed aged 67. 

The old silver baptismal bowl of that period still survives ; 
upon it are engraved the Edmondstone arms, together with the 
inscription : 

The gift of Archibald Edmondstone, Senior, to the Presbyterian 
congregation of Ballycarry. 

In the same church is preserved a silver communion cup, 
bearing the Brice arms and the inscription : 

The gift of Captain Edward Brice. 

The bare, homely little "meetinghouse" in Cairncastle, and 
others like it, were undoubtedly the models for many similar 
structures by riverside and under spreading boughs in the 
new country. 

During the four generations in which the Scotch, who came 
in the first great migration to American, remained in Ireland, 
the two races, if both Scotch and Irish writers may be credited, 
remained wholly separate and distinct. 8 And yet, while the 
racial purity was remarkably preserved, and intermarriages 
or change of faith by Catholic or Protestant extremely rare, 
the unconscious influence of each upon the other must have 
been incalculable. Climatic differences, a changed environ- 
ment and! alien culture, all reacted in a thousand ways upon 
the Scotch temper, relaxing, quickening, liberalizing. The 
Ulsterman who settled in America differed essentially from 
the Scotchman who had colonized Ulster a hundred years bo- 
fore. He was different, too, from the colonist who came di- 
rectly from Scotland ; and to this difference may perhaps be 
traced the contrast in the spirit of their worship in after 
years: "The Scotch-Irish, in ringing, joyful voices, sang the 
melodious hymns of Watt, while the Scotchman continued 
sternly to chant the Psalms of David." Students of the causes 
leading to the separation of Presbyterians into "new school" 
and "old school," with the final organization of a separate 
church, have attributed the movement largely to the Scotch- 
Irish influence. 

MCDOWELL, LEWIS AND PATTON FAMILIES. 

In 1729 Ephraim McDowell, accompanied by his family 
and two of his brothers-in-law, the Irvins, left the town of 

Numerous works, both Scotch and Irish, relating to this period in the history 
of Ulster, consulted in the Congressional Library, Washington. See also Cooke's 
"History of Virginia." 



BLANCHE BENTLEY 207 

Gleuoe and sailed in the "George and Anne" for Philadelphia. 
He soon joined his kinsman, John Lewis, in the Virginia Val- 
ley, and settled with him in Borden's Grant. This grant, then 
just opened to settlement, comprised a tract of more than 
ninety thousand acres, lying in that part of the Valley which 
afterwards became the counties of Augusta and Rockbridge. 
It was as fair a land as mountains, rivers and dense forests 
could make it. Influenced no doubt by Lewis and McDowell, 
many of those who sailed from Larne came to make their 
homes in Borden's Grant. James Patton, of the same Irish 
parish, was agent for a line of ships sailing from Larne and 
Belfast, and in his numerous voyages across the Atlantic car- 
ried many of his friends and connections to the same locality 
in the Virginia Valley. Already in 1740, the names cited as 
belonging to Raloo parish and its neighborhood had, with few- 
exceptions, been transferred to the record books of Augusta. 
"Virginia Militia before the Revolution" shows scarcely a 
break in the roll call. 4 

INDIAN BORDER WARFARE. 

At the time of the Scotch-Irish entry upon the stage of 
Virginia history, the Indian tribes, though long since driven 
across the Blue Hidge out of east Virginia, were still securely 
intrenched in their possession of the Valley between the two 
great mountain chains, and had not ceased to dream of the 
opportunity which should enable them again to cross the 
mountains and regain their old haunts along the James. As 
blood-thirsty and merciless as their forefathers in the mas- 
sacre of 1622, but more skilled in warfare and with a better 
understanding of the white man's purpose, the Indians of the 
Valley began a war of relentless extermination against the 
new settlers. Determined, that no foothold should be gained 
by the intruders, they contested every advance with despair- 
ing ferocity. 

Only men suffered in the horrors of Jamestown; women 
and children shared in those of the Valley. After nearly two 
centuries the echo of that time sounds back to us so faintly 
that it is not possible to conceive the terrors of the "war- 
path." But we may know at least that the shadow of death 
was everywhere; that gliding, crouching, painted bodies might 
lurk in every wood and by each stream and roadside; that 
brave blood flowed like water, and that the smoke of burning 
homes rose constantly to join the beauty of cloud and moun- 
tain top. Men lived, we are told, "with hand on the trigger 

4 Hening's "Statutes at Large of Virginia.* 



208 TENNESSEE SCOTCH-HUSH ANCESTRT 

and foot in stirrup," ready for an instant march to some far- 
off rendezvous, or for a midnight race to some distant settle- 
ment whose beacon fires told that the scalping knife was at 
work there. 

A NOTED RIFLE. 

At about the time of the coming of the Scotch- Irish to 
Virginia, a weapon was being made among the Pennsylvania 
hills that, from its influence upon the history of the Southern 
and Western states, has been called "the instrument of des- 
tiny." 5 A small colony of Swiss, exiles for conscience's sake, 
and living under the peaceful protection of the Quakers, had 
begun in 1710 to send out from their shops guns called 
"rifles," hitherto unknown in America. With the extending 
use of this gun throughout the Southern colonies, a demand 
for rifles with longer and lighter barrels was made upon the 
Swiss gunsmiths, and thus was evolved the "American 
weapon,' that in the hands of the Ulsteraian was to become 
as the instrument under the touch of the skilled musician. 
By the beginning of the Revolution, shops for the manufac- 
ture of rifles had been established throughout North Carolina 
and southwest Virginia. In the Battle of Point Pleasant in 
1774, not only were the Virginians armed with this weapon, 
but many of the Indians also fought with rifles supplied by 
agents of the English government. 

LORD DUN M ORE'S WAR. 

The Battle of Point Pleasant was one of the important 
pre-revolutionary engagements and was a memorable one in 
the history of the Scotch-Irish race. It heads the roll of 
great battles won by that people for the country henceforth 
to be their home; and fought under leaders of their own race, 
the long line beginning here with Lewis and ending nearly 
a century later with Stonewall Jackson. This battle may in- 
deed be regarded as a preliminary engagement to the Revolu- 
tion. For Dunmore, the English governor of Virginia, un- 
doubtedly entrapped the Ulstermen into what would have 
proved inevitable death or annihilation had they not been 
saved by their own determined courage and self-reliance. 
From histories of the battle and from the many published ac- 
counts of eye-witnesses, the following is taken: 8 

John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, and governor of Virginia, 
issued an order to General Andrew Lewis to assemble the 

Ruell's "Life of Andrew Jackson." 

.Kercheval't "History of the Valley," Cookc's "History of Virginia." Peyton's 
"History of Augusta." etc. 



BLANCHE BENTLEY 209 

men of Augusta, 7 together with those from the overmountain 
stations, and to proceed to the "Point," at the junction of 
the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. There he was to join Dun- 
more and his army and with them march against the Indians, 
who were gathering in great force along the western frontier. 
Twelve hundred men answered the call, and with those from 
Watauga went James Robertson, Isaac Shelby and John Se- 
vier. They rendezvoused at Sampson's Inn in the Valley, 
where the height of Evan Shelby's "tall Watauga boys," meas- 
ured the night before departure, was long recorded upon a 
wall of that historic hostelry. 

Twelve hundred horsemen, followed by trains of pack- 
horses bearing provisions and ammunition 'and by herdsmen 
with droves of cattle, set out into the wilderness, crossing un- 
known forests, and streams whose depth had never before 
been sounded. The distance covered was several hundred 
miles, and the time consumed on the march has been various- 
ly given as from eleven days to three weeks. It was early 
in October, 1774, when they reached the Point. Dunmore was 
not there, and to await his coming, Lewis went into camp 
upon the narrow strip of land between the two rivers. 

Several days passed, only vague rumors reaching the wait- 
ing men. One night James Robertson, restless and uneasy 
from the suspense of waiting, could not sleep, and arising in 
the early dawn, "persuaded a comrade to go forth with him 
and stalk a deer." The chill and shadows of the night were 
still heavy, as they stole among the sleeping men and into the 
forest. As they advanced when about a mile from camp 
there reached them a faint sound. Peering through the un- 
dergrowth down a distant opening among the trees, they soon 
saw countless savages stealthily approaching, "the woods black 
with them." Fleeing back to the camp, they roused the sleep- 
ing men with the dreaded frontier cry of "Indians!" 

By the time the savages had come near, the men whom 
they intended to spring upon and murder as they slept were 
standing in line, rifles cocked and ready for the command to 
fire. All day the battle raged. 

The golden October sun was just lighting the Virginia wood as 
the first crack of the rifles rang out; and the purple shadows of 
twilight were stealing over the mountains before that sound had 
ceased. Armed with rifles, the Indians, picked warriors of four 
tribes, fought desperately, and above the noise of the firing and the 
roar of water could be heard the chant of Cornstalk's "be strong, 
be strong!" Time after time the Virginians charged the swarming 

7 The whole of Kentucky and West Virginia, as well as almost all the Virginia 
Valley, were then included in Augusta County. 



210 TENNESSEE SCOTCH-IRISH ANCKSIKV 

hordes, and each time "out of every five men one was left dead or 
dying, and they were the flower of the youth of West Augusta.'" 

Night wan approaching and the situation becoming at each 
moment more critical. Lewis sent Isaac Shelby with the ovei-- 
moiintain men u to steal through the underwood along the 
river" and break upon Cornstalk's rear. He himself made a 
simultaneous attack upon the front. Shelby's charge was so 
furious and unexpected and accompanied by so terrific a yell 
the Indians were seized with a wild panic, which Cornstalk 
sought in vain to control. They were soon fleeing to their 
canoes on the Ohio, leaving the river by which they had fought 
filled with the bodies of their dead and dying. 

Dunmore, from Chillicothe, sent Lewis an order to disband 
his troops and return home* This Lewis peremptorily re- 
fused to do, and his soldiers, demanding to confront Dun- 
more, he marched to Chillicothe, One account says: "A 
furious scene followed, and if Lewis had not restrained his 
men, they would have put Dunmore to death." The Battle of 
Point Pleasant made possible the Treaty of Chillicothe, by 
the terms of which the Indians were finally excluded from 
Virginia. 

OPENING OF THE HOLSTON COUNTRY. 

In 1765 the Holston country was opened, and then began 
the great migration of the Scotch-Irish people into the South 
and West, that ended only when the waters of the Gulf and 
the Pacific had been reached. "Our way lies across the conti- 
nent" must have been the slogan of the race, for certainly no 
other people have so felt the lure of the unexplored lands and 
vast distances. 

Wherever the Ulster folk havt gone, the breath of the North 
has followed them. Masterful and independent from the beginning, 
masterful and independent they remained; inflexible in purpose, im- 
patient of injustice, and staunch in their ideals. 10 

From a wide study of the sources of Virginia history, 
made in preparation for writing his "life" of Stonewall Jack- 
son, Henderson, the English historian, was led to the con- 
clusion that the greatness of that state was not all due, as 
sometimes has been assumed, .to the Cavaliers and their de- 

Cooke's "History of Virginia." 

The Virginians were so convinced of the treachery of Dunmore and determined 

bring him to trial many participants in the battle were summoned as wtnesses. 




"Henderson's "Life of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. 



BLANCHE BENTLEY 211 

sceudants. The Virginians of the Valley also had a share in 
her greatness and glory. 

Their sons fought the Battle of King's Mountain, and were 
in truth "the rear guard of the Revolution." For while serv- 
ing valiantly as soldiers against the English armies, they de- 
fended also the whole exposed western frontier from the at- 
tacks of Indians. It was during Sevier's long struggle with 
the Cherokees that the men who afterward were known as 
Kentuckians and Tennesseans, lineal descendants of those 
who fought at Point Pleasant, attained such matchless skill 
in the use of the rifle. "Upon those unerring old rifles," said 
Jackson a few years later, "must fall the duty of defending 
the nation's integrity. 11 These words seem prophetic when 
it is recalled that the only land engagement of the War of 
1812 reflecting credit upon American arms was the victory 
of New Orleans. This victory, "winding up in a blaze of glory 
a disastrous and humiliating war," 12 was due in part to the 
indomitable energy of General Jackson himself, and for the 
rest to the wonderful marksmanship of the Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee riflemen. 

BLANCHE BENTLEY. 



"Jackson's proclamation to the Tennessee militia. 

"Words of Henry Clay. "The Truth About) the War of 1912, American Re- 
view." 



THE CONQUEST OF THE OLD SOUTHWEST 

The recording of the history of the Mississippi Valley has 
engaged the efforts of a number of writers who have specialized 
in that field. One of the earliest to undertake a comprehensive 
narration of American colonization west of the Alleghanies 
was Monette, who in 1846 brought out his two-volume work, 
The History of the Valley of the Mississippi, to be followed a 
year later by Perkins with his Annals of the West. Even at 
that date Tennessee was a part of what was denominated the 
Southwest. These two writers did work that was deserving of 
more appreciation than has been accorded. They had not the 
benefit of the wealth of material in the archives of foreign 
governments that is made accessible to students of our day; 
they wrote long before the historical materials in the archives 
of the colonies and states of the Atlantic seaboard had been 
given publication; and they were, in large part, dependent 
upon books of travel, fragmentary sketches, such as those of 
Hall, Flint and Doddridge, the few local histories and govern- 
ment publications, such as American State Papers and Force's 
Tracts. It was not until after their day that Draper, Durrett 
and others made their collections of documents and data that 
are so helpful to modern writers on the history of the West. 

Coming later into the field and drawing on such ampler 
stores and sources were Roosevelt in his The Winning of the. 
West, Turner, Winsor, Alden and Alvord, each of whom has 
done notable work in further rescuing and recording the deeds 
of pioneers who led the advance of civilization to the "Western 
Waters." 

Dr. Archibald Henderson, of the University of North Caro- 
lina, in recent years has made a number of brilliant contribu- 
tions to historical reviews and magazines, on western expan- 
sion; and he has drawn upon the material in these papers, 
expanding, eliding and skilfully coordinating, in the prepara- 
tion of a volume entitled The Conquest of the Old Southwest. 1 
By a sub-title it is indicated that his treatment is not of the 
history of the entire Mississippi Valley, but is "the romantic 
story of the early pioneers into Virginia, the Carolinas, Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky, 1740-1790." 

The author easily demonstrates that, so far as concerns the 
lesser field set for his cultivation, the earlier writers named 
above had left much to be garnered. Many phases of early 
western history have been rescued as a result of painstaking 

'The Conquest of the Old Southwest, by Archibald Henderson, Ph.D., D.C.L.. 
Ki-w York Century Co., 1920, $2.50. 



SAM'L c. WILLIAMS 213 

search, while other phases the reader is enabled to see from a 
new angle or the better to appreciate because of some sidelight 
for the first time afforded. 

The author has invested his subject with a literary charm. 
Always thrilling, the story is here told with dramatic power. 

To those interested in the history of Tennessee the volume 
will have a particular appeal, since many of its pages are given 
to accounts of the exploration and settlement of this common- 
wealth. Dr. Henderson is a native of North Carolina, and 
quite naturally he has not withheld emphasis on the part 
played by the people of his state in the civilization of the Old 
Southwest. That part is closely related to the history of 
Kentucky, and yet more closely related to the history of Ten- 
nessee; and for the first time with fair adequacy has been 
traced in this work. 

The predominance of North Carolinians in the vanguard of 
the pioneers who swept as a great tide into northeastern Ten- 
nessee and later into the Cumberland regions has been com- 
mented on by historians of our state, but nothing like due em- 
phasis has been given to the fact, the significance of which 
may be gathered from a statement of Henderson (page 190) : 

"After the defeat of the Regulators, thousands of the op- 
pressed, seeing no hope of the redress of their grievances, moved 
into and settled East Tennessee. A large proportion of these 
were of the Baptist population. Sandy Creek Church, which 
some time previous to 1771, numbered 606, was afterwards re- 
duced to fourteen in numbers." 2 

The contribution by North Carolina to Tennessee pioneer 
population continued in generous proportions for several gen- 
erations. Interesting chapters remain to be written of what 
may be termed the "second great migration" from the Old 
North State, in the years 1820 to 1840, when the mother state 
gave of her best sons and daughters to settle the plains of 
West Tennessee, following the clearance of the Indian claim 
to that region, by Jackson and Shelby's treaty of purchase, 
entered into with the Chickasaws in 1819. The centennials of 
a number of West Tennessee counties are to be celebrated with- 
in the next few years, and some son of that section of the state 
should set for himself the worthy and graceful task of writing 
those chapters. It will be found that long before the negotia- 
tion of the Chickasaw Treaty, and years before the dawn of the 
nineteenth century, North Carolinians were laying land grants 
on the best lands between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers, 
which they were solicitous to sell or improve when the country 
was open to settlement after the treaty. 

Quoting Purefoy. History of Sandy Creek Baptist Association (1859). 



214 TUB CONQUEST OF THE OLD SOUTHWEST 

One of the best-sustained parts of Dr. Henderson's book is 
that which traces the migration of the peoples from the sea- 
board into the Trans-Alleghany region. One tide of immigra- 
tion, consisting in most part of Scotch-Irish, was that coming 
from Pennsylvania to the valley of Virginia, whence it began 
as early as 1740 to trickle into the valley of the Yadkin and 
into the Piedmont country of North Carolina, cheap lands be- 
ing the lure. To the same regions came also many of the more 
democratic element of the eastern and lowland counties of the 
colony of North Carolina, drawing apart from the planter 
aristocarcy which was in possession of a large part of the land. 

Into the uplands of North Carolina a third, though minor, 
tide of restless land-hunters worked their way from South 
Carolina. Here was formed the reservoir from which, in later 
years, was to be poured the steady stream of settlers across 
the Blue Ridge and through the passes and water-breaks of 
the Great Smokies into the valley of East Tennessee, and later 
into West Tennessee. 

Another drift of population came southward down the val- 
ley of Virginia until it merged with the Carolinians in the 
Watauga and Holston country, which in turn itself became a 
"cradle of western expansion," furnishing as it did hundreds 
of frontiersmen to invade the wildernesses beyond, there to 
found colonies on the Cumberland and in Kentucky. 

Chapters of the volume are devoted to accounts of the Wa- 
tauga Settlement, the Transylvania Company, the colonizing of 
the Cumberland country, King's Mountain Campaign, the State 
of Franklin, and the Spanish Conspiracy. 

The interesting fact is noted that George Rogers Clark was 
the enterer, in the Virginia Land Office, or several thousand 
acres of land at French Lick on the Cumberland river. This 
detail is not referred to by Putnam or Roosevelt in their ac- 
counts of the Cumberland Colony. Roosevelt follows Putnam 
in mentioning the visit of James Robertson to Clark in Illinois 
during the spring of 1779, and in ascribing the purpose to be 
the purchase of "cabin-rights" from or through Clark. Roose- 
velt states that "Robertson went up to see Clark, because it 
was rumored that the latter had the disposal of Virginia 
'cabin-rights,' under which each man could, for a small sum, 
purchase a thousand acres, on condition of building a cabin 
and raising a crop." 8 This, at a time when it was thought that 
the French Lick might be within the limits of Virginia. 

It is more probable that the object of the visit was to pur- 

The Winning of the West. Ill, 231. 



SAM'L c. WILLIAMS 215 

chase of Clark his 3,000-acre entry, or to consult with him re- 
specting lands on the Cumberland thought to be reserved for 
soldiers. On March 9, 1779, we find Clark writing to Gov. 
Patrick Henry from Post Vincent (Vincennes, Indiana) : 

"I thank you for your remembrance of my situation re- 
specting lands on the frontiers. I learn that government has 
reserves of lands on the Cumberland for soldiers. 4 

"If I should be deprived of a certain tract of land on that 
river which I purchased three years ago and have been at a 
considerable expense to improve, I shall in a manner lose my 
all. It is known by the name of the great French Lick on the 
south or west side containing three thousand acres; if you 
can do anything for me in saving it, I shall forever remember 
it with gratitude." 5 

It is thus shown that Clark was three years ahead of Rob- 
ertson in acquiring lands at French Lick, which lands he had 
improved, doubtless with a view to locating there. Was the 
purchase made from the Transylvania Company? It is inter- 
esting to speculate on what would have been his influence in 
the development of the Old Southwest had this stalwart figure 
of a purposeful age settled on the Cumberland, instead of re- 
maining in Kentucky and turning his endeavors so success- 
fully toward the rescue of the Northwest from the British. 

SAM'L C. WILLIAMS. 



*In December, 1778, the Virginia Assembly had set apart a reservation of bounty 
lands in Kentucky for soldiers, a part of which lands, however, was later found to 
lie within the limits of North Carolina (now Tennessee). To make good this loss, 
in November, 1781, there was substituted a tract bounded by the Mississippi, the 
Ohio and the Tennessee rivers and by the North Carolina state line. Winsor, West- 
ward Movement, 247. 

6 Canadian Archives, Series B, Vol. 122, p. 304; reprinted I Am. Historical Re- 
view, 94. 



SOME EARLY ARCHEOLOGICAL FINDS IN 
TENNESSEE 

The official birthday of American archeology was October 
12, 1812. On that date there was presented to the legislature 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts a petition for the in- 
corporation of the American Antiquarian Society. It reads as 
follows: 

PETITION TO THE LEGISLATURE OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

October, 1812. 

To the Honourable Senate and House of Representatives of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in General Court assembled. 

THE subscribers, influenced by a desire to contribute to the ad- 
vancement of the Arts and Sciences, and to aid, by their individual 
and united efforts, in collecting and preserving such materials as 
may be useful in marking their progress, not only in the United 
States, but in other parts of the globe, and wishing also to assist 
the researches of the future historians of our country, respectfully 
represent to the Legislature that, in their opinion, the establishment 
of an Antiquarian Society, within this Commonwealth, would con- 
duce essentially to the attainment of these objects. At present there 
is no public association for such purpose within the United States. 
The rapid progress of science, and of the useful and ornamental 
arts in our country, may be ascribed in a great degree to the nu- 
merous publick institutions originated by) patriotick individuals, but 
deriving their countenance and support from legslative authority. 
Such a society as is now contemplated, as its objects are distinct 
from any other in the country, it is believed, may advantageously 
cooperate with, without in the slightest degree impairing the utility 
of other institutions. Its immediate and peculiar design is to dis- 
cover the antiquities of our continent; and, by providing a fixed and 
permanent place of deposit, to preserve such relics of American an- 
tiquity as are portable, as well as to collect and preserve those of 
other parts of the globe. By the long and successful labors of the 
College of Antiquaries in Ireland, their historians, it is said, have 
been enabled to trace the history of that country to an earlier period 
than that of any other nation of Europe. The researches of a simi- 
lar society in England, established at a later period, at times dis- 
couraged, but now aided and fostered by the patronage of the gov- 
ernment, have not merely furnished food for curiosity, but have pro- 
vided many valuable materials for the benefit of history, the im- 
provement of science, and the advancement of the arts of life. Al- 
most every nation of the European world bear witness to the utility 
of similar institutions. 

To the enlightened Legislature of Massachusetts the Subscribers 
do not deem it necessary to exhibit more in detail the advantages 
which may be expected from such an establishment within this Com- 
monwealth. They ask for no other aid from the Commonwealth, than 
the facilities which, in the pursuit of their objects, may accrue from 
an Act of Incorporation. As an inducement to the grant of these 
privileges, they beg leave to state that one of their number is, at 



W. A. PROVINK 217 

this time, in possession of a valuable collection of books obtained 
with great labor and expense, the value of which may be fairly es- 
timated at about five thousand dollars, some of them more ancient 
than are to be found in any other part of our country, and all of 
which he intends to transfer to the proposed Society should their 
project receive the sanction and encouragement of the Legislature. 
This grant, which is designed as the foundation of a superstructure 
to be hereafter erected, with other conditions as may be reasonably 
expected, the subscribers believe will ensure the future growth and 
prosperity of the Institution. 

As no injury can at any rate* be apprehended from such an ex- 
periment, even if it should prove unsuccessful, and as it may be pro- 
ductive of much public advantage, the petitioners flatter themselves 
their project will not be discountenanced by the Government of 
Massachusetts. 

They therefore respectfully pray for leave to bring in a bill for 
the incorporation of themselves, and such persons as may hereafter 
associate with them, into a Society by the name of the AMERICAN 
ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, with the privilege of holding real estate 
in perpetuity of the annual value of fifteen hundred dollars, and 
with such other privileges and immunities as are usually granted by 
acts of incorporation to other publick societies established within 
this Commonwealth. 

ISAIAH THOMAS, 
NATH'L. PAINE, 
WM. PAINE, 
LEVI LINCOLN, 
AARON BANCROFT, 
EDW'D BANGS. 

The charter was duly granted October 24, 1812, and pro- 
vided that Isaiah Thomas should be the convenor of the society 
for its first meeting, at} which, time it should be duly organ- 
ized. Accordingly official notice was served on the incorpora- 
tors: 

He hereby notifies and warns each and every of the persons above 
named to meet at the Exchange Coffee House in Boston, on Thurs- 
day the 19th day of November instant, at 11 o'clock, in the fore- 
noon, then and there to take such measures as shall be necessary 
for organizing said Society. 

It was specially set forth that the new society was to be 
national in character, and for fear that the public might con- 
clude that in taking out a local charter in the commonwealth 
of Massachusetts it was intended to narrow its influence to 
that state, it is recorded that at first the intention was to 
apply to Congress for the charter to give it nation-wide scope, 
but that legally it was questioned as to whether the general 
government had a right to issue a charter that reached beyond 
the District of Columbia. Invitations were sent forth for in- 
terested ones everywhere to contribute to the library and mu- 
seum which was to be provided. Among the articles for de- 
posit sought were: 



218 SOME EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL KINDS IN TENNESSEE 

Books of every description, including pamphlets and magazines, 
especially those which were early printed either in South or North 
America, files of Newspapers of former times, or of the present day, 
are particularly desirable as are specimens, with written accounts 
respecting them, of fossils, handicrafts of the Aborigines, etc., man- 
uscripts, ancient and modern, on interesting subjects, particularly 
those which give accounts of remarkable events, discoveries, or a 
description of any part of the continent, or the islands in the Amer- 
ican seas; maps, charts, etc. 

It is of further interest to note the care promised in the 
way of preserving these deposits from loss or damage, the very 
location of the proposed museum was to be selected to this 
end: 

For the better preservation from destruction so often experienced 
in large towns and cities by fire, as well as from the ravages of an 
enemy, to which seaports are in particular so much exposed in 
times of war, it is universally agreed, that for a place of deposit 
for articles intended to be preserved for ages, and of which many, 
if destroyed, or carried away, could never be replaced by others of 
like kind, an inland situation is to be preferred; this consideration 
alone was judged sufficient for placing the Library and Museum of 
this Society forty miles distant from the nearest branch of the sea, 
in the town of Worcester, Massachusetts, on the great road from all 
the southern and western states to Boston, the capital of Neweng- 
land. 

It is probable that our present large city of Worcester 
does not appreciate the prophetic isolation set forth in this 
early document, and it hardly anticipated a day when protec- 
tion on such grounds can no longer be guaranteed, since "Big 
Berthas" now throw their projectiles further from the sea 
than "forty miles," and the airplane drops its bombs over the 
most interior situations. 

The society, on February 1, 1819, issued an address to the 
public, giving an account of the progress made to that date in 
the work of collecting and the permanent provision for a build- 
ing to house it. The report said: 

Although the Society is in its infancy, we are happy to announce, 
that it is expanding into manly growth; and, with due patronage 
and exertion, will become preeminently useful. The Cabinet is not 
yet extensive; but the Members, we trust, will soon make it highly 
respectable and useful, by their occasional contributions. Funds 
are about to be procured, from the interest of which a Librarian 
and Cabinet Keeper may be supported. . . . The catalogue of 
our Books is already respectable. Our Library, of about 5000 vol- 
umes, consists principally of books printed in the three last and 
present centuries. Some are of the fifteenth centurp. We also have 
files of the first Newspapers printed in British North America, 
which, probably are the earliest printed in the Western world. . . . 
By the liberality of the President, a suitable building will soon be 
erected in Worcester. 



W. A. PROVINK 219 

Thus was set going an inspiration that kindled kindred 
spirits far and near over America, and a new interest was 
awakened throughout our country in exploration and research 
of its historic remains, the largest field of which really lay 
west of the Appalachians. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF JOHN D. CLIFFORD, ESQ. 

Mention has been made of the inspiration furnished by the 
organization of the American Antiquarian Society and the en- 
couragement it gave many individuals here and there over 
America to prosecute their studies relative to the aboriginal 
inhabitants of the continent. One of the choicest spirits that 
gave much time and devotion to this subject was John D. 
Clifford, Esq., of Lexington, Kentucky. About this period 
there had been gathered in this refined center of the then 
West, a number of men who are familiarly known in the cul- 
tural annals of the Mississippi Valley. Most prominent of 
all were those first assembled in that interesting center and 
well-known venture at New Harmony, Indiana. 

A number of personalities from this center later became 
heads of departments in colleges and universities of the West 
and South, among them C. F. Rafinesque, the noted professor 
of Botany and Natural Science in the University of Transyl- 
vania, located at Lexington, Kentucky. Under the leadership 
of Mr. Clifford, Rafinesque and others, quite a collection was 
gathered together of aboriginal and other specimens and dis- 
played in a room of the Atheneum in that little city. About 
this time a group of kindred spirits commenced a monthly 
publication at Lexington called the "Western Review," edited 
by William Gibbes Hunt, a most worthy magazine in its day 
and widely read even in the cultured centers of the East. 1 

To this Review, commencing with its earliest numbers in 
1810 and continuing through eight issues, Mr. Clifford con- 
tributed a series of articles on Indian Antiquities. Later 
these were followed by a number of articles on the G-eology 
of the Mississippi Valley one being founded on a journey 
made by him over the "Old Wilderness Road" from Central 
Kentucky southeast, to eastern Tennessee and on to Washing- 
ton City. Mr. Clifford was an honored member of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Science of Philadelphia and of the American 

1 "The Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, a monthly publication de- 
voted to literature and science, Lexington, Kentucky. Published by William Gibbes 
Hunt. Vol. I., No. i, August, 1819. 



220 SOME EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TENNESSEE 

Antiquarian Society of Massachusetts. A short, but interest- 
ing biographical sketch apeared in the Western Review y Vol. 
II., pp. 309 and 322, from which we quote: 

"On the eigth of May, 1820, departed this life, Mr. John D. Clif- 
ford, in the 42nd year of his age. This enterprising, intelligent, and 
useful man was an ornament to our town and one of its most val- 
uable inhabitants. He was at once a man of business and a student, 
a citizen of the world and a Christian. Having been to a consider- 
able extent successful in his mercantile pursuits, he was the friend 
and patron of the industrious young man, the public-spirited promoter 
of every useful enterprise, the liberal contributor to every charitable 
object. His mind, too, was stored with valuable learning. Natural 
science was his favorite pursuit, and he was ardently devoted to the 
investigations of the curiosities which abound in our country. ..." 

Another inspiration of the parent American Antiquarian 
Society was a similar local organization launched at Cincin- 
nati, whose museum was opened with an address by Daniel 
Drake, M.D., June 10, 1820. In commenting on this event 
and the published address, a contributor in the Western Re- 
view for July, 1820, says: 

"This society (at Cincinnati) has existed for two years. Its ob- 
ject is to form a collection of rare and valuable specimens in these 
several departments of natural science. It has at length so far 
succeeded as to be able to open its museum, which will no doubt 
constitute the germ of an important institution. It is time that some- 
thing of a similar nature was commenced in Lexington. The enter- 
prise and zeal of a lamented individual, aided by the generous con- 
tributions of others, have formed a collection of curiosities, now de- 
posited in one of the roms of the Lexington Atheneum." 

A worthy tribute in memory of Mr. Clifford, in the way 
of a poem in Italian, signed by "Dargo," appears in the same 
issue of this magazine. 

This extensive notice of Mr. Clifford is of interest to stu- 
dents of aboriginal remains in Tennessee because there came 
into the hands of Mr. Clifford at an early date some very re- 
markable specimens originally discovered in Middle Tennes- 
see, His original contributions in print were worked over 
and commented upon by contemporary writers, and that the 
full detail of these records may be preserved, the added mat- 
ter is put upon our permanent printed record. 

In the Wextcrn- Revieie, Vol. II., there is this first account 
of the 

NASHVILLE IDOL. 

"I have in my possession a small idol found in a tumulus near 
Nashville, which bears a striking resemblance to some discovered by 
Professor Pallas in tumuli between the Donetz and Dnieper rivers 
in Southern Russia. The American idol is only two inches in length, 



THE NASHVILLE IDOL. 






SIDE. FRONT. BACK. 

(FROM ARCHAELOGIA AMERICANA, VOLUME I, PAGE , 1820.) 



W. A. PROVINE 221 

being a naked half length figure extending to the hips. The con- 
tour of the head is not perfect, being too much flattened at the 
brick, and projecting at the lower extremity of the face when viewed 
in profile; the eyes and mouth are also made by a simple longitudi- 
nal depression of the clay, which, however, is so small a figure is 
sufficiently characteristic. More attention seems to have been paid 
to minute particulars. The nose is large, and arched or eagle formed; 
the clvBSS of the hair has been very nicely delineated, and displays, 
in coincidence with the general figure, a strong resemblance to the 
idols mentioned by Pallas. The Nashville idol, like those of Dneiper, 
has no arms, the clay being rounded at the shoulders. The shape 
of the body is natural. The head dress or mode of forming the hair 
is, however, as before mentioned, the point of strongest coincidence 
and ought to be more particularly noticed, as forming one of the 
characteristic marks by which they designate their various deities. 
The hair or wig of the America nimage is made perfectly smooth, 
and extends along the forehead and temples below the ears, which 
are thereby hid. In the center of the forehead is a small square 
dependage. The hair extends one-third of the way down the right 
side of the head, and is formed into a round knot, the parts adja- 
cent being depressed so as to show the apparent gathering up of the 
same. The back of the head shows this knot of turf, and also a 
division of the hair from the center of the head down to the level 
of the top of the ears, extending thence at right angles to the temple. 
The hair on the other side is in natural shape and formed beneath 
the division into a large cue terminating below the shoulders. These 
gentlemen who have the opportunity and will take the trouble of 
referring to Vignette No. 11, in Vol. II. of Professor Pallas' Travels 
in the Southern Part of Russia, will be struck with the general re- 
semblance between these Asiatic and American idols. Such coinci- 
. dences may possibly be accidental, but when we consider the forms 
of dress and manner in which all the ancient nations invariably 
represented their divinities, I am induced to think the design of this 
American idol ought to be traced to an Asiatic origin, and must be 
deemed a confirmation of my belief that the original settlers of 
this country obtained their mythological ideas from the common par- 
ent of the Hindoo, Persian, Egyptian and Gothic nations." 

(Western Review, Vol. II., No. 1. Letter No. VI., February, 
1820. Pp. 29-31.) 

By 1820 the American Antiquarian Society had completed 
its commodious library building and museum and, as it had 
been the recipient of many valuable manuscripts, etc., decided 
to issue in print some of its valuable data. 

There was accordingly issued from the press under the 
editorial supervision of William Manning the first volume of 
the society's transactions, full title being: 

ABCHAEOLOGIA AMERICANA. 

Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian 
Society. Volume I. Worcester, Massachusetts, 1820. 
The greater portion of the articles found in this volume 



222 SOMK EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TENNESSEE 

deal with the remains of the aboriginal peoples of America, 
and consists largely of i>ersonal letters, descriptive and other- 
wise, to the editor, who somewhat changed the forms of the 
communications before issuing them in print. The largest 
contributor of information in this volume seems to have been 
Caleb Atwater, Esq., of Circeville, Ohio. (Pp. 105-308.) 
Among the numerous specimens, etc., to which he calls at- 
tention in his article are three originally found in Tennessee, 
one an idol discovered near Nashville, a clay vessel, likewise 
found near Nashville, and a tri-faced vase found on the Caney 
Fork, in White County. (Pp. 210, 214, 238-241.) Under the 
head of "Miscellaneous Articles," pages 300-307, is an article 
from a distinguished citizen of Tennessee, Moses Fisk, Esq., 
of Hilham, Overtoil County, bearing the title: 

"Conjectures Respecting the Ancient Inhabitants of North 
America." 

As these specimens are included in the data for speculation 
concerning the early aboriginal history of America, it may be 
interesting to the student of today to observe the point of view 
of these early contributors to archelogical studies. 



IDOL FOUND NEAR NASHVILLE. 2 

An idol found in a tumulus near Nashville, Tennessee, and now in 
the museum of Mr. Clifford, of Lexington, Kentucky, will probably 
assist us in forming some idea as to the origin of the authors of 
our western antiquities. Like the TRIUNE-VESSEL, hereafter men- 
tioned, it was made of clay peculiar for its fineness and its use, 
which is quite abundant in some parts of Kentucky. With this clay 
was mixed a small portion of gypsum, or sulphate of lime. This idol 
(the original drawing of the three views was made by Miss Sarah 
Clifford, of Lexington, Ky.) represents in three views, a man in a 
state of nudity, whose arms have been cut off close to the body, and 
whose nose and chin have been mutilated; with a fillet and cake upon 
his head. In all these respects, as well as the peculiar manner of 
plaiting the hair, it is exactly such an idol as Prof. Pallas found 
in his travels in the southern part of the Russian Empire. (Pallas' 
Travels, Vol. II, Vignette, No. 2.) The idol discovered near Nash- 
ville shews from whence its worshippers derived their origin and 
religious rites. The "TRIUNE idol or vessel" shews, in my opinion, 
that its authors originated in Hindostan, and the one now under 
consideration induces a belief that some tribes were from countries 
adjacent. 

Those who wish to be acquainted with what the poets have said, 
concerning human sacrifices among the Greeks, may consult the 
jEnid, Lib. II, v. 116. (Latin quoted.) . . . The poet intends 
to refer his readers to what had often happened among the Greeks, 
and to cruel and bloody rites long established. When they sacri- 
ficed, the sacred fillets were bound upon the head of the idol, the 
victim, and the priest. 

This description is copied by Atwater from the article in "Western Review" that 
precedes. See page a i. 



I 



W. A. PROVINE 223 

The salted cake was placed upon the head of the victim. It was 
called "mola," hence immolare, in later times, was used to signify 
any kind of sacrifice. 

The sacred fillets and salted cake may be seen on the head of the 
idol above described. The Greeks borrowed many things from the 
Persians, with whom they had many wars and considerable inter- 
course. The Persians derived many of their ideas from the Hindoos. 

The ancestors of our North American Indians were from the 
northern parts of Tartary, those who worshipped this idol came from 
a country lying farther to the south, where the population was dense, 
and where the arts had great progress. While the Tartar of the 
north was a hunter and a savage, the Hindoos and southern Tartars 
were well acquainted with most of the useful arts. The former lived 
in the vicinity of our continent, and probably found their way hither 
at an early day, while the latter came at a later period, bringing 
along with them the arts, the idols and religious rites of Hindostan, 
China and Crimea. The ancestors of our North American Indians 
were mere hunters, while the authors of our tumuli were shepherds 
and husbandmen. The temples, altars, and sacred places of the Hin- 
doos were always situated on the bank of some stream of water. 
The same observation applies to the temples, altars and sacred places 
of those who erected our tumuli. To the consecrated streams of 
Hindotsan, devotees assembled from all parts of the empire, to 
worship their gods, and purify themselves by bathing in the sacred 
water. In this country their sacred places were uniformly on the 
bank of some river; and who knows but that the Muskingum, the 
Scioto, the Miami, the Ohio, the Cumberland and the Mississippi, 
were once deemed as sacred, and their banks as thickly settled, and 
as well cultivated, as are now the Indus, the Ganges, and the Bur- 
rampooter? Ablution, from the situation of all the works which ap- 
pear to have been devoted to sacred uses, was a rite so religiously 
observed by the authors of our idols, as it was neglected by our North 
American Indians. If the coincidence between the worship of our 
people, and that of the Hindoos and southern Tartars, furnish no 
evidence of a common origin, then I am no judge of the nature and 
weight of testimony. (Pp. 212-213.) 

A CLAY VESSEL. 

Some years since a clay vessel was discovered about twenty feet 
below the surface, in alluvial earth, in digging a well near Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. This piece of pottery was found standing on a 
rock, and from whence a spring of water issued. This vessel was 
taken to Mr. Peale's museum at Philadelphia, where it now is, as 
I am informed. It contains about one gallon; is circular, with a flat 
bottom, from which it rises in a somewhat globose form, terminat- 
ing at the summit with the figure of a female head. The only hole 
in the vessel is situated towards the summit of the globular part of 
it. The features of the face of the female are Asiatic. The crown 
of the head is covered by a cap of a pyramidical figure, with a flat- 
tened, circular summit, ending at the apex, with a round button. 
The ears are large, extending as low as the chin. The features re- 
semble many of those engraved for Raffle's History; and the cap 
resembles Asiatick head dresses. 

The foregoing was taken from an essay in the Western Review, 
written by Mr. John D. Clifford. Here is a further proof of the 
derivation of these people from Hindostan. The features of the face ; 
the manner of covering the head; the shape of the vessel; the re- 



224 SOME EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TENNESSEE 

ligious uses to which it was probably put at this primitive, and once 
clear fountain, in performing ablutions, all tend to confirm us in 
such a belief. Could all these things have so happened, had the 
authors originated anywhere else? (P. 214.) 

THE TRIUNE VESSEL. 

In addition to what is already said, under 'the description of 
mounds, we will here add, that on the Caney Fork of Cumberland 
river, a vessel was found in an ancient work, about four feet below 
the surface, a drawing of which is here given. (The original draw- 
ing was by Miss Sarah Clifford, of Lexington, Kentucky. It is by 
some called a "TRIUNE IDOL.' 5 ) 

It is believed by some to be an exact likeness. The object itself 
may be thus described: 

It consists of three heads, joined together at the back part of 
them, near the top, by a stem or handle, which rises above the heads 
about three inches. This stem is hollow, six inches in circumfer- 
ence at the top, increasing in size as it descends. These heads are 
all of the same dimensions, being about four inches from the top 
to the chin. The face at the eyes is three inches broad, decreasing 
in breadth all the way to the chin. All the strong marks of the 
Tartar countenance are distinctly preserved, and expressed with so 
much skill that even a modern artist might be proud of the per- 
formance. The countenances are all different each from the other, 
and denote an old person and two younger ones. The face of the 
eldest is painted around the eyes with yellow, shaded with a streak 
of the same colour, beginning from the top of the ear, running in a 
semicircular form to the ear on the other side of the head. Another 
painted line begins at the lower part of the eye and runs down be- 
fore each ear about one inch. (See Figure 1.) 

The second represents a person of a grave countenance, much 
younger than the preceding one, painted very differently and of a 
different colour. A streak of reddish brown surrounds each eye. 
Another line of the same colour, beginning at the top of one ear, 
passes under the chin, and ends at the top of the other ear. The 
ears also are slightly tinged with the same colour. (See Figure 2.) 

The third (Figure 3) in its characteristical features, resembles 
the others, representing one of the Tartar family. The whole of the 
face is slightly tinged with vermillion, or some paint resembling it. 

Each cheek has a spot on it, of the size of a quarter of a dollar, 
brightly tinged with the same paint. On the chin is a similar spot. 

One circumstance worthy of remark is, that though these colours 
must have been exposed to the damp earth for many centuries, they 
have, notwithstanding, preserved every shade in all its brilliancy. 

This "Triune vessel'' stands upon three necks, which are about 
an inch and a half in length. The whole is composed of a fine clay, 
of a light umber colour, which has been rendered hard by the action 
of the fire. The heads are hollow, and the vessel contains about one 
quart. Does it not represent the three chief gods of India Brahma, 
Vishnoo and Siva? Let the reader look at the plate representing 
this vessel, and consult the Asiatic Researches, by Sir William Jones; 
let him also read Buchanan's Star in the East, and the accounts 
there found of the idolatry of the Hindoos; and, unless his mind is 
formed differently from mine, he will see in' this idol one proof at 
least that the people who raised our ancient works were idolaters; 
and, that some of them worshipped gods resembling the three prin- 
cipal deities of India. (Pp. 238-241.) 



A TRIUNE VESSEL. 




(FROM ARCHAELOGIA AMERICANA, VOLUME i, PAGE , 1820.) 



W. A. PROVINE 225 

It is well known that the above contributions to the "West- 
ern Review" and the Antiquarian Society also formed the 
basis largely of much that the Hon. John Haywood afterwards 
embraced in his Aboriginal History of Tennessee (viz., Nash- 
ville, 1823), for which reason his comments and deductions 
are also presented in this article. 

HAYWOOD'S DISCUSSION OF ABORIGINAL RELIGION 
BASED ON THESE SAME ILLUSTRATIONS. 

THEORY OF ABORIGINAL RELIGION. 

We shall now proceed to consult these fragments of ancient days, 
which alone are able to instruct us in the history of the aboriginal 
settlers of Tennessee. 

After it shall have been finished we shall shall be enabled to say 
that the primitive inhabitants of the countries watered by the Ohio 
and its branches, like the Peruvians, Mexicans and Natchez, and the 
Hindoos and Persians, were worshippers of the sun, and built high 
places, facing to the cardinal points, with flattened tops, and steps 
c*w the outside to ascend to those tops. That they erected houses 
upon them for their idols, and placed those idols within them. That 
they enclosed those high places in open courts and entrenchments; 
and burnt incense upon them, unto the image, to the sun and to the 
moon, and to the planets, and to the host of heaven. They placed 
altars upon them, and on those altars they sacrificed human beings. 
That in worshipping they stood towards the east, and lifted up their 
hands and eyes towards heaven and towards their idols. That they 
venerated the number three, and worshipped triune idols. That they 
deemed the cross a sacred symbol, and worshipped idols, as did the 
Phenicians, Hindoos and other nations of Asia. That some of them 
were lingpmites, and some of the Hindoo sectaries are, and as were 
the Phenicians. That they used the conch shell as emblematic of 
the properties of their god of the ocean, as the Hindoos did, and 
like them and the Peruvians and Mexicans, made deep, and wide, 
and long entrenchments. That, like the people of India, Arabia, 
Phenicia and Mesopotamia, they made tanks, in which water is per- 
petually preserved in abundance, and in a pure state. They made 
wells also, walled up with stone from the bottom. They had swords 
of iron and steel, and steel bows and mirrors with iron backs, knives 
of iron, with ferules of silver; tools also of iron and steel, and chisels 
with which they neatly sculptured stone, and made engravings upon 
it; and spades, with which they sunk their wide and deep ditches. 

With unfading dies they painted the sun and moon upon high 
rocks, in handsome style, and in some instances we perceive that 
they, or their exterminators, had stone axes, stone balls, and other 
lapideous instruments. They had marble and copper and excellent 
dies. Like the Mexicans and peoples of the Sandwich Islands in the 
Pacific, they made feathered mantles, and caps, and fans of various 
colours. Like the Mexicans and Hindoos, they buried their sacred 
animals, and placed their dead under mounds raised over the body 
and over the remains not consumed on the funeral pile. Like the 
Mexicans, they made brick and burned them, and used both them and 
stone in their buildings. 

Their complexion, hair and eyes were like those of the Baroans 
of Chili, their statue was of the common size, but that of their ex- 



226 so MIC EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL. FINDS IN TENNESSEE 

terminators, a new and modern race, like the Gauls in the time of 
Lucullus, was frightfully gigantic. These and many other instances 
of conformity, we shall perceive enough, it is believed, to prove that 
the aborigines of Kentucky and Tennessee came from the South, and 
had intimate connections with the people of Mexico, and some inter- 
course with the Peruvians and the people of Chili. But at length 
came a chilling frost, from the frozen regions of the north, and 
nipped the blossoms of prosperity. Those same marauders, who from 
the 7th to the llth century of the Christian era converted the culti- 
vated fields of Italy into a wilderness, and filled it with lakes and 
stagnant ponds, and made the dark ages to reign in gloomy igno- 
rance, came hither also, searching through all the corners of the 
world, for plunder and subsistence; and acted over again the same 
scenes which had formerly been acted in Palestine, between the 
worshippers of a spiritual God on the one hand, and the idolatrous 
adorers of the sun and moon on the other. The newcomers into 
America worshipped a spiritual God without mounds, idols, or human 
sacrifices, or any of those peculiarities which characterized the south- 
ern people, and which have just now passed in review before us. 
Aboriginal History of Tennessee, pp. 110-112. 

IDOL FOUND NEAR NASHVILLE. 1 

. . . Another idol was found near Nashville. It was of clay 
peculiar for its fineness and its use, which is quite abundant in some 
parts of Kentucky. With this clay was mixed a small portion of 
gypsum and sulphate of lime. It represents in three views a woman 
in a state of nudity, whose arms have been cut off close to the body, 
and whose nose and chin have been mutilated. . . . This idol 
near Nashville had a fillet and cake upon his head. It seems to have 
been the fabrication of some tribe once near Hindostan, where the 
authors of the triune idol originated. ... It was found in a 
tumulus. Pp. 152, 156. 

A CLAY VESSEL.* 

Many years ago at Nashville was found a clay vessel about 20 
feet under the surface of the earth, in digging a well in a narrow 
valley between hills liable to wash. The diggers came to a natural 
spring issuing from a rock, on which this piece of pottery was 
placed. Its capacity was nearly a gallon. The base was a flat circle, 
from which rises a somewhat globose form, terminating at the top 
with a figure of a female head. There is no aperture except a round 
hole situated toward the summit of the globular part of the vessel. 
The features of the face are Asiatic. The crown of the head is 
covered with a cap or ornaments, shaped into a pyramidical figure, 
with a flattened, circular summit ending at the apex in a round 
button. The ears are very large, extending down in a line with the 
chin, which is a Hindoo custom, and an Indian and Egyptian heiro- 
glyphical emblem of wisdom and supernatural knowledge. This head 
resembles many of those engraved for Mr. Raffle's history. 

A certain general resemblance may also be observed, as respects 
thec rown or cap, the Asiatic head dress being somewhat conical, or 
else pyramidical, with a round or square apex. Had this vessel been 
sent to Mr.. Raffle, says Mr. Clifford, he would, have taken it to be 
of the same origin as the Hindoo statues in the Island of Java. The 

See page 221. 
Se* page 223. 



W. A. PRO VINE 227 

small hole in the vessel is round, though in other respects there is 
no designation of its having been intended as an opening by the fab- 
ricator. There is no raised margin, or other means of showing it 
was thus originally designed, whilst its awkward position must have 
rendered it unfit either for the ready reception or escape of liquids. 
There are some marks of paint having formerly existed on the head, 
though to much worn off to admit of any definite description. P. 150. 

TRIPLICITY. 5 

In White County, in West Tennessee, was dug up, a few years 
ago, in an open temple, situated on the Caney Fork of Cumberland 
river, a flagon, formed into the shape of three distinct and hollow 
heads, joined to the central neck of the vessel by short, thick tubes, 
leading from each respective occiput. It was made of a light, yellow 
and compact clay, intimately intermixed with small broken frag- 
ments, and dust of powdered carbon of lime, and in a state of crys- 
tallization. This vessel held a quart. Its workmanship is well exe- 
cuted. The heads are perfectly natural, and display a striking re- 
semblance of the Asiatic countenance. None of the minor parts 
have been attended to, though a small oval prominence somewhat 
towards the top of each head is probably meant to represent a knot 
of hair. In other respects they appear bald. Each face is painted in 
a different manner, and strongly resembles the modes by which the 
Hindoos designate their different casts. One of the faces is slightly 
covered all over with red ochre, having deep blotches of the same paint 
on the central part of each cheek. The second face has a broad 
streak of brown ochre across the forehead, and another running 
parallel with the same, enveloping the eyes and extending as far as 
the ears. The third face has a streak of yellow ochre, which sur- 
rounds and extends across the eyes, running from the center at 
right angles, down the nose, to the upper lip, whilst another broad 
streak passes from each ear, along the lower jaw and chin. Upon 
this image the following remarks suggest themselves: The Hindoos 
have various marks, by which they paint their faces to designate 
the different casts, and to distinguish amongst the same casts those 
who are the peculiar votaries of certain gods. Mr. Dubois says 
they use only three colours, red, black and yellow. Probably the face 
which now seems to be covered with brown ochre was originally 
black, says Mr. Clifford. If it was, says the latter, a metallic paint, 
as the other colours certainly are, the black having an admixture of 
iron, would certainly change from the lapse of time, and become what 
to all appearance it now is, a dark brown ochre. The other two 
colours, being native minerals, usually found in the earth, are not 
subject to change. If so, these colours were originally the same as 
those used in Indostan. Mr. Dubois mentions that the Hindoos draw 
three or four horizontal lines between the eyebrows, whilst others 
describe a perpendicular line from the top of the forehead to the 
rcot of the nase. Some northern Brahmans apply the marks to either 
jaw, meaning probably the same sort of line above described in the 
face painted with yellow ochre, as extending from the ears, along 
the lower jaw to the chin. He further says that the Brahmans draw 
a horizontal line around the forehead, to denote that they have bathed 
and are pure. The vessel described, Mr. Clifford thought, was in- 
tended for sacred uses. It being found within one of the circum- 
vallatory temples, is an evidence in favour of this supposition. It 
would certainly not have been a convenient vessel for any domestic 

5 See page 224. 



228 SOME EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN TKNNR88KB 

purpose. The angular position of the heads, with respect to the 
neck of the flagon, must have prevented its being emptied of any 
liquid by other means than a complete inversion. The contents of 
two of the heads might be discharged by an inclined position, with 
some difficulty and much gargling. But to empty the other the neck 
must become vertical. The ancients were unacquainted with goblets, 
pitchers and decanters, as intermediate vessels. They used large 
jars or vases to hold their liquors for safe keeping or carriage, and 
poured the contents into bowls or horns, from which they drank. 
Our aborigines were hardly more refined. And whilst the small 
size of the flagon precludes the idea of its being a vessel for deposit 
of liquids, its shape plainly indicates that it could not have been 
used for a drinking vessel. As the ancients always completely in- 
verted the vessels from which they poured their libations, it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that this flagon was intended for the same pur- 
pose; and that the three heads, with the different marks of casts, 
might designate the various orders of men for which such libations 
were made. If so, the evidence is almost direct} of the identity of 
religion professed by the Hindoos, and the aborigines of Tennessee. 
No fabulous circumstance or train of thought could have occasioned 
such striking similarity in the paints and modes of applying them, 
in order to distinguish the different orders of men in their respeo 
tive nations. If, However, the flagon is not a vessel of libation, the 
fact of its having three heads, possessing Asiatic features, and 
painted as before is stated, is certainly a strong evidence of Asiatic 
origination. Brama, one of the three principal gods of the Hindoos, 
was represented with a triple head, from the remotest antiquity, as 
ic proved from his colossal statue in the cave of Elephanta. Numer- 
ous Hindoo idols in the island of Java have three heads. This char- 
acter in the image of their gods was very common, as is proved by 
a number of them delineated by Mr. Raffle, in the second volume of 
his history. (Pp. 116-118.) 

OTHER IMAGES. 

. . . Besides these, an image was found near the base of a 
mound at Mayfield's station, twelve miles southwardly from Nash- 
ville, one near the base of a mound near Clarksville, and another 
in the neighborhood of the Rev. Mr. Craighead. The first of these 
images, that found at Mayfield's station, in the county of Davidson, 
twenty years ago, was of sculptured stone, representing a woman 
sitting upon her hams, with both hands under her chin, and her 
elbows upon her knees. It was neatly formed, and well polished and 
proportioned. Mr. Boyd took and kept it at his tavern in Nashville 
a long time. Dr. Brown had two images, found by ploughing the 
ground near a very large mound below Clarksville. These also were 
sculptured. One represented an old man with his body bent for- 
ward, and head inclined downwards, exceedingly well executed. The 
other represented an old woman. P. 151. 

It would be interesting indeed to know if these specimens 
are still in existence in some of our museums. So far the 
writer has not been able to locate them. 

W. A. PROVINE. 






WHY THE FIRST SETTLERS OF TENNESSEE 
WERE FROM VIRGINIA 

The first settlement in Tennessee; that is, the North Hol- 
ston settlement in the present county of Sullivan, and the 
South Holston settlement, on the Watauga, in the present 
county of Washington, were effected between the treaty of 
Hard Labor in 1768, and the experimental survey of the Vir- 
ginia-North Carolina line in 1771, while all the territory so 
settled was still believed to be a part of Virginia. There are 
geographical reasons sufficient to explain why the founders of 
these settlements should have come, in the main, from Virginia 
rather than from North Carolina. In the first place, the Blue 
Ridge that separates Virginia from Tennessee numbers among 
its range of towering hills Mt. Mitchell, the highest peak east 
of the Rocky Mountains, and was at that time almost impassa- 
ble. Even as experienced and able woodsman as James Rob- 
ertson, when crossing the range in 1770, was lost in the track- 
less mountains and wandered, without food, for fourteen days ; 
and finally owed his extrication to his good fortune in meeting 
up with some hunters, who relieved his distress and enabled 
him to reach his home in safety. On the other hand, the Ap- 
palachian Valley was an easy and natural route from Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia to the Southwest. When the water- 
shed changed from the Alleghany Mountains to the Blue Ridge, 
it left the valley open, like the mouth of a funnel, to empty 
the population from the eastern watershed in Virginia to the 
western watershed in North Carolina; whose north line had 
not yet been located and was still unknown. 

The Appalachian Valley from the Potomac River to the 
state of Alabama is composed of the Shenandoah Valley, the 
Valley of Southwest Virginia, and the Valley of East Tennes- 
see. Its general direction is from northeast to southwest. On 
the northwest it is bounded by the Alleghany-Cumberland Es- 
carpment, and on the southeast by the Blue Ridge Range. 
When the valleys from Harrisburg to Hagertown had been set- 
tled, the restless backwoodsmen of Pennsylvania naturally 
joined the frontiersmen of tidewater Virginia, and pushed their 
setlemente up the Shenandoah Valley. 

KING'S PROCLAMATION OP 1763. 

The king's proclamation of 1763 greatly accelerated the 
flow of immigration up the Shenandoah Valley, and down the 
Valley of Southwest Virginia into the Valley of East Tennes- 
see. By the treaty of Paris, February 13, 1763, the Mississippi 



230 WHY FIRST TENNESSEE SETTLERS WERE FROM VIRGINIA 

River was made the boundary between the French and English 
possessions; everything east of the river, except the town of 
New Orleans and the island on which it is situated, was ceded 
to England. 1 But on October 7, of the same year, King George 
issued his proclamation reserving to the Indians all the lands 
lying to the westward of the sources of the rivers which fall 
into the sea from the west and northwest; and forbidding his 
subjects from making any purchase or settlement on the lands 
so reserved. 2 

The reason for this proclamation seems to have been the fear 
that emigrants to so remote a region would establish manufac- 
tures for themselves; and, in the heart of America found a 
power which distance would emancipate from English control. 8 
But, whatever the motive, it restrained western emigration; 
and those who ignorantly crossed the line, like the settlers on 
Watauga River, were promptly ordered off by the agents of 
the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 

In the meantime emigrants had already passed the head- 
waters of the Shenandoah River beyond Staunton; then the 
headwaters of the James River ; and finally, the headwaters of 
the Staunton River, a branch of the Roanoke that empties its 
waters into Albemarle Sound, and is the last stream in the 
valley that flows to the east. They knew the Alleghany Escarp 
ment as the Alleghany Mountains, and everywhere, from Har- 
pers Ferry to the headwaters of Holston, they had found it 
to be the watershed that divides the eastern from the western 
waters. So firmly were the Alleghanies impressed upon their 
minds as the watershed that, as late as 1843, the settlers on 
New River believed the Alleghany Mountains had crossed the 
Blue Ridge, because the New River takes its rise in the eastern 
range. 4 

THE NORTH AND SOUTH HOLSTON SETTLEMENTS. 

Though the New River rises in the Blue Ridge, cuts through 
the Alleghanies, and finds its way west to the Mississippi ; and 
though the Holston River, rising near the New, flows south- 
wardly across the Virginia line, traverses the whole length of 
the Valley of East Tennessee, and ultimately reaches the same 
great river, the frontiersmen stil Iconsidered the Alleghany 
Mountains the line of the Indian reservation, and continued 
to push their settlements down the Valley of Southwest Vir- 

'Laws.of U. S., etc.. having operation and respect to the public lands. (Wash., 
1817), pp. 27-8. 

f Same, pp. 28-31. 

Bancroft's History of the U. S. (Revised Ed.), Vol. 4, p. 22. 

Featherstonhaugh's Excursion Through the Slave States. Vol. i, p. 133. 



A. V. GOODPASTURE 231 

ginia and into the Valley of East Tennessee. The treaty of 
Hard Labor, in 1768, ran the east line of the Indian reservation 
from ChiswelFs Mine on the Kanawha to a point thirty-six 
miles east of the Great Island of Holston. But settlements 
having already passed this line, in 1770 the treaty of Lochaber 
moved it back so as to run from the mouth of the Kanawha to 
a point six miles east of the Great Island of Holston. 

This latter line threw nearly all of the present Tennessee 
counties of Sullivan and Washington east of the Indian reser- 
vation, and greatly stimulated the movement of settlers down 
the Valley of East Tennessee. The first settlement had been 
made at King's Meadow (Bristol), on the north side of Hol- 
ston, which was long thought to be in Virginia, and was repre- 
sented in the Virginia Assembly. But the treaty of 1770 may 
be assigned as the beginning of the settlement at Watauga, on 
the south side of Holston. The Watauga River, being east of 
the Indian line, many pioneers settled on its waters, thinking 
they were in Virginia. 5 The southern boundary of that state 
was purely an imaginary line that had never been run or 
marked. But an experimental survey from Steep Rock to 
Beaver Creek in the spring of 1771, made it clear that the 
Virginia line would not fall south of Holston. The Holston 
River was then for several years considered the southern boun- 
dary of Virginia. In 1772 the Indian line from the Blue Ridge 
to the Alleghany Mountains was made identical with the line 
between Virginia and North Carolina. This cut the Watauga 
settlement off in the Indian reservation, and Alexander Came- 
ron, an agent of the Royal Government, ordered its inhabitants 
to move back across the Holston. But they found means of 
propitiating the authorities, and so the settlements on both 
sides of the Holston were permanently founded by emigrants 
from Virginia. 

A. V. GOODPASTURK. 



'Petition of the Inhabitants of Washington District (1775), Ramsey's AnnaU of 
Tenn., p. 134. 



JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

(Continued from page 194.) 

Tues. 21 Fair & warm. 

Wed. 22 Fair & very warm began to rain Rained all night with 
loud thunder. 

Th. 23 Rained Heayyly in the morng. & a great part of the day & 
all night. Wm. Sherrill sit out for home in co with Jno. McAllister. 

Fry. 24 became some cooler & clearer the river rose to very great 
height. 

Sat. 25 the river at Stand & though to have rose 35 Feet clear & 
cool. 

Sun. 26 clear & the river began to fall. Let James Lee esqr. have 
a warrant on the Treasurer for 43 dollars to help pay off a debt due 
from the Estate of Isaac Taylor, also wrote to A Meek allowing him 
to let Col. Outlaw pay Lee 60 & a half dollars, which Lee informs 
me is the amt of his Debt, amounting in the whole to 103 1-2 dolls, 
pd a Waggoner 157. for hauling 5 loads of rails from Johnsons. 

Mon. 27 a beautiful day myself Capt. Sparks, Wm. Campble & 
Rutha rode out to Mr. Roads & dined. 

Tues. 28 there fell a snow 8 inches deep 12 o'clock at night. Step- 
Bon Duncan's house burned down. 

. March 1797. 

Weday. clear & warm, but hailed in the night. 

Th. 2 day hailed snowed & rained in the morng gave 5 dollars to 
a dutchman who had his effects burned in Duncans house his name 
Waggoner. 

Sat 4 clear & Cool, Tho. Shields on pigeon was killed by Indians. 
Sun. 5 dined at Col. Henlys clear & cool day. 

Mon. 6th paid Mr. Price twelve dollars for Grubing my four lota 
of Ground (Clear). 

Tues 7 clear & pleasant (some wind). 
We. 8 clear & pleasant. 
Thur. 9 ditto. 
Fry. 10 ditto. 

Sat. 11 ditto, pd. Handwicke 11 Dols for to hire a hand 1 month 
to work. 

Sun. 12 cloudy & rained in the morning, pd Doctor Frenier (?) 
for Alex Cuningham 13 3-4 dollars . . . 4.2.6. Mrs. Cain came 
here & tarried here all night, reed yesterday from Crozier & McCrory 
100 Dols pd 80 of them to Thos. N. Clark in pay for the waggon & 
team purchased from him & 120 dols. out of the store being the first 



JOHN H. DB WITT 233 

payment - (In Co.) Memo, gave John Rector on order on Col. Har- 
rison for 10 or fifteen Dols., who set out today for Virginia. 

Mon. 13 rained in afternoon & evening. Took tea with Mr. Sweet- 
man together with Cap. Wade, Richard Right, Hillis & Nesdnan. 

Tues. 14 cloudy in the morng (cleared off) rode out to Duncans 
place Loonys (?) &c Sowed a few garden seeds. 

Wed. 15 pleasant & warm day set out for Marysville & arrived in 
evng. Staid all night at Capt. Taylors (rained) paid expenses 3 
dollars. 

Thur. 16 set out late & lodged at Mr. Simms rained in the night, 
W. M. Sims. 

Fry. 17 cloudy in morng Came to Knoxville 1 o'clock, dined with 
the Continental officers & others at Capt. Chisms being a club dinner 
in memory to the day of St. Patrick. 

Sat. 18 (cool) Mr. Sims & Lady came to town & tarried at Mr. 
Campbles. 

Sun. 19 cool Mr. Sims & Lady wt. home. 

Mon. 20 Fair & pleasant. 

Tuesday 21 very warm. 

Wed. 22 ditto. 

Thur. 23 rained & thundered. 

Fry. 24 rained. 

Sat. 25 Fair pd Seth Johnson 2 D. 

Sun. 26 rained. 

Mon. 27 cool & Frost at night. 

Tues 28 cool, sent Toby home to assist Wm. Sevier down, also sent 
with him 6 Crowns & four dollars to Mrs. Sevier, a muslin pattern to 
Joanna & a dimitty one to Polly. 

Wes. 29 cool. 

Thur. 30 cloudy, a Genl Muster. 

Fry. 31 rained. 

April 1797. i 

Sat 1 April, cool & Frost at night. 
Sun. 2 more pleasant & cool at night. 
Mon. 3 cloudy in the morng. 
Tues. 4 rained a little. 
Wed. 5 rained a little. 
Thur 6 cloudy only, rained in the night. 

Fry. 7 reed from Crozier & McCrory 50 Dollars went & lodged at 
McCains. 

Sat. 8 set out from McCains. Caught in heavy rain, lodged all 
night at Mr. Hains'es. 

Sun. 9 about 12 o'clock Mrs. Sevier arrived set out & lodged all 
night at Magbees Ferry, paid Expenses 167. Frost at night. 



234 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SBVIER (1790-1815) 

Mon. 10 Arrived in Knoxville, all safe Frost at night. 
Tues. 11 Genl. court began. 

Wed. 12 lent to Joseph Brown brother to Doctor M. Brown 4 
dollars. 

Thu. 13 dry & cold. 

Fryday 14 cloudy pd Hancock 2 Dol. to pay for grubing. 

Sat 15 rained. 

Sun. 16 cool, Frost at night. 

Mon. 17 rained. 

Tues 18 very windy & cool pd John McCain 25 Dolls, pd. Alex 
Matthews 13.3/4 dollars for 250 Is. Flour. Stevens burnt in hand 
for larceny 1 " 6 , pd. for Balch 8 dollars. 

Wed. 19 rained. 

Thur. 20 cool. 

Fry. 21 ditto. 

Sat. 22 Superior Court adjd. 

Sun. 23 cool & windy. 

Mon. 24 very cool county court of Knox began. 

Tues. 25 cool. 

Wed. 26 some frost at night. Pd. Seth Johnson 7 dollars. 

Thurs. 27. rained a little, the goods came to Whites with Stuart. 

Fry. 28 Robert Parker was Executed for Burglary, lent Joel Han- 
cock 1 dol. 

Sat. 29 very warm. Several Frenchmen arrived, sons to the late 
Duke of Orleans. 

Sun. 30 Set out for Cumberland 10 * first being visited by the 3 sons 
<of Orleans 1 *" accompanied by Capt. Crozar Richard, Wright, Stone 
& no. of others as far as Mr. Clarkes. Lodged all night at Mr. Camp- 
bells.'" 

May 1797. 

Monday 1 of may rained in morng. let our horses graze near 
Clayville. Reed yesterday from R. Campbell 60 dollars. Dined at 
So. W. Point 10 * lodged all night at Richardsons. pd Expenses 10/6. 

w The punishment for larceny of a horse, mare or gelding, for the first offense, 
was the infliction of rot exceeding thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, imprisonment, 
at the discretion of the court, for not less than six months nor more than two years, 
being made to sit in the pillory two hours on three different days, beiig rendered 
infamous, and being branded with the letters H. T. in such manner and on such 
part of his person as the court should direct; and, for the second offense, he should 
suffer death without benefit of clergy. 

to *So far as we have been able to ascertain, this was Sevier's only visit to the 
Cumberland settlement; and nowhere else than in this diary is it recorded. 

"See Appendix, page 265. 

"Campbell's was in the southwestern part of Knox County. 

""South West Point, the former name for Kingston, the county seat of Roane 
County, where the Clinch River flows into the Tennessee. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 235 

Tues. 2 set out Brak. under the Cumberland Mountain. Dined at 
Crab Orchard. 110 Lodged all night 2 miles beyond Obas river. 

Wed. 3 Set out passed a camp of Indians near Drowning creek, 
rode 12 miles & Brak rode 13 miles to a spring 2 miles from the 
mountain in the barrens. There dined lodged 10 miles from Fort 
Blount 111 rained in night. 

Thur. 4 Rained in the morng. Brak. at Andersons, pd Expenses 
4/6. Crossed Fort Blount" 1 to the Cumberland River pd I/. Lodged 
at Peter Turnys. 112 rained much in the night. 

Fry. 5 Swam our horses over Goose Creek. Crossed ourselves in 
a Canoe. 118 got corn at Stubblefields pd. 4/6. Dined at Lyons, Bled- 
soes Lick. 114 pd. Lodged at Genl. Winchesters. 115 

Sat. 6 cloudy in the morng. lodged at Colonel Edwd. Duglass'es. 1 " 

Sun. 7 arrived in Nashville, Lodged all night at Maj. Lewis. 1 " 
Met with my brother G/ Sevier. 

Mon. 8 went to Judge McNairys 11 * (Court began). 
Tues. 9 tarried at the Judges. 
Wed. 10 dined with Mrs. Robersons. 
Thur. 11 dined at Mr. Tates. 

n Crab Orchard, a gap in the Crab Orchard Mountains, Cumberland County, 
through which came a stream of immigration of the pioneers. Sevier's route here 
was northwestwardly through the present county of Cumberland to the old Wilderness 
Road and along this road through Overton and Jackson counties. 

nl Fort Blount stood on the northern bank of the Cumberland, in Jackson County. 
on the old Wilderness Road leading to the settlement at Nashville. It was established 
in 1794 for protection of travelers against the Indians, who disputed the right of 
the white people to use this thoroughfare without compensation to them. (See "The 
Old Road," by W. E. McElwee, American Historical Magazine, October, 1903.) 

m Peter Turney was a brother of Hopkins L. Turney, who was United States 
Senator from Tennessee, 1845-1851, and father of Chief Justice and Governor Peter 
Turney. 

1X8 The route from Fort Blount to Nashville was the old road, begun in 1787. It 
ran westwardly through Jackson; County, the northern part of Smith County, the 
present county of Trousdale, Sumner County, past the site of Gallatin, then followed 
closely the present Nashville and Gallatin turnpike to Nashville. Goose Creek rises 
. in Macon County and flows southwardly through Trousdale into the Cumberland 
River. 

114 Bledsoe's Lick, now Castalian Springs, the site of a prehistoric village and 
graveyard, near sulphur springs, the dendezvous of wild animals and Indians. Here, 
in 1779, Thomas Sharp Spencer raised the first crop of corn in Middle Tennessee 
and lived for one winter in a large hollow sycamore. Here in 1784 Anthony Bled- 
soe settled upon his famous "Greenfield grant" of 6,280 acres. He was killed there 
by Indians on July 20, 1788. About the same year, 1784, his brother, Isaac Bledsoe, 
settled near by. He was killed there by Indians on April 9, 1793. Both were dis- 
tinguished and heroic. Their descendants include many illustrious people. (See 
Cisco's "Historic Sumner County.") 

116 General James Winchester (1752-1826), a native of Maryland and a Revolu- 
tionary officer, moved to Sumner County in 1785; lived at "Cragfont," on Bledsoe's 
Creek, two miles west of Bledsoe's Lick. He was a colleague of Sevier in the 
Territorial Council, i794-'96. He was speaker of the senate of the first General 
Assembly, commander of the left wing, Army of the Northwest, War of 1812-15, 
and was one of the founders of Memphis. 

118 Col. Edward Douglass, a native of Virginia, and an officer in the Revolution, 
settled in 1785 on Station Camp Creek, a few miles from Gallatin. He was at this 
time a member of the state senate. 

"'William Terrel Lewis,, a native of North Carolina. He was father-in-law of 
Major Wm. B. Lewis, the devoted friend of Andrew Jackson. Their home was 
"Fairfield," now in the southeastern part of Nashville. The residence was destroyed 
for the building of the Lipscomb Public School. 

n *Judge John McNairy was then United States District Judge. His home was 
near the present corner of Jefferson Street and Ninth Avenue, North. 



236 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

Fry. 12 nothing extraordinary. 
Sat. 13 nothing extraordinary. 
Sun. 14 dined at Col. Joel Lewis. 1 " 

Mon. 15 dined at Mr. Maclins. went home with Gen. Robertson. 120 
Tarried all night. 

Tues. 16 returned to Nashville & dined at Mr. Fosters. 121 

Wed. 17 a handsome & Elegant Ball, at Judge McNairys in the 
evening. 

Thur. 18 rained, I accompanying Mrs. Tate home & dined with 
her then returned to Judge McNairys in the evening was visited 
by Colo. Hawkins & Genl. Pickens. 122 

Fry. 19 rained in the morng. 

Sat. 20 dined at Maj. Lewis with a large party of Ladies and 
Gentlemen, a violent storm in the night blowed down several houses 
lodged all night with Mr. Lewis. 

Sun. 21 went out to the Commiss. camp, dined there & returned to 
Judge McNairys. 

Mon. 22 dined at Colonel Joel Lewis, & returned to Ju. McNairys. 

Tues. 23 dined at Maj. Lewis & left Nashville 3 o'clock Lodged 
at Col. Hays. 12 " 

Wed. 24 Set out after Brakfust, rained arrived at Genl. Smith 1 * 4 
in evening staied all night. 

Thu. 25 set out in the morng. arrived at Genl. Winchesters in 
evening, tarried all night. 

Fry. 26 Set out 10 o'clock, fed at Stubblefields & arrived at Capt. 
Turnys in the eveng. staid all night. 

Sat 27 Set out in the morng Dined at Anderson & lodged 12 
miles from thence. 

Sun. 28 Set out very early rode 10 miles to the Foot of the moun- 

"Joel Lewis was senator from Davidson County in the first and third general 
assemblies. He was also a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1796. 

120 It thrills one to imagine that evening May 15, 1797 spent with James Rob- 
ertson. Together in Robertson's home near the Cumberland, Sevier and Robertson 
must have recalled many heroic events in which they took part. The prophecy ut- 
tered by Robertson in 1779 to Sevier, upon his departure from Watauga, had been 
fulfilled, "We are the advance guard of civilization and our way is across the con- 
tinent." 

"'James Foster was one of the signers of the Cumberland Compact; but this host 
to the Governor was probably 'Robert C. Foster, father of Ephraim H. Foster a 
great lawyer and United States senator. 

12Z Benjamin Hawkins and Andrew Pickens were two of the commissioners who in 
1785, at Hopewell, S. C., negotiated in behalf of the Federal government the Treaty 
of Hopewell. Under this and a subsequent treaty of confirmation the Cherokees and 
Chickasaws ceded all claim to all the land in Tennessee south of the Cumberland 
River for many miles. 

12 *Col. Robert Hays, at old Haysborough on the Cumberland, about eight mile 
northeast of Nashville. The wife of Col. Hays was a daughter of Col. John Donelson 
and a sister of Mrs. Andrew Jackson. 

m General Daniel Smith (1748-1818) whose famous home, "Rock Castle," still 
stands near Hendersonville, in Sumner County an accomplished civil engineer; 
commissioner for Virginia in running the northern boundary line of Tennessee; 
secretary of the Southwest Territory; United States Senator, 1798-99, 1805-09; author 
of a geography of Tennessee, containing the first map of the State made from actual 
surveys. 



JOHN H. DE WITT 237 

tain & Brakfirsted Lodged at night within 8 miles of the Crab 
orchard. 

Mon. 29 Set out very early rode 20 miles across to the foot of the 
mountain & Brak. with Mr. Sweelman (?) on his way to Cumberland 
with his waggon, then set out and arrived at So. Wt. Point 3 o'clock 
rained heavily in the night. 

Tues. 30 rained in the morng. our horses missing, tho found to- 
ward evening. 

Wed. 31 Set out & arrived early at Judge Campbells, tarried all 
night. 

June 1797. 

Thursday 1 day of June 1797. Set out in the morning and arrived 
at Knoxville in the evening. Dined at Mr. Parks 126 on the way Found 
all well at Mr. Campbells. 

Fry. 2 rained in the morng. Nothing Extraordinary. 

Sat. 3 Mr. & Mrs. Campbell set out for Tellicos B. 128 house in 
Company with Mr. & Mrs. Crozier, Capt. Sparks, Davidson & some 
others. Cloudy in morng. 

Su. 4 very warm. 

Mon. 5 ditto. 

Tues. 6 Mr. Campbell & wife returned shower. 

Wed. 7 Some cooler. 

Thur. 8 warm pd. unto Mr. Dunlop Farmwalls acct. per order at 
11.14.8 V. M. 

Fryday 9 very warm. 

Sat. 10. very warm, pd. Rob. Wyly 30 dollars in part of his acct. 
Vs.me. 

Sun 11 very warm & Dry. 
Mon. 12 ditto, ditto. 
Tues. 13 ditto- 
Wed. 14 ditto. 

Thurs. 15 Sent a Draggoon up to Plumb Grove with letters to 
Mrs. Sevier, & Miss Rutha. Continues very warm. 

Fry. 16 very warm. 

Sat 17 very warm & cloud. 

Sun. 18 cool in the morning & some rain. 

Mon. 19 cool. 

Tues. 20 ditto. 

Wed. 21 ditto. pd. Mr. Bowen five dollars for Alex. Cunningham. 

Thurs. 22 Lent Capt. Blue 10 Dols. Cloudy. Sit out for P. Grove 
in Comp with Mrs. & Mr. Campbell, Capt. Sparks, & some Dragoons, 

128 James Park. He was mayor of Knoxville, i8i8-'2i; i824-'26. 
""Tellico Block Houfce, in Blount County, a noted place 1 for making of treaties 
with Cherokees. Here was the council house of the nation. 



238 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SBVIEE (1790-1815) 

red from D. Henly. Agent 40 dolls, in pay for a house built at So. 
W. P. Lodged at Mr. Brazittons at night. 

Fry. 23 Lodged at Col. Outlaws, 127 rained in the afternoon. 

Sat. 24, dined at Greenville rained in afternoon, arrived at home 
in the evening pd. a merchant in Greenville 49/3. for wine a hat 
&c had by Mrs. Sevier. pd Rob Wyly 28/10 for L. sugar. 

Sun. 25 rained Majr. Mclntosh & Cap. Blue dined here 
Mon. 26 rained. Mr. Sherril reaped. 

Tues. 27 cloudy in morng. Self & Cap. Sparks went to Jonesboro 
ret. in evng. 

Wed. 28 began to reap. 

Thurs. 29 Capt. Richd. Sparks & Rutha Sevier married by Mr. 
Doake. 1 " 

Fry. 30 rained. pd. Isaac Embree 2 dollars for plank 2/6. yet 
due to him, in full of all accounts. 

JULY 1797. 

Sat. 1 Went self, Mrs. Sevier Capt Sparks & Mrs. Sparks to 
Jonesbro. rained. 

Sun. 2 staid at Jonesboro rained lodged with Mrs. Sevier &c at 
Waddles. 

Mon. 3 came home rained. 

Tues. 4 went & Dined with Jas. Sevier rained. 

Wed. 5 clear & warm finished reaping wheat 

Thurs. 6 rained. 

Fry. 7 ditto. 

Sat. 8 ditto. 

Sun. Fair & very hot, Capt. Sparks sit out for Knoxville. 

Mon. 10 light rain in morng. 

Tues. 11 self Mrs. Sevier wt to Jonesbro. 

Wed. 12 staid at Jonesbro (dry). 

Thurs. 13 ditto (dry dry). 

Fry. 14 ditto ditto. 

Sat 15 came home (dry). 

Sun. 16 cloudy in morng. 

Mon. 17 very hot. 

""Probably Alexander Outlaw, 1738-1825, characterized by Caldwell (p. 65) as 
"one of the best and purest, as well as one of the ablest men of his time in Ten- 
nessee"; a native of Duplin County, North Carolina, well educated; took an active 
part in the formation of the State of Franklin; member from Jefferson County in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1796; representative in first general assembly; state 
senator, 1799, 1801; speaker of the senate, 1799. He was the fatCer-in-law of four 
well-known men of that time Judge Joseph Anderson, Joseph Hamilton, Paul Mc- 
Dermott, and Judge David Campbell. 

'"Marriage of Ruth Sevier, the sixth daughter, to Capt Richard Sparks, June 29. 
1797. Her second husband was Daniel Vertner. An interesting sketch of her and 
Capt. Spark* is found on page 204 of Heiskell's "Andrew Jackson and Early Ten- 
nessee History." 



JOHN H. DB WITT 239 

Tues. 18, ditto, some little rain. Genl. McDowell came 189 here. 
Wed. 19 Cloudy but no rain. 
Thur. 20 Genl. McDowell left here. 
Fry. 21 clear & hot. 
Sat. 22 ditto. 

Sun. 23 Mr. May & wife came here from Maj. Seviers staid all 
night. 

Monday 24 cloudy Memo, let Walter King have a warrant on the 
Treasurer for 100 Dollars some time ago. Also paid Geo. Gillaspy 
sheriff for Walter King 49 dollars. Mr. King reed pay for the 100 
dols warrant from John Shelby sheriff of Sullivan. 

Tuesday 25 myself & son Washington went to Walter Kings & I 
left him Mr. King have 100 Dollars cash, staid all night at Mr. 
Kings. 

Wed 26 tarried at Mr. Kings. 

Thurs. 27 ditto. 

Fry, 28 ditto C. See, S. B. 

Sat. 29 came home in Co. with Col. S. Weir, Whorton rector & a 
son of Col. Arthurs . rained a little in the night. 

Sun. 30 light shower in the morning. Memo, purchase yesterday 
from Wharton Rector this good in Knoxville for which I am to 
give him 25 pet. in advance. Samuel Weir, James Paine & a young 
Arthur Wittens (?). 

Mon. 31 Fair & hot. 

August 1797, 

Tues. 1 day of August 1797. self Mrs. Sevier & children went 
to Jas. Seviers to hear Revd. Bukton preach. 
Wed. 2 light shower. 

Thurs. 3 went to the election 130 a very fine rain. 
Fry. 4 rained. 

Sat. 5 Colonel Heard & Mr. Dardin came here, (my house) . 
Sunday 6 clear day. 
Mon. 7 Herd & Dardin went away. 

Tues. 8 Settled with Jacob Embree my own acct. & John Rich- 
monds 12/3. John Fickees acct. 12/9. for myself 4 chairs 12./ 37/. 
Gave an order for 37/ to Colo. Harrisons store Lent to Win. Greene 
2 Dollars. 

Wed. 9 dry & warm. 

Thurs. 10 set out for Knoxville in Co. with Judge Claiborne 
Lodged that night at Greeneville, at which place the Synod had that 
day convened. 

^General Charles McDowell commanded the one hundred and sixty men from 
the counties of Burke and Rutherford, North Carolina, in the Battle of King's 
Mountain. 

"oSevier does not mention his election on this day August 3, 1797 as governor 
for the second time. 



240 JOURNAL OP GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIEll (1790-1815) 

Fry. 11, lodged that night in Greeneville. 

Sat. 12 left Greeneville lodged that night at Col. Roddy's, where 
I left my beast lance. 

Sun. 13 I borrowed a mair from a Mr. Majers shower of rain 
Lodged at Mr. Hains pd. him 1 dollar to defray the expenses in the 
tavern. 

Mon. 14 Brakfirsd at Mr. Mocks Dined at Mr. McCains, & ar- 
rived in the evening in Knoxville & lodged at Cap. Stones. 

Tues. 15 dined in camp with Capts. Butler & Sparks. 

Wed. 16 very warm. 

Thur. 17 rained a fine shower. 

Fry. 18 ditto. 

Sat. 19 ditto. 

Sun. 20 visited the camp a Fair day. 

Mon. 21 some light showers. The waggons set out to pactolus (?) 
Iron Works loaded with goods I set out in the evening for plumb 
Grove, lodged at Mr. Cains & gave him 30 dolls. 

Tues. 22 I purchased 2 negro fellars from Isham Brown, one 
named Ned a cook, the other Jack, a laborer price 215. Set out about 
10 o'clock fed horses at Haines Iron works, & got one shod, pd/ ex- 
penses 4/. Lodged that night at Colo. Roddys. 

Wed. 23 pd. Mr. Majors 2 dollars for the lend of his mair pd 2 
dollars to a negro fellar for taking care of my mair left lame at 
Colo. Roddys. Set out early & Brak. at Purdoms the blue spring, 
pd. expenses 2/s fed at Carricks in Greeneville, pd I/, then set out 
& arrived at home at Dark. Memo I pd John Stone 9 dollars on 
Monday last for one weeks board of myself & expenses of feeding 
horses wine &c &c. 

Thur. 24 very hot & Dry day M. E. John McCollister came here 
& Tarryed all night. Mrs. Wm. Clarke & Mrs. Massingail dined at 
my house. 

Fry. 25 very Dry & hot, rain in the evening. 

Sat. 26th Mr. Rector & Mr. Kenedy came here & tarryied all 
night set out in the morning. 

Sun. 27 very warm. 

Mon. 28 ditto, began to take fodder. 

Tues 29 very hot. 

Wed. 30 ditto Col. Craig came here on his way to Philadelphia 
tarryed all night & set out in morning. 

Thurs. 31 myself & Mrs. Sevier went to Jonesboro. From thence 
I went to Walter Kings Iron works Mr. Campbell & Mrs. Campbell 
came to my house from Virginia. I tarried at Walter Kings all night. 

September, 1797. 

Fry. 1st day of September 1797 Tarried at Walter Kings (Dry). 
Sat. 2 Staid at Kings. 
Sun. 3 came to P. Grove, fine rain. 



JOHN H. DE WI1T 241 

Mon. 4 nothing extraordinary. 

Tues. 5 Set out with the family in the evening for Knoxville. 
Lodged that night at Col. Gillaspys 

Wed. 6 Set out early Dined at Greene, pd. Expenses 17/6. Lodged 
that night at Blue Springs. (Expenses 16/6). 

Thur. 7 Set out Early, dined at Colo. Roddies, pd. Expenses 6/. 
Give to Col. Roddie to give Mr. Major for attending my Mair Lodged 
that night at Wm. Murphys pd Expenses 12/. Memo, pd King & 
Deckson 457. in full of my store acct. as pr. receipt taken 6th instant. 

Fry. 8 Lodged that night at Adam Meeks esqr. 

Sat. 9 Set out early dined at Jno Cains Arrived in Knoxville 
in the evening the waggon & Cattle also. 

Sun. 10 Very warm, staid at Cap. Sparks. 
Mon. 11, ditto. some rain. 

Tues. 12 came to Major McClungs house, for which am to pay 10 
dollars pr. month to Arthur Crozier. 131 

Wed. 13 pd. Richard Cavit 50 dollars, in part pay of a note of 
100 due Walter King some little rain. Give Rutha Sparks 5 Dollars. 

Thurs. 14 cloudy Mr. Richd Campbles waggon with goods ar- 
rived Judge McNairy & his lady took tea. 

Fry. 15 paid Jesse Willson pr order of Joel Hancocke 4 & a half 
dollars for grubing 1 1 acre & half of Ground at the plantation, pd. 
Joel Hancocke 2 dollars for Grubing done by Jesse Willsons brother 
some time ago. Pd. Thomas Hope 5 dolls, towards work done by him- 
self in making sash lights, doors &c. 

Sat. 16 Very warm. 

Sun. 17 a very fine rain in the eveng. 

Mon. 18th the assembly convened, a cool night. 

Tues. 19 cool nothing extraordinary. 

Wed. 20 rained. 

Tues. 21 informed by a Committee that I was unanimously elected 
by Gov. and that they would await on me next day to conduct me 
to the house to be qualified into office. 

Fry. 22, The Committee accordingly attended I was qualified &c. 
pd. Tho. N. Clarke 50 dollars. 

Sat. 23 heavy rain. 

Sun. 24 cool & clear. 

Mon. 25 Cloudy & cool, lent Richard Campbell 10 dollars. 

Tues. 20 Dry & cool. 

Wed. 27 ditto pd. Vol. Sevier for S. May 250 Dols. which I 
owed May. 

"^Arthur Crozier. Later, 1851-1855, an Arthur Crozier was comptroller of the 
State of Tennessee. The Croziers were prominent people at Knoxville. John Crozier 
was a leading pro-Southern man at Knoxville in 1860, violently hostile to W. G. 
Brownlow. D. 



242 JOURNAI, OK GOVERNOR JOHN SKVIER (1700-1815) 

Thur. 28 ditto Abraham Joab set in for a month at 12 dollars 
(3 only to be pd. in money). 

Fry. 29 dry & cool. 

Sat. 30 ditto pd. Hawkins 20 dollars for work at the kitchen. 

October 1797. 

Sun. 1 day of October 1797 (dry & cool) all the prisoners in Jail 
except a negro, made their escape in the night. 

Monday 2 very dry & clear weather Memo, that my negro Jack 
has staid at Manwells since I moved down to this place two whole 
weeks & 4 days of the first two weeks, for which I charge half a 
dollar a day, being 16 working days what time he staid there before 
was on an agreement made with Windle. 

Tues. 3 cool & dry, rained in the night 

Wed. 4 Frost at night. 

Thur. 5 cool day the children went to the dancing school. 

Fry. 6 cloudy in morng. Memo. Let Ginerale Carter have two 
drafts on the Treasurer for 375 dollars each, in part payment of my 
bond in his hands. Memo. pd. for James Sevier to the Treasurer 
61 dollars & 80 Cents over & above what I owed him which balance 
he is to pay me in cash Memo. pd. for Wharton Rector 120 dollars 
Whorton Rector Dr. to 120 dollars I paid James Sevier. 

Sat. 7 very dry. 
Sun. 8 ditto. 

Mon. 9 ditto. 
Tues. 10 ditto Superior Court began. 

Wed. 11 very dry & warm. 

Thur. 12 ditto. Election for representative. 

Fry. 13 ditto, election continued & closed pd. John Lynch 40 
dollars, for T. N. Clark. 

Sat. 14 very dry & warm. 

Sun. 15 ditto, pd. for Alex Cunningham 3 dolls. 

Mon. 16 cool. 

Tues. 17 cool nothing extraordinary. 

Wed. 18 pd. Roberts who lives at Cains 2 dollars towards his last 
load of corn. 

Thur. 19 cool & some rain in the evening. 
Fry. 20 ditto cool & light frost. 
Sat 21 cold & light Frost. 

Sun. 22 Myself, Mrs. Sevier Mrs. Sparks and Betsy went to 
Majr. Peters camp. 

Mon. 23 staid at camp (rained in night). 
Tues. 24 returned to Knoxville all well. 
Wed. 25 cool & dry. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 243 

Thurs. 25 self & Mrs. Seviers went to Mr. Sims's to visit Mrs. 
Sims who was sick. 

Fry. 27 Returned home rained at night. 

Sat. 28 cool & clear Assembly adjourned. 

Sun. 29 cold & hard frost at night which killed vines in the garden. 

Mon. 30 Lent to Dr. Franier (?) Linds essays, division of Pulsed 
3 small French volums Knox Court began. 

Tues. 31 Frost at night. 

November 1797. 
Wed. 1 day of November 1797. 
Thur. 2 cool & clear. 
Fry. 3 ditto. 

Sat. 4th ditto pd. Tho. N. Clarke 15 Dolls rained at night. 
Sun. 5 cloudy Mrs. Simms came to town. 
Mon. 6 dry weather. 

Tues. 7 ditto. Tiptons & Gibsons studs run Gibsons beat 18 inches. 
Wed. 8 dry & clear, Sims & wife wt home. 
Thurs. 9 clear & cool. 
Fry. 10 ditto. 
Sat. 11 rained in the day & after night. 

Sun. 12 cloudy in morng. Col. Harrison Toby & my two horses 
wt home. Memo, on Wed. 8th Paddy Gynnan set in as waggoner for 
1 month for 10 dolls. 

Mon. 13 clear &c. 

Tues. 14 ditto. 

Wed. 15 pd Matthew 70 dollars, for Isaac Taylor (?). 

Thur. 16 rained. 

Fry. 17 Cloud. 

Sat. 18 cloudy & cool . 

Sun. 19 rained a little in the night. 

Mon. 20 pd. Joseph Hardin Junr. for Isaac Taylor (?) 25/8. 

Tues. 21 cold. 

Wed. 22 rained in the day & night. 

Thurs. 23 Rained river raised 6 Feet. 

Fry. 24 cloudy. 

Sat. 25 cloudy pd. P. Grinnon a Difft times 6 dolls. 

Sun. 26 cloudy. & like for snow. 

Mon. 27 cloudy & some Flying snow. 

Tues. 28 hard frost. 

Wed. 29 Fine pleasant day. 

Thurs. 30 very fine day. i 



244 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN 8EVIER (1790-1815) 

December 1797. 

Fry. 1 december Ma jr. Phelen (?) arvd. 
Sat. 2 Fair patrick Grinan 1 dollar. 

Sun. 3 rained in day & snowed at night David Stuart began to 
boar. 

Mon. 4 very cold, & cloudy waggon set off to P. Grove. 

Tues 5 ditto very cold Cloudy, pd. Farmwault & Co. 144 dollars 
& due yet 143. 5/6 dollars. 

Wed. 6 very cold. 

Thur. 7 some more moderate a general muster Memo. pd. William 
out of a settlement with A. Cunningham 6 dols. Mr. D. Stuart & negro 
Jack set out for Jonesbro. 

'Fry. 8 more moderate, rained in the day & snowed in the night 
Sat. 9 snowed in the morning (Very cold). 
Sun. 10th more moderate. 
Mon. 11 very cloudy a little rain in night. 

Tues. 12 granted a pardon for Wm. Sutherland who was con- 
demned for stealing 2 negroes the property of Cap. Dannahoo. Cloudy 
& some rain. 

Wed. 13 was at a dance at Mr. Gordons. 
Thur. 14 very warm day, heavy rain at night. 

Fry. 15 rained in the morning, (warm) Mr. & Mrs. Campble 
set out for Tellico & Daughter Polly went with them. 

Sat. 16 cold. 
Sun. 17 ditto. 
Mon. 18 ditto. 
Tues. 19 ditto. 
Wed. 20 ditto. 
Thur. 21 cloudy. 
Fry. 22 rained. 
Sat 23 cold & clear. 

Sun. 24 cold myself Mrs. Sevier Joana &Betsy & Majr. Elholm 
set out for Tellico lodged all night at Bartletts mill. 

Mon. 25 (cold) set out early Brak. at Mariesville & arrived at 
Tellico in the eveng & rained in the night . 

Tues. 26 rained & cold. 

Wed. 27 clear & cold. 

Thur. 28 we set out for home tarried all night in Mariesville. 

Fry. 29 cold We came home in the evening. 

Sat. 30 Some more moderate killed fated Hoggs. 

Sun. 31 rained & warm. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 245 

January 1798. 

Mon. 1 day of January 1798. a fine warm day Genl. White & 
Major Elholm set out for Georgia. 

Tues. 2 warm & pleasant, pd. Wm. Ritchee towards Oats 12/. 
Wed. 3 pleasant pd. P. Grinen 3/. 

Thurs. 4 a rainy fore part of the day. wt. to Mr. McCains & staid 
all night. 

Fry. 5 cloudy & cold came home hard frost at night. 

Sat. 6 Fair & pleasant day. 

Sun. 7 ditto. 

Mon. 8 ditto. 

Tues. 9 ditto. P. Grinen 2/9. 

Wed. 10 ditto. 

Thur. 11 snowed in the night. 

Fry. 12 clear & cold. 

Sat. 13 warm pd. Wm. Ritchey 2 dols. 14. & Tho. N. Clarke 20 
pr Washington. 

Sun. 14 pleasant Chatty Sevier set out for his fathers. 

Mond. 15 rained. 

Tues. 16 fair & pleasant. 

Wed. 17 ditto Pat Grinen 1 dollar. 

Thur. 18 ditto. 

Fry. 19 ditto. 

Sat. 20 rained Jo Sevier set out for the nation. 

Sun. 21 very cold & snowed. 

Mon. 22 very cold & river very high. 

Tues. 23 very cold. 

Wed. 24 very cold. 

Thur. 25 ditto. 

Fry. 26 some more moderate. 

Sat. 27 warm. 

Sun. 28 warm. 

Mon. 29 ditto. Sent the negroes to work plantation. 

Tues. 30 ditto. 

Wed. 31 ditto. 

February 1798. 
Thurs. 1 day of February 1798. Warm & pleasant. 

Fry. 2nd. ditto, pd. Wm. Seawell 7 dols. Lent Colo. Seawell one 
dollar some time ago (paid since). 

Sat. 3d. very pleasant pd. Wm. Ritchee 3 dollars 187. for oats 
reed, some time ago. 



246 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN 8KVIH5R (1790-1815) 

Sun. 4 ditto. 

Mon. 5 ditto. 

Tues. 6 rained. 

Wed. 7 rained a little. 

Thurs. 8 cloudy & cold. 

Fry. 9 cloudy Pat Grinen 2 dollars. 

Sat. 10 clear. 

Sun. 11 ditto. 

Mon. 12 ditto Pat Grinen 1/6. 

Tues. 13 rained at night took tea at Mr. Duncans. 

Med. 14 cloudy & cool at night, pd. Wm. Ritchee 2 dollars 127. 

Thur. 15 rained & snowed in the night paid Delany the butcher 
5 dols Give Joel Hancocke an order to Millers store for half bushel 
salt. 

Fry. 16 snowed in morng. 

Sat. 17 Cloudy & cold. 

Sun. 18 rained & snowed in the night. 

Mon. 19 rained in the morng. Set out in Co. with Mr. Davenport 
for Jonesbro. Lodged at Mr. Hains that night pd. expenses $4/6. 

Tues. 20 Set out early lodged that night in Greenville paid Alex. 
Purdom 6 dollars towards an old acct. 

Wed. 21 rained in morng. Staid in Greenville till 22nd. pd. 22/. 

Thur. 22 Went to Capt. Gests & from there Salt Lick staid all 
night at Capt. Gests. 

Fry. 23 Went to plum Grove & staid all night. 

Sat. 24 Went to Jonesbro. Staid all night. Rained in night. 

Sun. 25 Went to Walter Kings. 

Mon. 26 Staid at ditto. 

Tues. 27 ditto pleasant. 

Wed. 28 ditto ditto. 

March 1798. 

March 1 Thursday. Rained. Said at ditto. 
Fry. 2 rained. Staid at ditto. 
Sat. 3 Cold & clear staid. 
Sun. 4 clear went to Jonesbro & staid at Mr. Mays. 

Mon. 6 Staid at Mr. Mays. Supr. Court began Memo, furnished 
Walter King on Fryday last with 130 dollars for the use of the Iron 
Works (in silver dollars). 

Tues. 6 Staid at Jonesbro clear. 
Wed. 7 ditto. Pleasant. 
Thur. 8 ditto ditto. See Fords C. 
Fry. 9 ditto ditto. Se ditto. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 247 

Sat. 10 ditto See ditto rained. 

Sun. 11 ditto clear. 

Mon. 12 clear Staid at Jonesbro. 

Tues. 13 ditto ditto. 

Wed. 14 ditto ditto. 

Thur. 15 ditto- ditto Went to plum Grove in Co. with Gen. Con- 
way. Staid all night fine weather. 

Fry. 16 Traveled to Greenville, staid all night pd. 9/6. Fair 
weather. 

Sat. 17 Travelled that day to darks staid all night, pd. 10/6. 

Sun. 18 arrived at Knoxville in Co. with James Pain fine weather. 

Mon. rained & stormy. 

Tues. 20 clear & cool. 

Wed. 21 reed from H. Windle 665 dollars clear. 

Thur. 22 Went to Colo. Butlers camp Staid all night. 

Fry. 23 rained Staid all night at Camp, with Colo. Butler. 

Sat. 24, rained & snowed & very stormy. Came back to Knoxville 
in Co. with D. Claiborne & James pain. 

Sun. 25 rained & snowed. 

Mon. 26 clear & cool for the season. Memo. pd. for 41 Gallons of 
whiskee 30 doll. 75 Cts. at 75 cents pr. Gallon. Received from L. P. 
Sims 15 dollars. Reed, from Wm. Ritchee some time ago 100 dozen 
oats at 1/10. equal 9.1.8. 1 load of Hay. 1.10 To cash 15 dollar* 
4.10. 

Tues. 27 fine day. 

Wed. 28 ditto. 

Thur. 29 cool. 

Fry. 30 very warm polly Sherrill (?) a ball at Gordons. 

Sat. 31 very warm Mrs. Sevier went to her brother Johns. 

April 1798. 

Sun. 1 day of April warm rained great part of the night My 
negro boy bobb returned by A. Crozier. 

Mon. 2 rained in morng. cleared up Mrs. Sevier returned. 

Tues. 3 cool & light frost at night. 

Wed. 4 cool & cloudy. 

Thurs. 5 cool cloudy. 

Fry. 6 very warm. 

Sat. 7 very warm. 

Mon. 9 I went to plantation very warm. Knox county court be- 
gan & Supr adjd. 

Tues. 10 rained & very cool & windy. 

Wed. 11 cleared up cool. pd. David Stuart 60 dollars for 66 

4 



248 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIEB (1790-1815) 

Gals, wihskee had some time ago & sent to camp. pd. Charles McCoy 
for R. Campble 100 dollars. 

Thur. 12 rained & very cool. 

Fry. 13 very cold & snowed in the morning. 

Sat. 14 cloudy & cold. 

Sun. 15 cold & frost at night brother Joseph came to Knoxville. 

Mon. 16 cold & light frost in night. James Sevier came to Knox- 
ville. 

Tues. 17 cool day. 

Wed. 18 moved to Mr. Greenes lot. 

Thurs. 19 more warm & pleasant. 

Fry. 20 rained & hail. 

Sat. 21 fair. 

Sun. 22 clear & cool. 

Mon. 23 warm. 

Tues. 24 warm. 

Wed. 25 fine rain. 

Thur. 26 rained. 

Fry. 27 light shower. 

Sat. 28 some rain in morng. 

Sun. 29 fine day. 

Mon. 30 ditto^- Jo Sevier J Campble Windle & McCoy set out for 
the Cherokee nation. 

May 1798. 

Tuesday the 1st day of May 1798 rained in morng. pd. Tho. N. 
Clarke ten dollars. 

Wed. 2 warm & windy Memo. Let Joseph Seveir have 10 dols. 
Reed, from H Windle 30 dols. Sent to L. P. Sims 35 Gals, whiske in 
one cask & 24 in another, by Joseph Sevier but Jo. was to have some 
out of the 24 gallon cask. 

Thur. 3 very hot & dry. 
Fry. 4 ditto. 

Sat. 5 rained in the morning pd. Mrs. Ritchee 2 dollars, pd. Alex 
Cunningham for Ben Willson 2 dolls. 

Sun. 6 dry & warm. 
Mon. 7 rained. 

Tues. 8 John Steele Colo, arrived escorted into the town by the 
light horse. 

Wed. 9 very warm. 

Thur. 10 Doctor Claiborne, Judge Campble & Major Mclntosh 
Dined with us rained in the evening & great part of the night 

Fry. 11 rained in the morning. 

Sat. 12 very cool day for time of the year. 






JOHN H. DB WITT 240 

Sun. 13 very cool also & cloudy. 

Mon. 14 ditto. 

Tues. 15 More warmer. 

Wed. 16 warm a ball at Gordons, rained at night. 

Thur. 17 very warm rained in evening. 

Fry. 18 some light rain in the morng. Colo. Walton arrived es- 
corted into town by the light horse. 

Saturday 19 very warm. 

Sun. 20 ditto (escorted the commissrs out of town on their way to 
Belleanton (?). 

Mon. 21 very warm ditto. 

Tues. 22 ditto. 

Wed. 23 ditto. 

Thurs. 24 cloudy & some light rain. 

Fry. 25 cloudy & cool. 

Saturday 26 cool. 

Sun. 27 cool & some rain. 

Mon. 28 very cool for the Season. 

Tues. 29 some warmer. 

Wed. 30 warm. 

Thurs. 31 very warm. 

June 1798. 
Fryday the first day of June V. warm. 

Sat. 2 a fine rain in the afternoon. Memo. pd. Delaney the Butcher 
4 dollars today 5 F. Crowns my amount he says is some more than 3 
a fine day. 

Sun. 3 Memo. pd. Beverly 2 Crowns towards payment for hauling 
a load of bacon from the point with Emmersons waggon. 

Mon. 4 rained. 

Tues. 5 ditto. 

Wed. 6 rained in the night. 

Thur. 7 rained received from Mr. Windle 36 dols. 

Fry. 8 rained. 

Sat. 9 rained Mr. R. Campble came to town. 

Sun. 10 rained HeAVILY in morning & evening. 

Mon. 11 rained in the morning. 

Tues. 12 very warm. 

Wed. 13 Sent to the post 100 dollar warrant for my services to 
John Gass of Greene dated March 14, 1797. the same was enclosed 
in a letter of this day, to be left in the post office in Greenville. This 
day it rained. 

Thurs. 14 rained. 
Fry. 15 rained. 



250 JOURNAL OK GOVKBNOE JOHN SKVIKE (1790-1815) 

Sat. 16 rained. 
Sun. 17 rained. 
Mon. 18 rained. 
Tues. 19 fair & very warm. 

Wed. 20 went down the river to view Coxes boat, Mrs. Sevier, 
Mrs. Campble & Joanna went along also Mr. G. Gordon his wife & 
sisters patsy & polly returned & took tea at Mr. Gordons, and had 
a little hop some rain in the evening. 

Thur. 21 cloudy & foggy in the morng. 

Fry. 22 clear, went to the plantatn. reaped early wheat yesterday. 

Sat. 23 rained in afternoon. 

Sun. 24 rained, went to meeting. 

Mon. 25 rained in morng. Joseph Kitty & Washington set out for 
Tellico, Mr. Danl. Windle in Co. 

Tues. 26 rained reaped wheate. 

Wed. 27 heavy rain. 

Thur. 28 do. do. Washington & Windle retd. from Tellico. 

Fry. 29 Danl. Windle set out for home rained Settled with 
Butcher Delaney due him 4.12.4 pd. him 7 Crowns, 2. 6. 1. he owes 
181s. Bacon. 

Sat. 30 MT. & Mrs. Campble arrived fair day & very warm. 

July 1798. 

Sun. 1 day. very warm. 
Mon. 2 ditto. 
Tues. 8 ditto. 

Wed. 4 a ball at Gordons, a Frenchman robbed at night of large 

MB. 

Thurs. 5 some rain. 

Fry. 6 very warm, Fogg morng. 

Sat. 7 Foggy morng. 

Sun. 8 rained very heavy. 

Mon. 9 clear & warm Knox county court began. 

Tues. 10 very warm myself Mrs. Sevier, & Miss Joanna took tea 
at Mr. Blounts. 

Wed. 11 Myself Washington & toby set out for Tellico blockhouse 
to the treaty staid that night at Maryville pd. expenses 12/. 

Thu. 12 Arrived at Tellico 11 o'clock that day the treaty was ad- 
journed until 3rd of September. 

Fry. 13 Staid at Tellico See, N.-cy. 

Sat 14 set out for Knoxville, dined at Maryville pd. 6/. Came 
home after (?) (?) 

Sun. 15th rained part of the day. 

Mon. 16 rained pd. Alex Purdem 5 dols. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 261 

Tues. 17 Some light showers. 
Wed. 18 very warm. 

Thurs. -9 cool & windy Joseph Sevier set out from this place for 
Sullivan Carried a letter to W. King Colo. Harrison, Capt. Gest, & 
Majr. Sevier. 

Fry. 20 warm & dry. 
Sat. 21 ditto. 
Sun. 22 ditto. 

Mon. 23 ditto Gen. Sevier Colo. Sevier set for Springs I reed, 
a snuff box as compliment from (?) 

Tues. 24 very warm Governor Blount his Lady, Miss Mary & Wm. 
took tea. 

Wed. 25 Sent into the post office a letter from James White esq. 
to Gabriel Debrutz Musht (?) in Fayetteville No. Carolina Myself, 
Mrs. Sevier Mrs. Sparks & Miss Joanna took tea at Capt. Simerals 
a very warm day. 

Thur. 26 Foggy morning in this book a letter from Robertson. 

Fry. 27 very warm & dry. 

Sat. 28 very hot & dry in the day a light Shower in the night. 

Sun. 29 warm in the day a heavy rain in the night. 

Mon. 30 rained in the morning & cleared up. 

Tues. 31 clear & some cooler. 

August 1798. 

Wed. 1 day of August clear & warm. 

Thurs. 2 clear & some warmer Mrs. Sparks & Washington wt. 
to Mr. Kings. 

Fry. 3 cloudy in the morning & a light shower about 12 o'clock 
Mrs. Sparks & Washington retd. from Kings. 

Sat. 4 very hot. 

Sun. 6 Mrs. Sparks set out for So. W. point My self & Mrs, 
Sevier accompanied her & Mrs. Blount part of the way as far as the 
sign of the Cross keys. 

Mon. 6 very warm. 

Tues. 7 ditto, a small shower in evening. 

Wed. 8 very warm. 

Fry. 9 Foggy in the morning & some clouds Went to Mrs. Gordons 
Quilting. 

Fry. 10 a fine shower in the evening. 

Sat. 11 cloudy & rainy day Messrs. John Waddle & Doctor May 
arrived from Cumberland. 

Sun. 12 some rain. 

Mon. 13 Fair & very warm. 

Tues. 14 rain. 

Wed. 16 ditto. ! i : ! . 1 



252 JOURNAL OP GOVERNOR JOHN SBVIKR (1790-1815) 

Thur. 16 ditto. Very heavy gusts Reed, from Wm. Claiborne 
20 Dolls. 

Fry. 17 light shower Major Elholm arrived. 

Sat. 18 warm & dry. 

Sun. 19 ditto. 

Mon. 20 ditto. 

Tues. 21st began to make brick. 

Wed. 22 very hot & dry. 

Thur. 23 ditto. 

Fry. 24 pd. Delaney butcher 4 Crowns. 

Sat. 25 very hot & dry. 

Sun. 26 ditto. 

Mon. 27 some light clouds & little rain in morng & very heavy in 
night. 

Tues. 28 cloudy in morng Rained little in even. 
Wed. 29 clear & windy. 
Thur. 30 ditto. 
Fry. 31 ditto. 

September 1798. 

Sat. 1 day of Sept. 1798 warm Myself, Mrs. Sevier, Joanna, Mrs. 
Campble & Betsy set out for So. W. pt. Dined at Mr. Millers & 
lodged that night at Mr. Sims. 

Sun. 2 arrived early at the point Heavy rain about 12 o'clock. 

Mon. 3 very cool for the season rained in the night. 

Tues. 4 very cool for the season. 

Wed. 5 cool & frost on the Cumberland Mts. 

Thu. 6 ditto ditto. 

Fry. 7 ditto ditto This day we all set out except Miss Joanna 
for Knoxville in Colo. Wm. Donaldson & Mrs. J. Donaldson We tar- 
ryed all night at Millers the others wt. on to Colo. McClellans. 
We lost our horses that night also Izzna. (?) Chism lost 3 of his. 

Sat. 8 tarried all day & night at Mr. Millers, in the night our 
horses were sent back to us from Maj. G. Campbles cost a Crown. 

Sun. 9 We set out for Knoxville Arrived three o'clock some rain 
that night & evening. 

Mon. 10 very warm & some rain rained heavy in the night. Mrs. 
S. Donaldson arrived & tarried all night. (Reed, from my plana. 
181s. Bacon. 

Tues. 11 rained in the morng. very warm. 
Wed. 12 Sultry & dry. 
Thur. 13 ditto. 
Fry. 14 ditto. 
Sat. 16 ditto. 



JOHN H. DK WITT 253 

Sun. 16 ditto Foggy morning. 

Mon. 17 took tea at Claiborne.s. 

Tues. 18 cloudy in morning & very warm. 

Wed. 19 ditto. 

Thurs. 20 ditto^ Self & Majr. Claiborne set out for the treaty 
some thunder & rain Lodged at Mary ville pd. Exp. 4/6. 

Fry. 21 arrived at Tellico & dined with Colo. Butler. 

Sat 22 attended the treaty."* 

Sun. 23 ditto. 

Mon. ditto. 

Tues. 26 ditto. 

Wed. 26 very cold & frost at night. 

Thurs. 27 ditto ditto. 

Fry. 28 ditto ditto. 

Sat. 29 ditto ditto. 

Sun. 30 ditto ditto Set uot in Co with Genl. White & Lodged at 
Bartlets on our way for Knoxville. 

October 1798. 

Mon. October 1, day we arrived in the morning at Knoxville. 

Tues. 2 more warmer & some clouds. 

Wed. 3 dry & cool nights. 

Thu. 4 ditto. 

Fry 5 ditto. 

Sat. 6 ditto. 

Su. 7 ditto. 

Mon. 8 ditto lent Wai. King 1 dollar County court of Knox began. 

Tues. 9 cool & very dry. 

Wed. cool & some cloudy. Lent Mr. Sherrill 2 dollars He set out 
for home. 

Thurs. 11 ditto. Yesterday my bro. Valentine came to Knox- 
ville. 1 '' 

Fry. 12th cool & cloudy in morning. Memo. Wm. Nelson went to 
on my plantation & Joel Hancocks time ceased in my employ. 

""First Treaty of Tellico, or Walton's Treaty, made by George Walton and 
Thomas Butler, for the United States, with the Cherokees. This treaty contained 
stipulations for peace and friendship, with regulations for intercourse between the 
whites and Cherokees. It provided for cession by the Indians of lands just north of 
the Tennessee and Little Tennessee rivers and north and west of the Clinch River. 

138 Col. Valentine Sevier was born in 1747 in Rockingham County, Virginia. He 
was a sergeant at the Battle of Point Pleasant, and commande da company in the 
Revolution, at Thicketty Fort, Cedar Springs, Musgrove's Mill, and King's Moun- 
tain. He moved to Rea River, where Clarksyille now stands. In 1792 three of his 
sons were killed by Indians. Col. Sevier died at Clarksville. Tenn., February 23, 
1800. (See Heiskell's "Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History, pp. 206-208.) 



254 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

Sat. 13 Went to a ball at Mr. Gordons. 

Sun. 14 clear & warm. 

Mon. 15 cloudy day. 

Tues. 16 Fair & warm. 

Wed. 17 warm, set out to Tennessee river lodged at Millers. 

Thur. 18 Went to see a piece of my land on Tennessee river & re- 
turned that night & staid at Millers. 

Fry. 19 rained in morning wt down to S. W. point, tarried all 
night 

Sat. 20 clear day & staid at point. 
Sun. 21 staid at point clear day. 

Mon. 22 Staid at the point, rained heavy gust in the evening frost 
at night. 

Tues. 23 clear & cool, set out with Son Washington, & lodged that 
night at Millers light frost. 

Wed. 24 Sit out early eat Brak. at Col. McClellan^ & arrived in 
Knoxville in evening (clear). 

Thurs. 26 clear & cool. 

Fry. 26 some rain frost at night. 

Sat. 27 cool & cloudy frost at night. 

Sun. 28 cloudy & very cool. Memo, reed from James Paine at So. 
W. point 4 dollars towards pay of thirty-three gallons of whiskee. 

Mon. 29 cool & dry hard frost. 

Tues. 30 cloudy & cold snowed a little in the night dined at Colo. 
Henlys with Capt. Henly & others. 

Wed. 31. clear & cold, put a number of letters on the office for 
sundry persons at Boston & New York. 

November 1798. 

Thurs. 1 rained greater part of the day. 
Fry. 2 rained chiefly all day. Sent Jim & Ned to the farm. 
Sat. 3 cleared up & hard frost at night. 
Sun. 4 hard frost at night. 
Mon. 5 ditto. (Washington took ill). 
Tues. 6 ditto. 

Wed. 7 ditto pd. Ben Willson 6/. 
Thurs. 8 clear & frost night. 
Fry. 9 ditto. 
Sat 10 clear day & frost night. 

Sun. 11 warm day & cloudy evening. Memo. Pd. Ben Willson 15 
dollars for 6 head of hoggs (5 barrows & 1 sw). 

Mon. 12 very warm. 
Tue. 13 ditto. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 

Wed. 14 ditto Memo. Sold to Mrs. Hanging Mawd a negro wench 
Sail at 333 1/3 dollars. Cr. by cas. 198 dollars 1 bay horse 70 dollars 
B. due 65 1/3 dollars. Memo. Paid butcher Delaney 15 dollars 
15 dols. to Buckker Miller 4 dollars Lent to Thos. Brown 8 dollars. 

Thur. 15 warm & dry. 

Fry. 16 ditto. 

Sat. 17 ditto ditto. 

Sun. 18 rained in the night. 

Mon. 19 clear & cloudy frost. 

Tues. 20 clear & cool day (Let Bacon have nice bay horse to work 
& Tho. N. Clark 9 Dollars) Lent Mrs. Linn 1 dollar. Memo. Reed. 
from Wm. Ritchee a steer, Butchered by Miller (the Wright), one 
Quater 62 one ditto 65 one ditto 65 one ditto 62. 524 Is. at 207 pr. 
Hd. Wm. Harilson of Granger Hunted many years ago on Obias 
River, in the Co. with Jack & Will Bleavens. Hunted on Spring Creek 
& give it the name It is a fork of Wolf river & empties into the 
same about 20 miles above a mouth & at it or near, there is a lick 
surveyed by Ro. King & sold by him to D. Ross. 

Wed. 21 cool & clear. 
Thur. 22 cloudy & cool. 

Fry. 23 very cloudy & cold Memo. Sold unto Frans. Cuningham 
150 acres of land on obias river, to be of the Is 2d & 3r rate lands, 
(if better) he is to pay more in proportion for which land I have 
reed. 2 horses, to wit a dun Stud 6 years old & a dark gray gelding 
the same age. Mrs. Linn Dr. to 3% yds. at 187 3.3 1 doz buttons 
4/6 ... 4/6. 2 skeins thread 4 (Total 3.7.6.) 1 yd linen 4/4 
Carried over 3.11.10 Credit by Washing 5 dozen pieces of linen at 
4/ . . . 1.0.0. 

Nov. Saturday 24th 1798 Cloudy in the morning. 

Sun. 25 clear & pleasant. 

Mon. 26 ditto. 

Tues. 27 ditto. 

Wed. 28 ditto pd. Butcher Millers son 9/. 

Thur. 29 ry & pleasant 

Fry. 30 ditto. 

December 1798. 

Sat. 1 day of december (pleasant). 
Sun. 2 rained & high winds. 
Mon. 3 the Assembly met very cold. 
Tues. 4 cold & hard frost. 

Wed. 5 cold & likely to snow pd. Roddy the ferryman 15s. 4d 
Snowed in the night 6 Inches deep. 

Thur. 6 cloudy & cold. 

Fry. 7 began to thaw & rain. Rained all night on Fryday. 

Sat. 8th rained all day moderately Memo. Brown took my bay 
horse to work in his waggon on Tues. the 20th of last month. 



256 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

Sun. 9 cloudy & cool. 

Mon. 10 turned cold & like for snow. 

Tues. 11 clear & cold day. 

Wed. 12 cloudy & more pleasant Cocke & Anderson elected Sen- 
ators by the Assembly."* 

Thurs. 13 cold. 

Fry. 14 ditto. 

Sat. 15 ditto. 

Sun. 16 more moderate. 

Mon. 17 pleasant for the season. 

Tues. 18 rained. 

Wed. 19 cloudy. 

Thur. 20 cleared up. 

Fry. 21 cool. 

Sat. 22 ditto. 

Sun. 23 snowed at night 6 In. deep. 

Mon. 24 some rain & hard freeze. 

Tues. 25 more moderate a Great Ball at the House of Mr. Willson. 

Wed. 26 some rain cleared in the evening. Reed, from Tho. Brown 
an order from Butcher Miller for 8 dols. 

Thurs. 27 Pleasant weather. 

Fry. 28 ditto. 

Sat. 29 rained. 

Sun. 30 cloudy. 

Mon. 31 cloudy & rained in the eveng. 

January 1799. 

Tues. January 1 day 1799 a Fine morning. & pleasant day rained 
in the night a ball in the eveng. at Mr. Gordons paid S. D. Carrick 
4 dols. pr. White & Wilkinson. 

Wed. 2 Cloudy & some light rain. 

Thurs. 3 Cloudy & cool, went myself & family to Capt. Croziers 
wedg. held at Mr. Arthur Croziers. 

Fry. 4 rained & snowed in the nigth. 
Sat. 5 very cold. 

Sun. 6 very cold the Assembly adjourned. Capt Sparks arrived 
in evng. 

Mon. 7 very cold the federal Court began W. King arrived. 

Tues. 8 Cloudy & more moderate. Lent to Colo. Hubbert two 
dollars. 

Wed. 9th cloudy & light rain. Myself & Capt. Sparks brak. at 
D. Claberns. 

"*Wi11iam Cocke and Joseph Anderson. Both served as senator* until 1805. 



JOHN H. DE WITT 257 

Thur. 10 clear. 

Fry. 11 ditto. 

Sat. 12 Cloudy some rain & warm. 

Sun. 13 some cooler & clear. Walter King set out for home. 

Mon. 14 cloudy & warm Knox court began. 

Tues. 15 rained a little. 

Wed. 16 cloudy & like for rain. 

Thur. 17 cloudy & warm for the season. 

Fry. 18 some rain in the evening Capt Sparks went to the point. 

Sat. 19 clear & cool p. Antony the tailor 6 dollars. 

Sun. 20 clear & little cooler. 

Mon. 21 clear & cool Took tea at Campbles. 

Tues. 22 Cloudy & some rain. 

Wed. 23 rainy day. Mr. Campble set out for Kentucky. 

Thur. 24 rained & thundered. 

F. 25 rained & \thundered. 

Sat. 26 very heavy rain & some thunder. Wm. Nelson & Tobee 
arrived with 19 fat hoggs & 1 beef from my plantation in Washington. 

Sun. 27 rained. 

Mon. 28 cleared up. 

Tues. 29 cold & hard frost Took supper at Mrs. Campbells. 

Wed. 30 Fair & Pleasant. 

Thur. 31 ditto. 

February 1799. 

Fry. 1 day February rained & I went to Carters mill in Co. with 
Doctor Claiborne. Reed, on 31 January a Gray & bay horses from 
Seth Mansfield for which I am to give him 1 Hundred of Land. Memo. 
I am to convey unto Peter Ernay 100 acres of Land when he pays 
me 197 dollars for which I have his two notes one for 97 & one for 
100, dated 31 January 1799. the 97 payable the first day of May next, 
the other in 18 mo. from that day. Memo. Tho. Brown bought from 
(me) a bay horse on the 19th January at 90 dollars, 20 to be pd. in 
one month, and 20 in one after & the rest in work. 

Sat. 2 Rained, heavily all day. Cowans negro got drowned. 

Sun. 3 clear & cool Dined at Doct. Claibornes. 

Mon. 4 clear & pleasant. 

Tues. 5 Hard frost at night & clear day. 

Wed. 6 pleasant, I went to the plantation. Staid all night & re- 
turned next day had a violent too & ear ache. 

Thur. 7 Went to a Ball given Genl. Smith at Somervilles. It 
rained in then ight. 

Fryday 8 rained in the morning. Memo. Reed, from Doctor Powell 
the West Indian mango, it is to bep lanted in the ground, & covered 



258 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SBV1ER (1790-1815) 

in the winter it may be eaten like cucumber & makes an excellent 
pickle it will last after being planted some years. reed, from An- 
derson Ashburn as a present, a peper tree, it requires 12 or 14 years 
age before it bears Memo. Bought from Barkley 50 Bushls. of corn 
paid him the 14th 1/2 in Mr. Nichols store, the rest in cash. 

Sat. 9 cloudy. 
Sun. 10 Fair & cool. 
Mon. 11 ditto. 
Tues. 12 ditto. 
Wed. 13 ditto. 
Thur. 14 ditto. 
Fry. IB ditto. 

Sat. 16 rained & snowed in eveng. Capt. Sparks set out in Canoe 
for the point. 

Sun. 17 cloudy & cold in the morng. 

Mon. 18 more pleasant. 

Tues. 19 hard frost at night 

Wed. 20 some warmer. 

Thurs. 21 cloudy & cool. 

Fry. 22 cloudy & snowed at night 2 Inches deep. 

Sat. 23 Judge Jackson, 1 * 3 Denizen, Grant & several others spent 
the eveng. at my house. D. Barry among others very cold. 

Sun. 24 very cold. 

Mon. 25 some warmer snowed in night. Doctor Hampstead came 
to town. 

Tues. 26 cold rainy day, (yesterday I paid John Crozier 10 dollars 
& Bradley the Bricklayer 5). Memo. I am to let John Erwin have 
one acres of land near So. W. point, to be laid off by Capt. Sparks 
& Alexander Erwin, and to fix the price I have received 60 dollars 
in part payment & he is to pay me two Hundred the ensuing fall. 

Wed. 27 Cloudy in morning & windy, some warmer. Memo. Give 
Mrs. Judah Miller an order to Capt. Croziers store for 8 dollars. 

Thurs. 28 rained heavily all day & thundered & lightened. 

March 1799. 

Fryday 1 of March 1799 Cloudy & windy & also cool Hung up 
our meat to smoake. 

Sat 2 very cold. 

Sun. 3 ditto. 

Mon. 4 ditto. 

Tues. 5 ditto hard frost. 

Wed. 6 cloudy in the evening & Some light rain in the night. 

"Andrew Tackson was then a judge of the Superior Court of Law and Equity. 
Ha had rfiffnVd from the United States Senate in October, 1798, being succeeded 
by Daniel Smith. 



JOHN H. DE WITT 259 

Thur. 7 fine morng. 

Fry. 8th ditto. 

Sat. 9 Wm. Sherrill & James Paine arrived (rained). 

Sun. 10 clear & cold. 

Mon. 11 clear & cold. 

Tues. 12 very cold & windy. 

Wed. 13 rained a little in the day. 

Fry. 15 rained some in momg. Cleared up in the night (& Frost) . 

Sat. 16 clear & cold. 

Sun. 17 ditto. 

Mon. 18 more moderate wt. to a ball at Loves tavern. 

Tues. 19 pleasant day. 

Wed. 20 cloudy & rained heavily in the evening & night, Capt. 
Butler arrived from Philadelphia & also the Indians. 

Thurs. 21 Cloudy & warm paid Delaney the Butcher 2 dollars 12/. 
(The son of Colo. Ramsey died). 

Fry. 22 a snowy morng. & turned colder than yesterday. 

Sat. 23 hard frost & cold that night. 

Sun. 24 cool & dry. 

Mon. 25 Supr. Court began, (Fair). 

Tues. 26 more pleasant. 

Wed. 27 warmer & clear pd. Mr. Purdom 5 dollars. 

Thurs. 28 pleasant day. 

Fry. 29 ditto. 

Sat. 30 pleasant day. 

Sun. 31 ditto. 

April 1799. 

Mon. 1 day of April some rain. 
Tues. 2 cool & frost at night. 
Wed. 3 ditto ditto ditto. 

Thurs. 4 cloudy & cool in morng. & like for snow. 
Fry. 5 clear & cool. 
Sat. 6 ditto. 
Sun. 7 ditto. 

Mon. 8 rained I took sick in afternoon. 
Tues. 9 Snowed in the morng. & frost at night. 
Wed. 10 & frost at night. Cont. to be sick. 

Thurs. 11 cloudy morning. Let Adam Meek esquire have a sorrel 
Horse at 100 dollars 30 in part pay of the mills seat on flat Creek, 
also let him liave a warrant on the treasurer payable 1st Sep. next for 
67 dollars. 



260 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN 8KV1ER (1790-1815) 

Fry. 12 warm & pleasant. 

Sat. 13 ditto. 

Sun. 14 ditto some light rain Mrs. Sparks came to town. 

Mon. 15 warm day. 

Tues. 16 warm & some rain at night. 

Wed. 17 a rainy day. I went to Tho. Browns. 

Thurs. 18 clear & cooler. 

Fry. 19 warm began to make brick mortar. 

Sat. 20 warm & fair. 

Sun. 21 rained. 

Mon. 22 cloudy. 

Tues. 23 began to make Bricks pd. butcher Delaney 3 dollrs. 

Wed. 24 clear & warm. 

Thtirs. 25 Give Mrs. Field an order to Capt. Croziers for 19/ on 
acct. of John Miller. Let John Miller have 30 Is. of bacon at Sundry 
times. Let him have Cr. with James Pain at Simerals store for 30/. 
Messrs. Miller have had bacon at Sundry times also Cr. in Capt. John 
Croziers store had a middling of bacon at one time. Memo. Robert 
Reynolds red. of Walter King pr. my order some time ago 1136 Is. 
Castings. 

Fry. 26 rained about 1 o'clock moderately. 

Sat. 27 rained. 

Sun. 28 rained. 

Mon. 29 clear in the day & rained at night. 

Tues. 30 rained. 

May 1799. 

Wed. 1 day of May rained. 
Thurs. 2 cleared up & light frost. 
Fry. 3 very cool & light frost. 

Sat. 4 cool & light frost Anderson the B. layer set off home. 
Sun. 5 some warmer B. Brown set out for Cumberland. 

Mon. 6th warm day James Anderson Dr. To cash some time ago 
to purchase powder & brimstone 4/6; To cash when going home 7/3. 
pd. Mrs. Thompson in Arthur Croziers store for you 18/. To an order 
on Wm. Joab for 25 or 30 dollars if paid. Memo, paid Mr. Pery the 
mason 2 dollars 12/. Paid Mr. Roddy ferryman let Wm. Nelson 
have 1 dollar to purchase seed corn Memo. Let Mr. Joseph Greer 
have a Wart, on the Treasurer of 150 dollars at 10 pr. Ct. discount, 
the same is for payment of last years rent. 

Tues. 7 warm & like for rain & did in the night. 
Wed. 8 rained in the morning. 

Thur. 9 very warm & cloudy in the morning. Memo, paid for 
James Anderson B. Layer 3 dollars to Young the tavern keeper (some 
time ago) Negro Jack wt. today to help plant corn at the plantation. 



JOHN H. DB WITT 261 

Fry. 10 rained. 

Sat. 11 ditto. 

Sun. 12 clear & hott. 

Mon. 13 ditto. 

Tues. 14 ditto. 

Wed. 15 rained. 

Thur. 16 very cool. 

Fry. 17 rained. 

Sat. 18 very cool & light frost at night 

Sun. 19 cool. 

Mon. 20 clear & cool. 

Tues. 21 ditto. Went to the farm in Co. with Doctor Claiborne."* 

Wed. 22 very warm. 

Thur. 23 ditto. 

Fry. 24 rained & some hail with loud thunder & lightning. 

Sat. 25 clear, let Mr. Pery the mason have an order on John 
Crozier for 10 dollars 3. 

Sun. 26 very warm. 
Mon. 27 ditto. 
Tues. 28 ditto. 
Wed. 29 ditto. 

Thur. 30 a hard hail, gust, the stones as large as hen eggs. 
Fry. 31 very cool morng. 

June 1799. 

Sat. 1 day of June fair weather. 
Sun. 2 warm & little rain in evening. 
Mon. 3 clear & warm. 
Tues. 4 ditto. 

Wed. 5 rained early in the morning. Cleared up warm. 
Thur. 6 clear & cool. 
Fry. 7 ditto. 

Sat. 8 ditto (Gen. Gordon retd. from obias river Mrs. Donaldson). 
Sun. 9 very cool morng. for the season. 
Mon. 10 very warm. 
Tues. 11 ditto. 
Wed. 12 warm & dry. 
Thurs. 13 ditto. 
Fry. 14 ditto. 

"Doctor Claiborne was a brother of Hon. W. C. C. Claiborne. 



262 JOURNAL OF GOVERNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

Sat. 15 ditto. 
Sun. 16 ditto. 

Mon. 17 I reed, a sprain in my back, & caused me to be E. M. (?). 
very dry, began to burn bricks. Memo. Gave an order to Mr. Spery 
(the mason) to John Crozier for 4 dollars, also let him have 17 1/2 
Is. bacon at 9d. 

Tues. 18 very dry & hot myself very ill but some better. 

Wed. 19 ditto ditto. 

Thurs. 20 myself some better still warm & dry. 

Fry. 21 ditto ditto. B. Brown retd. from Mero. 

Sat. 22 ditto ditto B. Brown set off for home. 

Sun. 23 Some thunder & some clouds very hot & dry. Memo. Let 
John Miller have 37 Is flour a few days ago. 

Mon. 24 very warm & a little shower in the eveng. 

Tues. 25 very hot & dry. 

Wed. 26 ditto. 

Thurs. 27 Fine shower. 

Fry. 28 very warm. 

Sat. 29 ditto. 

Sun. 30 ditto. 

July 1799. 

Mon. 1 day of July very warm Federal Court began. 
Tues. 2 ditto. 
Wed. 3 ditto. 

Thur. 4 ditto, went to public diner at Somervillea. 
Fry. 5 very hot. 

Sat 6 ditto let Mr. Spery have 1 dollar (The mason). 
Sun. 7 Small shower in the day & good rain in the night. 

Mon. 8 rained, began to cradle Oats 1 * 1 at the farm. County Court 
of Knox began. 

Tues. 9 warm & dry. Myself unwell & kept my bed part of the 
day. let James Anderson have 22 Is. beef, & at sundry times 46 Is. 
flour. 

Wed. 10 very hot & dry. 
Thur. 11 ditto. 
Fry. 12 ditto. 
Sat. 18 ditto. 

m "Cradle oats." Probably the earliest mention of the cradle for reaping grain to 
be found. The cradle was used with oats because it was left on the ground to dry 
before binding. It was laid on the ground by the fingers and blade of the cradle, 
called "swathing." From 1850 to 1860 the cradle was used for wheat also, the heel 
of the cradle being brought up to the left hip and the "cut" of wheat "gripped," a* 
it was called, by the fingers and laid on the ground for binders just behind the 
cradlers. D. 



JOHN H. DE WITT 263 

Sun. 14 very warm & dry. 

Mon. 15 fine shower in the morning. 

Tues. 16 cloudy & sultry day. 

Wed. 17 a light shower in eveng. 

Thurs. 18 ditto fine rain. 

Fry. 19 dry & hot. 

Sat. 20 rained in the night. 

Sun. 21 cloudy & sultry. 

Mon. 22 clear & sultry. 

Tues. 23 ditto, went to a hop 138 at Mrs. Millers. 

Wed. 24 went to The Browns a light rain. 

Thur. 25 Very warm & dry. 

Fry. 26 ditto. A light shower in the eveng. Mrs. Judge Campble 
& Mrs. Vandyek &c. took tea. 

Sat. 27 Cloudy morning Give Jas. Amderson an order Jno. Crozier 
for 15/. 

Sun. 28 very hot & dry. 
Mon. 29 ditto. 
Tues. 30 ditto. 
Wed. 31 ditto. 

August 1799. 

Thurs. 1 day of August, the day of the General elections. 1 * A fine 
Shower & gust of rain. 

Fry. 2 day a fine rain. 

Sat. 3 a light rain. 

Sun. 4 much cooler (Red. of Dr. Fronier (?) 14 dollars). 

Mon. 5 a little rain. Pd. Wm. Nelson pr wife 277 in Captain 
Croziers store, (a little rain) John Miller 1 dollar paid Vol. Sevier. 

Tues. 6 very warm went with the family to a ball at Mr. Loves 
tavern. 

Wed. 7 ditto. 

Thur. 8th ditto. 

Fry. 9 rained. 

Sat. 10 Light shower. 

Sun. 11 Fair. 

Mon. 12 ditto. 

Tues. 13 cloudy & rained in the night. 

^Calling a dance a "hop" shows Gov. Sevier to have been socially "up to snuff." 

1J At this election August i, 1799 Sevier was elected governor for the third 
time. 



264 JOURNAL OF GOVEBNOR JOHN SEVIER (1790-1815) 

Wed. 14 cloudy morning. Memo. Thomas Robbins set in for a 
month 3rd August with himself & three horses at 28 dolls, has since 
lost two days to the above date. 

Thurs. 15 rained, Mrs. Sevier wt. to the plantation. 
Fry. 16 went to the plantation. Rained. 
Sat. 17 rained. 
Sun. 18 rained. 

.Mon. 19 came home from the plantation. 
Tues. 20 rained. 
Wed. 21 cloudy & light rain. 
Th. 22 light rain. 
Fry. 23 very hot. 
Sat. 24 ditto & dry. 

Sun. 25 wt to the plantation. Very hot. Mrs. Sevier & the girls 
retd. 

Mon. 20 very warm. Attended at Loves tavern to give in depot be- 
tween Love & Hodgson Donilson. 

Tues. 27 very hot. sit out for obias river. Reed, from Theopiles 
Campble 10 dols. Lodged that night at Lows. Mill 12 miles. 

Wed. 28, sit out & lodged at Little Emmery 24 miles. 
Thurs. 29 Lodged 10 miles beyond Bigg emmery 25 miles. 
Fry. 30 Lodged in Donilson Cove 25 miles. 

(To be continued.) 

JOHN H. DEWITT. 



APPENDIX 

"THREE SONS OF ORLEANS." 

The "three sons of Orleans" mentioned in Sevier's journal were 
Louis Philippe and his younger brothers, Count de Montpensier and 
Count de Beaujolais. They were descendants of Philip of Orleans, 
brother of Louis XIV. Upon the extinction or removal of the house 
of Bourbon the Duke of Orleans would be entitled to the throne of 
France. Louis Philippe and his brothers were sons of Philip Egalite, 
dake of Orleans, who was guillotined in 1793, during the Terror, by 
the Jacobins, although as a member of the assembly he had voted for 
the death of Louis XVI. When very young, Louis Philippe had com- 
manded one of the wings of the army of Dumouriez and was the hero 
of Jemappes. His brothers were imprisoned with their father in 
Fort St. Jean at Marseilles. They remained in prison forty-three 
months. Louis Philippe escaped from France with Dumouriez. Dis- 
guised as a lawyer interested in geology and botany, he wandered 
over many countries of Europe. As "Professor Chabaud," he taught 
mathematics, French, geography and history at Reichenau, Switzer- 
land, for eight months. Afterward he wandered in Denmark and 
Norway. 

In 1796 the French Directory proposed to the widowed Duchess of 
Orleans to liberate her two younger sons and give the family their 
property if they would go to the United States. After much diffi- 
culty Louis Philippe was found. A loan was arranged by Gouverneur 
Morris, United *States minister to France, and it was finally repaid. 

The three brothers took residence at Philadelphia, where they 
heard Washington's farewell address and witnessed the inauguration 
of John Adams. Washington planned their itinerary through .the 
United States. They spent fouf days with him at Mount Vernon. 
Thence they came by horseback along the Shenandoah Valley, thence 
to Abingdon; stopped with James Campbell at the state line, then at 
Rogersville with Mr. Mitchell; stopped with Joel Dyer on the Hol- 
ston. On April 28, 1797, they were at Col. Orr's, "in a rugged coun- 
try," had dinner at Mr. Bunch's and beds at the home of Mr. Parkins. 
On April 29 they arrived in Knoxville. The next day they called on 
Governor Sevier and went to Maryville, an , outpost on the Chero- 
kee frontier. At Tellico Blockhouse they were guests of the com- 
mander, Col. Strother, and ate wild turkey for the first time. There 
the Duke of Orleans began his studies of Indian character and cus- 
toms. They were guests of the chief, John Watts, at dinner. The 
Indians played a game of ball for them and the princes offered a 
prize of six gallons of brandy to the winning side. (The annual game 
of ball of the Cherokees gave to that region of the country west of 
Tellico River, where it empties into the Little Tennessee, the name 
of "Ball Play." It was the site of old Fort Loudon.) They visited 
the Cherokee village of Tokona, where they saw in the temple the war 
shields of the three tribes, on which were painted a serpent, a turtle 
and a lizard. They smoked a great diversity of tobacco and pipes 
and ate of many queer dishes. 

On May 3, 1797, with Major George Colbert, a Chickasaw half 
breed, as guide, the princes set out for Nashville. At the junction of 
the Holston and the Tennessee they were entertained by Judge Camp- 
bell. At Southwest Point (now Kingston) they visited the proposed 
site of a fort and studied the remains of a prehistoric breastwork be- 
tween the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. They met a squad of soldiers 



266 APPENDIX 

under General Higgins and were urged to travel under protection, 
but declined. They crossed the Cumberland Mountains into a coun- 
try teaming with game. They had to swim their horses across Obey 
River. On May 8 they reached Cumberland River, lined by swamp 
and cane jungles, near Fort Blount, then about to be rebuilt. They 
had to eat smoked bear's grease and Indian corn. At Dixon Springs 
they had coffee and two beds for four themselves and their servant, 
Baudoin at the home of Major Tillman Dixon. On May 9 they 
reached Bledsoe's Lick. Near the site of Gallatin they stopped with 
Edward Douglas. The next day they arrived in Nashville for dinner, 
put up at Capt. Jesse Maxwell's house and dined at the home of Dr. 
Henning, an Englishman. It was court week and one bed had to do 
for three. They stayed in Nashville two days to write their journals 
and buy a horse. In his journal the Duke mentions Nashville as a 
little town, much smaller than Knoxville, which had about one hun- 
dred houses. 

On May 13 they left for Louisville. Learning that it would be 
well night impossible to get good liquors on the road between Nash- 
ville and Louisville, they strapped to the neck of the prince of the 
Bourbons a tin canteen filled with the best of whiskey. They spent 
the first night at Mr. Britton's, keeping to the high ground, noting 
the conically shaped small depressions in the earth's surface, the rich 
pasture lands and innumerable flowers. They arrived finally at 
Bardstown, where the Duke was taken seriously ill. His journal 
closes there. When Citizen King he sent a clock to the Roman 
Catholic Church at Bardstown. 

In June the princes arrived in Philadelphia, the younger ones in 
ill health. After many wanderings on land and sea, they landed at 
Falmouth, England, in February, 1800, and settled in a home, Orleans 
House, Twickenham. Montpensier died in 1807 and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. Beaujolais died soon afterward in Malta. In 
1830, upon the abdication of Charles X, Louis Philippe became the 
"citizen king" of France. In 1848 he was compelled to abdicate as a 
result of his endeavor to render the government independent of the 
nation. He died in England in 1850. 

(See article by Jane Marsh Parker, "Louis Philippe in the United 
States," Century, September, 1901; Ramsey's Annals, p. 686, quoting 
from Knoxville Gazette, May 1, 1797.) 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 



Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony of Florida. 
By Clarita Dogett. The Drew Press, Jacksonville, Fla. Price $1.76. 

There is no more quaint and weird place on the sea coasts of the 
South than New Smyrna, on the east Florida coast. Next to St. 
Augustine, it shares largest in historic memories and interest of all 
Florida locations. The volume just published shows up this old 
place in a most romantic way and is quite worth while because of 
the good historic work done in its preparation. 

Largely base/1 on the ancient archives in the British Colonial 
Office, it is both authentic and discriminating in its valuable re- 
search. 

Few of the thousands of tourists that each year pass through 
New Smyrna, "doing Florida," ever know the interesting story that 
lies hidden behind the veil of the old canal and the ruins near by 
the town. 

While seated under a wide-spread water oak dreaming of "ye 
olden time" in New Smyrna some months ago, the writer accosted 
a passing citizen with the inquiry of, "Why it was called New 
Smyrna?" when the immediate reply was, "Old Smyrna was the 
name of an old settlement once near by, but later it was moved to 
the present site and called New Smyrna!" 

The story of the planting of this colony by the London physician, 
of the naming of it from the home town of his Grecian wife, Smyrna, 
of his gathering of settlers in 1767 from Greece, Italy and Minorca 
and planting them on the east coast of Florida, is a study that has 
not been exhausted even by this worthy contribution. 

The Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society have 
now reached Volume LIL, and in keeping with former issues, is 
finely printed and bound, beautifully illustrated. In fact, all that is 
to be desired in historic printing. 

Historic Papers, published by Trinity College, Durham, N. C., 
Series XIII., 1919, has creditable articles that were prize winners 
in the rewards offered by that institution in the study of history 
viz.: Religious Defense of Slavery in the North, Militia of North 
Carolina in Colonial and Revolutionary Times, Life and Public Serv- 
ice of Hugh Williamson, and His Unpublished Letters. 

The Twenty-First Report of the Board of Directors of the Kan- 
sas Historical Society, 1917-1919, gives the records of the 42nd an- 
nual meeting of the society, the report of the secretary, necrology 
and the report of Geo. P. Moorehouse of the Commission of Archae- 
ology, on pre-historic remains. 

Bulletin 70 of the Bureau of Ethnology, edited by J. Walter 
Fewkes, is devoted to Pre-Historic Villages, Castles and Towns of 
Southwestern Colorado the Mesa Verde National Park. 

Negro Yearbook, 1918-1919, is an annual encyclopedia concern- 
ing the progress and status of the Negro race. Monroe N. Work 
of the Tuskegee Norman and Collegiate Institute is the compiler. 
This unique work is a standard and worthy authority in its field. 



268 HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 

Cumberland Alumnus is a new periodical launched by Cumber- 
land University, Lebanon, Tennessee. Under the editorship of Dr. 
W. P. Bone, the Secretary of the Alumni Association, the first issue 
has appeared in a most attractive form, embracing representation of 
all such departments usual in similar periodicals. The alumni list 
of this famous institution is unusually large, covering the schools of 
Arts, Engineering, Law and Divinity. 

ITEMS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE TENNESSEE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



At the regular meeting of the Tennessee Historical Society Tues- 
day night Judge Robert Ewing read an interesting paper bearing 
upon the purchase of the capitol site by the city of Nashville for the 
purpose of tendering it to Tennessee as a location for a state house. 
An incident in connection with the meeting was the delivery to the 
society by William E. Beard and Douglas Wright, secretary and 
treasurer, respectively, of the Cleaves sword committee of the so- 
ciety's copy of the Cleaves book, together with various documents 
connected with the presentation last April of the sword to Admiral 
Cleaves and of the commemorative book to Mrs. Cleaves. The 
Cleaves book, which was printed by the Brandon Printing Company, 
and is one of the handsomest pieces of work ever published in the 
country, contains a sketch of the admiral's life, account of his great 
work in the world war, and the names of the contributors to the 
sword fund and the men in the military or naval service in whose 
honor their contributions were made. But two copies of the book, 
it will be remembered, were made the original for Mrs. Cleaves, 
and the fac-simile copy for the Tennessee Historical Society. 

The paper of the evening read by Judge Ewing concerned the 
former leading citizens of Nashville. When the city of Nashville 
purchased the site of the present capitol in 1843 from George W. 
Campbell, the consideration was $30,000, of which $10,000 was paid 
in cash, with the remaining $20,000 to be paid in one and two years. 
To guarantee this payment by the city seventy citizens of Nashville 
bound themselves, and it was these patriotic residents that Judge 
Ewing discussed, going into their business and public achievements 
and their family connections. Heading the list was Samuel D. Mor- 
gan, who became the president of the commission which built the 
capitol. Others among the seventy men, especially mentioned were 
Anthony Van Leer, V. K. Stevenson, Andrew Ewing, Edwin H. Ew- 
ing, Francis B. Fogg and Return J. Meigs. The reminiscences of 
the leading citizens of other days were very interesting. 

W. B. Southgate was elected a member of the society. ''A His- 
tory of the Sweetwater Valley," by W. B. Lenoir, was presented the 
society by Dr. J. T. McGill. The gift of a handsome picture of Gen. 
Jackson, mounted upon Sam Patch, by S. G. Heiskell, was announced 
by President John H. DeWitt. 

No meetings of the Society were held in December, 1919, or Jan- 
uary, 1920 

(Title page, table of contents and index pages to Vol. V. will be 
printed with the next issue of the Magazine. Ed.) 



' 



INDEX 

TENNESSEE HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

VOLUME V 
[Prepared by J. Tyree Fain Jndexer of Ramsey's Annals of Tennessee} 



Abdis, Z., 159. 

Abrams, H. W., 143. 

Adair, 205. 

Adams, A. L., 129, -130, 131. 

Adams, John (President), 68, 

124, 265. 

Aertsen, John P., 143, 144. 
Agnew, 205. 
Aierly, Mrs. 160. 
Aitkens, 179, 181, 182. 
Alden, 212. 
Alexander, 160, 205. 
Allen, Josiah., 181, 182, 183, 187. 
Allison, Captain Charles, 163, 

164. 

Allison, David, 179. 
Allison, Frank, 173. 
Allison, Judge John, 158. 
Alvis, Walter, 25. 
Alves, William, 16. 
Alvord, (C. W.), 212. 
American Historical Magazine, 3, 

32, 33, 50, 64, 66, 81. 
Anderson, 235, 236. 
Anderson, J. A., 179, 182, 183, 

191, 262, 263. 

Anderson, Joseph, 172, 238, 256. 
Anderson, Col. Richard Clough, 

66, 67. 

Anies, Captain, 184. 
Antony, 257. 

Armstrong, Major Frank, 79. 
Armstrong, James (Trooper) 79. 
Armstrong, Dr. James L., 52, 110, 

118. 

Armstrong, Martin, 50, 149. 
Armstrong, Gen. Robert, 75, 76, 

77, 78, 79, 81. 

Armstrong, Major William, 79. 
Arthur, Colonel, 239. 
Ashburn, Anderson, 258. 
Asbury, Rev. Francis, 158. 
Atta-culla-culla, (Chief) 8, 10, 29. 
Aubrey, Charles Philippe, 53. 
Atwater, Caleb, 222. 
Avkioyd, James 143. 

B 

Bacon, Francis, 203. 
Bain, 176. 



Bainbridge, Captain, 119. 

Balch, Miss, 186, 187. 

Balch, Rev. Hezekiah, 177, 186, 

187, 234. 

Baldwin, Colonel, 153. 
Baker, Francis, 190. 
Bancroft, Aaron, 217. 
Bangs, Edward, 217. 
Barkley, 258. 
Barrow, John, 186. 
Barrow, Micajah, 186. 
Barrow, Sherrod, 186. 
Barrow, Washington, 186. 
Barrow, Willie 186. 
Barry, D. 258, 
Bartlett, 253. 
Barton, Robert, 25. 
Bate, Governor Wm. B. 71. 
Baudoin, 266. 
Bealer, 191. 

Beard, Andrew, 173, 180. 
Beard, Captain, 163, 164, 165. 
Beard, Mrs. 173. 
Beard, William E., 268 
Beaujolas, Count de, 265, 266. 
Beauregard, General G. T., 84, 

90, 92, 93. 
Bedford, Dr. John, R., 40-68, 107- 

128. 

Bedford, Stephen, 41. 
Bedford William 41. 
Bell, Mrs. B. D., 133. 
Bell, George, 116, 117. 
Bell, John, 80. 
Bennett, 179. 

Bentley, Mrs. Blanche, 201. 
Berkley, 160. 

Betts, Edward Chambers, 197. 
Bibb, Thomas, 107. 
Bissell, Captain Daniel, 47, 54, 55. 
Black, 205. 
Blair, 205. 

Blair, Colonel John, 162, 163, 164. 
Bledsoe, Anthony, 19, 162, 235. 
Bledsoe, Colonel Isaac, 67, 145. 
Bledsoe, Margaret, 67. 
Blevins, Jack, 255. 
Blevin, Will, 255. 
Blount, Col. Thomas, 177, 178. 
Blount, Gov. Wm. 165, 167, 170, 

171, 172, 174, 178, 184, 185, 

189, 250, 251, 



270 



INDEX 



Blount, Mrs. Wm., 171, 189, 191, 

251. 

Blount, Willie, 178, 179, 186. 
Blue, Captain, 237, 238. 
Boddie, John, T. 70. 
Bond, Edwin, F. 107, 108. 
Bond, Hon. Frank P., 139. 
Bond, Miss Mollie P. (Mrs. Mol- 

lie Porter), 139. 
Bond, Shadrack F. 61, 62, 107. 
Bone, Rev. W. P. D.D., 268. 
Boone, Daniel, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 

14, 16, 17, 21, 26, 189. 
Boone, Squire, 17. 
Borden's Grant, 207. 
Botetourt, Gov. 7. 
Bowen, 237. 

Bowen, Dr. Edwin, W. 69. 
Boyd, 228. 
Boyd, J. B., 129. 
Boyd, Dr. Wm. K. 69. 
Brackenridge, H. M., 60. 
Bradbury, John, 40. 
Bradley, 258. 
Bradshaw, John, 191, 193. 
Bragg, General B rax ton, 90, 91, 

138. 

Brahan, John, 44. 
Brazzleton, A. 170, 178, 191, 238. 
Breckenridge, 205. 
Breckenridge, Mrs. 160. 
Brice, Edward, 205, 206. 
Bridger, Mary, 162. 
Briggs, John Ely, 132. 
Bright, James, 44. 
Britton, 266. 
Brown, 183. 
Brown, Captain, 174. 
Brown, Dr. 228. 
Brown, Benjamin, 161, 169, 183, 

260. 262. 

Brown, David, 166. 
Brown, Isham, 240. 
Brown Jacob, 27. 
Brown Major John L. 70. 
Brown, Joseph, 234. 
Brown, Dr. Morgan, 50, 116, 234. 
Brown, Colonel 0., 161. 
Brown, Gov. Neil S. 180. 
Brown Thomas, 180, 255, 266, 257, 

260, 263. 

Brownlow, Wm. G. 39, 241. 
Bruin, Col. Peter Brien, 115. 
Buchanan, 205. 
Buckner, Gen. Simon B. 90, 152, 

153, 154, 155. 



Buell, Gen. Don Carlos, 84, 90, 91, 

92, 93. 

Bukton, Rev. 239. 
Bullard, Kitt, 182. 
Bullard, Sally, 182. 
Bullock, Leonard Hendly, 10, 13, 

16, 23, 24, 25. 
Bullock, Richard, 16. 
Bullock, Stephen, 118. 
Bullock & Ficklin, 50. 
Bunch, 265. 
Burgett, 188. 
Burns, Mrs. 162. 
Burr, Col. Aaron, 45, 46, 68, 115, 

201. 
Butler, Col. Thomas, 56, 120, 240, 

247, 253, 259. 
Butler, Mary, 31. 



Cabel, Dr. 186. 

Cabel, George W., 69. 

Cain, John, 183, 185, 188, 194, 232, 

240, 241. 

Caldwell, Prof. Chas. B., 70. 
Caldwell, Dr. George, 68. 
Calk, William, 14. 
Callendar, Dr. J. H., 76, 78, 79. 
Campbell, 205. 
Campbell, Col. Arthur, 19, 20, 

159, 160. 
Campbell, Judge David, 175, 177, 

233, 238, 248, 263, 265. 
Campbell, Col. David, 234, 237, 

257. 

Campbell, Major G. 252. 
Campbell, Hon. George W. 16, 78, 

140, 268. 

Campbell, James, 265. 
Campbell, Joseph, 161. 
Campbell, Richard, 166, 174, 179, 

180, 182, 183, 188, 193, 194, 

232, 234, 237, 240, 241, 244, 

248, 249, 250. 
Campbell, Mrs. Richard (Kathe- 

rine Sevier.) 

Campbell, Theophilus, 264. 
Campbell, Gen. Wm. 31, 32, 157, 

159, 160. 

Cannon, Gov. Newton, 80. 
Caperton, Adam, 70. 
Carey, James, 189. 
Carmichael, Dr. 56. 
Carmichael, Alexander, 184, 194. 
Carpenter, James, 121. 
Carrick, Rev. Samuel, 171, 240, 

256. 



INDEX 



271 



Carriger, Christian, 34. 

Carson, 176, 179, 184. 

Carson, Captain, 163, 164, 165, 

Carter, 160. 

Carter, Col. John, 23, 24, 174, 177, 
178, 184, 185, 242. 

Carter, Landon, 24, 178. 

Caruthers. 160, 

Casedy, A. A. 143. 

Cass, Gen. Lewis, 76. 

Cathcart, Dr. 188. 

Catron, Judge John, 78, 140. 

Cavit, Richard, 241. 

Celry, Wm. 187. 

Chambers, Katherine, 189. 

Chapman, Dr. Chas. E. 132, 198. 

Charlevoix, 57. 

Charles X, 266. 

Cheatham, Gen. B. F. 95, 96, 138. 

Cheek, 186. 

Cherry, Mrs. W. H., 86, 95. 

Chester, Dr. 183, 190. 

Chester, John, 161. 

Chester, Mary Greer, 161. 

Chicester, Sir Arthur, 204. 

Chisholm, D. V., 129. 

Chisholm, John, 165, 171, 233, 252. 

Chittenden, Gov. Thomas, 68. 

Chrisman, D. V. 129. 

Christian, Col. 162, 163, 165, 179. 

Christian, John, 184. 

Cisco, Col. J. G., 67, 235. 

Claiborne, Ferdinand, 65. 

Claiborne, Gen. Ferdinand Leigh, 
65, 116, 117, 118. 

Claiborne, J. F. H., 157. 

Claiborne, Mary E. T., 65. 

Claiborne, Micajah Lewis, 65. 

Clairborne, Nathaniel Herbert, 
65. 

Claiborne, Mrs. T. A., 116, 118. 

Claiborne, Major Thomas, 34, 65, 

Claiborne, Dr. Thomas Augus- 
tine, 48, 49, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 
65, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 
119, 247, 248, 257, 261. 

Claiborne, Gov. Wm. Chas. Cole, 
65, 124, 134, 157, 174, 175, 180, 
181, 186, 189, 190, 239, 252, 253, 
261. 

Clark, Sarah Hawkins, 170, 190. 

Clark, Thomas N. 232, 241, 242, 
243, 245, 247, 248. 

Clark, W. H., 161, 170, 182, 192, 

Clarke, Gen. Geo. Rogers, 17, 
50, 53, 61, 66, 145, 146, 147, 
149, 150, 214, 215. 



Clarke, John, 66. 

Clarke, Mrs. Wm., 240. 

Clausland, Col. 153. 

Clay, Hon. Henry, 78, 211. 

Claywell, 189. 

Cleveland, Col. Benjamin, 157, 

Clifford, John D., 219, 220, 222, 

223, 226, 227. 
Clifford, Sarah, 222, 224. 
Cobb, 52. 
Cobler, 178. 
Cocke, Miss 174. 
Cock, Hon. Wm. 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 

27, 184, 189, 256. 
Coffee, Gen. John, 42, 44, 107. 
Coils, Col. 184. 

Colbert, Major George, 265. 
Colbert, James, 148, 149. 
Cole, Mrs. Whiteford, 70. 
Collier, Wm. 169, 181, 182, 187, 

188. 

Colville, 205. 
Conger, D. L. 71. 
Connell, E. P. 196. 
Connelly W. E., 70. 
Conway, George, 190, 191. 
Conway, Col. H., 172, 174, 177, 

190, 191, 193, 247. 
Conway, Nancy, 172. 
Conway, William, 193. 
Corbin, Joshua, 161, 166. 
Cornstalk, (Chief), 210. 
Cosby, Dr. James, 184, 189. 
Cowan, 160, 
Cowan, John, 167, 181. 
Cox, Zackariah, 50, 250. 
Craig, 205, 246. 
Craig, John, 107. 
Craighead, Rev. (T. B.) 228. 
Cramer, Zadok, 57, 62. 
Crawford, 205. 
Crawford, Captain John, 162, 

178. 

Cribbs, 51. 
Croghan, Col. George, 65. 

Croghan, Major Wm. 65, 66. 

Crone, Wm. 189. 

Crozier, Arthur, 193, 234, 237, 

241, 247, 256. 
Crozier, John, 188, 191, 232, 233, 

241, 256, 258, 260, 261, 262, 

263. 
Cuming, F., 40, 49, 54, 57, 114, 

126. 
Cunningham, Alexander, 191, 

232, 237, 242, 244. 



272 



INDEX 



Cunningham, Francis, 255. 
Curry, William, 110. 

D 

Dannahoo, Captain, 244. 
Dardin, 239. 
Davenport, 246. 
Davidson, 237. 

Davidson, Gordon Charles, 198. 
Davion, Father Antoine, 126. 
Davis, Jefferson, 93, 151. 
Davis, Nathaniel, 182. 
Deaderick, 181, 183. 
Deaderick, James W., 183. 
Deaderick, William V., 183. 
Debardelabin, 179, 181, 182, 183, 

184, 

DeBowJ. D. B M 97, 198. 
De Brutz, Gabriel, 251. 
Delaney, 191, 246, 249, 250, 252, 

255, 259, 260. 
Deleon, Dr. 186. 
Demosen, Joseph, 192. 
Denizen, 258. 
Denton, 192. 
Desha, Joseph, 66, 67. 
Desha, Robert, 67. 
DeWitt, Hon. John H. 4, 133, 134, 

156-194, 268. 
Dickson, Colonel, 126. 
Dillen, Thomas, 186. 
Dixon, Major Tillman, 266. 
Doak, 204. 

Doak, Rev. A. A. 190. 
Doak, Col. H. M., 129, 131, 158, 

180, 185, 190. 

Doak, Rev. John Whitfield, 190. 
Doak, Rev. Samuel, 158, 160, 168, 

169, 170, 174, 176, 177, 178, 183, 

185, 186, 187, 238. 
Doddridge, 212. 
Doherty, Col., 163, 164, 165. 
Donald, 205. 

Donelson, Major Andrew J., 80 
Donelson, Hodgson, 264. 
Donelson, Isaac, 205. 
Donelson, John, 8, 20, 236. 
Donelson, Mrs. J. 252, 261. 
Donelson, Stokeley, 24, 25, 177. 
Donelson, Mrs. Stokeley, 252. 
Donelson, Col, Wm. 252. 
Dorsey, Dr. 60. 
Doublehead, (Chief), 44. 
Douglas, Edward, 186, 235, 266. 
Dragging Canoe, (Chief), 21. 
Drake, Daniel, 220. 
Drake Joseph, 17, 145. 



Draper, Lyman C., 212. 

Dromgoole, Will Allen, 37. 

Dry, Colonel, 17. 

Dubois, 227. 

Duffy, Captain, 49, 59, 61. 

Duke of Orleans, 234, 265. 

Dumouriez, Charles Francois, 

265. 

Duncan, 171, 178, 233, 246. 
Duncan, Mrs., 171, 184. 
Duncan, Stephen, 232. 
Duncan, Mrs. W. M., 70. 
Dunlap, Hugh, 184, 237. 
Dunlap, Richard G., 34, 184. 
Durrett, 212. 
Dury, George, 75, 77, 79. 
Dyas, Robert, 198. 
Dyer, Joel, 265. 

E 

Eastman, Chas. H., 70. 
Eaton, Gen. John H., 47. 
Edmiston, Samuel, 159. 
Edmiston, Wm., 19, 143, 144. 
Edmiston, Wm. (Washington 

County, Va.), 159. 
Edmonstone, 205. 
Edmonstone, Archibald, 206. 
Eichbaum, Wm. A., 143. 
Ellicott, Andrew, 123. 
Ellicott, Hugh, 142, 143, 144. 
Elholm, Major C. A. G., 244, 245, 

252. 

Embree, Elihu, 172. 
Embree, Elihu, Jr., 172. 
Embree, Isaac, 192, 238. 
Embree, Jacob, 187, 239. 
Embree, Thomas, 176. 
Emmerson, 249. 
Ennwer, Joseph, 191. 
Ernay, Peter, 257. 
Erwin, Alexander, 258. 
Erwin, John, 258. 
Erwin, Joseph, 126. 
Estell, John, 143, 144. 
Evans, Captain, 163, 164, 165, 

184, 185. 

Ewing, Andrew, 268. 
Ewing, Edwin, H., 268. 
Ewing, Judge Robert, 71, 75, 76, 

77, 78, 79, 80, 133, 139, 268. 



Fain, John Tyree, 27-39, 71, 133, 

134. 

Fall, G. R., 143, 144. 
Fall, P. S., 143. 



INDEX 



Fane, J. K., 143. 

Farmwault & Co. 244. 

Farrar, Wm., 22. 

Ferguson, Major Patrick, 157. 

Fewkes, J. Walter, 267. 

Fickee, John, 168, 173, 174, 175, 

176, 179, 181, 182, 183, 187, 192, 

193, 239. 

Field, Dr. Henry W., 95. 
Fillmore, Millard, (President), 

78. 

Fine, Capt. Peter, 184. 
Fisher, F. E., 143. 
Fisk, Moses, 222. 
Fitzgerald, 184. 
Fletcher, 148. 
Flint, 212. 
Floyd, Gen. John B., 152, 153, 

154, 155. 

Fogg, Francis B., 268. 
Rorbes, Gen, John, 53. 
Ford, Col., 185. 
Forde, CoK James, 66. 
Forrest, P., 186. 
Forrest, Elisha, 130. 
Forrest, Jonathan, 129. 
Forrest, Gen. Nathan Bedford, 

129, 130, 131, 155. 
Forrest, Nelson, 130. 
Fort Stanwix, 6, 8. 
Foster, Edgar, M., 71. 
Foster, Ephram H., 36, 236. 
Foster, James, 236. 
Foster, Robert C., 142, 143, 144, 

236. 

Franier, Dr., 232, 243, 263. 
Franklin, Benjaman, 8. 
Frazier, Gov. James B., 139. 
Fulton, Major J. B., 129. 



G 

Galbrath, Arthur, 184. 
Gallaher, James, 166. 
Gallaher, Ruth A., 70. 
Galusha, Mrs. Bulah, 68. 
Galvez, Don Bernondo de, 126. 
Gamble, 164, 166. 
Gamble, Col., 160. 
Garner, Brice M., 44. 
Garrett, Sophia, 166. 
Garrett, W. R., 3, 57. 
Garts, P., 191. 
Gass, John, 249. 
Gay, Capt. Wm. H., 38. 
Geffrys, Jesse, 191. 
Genet, 53. 



George III, 230. 

Gerum, 181. 

Gest, Capt., 246, 251. 

Gest, Nathaniel, 22, 163, 186. 

Gibson^ 243. 

Gillam 192. 

Gillespie, Allen, 182, 193. 

Gillespie, George, 174, 239, 241. 

Gillespie, Capt. Hal., 174. 

Gillespie, James, 34, 167, 168, 174. 

Gillespie, Mrs. James, 173. 

Gillespie, Capt. Thomas, 163, 164, 

165. 

Gillespie, W., 180. 
Gist, Christopher, 5, 6. 
Gleaves, Admiral 268. 
Goarn, H., 161. 
Goode, Joanna, 159. 
Goodlett, M. C., 196. 
Goodloe, Hon. Hallum W., 133. 
Goodpasture, Albert V., 3, 33, 

50, 66, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 

150, 229, 230, 231. 
Goodrich, Wm., 189. 
Gordon, 205. 
Gordon, George, 178, 179, 180, 

181, 183, 191, 244, 247, 249, 250, 

251, 254, 256, 261. 
Gordon, James, 64, 
Graham, 205. 
Graham, R. W., 143. 
Grant, 258. 

Grant, Gen. Frederick Dent, 95. 
Grant, Mrs. Frederick Dent, 95. 
Grant, Gen. U. S., 38, 84, 85, 86, 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 152. 
Gravier, 57. 
Gray, 183. 
Gray, R. H., 70, 71. 
Gray, Capt T. J., 70, 71. 
Green, 248. 
Green, John, 179. 
Green, Joshua, 188. 
Green, Robert W., 71. 
Green, Wm., 239. 
Greene, Thomas, 176. 
Greenway, James, 191. 
Greer, Andrew, 14. 
Greer, Joseph, 168, 193. 
Greer, Polly, 182. 
Greer, Samuel, 189. 
Gregham, 184. 
Grinnon, Paddy, 243, 244, 245, 

246, 

Griswold, Roger, 68. 
Grundy, Hon. Felix, 70, 78. 
Guion, Capt. Isaac, 56, 123, 124, 



274 



INDEX 



Haines, 185, 186, 188, 190, 233, 

240, 246. 
Haislet, 188. 
Haiston, Susie, 189. 
Hale, Will T., 37. 
Haley, D., 184. 
Hall, 212. 

Halleck, Gen. H. W. 90, 95. 
Hamilton, Gov. Henry, 146. 
Hamilton, Joseph, 238. 
Hamilton, Thomas, 191. 
Hammes, Mrs. 186. 
Hammond, 164, 165. 
Hampstead, 258. 
Hamtrack, Col, 56. 
Hancock, Joel, 190, 191, 194, 232, 

234, 241, 246, 253. 
Handly, Mrs., 180. 
Handly, Elizabeth, 188. 
Handly, John, 189. 
Handly, Col. Saml., 185, 189, 190, 

232. 

Hanging Maw (Mrs) 255. 
Hankins, James, 186. 
Hanks, Abraham, 14, 15, 17. 
Hanks, Nancy, 14. 
Hanna, Joseph, 176, 177, 181. 
Hannah, Col. Harvey, 176. 
Hanson, Willis T., Jr., 71. 
Hardiman, Thomas, 177. 
Hardin, Col., 177. 
Hardin, Benjaman, 34. 
Hardin, Joseph, Jr., 243. 
Harilson, Wm. 255. 
Harnacres, Samuel, 8. 
Harrill, 167, 169, 172, 174, 183. 
Harris, 57, 160. 
Harrison, 110, 113, 181, 182. 
Harrison, Capt. Michael, 163, 164, 

165, 166. 184, 190, 191, 233, 239, 

243, 251. 

Harrison, Reuben, 161. 
Hart, David, 10, 13, 23, 24, 25. 
Hart, Nathaniel, 10, 12, 13, 22, 23, 

24, 25. 
Hart, Thomas, 10, 13, 15, 22, 23, 

24, 25, 27. 

Hartwell, John, 163. 
Harvey, Gov., 89. 
Haskell, Wm. T., 78, 140. 
Havrons, 205. 
Hawkins, 242. 
Hawkins, Benjaman, 236. 
Hawkins, Sarah, 156, 161. 
Hays, 205. 
Hays, Nathaniel, 186. 



Hays, Robert, 236. 
Hays, R. P. 143, 144. 
Haywood, Judge John, 225. 
Haywood, Marshall Delaney, 132. 
Hazzard, Samuel, 5, 6. 
Heard, Col., 239. 
Heiskell, Saml. G., 197, 268. 
Heiman, Col. A., 152. 
Henderson, Archibald, 6, 21, 66, 

69, 197, 212, 213, 214. 
Henderson, Nathaniel, 22. 
Henderson, Pleasant, 27. 
Henderson, Richardson, 5, 6, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 189, 197. 
Henderson, Samuel, 13. 
Henderson, Thomas P., 109. 
Henderson, W. A. 157, 158. 
Henley, David, 238, 254. 
Henning, Dr. 266. 
Henry, Patrick, 145, 215. 
Hepburn, Wm. Peters, 132. 
Herschal, 160. 
Hickey, 194. 
Hicks, Hamblin, 52. 
Higgins, Gen., 266. 
Hill, Wm. K., 34. 
Hillis, 233. 
Hitchcock, 194. 
Hite, Abraham, 22. 
Hocket, Moses, 180, 187. 
Hogg, James, 10, 13, 15, 16, 23, 24, 

25. 

Holt, Dr. 176, 177, 182, 187, 189. 
Holt, Wm. 182. 
Holton, George, 143, 144. 
Hood, Gen. John B., 38. 
Hope, Thomas, 189, 241. 
Horket, Solomon, 181. 
Hoss, Bishop, E. E., 166. 
Houck, Louis, 108, 111, 113. 
Houghton, Thomas, 22. 
Houston, 205. 
Houston, J. 189. 
Houston, Gov. Saml. 69. 
Houston, Rev. Samuel, 160, 177. 
Howell, Junius P., 138. 
Hubbard, Col. James, 256. 
Huffman, 161. 
Hulbert, A. B., 57, 62. 
Hume, William, 143. 
Humphrey, Parry W., 52, 110. 
Humphreys, Joseph, 60, 61. 
Hunt, Wm. Gibbes, 219. 
Hunter, John, 179, 187, 188. 
Hurst, Rev. T. M., 81-96. 



INDEX 



275 



Hutson, Thomas, 188. 



Iberville, 126. 

Inge, William M., 34. 

Inman, 12, 14. 

Iredel, Thomas, 143. 

Irvin, 205. 

Irwin, Capt. J. W., 95. 

Irwin, Mrs. Nancy, 95. 

Ish, John, 165. 



Jackson, Lieut. 110. 

Jackson, Gen. Andrew, 30, 47, 54, 

70, 75-80, 134, 140, 157, 178, 

184, 189, 197, 205, 211, 213, 

235, 258, 268. 
tfackson, J M 171. 
Jackson, James, 42, 44, 107. 
Jackson, Rachael Donelson, 205, 

236. 
Jackson, Gen. Thomas P., 208, 

210. 

James I, 202, 203, 204, 
Jefferson, Thomas, 68, 78. 
Jennings, Obadiah, 143. 
Jennings, Thomas R. 143. 
Joab, Abraham, 242. 
Joab, Wim. 260. 
Jobe, Dr. A., 30. 
Johnson, Lieut. 54. 
Johnson, Mrs. 182. 
Johnson, Major, 185. 
Johnson, President Andrew, 78. 
Johnson, Gen. Bushrod, 153. 
Johnson, Seth, 193, 233, 234. 
Johnson, Sir William, 6, 7, 8. 
Johnston, Gen. Albert Sydney, 84, 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 138. 
Johnston, Alexander, 186. 
Johnston, David, 186. 
Johnston, George, 186. 
Johnston, Isaac, 186. 
Johnston, James, 186. 
Johnston, John, 186. 
Johnston, Joseph, 186. 
Johnston, Gen. Joseph, E., 138. 
Johnston, Peter, 186. 
Johnston, Robert, 186. 
Johnston, William, 10, 13, 15, 23, 

24, 27. 

Johnstone, Gen., 127. 
Joliet, Louis, 57. 
Jones, Calvin, 132. 
Jones, Richard, 188. 
Jones, Sir Wm., 224 



Juchereau, 53. 



K 



Keating, J. M., 124. 

Keele, John, 175, 176, 180, 181, 

Keeler, 174. 

Keewoods, John, 159. 

Keewoods, Sally, 168, 169. 

Kelley, Major, 163, 164. 

Kendrick, Col. W. C., 96. 

Kennedy, 205, 240. 

Kennedy, Col, 163, 181. 

Kennedy, Mrs. 187. 

Kenzie, J. H. 151. 

Kenzie, Mrs. J. H., 151, 153. 

Key, 205. 

King, George, 186, 188. 

King, Mrs. George, 188. 

King, Capt. James, 163, 165, 166, 
168, 178, 186. 

King, Robert, 255. 

King, Thomas, 196. 

King, Walter, 161, 174-180, 184, 
185, 187, 188, 193, 239, 240, 241, 
246, 251, 253, 256, 257, 260. 

Kirkman, 52. 

Knox, 205 . 



Lacky, J., 183. 

La Forge, Pierre A., 61. 

Lane, 192. 

Lanier, Churchhill, 195. 

Lattimore, Dr. David, 116. 

Lattimore, Dr. Wm., 116, 118. 

Lansen, Father Fermin Francis- 
co de, 132. 

La Valle, Jean, 61. 

Lavender, C. H., 129. 

Law, John, 126. 

Lawrence, Wm. P., 143. 

Leathsrdales, 160. 

Lee, James, 232. 

Lee, Gen. Robert E., 38. 

Leech, Joseph, 14. 

Lelburn, Andrew, 187. 

Lellburne, John, 175, 176, 181. 

Lemos, Manuel Gayoso de, 123. 

Lenoir, W. B., 268. 

Leseur, 57, 62. 

Lewis, Gen. Andrew, 31, 145, 208, 
210. 

Lewis, Col. Joel, 65, 236. 

Lewis, John, 207. 

Lewis, Sarah, 65. 

Lewis, Wm. B., 235. 



276 



INDEX 



Lewis, Win. Tirrell, 65, 235, 236. 

Lily, 160, 204. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 14, 38, 39, 95. 

Lincoln, Levi, 217. 

Lindsley, Philip, 143. 

Linn, Mrs. 255. 

Lintot, Mrs., 118. 

Livingston, Robt. R., 50. 

Loftis, Major, 127. 

Lorimer, Don Lin, 61. 

Louis XIV, 265. 

Louis Phillippe, 234, 265, 266. 

Louis XVI, 265. 

Love, 185, 263, 264. 

Lovely, Major, 172, 177. 

Lowry, John, 22. 

Loventhal, Lee J., 71. 

Lucas, Robert, 23, 24, 

Luttrell, John, 10, 12, 13, 14, 23. 

24. 

Lyle, 205. 

Lyle, Oscar K., 204. 
Lyon, 235. 
Lynch, John, 242. 
Lyon, Matthew, 50, 67, 68. 

Me. 

McAlister, W. K., 173. 
McCain, John, 191, 233, 234, 240, 

245. 

McClean, Chas. D., 34, 35. 
McCallister, John, 170, 173, 188, 

232, 240. 

McClanahan, Alexander, 160. 
McClelland, Major Win. 166, 185, 

252, 254. 

McClung, Chas., 185, 241. 
McCombs, Wm. 143, 144. 
McConnell, Robt., 51. 
McCoy, Chas., 248. 
McCraig, 160. 
McCreary, Dr., 116, 117. 
McCreary, Lieut., 123. 
McCrory, 186, 193, 232, 233. 
McDermott, Paul, 238. 
McDowell, 205. 

McDowell, Col. Chas., 157, 159. 
McDowell, Ephraim, 205, 206, 207. 
McDowell, Gen. Joseph, 159. 
McEwen, Robert H., 143, 144. 
McFarland, Major John, 164, 165, 

169 192 

McGill, Dr. J. T., 268. 
Mclntosh, Lachlin, 238, 248. 
McKay, John, 49, 51. 
McKee, Alexander, 166, 168, 170, 

173, 181, 183, 184, 185, 193. 
McKee, Peggy, 173, 183. 



McKinley, J., 107. 

McMahon, John, 168. 

McNair, 52. 

McNairy, Judge John, 185, 186, 

235, 236, 241. 
McNairy, Nathaniel, 117. 
McPherson, Lieut. Col., 86, 95. 

M 

Maclin, Wm. 184, 186, 193, 236. 

Madison, James, 78, 137. 

Magahee, Capt., 163, 164. 

Major, 240, 241. 

Mallory, Dr. 113. 

Malone, Hon. James H., 197. 

Mansfield, Seth, 257. 

Manning, Wm., 221. 

Mansker, Casper, 145. 

Man well, 242. 

Marquette, Jacques, 57, 112. 

Marshall, Hon. Park, 71, 133. 

Martin, Col. Joseph, 14, 15, 18, 26. 

Massingale, 240. 

Mathes, Mrs., 181. 

Mathes, John S., 29. 

Matthews, Alexander, 179, 234, 

243. 

Maughons, James, 188. 
Maury, Abram, 65. 
Maury, Thomas, 116, 117, 118, 

119, 121. 

Maxey, P. W., 143. 
Maxwell, Jesse, 266. 
May, Dr., 251. 
May, Samuel, 181, 183, 187 189, 

190, 239, 241, 246. 
Meek, Adam, 168, 172, 177, 232, 

241, 259. 

Meigs, Return J., 268. 
Mero, Don Esteven, 191. 
Messenger, John, 68. 
Messer, 176, 181. 
Messiac, Marquis de, 53. 
Michaux, Andre, 40, 50. 
Miles, Major, 191. 
Milleken, Henry B., 143. 
Miller, A. N. 129, 131. 
Miller, Jacob, 162. 
Miller, James, 189. 
Miller, John B. 252, 254, 255, 256, 

260, 262, 263. 
Miller, Mrs. Judah, 258. 
Mims, Dr. Edwin, 69. 
Mitchell, 160, 265. 
Mitchell, Gum, 178. 
Mitchell, John, 15, 178. 
Mitchell, John Purroy, 15, 178. 



INDEX 



277 



Mitchell, Mark, 178. 
Mitchell, Saml. 178. 
Monette, John W., 212. 
Monohan, M. M., 196. 
Montgomery, 160, 193. 
Montgomery, Gen. James, 115. 
Montgomery, Col. John, 50, 145, 

146, 147, 148, 149, 150. 
Montpensier, Count de, 234, 265, 

266. 

Montigny, Father, 126. 
Moore, Al. 180. 
Moore, Dr. James, 31. 
Moore, Martha, 31. 
Morgan, Abel, 184. 
Morgan, Col. George, 62. 
Morgan, Saml. D. 268. 
Morris, Dabney, 107. 
Morris, Gouverneur, 265. 
Mulhallan, T. J., 143. 
Mulloy, Thomas, 186. 
Murphy, 164, 167, 170, 173. 
Murphy, Wm., 183, 241. 
Murphy, Mrs. 166. 
Murray, John, 208, 209, 210. 
Murrell, John, 47, 52. 

N 

Nash, Gen. Francis, 27. 
Nave, John, 184. 
Neilson, Major Hugh, 189, 193. 
Nelson, Alexander, 185. 
Nelson, Selden, 30. 
Nelson, Dr. Wilbur A., 70. 
Nelson, William, 253, 257, 263. 
Nesdnan, 233. 
Newman, Jane, 187. 
Newsom, Francis, 143, 144. 
Nichol, Josiah, 79. 
Nichol, Margaret D., 79. 
Nichols, 258. 
Nicholson, A. O. P. 76. 
North, George, 166. 
Norvel, 186. 
Norvell, C. C., 143. 
Norvell, Moses, 51. 
Nye, Shadrack, 143. 



O 

O'Bruin, Peter Brien, 115. 

Oconostota, (Chief), 8, 10, 11. 

O'Fallon, Dr. James, 66, 67, 

Olive, M. de, 60, 61. 

Orr, Col., 265. 

Outlaw, Alexander, 192, 232, 238. 

Overstreet, Wm. 166. 



Page, Walter Hines, 69. 

Paine, James, 175, 185, 239, 247, 

254, 259, 260. 
Paine, Nathaniel, 217. 
Paine, Ruben, 193. 
Paine, William, 217 
Pallas, Dr., 220, 221, 222. 
Park, James, 237. 
Parker, Ben, 168. 
Packer, Jane Marsh, 266. 
Parker, Col. Josiah, 162. 
Parker, Nathaniel, 162. 
Parker, Robert, 234. 
Parkins, 265. 
Parkins, Dr. A. E., 71. 
Parks, 183, 184, 188. 
Patterson, J. M., 129. 
Patterson, Gov. Malcolm R., 139. 
Patton, 205. 
Patton, James, 207. 
Paxton, 160. 
Perkins, 212. 
Perkins, N. P., 174, 191. 
Perry, 260, 261, 262. 
Peters, L., 173. 
Peters, Major, 242. 
Petty, George, 50. 
Phelan, Major, 244. 
Phillip of Orleans, 265. 
Phillips, George, 70. 
Phipps, Joshua, 189. 
Pickens, Gen. Andrew, 236. 
Pickering, Timothy, 110, 194. 
Pickett, George, 95. 
Pickett, Mrs. George, 96. 
Pierce, Franklin, 80. 
Pike, Capt. Zebulon, 110, 123, 124. 
Pike, Gen. Zebulon, Montgomery. 

124, 125. 
Pillow, Gen. Gideon J., 152, 153, 

154, 155. 

Poindexter, George, 101. 
Polk, President James K., 78, 80. 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, 90. 91. 
Pope, Lieut. 123. 
Pope, Leroy, 107. 
Porter, 161. 
Porter, Capt. 152. 
Porter, Alex. 118. 
Porter, Chas, Bingley, 137. 
Porter, Col. George Camp, 133, 

134, 137-141, 198. 
Porter, Gov. James D., 129, 138. 

139. 

Porter, Mary Bingely, 138. 
Porter, Miss Neppie, 137. 



278 



INDEX 



Porter, Robert Scott, 138. 

Powell, Dr. 257. 

Power, Thomas, 53. 

Poyzer, George, 51, 52, 64. 

Prentiss, General, 91. 

Preston, 205. 

Price, 232. 

Price, Thomas, 22. 

Provine, Dr. W. A., 4, 134, 216- 

228. 

Pruit, 164. 
Pugh, Mrs. 161. 
Purdoms, Alexander, 240, 246, 

250, 259. 
Purdue, 188, 190. 
Putnam, A. W., 189, 214. 
Putnam, Col. Douglas, 86, 95. 
Putnam, Mrs. Eliza, 129. 



Raffle, 223, 226, 228. 
Rafinesque, C. F., 219. 
Rains, John, Sr., 150. 
Rains, John, Jr., 195. 
Ramsay, Col. 47, 259. 
Ramsey, J. G. M., 28, 50. 
Ramsey's Annals, 28-37, 50, 231. 
Randolph, Edward, 110. 
Raworth, Egbert A., 195. 
Readerson, A., 180. 
Reasons, Thomas, 149. 
Rector, John, 233. 
Rector, Wharton, 193, 194, 239, 

240, 242. 
Redin, 192. 
Reed, Dr. 175. 
Reed, Miss, 118. 
Reed. Mrs., 160. 
Reese, 177, 183. 
Reese, Judge Wm. B., 36, 37. 
Reeves, Jesse, 174. 
Reid, Capt, 119. 
Reid, John, 22. 
Reynolds, Robert, 260. 
Rhea, Archibald, 166, 174, 183. 
Rhea, John, 12, 16. 
Rhoades, Nelson Osgood, 197. 
Richardson, Capt., 163, 164, 165, 

171, 234. 
Richmond, John, 172, 173, 175, 

176, 180, 181, 187, 188, 192, 193, 

239. 

Ring, Mrs. Frances W,, 133. 
Ritchey, Wm., 245, 246, 247, 248, 

255. 
Roane, Gov. Archibald, 178, 183, 

186. 



Roane, James, 143, 144. 
Robbins, Thomas, 264. 
Roberts, 242. 

Roberts, Gov. Albert H., 133. 
Roberts, Misa Betsy, 149. 
Robertson, Charles, 22, 32. 
Robertson, Charlotte Reeves, 235. 
Robertson, Dr. Felix, 42. 
Robertson, Col. I., 160, 190. 
Robertson, James, 19, 20, 21, 22, 

26, 46, 191, 209, 214, 229, 235, 

251. 

Robinson, Charles, 33, 193. 
Robinson, James C., 143. 
Robinson, Dr. J. H., 129. 
Roddye, Colonel, 178, 183, 188, 

192, 232, 240, 241. 
Rogers, 172, 185, 187. 
Rodgers, Samuel R., 39. 
Rodgers, David, 34. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 212, 214. 
Rosencran, Gen. Wm. S., 138. 
Ross, Daniel, 186, 255. 
Ross, David, 186. 
Ross, James, 186. 
Ross, William, 186. 
Rothenstein, Rev. John, 132. 
Rouse, Capt., 189. 
Rible, 193. 
Russell, W., 143. 
Rutherford, 161. 
Rutherford, Griffith, 177. 



Sample, Capt., 120. 

Sanders, Julius, 150. 

Sanford, Judge, Edw. T., 133. 

Sanford, John L., 71. 

Sappington, John, 65, 67. 

Sargent, John, 8. 

Satterfield, Larry, 50. 

Saunders, Edward, 134. 

Sawyers, Capt. Robt, 160. 

Scorer, Major, 179. 

Scott, John, 143. 

Scott, Mary, 138. 

Scott, Nancy, 33. 

Seawell, Wm. 245. 

Semple, Mary, 204. 

Serra, Father Junipere, 132. 

Sevier, Abraham, 159. 

Sevier, Anna, 166. 

Sevier, Chatty, 245. 

Elizabeth Conway, 166. 

Sevier, Elizabeth, 161, 170, 174, 
177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 187, 
188, 189, 190, 191, 242, 244, 252. 



INDEX 



279 



Sevier, George Washington, 157, 
166, 170, 173, 174, 180, 181, 182, 
185, 189, 190, 239, 245, 250, 251, 
254. 

Sevier, Mrs. Jack, 184. 

Sevier, Rev. Jack, 171. 

Sevier, Major James, 32, 161, 173 
174, 175, 176, 178, 179, 182, 183, 
184, 187, 192, 238, 239, 242, 248, 
251. 

Sevier, Joanna Goode, 156, 166, 
177, 191, 233, 244, 250, 251, 252. 

Sevier, Gov. John, 30, 31, 32, 36, 
37, 54, 156-194, 209, 211,. 

Sevier, John, Jr., 161, 165, 166, 
168, 170, 171, 183. 

Sevier, Joseph, 159, 168, 171, 173, 
174, 176, 177, 178, 181, 248, 250, 
251. 

Sevier, Joseph, (Brother of Gov- 
ernor), 161, 178, 245, 248. 

Sevier, Katherine Sherrill, 157, 
159, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 
173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 
181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 
189, 190 191, 192, 233, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 247, 250, 
251, 252, 264. 

Sevier, Katherine, (Mrs. Richard 
Campbell), 166, 174, 176, 177, 
179, 183, 188, 191, 237, 240, 244, 
250, 252. 

Sevier, Mary Ann, 161, 166, 169, 
181, 182, 183. 

Sevier, Nancy, 161, 168, 170. 174, 

176, 180. 

Sevier, Polly Preston, 166, 191, 
233. 

Sevier, Polly (Sister of Gov.) 159, 
244. 

Sevier, Rebecca, 161, 168, 170, 
175, 183, 187. 

Sevier, Richard, 161. 

Sevier, Robert, 166. 

Sevier, Robert, (Brother of Gov- 
ernor) , 159. 

Sevier, Ruth, 166, 169, 174, 176, 

177, 179, 181, 182, 189, 191, 192, 
194, 232, 237, 238, 241, 242, 251, 
260. 

Sevier, Dr. Samuel, 166, 176, 177, 

180, 181, 185, 189, 190. 
Sevier, Sarah, 161, 183. 
Sevier, Valentine, 156, 158, 168. 
Sevier, Valentine, Jr., 150, 235, 

253. 



Sevier, Valentine (Son of Gover- 
nor.), 161, 166, 241, 263, 
Sevier, Wkn., 176, 233. 
Seward, Wm. H., 38. 
Shaw, James, 204. 
Shaw, Wm., 143. 
Shelby, Gen. Evan, 66, 209. 
Shelby, Col. Evan Jr., 66, 147, 

149. 
Shelby, Isaac, 22, 27, 66, 69, 157, 

197, 209, 210, 213. 
Shelby, John, 239. 
Shelby, Moses, 66. 
Shields, Col. Thomas, 232. 
Sherman, Gen. Wm. T., 38. 
Sherrill, Katherine (See Kathe- 
rine Sevier) . 
Sherrill, Mrs., 172, 173, 175, 179, 

188. 

Sherrill, Acquilla, 168, 169, 170, 
173, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 
193. 
Sherrill, John, 174, 175, 176, 177, 

178, 179, 190, 238, 247. 
Sherrill, Polly, 247. 
Sherrill, Samuel, 187. 
Sherrill, Uriah, 179. 
Sherrill, Wm. 175, 176, 190, 192, 

232, 253, 259. 
Silburne, John, 175. 
Simeral, Capt, 251, 260. 
Simms, P., 168, 169, 173, 185, 190, 

191, 233, 247, 248, 252. 
Simms, Mrs., 243. 
Simon, A., 143. 
Sioussat, Dr. St George L., 3. 
Sitler. Joseph McCoy, 143. 
Skinmon, E. H., 133. 
Smiley, Thomas, 195. 
Smith, Mrs., 178, 186. 
Smith, Alexander E., 34. 
Smith, Gen. C. F., 91, 95. 
Smith, Daniel, 193, 236, 257. 
Smith, John H,, 44, 196. 
Smith, Joseph, 50. 
Snoddy, John, 205. 
Snowden, S. B., 143. 
Sommerville, J., 170, 171, 178, 

257 262 

Southgate,'w. B., 268. 
Sparks, Richard, 166, 170, 232, 
237, 238, 240, 241, 256, 257, 258. 
Speed, Dr., 116, 118. 
Spencer, Edmund, 202. 
StCosme, Father, 126. 
Steele, Col. John, 248. 
Steigers, 179, 181. 



280 



INDEX 



Stephenson, Mathew, 35. 

Stevens, Benjaman, 234. 

Stevenson, V. K., 268. 

Stewart, James, 64. 

Stinson, Joseph, 184. 

Stone, John, 171, 177, 178, 183, 

185, 188, 189, 191, 193, 194, 234, 

240. 

Stout S. V. D., 196. 
St Pierre, Paul de, 132. 
Strother, Col., 265. 
Stuart, David, 244, 247. 
Stuart, James, 30, 190, 234. 
Stuart, John, 7, 8. 
Stubblefield, 235, 236. 
Stump, 57, 64. 
Sutherland, Wm., 244. 
Swanson, 128. 
Sweetman, 233, 237. 
Sycamore Shoals, 5, 8, 10, 19, 21, 

22. 



Talbot, Thomas, 118, 182. 
Tannehill, W. F., 143. 
Tappy, Rev. Francis, 71. 
Tate, 160, 235, 236. 
Taylor, Col., 192, 233. 
Taylor, Isaac, 232, 243. 
Taylor, Major, 163, 164, 165. 
Taylor, Parmenas, 177. 
Temple, Judge, O. P., 29. 
Tennessee Warrior (Chief), 10. 
Terrill, Wm. 186. 
Thomas, Gen. George A., 38. 
Thomas, Isaiah, 217. 
Thomas, J., 184. 
Thompson, Mrs., 183, 260. 
Thompson, D. L., 143. 
Thompson, John, 143, 144. 
Thompson, Rev. John, 205. 
Thruston, Gen. Gates P., 139. 
Thwaites, R. G., 40, 50, 57. 
Tighlman, Gen., 90. 
Tinnon, Col. Hugh, 150. 
Tipton, 243. 
Tipton, Abraham, 31. 
Tipton, Benjaman, SI. 
Tipton, Isaac, 31. 
Tipton, Jacob, 31. 
Tipton John, 29, 30, 31, 32. 
Tipton, John, Jr., 30, 31, 32, 33, 

34, 35, 36, 37. 
Tipton, Gen. John, 31. 
Tipton, Jonathan, 29, 30, 31, 32. 
Tipton, Jonathan, (Son of John), 

30, 31, 32. 



Tipton, Joseph, 31. 

Tipton, Joshua, 31. 

Tipton, Mordecai, 31. 

Tipton, Samuel, 31, 32. 

Tipton, Thomas, 31. 

Tipton, William, 31. 

Todd, 205. 

Treet, Joseph M., 112. 

Trimble, J. Anderson, 180. 

Trimble, Hon. John, 180. 

Trimble, Thomas C., 143. 

Turnbull, Dr. Andrew, 267. 

Turner, 212. 

Turney, Hopkins L., 235. 

Turney, Jacob, 192. 

Turney, Capt. Peter, 192, 235, 236, 

Turney, Gov. Peter, 235. 

Twitty, Wm., 13, 14. 

U 
Umstead, John, 16, 25. 



VanBuren, Martin, 78. 
Vandalia County, 8. 
VanDorn, Gen. Earl, 90, 91. 
Vandyke, Mrs. 263. 
Vanhorn, 110. 
Vanleer, Anthony, 268. 
Vaubc, Catherine C., 75, 78. 
Vaulx, Joseph, 75, 79. 
Vertner, Daniel, 166. 

W 

Waddell, Charles, 70, 187. 
Waddell, John, 161, 174, 175, 179, 

184, 185, 186, 190, 193, 238, 251. 
Waddell, John, Jr., 187. 
Walker, 160. 
Walker, Felix, 11. 
Walker, Dr. Thomas, 5, 19, 20. 
Wallace, 185. 
Wallace, John, 164. 
Wallace, Gen. Lew, 91, 95. 
Walton, Col. George, 249, 253. 
Wannamaker, Dr. Wm. H., 69. 
Ward, Capt. James, 181, 182. 
Washington, Gen. George, 31, 

162, 177, 265. 

Waters, Dr. Richard, 60, 62. 
Watkins, Chas., 34. 
Watson, James, 16. 
Watterson, Henry, 71. 
Watts, John, (Chief), 265. 
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 67, 123, 

179. 
Weakey, Mrs. Robert, 70. 



INDEX 



281 



Weir, 164. 

Weir, Elizabeth, 184. 

Weir, James, 174. 

Weir, John, 192. 

Weir, Jennie, 184. 

Weir, Major Samuel, 166, 167, 

168, 169, 173, 174, 176, 183, 184, 

239. 

West, Edward, 51. 
West, Win. Edward, 51. 
Wharton, Col. 153. 
Wharton, Samuel, 8. 
Wheeler, A. J., 71. 
White, Hugh Lawson, 16, 33, 80. 
White, Dr. James, 33, 172, 186, 

188, 
White, Gen. James, 33, 186, 234, 

245, 251, 253. 
White, Robert, 118. 
White, William, 143, 144. 
White & Wilkinson, 256. 
Whyte, Robert, 143. 
Wilcox, 184. 
Wilkin, A., 184. 
Williams, John, 10, 13, 16, 21, 23, 

24, 25, 27. 

Williams, Nat W., 110, 118. 
Williams, Samuel C. 5-27, 212- 

215. 

Williams, Willoughby, 51. 
Williamson, Hugh, 267. 
Willinawaugh, 10. 
Wilkinson, Gen. James, 56, 57, 

107, 108, 111, 123, 124, 127. 
Wilson, 204. 

Wilson, Benjaman, 248, 254, 256. 
Wilson, George, 180. 
Wilson, Major J. M., 129. 
Wilson, James, 143. 



Wilson, Jesse, 241. 

Wilson, Samuel, 22. 

Wilson, Wm. 176, 185. 

Winchester, James, 177, 235, 236. 

Windle, Daniel, 250. 

Windle, Hawkins, 166, 193, 242, 

247, 248, 249. 
Winsor, Justin, 212, 215. 
Wise, Hlenry A., 142, 143. 
Witten, Arthur, 239. 
Wood, Dr., 160. 

Wood, John, 117, 166, 171, 184. 
Woodcock, Dr., 107. 
Woods, James, 51, 
Woods, Joseph, 51, 64. 
Woods, Michael, 187, 
Woods, Robert, 51, 64. 
Woolridge, J., 36. 
Work, Monroe N., 267. 
Worthington, Col. Thomas, 91. 
Wright, 188. 
Wright, Abraham, 126. 
Wright, Douglas, 268. 
Wright, Richard, 233, 234. 
Wylie, 205. 
Wylie, Gen. James Rutherford, 

170, 172. 
Wylie, Robert, 237, 238. 



Yancy, J., 184. 
Yerger, 138. 
Young, 260. 
Young, Hon. J. P., 133. 
Young, Joseph, 185. 
Young, Thomas, 173, 

Z 

Zollicoffer, Gen. Felix, 90. 



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