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Mrs. F. M. Foster 

)a^\/ / 3 —/%? 











Copyright, 1865, 1883, 1888, 

W. P' 9 





Since the appearance of the first edition of my 
Quintilian in 1865, a very thorough, revision of 
the entire text of the Institutions has been made 
by Carl Halm, and published by B. G. Teubner 
at Leipsic in 1868; and new and valuable help 
has been contributed to the interpretation of the 
tenth book by G. T. A. Krliger, in his commen- 
tary on that book, the second edition of which 
was published at Leipsic by the same house in 
1874. The text of the present edition of the tenth 
and twelfth books has been revised with careful 
reference to the changes introduced by Halm, 
and such changes have been adopted where they 
are well authorized, or where, in cases of doubt- 
ful authority, they seemed to yield a more satis- 
factory meaning. Much assistance has also been 
derived, in the preparation of the notes of the 
tenth book, from the excellent and scholarly edi- 
tion of Kriiger. On the twelfth book no new 
commentary has appeared. 



The notes on both, books in this second edition 
have been greatly amplified, and no labor has 
been spared to make them helpful wherever help 
seemed to be needed. 

I take this opportunity to express my grateful 
acknowledgments to Professor E. P. Crowell, of 
Amherst College, and to my colleague, Professor 
Elisha Jones, for much aid and many very im- 
portant suggestions. 

Henry S. Frieze. 

University of Michigan, 
January ^ 1888, 


We learn from Professor Bonnell, in the 
preface to his second edition of the tenth book 
of the Institutions, that Quintilian has been of 
late years extensively introduced into the Ger- 
man schools. The occasion of the increased at- 
tention given to this great master both of Latin- 
ity and of rhetoric is the admirable fitness of his 
work to impart instruction at once by precept 
and example. While no writer after Cicero 
presents a more perfect model of purity and 
elegance, no author, not even Cicero himself, 
teaches in a manner more clear, methodical, and 
practical, the principles of good writing and 
speaking. The study of Quintilian, therefore, 
affords a rare opportunity of combining what is 
more immediately with what is more remotely 
useful ; of getting knowledge which has a direct 
bearing on professional life, and of attaining a 
higher scholarship in the Latin language. 

In the gymnasia, at least in many of them. 


this study has found a place in the first or 
highest classes (the Primaner) ; the members of 
which, so far as relates to classical studies, are in 
a position corresponding very nearly to that of 
students in our best universities and colleges. 
Feeling the need of a Latin text-book somewhat 
different from any hitherto introduced into the 
middle classes of our course, I was led by the 
example of the German schools — an authority 
which in this day no classical teacher can ques- 
tion — to make trial of Quintilian. 

The experience of two years has shown not 
only that this author can be read with the ad- 
vantages above suggested, but also that classes 
are better prepared by this study to take up the 
more peculiar and more difiicult writers of " the 
silver age,'" and especially Tacitus. The gulf, if 
I may so express it, between the Latinity of 
Livy and Tacitus, is in a manner bridged over 
by what may be called the intermediate or 
transitional style of Quintilian. For while, in 
the general principles of taste, and in simplicity, 
naturalness, and directness, he follows the models 
of the Ciceronian age, he necessarily uses the 
diction, and falls in with the idioms of his own 

In the absence of any edition of Quintilian 
adapted to the wants of American students^ the 


editor has selected for publication the tenth and 
twelfth books, and appended such explanatory 
and critical notes as seemed, most needed. The 
interest and importance of the topics discussed in 
these two books will suflficiently explain why 
these have been selected in preference to any 
others. That the student may readily learn their 
character, I have prefixed to the notes on each 
chapter a summary of the principal ideas em- 
braced therein. 

Whatever merit the present edition may pos- 
sess, either in the text or the notes, is chiefly due 
to the labors of those German scholars, who have 
for so many years devoted themselves to the 
clearing up of doubtful points, both in the text 
and in the interpretation of this author. The 
most elaborate and most valuable edition of 
Quintilian, which has yet appeared, is that pub- 
lished at Leipsic in six volumes, commenced 
by Spalding and completed by Zumpt. The first 
volume of this edition was printed in 1795, and 
the sixth in 1834, the latter edited by Bonnell. 
Professor Bonnell has also published an edition 
of the text in the Teubner series of classics, be- 
sides a separate edition of the tenth book with 
notes. These eminent scholars, gathering up, 
and by their own researches greatly enriching all 
that had been previously accomplished, have left 


little further to be desired in the elucidation of 
Quintilian. The text here given departs but 
slightly from that of Bonnell. 

Some deviations from the ordinary orthogra- 
phy of Latin books printed in our country will 
be readily detected, and doubtless have already 
become familiar through the constantly increas- 
ing use of German editions of the classics. 

H. S. Frieze. . 

University of Michigan, 
June, 1865. 


Most of the representative writers of the so-called 
silver age were natives of Spain, though some of them 
were probably descendants of Roman colonists. Cor- 
dova gave birth to the two * Senecas and Lucan. Pom- 
ponius Mela was from Cingitera, Martial from Bilbilis, 
Columella from Gades, and Quintilian from Calagurris. 
That so many distinguished authors, each at that period 
first in his class, should make their appearance in a 
country but just now peopled with warlike barbarians, 
indicates a change in national character and pursuits 
such as only Roman conquerors and Roman laws could 
have produced. Indeed, the Iberians or native Span- 
iards, though the most obstinate of all the foreign tribes 
ever encountered by the Roman armies, and the most 
difficult to subdue, were, after their subjugation, imbued 
more rapidly and more thoroughly than any other 
European nations with the manners and civilization of 
their new masters. The elder Seneca, even in the time 
of Horace, migrated from Cordova to Rome, and there 
took a high position as a teacher of rhetoric. And it 
was not without reason that the poet spoke of the Span- 

^ The ekler Seneca, M. Annaeus, is properly assigned to the 
post-Augustan or silver age, as his writings were published in 
the reign of Tiberius, though he also flourished as a teacher 
under Augustus. 


iard even then, as tlie peritus Iber.^ Nor is the tradi- 
tion without significance which tells of a Spanish scholar 
of Cadiz making a pilgrimage to Rome on purpose to 
see the historian Livy.f Such incidents shadow forth 
the fact that the literary cultivation of the Romans had 
already permeated the Spanish provinces ; and there is 
good reason for the remark of Mr. Merivale, that " the 
great Iberian Peninsula was more thoroughly Roman- 
ized than any other part of the dominions of the repub- 

In return for the boon of civilization, Spain reared a 
noble succession of scholars and writers to infuse new 
vigor into the thought and the literary life of the mother- 
country. As the conquered Italians* two centuries 
earlier had given to Roman literature its first impulses, 
and had impressed upon the Latinity of the golden age 
its characteristic types, so now the provincials of Spain 
became the teachers of the great metropolis, and im- 
parted to the literature of the silver age all the principal 
features of thought and style which distinguished it 
from that of the preceding period. 

Two of these Spanish authors, the two most widely 
known and most universally read, were Seneca, the 
younger, and Quintilian. And it is worthy of remark 
that with these two illustrious writers originated the two 
antagonistic schools or styles of Latinity which were 
struggling with each other for pre-eminence during the 
latter part of the first century of the empire. 

Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was born at Calagurris, 
now Calahorra, in the northeastern or Tarraconese 
province of Spain, about A. D. 35. || It is said, though on 

* 0. 2, 20, 19 sq. f Plin. Ep. 2, 3. 

^ Merivale's " History of the Romans under the Empire." 

* Nearly all the fathers of Roman literature, especially the 
early poets, were Italians rather than Romans. 

II Others give the date 40 or 42. 


doubtful authority, that the father of Quintilian was a 
successful orator and teacher of rhetoric. At an early- 
age Quintilian accompanied his father to Rome, and was 
placed under the charge of Domitius Afer,* a native of 
Gaul. Afer was one of the most eminent of the Roman 
orators or advocates then living, and was far advanced 
in life. After the death of Afer, which took place about 
A. D. 60, Quintilian returned to Calagurris, and com- 
menced his professional life as a legal advocate and 
teacher of rhetoric or forensic oratory. It was then that 
his reputation and singular merit attracted the notice of 
Galba, who was at that time Governor of Hispania Tar- 
raconensis, and who soon afterward, on his accession to 
the imperial throne (a. d. 68), invited the young and 
brilliant orator to accompany him to Rome. Quintilian 
entered the city in the train of the new emperor, and 
henceforth made Rome his x>ermanent abode. He at 
once gained applause both as an advocate and lecturer. 
His success and his fame were unexampled. Students 
flocked to Rome from Italy and from distant provinces 
to receive his instructions. The first year of Quin- 
tilian's residence in Rome was marked by a rapid series 
of political revolutions, terminating in the overthrow of 
Vitellius, and the rise of Vespasian and the Flavian 
family We now hear, for the first time in the history 
of Roman education, of government patronage extended 
on a general and systematic plan to teachers and men of 
letters. Vespasian, though himself illiterate, convinced 
of the importance of encouraging education through- 
out the vast dominions which had fallen under his sway, 
established annual salaries for the support of Greek and 
Roman rhetoricians and grammarians. f Quintilian was 
the first to whom such a pension was assigned. 

Twenty years were thus devoted, under the happiest 
auspices, to the instruction of youth and to the duties of 

* Inst. orat. 5, 7, 7. f Suet. Vesp. 18. 


the advocate. At the expiration of this period, follow- 
ing out the precept which he has expressed in the Insti- 
tutions, that the orator should withdraw from public 
life before he begins to be inferior to himself,* he re- 
tired from the bar and from the lecture-room. Some 
years later he was appointed by Domitian instructor of 
his nephews, and was raised by the same emperor to 
the consulship. 

Though Quintilian had been so fortunate in his pro- 
fessional career, he was not exempt from the trials and 
misfortunes of life. At the beginning of the sixth book 
of the Institutions he speaks of the loss of his wife, who 
had died young, and of the recent death of his two sons, 
both of whom had given high promise. We learn from 
this passage that the elder and last surviving of these 
sons died when the work was already nearly half com- 
pleted, and indeed that it had been undertaken partly 
with reference to his education. But, like Cicero, he 
sought in literary labor a solace for affliction. Alluding 
to Cicero's example, he says : Credendum doctissimis 
hominibus qui unicum adversorum solatium liter as 

He lived to an advanced age, and is supposed to have 
died about the year 118 of our era, at the beginning of 
the reign of Hadrian. 

Of the works of Quintilian the Institutio Oratoria, or 
Education of the Orator, is the only one which has 
been preserved. Two other works are ascribed to him, 
though on insufficient grounds. One of these is a col- 
lection of declamations or argumentative speeches on 
fictitious law cases, some of which are elaborate ; most 
of them, however, merely sketches or studies, and few 
of them bearing any resemblance to the writings of 

* Inst. Orat. 12, 11, 1 : decet hoc prospicere ne> quid peius 
quam fecerit, facial. 

f Inst. Orat. 6, prooemium 14. 


Quintilian. The other is the elegant treatise entitled 
Dialogus de Oratoribiis^ usually published with the 
works of Tacitus, and now generally conceded by critics 
to be from the pen of that author.* The only work be- 
sides the Institutions known to have been published by 
Quintilian is alluded to by our author himself in several 
passages of the Institutions, and its subject is indicated 
in the prooemium of the sixth book and in the follow- 
ing sentence at the end of the eighth : sed de hoc satis, 
quia eundem locmn plenius in eo libro, quo causas cor- 
ruptae eloqueyitiae reddebamus^ tractavimus. The 
words sive causas corruptae eloquentiae have some- 
times been appended to the title of the above-mentioned 
Dialogue de Oratoynhus^ on the supposition that this is 
the work referred to by Quintilian. But this theory is 
sufficiently disproved by the one argument that the Dia- 
logue does not treat of the locum or topic, namely, the 
Hyperbole, discussed by Quintilian in the last part of 
the eighth book.f 

The Institutio Oratoria is an invaluable contribu- 
tion both to polite literature and to liberal education. 
It is not in any sense a rival of the rhetorical works of 
Cicero. These, at least the best of them, were designed 
for the entertainment, perhaps for the more perfect fin- 
ish, of such as had already attained a position as public 
speakers. But the book of Quintilian is a practical 
guide for the young man who is passing through the 
course of preliminary training for public life. It gath- 
ers up within comparatively narrow limits, and adapts 
to the purposes of instruction, the principles and doc- 

* See the excellent introduction to Nipperdey's edition of 
Tacitus, where the difference between the style of the " Dia- 
logue " and that of the other works of Tacitus is satisfactorily 
accounted for. 

f The various arguments are summed up in the note on this by Capperonier. 


trines widely diffused through the rhetorical writings of 
Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dionysius, Cicero, Caecilius, 
and many others. A didactic treatise like this must be 
characterized by simplicity of method, precision of state- 
ment, and fullness of detail. It must not presuppose in 
the reader, as do the finest works of Cicero, a high de- 
gree of culture in philosophy and letters already at- 
tained. In the Institutions, therefore, we shall not look 
for that originality,* that breadth, that freedom of di- 
gression, and that noble negligence which distinguish 
the de Oratore^ the Brutus, and the Orator. But in its 
kind the book of Quintilian yet seeks an equal. 

It aims to present a proper idea of the responsibility 
and dignity of the orator's work. It assumes the maxim 
of the elder Cato, that an orator in the Roman sense, a 
speaker who would persuade the Roman Senate or the 
Roman courts, must be not only a master of speech, but 
also a good man: vir bonus dicendi peritus.f The 
preparation it proposes for this high oflBce commences 
almost from the cradle. It takes into view the moral 
and intellectual discipline of the child as well as that of 
the youth, and upon this earlier training of the nursery 
and the elementary school it rears the more immediate 
and technical education of the professional school and 
the forum. It unfolds in a distinct and practical man- 
ner every principle pertaining either to the matter or to 
the form of oratory, and sets forth every rule of conduct 
essential to success and reputation. 

The Institutions are comprised in twelve books. 
They were published about a. d. 95. The whole work is 
commonly entitled de Institutione Oratoria Libri xii. I 

* Quintilian says of Cicero : Non enim pluvias, ut ait Pin- 
darus, aquas coUigit, sed vivo gargite exundaf. Inst. 10, 1, 109. 

t Inst. Orat. 12, 1, 1. 

X The title has been variously given as M. F. Quintilian. de 
Institutione Oratoria Libri xii ; M. F. Q. Institutionum Orato- 


The topics discussed in the several books are briefly 
stated by the author in the introduction.* The first book 
gives an account of the home-training and the school 
discipline which should precede the lessons of the 
rhetorician ; ea quae sunt ante officium rhetoris. The 
second book treats of the primary exercises of the pupil 
in rhetoric ; prima apud rhetorem elementa^ and of the 
nature and object and the utility and dignity of the art 
of oratory ; quae de ipsa rhetoricae substantia quaerun- 
tur. The remaining books, except the last, are devoted 
to the five topics embraced in every complete system of 
rhetoric, the partes rhetoricae of Cicero, invention^ dis- 
position, or arrangement, style, memory, and delivery, f 
The discussion of invention and arrangement closes 
with the seventh book. The next four books are occu- 
pied chiefly with the subject of style, or form of expres- 
sion.! Of these the eighth and ninth treat of the ele- 
ments of a good style, the tenth of the practical studies 
and exercises necessary to the actual possession and 
command of these elements, the eleventh of adapting 
the style to the occasion, and of memory and delivery. 

In the twelfth and last book the author presents his 
views of the character which should be cultivated by 
the orator after leaving the school of rhetoric, what 
principles should govern him in assuming, investigating, 
and pleading causes, what should be his style of elo- 
quence, at what period of life he should retire from his 
work, and how spend the evening of his days ; qui mo- 
res ejus, quae in suscipiendis, discendis agendis causis 
ratio, quod eloquentiae genus, quis agendi debeat esse 

riarum Lib. xii ; M. F. Q. Institutionis Oratoriae Libri xii. The 
last is the prevailing form in the best MSS. 

* Prooemium, 21. 

f Cic. de inventione, i, 7, 9 ; inventio, disposition elocutio^ 
memoria, pronunciatio (vel actio), 

X Elocutio. 


jinis^ quae post finem studia. This he regards as the 
most important and at the same time the most advent- 
urous part of his work. It opens a wide and almost 
unexplored region. Unum modo in ilia, immensa vas- 
titate cernere videmur Marcum Tullium. And even 
Marcus Tullius has limited himself to a single one of 
these topics, the kind of eloquence to be cultivated by a 
perfect orator.* But Quintilian ventures to add also, as 
no less vital to the development of the perfect orator, 
some observations on the personal morals, the responsi- 
bilities, duties, and proprieties pertaining to the whole 
life of the public speaker. At nostra temeritas etiam 
mores ei conahitur dare, et assignabit officia. 

Such is the substance of the only extant work of 
Quintilian — a work deservedly eminent as a summary 
of all that was taught and practiced in the eloquence of 
the ancient republics, and as itself a model of classical 
purity and beauty. 

Quintilian as an author has been remarkably fortu- 
nate. No writer ever found a public better prepared to 
appreciate and applaud. He had stood before the Ro- 
man world for twenty years, at once the most perfect 
teacher and pattern of eloquence. His hearers had cop- 
ied, and circulated here and there in Italy and the 
provinces, occasional specimens of his lectures. When 
it was known that he was himself writing a book which 
was to embody in an enduring form the rich stores of 
his learning and experience, all students, as well as 
teachers of oratory, looked impatiently for its appear- 
ance. It was greeted, of course, with universal applause. 
The Institutions of Quintilian became at once in oratory 
what the Codes and Pandects afterward became in law. 
The book was admirably fitted to meet the wants of the 
day. Public speaking was still, in the imperial times, 

* Cic. Orat. 1, 8 ; quaeris quod eloquentiae genus prohem 


even as in the republican period, one of the highest oc- 
cupations of the Roman citizen ; and it was still one of 
the surest avenues to honor and wealth. The sphere of 
eloquence, indeed, was now confined to the senate and 
the civil courts. Those great popular assemblies which 
had once quickened the orator to his grandest efforts, 
had been long ago wholly suppressed. But the occa- 
sions for speaking were no fewer, though less stirring, 
and grandeur and pathos were now and then called for 
even in the centumviral courts and in the sessions of the 
dignified though servile senate. It is needless, there- 
fore, to say that all education culminated in oratory, and 
that educatoi'^ and students found in the practical char- 
acter of the new " Institutions " exactly what was needed 
to perfect their training according to this Roman theory 
of culture. Thus it happened, in consequence of the 
prestige of the author's reputation, and the adaptation 
of the treatise to the wants of the public, that he eclipsed 
in the minds of his contemporaries all who had written 
before him on the same subject. The result was that 
the rhetorical treatises of Cicero were but little read, and 
those of the Greeks still less. 

Nor has this great work of QuintiHan been less fortu- 
nate in subsequent times. Its reputation was preserved 
through the uiiddle ages, and though the manuscripts 
had gradually disappeared or become mutilated,* so that 
in the time of Petrarch only imperfect copies were in 
use, it happened that the Florentine scholar Poggio, 
while attending the Council of Constance in 1417, dis- 
covered a perfect exemplar in an old tower of the mon- 
astery of St. Gall. The recovered treasure was eagerly 
caught up by the scholars of the Renaissance. It was 
multiplied in manuscript, and soon afterward by the 

* Is (Quintilianus) vei'o apud nos antea (Itaios dico) ita 
laceratus erat, ita circumcisus, ut nulla forma, nuJlus habitus 
hominis m eo recognosceretur. — Poggio's Letter to Guarini. 


newly-invented art of printing". It was translated into 
all the polite languages ; and so it continued to be, as 
in the silver age, the normal law of eloquence. 

Though the position which Quintilian has gained in 
the literary world by this happy combination of circum- 
stances is perhaps higher than that which would be 
awarded by the verdict of an exact and candid criticism, 
yet we can scarcely overestimate the actual worth of 
his treatise, and the benefits which both modern and an- 
cient eloquence have derived from its study. His true 
position, as compared with that of Cicero, is thus hap- 
pily stated by Oampanus: Proinde de Quintiliano sic 
habe : post unam beatissimam et unicam felicitafem M. 
TulUi, quae fastigii loco suspicienda est omnibus et 
tanquam adoranda, hung unum esse quern praecipuum 
habere possis in eloquentia ducem. 

A notice of Quintilian would be incomplete without 
some account of the influence of his criticism upon the 
writings of his age. It was the principal aim of his in- 
struction to reform the corrupted eloquence of his con- 
temporaries, and to bring back a purer style of Latinity. 

In the century which had elapsed between Cicero 
and Quintilian, Rome had been thoroughly transformed 
from an aristocratic republic to a military autocracy. 
During the same interval the manners of the higher 
classes had become effeminate, artificial, and depraved. 
This political revolution and social degeneracy had been 
attended by a change equally marked in the style of Ro- 
man eloquence. The language both of orators and writ- 
ers was now characterized by showy declamation, rhe- 
torical parade, and by much of that quality which is 
now called sensationalism. The reading public relished, 
in books, speeches, and recitations, something kindred to 
the artificial dishes contrived by tlie surfeited Roman 
nobility to quicken their pampered appetites. Every- 
thing must strike and stimulate. They craved only that 


kind of literature which was stuffed with novel ideas 
and spiced with antithesis and epigrammatic point. 
That chaste and elegant style which had been brought 
by the writers of the golden age to the highest pitch of 
richness and beauty, " the style which leaves the thought 
to its direct and natural development, adorning it only 
with wealth of expression, and with the lofty movement 
of the period, which is everywhere marked by symmetry 
and harmony," * the style of Cicero, Caesar, and Livy, 
had become too commonplace for the ambitious orators 
and authors of the imperial times, and too tame for their 
sensual hearers and readers. 

The literary Apicius who ministered most acceptably 
to this morbid craving for sensational writing was Lu- 
cius Annaeus Seneca. This truly great thinker and al- 
most inspired moralist was led as much, perhaps, by an 
innate love for boldness of expression as by the desire of 
pleasing his contemporaries, to clothe his ideas in the 
fashionable dress. Certainly no writer cultivated this 
manner to greater perfection, or used it with keener 
relish or more telling effect. It had only needed the 
sanction and example of a master-mind to impress it 
thoroughly on the literature of the period, and to make 
it supplant, for a time at least, the Latinity of the classi- 
cal age. Such high authority it found in Seneca. If 
philosophy, and that, too, of the Stoic school — for Sen- 
eca, though disclaiming to represent any school, was nev- 
ertheless substantially a Stoic — could clothe its moral 
lessons in the most brilliant and studied forms of rheto- 
ric, it follows that history and memoirs, and all writ- 
ings of the epideictic class should be not less adorned. 
All prose literature, therefore, now abounded in showy 
passages, adapted to quotation, in forms caught from the 
earlier poets and in new and striking phrases. Even 
poetry was declamation in verse, and oratory, of course, 

* Nipperdey, Introd., p. 27. 


was set ofip with the stilted and foppish rhetoric of the 
schools. Susceptibility of quotation was the test of ex- 
cellence. The youth x^ursuing* his literary studies at 
Rome eagerly caug-ht up " fine sentences " from popular 
orators and lecturers. He wished to carry home some- 
thing brilliant and deserving of memory. Such things 
as pleased his fancy he often transmitted to his friends 
in the colonies and provinces.* This denjand the speak- 
ers were ambitious to meet. 

Thus, at the time of Quinti Han's final settlement in 
Rome, he found every department of letters pervaded 
with all possible enormities of corrupted taste. Seneca 
had taught the philosopher to declaim in moral essays, 
Valerius had declaimed in historical anecdotes, and Lu- 
can in epic poetry. Even natural history and geogra- 
phy were composed in the declamatory vein. Every 
writer sought to appear ingenious, keen, and oracular. 
Abruptness, obscurity, affectation, uniform brilliancy, 
bombast, extravagance, every vice of a depraved taste, 
was rife in the speeches and publications of the day.f 

Fortunately for Quintilian, in his attempt at reform, 
he was not compelled to encoimter the living influence 
of Seneca. The tragic death of that eminent philoso- 
pher had occurred several years before. Another cir- 
cumstance which favored Quintilian was the marked 
change in the tone of feeling and in the habits of the 
Romans, brought about by the accession of the Flavian 
family to the empire. The people were sobered, and 
social life was less ostentatious and artificial. A cor- 
rected judgment in respect to the fashions of society 
might be expected to heed the teachings of sound criti- 
cism in letters. Thus Quintilian, superior as he was in 
gifts and attainments to most of the literary men then 
living, surrounded by a multitude of devoted pupils 

* See the Dialogue of Tacitus de Orat. 20, 
f Inst. Orat. 2, 21 ; 3, 23 ; 8, prooem. 23, sqq. 


from families of influence in Italy and the provinces, 
respected and befriended by the imperial court, must 
have entered upon his labor of love with the strongest 
assurance of success. 

He did not intend, and could not hope, to bring back 
the Latinit}^ of the Ciceronian age in all its characteristic 
features. It is not in the power of criticism to make the 
language of one generation precisely like that of genera- 
tions past.* Quintilian could have no more reproduced 
Cicero in his own writings, except as a literary curi- 
osity, than Macaulay could have adapted to our times 
the prose style of Milton. His aim was simply to in- 
duce the writers of his day to employ the existing ma- 
terials of the language according to the immutable laws 
of taste. His purpose is thus distinctly exj)ressed in the 
tenth book : '' I am striving to call back the style of 
eloquence, corrupted and vitiated by every fault, to se- 
verer standards." t 

In the style of the Institutions, composed in the full 
maturity of his powers, and in the perfect development 
of his judgment, he has fully exemplified all that he 
aimed throughout his professional life to enforce by 

We can plainly see the happy influence of Quintil- 
ian's earnest teachings in the Latin works which ap- 
peared while he was still engaged in public lecturing, as 
well as in some of those which were published after he 
had retired from professional life. It is most apparent 
in the " Dialogue concerning Orators," and in the letters 
of the younger Pliny. The latter was a pupil of Quin- 
tilian, and ever remained his warm admirer and fast 
friend. His letters, indeed, indicate the man of refine- 

* Cicero himself says of the archaic writers, Imitari nequ?. 
possim si velim, nee velini, fortasse, si possim. Brut. 83, 28. 

f Corruptum ei omnibus vitiis fractum dicendi genus revo- 
oare ad severiora indicia contendo. X, 1, 125. 


ment rather than of power, but as specimens of episto- 
lary composition, apart from their historical value, they 
are deservedly ranked among the best of ancient times. 
The " Dialogue on Orators," ascribed to Tacitus, and cer- 
tainly written in the reign of Vespasian,* is the most 
finished work in Latin subsequent to the golden age, 
and will bear comparison even with the most perfect 
productions of that period. " There is no Latin book," 
says M. Pierron, " I do not except even the finest books 
of Cicero, to which the reader is held with a livelier in- 
terest. We learn much from it, and we meet, not here 
and there, but on every page and in almost every line, 
those marks of genius, thoughts, images, expressions, 
which prove that the author had good reason for affirm- 
ing that, after the heroes of ancient literature, new he- 
roes could still arise. " t That this treatise was inspired 
by the teachings of Quintilian, there can be no reason- 
able doubt. At any rate, this most eminent of all the 
rhetoricians who were lecturing at Rome at the time 
when Tacitus was finishing his education there, must 
have powerfully influenced the mind and the taste of 
this young orator and future historian. Tacitus was al- 
ready the intimate friend of Pliny, and must have been 
with him an admirer if not a pupil of Quintilian. 

But, of course, it was not so much in general litera- 
ture as in oratory itself that Quintilian had aimed to 
make himself felt ; and it was here that he had the hap- 
piness of witnessing in the evening of his life the full 
fruition of his early labors. We can easily imagine 
him in these later years, as he sat in the Roman senate 
among his colleagues of consular rank, and listened with 
rapt attention to the eloquence of those who had been 
trained by his instruction, and in whom he now realized 
his hopes and ideals, experiencing the deep and lively 

* See Dial, de Orat., 17. 

f Pierron, " Histoire de la Literature Roraaine," p. 564. 


satisfaction of having done so much to make them what 
they were. When, for example, before a crowded sen- 
ate, in presence of the Emperor Trajan, Pliny and Taci- 
tus, as prosecutors on the part of the state, arraigned 
in powerful speeches Marius Priscus, the Warren Hast- 
ings of that day, on the charge of maladministration of 
a province, and were answered on the side of the ac- 
cused by three senators, their rivals in speech, Marcelli- 
nus, Salvius, and Fronto, he who had probably been the 
master of most of them, and of many orators conspicu- 
ous like them in the senate and at the bar, must have 
felt that in striving so earnestly throughout the active 
period of his life to bring back Roman eloquence to its 
primitive purity, he had not labored in vain.* 

* This remarkable state trial, which is described in PL Ep. 
ii, 11, occurred in the year a. d. 100. 








I. Sed haec eloquendi praecepta, sicut cogni- 
tioni sunt necessaria, ita non satis ad vim di- 
cendi valent, nisi illis firma quaedam facilitas^ 
quae apud Graecos c^i? nominatur, accesserit ; ad 
quam scribendo plus an legendo an dicendo con- 
feratur, solere quaeri scio. Quod esset diligenti 
nobis examinandum cura, si qualibet earum re- 
rum possemus una esse contenti. Verum ita 3 
sunt inter se conexa et indiscreta omnia, ut, si 
quid ex bis defuerit, frustra sit in ceteris labora- 
tum. Nam neque solida atque robusta fuerit 
umquam eloquentia, nisi multo stilo vires accep- 
erit, et citra lectionis exemplum labor ille carens 
rectore fluitabit ; qui autem sciet, quae, quoque 
sint modo dicenda, nisi tamen in procinctu para- 
tamque ad oninis casus habuerit eloquentiam, 
velut clausis tbesauris incubabit. Non autem ut 3 
quidque praecipue necessarium est, sic ad effici- 

28 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 4-7. 

endum oratorem maximi protinus erit momenti. 
Nam certe cum sit in eloquendo positum oratoris 
officium, dicere ante omnia est, atqne hinc init- 
inm eius artis f uisse manifestum est ; proximam 
deinde imitationem, novissimam scribendi quo- 

4 que diligentiam. Sed ut perveniri ad summa 
nisi ex principiis non potest, ita procedente iam 
opere minima incipiunt esse quae prima sunt. 

Verum nos non, quomodo instituendus orator, 
hoc loco dicimus (nam id quidem aut satis aut 
certe uti potuimus dictum est), sed athleta, qui 
omnis iam perdidicerit a praeceptore numeros, 
quo genere exercitationis ad certamina praepa- 
randus sit. Igitur eum, qui res in venire et dis- 
ponere sciet, verba quoque et eligendi et conlo- 
candi rationem perceperit, instruamus, qua ra- 
tione, quod didicerit, facere quam optime, quam 
facillime possit. 

5 Num ergo dubium est, quin ei velut opes sint 
quaedam parandae, quibus uti, ubicumque deside- 
ratum erit, possit ? Eae constant copia rerum 

6ac verborum. Sed res propriae sunt cuiusque 
causae, aut paucis communes, verba in universas 
paranda; quae si rebus singulis essent singula, 
minorem curam postularent ; nam cuncta sese 
cum ipsis protinus rebus offerrent. Sed cum sint 
aliis alia aut magis propria aut magis ornata aut 
plus efiicentia aut melius sonantia, debent esse 
non solum nota omnia, sed in promptu atque, ut 
ita dicam, in conspectu, ut, cum se iudicio dicen- 
tis ostenderint, facilis ex his optimorum sit 

7electio. Et quae idem significarent solitos scio 
ediscere^ quo facilius et occurreret unum ex plu- 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 8-11. 29 

ribus, et, cum essent usi aliquo, si breve intra 
spatium rursus desicleraretur, effugiendae repe- 
titionis gratia sumerent aliud, quo idem intellegi 
posset. Quod cum est puerile et cuiusdam infe- 
licis operae, turn etiam utile parum ; turbam 
enim tantum congregat, ex qua sine discrimine 
occupet proximum quodque. 

Nobis autem copia cum iudicio paranda est 8 
vim orandi, non circulatoriam volubilitatem spec- 
tantibus. Id autem consequemur optima le- 
gendo atque audiendo. Non enim solum 
nomina ipsa rerum cognoscemus bac cura, sed 
quod quoque loco sit aptissimum. Omnibus enim 9 
fere verbis praeter pauca, quae sunt parum vere- 
cunda, in oratione locus est. Nam scriptores qui- 
dem iamborum veterisque comoediae etiam in 
illis saepe laudantur ; sed nobis nostrum opus in- 
tueri sat est. Omnia verba, exceptis de quibus 
dixi, sunt alicubi optima ; nam et humilibus inte- 
rim et vulgaribus est opus, et quae nitidiore in 
parte videntur sordida, ubi res poscit, proprie 
dicuntur. Haec ut sciamus atque eorum non sig- lo 
nificationem modo, sed f ormas etiam mensurasque 
norimus, ut, ubicumque erunt posita, conveniant, 
nisi multa lectione atque auditione adsequi nullo 
modo possumus, cum omnem sermonem auribus 
primum accipiamus. Propter quod infantes a 
mutis nutricibus iussu regum in solitudine edu- 
cati, etiamsi verba quaedam emisisse traduntur, 
tamen loquendi facultate caruerunt. Sunt autem ii 
alia buius naturae, ut idem pluribus vocibus dec- 
larent, ita ut nihil significationis, quo potius uta- 
ris, intersit, ut 'ensis' et 'gladius'; alia vero^ 

30 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 12-17. 

quae etiamsi propria rerum aliquarnm sint nomi- 
na, TpoTTLKios [quasi] tamen ad eundein intellectum 
12feruntur, ut ^ferrum'' et 'mucro.^ Nam per 
abusionem 'sicarios' etiam omnis vocamus, qui 
caedem telo quocumque commiserint. Alia cir- 
cuitu verborum plurium ostendimus, quale est 
' et pressi copia lactis.' Plurima vero mutatione 
figuramus : * scio/ ' non ignore ' et ' non me f ugit ' 
et ' non me praeterit ' et ' quis nescit ' ? et ^ nemini 

13 dubium est.' Sed etiam ex proximo mutuari libet. 
Nam et 'intellego' et ''sentio' et Wideo' saepe 
idem valent quod ' scio.' Quorum nobis uberta- 
tem ac divitias dabit lectio, ut non solum quomo- 
do occurrent, sed etiam quomodo oportet utamur. 

14 Non semper enim haec inter se idem f aciunt, nee 
sicut de intellectu animi recte dixerim ' video/ 
ita de visu oculorum ' intellego/ nee ut ' mucro ' 
gladium, sic ' mucronem * gladius ' ostendit. 

15 Sed ut copia verborum sic paratur, ita non 
verborum tantum gratia legendum vel audien- 
dum est. Nam omnium, quaecunque docemus, 
Iloc sunt exempla potentiora etiam ipsis quae 
traduntur artibus (cum eo qui discit perductus 
est, ut intellegere ea sine demonstrante et sequi 
iam suis viribus possit), quia, quae doctor prae- 
cepit, orator ostendit. 

16 Alia vero audientis, alia legentis magis adiu- 
vant. Excitat qui dicit spiritu ipso, nee imagine 
et ambitu rerum, sed rebus incendit. Vivunt 
omnia enim et moventur, excipimusque nova ilia 
velut nascentia cum favore ac sollicitudine. Nee 
fortuna modo iudicii, sed etiam ipsorum qui 

17 orant periculo adficimur. Praeter haec vox^ actio 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 18-22. 31 

decora, coniinoda, ut quisqiie locus postulabit, 
pronuntiandi, vel potentissinia in dicendo, ratio 
et, ut semel dicam, pariter orania docent. In 
lectione certius indicium, quod audienti frequent- 
er ant suns cuique favor aut ille laudantium 
clamor extorquet. Pudet enim dissentire, et ve- 18 
lut tacita quadam verecundia inliibemur plus 
nobis credere, cum interim et vitiosa pluribus 
placent, et a conrogatis laudantur etiam quae 
non placent. Sed e contrario quoque accidit, ut 19 
optime dictis gratiam prava indicia non referant. 
Lectio libera est nee ut actionis impetus trans- 
currit; sed repetere saepius licet, sive dubites 
sive memoriae adfigere velis. Repetamus autem 
et tractemus, et ut cibos mansos ac prope lique- 
factos demittimus, quo facilius digerantur, ita 
lectio non cruda, sed multa iteratione mollita et 
velut confecta memoriae imitationique tradatur. 

Ac din nonnisi optimus quisque et qui ere- 20 
dentem sibi minime fallat legendus est, sed dili- 
genter ac paene ad scribendi sollicitudinem ; nee 
per partes modo scrutanda omnia, sed perlectus 
liber utique ex integro resumendus, praecipue 
oratio, cuius virtutes frequenter ex industria quo- 
que occultantur. Saepe enim praeparat, dissim-21 
ulat, insidiatur orator, eaque in prima parte 
actionis dicit, quae sunt in summa profutura. 
Itaque suo loco minus placent, adliuc nobis 
quare dicta sint ignorantibus, ideoque erunt cog- 
nitis omnibus repetenda. Illud vero utilissimum, 22 
nosse eas causas, quarum orationes in manus 
sumpserimus, et quotiens continget, utrimque 
babitas legere actiones: ut Demosthenis atque 

32 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 23-26. 

Aeschinis inter se contrarias, et Servii Siilpicii 
atque Messalae, quorum alter pro Aufidia, con- 
tra dixit alter, et Pollionis et Cassii reo Aspre- 

23nate aliasque plurimas. Quin etiam si minus 
pares videbuntur, aliquae tamen ad cognoscen- 
dam litium quaestionem recte requirentur, ut 
contra Ciceronis orationes Tub'eronis in Ligarium 
et Hortensii pro Verre. Quin etiam easdem cau- 
sas ut quisque egerit utile erit scire. Nam de 
domo Ciceronis dixit Calidius et pro Milone 
orationem Brutus exercitationis gratia scripsit 
(etiamsi egisse eum Cornelius Celsus falso exis- 

24timat), et Pollio et Messala defender unt eos- 
dem, et nobis pueris insignes pro Voluseno Catulo 
Domitii Afri, Crispi Passieni, Decimi Laelii ora- 
tiones ferebantur. 

Neque id statim legenti persuasum sit, omnia, 
quae optimi auctores dixerint, utique esse perf ecta. 
Nam et labuntur aliquando et oneri cedunt et in- 
dulgent ingeniorum suorum voluptati, nee semper 
intendunt animum, nonnumquam f atigantur ; cum 
Ciceroni dormitare interim Demosthenes, Horatio 

25 vero etiam Homerus ipse videatur. Summi enim 
sunt, homines tamen, acciditque his, qui, quidquid 
apud illos repererunt, dicendi legem putant, ut 
deteriora imitentur (id enim est facilius) ac se 
abunde similes putent, si vitia magnorum conse- 

26 quantur. Modesto tamen et circumspecto iudicio 
de tantis viris pronuntiandum est, ne, quod pleris- 
que accidit, damnent quae non intellegunt. Ac si 
necesse est in alteram errare partem omnia eo- 
rum legentibus placere quam multa displicere 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 27-31. 33 

Plurimum dicit oratori conferre Tlieophfas-27 
tus lectionem poetarum, multique eius iudi- 
ciuni sequuntur neque immerito. Nainque ab 
his in rebus spiritus et in verbis sublimitas et in 
adfectibns motus omnis et in personis decor peti- 
tur, praecipueque velut attrita cotidiano actn 
forensi ingenia optime rerum talinm blanditia 
reparantur. Ideoque in bac lectione Cicero re- 
quiescendum pntat. Meminerimus tamen nonSS 
per omnia poetas esse oratori sequendos nee 
libertate verborum nee licentia figurarum ; genus 
ostentationi comparatum, et praeter id, quod so- 
lam petit voluptatem eamque etiam fingendo non 
falsa modo, sed etiam quaedam incredibilia sec- 
tatur, patrocinio quoque aliquo iuvari : quod 29 
adligata ad certam pedum necessitatem non sem- 
per uti propriis possit, sed dejDulsa recta via 
necessario ad eloquendi quaedam deverticula 
confugiat, nee mutare quaedam modo verba, sed 
extendere, corripere, convertere, dividere cogatur ; 
nos vero armatos stare in acie et summis de re- 
bus decernere et ad victoriam niti. Neque ergo 30 
arma squalere situ ac rubigine velim, sed fulgo- 
rem in iis esse qui terreat, qualis est ferri, quo 
mens simul visusque praestringitur, non qualis 
auri argentique, imbellis et potius babenti peric- 

Historia quoque alere oratorem quodam31 
uberi iucundoque suco potest, verum et ipsa sic 
est legenda, ut sciamus plerasque eius virtutes 
oratori esse vitandas. Est enim proxima poetis 
et quodammodo carmen solutum, et scribitur ad 
narrandum non ad probandum, totumque opus 

34 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 32-35. 

non ad actum rei pugnamque praeseiitem, sed 
ad memoriam posteritatis et ingenii famam com- 
ponitur ; ideoque et verbis remotioribus et liberi- 

32oribus figuris narrandi taedium evitat. Itaque, 
ut dixi, neque ilia Sallustiana brevitas^ qua nihil 
apud aures vacuas atque eruditas potest esse 
perfectius, apud occupatum variis cogitationibus 
iudicem et saepius ineruditum captanda nobis 
est, neque ilia Livii lactea ubertas satis docebit 
eum, qui non speciem expositionis, sed fidem 

33quaerit. Adde quod M. TuUius ne Thucydidem 
quidem aut Xenopliontem utiles oratori putat, 
quamquam ilium bellicum cane re, buius ore 
Musas esse locutas existimet. Licet tamen 
nobis in digressionibus uti vel bistorico nonnum- 
quam nitore, dum in bis, de quibus erit quaestio, 
meminerimus, non atbletarum toros, sed militum 
lacertos opus esse, nee versicolorem illam, qua 
Demetrius Pbalereus dicebatur uti, vestem bene 

34 ad f orensem pulverem f acere. Est et alius ex bis- 
toriis usus et is quidem maximus, sed non ad 
praesentem pertinens locum, ex cognitione re- 
rum exemplorumque, quibus imprimis instructus 
esse debet orator, ne omnia testimonia expectet a 
litigatore, sed pleraque ex vetustate diligenter 
sibi cognita sumat, boc potentiora, quod ea sola 
criminibus odii et gratiae vacant. 

35 A pbilosopborum vero lectione ut essent 
multa nobis petenda, vitio factum est oratorum, 
qui quidem illis optima sui operis parte cesse- 
runto Nam et de iustis, honestis, utilibus, iisque 
quae sint istis contraria, et de rebus divinis maxi- 
me dicunt et argumentantur acriter; et alterca- 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 36-41. 35 

tionibiis atque interrogationibus oratorem futu- 
riim optime Socratici praeparant. Sed his quo- 36 
que adhibendum est simile iudiciuui, ut etiam 
cum in rebus versemur iisdem, non tam.en ean- 
dem esse condicionem sciamus litium. ac dis- 
putationum., fori et auditorii, praeceptorum et 

Credo exacturos plerosque, cum tantum esse 37 
utilitatis in legendo iudicemus, ut id quoque 
adiungamus operi, qui sint legendi, quae in 
auctore quoque praecipua virtus. Sed persequi 
singulos infiniti fuerit operis. Quippe cum in 38 
Bruto M. Tullius tot milibus versuum de Ro- 
manis tantum oratoribus loquatur et tamen de 
omnibus aetatis suae, qui tum vivebant, exceptis 
Caesare atque Marcello, silentium egerit; quis 
erit modus, si et illos et qui postea fuerunt et 
Graecos omnis et pMlosoplios ? Fuit igitur 39 
brevitas ilia tutissima, quae est apud Livium in 
epistola ad filium scripta, legendos Demos- 
then em atque Cicero n em, tum ita, ut 
quisque esset Demostheni et Ciceroni 
simillimus. Non est dissimulanda nostri quo- 40 
que iudicii summa. Paucos enim vel potius vix 
ullum ex his, qui vetustatem pertulerunt existimo 
posse reperiri, quin indicium adhibentibus adlatu- 
rus sit utilitatis aliquid, cum se Cicero ab illis 
quoque vetustissimis auctoribus, ingeniosis qui- 
dem, sed arte carentibus, plurimum fateatur 
adiutum. Nee multo aliud de novis sentio. 
Quotus enim quisque inveniri tarn demens potest, 41 
qui ne minima quidem alicuius certe fiducia 
partis memoriam posteritatis speraverit ? Qui 

36 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 42^6. 

si quis est, intra primes statim versus deprelien- 
detur et citius nos diniittet, quam ut eius nobis 
magno temporis detrimento constet experimen- 

42 turn. Sed non quidqnid ad aliquam partem 
scientiae pertinet, protinus ad faciendam etiam 
plirasin, de qua loquimur, accommodatum. 

Verum antequam de singulis loquar, pauca in 
universum de varietate opinionum dicenda sunt. 

43 Nam quidam solos veteres legendos putant neque 
in ullis aliis esse naturalem eloquentiam et robur 
viris dignum arbitrantur, alios recens liaec las- 
civia deliciaeque et omnia ad voluptatem multi- 

44 tudinis imperitae composita delectant. Ipsorum 
etiam qui rectum dicendi genus sequi volunt, alii 
pressa demum et tenuia et quae minimum ab usu 
cotidiano recedant, sana et vere Attica putant, 
quosdam elatior ingenii vis et magis concitata et 
plena spiritus capit ; sunt etiam lenis et nitidi et 
compositi generis non pauci amatores. De qua 
differentia disseram diligentius cum de genere 
dicendi quaerendum erit. Interim summatim, 
quid et a qua lectione petere possint, qui con- 
firmare facultatem dicendi volent, attingam: 

45paucos enim (sunt eminentissimi) excerpere in 
animo est ; facile est autem studiosis, qui sint his 
simillimi, iudicare ; ne quisquam queratur, omis- 
sos forte aliquos, quos ipse valde probet ; fateor 
enim pluris legendos esse quam qui a me nomi- 

Sed nunc genera ipsa lectionum, quae prae- 
cipue convenire intendentibus, ut oratores fiant, 
existimem, persequar. 

46 Igitur, ut Aratus ab love incipiendum 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 47-50. 37 

putat, ita nos rite coepturi ab Honiero videmur. 
Hie enim, quemadmodum ex Oceano dicit ipse 
amnium fontiumque cursns initium capere, om- 
nibus eloquentiae partibus exemplum et ortum 
dedit. Hunc nemo in magnis rebus sublimitate, 
in parvis proprietate superaverit. Idem laetus 
ac pressus, iucundus et gravis, tum copia tum 
brevitate mirabilis, nee poetica modo, sed ora- 
toria virtute eminentissimus. Nam ut de laudi- 47 
bus, exhortationibus, consolationibus taceam, non- 
ne vel nonus liber, quo missa ad Achillem legatio 
continetur, vel in primo inter duees ilia contentio 
vel dictae in seeundo sententiae omnis litium ac 
consiliorum explicant artes ? Adf eetus quidem 48 
vel illos mites vel bos coneitatos nemo erit tam 
indoctus, qui non in sua potestate hune auetorem 
habuisse fateatur. Age vero, non in utriusque 
operis sui ingressu in paueissimis versibus legem 
prooemiorum non dico servavit, sed eonstituit ? 
Nam benevolum auditorem invocatione dearum, 
quas praesidere vatibus creditum est, et intentum 
proposita rerum magnitudine et docilem summa 
celeritur comprensa facit. Narrare vero quis49 
brevius quam qui mortem nuntiat Patrocli, quis 
signifieantius potest quam qui Curetum Aetolo- 
rumque proelium exponit ? lam similitudines, 
amplificationes, exempla, digressus, signa rerum 
et argumenta ceteraque genera probandi ac re- 
futandi sunt ita multa, ut etiam qui de artibus 
scripserunt plurima harum rerum testimonia ab 
boe poeta petant. Nam epilogus quidem quis 50 
Vimquam poterit illis Priami rogantis Achillem 
precibus aequari ? Quid ? in verbis, sententiis, 

38 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 51-56. 

figuris, dispositione totins operis nonne hiimani 
ingenii naodum excedit ? ut magni sit virtutes 
eius non aemulatione, quod fieri non potest, sed 

51 intellectu sequi. Verum hie omnis sine dubio et 
in omni genere eloquentiae procul a se reliquit, 
epicos tamen praecipue, videlicet quia clarissima 

52 in materia simili comparatio est. Raro adsurgit 
Hesiodus, magnaque pars eius in nominibus 
est occupata; tamen utiles circa praecepta sen- 
tentiae levitasque verborum et compositionis 
probabilis, daturque ei palma in illo medio 

53 genere dicendi. Contra in Antimaclio vis et 
gravitas et minime vulgare eloquendi genus 
habet laudem. Sed quamvis ei secundas fere 
grammaticorum consensus deferat, et adfectibus 
et iucunditate et dispositione et omnino arte 
deficitur, ut plane manifesto apj)areat, quanto 

54 sit aliud proximum esse, aliud secundum. Pa- 
nyasin, ex utroque mixtum, putant in elo- 
quendo neutriusque aequare virtutes, alterum 
tamen ab eo materia, alterum disponendi ra- 
tione superari. Apollonius in ordinem a 
grammaticis datum non venit, quia Aristarclius 
atque Aristophanes neminem sui temporis in nu- 
merum redegerunt; non tamen contemnendum 

55 edidit opus aequali quadam mediocritate. A ra- 
ti materia motu caret, ut in qua nulla varietas, 
nullus adfectus, nulla persona, nulla cuiusquam 
sit oratio ; sufficit tamen operi, cui se parem cre- 
didit. Admirabilis in suo genere Theocritus 
sed musa ilia rustica et pastoralis non forum 
modo, verum ipsam etiam urbem reformidat. 

5g Audire videor undique congerentis nomina 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 57-61. " 39 

plurimonim poetarum. Quid ? Herculis acta 
non bene Pisandros? Nicandrum f rustra 
secuti Macer atque Vergilius ? Quid? Eupho- 
r i o n e in transibimus ? quern nisi probasset Ver- 
giliuSj idem numquam certe conditorumCbal- 
cidico versu carminum f ecisset in Bucolicis 
mentioneni. Quid ? Horatius f rustra T y r t a e - 
u m Homero subiungit ? Nee sane quisquam est 57 
tarn procul a cognitione eorum remotus, ut non 
indicem certe ex bibliotheca siimptum transferre 
in libros suos possit. Nee ignore igitur quos 
transeo nee utique damno, ut qui dixerim esse in 
omnibus utilitatis aliquid. Sed ad illos iam per- 
f ectis constitutisque viribus revertemur ; quod in 58 
cenis grandibus saepe facimus, ut, cum optimis 
satiati sumus, varietas tamen nobis ex vilioribus 
grata sit. Tunc et elegiam vacabit in manus 
sumere, cuius princeps habetur Callimacbus, 
secundas confessione plurimorum Philetas oc- 

Sed duni adsequimur illam firmam, ut dixi, 59 
facilitatem, optimis adsuescendum est et multa 
magis quam multorum lectione formanda mens 
et ducendus color. Itaque ex tribus receptis 
Aristarchi iudicio scriptoribus iamborum ad 
l^tv maxime pertinebit unus Arcliilocbus. 
Summa in hoc vis elocutionis, cum validae tiim 60 
breves vibrantesque sententiae^ plurimum san- 
guinis atque nervorum^ adeo ut videatur quibus- 
dam, quod quoquam minor est, materiae esse non 
ingenii vitium. 

Novem vero Lyricorum longe Pindarus61 
princeps spiritus magnificentia, sententiis, figu- 

4:0 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 62-65. 

ris, beatissima rerum verborumque copia et velut 
quodana eloquentiae flumine ; propter quae Hora- 
tius euro, merito credidit nemini imitabilem. 

62Stesiclioruin, qnara sit ingenio validus, ma- 
teriae quoque ostendunt, maxima bella et claris- 
simos canentem duces et epici carminis onera 
lyra sustinentem. Reddit enim personis in agen- 
do simul loquendoque debitam dignitatem, ac si 
tenuisset modum, videtur aemulari proximus 
Homerum potuisse; sed redundat atque effund- 
itur, quod ut est reprehendendum, ita copiae 

63vitium est. Alcaeus in parte operis aureo 
p 1 e c t r o merito donatur, qua tyrannos insectatus 
multum etiam moribus confert; in eloquendo 
quoque brevis et magnificus et diligens et ple- 
rumque oratori similis ; sed et lusit et in amores 

64 descendit, maioribus tamen aptior. Simonides, 
tenuis alioqui, sermone proprio et iucunditate 
quadam commendari potest; praecipua tamen 
eius in commovenda miseratione virtus, ut qui- 
dam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis auc- 
toribus praeferant. 

65 Antiqua comoedia cum sinceram illam 
sermonis Attici gratiam prope sola retinet, turn 
facundissimae libertatis est et insectandis vitiis 
praecipua; plurimum tamen virium etiam in 
ceteris partibus habet. Nam et grandis et ele- 
gans et venusta, et nescio an uUa, post Homerum 
tamen, quem, ut Achillen, semper excipi par est, 
aut similior sit oratoribus aut ad oratores facien- 
dos aptior. Plures eius auctores ; Aristopha- 
nes tamen et Eupolis Cratinusque prae- 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 66-70. 41 

Tragoedias primus in lucem Aeschylus66 
protulit, sublimis et gravis et grandiloquus saepe 
usque ad vitium, sed rudis in plerisque et incom- 
positus; propter quod correctas eius fabulas in 
certamen deferre posterioribus poetis Athenien- 
ses permiserunt, suntque eo modo multi coronati. 
Sed longe clarius illustraverunt hoc opus S o p h o- 67 
cles atque Euripides, quorum in dispari di- 
cendi via uter sit poeta melior, inter plurimos 
quaeritur. Idque ego sane, quoniam ad praesen- 
tem materiam nihil pertinet, iniudicatum relin- 
quo. lUud quidem nemo non fateatur necesse 
est, iis, qui se ad agendum comparant, utiliorem 
longe fore Euripiden. Namque is et sermone68 
(quod ipsum reprehendunt, quibus gravitas et 
cothurnus et sonus Sophoclis videtur esse sub- 
limior) magis accedit oratorio generi, et senten- 
tiis densus et in iis, quae a sapientibus tradita 
sunt, paene ipsis par, et dicendo ac respondendo 
cuilibet eorum, qui fuerunt in foro diserti, com- 
parandus; in adfectibus vero cum omnibus mi- 
rus, turn in iis, qui miseratione constant, facile 

Hunc et admiratus maxime est, ut saepe tes- 69 
tatur, et eum secutus, quamquam in opere diverso, 
Menander, qui vel unus, meo quidem iudicio, 
diligenter lectus, ad cuncta, quae praecipimus, 
efficienda sufficiat ; ita omnem vitae imaginem 
expressit, tanta in eo inveniendi copia et eloquen- 
di facultas, ita est omnibus rebus, personis, adfec- 
tibus accommodatus. Nee nihil profecto vide- 70 
runt, qui orationes, quae Charisii nomine edun- 
tur, a Menandro scriptas putant. Sed mihi longe 

42 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 71-74 

magis orator probari in opere suo videtur, nisi 
forte aut ilia mala indicia, qnae Epitrepontes, 
Epicleros, Locroe habent, ant meditationes in 
Psopbodee, Noniotbete, Hypobolimaeo non omni- 

71 bus oratoriis nnmeris snnt absolntae. Ego ta- 
men plus adbuc quiddam conlaturum eum de- 
clamatoribus puto, quoniam his necesse est se- 
cundum condicionem controversiarum plures 
subire personas : patrum, filiorum, militum, rusti- 
corum, divitum, pauperum, irascentium, depre- 
cantium, mitium, asperorum. In quibns omnibus 

72 mire custoditur ab hoc poeta decor. Atque ille 
quidem omnibus eiusdem operis auctoribus ab- 
stulit nomen et fulgore quodam suae claritatis 
tenebras obdnxit. Tamen habent alii quoque 
comici, si cum venia leguntur, quaedam quae 
possis decerpere; et praecipue Philemon, qui 
ut pravis sui temporis iudiciis Menandro saepe 
praelatus est, ita consensu tamen omnium meruit 
credi secundus. 

73 Historiam multi scripsere praeclare, sed 
nemo dubitat longe duos ceteris praeferendos, 
quorum diversa virtus laudem paene est parem 
consecuta. Densus et brevis et semper instans 
sibi Thucydides, dulcis et candidus et fusus 
Herodotus; ille concitatis hie remissis adfecti- 
bus melior, ille contionibus hie sermonibus, ille 

74 vi hie voluptate. Theopompus, his proximus, 
ut in historia praedictis minor, ita oratori magis 
similis, ut qui, antequam est ad hoc opus sollicita- 
tus, din f uerit orator. Philistus quoque mere- 
tur qui turbae quamvis bonorum post eos auc- 
torum eximatur, imitator Thucydidis et ut multo 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 75-80. 43 

infirmior ita aliquatenus lucidior. E p li o r ii s, ut 
Isocrati visum, calcaribus eget. Clitarclii pro- 75 
batur ingeuiiim, fides infamatur. Longo post 
intervallo temporis natus Tiniagenes vel hoc 
est ipso probabilis, quod interinissaui historias 
scribendi industriam nova laude reparavit. 
X e n o p h o n non excidit mihi, sed inter pbiloso- 
phos reddendus est. 

Sequitur o r a t o r u ni ingens manus, ut cum 76 
decem simul Atlienis aetas una tulerit. Quorum 
longe princeps Demosthenes ac paene lex 
orandi f uit ; tanta vis in eo, tam densa omnia, ita 
quibusdam nervis intenta sunt, tam nihil otio- 
sum, is dicendi modus, ut nee quod desit in eo 
nee quod redundet iuA^enias. Plenior A e s c h i- 77 
nes et magis fusus et grandiori similis, quo 
minus strictus est ; carnis tamen plus habet, mi- 
nus lacertorum. Dulcis in primis et acutus 
Hyperides, sed minoribus causis, ut non dixe- 
rim utilior, magis par. His aetate L y s i a s mai- 78 
or, subtilis atque elegans et quo nihil, si oratori 
satis sit docere, quaeras perfectius. Nihil enim 
est inane, nihil arcessitum; puro tamen fonti 
quam magno flumini propior. I s o c r a t e s in di- 79 
verso genere dicendi nitidus et comptus et palae- 
strae quam pugnae magis accommodatus omnis 
dicendi veneres sectatus est, nee immerito ; audi- 
toriis enim se, non iudiciis compararat ; in inven- 
tione facilis, honesti studiosus, in compositione 
adeo diligens, ut cura eius reprehendatur. Ne-80 
que ego in his, de quibus locutus sum, has solas 
virtutes, sed has praecipuas puto, nee ceteros pa- 
rum fuisse magnos. Quin etiam Phalerea 11- 

44: INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 81-85, 

lum Demetriiim, qnamquam is primus incli- 
nasse eloquentiam dicitur, niultum ingenii habu- 
isse et facnndiae fateor, vel ob hoc memoria 
dignum, quod ultimus est fere ex Atticis, qui 
dici possit orator ; queni tamen in illo medio 
genere dicendi praefert omnibus Cicero. 

81 Pliilosopliorum, ex quibus plurimum se 
traxisse eloquentiae M. Tullius confitetur, quis du- 
bitet Plato n em esse praecipuum sive acumine 
disserendi sive eloquendi facultate divina qua- 
dam et Homerica ? Multum enim supra prosam 
orationem et quam pedestrem Graeci vocant 
surgit, ut mihi non hominis ingenio, sed quodam 

62 Delpliico videatur oraculo instinctus. Quid ego 
commemorem Xenopliontis illam iucundita-, 
tem inadfectatam, sed quam nulla consequi ad- 
fectatio possit ? ut ipsae sermonem. finxisse Gra- 
tiae videantur et, quod de Pericle veteris comoe- 
diae testimonium est, in liunc transferri iustissime 
possit, in labris eius sedisse quandam i^ersuaden- 

83 di deam. Quid reliquorum Socraticorum 
elegantiam ? Quid Aristotelem? quem dubi- 
to scientia rerum an scriptorum copia an elo- 
quendi vi ac suavitate an inventionum acumine 
an varietate operum clariorem putem. Nam in 
Tlieoplirasto tam est loquendi nitor ille divinus, 

64 ut ex eo nomen quoque traxisse dicatur. Minus 
indulsere eloquentiae Stoici veteres, sed cum 
bonesta suaserunt, tum in conligendo probando-. 
que, quae instituerant, plurimum valuerunt, rebus 
tamen acuti magis quam, id quod sane non adfec- 
taverunt, oratione magnifici. 

85 Idem nobis per Pomanos quoque auctores 

INST, ORATOR, X, 1, 86-89, 45 

ordo ducendus est. Itaque ut apud illos Home- 
Tus, sic apud nos Vergilius auspicatissimum 
dederit exordium, omnium eius generis poetarum 
Graecorum nostrorumque haud dubie proximus. 
Utar eniin verbis iisdem, quae ex Afro Domitio 86 
iuvenis excepi, qui mibi interroganti, quern Ho- 
mero crederet maxime accedere, secundus, 
inquit, est Vergilius, propior tamen pri- 
mo quam tertio. Et liercule ut illi naturae 
caelesti atque immortali cesserimus, ita curae et 
diligentiae vel ideo in hoc plus est, quod ei fuit 
magis laborandum, et quantum eminentibus 
vincimur, fortasse aequalitate pensamus. Ceteri 
omnes longe sequentur. Nam Macer et Lu-87 
cretins legendi quidem, sed non ut pbrasin, id 
est, corpus eloquentiae f aciant ; elegantes in sua 
quisque materia, sed alter humilis, alter difficilis. 
Atacinus Yarro in iis, per quae nomen est 
adsecutus, inter pres operis alieni, non spernendus 
quidem, verum ad augendam facultatem dicendi 
parum locuples. E n n i u m sicut sacros vetustate 88 
lucos adoremus, in quibus grandia et antiqua ro- 
bora iam non tantam liabent speciem quantam 
religionem. Propiores alii atque ad lioc, de quo 
loquimur, magis utiles. Lascivus quidem in 
lierois quoque Ovidius et nimium amator in- 
genii sui, laudandus tamen in partibus. C o r n e- 89 
1 i u s autem S e v e r u s, etiamsi versificator quam 
poeta melior, si tamen [ut est dictum] ad exem- 
plar primi libri bellum Siculum perscripsisset, 
vindicaret sibi iure secundum locum. Serranum 
consummari mors immatura non passa est: 
puerilia tamen eius opera et maximam indolem 

46 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 90-93. 

ostendunt et admirabilem praecipiie in aetate ilia 
90 recti generis volnntatem. Multum in Yalerio 
Flacco nuper amisimns. Vehemens et poeti- 
cum ingenium Saleii Bassi fuit, nee ipsum 
senectute maturuit. Rabirius ac Pedo non 
indigni cognitione, si vacet. Luc anus ardens 
et concitatus et sententiis clarissimus et, ut di- 
cam quod sentio, magis oratoribus quam poetis 

91 imitandus. Hos nominavimus, quia Germani- 
cum Augustum ab institutis studiis deflexit cura 
terrarum, parumque dis visum est esse eum 
maximum poetarum. Quid tamen bis ipsis eius 
operibus, in quae, donato imperio, iuvenis seces- 
serat, sublimius, doctius, omnibus denique nu- 
meris praestantius ? Quis enim caneret bella 
melius quam qui sic gerit ? Quem praesidentes 
studiis deae propius audirent ? Cui magis suas 

92 artis aperiret f amiliare numen Minerva ? Dicent 
. haec plenius futura saecula, nunc enim cetera- 

rum fulgore virtutum laus ista praestringitur. 
Nos tamen sacra litterarum colentis feras, Cae- 
sar, si non tacitum hoc praeterimus et Vergiliano 
certe versu testamur : 

inter victrices bederam tibi serpere 

93 Elegia quoque Graecos provocamus, cuius 
mibi tersus atque elegans maxime videtur auctor 
Tibullus. Sunt qui Propertium malint, 
O V i d i u s utroque lascivior, sicut durior G a 1 1 u s. 

S a t u r a quidem tota nostra est, in qua primus 
insignem laudem adeptus Lucilius quosdam ita 
deditos sibi adhuc babet amatores, ut eum non 

INST. ORATOR, X, 1, 94-97. 47 

eiusdem modo operis auctoribus, sed omnibus 
poetis praeferre non dubitent. Ego quantum ab 94 
illis tantum ab Horatio dissentio, qui Lucilium 
fluere lutulentum et esse aliquid, quod 
tollere possis, putat. Nam eruditio in eo mira 
et libertas atque inde acerbitas et abunde salis. 
Multum est tersior ac purus magis Horatiuset, 
nisi labor eius amore, praecipuus. Multum et 
verae gloriae quamvis uno libro P e r s i u s meruit. 
Sunt clari hodieque et qui olim nominabuntur. 
Alterum illud etiam prius saturae genus, sed 95 
non sola carminum varietate mixtum condidit 
Terentius Varro, vir Romanorum eruditis- 
simus. Plurimos bic libros et doctissimos com- 
posuit, peritissimus linguae La.tinae et omnis 
antiquitatis et rerum Graecarum nostrarumque ; 
plus tamen scientiae conlaturus quam eloquen- 

Iambus non sane a Romanis celebratus est 96 
ut proprium opus, quibusdam interpositus, cuius 
acerbitas in Catullo, Bibaculo, Horatio, 
quamquam illi epodos interveniat, reperietur. 

At Lyricorum idem Horatius fere solus 
legi dignus ; nam et insurgit aliquando, et plenus 
est iucunditatis et gratiae et variis figuris et 
verbis f elicissime audax. Si quem adicere velis, 
is erit Caesius Bassus, quem nuper vidimus ; 
sed eum longe praecedunt ingenia viventium. 

Tragoediae scriptores veterum A 1 1 i u s at- 97 
que Pacuvius clarissimi gravitate sententia- 
rum, verborum pondere, auctoritate personarum. 
Ceterum nitor et summa in excolendis operibus 
manus magis videri potest temporibus quam ipsis 

48 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 98-101. 

defuisse. Virium tamen Attio plus tribuitur, 
Pacuvmm videri doctiorem, qui esse docti ad- 

98fectant, volunt. lam Yarii Thyestes cuilibet 
Graecaruni comparari potest. Ovidii Medea 
videtur mihi ostendere, quantum ille vir prae- 
stare potuerit, si ingenio suo imperare quam. in- 
dulgere maluisset. Eorum. quos viderim. longe 
princeps Pom.ponius Secundus, quem. senes 
quidem. parum tragicum. putabant, eruditione ac 
nitore praestare confitebantur. 

99 Incom.oedia maxiine, licet Var- 
ro Musas, Aelii Stilonis sententia, Plautiiio 
dicat sermone locuturas fuisse, siLatine 
loqui vellent, licet Caec ilium veteres laudi- 
bus ferant, licet^Terentii scripta ad Scipionem 
Africanum. referantur; quae tamen sunt in hoc 
genere elegantissima et plus adhuc habituia 

100 gratiae, si intra versus trimetros stetissent. Vix 
levem consequimur umbram, adeo ut mibi sermo 
ipse Romanus non recipere videatur illam solis 
concessam Atticis venerem, cum eam ne Graeci 
quidem in alio genere linguae obtinuerint. Toga- 
tis excellit Afranius; utinam non inquinasset 
argumenta puerorum f oedis amoribus, mores suos 

101 At non historia cesserit Graecis. Nee op- 
ponere Tliucydidi Sallustium verear, nee in- 
dignetur sibi Herodotus aequari T. L i v i u m, cum 
in narrando mirae iucunditatis clarissimique can- 
doris, tum in contionibus supra quam enarrari 
potest eloquentem ; ita quae dicuntur omnia cum 
rebus, tum personis accommodata sunt ; adf ectns 
quidem, praecipueque eos gui sunt dulciores, ut 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 102-106. 49 

parcissime dicam, nemo historicorum commenda- 
vit magis. Ideoque immortalem illam Sallustiiioa 
velocitatem diversis virtutibus consecutus est. 
Nam m.ilii egregie dixisse videtur Ser villus 
No 111 an us, pares eos magls quam similes; qui 
et ipse a nobis audltus est, clari vir ingenli et 
sententlis creber, sed minus pressus quam lils- 
torlae auctorltas postulat. Quam, paulum aetate 103 
praecedens eum, Bass us Aufldius egregie, 
utique in llbrls belli Germanicl, praestitlt, genere 
ipso probabllls, sed in quibusdam operibus suis 
ipse vlribus minor. Superest adhuc et exornat 104 
aetatis nostrae gloriam vir saeculorum memoria 
dignus, qui ollm nomlnabitur, nunc intellegitur. 
Habet amatores nee imitatores, ut cul libertas, 
quamquam circumcisis quae dixisset, nocuerit. 
Sed elatum abunde splritum et audaces senten- 
tias deprebendas etlam in lis, quae manent. Sunt 
et alii scrlptores bonl, sed nos genera degustamus, 
non blbllotbecas excutlmus. 

Oratores vero vel praeclpue Latlnam elo- 105 
quentlam parem facere Graecae posslnt. Nam 
Ciceronem culcumque eorum fortlter opposu- 
erim. Nee Ignoro, quantam mibi concltem pug- 
nam, cum praesertlm non sit id propositi, ut eum 
Demosthenl comparem hoc tempore, neque enim 
attinet, cum Demosthenem in primis legendum 
vel ediscendum potius putem. Quorum ego lOfc 
virtutes plerasque arbltror similes : consilium, 
ordinem, dividendi, praeparandi, probandi ratio- 
nem, omnia denique quae sunt inventionis. In 
eloquendo est aliqua diversitas : densior ille, hie 
copiosior, lUe concludit astrictius, hie latins, pug- 


50 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 107-111. 

nat ille acumine semper, Mc frequenter et pon- 
dere, illi nihil detrahi potest, huic nihil adici, 

107 curae plus in illo, in hoc naturae. Salibus certe 
et commiseratione, quae duo plurinium in adfec- 
tibus valent, vincimus. Et fortasse epilogos illi 
mos civitatis abstulerit ; sed et nobis ilia, quae 
Attici mirantur, di versa Latini sermonis ratio 

, minus permiserit. In epistulis quidem, quam- 
quam sunt utriusque, dialogisve, quibus nihil 

108 ille, nulla contentio est. Cedendum vero in hoc, 
quod et prior fuit et ex magna parte Ciceronem, 
quantus est, fecit. Nam mihi videtur M. Tullius, 
cum se totum ad imitationem Graecorum con- 
tulisset, effinxisse vim Demosthenis, copiam 

109 Platonis, iucunditatem Isocratis. Nee vero quod 
in quoque optimum fuit, studio consecutus est 
tantum, sed plurimas vel potius omnis ex se 
ipso virtutes extulit immortalis ingenii beatissi- 
ma ubertate. Non enim pluvias, ut ait Pinda- 
rus, aquas conligit, sed vivo gurgite ex- 
undat, dono quodam providentiae genitus, in 
quo totas vires suas eloquentia experiretur. 

110 Nam quis docere diligentius, movere vehementius 
potest ? Cui tanta umquam iucunditas adfuit ? 
ut ipsa ilia, quae extorquet, impetrare eum cre- 
das, et cum transversum vi sua iudicem ferat, 

111 tamen ille non rapi videatur, sed sequi. lam in 
omnibus, quae dicit, tanta auctoritas inest, ut 
dissentire pudeat, nee advocati studium, sed testis 
aut iudicis adf erat fidem ; cum interim haec om- 
nia, quae vix singula quisquam intentissima cura 
consequi posset, fluunt inlaborata, et ilia, qua 
nihil umquam pulchrius auditum est, oratio prae 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 11^116. 51 

se fert tamen felicissimam facilitatein. Quarell2 
non immerito ab liominibus aetatis suae regnare 
ill iudiciis dictus est, apud posterds vero id con- 
secutiis, nt Cicero iam non hominis nomen, sed 
eloqiientiae babeatiir. Hunc igitui' spectemus, 
hoc propositiini nobis sit exemplum, ille se pro- 
fecisse sciat, cui Cicero valde placebit. Multa in 113 
Asinio Pollione inventio, summa diligentia, 
adeo nt qnibnsdam etiam niniia videatnr, et con- 
silii et animi satis; a nitore et iucnnditate Cice- 
ronis ita longe abest, ut \dderi possit saecnlo 
prior. At Messala nitidus et candidus et quo- 
dammodo praef erens in dicendo nobilitatem suam, 
viribus minor. C. vero Caesar si foro tantuniii4 
vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem 
nominaretur. Tanta in eo ^n.s est, id acumen, ea ■ 
concitatio, ut ilium eodem animo dixisse, quo 
bellavit, appareat ; exornat tamen liaec omnia 
mira sermonis, cuius proprie studiosus fuit, ele- 
gantia. Multum ingenii in Caelio et praecipueiis 
in accusando multa urbanitas, dignusque vir cui 
et mens melior et vita longior contigisset. Inve- 
ni qui Cal vum praef errent omnibus, inveni qui 
Ciceroni crederent, eum nimia contra se calum- 
nia verum sanguinem perdidisse ; sed est et 
sancta et gravis oratio et castigata et frequenter 
vehemens quoque. Imitator autem est Attico- 
rum, fecitque illi properata mors iniuriam, si 
quid adiecturus sibi, non si quid detracturus fuit. 
EtServius Sulpicius insignem non immerito 116 
famam tribus orationibus meruit. Multa, si cum 
iudicio legatur, dabit imitatione digna Cassius 
Sever us, qui si ceteris virtutibus colorem et 

52 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 117-121. 

gravitatem orationis adiecisset, ponendus inter 

117 praecipuos f oret. Nam et ingenii plurimuin est 
in eo et acerbitas mira, et urbanitas eius summa ; 
sed plus stomacbo qnani consilio dedit. Praeter- 
ea ut amari sales, ita frequenter amaritudo ipsa 

118 ridicula est. Sunt alii niulti diserti, quos perse- 
qui longum est. Eorum quos viderini Domi- 
tius Afer et lulius Africanus longe prae- 
stantissimi : verborum arte ille et toto genere 
dicendi praef erendus et queni in numero veteruni 
habere non timeas; hie concitatior, sed in cura 
verborum nimius et compositione nonnumquam 
longior et translationibus parum modicus. 

119 Erant clara et nuper ingenia. Nam et T r a c h a- 
lus plerumque sublimis et satis apertus fuit et 
quern velle optima crederes, auditus tamen maior ; 
nam et vocis, quantam in nullo cognovi, felici- 
tas et pronuntiatio vel scaenis suff ectura et decor, 
omnia denique ei, quae sunt extra, superf uerunt ; 
et Vibius Crispus compositus et iucundus et 
delectationi natus, privatis tamen causis quam 

120publicis melior. lulio Secundo, si longior 
contigisset aetas, clarissimum profecto nomen 
oratoris apud posteros f oret ; adiecisset enim, 
atque adiciebat ceteris virtutibus suis quod de- 
siderari potest; id est autem ut esset multo 
magis pugnax et saepius ad curam rerum ab 

121 elocutione respiceret. Ceterum interceptus quo- 
que magnum sibi vindicat locum ; ea est fa- 
cundia, tanta in explicando quod velit gratia, 
tam candidum et lene et speciosum dicendi genus, 
tanta verborum etiam quae adsumpta sunt pro- 
prietas, tanta in quibusdam ex periculo petitis 

INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 122-127. 53 

significantia. Habebunt, qui post nos de oratori- 122 
bus scribent, magnam eos, qui nunc vigent, mate- 
riam vere laudandi. Sunt enim summa liodie, 
quibus inlustratur forum, ingenia. Namque et 
consummati iani patroni veteribus aemulantur, 
et eos iuvenum ad optima tendentium imitatur ac 
sequitur industria. 

Supersunt, qui de pbilosopbia scripserunt, 123 
quo in genere paucissimos adliuc eloquentes lit- 
terae Romanae tulerunt. Idem igitur M. Tul- 
lius/qui ubique, etiam in hoc opere Platonis 
aemulus extitit. Egregius vero multoque quam 
in orationibus praestantior Brutus suffecit pon- 
deri rerum ; scias eum sentire quae dicit. Scripsit 124 
non parum multa Cornelius Celsus, Sextios 
secutus, non sine cultu ac nitore. Plautus in 
Stoicis rerum cognitioni utilis. In Epicureis 
levis quidem, sed non iniucundus tamen auctor 
est Catius. Ex industria Senecam in omni 125 
genere eloquentiae distuli propter vulgatam falso 
de me opinionem, qua damnare eum et invisum 
quoque habere sum creditus. Quod accidit mihi, 
dum corruptum et omnibus vitiis f ractum dicendi 
genus revocare ad severiora indicia contendo. 
Tum autem solus hie fere in manibus adulescen- i2G 
tium fuit. Quem non equidem omnino conabar 
excutere, sed potioribus praeferri non sinebam, 
quos ille non destiterat incessere, cum, diversi 
sibi conscius generis, placere se in dicendo posse 
iis, quibus illi placent, diffideret. Amabant autem 
eum magis quam imitabantur tantumque ab eo 
defluebant, quantum ille ab antiquis descenderat. 
Foret enim optandum, pares aut saltem proximos 127 

54 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 128-131, 

illi viro fieri. Sed placebat propter sola vitia et 
ad ea se quisque dirigebat efi&ngenda, quae pote- 
rat; deinde cum. se iactaret eodeni modo dicere, 

128 Senecam inf amabat. Cuius et inultae alioqui et 
magnae virtutes fuerunt, ingenium facile et 
copiosum, plurirQum studii, multa rerum cogni- 
tio ; in qua tamen aliquando ab his, quibus in- 
quirenda quaedam mandabat, deceptus est. Trac- 
tavit etiam omnem fere studiorum materiam. 

129 Nam et orationes eius et poemata et epistulae et 
dialogi feruntur. In philosophia parum diligens, 
egregius tamen vitiorum insectator fuit. Multae 
in eo claraeque sententiae, multa etiam morum 
gratia legenda ; sed in eloquendo corrupta plera- 
que atque eo perniciosissima, quod abundant dulci- 

130 bus vitiis. Velles eum suo ingenio dixisse, alieno 
iudicio ; nam si aliqua contempsisset, si pravum 
non concupisset, si non omnia sua amasset, si 
rerum pondera minutissimis sententiis non fre- 
gisset, consensu potius eruditorum quam puero- 

131 rum amore comprobaretur. Yerum sic quoque 
iam robustis et severiore genere satis firmatis 
legendus vel ideo, quod exercere potest utrimque 
indicium. Multa enim, ut dixi, probanda in eo, 
multa etiam admiranda sunt, eligere modo curae 
sit ; quod utinam ipse f ecisset. Digna enim fuit 
ilia natura quae meliora vellet, quae quod voluit 

INST. ORATOR. X, 2, 1-5. 55 


II. Ex his ceterisque lectione dignis auctori- 
bus et verborum sumenda copia est et varietas 
figurarum et componeiidi ratio, tum ad exemplum 
virtutum omnium mens dirigenda. Neque enim 
dubitari potest, quin artis pars magna continea- 
tur imitation e. Nam nt invenire primum 
fuit estque praecipuum, sic ea, quae bene inventa 
sunt, utile sequi, Atque omnis vitae ratio sic 3 
constat, ut quae probamus in aliis facere ipsi 
velimus. Sic litterarum ductus, ut scribendi fiat 
usus, pueri sequuntur, sic musici vocem docenti- 
um, pictores opera priorum, rustic! probatam 
experimento culturam in exemplum intuentur, 
omnis denique disciplinae initia ad propositum 
sibi praescriptum formari videmus. Et liercules 
necesse est aut similes aut dissimiles bonis simus. 
Similem raro natura praestat, frequenter imita- 
tio. Sed lioc ipsum, quod tanto faciliorem nobis 
rationem omnium facit quam fuit iis, qui nihil 
quod sequerentur habuerunt, nisi caute et cum 
iudicio adprehenditur, nocet. 

Ante omnia igitur imitatio per se ipsa non4 
sufficit, vel quia pigri est ingenii contentum esse 
iis, quae sint ab aliis inventa. Quid enim futu- 
rum erat temporibus illis, quae sine exemplo 
fuerunt, si homines nihil, nisi quod iam cogno- 
vissent, faciendum sibi aut cogitandum putas- 
sent ? Nempe nihil f uisset inventum. Cur igi- 5 

56 INST. ORATOll. X, 2, 6-10. 

tur nefas est reperiri aliquid a nobis, quod ante 
non fuerit ? An illi rudes sola mentis natura 
ducti sunt in hoc, ut tarn multa generarent : nos 
ad quaerendum non eo ipso concitemur, quod 

6 certe scimus invenisse eos, qui quaesierunt ? Et 
cum illi, qui nullum cuiusquam rei liabuerunt 
magistrum, plurima in posteros tradiderint: no- 
bis usus aliarum rerum ad eruendas alias non 
proderit, sed nihil liabebimus nisi beneficii alieni ? 
Quemadmodum quidam pictores in id solum 
student, ut describere tabulas mensuris ac lineis 

7 Turpe etiam illud est, contentum esse id con- 
sequi quod imiteris. Nam rursus quid erat 
futurum, si nemo plus effecisset eo quem seque- 
batur ? Nihil in poetis supra Livium Androni- 
cum, nihil in historiis supra j)ontificum annales 
haberemus, ratibus adhuc navigaretur.; non esset 
pictura, nisi quae lineas modo extremas umbrae, 
quam corpora in sole fecissent, circumscriberet. 

8 Ac si omnia percenseas, est nulla ars, qualis in- 
venta est, nee intra initium stetit ; nisi forte nos- 
tra potissimum tempora damnamus huius infe- 
licitatis, ut nunc demum nihil crescat. Nihil 

9 autem crescit sola imitatione. Quodsi prioribus 
adicere fas non est, quo modo sperare possumus 
ilium oratorem perfectum ? cum in his, quos 
maximos adhuc novimus, nemo sit inventus, in 
quo nihil aut desideretur aut reprehendatur. 
Sed etiam qui summa non adpetent, contendere 

lOpotius quam sequi debent. Nam qui agit ut 
prior sit, forsitan, etiam si non transierit, aequa- 
iDit. Eum vero nemo potest aequare, cuius ves- 

INST, ORATOR. X, 2, 11-14. 57 

tigiis sibi utique insistendum putat; necesse est' 
enim semper sit posterior qui sequitur. Adde 
quod plerumque facilius est plus facere quam 
idem ; tantam enim difficultatem liabet similitu- 
do, ut ne ipsa quidem natura in hoc ita evaluerit, 
ut non res simplicissimae, quaeque pares maxime 
videantur, utique discrimine aliquo discernantur. 
Adde quod, quidquid alteri simile est, necesse est 11 
minus sit eo, quod imitatur, ut umbra corpore et 
imago facie et actus liistrionum veris adfecti- 
bus. Quod in orationibus quoque evenit. Nam- 
que eis, quae in exemplum adsumimus, subest 
natura et vera vis ; contra omnis imitatio ficta 
est et ad alienum propositum accommodatur. 
Quo fit ut minus sanguinis ac virium decla- 12 
mationes babeant quam orationes, quod in illis 
vera in Ms adsimulata materia est. Adde quod 
ea, quae in oratore maxima sunt, imitabilia non 
sunt, ingenium, inventio, vis, facilitas, et quid- 
quid arte non traditur. Ideo plerique, cum 13 
verba quaedam ex orationibus excerpserunt aut 
aliquos compositionis certos pedes, mire a se quae 
legerunt effingi arbitrantur ; cum et verba interci- 
dant invalescantque temporibus, ut quorum cer- 
tissima sit regula in consuetudine, eaque non sua 
natura sint bona aut mala (nam per se soni tan- 
tum sunt), sed prout opportune proprieque aut 
secus conlocata sunt, et compositio cum rebus 
accommodata sit, tum ipsa varietate gratissima. 

Quapropter exactissimo iudicio circa banc 14 
partem studiorum examinanda sunt omnia. Pri- 
mum, quos imitemur ; nam sunt plurimi, qui 
similitudinem pessimi cuiusque et corruptissimi 

58 INST. ORATOR. X, 2, 15-18, 

conciipierunt ; turn in ipsis, quos elegerinms, quid 

15 sit, ad quod nos efficiendum compareiuus. Nam 
in magnis quoque auctoribus incidunt aliqua 
vitiosa et a doctis inter ipsos etiam niutuo repre- 
liensa ; atque utinam tarn bona imitantes dicerent 
melius quam mala peius dicunt. Nee vero saltem 
iis, quibus ad evitanda vitia iudicii satis fuit, 
sufficiat imaginem virtutis effingere et solam, ut 
sic dixerim, cutem, vel potius illas Epicuri figu- 

16 ras, quas e summis corporibus dicit effluere. Hoc 
autem Ms accidit, qui non introspectis penitus 
virtutibus ad primum se velut aspectum oratio- 
nis aptarunt ; et cum lis f elicissime cessit imita- 
tio, verbis atque numeris sunt non multum diffe- 
rentes, vim dicendi atque inventionis non adse- 
quuntur, sed plerumque declinant in peius et 
proxima virtutibus vitia comprehendunt fiuntque 
pro grandibus tumidi, pressis exiles, fortibus 
temerarii, laetis corrupti, compositis exultantes, 

17 simplicibus neglegentes. Ideoque qui borride 
atque incomposite quidlibet illud frigidum et 
inane extulerunt, antiquis se pares credunt, qui 
carent cultu atque sententiis, Atticis scilicet, qui 
praecisis conclusionibus obscuri, Sallustium atque 
Thucydidem superant, tristes ac ieiuni Pollionem 
aemulantur, otiosi et supini, si quid modo longius 
circumduxerunt, iurant ita Ciceronem locuturum 

ISfuisse. Noveram quosdam, qui se pulchre ex- 
pressisse genus illud caelestis liuius in dicendo 
viri sibi viderentur, si in clausula posuissent 
esse videatur. Ergo primum est, ut quod 
imitaturus est quisque intellegat et, quare bonum 
sit, sciat. 

INST. ORATOR, X, 2, 19-23, 59 

Turn in suscipiendo onere consulat suas vires. 19 
Nam quaedam sunt imitabilia, quibus aut infirmi- 
tas naturae non sufficiat aut diversitas repugnet. 
Ne, cui tenue ingeniuni erit, sola velit fortia et 
abrupta, cui forte quidem, sed indomitum^ amore 
subtilitatis et vim suam perdat et elegantiam 
quam cupit non adsequatur ; nihil est enim tam 
indecens, quam cum mollia dure fiunt. Atque20 
ego illi praeceptori, quern instituebam in libro 
secundo, credidi non ea sola docenda esse, ad 
quae quemque discipulorum natura compositum 
videret ; nam is et adiuvare debet, quae in quo- 
que eorum invenit bona, et, quantum fieri potest, 
adicere quae desunt et emendare quaedam et 
mutare ; rector enim est alienorum ingeniorum 
atque formator. Difficilius est naturam suam 
fingere. Sed ne ille quidem doctor, quamquam21 
omnia quae recta sunt velit esse in suis auditori- 
bus quam plenissima, in eo tamen, cui naturam 
obstare viderit, laborabit. 

Id quoque vitandum, in quo magna pars errat, 
ne in oratione poetas nobis et historicos, in illis 
operibus oratores aut declamatores imitandos 
putemus. Sua cuique proposita lex, suus cuique 22 
decor est ; nam nee comoedia cotburnis adsurgit, 
nee contra tragoedia socco ingreditur. Habet 
tamen omnis eloquentia aliquid commune; id 
imitemur quod commune est. Etiam hoc solet23 
inconimodi accidere iis, qui se uni alicui generi 
dediderunt, ut, si asperitas iis placuit alicuius, 
hanc etiam in leni ac remisso causarum genere 
non exuant; si tenuitas ac iucunditas, in asperis 
gravibusque causis ponderi rerum parum re- 

60 INST. ORATOR. X, 2, 24-27. 

spondeant : cum sit diversa non causarum modo 
inter ipsas condicio, sed in singulis etiam causis 
partium, sintque alia leniter alia aspere, alia con- 
citate alia remisse, alia docendi alia movendi 
gratia dicenda ; quorum omnium dissimilis atque 

24 diversa inter se ratio est. Itaque ne lioc qui- 
dem suaserim, uni se alicui proprie, quem per 
omnia sequatur, addicere. Omnium perfectissi- 
mus Graecorum Demosthenes, aliquid tamen ali- 
quo in loco melius alii, plurima ille. Sed non 
qui maxime imitandus, et solus imitandus est. 

25 Quid ergo ? non est satis omnia sic dicere, quo- 
modo M. Tullius dixit ? Mihi quidem satis esset, 
si omnia consequi possem. Quid tamen noceret 
vim Caesaris, asperitatem Caelii, diligentiam Pol- 
lionis, indicium Calvi quibusdam in locis adsu- 

26 mere ? Nam praeter id quod prudentis est, quod 
in quoque optimum est, si possit, suum facere, 
tum in tanta rei difficultate unum intueutes vix 
aliqua pars sequitur. Ideoque cum totum expri- 
mere quem elegeris paene sit homini inconces- 
sum, plurium bona ponamus ante oculos, ut 
aliud ex alio haereat, et quod cuique loco conve- 
niat aptemus. 

27 Imitatio autem (nam saepius idem dicam.) non 
sit tantum in verbis. Illuc intendenda mens, 
quantum fuerit illis viris decoris in rebus atque 
personis, quod consilium, quae dispositio, quam 
omnia, etiam quae delectationi videantur data, ad 
victoriam spectent ; quid agatur prooemio, quae 
ratio et quam varia narrandi, quae vis proband! 
ac ref ellendi, quanta in adfectibus omnis generis 
movendis scientia, quamque laus ipsa popularis 

INST. ORATOR. X, 2, 28; 3, 1-3. 61 

utilitatis gratia adsumpta, quae turn est pulcher- 
rima, cum. sequitur, non cum arcessitur. Haec si 
perviderimus, turn vere imitabimur. Qui vero28 
etiam. propria his bona adiecerit, ut suppleat 
quae deerant, circumcidat, si quid redundabit, is 
erit, quern, perfectus orator; quem 
nunc consummari potissimum oportebat, cum 
tanto plura exempla bene dicendi supersunt, quam 
illis, qui adbuc summi sunt, contigerunt. Nam 
erit baec quoque laus eorum, ut priores super- 
asse, posteros docuisse dicantur. 


III. Et haec quidem auxilia extrinsecus adhi- 
bentur ; in iis quae nobis ipsis paranda sunt, ut 
laboris, sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum adfert 
stilus. Nee immerito M. TuUius hunc opti- 
mum effectorem ac magistrum dicendi, 
Vocavit ; cui sententiae personam L. Crassi in 
disputationibus, quae sunt de oratore, adsignando, 
indicium suum cum illius auctoritate coniunxit. 
Scribendum ergo quam diligentissime et quam 2 
plurimum. Nam ut terra altius effossa generan- 
dis alendisque seminibus fecundior fit, sic profec- 
tus non a summo petitus studiorum fructus et 
fundit uberius et fidelius continet. Nam sine hac 
quidem conscientia ipsa ilia ex tempore dicendi 
facultas inanem modo loquacitatem dabit et 

62 INST. ORATOR. X, 3, 3-7. 

Syerba in labris nascentia. lUic rad .ces, illic fun- 
damenta sunt, illic opes velut sanctiore quodam 
aerario conditae, nnde ad snbitos quoque casus, 
cum res exiget, proferantur. Vires faciamus 
ante omnia, quae sufficiant labori certaminum et 

4usu non exhauriantur. Nihil enim rerum ipsa 
natura voluit magnum effici cito praeposuitque 
pulcherrimo cuique operi difficultatem, quae 
nascendi quoque banc fecerit legem, ut maiora 
animalia diutius visceribus parentis contineren- 
tur. Sed cum sit duplex quaestio, quomodo 
et quae maxime scribi oporteat, iam bine ordi- 
nem sequar. 

5 Sit primo vel tardus dum diligens stilus, 
quaeramus optima nee protinus offerentibus se 
gaudeamus, adbibeatur indicium inventis, dis- 
positio probatis. Delectus enim rerum verbo- 
rumque agendus est et pondera singulorum ex- 
aminanda. Post subeat ratio conlocandi versen- 
turque omni modo numeri, non ut quodque se 

eproferet verbum occupet locum. Quae quidem 
ut diligentius exequamur, repetenda saepius 
erunt scriptorum proxima. Nam praeter id 
quod sic melius iunguntur prioribus sequentia, 
calor quoque ille cogitationis, qui scribendi mora 
refrixit, recipit ex integro vires et velut repetito 
spatio sumit impetum; quod in certamine saliencv^ 
fieri videmus, ut conatum longius petant et ad 
illud, quo contenditur, spatium cursu f erantur ; 
utque in iaculando brachia reducimus et expulsu- 

7 ri tela nervos retro tendimus. Interim tamen, si 
f eret flatus, danda sunt vela, dum nos indulgentia 
ilia uon f allat • omnia enim nostra, dum nascun- 

INST. OKATOR. X, 3, 8-13. ^3 

t\tr, placent ; alioqui nee scriberentur. Sed redea- 
mus ad iudicium et retractemus suspectam facili- 
tatem. Sic scripsisse Sallustium accepimus, et8 
sane manifestus est etiam ex opere ipso labor. 
Vergilium quoque paucissimos die composuisse 
versus auctor est Varius. Oratoris quidem alia 
condicio est; itaqne banc moram et sollicitudi- 9 
nem initiis impero. Nam primum hoc constitu- 
endum, boc obtinendum est, nt quam optime 
scribamns ; celeritatem dabit consuetudo. Paula- 
tim res facilius se ostendent, verba respondebunt, 
compositio seqnetur, cnncta denique ut in familia 
bene institiita in officio erunt. Summa baec est 10 
rei: cito scribendo non fit, iit bene scribatur, 
bene scribendo fit, nt cito. Sed turn maxime, cum 
facultas ilia contigerit, resistamus et providea- 
mus et ferentis equos frenis quibusdam coercea- 
mus; quod non tam moram faciet quam novos 
impetus dabit. Neque enim rursus eos, qui robur 
aliquod in stilo fecerint, ad infelicem calum- 
niandi se poenam adligandos puto. Nam quomodo 11 
sufficere officiis civilibus possit, qui singulis 
actionum partibus insenescat ? Sunt autem qui- 
bus nibil sit satis; omnia mutare, omnia aliter 
dicere, quam occurrit, velint ; increduli quidam 
et de ingenio suo pessime meriti, qui diligentiam 
putant facere sibi scribendi difficultatem. Nee 12 
promptum est dicere, utros peceare validius pu- 
tem, quibus omnia sua placent an quibus nihil. 
Accidit enim etiam ingeniosis adulescentibus 
frequenter, ut labore consumantur et in silentium 
usque descendant nimia bene dicendi cupiditate. 
Qua de re memini narrasse mibi lulium Secun- 

64 INST. ORATOR. X, 8, 13-16. 

dum ilium, aequalem meum atque a me, nt 
notum est, familiariter amatum, mirae facundiae 
virum, infinitae tamen curae, quid esset sibi a 
l3patruo suo dictum. Is fuit lulius Florus, in 
eloquentia Galliarum, quoniam. ibi demum. ex- 
ercuit eam, princeps, alioqui inter paucos disertus 
et dignus ilia propinquitate. Is cum Secundum, 
scbolae adhuc operatum, tristem forte vidisset, 
interrogavit, quae causa f rontis tam adductae ? 

14 Nee dissimulavit adulescens, tertium iam diem 
esse, quod omni labore materiae ad scribendum 
destinatae non inveniret exordium ; quo sibi non 
praesens tantum dolor, sed etiam desperatio in 
posterum fieret. Tum Florus arridens, num- 
quid tu, inquit, melius dicere vis quam 

15 p o t e s ? Ita se res habet : curandum est, ut 
quam optime dicamus, dicendum tamen pro fac- 
ultate; ad profectum enim opus est studio non 
indignatione. Ut possimus autem scribere etiam 
plura celerius, non exercitatio modo praestabit, 
in qua sine dubio multum est, sed etiam ratio ; si 
non resupini spectantesque tectum et cogitatio- 
nem murmure agitantes expectaverimus, quid 
obveniat, sed quid res poscat, quid personam de- 
ceat, quod sit tempus, qui iudicis animus, intuiti, 
bumano quodam modo ad scribendum accesseri- 
mus. Sic nobis et initia et quae sequuntur na- 

16 tura ijDsa praescribit. Certa sunt enim pleraque 
et, nisi conniveamus, in oculos incurrunt ; ideo- 
que nee indocti nee rustici diu quaerunt, unde 
incipiant ; quo pudendum est magis, si difficulta- 
tem facit doctrina. Non ergo semper putemus 
optimum esse quod latet ; immutescamus alioqui, 

INST. ORATOR. X, 3, 17-21. 65 

si nihil dicendum videatur, nisi qnod non inveni- 
mus. Diversum est liuic eorum vitium, qui primo 17 
decurrere per niateriam stilo quam velocissimo 
volunt et sequentes calorem atque impetum ex 
tempore scribunt ; hanc s i 1 v a m vocant. Repe- 
tunt deinde et componnnt quae effuderant; sed 
verba emendantur et numeri, manet in rebus teme- 
re congestis, quae fuit, levitas. Protinus ergo ad- 18 
hibere curam rectius erit atque ab initio sic opus 
ducere, ut caelandum, non ex integro fabrican- 
dum sit. Aliquando tamen adfectus sequemur, 
in quibus fere plus calor quam diligentia valet. 

Satis apparet ex eo, quod banc scribentium 19 
neglegentiam damno, quid de illis dicta ndi de- 
liciis sentiam. Nam in stilo quidem quamlibet 
properato dat aliquam cogitation! moram non 
consequens celeritatem eius manus ; ille cui dicta- 
mus urget, atque interim pudet etiam dubitare 
aut resistere aut mutare, quasi conscium infirmi- 
tatis nostrae timentis. Quo fit, ut non rudia20 
tantum et fortuita, sed impropria interim, dum 
sola est connectendi sermonis cupiditas, effluant, 
quae nee scribentium curam nee dicentium im- 
petum consequantur. At idem ille, qui excipit, 
si tardior in scribendo aut incertior in legendo 
velut offensator fuit, inhibetur cursus, atque om- 
nis, quae erat, conceptae mentis intentio mora et 
interdum iracundia excutitur. Tum ilia, quae 21 
altiorem animi motum sequuntur quaeque ipsa 
animum quodammodo concitant, quorum est 
iactare manum, torquere vultum, femur et latus 
interim obiurgare, quaeque Persius notat, cum 
leviter dicendi genus significat, 

66 INST. ORATOR. X, 3, 22-26. 

nec pluteum, inquit, caedit nee deinor- 
sos sapit unguis, 

22 etiam ridicula sunt, nisi cum soli sumus. Deni- 
que ut semel quod est potentissimum dicam, 
secretum in dictando perit. Atque liberum arbi- 
tris locum et quam altissimum silentium scri- 
bentibus maxime convenire nemo dubitaverit. 
Non tamen protinus audiendi, qui credunt aptis- 
sima in hoc nemora silvasque, quod ilia caeli 
libertas locorumque amoenitas sublimem ani- 

23 mum et beatiorem spiritum parent, Mihi certe 
iucundus bic magis quam studiorum bortator 
videtur esse secessus. Namque ilia, quae ipsa 
delectant, necesse est avocent ab intentione operis 
destinati. Neque enim se bona fide in multa si- 
mul intendere animus totum potest, et quocum- 
que respexit, desinit intueri quod propositum 

24erat. Quare silvarum amoenitas et praeterla- 
bentia flumina et inspirantes ramis arborum 
aurae volucrumque cantus et ipsa late circum- 
spiciendi libertas ad se trabunt ; ut mibi remit- 
tere potius voluptas ista videatur cogitationem 

25 quam intendere. Demostbenes melius, qui se in 
locum, ex quo nulla exaudiri vox et ex quo nibil 
prospici posset, recondebat, ne aliud agere men- 
tem cogerent oculi. Ideoque lucubrantes silen- 
tium noctis et clausum cubiculum et lumen unum 

26velut tectos maxime teneat. Sed cum in omni 
studiorum genere, tum in hoc praecipue bona 
valetudo, quaeque eam maxime praestat, frugali- 
tas, necessaria est, cum tempora ab ipsa rerum 
natura ad quietem refectionemque nobis data in 
acerrimum laborem convertimus. Cui tamen 

INST. ORATOR. X, 3, 27-30. 67 

non plus inrogandum est quam quod somno 
supererit, liaud deerit. Obstat enim diligentiae 27 
scribendi etiam fatigatio, et abunde, si vacet, 
lucis spatia sufficiunt ; occupatos in noctem ne- 
cessitas agit. Est tamen lucubratio, quotiens ad 
earn integri ac refecti venimus, optimum secreti 

Sed silentium et secessus et undique liber ani- 28 
mus ut sunt maxime optanda, ita non semper 
possunt contingere, ideoque non statim, si quid 
obstrepet, abiciendi codices erunt et deplorandus 
dies; verum incommodis repugnandum et bic 
faciendus usus, ut omnia quae impedient vincat 
intentio ; quam si tota mente in opus ipsum 
direxeris^ nihil eorum, quae oculis vel auribus 
incursant, ad animum perveniet. An vero fre-29 
quenter etiam f ortuita hoc cogitatio praestat, ut 
obvios non videamus et itinere deerremus : non 
consequemur idem, si et voluerimus ? Non est in- 
dulgendum causis desidiae. Nam si nonnisi re- 
fecti, nonnisi Mlares, nonnisi omnibus aliis curis 
vacantes studendum existimarimus, semper erit 
propter quod nobis ignoscamus. Quare in turba, 30 
itinere, conviviis etiam faciat sibi cogitatio ipsa 
secretum. Quid alioqui fiet, cum in medio f oro, 
tot circumstantibus iudiciis, iurgiis, f ortuitis eti- 
am clamoribus, erit subito continua oratione di- 
cendum, si particulas, quas ceris mandamus, nisi 
in solitudine reperire non possumus ? Propter 
quae idem ille tantus amator secreti Demosthenes 
in litore, in quo se maximo cum sono fluctus in- 
lideret, meditans consuescebat contionum fremi- 
tus non expavescere. 

68 INST, ORATOR. X, 3, 31-33; 4, 1. 

31 Ilia quoque minora (sed niliil in studiis par- 
vum est) non sunt transeunda: scribi op time 
ceris, in quibus f acillima est ratio delendi ; nisi 
forte visus infirmior membranarum potins usum 
exiget, quae ut iuvant aciem, ita crebra relatione, 
quoad intinguitur, calami morantur manum et 

32 cogitationis impetum frangunt. Relinquendae 
autem in utrolibet genere contra erunt vacuae 
tabellae, in quibus libera adiciendo sit excursio. 
Nam interim pigritiam emendandi angustiae 
faciunt aut certe novorum interpositione priora 
confundant. Ne latas quidem ultra modum esse 
ceras velim, expertus iuvenem, studiosum alio- 
qui, praelongos habuisse sermones, quia illos nu- 
mero versuum metiebatur, idque vitium, quod 
frequenti admonitione corrigi non potuerat, mu- 

33tatis codicibus esse sublatum. Debet vacare 
etiam locus, in quo notentur quae scribentibus 
Solent extra ordinem, id est ex aliis, quam qui 
sunt in manibus loci, occurrere. Inrumpunt 
enim optimi nonnumquam sensus, quos neque 
inserere oportet neque differre tutum est, quia 
interim elabuntur, interim memoriae sui intentos 
ab alia inventione declinant ideoque optime sunt 
in deposito. 



IV. Sequitur emendatio, pars studiorum 
longe utilissima; neque enim sine causa credi- 

INST. ORATOR. X, 4, 2-4. 69 

fcum est stilum non minus agere, cum delet. 
Huius autem operis est adicere, detrahere, 
mutare. Sed facilius in iis simpliciusque indi- 
cium, quae replenda vel deicienda sunt ; premere 
vero tumentia, humilia extoUere, luxuriantia as- 
tringere, inordinata digerere, soluta componere, 
exultantia coercere, duplicis operae ; nam et dam- 2 
nanda sunt quae placuerant, et invenienda quae 
fugerant. Nee dubium est optimum esse emen- 
dandi genus, si script a in aliquod tempus repo- 
nantur, ut ad ea post intervallum velut nova 
atque aliena redeamus, ne nobis scripta nostra 
tamquam recentes fetus blandiantur. Sed neque 3 
hoc contingere semper potest praesertim oratori, 
cui saepius scribere ad praesentis usus necesse 
est ; et emendatio ipsa finem habeat. Sunt enim 
qui ad omnia scripta tamquam vitiosa redeant et, 
quasi nihil fas sit rectum esse quod primum est, 
melius existiment quidquid est aliud, idque faci- 
ant, quotiens librum in manus resumpserunt, 
similes medicis etiam Integra secantibus. Acci- 
dit itaque, ut cicatricosa sint et exsanguia> et cura 
peiora. Sit ergo aliquando quod placeat aut4 
certe quod sufficiat, ut opus poliat lima, non ex- 
terat. Temporis quoque esse debet modus. Nam 
quod Cinnae Smyrnam novem annis accepimus 
scriptam, et Panegyricum Isocratis, qui parcissi- 
me, decem annis dicunt elaboratum, ad oratorem 
nihil pertinet, cuius nullum erit, si tam tardum 
fuerit, auxilium. 

70 INST. ORATOR. X, 5, 1-4. 


Vc Proximum est, ut dicamus, qnae prae- 
cipue scribenda sint. Non est huius qui- 
dem operis, ut explicemus, quae sint materiae ; 
quae prima aut secunda aut deinceps tractanda 
sint ; nam id factum est etiam primo libro, quo 
puerorum, et secundo, quo robustorum studiis 
ordinem dedimus ; sed, de quo nunc agitur, unde 
copia ac f acilitas maxime veniat. 

2 Vertere Graeca in Latinum veteres 
nostri oratores optimum iudicabant. Id se L. 
Crassus in illis Ciceronis de Oratore libris dicit 
factitasse; id Cicero sua ipse persona frequen- 
tissime praecipit, quin etiam libros Platonis at- 
que Xenophontis edidit hoc genere translates ; id 
Messalae placuit, multaeque sunt ab eo scriptae 
ad liunc modum orationes, adeo ut etiam cum ilia 
Hyperidis pro Phryne difficillima Romanis sub- 

Stilitate contenderet. Et manifesta est exercita- 
tionis liuiusce ratio. Nam et rerum copia Graeci 
auctores abundant et plurimum artis in eloquen- 
tiam intulerunt, et bos transferentibus verbis uti 
optimis licet ; omnibus enim utimur nostris. 
Figuras vero, quibus maxime ornatur oratio, 
multas s^ varias excogitandi etiam necessitas 
quaedam est, quia plerumque a Graecis Romana 
dissentiunt. ' 

4 Sed et ilia ex Latinis conversio multum 
et ipsa contulerit. Ac de carminibus quidem 

INST. ORATOR. X, 5, 5-8. 71 

neminem credo dubitare, quo solo genere exerci- 
tationis dicitur usus esse Sulpicius. Nam et sub- 
limis spiritus attollere orationem potest, et verba 
poetica libertate audaciora non praesumunt ea- 
dem proprie dicendi facultatem. Sed et ipsis 
sententiis adicere licet oratorium robur et omissa 
supplere, effusa substringere. Neque ego para- 5 
phrasim esse interpretationem tantum volo, sed 
circa eosdem sensus certamen atque aemulatio- 
nem. Ideoque ab illis dissentio, qui vertere 
orationes Latinas vetant, quia optimis occupatis, 
quidquid aliter dixerimus, necesse sit esse deteri- 
us. Nam neque semper est desperandum, aliquid 
illis, quae dicta sunt, melius posse reperiri, neque 
adeo ieiunam ac pauperem natura eloquentiam 
fecit, ut una de re bene dici nisi semel non possit. 
Nisi forte histrionum multa circa voces easdem6 
variare gestus potest, orandi minor vis, ut dicatur 
aliquid, post quod in eadem materia nibil dicen- 
dum sit. Sed esto, neque melius quod invenimus 
esse neque par, est certe proximis locus. An vero 7 
ipsi non bis ac saepius de eadem re dicimus et 
quidem continuas nonnumquam sententias ? Nisi 
forte contendere nobiscum possumus, cum aliis 
non possumus. Nam si uno genere bene dicere- 
tur, fas erat existimari praeclusam nobis a priori- 
bus viam; nunc vero innumerabiles sunt modi 
plurimaeque eodem viae ducunt. Sua brevitatiS 
gratia, sua copiae ; alia translatis virtus, alia pro- 
priis ; hoc oratio recta, illud figura declinata 
commendat. Ipsa denique utilissinaa est exerci- 
tationi difficultas. Quid, quod auctores maximi 
sic diligentius cognoscuntur ? Non enim scripta 

72 INST. ORATOR. X, 5, 9-13. 

lectione secura transcurrimus, sed tractamns 
singula et necessario introspicimiis et^ quantum 
virtutis liabeant, vel lioc ipso cognoscimus^ quod 
imitari non possunius. 

9 ISTec aliena tantum transferre, sed etiana nostra 
pluribus modis tractare proderit : ut ex industria 
sumamus sententias quasdam easque versemus 
quam numerosissime, velut eadem cera aliae 

lOaliaeque formae duci solent. Plurimum autem 
parari f acultatis existimo ex simplicissima quaque 
materia. Nam ilia multiplici personarum, causa- 
rum, temporum, locorum, dictorum, factorum di- 
versitate facile delitescet infirmitas, tot se undi- 
que rebus, ex quibus aliqimm apprehendas, 

11 offerentibus. Illud virtutis indicium est, fundere 
quae natura contracta sunt, augere parva, varie- 
tatem similibus, voluptatem expositis dare, et- 
bene dicere multa de panels. 

In hoc optime f acient infinitae quaestio- 
n e s, quas vocari t b e s i s diximus, quibus Cicero 

12 lam princeps in re publica exerceri solebat. His 
confinis est destructioet confirmatio sen- 
tentiarum. Nam cum sit sententia decretum 
quoddam atque praeceptum, quod de re^ idem de 
iudicio rei quaeri potest. Tum loci commu- 
nes, quos etiam scriptos ab oratoribus scimus. 
Nam qui baec recta tantum et in nullos flexus 
recedentia copiose tractaverit, utique in illis plu- 
res excursus recipientibus magis abundabit erit- 

iSque in omnis causas paratus. Omnes enim 
generalibus quaestionibus constant. Nam quid 
interest ^ Cornelius tribunus plebis, quod codicem 
legerit, reus sit,^ an quaeramus: * violeturne males- 

INST. ORATOR, X, 5, 14-17. 73 

tas, si magistratus rogationem suam populo ipse 
recitaverit ? ' ' Milo Clodium rectene occiderit/ 
veniat in indicium, an, ^ oporteatne insidiatorem 
interfici vel perniciosnm rei pnblicae civem, 
etiamsi non insidietur ? ' ' Cato Marciam hones- 
tene tradiderit Hortensio/ an, ^conveniatne res 
talis bono viro ? ' De personis indicatnr, sed de 
rebus contenditur. 

Declamationes vero, quales in scbolis rhe- 1^ 
torum dicuntur, si modo sunt ad veritatem ac- 
commodatae et orationibus similes, non tantum 
dum adolescit iuvenis sunt utilissimae, quia in- 
ventionem et dispositionem pariter exercent, sed 
etiam cum est consummatus ac iam in f oro clarus. 
Alitur enim at que enitescit velut pabulo laetiore 
facundia et assidua contentionum asperitate fa- 
tigata renovatur. Quapropter historiae non- 15 
numquam ubertas in aliqua exercendi stili parte 
ponenda et dialogorum libertate gestiendum. 
Ne carmine quidem ludere contrarium fuerit; 
sicut athletae, remissa quibusdam temporibus 
ciborum atque exercitationum certa necessitate, 
otio et iucundioribus epulis reficiuntur. Ideoque 16 
miM videtur M. TuUius tantum intulisse elo- 
quentiae lumen, quod in bos quoque studiorum 
secessus excurrit. l^am si nobis sola materia 
fuerit ex litibus, necesse est deteratur fulgor et 
durescat articulus et ipse ille mucro ingenii coti- 
diana pugna retundatur. 

Sed quemadmodum forensibus certaminibus 17 
exercitatos et quasi militantis reficit ac reparat 
baec velut sagina dicendi, sic adulescentes non 
debent nimium in falsa rerum imagine detineri et 

74 INST. ORATOR. X, 5, 18-21. 

inanibns se sinmlacris usque adeo, ut difficilis ab 
his digressus sit, adsuefacere, ne ab ilia, in qua 
prope consenuerunt, urabra vera discrimina velut 

18 quendam solem ref ormident. Quod accidisse eti- 
am Porcio Latroni, qui primus clari nominis pro- 
fessor fuit, traditur, ut, cum ei summam in scbo- 
lis opinionem obtinenti causa in f oro esset oranda, 
impense petierit, uti subsellia in basilicam trans- 
ferrentur. Ita illi caelum novum fuit, ut omnis 
eius eloquentia contineri tecto ac parietibus vide- 

19retur. Quare iuvenis, qui rationem inveniendi 
eloquendique a praeceptoribus diligenter accepe- 
rit (quod non est infiniti operis, si docere sciant et 
velint), exercitationem quoque modicam fuerit 
consecutus, oratorem sibi aliquem, quod apud 
maiores fieri solebat, deligat, quem sequatur, 
quem imitetur ; iudiciis intersit quam plurimis 
et sit certaminis, cui destinatur, frequens specta- 

20 tor. Tum causas vel easdem, quas agi audierit, 
stilo et ipse componat, vel etiam alias, veras mo- 
do, et utrimque tractet, et, quod in gladiatoribus 
fieri videmus, decretoriis exerceatur, ut fecisse 
Brutum diximus pro Milone. Melius hoc quam 
rescribere veteribus orationibus, ut fecit Cestius 
contra Ciceronis actionem habitam pro eodem, 
cum alteram partem satis nosse non posset ex sola 

21 Citius autem idoneus erit iuvenis, quem prae- 
ceptor coegerit in declamando quam simillimum 
esse veritati et per totas ire materias, quarum 
nunc f acillima aut maxime f avorabilia decerpunt. 
Obstant huic, quod secundo loco posui, fere turba 
discipulorum et consuetudo classium certis diebus 

INST. ORATOR. X, 5, 23, 23; 6, 1. 75 

audiendarum, nonniMl etiam persuasio patrum 
numerantium potius declamationes quam aesti- 
mantiiiin. Sed, quod dixi primo, ut arbitror, 22 
libro, nee ille se bonus praeceptor maiore numero 
quam sustinere possit onerabit, et inanem lo- 
quacitatem recidet, ut omnia quae sunt in contro- 
versial non, ut quidem volunt, quae in rerum 
natura, dicantur; et vel longiore potius dierum 
spatio laxabit dicendi necessitatem vel materias 
dividere permittet. Una enim diligenter effecta 33 
plus proderit quam plures inclioatae et quasi 
degustatae. Propter quod accidit, ut nee suo loeo 
quidque ponatur, nee ilia quae prima sunt servent 
suam legem, iuvenibus floseulos omnium partium 
in ea quae sunt dieturi eongerentibus ; quo fit, ut 
timentes, ne sequentia perdant, priora confun- 


YI. Proxima stilo eogitatio est, quae et 
ipsa vires ab hoc accipit, estque inter scribendi 
laborem extemporalemque fortunam media quae- 
dam et nescio an usus frequentissimi. Nam scri- 
bere non ubique nee semper possumus, eogitationi 
temporis ac loei plurimum est. Haec paucis ad- 
modum lioris magnas etiam causas eomplectitur, 
haee, quotiens intermissus est somnus, ipsis noe- 
tis tenebris adiuvatur, haee inter medios rerum 
actus aliquid invenit vacui nee otium patitur. 

76 INST. ORATOR. X, 6, 2-6. 

2Neque vero rerum ordinem modo, qncwi ipsuni 
satis erat, intra se ipsa disponit, sed verba etiam 
copulat totamqne ita contexit orationem, ut ei 
nihil praeter manum desit ; nam memoriae quo-. 
que plerumque inhaerent fidelius, quae nulls 
scribendi securitate laxantur. 

Sed ne ad hanc quidem vim cogitandi perve^ 

3niri potest aut subito aut cito. Nam primum 
facienda multo stilo forma est, quae nos etiam 
cogitantis sequatur ; turn, adsumendus usus pau- 
latim, ut pauca primum complectamur animo, 
quae reddi fideliter possint ; mox per incrementa 
tam modica, ut onerari se labor ille non sentiat, 
augenda vis et exercitatione multa continenda 
est, quae quidem maxima ex parte memoria con- 
stat ; ideoque aliqua mihi in ilium locum diffe- 

4renda sunt. Eo tamen pervenit, ut is, cui non 
refragetur ingenium, acri studio adiutus tantum 
consequatur, ut ei tam quae cogitarit quam quae 
scripserit atque edidicerit in dicendo tidem ser- 
vent. Cicero certe Graecorum Metrodorum Scep- 
sium et Empylum Rhodium nostrorumque Hor- 
tensium tradidit, quae cogitaverant, ad verbum 
in agendo rettulisse. 

5 Sed si forte aliquis inter dicendum offulserit 
extemporalis color, non superstitiose cogitatis de- est inhaerendum. Neque enim tantum ha- 
bent curae, ut non sit dandus et fortunae locus, 
cum saepe etiam scriptis ea quae subito nata sunt 
inserantur. Ideoque totum hoc exercitationis 
genus ita instituendum est, ut et digredi ex eo et 

^regredi in id facile possimus. N'am ut primum 
est domo adferre paratam dicendi copiam et cer- 

INST. ORATOR. X, 6, 7; 7, 1, 2. 77 

tarn, ita refutare temporis munera longe stultissi- 
mum est. Quare cogitatio in hoc praeparetur, ut 
nos fortuna decipere non possit, adiuvare possit. 
Id autem fiet memoriae viribus, ut ilia, quae com- 
plexi animo sumus, fluant secura ; non sollicitos 
et respicientes et una spe suspensos recordationis 
non sinant providere. Alioqui vel extemporalem 
temeritatem malo quam male cohaerentem cogi- 
tationem. Peius enim quaeritur retrorsus, quia, 7 
dum ilia desideramus, ab aliis avertimur, et ex 
memoria potius res petimus quam ex materia. 
Plura sunt autem, si utrumque quaerendum est, 
quae inveniri possunt quam quae inventa sunt. 

CAPUT vn. 


VII. Maximus vero studiorum fructus est et 
velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi 
laboris extempore dicendi facultas, quam 
qui non erit consecutus, mea quidem sententia, 
civilibus officiis renuntiabit et solam scribendi 
facultatem potius ad alia opera convertet. Vix 
enim bonae fidei viro convenit auxilium in publi- 
cum polliceri, quod praesentissimis quibusque 
periculis desit ; intrare portum ad quem navis 
accedere nonnisi lenibus ventis vecta possit ; si- 3 
quidem innumerabiles accidunt subitae necessi- 

78 INST. ORATOR. X, 1, 3-6. 

tates vel apud magistratus vel repraesentatis 
iudiciis continiio agendi. Qnarnm si qua, non 
dico cuicumque innocentium civium, sed amico- 
rum ac propinquorum. alicui evenerit, stabitne 
mutus et salut arena petentibiis vocem statimque, 
si non succurratur, perituris moras et secessum 
et silentium qnaeret, dnm ilia verba fabricentur 
et memoriae insidant et vox ac latus praeparetur ? 

3 Quae vero patitur hoc oratio, nt quisquam pos- 
sit orator omittere casus ? Quid, cum adversa- 
rio respondendum erit, fiet ? Nam saepe ea, quae 
opinati sumus, et contra quae scripsimus, f allunt, 
ac tota subito causa mutatur ; atque ut guberna- 
tori ad incursus tempestatum, sic agenti ad varie- 

4 tat em causarum ratio mutanda est. Quid porro 
multus stilus et adsidua lectio et longa studiorum 
aetas facit, si manet eadem quae fuit incipienti- 
bus difficultas ? Periisse profecto confitendum 
est praeteritum laborem, cui semper idem labo- 
randum est. Neque ego hoc ago, ut ex tempore 
dicere malit, sed ut possit. Id autem maxime 
hoc modo consequemurc 

5 Nota sit primum dicendi via ; neque enim 
prius contingere cursus potest quam scierimus, 
quo sit et qua perveniendum. Nee satis est non 
ignorare quae sint causarum iudicialium partes, 
aut quaestionum ordinem recte disponere, quam- 
quam ista sint praecipua ; sed quid quoque loco 
primum sit ac secundum et deinceps ; quae ita 
sunt natura copulata, ut mutari aut intervelli 

6 sine confusione non possint. Quisquis autem via 
dicet, ducetur ante omnia rerum ipsa serie velut 

INST. ORATOR. X, 7, 7-10. Yd 

duce ; propter quod liomines etiam modice exer- 
citati facillime tenorem in narrationibus servant. 
Deinde, quid qnoque loco qnaerant, scient, nee 
circnmspectabunt nee offerentibus se aliunde 
sensibus turbabuntur nee eonf undent ex diversis 
orationem velut salientes hue illue nee usquam 
insistentes. Postremo habebunt modum et finem, 7 
qui esse eitra divisionem nullus potest. Expletis 
pro facultate omnibus, quae proposuerint, per- 
venisse se ad ultimum sentient. 

Et baec quidem ex arte, ilia vero ex studio : 
ut eopiam sermonis optimi, quemadmodum prae- 
eeptuni est eomparemus ; multo ae fideli stilo sie 
formetur oratio, ut scriptorum eolorem etiam 
quae subito effusa sint reddant; ut, eum multa 
scripserimus, etiam multa dicamus. Nam con- 8 
suetudo et exercitatio f acilitatem maxime parit ; 
quae si paululum intermissa fuerit, non velocitas 
ilia modo tardatur, sed ipsum os quoque coneur- 
rit. Quamquam enim opus est naturali quadam 
mobilitate animi, ut, dum proxima dicimus, stru- 
ere ulteriora possimus, semperque nostram vocem 
pro visa et f ormata cogitatio excipiat, vix tamen 9 
aut natura aut ratio in tam multiplex officium 
diducere animum queat, ut inventioni, disposi- 
tioni, elocutioni, ordini rerum verborumque, tum 
iis, quae dicit, quae subiuncturus est, quae ultra 
spectanda sunt, adhibita vocis, pronuntiationis, 
gestus observatione, simul sufficiat. Longe enim 10 
praecedat oportet intentio ae prae se res agat, 
quantumque dicendo consumitur, tantum ex ulti- 
mo prorogetur, ut, donee perveniamus ad finem. 

80 INST. ORATOR. X, 7, 11-15. 

non minus prospectii procedamus quam gradu, si 
non intersistentes offensantesque brevia ilia at- 
qne concisa singnltantium modo eiecturi sumus. 

11 Est igitur iisus quidam inrationalis, quern 
Graeci aXoyov Tpi/Srjv vocant, qua manus in scri- 
bendo decurrit, qua oculi totos simul in lectione 
versus flexusque eorum et transitus intuentur, et 
ante sequentia vident quam priora dixerunt. 
Quo constant miracula ilia in scaenis pilariorum 
ac ventilatorum, ut ea quae emiserint ultro ve- 
nire in manus credas et qua iubentur decurrere. 

12 Sed bic usus ita proderit, si ea de qua locuti su- 
mus ars antecesserit, ut ipsum illud, quod in se 
rationem non habet, in ratione versetur. Nam 
mibi ne dicere quidem videtur nisi qui disposite, 

13 ornate, copiose dicit,- sed tumultuari. Nee f ortu- 
iti sermonis contextum mirabor umquam, quem 
iurgantibus etiam mulierculis superfluere video ; 
cum eo quod, si calor ac spiritus tulit, frequenter 
accidit, ut successum extemporalem consequi 

14cura non possit. Deum tunc adfuisse, cum id 
evenisset, veteres oratores, ut Cicero dicit, dicti- 
tabant. Sed ratio manifesta est. Nam bene con- 
cepti adfectus et recentes rerum imagines con- 
tinuo impetu feruntur, quae nonnumquam mora 
stili refrigescunt et dilatae non revertuntur. 
Utique vero, cum infelix ilia verborum cavillatio 
accessit et cursus ad singula vestigia restitit, non 
potest ferri contorta vis, sed, ut optime vocum 
singularum cedat electio, non continua, sed com- 
posita est. 

15 Quare capiendae sunt illae, de quibus dixi, re- 
rum imagines, quas vocari c^avrao-tas indicavi= 

INST. ORATOR. X, 7, 16-19. 81 

mus, omniaque, de quibus dicturi erimus, per- 
sonae, quaestiones, spes, metus habenda in oculis, 
in adfectus recipienda ; pectus est enim, quod 
disertos facit, et vis mentis. Ideoque imperitis 
quoque, si modo sint aliquo adfectu concitati, 
verba non desunt. Turn intendendus animus, 16 
non in aliquam rem unam, sed in plures simul 
continuas ; ut, si per aliquam rectam viam mitta- 
mus oculos, simul omnia quae sunt in ea circaque 
intuemur, non ultimum tantum videmus, sed us- 
que ad ultimum. Addit ad dicendum etiam pu- 
dor stimulos, mirumque videri potest, quod, cum 
stilus secreto gaudeat atque omnis arbitros re- 
formidet, extemporalis actio auditorum frequen- 
tia, ut miles congestu signorum, excitatur. Nam- 17 
que et difficiliorem cogitationem exprimit et 
expellit dicendi necessitas, et secundos impetus 
auget placendi cupido. Adeo pretium omnia 
spectant, ut eloquentia quoque, quamquam pluri- 
mum habeat in se voluptatis, maxime tamen 
praesenti fructu laudis opinionisque ducatur. 

Nee quisquam tantum fidat ingenio, ut id sibi 18 
speret incipienti statim posse contingere ; sed, 
sicut in cogitatione praecipimus, ita facilitatem 
quoque extemporalem a parvis initiis paulatim 
perducemus ad summam, quae neque perfici ne- 
que contineri nisi usu potest. Ceterum pervenire 19 
eo debet, ut cogitatio non utique melior sit ea, sed 
tutior ; cum banc facilitatem non in prosa modo 
multi sint consecuti, sed etiam in carmine, ut 
Antipater Sidonius et Licinius Archias ; creden- 
dum enim Ciceroni est ; non quia nostris quoque 
temporibus non et fecerint quidam hoc et faciant. 

82 INSl. ORATOR. X, 7, 20-24 

Quod tamen non ipsum tain probabile puto, (ne- 
que enim habet aut usum res aut necessitatem) 
quam exhort andis in banc spem, qui foro prae- 

20 parantur, utile exemplum. Neque vero tanta sit 
umquam fiducia facilitatis, ut non breve saltern 
tempus, quod nusquam fere deerit, ad ea quae 
dicturi sumus dispicienda sumamus : quod in 
iudiciis ac foro datur semper ; neque enim quis- 
quam est, qui causam quam non didicerit agat. 

21 Declamatores quosdam perversa ducit ambitio, 
ut, exposita controversia, protinus dicere velint, 
quin etiam, quod est in primis frivolum ac scaeni- 
cum, verbum petant, quo incipiant. Sed tam 
contumeliosos in se ridet invicem eloquentia, et 
qui stultis videri eruditi volunt, stulti eruditis 

22 iudicantur. Si qua tamen f ortuna tam subitam 
fecerit agendi necessitatem, mobiliore quodam 
opus erit ingenio, et vis omnis intendenda rebus, 
et in praesentia remittendum aliquid ex cura ver- 
borum, si consequi utrumque non dabitur. Tum 
et tardior pronuntiatio moras habet et suspensa 
ac velut dubitans oratio, ut tamen deliberare, non 

23 haesitare videamur. Hoc, dum egredimur e por- 
tu, si nos, nondum aptatis satis armamentis, aget 
ventus ; deinde paulatim simul euntes aptabi- 
mus vela et disponemus rudentes et impleri sinus 
optabimus. Id potius, quam se inani verborum 
torrenti dare quasi tempestatibus, quo volent, 

24 Sed non minore studio continetur haec facul- 
tas quam paratur ; ars enim semel percepta non 
labitur, stilus quoque intermissione paululum 
admodum de celeritate deperdit ; promptum hoc 

INST. ORATOR, X, 7 , 25-28. 83 

et in expedite positura exercitatione sola conti- 
netur. Hac uti sic optimum est, ut cotidie dica- 
mus audientibus pluribus, maxime de quorum, 
simus iudicio atque opinione soUiciti ; rarum est 
enim, ut satis se quisque vereatur. Vel soli ta- 
men dicamus potius quam. omnino non dicamus. 
Est et ilia exercitatio cogitandi totasque m.aterias 25 
vel silentio (dum tamen quasi dicat intra se ip- 
sum) persequendi, quae nuUo non et tempore et 
loco, quando non aliud agimus, explicari potest, 
et est in parte utilior quam haec proxima ; dili- 26 
gentius enim componitur quam ilia, in qua con- 
textum dicendi intermittere veremur. Rursus in 
alia plus prior confert, vocis firmitatem, oris 
facilitatem, motum corporis, qui et ipse, ut dixi, 
excitat oratorem et iactatione manus, pedis sup- 
plosione, sicut cauda leones facere dicuntur, hor- 
tatur. Studendum vero semper et ubique. Ne- 27 
que enim fere tam est ullus dies occupatus, ut 
nihil lucrativae, ut Cicero Brutum facere tradit, 
operae ad scribendum aut legendum aut dicen- 
dum rapi aliquo momento temporis possit ; siqui- 
dem C. Carbo etiam in tabernaculo solebat hac 
uti exercitatione dicendi. Ne id quidem tacen-28 
dum est, quod eidem Ciceroni placet, nullum 
nostrum usquam neglegentem esse sermonem; 
quidquid loquemur ubicumque, sit pro sua scili- 
cet portione perfectum. Scribendum certe num- 
quam est magis, quam cum multa dicemus ex 
tempore. Ita enim servabitur pondus, et innatans 
ilia verborum f acilitas in altum reducetur ; sicut 
rustici proximas vitis radices amputant, quae 
illam in summum solum ducunt, ut inferiores 

84: INST. ORATOR. X, 7, 29-32. 

29 penitus descendendo firmentur. Ac nescio an, si 
Titrumque cum cura et studio fecerimus, invicem 
prosit, ut scribendo dicamus diligentius, dicendo 
scribamus facilius. Scribendum ergo, quotiens 
licebit ; si id non dabitur, cogitandum ; ab utro- 
que exclusi debent tamen id efficere, ut neque 
deprensus orator neque litigator destitutus esse 

30 Plerumque autem multa agentibus accidit, ut 
maxime necessaria et utique initia scribant, cetera 
quae domo adferunt cogitatione complectantur, 
subitis ex tempore occurrant ; quod f ecisse M. 
Tullium commentariis ipsius apparet. Sed ferun- 
tur aliorum quoque et inventi forte, ut eos dictu- 
rus quisque composuerat, et in libros digesti, ut 
causarum, quae sunt actae a Servio Sulpicio, cuius 
tres orationes extant; sed hi de quibus loquor 
commentarii ita sunt exacti, ut ab ipso mihi in 
memoriam posteritatis videantur esse compositi. 

31 Nam Ciceronis ad praesens modo tempus aptatos 
libertus Tiro contraxit; quos non ideo excuso, 
quia non probem^ sed ut sint magis admirabiles. 
In hoc genere prorsus recipio hanc brevem adno- 
tationem libellosque, qui vel manu teneantur, et 

32 ad quos interim respicere fas sit. Illud quod 
Laenas praecipit displicet mihi, vel in his quae 
scripserimus summas in commentarium et capita 
conferre. Facit enim ediscendi neglegentiam 
haec ipsa fiducia et lacerat ac deformat oratio- 
nem. Ego autem ne scribendum quidem puto, 
quod non simus memoria persecuturi. Nam id 
quoque accidit, ut revocet nos cogitatio ad ilia 
elaborata nee sinat praesentem f ortunam experiri. 

INST. ORATOR. X, 7, 33. 85 

Sic anceps inter utrumque animus aestuat, cum 33 
et scripta perdidit et non quaerit nova. Sed de 
memoria destinatus est libro proximo locus nee 
huic parti subiungendus, quia sunt alia prius no- 
bis dicenda. 






Ventum est ad partem operis destinati longe 
gravissimam. Cuius equidem onus si tantum 
opinione prima concipere potuissem, quanto me 
premi fereiis sentio, maturius consuluissem vires 
meas. Sed initio pudor omittendi, quae promise- 
ram, tenuit ; mox, quamquam per singulas prope 

partis labor cresceret, ne perderem, quae iam 
effecta erant, per omnis difficultates animo me 
2sustentavi. Quare nunc quoque, licet maior 
quam umquam moles premat, tamen prospicienti 
finem mihi constitutum est vel deficere potius 
quam desperare. Fefellit autem, quod initium a 
parvis ceperamus; mox velut aura solicitante 
provecti longius, dum tamen nota ilia et pleris- 
que artium scriptoribus tractata praecipimus, 
nee adliuc a litore procul videbamur et multos 
circa velut iisdem se ventis credere ausos habe- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 3,4; 1,1. 87 

banlus. lam cum eloquendi rationem. novissim.e 3 
repertam paucissimisque temptatam ingressi su- 
mus, rarus qui tam procul a portu recessisset, 
reperiebatur. Postquam. vero nobis ille, quem 
instituebamus, orator a dicendi magistris dimis- 
sus aut suo iam impetu fertur, aut maiora sibi 
auxilia ex ipsis sapientiae penetralibus petit, 
quam in altum simus ablati, sentire coepimus. 
Nunc caelum undique et undique pon-4 
tus. Unum modo in ilia inimensa vastitate 
cernere videmur M. Tullium, qui tamen ipse, 
quam vis tanta atque ita instructa nave hoc mare 
ingressus, contraliit vela inhibetque remos et de 
ipso demum genere dicendi, quo sit usurus per- 
fectus orator, satis habet dicere. At nostra te- 
meritas etiam mores ei conabitur dare et adsigna- 
bit officia. Ita nee antecedentem consequi possu- 
mus, et longius eundum est, ut res feret. Proba- 
bilis tamen cupiditas honestorum et velut tutio- 
ris audentiae est temptare, quibus paratior venia 



I. Sit ergo nobis orator, quem constituimus, 
is, qui a M. Catone finitur, vir bonus dicendi 
p e r i t u s ; verum, id quod et ille posuit prius, et 
ipsa natura potius ac mains est, utique vir bo- 
nus: id non eo tan tum^ quod, si vis ilia dicendi 
malitiam instruxerit, nihil sit publicis privatis- 

88 INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 2-5. 

que rebus perniciosius eloquentia^ nosque ipsi, 
qui pro virili parte conferre aliquid ad facultatem 
dicendi conati sumus, pessime mereamur de rebus 
humanis, si latroni comparamus haec arma^ non 

2 militi. Quid de nobis loquor ? Rerum ipsa na- 
tura in eo, quod praecipue indulsisse homini vide- 
tur, quoque nos a ceteris animalibus separasse, 
non parens, sed noverca fuerit, si facultatem di- 
cendi, sociam scelerum, adversam innocentiae, 
bostem veritatis invenit. Mutos enim nasci et 
egere omni ratione satius fuisset, quam provi- 
dentiae munera in mutuam perniciem convertere. 

3 Longius tendit hoc iudicium meum ; neque 
enim tantum id dico, eum, qui sit orator, virum 
bonum esse oportere, sed ne futurum quidem ora- 
torem nisi virum bonum. Nam certe neque in- 
tellegentiam concesseris iis, qui, proposita bones- 
torum ac turpium via, peiorem sequi malent, ne- 
que prudentiam ; cum in gravissimas frequenter 
legum, semper vero malae conscientiae poenas a 
semet ipsis improviso rerum exitu induantur. 

4Quodsi neminem malum esse nisi stultum eun- 
dem, non modo sapientibus dicitur, sed vulgo 
quoque semper est creditum, certe non fiet um- 
quam stultus orator. Adde quod ne studio qui- 
dem operis pulcherrimi vacare mens, nisi omni- 
bus vitiis libera, potest : primum quod in eodem 
pectore nullum est bonestorum turpiumque con- 
sortium, et cogitare optima simul ac deterrima 
non magis est unius animi, quam eiusdem bomi- 

5 nis bonum esse ac malum ; tum ilia quoque ex 
causa, quod mentem tantae rei intentam vacare 
omnibus aliis etiam culpa carentibus curis opor- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 0-9. 89 

tet. Ita demum enim libera ac tota, nulla dis- 
tringente atque alio ducente causa, spectabit id so- 
lum, ad quod accingitur. Quodsi agrorum nimia 6 
cura et sollicitior rei familiaris diligentia et ve- 
nandi voluptas et dati spectaculis dies multum 
studiis auferunt (huic enim rei perit tempus, 
quodcumque alteri datur), quid putamus facturas 
cupiditatem, avaritiam, invidiam, quarum impo- 
tentissimae cogitationes somnos etiam ipsos et 
ilia per quietem visa perturbant ? Nihil est enim 7 
tam occupatum, tam multiforme, tot ac tam 
variis adfectibus concisum atque laceratum quam 
mala mens. Nam et cum insidiatur, spe, curis, 
labore distringitur, et etiam cum sceleris compos 
f uit, sollicitudine, paenitentia, poenarum omnium 
expectatione torquetur. Quis inter liaec litteris 
aut ulli bonae arti locus ? Non bercule magis 
quam frugibus in terra sentibus ac rubis occu- 

Age, non ad perferendos studiorum laboresS 
necessaria frugalitas ? Quid igitur ex libidine ac 
luxuria spei ? Non praecipue acuit ad cupidita- 
tem litterarum amor laudis ? Num igitur malis 
esse laudem curae putamus ? lam hoc quis non 
videt, maximam partem orationis in tractatu 
aequi bonique consistere ? Dicetne de his secun- 
dum debitam rerum dignitatem mains atque in- 

Denique, ut maximam partem quaestionis exi- 9 
mam, demus, id quod nullo modo fieri potest, 
idem ingenii, studii, doctrinae, pessimo atque op- 
timo viro : uter melior dicetur orator ? Nimirum 
qui homo quoque melior. Non igitur umquam 

90 INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 10-15. 

10 mains idem homo et perf ectus orator. Non enim 
perfectura est quidquam, quo melius est aliud. 
Sed, ne more Socraticorum. nobismet ipsi respon- 
sum finxisse videamur, sit aliquis adeo contra 
veritatem obstinatus, ut audeat dicere, eodem in- 
genio, studio, doctrina praeditum. niliilo deterio- 
rem futurum. oratorem malum virum quam 
bonum : convincamus liuius quoque amentiam. 

11 Nam hoc certe nemo dubitabit, omnem oratio- 
nem id agere, ut iudici, quae proposita fuerint, 
vera et honesta videantur. Utrum igitur hoc 
facilius bonus vir persuadebit an mains ? Bo- 
nus quidem et dicet saepius vera atque honesta. 

12 Sed etiam si quando aliquo ductus officio (quod 
accidere, ut mox docebimus, potest) f also haec ad- 
firmare conabitur, maiore cum fide necesse est 
audiatur. At malis hominibus ex contemptu 
opinionis et ignorantia recti nonnumquam exci- 
dit ipsa simulatio ; inde immodeste proponunt, 

13 sine pudore adfirmant. Sequitur in iis, quae cer- 
tum est effici non posse, deformis pertinacia et 
irritus labor ; nam sicut in vita, in causis quoque, 
spes improbas habent. Frequenter autem accidit, 
ut iis etiam vera dicentibus fides desit, videatur- 
que talis advocatus malae causae argumentum. 

14 Nunc de iis dicendum est, quae mihi quasi 
conspiratione quadam vulgi reclamari videntur. 
Orator ergo Demosthenes non fuit ? atqui malum 
virum accepimus. Non Cicero ? atqui huius quo- 
que mores multi reprehenderunt. Quid agam ? 
magna responsi invidia subeunda est, mitigandae 

15 sunt prius aures. Mihi enim nee Demosthenes 
tarn gravi morum dignus videtur invidia, ut om- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 16-20. 91 

nia, quae in emn a"b inimicis congesta sunt, cre- 
dam, cum et pulclierrinia eius in re publica con- 
silia et fineni \4tae clarum legam ; nee Marco 16 
Tullio defuisse video in ulla parte civis optimi 
voluntatem. Testimonio est actus nobilissime 
consulatus, integerrinie pro^T.ncia adniinistrata 
et repudiatus vigintiviratus, et civilibus bellis, 
quae in aetatem eius gravissima inciderunt, ne- 
que spe neque metu declinatus animus, quo 
minus optimis se partibus, id est rei publicae, 
iungeret. Parum fortis videtur quibusdam, qui- 17 
bus optime respondit ipse, n on se timidum in 
suscipiendis, sed in providendis peri- 
c u 1 i s ; quod probavit morte quoque ipsa, quam 
praestantissimo suscepit animo. Quodsi defuitlS 
his viris summa partus, sic quaerentibus, an ora- 
tores fuerint, respondebo, quomodo Stoici, si inter- 
rogentur, an sapiens Zeno, an Cleantlies, an 
Clirysippus, respondeant : magnos quidem il- 
los ac venerabiles, non tamen id, quod 
natura bominis summum habet, con- 
secutos. !N"am et Pytbagoras non sapientem se, 19 
ut qui ante eum fuerunt, sed studiosum sapientiae 
Yocari voluit. Ego tamen secundum communem 
loquendi consuetudinem saepe dixi dicamque, 
perfectum oratorem esse Ciceronem, ut amicos et 
bonos viros et prudentissimos dicimus vulgo, 
quorum nihil nisi perfecte sapienti datur. Sed 
cum proprie et ad legem ipsam veritatis loquen- 
dum erit, eum quaeram oratorem, quem et ille 
quaerebat. Quam quam enim stetisse ipsum in 20 
fastigio fateor, ac \i.x, quid adici potuerit, in- 
venio, fortasse inventurus, quod adhuc abscisu- 

92 INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 21-24. 

rum putem fuisse (nara fere sic docti iudicave- 
runt, plurimum in eo virtutum, nonnihil fuisse 
vitiorum, et ipse se multa ex iuvenili abundantia 
coercuisse testatur) : tamen, quando nee sapientis 
sibi nomen, mininie sui contemptor, adseruit et 
melius dicere, certe data longiore vita et tempore 
ad componendum securiore, potuisset^ non malig- 
ne crediderim defuisse ei sunimam illam, ad quam 

21 nemo propius accessit. Et licebat, si aliter senti- 
rem, fortius id liberiusque defendere. An vero 
M. Antonius neminem a se visum eloquentem, 
quod tanto minus erat, professus est ; ipse etiam 
M. Tullius quaerit adbuc eum, et tantum imagi- 
natur ac fingit : ego non audeam dicere, aliquid 
in hac, quae superest, aeternitate inveniri posse 

22 eo, quod f uerit, perf ectius ? Transeo illos, qui 
Ciceroni ac Demostheni ne in eloquentia quidem 
satis tribuunt; quamquam neque ipsi Ciceroni 
Demosthenes videatur satis esse perfectus, quem 
dormitare interim dicit, nee Cicero Bruto Calvo- 
que, qui certe compositionem illius etiam apud 
ipsum reprebendunt, nee Asinio utrique, qui vitia 
orationis eius etiam inimice pluribus locis inse- 

23 Concedamus sane, quod minime natura pati- 
tur, repertum esse aliquem malum virum summe 
disertum, niliilo tamen minus oratorem eum ne- 
gabo. Nee omnibus, qui fuerint manu prompti, 
viri fortis nomen concesserim, quia sine virtute 

24 intellegi non potest f ortitudo. An ei, qui ad de- 
fendendas causas advocatur, non est opus fide, 
quam neque cupiditas corrumpat nee gratia aver- 
tat nee metus frangat; sed proditorem, transfu- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 25-27. 93 

gam, praevaricatorem donabimus oratoris illo 
sacro nomine ? Quodsi mediocribus etiam patro- 
nis convenit baec, quae vulgo dicitur, bonitas, cur 
non orator ille, qui nondum fuit, sed potest esse, 
tam sit moribus quam dicendi virtute perfectus ? 
Non enim f orensem quandam instituimus operam 25 
nee mercenariam vocem neque ut asperioribus 
verbis parcamus, non inutilem sane litium advo- 
catum, quern denique causidicum vulgo vocant, 
sed virum cum ingenii natura praestantem, turn 
vero tot pulcherrimas artis penitus mente com- 
plexum, datum tandem rebus bumanis, qualem 
nulla antea vetustas cognoverit, singularem per- 
fectumque undique, optima sentientem optimeque 
dicentem. In hoc quota pars erit, quod aut inno- 26 
centis tuebitur aut improborum scelera compe- 
scet aut in pecuniariis quaestionibus veritati 
contra calumniam aderit ? Summus ille quidem 
in his quoque operibus fuerit, sed maioribus 
clarius elucebit, cum regenda senatus consilia 
et popularis error ad meliora ducendus. An non 27 
talem quendam videtur finxisse Vergilius, quem 
in seditione vulgi iam faces et saxa iaculantis 
moderatorem dedit : 

tum pietate gravem ac meritis si forte 

virum quem 
conspexere, silent arrectisque auribus 


Habemus igitur ante omnia virum bonum ; post 
haec adiecit dicendi peritum : 

ille regit dictis animos et pectora muL 

94 INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 28-32. 

28 Quid ? non in belli s quoque idem ille vir, qnem 
instituimus, si sit ad proelium miles cohortandus, 
ex mediis sapientiae praeceptis orationem trahet ? 
Nam. quom.odo pugnam ineuntibus tot simul 
metus laboris, dolorum, postrem.o mortis ipsius 
exciderint, nisi in eorum locum pietas et f ortitu- 

29 do et bonesti praesens imago successerit ? Quae 
certe melius persuadebit aliis, qui prius persuase- 
rit sibi. Prodit enim se, quamlibet custodiatur, 
simulatio, nee umquam tanta fuerit loquendi 
facultas, ut non titubet atque baereat, quotiens 
ab animo verba dissentiunt. Vir autem malus 

30 aliud dicat necesse est quam sentit. Bonos num- 
quam bonestus sermo deficiet, numquam rerum 
optimarum (nam iidem etiam prudentes erunt) 
inventio ; quae etiamsi lenociniis destituta sit, 
satis tamen natura sua ornatur, nee quidquam 

31 non diserte, quod honeste, dicitur. Quare, inven- 
tus, immo omnis aetas (neque enim rectae volun- 
tati serum est tempus ullum) totis mentibus buc 
tendamus, in boc elaboremus ; f orsan et consum- 
mare contingat. Nam si natura non probibet et 
esse virum bonum et esse dicendi peritum, cur 
non aliquis etiam unus utrumque consequi pos- 
sit ? cur autem non se quisque speret fore ilium 

32 aliquem ? Ad quod si vires ingenii non suff ece- 
rint, tamen ad quem usque modum processeri- 
mus, meliores erimus ex utroque. Hoc certe 
procul eximatur animo, rerum pulcberrimam 
eloquentiam cum vitiis mentis posse misceri. 
Facultas dicendi, si in malos incidit, et ipsa iudi- 
canda est malum ; peiores enim illos f acit, quibus 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 33-36. 95 

Yideor mihi audire quosdam (neque enim de- 33 
erunt umquam, qui diserti esse quam boni malint) 
ilia dicentis : quid ergo tantum est artis in elo- 
quentia ? cur tu de coloribus et difficilium causa- 
rum defensione, nonnihil etiam de confessione lo- 
cutus es, nisi aliquando vis ac facultas dicendi 
expugnat ipsam veritatem ? Bonus enim vir non 
agit nisi bonas causas, eas porro etiam sine 
doctrina satis per se tuetur Veritas ipsa. Quibus 34 
ego, cum de meo primum opere respondero, etiam 
pro boni viri officio, si quando eum ad defensio- 
nem nocentium ratio duxerit, satisfaciam. Per- 
tractare enim, quomodo aut pro falsis aut 
etiam pro iniustis aliquando dicatur, non est 
inutile, vel propter boc solum, ut ea facilius et 
deprebendamus et ref ellamus ; quemadmodum re- 
media melius adbibebit, cui nota, quae nocent, 
f uerint. Neque enim Academici, cum in utram- 35 
que disseruerunt partem, non secundum alteram 
vivunt, nee Carneades ille, qui Romae audiente 
Censorio Catone non minoribus viribus contra 
iustitiam dicitur disseruisse quam pridie pro 
iustitia dixerat, iniustus ipse vir fuit. Verum et 
virtus quid sit, adversa ei malitia detegit, et 
aequitas fit ex iniqui contemplatione manifestior, 
et plurima contrariis probantur. Debent ergo 
oratori sic esse adversariorum nota consilia ut 
bostium imperatori. 

Verum et illud, quod prima propositione du- 36 
rum videtur, potest adferre ratio, ut vir bonus in 
defensione causae velit auferre aliquando iudici 
veritatem. Quod si quis a me proponi mirabitur, 
(quamquam non est baec mea proprie sententia, 

96 INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 37-41, 

sed eorum, quos gravissimos sapientiae magistros 
aetas vetus credidit) sic iudicet: pleraque esse, 
quae non tarn factis quam causis eorum vel ho- 

37 nesta fiant vel turpia. Nam si hominem occidere 
saepe virtus, liberos necare nonnumquam pul- 
cherrimum est, asperiora quaedam adhuc dictu, 
si communis utilitas exegerit, facere conceditur : 
ne hoc quidem. nudum, est intuendum, qualem 
causam vir bonus, sed etiam quare, et qua mente 

38 def endat. Ac primum concedant mihi omnes 
oportet, quod Stoicorum quoque asperrimi con- 
fitentur, facturum aliquando virum bonum, ut 
mendacium dicat, et quidem nonnumquam levi- 
oribus causis : ut in pueris aegrotantibus utilita- 
tis eorum gratia multa fingimus, multa non 

39 f acturi promittimus ; nedum si ab homine occi- 
dendo grassator avertendus sit, aut hostis pro 
salute patriae fallendus ; ut hoc, quod alias in 
servis quoque reprehendendum est, sit alias in 
ipso sapiente laudandum. Id si constiterit, multa 
lam video posse evenire, propter quae orator bene 
suscipiat tale causae genus, quale remota ratione 

40 honesta non recepisset. Nee hoc dico (quia seve- 
riores sequi placet leges) pro patre, fratre, ami- 
co periclitantibus, tametsi non mediocris haesi- 
tatio est, hinc iustitiae proposita imagine, inde 
pietatis. Nihil dubii relinquamus. Sit aliquis 
insidiatus tyranno atque ob id reus: utrumne 
salvum eum nolet is, qui a nobis finitur, orator ? 
an, si tuendum susceperit, non tam falsis defen- 
det, quam qui apud indices malam causam tue- 

41 tur ? Quid si quaedam bene facta damnaturus 
est index, nisi ea non esse facta convicerimus, non 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 1, 42^5. 97 

vel hoc modo servabit orator non innocentem 
modo^ sed etiam laudabileni civero. ? Quid si 
quaedara iusta natura, sed condicione temporum 
inntilia civitati sciemns, nonne utemur arte di- 
cendij bona qiiidem, sed malis artibus simili ? 
Ad hoc nemo dubitabit^ quin, si nocentes mntari 42 
in bonam mentem aliquo modo possint, sicut 
posse interdiim conceditur, salvos esse eos magis 
e re publica sit quam puniri. Si liqneat igitur 
oratori, fiiturum bonum virum, cui vera obicien- 
tnr, non id aget, ut salvus sit ? Da nunc, ut 43 
crimine manifesto prematur dux bonus, et sine 
quo vincere hostem civitas non possit, nonne ei 
communis utilitas oratorem advocabit ? Certe 
Fabricius Cornelium Rufinum, et alioqui malum 
civem et sibi inimicum, tamen, quia utilem scie- 
bat ducem, imminente bello, palam consulem 
suffragio suo fecit atque id mirantibus quibus- 
dam respondit, a cive se spoliari malle quam ab 
hoste venire. Ita, hie si fuisset orator, non de- 
fendisset eundem Rufinum vel manifesti pecula- 
tus reum ? Multa dici possunt similia, sed vel 44 
unum ex iis quodlibet sufficit. Non enim hoc 
agimus, ut istud illi, quem formamus, viro saepe 
sit faciendum, sed ut, si talis coegerit ratio, sit 
tamen vera finitio, oratorem esse virum bonum 
dicendi peritum. Praecipere vero ac discere, 45 
quomodo etiam probatione difficilia tractentur, 
necessarium est. Nam frequenter etiam optimae 
causae similes sunt malis, et innocens reus multis 
veri similibus premitur ; quo fit, ut eadem actio- 
nis ratione defendendus sit, qua, si nocens esset. 

lam innumerabilia sunt bonis causis malisque 


98 INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 1-3. 

communia, testes, litterae, suspiciones, opiniones. 
Non aliter autem veri similia quam vera et con- 
firmantur et refelluntur. Quapropter, ut res 
feret, flectetur oratio, manente honesta voluntate. 




II. Quando igitur orator est vir bonus, is au- 
tem citra virtutem intellegi non potest, virtus, 
etiamsi quosdam impetus ex natura sumit, tamen 
perficienda doctrina est: mores ante omnia 
oratori studiis erunt excolendi, atque omnis ho- 
nesti iustique disciplina pertractanda, sine qua 
nemo nee vir bonus esse nee dicendi peritus 

2 potest. Nisi forte accedimus iis, qui natura con- 
stare mores et nibil adiuvari disciplina putant; 
scilicet ut ea, quae manu fiunt, atque eorum 
etiam contemptissima, confiteantur egere doctori- 
bus, virtutem vero, qua nihil bomini, quo ad deos 
immortales propius accederet, datum est, obviam 
et illaboratam, tantum quia nati simus, habea- 
mus. Abstinens erit, qui id ipsum, quid sit absti- 

3 nentia, ignoret ? et f ortis, qui metus doloris, 
mortis, superstitionis nulla ratione purgaverit ? 
et iustus, qui aequi bonique tractatum, qui leges, 
quaeque natura sunt omnibus datae, quaeque 
propriae populis et gentibus constitutae, num 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 4-8. 99 

quam eruditiore aliquo sermone tractarit ? O 
qiiam istud parviim put ant, quibus tarn facile 
videtur I Sed hoc transeo, de quo neminem, qui 4 
litteras vel primis, ut aiunt, labris degustarit, 
dubitaturum puto. Ad illud sequens praevertar, 
ne dicendi quidem satis peritum fore, qui non et 
naturae vim omnem penitus perspexerit et mores 
praeceptis ac ratione formarit. Neque enimS 
frustra in tertio de Oratore libro L. Crassus 
cuncta, quae de aequo, iusto, vero, bono deque 
iis, quae sunt contra posita, dicantur, propria esse 
oratoris adfirmat, ac pliilosoplios, cum ea dicendi 
viribus tuentur, uti rhetorum armis, non suis. 
Idem tamen confitetur, ea iam esse a pbilosophia 
petenda, videlicet quia magis haec illi videtur in 6 
possessione earum rerum fuisse. Hmc etiam 
illud est, quod Cicero pluribus et libris et episto- 
lis testatur, dicendi facultatem ex intimis sapi- 
entiae f ontibus fiuere, ideoque aliquamdiu prae- 
ceptores eosdem fuisse morum atque dicendi. 
Quapropter haec exhortatio mea non eo pertinet, 
ut esse oratorem philosophum velim, quando non 
alia vitae secta longius a civilibus officiis atque 
ab omni munere oratoris recessit. Nam quis 7 
philosophorum aut in iudiciis frequens aut clarus 
in contionibus fuit ? Quis denique in ipsa, quam 
maxime plerique praecipiunt, rei publicae ad- 
ministratione versatus est ? Atqui ego ilium, 
quem instituo, Romanum quendam velim esse 
sapientem, qui non secretis disputationibus, sed 
rerum experimentis atque operibus se vere civi- 
lem virum exhibeat. Sed quia deserta ab his, 8 
qui se ad eloquentiam contulerunt, studia sapien- 

100 INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 9-12. 

tiae non iam in actu suo atque in liac fori luce 
versantur, sed in portions et in gymnasia pri- 
mum, mox in conventns scholarnni recesserunt, 
id, quod est oratori necessariuni nee a dicendi 
praeceptoribus traditur, ab iis petere nimirum 
necesse est, apud quos remansit. Evolvendi peni- 
tus auctores qui de virtute praecipiunt, ut oratoris 
v.Ha cum scientia divinarum rerum sit humana- 
9 rumque coniuncta. Quae ipsae quanto maiores ac 
pulcbriores viderentur, si illas ii docerent, qui eti- 
am eloqui praestantissime possent ? Utinamque 
sit tempus umquam, quo perfectus aliquis, qualem 
optamus, orator banc artem, superbo nomine et 
vitiis quorundam bona eius corrumpentium invi- 
sam, vindicet sibe ac, velut rebus repetitis, in 

10 corpus eloquentiae adducat. Quae quidem cum 
sit in tris divisa partis, naturalem, morale m 
rationale m, qua tandem non est cum oratoris 
opere coniuncta ? 

Nam ut ordinem retro agamus, de ultima ilia, 
quae tota versatur in verbis, nemo dubitaverit, si 
et proprietates vocis cuiusque nosse, et ambigua 
aperire, et perplexa discernere, et de falsis iudi- 
care, et conligere ac resolvere, quae velis, orato- 

11 rum est. Quamquam ea non tam est minute 
atque concise in actionibus utendum quam in 
disputationibus, quia non docere modo, sed mo- 
vere etiam ac delectare audientis debet orator, ad 
quod impetu quoque ac viribus et decore est 
opus ; ut vis amnium maior est altis ripis multo- 
que gurgitis tractu fluentium quam tenuis aquae 

12 et obiectu lapillorum resultantis. Et ut palaestri- 
ci doctores illos, quos numeros vocant, non idcirco 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 13-17. 101 

discentibus tradunt, ut his omnibus, qui didice- 
runt, in ipso luctandi certamine utantur (plus 
enim pondere et firmitate et spiritu agitur), sed ut 
subsit copia ilia, ex qua unum aut alterum, cuius 
se occasio dederit, efficiant : ita haec pars d i a- 13 
lectica, sive illam dicere malumus disputa- 
t r i c e m, ut est utilis saepe et finitionibus et com- 
prehension ibus et separandis, quae sunt differen- 
tia, et resolvenda ambiguitate, distinguendo, divi- 
dendo, inliciendo, implicando, ita, si totum sibi 
vindicaverit in foro certamen, obstabit melioribus 
et sectas ad tenuitatem suam vires ipsa subtilitate 
consumet. Itaque reperias quosdam in dispu- 14 
tando mire callidos, cum ab ilia cavillatione dis- 
cesserint, non magis sufficere in aliquo graviore 
actu quam parva quaedam animalia, quae, in an- 
gustiis mobilia, campo deprehenduntur. 

lam quidem pars ilia m o r a 1 i s, quae dicitur, 15 
Ethice, certe tota oratori est accommodata. 
Nam in tanta causarum, sicut superioribus libris 
diximus, varietate, cum alia coniectura quae- 
rantur, alia finitionibus concludantur, alia iure 
summoveantur vel transf erantur, alia conligantur 
vel ipsa inter se concurrant vel in diversum 
ambiguitate ducantur, nulla fere dici potest, 
cuius non aliqua in parte tractatus aequi ac boni 
reperiatur ; plerasque vero esse quis nescit, quae 
totae in sola qualitate consistant ? In consiliis 16 
vero quae ratio suadendi est ab honesti quaestio- 
ne seposita ? Quin ilia etiam pars tertia, quae 
laudandi ac vituperandi officiis continetur, nempe 17 
in tractatu recti pravique versatur. An de iusti- 
tia, fortitudine, abstinentia, temperantia, pietate 

102 iNST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 18-21. 

non plurima dicet orator ? Sed ille vir boiiTiSj 
qui haec non vocibus tantum sibi nota atque 
nominibus aurium tenus in usum linguae per- 
ceperit, sed qui, virtutes ipsas mente complexus, 
ita sentiet, nee in cogitando laborabit et, quod 
sciet, vere dicet. 

18 Cum sit omnis generalis quaestio speciali po- 
tentior, quia universo pars continetur, non utique 
accedit parti quod universum est, profecto nemo 
dubitabit, generales quaestiones in illo maxime 

iOstudiorum more versatas. lam vero cum sint 
multa propriis brevibusque comprehensionibus 
finienda, unde etiam status causarum dicitur 
finitivus, nonne ad id quoque instrui ab iis, qui 
plus in hoc studii dederunt, oportet ? Quid ? non 
quaestio iuris omnis aut verborum proprietate 
aut aequi disputatione aut voluntatis coniectura 
continetur ? quorum pars ad rationalem, pars ad 

20 moralem tractatum redundat. Ergo natura per- 
mixta est omnibus istis oratio, quae quidem 
oratio est vere. Nam ignara quidem huiusce 
doctrinae loquacitas erret necesse est, ut quae vel 
nullos vel falsos duces babeat. 

Pars vero naturalis, cum est ad exercitatio- 
nem dicendi tanto ceteris uberior, quanto maiore 
spiritu de divinis rebus quam liumanis loquen- 
dum est, tum illam etiam moralem, sine qua 
nulla esse, ut docuimus, oratio potest, totam com- 

21 plectitur. Nam si regitur providentia mundus, 
administranda certe bonis viris erit res publica ; 
si divina nostris animis origo, tendendum ad vir- 
tutem nee voluptatibus terreni corporis servi- 
endum. An haec non frequenter tractabit ora- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 22-25. 103 

tor ? lam de auguriis, responsis, religione deni- 
que omni, de quibus maxima saepe in senatu 
consilia versata sunt, non erit ei disserendum, si 
qnidem, nt nobis placet, futurus est vir civilis 
idem ? Quae denique intellegi saltem potest elo- 
quentia hominis optima nescientis ? Haec si 23 
ratione manifesta non essent, exemplis tamen 
crederemus. Siquidem et Periclem, cuius elo- 
quentiae, etiamsi nulla ad nos monumenta vene- 
runt, vim tamen quandam incredibilem cum 
historici tum etiam liberrimum liominum genus, 
comici veteres tradunt, Anaxagorae physici 
constat auditorem fuisse, et Demostlienem, prin- 
cipem omnium Graeciae oratorum, dedisse ope- 
ram Platoni. Nam M. Tullius, non tantum se23 
debere scbolis rhetorum quantum Academiae 
spatiis, frequenter ipse testatur; neque se tanta 
in eo umquam fudisset ubertas, si ingenium suum 
consaepto fori, non ipsius rerum naturae finibus 

Verum ex hoc alia mihi quaestio exoritur, 
quae s e c t a conf erre plurimum eloquentiae pos- 
sit; quamquam ea non inter multas potest esse 
contentio. Nam in primis nos Epicurus a se24 
ipse dimittit, qui fugere omnem disciplinam navi- 
gatione quam velocissima iubet Neque vero 
Aristippus, summuni in voluptate corporis 
bonum ponens, ad hunc nos laborem adhortetur. 
P y r r h. o n quidem quas in hoc opere habere par- 
tis potest ? cui indices esse, apud quos verba 
faciat, et reum, pro quo loquatur, et senatum, in 
quo sit dicenda sententia, non liquebit. Ac a- 25 
d e m i a m quidam utilissimam credunt, quod mos 

104 INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 26-29. 

in utramque partem disserendi ad exercitatio- 
nem forensium causarum proxime accedat. Adi- 
ciunt loco probationis, quod ea praestantissimos 
in eloquentia viros ediderit. Peripatetici 
studio quoque se quodam oratorio iactant ; nam 
thesis dicere exercitationis gratia fere est ab iis 
institutum. Stoici, sicut copiam nitoremque 
eloquentiae fere praeceptoribus suis defuisse con- 
cedant necesse est, ita nullos aut probare acrius 

26aut concludere subtilius contendunt. Sed liaec 
inter ipsos, qui velut sacramento rogati vel etiam 
superstitione constricti nefas ducunt a suscepta 
semel persuasione discedere; oratori vero nihil 

27 est necesse in cuiusquam iurare leges. Mains 
enim est opus atque praestantius, ad quod ipse 
tendit, et cuius est velut candidatus, si quidem 
est futurus cum vitae tum etiam eloquentiae 
laude perfectus. Quare in exemplum dicendi 
facundissimum quemque proponet sibi ad imi- 
tandum, moribus vero formandis quam honestis- 
sima praecepta, rectissimamque ad virtutem viam 
deliget. Exercitatione quidem utetur omni, sed 
tamen erit plurimus in maximis quibusque ac 

28natura pulcherrimis. Nam quae potest materia 
reperiri ad graviter copioseque dicendum magis 
abundans quam de virtute, de re publica, de 
providentia, de origine animorum, de amicitia ? 
Haec sunt, quibus mens pariter atque oratio in- 
surgant: quae vera bona, quid mitiget metus, 
coerceat cupiditates, eximat nos opinionibus vul- 
gi animumque caelestem . . . 

39 ISTeque ea solum, quae talibus disciplinis conti- 
nentur^ sed magis etiam, quae sunt tradita an- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 2, 30, 31 ; 3, 1. 105 

tiquitus dicta ac facta praeclare, et nos- 
se et animo semper agitare conveniet. Quae pro- 
fecto nusquam plura maioraqiie quam in nostrae 
civitatis monumentis reperientur. An f ortitudi- 30 
nem, iustitiam, fidem, continentiam, f rugalitatem, 
contemptum doloris ac mortis melius alii doce- 
bunt quam Fabricii, Ci^rii, Reguli, Decii, Mucii, 
aliique innumerabiles ? Quantum enim Graeci 
praeceptis valent, tantum Romani, quod est mai- 
ns, exemplis. Tantum quod non cognitis ille31 
rebus adquieverit, qui non modo proximum tem- 
pus lucemque praesentem intueri satis credat, sed 
omnem posteritatis memoriam spatium vitae 
honestae et curriculum laudis existimet. Hinc 
mihi ille iustitiae haustus bibat, Iiinc sumptam 
libertatem in causis atque consiliis praestet. Ne- 
que erit perfectus orator, nisi qui boneste dicere 
et sciet et audebit. 


TIL luris quoque civilis necessaria huic 
viro scientia est et morum ac religionum eius rei 
publicae, quam capesset. Nam qualis esse suasor 
in consiliis publicis privatisve poterit tot rerum, 
quibus praecipue civitas continetur, ignarus ? 
Quo autem modo patronum se causarum non fal- 
so dixerit, qui, quod est in causis potentissimum, 

106 INST. ORATOR. XII, 3, 2-5. 

sit ab altero petiturus, paene non dissimilis iis, 

2 qui poetarum scripta pronuntiant ? Nam quo- 
dammodo mandata perferet, et ea, quae sibi a 
iudice credi postulaturus est, aliena fide dicet, et 
ipse litigantium auxiliator egebit auxilio. Quod 
ut fieri nonnumquam minore incommodo possit, 
cum domi praecepta et composita et sicut cetera, 
quae in causa sunt, in discendo cognita ad iudi- 
cem pert eret : quid fiet in iis quaestionibus, quae 
subito inter ipsas actiones nasci solent ? non de- 
formiter respectet et inter subsellia minores ad- 

3 vocatos interroget ? Potest autem satis diligen- 
ter accipere, quae turn audiet, cum iam dicenda 
sunt, aut fortiter adfirmare aut ingenue pro suis 
dicere ? Possit in actionibus : quid fiet in alter- 
catione, ubi occurrendum continuo, nee libera ad 
discendum mora est ? Quid, si forte peritus iuris 
ille non aderit ? Quid, si quis non satis in ea re 
doctus falsum aliquid subiecerit ? Hoc enim est 
maximum ignorantiae malum, quod credit eum 

4 scire, qui moneat. Neque ego sum nostri muris 
ignarus oblitusve eorum, qui velut ad arculas se- 
dent et tela agentibus sumministrant, neque idem 
Graecos quoque nescio factitasse, unde nomen his 
pragmaticorum datum est. Sed loquor de ora- 
tore, qui non clamorem modo suum causis, sed 

5 omnia, quae prof utura sunt, debet. Itaque eum 
nee inutilem, si ad boram forte constiterit, neque 
in testationibus faciendis esse imperitum velim. 
Quis enim potius praeparabit ea, quae, cum aget, 
esse in causa velit ? Nisi forte imperatorem quis 
idoneum credit in proeliis quidem strenuum et 
fortem et omnium, quae pugna poscit, artificem. 

IJSST. OKATOK. Xil, '6, (5-10. 107 

sed neque delectus agere nee copias contraliere at- 
que instruere nee prospieere eommeatus nee lo- 
eum eapere eastris seientem; prius est enim 
certe parare bella quam gerere. Atqui similli-e 
mus huie sit. advoeatus^ si plura, quae ad vineen- 
dum valent, aliis reliquerit, cum praesertim hoc, 
quod est maxime necessarium, nee tarn sit ardu- 
um, quam procul intuentibus fortasse videatur. 

Namque omne ius, quod est certum, aut scrip- 
to aut moribus constat ; dubium aequitatis regula 
examinandum est. Quae scripta sunt aut posita 7 
in more civitatis, nullam babent difficultatem, 
cognitionis sunt enim, non inventionis ; at quae 
consultorum responsis explicantur, aut in verbo- 
rum interpretatione sunt posita aut in recti pravi- 
que discriniine. Vim cuiusque vocis intellegere 
aut commune prudentium est aut proprium ora- 
toris ; aequitas optimo cuique notissima. Nos 8 
porro et bonum virum et prudentem in primis 
oratorem putamus, qui cum se ad id, quod est 
optimum natura, derexerit, non magnopere com- 
movebitur, si quis ab eo consultus dissentiet, cum 
ipsis illis diversas inter se opiniones tueri conces- 
sum sit. Sed etiam si nosse, quid quisque sense- 
rit, volet, lectionis opus est, qua nihil est in 
studiis minus laboriosum. Quodsi plerique, des- 9 
perata facultate agendi, ad discendum ius decli- 
naverunt, quam id scire facile est oratori, quod 
discunt, qui sua quoque confessione oratores esse 
non possunt ? Yerum et M. Cato cum in dicendo 
praestantissimus, tum iuris idem fuit peritissi- 
mus, et Scaevolae Servioque Sulpicio coneessa est 
etiam f acundiae virtus. Et M. Tullius non modo lo 

108 INST, ORATOR. XII, 3, 11, 12; 4, 1, 

inter agendum niimqiiani est destitutus scientia 
iuris, sed etiam componere aliqua de eo coeperat ; 
lit appareat, posse oratorem non discendo tantum 
iuri vacare, sed etiam docendo. 

11 Verum ea, quae de moribns excolendis studio- 
que inris praecipimus, ne qnis eo credat reprelien- 
denda, quod multos cognovimus, qui taedio labo- 
ris, quem f erre tendentibus ad eloquentiam neces- 
se est, confugerint ad haec deverticula desidiae. 
Quorum alii se ad album ac rubricas transtule- 
runt et formularii vel, ut Cicero ait, leguleii qui- 
dam esse maluerunt, tamquam utiliora eligentes 

12 ea quorum solam facilitatem sequebantur, alii 
pigritiae arrogantioris, qui subito fronte conficta 
immissaque barba, veluti despexissent oratoria 
praecepta, paulum aliquid sederunt in scliolis 
philosopliorum, ut deinde in publico tristes, domi 
dissoluti, captarent auctoritatem contemptu cete- 
rorum; pliilosopliia enim simulari potest^ elo- 
quentia non potest. 



IV. In primis vero abundare debet orator ex- 
emplorum copia cum veterum tum etiam no- 
vorum, adeo ut non ea modo, quae conscripta 
sunt historiis aut sermonibus velut per manus 
tradita^ quaeque cotidie aguntur^ debeat nosse^ 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 4, 2; 5, 1, 2. 109 

verum ne ea quidem, quae sunt a clarioribus 
poetis ficta, neglegere. Nam ilia quidem priora 2 
aut testimoniorum aut etiam iudicatorum obti- 
nent locum ; sed haec quoque aut vetustatis fide 
tuta sunt aut ab hominibus magnis praeceptorum 
loco ficta creduntur. Sciat ergo quam plurima^ 
unde etiam senibus auctoritas maior est, quod 
plura nosse et vidisse creduntur, quod Homerus 
frequentissime testatur. Sed non est expectanda 
ultima aetas, cum studia praestent, ut, quantum 
ad cognitionem pertinet rerum^ etiam praeteritis 
saeculis vixisse videamur. 



V. Haec sunt, quae me redditurum promise- 
ram, instrumenta non artis, ut quidam putave- 
runt, sed ipsius oratoris. Haec arma habere ad 
manum, horum scientia debet esse succinctus, 
accedente verborum figurarumque facili copia et 
inventionis ratione et disponendi usu et memo- 
riae firmitate et actionis gratia. Sed plurimum 
ex bis valet animi praestantia, quam nee 
metus frangat nee acclamatio terreat nee audien- 
tium auctoritas ultra debitam reverentiam tardet. 
Nam ut abominanda sunt contraria bis vitia con- 2 
fidentiae, temeritatis, improbitatis, arrogantiae, 
ita citra constantiam, fiduciam, f ortitudinem nihil 
ars, nihil studium, nihil prof ectus ipse prof uerit ; 

110 INST. ORATOR. XII, 5, 3-6o 

ut si des arma timidis et imbellibus. Invihis 
meliercule dico, qnoniam et aliter accipi potest, 
ipsam verecundiam, vitium quidem, sed amabile 
et quae virtutes facillime generet, esse inter ad- 
versa multisque in causa fuisse, ut bona ingenii 
studiique in lucem non prolata situ quodam 

3 secreti consumerentur. Sciat autem, si quis haec 
forte minus adhuc peritus distinguendi vim cu- 
iusque verbi leget, non probitatem a me reprehen- 
di, sed verecundiam, quae est timor quidam redu- 
cens animum ab iis, quae f acienda sunt ; inde 
confusio et coepti paenitentia et subitum silenti- 
um, Quis porro dubitet vitiis ascribere adfec- 

4 tum, propter quem f acere bonesta pudet ? Neque 
ego rursus nolo eum, qui sit dicturus, et sollici- 
tum surgere et colorem mutare et periculum 
intellegere ; quae si non accident, etiam simulan- 
da erunt. Sed intellectus hie sit operis, non 
metus ; moveamurque, non concidamus. Optima 
est autem emendatio verecundiae fiducia, et 
quamlibet imbecilla f rons naagna conscientia sus- 

5 Sunt et naturalia, ut supra dixi, quae tamen et 
cura iuvantur, instrumenta, vox, latus, decor; 
quae quidem tantum valent, ut frequentur fa- 
mam ingenii facianto Habuit oratores aetas nos- 
tra copiosiores, sed, cum diceret, eminere inter 
aequalis Tracbalus videbatur. Ea corporis subli- 
mitas erat, is ardor oculorum, frontis auctoritas, 
gestus praestantia, vox quidem non, ut Cicero 
desiderat, paene tragoedorum, sed super omnis, 

6quos ego quidem audierim, tragoedos. Certe 
cum in basilica lulia diceret primo tribunali, 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 6, 1-3. HI 

quattuor antem iudicia, ut moris est, cogerentur, 
atque omnia clamoribus fremerent, et audi turn 
eum et intellectum et, qnod agentibus ceteris 
contumeliosissiniuni fuit, laudatum quoque ex 
quattuor tribunalibus memini. Sed hoc votum 
est et rara f elicitas ; quae si non adsit, sane suffi- 
ciat ab iis, quibus quis dicit, audiri. Talis esse 
debet orator, baec scire. 



VI. Agendi autem initium sine dubio 
secundum vires cuiusque sumendum est. Neque 
ego annos definiam, cum Demosthenem pueruna 
admodum actiones pupillares habuisse manifes- 
tum sit, Calvus, Caesar, Pollio multum ante 
quaestoriam omnes aetatem gravissima indicia 
susceperint, praetextatos egisse quosdam sit tra- 
ditum, Caesar Augustus duodecim natus annos 
aviam pro rostris laudaverit. Modus mihi vide- 2 
tur quidam tenendus, ut neque praepropere de- 
stringatur immatura frons et, quidquid est illud 
adhuc acerbum, proferatur (nam inde et con- 
temptus operis innascitur, et fundamenta iaciun- 
tur impudentiae, et, quod est ubique perniciosis- 
simum, praevenit vires fiducia) ; nee rursus differ- 8 
endum est tirocinium in senectutem ; nam cotidie 
metus crescit, maiusque fit semper, quod ausuri 

112 INST. ORATOR. XII, 6, 4-6. 

sumus, et, dum deliberamus, quando incipiendum 
sit, incipere iam serum est. Quare fructura 
studiorum viridem et adliuc dulcem promi decet, 
dum et veniae spes est et paratus favor et audere 
non dedecet, et, si quid desit operi, supplet aetas, 
et, si qua sunt dicta iuveniliter, pro indole acci- 

4 piuntur ; ut totus ille Ciceronis pro Sexto Roscio 
locus: quid enim tarn commune quam 
spiritus vivis, terra mortuis, mare fluc- 
tuantibus, litus eiectis? Quae cum sex et 
viginti natus annos summis audientium clamori- 
bus dixerit, defervisse tempore, et annis liquata, 
iam senior idem fatetur. Et hercule quantumli- 
bet secreta studia contulerint, est tamen proprius 
quidam fori prof ectus, alia lux, alia veri discrimi- 
nis f acies ; plusque, si separes, usus sine doctrina 

5 quam citra usum doctrina valet. Ideoque non- 
nulli, senes in schola facti, stupent novitate, cum 
in indicia venerunt, et omnia suis exercitationi- 
bus similia desiderant. At illic et index facet et 
adversarius obstrepit et nihil temere dictum 
perit, et, si quid tibi ipse sumas, probandum est, 
et laboratam congestamque dierum ac noctium 
studio actionem aqua deficit, et omisso magna 
semper flandi tumore in quibusdam causis lo- 
quendum est ; quod illi diserti minime sciunt. 

5 Itaque nonnullos reperias, qui sibi eloquentiores 
videantur, quam ut causas agant. Ceterum il- 
ium, quem iuvenem tenerisque adliuc viribus 
nitentem in forum deduximus, et incipere a 
quam maxime facili ac favorabili causa velim, 
ferarum ut catuli molliore praeda saginantur, et 
non utique ab boc initio continuare operam et 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 20-24. 129 

neque torrentibus turbidis, sed lenibus stagnis 
similes babentur. 

Nemo igitur dubitaverit, longe esse 20 
genus Atticorum. In quo ut est aliquid inter 
ipsos commune, id est indicium acre tersumque, 
ita ingeniorum plurimae formae. Quapropter21 
mibi f alii multum videntur, qui solos esse Atticos 
credunt tenuis et lucidos et significantis, sed qua- 
dam eloquentiae frugalitate contentos ac semper 
manum intra pallium continentis. Nam quis erit 
bic Atticus ? Sit Lysias ; bunc enim amplectun- 
tur amatores istius nominis modum. Non igitur 
iam usque ad Coccum et Andocidem remittemur ? 
Interrogare tamen velim, an Isocrates Attice 
dixerit ; nibil enim tam est Lysiae diversum. 22 
Negabunt; at eius scbola principes oratorum 
dedit. Quaeratur similius aliquid. Hyperides At- 
ticus ? Certe, at plus indulsit voluptati. Trans- 
eo plurimos, Lycurgum, Aristogitona et bis pri- 
ores Isaeum, Antipbonta ; quos, ut bomines inter 
se genere similes, differentis dixeris specie. 
Quid ille, cuius modo fecimus mentionem, 23 
Aescbines ? nonne bis latior et audentior et ex- 
celsior ? Quid denique Demostbenes ? non cunc- 
tos illos tenues et circumspectos vi, sublimitate, 
impetu, cultu, compositione superavit ? non in- 
surgit locis ? non figuris gaudet ? non transla- 
tionibus nitet ? non oratione ficta dat tacentibus 
vocem ? non illud iusiurandum per caesos in 24 
Maratbone ac Salamine propugnatores rei pub- 
licae satis manifesto docet, praeceptorem eius 
Platonem fuisse ? quern ipsum num Asianum 
appellabimus plerumque instinctis divino spiritu 

130 I^ST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 25-28. 

vatibus comparandum ? Quid Periclea ? simi- 
lemne credimus Lysiacae gracilitati, quern, ful- 
minibus et caelesti fragori comparant comici, 

25 dum illi conviciantur ? Quid est igitur, cur in 
iis demum, qui tenui venula per calculos fluunt, 
Atticum saporera putent ? ibi demum thymum 
redolere dicant ? Quos ego existimo, si quod in 
his finibus uberius invenerint solum f ertilioremve 
segetem, negaturos Atticam esse, quod plus, quam 
acceperit, seminis reddat; quia banc eius terrae 

26 fidem Menander eludit. Ita nunc, si quis ad eas 
Demosthenis virtutes, quas ille summus orator 
babuit, tamen quae defuisse ei sive ipsius natura 
seu lege civitatis videntur, adiecerit, ut adfectus 
concitatius moveat, audiam dicentem, ' non fecit 
boc Demosthenes ? ' et si quid numeris exierit 
aptius (fortasse non possit, sed tamen si quid 
exierit) non erit Atticum ? Melius de hoc nomi- 
ne sentiant credantque, Attice dicere esse optime 

27 Atque in hac tamen opinione perseverantis 
Graecos magis tulerim. Latina mihi facundia, 
ut inventione, dispositione, consilio, ceteris huius 
generis artibus similis Graecae ac prorsus dis- 
cipula eius videtur, ita circa rationem eloquendi 
vix habere imitationis locum. Namque est ipsis 
statim sonis durior, quando et iucundissimas ex 
Graecis litteras non habemus, vocalem alteram, 
alteram consonantem, quibus nullae apud eos 
dulcius spirant ; quas mutuari solemus, quotiens 

28 illorum nominibus utimur ; quod cum contingit, 
nescio quomodo hilarior protinus renidet oratio, 
ut in ^ Ephyris ' et ^ Zephyr is ' ; quae si nostris 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 29-33. 131 

litteris scribantur, siirdiim quiddam et barbarum 
efficient, et velut in locum earum succedunt tris- 
tes et horridae, qnibus Graecia caret. Nam et29 
ilia, quae est sexta nostrarum, paene non humana 
voce vel omnino non voce potius inter discrimina 
dentium efflanda est; quae, etiam cum vocalem 
proxima accipit, quassa quodammodo, utique 
quotiens aliquam consonantium frangit, ut in 
hoc ipso ^ frangit,' multo lit borridior. Aeolicae 
quoque litterae, qua '^servum cervumque' dici- 
mus, etiamsi forma a nobis repudiata est, vis 
tamen nos ipsa persequitur. Duras et ilia sylla- 30 
bas facit, quae ad coniungendas demum subiectas 
sibi vocales - est utilis, alias supervacua, ut 
' equos ' hac et ' aequum ' scribimus ; cum etiam 
ipsae hae vocales duae efficiant sonum, qualis 
apud Graecos nullus est, ideoque scribi illorum 
litteris non potest. Quid ? quod pleraque nos 31 
ilia quasi mugiente m littera cludimus, in quam 
nullum Graece verbum cadit: at illi ny iucun- 
dam et in fine praecipue quasi tinnientem illius 
loco ponunt, quae est apud nos rarissima in clau- 
sulis. Quid ? quod syllabae nostrae in b litteram 32 
et d innituntur adeo aspere, ut plerique non anti- 
quissimorum quidem, sed tamen veterum mollire 
temptaverint non solum ' aversa ' pro ' abversis ' 
dicendo, sed et in praepositione b litterae abso- 
nam et ipsam s subiciendo. Sed accentus quo- 33 
que, cum rigore quodam, tum similitudine ipsa, 
minus suaves babemus, quia ultima syllaba nee 
acuta umquam excitatur-nec flexa circumducitur, 
sed in gravem vel duas graves cadit semper. 
Itaque tanto est sermo Graecus Latino iucundior. 

132 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 84-H«. 

nt nostri poetae, quotiens dulce carmen esse voln- 
34eriint, illorum id nominibus exorneut. His ilia 
potentiora, quod res plurimae carent appellationi- 
bus, ut eas necesse sit transf erre aut circumire ; 
etiain in iis, quae denominata sunt, summa pau- 
pertas in eadem nos f requentissime revolvit ; at 
illis non verborum modo, sed linguarum etiam 
inter se diff erentium copia est. 

35 Quare qui a Latinis exiget illam gratiam ser- 
monis Attici, det mihi in eloquendo eandem iu- 
cunditatem et parem copiam. Quod si negatum 
est, sententias aptabimus iis vocibus, quas babe- 
mus, nee rerum nimiam tenuitatem, ut non di- 
cam pinguioribus, fortioribus eerte verbis misce- 
bimus, ne virtus utraque pereat ipsa confusione ; 

36 nam quo minus adiuvat sermo, rerum inventione 
pugnandum est. Sensus sublimes variique eruan- 
tur ; pernio vendi omnes adfectus erunt, oratio 
translationum nitore illuminanda. Non possu- 
mus esse tam graciles : simus f ortiores. Subtili- 
tate vincimur : valeamus pondere. Proprietas 

37 penes illos est certior : copia vincamus. Ingenia 
Graecorum, etiam minora, suos portus liabent : 
nos plerumque maioribus velis moveamur, validi- 
or spiritus nostros sinus tendat ; non tamen alto 
semper feremur, nam et litora interim sequenda 
sunt. Illis f acilis per quaelibet vada accessus : 
ego aliquid, non multo tamen, altius, in quo mea 

38 cymba non sidat, inveniam. Neque enim, si tenu- 
iora haec ac pressiora Graeci melius, in eoque 
vincimur solo et ideo in* comoediis non contendi- 
mus, prorsus tamen omittenda pars haec oratio- 
nis, sed exigenda ut optime possumus ; possumus 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 39-43. 133 

aiitem reriim et modo et iudicio esse similes; 
verborum gratia, quam in ipsis non habemus, 
extrinsecus condienda est. An non in privatis et 39 
acutus et indistinctus et non snpra modum elatus 
M. TuUius ? non in M. Calidio insignis haec 
virtus ? non Scipio. Laelius, Cato in eloquendo 
velut Attici Romanorum fuerunt ? Cui porro 
non satis est, quo nihil esse melius potest ? 

Ad hoc quidam nullam esse naturalem putant 40 
eloquentiam, nisi quae sit cotidiano sermoni 
simillima, quo cum amicis, coniugibus, liberis, 
servis loquamur, contento promere animi volun- 
tatem nihilque arcessiti et elaborati requirente ; 
quidquid hue sit adjectum, id esse adfectationis 
et ambitiosae in loquendo iactantiae, remotum a 
veritate fictumque ipsorum gratia verborum, 
quibus solum natura sit officium attributum, ser- 
vire sensibus : sicut athletarum corpora, etiamsi 41 
validiora fiant exercitatione et lege quadam cibo- 
rum, non tamen esse naturalia atque ab ilia 
specie, quae sit concessa hominibus, abhorrere. 
Quid enim, inquiunt, attinet circuitu res osten- 
dere et translationibus, id est aut pluribus aut 
alienis verbis, cum sua cuique sint adsignata 
nomina ? Denique antiquissimum quemque max- 42 
ime secundum naturam dixisse contendunt ; mox 
poetis similiores extitisse, etiamsi parcius, simili 
tamen ratione, falsa et impropria virtutes ducen- 
tis. Qua in disputatione nonnihil veri est, ideo- 
que non tam procul, quam fit a quibusdam, rece- 
dendum a propriis atque communibus. Si quis43 
tamen, ut in loco dixi compositionis, ad necessa- 
fia, quibus nihil minus est, aliquid melius adiece- 

134 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 44-47. 

rit, non erit liac calumnia reprehendendus. Nam 
mihi aliam quandam videtur habere naturam 
sermo vulgaris, aliam viri eloquentis oratio ; cui 
si res m.odo indicare satis esset, nihil ultra verbo- 
rum. proprietatem elaboraret ; sed cum debeat 
delectare, movere, in plurimas animum audientis 
species impellere, utetur his quoque adiutoriis, 

44 quae sunt ab eadem nobis concessa natura ; nam 
et lacertos exercitatione constringere et augere 
vires et colorem trahere, naturale est. Ideoque 
in omnibus gentibus alius alio facundior habetur 
et eloquendo dulcis magis. Quod si non eveniret, 
omnes pares essent ; at idem homines aliter de re 
alia loquuntur et servant personarum discrimina. 
Ita, quo quisque plus efficit dicendo, hoc magis 

45 secundum naturam eloquentiae dicit. Quaprop- 
ter ne illis quidem nimium repugno, qui dandum 
putant nonnihil etiam temporibus atque auribus, 
nitidius aliquid atque effectius postulantibus. 
Itaque non solum ad priores Catone Gracchisque, 
sed ne ad hos quidem ipsos oratorem alligandum 
puto. Atque id f ecisse M. Tullium video, ut cum 
plurimum utilitati, tum partem quandam delecta- 
tioni daret ; cum et suam se rem agere diceret, 

46ageret autem maxime litigatoris; nam hoc ipso 
proderat, quod placebat. Ad cuius voluptates 
nihil equidem quod addi possit invenio, nisi ut 
sensus nos quidem dicamus pluris ; neque enim 
non fieri potest, salva tractatione causae et di- 
cendi auctoritate, si non crebra haec lumina et 

47continua fuerint et invicem offecerint. Sed me 
hactenus cedentem nemo insequatur ultra ; do 
tempori, ne hirta toga sit, non ut serica, ne inton- 

IXST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 48-51. 135 

sum caput, non ut in gradus atque anulos comp- 
tum ; cum eo quod, si non ad luxuriam ac libidi- 
nem referas, eadem speciosiora quoque sint, quae 
honestiora. Ceterum hoc, quod vulgo sen ten- 48 
tias vocamus, quod veteribus praecipueque 
Graecis in usu non fuit, (apud Ciceronem enim 
invenio) dum rem contineant et copia non redun- 
dent et ad victoriam spectent, quis utile neget ? 
Feriunt animum et uno ictu frequenter impellunt 
et ipsa brevitate magis haerent et delectatione 

At sunt qui baec excitatiora lumina, etiamsi49 
dicere permittant, a componendis tamen orationi- 
bus excludenda arbitrentur. Quocirca milii ne 
hie quidem locus intactus est omittendus ; nam 
plurimi eruditorum aliam esse dicendi rationem, 
aliam scribendi putaverunt, ideoque in agendo 
clarissimos quosdam nihil posteritati mansuris- 
que mox litteris reliquisse, ut Periclem, ut Dema- 
den ; rursus alios ad componendum optimos, ac- 
tionibus idoneos non fuisse, ut Isocraten; prae-50 
terea in agendo plus impetum valere plerumque 
et petitas vel paulo licentius voluptates ; commo- 
vendos enim esse ducendosque animos imperito- 
runi ; at quod libris dedicatum in exemplum 
edatur, id tersum ac limatum et ad legem ac regu- 
1am compositum esse oportere, quia veniat in 
manus doctorum et indices artis habeat artifices. 
Quin illi subtiles, ut sibimet ac multis persuase- 51 
runt, magistri TrapaScty/xa dicendo, ivOvfxrjfjia scri- 
bendo esse aptius, tradiderunt. Mihi unum at- 
que idem videtur bene dicere ac bene scribere, 
neque aliud esse oratio scripta quam monumen- 

136 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 52-56. 

turn actionis habitae. Itaque niillas non, ut 
opinor, debet habere virtutes, virtutes dico, non 
vitia. Nam imperitis placere aliquando quae 

52 vitiosa sint, scio ; quo different igitur ? Quodsi 
mihi des consilium iudicum sapientium, perquam 
multa recidam ex orationibus non Ciceronis 
modo, sed etiam eius, qui est strictior multo, 
Demosthenis. Neque enim adfectus omnino mo- 
vendi erunt, nee aures delectatione mulcendae, 
cum etiam prooemia supervacua esse apud talis 
Aristoteles existimet; non enim trahentur Ms 
illi sapientes; proprie et significanter rem indi- 

53 care, probationes colligere, satis est. Cum vero 
index detur aut populus aut ex populo, laturique 
sint sententiam indocti saepius atque interim 
rustic!, omnia, quae ad obtinendum, quod intend- 
imus, prodesse credemus, adhibenda sunt ; eaque 
et cum dicimus promenda et cum scribimus os- 
tendenda sunt, si modo ideo scribimus, ut docea- 

54mus quomodo dici oporteat. An Demosthenes 
male sic egisset, ut scripsit, aut Cicero ? aut eos 
praestantissimos oratores alia re quam scriptis 
cognoscimus ? Melius egerunt igitur an peius ? 
Nam si peius, sic potius oportuit dici, ut scripse- 
runt; si melius, sic potius oportuit scribi, ut 

55 dixerunt. Quid ergo ? Semper sic aget orator, 
ut scribet ? Si licebit, semper. Quodsi impedi- 
ant brevitate tempora a iudice data, multum ex 
eo, quod oportuit dici, recidetur; editio habebit 
omnia. Quae tamen secundum naturam iudi- 
cantium dicta sunt, non ita posteris tradentur, ne 

56videantur propositi fuisse, non temporis. Nam 
id quoque plurimum refert, quomodo audire 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 57-61. 137 

index velit, atque eius vultus saepe ipse rector est 
dicentis, ut Cicero praecipit. Ideoque instanduin 
iis, quae placere intellexeris, resiliendum. ab iis, 
quae non recipientur. Sermo ipse, qui facillime 
iudicem doceat, optandus. Nee id mirum sit, 
cum etiaiu testium personis aliqua mutentur. 
Prudenter enim, qui cum interrogasset rusticum 57 
testem, an Amphionem. nosset, negante eo, de- 
traxit aspirationem breviavitque secundam. eius 
nominis syllabam, et ille eum sic optim.e norat. 
Huiusmodi casus efficiunt, ut aliquando dicatur 
aliter quam scribitur, cum dicere, quomodo scri- 
bendum est, non licet. 

Altera est divisio, quae in tris partis et ipsa 58 
discedit, qua discerni posse etiam recte dicendi 
genera inter se videntur. Nam que unum sub- 
tile, quod tcrxvoi/ vocant, alterum grande atque 
robustum, quod aSpov dicunt, constituunt, ter- 
tium alii medium ex duobus, alii floridum 
(namque id dvOrjpbv appellant) addiderunt. Quo- 59 
rum tamen ea fere ratio est, ut primum docendi, 
secundum movendi, tertium illud, utrocumque 
est nomine, delectandi sive, ut alii dicunt, con- 
ciliandi praestare videatur officium ; in docendo 
autem acumen, in conciliando lenitas, in movendo 
vis exigi videatur. Itaque illo subtili praecipue 
ratio narrandi probandique consistet, sed saepe id 
etiam detractis ceteris virtutibus suo genere ple- 
num. Medius hie modus et translationibus ere- 60 
brior et figuris erit iucundior, egressionibus 
amoenus, compositione aptus, sententiis dulcis, 
lenior tamen ut amnis lucidus quidem, sed vi- 
rentibus utrimque ripis inumbratus. At ille, 61 

138 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 62-65. 

qni saxa devolvat et pontem indignetur et 
ripas sibi faciat, multus et torrens iudicem vel 
nitentem contra feret cogetque ire, qua rapiet. 
Hie orator et defunctos excitabit, ut Appium 
CaecTini, apud hunc et patria ipsa exclamabit, 
aliquandoque, ut Ciceronem in oratione contra 

62 Catilinani in senatu, alloquetur. Hie et ampli- 
ficationibus extollet orationem, et in superlatio- 
nem quoque erigetur : quae Charybdis tarn 
vorax? et Oceanus medius fidius ipse; 
nota sunt enim iam studiosis haec lumina. Hie 
deos ipsos in congressum prope suum sermonem- 
que deducet : vos enim Albani tumuli at- 
que luci; vos, inquam, Albanorum obru- 
tae arae, sacrorum populi Romani sociae 
et aequales. Hie iram, liic misericordiam in- 
spirabit ; hoc dicente index deos appellabit et 
flebit et per omnes adfectus tractatus buc atque 

63illuc sequetur nee doceri desiderabit. Quare si 
ex tribus his generibus necessario sit eligendum 
unum, quis dubitet hoc praeferre omnibus, et 
validissimum alioqui et maximis quibusque cau- 

64 sis accommodatissimum ? Nam et Homerus bre- 
vem quidem cum iucunditate et propriam (id 
enim est n o n d e e r r a r e verbis) et carentem 
supervacuis eloquentiam Menelao dedit, quae 
sunt virtutes generis illius primi ; et ex ore Nes- 
toris dixit dulciorem melle profluere ser- 
mon em, qua certe delectatione nihil fingi mains 
potest ; sed summam expressurus in Ulixe facun- 
diam, et magnitudinem illi vocis et vim orationis 
nivibus hibernis et copia verborum atque impetu 

35 parem tribuit. Cum hoc igitur nemomorta- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 66-70. 139 

Hum contendet; liunc ut deuni homines in- 
tuebuntur. Hanc vim. et celeritatem in Pericle 
miratur Eupolis, hanc fulminibus Aristophanes 
comparat, haec est vere dicendi facultas. 

Sed neque his tribus quasi f ormis inclusa elo- 66 
quentia est. Nam ut inter gracile validumque 
tertium aliquid constitutum est, ita horum inter 
se intervalla sunt, atque inter haec ipsa mixtum 
quiddam ex duobus medium est eorum. Nam et 67 
subtili plenius aliquid atque subtilius et vehe- 
menti remissius atque vehementius invenitur, ut 
illud lene aut ascendit ad f ortiora aut ad tenuiora 
summittitur. Ac sic prope innumerabiles species 
reperiuntur, quae utique aliquo momento inter se 
differant, sicut quattuor ventos generaliter a toti- 
dem mundi cardinibus accepimus flare, cum inte- 
rim plurimi medii et eorum varia nomina, et qui- 
dam etiam regionum ac fluminum proprii, depre- 
henduntur. Eademque musicis ratio est, qui, cum 68 
in cithara quinque constituerunt sonos, plurima 
deinde varietate complent spatia ilia nervorum, 
atque his, quos interposuerunt, inserunt alios, ut 
pauci illi transitus multos gradus habeant. 

Plures igitur etiam eloquentiae facies, sed 69 
stultissimum quaerere, ad quam se recturus sit 
orator, cum omnis species, quae modo recta est, 
habeat usum, atque id ipsum non sit oratoris, 
quod vulgo genus dicendi vocant. Utetur 
enim, ut res exiget, omnibus, nee pro causa modo, 
sed pro partibus causae. Nam ut non eodem70 
modo pro reo capitis et in certamine hereditatis et 
de interdictis ac sponsionibus et de certa credita 
dicet, sententiarum quoque in senatu et contio- 

140 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 71-75. 

num et privatorum consiliorum servabit discrimi- 
na, multa ex differentia personarum, locorum 
temporumque mutabit : ita in eadem oratione ali- 
ter concitabit, aliter conciliabit, non ex isdem 
haustibus iram et misericordiam petet, alias ad 
docendum, alias ad movendnm adhibebit artis. 

71 Non unns color prooemii^ narrationis, argumen- 
torum, egressionis, perorationis servabitur. Di- 
cet idem graviter, severe, acriter, vebementer, 
concitate, copiose, amare, comiter, remisse, sub- 
tiliter, blande, leniter, dulciter, breviter, urbane ; 

72 non ubique similis, sed ubique par sibi. Sic fiet 
cum id, propter quod maxime repertus est usus 
orationis, ut dicat utiliter, et ad efficiendum, 
quod intendit, potenter, turn laudem quoque, nee 
doctorum modo, sed etiam vulgi consequatur. 

73 Falluntur enim plurimum, qui vitiosum et 
corruptum dicendi genus, quod aut verborum 
licentia exultat aut puerilibus sententiolis lasci- 
vit aut immodico tumore turgescit aut inanibus 
locis baccliatur aut casuris, si leviter excutiantur, 
flosculis nitet aut praecipitia pro sublimibus ha- 
bet aut specie libertatis insanit, magis existimant 

74 populare atque plausibile. Quod quidem placere 
multis nee infitior nee miror; est enim iucunda 
auribus ac favorabilis qualiscumque eloquentia 
et ducit animos naturali voluptate vox omnis, 
neque aliunde illi per f ora atque aggerem circuli ; 
quo minus mirum est, quod nulli non agentium 

75 parata vulgi corona est. Ubi vero quid exquisi- 
tius dictum accidit auribus imperitorum, quale- 
cumque id est quod modo se ipsi posse despe- 
rent, babet admirationem, neque immerito ; nam 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 76-80. 141 

ne illiid qiiidem facile est. Sed evanescnnt liaec 
atque emoriuntur comparatione meliorum, ut 
lana tincta f uco citra purpuras placet ; at s i c o n- 
tuleris Tyriae earn lacernae, conspectu 
melioris obruatur, ut O vidius ait. Si vero 76 
iudiciuin his corruptis acrius adliibeas ut fucinis 
sulphura, iam ilium, quo fefellerant, exuant men- 
titum color em et quadam vix enarrabili foeditate 
pallescant. Lucent igitur liaec citra solem, ut 
quaedam exigua animalia igniculi videntur in 
tenebris. Denique mala multi probant, nemo im- 
probat bona. 

Neque vero omnia ista, de quibus locuti su- 77 
mus, orator optime tantum, sed etiam facillime 
faciet. Neque enim vim summam dicendi et os 
admiratione dignum infelix usque ad ultimum 
sollicitudo persequitur nee oratorem macerat et 
coquit aegre verba vertentem et perpendendis 
coagmentandisque eis intabescentem. Mtidus 78 
ille et sublimis et locuples circumfluentibus undi- 
que eloquentiae copiis imperat ; desinit enim in 
ad versa niti, qui pervenit in summum. Scan- 
denti circa ima labor est ; ceterum quantum pro- 
cesseris, mollior clivus ac laetius solum. Et si 79 
haec quoque iam lenius supina perseverantibus 
studiis evaseris, inde fructus inlaborati offerunt 
sese et omnia sponte proveniunt ; quae tamen 
cotidie nisi decerpantur, arescunt. Sed et copia 
babeat modum, sine quo nihil nee laudabile nee 
salutare est, et nitor ille cultum virilem et inven- 
tio indicium. Sic erunt magna, non nimia ; sub- 80 
limia, non abrupta ; f ortia, non temeraria ; seve- 
ra^ non tristia ; gravia, non tarda j laeta^ non 

142 INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 1-4. 

luxTiriosa ; iucunda, non dissoluta; grandia, non 
tumida. Similis in ceteris ratio est ac tutissima 
fere per medium via, quia utriusque ultimum 
vitium est. 


XI. His dicendi virtutibus usus orator in in- 
diciis, consiliis, contionibus, senatu, in omni deni- 
que officio boni civis finem quoque dignum et 
Optimo viro et opere sanctissimo f aciet ; non quia 
prodesse umqu^m satis sit et ilia mente atque ilia 
facultate praedito non optandum operis pulcber- 
rimi quam longissimum tempus, sed quia decet 
lioc quoque prospicere, ne quid peius, quam fece- 

2rit, faciat. I^eque enim scientia modo constat 
orator, quae augetur annis, sed voce, latere, firmi- 
tate; quibus fractis aut imminutis aetate seu 
valetudine cavendum est, ne quid in oratore sum- 
mo desideretur, ne intersistat fatigatus, ne quae 
dicet parum audiri sentiat, ne se quaerat priorem. 

3Vidi ego longe omnium, quos mihi cognoscere 
contigit, summum oratorem, Domitium Afrum 
valde senem, cotidie aliquid ex ea, quam merue- 
rat, auctoritate perdentem, cum agente illo, quem 
principem fuisse quondam fori non erat dubium, 
alii, quod indignum videatur, riderent, alii eru- 
bescerent ; quae occasio f uit dicendi, malle eum 

4deficere quam desinere. Neque erant ilia qualia- 
cumque mala, sed minora. Quare antequam in 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 5-9. 143 

has aetatis veniat insidias, receptui canet et in 
portum Integra nave perveniet. 

Neque enim minores eum^ cum id fecerit, stu- 
diorum fructus prosequentur. Aut ille monu- 
menta rerum posteris aut^ ut L. Crassus in libris 
Ciceronis destinat, iiira quaerentibus reddet 
aut eloquentiae componet artem aut pulclier- 
rimis vitae praeceptis dignum os dabit. Fre-5 
quentabunt vero eius domum optimi iuvenes 
more veterum et vere dicendi viam velut ex ora- 
culo petent. Hos ille formabit quasi eloquentiae 
parens, et ut vetus gubernator litora et portus et, 
quae tempestatum signa, quid secundis flatibus, 
quid adversis ratio poscat, docebit, non bumani- 
tatis solum communi ductus officio, sed amore 
quodam operis ; nemo enim minui velit id, in quo 6 
maximus fuit. Quid porro est lionestius quam 
docere quod optime scias ? Sic ad se Caelium 
deductum a patre Cicero profitetur, sic Pansam, 
Hirtium, Dolabellam in morem praeceptoris ex- 
ercuit cotidie dicens audiensque. Ac nescio an 7 
eum tum beatissimum credi oporteat fore, cum 
iam secretus et consecratus, liber invidia, procul 
contentionibus famam in tuto collocarit et senti- 
et vivus eam, quae post fata praestari magis so- 
let, venerationem et, quid apud posteros futurus 
sit, videbit. 

Conscius sum mibi, quantum mediocritate 8 
valui, quaeque antea scierim, quaeque operis 
huiusce gratia potuerim inquirere, candide me 
atque simpliciter in notitiam eorum, si qui forte 
cognoscere voluissent, protulisse. Atque id viro 
bono satis est, docuisse quod sciret. Vereor9 

144 INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 10-13. 

tamen, ne aut magna nimium videar exigere, qui 
eundem virum bonum esse et dicendi peritum 
velim aut multa, qui tot artibus in pueritia dis- 
cendis morum quoque praecepta et scientiam 
iuris civilis praeter ea, quae de eloquentia trade- 
ban tur, adiecerim, quique baec operi nostro ne- 
cessaria esse crediderint, velut nioram rei perbor- 

lOrescant et desperent ante experimentum. Qui 
primum renuntient sibi, quanta sit buniani in- 
genii vis, quam potens efficiendi quae velit, cum 
maria transire, siderum cursus numerosque cog- 
noscere, mundum ipsum paene dimetiri minores, 
sed difficiliores artes potuerint. Tum cogitent, 
quantam rem petant, quamque nullus sit, boc 

11 proposito praeinio, labor recusandus. Quod si 
mente conceperint, buic quoque parti facilius ac- 
cedent, ut ipsum iter neque impervium neque sal- 
tern durum putent. Nam id, quod prius quodque 
mains est, ut boni viri simus, voluntate maxime 
constat ; quam qui vera fide induerit, facile eas- 

12dem, quae virtu tem docent, artis accipiet. Ne- 
que enim aut tam perplexa, aut tam numerosa 
sunt quae praecipiuntur, ut non paucorum admo- 
dum annorum intentione discantur. Longam 
enim facit operam, quod repugnamus : brevis est 
institutio vitae bonestae beataeque, si cedas na- 
turae. Natura enim nos ad mentem optimam 
genuit, adeoque discere meliora volentibus promp- 
tum est, ut vere intuenti mirum sit illud magis, 

ISmalos esse tam multos. Nam ut aqua piscibus, 
ut sicca terrenis, circumfusus nobis spiritus volu- 
cribus convenit, ita certe facilius esse oportebat 
secundum naturam quam contra earn vivere. 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 20-24. 129 

neque torrentibus turbidis, sed lenibus stagnis 
gimiles habentur. 

Nemo igitur dubitaverit, longe esse optimnin 20 
genus Atticorum. In quo ut est aliquid inter 
ipsos commune, id est indicium acre tersumque, 
ita ingeniorum plurimae formae. Quapropter21 
mibi f alii multum videntur, qui solos esse Atticos 
credunt tenuis et lucidos et significantis, sed qua- 
dam eloquentiae frugalitate contentos ac semper 
manum intra pallium continentis. Nam quis erit 
hie Atticus ? Sit Lysias ; bunc enim amplectun- 
tur amatores istius nominis modum. Non igitur 
iam usque ad Coccum et Andocidem remittemur ? 
Interrogare tamen velim, an Isocrates Attice 
dixerit ; nihil enim tam est Lysiae diversum. 22 
Negabunt; at eius schola principes oratorum 
dedit. Quaeratur similius aliquid. Hyperides At- 
ticus ? Certe, at plus indulsit voluptati. Trans- 
eo plurimos, Lycurgum, Aristogitona et his pri- 
ores Isaeum, Antiphonta ; quos, ut homines inter 
se genere similes, differentis dixeris specie. 
Quid ille, cuius modo fecimus mentionem,23 
Aeschines ? nonne his latior et audentior et ex- 
celsior ? Quid denique Demosthenes ? non cunc- 
tos illos tenues et circumspectos vi, sublimitate, 
impetu, cultu, compositione superavit ? non in- 
surgit locis ? non figuris gaudet ? non transla- 
tionibus nitet ? non oratione ficta dat tacentibus 
Yocem ? non illud iusiurandum per caesos in 24 
Marathone ac Salamine propugnatores rei pub- 
licae satis manifesto docet, praeceptorem eius 
Platonem fuisse ? quem ipsum num Asianum 
appellabimus plerumque instinctis divino spiritu 

130 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 25-28. 

vatibus comparandum ? Quid Periclea ? sirai- 
lemne credimus Lysiacae gracilitati, queni ful- 
minibus et caelesti fragori comparant comici, 

25 dum illi conviciantur ? Quid est igitur, cur in 
iis demum, qui tenui venula per calculos fluunt, 
Atticum saporem putent ? ibi demum thymum 
redolere dicant ? Quos ego existimo, si quod in 
his finibus uberius invenerint solum f ertilioremve 
segetem, negaturos Atticam esse, quod plus, quam 
acceperit, seminis reddat; quia banc eius terrae 

26 fidem Menander eludit. Ita nunc, si quis ad eas 
Demosthenis virtutes, quas ille summus orator 
babuit, tamen quae defuisse ei sive ipsius natura 
seu lege civitatis videntur, adiecerit, ut adfectus 
concitatius moveat, audiam dicentem, ' non fecit 
boc Demostbenes V et si quid numeris exierit 
aptius (fortasse non possit, sed tamen si quid 
exierit) non erit Atticum ? Melius de boc nomi- 
ne sentiant credantque, Attice dicere esse optime 

27 Atque in bac tamen opinione perseverantis 
Graecos magis tulerim. Latina mibi facundia, 
ut inventione, dispositione, consilio, ceteris buius 
generis artibus similis Graecae ac prorsus dis- 
cipula eius videtur, ita circa rationem eloquendi 
vix babere imitationis locum. Namque est ipsis 
statim sonis durior, quando et iucundissimas ex 
Graecis litteras non babemus, vocalem alteram, 
alteram consonantem, quibus nullae apud eos 
dulcius spirant ; quas mutuari solemus, quotiens 

28 illorum nominibus utimur ; quod cum contingit, 
nescio quomodo bilarior protinus renidet oratio, 
ut in ' Epbyris ' et ' Zepbyris ' ; quae si nostris 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 29-33. 131 

litteris scribantur, surdum quiddam et barbarum 
efficient, et velut in locum earum succedunt tris- 
tes et horridae, quibus Graecia caret. Nam et29 
ilia, quae est sexta nostrarum, paene non humana 
voce vel omnino non voce potius inter discrimina 
dentium efflanda est ; quae, etiam cum vocalem 
proxima accipit, quassa quodammodo, utique 
quotiens aliquam consonantium frangit, ut in 
boc ipso * frangit,' multo lit borridior. Aeolicae 
quoque litterae, qua ''servum cervumque' dici- 
mus, etiamsi forma a nobis repudiata est, vis 
tamen nos ipsa persequitur. Duras et ilia sylla- 30 
bas facit, quae ad coniungendas demum subiectas 
sibi vocales est utilis, alias supervacua, ut 
' equos ' bac et ' aequum ' scribimus ; cum etiam 
ipsae hae vocales duae efficiant sonum, qualis 
apud Graecos nullus est, ideoque scribi illorum 
litteris non potest. Quid ? quod pleraque nos 31 
ilia quasi mugiente m littera cludimus, in quam 
nullum Graece verbum cadit : at illi ny iucun- 
dam et in fine praecipue quasi tinnientem illius 
loco ponunt, quae est apud nos rarissima in clau- 
sulis. Quid ? quod syllabae nostrae in b litteram 32 
et d innituntur adeo aspere, ut plerique non anti- 
quissimorum quidem, sed tamen veterum mollire 
temptaverint non solum ^ a versa ' pro ' abversis ' 
dicendo, sed et in praepositione b litterae abso- 
nam et ipsam s subiciendo. Sed accentus quo- 33 
que, cum rigore quodam, tum similitudine ipsa, 
minus suaves habemus, quia ultima syllaba neo 
acuta umquam excitatur nee flexa circumducitur, 
sed in gravem vel duas graves cadit semper. 
Itaque tanto est sermo Graecus Latino iucundior. 

132 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 'S4r-'6ii. 

Tit nostri poetae, quotiens dulce carmen esse volu- 
34erunt, illorum id nominibus exornent. His ilia 
potentiora, quod res plurimae carent appellationi- 
bus, ut eas necesse sit transf erre aut circuniire ; 
etiam in iis, quae denominata sunt, summa pau- 
pertas in eadem nos f requentissime revolvit ; at 
illis non verborum modo, sed linguarum etiam 
inter se differentium copia est. 

35 Quare qui a Latinis exiget illam gratiam ser- 
monis Attici, det milii in eloquendo eandem iu- 
cunditatem et parem copiam. Quod si negatum 
est, sententias aptabimus iis vocibus, quas habe- 
mus, nee rerum nimiam tenuitatem, ut non di- 
cam pinguioribus, fortioribus certe verbis misce- 
bimus, ne virtus utraque pereat ipsa confusione ; 

36 nam quo minus adiuvat sermo, rerum inventione 
pugnandum est. Sensus sublimes variique eruan- 
tur ; permovendi omnes adfectus erunt, oratio 
translationum nitore illuminanda. Non possu- 
mus esse tam graciles : simus fortiores. Subtili- 
tate vincimur: valeamus pondere. Proprietas 

37 penes illos est certior : copia vincamus. Ingenia 
Graecorum, etiam minora, suos portus babent: 
nos plerumque maioribus velis moveamur, validi- 
or spiritus nostros sinus tendat ; non tamen alto 
semper feremur, nam et litora interim sequenda 
sunt. Illis facilis per quaelibet vada accessus: 
ego aliquid, non multo tamen, altius, in quo mea 

38 cymba non sidat, inveniam. Neque enim, si tenu- 
iora baec ac pressiora Graeci melius, in eoque 
vincimur solo et ideo in comoediis non contendi- 
mus, prorsus tamen omittenda pars baec oratio- 
nis, sed exigenda ut optime possumus ; possumus 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 39-43. 133 

autem rerum et modo et iudicio esse similes; 
verborum gratia, quam in ipsis non habemus, 
extrinsecus condienda est. An non in privatis et 39 
acutus et indistinctus et non supra modum elatus 
M. TuUius ? non in M. Calidio insignis haec 
virtus ? non Scipio. Laelius, Cato in eloquendo 
velut Attici Romanorum fuerunt ? Cui porro 
non satis est, quo niMl esse melius potest ? 

Ad hoc quidam nuUam esse naturalem putant 40 
eloquentiam, nisi quae sit cotidiano sermoni 
simillima, quo cum amicis, coniugibus, liberis, 
servis loquamur, contento promere animi volun- 
tatem nihilque arcessiti et elaborati requirente ; 
quidquid hue sit adjectum, id esse adfectationis 
et ambitiosae in loquendo iactantiae, remotum a 
veritate fictumque ipsorum gratia verborum, 
quibus solum natura sit officium attributum, ser- 
vire sensibus: sicut athletarum corpora, etiamsi41 
validiora fiant exercitatione et lege quadam cibo- 
rum, non tamen esse naturalia atque ab ilia 
specie, quae sit concessa bominibus, abborrere. 
Quid enim, inquiunt, attinet circuitu res osten- 
dere et translationibus, id est aut pluribus aut 
alienis verbis, cum sua cuique sint adsignata 
nomina ? Denique antiquissimum quemque max- 42 
ime secundum naturam dixisse contendunt ; mox 
poetis similiores extitisse, etiamsi parcius, simili 
tamen ratione, falsa et impropria virtutes ducen- 
tis. Qua in disputatione nonniliil veri est, ideo- 
que non tam procul, quam fit a quibusdam, rece- 
dendum a propriis atque communibus. Si quis43 
tamen, ut in loco dixi compositionis, ad necessa- 
fia, quibus niliil minus est, aliquid melius adiece- 

134 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 44-47. 

rit, non erit hac calumnia reprehendendus. Nam 
mihi aliam quandam videtur habere naturam 
sermo vulgaris, aliam viri eloquentis oratio ; cui 
si res m.odo indicare satis esset, nihil ultra verbo- 
rum proprietatem elaboraret; sed cum debeat 
delectare, movere, in plurimas animum audientis 
species impellere, utetur his quoque adiutoriis, 

44 quae sunt ab eadem nobis concessa natura ; nam 
et lacertos exercitatione constringere et augere 
vires et colorem trahere, naturale est. Ideoque 
in omnibus gentibus alius alio facundior habetur 
et eloquendo dulcis magis. Quod si non eveniret, 
omnes pares essent ; at idem homines aliter de re 
alia loquuntur et servant personarum discrimina. 
Ita, quo quisque plus efficit dicendo, hoc magis 

45 secundum naturam eloquentiae dicit. Quaprop- 
ter ne illis quidem nimium repugno, qui dandum 
putant nonnihil etiam temporibus atque auribus, 
nitidius aliquid atque effectius postulantibus. 
Itaque non solum ad priores Catone Gracchisque, 
sed ne ad hos quidem ipsos oratorem alligandum 
puto. Atque id f ecisse M. Tullium video, ut cum 
plurimum utilitati, tum partem quandam delecta- 
tioni daret ; cum et suam se rem agere diceret, 

46ageret autem maxime litigatoris; nam hoc ipso 
proderat, quod placebat. Ad cuius voluptates 
nihil equidem quod addi possit invenio, nisi ut 
sensus nos quidem dicamus pluris ; neque enim 
non fieri potest, salva tractatione causae et di- 
cendi auctoritate, si non crebra haec lumina et 

47continua fuerint et invicem offecerint. Sed me 
hactenus cedentem nemo insequatur ultra ; do 
tempori, ne hirta toga sit, non ut serica, ne inton- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 48-51. 135 

sum caput, non ut in gradns atque anulos comp- 
tum ; cum eo quod, si non ad luxuriam ac libidi- 
nem referas, eadem speciosiora quoque sint, quae 
honestiora. Ceterum hoc, quod vulgo sen ten- 48 
tias vocamus, quod veteribus praecipueque 
Graecis in usu non fuit, (apud Ciceronem enim 
invenio) dum rem contineant et copia non redun- 
dent et ad victoriam spectent, quis utile neget ? 
Feriunt animum et uno ictu frequenter impellunt 
et ipsa brevitate magis haerent et delectations 

At sunt qui baec excitatiora lumina, etiamsi49 
dicere permittant, a componendis tamen orationi- 
bus excludenda arbitrentur. Quocirca mihi ne 
bic quidem locus intactus est omittendus ; nam 
plurimi eruditorum aliam esse dicendi rationem, 
aliam scribendi putaverunt, ideoque in agendo 
clarissimos quosdam nihil posteritati mansuris- 
que mox litteris reliquisse, ut Periclem, ut Dema- 
den ; rursus alios ad componendum optimos, ac- 
tionibus idoneos non f uisse, ut Isocraten ; prae- 50 
terea in agendo plus impetum valere plerumque 
et petitas vel paulo licentius voluptates ; commo- 
vendos enim esse ducendosque animos imperito- 
rum ; at quod libris dedicatum in exemplum 
edatur, id tersum ac limatum et ad legem ac regu- 
1am compositum esse oportere, quia veniat in 
manus doctorum et indices artis habeat artifices. 
Quin illi subtiles, ut sibimet ac multis persuase- 51 
runt, magistri TrapdSeLy/jia dicendo, ivOviir^jxa scri- 
bendo esse aptius, tradiderunt. Mihi unum at- 
que idem videtur bene dicere ac bene scribere, 
neque aliud esse oratio scripta quam monumen- 

136 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 53-56. 

turn actionis habitae. Itaque nullas non, ut 
opinor, debet habere virtntes, virtutes dico, non 
vitia. Nam imperitis placere aliquando quae 

52 vitiosa sint, scio ; quo different igitur ? Quodsi 
mihi des consiliura iudicura sapientium, perquara 
multa recidam ex orationibus non Ciceronis 
modo, sed etiam eius, qui est strictior multo, 
Demosthenis. Neque enim adfectus omnino mo- 
vendi erunt, nee aures delectatione mulcendae, 
cum etiam prooemia supervacua esse apud talis 
Aristoteles existimet; non enim trahentur his 
illi sapientes; proprie et significanter rem indi- 

53 care, probationes colligere, satis est. Cum vero 
index detur aut populus aut ex populo, laturique 
sint sententiam indocti saepius atque interim 
rustici, omnia, quae ad obtinendum, quod intend- 
imus, prodesse credemus, adhibenda sunt ; eaque 
et cum dicimus promenda et cum scribimus os- 
tendenda sunt, si modo ideo scribimus, ut docea- 

54mus quomodo dici oporteat. An Demosthenes 
male sic egisset, ut scripsit, aut Cicero ? aut eos 
praestantissimos oratores alia re quam scriptis 
cognoscimus ? Melius egerunt igitur an peius ? 
Nam si peius, sic potius oportuit dici, ut scripse- 
runt; si melius, sic potius oportuit scribi, ut 

55 dixerunt. Quid ergo ? Semper sic aget orator, 
ut scribet ? Si licebit, semper. Quodsi impedi- 
ant brevitate tempora a iudice data, multum ex 
eo, quod oportuit dici, recidetur; editio habebit 
omnia. Quae tamen secundum naturam iudi- 
cantium dicta sunt, non ita posteris tradentur, ne 

56videantur propositi fuisse, non temporis. Nam 
id quoque plurimum refert, quomodo audire 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 57-61. 137 

index velit, atque eius vultns saepe ipse rector est 
dicentis, lit Cicero praecipit. Ideoque instaudum 
iis, quae placere intellexeris, resiliendum ab iis, 
quae non recipientur. Sermo ipse, qui facillime 
indicem doceat, optandus. Nee id mirum sit, 
cum etiam testium personis aliqua mutentur. 
Prudenter enim, qui cum interrogasset rusticum 57 
testem, an Ampliionem. nosset, negante eo, de- 
traxit aspirationem. breviavitque secundam eius 
nominis syllabam, et ille eum. sic optime norat. 
Huiusmodi casus efficiunt, ut aliquando dicatur 
aliter quam scribitur, cum dicere, quomodo scri- 
bendum est, non licet. 

Altera est divisio, quae in tris partis et ipsa 58 
discedit, qua discerni posse etiam recte dicendi 
genera inter se videntur. Namque unum sub- 
tile, quod la-xyov vocant, alterum g r a n d e atque 
robustum, quod aSpbv dicunt, constituunt, ter- 
tium alii medium ex duobus, alii floridum 
(namque id avOrjpov appellant) addiderunt. Quo- 59 
rum tamen ea fere ratio est, ut primum docendi, 
secundum movendi, tertium illud, utrocumque 
est nomine, delectandi sive, ut alii dicunt, con- 
ciliandi praestare videatur officium; in docendo 
autem acumen, in conciliando lenitas, in movendo 
vis exigi videatur. Itaque illo subtili praecipue 
ratio narrandi probandique consistet, sed saepe id 
etiam detractis ceteris virtutibus suo genere ple- 
num. Medius hie modus et translationibus ere- 60 
brior et figuris erit iucundior, egressionibus 
amoenus, compositione aptus, sententiis dulcis, 
lenior tamen ut amnis lucidus quidem, sed vi- 
rentibus utrimque ripis inumbratus. At ille, 61 

138 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 6^65. 

qui saxa devolvat et pontem indigneturet 
ripas sibi faciat, multus et torrens mdicem vel 
nitentem. contra feret cogetque ire, qua rapiet. 
Hie orator et defunctos excitabit, ut Appium 
Caecum, apud hunc et patria ipsa exclamabit, 
aliquandoque, ut Ciceronem in oratione contra 

esCatilinam in senatu, alloquetur. Hie et ampli- 
ficationibus extoUet orationem, et in superlatio- 
nem quoque erigetur : quae Cbarybdis tarn 
vorax? et Oceanus medius fidius ipse; 
nota sunt enim iani studiosis baec lumina. Hie 
deos ipsos in congressum prope suum sermonem- 
que deducet: vos enim Albani tumuli at- 
que luci; vos, inquam, Albanorum obru- 
taearae, sacrorumpopuli Romani sociae 
et aequales. Hie iram, liic misericordiam in- 
spirabit ; hoc dicente index deos appellabit et 
flebit et per omnes adfectus tractatus hue atque 

63illuc sequetur nee doceri desiderabit. Quare si 
ex tribus his generibus necessario sit eligendum 
unum, quis dubitet hoc praeferre omnibus, et 
validissimum alioqui et maximis quibusque cau- 

64 sis accommodatissimum ? Nam et Homerus bre- 
vem quidem cum iucunditate et propriam (id 
enim est n o n d e e r r a r e verbis) et carentem 
supervacuis eloquentiam Menelao dedit, quae 
sunt virtutes generis illius primi ; et ex ore Nes- 
toris dixit dulciorem melle profluere ser- 
mon em, qua certe delectatione nihil fingi mains 
potest ; sed summam expressurus in Ulixe f acun- 
diam, et magnitudinem illi vocis et vim orationis 
nivibus hibernis et copia verborum atque impetu 

05 parem tribuit. Cum hoc igitur nemomorta- 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 66-70. 139 

Hum contendet; hunc ut deum homines in- 
tuebuntur. Hanc vim. et celeritatem. in Pericle 
miratur Eupolis, hanc fulminibus Aristophanes 
comparat, haec est vere dicendi facultas. 

Sed neque his tribus quasi f ormis inclusa elo- 66 
quentia est. Nam ut inter gracile validumque 
tertium aliquid constitutum est, ita horum inter 
se intervalla sunt, atque inter haec ipsa mixtum 
quiddam ex duobus medium est eorum. Nam et 67 
subtili plenius aliquid atque subtilius et vehe- 
menti remissius atque vehementius invenitur, ut 
illud lene aut ascendit ad f ortiora aut ad tenuiora 
summittitur. Ac sic prope innumerabiles species 
reperiuntur, quae utique aliquo momento inter se 
differant, sicut quattuor ventos generaliter a toti- 
dem mundi cardinibus accepimus flare, cum inte- 
rim plurimi medii et eorum varia nomina, et qui- 
dam etiam regionum ac fluminum proprii, depre- 
henduntur. Eademque musicis ratio est, qui, cum 68 
in cithara quinque constituerunt sonos, plurima 
deinde varietate complent spatia ilia nervorum, 
atque his, quos interposuerunt, inserunt alios, ut 
pauci illi transitus multos gradus habeant. 

Plures igitur etiam eloquentiae facies, sed 69 
stultissimiim quaerere, ad quam se recturus sit 
orator, cum omnis species, quae modo recta est, 
habeat usum, atque id ipsum non sit oratoris, 
quod vulgo genus dicendi vocant. Utetur 
enim, ut res exiget, omnibus, nee pro causa modo, 
sed pro partibus causae. Nam ut non eodem70 
modo pro reo capitis et in certamine hereditatis et 
de interdictis ac sponsionibus et de certa credita 
dicet, sententiarum quoque in senatu et contio- 

140 INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 71-75. 

num et privatorum consiliorum servabit discrimi- 
na, multa ex differentia personarum, locorum 
temporumque mutabit : ita in eadem oratione ali- 
ter concitabit, aliter conciliabit, non ex isdem 
haustibus iram et misericordiam petet, alias ad 
docendum, alias ad movendum adhibebit artis. 

71 Non unus color prooemii, narrationis, argumen- 
torum, egressionis, perorationis servabitur. Di- 
cet idem graviter, severe, acriter, vebementer, 
concitate, copiose, amare, comiter, remisse, sub- 
tiliter, blande, leniter, dulciter, breviter, urbane ; 

72 non ubique similis, sed nbique par sibi. Sic fiet 
cum id, propter quod maxime repertus est usus 
orationis, ut dicat utiliter, et ad efficiendum, 
quod intendit, potenter, tum laudem quoque, nee 
doctorum modo, sed etiam vulgi consequatur. 

73 Falluntur enim plurimum, qui vitiosum et 
corruptum dicendi genus, quod aut verborum 
licentia exultat aut puerilibus sententiolis lasci- 
vit aut immodico tumore turgescit aut inanibus 
locis bacchatur aut casuris, si leviter excutiantur, 
flosculis nitet aut praecipitia pro sublimibus ha- 
bet aut specie libertatis insanit, magis existimant 

74 populare atque plausibile. Quod quidem placere 
multis nee infitior nee miror ; est enim iucunda 
auribus ac favorabilis qualiscumque eloquentia 
et ducit animos naturali voluptate vox omnis, 
neque aliunde illi per f ora atque aggerem circuli ; 
quo minus mirum est, quod nulli non agentium 

75 parata vulgi corona est. Ubi vero quid exquisi- 
tius dictum accidit auribus imperitorum, quale- 
cumque id est quod modo se ipsi posse despe- 
rent, habet admirationem, neque immerito ; nam 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 10, 76-80. 141 

ne illud quidem facile est. Sed evanescunt haec 
atqiie emoriuntiir comparatione meliorum, ut 
lana tincta fuco citra purpuras placet; at si con- 
tuleris Tyriae earn lacernae, conspectu 
melioris obruatur, ut Ovidius ait. Si vero76 
iudicium his corruptis acrius adhibeas ut fucinis 
sulphura, iam ilium, quo fefellerant, exuant men- 
titum color em et quadam vix enarrabili foeditate 
pallescant. Lucent igitur baec citra solem, ut 
quaedam exigua animalia igniculi videntur in 
tenebris. Denique mala multi probant, nemo im- 
probat bona. 

Neque vero omnia ista, de quibus locuti su- 77 
mus, orator optime tantum, sed etiam facillime 
faciet. Neque enim vim summam dicendi et os 
admiratione dignum infelix usque ad ultimum 
sollicitudo persequitur nee oratorem macerat et 
coquit aegre verba vertentem et perpendendis 
coagmentandisque eis intabescentem. Nitidus 78 
ille et sublimis et locuples circumfluentibus undi- 
que eloquentiae copiis imperat ; desinit enim in 
adversa niti, qui pervenit in summum. Scan- 
denti circa ima labor est ; ceterum quantum pro- 
cesseris, mollior clivus ac laetius solum. Et si 79 
haec quoque iam lenius supina perseverantibus 
studiis evaseris, inde fructus inlaborati offerunt 
sese et omnia sponte proveniunt ; quae tamen 
cotidie nisi decerpantur, arescunt. Sed et copia 
babeat modum, sine quo nihil nee laudabile nee 
salutare est, et nitor ille cultum virilem et inven- 
tio iudicium. Sic erunt magna, non nimia ; sub- 80 
limia, non abrupta ; f ortia, non temeraria ; seve- 
ra, non tristia ; gravia, non tarda ; laeta, non 

142 INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 1-4. 

luxuriosa; iucunda, non dissoluta; grandia, non 
tumida. Similis in ceteris ratio est ac tutissima 
fere per medium via, quia utriusque ultimum 
vitium est. 


XI. His dicendi virtutibus usus orator in iu- 
diciis, consiliis, contionibus, senatu, in omni deni- 
que officio boni civis finem quoque dignum et 
Optimo viro et opere sanctissimo f aciet ; non quia 
prodesse umquam satis sit et ilia mente atque ilia 
facultate praedito non optandum operis pulcber- 
rimi quam longissimum tempus, sed quia decet 
hoc quoque prospicere, ne quid peius, quam fece- 

2rit, faciat. Neque enim scientia modo constat 
orator, quae augetur annis, sed voce, latere, firmi- 
tate; quibus fractis aut imminutis aetate seu 
valetudine cavendum est, ne quid in oratore sum- 
mo desideretur, ne intersistat fatigatus, ne quae 
dicet parum audiri sentiat, ne se quaerat priorem. 

3Vidi ego longe omnium, quos miM cognoscere 
contigit, summum oratorem, Domitium Afrum 
valde senem, cotidie aliquid ex ea, quam merue- 
rat, auctoritate perdentem, cum agente illo, quem 
principem fuisse quondam fori non erat dubium, 
alii, quod indignum videatur, riderent, alii eru- 
bescerent ; quae occasio fuit dicendi, malle eum 

4deficere quam desinere. Neque erant ilia qualia- 
cumque mala, sed minora. Quare antequam in 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 5-9. I43 

has aetatis veniat insidias, receptui canet et in 
portum Integra nave perveniet. 

Neque enim minores eum, cum id fecerit, stn- 
diorum fructus prosequentur. Aut ille monu- 
menta rerum posteris aut^ ut L. Crassus in libris 
Ciceronis destinat, inra quaerentibns reddet 
aut eloquentiae componet artem aut pulcher- 
rimis vitae praeceptis dignum os dabit. Fre-5 
quentabunt vero eius domum optimi iuvenes 
more veterum et vere dicendi viam velut ex ora- 
culo petent. Hos ille formabit quasi eloquentiae 
parens, et ut vetus gubernator litora et portus et, 
quae tempestatum signa, quid secundis flatibus, 
quid adversis ratio poscat, docebit, non humani- 
tatis solum communi ductus officio, sed amore 
quodam operis ; nemo enim minui velit id, in quo 6 
maximus fuit. Quid porro est lionestius quam 
docere quod optime scias ? Sic ad se Caelium 
deductum a patre Cicero profitetur, sic Pansam, 
Hirtium, Dolabellam in morem praeceptoris ex- 
ercuit cotidie dicens audiensque. Ac nescio an 7 
eum tum beatissimum credi oporteat fore, cum 
iam secretus et consecratus, liber invidia, procul 
contentionibus famam in tuto collocarit et senti- 
et vivus eam, quae post fata praestari magis so- 
let, venerationem et, quid apud posteros futurus 
sit, videbit. 

Conscius sum mibi, quantum mediocritate 8 
valui, quaeque antea scierim, quaeque operis 
buiusce gratia potuerim inquirere, candide me 
atque simpliciter in notitiam eorum, si qui forte 
cognoscere voluissent, protulisse. Atque id viro 
bono satis est, docuisse quod sciret. Vereor9 

144: INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 10-13. 

tamen, ne ant magna nimiuni videar exigere, qui 
eundem virum bonum esse et dicendi peritnm 
velim aut multa, qui tot artibus in pueritia dis- 
cendis morum quoque praecepta et scientiam 
inris civilis praeter ea, quae de eloquentia trade- 
bantur, adiecerim, quique baec operi nostro ne- 
cessaria esse crediderint, velut moram rei perhor- 

lOrescant et desperent ante experimentum. Qui 
primum renuntient sibi, quanta sit bumani in- 
genii vis, quam potens efficiendi quae velit, cum 
maria transire, siderum cursus numerosque cog- 
noscere, mundum ipsum paene dimetiri minores, 
sed difiiciliores artes potuerint. Tum cogitent, 
quantam rem petant, quamque nullus sit, hoc 

11 proposito praemio, labor recusandus. Quod si 
mente conceperint, huic quoque parti facilius ac- 
cedent, ut ipsum iter neque impervium neque sal- 
tem durum putent. Nam id, quod prius quodque 
mains est, ut boni viri simus, voluntate maxime 
constat ; quam qui vera fide induerit, facile eas- 

12dem, quae virtu tem docent, artis accipiet. Ne- 
que enim aut tam perplexa, aut tam numerosa 
sunt quae praecipiuntur, ut non paucorum admo- 
dum annorum intentione discantur. Longam 
enim facit operam, quod repugnamus : brevis est 
institutio vitae bonestae beataeque, si cedas na- 
turae. Natura enim nos ad mentem optimam 
genuit, adeoque discere meliora volentibus promp- 
tum est, ut vere intuenti mirum sit illud magis, 

ISmalos esse tam multos. Nam ut aqua piscibus, 
ut sicca terrenis, circumfusus nobis spiritus volu- 
cribus convenit, ita certe facilius esse oportebat 
secundum naturam quam contra earn vivere. 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 14-17. 145 

Cetera vero, etiamsi aetatem nostram non spa^tio 
senectutis, sed tempore adulescentiae metiamur, 
abunde multos ad discendum annos habent ; om- 
nia enim. breviora reddet ordo et ratio et raodus. 
Sed culpa est in praeceptoribus prima, qui liben- 14 
ter detinent qiios occiipaverunt, partim cupiditate 
diutius exigendi mercedulas, partim ambitione, 
quo difficilius videatur esse quod pollicentur, 
partim etiam inscientia tradendi vel neglegentia. 
Proxima in nobis, qui morari in eo quod novi- 
mus, quam discere quae nondum scimus, melius 
putamus. Nam ut de nostris potissimum studiis 15 
dicam, quid attinet tam multis annis, quam in 
more est plurimorum (ut de bis, a quibus magna 
in hoc pars aetatis absumitur, taceam) declami- 
tare in scbola et tantum laboris in rebus falsis 
consumere, cum satis sit modico tempore iniagi- 
nem veri discriminis et dicendi leges comperisse ? 
Quod non dico, quia sit umquam omittenda di- 16 
cendi exercitatio, sed quia non in una sit eius 
specie consenescendum. Res varias cognoscere 
et praecepta \dvendi perdiscere et in foro nos ex- 
periri potuimus, dum scbolastici sumus. Dis- 
cendi ratio talis, ut non multos poscat annos. 
Quaelibet enim ex iis artibus, quarum babui men- 
tionem, in paucos libros contraM solet, adeo non 
est infinito spatio ac traditione opus. Reliqua est 
exercitatio quae vires cito facit, cum fecit, tuetur. 
Rerum cognitio cotidie crescit, et tamen quam 17 
multorum ad earn, librorum necessaria lectio est, 
quibus aut rerum exempla ab Mstoricis aut di- 
cendi ab oratoribus petuntur ? Philosophorum 
quoque consultorumque opiniones, sicuti alia, ve- 

146 INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 18-31. 

limns legere, nee, quod ne fieri quidem potest, 
omnia. Sed breve nobis tempus nos facimus; 

18 qnantnlnm enim stndiis partimnr ? Alias boras 
vanns salntandi labor, alias datum fabulis otium, 
alias spectacula, alias convivia trabunt. Adice 
tot genera ludendi et insanam corporis curam, 
peregrinationes, rura, calculorum anxiam sollici- 
tudinem, invitamenta libidinum et vinum et 
flagrantes omni genere voluptatum animos : ne 

19 ea quidem tempora idonea, quae supersunt. Quae 
si omnia studiis impenderentur, iam nobis longa 
aetas et abunde satis ad discendum spatii videre- 
tur vel diurna tantum computantibus tempora; 
ut nihil noctes, quarum bona pars omni somno 
longior est, adiuvarent. Nunc computamus an- 
nos, non quibus studuimus, sed quibus viximus. 

20 Nee vero si geometrae et musici et grammatiei 
ceterarumque artium professores omnem suam 
vitam, quamlibet longa fuerit, in singulis artibus 
consumpserunt, sequitur ut pluris quasdam vitas 
ad plura diseenda desideremus. Neque enim illi 
didicerunt baee usque in senectutem, sed ea sola 
didieisse eontenti fuerunt ac tot annos non in 
percipiendo exhauserunt, sed in praecipiendo. 

21 Ceterum, ut de Homero taceam, in quo nullius 
non artis aut opera perfecta aut eerte non dubia 
vestigia reperiuntur : ut Eleum Hippiam transe- 
am, qui non liberalium modo disciplinarum prae 
se seientiam tulit, sed vestem et anulum erepidas- 
que, quae omnia manu sua feeerat, in usu babuit, 
atque ita se praeparavit, ne cuius alterius opere 
egeret : inlusisse tot malis, quot summa senectus 
habet, universae Graeeiae eredimus, Gorgiam^ 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 23-26. 147 

qui qiiaerere auditores, de quo quisque vellet, 
iubebat. Quae tandem ars digna litteris Platoni 2k 
defuit ? Quot saeculis Aristoteles didicit, ut non 
solum, quae ad philosophos atque oratores perti- 
nent, scientia complecteretur, sed animalium 
satorumque naturas omnis perquireret ? Illis 
haec invenienda fuerunt, nobis cognoscenda 
sunt. Tot nos praeceptoribus, tot exemplis in- 
struxit antiquitas, ut possit videri nulla sorte 
nascendi aetas felicior quam nostra, cui docendae 
priores elaborarunt. M. igitur Cato idem sum- 23 
mus imperator, idem sapiens, idem orator, idem 
historiae conditor, idem iuris, idem rerum rusti- 
carum peritissimus fuit ; inter tot operas militiae, 
tantas domi contentiones, rudi saeculo, litteras 
Graecas aetate iam declinata didicit, ut esset 
bominibus documento, ea quoque percipi posse, 
quae senes concupissent. Quam multa, paene24 
omnia tradidit Varro! Quod instrumentum di- 
cendi M. Tullio defuit ? Quid plura ? cum etiam 
Cornelius Celsus, mediocri vir ingenio, non solum 
de his omnibus conscripserit artibus, sed amplius 
rei militaris et rusticae et medicinae praecepta 
reliquerit, dignus vel ipso proposito, ut eum 
scisse omnia ilia credamus. 

At perficere tantum opus arduum, et nemo 25 
perfecit. Ante omnia sufficit ad exhortationem 
studiorum, capere id rerum naturam, nee, quid- 
quid non est factum, ne fieri quidem posse ; tum 
omnia, quae magna sunt atque admirabilia, tem- 
pus aliquod quo primum eflScerentur babuisse; 
nam et poesis ab Homero et Vergilio tantum 26 
fastigium accepit et eloquentia a Demostbene at- 

148 INST. ORATOR. XII. 11, 27-30. 

que Cicerone, Denique quidquid est optimum, 
ante non fuerat. Verum etiamsi quis summa 
desperet, (quod cur faciat, cui ingenium, valetu- 
do, facultas, praeceptores non deerunt ?) tamen 
est, ut Cicero ait, pulchrum insecundis terti- 
27isque consistere. Neque enim, si quis Achillis 
gloriam in bellicis consequi non potest, Aiacis 
aut Diomedis laudem aspernabitur, nee qui Ho- 
meri non, Tyrtaei. Quin immo si hanc cogi- 
tationem homines habuissent, ut nemo se melio- 
rem fore eo, qui optimus fuisset, arbitraretur, hi 
ipsi, qui sunt optimi, non fuissent, neque post 
Lucretium ac Macrum Yergilius nee post Cras- 
sum et Hortensium Cicero, sed nee illi, qui post 

28 eos f uerunt. Verum ut transeundi spes non sit ; 
magna tamen est dignitas subsequendi. An 
Pollio et Messala, qui iam Cicerone arcem tenente 
eloquentiae agere coeperunt, parum in vita digni- 
tatis habuerunt, parum ad posteros gloriae tra- 
diderunt ? Alioqui pessime de rebus humanis 
perductae in summum artes mererentur, si, quod 

29 optimum, fuisset. Adde quod magnos modica 
quoque eloquentia parit fructus, ac, si quis haec 
studia utilitate sola metiatur, paene illi perf ectae 
par est. Neque erat difficile vel veteribus vel 
no vis exemplis palam f acere, non aliunde maiores 
opes, honores, amicitias, laudem praesentem, fu- 
turam hominibus contigisse : nisi indignum litte- 
ris esset, ab opere pulcherrimo, cuius tractatus 
atque ipsa possessio plenissimam studiis gratiam 
refert, hanc minorem exigere mercedem, more 
eorum, qui a se non virtutes, sed voluptatem, 

30 quae fit ex virtutibus, peti dicunt. Ipsam igitur 

INST. ORATOR. XII, 11, 31. I49 

orandi maiestatem, qua niliil dii immortales me- 
lius homini dederunt, et qua remota muta sunt 
omnia et luce praesenti ac memoria posteritatis 
carent, toto animo petamus nitamurque semper 
ad optima, quod facientes aut evademus in sum- 
mum aut certe multos infra nos videbimus. 

Haec erant, Marcelle Victori, quibus praecepta 31 
dicendi pro virili parte adiuvari posse per nos 
videbantur, quorum cognitio studiosis iuvenibus 
si non magnam utilitatem adferet, at certe, quod 
magis petimus, bonam voluntatem. 


Grammatical references are made to the Latin grammars 
of Harkness, Zumpt, and Madvig, designated respectively bj 
H., Z., and M. 

Eoman numerals, except in grammatical notes, refer to 
the books of the Institutions. 





The Tenth Book treats of the studies and exercises necessary 
to the actual possession and ready command of the elements of 
good oratory described in the preceding books. These exercises 
must supplement theoretical knowledge {cognitid). They are 
mainly three : reading, icriting, and declamation. But with 
reading is naturally associated, also, hearing ; and in these two 
the aim is partly the command of diction (copia verboriim), and 
partly the imitaticn of good qualities in general. Writing in- 
volves the consideration of method, emendation, and /orm ; and 
declamation may be prepared by writing, or premeditation, or 
may be purely extemporary. Hence, the book is divided into 
seven chapters : the first on reading, including also hearing, the 
second on imitation, as an appendix to the first, the third on the 
manner of writing, i'hQ.lowxth. on emendation, the fifth on the 
material and form of writing, the sixth on premeditation, and 
the seventh (last in order, though first in importance) on extem- 
porary declamation. 



1^. Introductory to the entire book, rather than to the first chapter 
alone. Which of the three exercises, writing, reading, and speaking, 
contributes most to read}' command of speech (firma faciUtas), is a 
question of little practical importance, since all three are indispensable. 

154: NOTES. X, 1, 45. 

Fet, in fact, the practice of speaking is the most important (ante omnia), 
as being the essential and characteristic thing in oratory, and as origi- 
nally the only one of the three taught by the rhetoricians in their first 
attempts at a system or art of rhetoric [hinc initium eius artis fuisse, 
manifestum est). Afterward, imitation, or reading and hearing, the basis 
of imitation, and finally writing, were also found necessary as prelimi- 
nary studies, and were embodied in this art. But the question in entering 
upon the present book is, the order of treatment ; and this will not be the 
order of the relative importance of the three ; for, as in all other .L idies, 
we attain the chief or ultimate object (summa) by starting from suosidi- 
ary beginnings iprincipia), so here, reading and writing will be first 
taken up, as the* preliminary conditions of effective speech, and then wiU 
foUow the discussion of speaking or declamation, as the more immediate 
preparation for public speaking. Thus the things which are first in order 
{prima) will in the end become relatively unimportant {minima), and 
speaking, as the exercise which is permanently essential to success, and 
can never be remitted,* will take precedence. 

But it must be remembered {verum, etc.) that the object of the present 
book is not to teach the principles or theory of rhetoric, already fully dis- 
cussed in the preceding books, but to point out the exercises by means of 
which the student can put in practice what he has learned in theory. 

1. haec eloquendi praecepta. The reference is especially 
to the rhetorical or stylistic principles taught in the eighth and 
ninth books. Corap. vii, 10, 17, at the end. sicut — ita, as 
also nt — if a, sometimes express the relation of " though — yet." 
So quemadmodum — sic, 5, 17. cognitioni, here theoretical 
knowledge, as opposed to vim dicendi, or actual oratorical power. 
firma facilitas, an Jinhitual readiness or well-grounded habit. 
The equivalent in xii, 9, 21 is vires facilitatis. 

2. indiscreta, inseparable, multo stilo, with much labor 
of the pen. citra, in the post- Augustan writers, is frequent for 
sine, fluitabit, ivill he afloat; will be vague, confused; not 
piloted, as it were (carens rectore) by good examples. Comp. 
vii, prooem. 3. in procinctu, i7i line of battle, or ready for 
conflict ; a figure not used by Cicero. If the practice of decla- 
mation, especially extemporary, is not cultivated, so as to keep 
the orator always armed and ready for the emergencies of the 
forum, all that he has gained by the use of the pen and the study 
of books will be like the useless hoard of a miser (velut clausis 
ihesauris incubabit). quae dicenda refers to invention ; quo 
modo, to style or expression (elocufio). 

* See Chapter VII, § 24. 

JVOTKS. X, 1, 3-7. 155 

3. protinus, at once, immediately, at the very first. That 
which is most essential and most characteristic (as here, the 
practice of speaking) is not necessarily taken up first in the order 
of study, ut — sic, according as — so. ante omnia sometimes 
indicates order of time and place, and sometimes of rank or im- 
portance. Here, as in iv, 3, 125, xii, 2, 1, it is to be taken in 
the latter signification. See introductory note on 1-4. Speaking 
is the most essential practice for the orator, and the beginning 
of the science or system of instruction {artem) was the exercise 
of speaking alone ; but now, since imitation and writing have 
become parts of this course of training, they are taken up and 
discussed before that which came before them in the historical 
development of the art ; while the latter is reserved for the last 
part of our teaching ; or as the last topic of the present book. 
imitationem, diligentiam, supply /wme, depending on mani- 
festum est. 

4. athleta, our athlete ; orator noster velut aihleta. nume- 
ros, elements, parts, or principles ; a usage of numerus derived 
from the practice in the gymnasium of indicating the various 
movements and postures of the athlete by numbers. Comp. xii, 
2, 12. qui sciet, perceperit. In works of instruction the 
future is often used in intermediate relative clauses instead of 
the subjunctive perfect; as 5, 10, 13, 17, etc. 

5-15. Only by reading and hearing can the orator acquire an ample 
supply or equipment of words (copia verborum) ; and while these are 
learned in their best usage by reading the best writings and by hearing 
the best orators (optima legendo atque aiidiendo), by this means also the 
student has access to actual examples of all the rhetorical principles 
taught in the schools {omnium quae docemus) in the way of theory. 

6. causae, cases or causes ; in the legal or technical sense. 
propria, literal, nota ; so as to be recognized when seen or 
heard, in promptu — in conspectu, i7i readiness, and, as it 
were, (always) in view, through the actual and habitual use of 

7. solitos (esse) ; sc. declamatores, or discipulos. Our au- 
thor quite frequently leaves these words, and also orator and 
lector, to be understood, cuiusdam, a certain kind. This pro- 
noun often implies that the writer is using a word with some 

156 NOTES. X, 1, 8-10. 

peculiar meaning, or that it comes nearest to the expression of 
his idea. In this usage it may be rendered variously : as it were, 
so to speak, in some seyise, in some measure, a hind of, something 
nice, etc. Comp. 76, 81, xii, 10, 17, et al. infelicis operae, of 
fruitless ivork. congregat, occupat. See above on solitos. 
sine discrimine. This constitutes the fault. 

8. quod ; sc. nomen. 

9. nam is elliptical here, as frequently : " and we may go 
even farther," for. It may be translated indeed, and indeed, nay, 
more, etc. iamborum ; lampoons or satirical lyrics of a per- 
sonal character, invented by Archilochus, and thus named be- 
cause the iambus was the predominant foot. Hor. A. P. 79: 
Archilochum propria rabies armavit iamho. Examples are 
found among the epodes of Horace. See §§ 59, 96. in illis, 
in the use of these {parum verecundis). nostrum opus intueri, 
to have regard to our own work ; that of the orator alone. 

lOo ut sciamus, norimus ; dependent on adsequi. See 
H. 498, ii. formas mensurasque ; forms and measures ; the 
effect of words, so far as it depends upon their form and their 
rhythmical elements. The orator, more or less consciously, in 
the composition of his phrases and sentences hits upon words 
which not only convey his meaning, but also are most pleasing 
in sound. But the effect, in respect to sound, depends partly 
on the shape of the word, that is, on the elemental sounds (rep- 
resented by letters) of which it is formed (see viii, 3, 16), and 
partly on the feet and measures which words make in the com- 
position. The commentators generally take forma here to mean 
the grammatical forms of inflection ; but at the advanced stage 
of rhetorical education implied in the teachings of the present 
book, our author would hardly think of prescribing exercises 
for learning declensions and conjugations, iussu regum. 
Herodotus, 2, 2, tells us that such an experiment was made by 
the Egyptian king Psammetichus. Confirmation, if any were 
needed, of Quintilian's remark, is afforded in the accounts, given 
by some of our recent missionaries in India, of young children 
rescued from the dens of wolves, who had evidently carried them 
away in infancy. Two such children, recently in the Sundra 
mission school, are described by the superintendent, Rev. J. 
Erhardt, in his report of 1873, as being still unable to make 

NOTES. X, 1, 11-16. 15Y 

known their wants in any way but " half smothered whines " 
and " most unearthly sounds." 

1 1. sunt autera, etc. The necessity of attention to read- 
ing and hearing, in order to learn the proper usage of words, is 
illustrated by several examples, alia, alia, some, other; sc. 
verba, vocibus ; sounds or forms, as distinguished from verba, 
here referring more particularly to the sense, significationis, 
as to the meaning. So vii, 2, 20 : nihil interest actionum. The 
regular form would be ad significationem. H. 408, iv ; Z. 450. 
propria, literal, taken in their literal signification. rpoviKus, 
tropically ; "by a turn," or change of application, quasi is 
printed in Spalding's text without brackets, on the ground that 
Quintilian intended to suggest by quasi that this substitution 
of ferrum for mucro had become too common to be recognized 
as a trope, feruntur, are adapted; conveyed. 

12. nam. See on §> 9. abusionem, catachresis; violent, 
or bold metaphor. See viii, 2, 5. 

13. ex proximo mutuari, to borrow from something analo- 
gous, intellego, sentio, video, and scio express analogous ideas; 
are in proximo to each other, quomodo occurrent. Comp, 
§ 7, ad. fin. 

14. inter se idem faciunt, reciprocally express the same 
idea. ostendit= i?idicat, significat. 

15. ut — ita. See on § 1. omnium ; all the principles per- 
taining to a system of rhetoric, hoc is correlated to the follow- 
ing, quia; for this reason — because, etiam ipsis — artibus, 
even than (rhetorical) theories themselves (however excellent) 
V hich are taught in the schools. Artes is not infrequently thus 
used for rules, precepts, or theories, sine demonstrante, 
without a guide or teacher, 

16-19. The comparative advantages'of hearing and reading. 

16. alia — adiuvant, some benefits aid hearers, etc., or some 
benefits attend hearing, others reading. Alia does not refer to 
some particular kinds of speeches, but has a cognate meaning 
with the verb. In the passive form the reading would be : 
aliter audientes adiuvantur aliter legentes, or, aliter audiendo 
discipulus adiuvatur aliter legendo. spiritu ipso, by his very 
spirit, by his living voice, by his living (or personal) presence ; 

158 NOTES. X, 1, 17-19. 

without the cold medium of written symbols ; explained below 
in vivunt omnia et moveyitur, etc. ambitu ; an outline draw- 
ing. The written speech is only a silent picture of the real and 
living speech, iudicii, the trial. It is t\iQ judicial orator that 
Quintilian has chiefly in mind. 

17. actio embraces either the whole idea of "delivery," or, 
as here, where it is distinguished from vox and projiuntiare, it 
means simply gesture, or the management of the person. Comp. 
7, 9. pronuntiandi ; in the general sense of delivery, taking 
in both voice and gesture. In iii, 3, 1, and xi, 3, 1, Quintilian 
observes that actio and pronuntiatio are used indifferently 
(utraque appellatione uti licet), both alike including voice and 
gesture, vel potentissima. xi, 3, 6 : Demosthenes, quid esset 
in toto dicendi opere primum interrogatus, prommtiatiojii pal- 
mam dedit, eidemque secundum ac tertium locum. Cicero, in 
quoting the same passage from Demosthenes (Brut. 38), uses 
actio instead of pronuntiatio. The word " action," often used 
in expressing the sentiment of Demosthenes in English, is likely 
to convey a wrong idea, semel, in short, suus cuique favor, 
his (the auditor's) particular preference for each (or for any 07ie). 
The relation of favor to its object is expressed by in (Tacit. 
Hist. 1, 53), by erga (id. Germ. 33) and j^ro (Quint. Inst, iv, 1, 9); 
the dative here may be referred to H. 393, i ; M. 344, obs. 5. 
ille clamor. Besides those who were interested for one side or 
the other, idlers were often brought together {conrogatis) for a 
fee to applaud the speakers in the courts. See iv, 3, 37. The 
younger Pliny, in Ep. 3, 14, expresses his disgust at the prac- 

18. cum interim, while at the same time, while neverthe- 

19. gratiam non referant, /ai7 to award due praise, ut 
actionis im.petus, as {/iJce) the movement of speaking ; which 
leaves the mind no /ree moment of reflection, but holds its atten- 
tion hound to the swiftly passing arguments of the orator. 
Readmg is not necessarily continuous., let us re- 
view, let us read over., let us criticise, digeran- 
tur, for concoquantur, in the English sense of digest, applied to 
food. So digestmn cibum, xi, 3, 35. In the comparison mollita 
answers to mansos, and confecta to liquefactos. So Bonnell. 

NOTES. X, 1, 20-23. 159 

20-26. In the study of speeches our reading should at first be slow and 
critical, with careful attention to parts and passages, and followed by a 
review of the whole ; and the subjects and " causes'" to which they re- 
late should be studied, and also speeches on both sides, and even others 
on the same side should be read, if accessible. 

20. nonnisi in the post-Augustan age takes on the sense 
of taiitum, and in this sense is written as one word, fallal ; that 
is, as a model of style, ad scribendi soUicitudinem, ivith 
{according to) the careful deliberation of writing ; just as 
thoughtfully and slowly as in writing, perlectus. after it has 
been read through, quoque ; often as here, in the sense of 
etiam. even. 

21. saepe enim, etc. Comp. xii, 9, 4. actionis, argii- 
ment, speech, oration ; as frequently, summa. last, repeten- 
da; as in § 19. suo loco, in their place ; taken by themselves 
alone, and without a knowledge of their bearing on the whole 

22. nosse causas ; to be acquainted with all the facts and 
the histoiT of cases or questions. Demosthenis et Aeschi- 
nis {actiones) ; the orations in the case de corona, or against 
Ctesiphon. pro Aufidia. The case of Aufidia is not men- 
tioned elsewhere, reo Asprenate, when Asprenas was on 
trial; in the trial of Asprenas. Gains Nonius Asprenas. a 
friend of Augustus, was prosecuted by Cassius for poisoning, 
and defended by Pollio. 

23. si minus pares ; even if somewhat inferior as exam- 
ples of oratory, requirentur : often in the sense of " hunt 
up," read up, or study. Ciceronis orationes : that is, pro 
Ligario and in Verrem. Tuberords, Hortensii; so. oratio. 
easdem causas. etc. ; how each orator argued (egerif) the same 
cases, or on the same side. Calidius ; one of the younger orators 
commended by Cicero in the Brutus, 274, as 7ion unus e multis, 
potius inter multos prope singularis. pro Milone. Brutus 
wrote this speech, not to deliver in public, but exercitationis 
gratia. In it he argued that Milo was justified in the killing of 
Clodius by the fact that he was a bad citizen ; whereas, Cicero 
based his defense on the allegation that Clodius had formed an 
ambuscade for the murder of Milo. M. Junius Brutus, to whom 
Cicero was tenderly attached, was born b. c. 85, and perished at 

160 NOTES. X, 1, 24-27. 

Philippi B. c. 42. egisse, to have actually delivered it; op- 
posed to scripsit. Celsus. See on § 124. 

24. Voluseno Catulo ; not mentioned elsewhere. Do- 
mitii Afri. See Introduction, page 11, and below, § 118. 
Crispi Passieni ; called by Suetonius (Nero, 6) the step- 
father of Nero. Decimi Iiaelii ; possibly the Laelius Bal- 
bus spoken of by Tacitus (Ann. 6, 47) as the prosecutor of 
Acutia. ferebantur, used to he spoken of ; were well known, 
or in circulation, neque id, etc. ; an additional admonition 
to the reader, statim, at once, or as a matter of course ; with 
persuasum sit. auctores in Quintilian's time gets the sense 
of scriptores, without the notion of " authority." There is a 
transition of the thought here from orators to writers in 
general, labuntur ; often in the sense of " slip in judg- 
ment," err : as below in § 94. As to the thought comp. 2, 15. 
oneri, the burden ; the exhausting toil of authorship, and the 
greatness of their themes, indulgent — voluptati, give free 
rein to the pleasure of conscious genius. Comp. § 98. Marked 
examples are Stesichorus (§ 62), Aeschylus (§ 66), and Ovid 
(§§ 88, 98). dormitare. The remark, repeated in xii, 1, 2, 
can not be found in the extant writings of Cicero ; though he 
says, in Orat., 104, that Demosthenes " does not always satisfy 
his ear." interim, as frequently, for non7iumquam, or ali- 
quando. Comp. 3, 7. Horatio. See A. P. 359. 

26. plerisque, very many, in alteram partem, on one 
side or the other. 

27-36. Not only from the study of speeches but also from that of the 
poets, historians, and philosophers can the orator gain much ; from poetry 
a more elevated spirit and diction (27-30), from history a rich and genial 
aliment (uberi iucundoque suco) (31-34), and from philosophy familiarity 
with the principles of ethics and dialectics, and the laws of nature, as 
well as acuteness in controversy (35, 36) ; but the orator must avoid those 
characteristics of each which are not suitable for speeches. 

27. Theophrastus. See § 83. neque immerito, and not 
without reason ; frequent in Quintilian to introduce the ground 
of a foregoing statement. Comp. ^ 79. spiritus, liveliness, 
animation, a higher tone. Comp. 5, 4. motus omnis, every 
emotio7i, or kind of emotion. From them is learned the eifective 
way of appealing to every feeling of the soul. Comp. 2, 27. 

NOTES. X, 1, 28-31. 161 

in personis decor, fitness (or propriety) in respect to persons ; 
that is, correct judgment in adapting speech to the person or 
persons to whom it relates ; in the case of the advocate, to 
himself, the judges and the client. See § 71, 2, 27; 3, 15. vi, 
1, 25 : prosopopoeiae, id est fictae alienarum personarum ora- 
tio7ies quales Utigatorem decent vel patronem. Comp. Horace, 
A. P. 156, sqq. actu, speaking or pleading, rerum talium 
blanditia, the charm (or restful pleasure) of such studies. 
Cicero putat. Oral, pro Archia, 6. 

28. figurarum. The reference is to word-figures, as illus- 
trated by the examples in § 12. genus — comparatum, that 
it is a kind (of writing) composed for e?itertainment. Supply 
esse depending on meminerimus. ostentationi ; of course, in 
no disparaging sense ; the notion is " beauty of presentation." 
The author means that poetry is " epideictic " in its character, 
and has not in view, like forensic oratory, an immediate and 
practical end. praeter id quod, besides the fact that ; fre- 
quent in Quintilian for praeterquam quod. Comp. 2, 26, 3, 6. 
patrocinio — iuvari, that it is favored also hy some indulg- 

29. adligata ; supply poesis ; which the writer has uncon- 
sciously substituted in his mind for genus (poeticum). pro- 
priis, simple, direct, or itiartificial terms, eloquendi dever- 
ticula, by-ways of expression, mutare verba, to cha^ige the 
use of words; including both libertate verborum and licentia 
figurarum. extendere, corripere, to lengthen, contract, con- 
vertere, to transpose; remove from their usual order, divi- 
dere, to separate; that is. by tmesis: as 'Vergil. Aen. 1, 610 
quae me cumque vocant terrae ; and Georg. 3, 381 ; septem sub 
iecta trioni. nos ; that is, advocates, stare ; in the same con 
struction as esse sequendos, etc. 

30. neque, but not ; as in 80 ; 5, 5, and 7, 4. ergo ; namely, 
because I have given this caution to the orator about too close 
imitation of the poetic manner, habenti periculosus. The 
characteristic beauties of poetry, aiming simply to please the 
taste and delight the fancy, if employed by the practical speaker, 
either disgust the judges or withdraw their attention from the 
point at issue, and thus weaken or endanger his cause. 

31. at ipsa ; as well as poetry. Comp. § 28. sic ut scia- 


162 NOTES. X. i. 32-34. 

mus, in such a way thai we keep in mind ; in such a manner as 
to keep the fact in mind, that, etc. carmen solutum, a poem 
ivithout meter ; solutum ah necessitate pedum, not adligatum. 
totum opus, this whole class of work, the whole body of his- 
torical work. Opus as genus in § 28. Comp. 35, 64, 67, 69, 70, 
72, 96, 123 ; 2, 21. ad actum rei, for the doing of a thing, for 
action. Others, for the arguing of a case, pugnam. ; the con- 
flict of debate, pugjia forensis. rem.otioribus, as libertate ver- 
horum in § 28, refers to the employment of less common terms 
than in oratory, or of words more removed from their every-day 

32. ut dixi ; namely, in iv, 2, 45, where he makes a similar 
remark in connection with the proper style of narrative in judi- 
cial speeches, aures vacuas at que eruditas ; generally true 
of readers, as compared with the juryman (iudicem), occupatum 
variis cogitationibus et saepius ineruditum ; for, as with us, the 
juryman, appointed by the praetor directly or by lot, was not 
learned in the law. See Smith's Diet, of Antiq., art. index, no- 
bis ; that is, oratorihus. lactea ubertas ; milky richness ; ex- 
pressive of a style, genial, copious, and pure ; the same as 
described in ii, 5, 19, by the terms candidissimum and maxime 
expositum, and partially in § 101, by clarissimi candoris. Oppo- 
site qualities would be ieiunus {meagei'), aridus (dry), and lutu- 
lentus (muddy), eum; the index, speciem expositionis, 
beauty of narration. 

33. adde quod; quite frequent in Quintilian for praeterea. 
Comp. 2, 10, 11, 12. Thucydiden, Xenophontem ; the nearest 
Greek prototypes of Sallust and Livy. Comp. 73, 82. bellicum 
canere, to sound the war signal ; his style is stirring like a bat- 
tle signal. Cic. Orat. 12, 39. musas esse locutas. Cic. Orat. 
19, 62. toros, brawn, lacertos, tough sinews. Comp. § 77. 
Demetrius Phalereus. See § 80. Cic. Brut. 9, 38 : hie (Deme- 
trius) primus inflexit orationem et eam mollem teneramque red- 
didit, versicolorem vestem; a metaphor descriptive of a 
style too ornamental for the forum, viii, prooem. 20: versi- 
color elocutio. bene facere, to serve ivell. 

34. historiis. For this use of the plural see on § 75. 
praesentem locum. The present topic is " copia verborum." 
a litigatore, from the client ; from him the essential facts of 

NOTES. X, 1, 35, 36. 163 

the case must be learned. See xii, 8, 7, 15. diligenter cognita, 
well understood ; thoroughly investigated ; for without this an 
ingenious and more learned opponent may turn the supposed his- 
torical analogy, or some supposed precedent, against the adversary 
who has quoted it. sumat. Supply ut ; the positive form of the 
purpose being suggested by the foregoing negative ne expectet. 
criminibus odii, etc. The statements of parties in a suit and 
those of their witnesses must often be received by the court with 
more or less distrust, on account of charges {criminibus) and 
suspicions of enmity or of personal interest (gratiae). See v, 
11, 36, 37. 

35. nobis. See on § 33. qui quidem — cesserunt. Cicero 
and Quintilian insist upon the truth that philosophy, and espe- 
cially moral philosophy, is a legitimate part of the orator's 
equipment, and the orator and rhetorician should never have 
" withdrawn from this noblest part of their work," and left it to 
the philosophers. See 1, prooem. 10, 13, xii, 2, 8. Cic. de Or. 3, 
15 : neque disiuncti doctores, sed iidem erant vivendi praecepto- 
res atque dicendi. iustis — contraria, indicates the topics of 
moral philosophy, or the things pertaining to human conduct 
ftnd society, res humanae. rebus divinis includes divinity 
and the divine creation ; all things which do not proceed from 
the human mind and will ; the philosophy of nature in the 
widest sense of nature. See also on xii, 2, 20. altercationibus, 
debates, interpellations ; the brief passages of controversy which 
often occur in trials, sometimes when an advocate is interrupted 
in the course of his plea by a question from the opposite side, 
but more frequently during the examination of witnesses. This 
kind of forensic sparring is called by Quintilian, in vi, 4, 2, actio 
irevis, the shori speech, as opposed to actio perpetua, or the con- 
tinuous speech, interrogationibus, interrogatories ; question- 
ing and cross-questioning of witnesses. Socratici, the Socratic 
writers; the writers of the Socratic form of dialogue, Plato, 
Xenophon, and Aeschines Socraticus. v, 7, 28 : in quibus (So- 
craticis) adeo scitae sunt interrogationes, ut, cum plerisque bene 
respondeat ur, res tamen ad id, quod volunt efficere, perveniat. 

36. his quoque, to these also ; as well as to the poets and 
historians. See § 28, 31. sciamus. See on § 31, in rebus 
iisdem ; on the same topics ; questions of right and wrong, etc.j. 

164 JSOTES. X, 1, 87-40. 

common to the law and philosophy, disputationum, pAi7o' 
sophical discussions, periculorum, judicial trials. 

37-42. In laying out a plan of reading for the present purpose our 
author can not be expected to notice individually ( persequi singulos) all 
the writers in both languages ; though it is his judgment in general {iudi- 
cii summa) that almost all writers, whether old (qui vetustatem pertu- 
lerunt) or new, are worth reading, at least in part ; but the present object 
is to read what is profitable for the formation of style (ad faciendam 
phrasin), and not that which is valuable in relation to some branch of 
knowledge (quidquid ad aliquam partem scientiae pertinet). 

37. persequi singulos, to notice all individually ; to go 
through the whole line of authors one by one. 

38. omnibus aetatis suae qui turn vive"bant, includes 
only the orators of his own times, ivho were then livijig ; that is, 
all of his contemporaries who were living at the time of the 
writing of the Brutus, b. c. 46. In the Brutus, 65, 231, Cicero 
says : quoniam in hoc sermone statui neminem eorum, qui vive- 
rent, nominare, . . . eos, qui iam sunt mortui, nominabo. Ac- 
cordingly he gives a very minute account of the orators of his 
own times who have passed away, but of his living contempo- 
raries he mentions none but Caesar and Marcellus. In the case 
of these two he makes an exception in compliance with the re- 
quest of Brutus. See Brut. 71, 248. For the usual reading, 
quibuscum vivebat, which is conjectural, and has been adopted 
from the Aldine edition, I have substituted qui turn vivebant, 
one of the proposed emendations given in the margin of Halm's 
text. The manuscripts here are entirely at variance, and quite 
unintelligible. Aetatis suae, taken by itself, would embrace 
either the whole career of Cicero as an orator, about thirty-five 
years, to the time here spoken of, or else his life from the time 
when he began to hear the orators of the forum as a student (b. c. 
90), a period of forty-four years. Brut. 88, 303 : hoc (Horten- 
sius) igitur florescente, Crassus est mortuus, Cotta pulsus, indicia 
intermissa hello, nos (Cicero) in forum venimus. et illos; 
namely, the living contemporaries of Cicero. After si supply 
persequi velim, 

39. apud Livium. This letter of the historian Livy is 
also referred to in ii, 5, 20, and probably in viii, 2, 18. 

40. nostri iudicii summa, my opinion in general or i» 

NOTES. X, 1, 41-44 165 

brief; as opposed to the notice of all writers individually. 
Comp. 3, 9. What the substance or gist of this opinion is, he 
gives in the following statement introduced by emm. vetus- 
tatem pertulerunt, have stood the test of time ; survived an- 
tiquity, or the past, vetustissimis ; Quintilian has in mind 
here the writers and orators of the period from about b. c. 200 
to 120. Of these Cicero in the Brutus singles out especially 
Cato (Brut. 15, 61, sqq.) and Gains Gracchus (33, 125). But in 
general Quintilian uses veteres and antiqui of the times of Cice- 
ro himself as well as his predecessors, and novi of those of the 
post- Augustan period. See ii, 5, 23. 

41. quotus enim quisque, etc., for how rarely can an 
author he found so destitute of common sense as not to have 
hoped for the memory of future times with even the smallest con- 
fidence at least in some portion (of his writings). Almost every 
author must have had judgment enough not to have published 
a book without the consciousness that there was something in it 
worth reading, at least here and there, fiducia is the reason 
or ground of speraverit. partis is an objective genitive after 
fiducia. detrimento, loss, or cost ; an ablative of price. 

42. protinus, at once, as a matter of course, necessarily. 
ad faciendam phrasin, for the formation of style. Comp. 
§ 87, and viii, 1, 1. phrasin facere, may be compared with vires 
facere, 3, 3, and usum facere, 3, 28. 

43-45. Preliminary to the proposed sketch of typical authors a 
word must be said about the different opinions or tastes of orators and 
critics on the several schools and styles of eloquence ; especially of the 
prejudices of some who stand opposed to each other as the admirers 
respectively of the old writers {veteres) and the moderns {novi), and of 
the difference in taste and genius which leads even those {ipsi) who ap- 
prove the best type of eloquence {rectum dicendi genus) to adopt only 
one of the three kinds into which it is divided. 

43. veteres ; here in the sense mentioned in note on § 40. 
recens haec lascivia deliciaeque, this meretricious and fop- 
pish style of our own day. See Introduction, p. 20 ; and on laS' 
civus, § 88. 

44. ipsorum qui — volunt. Those who are partisans nei- 
ther of the veteres nor of the 7iovi, but seek to attain that true 
standard of eloquence which finds some examples in all periods. 

166 NOTES. X, 1, 45. 

This one right kind, not like the recens et lascivum, overwrought 
with prinkish ornament, and calling away the attention from 
the substance to the form, but always aiming to convey the 
thought in the clearest and most effective manner, the kind 
which is true to nature, is termed in ii, 5, 11, sermo rectus et 
secundum 7iaturam enuntiatus, and in ix, 3, 3, simplex rectumque 
loquendi genus. It had been brought to great perfection by the 
Greeks, and by Cicero and some of his contemporaries. See 
Introduction, p. 19. Though termed here a genus, it is itself 
divided into three kinds, also called genera : 1, the simple, terse, 
concise, almost conversational {tenue, subtile, pressum, quod 
minimum ah usu quotidiano recedit) ; 3, the grand, broad, 
lofty, stirring, passionate (grande, amplum, elatum, concitatum) ; 
3, the flowing, plastic, polished, smooth, melodious, intermediate 
Qene, nitidum, suave, compositum, medium). See xii, 10, 58. 
Cicero (Orat. 5, 20), referring to these three kinds, says tria sunt 
omnino genera dicendi, quihus in singulis quidam fioruerunt, 
peraeque autem, id quod volumus, perpauci in omnibus. In the 
judgment of Quintilian Cicero fully attained his desire of excel- 
lence in all three. See § 108. pressa, compact, sententious ; 
akin to tenuia, simple; fine-spun, as it were; free from all 
superfluity of words, terse, demum, as often, in the sense of 
(mly ; implying that some conclusion has been reached as the 
only thing that remains to be accepted after every alternative 
has been considered, vere Attica putant. These take an 
altogether too narrow view of what is embraced in the term 
Attic ; for it comprehends the best examples of all three genera. 
Quintilian protests against this misrepresentation of the Attic 
school in xii, 10, 21, sqq. ; and Cicero, in the Brutus, 82, 284 ; 
84, 290. compositi, harmonious ; rhythmical, cum de gene- 
re quaerendum erit ; in xii, 10. summatim, in a general 
way, briefly, facultatem dicendi ; the " firma facilitas " of 


45. ne queratur ; elliptical ; I say this, lest, etc. studio- 
sis refers here especially to students of forensic oratory, gene- 
ra ipsa, the particular hinds. In genera here and in § 104, 
Quintilian seems to mean classes or kinds, as represented by 
their characteristic or typical writers, existimem ; H. 503. 


NOTES. X, 1, 46. 167 


46-59. Epic poets, or writers of narrative and didactic poems in hex- 
ameter verse : Homer, Hesiod, Antimachus, Panyasis, ApoUonius, Ara- 
tus, Theocritus ; and a word in passing about the Elegiac poets, the chief 
of whom are CaUimachus and Philetas. 

46. Aratus. See on § 55. The didactic poem of Aratus 
entitled " Phaenomena," opens with the words e/c Aihs apx<^/J-e(rda, 
we must begin with Zens, videmur; sc. nobis; as in § 56, 
videor (mihi). coepturi ; the future participle instead of the in- 
finitive after videmur. So in v, prooem. 5: divisuri videmur. 
ex oceano — capere. Horn. II. 21, 195 : 'flKeavoio, e| olircp irdvres 
TTorafxol Kol irScro QdXaaaa KaX iratrai Kprjvai koI (ppeiara (jLOxph. vdovaiv. 
omnibus — dedit. The essential elements and parts of practi- 
cal oratory, of which Homer affords such abundant examples, 
are : 1, the three genera dicendi, indicated respectively by the 
terms sublimitas (the genus elatum), proprietas and pi'essus (the 
genus tenue), and laetus (the genus nitidum) (§ 46); 2, the two 
classes of practical speeches, judicial and legislative or delibera- 
tive (litium ac consiliorum) % 47) ; 3, the mastery of the affec- 
tions {ad feet us) {^ 48) ; 4, the four principal parts of a regular 
forensic speech : the ingressus, prooemium, or exordium, the 
narration or statement of the facts, the argumentative part, 
embracing the genera probandi ac refutandi, the peroration, or 
closing appeal (epilogus) (§§ 48, 49, 50) ; 5, well-chosen terms, 
well-put thoughts (sententiae), lively figures, and everywhere 
clear arrangement (disposilio) (§ 50). In this notice of Homer 
and in that of Cicero (^ 105, sqq.), and of Seneca (§ 125 sqq.), 
Quintilian introduces more of detail than in his brief remarks 
on the rest of the authors in his sketch. In general his plan, 
as indicated above in §§ 44, 45, is to mention the typical writers 
of different departments of literature best adapted to the pur- 
poses of the orator or forensic advocate, and in a few words to 
point out their characteristics with particular reference to their 
fitness as exemplars of oratorical style, or (ppdcris. As this is his 
sole aim, so distinctly stated, the strictures of some critics on 
the brevity and meagerness of these notices show that they have 
failed to comprehend the purpose of the author, proprietate, 

168 NOTES. X, 1, 47, 48. 

in simplicity ; strictly, the quality of being literal {proprius\ 
unfigurative, plain. Comp. §§ 6 and 11 ; 5, 8, et al. supera- 
verit ; pofenfial. laetus, ornate, exuberant ; a metaphor for a 
rich, flowery, and beautiful style; the genus nitidum ; opposed 
to pressus, pruned, trimmed down, concise ; kindred in meaning 
here to its use as a metaphor for richness of vegetation, as in 
Verg, Georg. 1, 74 ; 3, 385 ; and for the good condition of well- 
fed cattle, id. Aen. 3, 220. iucundus, sprightly, lively ; pleas- 
ing, agreeable, entertainiiig ; relieving the description of stern 
conflict with passages of entertaining narrative, and occasionally 
even of playfulness and humor, gravis, serious. 

47. laudibus, exhortationibus, consolationibus. Eulo- 
gistic, hortatory, and consolatory addresses pertain to the non- 
practical, or epideictic kind of speeches. Our author will not 
dwell upon Homer's excellence in this class, but pass on to his 
admirable fitness for study with reference to forensic and legis- 
lative debates {Htium ac consiliorum). artes ; arts, in a good 
sense ; all the oratorical methods properly employed in lawsuits 
and in deliberative assemblies. 

48. adfectus, feelings, affections; here, and generally in 
Quintilian, both those which are emotional and powerful {con- 
citati), as anger, terror, grief ; and the mild, gentle, quiet {mi- 
tes, compositi), as benevolence, friendship, piety. The latter 
class, as being in general an habitual and characteristic condi- 
tion of individual minds, the Greeks called ^Oos ; the former, on 
the contrary, is for the most part occasional, and more positive, 
and therefore called irdQos, passion. Quintilian says of ^dos (vi, 
2, 8), that the Roman language has no name for it. Therefore 
the term adfectus, though it signifies a positive influencing or 
impelling of the soul, and strictly corresponds only to irddos, is 
applied by usage to both of these classes of feeling, or conditions 
of mind. They are treated of in vi, 2, 8, sqq. Comp. also § 73> 
101. utriusque operis ; that is, of the Iliad and Odyssey. 
Horace, A. P. 140, sqq., quotes the opening verses of the latter 
as a model exordium, benevolum, etc.; iv, 1, 5: causa prin- 
cipii{ingressus) nulla alia est quam ut auditorem, quo sit nobis in 
ceteris partibus accommodatior, praeparemus. Id fieri tribus 
maxime rebus constat, si benevolum, attentum, docilem feceri- 
mits. intentum. iv, i, 33 : plerumque attentum iudicem facit. 

NOTES. X, 1, 49, 50. 169 

ti res agi videiur nova, magyia, atrox, etc. docilem. iv, i, 34: 
docilem sine duhio et haec ipsapraestat attentio; sed et illud, si 
hreviter et dilucide snmmam rei, de qua cognoscere debeaf, indi- 
caverimus ; quod Homerus atque VergiUus operum suorum prinr 
cipiis faciunt. summa, the scope, the theme, celeriter, briefly. 

49. qui nuntiat : Antilochus. II. 18. 18. sqq. qui ex- 
ponit ; that is. Phoenix, id. 9, 529, sqq. significantius. more 
clearly, iam, again, noiv again; marking a transition, as in 
g 98. similitudines, etc. This passage relates to the argu- 
mentative part of a speech, amplificationes. The various 
rhetorical means of amplifying or expanding and enforcing 
ideas, are discussed in viii, 4, 3, sqq., under the heads of incre- 
mentum, comparatio, ratiocinatio, and congeries, signa rerum, 
the evidence of facts ; sensible proofs of things; as cruenta ves- 
tis, clamor, color, etc. ; to be distinguished from argumenta, 
inferences ; logical deductions from circumstantial facts, v, 10, 
11 : cum sit argumentum ratio . . . quae quod est dubium per id, 
quod noji est dubium, confirmat. genera; \\qyq, forms, ways. 
Comp. 5, 2. etiam qui. etc. Even those who have written on 
the principles {artibus) of rhetoric, and not on the art of poetry, 
make Homer their authority for such principles, testimonia, 
illustrations ; confirmatory examples of the power and beauty 
of these things ; namely, similitudes, amplifications, etc. 

50. nam. See on § 9. " But I have not said all " ; for. epi- 
log's. As the advocate, in his closing appeal or peroration, 
deals chiefly with the feelings and passions, he will find many 
pathetic and emotional passages in Homer, such as the petition 
of Priam to Achilles (II. 24, 486, sqq.), which will be helpful in 
this part of his work, sententiis. thoughts; pithy sayings. 
Sententia, or "thought." in this frequent sense, includes not 
only the thought conceived in the mind, but also its felicitous 
embodiment in words. It is a use of the word midway between 
its meaning of pure thought, judgment, or opinion, as in § 99, 
xii, 1, 36, and that of grammatical sentence, period, or compre- 
hensio verborum, as in § 130 and 5, 7. It may be rendered, ac- 
cording to the connection, thought, idea, proverb, maxim, apho- 
rism, magni. etc.; genitive of price; it is (a matter) o/^rea^ 
value ; icorth much. It may be taken, however, in the sense of 
magni viri ; a reading actually given in some MSS. 

170 NOTES. X, 1, 51-53. 

61. in omni genere eloquentiae, in every kind of style. 
See on § 46. epicos ; writers of narrative and didactic poems in 
hexameter verse, clarissima comparatio, the contrast is most 

52. Hesiodus. Hesiod of Askra in Boeotia, lived about 
B. c. 850. His epya Kai T]ix4pai, " Works and Days,'' is a didactic 
poem in epic form, or heroic hexameter, as also the deoyovia, or 
origin of the gods and the world, a work commonly ascribed to 
the same author, though on questionable authority, pars eius ; 
metonymy for pars eiiis operis. in nominibus. This would 
seem to refer especially to the " Theogony." tamen ; though 
in general unfitted to the oratorical style, circa praecepta, in 
respect to moral principles, doctrines, or teachings, sententiae. 
See on § 50. A book of " proverbs " might be gathered from 
the " Works and Days." levitas, etc., the smoothness of his 
diction arid rhythm, compositionis. See on §§ 44 and 79. 
probabilis ; in the predicate, like utiles, medio genere. 
See on § 44. 

53. Antimacho. Antimachus of Claros in the dominion of 
Colophon, lived about 405 b. c. His greatest work was entitled 
Thebais, or the Thebaid ; a A^oluminous epic narrative of the 
wars of the Seven Heroes of Thebes and of the Epigoni. Frag- 
ments of this and of his other poems have been preserved. 
secundas {partes) ; the second place ; a stage term. The Greek 
critics, indeed, assigned to him a rank second to Homer ; but 
Quintilian, below, § 86, claims this place for Vergil among all 
poets, both Greek and Roman, grammaticorum. This term 
in Latin was applied to learned literary critics, such as Aristar- 
chus and Aristophanes among the Greeks, and Gnipho and 
Hyginus among the Romans, quanto sit aliud, etc. It seems 
to be implied here that the Greek critics would have expressed 
themselves more accurately, if they had called Antimachus next 
(proximus) , and not second to Homer. Horace, 0. 1, 10, 18-20, 
says that nothing exists similar or second to Jupiter, but that 
Pallas holds the place of honor 7iext to him {proximos illi tamen 
occupavit honores). Thus one may be called proximus, but not 
strictly second, who comes nearest to the first, though by a wide 
interval, or far below in level or grade. No one, unless of royal 
blood and in the line of succession, can properly be called seconcj 

NOTES. X, 1, 54, 55. 171 

to a prince, and no poet in the time of the Greek grammarians 
of Alexandria had shown such kinship to Homer as to be placed 
in the same high grade or class, and therefore to be ranked as 
second to him, for he stood alone on that high level. Vergil, 
however, in the estimation of Quintilian, has won a position on 
this highest plane, and therefore deserves to be called not only- 
second to Homer, but even nearer than second. See g 85. 

54. Panyasin. Panyasis of Halicarnassus, author of an 
epic poem on the deeds of Hercules {Heracleia, or Heracleias^ 
lived about b. c. 490. Fragments of his "Heraclead " are extant. 
Another work, the " lonica," is entirely lost, utroque refers to 
Hesiod and Antimachus. putant ; sc. grammatici, the critics. 
Quintilian has in mind especially the judgment expressed by 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus. alterum-materia ; Hesiod, whose 
themes are not heroic. Apollonius ; surnamed Rhodius, be- 
cause he was honored with the citizenship of Rhodes, though 
born in Alexandria, and about b. c. 196 librarian of the Alex- 
andrian library. His epic, the " Argonautica," or account of the 
expedition of the Argonauts, is still extant. Translations and 
imitations of it were written in Latin by Atacinus Varro and 
by Valerius Flaccus. See on §§ 87 and 90. in ordinem., etc., 
into the classification givefi by the critics; namely, those of 
Alexandria, of whom Aristophanes of Byzantium (b. c. 264) and 
Aristarchus (b. c. 200) were the most noted, and both in charge 
of the Alexandrian library. The categories of approved authors 
drawn up by them constituted what they called the canon 
(Kavcvu), termed here ordo, and generally followed by Quintilian 
in this sketch of Greek writers, aequali-mediocritate ; not 
in a disparaging sense ; of a certain uniform and tnedium ex- 
cellence ; join with opus. Comp. § 86. 

55. Arati. Aratus of Soli in Cilicia, under the patronage 
of Antigonus Gonatus of Macedon, at whose court he resided 
B. c. 270, wrote a didactic epic poem on the heavenly bodies and 
meteorology, entitled ^aiv6fi€va nal Aioa-n/xeTa {Phaenomena et 
Prognosticd), which is still extant. It was translated into Latin 
by Cicero and afterward by Caesar Germanicus, the nephew of 
Tiberius. A paraphrase of it was also written by Avienus in 
the 4th century of our era. motu caret, etc. The paraphrase 
of Avienus, written long after Quintilian's time, alleviated this 

Ji 172 NOTES. X, 1, 56-58, 

fault by varying the monotony of the astronomical detail with 
myths and traditions which involved action (motus), passion 
(adfectus), and living character (persona). Theocritus, of 
Syracuse, the most distinguished writer of idyls or pastorals, 
lived at Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus and at Syra- 
cuse under Hiero, in the third century b. c. 

56. plurimorum poetarum. Here, of course, the reference 
is especially to those who wrote in heroic hexameter, acta ; 
supply canif. Pisandros, of Cameiros in Rhodes, about b. c. 
645, wrote the "• Ileracleia," an epic narrative of the deeds of Her- 
cules. Nicandrum. Nicander, whose two didactic poems, called 
&r)piaKa Kal ' AAe^KpdpfiaKa {venomous animals and poison- cures), 
are still extant, lived at the court of Eumenes II and Attains II of 
Pergamus about b. c. 150. frustra, ivithout good reason. Macer. 
Aemilius Macer of Verona, a friend of Vergil and Ovid, wrote 
two poems, the " Ornithogonia " (bird-breeding) and " Theriaca," 
no remains of which are in existence. Vergil " followed " Nican- 
der only in occasional passages of his poems ; as Georg. Ill, 415, 
sqq. : 425, sqq., et al. Euphorionem. Euphorion of Chalcis 
lived in the time of Antiochus the Great, b. c. 215, and among 
other works wrote a 'Ha-ioSos, probably a Georgic, or agricultural 
poem. Only fragments of his writings remain. The passage of 
Vergil referred to is Eel. x, 50: Chalcidico quae sunt mihi con- 
dita versu carmina, pastoris Siculi modulabor arena. As Eu- 
phorion is of Chalcis, his verse is styled by Vergil " Chalcidic." 
Horatius, etc. See A. P. 401. Tyrtaeum. Tyrtaeus was a 
soldier and poet, supposed by some to have been a native of 
Athens, or Aphidna in Attica, by others of Lacedaemon, or of 
Miletus. He became a leader of the Lacedaemonians in the 
second Messenian war, about b. c. 680, and contributed to their 
success by his wise counsels and by his battle songs. 

57. indicem certe, etc. Any one can at least make out a 
list of them in some private or public library, and note their 
titles in his memoranda (libros). nee utique, nor hy any 
means, ut qui dixerim. § 40. 

58. iam — viribus, ivhen noiv our (the student's) strength 
shall have been developed and established : i. e., by the reading 
of the epics best adapted to our present purpose. Comp. §^ 59 
and 131. ut introduces the explanation of quod facimus in the 

NOTES. X, 1, 59-61. 173 

form of a result. Comp. 3, 6 ; 5, 18 ; 7, 11. tunc ; namely, 
when our strength shall have been established, elegiam. The 
elegy is characterized by Horace, A. P. 75-78, as exiguus, and as 
employed for the expression of feeling. Callimachus, of Gy- 
rene, one of the Alexandrian poets, and librarian b. c. 260. 
Philetas, of Cos, instructor of Ptolemy Philadelphus, died 
about B. c. 290. 

59. sed dum adsequimur ; hut while we are attaining ; as 
opposed to the time anticipated in the foregoing iam perfedis 
inribus, and tunc, ut dixi. See § 1. ducendus, to be coiitract- 
ed, formed. Kriiger quotes Vergil, Eel. 9, 49 : duceret apricis 
in collibus uva colorem. Comp. xii, 10, 71. color ; sometimes, 
as here, style, or characteristic phraseology adapted to the occa- 
sion; sometimes disguise or dissimidation, in a good or bad 
sense, and also extenuation, excuse, etc. Comp. § 131 ; and 6, 5. 

59-64. Of the iambic poets the typical writer is Archilochus ; the lyric 
poets are represented by Pindar, Stesichonis, and Alcaeus. 

itaque, therefore (passing by the elegiac poets), ex tribus. 
The three iambic writers admitted (recepti) into the canon of 
Aristarchus (see on § 54) are Archilochus of Paros (b. c. 700), 
Simonides of Samos or Amorgos (b. c. 660), Hipponax of Ephe- 
sus (b. c. 540). iamborum. See on g§ 9 and 96. maxime 
Tiiius. See H. 444, 3 ; Z. 691. 

60. elocutionis, expression, style, (ppdcris. validae, breves, 
vibrantes, powerful, concise, brilliant, sententiae. See on 
§ 50, and comp. xii, 9, 3. quod quoquam. minor est, the (fact) 
that he comes behind any (even the foremost of poets). This 
clause is the subject of videatur. For this usage of quisquam 
see H. 457, M. 491, b. materiae vitium, the fault of his sub- 
ject matter; mainly personal character and conduct in com- 
mon life, not admitting of the range and elevation of epic 

61. novem. Of the nine lyric poets admitted into the 
" canon " those not mentioned here are Bacchylides, Ibycus, 
Anacreon, Alcman, and Sappho. Pindarus, born at Thebes 
521, died 441 b. c. Of his many works only the " Epinicia," or 
Triumphal Odes, have come down to us. spiritus. See on 
§ 27. sententiis ; as in § 50. beatissima ; metaphorically 

174 NOTES. X, 1, 62-65. 

for very fertile, prolific, exuberant, rich. Horatius. Hor. O. 
4, 2, 1, sqq. 

62. Stesichorus of Himera, in Sicily, flourished about b. c. 
625, and is especially famed either for inventing or perfecting 
the Doric choral ode. Fragments of his poems are extant. 
epici — sustinentem. He treats successfully in the lyric form 
the warlike themes which are more especially the material of epic 
poetry, si tenuisset modum. Quintilian thinks that he gave 
too free rein to his imagination and eloquence. So of Ovid, 
§§ 88, 98. ut, ita. See on § 1. copiae vitium est. This 
very fault is a proof of superior power, ii, 4, 4 : peius tamen 
illud (vitium) quod ex inopia quam quod ex copia venit. 

63. Alcaeus; of Mitylene, in Lesbos, b. c. 600. aureo 
plectro. Hor. 0. 2, 13, 26. tyrannos. These were Myrsilus 
and Pittacus. That portion of the lyrics {parte operis) of Al- 
caeus, which relates to the ten years' civil war waged against 
these tyrants, was called a-TaaiuTiKd. Fragments of his poems have 
been preserved, in eloquendo, in style, diction, sed et lusit, 
but he also trifled; but his muse was also playful. Hor. 0. 1, 
32 : Venerem et iUi semper haerentem puerum canebat, et Lycum. 
maioribus — aptior ; more gifted, however, for higher themes 
(than for love-songs) ; maioribus is neuter. 

64. Simonides of Ceos, from 556 to 449 b. c, noted for his 
epigrams, dithyrambs, epinician odes, and for his elegies ; to be 
distinguished from Simonides of Samos, mentioned in the note 
on § 59. There are but few remains of his poems, tenuis 
eMoqyii, though meager ; though without richness. He lacked 
copiousness and force ; but in pathos, in commovenda misera- 
tione, Dionysius regards him as superior even to Pindar, qui- 
dam, though plural, probably has special reference to the opin- 
ion of Dionysius. See on § 54. in hac parte, in this part or 
element of the poet's work or function, eius operis, of that 
(lyrical) ivork, or class of poetry. 

65-72. The old comedy is represented by Aristophanes, Eupohs, and 
Cratinus ; tragedy by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides ; the new 
comedy by Menander and Philemon. 

65. antiqua comoedia, the old comedy, or the Attic come- 
dy in its first form and character, as distinguished from the 

NOTES. X, 1, 66-68. 175 

later, in which both the chorus of the old comedy, and also its 
freedom (libertas) of personal satire, were abolished, sinceram 
gratiam, simple beauty ; the quality expressed below by elegans 
et venusta {pure and graceful) ; consisting in the use of the pure 
Attic, characteristic of born Athenians in their common conver- 
sation. Comp. § 100. facundissimae libertatis, of the most 
out-spo'ken freedom; indulging in the boldest license of speech. 
praecipua, most conspicuous. It was characterized especially 
by its unsparing ridicule and satire of vice and folly, in 
ceteris partibus, in its other elements or qualities ; those, 
namely, which are immediately mentioned, grandis ; in those 
passages where the subject rises above the ordinary level of 
comedv. Hor. A. P. 93 : interdum et vocem comoedia tollit. 
uUa ; supply poesis, as in § 29. ut Achillen, etc. Horn. II. 
3, 673 : Nipevs, os KaWia-ros avhp vTrh "IKiov ?i\d€ rCiv ^Wuv Aavawv 
/ier' afivixoua U-nXeluva. eius, sc. comoediae. Aristophanes, 
the most famous of the comic poets, flourished at Athens b. c. 
427. Ciatinus was older than Aristophanes, Eupolis, younger. 
Horace associates the names in Sat. 1, 4, 1. Of the fifty-four 
plays of Aristophanes eleven have been preserved. None of 
those of Eupolis and Cratinus are extant. 

66. Aeschylus ; born in Eleusis, probably b. c. 525, died 
at Gela, in Sicily, b. c. 456. in plerisque, in most parts or 
places; in general; that is, as compared with his more finished 
successors, incompositus, inliarmonious. correctas eius 
fabulas, etc. That the tragedies of Aeschylus were again 
brought into competition {in certamen) some time after his 
death for the tragic prize, is probably true ; but Boeckh thinks 
the statement that they were " corrected " is unfounded, coro- 
nati, crowned; honored with a prize, and reproduced on the 

67. opus. See on § 31. Sophocles, Euripides. The 
former was born at Colonos, in Attica, b. c. 495, and died b. c. 
405. The latter was born in Salamis, on the day of the battle 
of Salamis, fifteen years later, and died in b. c. 406. 

68. quod ipsum ; the very fact that his language {sermo) 
is more akin to that of practical speaking {oratorio generi). 
cothurnus, a metonymy for tragic style, sententiis densus, 
compact tvith, crowded with, abounding in thoughts, apothegms, 

176 NOTES. X, 1, 69-71. 

or maxims. See on § 50. Euripides had been a disciple of 
Anaxagoras. iis quae — tradita sunt ; especially the princi- 
ples and precepts of ethical philosophy, miseratione, in 
moving compassion, Conip. § 64. 

69. ut saepe testatur. No such testimony is found, how- 
ever, in any of the remaining fragments of Menander. in opere 
diverse, iyi a. different kind of work ; comedy, as distinguished 
from tragedy. Menander, of Athens, called princeps novae 
comoediae, lived from 342 to 291 b. c. Only fragments are now 
extant of his numerous plays, the character of which may be 
partially understood from those of Terence, his Roman imitator. 
Of his imitation of Euripides, Schlegel, quoted in Smith's Diet, 
of Anc. Biogr., Art. Menander, remarks : " Euripides was the 
forerunner of the New Comedy ; the poets of this species ad- 
mired him especially, and acknowledged him for their master. 
Nay, so great is this affinity of tone and spirit between Eurip- 
ides and the poets of the New Comedy, that apothegms of 
Euripides have been ascribed to Menander, and vice versa. On 
the contrary, we find among the fragments of Menander max- 
ims of consolation which rise, in a striking manner, even into 
the tragic tone." copia, facultas. Supply est. 

70. nee nihil viderunt, 7wr have (those critics) lacked dis- 
crimination. They have manifested a proper insight into the 
excellence of some parts of the plays of Menander as models of 
oratory, in expressing the opinion that he actually wrote the 
speeches ascribed to Charisius. Charisius was an Athenian ora- 
tor, contemporary with Demosthenes, in opere suo, etc., in 
his oicn work (as a writer of comedy) 1 think he proves himself 
an orator far more (than in these speeches of Charisius ; sup- 
posing him to have composed them), nisi forte implies an ab- 
surd hypothesis, mala ; predicate after sunt, indicia, judi- 
cial arguments; speeches suitable to be made before a court. 
Epitrepontes, etc., titles of some of the lost plays of Menan- 
der : The Trusting, The Heiress, The Locri, The Timid JIan, 
The Lawyer, The Changeling, meditationes, studies, law- 
school speeches, declamations, iv, 2, 29 : declamatio forensium 
actionum (est) meditatio. omnibus orator iis numeris, all the 
elements ov principles of oratory. Comp. ^91. 

TL adhuc for etiam (still, even), with the comparative, is 

NOTES. X, 1, 72-74. 177 

post- Augustan, declamatoribus. The " declaimer " in tne 
Roman school was not only a student who made a set speech, a 
" declamation " in our sense, but also one engaged in exercises 
more like some of those of our law-students, in which debates are 
conducted, or controversial speeches {controversiae) are made on 
questions which are fictitious, yet akin to such as are argued in 
the courts of law. plures subire personas, to assume vari- 
ous characters ; such, namely, as are supposed to be involved in 
any of these fictitious cases ; to represent them, impersonate 
them in spirit and feeling, just as the advocate in real cases 
enters into, and represents the situation and sentiment of his 
client. The following genitives limit personas, the appositive 
understood after the foregoing personas. decor. See on § 27. 

72. eiusdem operis ; that is, the " New Comedy." ful- 
gore quodam, etc., has drawn a shadow over them (made them 
to seem in the dark), as it were, hy the hrightness of his own 
glory. See on § 7. Philemon, of Soli, or, as some say, of Syra- 
cuse. He was a little older than Menander, though he died 
some years later, b. c. 262, at the age of nearly one hundred 
years. Plautus was an imitator of his plays, all of which, ex- 
cept fragments, have been lost, ut, ita ; as in § 1. 

73-75. History is illustrated by Herodotus, Thucydides, Theopompus, 
Philistus, Ephorus, and Clitarchus, and later by Timagines. 

73. quorum, diversa virtus ; in the same sense as quorum 
dispar dicendi via in § 67. densus. See on § 68. One may 
be brevis and not seyitentiis densus. instans sibi. following 
himself up : pushing his thoughts, as it were, closely one after 
the other. The words are exegetical of densus. Thucydides, 
of Athens, b. c. 471 (or 456)-396. candidus ; of style ; lucid. 
See on § 32. Herodotus, of Halicarnassus. in Caria ; b. c. 484- 
408. The latter date is not certain, concitatis, powerful. 
remissis, gentle^ mild. See on § 48. serm.onibus, in conver- 

74. Theopompus, of Chios, born b. c. 378. He was a dis- 
ciple of Isocrates, by whose advice he wrote the " Hellenica " and 
" Philippica," two historical works, which have been lost. His 
speeches were chiefly panegyrics, praedictis, tliose just men- 
tioned ; abl. after minor, sollicitatus ; that is, by his teacher, 


178 NOTES. X, 1, 75, 76. , 

Isocrates. See Cic. de Orat. 2, 13, 57. hoc opus ; this hind of 
work ; history. Philistus ; an eminent historian of Syracuse, 
and also a powerful supporter of the two Dionysii. He died by 
his own hand in b. c. 356. meretur ; in the sense of dignus 
est, and hence, followed here by the subjunctive in the relative 
clause, quamvis ; join with honorum. aliquatenus, post- 
Augustan for aliquanto. Ephorus, of Cumae, died about b. c. 
333. He was under the instruction of Isocrates at the same 
time with Theopompus. His great historical work, which has 
been lost, embraced the history both of Greeks and barbarians, 
from the return of the Heraclidae to b. c. 340. 

75. Clitarchi. Clitarchus accompanied Alexander on his 
expeditions, and wrote a history of them. Timagenes, of 
Alexandria, was brought as a prisoner to Rome, in b. c. 55, 
where he afterwards taught rhetoric, and wrote a history of 
Alexander and his successors. He enjoyed the patronage of 
Augustus, though finally driven from the city in consequence of 
speaking too boldly of the members of the imperial family. 
historias, historical ivorks. So the plural, § 34. The singular 
number usually denotes history as a germs ; comp. §§ 31, 73, 74, 
101, 102 ; seldom a history, as in i, 8, 20. Xenophon ; distin- 
guished both for his historical and philosophical works, b. c. 
444 (?)-354 (?). 

76-80. The typical orators are Demosthenes, Aeschines, Hyperides, 
Lysias, Isocrates, and Demetrius of Phaleron. 

76. ut cum, since indeed. So frequently in Quint. The 
earlier form vras guippe cum, or utpote cum. See Cic. Ep. ad 
Att. 10, 3, and ad farail. 10, 32, et al. aetas una, etc. Cic. 
Brut. 36 : hnic (Demostheni) Hyperides proximus et Aeschines 
fuit et Lycurgus et Dinarchus et is, cuius nulla extant scripta, 
Demades alii que plures. Haec enim aetas effudit hanc copiam. 
The five orators of the canon not mentioned here by Quintilian 
are Antiphon, Andocides, Isaeus, Lycurgus, and Dinarchus. 
The ten lived from the early part of the fourth century b. c. 
nearly to the end. Demosthenes ; b. c. 385 (f)-322. quibus- 
dam nervis intenta (see on § 7) ; strained as it were hy sin- 
ews ; hy some thi7ig like sinews ; as those of the arm in dealing 
powerful blows. His style is " nervous " ; the opposite of otio° 

NOTES. X, 1, 77-79. , 179 

sum, languid, nerveless, negligent, modus, due measure; pro- 
portion ; the greater or less amplification suited to the topic in 
hand. See on xii, 10, 38. Aeschines; greatest of Athenian 
orators next to Demosthenes. After he had failed in the trial 
'* about the crown," he retired to Rhodes, where he died b. c. 
314. His three published orations are still preserved. 

77. grandiori simiiis, like something greater ; having the 
appearance of something greater than Demosthenes, and this on 
account of his greater diffuseness, as compared with the " dense- 
ness " and •' intensity " of his rival. Grandiori is better taken 
as neuter than with some as masculine, with oratori understood. 
quo, etc., hy how much {just as in fact) he is less compact, 
strictus ; kindred in meaning to densus and nervis intenta. 
lacertorum., sinews ; as opposed to carnis, flesh. So Cic. Brut. 
64 : in Lysia saepe sunt etiam lacerti sic ut fieri nihil possit 
valentius. acutus, pointed, clean-cut, keen, terse (subtilis, ten- 
uis) ; not of mental acuteness here, but of language ; as in xii, 
10, 39. So Cic. Orat. 25, 84 : huic acuta {suhtili, tenui) ilia (vin- 
cula numerorum) fugienda sunt. See also on acumen, § 114, 
Hyperides ; a disciple of Isocrates, put to death by command 
of Antipater 322 b. c. 

78. Lysias, like Hyperides, excelling in the simple and 
chaste style of eloquence {subtilis atque elegans), lived to the age 
of eighty years, and died b. c. 378. Of his 450 speeches, 32 have 
been preserved more or less complete, docere. The simple 
phraseology of Lysias and his school is the best for the state- 
ment of facts, or for teaching; but eloquence has two chief 
functions besides this ; namely, to please and entertain the 
hearer and arouse his feeling {movere). Cic. Brut. 185 : tria 
sunt enim, quae sint efficienda dicendo : ut doceatur, apud quern 
dicetur, ut delectetur, ut moveatur vehementius. arcessitum^ 
affected, studied, propior, mo)'e akin. 

79. Isocrates ; at first an orator, but for the greater part 
of his life a teacher of oratory and writer of occasional speeches, 
lived to the age of ninety, and died by his own hand in b. c. 
338. Twenty of his orations are extant, nitidus. See § 44, 
and note, palaestrae quam. pugnae, to the play-ground 
rather than to the battle-field ; to the lecture-room and to rhe- 
torical exhibitions rather than to the controversies of the courts 

180 NOTES. X, 1, 80-83. 

and the public assembly. Comp. § 29, ad fin. veneres, charms ; 
a usage of the word introduced by the poets, nee immerito, 
and not without good reason; and justly, too. auditoriis se 
compararat. As his reason for this course, Isocrates says 
(Panathenaeic Oration, 10) that he devoted himself to teaching 
on account of his diffidence and his weak voice, honesti : the 
noble and refined (in diction) ; excellent speech, beautiful lan- 
guage. So ix, 4, 146 ; compositio debet esse honesta, iucunda, 
varia. So in viii, 3, 16, honesta denotes something in the lan- 
guage high-toned, refined, elegant, beautiful ; but the predomi- 
nant sense of the word is honorable, respectable, worthy, in a 
moral sense. compositione, rhythmical structure ; prose^ 
rhythm. See on § 44. Isocrates was the first who treated sys- 
tematically of the principles of oratorical rhythm or harmony. 
Cic. Brut. 8, 32 : (Isocrates) primus intellexit, etiam in soluta 
oratione, dum versum effugeres, modum tamen at numerum quen- 
dam oportere servari. 

80. Phalerea Demetrium. Demetrius of Phaleron had 
command of Athens under Cassander, b. c. 317-307, but was 
then banished by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and died at Alexan- 
dria B. c. 284. inclinasse. Cicero (see on § 33) says that De- 
metrius was the first who enfeebled (inflexit) the style of Athe- 
nian eloquence, medio. See on § 52. 

81-84. The chief writers on philosophy are Plato, Xenophon, and 
Aristotle ; the Stoics being omitted, as unprofitable to the orator. 

81. M. TuUius. See Orator, 3. 12. Platonem ; 429-348 
B. c. quadam, quodam. See on § 7. pedestrem ; ireChv \6yov. 
The term, as descriptive of prose, was first used by Horace. 
0. 2, 12, 19. Cicero's expression is oratio soluta. See Brut. 32= 

82. Xenophontis. See on § 75. inadfectatam, unstud- 
ied. Pericle. Cic. Brut. 59 : vaOdi) — quam deam in Pericli 
labris scripsit Eupolis sesitavisse. Plin. Epist. 1, 20, 17: 7iec 
me praeterit, summum oratorem Periclem sic a comico Eupolide 
laudari : li^idli) ns itreKadTjTo Tolai xe/Aeo-tf. 

83. Socraticoruni. See on § 35. elegantiam, chaste 
simplicity. Aristotelem. b. c. 384-322. copia, the great 
number, inventionum acumine ; freely rendered : his pene- 
tration in discovery, nam. See on § 9. Theoplirasto. 

NOTES. X, 1, 84-87. 181 

Theophrastus of Eresus, in Lesbos, born b. c. 371, succeeded 
Aristotle as the head of the peripatetic school at Athens, where 
he died in b. c. 287. The story of his name being changed from 
Tyrtamus to Theophrastus on account of the " divine beauty " 
of his style, e^ffir^iriov (ppda-ews, is probably a fancy of his biog- 

84. conligendo, in arguing ; literally in syllogizing ; but 
not necessarily in the technical form of statement employed in 
the schools, quae instituerant, what they had laid down; 
their principles. 

85-131. The representative Roman authors. 

85-92. Epic poets : Vergil, Macer, Lucretius, Atacinus Varro, Ovid, 
Cornelius Severus, Serranus, Valerius Flaccus, Saleius Bassus, Rabirius 
Pedo. and Lucan. Ennius is mentioned in passing, and the Emperor Do- 
mitian complimented. 

85. Vergilius, 70-19 b. c. dederit, may afford; a polite 
form, less positive than the indicative, and frequent in Quin- 
tilian. See H. 485. eius generis ; namely, of the epic or he- 
roic class, proximus ; next to Homer. See on § 53. 

86. Afro Domitio. Domitius Afer was the teacher of Quin^ 
tilian on his first visit to Rome. See Introduction, page 11 ; and 
also on § 118. secundus. See on § 53. ut — ita. See on § 1. 
cesserimus does not depend on ut, but is a subjunctive used 
potentially for cedendum est. So Spalding. Corap. §§ 45, 85. 
eminentibus, in striking passages. See Hor. A. P. 144. vin- 
cimur, pensamus ; the first person plural, as above in cesseri- 
mus, implies that in this rivalry for poetic fame the Roman 
nationality is represented by Vergil. '• We, in the person of our 
poet are surpassed." So in §§ 93, 99, 107. aequalitate, imiform 
excellence. Comp. § 54 Vergil never falls below himself. 

87. Macer. See on § 56. Lucretius. L, Lucretius Carus, 
author of the celebrated poem " De Rerum Natura," which em- 
bodies the Epicurean system of nature. He lived probably from 
95 to 51 B. c. phrasin. See on § 42. Atacinus Varro. P. 
Terentius Varro Atacinus, a native of Gallia Narbonensis, flour- 
ished toward the end of the republic, and obtained reputation 
as a poet chiefly on account of his translation of the " Argonauti- 
ca " of Apollonius ; and thus he was interpres operis alieni. He 

182 NOTES. X, 1, 88-90. 

also wrote a poem entitled " Bellum Sequanicum." A few lines 
only of his poems remain. 

88. Ennium.. Q,uintus Ennius ; born at Rudiae in Cala- 
bria, B. c. 239, died at Rome b. c. 169. He may be styled the 
father of Roman literature, and especially of Roman poetry. 
The most famous of his poems was a Roman history in Latin 
hexameters, called the Annales. Only fragments of his works 
are preserved, robora; here, trunks, religionem, sanctity. 
propiores ; Kriiger interprets : nearer to Vergil ; but it may be 
understood quite as naturally nearer (or more kindred, more 
suitable) to our own times, as contrasted with Ennius. las- 
civus, luxuriant, extravagant ; a fault in his habit of thought 
and in his style ; not of his morals. He gives too free rein to 
fancy, and too often, like ambitious declaimers in the schools, 
crowds in ornament where it is out of place. Quintilian has in 
mind here the Metamorphoses ; of which he says in iv, 1, 77 : 
Ovidius lascivire in Metamorphosesin solet, quern tamen excu- 
sare necessitas potest res diversissimas in speciem unius corporis 
colligentem. Bonnell translates lascivus by the German tdn- 
delnd, giddy, toying. Quintilian uses the word and the verb 
lascivio to denote the same or kindred qualities in ix, 4, 28, 142, 
and, below, § 93. in herois, in his heroic or epic poems. Ovid- 
ius. P. Ovidius Naso of Sulmo, b. c. 43-a. d. 17. 

89. Cornelius Severus was a contemporary of Ovid, who 
addressed to him the epistle from Pontus iv, 2, 1, beginning 
with the lines : Quod legis, vales magnorum maxime regum, 
venit ah intonsis usque. Severe, Oetis. He did not live to com- 
plete the " Bellum Siculum." ut est dictum : i. e., by the critics. 
secundum locum ; the second place among Roman epic poets ; 
Vergil holding the first. Serranum. This epic poet is men- 
tioned in company with Saleius and Lucan by Juvenal 7, 80. 
But the reading here is conjectural. I have adopted it in place 
of sed eum in my former text, consummari, to be fully de- 
veloped. Comp. § 122. in aetate ilia, at that time of life; at 
that youthfid age. recti generis ; supply dicendi, which is ex- 
pressed after genus, ^ 44, where see note, voluntatem ; here. 
love, preference. 

90. Valerio Flacco. Valerius Flaccus flourished during 
the reign of Vespasian, was a friend of Martial, and died at the 

NOTES. X, 1, 91. 183 

beginning of the reign of Trajan, a. d. 88. His unfinished 
poem, the " Argonaiitics," is still extant. Saleii Bassi. Sa- 
leiiis Bassus lived at the same period as the foregoing. He is 
warmly praised in the Dialogue de Orat. 5, 9, 10, where he is 
called a most finished poet {absolutissimus), and said to have 
been assisted by a liberal gift of money from the emperor Ves- 
pasian. Rabirius ac Pedo. C. Rabirius and C. Pedo Albino- 
vanus were both contemporaries of Ovid, by whom their talents 
were highly estimated. He calls the former Rahirius magm 
oris, and the latter sidereus. See Ov. Epist. ex Ponto, 4, 16, 5, sq. 
Iiucanus. M. Annaeus Lucanus of Corduba (Cordova), author 
of the " Pharsalia," nephew of the philosopher Seneca. He was 
born A. D. 38, and died by the command of Nero for participation 
in the conspiracy of Piso, a. d. 65. sententiis. See on § 50. 

91. hos nominavimus, quia; elliptical; thege, and these 
only, we have named, because, etc. Germanicum Augustum. 
Quintilian here speaks of the Emperor Domitian. who assumed 
the title of Germanicus after his pretended victories over the 
Germans in a. d. 84. His affected love of letters, and especially 
his pretensions to poetic talent, it was fashionable during his 
life-time to eulogize. He wrote a poem on the war conducted 
by his father and brother in Judea. The translation of Aratus, 
sometimes ascribed to him, was more probably the work of Ger- 
manicus, the son of Drusus. donato imperio, having given up 
the imperial power ; namely, as he pretended, to his father, Ves- 
pasian, and his brother Titus. Suetonius says that, after he 
became emperor, he did not hesitate to boast publicly in the 
senate et patri se et fratri imperium dedisse. Suet. Domit. 13. 
See, also. Tacit. Hist. 4, 86. numeris. See on § 70. sic gerit. 
The reference is to his sham victory over the Chatti, which 
Tacitus speaks of with so much contempt in Agr. 39. deae. 
In honor of the muses Domitian instituted quinquennial con- 
tests in music, poetry, and eloquence on the Capitoline hill, over 
which he presided in person. Suet. Domit. 4. This festival, 
called the Agon Capitolinus, was continued down to the fifth 
century. See Merivale, Rome und. the Emp., vol. 7, p. 163. 
propius ; with more favor. So Verg. Aen. 1. 526 : propius res 
aspice nostras, familiare. " Domitian affected to believe that 
he was the special favorite of Minerva, and, according to Philos- 

184 NOTES. X, 1, 92-94. 

tratus (Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 7, 12), a son of the goddess. 
He founded annual contests in her honor at his Alban villa, and 
in these, too, he combined poetry and rhetoric with musical and 
gymnic exhibitions." Merivale, as above. 

92. inter victrices, etc. The words are quoted from Ec- 
logue 8, 13, addressed to Pollio. serpere is made here to de- 
pend on testamur. 

93. Elegiac poets : TibuUus, Propertius, Ovid, Gallus. 

93. elegia quoque ; not only in epic poetry, but also in 
elegy, provocamus. See on vincimur, § 86. Tibullus. Al- 
bius Tibullus, a Roman knight, born b. c. 59 or 54, died b. c. 18, 
the year after Vergil's death. Propertium. Sextus Aurelius 
Propertius was a contemporary of Tibullus ; probably of Assi- 
sium in Umbria. Ovidius. See on § 88. lascivior ; here, as 
in § 88, describes a quality of the style and manner of Ovid ; 
not implying immorality or indecency. He is too luxuriant, 
and somewhat deficient in masculine strength and dignity. 
durior, sturdier; more masculine; in contrast with lascivior. 
Gallus. Cornelius Gallus, to whom Vergil addressed his tenth 
eclogue, was born at Forum Julii (Frejus) in Gaul, about b. c. 
66. He distinguished himself as a poet and orator, and also as 
a general under Augustus. Falling under the displeasure of 
the emperor, he put an end to his own life in b. c. 26. Ovid, 
Trist. 4, 10, 5, 3, ranks him as the first of the Roman elegiac 
poets. He has been adopted as the hero of Becker's " Gallus." 

93-95. Satire is a kind of poetry original with the Romans, and repre- 
sented in its later form by Lucilius, Horace, and Persius ; though Teren- 
tius Varro reproduced the earlier and mixed form of satirical writing. 

satura nostra. " Satire, both in its form and aim, as pre- 
sented in Roman literature, was wholly unknown to the Greeks.'' 
Bernhardy, Gesch. der R. L„ p. 494. Lucilius, Gains Lucil- 
ius of Suessa Auruncorum, a Roman knight, and in his youth 
a friend of Scipio Africanus the younger and of Laelius. b. c. 

94. Horatio ; Q. Horatius Flaccus, b. c. 65-8. dissentio. 
Quintilian regards the passages in Horace, Sat. 1, 4, 11, and 1, 
10, 68, as unjustly severe, libertas, etc. The keen satire 

NOTES. X, 1, 95,96. 185 

(acerbitas) of Lucilius and the unrestrained flow of his wit 
(abunde salis), directed against the society and individual citi- 
zens of his time, and even against his illustrious friends, was 
due to his personal independence and sense of equality. See 
Hor. Sat. 2, 1, 62, sqq. labor, I err; slip in judgment; not the 
same figure as labitur {ex animo) 7, 24. multum et verae 
gloriate, much reputation, and that genuine. Persius. A. 
Flaccus Persius of Volaterra, a Roman knight, a. d. 34-62. 
His six satires are still extant, sunt — nominabuntur, there 
are illustrious (satirists) not only flourishing to-day, hut uho will 
also have a name hereafter. On the connection indicated by 
que and et, see H. 554, 1, 5. Comp. also g 132. It is not known 
what contemporary poets Quintilian has in mind. 

95. alterum — raixtum. There was before the time of 
Lucilius a species of satire, invented by Ennius, and consisting 
of different kinds of verses. But, later, Terentius Varro (of 
Keate, b. c. 116-27) composed (condidif) satires, styled Menip- 
pean, in which he employed not only the variety of meters 
of that earlier kind, but also a mixture of prose and verse, and 
that too both in Latin and Greek words. But few fragments of 
these are in existence. Of the other works of Varro, numbering 
about 500, there are now extant only the three books " de Re Rusti- 
ca," and some portions of the treatise " De Lingua Latina." prius 
is an adjective here : former, earlier. Though this mixed kind 
of satire was older, yet Lucilius, in § 93, is called the first, or 
father of the satirists, because he gave to this species of writing 
its fixed form in hexameter, as adopted by Horace, Persius, and 
Juvenal, and known by distinction as the Roman satire. But 
by the mention of satire Quintilian is reminded of that earlier 
style of composition, that mixture, or " olla podrida," which was 
originally meant by the term satura. rerum, history. 

96. The iambic and lyric poets : Catullus, Bibaculus, Horace, Caesius 

96. iambus. See on §§ 9 and 59. The iambic trimeter 
was used so much by Archilochus in his lampoons, that poems 
of this kind were called iambi, though Archilochus, as well as 
others, employed also other meters, and the iambic dimeter as 
well as the trimeter. Horace's seventeenth epode is an example 

186 NOTES. X, 1, 97, 98. 

of the original form of the Archilochian iambic trimetrical ode. 
celebratus, cultivated, or m^ich employed, quibusdam inter- 
positus, (though) iyitei'mingled by certain (Roman poets) ; i. e., 
by certain Roman poets the iambic form of odes was introduced 
occasionally among their other poems. For the dative of the 
agent, see H. 388. acerbitas. See on § 94. Catullo. Q. Va- 
lerius Catullus of Verona, born b. c. 87. Bibaculo. M. Furius 
Bibaculus was born at Cremona b. c. 99. illi refers to iambus. 
Though the epode, or added line interrupts, or breaks in upon 
the regular iambic verses which give name to this kind of poem, 
that does not diminish its pungency, epodos (6 eVwSc^s), as here 
used, means the odd or added verse, either iambic dimeter or in 
some other meter, following the iambic trimeter. It must be 
distinguished from the same word used as the name of entire 
poems, like the " Epodes " of Horace ; so called, however, not by 
Horace himself, but by his later editors, idem Horatius ; 
i. e., just mentioned. Caesius Bassus, to whom Persius ad- 
dressed his sixth satire, perished in his villa in the eruption of 
Vesuvius, A. D. 79. Viventium. Perhaps Statius is one of 
these, as his " Sylvae " are poems of a lyrical character. 

97-100. Dramatic writers : in tragedy, Attius, Pacuvlus, Varius, Ovid, 
Pomponius Secundus ; in comedy, Plautus, Caecilius, Terence, Afranius. 

97. Veterum ; in contrast with the later poets, such as 
Varius and Ovid, presently mentioned, Attius. L. Attius, or 
Accius, B. c. 170-84. Pacuvius. M. Pacuvius of Brundisium, 
probably a nephew of Ennius. He was born b. c. 220, and died 
about B- c. 130. temporibus ipsis refers especially to the com- 
paratively undeveloped state of the language of literature in the 
times of Attius and Pacuvius. Thus it was the age itself, or the 
state of the language itself in that archaic period, and not any 
want of ability in these old poets, that made their style less per- 
fect than that of their successors. 

98. iam : here a particle of transition. Comp. § 49 and note. 
Varii. L. Varius, one of the most cultivated men, and one of 
the best poets of the Augustan age. He was the intimate friend 
of Vergil and Horace. Graecarum. Supply tragoediarum. 
indulgere. See on §§ 88, 93. viderim. See H. 503, i; Z. 
559. The indicative is also used ; as xii, 10, 11 : in iis, quos ipsi 

NOTES. X, 1, 99-101. 18Y 

vidimus. Pomponius Secundus. A distinguished poet and 
general in the time of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. He is 
highly praised by Tacitus both as a soldier and poet. Ann. 
12, 28. 

99. Claudicamus. See on vincimur, § 86. Aelii Stilo- 
nis ; a Roman knight who devoted his life to the study of the 
Roman poets, and to the gratuitous instruction of the young 
men of his time in letters and eloquence. Varro and Cicero 
were among those on whom his teachings made a lasting impres- 
sion. See Cic. Brutus, 56. sententia, according to, or in the 
opinion. See H. 416. Join with locuturas fuisse. Plautino. 
T. Maccius Plautus lived from about 254 to 184 b. c. Cae- 
cilium. Statins Caecilius died about b. c. 168. laudibus fe- 
rant, for the more usual laudibus efferant. ad Scipionem 
Africanum. Suetonius says (Life of Ter. 3) that Terence him- 
self gave some countenance to the report that he had received 
help from Laelius and Scipio, because he took but little pains to 
defend himself against the charge. See Adel. prol. 15, sqq. 
Terentii. P. Terentius Afer, of Carthage, b. c. 195-159. si — 
stetissent, if they had confined themselves within the limits of 
trimeters. This judgment of Quintilian would have left less 
liberty to Terence than was taken by Aristophanes. 

100. umbram, the shadow, i. e., of the excellence of Greek 
comedy, sermo ipse Romanus, etc. The Roman speech 
in its very nature is insusceptible of the peculiar charm of the 
Attic comedy, and, indeed, this was to be expected, since not 
even the Greek in any other dialect than the Attic {alio genere 
linguae), is capable of it. The Latin is more formal and rhe- 
torical, and does not easily fall into the simple naturalness and 
directness of the Attic Greek, togatis. Supply fabulis, plays. 
Comedies which represented Roman life were called togatae ; 
Latin comedies representing Grecian life and manners were 
palliatae. Of the latter kind were the plays of Plautus, Cae- 
cilius, and Terence. Afranius. Lucius Afranius jlourished 
B. c. 150. fassus (thus) betraying. 

101-104. Historians : Sallust, Livy, Bassus Aufldius. 

101. cesserit, verear, indignetur. See on § 85 ; also 
Madv. 350, b. Sallustium. C. Sallustius Crispus of Amiter- 

188 NOTES. X, 1, 102-104. 

num, B. c. 86-35. T. Livium. T. Livius of Patavium, b. c. 
59-A. D. 17. candoris describes the clearness and purity of his 
style. See on § 73. ita; explanatory of turn — eloquentem. 
adfectus. See on § 48. commendavit magis, has repre- 
sented more 'perfectly. 

102. velocitatem, rapidity; describing the swift transi- 
tion from one idea to another by the employment of few but 
expressive words ; the quality of style indicated in § 73 by the 
words semper instans sibi. consecutus est ; here, has compen- 
sated for ; has attained something equal to. Servilius Nonia- 
nus, who died a. d. 60, was distinguished as a historian and 
orator, qui et ipse, and, indeed, he himself, sententiis. 
See on § 50. 

103. quam refers to historiae auctoritas. Translate: hut 
this. Bassus Aufidius ; an eminent historian and orator, 
contemporary with Servilius. Besides the history of the Ger- 
man war, here referred to, he wrote a history of the civil wars. 
Pliny the Elder took up the latter at the point where Aufidius 
left it at his death. See PI. Ep. 3, 5, 6. praestitit, afforded^ 
illustrated, genere ipso ; iyi his kind (of writing) as a kind ; 
in his style generally, or 07i the ivhole ; as contrasted with the 
occasional exceptions immediately mentioned. Comp. ix, 2, 44. 
suis viribus minor, less than {inferior to) his oivn abilities. 

104. superest adhuc vir, etc., there is a man still living 
and adorning, etc. The historian here referred to is probably 
Fabius Rusticus, praised by Tacitus (Agr. 10) as eloquentissimus 
recentium, and repeatedly quoted in the " Annals." The his- 
torical work of Fabius came down, at least, to the end of the 
reign of Nero, possibly later, and, therefore, must have been 
published some time after a. d. 68. And though we know noth- 
ing of the date either of his birth or death, he may very well 
have been living at an advanced age when Quintilian was writ- 
ing this passage, about a. d. 93, and when the expression '* still 
living " or " surviving," naturally suggestive of some one outliv- 
ing the average of life, would be properly applied to him. The 
qualities denoted by the terms libertas {independence of thought 
and word), elatum spiritum {elevated tone), audaces senten- 
tias {bold originality of language), are not unlikely to have been 
characteristic of one who was an intimate friend of Seneca 

NOTES. X, 1, 105-107. 189 

(Tacit. An. 13, 20), and a writer so much admired by Tacitus. 
That such " audacity " or bold freedom as is ascribed to this 
writer, in departing from the old standards of style, should have 
hurt his reputation {iiocuerit), and should have been offensive to 
Quintilian and his conscientious school, is not surprising ; espe- 
cially before his writings had been pruned (circumcisis) and 
chastened under the influence of criticism and of a maturer 
taste.* genera. See on § 45. 

105-122. Orators : Cicero, Asinius PoUio, Messala, Caesar, Caelius, 
Calvus, Servius Sulpicius, Cassius Severus, Domitius Afer, Julius Africa- 
nus, Trachalus, Vibius Crispus, Julius Secundus. 

105. vel praecipue, even more than all others ; more than 
any other class of Latin authors, possint. See on § 85. 
Eorum refers to the Greeks, who are implied in Graecae {elo- 
quentiae). For the construction ad synesin, see H. 636, iv, 4. 
quantam pugnam : ivhat (unreasonable) opposition ; arising 
from the prejudice existing in the time of Quintilian against 
the style of Cicero. See introduction, page 19. cum is ellip- 
tical. It is implied that this anticipated hostility to the judg- 
ment of Quintilian is uncalled for since especially, etc. We 
may tranlate it with praesertim, though indeed. 

106. consilixini, ordineia, plan, arrangement, dividend!, 
praeparandi, probandi rationem, the method of analysis, 
introduction, proof, eloquendo, style. Comp. § 1. conclu- 
dit, reasons or argues. Comp. xii, 2, 25. The reference here is 
to the handling of argumentative passages, not to the closing of 
an entire speech, inventionis, as opposed to the following 
eloquendi, includes the whole mental process pertaining to the 
consilium, ordinem, etc. acumine, ivith point ; here a quality 
of style, not, as in §§ 81, 83, of mind. See also on §§ 77, 114 ; xii, 
10, 59. frequenter et pondere, often also with weight ; i. e., 
with weight, or breadth and fulness of expression in addition to 
the terse and pointed style. 

107. in adfectibus, in respect to the emotions ; i. e., in ex- 
citing the feelings ; whether of pain or pleasure. See on § 27. 
vincimus. See on vincimur, § 86. epilogos — abstulerit, 

* Nipperdey, also, in the introduction to his "Annals of Tacitus," 
sayB that " in all probability " Fabius Rusticus is the historian referred 
to by Quintilian in this passage. 

190 NOTES. X, 1, 108-113. 

the custom of the state deprived him of (the opportunity of) 
closing appeals to the feelings. This is true only of judicial 
speeches at Athens before the Areopagus, where it was unlawful 
to attempt any appeal to the passions. See Aristotle's " Rhe- 
torica," 1. Quintilian seems to regard this restriction as applying 
to all Athenian tribunals. Comp. vi, 1, 7; ii, 16, 4; and xii, 10, 
52. ilia, etc. See §§ 65, 100. Cicero's disadvantage in the 
want of a simple and flexible language is as great as that of 
Demosthenes in the lack of opportunity for addressing the pas- 
sions, epistolis. The six letters erroneously ascribed to De- 
mosthenes are on mere matters of business, and, of course, can 
not be fairly compared with the numerous and elegant letters 
of Cicero, dialogis. The works of Demosthenes are exclu- 
sively speeches. He attempted no productions, such as those 
of Cicero, in the form of dialogue, after the plan of the Socratic 
philosophers ; so that no comparison can be made between him 
and Cicero in these ; in which (quibus) he wrote nothing. 

108. cedendum est, we must yield the precedence, effinx- 
isse, to have reproduced ; to have fashioned in himself. 

109. in quoque, in each of them, se ipso refers to in- 
genii. beatissima. See on § 61. pluvias, etc. The words 
are from some poem of Pindar no longer extant. 

110. docere, movere, iucunditas. See on § 78; and on 
iucundus, § 46. transversum. The conception is of some ob- 
ject lying in our way, and carried along before us by the force 
of our mere movement. 

111. advocati ; here, as generally in Quintilian, in the 
modern sense of advocate. In earlier times it had been used to 
denote the friends summoned by a litigant to give him coun- 
tenance and support merely by their presence in court, cum 
interim, though at the same time, quae — posset. There is a 
conditional clause suppressed : si vellet. oratio, language, 

112. regnare; twice said by Cicero of himself in his let- 
ters. Epist. ad Fam. xii, 24 ; ix, 18. consecutus, ut habea- 
tur. See 11. 498, ii ; Z. 618. exemplum is to be taken with 
the predicate. For the gender of hoc see H. 445, 4 ; Z. 372. 

113. Asinio Pollione. C. Asinius Pollio (b. c. 76-a. d. 4), 
one of the most prominent statesmen of the Augustan age, dis- 

NOTES. X, 1, 114, 115. 191 

tinguished as an orator, historian, and poet. See Hor. 0. 2, 1. 
diligentia, accuracy or correct7iess of language, consilii et 
animi, of method and spirit, saecculo prior, a century ear- 
lier. In the Dialogue de Oratt. the author, referring to the anti- 
quated style of Pollio, says Asi7iius — videttir mihi inter Mene- 
nios et Appios studuisse. Messala. M. Valerius Corvinus. 
B. c. 69-A. D. 3. nitidus et candidus. Comp. gg 73 and 79. 
nobilitatem suam, his high birth, viribus minor, inferior 
in power (of thought) ; that is, not so excellent in thought as in 
oratorical form. 

114. C.Caesar. C.Julius Caesar, the dictator, b. c. 100- 
44. acumen, point; a pointed, incisive style, marked by 
the omission of every superfluous term, and the use of the 
best word in the best place ; clean cut, as it were, and sharp- 
ened. See on § 106. cuius proprie studiosus ; freely : ivhich 
he made a special study. Suetonius, Caes. 56, speaks of a work 
in two books on correct Latinity, entitled " de Analogia," writ- 
ten by Caesar while traveling over the Alps to join his army in 
Gaul. Cicero, in Brutus 253, refers to the same work in proof 
of Caesar's earnest study of purity in the use of Latin. 

115. Caelio. M. Rufus Caelius, b. c. 82-48. Cicero says of 
him (Brut. 273), that as long as he adhered to good counsels he 
was an effective supporter of the senate ; but that he finally 
joined the party (i. e., Caesar's) which he had formerly aimed to 
overthrow, urbanitas ; here ivit, or tvit and humor, dignus 
must be understood of his talents, not of his character, mens 
melior, a better purpose ; i. e., in political life. Calvum. C. 
Licinius Calvus, a contemporary of Caelius. The remark of 
Cicero here mentioned is found in Brut. 283. calumnia here 
denotes a morbid habit of self-reproach ; self-criticistn. Comp. 
3, 10. verum sanguinem, his natural vigor, perdidisse 
seems to depend grammatically on crederent ; but perhaps we 
may better supply dicenti, after Ciceroni, sancta, jswre ; the 
opposite of corrupfa. castigata, severely finished ; thoroughly 
corrected ; retaining nothing superfluous or inaccurate. So 
Horace, A. P. 294: carmen quod multa litura castigavit ad 
unguem. properata, premature, si quid adiecturus sibi, 
if he would have added anything to himself ; i. e., to the devel- 
opment of more freedom and strength as a public speake/. 

192 NOTES. X, 1, 116-119. 

Comp. 120. si quid detracturus, if he would have taken any- 
thing away ; namelv, by keeping up the same habit of excessive 

116. Servius Sulpicius; the most profound jurist of the 
age of Cicero. He was the first Roman, says Cicero (Brut. 152), 
who applied dialectics to the discussion of legal questions. He 
published only three speeches. Cassius Severus ; the most 
talented advocate of the latter part of the Augustan age. He 
was banished to the island of Seriphos, and died there a. d. 34. 
Tacitus (Dial. 19) describes him as an orator of remarkable gifts, 
and as impressing a character upon the eloquence of his day in 
keeping with the transformed tastes of the Romans, which he 
was the first to comprehend and to satisfy. Vidit namque cum 
conditione temporum ac diversitate aurium, formam quoque ac 
speciem oraiionis esse mutandam. colorem. See on § 59. The 
word here may be rendered decorum. Severus did not suffi- 
ciently disguise or color his personal feeling, but gave free rein 
to bitter invective, wit, and sarcasm ; thus violating the proper 
self-restraint and politeness which we call the courtesy of the 
bar. As Tacitus again says of him. Dial. 26 : omissa modes- 
tia ac pudore verhorum, ipsis etiam, quihus utitur, armis, in- 
compositus et studio feriendi plerumque deiectus, nonpugnat, sed 
rixatur. So below, plus stomacho quam consilio dedit. gravi- 
tatem, dignity ; of speech. 

117. urbanitas. See on § 115, amari sales, acrimoni- 
ous wit. amaritudo, hitter personality ; mere personal abuse, 
without wit. ridicula est, is an occasion of laughter ; moves 
laughter. Success in exciting the mirth of the court and the 
audience is not always a proof of the orator's wit ; but is often 
due to mere bitterness of invective, and coarse and rough, or 
droll terms of abuse. Comp. vi, 3, 7. 

118. viderim. See on § 98. Domitius Afer, of Nemau- 
sus (Nismes), died a. d. 58. See Introduction, page 11. lulius 
Africanus, of Gaul, flourished in the reign of Nero. He is 
mentioned by Tacitus, Dial. 15. compositione longior, tedious 
{OT prolix) in his phraseology, viii, 3, 52: ea (ofioioKoyla) et sen- 
ientiis et figuris et compositione longa. 

119. et Trachalus. et is correlative here to the following 
et before Vihius. M. Galerius Trachalus was consul with the 

NOTES. X, 1, 120-123. 193 

poet Silius Italicus a. d, G8. His voice was remarkably strong 
and musical. Hence he appeared to greater advantage when 
heard, auditus maior, than when read. See xii, 10, 11. velle 
optima, to have the best aims; to be understood here not of 
conduct, but of a high standard of attainment in eloquence. 
Comp. meliora vellet, § 131. Vibius Crispus flourished under 
Nero and Vespasian ; the former of whom he served in the infa- 
mous character of delator, or informer. oomi^ositvLS, fnished ; 
rhythmical and smooth, causis ; ablative of limitation, as ad- 
fedibus melior, § 73. 

120. lulio Secundo. Julius Secundus, of Gaul, is one of 
the principal personages introduced by Tacitus in the " Dia- 
logue," and is supposed to have died a. d. 88. He is mentioned 
also in 3, 12, and in xii, 10, 11. id refers to the deficiency im- 
plied in desiderari. pugnax. He should be more co7itentious, 
or aggressive ; direct his attention more earnestly to the contro- 
versy, and look away from the mere form of the expression 
(elocutione). See on palaestrae and pugnae, § 79. 

121. interceptus quoque, even (though) cut off early, ea, 
such, explicando ; not to be understood here of explaining or 
unfolding a question, but of the clear expression of ideas in lan- 
guage ; a quality of style, candidum, pure, limpid. See on 
§§ 32, 73. lene, gentle, quiet, quae adsumpta sunt, ivhich 
are used figuratively, proprietas. See on § 46. ex periculo 
petitis, literally, sought on trial, or adventurously ; newly in- 
vented, bold. So, a periculo, ii, 11, 3. 

1 22. sunt ingenia ; orators such as Tacitus, Pliny, Clau- 
dius Marcellinus, Salvius Liberalis, and Fronto Catius. These, 
and many others mentioned here and there in Pliny's letters, 
were flourishing when Quintilian was writing the " Institutes." 
See Introduction, page 23. veteribus ; dative after aemulantur. 
In § 62 we have the accusative, eos refers to patroni. optima ; 
as in § 119. 

123-131. Philosophers : Cicero, Brutus, Cornelius Celsus, the Sextii 
Catius, Seneca. 

123. qui ubique. Manifestly there is an ellipsis to be sup- 
plied such as : aemulus extitit Graecorum. Brutus. See on § 
23. ponderi rerum, for the gravity of (philosophical) subjects. 


194: NOTES. X, 1, 124-126. 

124. Comelms Celsus ; a voluminous writer of the age of 
Augustus and Tiberius ; best known to us by his treatise on 
medicine. See also xii, 11, 24. Sextios. There were two 
philosophers of this name, father and son, flourishing under 
Caesar and Augustus. They were said to have been followers of 
Pythagoras, though Seneca, Ep. 64, calls the father a stoic. 
Plautus. There is some uncertainty as to the reading ; whether 
Plautus, or Plancus. C. Rubellius Plautus, a descendant of 
Tiberius, belonged to the stoic school. Owing to the jealousy 
of Nero he retired to Asia Minor, where he was murdered by 
the emissaries of the emperor in a. d. 62. Catius ; an Insubrian 
Gaul, whom Cicero mentions in a letter, written in b. c. 45, as 
having recently died. 

125. Senecam. L. Annaeus Seneca, son of the rhetorician 
Annaeus Seneca, was born at Cordova (Corduba), in Spain, about 
B. c. 4, and died by the command of Nero, a. d. 65. See Intro- 
duction, page 20. in omni genere eloquentiae, in connection 
with, or in treating of every class of literature. In treating of 
the various departments of Roman authorship, I have purposely 
reserved my observations on Seneca for the close of the whole 
chapter. He might also have been classed with poets or orators. 
Accidit ; the perfect, dum contendo, ivhile I was striving. 
See H. 467, 4 ; Z. 506. corruptum, etc. See Introduction, page 
21. This vicious style is here referred to as that of the times, 
and not of Seneca alone : a kind of speakirig, or the (prevailing) 
style of writing {dicendi genus). 

126. Turn denotes the time when Quintilian was engaged 
in teaching ; a few years after Seneca's death, excutere, i. e., 
e manibus adolescentium. illi refers to potioinbus, the more com- 
mendable writers ; those of the Ciceronian period, imitaban- 
tur is used here in its first meaning : to copy, represent, resemble, 
successfully imitate; as in x, 2, 11 ; 5, 8; xi, 3, 55, et al. In its 
other signification : seeking to resemble, it is also very frequent ; 
as in X, 2, 7. and 18, et al. The admirers of Seneca did not 
imitate him in the first sense, did not, as implied in the next 
sentence, make themselves similar to him or nearly so {pares 
aut proximos). tantum, etc. Seneca had been inferior to the 
early writers in taste and style alone ; but his admirers fell be- 
low him both in style and matter. 

NOTES. X, 1, 127-131. 195 

127. foret optandum {nobis). The form implies that the 
wish could not have been realized. Senecam infamabat, 

brought reproach upon Seneca; for they claimed, and were 
understood to represent his characteristics, while in fact they 
were but feeble imitators even of the pleasing and brilliant 
faults (vitia) which alone had attracted their admiration. With- 
out his wonderful gifts of mind they could produce nothing 
but caricatures of his peculiar manner, and thus made his school 
ridiculous. Their folly was akin to that of the superficial imita- 
tors described in 2, 16, sqq. 

128. rerum cog-nitio, knowledge of facts. See § 34. 

129. orationes, etc. Besides the moral essays and the 
epistles of Seneca, none of his works have been preserved, except- 
ing his tragedies and his " Quaestiones Naturales," or treatise 
on the facts of nature, parum diligens, not very critical. He 
was not a careful student of the literature of philosophy in all 
its schools ; but gave his mind more especially to practical ques- 
tions of life and conduct. 

130. alieno iudicio, with the taste (or more commendable 
style) of others, aliqua, sua, refer to qualities of style peculiar 
to his writings, rerum pondera, grave topics ; important 
truths or noble thoughts. Comp. § 123. minutissimis sen- 
tentiis ; brief sentences ; not occurring at intervals, to relieve 
and diversify the more elaborate and flowing periods ; but in a 
continuous chain, and the predominating characteristic through- 
out his works. On this account his writings leave upon us the 
impression of an almost unbroken series of coruscations, inter- 
esting, indeed, on account of their fullness of meaning; but 
soon tiring because of the constant strain; and thus better 
for occasional perusal. Like the faults of all great geniuses, 
they are dangerous as models for inferior or for immature 

131. Sic quoque, even (being) thus ; even as he is. Comp. 
§ 121. iam robustis, by those who are now (already) mature; 
well established in the true principles of style. Comp. ^ 57. 
severiore. Comp. § 125. genere. Supply dicendi. utrimque, 
in both ways, on both sides ; both in approving and comdemn- 
ing. eligere, as subject nominative. See H. 538; Z. 597. 
CuraSo H. 390; Z. 422. meliora, better aims; i. e., in his 

196 NOTES. X, 2, 1-6. 

manner of writing. That genius (natura), which achieved what- 
ever it desired, deserved to aspire to something nobler in the 
way of form of expression. 



1-3. While the command of words, figures, and phraseology is to be 
acquired by the study of good authors, as recommended in the foregoing 
book, the mind must also be exercised in the imitation of all the good 
qualities exemplified in their works. 

1. componendi ratio, style of phraseology. See on i, 79. 
ad exemplum ; not to, but according to the example. So vi, 
5, 2 : ad ea iudicium dirigatur. Comp. x, 7, 3. artis, art, in 
general ; not rhetorical art alone. 

2. omnis vitae — constat, the ivhole course (or laid) of life 
is so constituted, ductus, drawings or writing-copies made on 
wax tablets, in exemplum, for, or as an example. So fre- 
quently, propositum is here a participle ; below, in § 12, it is 
used substantively, ad praescriptum, according to the rule, 
or traditional usage. 

3. lioc ipsum, this very fact; this very advantage ; i. e., 
of having examples to follow. This meaning seems to be sug- 
gested by the context ; though others refer the words to imita- 
iio. apprehenditur, is employed. 

4-6. Only a dull spirit will be content to do nothing but imitate, while 
Inventing nothing new. 

5. in hoc ; frequently for ad hoc. Non concitemur. See 
H. 486, ii ; Z. 530. The form of the question implies that we can 
not fail to be aroused. 

6. cuiusquam. See H. 457, i ; Z. 129. beneficii alieni ; 
supply quod sit; that ivhich is due to the favor of others. 
describere mensuris ac lineis ; to copy hy measures and 
lines. The picture to be copied and the board or surface on 
which the copy was to be made, were divided into equal num- 

NOTES. X, 2, 7-11. 197 

bers of squares by lines drawn across at right angles ; a common 
process also now. The squares are the mensurae. 

7-13. Besides the folly of confining ourselves to exact imitation, it is 
also a disgrace (turpe etiam est) to be satisfied with being just equal to 
the models we imitate ; especially in the case of orators ; for there ia 
much in oratory that is characteristic of individual orators, and due to 
their natural gifts, which can not be made matter of imitation ; and for 
this we must compensate by adding excellencies of our own. 

7. id consequi, etc. Merely to come up to, or barely equal 
our exemplar, is servile imitation. If we go beyond this, do 
something more, our imitation is not incompatible with fresh- 
ness and originality, nirsus, again, with reference to ante 
omnia, § 4. Livium Andronicuni. Livius Andronicus, of 
Tarentum, a half-Greek, came to Rome soon after the first 
Punic war, about b. c. 240, and became famous as a teacher, and 
tragic actor and poet. 5is Latin translation of the " Odyssey," 
though in crude and rugged style, compared with the works of 
later poets, long continued in use as a school-book. See Hor. 
Ep. 2, 1, 69. historiis. See on 1, 75. pontificum annales ; 
called also annales maximi, because they were kept by the pon- 
tifex maximus, or president of the college of pontiffs, were brief 
records of the public events of the civil year. They were con- 
tinued down to the pontificate of Mucins Scaevola, b. c. 130. 
Comp. Cic. de Orat. 2, 12, 52. pictura; painting, as an art; a 
painting is tabula or tabella. quae lineas, etc., that marked 
the outlines of the shadow made hy bodies in the sunlight. The 
earliest painting was only in contour. 

■ 8. nee stetit, etc., supply ulla ars ; nor has any art re- 
mained u'ithin its original limits, nisi forte, as in 1, 70, im- 
plies a supposition which would be absurd, infelicitatis ; a 
genitive of penalty. 

9. ilium oratorem. See § 28. summa, perfection, con- 
tendere, compete, rival. 

10. vestigiis ; dative after insistendum. adde quod. See 
H. 540, iv ; Z. 628. The phrase is rather carelessly repeated in 
§§ 11 and 12. So quin etiam in 1, 23. 

11. quidquid alteri simile est, whatever is imitative of 
another th ing. minus, less than, inferior to ; that is, inferior 
in the characteristic qualities of the object which it imitates (eo 

198 NOTES. X, 3, 12, 13. 

quod imitatur), or aims to resemble, actus histrionum, etc. 
In vi, 2, 35, the, passions as represented by actors are called 
falsi adfectus. in orationibus, in the case of speeches ; that 
IS, in the imitation of real public speeches, alienum proposi- 
tum, another's purpose ; the purpose, not of the original writer 
or speaker, but that of the imitator. 

12. declamationes, school speeches on fictitious questions, 
as opposed to orationes, or speeches in the courts on real ques- 
tions. See also on 1, 71. quidquid arte, etc.; whatever depends 
upon natural gifts and their exercise, and is not imparted {tra- 
ditur) by precept, rules, and examples ; that is, by " art." 

13. aliquos certos pedes, some particular phrases ; meas- 
ures, or rhythmical groups of words, ix, 4, 116 : quern i?i poemate 
locum habet versificatio, etim in oratione compositio. Certus 
{defi?iite, fixed, particular) is frequently joined with aliguis. 
efl&ngi. to be reproduced ; " shaped out," here, in the way of 
imitation, et verba — et compositio, etc. The error of such 
imitators relates both to words and phrases : they are struck, 
perhaps, with the good effect of a certain word employed by the 
author they are following, and so adopt it in the expectation of 
producing a similar impression ; whereas {cum) the felicity of 
the original may have been due to the usage of the times, or to 
the fitness of the term to the thought (opportime, proprieque), or 
to its collocation with other words, determining its effect as to 
sound and emphasis; and also in the same expectation, they 
quote from their models certain forms of phraseology {composi- 
tio), whereas this, too, may owe its effect in the original some- 
times to its adaptation to the idea {rebus accommodata), and 
sometimes to the liveliness it imparts to the style by diversity 
of form, breaking up monotoray. intercidant, invalescant, 
fall out of use, come into use. temporibus, in periods; with 
the times, or fashions. Hor. A. P, 70, sq. : multa renascentur 
quae iam cecidere cadentque, quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, 
si volet usus. eaque, and ivhich. The demonstrative occasion- 
ally takes the place of the relative in a co-ordinate clause of a 
relative sentence. Z. 806. et, correlative to the foregoing et, 
connects this sentence with verba intercidant, etc., and, there- 
fore, requires the subjunctive sit. Halm, however, adopts the 
reading et cum verba, etc., in the first clause, and substitutes est 

NOTES. X, 2, 14-16. 199 

for sit in the second, cum, correlative to turn, does not affect 
the mood. 

14-18. Imitation, therefore, is a part of our work to be carried on with 
great circumspection ; first, in the choice of our models ; then, in distin- 
guishing, even in these, their excellencies from their defects ; and, lastly, 
as to the difference between superficial imitation and that which is based 
upon the thorough study of the work imitated. 

14. quos imitemur, quid sit ; dependent upon examinan- 
dum est, suggested in the foregoing sentence, corruptissimi ; 
said of a vicious style, as in 1, 125. ad quod eflB-ciendum, for 
the working out, or the imitation of which ; efficere in the same 
sense as effingi, § 13. 

15. a doctis — reprehensa, mutually charged upon or 
thrown out against each other by accomplished authors; said 
with reference especially to the strictures interchanged by dis- 
tinguished rival orators, inter ipsos, and not inter se, is used 
when the noun referred to is not in the nominative or accusative. 
So Cic, de Off. 1, 7. 20; societas hominum inter ipsos; id. 1, 16, 
51; latissime quidem patens hominibus inter ipsos . . . societas 
haec est. See also i^ 23. mala. Supply imitantes. nee sal- 
tern. Saltern with a negative is sometimes in the post- Augustan 
writers, as here, equivalent to ne — quidem, sometimes standing 
before, and sometimes after the word emphasized. Here it 
qualifies sufficiat. Epicuri figuras. The allusion is to the 
Lucretian theory of vision, according to which images or 
€<5a)\a are formed in the eye by atoms continually emanating 
from the surfaces of things. Lucret. 4, 46 : dico igitur rerum 
effigias tenuisque figuras mittier ab rebus summo de corpore 
earum, sqq. Also 158, 9 : perpetuo fluere, ut noscas, e corpore 
summo texturas rerum tenuis, tenuisque figuras. summis cor- 
poribus, the surfaces of bodies. 

16. numeris, phrases; rhythmical groups. See on § 13. 
vim, force, significance, inventionis, matter, thought, prox- 
ima virtutibus vitia. ii, 12, 4: est quaedam virtutum vitio- 
rumque vicinia (affinity), qua maledicus pro libero, temerarius 
pro forti, effusus pro copioso accipitur. Comp. also xii, 10, 80. 
pressis. See on 1. 44. fortibus temerarii, violent instead of 
powerful, ii, 12, 11 : vim appellant quae est potius violentia. 

200 NOTES. X, 2, 17-19. 

laetis corrupt!, vicious for luxuriant, compositis exul- 
tantes, bounding for measured, or jingling for harmonious; 
a style of prose writing in which the study of rhythm {com- 
posilio) is carried too far, so as to render it affected and puerile ; 
something which is neither prose nor verse, but unpleasantly 
suggestive of both. To writing of this kind Quintilian applies 
the terms exultare, resultare, saltare, lascivire, to bound, hop, 
dance, wanton. See ix, 4, 28, 66, 142 ; x, 4, 1, xii, 10, 12. neg- 
legentes, careless, or slovenly. 

17. quidlibet illud frigidum et inane, that something 
cold and vapid, sententiis, thoughts, ideas. Atticis. Sup- 
ply pares, conclusionibus, periods, tristes, dreary, color- 
less, aemulantur. See on 1, 122. otiosi et supini, spiritless 
and feeble, si quid, etc., if once they have roimded out some 
period longer than visual. 

18. se expressisse dependent on sibi viderentur, is equiv- 
alent to putarent se expressisse. Comp. v, 10, 5. genus, style 
(dicendi genus), in dicendo; join with caelestis; divine in 
speech, esse videatur; a favorite phrase of Cicero touched 
upon by Aper in his strictures on Cicero, in Tac. Dial. 23. 
Puerile imitators made the phrase ridiculous, primum est ut ; 
after the analogy of necesse est, tit. See H. 501, i, 2 : Z. 623. 
So varum est ut, 7, 24. But in g 1, after primum,, we have the 

19-21. The student must consider what his own gifts qualify him to 
imitate, and the contrary. 

19. quibus — sufficiat — repugnet is a concessive relative 
sentence. Certain qualities are in themselves susceptible of im- 
itation, which, nevertheless, the natural deficiency or peculiarity 
of some individuals will not permit them to imitate. The old- 
est manuscripts give inimitabilia ; but this would seem to have 
no connection with the question under consideration here — 
namely, what good qualities each individual will be capable of 
imitating, tenue ingenium, a simple taste; a gift for plain 
or simple speech, amore subtilitatis, with the desire of sim- 
plicity, or love of a simple style. With perdat and adsequatur 
supply ne. elegantiam, delicacy ; the same here as subtilitas. 
xnollia, delicate things; such a quality of style as is implied in 

NOTES. X, 2, 20-23, 201 

the terms tenue, siibtilitatis, elegantiam, dure fiunt. A strong, 
but violent nature {ingenium forte, sed indomitum), will be apt 
to handle too harshly the sentiment and language of the gentle 
and winning class of eloquence ; such a nature must use the 
bold, passionate, and grand. 

20. atque ego, etc. The general sense of the passage seems 
to be this : And yet, what I have here said may appear incon- 
sistent with my remark in the second book, where 1 advised the 
teacher to exercise his pupils in other directions as well as in 
those for which they might have a natural bent ; and this, be- 
cause the teacher's office is to mold the minds of others, not his 
own, which would be a more difficult task. But what 1 now 
say is only a qualification of that former remark, and not a 
contradiction of it. For while the discreet teacher will in gen- 
eral try to develop his pupils in a symmetrical way, even such a 
teacher will not go so far in this effort as to insist upon that 
(laborare in eo) which he finds absolutely repugnant to their 
natures. Such would be the clashing of the tenue ingenium 
with the fortia et abrupta, etc., just spoken of. atque, and yet ; 
so in 3, 22. libro secundo. ii, 8. credidi, 1 expressed the 

21. quamquam velit. See on 1, 33. auditoribus; here 
disciples or pupils, naturam, natural gifts. 

21-26. In oratory we must not imitate the characteristic quaUties of 
poetry and history, nor in these the manner of orators and declaimers ; 
we must adapt the style to the topic and occasion ; and we should not 
limit ourselves to one model exclusively. 

21. illis operibus ; i. e., poetic and historical writings. As 
to the caution, comp. 1, 28-34. 

22. declamatores. See on 1, 71. cuique, each thing; 
each class or department of writing, decor, propriety or char- 
acter. See 1, 27 and 71. tamen; though each has its indi- 
viduality, yet all departments of writing (omnis eloquentia) have 
something in common. 

23. uni alicui generi, some one style ; whether the plain 
(tenue), or smooth and dispassionate {lene ac remissum), or the 
bold and exciting {asperum). asperitas, passion, tenuitas, 
simplicity. See on § 19. iucunditas. See on iucundus, 1, 46. 

202 , NOTES. X, 2, 24-28. 

asperis, exciting causes ; such as arouse the more violent 
passions, cum, whereas. Comp. § 18. inter ipsas. See on 

24. suaserim, se addicere ; for suaserim, ut se addicat. 
See H. 535, iv; Z. 615. For the subject, see on 1, 7. uni 
alicui, to some one (model orator or author), onmium per- 
fectissimus. Comp, 1, 39. alii, ille. Supply fecerunt, fecit, 
Comp. 3, 25, 

25. quid tamen noceret must be taken in connection with 
the foregoing sentence : yet, even if I could rival Cicero in every 
respect, what harm would it do, etc, Caesaris. See 1, 114. 
Caelii. See 1, 115. Pollionis. See 1, 113. iudicium; here, 
taste. Calvi. See 1, 115, 

26. praeter id quod, etc., besides this, that it is {while it is) 
the part, etc. Comp. 1, 28. pars, element, ^quality, sequitur, 
etc., attends, is attained hy those ivho look at one (author) alone. 

37-28. Imitation must not be confined to words. 

27. idem dicam. See §^ 13, 16, and 1, § 15. decoris. See 
on § 22. prooemio, narrandi, probandi, refellendi, adfec- 
tibus m.ovendis, indicate the five essential parts of a judicial 
speech ; the introduction, the narrative, the proof, the refuta- 
tion, and the closing appeal to the feelings {epilogus, peroratio). 
See iii, 9, 1. om.iiis generis. See on 1, 48. utilitatis gratia 
adsumpta {sit), is employed for the sake of advantage ; i. e., 
applause is made available for carrying the case : not sought by 
the advocate in order to gratify his vanity or ambition, arces- 
situr, is courted. 

28. quem quaerimus, whom ive seek for ; desire to see ; 
who does not yet exist, perfectus orator. Comp. § 9. con- 
summari, to be fully developed. Comp. 1, 89, eorum refers to 
the summi ; those who have hitherto {adhuc) been pre-eminent. 

NOTES. X, 3, 1-4 203 



1-4. Introductory to the three chapters on writing. The practice Ox 
writing is a most useful part of the orator's training ; necessary to ac- 
curacy, richness, and readiness of speech. It is to be treated, first (Chap. 
ni), with reference to the manner of conducting the work {quo modo), 
which includes also emendation (Chap. IV) ; and, second, with reference 
to the matter and form (Chap. V). 

1. haec auxiHa ; the helps, namely, which have been 
treated of in the foregoing chapters, nobis ipsis. The benefit 
to be derived from the practice of writing depends chiefly upon 
one's own gifts and industry. M. Tullius. De Orat. 1, 33: 
caput autem est quam plurimam scribere. cui sententiae, 
etc. The English usage would rather reverse the construction ; 
thus: by attrihuting this opinion to the person, Qic. Crassi. L. 
Licinius Crassus (b. c. 140-91), the greatest Roman orator before 
Cicero, is made the chief personage in the discussions of the 
" de Oratore." 

2. profectus, progress or improvement; not a Ciceronian 
word, non a summo petitus. not sought from the surface, 
but from below, and by deeper tillage ; not from superficial, but 
from severe and thorough study. Comp. 2, 15. sine con- 
scientia, equivalent to sine huius rei conscientia, without the 
consciousness (or experience) of this labor. We may translate 
freely : without this discipline. Conscientia here must signify 
not merely knowledge but experimental knowledge, thorough 
practice. For this usage of the pronoun, see H. 450, 4, N. 3 ; 
M. 314. 

3. illic; that is, in stilo. sanctiore aerario. A part of 
the public money at Rome was reserved for great emergencies, 
and therefore sanctiiis. See Liv. 27, 10 ; Caes. Bel. Civ. 1, 14, 
quodam, a Icind of, as it were. See on 1, 7. vires faciamus, 
let us acquire strength. So faciendus usus, § 28. Comp. xii, 
7, 1. labori certantium. The metaphor is drawn from 
agonistic combats. 

4. rerum natura, nature, or the law of nature. The phrase 

204: NOTES. X, 3, 5-7. 

" nature of things " in English conveys a different notion, 
nascendi, of gpneration. quae fecerit, for she has made. 
H. 517; Z. 564. The quo modo is treated of in the present 
and the following chapter ; quae maxime scribi oporteat is 
reserved for the fifth, iam hinc, literally : from fust here ; 
simply : now. Some have proposed hunc for hi?ic ; but iam 
hinc, indicating the point of departure, is quite frequent. See 
viii, 3, 40; ii, 2, 15 ; iii, 1, 1 ; ii, 11, 1, et al. 

5-18. As to the manner of this exercise of writing, it should at first be 
slow and cautious, with much study of each successive phrase and sen- 
tence ; but gradually accelerated, especially by the student of oratory ; 
who can not be fitted for his profession without getting rid of too much 
revision and self-criticism, and without acquiring the habit of writing 
promptly, naturally, and clearly. But a degree of haste inconsistent with 
logical order and clear expression must be avoided. 

5. diligens, accurate, optima, the best things, includes 
both ideas and words, as indicated by the words rerum and 
verhorum, below, nee. For no7i, negue, and nee with the sub- 
junctive of prohibition, see Z. 529, note ; H. 488. protinus, at 
onee ; Join with gaudeamus, not with the participle offerenti- 
hus. inventis ; the things (words and ideas) which have sug- 
gested themselves to us. delectus agendus, choice must 
be exercised. So v, 6, 3 : agere curam. ratio conlocandi, the 
way, or manner of arrangement, numeri, the composition or 
phraseology ; rhythmical series or groups of words ; as in 2, 16. 
ut, just as. 

6. scriptorum proxima, what we have last written ; the 
last preceding words or sentences, praeter id quod. See on 
1, 28. repetito spatio. By going over the last passage written, 
before beginning the next, the writer gets a new impulse, just 
like the athlete who goes back some little distance, and by run- 
ning over this space to the point of the leap, secures a more 
powerful spring, ut conatum longius petant, so that they 
try to get a start farther hack. For the usage of ut here, see 1, 
58. quo, ivherein ; the ablative denoting the space in ivhich 
the leap is made (contenditur), or which it covers, nervos, the 

7. interim. See on 1, 24. dum non. dum or modo with 
non instead of ne is a usage taken from the poets. Comp. xii, 

NOTES. X, 3, 8-13, 205 

10, 48. alioqui, otherwise, nee ; frequent in Quintilian for 
ne — guide m. retractemus, let us review, 

8. die ; for the more usual form iji die. Varius. See on 
1, 98. condicio, the case, the circumstances. 

9. compositio. See on 1, 79. familia ; family in the sense 
of slave-family ; the body of slaves pertaining to a house- 

10. ferentis equos ; literally: steeds hearing {us along); 
rushing steeds, analogous to Vergil's vento ferenti (Aen. 8, 473), 
and ventos ferentis (id. 4, 430) ; also feret flatus, above, § 7. 
quibusdam. See on 1, 7. neque enim. The ellipsis may be 
thus supplied : But I recommend this curbing and self-restraint 
only when it will 7wt cause injurious delay ; for neither, again, 
etc. robur fecerint. See on § 3. infelicem. Comp. 1, 7. 
calumniandi. See on 1, 115. 

11. oflS.ciis civilibus, the duties of a citizen; here, espe- 
cially, those of a public speaker, whether in the senate or in the 
courts. Comp. 7, 1. actionum. speeches, pleadings, arguments. 
partibus ; dative after insenescat. velint. Supply qui. The 
construction of the relative is continued, though its case is 
changed to the nominative, increduli quidam. somehow 
afraid of themselves ; having a sort, or degree of distrust of 
their own abilities ; but not absolute distrust. See on 1, 7 and 
76. de ingenio suo pessime meriti, haviyig treated, or served 
their natural gifts most unfairly, diligentiam, accuracy, is 
the predicate with esse understood ; and the subject is facere — 

12. in — usque; for the usual order usque in. lulium 
Secundum. See 1, 120. 

13. in eloquentia Galliarum. Eloquence was much cul- 
tivated in the Gallic provinces under the Caesars. The emperor 
Caligula established premiums at Lyons for successful competi- 
tors both in Roman and Grecian oratory. Suet. Calig. 20 
demum here has the sense of Just, only ; as frequently, alio- 
qui, moreover; apart from this fact, even if compared with 
orators in general and outside of his own country, inter 
paucos ; to be classed among few as being his equals ; like 
few. propinquitate. His relationship to Secundus is meant. 
scholae operatum, devoted to school or study; attending school. 

206 NOTES. X, 3, 14-18. 

operari, in the sense of operam dare, takes the dative. See For- 
cellini's Lex., art. operor. 

14. tertium diem esse quod. Some copies give quo ; but 
Pliny, Ep. 4, 27, 1, uses quod in a similar connection: tertius 
dies est quod audivi recitantem Sentium. It is like our indef- 
inite use of " that." So also Plant. Amph. 1, 1, 146. materiae 
is to be taken as the dative of the remote object of inveniret. 

15. ut possimus ; after praestahit. See on sciamus, 1, 10. 
ratio, reflection, resupini does not necessarily imply lying 
down ; only the upturned face. Martial. 9, 43, 3 : resupino 
voltu. tectum, the ceiling, or roof, cogitationem. m.unnure 
agitantes, exciting ou?^ thought by muttered ivords ; seeking to 
stimulate thought by talking to ourselves in a suppressed tone. 
So ii, 11, 4: murmure incerto velut classico instincti. quid 
obveniat ; tvhat may suggest itself, personam, the character, 
namely, of the court or judges, and of the parties in the suit, 
including the advocates themselves. hum.ano : befitting a 
man ; rational, natura ; that of the question, cause, or sub- 

16. certa sunt pleraque, most things (pertaining to a given 
subject) are sure ; so identified with the subject that they are 
suggested by the very thought of it. non putemus. See on 
§ 5. immutescamus ; a compound found only here and once 
in Statins (Theb. 5, 542). The usual word is obmutescere. 
alioqui; as in § 7. nisi quod non invenimus, but that 
which we have not thought of; which has not occurred to us. 

17. diversum in Quintilian and later writers is followed by 
the dative ; in Cicero by ab. Different to, instead of different 
from, is a similar idiom often used in England, silvam, tim- 
ber, ivood, material, v^v- Cicero employs this word to denote a 
mass of facts and ideas thrown together, componunt, arrange 
the ivords; with reference to euphony. See on 1, 44. numeri, 
phrases, as above, in § 5. levitas, want of solidity ; want of 
logical coherence or order ; not the levitas of x, 1, 52. 

18. protinus, at the outset, ducere, to mold. Comp. 5, 9. 
sequemur, the future as a softened imperative. 

19-27. The practice of dictating to amanuenses is condemned, as in- 
terfering with perfect solitude. Yet rural seclusion and attractive scenery 
are not favorable to concentration of thought ; closed doors are better ; 

NOTES. X, 3, 19-21. 207 

and especially the hours of the night are helpful to literary labor ; but 
not to be employed to excess. 

19. deliciis, indulgence. The employment of an amanuen- 
sis to write from dictation was a kind of luxurious self-indul- 
gence, as it saved the orator the drudgery of the pen. in stilo ; 
i. e., when used by the author himself, dat, etc. The hand in 
the process of writing, being slower than our thought, affords it 
time for shaping out the phraseology in advance of the pen. 
pudet. Supply nos or oratorem. resistere, to stop. So 7, 14. 
conscium. The amanuensis is a witness of any deficiency in 
readiness of thought and language on the part of his employer. 

20. rudia et fortuita has reference to inelegant words and 
phrases hurriedly thrown out under the pressure of dictation. 
impropria, inappropriate, irrelevant ideas, connectendi ser- 
monis : not here logical connection, but uninterrupted, un- 
hesitating continuity of discourse or words. efiS-uant, drop 
from us. curam = diligentiam, accuracy, impetura, force, 
liveliness, consequantur, attain, possess. Comp. 1, 102 ; 2, 
25. in legendo. The amanuensis {ide7?i ille qui excipit) is 
sometimes required to stop writing and to read aloud what has 
already been dictated. If he reads indistinctly and hesitatingly, 
or even if he is too slow (tardior) with the pen, we are impatient 
and irritated, velut oflfensator, as it were a hinderer ; stum- 
bling block. The word is not found elsewhere and some edi- 
tions, therefore, substitute offensatus. quae erat (eoncepta); 
i. e., the thought which we had formed before dictating, con- 
ceptae mentis intentio, attentioji to the conceived thought; 
mens here signifies the series of ideas combined in one general 
conception, as the line of remark to be pursued. So Verg. Aen. 
1,676: nostram nunc accipe mentem. Comp. 7, 14. The ob- 
jective genitive is also found after intentio in § 23. 

21. ilia, those movements, obiurgare; equivalent in this 
sentence to fer-ire, or caedere, strike. Seneca de Ira, 3, 12, 6 : 
servulum istum verberibus obiurga. Suet. Calig. 20 : ferulis 
obiurgari. Persius. The quotation is from Sat. 1, 106, where 
the satirist has in mind a driveling versifier who is without 
poetic feeling and imagination, and does not in self-forgetf ul- 
ness and passion strike the desk and bite his finger-nails. 
leviter, without earnestness, or feeling, caedit, sapit. The 

208 NOTES. X, 3, 22-30. 

subject understood is ille, referring to the would-be poet, de- 
morsos, bitten to the quick. Hor. Sat. 1, 10, 79 : vivos roderet 

22. ut semel dicam. Comp. 1, 17. protinus, at once, 
necessarily. Comp. 1, 3. in hoc ; for the regular form ad hoc, 
or huic rei. sublimem animum., an elevated tone, beatiorem 
spiritum, a more fertile imagination. So heatissima in 1, 61. 

23. quae ipsa = quae per se. bona fide, faithfully ; ear- 
nestly, quod propositum erat, the subject before it, or in 

25. Demosthenes ; supply fecit. The fact referred to is 
mentioned in Plutarch's life of Demosthenes, ch. 7: e/c tovtov 
Kardydov juei/ otKoSoytt^croi fxeXerijTTjpiov. velut tectos, as if under 
cover. The better authorized reading is rectos ; but it yields no 
satisfactory meaning, maxime, for potissimum. We may 
render: as the best thing. This profound secrecy should be 
resorted to in preference to anything else. 

26. in hoc. Supply genere studiorum ; in this kind, or 
manner of labor, frugalitas, temperance, in the widest sense ; 
freedom from all irregularities and excess in living, cum con- 
vertimus, when we apply ; meaning inasmuch as we apply. 
Other examples of cum implying cause, and yet followed by the 
indicative, are found ; as i, 6, 2. cui — inrogandum, on which 
(labor) we must expend, quod somno supererit, haud deerit, 
what shall remain after (sufficient) sleep, (and) shall not be 
needed for sleep. 

27. occupatos ; the antithesis to vacet. 

28-30. But solitude can not always be enjoyed, and the orator must 
get accustomed to think and write, and prepare himself for debate, in 
spite of hindrances, and even in the midst of the noise and confusion of 
public places. 

28. codices ; ivriting-tablets ; cerae. deplorandus, to be 
given up for lost, faciendus usus. See on § 3. 

29. si et voluerimus. If we add the power of will to 
such merely accidental interest, how much more able shall we 
be to forget outside things, nonnisi refecti, 07ily when fresh. 
See on 1, 20. 

30. alioqui. See on § 7. tot — clamoribus. The nave 

NOTES. X, 3, 30, 31. 209 

of the Roman court-house or basilica served as a sort of busi- 
ness exchange, and the galleries were thronged with spectators 
and idlers. The courts were held in the tribunes or hemicycles 
recessed at the ends and sides of the basilica, but still were 
liable to be disturbed by the confusion from without. Besides 
this, we learn from Quintilian, xii, 5, 6. that in the Basilica 
Julia, which was the principal court-house, and on the side of 
the Forum Romanum, there were usually four courts in session 
at the same time ; and that the voice of an advocate in one of 
them was sometimes, as in the case of Trachalus, heard by all 
the others, and this so distinctly as even to withdraw their at- 
tention from their own proper cases. 

tot circumstantibus-iudiciis, so many trials, wranglings, 
accidental cries, surrounding us ; freely : ^n the midst of so many 
courts, disputes, etc. subito, ex tempore, particulas, brief 
heads ; generally necessary to be noted down by the advocate, 
however hastily, when called upon to speak ex tempore in con- 
tinuous discourse (continua oratione). If he can not collect his 
thoughts sufficiently to write down such headings in spite of 
the surrounding confusion, he will certainly be unprepared to 
make effective arguments ex tempore, and so be unfit for his 
profession. Comp. 7, 1. ceris, tablets, in litore in quo, etc. 
Not on the shore in general, but on a shore, or some part of the 
shore, such that the wave dashed there {in quo se inlideret) ivith 
the greatest noise. The subjunctive is one of result, meditans, 
practicing, or by practicing. 

expavescere, to tremhle at, or dread; transitive, as also 
in ix, 4, 85. Cicero, de Fin. 5, 2, understands the object of 
Demosthenes to have been to increase the power of his voice so 
as to be heard above the din of public assemblies ; but he neces- 
sarily at the same time would accomplish the object indicated 
by Quintilian. 

31-33. The proper writing materials. 

31. Ceris; i?i is omitted, as in viii, 6, 64: ceris Platonis. 
nisi forte with the indicative is usually ironical, as in 1, 70, 
and 2, 8 ; but not so here, nor in v, 2, 2. relatione, by carry- 
ing the pen back, or to and fro, in supplying it with ink. The 
word in this literal meaning is used only here. 

210 NOTES. X, 4, 1-4. 

32. relinquendae contra vacuae tabellae, llanh pages 
should he left opposite (to those written upon), adiciendo ex- 
cursio, free space for additions, angustiae, iva7it of room. 
confundant ; potential, expertus, for 1 have known. 

33. loci, topics or subjects ; the various parts or passages of 
a discourse, inrumpunt, flash upon {us), sensus, thoughts 
or ideas, interim — interim = nunc — nunc, inventione, 
liTie of thought, in deposito, in store ; freely : noted down. 



1-4. Emendation consists in adding, cutting out, and changing ; but 
there must be some limit to it, especially on the part of the orator. 

1. pars longe utilissima ; literally : a far most useful 
part ; freely : one of the most useful parts (of this work of writ- 
ing). M. 310, obs. 2, ad fin. The exercise of the pen in general 
(as described in Chap. Ill, IV, and V), has already been pro- 
nounced " far the most useful." See 3, 1. non minus agere, 
is not accomplishing less; namely, than when writing, pre- 
mere, extollere, etc., are the species comprised in the general 
term mutare. luxuriantia, the exubera7it ; ambitious things. 
inordinata, the irregtdar ; incorrect arrangement of words. 
soluta, the inharmonious; a disjointed or unrhythmical ar- 
rangement, the opposite of compositum. exultantia coercere, 
to tone down jingling measures ; combinations of words produc- 
ing an undignified, skipping, or dancing movement; that is, 
prose rhythm or compositio carried to a vicious extreme. Solu- 
tus, on the other hand, is the lack of rhythm. See on 2, 16. 

3. sunt enim, etc. These are the increduli of 3, 11. 
primum ; what is first thought of or written, quidquid est 
aliud ; whatever new or different idea or form strikes us, after 
writing that which first suggested itself. See 3, 16. cura, by 

4. quod accepimus, et dicunt, as to our having learned^ 
and as to their saying; literally: as to {the fact) that we have 

NOTES. X, 5, 1. 211 

learned, etc. Cinnae Smymam. C. Helvius Cinna, a friend 
of Catullus, wrote a poem, of which Smyrna or Myrrha was the 
heroine. Of the time spent in its composition Catullus says 
(carmen 95) : Smyrna mei Cinnae nonam post denique messem 
quam coepta est, nonamque edita post hiemem. Panegyricum 
Isocratis. The panegyric composed by Isocrates, and named 
from the iravhyvpis, or great national assembly at the Olympic 
games, was finished in 01. 99, 4 (b. c. 380), in ten years, accord- 
ing to those who give the shortest time {qui parcissime dicunt), 
or, as some say, in fifteen years, ad oratorem nihil pertinet ; 
because the " Smyrna " was an epic narrative, and not a speech, 
and the " Panegyric," though a speech in form, was not expected 
to be actually spoken. See Rauchenstein's " Isocrates," intro- 
duction to the " Panegyric." 



1-8. First : Translations from the Greek. These exercise the writer 
in choosing the best terms in his own language. Second : Paraphrasing 
the best authors in his own language. This stimulates him to a kind of 
rivalry of the Latin author, by varying the phraseology. 

1. non est huius, for the old hoc exuherantis sit, is the 
conjectural reading of Halm, huius operis refers to the pres- 
ent part of the work ; that is, the topic of the present chapter. 
quae sint materiae, what are the subjects ; i. e., what are the 
kinds of subjects in general which should be handled in a 
course of rhetorical training, quae prima, etc., what forms of 
writing, whether stories and fables, discussions, or theses, should 
be taken up, according to the age and progress of the student. 
primo libro, secundo. See i, 9; ii, 10. robustorum. See 
on 1, 131. sed. There is an ellipsis of explicandum est or 
explicemus, on which depends the interrogative clause unde, 
etc. (id) de quo — agitur, the question now before us ; namely, 
from what materials {unde = quibus ex materiis), readiness may 
best be attained. 

212 NOTES. X, 5, 2-4. 

2. L. Crassus dicit, etc. See Cic. de Orat. 1, 34, 15£k 
Cicero praecipit. In his account of his own education, Brut. 
310, Cicero says that he practiced declaiming in Greek in order 
to acquire the habit of expressing himself with like propriety in 
Latin ; also in the beginning of " de Officiis " and " de Finibus " 
he speaks of the advantage of studying Greek in connection with 
Latin ; but in no existing passage of his writings is the exercise 
of translation expressly enjoined. See Cic. de Off. 1. and de 
Fin. 2, sq. Platonis, Xenophontis. Cicero translated the 
" Protagoras " and " Timaeus " of Plato. A fragment of the lat- 
ter is still preserved. His translation of the " Oeconomics " 
of Xenophon is not extant, hoc genere ; in this kind, or way ; 
that is, as an exercise of the pen ; genus, " sort of thing," " kind 
of labor, work, study," may often be rendered by the various 
terms "kind," "way," "style," "manner," etc. Messalae. 
See 1, 118. ad hunc modum = hoc genere. cum ilia sub- 
tilitate, with that simple style, or unadorned eloquence of 
Eyperides (in his speech) for Phryne. Phryne ; an Athenian 
courtesan, put on trial for impiety. Quintilian says (ii, 15, 9) 
that her acquittal was due rather to her beauty than to the 
eloquence of Hyperides. difificillima Romanis. Comp. 1, 
100. For the style of Hyperides, see 1, 77. 

3. verbis optimis. When translating from a foreign lan- 
guage, we can choose without restriction the best words of our 
own ; whereas in writing paraphrases of the works of our own 
authors, as indicated below in § 5, we do not feel at liberty to 
use the terms already employed by them, and thus we are often 
confined to expressions inferior to theirs, figuras. Figures of 
words as well as grammatical figures are here meant. The 
Greek and Latin, and languages generally, present a wide differ- 
ence in these ; so that a figure which is allowable in one may 
not be in use in another. 

4. ex latinis conversio. The words signify the para- 
phrasing of Latin writers in their own tongue. The pupil bor- 
rows their ideas, but clothes them in new phraseology, multum 
et ipsa, much also of itself ; to say nothing of translating from 
the Greek ; or, apart from translations; that is, even paraphrase 
may help much, though not so good an exercise as translation. 
Bonnell, however, gives the rendering : much and indeed of it- 

NOTES. X, 5, 5-8. 213 

self; comparing 1, 94: muUiun et verae gloriae. Sulpicius. 
See 1, 116. orationem, language or style ; as often, praesu- 
raunt, preclude; literally, take before, proprie, literally, or 
directly ; as opposed to the less commonplace, more imaginative, 
and more figurative terms of the poet ; poetica libertate auda- 
ciora. sententiis, \\Qve, poetic fancies. 

5. paraphrasim is the subject of esse, sensiis, thoughts, 
ideas, as in 3, 33. certamen — aemulationem ; a contest and 
rivalry with the original in regard to felicity of expression ; an 
effort to reproduce the same ideas in an equal or better clothing 
of words, optimis refers to words and forms of expression as 
well as ideas, ut una de re, etc., freely : that there is only one 
possible form of saying any one thing. 

6. circa voces easdem, in connection ivith the same words. 
In uttering the same passages different actors use different gest- 
ures ; but words are related to thoughts as gestures to words, 
and are capable of Just as much variation in expressing one and 
the same idea as gesture in delivering one and the same sen- 
tence, esto — esse. Horace, Ep. i, 1, 81, uses the infinitive in 
like manner as the subject of esto: esto, alios teneri. But 
Quint, ix, 2, 84 : sed esto, voluerit ; and Verg. Aen. iv, 35 : esto, 
nulli flexere mar it i. 

7. continuas sententias, successive sentences, clauses, or 
periods, uno genere, in only one manner, form. Comp. 8, 
26, and above, on ^ 2. fas erat, it would have been right. H. 
475, 4 : Z. 518. eodem, to the same end ; to the expression of 
the same idea. 

8. translatis, tropes, propriis, literal terms, oratio recta ; 
not here in the technical sense ; but simple speech, or natural 
language as opposed to figura declinata, an indirect form, or 
rhetorical figure, sic ; i. e., by this effort to reproduce the ideas 
of these authors in our own words, lectione secura, ivith the 
indifference or ease of reading ; in which we do not often stop to 
take in the full significance and beauty of individual passages. 

9-13. It will be an advantage to put our own ideas into various forms 
of expression, and to cultivate the power of amplifj-ing : and to this at- 
tamment the writing of theses or discussions of general propositions will 
contribute ; and also judicial decisions and loci communes, which are 
kindred to theses. 

214 NOTES. X, 5, 9-12. 

9. aliae aliaeque fornaae, successive forms,' shapes, one 
after another, duel, to be shaped or molded ; a metaphor de- 
rived from forming things out of plastic materials. Comp. 
3, 18. 

10. ilia diversitate. In the great variety of facts con- 
nected with almost all trials the advocate can rarely fail to 
think of topics to speak about, and so poverty of invention may 
be concealed, causarum : here, of subordinate legal questions 
occurring within particular causes, or during the trial of them. 

11. fundere, to amplify, expand, expositis, common, 
familiar things, in hoc facient, will serve for this end. In 
hoc as in 2, 5. infinitae quaestiones. Quint, iii, 5, 5, defines 
such questions thus : Unlimited questions are those which set 
aside all circumstances of person, time, place, and the like, and 
are treated both affirmatively and negatively. " The Grreeks," 
says he, " call such questions deaeis, Cicero, propositiones. Some 
term them quaestiones universales civiles; Athenaeus, partem 
causae. Cicero divides them into two classes : those of theory 
(scientia) and those of action (i. e., the speculative and the 
practical). Of the first class the following is an example : An 
providentia mundus regatur f Of the second : An accedendum 
ad rempublicam administrandam f " iam princeps. In the 
year b. c. 49, at the breaking out of the civil war, Cicero writes 
to Atticus : ne me totum aegritudini dedam, sumpsi mihi quas- 
dam tanquam Bea-eis. And again : dea-eis meas commentari non 
desino. Ad Att. 9, 4. Gesner remarks that the paradoxa, also 
written by Cicero after he had held the highest oflBces of the 
state (iam princeps), were discussions of the same nature as the 
thesis, exerceri; in the sense of a middle voice: to exercise 

12. destmctio — sententiarum, the confuting and sus- 
taining of (Judicial) decisions or opinions. Destructio and con- 
firmatio correspond respectively to the Greek terms avaa-Kev^ 
and KaraffKcv)). used in ii, 4, 18 of arguing for and against the 
truth of historical anecdotes. Here the reference is to argu- 
ments for and against the decisions, opinions, or sentences of 
courts, taken as general propositions, nam cum sit sententia, 
etc. sententia and iudicium, which are synonymous here, 
pertain to individual cases (res) ; but the particular sentence or 

NOTES. X, 5, 13. 215 

judgment is also a kind of (general) decree and prescription, or 

general rule of law ; because, to be sustained or refuted, it must 
be put into a general form or statement like such a general 
decree. Thus the special sentence is argued (guaeritur) on the 
same grounds as the case itself (res) on which it has been pro- 
nounced. See the case of Milo, quoted below, in § 13. Of 
course, no specific question of fact will come into such a dis- 
cussion ; only a general one of right or wrong, of legal prece- 
dent, or of law in general, loci communes. Supply in hoc 
facient. Loci communes, general topics, are speeches, or, more 
commonly, passages of speeches which dwell upon general truths, 
principles, or sentiments in the abstract, and without reference 
to persons and details of fact : as, for instance, the duty of 
patriotism, the infamy of treason, the folly of avarice. Such a 
topic or passage of discourse is said to be communis, because it 
is of a general nature and common, or equally applicable to an 
indefinite number of individual cases. Cic. de Orat. 3, 27, 106 : 
illi loci, qui, quamquam proprii causanmi, et inhaerentes in 
earum nervis esse dehent, tamen, quia de universa re tractari 
Solent, communes a veteribus nominati sunt, scriptos ab ora- 
toribus ; as for example, by Cicero and Hortensius. ii, 1, 11 : 
communes loci, sive qui in vitia derecti, quales legimus a Cice- 
rone compositos, seu quihus quaestiones generaliter tractantur, 
quales sunt editi a Quinto quoque Hortensio. haec refers to 
the three forms of material just mentioned : infinitae quaestiones, 
sejitentiae, and loci communes, recta tautum., only {nothing 
else than), that is, absolutely, wholly, simple, straightforward, 
direct ; explained by the following in nullos flexus recedentia, 
digressing into no windings of detail. These general discussions 
do not turn aside from the direct track of abstract statement. 
in illis ; in those causes, namely, which in fact make up the 
great majority, and are familiar to us all. plures excursus 
recipientibus, admitting of many digressions, or departures 
from the direct line of abstract argument, and introducing 
many particulars of time, place, and person. See § 10. 

13. omnes {causae)-, all specific or actual cases in court, 
generalibus ; synomymous with infinitis. Cornelius, C. 
Cornelius, quaestor under Pompeius Magnus, and tribune ol 
the commons in b. c. 67, brought forward a bill {codicem, rogck' 

216 NOTES. X, 5, 14-16. 

tionem) which provided that no person should be exempt from 
the operation of any law except by vote of the people. This 
was intended to put an end to the power exercised by the senate 
of exempting individuals in certain cases from particular legal 
obligations. Cornelius was opposed by one of his colleagues, 
Servilius Globulus, who forbade the clerk to read the bill before 
the assembly. Hereupon Cornelius himself read the bill. At 
the expiration of his office he was arraigned on the charge of 
violating the constitutional right of intercession, and was suc- 
cessfully defended by Cicero, maiestas, here the constitution. 
Cato — Hortensio. Marcia, the wife of Cato, lived with Hor- 
tensius from b. c. 56 until the time of his death, in b. c. 50, and 
then returned to her husband. Cato had consented to this 
transfer on the request of Hortensius. conveniatne, etc., and 
above, oporteatne, etc., are the special questions generalized or 
treated as quaestiones infinitae. de personis, concerning per- 
sons ; special cases, personal interests, rebus ; here for rebus 
generalibus, general questions, principles. 

14-16. The writing of declamations, or school speeches on fictitious 
cases is also recommended ; as well as that of histories, dialogues, and 
even poems. 

14. declamationes ; here recommended as exercises for 
the pen. orationibus, speeches ; real speeches made in court. 
pariter, equally ; just as much as language and style. These 
declamations, as a discipline in writing, cultivate the orator in 
invention and arrangement not less than in rhetorical excellence. 
alitur — facundia. Eloquence is made, as it were fat and well- 
liking by this kind of exercise, like animals fed on richer pastur- 
age {pabulo laetiore). enitescit, becomes sleek; shining with 
good " feed." 

1 5. gestiendum. ive must seek delight, must indulge, con- 
trarium, to our disadvantage, ciborum certa necessitate, 
the fixed regimen of food ; auayKocpayia. 

16. durescat articulus, that the finger-joint become stiff, 
articulus here stands for eloquence, as fulgor for its brilliancy. 
As the opposite notion we have in ii, 12, 2, mollis articulus; said 
literally of the gladiator handling his sword ^iih. flexible fingers. 
In xi, 1, 70, the phrase is metaphorical : quani molli articulo 
(Cicero) tractavit Catonem. 

NOTES. X, 5, 17-20. 217 

i7-20. The student must not be held too long to these preparatory ex- 
ercises of the school ; but as soon as he is well disciplined he must attach 
himself to some eminent pubUc speaker, and accompany him to the 
courts ; and he must also write speeches at home on the questions he 
hears debated in public ; not neglecting, at the same time, the composi- 
tion of discourses on subjects of his own choosing. 

17. sagina dicendi, rich nourishment of eloquence; the 
same as the iucundioribus epulis in § 15. quemadmodum — 
sic, ivhile — yet; as sicut — ita, i, 1. falsa rerum imagine. 
The reference is to the fictitious arguments, or declamations on 
fictitious cases in school. Comp. xii, 11, 15. ab ilia iiinbra, 
after that shade; a usage of ah, derived from the notion of 
coming away from, and found also in Livy and the poets. Livy, 
44,34: ah his praeceptis contionem dimisit. umbra is a fre- 
quent metaphor of Cicero to denote the seclusion and shelter 
of the school, as opposed to the open sunlight, heat, and turmoil 
of the forum. See Brut. 9, 37. 

18. Porcio Latroni. M. Porcius Latro, a Spaniard by 
birth, and friend of the elder Seneca, lived in the reign of 
Augustus. His school for the study of declamation, in which 
he taught chiefly by his own example, was widely known and 
much frequented, professor, in the modern signification of 
the word, came into vogue in the silver age. ut petierit. 
For the construction, see on 1, 58. opinionem = existima- 
tionem, reputation, in foro ; contrasted with in scholis. im- 
pense ; in its figurative sense : earnestly, uti — transferrentur. 
This request was that the benches should be removed from the 
open forum into some basilica adjacent to the forum. 

19. inveniendi eloquendique express briefly the whole 
compass of theoretical rhetoric, exercitationem ; such prac- 
tice as is recommended in the present book. Comp. 1, 4, ad fin. 
fuerit consecutus. The construction of the relative pronoun 
qui is continued by quoque : and who also has attained, etc. 
quod apud maiores, etc. The custom referred to is well 
described in Tacit, Dial. 34. 

20. et ipse, himself also, as well as the advocate he has 
been listening to. veras modo. Comp. § 14: si modo, etc. 
utrimque, o;i both sides ; pro and contra, decretoriis, m^A 
decisive (or real) weapons. The contrary expression would be 

218 NOTES. X, 5, 21, 23. 

arma lusoria. Spalding compares Suet, Calig. 54: hattuehat 
pugnatoriis (i. e., decretoriis) armis. Brutum. — pro Milone. 
See 1, 23. Cestius ; L. Pius, a native of Smyrna, who taught 
declamation at Rome a few years before the death of Augustus. 
One of his favorite exercises was the writing of arguments in 
reply (rescribere) to the speeches of Cicero. 

21-23. The youth will be more speedily fitted for the forum who shall 
be required by the teacher to treat his subjects naturally and thoroughly, 
instead of selecting from them only the most popular and attractive 
topics ifavorabilia), and crowding these together without regard to logi- 
cal connection. 

21. idoneus, ready ; prepared, that is, for public speaking, 
especially in the courts, in declamando ; here, in writingor 
preparing declamations. See on 17. nunc, noivadays ; ac- 
cording to the present custom, favorabilia, attractive ; likely 
to win applause ; in § 23 called flosculos. quod secundo loco 
posui ; that is, the second of the two directions just given : per 
totas ire materias. classium ; not Ciceronian in this sense of 
school classes, certis diebus, on fixed, or stated days, perhaps 
once in the week of eight days ; the Roman ninth day, or 
nundinae. Every member of the section or class, according to 
the custom referred to, must have his piece ready for this day, 
and must be limited to a certain number of minutes in speak- 
ing, even though the subject were one which demanded a 
longer period than the eight days for study and preparation, 
and more space than could be afforded by the time of one 
declamation, persuasio, belief, opinion, numerantium po- 
tius quam aestimantium ; judging of the progress of their 
sons by the number rather than by the excellence of their 
speeches. So ii, 7, 1 : ita demum (patres) studere liber os snos, 
si quam frequentissime declamaverint, credunt; cum profectus 
praecipue diligentia constat. 

22. primo libro. i, 2, 15. ut volunt. The ambition of 
the young declaimers to "spread themselves" is referred to. 
quidam, adopted by Halm from the best MSS., yields a less 
satisfactory meaning than guidem, which also has good MS. 
authority, in rerum natura, in the whole universe, longiore 
spatio; a longer period than the certis diebus. vel mate- 
lias, etc., or, he can accomplish the same end by allowing 

NOTES. X, 6, 1, 3. 219 

the subject to be treated in parts on successive declamation 

23. una ; sc. materia, eflfecta, worked out, thoroughly 
handled, quod refers to plures inchoatae et degustatae. legem, 
law of place ; order, priora confundant. The youth in their 
eagerness to crowd into their limited speeches (in ea quae sunt 
dicturi), or into those passages they will have time to speak, all 
the fine things that pertain to the entire subject (flosculos om- 
nium partium), break up the logical order of the matter, mixing 
what should precede with what should follow. 



1-7. Premeditation, occupying the middle ground between writing 
and pure extemporizing, and perhaps more frequently employed than 
either of them {nescio an usus frequent issimi), can be cultivated to such 
a degree by progressive exercise, that an entire discourse may be pre- 
pared without the use of the pen. But the orator must not so scrupu- 
lously adhere to what he has premeditated as to exclude every new idea 
{color) suggested or inspired during the actual delivery of the speech. 

1. quae et ipsa, a7id this itself also ; premeditation also as 
well as speaking ; which, as stated in 3, 1-4, derives its strength 
chiefly from the pen. Compare the use of et ipsa, 1, 31, and 
see note, extemporalem fortunam. Comp. §§ 5, 6 ; and 7, 
§ 13. inter medios rerum actus, in the midst of legal pro- 
ceedings, or of the trials of cases. While arguments or pleadings 
of causes are in progress, the well trained advocate can be think- 
ing out a speech. So inter ipsas actiones, xii, 3, 2. 

2. satis erat. See on fas erat, 5, 7. intra se, hy itself ; 
thought carries on this work within itself and without recourse 
to writing, praeter manum ; i. e., praeter stilum. nam. See 
on 1, 12. scribendi ; genitive of cause. Writing furnishes a 
sure means of recalling our ideas; hence, when we have this 
security, our arguments are not fastened {inhaerejit) carefully in 
the memory, but rather are loosened (Jaxantur) ; the mind mak- 
ing no effort to retain what can be at any moment recalled by 

220 NOTES. X, 6, 3-6. 

a glance at the paper, ne ad hanc quidem ; no more to this 
power than to that of writing. See 3, 5-9. 

3. facienda forma est, form must he attained ; a habit of 
casting words into good forms and phrases must be so estab- 
lished by much use of the pen {multo stilo), that when we are 
thinking out a speech, the proper words may come into our 
minds at once with the ideas, and spontaneously fall into their 
places. See 3, 5-10 ; especially § 9 : verba respondebunt, etc. 
reddi fideliter, correctly or faithfully uttered; just as pre- 
meditated, vis, jjoiver ; power of mind sufficient to grasp and 
hold ideas and words in premeditation alone, and without the 
help of the pen. continenda, to be kept up ; mairitained. 
ilium locumL. The subject of memory is treated of in xi, 2. 

4. pervenit. Supply vis. cui — ingenium., whom his own 
nature (his want of attention and memory) does not hinder. 
acri studio, by persistent, or severe exercise, ei fidem. ser- 
vent, keep their faith with him; do not fail to recur to his 
mind at the proper moment in his speech. Cicero — tradidit. 
The passage relating to Empylus, who is not elsewhere men- 
tioned, is no longer extant. The remark about Metrodorus of 
Scepsis is in De Orat. 2, 88 ; that about Hortensius, in Brut. 88. 
in agendo, in delivering their speeches. 

5. extemporalis color ; some felicitous thought. The tone 
imparted to a speech by an unprepared idea or expression, sud- 
denly flashing {offidgejis) upon the speaker's mind. The opposite 
notion is scriptorum color, 7, 7. demum, alofie. See on 1, 44. 
liabent. The subject is cogitata. premeditated things, curae, 
careful accuracy ; namely, in their preparation, fortunae ; 
that is, extemporary chance, etiam scrip tis — inserantur. 
Even in writteji speeches, which are usually more exact than 
those which are only premeditated, suddenly inspired thoughts 
{subito 7iata) are often introduced at the time of delivery. 

6. domo adferre, to bring from home. Comp. 7, 30. re- 
futare ; in the sense of repudiare, reject, desjjise. temporis 
m.unera, the inspii^ations of the moment, nos — decipere, to 
make us stumble ; by catching us unequipped with well shaped 
thoughts, well memorized, non. After the first no7i supply 
Jiet ut ilia, sollicitos ; supply nos. una spe suspensos re- 
cordationis, depending only on the hope of remembering, non 

NOTES. X, 7, 1. 221 

sinant, forbid, providere, to look forward; to anticipate 
what is coming next in order ; as opposed to the foregoing re- 
spicientes, looking hack, and trying to recall our premeditated 
ideas, temeritatem, daring or rashness ; the plunging into a 
s{ieech without any preparation whatever, male cohaeren- 
tem, poorly memorized ; imperfectly held together in the 

7. peius quaeritur retrorsus ; XiiQYsXly peius {for the worse) 
is adverbial and joined with the impersonal quaeritur ; freely: 
it is worse to look back. We should be at a greater disadvantage 
in going back, as it were, to find the premeditated ideas that we 
have forgotten, than to give up all thought of them, dum 
ilia desideramus, while we are at a loss for them; namely, 
the things we have prepared by premeditation, si utrumque 
quaerendum est, if (or since) both things require seeking. The 
two things meant by utrumque are, on the one hand, our ill 
remembered premeditation or prepared thoughts {cogitata), and, 
on the other, fresh ideas still contained in the subject. There 
must be an eifort on the part of the speaker to find something 
to say either in one or the other of these two things ; both alter- 
natives alike involve the necessity of seeking ; and, if so, it will 
be better to look forward, and seek and find (invenire) his mat- 
ter in the subject itself than to go back, as it were, and grope 
about for it in his half-forgotten train of preconceived thought ; 
for more new ideas can still be found in the subject than it has 
previously suggested. Halm adopts utcumque (any how, in 
either case) for utrumque. 



1-4. The ability to speak effectively on the spur of the moment is 
indispensable to an orator. 

1. renuntiabit. In this sense renuntiare is followed either 
by the accusative or dative of the thing renounced, in publi- 
cum = in commune ; for the common good ; for the benefit of 
the state and the citizen, intrare depends upon convenit. 

222 NOTES. X, 7, 2-4. 

" Entering a harbor " here is, of course, as a pilot, ad quein — 
possit is only another way of saying " dangerous " ; reached 
through an unsafe channel. A pilot who offers his services to 
steer ships into such a port must have skill and presence of 
mind, especially in stormy weather or in baffling winds. So an 
advocate must have the ability of extemporaneous speech to 
meet the sudden change of issues and all emergencies which are 
the windings, rocks, and shoals in judicial controversies. 

2. repraesentatis iudiciis, trials heing suddenly appointed; 
brought on without notice, continuo; join with agendi ; of 
speaking at once; instantly, petentibus, perituris; dative 
of interest : will he seek for them, or for their heneflt. 

3. quae — casus. This is the reading of Bonnell in his edi- 
tion of the Tenth Book, ratio for oratio, adopted by Spalding 
from early editions, has no MS. authority. The sense seems to 
be : What speech (argument, occasion of forensic speaking) al- 
lows any advocate to leave sudden issues unnoticed {omittere 
casus). The speaker may find himself confronted with some 
unexpected fact in the evidence, or with some question or ob- 
jection suddenly raised by his opponent or by the court, giving 
a new aspect to the case ; sometimes, too, the new evidence and 
the questions may suggest something advantageous to his own 
side. In either case he is unfit for his office, if he is not ready 
to meet them or to take advantage of them on the instant, and 
without regard to his written or premeditated speech. He can 
not pass by in silence, or ignore such accidents of litigation and 
be an orator. Comp. 1, 2, xii, 9, 20. fallunt, disappoint us, 
cheat our expectation; the advocate on the opposite side not 
pursuing the line of argument which we had anticipated, and 
"against which we had prepared our written speech." ad 
incursus. See on 2, 1. agenti, by the speaker, or advocate ; 
dative of the agent after mutanda est. ad varietatem, ac- 
cording to the changiiig aspect ; ad varios casus. 

4. malit, possit. Supply orator. See on 1, 7. 

5-33. Certain Practical Exercises necessary to Success in 
Extemporary Speaking. 

5-7. First, in this exercise let the student be sure of the order, 
method, pathway, or track of his argument {nota sit via dicendi) ; and 

NOTES. X, 7, 5-8. 223 

not only the order of the regular partes or divisions (that is the introduc- 
tion, the narrative, proof, and conclusion), and the order of the principal 
points (questionum), but also the order of the matter and thought in all 
its detail, under every head and in every passage and paragraph (quoque 

5. neque — potest, freely translated: for we can not run 
a race, quo, to wJuit end ; qua, hy what track. We must keep 
our eyes on both the goal and the track, quae sint is the 
reading of Zumpt, substituted for quae sunt in the MSS. 
quae — copulata. The ideas legitimately belonging to any 
passage or topic have a natural and logical connection and 

6. ante omnia, instead of primum, introduces the first 
advantage, deinde the second, and postremo the last, quae- 
rant, look for, as matter of discourse. Comp. 6, 7. The subject 
to be supplied as in 1, 7. sensibus, as in 3, 33. ex diversis, 
Old of or ivith incongruities ; ideas seized upon at random, as 
they happen to strike the mind in its haste and confusion. 

7. citra, as in 1, 2. divisionem; here, the distribution of 
the matter of the speech both into the general divisions and 
subordinate heads, and also into the minuter passages and sen- 
tences ; their order constituting the via dicendi. expletis — 
proposuerint, all the propositions which they have stated, being 
fully argued, sed quid quoque loco, etc. vii, 10, 5: 7ion 
enim causa tantum universa in quaestiones ac locos diducenda 
est, sed hae ipsae partes habent rursus ordinem suum. 

7-10. Second, command of words and facility of speech to be kept up 
by unremitting exercise ; so that by habit the speaker may readily pro- 
nounce one passage while anticipating another. 

haec quidem, etc., these (foregoing) things depend on art ; 
that is, are reducible to specific directions or methods ; but the 
following {ilia) depend upon study ; that is, severe labor, such 
as that of reading, imitation, writing, previously treated of, and 
the exercise of speech itself according to the following sugges- 
tions, quemadmodum praeceptum ; namely in Chap. 1. {u() 
stilo — formetur oratio, as taught in Chaps. Ill, IV, and V. 
ut — dicamus, as taught in the present chapter, scripseri- 
mus. For the mood, see on xii, 10, 53. 

8. consuetude, etc., has reference to the last mentioned 

224 NOTES. X, 7, 9-11. 

practice of speaking constantly in connection with writing, os 
concurrit, the mouth comes together ; is dosed ; loses its facility 
of utterance, natural! — mobilitate animi. The mind must 
be naturally quick of movement that can express properly 
what is to be said on the instant {proximo), and at the same 
time be shaping (struere) what is further on. provisa et for- 
mata cogitatio, thought anticipated and molded, is a fuller 
expression of struere ulteriora. vocem — excipiat, may he 
ready for our voice, or utterance. 

9. vix — queat. Yet this natural quickness of itself is 
not enough for the manifold or complicated task {pfficium) of 
the extemporary speaker ; he must also possess as a second 
nature habits of language and action which will operate spon- 
taneously, and as it were, take care of themselves, ratio = ars. 
elocutioni, the language, dicit, in the relative clause, takes a 
new subject, orator, adhibita — observatione, while (at the 
same time) attention is given to delivery. Delivery {actio, pro- 
nuntiatio, in their generic sense) comprehends the management 
of the voice and that of the person, or gesticulation ; but pro- 
nuntiatio is restricted here to the voice, just as actio sometimes 
is to gesture. See 1, 17. 

10. prae se res agat. Our attention or thought must, as 
it were, be pursuing or chasing the ideas that are still in ad- 
vance of us. prorogetur, should he drawn; a metaphor de- 
rived from money transactions. The speaker is to be calling 
forth, or drawing continually from his reserved funds, that is, 
from the remaining or latter part of his subject matter {ex 
ultimo), just so much as he is momentarily expending in de- 
livery, brevia, concisa, short, broken phrases; indicating 

11-14. Third. Hence the necessity of a mechanical or unreasoning 
{inrationalis) habit ; the Greek aXoyos rp>,^-q. 

11. flexus, transitus. The action of the eye itself in read- 
ing is ascribed to the lines of the manuscript. Flexus seems to 
refer to the turning of the eye from the end of a line to the 
beginning of the next, and transitus the passing from one 
column of the manuscript to the next, dixerunt. The sub- 
ject is changed to lectores. Comp. § 9. quo constant, and of 

NOTES. X, 7, 12-14. 225 

this nature are. quo relates to the sort of habitual thing or 
process indicated in the foregoing illustrations, pilariorum 
ac ventilatorum, ball-throwers and jugglers ; performers with 
the cups and balls and of sleight-of-hand tricks. The words are 
not thus used elsewhere. The genitive limits scaenis {shows\ 
not mir acuta. 

12. ita — si. In a limiting sense: only so far as. de qua 
locuti sumus ; the art, namely described in § 5-7. in ratione 
versetur, may he associated with method; based upon art, 
method, or rational principle, though mechanical through habit. 
tumultuari, to rant. 

13. sermonis contextum, the mere continuity of speech; 
the mere train of words, cum. eo quod, moreover. This ellip- 
tical phrase occurs in Quintilian, ii, 4, 30, and xii, 10, 47, as well 
fls in other writers of the silver age. Fully expressed the sense 
is> : Besides this it must be added that ; moreover, it is a fact 
that. Halm substitutes quod si. tulit, impels. The perfect 
here is used, like the Greek aorist, to denote an action of com- 
saon occurrence. So § 14, accessit, restitit; and 3, Q, refrixit. 
tit — possit ; " Ut successus orationis extemporalis vincat suc- 
cessum curae et meditationis."" Spalding, cura, study; that 
of writing and premeditation. 

14. Cicero dicit. The passage in Cicero is not extant. 
bene concepti adfectus, well-wrought, or deeply-felt emotions. 
recentes rerum. imagines, fresh, vivid conceptions ; that is, 
a lively imagination, refrigescunt, etc. Comp. 3, 6. infelix 
cavillatio; the morbid self-criticism spoken of in 1, 115, and 
3, 10. ferri contorta vis. The metaphor is drawn from the 
hurling of missile weapons ; perhaps especially the sling. Cicero 
uses the same figure in Or. 20, 66 : haec contorta et acris oratio ; 
and 70, 234 : Demosthenes, cuius non tam vihrarent fulmina, 
nisi numeris contorta ferrentur. We may translate freely : the 
holt of eloquence can not be hurled, ut, though, non con- 
tinua sed composita, the language does not flow on, hut is put 
together. It has not the character of spontaneous eloquence, 
but that of studied composition. For the subject of est supply 
oratio. Comp. § 26, and 1, 29. 

15-17. Fourth. The extemporary speaker, therefore, must cultivate 
a lively imagination, that his feelings may be deeply impressed with all 


226 NOTES. X, 7, 15-17. 

the facts of place and person and all the interests of the case ; must have 
distinctly in view the whole pathway of his discourse ; he will also get 
incitement even from the presence of his audience. 

15. quare ; because, namely, of the power of recenies 
imagines, just spoken of. capiendae, to be caught, seized 
upon ; fully apprehended, de quibus dixi. As, for example, 
in viii, 3, 64, where he says that Cicero has his imagination so 
impressed with the appearance of Verres on a certain occasion, 
and so describes it, that the hearer non solum ipsos intueri 
videatur, et locum et habitum, sed quaedam etiam ex iis, quae 
dicta nan sunt, sibi ipse adstruat. quas — indicavimus. vi, 
2, 29 : quas (pavraa-las Graeci vocant, nos sane visiones appellemus, 
— has quisquis bene conceperit, is erit in adfectibus potentissi- 
mus. in adfectus recipienda. The depth of emotions de- 
pends upon the vividness of the images in the mind, pectus 
et vis mentis, passion and force of imaginatiori, correspond- 
ing to the above adfectus and oculis. The order of the ideas is 
the same as in § 14, adfectus, imagines. 

16. turn introduces the second help pointed out in this 
paragraph. The first was imagines, etc. ; the third, below, is 
etiam pudor, etc. circa, on either side. He sees not only the 
avenue itself, but ail the objects along the sides of it. pudor. 
Dreaded shame, the fear of failure, is an incentive, congestu 
signorum ; bg the mustering of the standards. Halm has 
adopted the reading congestu signorum on the authority of the 
Bernese and Bamberg MSS. The assembling of the legionary 
standard bearers with their ensigns around the tribunal of the 
general, while he addressed the army on the eve of battle, is 
illustrated on the monumental column of Trajan at Rome. 

17. difficiliorem ; too much laboring ; thought that usually 
moves, or works itself out, too slowly, exprimit et expellit, 
develops and hurries forth ; i. e., in utterance, secundos im- 
petus ; the successful impulses occasioned by dicendi necessitas. 
pretium ; here for praemium, which some editions substitute. 
opinionis, reputation. See on 5, 18. 

18-23. Sixth. No one can hope to attain extemporary facility with- 
out the same gradual and patient course just now recommended in 
premeditation ; nor should the orator presume so much on his ability as 
not to take a moment, before rising, to glance mentally at the heads of 

NOTES. X, 7, 18-23. 227 

his discourse ; and in the courts there is always opportunity for this ; but 
jf on any occasion no time is allowed for it, he must begin deliberately, 
and go on slowly, but without faltering, until he can get his ideas in order. 

18. nec fidat. See on 3, 5. id; this readiness in off-hand 
speaking, in cogitatione praecipimus. See 6, 3. sum- 
mam, perfection, contineri ; as in 6, 3. 

19. debet. Supply ea, or facilitas extemporalis. non 
utique m.elior, not necessarily better, cum. banc, etc. ; and 
we can make it fully equal to premeditation, since, etc. prosa, 
carmine. Cicero would have said in prosa, in carjnine. which, 
indeed, is found in one of the MSS., and adopted by Halm. 
Antipater of Sidon, an Alexandrian poet, flourished about 130 
B.C. Cicero, de Orat. 3, 50: quod si Antipater ille Sidonius 
. . . solitus est versus hexametros aliosque variis modis atque 
numeris fundere extetnpore, . . . quanto id facilius in oratione, 
exercitatione et consuetudine adhibita, conseqiiemur. Licinius 
Archias. See Cic. pro Archia, 8, 18. non quia ; elliptical : 
I do not quote Cicero's authority because we have not abundant 
examples in our own times, but because his authority, at any 
rate, will be unquestioned, quod ipsum, ivhich (accomplish- 
ment) in itself, in banc spem ; for huius in rei spem. See 
on 3, 2. 

20. neque sit. See on nec fidat, § 18. saltern. See on 
2, 15. didicerit. See on xii, 8, 1= 

21. declamatores. See on 1, 71. exposita controversia, 
as soon as the question is stated, frivolum ; not a Ciceronian 
word, scaenicum, like the stage ; because actors start off in this 
way with a " cue." petant ; connected by quin etiam to velint. 

22. si ; as in 6, 7. habet, secures, suspensa ac dubitans 
oratio, speech (manner of speaking) slow and thoughtful, de- 
liberare, haesitare ; to seem to be pondering, considering what 
ideas to choose is consistent with strength and self-possession ; 
not so to halt and falter. 

23. hoc; sc. faciendum est, ov fieri potest ; an ellipsis found 
also in vi, 4, 10, xi, 1, 76. id potius {est). Comp. viii, 6, 25, ix, 4, 57. 

24-29. Seventh. The exercise of declamation must never be re- 
mitted, even during professional life ; aided, too, by the practice of 
mental speaking, or cogitatio, by correct habits of language in conversa- 
tion, and, above all, by constant use of the pen. 

228 NOTES. X, 7, 24-27. 

24. continetur — ars. Art (science, theory, rules), once un- 
derstood remains fixed in the mind {non labitur) ; even the pen 
loses but little by the remission of practice ; but this extem- 
porary ability, the essential characteristic of which is readiness 
for action, is kept up (continetur) by active exercise alone. With 
labitur supply ex animo. The sense as used here is fully ex- 
pressed in V^erg. Eel. 1, 64: quam nostra Ulius labatur pecfore 
voltus. promptum hoc, etc., translated freely: this attain- 
ment which requires readiness and instant actio?i ; quite liter- 
ally : this thing, off hand (as it is) and consisting i7i readifiess 
(in expedito). A similar form occurs in ix, 1, 13 : simplici atque 
in promptu posito dicendi modo. But Kriiger takes promptum 
and positum as abstract nouns: this promptness, this corisisting 
in readiness; referring to Z. 637, n. positum, lying in, con- 
sisting in, dependent on; as in 1, 3, xii, 3, 7. hac; sc. exer- 
citatione. rarum est, ut ; equivalent to rarum fit, ut. See 
on 2, 18. 

25. est et ilia exercitatio, we have also (as a help) that 
practice, etc. See 6, 3 and 4. dicat ; sc. orator, explicari, 
freely developed, worked out. in parte : here, in one respect. 
haec proxima ; namely, the exercise of declamation just men- 
tioned in ^ 24. 

26. diligentius — componitur. It (that is, discourse thus 
premeditated) is more accurately put together. The grammati- 
cal subject is exercitatio ; but the verb is chosen with reference 
to the speech itself, or to the train of thought, on which the 
mind is exercised. Hence oratio may be considered the virtual 
subject, ilia, like proxima, refers to the practice of extempore 
speaking, either alone or in the presence of others, in which we 
are ashamed to stop in order to think of the most appropriate 
ideas and words, contextum dicendi. See on § 13. in 
alia; explained by firmitatem, etc., which are in the same con- 
struction after in. Either the accusative with the preposition 
or the dative is used after conferre in the sense of contribute, or 
to be advantageous. See 1, 1, 63, 71, 95. prior ; namely, speak- 
ing, oris facilitatem, ease o/ W/era?ice. ut dixi. See 3, 21. 
hortatur, arouses. 

27. lucrativae. The earlier manuscripts give this word; 
but as it belongs to the Latin of a much later period than 

NOTES. X, 7, 28-80. 229 

Quintilian, it is questionable here. The passage referred to in 
Cicero is quoted only in substance. Quintilian has in mind the 
remark addressed to Brutus in the Orator, 10, 34 : quantum illud 
est, quod in maximis occupationibus numquam intermittis stit- 
dia dodi'mne ; semper aut ipse scribis aliquid, aid me vocas ad 
scribendum. C. Carbo was consul b. c. 120, and the year afterward 
was driven to suicide by the prosecution successfully conducted 
against him by the young orator Crassus. Cicero, in the Brutus, 
27, 103, 105, commends his eloquence and his industry. Cicero 
also says that L. Gellius spoke of himself as having been a 
tent-companion of Carbo. Nothing, however, is known of any 
military campaign carried on by Carbo. 

28. Ciceroni. The remark referred to is not extant, ser- 
monem, our language or speech, in general, even in ordinary 
conversation, pondus, solidity. Writing leads us to criticise 
the words we use, and thus secures to our expression more of 
significance and substance, innatans, ,^oa^m^ ; here superfi- 
cial, in altum reducetur, freely rendered, ivill be brought to 
depth of significance, proximas radices, the topmost roots. 

29. ac — prosit, and 1 rather think there is a reciprocal 
advantage ; that each helps the other, scribendum — videa- 
tur. This passage has reference to the preparation for cases 
in hand. If the advocate has time for writing, that is the best 
thing ; if there is no opportunity for writing, then he must re- 
sort to premedita,tion ; but if excluded from both, he should, by 
means of the discipline recommended in the present chapter, 
always be ready to speak whenever called upon, and able to 
serve a client even without writing or premeditation, depren- 
sus, takeji by surprise, destitutus, deserted. 

30-33. Eighth. The proper use of notes and skeletons. 

30. domo adferunt. Comp. 6, 6. subitis, for emergen- 
cies; unforeseen questions, or developments in the course of 
the trial, commentariis, from his note-books ; memoranda, 
outlines, or skeletons. Quintilian also mentions Cicero's out- 
line speeches in iv, 1, 69. None of them have been preserved, 
not even the abbreviated copies made by Tiro, feruntur, are 
spoken of. See 1, 24. ut eos, etc., qualifies inventi forte : they 
have been found, perhaps, just as, or in the form in which each 

230 NOTES. X, 7, 31, 32. 

orator intended to make the actual speech, eos is the object of 
composuerat. dicturus, tvhen ahout to deliver them, ut, as, 
for example, causarum ; sc. commentarii ; outlines of cases. 
Sulpicio. See 1, 116, and note. M, these extant commentaries 
of Sulpicius, as distinguished from his three extant oratio?ies. 
ab ipso, by (Sulpicius) himself; not by a secretary, as in the 
case of Cicero's commentaries about to be spoken of. 

31. nam. I mention this finished character of the three 
outline speeches {commentarii) of Sulpicius, as written out by 
himself; for Cicero's were different, being prepared by him 
{aptatos) only for the occasion, and afterward reproduced by 
Tiro in a shorter form, contraxit, abbreviated. Tiro has left 
these sketches still briefer than they were written by Cicero. 
So Bonnell and others. Some, however, take contraxit in the 
sense of collected, non ideo quia non probem. H. 516, ii, 
2 ; Z. 537. quia instead of quod in this idiom belongs to the 
later prose writers, ut sint as the purpose of excuso, is sub- 
stituted for the regular apodosis : sed quia sunt eo magis ad- 
mirabiles. The sense is this : I do not make this apology or 
explanation {excuso) as to the character of Tiro's skeletons of 
Cicero, compared with the studied and literary finish of those 
of Sulpicius, with any idea of implying inferiority ; but rather 
that their admirable adaptation to the purpose of such notes 
may be the more apparent {magis admirabiles). Such sketches 
should be estimated by their fitness for the temporary occasion, 
not as permanent literature, in hoc genere ; i. e., in this kind 
of ex tempore preparation, recipio, / allow, admit. 

32. Laenas. Popilius Laenas is mentioned in iii, 1, 21, as 
a contemporary of Cornelius Celsus. See x, 1, 24. He is named 
elsewhere only in xi, 3, 183. vel in his — conferre. The 
genuine text here can not be determined. The passage, accord- 
ing to our reading, may be thus interpreted : Laenas teaches us 
even in our written speeches {in his quae scripserimus) to gather 
the principal arguments {stimmas) into a memorandum and 
heads ; that is, to make outlines of written speeches, with which 
to help the memory. Instead of in his, limiting summas con- 
ferre, we might have eorum, limiting summas. quae scrip- 
serimus; written speeches as opposed to the hoc genere {the 
extemporary kind) just mentioned, in which such notes of topics 

NOTES. X, 7, 33. 231 

are admissible, haec fiducia. The security one feels in 
having such notes to fall back upon, leads to negligence in 
memorizing the written speech, and thus it is marred and dis- 
figured. See on 3, 2. quod. — persecuturi, what we do not in- 
tend to commit perfectly to memory ; for it is better to extem- 
porize. Non is omitted by Spalding and others, following the 
best MSS. id quoque accidit, etc. What is remarked here 
of the disadvantage of imperfect memorizing in connection 
with written discourses, is parallel to what is said on iil- 
remembered premeditation in 6, 6 ; subjecting the speaker to 
doubt and hesitation between the things he has written and can 
hardly recall, and the new ideas {nova) still contained in his 
subject, which he might better extemporize. 
33. de mexnoria. xi, 2. 



The Twelfth Book, according to the purpose stated by the 
author in the prooemium of the first book (§ 22), treats of the 
moral character to be cultivated, the studies to be engaged in, 
and the course of life to be followed by the orator after leaving 
the school of the rhetorician. The book is divided into eleven 
chapters, introduced by a prooemium. Chapter first discusses 
the proposition that none but the good man ought to be an 
orator, or can be a true orator. Chapter second treats of things 
necessary to the formation of the morals of the orator ; chapter 
third, of the importance of studying law; chapter fourth, of the 
study of history and fiction; chapter fifth, of desirable qualities 
of mind and person ; chapter sixth, of the proper time for en- 
tering upon the practice of the profession ; chapter seventh, of 
the principles which should guide the advocate in accepting or 
declining the charge of cases ; chapter eighth, of the proper 
mode of investigating cases ; chapter ninth, of what should be 
the aim of the orator in his pleadings ; chapter tenth, of the 
style of eloquence he should cultivate ; chapter eleventh, of his 
pursuits after giving up the profession of public speaking. 


The difficulty of the author's task in writing the Institutions, already 
found much more formidable than he had anticipated at the beginning, 
will be greatly enhanced in this final book, both on account of the new- 
ness of the subject and of the absence of any example or authority ex- 
cepting that of Cicero. 

1. ferens, ivh He (actually) bearing it ; as opposed to opinione 
^rima, the first estimate or conception of the task (onus). 

NOTES. XII, 1, 1. 233 

2. a parvis, from, or with small things ; namely, the advice 
in regard to elementary instruction given in the first two books. 
dum — praecipimus, while I was teaching. See H. 467, 4 ; and 
note on x, 1, 125. The reference here is to that part of the 
work which treats of invention, nee — et ; correlative, as below 
in § 4; ivhile not — at the same time. 

3. rarus — reperiebatur. When treating of the subject of 
style {eloquendi rationem) in the eighth and the following books, 
the author found fewer authorities to follow than in the fore- 
going divisions of his work, which were occupied with the sub- 
stance rather than the rhetorical form of discourse, vi, 2, 3: 
certe sunt semperque fuerunt non parum multi^ qui satis perite, 
quae essent probationihus utilia reperirent. 

4. caelum undique, etc. Aeneid, 3, 193. M. Tullium. 
Orator, 53 : id mihi quaerere videbare, quod genus ipsius ora- 
tionis optimum iudicarem. Cicero aims in the " Orator " to de- 
scribe the kind of style which the public speaker must possess 
in order to adapt himself to all occasions, and without which 
he can not be a consummate orator. He does not treat, how- 
ever, of the other topics which Quintilian proposes to discuss 
in the present book, demum, only, or alone, mores. The 
topics are given a little more fully in the prooemium of Book I, 
§ 22. See also Introduction, pages 14-16. antecedentem. ; sc. 
quemquam scriptorem. honestorum.; subst. neuter, quibus 
— est (things, enterprises), to which indulgence is more readily 



1, 2. The orator, that is, the public speaker who takes upon himself 
the responsibility of advising the people and the senate, or of pleading in 
the courts, must be not oxAj able in speech but also a good man ; this is 
the sentiment handed down to us hy Cato, and must be accepted as an 
axiom ; for no man has a right to pervert nature's beneficent gift of elo- 
quence to evil uses. 

1. a Marco Catone finitur. This definition was given by 
Cato in his " de Oratore." a treatise addressed to his son, and 
mentioned by the elder Seneca, in the preface to his " Contro- 

234 NOTES. XII, 1, 3-6. 

versiae," i, 1. It is adopted by Quintilian in ii, 15, 1. verum — 
utique, hut hy all means ; at any rate, id — quod refers to the 
following vir bonus {sit), id non eo tantum, this {let him he), 
not only for this reason. Non tantum should regularly be fol- 
lowed by sed etiam, introducing the apodosis rerum ipsa, etc. ; 
but the period is broken by the insertion of the question quid 
de nohis loguor, as a livelier substitute for the proper connectives. 
The sense seems to be this : Not only would eloquence, if the 
bad man could properly be an orator, become a curse, and I 
also, as a teacher of it, an accessory to crime, but to say nothing 
of myself, nature, too, would be found an enemy to her own 
children in bestowing upon them such a powerful instrument 
of mischief. 

3-8. But I go still further : not only do I maintain that none but the 
good man has any right (oportere) to be an orator (political and judicial), 
but that none other in fact can become such (futuruni) ; none other can 
effectively accomplish the proper work of the orator ; for, first, the bad 
man can not be intelligent and prudent ; second, the corrupt mind while 
it has no affinity with noble studies, at the same time, distracted by evil 
passions and aims, has no power to concentrate itself upon a severe study 
such as that of eloquence ; and, again, by lust and luxury it is unnerved 
for labor, while it can neither have any laudable ambition nor that love 
of justice and equity which is essential to the true orator. 

3. cum — induantur, since they are involved, entangled; 
followed regularly in this sense by in and the accusative. 

4. sapientibus dicitur. It was the sentiment of the 
Socratic school that the bad man was necessarily a foolish man. 
For the dative of the agent in the later prose writers, see Z. 
419, note. 

5. etiam, etc. Even the ordinary cares and the innocent 
pursuits of private life, though free from reproach {culpa caren- 
tihus), are incompatible with the severe and persistent study 
necessary to perfect oratory ; much more the distractions of a 
vicious mind and life. 

6. huic — rei perit, is lost to this occupation, cupiditatem ; 
here ambition, as in Pliny, Panegyr. 7. impotentissimae. 
impotens (sc. sui) is very frequent in the sense of ungovernable^ 
unbridled, somnos — et ilia — visa perturbant, disturb our 
slumbers and (breed) those nightmares ; occasion restless slum- 
bers and those fearful dreams. 

NOTES. XII, 1, 8-13. 235 

9-13. But even if it were conceivable that the bad man could be equal 
to the good in talent {iiigenii), earnestness of application {studii), and at- 
tainment {(ioctrinae), he would necessarily be inferior to the good in the 
effect and success of his eloquence ; and therefore not a perfect orator ; 
for the chief end of oratory is to convince and move ; and so far from 
accomplishing this, the bad man, often through failure in his false simu- 
lation of honest motives, and always through his evil reputation, weakens 
the cause he advocates ; while the good man, even if under some neces- 
sity {aliquo ductus officio) he defends an unjust cause, yet through the 
very fact of his good reputation will be likely to carry his point with the 
jury and with his audience. 

8. frugalitas ; as in x, 3, 26. 

9. demus, let ws concede, idem ; partitive, as in 9, 11, 1, 2, 
14, et al. 

10. more Socraticorum.. The Socratic philosophers were 
accused of fashioning the supposed objections of opponents in 
their imaginary dialogues in such a manner as to make the 
reputation of them easy for themselves. 

12. si quando — conabitur, if he shall ever strive to main- 
tain these propositions falsely. Haec refers to the things, quae 
proposita fuerint, in § 11. ut m.ox See below, 
^5 33, sqq. opinionis, reputation ; as in x, 5, 18. excidit — 
sim.ulatio, their disguise falls off. The bad spirit in the man 
asserts itself in spite of his effort to seem good and sincere. 
inde ; illative, hence. imm.odeste, imprudently, rashly. They 
make hasty assertions that they can not prove or sustain, sine 
pudore. They feel no shame in maintaining what they know 
to be false. 

13. quae — non posse. They persistently and to no pur- 
pose strive to accomplish things which are absolutely impossi- 
ble ; that is, to make their hearers accept their statements as 
trustworthy, while they themselves are notorious for the lack 
of moral principle and especially of veracity, improbas, in- 

14-22. In reply to the question : were not Demosthenes and Cicero 
orators, though not good men, the answer is given in the first place, that 
notwithstanding the charges alleged against them, they were eminent for 
public virtue ; and again, as we call some men wise, not meaning that 
they are absolutely so. but wise compared with men in general, in like 
manner we may call these two men orators, though not absolutely per- 
fect ; and, moreover, in this relative sense, or humanly speaking, Cicero 

236 NOTES. XII, 1, 14-20. 

may be called even a perfect orator ; though he himself did not think 
that the true orator had yet appeared. 

14. invidia, censure ; likely to be incurred by the answer of 
Quintilian, as it will take the ground that Demosthenes and Cicero 
were, after all, not absolutely perfect orators, mitigandae — 
aures,^rs^ I must win their ears ; I must persuade these question- 
ers to think better of the moral character of the two great orators. 

16. in uUa parte, ifi any particular, provincia admin- 
istrata. Cicero was governor of Cilicia in b. c. 51. repudia- 
tus vigintiviratus. Caesar's agrarian law (b. c. 59) provided 
that twenty commissioners should be appointed to superintend 
the distribution of Campanian lands, contemplated in the law; 
but Cicero declined the place offered to him on this commission, 
though honorable and likely to be lucrative. See Ep. ad Atti- 
cum, 9, 2. declinatus, swayed, turned away ; that is, by the in- 
fluence of Caesar and his followers, optimis — partibus. This 
term and also optimi were in common use to denote the party 
of the senate, at this time headed by Pompey ; at least, they 
assumed to be the optimi. 

17. non se timidum, etc. The precise words can not be 
found in any extant work of Cicero. The sentiment, however, 
is expressed by him in several places ; as in Ep. ad Familiares, 
vi, 21 : itaque ego. quern turn fortes illi viri et sapienfes, Domitii 
et Lentuli, timidum esse dicebant (eram plane : timeham enim, 
ne evenirent ea, quae acciderent), idem nunc nihil timeo, et ad 
omnem eventum paratus sum. 

18. sic — quomodo ; correlatives, as in x, 2, 25, et al. 

19. quorum — datur, of ivhich (qualities) none is attributed, 
etc. proprie — veritatis : as opposed to comniunem loquendi 
consuetudinem. quaeram. See on x, 2, 28. 

20. vix — invenio. See x, 1, 106, sqq. fortasse inven- 
turus, though perhaps 1 may find. For this concise usage of 
the participle, see H. 549 ; Z. 639, note, adhuc abscisurum., 
he would have still pruned off. He would have still further 
chastened the exuberance of his earlier style. See Brut. 91, 
and Orat. 107, sq. Comp. also 6, 7. securiore, more undis- 
turbed ; that is, by public cares, non maligne crediderim, 
not unjustly may I venture to think ; in no carping spirit I 
would express the belief, summam. See on x, 7, 18. 

NOTES. XII, 1, 21, 22. 237 

21. et — perfectus. There are different interpretations of 
this passage. It may be paraphrased thus : I have said that 
Cicero, humanly speaking, was a perfect orator, and that no 
one has come nearer to absolute perfection. But even if I 
thought otherwise, if I thought him still less perfect than I do, 
I should be at liberty (licehat), and I should have no fear to 
maintain this (id defendere) more boldly even than what I have 
already said ; for I have the example of Antony asserting that 
he had never seen one that could properly be called eloquens, 
even in a limited sense; which was saying so much less in 
praise {quod tanto minus erat), so much more in disparagement 
of all orators, than I should say of Cicero, even if I should put 
him still lower than I do. For he is certainly eloquens, no matter 
how imperfect. Cicero also himself says that he seeks in vain his 
ideal among actual orators. May I not then venture to say that 
something more perfect may come to light in the eternity still 
before us? quaerit, seeks (in vain). Comp. 11, 2, x, 2, 28. 

22. transeo illos ; because their hypercritical severity is 
not worthy of our attention, dormitare. See x, 1, 24, and 
note, qui — reprehendunt. The allusion may be to the 
strictures of Calvus and Brutus on Cicero, mentioned in the 
Dialogue de Orat. 18 : legistis utique et Calvi et Bruti ad 
Ciceronem missas epistolas, ex quibus facile est deprehendere 
, . . Ciceronem a Calvo male audivisse tamquam solutum et 
enervem, a Bruto autem, ut ipsius verbis utar, tamquam fractum 
atque elumbem. compositionem, the structure of his periods ; 
that is, with reference to harmony, apud. ipsum, in his own 
presence, as it were; or to his face; because expressed in 
letters addressed to him personally, apud is thus used in xi, 
1, 21 : in epistolis aliquando familiariter apud amicos dicit. 
Cicero, also, Ep. ad Atticum, 14, 20, mentions a letter of Brutus 
disapproving of his ideas of style and "composition," as pre- 
sented in the " Orator." Asinio utrique ; that is, the father 
and son. The former is mentioned in x, 1, 113. His unjust 
criticism of Cicero is referred to in the " Suasoriae " of the elder 
Seneca, 6. The son lived under Augustus and Tiberius, and 
was put to death by the latter. He wrote a critical review of 
the eloquence of his father, comparing it with that of Cicero, 
and giving it the preference. 

238 NOTES. XII, 1, 23-29. 

23-32. But allowing that some bad man may be possessed of consum- 
mate power in speech {summe disertum) ; we shall still refuse to call him 
a perfect orator ; for our ideal orator must be superior to the regular 
pleader [causidicum) in the courts. Though pre-eminent in the courts 
both as a defender and prosecutor, he will be still more illustrious (clarius 
elucebit) in the higher duty of guiding the counsels of the senate and in 
dissuading the populace from error; his eloquence will everj^where, even 
in the camp, be more effective than that of the bad man ; for the latter 
will often lack confidence in himself and his own motives, and his speech 
will be at variance with his thought ; while the other in his bravery and 
earnestness will never be at a loss for earnest words {honestus sernio) ; 
and so the man possessing both virtue and readiness in speech maj^ hope 
to attain to an eminent degree of eloquence, and perhaps even perfection; 
but the gift of oratory in an evil man is itself an evil, and makes him stUl 

23. manu prompti, hold in deed, quick, or daring in fight ; 
as opposed to the following viri fortis, the resolute, courageous, 
or valiant man, whose fortitude is made constant and enduring 
by his virtuous principles. 

24. ille, qui nondum fuit. See x, 2, 28, and note. 

25. operam, day-laborer, toiler, drudge, ut asperioribus 
— parcamus, to abstain from harsher terms ; rabula [rariter), 
would have been one of these more opprobrious names, cau- 
sidicum, a pleader ; here, a professional lawyer, tot; ellipti- 
cal; so many as we necessarily associate with the great orator; 
many, datum rebus bumanis, granted (as a boon) to human 
affairs ; to advance the welfare of mankind. 

26. in boc quota pars ; some genitive must be supplied ; 
as laudis : " in this perfect orator how small a part of his glory 
it will be that {quod), etc. calumniam, here, fraud, deception. 

27. turn pietate, etc. ; Verg. Aen. 1, 151. 

28. ex mediis sapientiae praeceptis, from amid the 
maxims of wisdom. Whether the commander be himself a 
moralist or not. in haranguing his army before battle he will 
appeal to principles and motives which are the material of 
moral philosophy, tot metus, so many fears ; the manifold 
terrors. See on § 25. 

29. prodit se — simulatio. The pretense or counterfeit of 
fortitude, love of country, duty, and honor, will betray itself 
somehow in his speech, while he is attempting to persuade his 
folio wers, Comp. § 12. 

NOTES. XII, 1, 30-35. 239 

30. honestus, candid, sincere; not language that dis- 
guises one's real thoughts, rerum optimarum inventio, the 
{ready) conception, the flow of the best thoughts, lioneste, 
candidly, earnestly ; with the earnest and unconscious free- 
dom inspired by strong conviction of the truth and by the 
sense of duty. 

31. inventus, onmis aetas ; appositives of the subject 
nos; all of us, whether young or of every period of life, in 
hoc ; probably the accusative ; as in Seneca, Ep. 108 : in rem 
unam lahoremus. The relation is different in v, 10, 119, where 
the notion is, not laboring for an end, but in certain lines of 
study, hue and hoc refer to the desired perfection both of 
virtuous character and of speech. 

32. ad queiii (= quemcumque) usque modum, iip to what- 
soever degree, so far as. ex utroque, /rom, in consequence of 
each (thing) ; namely, each of the two kinds of attainment, 
moral and rhetorical, hoc, this idea, sentiment; explained by 
the infinitive clause following. 

33-35. Objections to these sentiments may be expected from such as 
prefer to be eloquent rather than good {diserti quam boni). To these the 
author first says something in respect to his own duty as a teacher {de suo 
opere) requiring him to discuss ( pertractare) the manner of speaking 
{quomodo dicatur), or mode of arguing in support of what is untrue or 
unjust (pro falsis, pro iniustis) ; which the student of oratory must un- 
derstand in order to be armed against imscrupulous opponents. 

33. coloribus ; better translated by the singular : rhetorical 
artifice. The term is used here to include every means resorted 
to in legal practice to cover up the weak points in a case. See 
iv, 2, 88 ; vi, 5, 5 : xi, 1, 81, where such colores are spoken of. 
confessione. The admission of the fact is sometimes the course 
to be adopted, and then the crime to be palliated, or all actual 
guilt to be disproved, etc. ; as illustrated in iv, 68-75, xi, 1, 76. 
expugnat veritatem ; that is, excels, surpasses truth, in im- 
portance and value. 

34. opere ; the work, office, or duty of Quintilian as an in- 
structor of the orator, adhibebit ; sc. medicus. 

35. in utramque partem, on both sides ; here, of a moral 
question, neque — vivunt, yior indeed do the disciples of the 
Academy fail to live according to one of the two ; that is, the 

240 NOTES. XII, 1, 36-38. 

principles of one side rather than the other, On the sense of 
alteram, com p. x, 1, 26, and note. 

Carneades, the chief of the academic school, was sent by 
the Athenians, b. c. 155, as an ambassador to the Roman senate, 
accompanied by Diogenes the Stoic, and Critolaus the Peripa- 
tetic. It was on this occasion that his discourses, the one in 
defense of justice, and the other overthrowing it, so offended 
Cato, that he caused a decree to be enacted by the senate requir- 
ing the philosophers to depart from Rome. 

36-45. Right reason sometimes justifies the good man, when arguing 
a case before a judge, even in disguising the truth ; things must be 
deemed right or wrong, honorable or base, not by reason of the acts 
themselves (factis), but of the motive and occasion (causis) ; a good man 
may be obliged to use falsehood and deception in the case of a sick child ; 
much more in diverting an assassin from his intended victim {ab honiine 
occidendo), or in dealing with an enemy at war with his country ; there- 
fore our orator may be good, and still do a seeming wrong in order to 
secure the state or the individual citizen against great injustice and great 
evil, and to promote the greatest good ; and so of necessity right and 
wrong are sometimes defended by similar methods, and the orator, 
whether advocating one or the other, must employ the same resources 
of his art. 

36. prima propositione, on the first statement, at the first 
glance, adferre, to allege, assert ; so frequently, auferre 
iudici veritatem. This blinding of the judge, or " withhold- 
ing the truth " from him, is also spoken of as one of the re- 
sources of the pleader in iv, 5, 6. gravissimos {esse) magis- 
tros; for example, such as Panaetius, Cic. de Off. 2, 14: nee 
. . . habendum est religioni, nocentem aliquando, modo ne nefa- 
rium impiumque, defender e. . . . Quod scribere non auderem, 
nisi idem placeret gravissimo Stoicorum Panaetio. Comp. 
Quint, ii, 17, 26. 

37. hominem — virtus. Examples are Spurius, Ahala, 
Scipio Nascica, the elder Brutus, and Manlius Torquatus. as- 
periora adhuc dictu, deeds still more horrible to mention; 
such, perhaps he means, as the exposure of Andromeda to the 
sea-monster, or as the sending of Athenian children annually to 
be devoured by the Cretan minotaur. 

38. ut mendacium. dicat. ii, 17, 27: nam et mendacium 
dicere etiam sapienti aliquando concessum est. Plato gives ex- 

NOTES. XII, 1, 40-43. 241 

amples of justifiable "falsehood in the " Republic," ii, p. 382, ed. 
Steph ; as in the case of deceiving an enemy in war, or of avert- 
ing harm likely to be done by persons through insanity or igno- 
rance : irpSs T€ Tovs iroKe/jLlovs /col raiv KaXovfiej/uu (pl\(i}v. orav 5ta 
/jLOviav ¥) Tiva i.voiau KaK6u Tt iTTix^ipuxTt irpdrTeip. nedum. There 
is an ellipsis of uf sif vetitum mentiri ; much less that, etc. 

40. nee hoc dico. etc. The following is the interpretation 
given by Boeckh of this troublesome passage : Nor do I say 
this as if in all cases I would justify on the ground of duty the 
act of defending a father, brother, or friend, when placed on 
trial {periclitantihus) and really guilty; for (quia) in general I 
am in favor in such cases of obeying the laws in all their severity ; 
though indeed there may well arise at times in such circum- 
stances a doubt as to the path of duty, and some case of this 
kind might easily justify deception on the part of the defense; 
but let us take an example which shall leave no room for hesita- 
tion on the ground of natural affection, or on account of a claim 
of kinship, such as to make us ready to excuse even crime com- 
mitted in obedience to it ; not taking advantage of such an ex- 
treme case, I will sustain my proposition by examples in which 
the question is the naked one of duty to society or to the in- 
dividual citizen, qui — orator ; see § 1. 

41. nonne utemur — simili. " Will it not be right for us, 
in such emergencies, to employ the art of oratory in disguising 
facts and in supporting untruth, somewhat in the same manner 
as bad men use it ? The art is good indeed in itself and in its 
general application, but yet in its method of appealing to the 
minds of men it is similar- to the evil devices {malis artihus) of 
imscrupulous orators, or to rhetorical methods used for evil 
purposes." This interpretation the context seems to require, 
though others understand arte here in a more restricted sense : 
an art, a device of oratory, good indeed in the use here contem- 
plated, yet kindred to dishonest devices. But this sense of arte 
would probably have been expressed by quadam arte dicendi. 

42. ad hoc =p7'aeterea. posse, sc. eos. futurum, is des- 
tined to he, ivill become, cui vera obicientur, against whom 
well grounded charges shall he presented. 

43. advocabit ; in its frequent sense of " summoning to the 
defense of" with the dative of the party or person defended. 


242 NOTES. XII, 2, 1-3, 

Fabricius, Rufinum ; both distinguished in the war against 
Pyrrhus. The words here quoted are said by Cicero (de Orat. 
ii, 66) to have been addressed by Fabricius to Rufinus himself 
on the occasion when the latter had returned thanks to Fabri- 
cius for nominating him, though a personal enemy, to the con- 
sulship. Rufinus is called by Aulus Gellius (iv, 8), furax homo 
et avaritia acri. 

45. praecipere ac discere, etc., recall the topic of §§ 34, 
35. probatione, join with difficilia, not with tractentur ; diffi- 
cult in their proof , or to prove. So Badius and Spalding. 



1-9. Above all things {ante omnia), the orator must cultivate his 
character by the study of philosophy ; for natural tendency to goodness 
is not enough without instruction ; and as orators and rhetoricians have 
hitherto left this part of their own proper work to the professed teachers 
of philosophy, the student of eloquence must still seek it from the latter. 

1. virtus — est. A continuation of the protasis, et being 
omitted. The sentiment is that of Horace, 0. 4, 4, 33 : 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 

Rectique cultus pectora roborant. 
ante omnia ; not first of all things in the order of time, but as 
in X, 1, 3, in importance. 

2. scilicet ut confiteantur, so that forsooth (as the neces- 
sary result implied in such an opinion) they allow or admit. 
contemptissima, the most humble, virtutem vero h.abea- 
xnus ; in the same construction as confiteantur, after ut. 

3. metus — purgaverit. Such fears as the result of corrup- 
tion and blindness of mind, need to be removed by the purifying 
influence of philosophy, tractatum tractarit ; a remarkable 
instance of negligence in an author of such correct habits. We 
may translate : has discussed the doctrines, que — que, both — 
atid ; as in 11, 8. populis et gentibus, states and nations. 
The words, however, are often synonymous, eruditiore ser- 
mone, in philosophical discourse. 

NOTES. XII, 2, 4-9. 243 

4. ad illud sequens ; that is, to the second part, or apodosis 
of § 1 ; the necessity of adding instruction to natural gifts. 
praevertar, / will rather turn to ; I will direct the discussion 
to. So Horace, Sat. 1, 3, 38. 

5. tertio de Oratore libro. Cic. de Orat. 3, 19, 27, 31. 
dicendi viribus, with the powers, or resources of eloquence. 
haec ; sc. philosophia. illi refers to Crassus. iam, now ; but 
not originally and properly, in possessione. Philosophy was 
not originally the exclusive owner of these moral topics, but 
she has obtained undisputed possession of them through the 
negligence of orators and the teachers of rhetoric, who should 
have retained these things in their own domain. See x, 1, 35. 

6. hinc ; from this truth, or in accordance with this truth ; 
namely, that ethics are inseparable from the work of the orator. 
illud, quod; explained by the infinitive clauses facultatem 
fluere, eosdem fuisse. et libris et epistolis ; de Orat. 3, 15 ; 
Orat. 2, 12 ; Ep. ad Fam. 15, 4, et al. praeceptores eosdem. 
De Orat. 3, 15 : iidem erant vivendi praeceptores atqtie dicendi. 

7. plerique praecipiunt. Seneca, de Tranquil. 1,7: sequor 
Zenona, Cleanthen, Chrysippum, quorum tamen nemo ad rem- 
publicam accessit et nemo non misit. SiOmanum quendam, 
etc., a kind of Roman philosopher, such that {qui), etc. It was 
not thought consistent with the duties of a Roman citizen, espe- 
cially a senator, to give himself up to the abstractions of phil- 
osophy. See Tacit. Agr. 4. 

8. in actu sue, in their own, or proper sphere of action ; 
in affairs of real life ; the reference being especially to the pre- 
cepts of ethical philosophy, porticus, gymnasia ; the porticos 
and gymnasia of Athens. In these the Greek philosophers 
taught their disciples, conventus scholarum, the assemblies 
of the schools, has reference to schools at Rome, evolvendi 
penitus, must be completely unrolled ; thoroughly perused, or 
studied, scientia — humanarumque. Cic. de Off. 2, 2 : sapien- 
tia est rerum divinarum et humanarum, causarumque quibus 
hae res continentur, scientia. See also note on x, 1, 35. 

9. artem. Philosophy is an " art " in the broad Latin sense 
of the word, superbo nomine, by reason of their pretentious 
name. The philosophers of the Roman times seem generally to 
have departed from the modesty of Pythagoras and the Greeks, 

244 NOTES. XII, 2, 10-13. 

who adopted the name of " philosopher " to indicate that they 
were seekers after wisdom, not claiming to be (To<poi. See 1, 19. 
Seneca (de Tranquil. 2, 4) speaks of the " philosophers " of his 
day as those who are " laboring under the weight of a great 
title" {suh ingenti titulo). invisam, odious, in had repute. 
rebus repititis, having reclaimed, replevined his property ; a 
legal phrase, corpus. The art or science of oratory comprises 
several parts or members, such as invention, arrangement, etc., 
making together the " body " of rhetoric. Philosophy should 
be again incorporated with these. 

10-14. First, the philosophy of dialectics indispensable to the orator 
as a preparation for the rational or logical treatment of legal causes. 

10. rationalem {partem), the logical part ; dialectics, logic ; 
the science of discourse, or of the logical use of speech, con- 
ligere, to syllogize (avWoyiCeadai) ; to prove by logical reasoning. 
resolvere, to disprove, refute ; " undo " the opposing argument. 
Comp. V, 13, 12. 

11. ea; sc. parte rationali. non — minute. In legal pro- 
ceedings {actionihus) the technical exactness of the schools in 
stating a logical argument would be out of place, docere, etc., 
see on x, 1, 78. tenuis — resultantis. The discourse of the 
philosopher, expressed in precise and terse (teiiuis) language, 
and carefully noticing every thought necessary to his conclu- 
sion, and " removing every stone," is not like the full and broad 
stream of forensic oratory, but like the current of a slender 
brook halting and springing up at every pebble. Comp. v, 14, 
31, xii, 10, 25. 

12. numeros. See on x, 1, 4; plus agitur, more (after 
all) is effected, subsit, may he ready, or in reser've. unum, 
alterum; sc. numerum, movement. 

13. comprehensionibus, in comprehensive statements, or 
sentences. The comprehensio here means either a perfect defini- 
tion, as comprehensione verhorum in ii, 15, 1, or any other con- 
cise and exhaustive statement of an important idea or fact. 
The following is an example of such a comprehensive statement 
quoted by Quintilian in xi, 1, 51, from M. Caelius, who in mak- 
ing his defense before the judges is striving to avert from him- 
self in a few words all suspicion of pride and presumption : ne 

NOTES. XII, 2, 14. 15. 245 

cui vesfrum. atque etiam omnium, qui ad rem agendam adsunt, 
mens aut vultus ?noIesfior, ant vox immoderatior aliqua, aut 
deniqne quod minimum est, iactantior gestus fuisse videatur. 
separandis; as for instance, by defining a crime, and then 
pointing out the difference between it and the act in question. 
Cic. de Invent. 2, 18 : facti ah ilia definitione separatio. dis- 
tinguendo, in noting distinctions ; that is, distinctions in the 
senses of the same word or statement. The complete phrase, as 
used by Cic. (Brut. 41, Orat. 4, et al) is ambigua distinguere ; 
the object being to detect fallacies occasioned by ambiguous 
expressions. So Aul. Gellius, 18, 2 : tertio in loco hoc quaesitum 
est, in quibus verbis captionum istarum fraus esset et quo pacfo 
distingui resolvique possent. distinguere, therefore, in this sense, 
is nearly related to resolvenda ambiguitate, explaining or clearing 
up ambiguitg. dividendo, in analyzing ; in making a proper 
division and arrangement. See on x, 1, 49. 106. inliciendo, 
implicando, in ensnariiig, entangling, melioribus, things (or 
qualities) more effective ; better adapted to the forum or court 
of law. sectas ad tenuitatem suam, reduced to its peculiar 
minuteness, or nicety (of division), sectas is applied here, like 
secant in iv, 5, 25, to the dividing or cutting up of things by 
the minute and sharp distinctions of logic, tenuitas and sub- 
tilitas do not relate to language as in x, 2, 23, and x, 5, 2, but 
to thought. 

14. cavillatione, ca^'iVm^ ; hair sijlitting discussions ; the 
disputations of the schools conducted after the exact method of 

15-17. Moral philosophy a study indispensable to the preparation of 
the advocate for discussing nearly all subjects pertaining either to judi- 
cial, or legislative, or popular oratory. 

1 5. sicut superioribus libris ; especially in the third and 
seventh books, alia, alia, some, other things ; facts, conclusions ; 
either pertaining to parts of cases or covering entire cases. 
coniectura, etc. In this section Quintilian has in mind the 
necessity of applying the doctrines of moral philosophy to the 
kind of oratory called judicial, or. as we now term it, forensic. 
See on x, 1, 47. Therefore he mentions in a general way the 
variety of forms of cases that come before the courts ; that is, 

24:6 NOTES. XII, 2, 15. 

the several grounds, states, or issues on which they are argued. 
These are of such a nature, and leave so much, after all, to be 
decided by fair or logical inference, or by the wisdom and dis- 
cretion of the courts, that there is almost no case {nulla fere) in 
which it is not necessary to have recourse to considerations of 
abstract equity and goodness {tractatus acgui ac honi) ; and, in- 
deed, a multitude (plerasque) of cases, turn wholly upon their 
equity or moral quality {in sola qualitate consistant). By coniec- 
tura is meant argument from facts ; inference drawn from 
" putting together " or comparing the facts elicited from the 
witnesses and the evidence in the case. See iii, 6, 31, 45, vii, 2. 
finitionibus concludantur, are determined hy definitions ; by 
the proper names or designations of things ; the status finitionis. 
For instance, is it sacrilege to steal private property from a 
temple, or is it merely theft ? See iii, 6, 31, vii, 3, 1. iure sum- 
moveantur vel transferantur, are dismissed or left pending 
on legal grounds. The reference is to what is called the status 
translativus or legalis; the ground or question of postpone- 
ment : an issue of law ; when the suit is alleged to have been 
brought against the wrong party, or by an attorney not au- 
thorized to conduct it, or before the wrong tribunal, or at an 
improper time; under the wrong statute, or in an incorrect 
form, or involving the wrong penalty. See iii, 6, 52. Cic. de 
Invent. 2, 19. alia conligantur, concurrant, ducantur. 
Strictly these are three varieties or species subordinate to the 
status legalis, just mentioned. Conligere, as in x, 1, 84, is to 
argue or infer by syllogism. For example, the law of Tarentum 
forbidding the exportation of wool was interpreted to prohibit 
also the exportation of sheep. See vii, 8. For it is assumed as 
a major premise, that any act which necessarily carries with it 
the violation of the letter of a law, must itself be virtually in- 
cluded in that law. inter se concurrere is to be in mutual con- 
flict or antagonism, and is said of laws which are inconsistent 
with each other in their tenor ; they are leges contrariae. In 
such a case either no decision can be reached, or else the court 
for some reason accepts the authority of one of the conflicting 
laws in preference to the other. See vii, 7. alia, in this clause, 
as the subject of concurrant, becomes a metonymy for aliae 
leges. It is laws themselves, not questions or cases that are in 

NOTES. XII, 2, 16-18. 24-7 

conflict, in diversum ambi^itate ducantur ; freely trans- 
lated : lead to different interpretations through ambiguity of 
terms. See vii, 9. in sola qualitate consistant, stand in 
quality alone, depend on moral character alone ; turn entirely 
on the question, what was the motive, the cause, what were the 
justifying or palliating circumstances, not on the question of 
naked fact ; not an sit, or quid sit, but quale sit 9 See vii, 4. 

16. in consiliis, in {public) councils; in deliberative as- 
semblies, especially the senate. The deliberative kind of speeches 
is here referred to, as distinguished from the legal, honest! 
questione ; that is, questione qualitatis. tertia, third, not be- 
cause it is usually reckoned third, but it happens to stand third 
in the present connection. The reference is to that division or 
part of oratory which embraces laudatory, historic, and " popu- 
lar " speeches ; not designed for any immediate and practical 
result ; the epideictic or demonstrative kind. See iii, 4, 12, sqq., 
and n. on x, 1, 47. 

17. vocibus — nominibus, known to him not merely by 
their sounds and designations; not only as articulate sounds 
and names of things, ita sentiet, shall so feel ; shall enter- 
tain convictions and sentiments perfectly corresponding to the 
meaning of these terms, nee — laborabit, while he will not be 
embarrassed in thought, or for want of thought. Out of the 
abundance of the heart he will speak freely and sincerely (vere). 
nee introducing the apodosis of the sentence, is correlative to 
the following et. The relation may be expressed by " while not 
— also," or " at the same time." 

18-20. In fact, all oratory that is worthy ot the name (quae oratio est 
vere), embraces more or less all the principles both of dialectics and ethics. 

18. potentior, more effective, more comprehensive; potent 
in reasoning, or in convincing the understanding ; not in the 
sense of the word in x, 1, 17, where it describes the impressive- 
ness or power of delivery, accedit (= cTrerat), follows, is sub- 
ordinate, et is omitted ; the apodosis begins with profecto. in 
illo studiorum more, in that (well-known) method of studies ; 
that of the Greek philosophers. It is implied, therefore, that 
the orator who becomes familiar with the method of this phi- 
losophy, in which general questions are handled as the chief 

248 NOTES. XT I, 2, 19-22. 

thing (maxim.e versatas), will transfer from this study to his 
law questions the habit of referring particular cases to universal 
principles. Corap. x, 5, 12, 13. The meaning, fully expressed, 
seems to be this : As every general question is more comprehen- 
sive than a special one, and the part is necessarily comprised in 
the whole, and is carried by the whole, the orator can have no 
real power, breadth, and freedom in speech without the habit of 
discussing all questions on general grounds; and no one can 
doubt that he will best acquire this habit in the discussions of 
philosophy ; for these are conducted chiefly by the method of 
referring the special to the general, or of demonstrating general 
propositions and applying them to particular facts. 

19. propriis brevibusque comprehensionibus, ly apt 
and brief sentences, status finitivus. See on § 15. id ; the 
practice, namely, of defining, instrui ; sc. oratorem. in hoc, 
to {unto) this : that is, this study of dialectic philosophy, quaes- 
tio iuris ; any question under the head of status legalis. See 
on § 15. voluntatis coniectura, in the proof of intention ; 
the true spirit and purpose of any law fir of any written docu- 
ment as inferred by evidence, rationalem, moralem tracta- 
tum, logical, ethical disputation. 

20-23. Natural philosophy, too, as well as the other branches, is indis- 
pensable to the orator on account of its power to exalt the tone and spirit 
of his eloquence, furnishing him with rich material for reflection in the 
phenomena of Nature ; and so its study is countenanced by the example 
of Pericles, Demosthenes, and Cicero. 

20. pars naturalis, natural philosophy, ^'scientia rerum 
divinarum '' ; the philosophy of the things of God and Nature, 
as distinguished from the things pertaining directly to man ; 
especially the laws of his mental operations, and of conscience 
and conduct ; though it is presently shown by the author that 
human conduct also is embraced in natural philosophy, or in 
that part of it which treats of the divine being in his relations 
to man. See also on § 8 and x, 1, 35. ut docuimus. See 

21. divina origo; this being in the view of Quintilian a 
doctrine of wa^?/raZ philosophy, vir civilis ; a statesman; as 
well as an advocate, saltern = quidem. 

22. liberrimum, audacious in speech ; indulging in the 

NOTES. XII, 2, 23-26. 249 

most unbridled satire of public men, yet extolling the eloquence 
of Pericles. Corap. x, 1, 65, xii, 10, 24. Anaxagorae phy- 
sici. Anaxagoras of Clazomene (born b. c. 499) taught at Athens 
in the age of Pericles, and gave a new direction to the philosophy 
of Nature, especially in recognizing a divine intelligence (vovs) 
fashioning the world out of self-existent matter, and giving to 
it motion and order. He was banished on the charge of atheism 
B. c. 432, and died at Lampsacus b. c. 430. Demosthenem 
Platoni. Comp. xii, 10, 24. 

23. M. Tullius testatur; as in Orat. 3; Brut. 91, 315. 
ipse, himself personally. In regard to Pericles and Demos- 
thenes we have the fact not on their own authority, but on 
that of history, consaepto, hy the narrow confines. 

23-28. It will be best for the orator not to bind himself to any one 
school of philosophy, but to choose what is noblest in each, 

ex hoc, out of this matter; this (foregoing) discussion. 
quaraquam — contentio. As several schools or sects of phi- 
losophers can at once be eliminated from the discussion, not 
many remain as rivals to claim our preference, secta here 
includes more than the four well-known schools: Academic, 
Peripatetic, Stoic, and Epicurean. 

24. Epicurus, etc. ii, 17, 15 : qui disciplinas omnis fugit. 
Also Cicero, de Fin. 1, 7: vellem equidem aut ipse (Epicurus) 
doctrinis fuisset instructior, . . . aut ne deterruisset alios a 
studiis. Aristippus ; a disciple of Socrates, founded his school 
of philosophy at Cyrene. Pyrrhon. Pyrrho of Elis, father of 
the skeptical school, living in the time of Aristotle, cui — non 
liquebit ; to whom (should he take up the office of an orator) 
it will not he clear that the judges before whom he speaks have 
any existence, etc. ; for he doubts the being of anything. 

25. mos — disserendi. See on xii, 1, 35. praestantissi- 
mos in eloquentia. Plato and Carneades are examples. Gess- 
ner also adds Cicero, studio — iactant, pride themselves on a 
certain degree of attention to oratory. See iii, 1, 14, 15. thesis. 
Cic, Orat. 14 : in hac Aristoteles adulescentes . . . exercuit. See 
on x, 5, 11. Stoici. Comp. x, 1, 84. 

26. inter ipsos, among philosophers themselves. Sacra- 
mento rogati, and, below, in leges iurare, terms relating tc 

250 NOTES. XII, 2, 27-31. 

the military oath, are applied here to the allegiance of the dis- 
ciples of philosophy to their various masters or schools, super- 
stitione ; an influence more irrational and even more binding 
than the sacramentum. 

27. si — perfectus. While the orator must equal the moral 
philosopher in life and conduct, he must also be perfect in elo- 
quence. His work or office, therefore, is greater facundissi- 
mum. — ad imitandum. Comp. x, 2, 26. moribus vero 
formandis ; in contrast with in exemplum dicendi, and limit- 
ing the whole clause praecepta — deliget ; " but for the shaping 
of his morals he will choose the very highest teachings of phi- 
losophy, and the pathway that leads most unerringly to virtue," 
no matter in what school he finds them, exercitatione omni, 
all discipline ; every means of improvement, or self-culture. He 
will exercise himself in every line of study. 

28. quae {sint) bona, quid mitiget, etc. ; questions defin- 
ing the foregoing haec : these topics or inquiries, namely : 
What are true blessings, What allays fears, etc. animum. The 
governing verb has been lost. Spalding proposes deceat, Butt- 
mann level. 

29-31. Besides the precepts of philosophy, the examples of splendid 
conduct in word and deed (dicta ac facta praeclare) recorded of great 
men, especially those of our own land, can be studied with advantage. 

31. tantum quod, only that; but; the reading of Zumpt 
followed by Halm. Whatever reading of this very doubtful 
passage we may adopt, the interpretation can not be entirely 
satisfactory. Perhaps the intention is to recall the contrast in- 
dicated in ^ 29, between nosse and animo semper agitare; 
analogous to the antithesis in § 17 of knowing moral truths as 
opposed to feeling them. The sense of the passage may be thus 
given : But that orator who believes it not enough merely to 
have in mind the immediate time and the present day, but re- 
gards the whole history of future ages (omnem posteritatis me- 
moriam) as the real period of an honorable life and as the true 
career of glory, can not rest contented {non adquieverit) with the 
mere knowledge of facts (cognitis rebus) ; but he will apply these 
facts, especially those of biography, as examples for his own 
conduct ; that is, he will realize their significance and exemplify 

NOTES. XII, 3, 1. 251 

them in his own person, hinc, hinc, from this source, even 
from this ; that is, ex his quae sunt tradita antiquitus dicta ac 
facta praeclare. libertatem refers to the freedom of thought 
and speech which was especially characteristic of the fathers of 
the Roman republic, in causis atque consiliis, in the courts 
and in the senate. See on ^ 16. honeste, as an honorable 
citizen. From the example of such men he will know what 
sentiments befit a freeman, and he will become so imbued with 
their spirit that he will dare to utter them freely and fearlessly. 



1-6. The disadvantage to the orator of ignorance of the law. 

1. iuris civilis. Civil law, in the Roman usage of the 
term, was either the whole body of law peculiar to the Roman 
state or civitas as distinguished from the law common to all 
nations, and called the ius gentium ; or, in a narrower sense, it 
was the body of Roman law pertaining to secular affairs, res 
iuris humani, as opposed to those of the state religion, or res 
iuris divini. It was also further subdivided so that lex, or 
written law, was distinguished from mos or traditional usage in 
law. There were also various other methods of division, but 
Quintilian here seems to have in mind that of lex, mos, and fas ; 
written law, prescriptive law, and ritual law. All of them, of 
course, pertained to judicial affairs, and were equally important 
to the orator, morum ac religionum, usages and religious 
sanctions, quam capesset. rem publicam capessere is to en- 
gage in ("lay hold of") the affairs of the state, ignarus. It 
might seem strange that one who is preparing himself to plead 
as an orator or advocate before the courts, should be warned 
against ignorance of the law ; but we must remember that there 
was with the Romans no trained profession of lawyers and bar- 
risters holding the exclusive right to " practice " in the courts 
for fees; and that the office of the advocate was discharged 
voluntarily by any citizen, whether acquainted with the law or 

252 NOTES. XII, 3, 2-5. 

not, who might from a sense of duty or from ambitious motives 
take upon himself such a responsibility, ab altero, from an- 
other, or some second person ; that is, from a jurist or counselor ; 
some citizen known to be versed in the law. There were in all 
periods private citizens distinguished for this knowledge, though 
not professional or paid lawyers, in our sense ; and their recorded 
opinions came in time to have the force of laws, qui pro- 
nuntiant. The reference is probably to actors who recite the 
w^ords of dramatic writers. 

2. mandata perferet, lie will he hearing messages, as it 
were from his counselor or instructor to the court, ut ; con- 
cessive, praecepta, composita, taught, arranged, praecepta 
refers to the instructions on the case received from the legal 
adviser at home. See on altero above, in discendo. The 
learimig or study of cases is treated of below, in Chap. VIII. 
quae subito-solent. Comp. x, 7, 3. minores advocates, 
assista?it attorneys ; colleagues, perhaps, associated with the 
speaker {patronus, or maior advocatus) for the purpose of mak- 
ing suggestions in case of need. Comp. vi, 4, 6, 7. 

3. altercatione. See on x, 1, 35. 

4. velut ad arculas. Buttmann thinks the comparison is 
not drawn from any custom of serving weapons or ammunition 
from arm-chests in battle, but from such a practice in the 
palaestrae or other places of athletic exercises, pragmatico- 
runi, legal experts, attorneys. In iii, 6, 59, the word is rendered 
in Latin by iuris interpretes. clamorem suum, his loud voice ; 
his declamatory speech timed by the clepsydra or water-glass. 
Cic. de Orat. 3, 34 : hunc non clamator aliguis ad clepsydram 
latrare docuerat. 

5. si ad horam — constiterit. The praetor appointed an 
hour for the parties to appear {consistere) and give reasons why 
a suit should or should not be instituted. Quintilian would 
have the advocate competent, if present on such an occasion, to 
make himself useful by his knowledge of law. in testationibus 
faciendis, in preparing testimony ; getting ready the evidence 
from documents and witnesses, imperatorem. ; appositive 
after (aliquem) strenuum, fortem, etc., the immediate object of 
credit. Credo takes the same construction of two accusatives, 
as in 1, 36 : quos gravissimos magistros aetas vetus credidit 

NOTES. XII, 3, 6-9. 253 

prius est enim. Such a proposition would be absurd; for 
the planning and preparation of campaigns must precede the 
active operations of war, and they demand larger capacity and 
knowledge than the actual movements of the battle-field. A 
good " fighting general " may manage these latter success- 
fully, but he is not necessarily on that account fit to be an 

6-10. The attainment of this knowledge is not difficult. 

6. certum, established, determined ; as opposed to duhium. 
scripto. The written law, as understood by the Romans, em- 
braces all the enactments of the people and of the senate, and 
the edicts of praetors, constitutions of emperors, and the re- 
corded opinions of jurists. This is tex, or civil law in its nar- 
rower meaning as opposed to nios or mores. See on § 1. 

7. quae consultorum, etc. The dubia, or questions that 
can be adjudicated by no law or prescription, nor by any analogy 
to them, are questions of equity to be settled by the opinion of 
jurists {consultorum). prudentiuin, men of good sense. Opti- 
mo cuique, all good men, whether orators or indices. Questions 
purely of definition of terras, or of equity, can therefore be 
decided without the aid of a jurist. 

8. ab eo dissentiet. On questions of equity, as they do 
not come under definite laws, the jurists or lawyers themselves 
{ipsi illi) will hold different opinions, and the advocate, there- 
fore, must not be surprised, if the jurist (consultus) to whom he 
may apply for counsel in an equity case, shall not agree with 
him in regard to the treatment of it. quid quisque senserit, 
what have been the opinions of all former jurists ; that is, their 
recorded opinions on certain questions. 

9. ad discendum ius declinaverunt, have turned aside 
to the study of law ; have given up the bar and become learned 
in the law, or iurisconsuJti. Cicero, pro Murena, 13 : itaque 
mihi videntur plerique initio multo hoc {opus agendi) maluisse; 
post, cum id adsegui non potuissent, istuc {ad discendum ius) 
sunt delapsi. Ut aiunt in Graecis artificibus, eos auloedos esse^ 
qui citharoedi fieri non potuerint, sic nonnullos videmus, qui 
oratores evadere non potuerunt, eos ad iuris studium devenire. 
Marcus Cato. Cato the elder, was most distinguished as an 

254 NOTES. XII, 3, 10-13. 

orator, yet a good lawyer also. Scaevolae Servioque Sul- 
picio. Q. Mucius Scaevoia and Servius Siilpicius were eminent 
jurists and at the same time able speakers. 

10. componere aliqua. Aulus Gellius, 1, 22. mentions 
a book composed by Cicero entitled de iure civili in artem 
redigendo. Perhaps by coeperat Quintilian means that the one 
book was only the beginning of the intended treatise on civil 

11, 12. Many will shrink from the severe discipline which I thus pre- 
scribe for the orator, and pretending to despise eloquence, will either 
content themselves as mere lawyers (leguleii) with the exclusive study of 
technical points and forms of law, or else set themselves up as philoso- 

11. reprehendenda, quod, must be repudiated on the 
ground that, haec deverticula desidiae, these resorts (or 
subterfuges) of indolence ; censurable only when they are thus 
taken up with a wrong motive and at the expense of oratory, 
that nobler work to which they should be subsidiary, album 
ac rubricas, edicts and titles. The praetorian edicts, forming 
a large part of the body of civil law, were inscribed on white or 
waxen tablets; their headings or titles were written with red 
ink. leguleii. Cic. de Orat. 1, 55 : ita, est tibi iurisconsultus 
ipse per se nihil nisi leguleius guidam cautus et acutus, praeco 
actionum, cantor formularum, etc. quorum solam. facilita- 
tem, sequabantur. Such indolent spirits were attracted merely 
by the easiness of these technical studies, while hypocritically 
pretending that they were more profitable and more worthy to 
be pursued. 

12. pigritiae arrogantioris, of more pretentious indo- 
lence ; slothful, like the above-mentioned class, but more assum- 
ing ; that is, taking to themselves the high title of philosophers. 
subito ; making a sudden change of plan, after pursuing for a 
certain time the study of eloquence, and finding that, for idle 
habits, it was too difficult of attainment, fronte conficta, 
assuming a studied countenance; putting on the meditative 
look of the philosopher. The expression is kindred to that of 
Seneca, de Tranquillitate, 15, 4: frontem suam fingere; where, 
however, it is the affectation of grief that is spoken of. pau- 
tum. aliquid ; sc. temporis. tristes, dissoluti, austere, licen- 

NOTES. XII, 4, 1, 2. 255 

tious. So Juveual, 2, 8, characterizes the same class of pretended 
philosophers or hypocritical moralists : guis enim non vicus 
ahundat iristibus obscenis 9 contemptu. By the show of 
indifierence to the world they seek to gain its reverence. 



1, 2. The knowledge of history and fiction, as well as the observation 
of the events of the day, will enable the advocate to illustrate and enliven 
his arguments, and even though young in years, to anticipate the experi- 
ence and wisdom of age. 

1. exemplorum. Com. x, 1, 34. ea, quae conscripta 
sunt, etc., those {examples) which have been recorded by history, 
or which have been fransmitfed by oral tradition as if from 
hand to hand. Two of the MSS. read in historiis, but the con- 
struction intended was probably the ablative of means both in 
historiis and sermonibus ; and none of the editions have adopted 
the reading of the MSS. referred to. 

2. tuta. The fictions of the poets are not authentic, in- 
deed, but yet safe to be used as examples, because so long 
received with veneration as having the significance of real his- 
tories, or else believed to have been invented by wise men for 
the purpose of teaching truth and morals, ultima aetas, the 
end of life ; old age. cum ; causal, ut videam.ur. For the 
construction, comp. x, 3, 29, and below, 9, 6. 

256 NOTES. XII, 5, 1-6. 



1-4. Of the moral helps previously mentioned, fortitude or undaunted 
self-reliance is the most important. 

1. haec sunt instrumenta, such are the helps. The mat- 
ters treated of in the preceding chapters of the Twelfth Book do 
not form a part of rhetorical science (artis), properly speaking, 
but pertain to the personal character and attainments of the 
orator himself, promiseram. See prooemium to Book XII, 
§ 4, and prooemium to Book I, § 22. accedente verborum — 
g^ratia. It is these things, not the foregoing instnimenta, that 
are embraced in the art, or science of rhetoric, strictly so called. 
animi praestantia. Fortitude has been spoken of above in 
Chap. I, especially §§ 23, 28, and in Chap. II, §§ 3, 17. 

2. aliter accipi, to he misunderstood, situ quodam con- 
sumerentur. Comp. x, 3, 12. 

4. non concidamus. For no7i with the subjunctive of 
prohibition, see x, 3, 5. operis, study, frons, presence, coun- 

5, 6. To these helps are accessory also certain physical traits : ex- 
cellence of voice, strength of lungs, and a good presence. 

5. ut supra dixi. Prooem. to Book I, § 27. Trachalus. 
See X, 1, 119. ut Cicero. De Orat. 1, 28. 

6. cum in basilica, etc. See on x, 3, 30. primo. The 
four sections of the centumviri were assembled on the occasion 
referred to as four separate courts, but on what ground one was 
called the first, is uncertain, tribunali ; ablative of situation. 
votum, felicitas ; metonymy for voto, felicitate attinendum. 
suf&ciat — audiri. One who has not such gifts must be content 
with the mere attention of his hearers, and not hope for their 

NOTES. XII, G, 1, 2. 257 



1-7. The public career of the advocate should not commence too 
early nor be deferred too long ; for in the former case he would be likely 
to lose the modesty of youth, and to prejudice his reputation by a crude 
(acerbum) and immature stj'le of speech, while contracting also a con- 
tempt for study {operis) ; and in the latter, he might become too much 
fixed in his habits of seclusion to stand up with confidence and freedom 
before a pubUc audience. Every one should begin at the time most fitting 
for himself individually, and so attain a gradual, natm-al, and healthful 
growth in his profession. 

1. Demosthenem. At eighteen he argued his cause against 
his guardians, actiones pupillares habuisse, made pleas as a 
ward. Calvus, Caesar, Pollio. The fact is mentioned in the 
" Dialogue on Orators," 34, where Caesar at the age of twenty- 
Dne is said to have arraigned Dolabella, Pollio at twenty-two 
Gains Cato, and Calvus, when a little older, Vatinius ; and 
all in speeches, the author continues, quas Jiodieque cum admi- 
ratione legimus. quaestoriam aetatem. The minimum of 
age for the candidate when voted for seems to have been thirty 
in the republican times and twenty-five under the emperors. 
Cicero served when thirty-one, Agricola when twenty-six. See 
Cic. Brutus, 92, 318, where it is stated that Cicero was quaestor 
in the year of the consulship of Cotta (b. c. 75), and Tacit. Agr. 
6, where Tacitus says that Agricola was quaestor under Salvius 
Titianus proconsul of Asia (a. d. 63). pro rostris ; not in front 
of, but 071 the rostra, pro is often thus used of a position on 
the front part of an elevated place ; as Tacit. Hist. 1, 29 : pro 
gradibus ; and id. 36: pro vallo. 

2. destringatur frons. destringere frondem is literally 
to strip or pluck off the leafage of trees. So Columella, 11, 2, 
83: olivam manu destringere. stringere is used by Vergil in 
the same sense in Eel. 9, 61 : agricolae stringunt frondes. et 
continues the negative force of neque and may be rendered 
•'while." contemptus operis, contempt of study ; as being 
something for drudges and not for genius. So in ii, 4, 16: 
hiyic . . . contemptus operis et inverecunda frons . . . et adro- 
gans de se persuasio. 

258 NOTES. XII, 6, 3-7. 

3. nee rursus — senectutem answers to neque praepropere, 
etc. Neither must the young orator be brought forward prem- 
aturely, nor again must he be kept too long in the period of 
tirocinium, audere. Youthful ambition in speech is illus- 
trated in the example quoted below from Cicero. 

4. pro Sexto Roscio locus. The " passage " is from the 
speech for Roscius Amerinus, who was charged with parricide. 
It is quoted more at length in Orat. 30, 107, where Cicero re- 
marks that his maturer judgment disapproved of it as too florid. 
cum ; concessive, defervisse et liquata, to have worked off 
{ceased fermenting), and to have become clear ; a metaphor from 
the fermentation and settling of wine. The subject of the in- 
finitives, grammatically ea, is rather talia. The actual words 
of Cicero are more definite : quae nequaquam satis defervuisse 
post aliquanto sentire coepimus. 

5. omnia — desiderant ; as in the case of Porcius Latro, 
X, 5, 18. actionem aqua deficit, the water fails, or cuts off 
the speech. The reference is to the clepsydra, or water-clock, a 
small instrument which timed the speaker by the gradual run- 
ning out of the drops of water, like the sand in an hour-glass. 
A certain number of clepsydrae was allowed the speaker in 
trials, whether in the senate or in the courts. Plin. Ep. ii, 11, 
14: duodecim clepsydris, quas spatiosissimas acceperam, sunt 
additae quatuor. loquendum. On some occasions we must 
give up all rhetorical speaking, and simply tallc ; and this, the 
kind of diserti we are here speaking of, the formal declaimers of 
the school-room are entirely ignorant of {minime sciunt). 

6. viribus nitentem. Spalding quotes viii, 3, 6 : sanguine 
et viribus niteat, as showing that the participle here must be 
taken from niteo rather than Alitor ; though Buttmann prefers 
the latter, et non utique — operam; and even after this 
maiden effort, I would by no means wish him to keep on con- 
tinuously with the work of pleading, like an old practitioner. 
continuare, to continue without interruption, ingenio ; dative 
after inducere. adhuc alendo, still to be nurtured; not yet 
having attained its full growth, refici atque renovari. 
Comp. X, 5, 14, sqq. 

7. usus est M. Tullius, etc. Cicero gives an account of 
this passage of his early life in the Brutus, 91, 314-316. 

NOTES. XII, 7, 1-5. 259 



1-7. There are sometimes cases which require the orator to take upon 
himself the part of accuser or prosecutor, though in general it is more 
honorable to appear on the side of the defense ; and as it is impossible 
for one advocate alone to speak for all defendants, we must choose from 
those who solicit our aid such litigants as are commended to us either by 
respectable friends or by their own personal merits ; making, however, 
no discrimination between the weak and the powerful from improper 
motives ; but even after taking up a case, it should be abandoned if 
found on investigation {inter discenduni) to be unjust ; and to do this, in- 
deed, is for the best interest of the cUent himself, who is not worthy of 
an advocate {patroni) if he does not follow his counsel. 

1. facere {reos), to prosecute, arraign, liorrebit; with ac- 
cusative, as perhorresco, in 11, 9. ad reddendam rationem. 
vitae, to give an account of his conduct. Often there are cir- 
cumstances under which it is incumbent on the Roman orator, 
either as a duty to the state or to individual citizens {publicum, 
privatum officium) to call to account, or prosecute before the 
public tribunals men charged with crime against the republic 
or against persons. 

2. sociorum. The complaints of allies or provincials against 
oppressive governors were brought before the senate and the 
courts at Rome by Roman orators ; as, for instance, those of 
the Macedonians against Dolabella by Caesar, and those of the 
Sicilians against Verres by Cicero ; and, in the time of Quintil- 
ian, the charges of the province of Baetica against Baebius 
Massa by Pliny the Younger and Herennius Senecio. See on 

3. accusatoriam vitam vivere. Nothing was more odi- 
ous in the estimation of the Romans than to make a business of 
prosecution ; a practice which became very common under the 
more despotic emperors. Tacitus, the younger Pliny, and Ju- 
venal have handed down the names of Regulus, Catullus Mes- 
salinus, Carus Metius, and the above-mentioned Massa Baebius, 
as the most infamous accusers or delatores under Nero and 
Domitian. See Tacit. Agr. 45, Plin. Ep. 1, 5, 4, 22, 7, 33, Juv. 
1, 35, 36, 4, 113-122. pestem intestinam ; such, for example, 

260 NOTES. XII, 7, 4-7. 

as Catiline, cum propugnatoribus ; for cum factis propugna- 
torum ; referring to the deeds of military defenders, as contrasted 
with the protection afforded by the eloquence of civilians, ob- 
sidem — accusationem, to present as a pledge (of loyalty to the 
state) the prosecution of had citizens. 

4. Lucullis. The reference is to the brothers Lucius and 
Marcus LucuUus, who were associated in the prosecution of 
Publius Servilius the Augur about b. c. 85. See Plutarch's life 
of LucuUus. alter appellatus, alter creditur. The elder 
Cato has the traditional appellation of " the wise " ; the younger 
even without the title must be deemed wise, if any one can be. 
Seneca holds him up as a typical example of the " sapiens " of 
the Stoics. See Seneca de Providentia, 3, 7, seqq. ducetur 
causa. The orator will determine the question of taking up a 
case chiefly by the case itself ; that is, by its own merits. 

5. commeiidaiitiuni personis, the personal character of 
those who commend clients to the good offices of the advocate. 
ipsorum — decernent ; the character of those who are to con- 
tend in the suit ; the litigants themselves, as contrasted with 
their friends the commendantes. 

6. etiam iactantius. In assuming to be the champion of 
common people the ambitious orator may be even more self- 
seeking than in being forward to defend the powerful, minores, 
dignitatem. In the antithesis marked by vel — vel, minores 
{persons of the lower class) and dignitatem {rank, high station) 
correspond respectively to the foregoing hiimiles and poten- 

7. si aequi iudices sumus ; that is, if I am a fair judge 
of what is best, ut non explains hoc in the form of 
a result. Not to mislead the client, nor to allow him to go 
forward in a wrong and probably disastrous suit, is the best 
service the advocate can render him. causis ; the grounds or 
reasons for sometimes maintaining untruth as given above in 
1, 36, sqq. 

8-12. As to the question of pay for legal service, only when the ad- 
vocate is without the adequate means of living should he accept any 
compensation. But in such circumstances it is honorable to receive a 
consideration, just as it was proper for Socrates, Zeno, and other philoso- 
phers to receive contributions from their disciples ; but to bargain for 
payment and to contract for a part of the expected proceeds of lawsuits, 

NOTES. XII, 7, 8-12. 261 

is a kind of piracy. And a consideration bestowed is, after all, not so 
much a payment, but an acknowledgment of a favor received which is 
greater than any reward in money. 

8. gratis. Though the services of advocates were voluntary, 
and there was no such custom of retaining lawyers for fees as 
with us, gifts were often received from clients after service ren- 
dered. The Cincian law, a plebiscitum, enacted b. c. 204, pro- 
hibited the pleader of a case from receiving any compensation. 
It was re-enacted in later times ; and this fact indicates, what 
might readily be guessed, that the law was easily evaded. It 
was modified in the time of Claudius so that a compensation of 
not more than ten sestertia ($400) might be received. See 
Smith's Diet. Antiq. Art. Cincian law. ex prima statim 
fronte; ad primum quaestionis aspectum. elevare, to lighten, 

9. caecis, ut aiunt, clarum est. The proverb is used by 
King Philip in Liv. 32, 34: apparet id quidem etiam caeco. 
Socrati — ad victum. To receive a contribution for his neces- 
sities was not at all inconsistent with his condemnation of the 
sophists for making fortunes out of their fees, and living sump- 
tuously on the income thus acquired, as indicated in the " Memo- 
rabilia" of Xenophon, 1, 6. 

11. quousque, to what extent ; implying that an honorable 
advocate will not allow himself to go so far as to be avaricious 
and exacting, paciscendi probably refers to the practice of 
contracting with parties to conduct a suit at the risk of the 
advocate, who, in case of success, is to receive a certain propor- 
tion of the award, imponentium periculis pretia : putting 
prices upon their risks. The contract {negotiatio) extorts from 
the client beforehand the promise of an excessive part of the 
claim involved in the suit, on the ground that the advocate runs 
the risk of failure, and so, of losing his labor, malo — peccet. 
I prefer, however, that the client should be guilty of ingrati- 
tude, rather than that the advocate should sin against honor by 
making his office a matter of bargain and sale. 

1 2. tanto plus praestitisse ; sc. quam litigator, non 
perire oportet, it should not be lost; should not go unre- 

262 NOTES. XII, 8, 1-3. 



1-8. The facts of a case some advocates neglect to study altogether, 
and so, not giving any attention to the important point or issue (cardo), 
only seek matter for noisy declamation (clamandi) ; others from vanity 
affect to be so overwhelmed with engagements (occupati), that they post- 
pone all consultation with the client until a few hours before the trial, or 
even to the hour of the opening in the court-room itself (inter ipsa sub- 
sell ia) ; and still others, for the display of their wonderful talent {iactan- 
tia ingenii) presume to argue a case on the bare statement of it. Some- 
times, too. the fastidious orator leaves the preparation of his cases to the 
client himself or to some attorney (advocatus), and thus is hable to be 
surprised and tripped up by unexpected arguments presented by the 
other side. As opposed to all this the advocate should himself in person 
ascertain all the facts of his case, and especially get everything possible 
from the client. 

1. discendae. Discere causam denotes the studying of the 
facts and principles pertaining to a case in court, orationis ; 
here, a speech, argument, or plea in litigation. 

2. ex personis, fj'om, or in persons ; especially the parties 
in the suit. In these and in trite common places can be found 
the material for cheap declamation, communi tractatu loco- 
rum ; by enallage for tractatu communium locorum. claman- 
di, hauiing or shouting in their speeches. So in ix, 2, 95 : 
clamant e multum advocato. et ambit io, vanity also ; besides 
the negligence just alluded to. qui partim. — partim. ; equiv- 
alent to quorum pars— pars, qui — reducuntur. The frame 
of the sentence, as it stands, is : qui partim iubent, gloriantur, 
partim reducuntur. But probably the construction really in- 
tended was : qui {partim habentes, iuhentes, gloriajites, or dum 
iubent et gloriantur, partim mentiti) cum decantaverunt, redu- 
cuntur ; the last two verbs being predicated of both classes of 
vain pretenders distinguished by partim — partim. inter ipsa 
subsellia, even amid the benches, even in the court-room ; just 
before the opening of the trial. 

3. prius paene quam audiant. This class does not go 
through the ceremony even of giving a few minutes to learning 
the facts, like the advocates just mentioned, but, like the con- 

NOTES. XII, 8, 4^7. 263 

ceited declaimers in x, 7, 21, presume to make their speeches at 
once on the bare statement of the case, mentiti, falsely pre- 
tending, multa et diserte, with cum decantaverunt, when 
they have simg through their many strains and (these) in gran- 
diloquent style, clamoribus, shouts of applause, reducuntur ; 
the regular word denoting " to escort home." As Cic. de Se- 
nect. 63. 

4. delicias. Here, as in x, 3, 18, the self-indulgence of em- 
ploying assistants or agents for doing the unpleasant drudgery 
connected with the preparing of speeches is called a luxury, 
doceri = discere causam. doceant ; sc. ipsum patroyium vel 
oratorem. media litium. manus, intermediate manager of 
suits, cum. dicturis — sint, whereas (forsooth), to the speakers 
(dicturis) themselves their own pleadings are not of so much 
importance ; namely, as to induce them to give personal atten- 
tion to the study of the case. How can a second person be 
expected to bestow his labor upon cases which are not his own 
(in alienas actiones), if the advocate who has charge of them 
and is responsible for them is himself too fastidious to do this 
work ? 

5. libellis, briefs ; documents containing the essential 
points, advocatorum, attorneys; in the sense of helpers of 
the barrister, or orator, deinde, then, nevertheless ; as in x, 1, 
127, where the particle introduces something absurdly incon- 
sistent with the fact or action preceding, declinandum, to he 

6. consilium, colores — custodiunt. These attorneys, not 
content to state the naked facts {omnia uti gesta sunt), intro- 
duce into their briefs some line of argument (consilium) of their 
own, and their own interpretation or coloring of the facts ; and 
these ideas and interpretations of mere attorneys most orators 
adopt as their own, following them as scrupulously in making 
their speeches in court, as boy declaimers in the schools stick to 
the themes {themata) shaped out for them in form and phrase 
by their instructors, aliqua peiora. In their infelicitous at- 
tempts to cover up, evade, modify, these assistant attorneys in- 
troduce things more hurtful to the case than the plain facts 
themselves (veris) which they deem disadvantageous to it. 

7. iis quorum. — erit; that is, to the clients, liberum 

264 ' NOTES. XII, 8, 8-13. 

tempus ac locum, unlimited time and a place safe from in- 
trusion, unde — tempore, taking time again from {at) any 
point they please ; no matter how much repetition they shall 
be disposed to indulge in. 

8. vulnus, a wound, or weak point in the case, acturo ; 
the orator, audita ; sc. ex litigator e. 

8-11. Still further, the client must be made to go over his case re- 
peatedly ; and after hearing everything he has to say, or can be made to 
say, his counsel must put himself into the position of an opposing advo- 
cate, and cross-question him sharply, and thus elicit everything that is 
likely to be forced from him in court by the cross examination to which 
he will be subjected by the other side. 

prima expositione, in his first statement. liom.iiiem ; in 
apposition with eum,, the object of effugere. 

9. evocandus, to be called out ; as it were, from his con- 

10. in audiendo; that is, on his own side, from his own 
proper position as counsel of the client, ei ; the advocate. 
agendus adversarius, he must act the part of the opposing 
advocate, quidquid — ^natura, ivhatever nature admits, or 
whatever is naturally anticipated in such a controversy. 

11-15. The best advocates are those who are distrustful of the client's 
favorable representation of his own case. All the written instruments he 
offers must be carefully examined ; otherwise, when too late, they may 
be found invalid. What has been taught about loci, or grounds of argu- 
ment, especially those relating to persons, times, places, usages {instituta), 
documents (instrumenta), must be applied. Finally, the advocate, hav- 
ing now examined his client from his own side, and also from that of the 
opposite party, must now assume a third character {ttrtiam personam), 
that of the judge or juryman, and ply his client with all questions natural 
to this last point of view. 

11. test em populum, the whole people on his side, para- 
tissimas consignationes, sealed documents in perfect order ; 
papers, or tabellae with the names and seals of the proper num- 
ber of witnesses. 

12. instrumentum, here, a legal instrument or document. 

13. linum ruptum, ceram turbatam. The tablets, or 
pages of wood with wax-covered surface forming the document, 
are folded up, and then bound with a linen thread wound thrice 
round the tablets and passing through holes made in the middle 

NOTES. XII, 9, 1, 265 

of the upper margin, and the thread is then secured with wax, 
which is impressed with the seal of the writer. If the thread or 
wax is broken, the instrument is worthless, sine agnitore 
signa, seals (or signatures) without true signers ; literally, with- 
out an acknoivledger ; counterfeit signatures, which the supposed 
signers, on being summoned, pronounce to be false. The word 
agnitor is not found elsewhere, but is received here by the best 
authorities, destituta, irivalidafed, failing ; left without au- 
thority. This sense of the word is so anomalous that destituio 
(advocato) has been proposed instead, quos tradidimus locos. 
Loci, grounds or sources of arguments {sedes argumentorum) 
have been treated in v, 10, 20, sqq. 

14. in agendo, in (actual) speaking ov pleading ; emphatic, 
as opposed to the following in discendo. quas diximus causas. 
v, 10, 123 : infinitam enim facial ista res dicendi tarditatem, si 
semper tiecesse sit ut temptantes unum quodque eorum, quod sit 
aptum atque conveniens, experiendo noscamus. quae personae, 
etc. ; sc. sint in causa, artificiale probationis genus, the 
scientific (or logical) kind of proof; that which is reached by 
comparing, comMning, i referring (colligi), as distinguished from 
the inartificial, or such as is taken directly from persons and 
things ; as, from witnesses, from previous decisions, from slaves 
under torture, from report or rumor, and from written docu- 
ments, pars prima ; that is, invidia. 



1-7. The desire of present applause must not divert the attention of 
the advocate from the vital interests of his case ; but h© must often be 
content to toil through difficult, intricate, prosy, and unattractive argu- 
ments, looking for the approbation that comes afterwards, when victory- 
shall have been won ; art should not be visible ; the hearer should be 
made to think of the cause and its merits rather than of the orator ; nor 
should we be fastidious about accepting cases of minor importance. 

1. arte, science. What has been said on this subject in the 
whole treatise {toto opere) relates rather to the science of oratory, 

^QQ NOTES. XII, 9, 2-8. 

than to the tact and judgment of the orator in the delivery of 
his speech. 

2. praecisis ; for the more usual praeruptus or abscissus. 
operum mole diflQ.ciles, difficult (of approach) on account of 
the strength of their fortifications, laetius decurrendi, of 
flowing in a more pleasing style. This is the reading preferred 
by the best authorities ; though latius decurre7idi, found in 
some MSS. and editions, moving or careering with' more free- 
dom, is in better keeping with the military images used in this 
passage, congressa; sc. adversario. populariter, for the 
delight of the multitude ; for popular applause. 

3. eruendae veritatis latebras, the hiding-places of truth 
that must he brought to light, vibrantibus — sententiis. See 
on X, 1, 50. operibus et cuniculis, siege uvrks arid mines; 
battering-rams, and siege-towers, are included in opera. 

4. opinionis, reputation; as in x, 5, 18, and below, § 7; 
join with cupidissimus. inter plausores suos. The refer- 
ence is to those engaged beforehand to applaud. See on x, 1, 
17. dissimulant, deny ; fail to show, doctis creditur, due 
credit is awarded to the truly eloquent ; to the well taught, or 
accomplished orators. 

5. M. Antonius praecipit. Cic. de Orat. 2, 1 : Antonius 
autem prohahiliorem hoc populo orationem fore censehat suam, 
si omnino didicisse numquam putaretur. 

6. necesse est ; that is, in such a case. 

7. illo fastidio, that (common) fastidiousness, or pride. 
opinioni. See on § 4. minus liberalis materia, a subject 
(or cause) of less dignity, or a case of little significance. 

8-13. To indulge in sarcasm or invective is unworthy of an advocate 
of high aims, and if petulant and abusive, he must expect to be attacked 
in turn with the same weapons, while he also does harm to the cause of 
his clients ; and j^et even these evil consequences are not so unfortunate 
for this kind of orator as the possession of that bad spirit (vitium animi) 
which makes him capable of such ebullitions. It is better, hke Pericles, 
to pray to be restrained by the gods from uttering any word that may 
arouse unfriendly feehng in those who have power to prejudice {nocere) 
our cause. 

8. ad dicendum tenuiora, lacking material for eloquence ; 
"somewhat too thin"; referring to the causas minores just 
mentioned, conviciis, invectives ; personal reproach or abuse. 

NOTES. XII, 9, 9-13. 267 

materia ingenii, matter for wit. mereatur, sc. ea, or ilia 
materia, mereri in the sense of win, as in iv, 2, 39, and in the 
active form, x, 1, 72, xii, 11, 3. clamorem; as in 8,3. ne 
vera quidem obiecturum, will not utter even Just reproaches. 
9. canina, ut ait Appius, eloquentia. This saying of 
Appius (probably Appius Caecus) is also found in a fragment 
of Sallust quoted by the grammarian Nonius under the term 
rabula : " Canina, ut ait Appius, facundia exercebatur." cog- 
nituram male dicendi subire, to incur the charge of slander- 
ing, cognitura is found only here and in Suetonius, Vitell. 2 ; 
and the reading even in the present passage is disputed. The 
word denotes the business of those who were appointed by the 
government to find evidence against debtors to the public treas- 
ury; and so is understood here in the sense of "charge" or 
"information against." quod — est. Those who indulge in 
this sort of thing must expect to be abused in turn, male 
audiendi patientia, the pain of hearing (things spoken) ma- 
liciously (against one's self), sed haec m.iiiora. But the 
immediate evil consequences of an abusive tongue, however 
damaging to the advocate himself, and to the cause of his 
client, are not so bad, after all, as that vicious nature, or bad 
heart {vitium animi) which leads to this exhibition of ill temper 
and insolence (petulantiam), and which only lacks opportunity 
to show itself in deeds as well as in words. 

11. libenter, for their ovm pleasure; not because of the 
importunity of a spiteful client {non ad alterius arhitrium). 
nisi si forte m.eruerunt. The full meaning is : " Unless in- 
deed they have possibly deserved it." si thus added to nisi is 
emphatic. communiumL officiorum, the common, or recipro- 
cal courtesies of the bar, or of the profession, plane, really ; 
without qualification ; no longer adversaries in a merely pro- 
fessional sense. 

12. modestia, self-control, moderation, modest dignity, ad 
stomachum litigatoris. Com p. § 10. 

13. species libertatis, the appearance, or shoiv of liberty ; 
such as is manifested in these personalities. Pericles. The 
words are given in Plutarch's life of Pericles : /tTjSe pfj^a /iTjSev 
iicjre(Ti7v 6.KOv\os avrov trphs r^v irpoKfiix4vt]v xpe/ov audp/jLOsrov. The 
idea of giving offense to the people is certainly not expressed in 

268 NOTES. XII, 9, 14-16. 

these words ; but our author thinks it is implied, de populo 
— nocere. As Pericles depended on the good-will of the peo- 
ple for the success of his political measures, and they had the 
power to defeat his plans if offended, so the advocate comes 
into contact with various parties who, in like manner, if pro- 
voked, may do harm to his cause, fortia; namely, the bold 
words specie lihertatis dicta. 

14-21. Some advocates are hampered in court by adhering too scru- 
pulously to their carefully studied and written arguments, while others 
go to the opposite extreme of presuming too much upon their readiness 
in extemporizing, and so neglect due preparation. The proper limit 
(modus) between these is to be sought, on the one hand, in the most com- 
plete preparation allowed by the circumstances of the case, and on the 
other, in those exercises of premeditation and extemporary speaking 
which will keep the speaker always in readiness for the sudden emer- 
gencies of the court-room. 

14. propositum ; here, substantively, ai77i or purpose ; as in 
X, 2, 11, et al. fuit, laboravit ; examples of the perfect denot- 
ing a customary state or action. 

15. in suscepta causa; join with perfidi ac proditoris, 
peius agere quain possit ; a curious way of saying 7ion tarn 
perfect e quam possit agere. 

1 6. scripta quam res patietur plurima ; as many things 
written {ov 2}repared by writing) as the affair ivill possibly allow, 
patietur here takes the place of the more complete form, pati 
poterit. ut Demostlieiies ait ; a saying, however, not found 
in any extant speech of Demosthenes; though we learn from 
Plutarch (life of Demosthenes, 7 and 8) that he wrote much and 
with great care, and did not speak ex tempore unless compelled 
to do so. et sculpta ; not only written, but even chiseled; 
written, indeed, but with as much scrupulous finish as that of 
an artistic intaglio in wood, stone, or ivory, primae actiones, 
the first, or opening arguments, actio in the sense of plea or 
judicial speech, as in x, 1, 22, 5, 20, and xii, 6, 1. in publicis 
iudiciis. " In private trials there was but one formal speech, 
the object of which was to place before the judges the facts, 
while the merits of the case were reached by means of ' alterca- 
tion,' or questions, statements, and rejoinders on both sides (v, 
4, 1, sqq. ; and see on x, 1, 35). But in public trials there was 

NOTES. XII, 9, 17, 18. 269 

more formality. Thus, if in the opening of the case many 
things were presented by the opposite side which demanded a 
more deliberate and careful refutation, the importance of the 
suit and the dignity of the court required that a new action 
should be granted after an interval of several days, when the 
advocates could come prepared to make additional speeches." 
Spalding, respondendum. Comp. x, 7, 3. minus promptis, 
rather slow ; not of ready apprehension. The embarrassment of 
such speakers when surprised by unexpected questions, is even 
increased by any argument which they have carefully writtep 
out beforehand ; and so " to have written " their speeches under 
such circumstances '' is an injury" to them. 

17. inviti recedunt, etc. Corap. x, 6, 7; 7, 32, 33. tota 
actione, in, or t/irougJwut the whole speech; analogous to the 
ablative of time, intervelli, to he plucked out, seized upon; 
implying that the passages thus transferred from the pre- 
pared speech to the extemporary will be irrelevant and forced. 
quod si fiat ; and if this (forced transfer) be made, coloris ; 
style ; as in x, 7, 7, xii, 10, 71. See on x, 1, 59. detegitur, it 
(the unnatural connection) is plainly seen, 

18. nee — contexta. Comp. x, 3, 20. It has neither the 
freedom of off-hand speech nor the logical connection of a well- 
studied and written one. cura contexta = oratio studio contexta 
ac composita. non sequuntur, do not keep pace ivith. They 
check the mind in the free movement of extemporizing, instead 
of keeping up with it, and giving help, in his actionibus, in 
these (extemporized) arguments, or pleadings ; those that are 
made cum protinus respondendum est. omni pede standum 
est, ive must stand on the whole foot ; not as sometimes ren- 
dered, " on all our feet " ; for the Greek phrase is oKc^ iroSl ; 
meaning, not negligently on the side, or heel, or on the toes, but 
squarely on the whole. We must be in command of every 
expedient, as indicated in the remaining words of the chapter ; 
that is, preparation by writing, perfect familiarity with the case 
(ut causam bene noverimus), attentive listening to our opponent 
in court {ihi^, premeditation, making the mind ready for all 
emergencies, and promptness in off-hand speech. What the 
husbandman understood by this proverb is not clear ; perhaps 
Spalding is right in referring it to the foresight of prudent 

270 NOTES. XII, 10, 1. 

farmers in cultivating a variety of crops so that if the season is 
unfavorable to a part, they may depend upon the rest. 

19. pari cura; that is, by careful writing. 

20. quo facilius, etc. Comp. x, 6, 5. transfertur ; trans- 
ferred, as it were, to a point further on, after being interrupted 
by extemporary passages. See x, 6. si quae alia ; more eu- 
phonious than si qua alia, se credet = se senfiet. 

21. vires facilitatis ; the firma facilitas of x, 1, 1. in 
procinctu stantem. See x, 1, 2, and note, propter hoc ; on 
account, that is, of any embarrassment in extemporary speech. 
oneri, the burden of pleading. An orator fully equipped in all 
other respects {cetera), and especially in the art of extemporiz- 
ing, will never shrink from the labor of forensic speaking, pro- 
vided only he have the opportunity of learning the facts of the 



1-9. The diversity of styles of speech or eloquence (oratio) compared 
to that of Grecian painting and sculpture as developed in different periods 
and by different artists. 

1. propositus, ii, 14, 5 : rhetorice sic, ut opinor, optime 
dividetur, ut de arte, de artifice, de opere dicamus. The first 
topic, therefore, was the art, or body of principles and precepts 
constituting what would rather be called by us "the science 
and the art " ; the second the artifex, or orator exercising the 
art, and the third the opus, or product both of the art and of 
the artist ; that is, the speech, or oratory itself, formae, here 
and below, includes both genus and species, the general and the 
special, individual, or particular, est, is involved, or is ap- 
parent. Both the science of oratory and the attainments of 
the orator are brought into view, or made operative in these 
various forms or styles of eloquence, diflferunt ; sc. formae. 
specie ; i. e., in specific, particular, or individual character, as 
opposed to what is generic, actio ; here, a speech. Tus- 

NOTES. XII, 10, 2, 3. 2Y1 

canicae. Tuscan bronze statues always retained an archaic 
type as compared with the Greek. Asianus. See on § 12. 

2. haec operum genera; these classes of works, or pro- 
ductions ; whether of oratory, painting, or statuary, auctores 
here includes both masters of eloquence and of statuary and 
painting ; below, § 3, the word is used of painters alone. Comp. 
the sense of it in x, 2, 15. ideo. Our author thinks that diver- 
sity of ideas and tastes in oratory and all other arts, added to 
the influences of time and place, has prevented them from 
progressing in any uniform and fixed direction, and that on 
this account eloquence has not yet attained to perfection, nor, 
as he is inclined to believe (nescio an), has any of the arts yet 
been perfected for the same reason. 

In the following examples of great painters and sculptors 
the influence of time and of individual gifts, tastes, and aims 
(iudicio cuiusque atque proposito) in giving various directions 
to art is clearly indicated. Zeuxis and Parrhasius, for example, 
both carry painting far beyond its development under Polygno- 
tus and Aglaophon (plurimum arti addiderunt) ; but their 
works were specifically different. So in the instance of Phidias 
and Polyclitus among the sculptors. To make this parallelism 
between fine art and eloquence complete, Quintilian, perhaps, 
should not only have mentioned, as he has done, the typical 
masters of painting and sculpture whose works show the in- 
fluence of their age, and also of their individual or special ten- 
dencies, but he should have pointed out distinctly the charac- 
teristics of general schools or classes {genera) of art-production, 
such as the Sicyonian, or Peloponnesian, the Attic, and the 
K.hodian. In the other part of the comparison, that is, in 
oratory, which follows, the most conspicuous genera or schools, 
the Attic, the Asian, and Rhodian, are described. As to the 
three general kinds of oratorical style technically termed genera 
dicendi (§ 58), they do not enter into this comparison with 
painting and sculpture, but are spoken of below in § 58, sqq. 

3. Aglaophon. There were two painters of this name, 
one the father and the other a nephew of Polygnotus. Quin- 
tilian must have the former in mind ; but why he mentions 
Polygnotus first can not be accounted for. Spalding surmises 
that the name may have been substituted in some way for that 

272 NOTES. XII, 10, 4, 5. 

of Antiphon, a younger brother of Polygnotus, who was also a 
painter, simplex color, simple coloring ; not referring to 
" monochrome " painting, but to the use of few and decided 
colors, proprio quodam intellegendi ambitu ; freely ren- 
dered: through a desire of the reputation of peculiar insight, 
or hy an affectation of superior judgment, proprio seems to 
be used by enallage here for proprie qualifying intellegendi. 
ambitu is not usual in this sense ; hence quodam. See on 
X, 1, 7. 

4. Peloponnesia tempora, the times of the Peloponnesian 
war (b. c. 431-404). apud Xenophontem.. See the " Memora- 
bilia," of Xenophon, 3, 10. rationem, principle, law, theory, 
proper treatment, examinasse — lineas, to have made a more 
critical study of lines, refers to the contours of figures as seen 
by the eye in Nature, and skillfully imitated in the painting of 
Parrhasius. In the words of Pliny (35, 10, 67), haec est picturae 
summa subtilitas. The outline of a figure, he adds, ought to 
seem rounded and to vanish in such a way as to promise some- 
thing more behind it, and to suggest even what it hides. This 
is not the same as the quality of correct drawing (conscribere) 
mentioned below. 

5. plus dedit ; i. e., gave more fulness, or larger propor- 
tions than Nature. Pliny (Hist. Nat. 35, 10, 64) says that 
Zeuxis was criticised for exaggerating the head and members 
of his figures. Quintilian, who seems in the whole of this com- 
parison to have in mind either the remarks of Pliny on the two 
painters or those of some common authority, must mean that 
Zeuxis, while giving more attention to the light and shade of 
surfaces, or as Pliny expresses it, corpora et media rerum, as 
distinguished from the delicate contours and the faultless draw- 
ing of Parrhasius, also gave to the body and its parts an ap- 
pearance of greater size, id, this representation ; this type, or 
kind of body, thus magnified. Hom.erum. Nausicaae, for 
example, Odys. 6, 102-109, is compared to Diana towering above 
her nymphs in stature, ille, etc. The reference is especially 
to the drawing of Parrhasius, not to the delicacy or thinness of 
his vanishing outlines. His figures, drawn in pencil or crayon, 
were perfect in form and proportion ; so that in this regard he 
was the " law-giver " in •^ainting, like Polyclitus in sculpture. 

NOTES. XII, 10, 6-9. 273 

6. cura. Protogenes painted his lalysis with four layers 
of coloring, so that if one should disappear, there might be a 
duplicate left beneath. Pliny, H. N. 35, 10, 102. ratione, in 
science, concipiendis visionibus, in imaginative designs, or 
in creations of fancy, ceteris optimis studiis, in all other 
noble attairiments. His general learning and culture is also im- 
plied in the praises bestowed upon him by Pliny, Plutarch, 
Philostratus, and other ancient writers, fingendi ; strictly, 
molding in clay, or some other plastic material ; though it came 
to be used, like the word " plastic," of statuary in general. 
Euphranor was eminent in every branch of the plastic art, 
whether in works of terra-cotta, bronze, or marble, and equally 
great as a painter. Comp. § 12, 

7. Gallon flourished about b. c. 516; Hegesias, a little 
later ; Calamis, between b. c. 467 and 429. adhuc ; Join with 
molliora. supra dictis, than those just mentioned. Myron 
was a younger contemporary of Calamis. Polyclito. Poly- 
clitus was of the same age as Myron, and a pupil with him in 
the school of the Argive Ageladas; but in some parts of his 
work he adhered to a more old-fashioned style than Polyclitus. 

8. pondus, dignity ; as in x, 1, 123, 130. auctoritatem, 
majesty, grandeur ; synonymous here with the foregoing pondus. 
His art was usually exercised upon human figures, and those 
generally youthful, aetatem graviorem, more advanced age. 
Phidiae. Phidias was once the fellow-pupil of Polyclitus at 
the school of Ageladas, though considerably older. Quintilian 
has made Polyclitus more conspicuous here than Phidias, and 
mentioned him first in order, because, perhaps, he had in mind 
the progress of the art more particularly in representing men 
rather than gods. Alcameni. Alcamenes was the most dis- 
tinguished of the pupils of Phidias. 

9. cuius pulchritudo, etc. This statue by its majestic 
beauty seems to have brought additional faith and reverence to 
the traditional worship of Jove, etiam ; with adiecisse. ad 
veritatem ; meaning here : to (beautiful) reality, or nature in 
its most beautiful aspects. Lysippus and Praxitiles, in the age of 
Alexander the Great, brought sculpture to its highest perfec- 
tion ; but Demetrius, deficient in artistic discrimination, went 
too far in exactness of imitation, and thus was censured as a 


274 NOTES, XII, 10, 10-16. 

minute, mechanical, and servile realist. He probably lived in 
the earlier part of the fourth century b. c. 

10-15. The illustration is applied to past Roman orators, of whom 
Cicero is foremost as the master of all forms of eloquence ; though un- 
justly censured by the self-styled "Attics." 

10. s-pecies, varieties. See on §1. condicione tempomm, 
Comp. § 2. iam, evefi then, hinc, for ex hoc numero. sint, 
teneant, efla.orescat. Supply as the protasis, si genera iiitueri 
veils, mediam illam formam, that intermediate style ; refer- 
ring to the middle period of the development of art, of which 
the representatives were Zeuxis and Parrhasius in painting, and 
Myron in sculpture. 

11. vim Caesaris, the orators here mentioned, with the 
exception of Calidius, are more fully described in x, 1, 113, and 
to the end of that chapter, indolem = ingenium. subtilita- 
tem Calidii ,• the delicacy, or finished elegance of Calidius 
Cicero describes in the Brutus, 79, 274. See also Q. x, 1, 23. 
sanctitatem., purity ; scrupulous severity in the choice and 
arrangement of words. See x, 1, 115. 

• 12. circa pluris, etc. See on § 6. in quoque ; sc. ora- 
tor e. exult antem, Ji7igli7ig, tripping. See on x, 2, IG. 

13. habetur, is (now in our day) considered, male audire 
potuit ; that is, in his own times. He was exposed to censure 
in his own day even on the part of hostile critics on no other 
ground than because of his richness and exuberance, floribus, 
adfluentia; as opposed to the dry and barren style of elo- 
quence with which he is charged by Quintilian's contemporaries. 
ilia — occasio. There is a more plausible reason for the last- 
mentioned criticism ; for excess of ornament and fancy are 
faults at least of genius. 

14. parum. superstitiosum, not standing in awe; not 
reverently obedient, illis legibus, those (narrow, self-imposed) 
rules (of style), unde = ex quo numero. These critics of to- 
day are also of the same sort as the " Attics " (haec manus) of 
his own time. 

16-19. Grecian oratory classified as Attic, Asian, and Rhodian. 

16. Santra ; a grammarian mentioned also by Festus and 

NOTES. XTI, 10, 17-22. 275 

Paulus, but otherwise unknown, quae — poterant ; which 
might have been expressed in direct (or literal) terms ; had they 
possessed perfect command of the Greek language. Comp. § 35, 

17. quidam, in a certain sense; join with the adjectives. 
For the sense, see on x, 1, 7, 

18. gentis, of their nationality ; that is, Asiatic Greek, 
auctoris, of their teacher. 

1 9. Aeschines. Having been defeated in the contest with 
Demosthenes {de corona) Aeschines retired to Asia Minor, and 
finally to Rhodes, where he established a school of oratory 
which gave rise to the Rhodian characteristic style of which 
Quintilian here speaks. 

20-26. The diversities of the true Attic orators among themselves in 
regard to style, and their characteristic excellence as a genus. 

21. solos Atticos ; predicate after esse, significantis, 

expressive ; concentrating much fulness of meaning in single 
words, manum intra pallium ; an indication of calmness. 
hie is taken by Buttmann adverbially, here; in this case; but 
the sentence is more naturally translated who shall he (or, he 
taken as) this (typical) Attic 9 Lysias. See x, 1, 78, and note. 
hunc — modum, for (his) admirers hold to him as the measure 
of this term. Coccuin, Andocidem. Coccus is supposed to 
have been a pupil of Isocrates. Andocides was one of the 
"ten." See X, 1, 76, and note. These two were still more terse 
and severe than Lysias, and why shall we not, therefore, if his 
style is the typical Attic, be sent or referred (remit temtir) at last 
to them as still more perfect, or at least extreme, in the same 
kind ? They are all examples of the genus tenue. 

22. Similius, sc. Lysiae. Hyperides. See x, 1, 77. vo- 
luptati, sweetness, agreeahleness. Lycurgum ; a pupil of 
Plato and Isocrates. Aristogitona ; a demagogue, who was 
an adversary of Demosthenes. He is probably mentioned in 
this respectable company as an example of what " Attic " 
oratory could be in the way of impudence and coarseness. 
Isaeum, Antiphonta. Their historical order is reversed. 
Antiphon was the earliest of the " ten," and was in fact the 
founder of genuine public oratory for practical purposes. He 
disapproved of the study of eloquence after the school of Gorgias 

276 NOTES. XII, 10, 23-26. 

and the other sophists whose aim was the exhibition of ingenuity 
in speech. Among his pupils was Thucydides. Isaeus was a 
pupil of Lysias and Isocrates, and is said to have been a teacher 
of Demosthenes, ut homines, etc. You may call these orators 
alike in kind (all Attic), but different in special characteristics 
{specie), just as you classify men. 

23. compositione, in phraseology or structure ; the ar- 
rangement of words, verbal order, locis, in passages ; in 
proper places, or on proper occasions ; not here in the technical, 
01 rhetorical sense of loci communes, moral sentiments of gen- 
eral application ; for outbursts of lofty eloquence in Demos- 
thenes are by no means confined to these, translationibus, 
in metaphors, oratione ficta, in imaginary speech; an imper- 
sonating in his speech of the dead or absent. The full expression 
is ficta personarum oratione. See iii, 8, 54, vi, 1, 25, ix, 2, 30. 

24. vatibus comparandum. Comp. x, 1, 81. Periclea; 
sc. appellabimus. fulminibus, fragori ; the allusion is to the 
words of Aristophanes in the Acharnians, 530, sq. : ivrevd^v bpyo 
nepiK\€r]s ouKvfnrios riarpaiTT^v, ifipdura, ^veKvKa r^u *E\A.aSo. See 
also ii. 16, 29. 

25. ibi demum = in iis demum, there, in them only ; that 
is, in the plain, terse, or Lysian school of Attic, quos refers 
to the subject of putent and dicant ; the self-styled Attics. 
hanc — fidem, this exact return of that soil ; yielding no more 
than it receives. What Menander mockingly says {eludif) of 
the land belonging to one poor Attic husbandman, Quintilian 
chooses to apply to the whole territory. The passage has been 
preserved in the extracts of Stobaeus, Serm., chapter Iv. 

26. tamen has reference to the concession implied in sum- 
mus (quidem) orator, quae. Supply for the antecedent alias 
virtutes. lege civitatis. See x, 1, 107, and note, numeris 
— aptius, shall have been uttered {come forth from the mouth) 
more fitly in respect to rhythm ; expressed in a more fitting verbal 
arrangement or " composition." See above on § 23. nomine ; 
sc. Attici. 

27-34. The Greek language has an advantage over the Latin, espe- 
cially on account of the greater number of euphonious letters in its 
alphabet, the greater variety in its system of accentuation, and the rich- 
ness of its vocabulary. 

NOTES. XII, 10, 37-30. 2Y7 

27. opinione ; namely, that there is but one variety or form 
{species) of Attic eloquence, ceteris — artibus ; that is, what- 
ever attainments or processes in speech-making do not involve 
the form of expression, rationem eloquendi, mode of ex- 
pression; rhetorical form, vocalem alteram; the Greek 
upsilon, T, represented by the Latin y, as in cymha, was prob- 
ably the same in sound as the French u or the German u. 
consonantem ; (p. 

28. quae, etc., which (letters), if they he written (or repre- 
sented) by our letters (/ and w), will produce a sort of dull and 
barbarous sound. The soft Greek letters transformed into these 
two Latin letters, will be supplanted, as it were (velut), by dis- 
mal and rough soundiiig ones. That is, we should have " efuris " 
and " zefuris " for " ephyris " and •' zephyris." Ephyri is per- 
haps the name of a people. 

29. sexta ; f . discrimina dentium, the narrow passage- 
way of the teeth, implies that the Greek <p (= ph) retained in its 
Greek pronunciation much more of the sound of p, the soft 
labial quality, than the Latin /, which is a more windy letter, 
and brings the teeth into play as well as the lips, proxima 
(coming), next (before), accipit, takes to itself or, is united 
with, aliquam consonantium frangit. Thus the consonant 
r breaks the force of / in frangit ; interrupts the wind, aeoli- 
cae litterae. The sound of the Greek digamma, which, Quin- 
tilian says, corresponds to that of the Latin v in cervum and 
servum, can not be determined with absolute certainty ; though 
probably it was a softened w. Shortly before the time of Quin- 
tilian the emperor Claudius introduced into the alphabet an 
inverted F (5") to represent this sound of the Latin v, but it was 
soon laid aside. See i, 7, 26; Tacit. A. 11, 14. nos persequi- 
tur, abides with us ; that is, in our speech. 

30. ilia (littera). The letter g, which is here intended, 
would be supervacua, inasmuch as it has the same sound as c, 
unless it were useful, and that solely {demum) for the purpose 
of uniting vowels immediately following it {subiectas sibi) ; that 
is, in those combinations in which u after q coalesces with an- 
other vowel ; for the substitution of c for q in such combina- 
tions, as, for instance, in aquae, quo, or qualis, would require 
the two vowels to be pr>,nounced separately, ipsae ; even 

278 NOTES. XII, 10, 31-34. 

without the q preceding, hae vocales duae. The two vowels 
thus combined after q may be either ua, ue, ui, uo, or uu. 

31. ny; or nii, the name of the Greek letter v, used here 
for the letter itself, in clausulis, at the ends (of words). 

32. innituntur, terminate in ; " lean," as it were, or fall 
forward upon, sed et — subiciendo, hut moreover by annexing 
s, (though) itself also an unmusical (letter), to the letter h in the 
preposition {ah). So d of the preposition ad, was generally 
omitted in certain compounds ; as in asto and aspicio. 

33. similitudine, monotony ; want of the pleasing variety 
of the Greek system of accentuation, acuta, flexa, as acuted, 
as circumflexed ; in the nominative agreeing with syllaha. 
These adjectives in the feminine may have been used with an 
ellipsis of vocalis or else of irpoffwUa (accent), as suggested by Cap- 
peronier in his note on i, 5, 23, or of vox, which Cicero uses for 
r6vos or accent in Orat. 18 ; and so they may be taken here, with 
some, in the ablative {acuta irpoawUa, etc.) ; but such an ellipsis 
lacks authority. However, with excitatur and circumducitur 
we may translate : the final syllahle is never raised with the 
acute accent nor lengthened out with the circumflex. The accent 
is a tone or pitch of sound, high or low, not mere stress of voice. 
gravem; supply syllaham. Verhum or vox, the subject of 
cadit, was left out, Buttmann suggests, either by the negligence 
of the author or of the copyists, duas graves. The word 
ends in two falling syllables or tones, when the acute is on the 
antepenult, nominibus, terms, words ; referring especially to 
nouns and adjectives. 

34. his refers to Latin, ilia to Greek words, carent ap- 
pellationibus ; that is, in the Latin language, transferre, 
to express metaphorically, circumire, to employ circumlocu- 
tion; to convey their meaning by circumlocution, etiam in 
iig — revolvit. Even in regard to objects which are actually 
named, or for which we actually have names {denominata sunt), 
our lack of variety or richness of synonyms {paupertas) con- 
tinually brings us back to the same words again, linguarum 
copia, a rich variety of dialects ; dialectic idioms. 

.35-39. This disadvantage of the Latin language must be compensated 
in Roman eloquence by ingenuity and power of thought, and by rhetori- 
cal ornament. 

NOTES. XII, 10, 35-39. 279 

35. gratiam sermonis Attici. Comp. x, 1, 65 and 100. 
rerum nimiam tenuitatem, extreme simplicity of matter, 
nimiam, excessive, seems to have reference to the following 
comparatives. The matter may possess a degree of simplicity 
or delicacy incompatible with too fulsome {pinguiorihus), or with 
too powerful (fortioribus) terms or rhetorical figures, virtus 
utraque ; both simplicity of matter and fitness of diction, 
confusione, hy the (forced) combination. 

36. sensus, ideas, conceptions, graciles = tenues, plain. 
subtilitate. in refinement, in finish, or in terseness ; kindred 
to tenues. proprietas, liter^ahiess, exactness, certior, more 
assured; more easily commanded, copia, in (rhetorical) ful- 
ness ; not here richness of terms. Copia dicendi, not copia 

37. ingenia Graecoruni, etc. Even those of the Greek 
writers w^ho are of an inferior order find their harbors; find 
ports for the disposal of their goods ; or, without a figure, find 
interested and approving hearers and readers, and that on ac- 
count of the simple grace of style which is inseparable from 
their language, nam — inveniam. For we must sometimes 
imitate the plainness and simplicity of the Greeks ; but even 
then the different nature of our language compels us to keep 
away somewhat from the vada, or very plainest style, and to 
seek aliquid altius, some deeper water for our craft than the 
shallows in which, if need be, the Grecian writer can safely 
sail, sidat, ground, touch bottom. 

38. non contendimus. See x, 1, 100. pars haec, this 
element; this simple style, exigenda, must be worked out, 
cultivated, modo et iudicio, in measure and choice; in the 
due prominence given to each topic or idea in the discourse, 
and in the exercise of judgment in the selection out of the many 
things possible to be said on every subject those which will be 
most pertinent to the occasion, modus as in x, 1, 76. ex- 
trinsecus ; from ivithout. As within the Latin words them- 
selves {in ipsis) we lack attractiveness, we must compensate the 
deficiency by rhetorical ornament, and by graces of delivery 
also, condienda est ; not here, must be seasoned, but must be 
imparted by seasoning. 

39. in privatis ; supply causis. In private or personal 

280 NOTES. XII, 10, 40-46. 

lawsuits simplicity and brevity are to be expected, acutus ; of 
style; pointed, direct, terse; as in x, 1, 77, and as acumefi in x, 
1, 106, 114, and in xii, 10, 59. See note on x, 1, 77. indistinc- 
tus, unadorned ; not set out with ornament, cui, etc. " Who 
can fail to be satisfied with the example afforded by such Roman 
orators as these, possessing an Attic simplicity that can not be 
surpassed ? " qui has been substituted in some editions for cwi, 
but without advantage to the sense. 

46-48. The error of insisting exclusively upon plain speech and re- 
pudiating all ornamental or rhetorical eloquence. 

40. fictum, rendered artificial. 

41. lege ciborum. Comp. x, 5, 15. esse; sc. putant. 

42. extitisse ; sc. oratores. etiam — ducentis, though more 
cautiously, yet on the same principle (as the poets), regarding as 
excellencies terms which are artiflcial (falsa) and figurative 
{impropria). recedendum ; sc. oratorihus. 

43. in loco compositionis. Prose rhythm is the topic of 
ix, 4, 3, sqq. quibus — est, than which nothing less is possible ; 
that is, nothing less can convey the thought, melius ; better, 
more interesting ; more ornamental in form of expression ; some 
improvement on literal speech, liac calumnia; namely, the 
stricture expressed in quidquid hue sit adiectum, etc., in § 40. 
species, forms, states of feeling. 

44. lacertos ; by synecdoche, as in x, 1, 33, for sinews, or 
muscles, servant — discrimina, keep their differences of char- 
acter ; preserve their personal characteristics in speech. 

45. effectius, more elaborate ; more artificial, non solum 
(woTi)— sed ne— quidem. See H. 553, 2 ; Z. 724, b ; M. 461, b. 
utilitati, to the advantage of his case, or of his client. Comp. 
§ 72. cum diceret, etc. ; rather negligently written for cum, 
ut ipse dicebat, suam rem ageret ; ageret autem, etc. ; " when, as 
he himself used to say, he was advancing indeed his own in- 
terest (as an orator), but (at the same time) he was advancing 
most of all that of his client." 

46. cuius voluptates, whose agreeable qualities, charms, 
or beauties of style. Comp. § 50. nisi ut sensus. See Intro- 
duction, page 14. neque enim — potest, and, indeed, this is 
possible, dicendi auctoritate, the impressiveness or dignity 

NOTES. XII, 10, 47-52. 281 

of the speech, lumina = sensus, brilliant ideas, or passages. 
invicem. If they occur too frequently they neutralize each 
other, ending in the fault of " uniform brilliancy." 

47. non in gradus. The more foppish orators tricked 
themselves out after the extreme of fashion. The hair was 
arranged in tiers of rolls and ringlets. The follies of dress are 
described in Tacit. Dial. 26. cum eo quod, besides this. See 
on X, 7, 13. speciosiora, more attractive, beautiful, hones- 
tiora, more decorous, tasteful, comely. 

48. sententias ; equivalent to sensus in § 46. 

49-57. A difference between spoken and written discourse sometimes, 
though by no means always necessary. 

49. excitatiora lumina, more brilliant ornaments, com- 
ponendis orationibus, as the antithesis to dicere. refers to 
written speeches, ideo ; because they thought that their 
speeches as actually spoken would be unsuitable for future 
times {posteritati), and for permanent literature (mansuris mox 
litteris), unless so modified when written that their genuineness 
would be lost, mox, here in the sense oipostea. 

50. voluptates. See on § 46, at quod — edatur, but that 
which, co?isigned, or committed to books, is published as a model ; 
an exemplar of finished oratory. 

51. subtiles ; not here of the style, as in x, 1, 78, but of the 
judgment, as in i, 4, 25, acute, discriminating, critical, ut — 
persuaserunt {id esse), for ut sibimet ac multis videntur. The 
reading is conjectural. TrapaSci'yfia, the example, as a technical 
term, means the induction from examples; rhetorical induc- 
tion ; argument based upon analogous facts. See v, 11, 1, sqq. 
eV^u/irj/ia, the rhetorical syllogism, reasoning from probabilities, 
is better fitted for discourse to be read, tradiderunt ; for do- 
cuerunt. monumentum, the record ; written record, permanent 
form, or copy, debet ; the subject is or alio scripta. 

52. consilium, a body or a court. The word is used by 
Quintilian indifferently in the sense of counsel and council. 
strictior. See x, 1, 106. apud talis, in the presence of 
judges of this character. Comp. iv, 1, 73. The authority is 
Aristot. Rhet. iii, 14, 8 : Aft Se /t7j Xavdav^iv, '6ti — t^ roiavra irphs 
<pav\ov Q.Kpoar-i\v • eVci Uv /xtj TQiQVTQs ^, oi/^ey §f? irpooifiiov. See also 

282 NOTES. XII, 10, 53-59. 

on X, 1, 107. proprie et significanter, in literal and direct 

53. cum, v)hen, whenever, in a hypothetical or conditional 
sense, occasionally takes the subjunctive instead of the indica- 
tive. See vii, 4, 44, ix, 3, 68, x, 7, 7. laturi sint sententiam, 
are to cast their votes, render their verdict ; that i.<, by putting 
their votes into the urn. eaque, aiid these (same arts, too), et 
cum dicimus — oporteat. The same rhetorical arts are to be 
displayed in writing which are to be exhibited in speaking, in 
order that the written speech may serve as a faithful exemplar 
of the actual plea, or forensic speech. 

54. egisset, egerunt, and aget, below, are used in the 
sense of dicere, to speak, make a plea, speech, or argument. 
dici, scribi, their speaking, their ivriting. 

55. secundum, naturam iudicantium. If the character 
of the judges (or jury) is such that the advocate is obliged to 
introduce some things in bad taste, these blemishes must be left 
out of the published speech (editio) lest they should seem to 
have belonged to the purpose (propositi) of the orator rather 
than to the necessities of the occasion (temporis). 

56. quomodo — velit. It is very important for the advo- 
cate to observe what spirit or disposition the judge shows in 
listening; whether interest, pleasure, indifference, weariness, or 
aversion, ut Cicero praecipit. The passage is not .to be 
found in any extant work, sermo ipse, the language itself or 
style of the speech, as distinguished from the substance, test- 
ium personis ; by the characters of witnesses ; on account of 
their individual characteristics. 

57. Amphionem. The rustic pronunciation, of course, 
was " Ampion." The name was in common use among the 
slaves and freedmen. 

58-65. Another classification of oratory as the simple, the grand, and 
the intermediate ; and the appropriate use of these three kinds. 

58. et ipsa. This division is also threefold as well as that 

given in §§ 16, 18, which classifies oratory as Attic, Asian, and 
Rhodian. iax"^^^ ^^^ thin, plain ; tenue, subtile. aSpSu. the 
large, grand, amplum. wdr)p6v, the floivery, polished, beautiful. 

59. quorum — est. Cic. de Orat. 2, 29, gives their charac- 

NOTES. XII, 10, 61-65. 283 

teristics, putting the ave-npSv first : harum trium partium prima 
lenitatem oraiionis, secunda acumen, teriia vim desiderat. gi,cxL- 
mQH, pej'spicuity ; directness, point ; a quality of style as in x, 
1, 114, and in the above quoted passage from Cic. de Orat. 
detractis ceteris virtutibus, in the absence of the other ex- 
cellencies of style ; those, namely, which are characteristic of 
the grande and the floridum. suo genere plenum, is complete 
in its oivn kind, or, in itself. 

61. ille; sc. modus, pontem indignetur; Aen. 8, 728. 
ripas; that is, new banks, multus et torrens, swollen and 
impetuous, iudicem feret; comp. x, 1, 110. hie orator, etc. 
Such an advocate will not only invoke the dead, as in the in- 
stance of Appius the Blind, but in his impassioned eloquence he 
will bring the country itself into his presence, uttering her 
entreaties, and sometimes appealing to him as she does to 
Cicero, etc. ut Appium Caecum. In the plea pro Caelio, 14. 
Cicero represents the shade of Appius addressing Claudia, pa- 
tria exclamabit, etc. See Orat. in Catil. 1, 7 and 11. 

62. quae Charybdis. Cic. Phil. 2, 27. in congressum 
sermonemque, to conference and counsel; into participation, 
as it were, with the orator in his discourse, vos enim, etc. 
Cic. pro Mil. 31. hoc dicente — flebit. This is the emen- 
dation of Madvig for the old reading : te vidit et appellavit et 
flevit. nee doceri desiderabit, nor will he need to be in- 
structed ; that is, as to any details of fact. Without these his 
mind will be shaped to the purpose of the orator by the appeal 
to his sympathies alone. 

64. non deerrare verbis, not missing the point, 7iot erring 
in words; the translation of Homer's ov^ a(f>afjLapTO€ir-ns, in the 
description of the speaking of Menelaus, II, 3, 213, sqq. dul- 
ciorem — sermonem. Hom. II. 1, 249 : airh yKd^a-a-ris fieMros 
y\vKlwu phv avH. in XJlixe, etc. Hom. II. 3, 221-223 : ak\' ore 
5^ p. oira T6 iJ.eyd\r}i^ eK crrTj^eos 'iei Koi cTrea vtcpaZ^ffffiv ioiKSra 
\iilxcpiri(Xiv. OvK 6.V eiretr' 'OSutr^t 7' epi(r<T€i€y fipoThs aWos. 

65. cum hoc — contendet. II. 3, 223, quoted in note on § 
64, is here translated freely to suit the purpose of Quintilian. 
hunc — intuebuntur. " Such an one in speech (rivaled by no 
mortal), men will look up to as a god." The words are printed 
in most editions as a remark of the author ; but by Bonnell and 

284 NOTES. XII, 10, 66-69. 

Halm in the form of quotation, as if intended to express more 
fully what is implied in the line of Homer, miratur Eupolis. 
See on x, 1, 82. fulminibus Aristophanes comparat. See 
on § 24. 

66-68. An indefinite number of varieties of style intermediate between 
the simple (gracile, tenue) and the grand (validum, amplum) and the 
florid (Jloridum, tertium), compounded of the three principal styles and 
of each other. 

66. gracile, validum, tertium. See g 58. intervalla, 

intermediate places ; degrees, varieties, liaec ipsa, these (spe- 
cific varieties) themselves, or ei'e^i these, mixtum ex duobus, 
compounded of (any) two. For the form comp. x, 1, 54. eorum, 
referring to duobus, limits medium. The construction of me- 
dius with the genitive is found in v, 10, 125, and examples are 
given in the lexicons from Caesar and the poets. 

67. illud lene; the avBripov, medium, tertium. cum in- 
terim : for cum tamen. See on x, 1, 18. 

68. quinque constituerunt sonos, etc. The Greek sys- 
tem of tones embraced two octaves ; as, for example, from C to 
57 The five sounds specified here are the extremes of these two 
octaves, C, c, c, and their intervening fourths (f, f). Conse- 
quently each octave consists of two large intervals, a fourth and 
a fifth, from C to f and f to c in the first octave, and from c to 
f and r to c in the second. These large intervals are meant by 
the words spatia ilia nervorum. The octaves are completed 
by the introduction of the other " sounds," or tones and semi- 
tones of the diatonic scale ; and thus is produced manifold 
variety (plurima varietas), not so much in the absolute number 
of the tones of these two octaves, as in the infinite number of 
melodic combinations of which they are susceptible. But be- 
tween these (his) diatonic tones which they have thus added to 
the five primal ones, musicians introduce (inserunt) also the 
chromatic and enharmonic lesser divisions of the tone, so that 
those few primal intervals [fransitus, spatia), only four in num- 
ber, include many degrees or gradations of sound. 

69-72. Every variety of style in oratory has its place and use. 

69. atque id ipsum — vocant, and (since) moreover even 

NOTES. XII, 10, 70-75. 285 

that which they commonly call a kind (class, style, school) of 
speaking, does not pertain to a true orator. He must not be 
thus limited as to his manner of speech. The reading non for 
the more usual omne, has the best MS. authority, -pro, fitted 
for, adapted to, in keeping with. 

70. de interdictis, about interdicts. An interdict is a 
decision of the praetor terminating a dispute between private 
parties directly and by his own authority, auctoritas fi7iiendis 
controversiis, without employing indices or jurors. Of course, 
he first listened to the litigants or their advocates, sponsioni- 
bus, guarantees. The sponsio was a kind of legal " wager " 
made by each of the parties in a civil suit, to be forfeited by 
the one defeated, certa credita, sc. pecunia, a loan, multa 
mutabit, he ivill make many modifications; he will vary his 
style much, ex isdem haustibus, from the same sources; 
from the same resources of eloquence. The authorities are 
divided mostly between the readings haustibus and partibus. 
The former is preferred by Bonnell and Halm, and has some 
countenance in the kindred sense of the word in xii, 2, 31. 

72. potenter, u'ith power. 

73-76. The glitter of false eloquence. 

73. vitiosum et corruptum, etc., comp. x. 2, 16. las- 
civit. See on lascivus, x, 1, 88. casuris, si excutiantur, 
that will fall of if shaken; that will prove to be without sense 
if but slightly criticised, praecipitia, stilted, high-flown, 
strained; the quality expressed in x, 1, 66, by grandiloquus 
usque ad vitium. The metaphor is drawn from the steep bluff 
as compared with the lofty (sublimis) mountain, specie liber- 
tatis insanit. Comp, 9, 13. 

74. aliunde, frojn any other cause, aggerem, sc. viae, the 
highway. Juvenal, vi, 588: plebeium in circo positum est et in 
aggere fatum. Hor. Sat. 1, 8, 15. circuli, gatherings, crowds. 
The allusion is to the groups of people listening to some fortune- 
teller, or mountebank in a public square or road, agentiiim, 
advocates, pleaders. 

75. exquisitius ; somewhat better (than common speech). 
illud refers to the exquisitius, quaJecumque id est. ut lana, 
etc. ; from some poem of Ovid no longer extant, fuco citra 

286 NOTES. XII, 10, 76-80. 

purpuras, with red unmixed with purple; some red dye less 
costly and beautiful than purple ; that is, home-made red. 

76. fucinis, red-dyed things; things stained with fucus. 
igniculi, sparks of fire ; predicate nominative after videntur. 

77-80. The true orator will attain to the power of doing perfectly 
(optime) all that has thus been described, and of doing it with entire 
facility ifacillime) ; and the severe toil by which this perfection must be 
reached, can at last be remitted, though not the constant exercise of 
his art. 

77. neque — intabescentem. Comp. x, 3, 11 ; 4, 3 ; 7, 14. 
verba vertentem, recasting his words ; doing throughout his 
professional life what should have ceased after the proper 
amount of this sort of work in his school-days. See x, 3, 5: 
versentur omni modo numeri, etc. 

79. lenius supina, moi^e gently sloping (places) ; more gen- 
tle slopes; those of the mollior clivus. cotidie nisi decer- 
pantur. See x, 7, 24, sqq. sed et copia, etc. In the full 
possession of all the resources of eloquence, the orator may be 
led into the ambitious display of his power. 

80. sic erunt — tumida. Comp. x, 2. 16. We may use for 
the indefinite subject edita or scripta ; productions, abrupta ; 
the synonym of praecipitia in § 73. fortia, temeraria ; as in 
x, 2, 16, and ii, 12, 4. laeta ; see on x, 1, 46. in ceteris ratio, 
the analogy in all the other qualities of style ; that is, the rela- 
tion of the good and genuine to their counterfeit or caricature. 
per medium via ; that is, via inter duas media, utriusque 
(viae) ultimum; that is, utraque via circa mediam ultima, or 
via ah utraque viae mediae parte. Translate : the extreme on 
either side. 

NOTES. XII, 11, 1-4. 287 



1-4. The orator should give up pubhc speaking before his powers 
decline, and thus save himself from being contrasted in his decay with 
his former self (se priorem), and from compromising his former renown. 

1. consiliis, in councils; in a general sense, deliberative 
assemblies of any kind, contionibus, in popular assemblies. 
non quia sit. See on x, 7, 31. 

2. scientia. It is not in knowledge and intelligence that 
the aged orator is in danger of failing, but in accomplishments 
that depend upon his physical condition ; and this by the com- 
mon law of Nature decays with age. quaerat, seek (in vain) ; 
as in 1, 21. 

3. Domitium Afrum. See Introduction, page 11, x, 1, 
118. meruerat. See on 9, 8. quod — videatur. So in ii, 
16, 1 : et, quod sit indignissimum, in accusationem orationis 
utuntur orandi viribus. The relative may be explained as equiv- 
alent to res eiusmodi quae, alii erubescerent. These were 
his friends and admirers, dicendi is followed in one of the 
MSS. by illo, from which Halm conjectures de illo ; but the 
sense remains the same : the persistence of the old orator in 
keeping himself before the public led to the remark that he pre- 
ferred rather to fail than to give up speaking. 

4. ilia refers to these speeches of his declining years. Of 
whatever merit {qualiacumque) they were, they were not bad 
{mala) in themselves, but only inferior {minora) to his forme! 
efforts. This is the more obvious interpretation, though Spald- 
ing refers ilia to the evil consequences of Afer's imprudence, 
the ridicule of some, and the mortification of his old friends. 
receptui canet, will give the signal for, will sound a retreat. 

4-7. Fruits of learning (studiorum fructus) will attend him in his re- 
tirement no less than those he has brought forth in his public Ufe ; for he 
will now produce important writings, or interpret the laws (iura reddet), 
or discourse on maxims of morality (vitae praeceptis), or direct the youth 
resorting to his home to the pathway of true eloquence {vere dicendi 
viam), and he will probably find this, after all, the happiest period of 
his life. 

288 NOTES. XII, 11, 5-8. . 

monumenta rerum, records of events, histories ; res as in 
X, 1, 95. in libris Ciceronis. De Orat. 1, 42, 190. But Quin- 
tilian forgets that Crassus in the passage referred to proposes to 
write a treatise (artem) on law, not to give counsel or instruction 
(iura quaerentibus reddere). praeceptis, maxims, lessons; as 
in X, 1, 52 ; join with dignum, not dabit, os dabit, will utter 

5. more veterum. See on x, 5, 19. Also Cic. de Senect. 
8, 9. flatibus: ablative of time, ratio, the "relation," the 
occasion or circumstances, is Spalding's emendation for the old 
reading rails, humanitatis oflB.cio, the duty of philanthropy ; 
humanitas, as mostly with Quintilian, in the sense of " the good 
will of man toward men." The difference between the Latin 
term in this sense and the Greek (f>t\av6pa}irla is that the former 
leaves the object, and the latter the subject of the feeling to be 

6. Caelium — Cicero profitetur. See Cic. pro Gael. 4. 
Pansam, Hirtium, Dolabellam. See Cic. Ep. ad Famil. 9, 
16, where, however, mention is made only of Hirtius and Dola- 
bella by name. In an anecdote introduced by our author in 
viii, 3, 54 (Spalding's text), Pansa appears in a similar relation 
to Cicero. 

7. nescio — fore ; grammatical order : nescio an oporteat 
fore eum credi. secretus et consecratus ; closely connected 
in sense; set apart and sanctified ; wo longer in contact with 
the profane strifes and ambitions of the forum, but devoted to 
the sacred pursuits of learning and instruction ; sacra littera- 
rum colentis (x, 1, 92), 


8-9. Though the author to the best of his modest ability {quantum 
mediocritate valuit) has now embodied in this treatise all the knowledge 
of the subject acquired in his professional life and all that he has been 
able to learn by investigation {inquirere) in the progress of the work, he 
fears that even those who accept all that he has laid down as essential 
conditions of perfect oratory, will be deterred from undertaking a task 
seemingly so formidable. 

8. que — que = e^ — et; as in ii, 5, 7, et al. inquirere, in- 
vestigate, ascertain. 

NOTES. XII, 11, 9-13. 289 

9. multa. Supply nimium. praeter ea, quae de elo- 
quentia tradebantur. That is, besides the teaching of those 
rhetorical principles which form the specific and proper subject 
of my treatise, tradebantur, in the sense of teaching, as in x, 
1, 15, and below, in § 14. velut— perhorrescant, lest they 
should shrink, as from a tedious delay (waste of time) in the 
work, rei, here, is the whole work of preparation prescribed by 
Quintilian, and as a genitive denotes the cause of moram ; like 
scribendi in x, 3, 6, and stili in x, 7, 14. 

10-13. But let them consider (renuntient sibi) what the human mind 
has achieved in other sciences, as, for example, in navigation, astronomy, 
and geometry ; and then, think of the greatness of oratory and its high 
reward ; the ease with which a student with resolute will can acquire the 
principles of virtue, and the readiness with which all the other required 
accomplishments {cetera) can be attained by one who has begun his work 
with this moral f oimdation. 

10. mundum dimetiri denotes the science of geometry, 
i, 10. 46 : se eadem geometria tollit ad rationem usque mundi. 
artes ; subject of potuerint. 

11. quod relates to the two preceding injunctions : renunti- 
ent sibi and cogitent. huic parti accedent, they will agree to 
this {toWowing) proposition, ut; explanatory of j^ar^^■ ; namely 
that, saltern. See on x, 2, 15. artis, principles of philosophy ; 
ethical systems. 

12. intentione, earnest study ; close application, insti- 
tutio vitae honestae beataeque, the discipline of an honor- 
able and happy life ; the moral training that secures a perfect 
life, meliora ; of moral virtues ; not as in x, 1, 131. 

13. sicca; neut. pi. substantively, terrenis; sc. animali- 
bus. circumfusus nobis spiritus = aer. cetera, as opposed 
to the institutio vitae honestae beataeque, or moral discipline 
just mentioned, embraces all the other attainments demanded 
by Quintilian in the present treatise, etiamsi — modus. Even 
if we limit the labor of this preparation to the period of youth, 
and do not extend it into that of old age, system and method 
will make that period amply sufficient. 

14-20. The chief impediment to the proposed work is the misspend- 
ing of time, partly through the mercenary motives or the ambition or 
the Incompetency of teachers, leading them to detain pupils under their 

290 NOTES. XII, 11, 14-ia 

instruction for an unnecessary length of time, partly through our own 
fault, as students of oratory, in resting content with what we have 
learned, or keeping up too long the study of fictitious declamation, in- 
stead of passing on to real questions in actual practice ; then, again, we 
waste a large part of life, that might be given to study, in the corrupting 
and frivolous pursuits of the world. 

14. nobis; students of oratory; aspirants to the fame of 

15. ut de his — taceam seems to refer to such teachers and 
orators as Porcius Latro, mentioned in x, 5, 18. in rebus 
falsis ; inanihus simulacris. Comp. x, 5, 17. 

16. dicendi exercitatio. The practice of speaking may 
be not only of the kind {specie) cultivated in the school of 
rhetoric, but that which the author in x, 7, 24, sqq. recommends 
the orator to keep up through his professional life, dum 
scholastici sumus. See 6, 6, and x, 5, 19. discendi ; here 
of learning or studying in the schools, in emphatic contrast with 
cognoscere, perdiscere, experiri, the practical learning spoken of 
in the foregoing sentence, ratio, the nature, habui men- 
tionem ; in § 10. adeo ; so true is it that, spatio ac tradi- 
tione, hendiadys for spatio tradendi. reliqua est — exerci- 
tatio. After the acquisition of the learning of the schools, 
which demands this comparatively brief period of time, the 
kind of exercise that remains for the orator is of that practical 
nature which speedily develops his powers, and also maintains 
them in their vigor, vires facit ; as in x, 3, 3. 

17. et — petuntur. Bonnell, contrary to the earlier edi- 
tions, has made this sentence interrogative. The context seems 
to require that it should be answered negatively. Though the 
multitude of books keeps pace with the increase of human 
knowledge, after all, the reading of a limited number will fur- 
nish the orator with ample illustrations of facts and of oratory, 
and also abundant instruction in philosophy and law. quoque ; 
also, as well as historians and orators, nee, and yet not ; as in 
viii, 6, 74. sed breve, etc. This comment on the perverse em- 
ployment of time is a brief epitome of the reflections of Seneca 
on the same topic in the essay " de Brevitate Vitae," 1, 3, sqq. 

18. salutandi labor, the task of salutation ; of morning 
calls to attend the receptions of the nobility, fabulis ; here, 

NOTES. XII, 11, 19-2L 291 

not dramatic performances, but stories or fictions, whether in 
the form of plays or of narrative^, for reading ; as Cicero de 
Finibus, 5, 19 : fictas fabulas, e quibus utilitas nulla duci 
potest, cum voluptate legimus, spectacula includes theatrical 
and all other public shows, rura ; country seats. The excess- 
ive outlay of time and labor in rendering country villas and 
their surroundings luxurious and beautiful, Quintilian thinks, 
is reprehensible, calculorum soUicitudinem, concern about 
recJcormigs ; worriineiit about financial affairs, ne — super- 
sunt. Even the spaces of time remaining from that which is 
squandered upon all these cares and follies, are unavailable (ne 
quidem idonea), unfitted by the condition of the mind thus en- 
gendered to do any effective labor. 

19. quae omnia ; not tempora quae supersunt, but all the 
misused time above described, ut ; concessive ; even though 
the nights should afford us no help, bona pars — longior est, 
A large portion of the night outlasts all needed sleep ; extends 
beyond all the time required by nature for sleep, nunc com- 
putamus. Seneca de Tranquil. 3, 7 : saepe grandis natu senex 
nullum aliud habet argumenttim, quo se probet diu vixisse, 
praeter aetatem. 

20. quasdam. See on x, 1, 7. ad plura discenda, for 
learning several things, or arts, haec, these particular sciences 
{artes singulae) to which alone they devoted themselves, sed 
ea sola — fuerunt. But those single studies pursued exclu- 
sively {sola) as they were, these great men were satisfied to have 
acquired once for all, not thinking it necessary to give the whole 
of life to the mere learning of them. 

21-24. The examples of many great men show how much can be 
achieved by a life wisely employed. 

21. in quo — reperiuntur. In the Homeric poems is mani- 
fested the knowledge of all human arts, either in the elaborate 
and complete description of their processes and productions 
{opera perfecta), or in allusions and terms showing distinctly 
{non dubia vestigia) the author's acquaintance with them. Hip- 
piam. Hippias of Elis, whose name is used as the title of two 
dialogues of Plato, the " Hippias Major " and " Hippias Minor," 
was a sophist, and contemporary with Socrates. The universal 

292 NOTES. XII, 11, 22, 

knowledge which he professed {prae se tulit) was as superficial 
as general, ita se praeparavit, he so trained himself. Quin- 
tilian seems to have in mind the passage in Cic. de Orat. 3, 32 : 
Eleus Hippias, cum Olympiam venisset, maxima ilia quinguen- 
nali celehritate ludorum, gloriatus est, cuncta paene audiente 
Oraecia, nihil esse idla in arte rerum omnium, quod ipse nesci- 
ret, sqq. inlusisse — iubebat. This is to be taken as the 
independent statement of the sentence. " To say nothing of 
Homer, whose vast erudition is matter of inference, and of 
Hippias, whose claim to universal knowledge rests upon his 
own boastful assertions, we have the voice of all Greece bearing 
testimony to the wonderful attainments of Gorgias." For the 
construction inlusisse Oorgiam Graeciae credimus, see x, 1, 115. 
Gorgiam. Gorgias, of Leontini in Sicily, an illustrious sophist 
and orator, born in the early part of the fifth century b. c, lived 
to be more than a hundred years old, preserving his vigor of 
mind and body to the end, and thus setting at naught all the 
ills that extreme old age is subject to {inlusisse tot malis, etc.). 
His views on philosophy and oratory are embodied in Plato's 
*' Gorgias." qui — quaerere. Cic. de Orat. 3, 32 : isque (Gor- 
gias) princeps ex omnibus ausus est in conventu poscere qua de 
re quisque vellet audire ; cut tantus honor habitus est a Graecia, 
soli ut ex omnibus Delphis, non inaurata statua, sed aurea 
statueretur. This invitation, of course, and the answers and 
discourses in reply to questions thus elicited, were proof to all 
Greece of the variety and genuineness of his learning. The 
passage does not very distinctly say what it seems to mean ; that 
Gorgias lived to extreme old age, always to the last acquiring, 
and always imparting knowledge ; as we are assured by the ac- 
counts of his readiness to discourse on all possible questions 
proposed to him in presence of all Greece assembled at the great 
national games. And thus Gorgias is a splendid example of 
what can be achieved in life by the proper use of time. 

22. quot saeculis, like quam multorum librorum in ^ 17, 
expects here a negative answer. Aristotle was employed for no 
long period, not centuries, but only a life-time, in attaining so 
much knowledge. See x, 1, 83. nobis cognoscenda, by us 
they are only to be learned (not discovered). We therefore are 
inexcusable if we sutler life to pass away without even greater 

NOTES. XII, 11, 23, 24. 293 

attainment than theirs, sorte nascendi ; that is, the fortunate 
time of our birth ; the providential allotment of our birth to 
this advanced period of civilization. 

23. igitur, therefore, proceeding with our examples, sum- 
mus imperator. Cato was rewarded with a triumph in b, c. 
394 for his great military successes in Spain, sapiens. Cic, 
de Amicitia, 2, 6 : fe {Laelium) sapientem et appellant et existi- 
mant. Tribuebatur hoc modo M. Gatoni ; scimus L. Atilium 
apud patres nostros appellatum esse sapientem ; sed Atilins quia 
prudens esse in iure civili putabatur, Cato quia mul! arum rerum 
usum habebat. orator. Cic. Brut. 17, 65 : refertae sunt ora- 
tiones (Catones) amplius centum quinquaginta {quas quidem 
adhuc invenerim et legerim) et verbis et rebus illustribus. his- 
toriae conditor. Cato wrote a historical work entitled the 
" Origines." iuris. He probably devoted one of the treatises 
in the form of letters intended for the education of his son to 
the subject of Roman law. See Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, 5, 
12. See also xii, 3, 9. rerum rustiearum peritissimus. The 
treatise " de Re Rustica " is the only work of Cato extant. 
Fragments only of the rest have been preserved, conten- 
tiones. '^ Accusator assiduus malorum Galbam octogenarius 
accusavit ; ipse quadragies quater accusatus, gJoriose absolutus." 
Aurel. Victor Vir. Illust. 47. litteras Graecas — didicit. Cic, 
Acad. 2, 2 : cum Graecas litteras M. Catonem in senectute didi- 
cisse acceperim. And in de Senect. 8, 26, Cato is represented as 
saying : quid qui {series) addiscunt aliquid 9 ut et Solonem 
versibus gloriantem videmus, qui se quotidie aliquid addiscentem 
dicit senem fieri, et ego feci, qui litteras Graecas senex didici. 

24. Varro. See x, 1, 95, and note. M. Tullio. See x, 1, 
107, 123 ; 5, 2, 16 ; xii, 2, 23 ; 3, 10 ; 10, 39. Cornelius Celsus, 
See on X, 1, 124. de his omnibus artibus refers to the artes 
liberates : dialectics, literary criticism, oratory, mathematics, 
astronomy, geometry, and music. 

25-31. Some may say that this perfection is very difficult, and hitherto 
unattained ; but let them remember that no law of Nature forbids it, nor 
is anything impossible simply because it has not yet been done ; all great 
things are the work of time, and the most perfect things had no prior ex- 
istence. Moreover, the aspiration to reach the highest, even if unsuccess- 
ful, may secure an honorable place near to it ; nor, if men had felt that 
ZM)thing was attainable better than the old, would great writers or orators 

294 NOTES. XIl, 11, 25-31. 

have existed at all ; and, finally, while eloquence brings its reward even 
in worldly emolument, yet not on this account, but because it is one of 
the noblest attributes of man, for its own sake should students of oratory 
strive to attain the highest excellence. 

25. at introduces an objection to which ante omnia — fuerai 
is the answer, sufficit, etc. The fact that Nature is capable 
of achieving this difficult work, and that whatever has not been 
done is not (therefore) impossible is enough to incite us to effort. 
capere, to admit, allow, or he capable of ; as in i, 11, 14: dum 
infirma aetas inaiora non capiet ; v, 7, 1 : reprehensionem non 
capit ipsa persona, id refers to perficere opus, cadere in rerum 
naturam, the reading of the old editions, is not so well authorized 
by the MSS. as capere id rerum naturam. 

26. nam poesis — accepit, for poetry reached its climax 
only in Homer and Vergil; that is, not before Homer among the 
Greeks, nor before Vergil among the Romans. The old editions 
read quantum — ah Homer o et Vergilio, tantum — a Demosfhene 
atque Cicerone, quis summa desperet. Comp. x, 2, 9. ut 
Cicero ait. Orat. 1, 4: prima enim sequentem honestum est in 
secundis tertiisque consistere. 

27. fuissent, fuerunt, sc. optimi. Vergilius, Cicero, 
illi; sc. optimus, optimi fuisset, fuissent. 

28. ut ; concessive, alioqui — fuisset ; more fully ex- 
pressed : " Moreover, art in its highest development would have 
rendered very poor service to mankind, if what was best had 
already been achieved; thus leaving no hope or incentive to 
genius for the future." 

29. erat difficile. See on x, 5, 7. qui a se— peti dicunt. 
These are the followers of Aristippus and Epicurus. Cic. de 
Off. 3, 33, 116: ah Aristippo Cyrenaici atque Annicerii philoso ■ 
phi nominati omne honum in voluptate posuerunt viy'tutemque 
censuerunt oh eam rem esse laudandam, quod efficiens esset vo- 
luptatis ; quihus obsoletis floret Epicurus eiusdem fere adiutor 
auctorque sententiae, 

31. bonam voluntatem, a good aim, ox purpose; a desire 
for what is best {optima) in eloquence. 


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Plato's Apology of Socrates and Crito, and 
a Part of the Phaedo 

Edited by Rev. C. L. KITCHEL, M.A. 

Instructor in Greek in Yale University 

Price, $1.25 

Fext Edition Price, 30 cents 

The Dialogues of Plato contained in this 
volume exhibit the moral qualities of Socrates in 
their highest manifestations, and also give some 
insight into those intellectual processes by virtue 
of which he made an epoch in philosophy. In 
addition to the Apology and Crito there has been 
included that part of the Phaedo which describes 
in detail the last sayings and doings of Socrates. 

The Introduction gives a clear and comprehen- 
sive outline of the life, character, and philosophy 
of Socrates. This historical sketch is followed by 
other aids to an understanding of Plato's dramatic 
representation of his great master and by a criti- 
cal analysis of the argument pursued in the 

The Appendix contains a brief account of the 
notable manuscripts and editions of Plato's works 
and some of the more important variations in the 
text of the Apology^ the Crito^ and the Phaedo^ 
together with the principal authorities for each 

Copies sent, prepaid, on receipt of the price. 

American Book Company 

New York ♦ Cincinnati ♦ Chicago 

(S. 295) 



Half Leather, 528 Pages. Price, $f.50 

Assistant in History^ De Witt Clinton High School^ New York City 

In Consultation with 


Professor of History., Harvard University 

HIS convenient manual presents the essentials in ancient 
history as a unit in a manner both comprehensible and 
interesting to first-year students in secondary schools. It is 
prepared on the plan recommended by the Committee of 
Seven, and at the same time meets every requirement of the 
Regents of the State of New York. It combines in one 
volume Greek and Roman history with that of the Eastern 
nations, and pays more attention to civilization than to mere 
constitutional development. 

The paragraph headings are given in the margins, thus 
making the text continuous and easy to read. At the end of 
each chapter are lists of topics for further research, bibli- 
ographies of parallel reading, and references to both ancient 
and modern authorities. A special feature is the giving of a 
brief list of selected books, not exceeding $25 in cost, and 
suitable for a school library. The numerous maps show only 
the places mentioned in the text, thus avoiding confusion from 
too much detail. The illustrations, although attractive, have 
been chosen primarily with the purpose of accurately explain^ 
ing the text. 


(S. 237) 

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