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TENT LIFE WITH 
ENGLISH GIPSIES IN NORWAY. 



5n> ■ • 



NOTICES OF THE PRESS ON THE FIRST EDITION. 



" WniTTEN in a very lively style, and has throughout a smack of dry 
humour and satiric reflection which shows the writer to be a keen observer of 
men and things . . . YTe hope that many will I'ead it, and find in it the same 
amusement as ourselves.** — Times, 

" If any of our readers think of scraping an acquaintance with Norway, let 
them read this book. . . . The engravings, from the hand of Mr. Eaward 
"Whymper, are excellent. . . . The gipsies, always an interesting study, 
become doubly interesting, when we are, as in these pages, introduced to 
them in their daily walk and conversation." — Examiner, 

"Mr. Smith is so frank with us that we cannot help liking him, and his 
perfect frankness, with his fondness for detailed description, gives an in- 
dividuality to tiie other members of his party which makes us follow their 
foitunes with a certain interest .... He seems blessed with a bright 
nature and easy temper, and a knack of making the veiy best of everything. 
. . . The sketches with which its pages are profusely illustrated are all life- 
like, and many of them extremely spirited." — Saturday Review, 

*' Abounds in curious and amusing anecdotes of the life, habits, and traits 
of character of the wandering Bohemians. ... In addition to these details, 
we have a few particulars of the Norwegians themselves, together with some 
striking descriptions of Nor^vegian scenery. . . . The book contains some 
very well executed engravings of Norwegian villages and landscapes." — Daily 
News, 

" The work is copiously illustrated, not merely in name but in fact, and 
there will be few who will not peruse it with pleasure." — Standard, 

** Much may be gathered from the volume as to the country traversed and 
its people. . . . The illustrations and route-map are excellent.*'— (?ra^Aic. 

** We have read the book with considerable interest, as very lively and 
amusing journals of travellers. . . . The sketches, which are by Mr. 
Whymper, are exceedingly charming, and serve greatly to enhance the value 
of the book.'* — Vanity Fair, 

" The wild scenery and wilder people to whom the reader is introduced, and 
the easy unafifected manner in wnicn the narrative is told, combine to make 
the book a thoroughly pleasant one." — Echo, 






,,,.-» •;»;.vx AND 
I U L 



CARL XV. 

KINO OF KORWAV AND BWEl 
OBUT 18 SEPT. 1872. 



J 



^ i ■ 



.\ » 



TENT LIFE 



WITH 



ENGLISH GIPSIES IN NORWAY. 



BY 



HUBERT SMITH, 

BKR OF TVS BiraLISH ALPIVI CLUB ; ROBSKB TURIST rORKSTHa ; 
▲H1> WmUbOW OF turn historical BOOIBtf or QEBAT BEITAIH. 



WITH 



FIVE PULL-rAOB ENGRAVINQ^ THIRTY-ONB SMALLER ILLUSTRA^ 
TIONS^ JLNJ> MAP OP TBS COUNTRY, SHOWING ROUTES, 



SECOND EDITION. 



Henry S. King & Co., 

gg Ck>»^^^^^» & IB, Paternoster Row, London. 

1874. 



THE KEW YORK 
rUnilC LIBRARY 

129415B 

ASTOR. I.rNOX AND 

TILDkJN FOIMMTIONS 

R Itfil L 



[The Riyht of Trantlaiion is reserved by the Author.] 






^ 



r 



9t mv 

^H ^^W ^^^&B A-^^k^ ^^B^A^ A^^^k^M 

§ti sBittxiotxuxti. 



DEDICATED 

AS A SINCERE TRTBUTE 

TO 
HIS LATE MOST OBACIOUS MAJBSTT 

CARL XV. 

BY 

THE KIND AND SPECIAL PERMISSION OF HIS 
PRESENT MOST GRACIOUS MAJE8TT 

OSCAR II. 

KINO OF NORWAT AND SWEDEN. 




'^r^ 




PKEFACE. 



Wb a^w^oke one morning ; our gipsies were gone ; 
OTir camp ^w^as gone ; no light shining through as we 
lay in our tent. No freshness of the morning air ; 
no wafted perfume of fragrant wild flowers ; no music 
of the ^waterfall in the glen below. We were left to 
pursue the pathway of our journey alone. 

Yet our notes de voyage remained to us. Impres- 
sions caught on the wayside of travel — written by 
the light of actual circumstance — we give them to 
our readers. I^ey are a true episode in a life. 

THE AUTHOR. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGI 

IsTRODUcnoN xxi 

CHAPTER I. 

Norway — Oar gipsy tent — Tent fittings — Cooking apparatus — ^Com- 
miaBariat—Gipsies' tent— Bagage de luxe— Weight of baggage — 
Transit — Donkeys— Our party — Esmeralda .... 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Gipsy equipment— Norwegian gipaies — ProBSten Eilert Sundt — The 
Hull steamer — ^The tourist's friend — Our gipsy song . 11 

CHAPTER III. 

A friend's misgiving — Dark forebodings— A sleepless night — The 
railway station — The Albion — A philosopher — The street boy 
— Distinguished travellers 19 

CHAPTER IV. 

England's farewell — Summer tourists — The chevalier — Seafaring — A 
gipsy reception — Change of plans — ^Norwegian pilot — ^The Bir- 
mingham bagman — Inducement to authorship— Strange wills— 
A sailor's philosophy— Icelandic language — ^Prognostications . 26 

CHAPTER V. 

Aieaman's adventures— The unfortunate tourist — An apt quotation — 
Freemasonry — Christiansand — Past recollections — The Runic 
•tone — Overpayment — Two salmon fishermen — A traveller's 
cariosity — Norwegian snakes — Scenery — We are one — Golden 
opinions 36 



PA< 



5 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Marinei's life — ^The evasive answer — A true presentiment — ^The King 
of Norway and Sweden — ^The beautiful fjord — (^ipsy music — ^A 
custom-bouse difficulty — Another Freemason — Appropriate verses 
Christiania — Horse money — 17, Store Strandgade 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Victoria Hotel — The Gipsies* friend — The passe-partout — ^Proesten 
Eilert Sundt — The Christiania railway — Our donkeys appreciated 
— Gipsy spirit — The " tolk " — Norwegian money — Linguistic dif- 
ficulties — Gipsy authors — Gipsy numerals — Departure from 
Christiania 

CHAPTER VIII. 

A Norwegian officer — ^Norwegian emigration— Eidsvold — The Skyd- 
skiftet — Quiet retreat — Happy hours —Baiersk 5l — Esmeralda's 
toilette — ^The transformation — Curious address-^New acquaint- 
ance — Noah's engagement — Noah's conquest — An ungrateful 
visitor — ^A reluctant parting & 

CHAPTER IX. 

Moderate bill — Provisions lost — ^We meet again — Gipsies in advance— 
Left alone — A welcome telegram — Norwegian bath room — 
Singular paintings — Once more farewell — The telegraph clerk — 
The Mj()6en Lake — The Dronningen — Ruined cathedral — Utili- 
tarianism — Lillehammer — Once more in camp . . , 7t 

CHAPTER X. 

Our first camp— Camp visitors — Gipsy music — Foreign tableau — 
Curious observations — Preparations for departure — Early start — 
Laing's suggestions — The Gudbransdalen — The Hunnefos — The 
Australian meat — Camp rules — The pair of gloves — Sudden , 
Shadows — Our talisman — New friends 8( 

CHAPTER XI. 

Night alarm — The Pufu Rawnee— Donkeys admired — ^Norwegian 
ponies — Our gipsy life — Norwegian flowers — ^Wild forest — The 
pipe of tobacco— Pictures of imagination — The crippled man — 
Camp near Holmen — ^Noah's self-denial — Wet night — Peasant 
girls' serenade — Zachariah's gaiety — ^Lovely nature — ^Norwegian 
newspaper — The mystery explained — ^Frokost spoilt . . . 10 



i 



CONTBHTS. xi 



CHAPTER XIL 



PAQB 



I'jicc^fal fishing — A militaiy officer — ^The denUer reuort^Oui 
^psy reeepiLon — Interrupted toilette — Fete champ^ire— Dancing 
o& the greensward — ^Tincture of cedar — ^The disappointment^ 
The Losna Yand — ^Tbe kettle prop lost— Peasant children— 
Inteiesting discnssiona — Writing under difiicaities— The kindly 
heiit 118 

CHAPTER XIII. 

f ettitvening — ^Vodvang — Onr Rttasian lamp — Swedish yinton^All 
well— Our hobbinengree — ^The child of nature — Guitar songs — 
The Tillage bean — Merles gone — ^The musketos' victoiy — More 
aia — Scotch traveller — Timber floaters — Gipsies — Enraged 
Englishman — ^The frightened skydskarl — Gipsies' endoiance — 
The listari commotion — Listad scenery 129 

CHAPTER XIV. 

A goTgio— Comfortable bondegaarda — More speile — ^The lost key — 
Den Asen tonjonrs — ^Vegetable sabstitnte— The goodlo discussion 
—Wives' utility — Friendly peasants — ^Norwegian waltz — Gipsy 
chaff— The dark woman — Anxious querists — Early visitors — 
Timid woman — Qipsiee appreciated — ^The charming post-mistress 
— ^The mansion near Harpe Brt5 145 

CHAPTER XV. 

Tb* velocipede — Roadside halt — Lovely scenery — Disappointed 
audience — The little gipsy — The lost pocket — The search — 
Gipsy lamentation — ^Amused peasant girls— Norwegian honesty 
The pocket found — ^A noble heart — Pleasant voyageurs — Patrins 
— StorklevBtad — Tambourine lost — Norwegian honesty — Ec- 
coitric visits — Interrogatory — The captain — The interview— The 
viUsge magnate — Meget godt— Esmeralda in camp — The last 
visit— The moorland maiden 153 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Cjlcaiel Sinclair — Qvam church — Death of Sinclair — Monsieur le 
Capitaine — The Highflyer— The Hedals — Romantic legend — 
Antique mansion — ^The Kringelen — Kind reception — Warm wel- 
oane — Tbe broken tent-pole — The reindeer hunter — The 
Sudane Fjelde — Gipsy-looking woman — ^More fish — ^Chiromancy 
Esmeralda's fortune— The handsome captain — His sporting ad- 
venture — ^Esmeralda's gift — Our soirde dansante — Gipsies' glee . i74 



xii CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



PA 



Qipsies' affection — Laurgaard adieu — Beautiful gorgea — Onward ever 
— Esmeralda's Irish song— Dovre — Friendly travellers — The 
Landhandelri — The Herr Tofte — King's visit — Our night camp 
— Night disturbance — Kindness to animals — Our beautilul 
bouquet — Snehsetten Fjeld — Dombaas — Comfortable situation — 
Wild scenery — Opportune visit — Illusory hope . . . .15: 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The new tent pole — What is indigestion ? — Feasants at camp — A new 
friend — Holaker station — Norwegian honesty — Loesje Vand — 
The tetteramengry — ^An unsolved mystery — The gipsy collapse 
— Qood advice — Interest in donkeys— A moimtain district — No 
church bells — The boy's questions — The KjOlen Fjeldene . . 20 

CHAPTER. XIX. 

Esmeralda at the lake—Our cadeau — The visitors — Disappointment 
— ^An Adonis — The silent visit — The old mill — ^A Norwegian fox 
The Puru Rawnee's fall — The forest scene — Zachariah's torment 
— Under discipline — Music in the forest — Distant admirers — 
The English hunter's gift — Our gipsies fishing — ^The militia 
camp— Silent visitor — Ornamental fladbrod— A forest concert . 212 

CHAPTER XX. 

Noah unwell — The tine — New scenes — The leper — Hasty departure 
— Lesjevoerks Vand — Well met — Agreeable wanderers — Specialty 
of travel— Delicious trout — Lake scenery — Norwegian postman 
— Night visitor — More tourists — Molmen church . . 227 

CHAPTER XXI. 

The Rauma— A lofty climb— More rain — The forest walk— Tent life 
— Peasant ffite — Norwegian dancing — Zachariah's ride — -The 
wood carvings— A psalmodion — Stueflaaten — The Romsdal — 
Magnificent scenery — English spoken 237 

f 

CHAPTER XXII. 

The Dontind — Ormein — Mountain road — Our bivouac — Delighted 
visitor — The water elf— Excited gipsies — T«ge en Stol — Nor- 
Vregian girls — Sunday on the Rauma — Carriole travelling — 
Coming to grief—" Spille " a little —Esmeralda's birthday— The 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGI 

Norwegian climate— The Sjiriaglnft— Uncomfortable bed— The 
lageant 246 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Ssaal peaaant — Caacadea — The leaning-stone— The flerious peasant 
— Zanhariah ill — No yentilation — The Magician's Peaks — The 
Mangehoe— '^Ramolous'' — Romantic valley — ^Agreeable Tisitore 
—The serenade — ^Futaie route — Hoigheim — ^Rip van Winkle . 261 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

T^ invalid — Kestiv^e donkeys — Piva — Aak — VeblungsnoM— The 
NoTwegiaii fanner — ^The grassy knoll — A Norwegian town —The 
Qoid*8 sbore — The Veblmigsnces' baths — Herr Solbeig — Homme 
galant— Musical conversazione — Gipsy music .... 273 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Fiiithasea — Zachariab's trouble— Esmeralda's photograph — ^The kiod 
—Price of meat — ^The yachtsmen — The three peaks — The spirit- 
world — Frost-bites — Ultima Thule — Esmeralda galvanised— 
The 5^Td — Heen Kirke — Parelius — Eider ducks — Beautiful 
bouquets 285 

CHAPTER XXVL 

Out guide — ^To the mountains — Mystic light — ^The photographs — The 
"daymoTe" yacht — ^Norw^ian gipsies — Singular race- Occu- 
pations — Gipsy burials — Romantic love — Predestination — ^The 
bondegaaid — ^The high demand — Esmeralda's souvenir . 297 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Adieu, Aak — Romsdalshom — Troldtindeme — Fladmark — Young 
Norwegian ladies — Our fair visitors — A night scene — Morning 
meal — Exhausted peasants — Esmeralda's compliment — A gipsy 
cuiedne — How gipsies sleep — Our guide arrives — The invisible 
bather — The race — The river Grdna 307 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

BoUnising — !Esmeralda lost — ^Found again — The Eagle — Mountain 
difficulties — Mountain bivouac — Esmeralda ill — Ole's bed — 
Hotel bills — Rough route — Donkeys in snow— The Puru Rawnee 
down — The Ny ecBter— Gipsy discussion — The Englishman's 
bouse — Hospitality— Norwegian names— Fillingj»h6 — Large lake 319 



xiv CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE XXIX. 



PAOK 



The peasants' wood — Skeaker — Our fair>^ visitor ^Esmeralda's indig- 
nation — The gipsy hornpipe — The fate of Ezekiel — Feeble 
advocacy— The Rankny rackly— The Otta Vand . . . 332 

CHAPTEE XXX. 

The wasps' nest — Lorn — Kind friends — Songs of Bjomsen — The 
Proesten's ministration — The repulsed student — Beautiful valley 
— The two artists — The BoeverElven — Rodsheim— The ravine — 
The lost stardy — Ascent of Qaldh5piggen — The highest moun- 
tain in Norway — The night ascent — The dome of snow — The 
smuise 340 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

The reindeer's fate — Desolate scene — Several ascents — The frightened 
peasants — ^A coat lost-- Esmeralda's views — Absent treasures — 
Ole re-engaged — A new kettle prop— The handsome artist — Com- 
fortable station— Adieu, Rttdsheim — Our excellent guide — Cross- 
ing the bridge— Zachariah's escape 352 

CHAPTER XXXIL 

The Elv SoBter — ^A mountaineer — ^The Ytterdal Soeter — ^To make gr5d 
— The grod stick — ^Evening concert — ^A wild night — The water- 
fall — Mountain glaciers — The Lera Elv — Camp by a glacier — 
Nomadic happiness — ^A gipsy maelstrom — Insect life . . . 363 

CHAPTER XXXIIL 

The Virgin Peak — ^Esmeralda in the Lera — A dripping Nereid — 
Heavy clouds — The Church Mountain — ^Wild reindeer — ^Where's 
the tea? — Singular glacier — Valley of red sandstone — The 
Hunter's Cave— The Utladal Stol— The Mumpley Valley— Fl5ds- 
grOd — A mountain st5l — ^A rough path — ^The Puru Rawnee's 
escape — ^The narrow bridge 374 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

A difficult crossing— Again en route — Sk5gadal Soeter — Sceter accom- 
modation — Splendid scenery — The Skogadals Elv — The mys- 
terious bone — Mountain exploration — The pack horses — A 
slippery floor — Music in the Sceter — ^FlcBskedal Stol— The M5rk 
Fofr— Magnificent fall — The cliff's edge — The iris — All pay and 
no comfort — ^A reindeer shot —The deserted farm — A mountain 
shadow 389 



CoyTENTH. XV 



CHAPTER yXXV. 



PAOI 



Tht. Meisgiie — We ciofis a river — ^The slippery rock — ^An active guide 
— The earner's aid — ^The lame hoRse — Melkedalsdndeme — The 
stony way — ^The Nedrevand — Ole's night quarters — ^The lake hy 
moonlight — ^Early rising — Eisbod on the Bygdin Lake — The 
poet's house — Vinje, the poet — ^The poetical mortgage — Pleasant 
acquaintance — Old Norwegian poetry — The rtindt-er hunter — 
Esmeralda condoned ... 4(4 

CHAPTER XXXVl, 

Lake Tyen— The Tourist Club chMet -Lortwick Socter— Lake drift- 
wood — A cold morning — A cheap meal — Thunder in the air — 
Sunshine again — The separation — The gallant Ole farewell— To 
Christiania — Energy always — Push on — The Bergen road — Thi* 
violimst — One dollar more — Picturesque scene .... 42i> 

CHAPTER XXXVIL 

Carap on Lille Mjoeen — The Skjyri Fjeld — An acquaintance from 
Eiaibod — Camp rules confirmed — Our gipsy Noah — English 
spoken — Singular stone — Oiloe station — Our friend from ELsIxkI 
—Artist souvenirs — Zachariah's sport — Fast travelling — Harve^t 
time — Secluded camp— Able pleading — ^The Stee Station — 
Obliging hostess — ^Tether rope lost— The kindly welcome — 
An Englishman's wish — An open-air concert — Esmeralda's 
flowers— Adieu, but remembered— A mid-day rest . . 43.3 

CHAPTER XXXYIIL 

An Rngliah fisherman— The haunted mill — ^The tourist's purchase — 
Noah's good fortune— The Strand Yioid — A woman's curiosity — 
The heroine of our book— A Norwegian seaman — The mistaken 
mansion — ^The Aurdal church — Frydenlund Station — A roadside 
halt — ^The appreciated gift — ^The severe young lady — The kind- 
hearted peasant — Krcemmermoen — Impulse and reason . . 441) 

CHAPTER XXXIX 

The gipsy signal — Our Australian meat — The fair poetess— Our 
friend from Eisbod ill — The Rye's unwell — The Lehnsmoend of 
Bang — ^Thc ferryman and son — We cross to Beina — Tatersprog 
— A kind family — Storsveen Station — Secluded valley — A 
tourist lels us — Esmeralda's adventure — The peasant women's 
song — Sorum Station — Tents pitched by a lagoon — Nces — No 
^ hoTseboat — Impromptu horseboat — How we got across — A river 



scene 



4G0 



xvi CONTENTIS. 



CHAPTER XL. 



PAGE 



We leave the Beina — The Lille pige — Any port in a storm — The 
fairies' visit — The Spirilen — Ytre Aadalen Val — Large bonde- 
gaard — Heen woodland camp — Evening visitors — The Hbnefos 
— Intelligent postmaster — Norderhoug church — Halt near Vik 
— The gipsies' political philosophy — Noah and the philanthropist 
Steens Fjord — The Krogkleven— Beautiful gorge — Camp near 
the King's View 477 

CHAPTER XLL 

Summer waning — Norwegian scenery — Splendid views — The cross 
fire — Sorte Dod— Romantic camp — Mandy'sa Rye — The tourist's 
dog — The Hobbenengree's surprise— The Baron at Boerums Verk 
— Snake killed near our tent — Our last night in camp — Adieu, 
camp life 490 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Chrietiania— Generous oflfer — Advice we do not take — The paper- 
viken fishermen — Christophersen's — Norway, farewell — Donkeys' 
accommodation — ^Want of feeling — Our steward — The gipsies' 
friends — The Spanish courier — The literary American — The 
gipsies' mal de mer — The donkeys in a smoke room — The lost 
necklace — England's shore — To our readers .... 500 

CHAPTER XLIIL 

Alluring promises — Compliment to Englishmen — True sketches of 
gipsy life — ^The gipsies' origin— Yet a mystery — Esmeralda — 
Noah and Zachariah — Before the curtain— The end . .511 



Appendix 1 517 

II 627 

„ III 529 

IV 532 

V 538 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



t • 



/ Tbe engrmYingB are bj Bdward Whymper, author of "Scnmblas amongit 
t]ie Alps," and have been taken from gketches made hj the author dnring 
his vanderingB in Norway, or from photographs obtained hy him specially 
for this work. 

1. His late Most Gracious Majesty Carl XV., King of Norway and 

Sweden {Full pa^e, facing Title) 

2. Breaking np Camp ; Gipsy pocket, and loaded donkey . u 

3. The gipsies' Norwegian song — ornamental bordure . .17 and 18 

4. The Chevalier 28 

^ We are one 44 

& Proesten Eilert Sandt 56 

7. Norwegiaji fence . . 78 

8. Norwegian bath-room 80 

9. Jeg maa gaae til bnnden, I must go to the bottom . . . 81 

0. Der gaae er dampen. There goes the steamer .... 82 

1. Peasant girls' serenade 112 

2. Ornamental fladbrOd 225 

X Primitive ^reighing machine 244 

4. Camp at Lieaning Stone, Siriaglns 262 

5. Troldtindemey Magidana' or Witches' Peaks {Full page, facing) 271 

6. The English gipsies' camp at Veblungsnces . 

7. Yeblongsnoes and church .... 

8. The Romsdalshom 

9. " Now look at these chokas ! ! !" 

20. Gr3d stick, spoon, and bowl, Leirdalen 

21. Norwegian birchwood crupper 

22. Kirken (Church Mountain), from Gravdal . 



{Ditto) 


287 


{Ditto) 


299 


{Ditto) 


307 


• • 


. 356 


• • 


. 367 


• • 


. 372 


• • 


. 377 



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

2a The ice cliff, Storbeatind Glacier ,381 

24. Utladal Stol, Mumply Valley 385 

25. Lusehaug Bro, Utladal : restive donkeys 390 

26. View of Melkedalstind from the Valley of SkGgadal, Skogadals Ely 406 

27. Melkedals Nedre Vand, with gipsy camp on the lake shore . . 411 

28. Norwegian Tourist Club ChcQet, Tvindehougen, Lake Tyen . 421 

29. The Norwegian violin, Skogstad 431 

30. Norwegian maiden's belt, Oiloe 439 

31. Esmeralda 499 

32. The last camp of the English gipsies in Norway, Christiania Fjord 504 

33. Ole Halvorsen of ROdsheim, our guide 514 

34. Last group. Farewell 515 

35. The author's final vignette 516 



INTRODUCTION. 



" NqIIus doloT est qaem non longmqnitM temporia munut^ ic moUiat'* 
There is no grief time does not leaaen and loften. 

Since the succeeding pages were written, Norway 
and Sweden liave mourned the death of their King, 
Carl XV., at Malmoe, on the 18th September, 1872. 

The dedication of this work is, therefore, with the 
kind and special permission of his present Majesty, 
King Oscar II., inscribed "In Memoriam/' Thus the 
work opens to the reader with a shadow of melancholy ; 
for, in our experience, few kings have had the love 
and affection of their subjects in a greater degree. 

One memorable event marked the close of his late 
Majesty's reign, as if to illumine the last sands of the 
hour-glass of his life — the millennial period of the 
imity of Norway as one kingdom was accomplished on 
the 19th July, 1872. 

A thousand years had elapsed since Harald Haar- 
fager (the Fair Hair) gained the battle of Hafs^ord, 
and united Norway under one crown.* 

♦ During this reign, after the battle of HafsQord, the great viking 
*" Rolf Ganger," flon of Earl Rognvald, having offended King Harald, was 
Wished from Norway, and, in company with many other Northmen, 
sailed with a fleet of vessels to the Hebrides, and from thence to Nor- 
mandy, where the Northmen, about the year 896, obtained possession of 
Bouen, and Rolf Ganger, afterwards embracing Christianity, became Duke 
of Normandy. — Histoire de la ConqtUte de VAngleterre par les Normans, 
par Augusiin Thierry, vol. i. p. 114. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

At Hafsfjord, by a strange coincidence, King Harald 
Haarfager, having reigned, it is said, from about 861 
to 931, was buried, according to the ancient sagas, near 
the town of Haugesund, not far from the scene of his 
memorable victory, the last of a series of conquests 
which gave to Norway one king. 

The battle of Hafsfjord also accomplished King 
Harald's vow, and gave to him the hand of Gyda, 
the handsome daughter of Eric, King of Hordaland, 
who, in answer to his proposals, had said, she would 
never throw herself away, even to* take a king for a 
husband, who had only a few districts to rule over.* 

The obelisk of granite, erected near Haugesund, on 
the grave of Harald Haarfager, to commemorate the 
event, is seventy feet high. Surrounding its base, 
twenty-one pillars, eight feet high, are inscribed with 
the names of the twenty-one petty kingdoms, into 
which ancient Norway was formerly divided. Bronzed 
reliefs on the pedestal record that Harald Haarfager 
is buried beneath, and that the monument was erected 
one thousand years after he had consolidated Norway 
into one kingdom. 

At a grand National Jubilee Festival, at Haugesund, 
on the 19th July, 1872, his present Majesty the King 
of Norway and Sweden,f then Prince Oscar, with a 
large assemblage of the people of Norway, inaugurated 
the monument. 

• From the Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, trans- 
lated from the Icelandic of '* Snorro Sturleson," hy Samuel Laing. 

t The king ascends the throne as King of " Sweden, the Qoths and 
Vandals, and Norway ;" but in all Acts specially relating to Norway, that 
country is entitled to be named first, and this work being entirely one 
of Norwegian travel, we have for that reason given Norway precedence in 
our Dedication. 






INTRODUCTION. xxi 

The day ^was fine, and the associations of a thousand 
vars carried the mind back through the far distance 
t'f time to the battle of Hafsfjord, when, to apply the 
words of •* Sigvat the Scald," — 

Loud wag the battle-fltorm there. 
When the King's banner flamed in air, 
niie Ring beneath his banner stands, 
And the battle he commands. 

His late Majesty was also a poet and an artist. 
Two interesting volumes of the late King's poems, 
lititled " En Samling Dikter " (a collection of poems), 
ad **SniaiTe Dikter" (short poems) are the scintilla- 
ii'»n8 of a bright and imaginative mind — " Till Sverige " 
Jo Sweden), " Borgruinen " (the Castle Ruins), " Fjer- 
ran '' (Afar), " Ensamheten " (solitude), " Trosbek- 
kanelse" (Confession of Faith), "I drommen'' (I Dream), 
"Hvarbor Friden"* (Where dwelleth Peace), "Kalian" 
(The Fountain), " Ziguenerskan " (The Gipsy Girl), with 
'jther poems form the Innehal, or contents of the 
'' Smarre Dikter/' The larger volume — " En Samling 
Dikter "—includes " Heidi Gylfes Dotter " (Heidi Gylfe's 
Daughter), "En Viking Gasaga" (A Viking Saga)* 
'•Hafsfrun" (The Mermaid), "Tre Natter" (Three 
Nights), and several other poems. 

The fall-paged portrait of his late Majesty Carl XV. 
is an excellent likeness. He was cast in Nature s most 

♦ Laing defines a Viking and a Sea-king thus : — a sea-king, one connected 

» ith a royal race — either of the smaU kings of the country or of the 

Haarfager family, and who by right received the title of king as soon as 

he took command of men, although only a ship's crew, without having any 

liiid or kingdom. The Viking is a term not connected with the word 

I'tugr or king : the vikings were merely pirates — alternately peasants and 

pirates— -deriving the name viking from viks, wicks or inlets on the coast, 

where they harboured their long ships or rowing-galleys. Laing says every 

5«a-kinff was a vikingj ^u* every viking was not a sea-king. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

perfect mould; whilst his mind had true greatness and 
noble-hearted chivalry. 

It is beautifully engraved by the author of " Scrambles 
Amongst the Alps;'' indeed, this and the engravings 
illustrating this work, which have all been taken from 
original sketches of the author, or photographs obtained 
specially for the work, are by Mr. Edward Whymper,* 
to whom the author is much indebted for his prompt 
attention, when a very short space of time could only 
be allowed for their completion. 

An additional interest will also be felt by the reader 
in knowing that the work is true, even to the names of 
the gipsies. 

So must close our Introduction; and, as we look 
back to our tented wanderings, they seem as a bright 
summer's day, whose sun, setting on the horizon of our 
fate, reflects itself, though with imperfect gleams, within 
this book, whilst the day is gone for ever ! 

THE AUTHOR. 

7th May, 1873. 



• An interesting article, by Mr. Whymper, with frontispiece, showing a 
"Fragment of the Jakobshaven Ice Stream," appeared in the "Alpine 
Journal" of May, 1870. Another article, the result of recent exploration, 
entitled " Some Notes on Greenland and the Qreenlanders," with a frontis- 
piece, from Mr. Whymper's pen, appeared in the " Alpine Journal " of 
this month. 



} 



THE GIPSY GIRL. 



Pajssikq, I saw her as she stood beside 

A lonely stream between two barren wolds ; 

Her loose vest hung in rudely-gathered folds 
On her swart bosoniy which in maiden pride 
Pillowed a string of pearls ; among her hair 

Twined the light blue bell and the stonecrop gay ; 

-And not £ir thence the small encampment lay. 
Curling its wreathed smoke into the air. 
She seemed a child oi some sun-favoured clime ; 

So still, so habited to warmth and rest ; 
And in my wayward musings on past time, 

^en my thought fills with treasured memories, 
'^^ image nearest borders on the blest 
^tions of pure art that never dies. 

Dean Alpord. 






Pi;;.:u* iiiuary 







I 



MAP 



Showing the Route aad Cai 

■ 

of the 

ENGLISH GIJ 

througli 



Gipsy Camps sere marke< 
Route 



ENGLISH MILES 



e 



to 



ZC 

-4— 



JO 



to so sc 




TENT LIFE WITH ENGLISH 
GIPSIES IN NOEWAY. 



CHAPTER I. 

"The hest books are records of the writer^s own experiences of what he 
himself has seen or known, or — best of all— has done. The writing 
then becomes naturally concrete, perspicuons, a mirror of the fact ; and 
whether it be a book for the world and for ages, or for nations and 
generations, there is this common to them aU, that they are genuine 
zecords of genuine things, and throw light on the subject." — 
N. P. Willis. 

NORWAY — OUR GIPSY TENT— TENT FITTINGS— COOKING APPARATUS— OOM- 
JflSSARIAT— GIPSIES* TENT— BAGAGE DB LUXE— WEIGHT OP BAGGAGE 
. — TRANSIT— DONKEYS— OUR PARTY— ESMERALDA. 

The picturesque and lovely scenes of Norway oflfered 
many inducements for our campaign. The peculiar 
advantages of tent life would enable us to wander in its 
wildest Dais. Its beautiful Qelds, ^ords, and fosses could 
be seen at our ease. We might bivouac in the silent 
forest J we could sleep in its lonely glens, and wander 
in its deepest recesses, independent of the chance accom- 
modation of the " gjoestgiver-gaard,'' or the more doubt- 
ftil comfort of the mountain " soeter.^' The result of a 
former visit had not been without its practical utility, 
and the tent carried the day. 

£i previous travels we had used many kinds of tents, 

B 



2 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

including Mr. Whymper's very useful Alpine Tent. For 
this campaign we had a new one made, such as gipsies 
use. All experience inclined us to adopt this form of 
tent as the most comfortable.* It was naade by gipsies, 
whom we had often befriended in our search after gipsy 
lore, — and who now no longer regarded us with distrust, 
as belonging to the kairengroes (house-dwellers). Wlien 
it was completed, my people declared it was the best they 
had ever seen. A stout back pole, with strong pUable 
raniers or rods, fitted into it, and a cover made of two 
pairs of light gray blankets, of strong but fine texture, 
sewn together, with a broad edging of scarlet booking, 
gave it an appearance which the gipsies declared to be 
perfection. 

The interior fittings of our tent were not neglected. 
One of Edgington's waterproofs costing twenty-five 
shillings, was laid on the ground as a substratum. A 
handsome carpet, of strong but light material and warm 
colouring, was cut to the size of the tent as usually 
pitched, and then neatly bound with scarlet braid by my 
housekeeper, who made nearly everything used for the 
expedition. When the cai'pet was placed on the water- 
proof rug, it formed an excellent floor to the tent. Our 
large railway-rug, which had been with us all round the 
world, was still serviceable. An extra rug for aise if 
necessary, and two air pillows covered with scarlet 
flannel, completed the bed accommodation. A blue 
partition-curtain, with broad yellow braid artistically 



• Although we prefer our gipsy tent for convenience and comfort, it 
cannot be compared to Mr. Whymper's Alpine tent for security of shelter 
--^'»n pitched on a camp ground of sterile rocks amongst high mountain 
exposed to strong gales of wind. 



COOKING AFFARATUa. 3 

elaborated in zigzag pattern, to be suspended d volonte 
from the tent raoiers for privacy and seclusion, left 
nothing more to be desired. We had not yet sunk so 
low in effeminacy as to use beds, though there are 
instances of gipsies in England who have descended to 
that melancholy state. 

It was necessaiy that our hcMerie de cuisine should be as 
simple as possible. In the first place we had our kettle 
prop which had done duty in camp life in the previous 
year. A kettle prop is a stout bar of iron bent at one 
end so as to have a projectmg portion for hanging the 
kettle upon to boil water. The other end of the prop is 
sharpened so as to make holes in the ground to fix the 
tent raniers or rods into. (The three stakes joined toge- 
ther at the top, with a large witch's caldron suspended 
over the fire, as seen in many representations of gipsy 
life, have now passed away with the gipsies' scarlet 
cloaks once so fashionable.) We had our large fish kettle 
for boiling anything ; our tin can for boiling and making 
tea for four persons ; two larger tin cans for boiUng or 
fetching milk or water, all with lids ; two large zinc 
bowls ; four smaller soup bowls, fitting one within the 
other; a round tin with lid to hold three pounds of 
butter; a quart tin can with handle; two sets of tin 
pannikins, four each set, fitting one within the other ; * 
eight pewter plates ; seven knives and six forks ; eight 
spoons ; a tin salt box ; a tin pepper box ; a sardine box 

* The pannikins hold about a pint and a half, and each weighs 6 oz. 
They have a smaU loop handle on each side^ which folds down, and is 
coTeied with leather, so that the pannikin can be cairied vfhen filled with 
hot tea. This kind of pannikin, first suggested to ns by Mr. Whymper, 
whose plan it is, we prefer to any other we have seen for weight, size, and 

conyenience. 

B 2 



4 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

opener ; a frying pan, with handle to remove ; a tin box 
containing the exact measure of tea for four persons. 
This was very useful, not only for economy, but in wet 
weather, — ^the box, being filled in the tent, could be 
carried in the hand, — in readiness for the boiling water. 
A Russian lamp ; a small axe ; two tin boxes of wax 
lucifer matches, and eight small cloths for cleaning, com- 
pleted our service de mSnage. All the articles enumerated ' 
could be conveniently put into the fish-kettle, except the 
two large cans, the two large bowls, the pewter plates, 
the frying-pan, and one or two other articles. These 
were all placed at one end of a bag called the kettle-bag, 
tied in the middle ; our bags of tea and sugar, &c., for 
present use, being placed at the other end, ready to be 
slung over the donkey for transit.* 

Our commissariat was selected with a care commensu- 
rate to the requirements of the expedition and of the four 
hungry voyageurs to be fed. 

Our provisions were procured at Hudson Brothers^ 
Ludgate Hill, London (with whom we had before had 
dealings), and were all we could desire for quality. Our 
purchase included 281bs. of Australian meat (costing l\ch 
per lb.) — which for the first time, we ventured, with some 
hesitation, to take — ^two hams, some bacon, a dozen 
boxes of sardines, 2 cheeses, a number of jars of Liebig's 



* We have recently purchased a new and ingeniously contrived " cooking 
canteen/' designed by Lieutenant Lecky, H.M.S. Asia, This canteen may 
be inspected, and is for sale at 79, Mark Lane, City. It weighs 22 lbs., 
and its cost is two guineas. We however think it more adapted for a 
military encampment than for an expedition like our own. One large 
light fish-kettle, frying pan, and tin boiling kettle, were amply sufficient 
for all requirements ; and after the wear and tear of our wanderings in 
Norway, they are stiU serviceable and fit for another expedition. 



GIPSIES' TENT. 5 

essence of meat, some tins of potted meats, 2 tins of 
biscuits, — some of which were college biscuits, — rice, 
oat-meal, pea flour, beans, &c. ; which, together with 
121bs. of tea from Messrs. Phillips, King William Street, 
in small bags of 31bs. each, were placed in a large stout 
" pocket " as far as space would allow, and then packed 
in a wooden case, and forwarded to the care of Messrs. 
Wilson & Co., Hull, ready for the steamer. The weight 
of the provisions when sent, was 1501bs. These articles, 
with SOlbs. of sugar in six small bags of 5lb8. each, 
which we had before forwarded to Hull, completed our 
stock of provisions for the expedition. 

The gipsies brought their own tent rods; we found 
blankets for the tent cover. The gipsies' tent cover is 
formed of two blankets, fastened with pin thorns over 
their tent frame of raniers or rods. They had for use 
one of Edgington's waterproofs and two double blankets. 

We also took a railway rug ornamented with foxes' 
heads, which we often used with the aid of our Alpine 
stocks, as a balk to keep off the wind, and to close in the 
space between our tents when we required more room or 
shelter. We had, besides, a very large but exceedmgly 
light waterproof sheeting, purchased from Edmiston, 
made to loop over our tents, so as to enlarge them 
considerably and. protect us from heavy rain. The 
blanket covers of our tents were not waterproof; and 
this waterproof sheeting, which only weighed 4t^ lbs., 
was invaluable. When we were resting during the- day, 
it effectually protected our provisions, baggage, and our- 
selves from the heavy showers of rain which sometimes 
occurred during our wanderings. 

Our additional baggage consisted of one salmon rod. 



6 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

three trout rods, four Alpine stocks, two long ropes for 
tethering the animals, a fishing basket, a tin box with 
padlock, a musical box, a moderate allowance of clothes, 
a small tin of blacking with brushes, hair brushes and 
combs, soap, towels, pocket mirrors, writing-case, maps, 
stout straps, books (guide books and othei's), fishing 
tackle, &c., two courier bags with locks, and a plaid 
haversack, which contained a small case of medicaments 
for use when we were beyond all chance of medical 
advice — ^for, although fresh air is peculiarly health-giving, 
there were times and seasons when we had to officiate as 
the " cushty drabengro " (good doctor) of the party. 
We had also in this plaid bag a silver-mounted glass 
flask of imposing appearance, which was kept filled vdth 
Brsendeviin, to be poured, out into a. thick-set, solid- 
looking drinking glass, that had been purchased, once 
upon a time, at Epernay, in France; it was fitted to 
stand the hard usage of this world, even to receiving 
libations of brsendevim instead of champagne. The 
glass is still unbroken, and ready to do duty in another 
campaign; and when we look at it, our brain becomes 
puzzled as to the number of bold Norwegians whose 
lips it has touched as they quaffed its contents to 
gamle Norge. 

The weight of baggage is given in the following 
divisions : — 

The kettle and articles packed into it weighed 10^ lbs. ; 
bowls and pewter plates, packed separately, 6f lbs. ; the 
frying pan, 3^ lbs. ; our boiling can for making tea for 
our party, four in number, 1;^ lbs. ; our large boilmg can, 
for a larger number than four persons, weighed If lbs. ; 
the large iron kettle-prop, 6 lbs. 6 ozs., making the total 



WEIGHT OF BAGGAGE. 7 

weight of cooking apparatus and service de minage^ 
30 lbs. 2 ozs. 

The tent rods and pole weighed 14^ lbs. ; the tent 
blanket, cover, and partition-curtain, 17-| lbs. ; large 
waterproof siphonia cover, 4^ lbs. ; small spade to dig 
trenches round tent in wet weather, 1 lb. 15 ozs. ; 
total weight, 38 lbs. 7oz8. 

One of Edgington's waterproof rugs, the tent carpet, 
two rugs, and two air-pillows, weighed, together, 20 lbs. 
Our large tent and fittings, with cooking apparatus 
and sermce de menage^ therefore weighed 88 lbs. 9 ozs. ; 
and with books, fishing-rods, clothes, the provisions, and 
other baggage, made a total of about 360 lbs. weight, 
which allowed 120 lbs. for each donkey to carry. 

The method of transit for baggage of all kinds, that 
impediment to rapid movement, required careful conside- 
ration. We had 360 lbs. weight of baggage to carry 
across the sea, to take with us through the valleys of 
Norway, to convey over mountains, and rugged paths, 
across rivers and shaky wooden bridges. The kind of 
animal suited to our expedition had also to be considered; 
ponies and mules had their claims. Excellent ponies 
might be purchased in Norway upon our arrival, but 
then we had the risk of delay. If we took mules they 
were oftentimes vicious and troublesome. At last w^e 
commissioned a gipsy to purchase three strong donkeys, 
to be specially selected for the purpose. It is said in 
one of Dickens's works, that no one ever saw a dead 
donkey or a dead postboy — and this inspired additional 
hope that the animals would survive the journey. We 
had no reason to regret our choice. Donkeys will 
endure want of food better than even mules or horses ; 



8 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

they are patient, quiet, and tractable ; they soon tcxke 
to the camp, and seldom stray far. The weight would 
be about 120 lbs. each, decreasing as they progressed on 
their journey. A strong donkey has been known to 
cany for a short distance, 4 cwt., but this is exceptional ; 
200 lbs. for a journey on good roads they can manage 
without difficulty ; for rough mountain roads and paths, 
this load ought to be reduced to less than 100 lbs. 
Donkeys were much valued in early times ; and in New 
South Wales they were recently more expensive than 
horses. Fortunately our gipsy was able to procure 
them at a moderate rate ; and in a short time I was the 
possessor — ^to use gipsy language — of three " cushty 
merles'' (good donkeys). They were to travel with the 
gipsies' camp until we were ready to start, and so become 
used to camp-life. Very good ones they were : * 

Content with the thistle they tramped o'er the road. 
And never repined at the weight of the load. / 

It was necessary for the success of the expedition, 
that the party should be composed of not less than four ; 
but one who had before accompanied our wanderings, 
was unable to come. Our preparations were partly 
made, and his loss as a fellow compagnon de voyage was 
irreparable. Skilful in designing and making a tent, full 

* " The ass is an exceUent and sober little beast, far too much despised 
by us. He is not only the most enduring, but one of the quickest walkers 
among cattle, being usually promoted to the leadership of a caravan. He 
is nearly equal to the camel in enduring thirst, and thrives on the poorest 
pasture, suffers from few diseases, and is unscathed by African dist|mper. 
The long desert roads and pilgrim tracts of North Africa are largely 
travelled over by means of asses." — The Art of Travel, by Francis Galton, 
F.R.Q.S., p. 195. 



OUR PARTY. 9 

of resource in camp life, never without an expedient to 
overcome a diflBculty, a sketcher from nature, cheerful 
under all exposure, temperate in all his pleasures, ever 
ready with his song and guitar ; at eveningtide, by the 
flickering emters of the camp fire, by the silent lake, 
or in the moimtain cwin^ or lonely glen — his loss was 
indeed to be regretted. His lithe figure, and luxuriant 
raven-black hair, shading in heavy tresses his ample 
forehead, jet-black eyes, and thoughtful countenance 
bronzed by exposure, strongly resembled the true gipsy 
type. By other gipsies whom we had chanced to meet, 
he had been thought of better gipsy blood than our own 
gipsy people. 

Our right hand seemed gone. As we lounged into the 
gipsies' camp, there was no sun to illumine our way 
to the north. The party miist be made up to four ; but 
no other friend would venture on the exposure of a camp 
Ufe in a foreign country. The romantic scenery, the 
novelty and charm of a nomadic life in nature's wildest 
scenes, completely failed to allure them from their com- 
fortable homes. 

So the party was to be made up to four. The Rye 
was not to go without a sufficient escort to take care of 
him. Tall Noah would pitch the tents and pack the 
animals. Esmeralda, as the forlorn hope, would do all 
the cooking, and undertake the arrangements of the tent, 
which our friend had beforetime done with our joint 
assistance. Zacharia, the " boshomengro " (violin-player), 
would again obtain w^ater, and make the fire. They 
would each have one animal under their charge. .With 
this arrangement we were obliged to content ourselves. 
Esmeralda, who was nearly sixteen years old, was tall, 



10 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

spare, and active, and wonderfully strong for her age. 
She had dark hair, and eyes full of fathomless fire. 
Zacharia had certain nervous misgivings about being 
chopped up by a bear in his tent some night ; tigers and 
lions were also inquired aflter; but, all being settled, 
there was no flinching, and our gipsies were ready oa 
the day named. 



CHAPTEB n. 



<c 



He is ftn ezceUent oriental achoUr, and lie tells me that amongst 
the gipflies are the remains ci a language (peculiar to themselTOs) in 
which Are traces of Sanscrit. Sir Darid Baird, too, was remarkablj 
steuek with the resemblance of some of the Sepoys to the English 
gipsies. They are eridently not the dregs of any people. The oounte- 
nances of many of the females are beantifa), as those of the males are 
manly." — TKe Peaeodi ai Rowdy, 

GIPSY EQUIPMEirr — NORWEGIAN GIPSIES — ^PBESTEN EILERT SUKDT^THE 
HUIX SnAMER— THE TOURIST'S FRIEND — OUR 0IP8T SONG. 



The gipsies' equipment and wardrobe was not exten- 
sive ; some additions given by the Rye made them up 
assez hien pour le voyage. One or two waistcoats, and 
a handkerchief or two, formed, we believe, the whole of 
Noah and Zacharia's change. But their boots! those 
were unexceptionable. They must be new — they must 
be thick — ^they must be nailed — double and treble nailed. 
One shoemaker failed in solidity and soundness of sub- 
stratum ; but at last, to the Rye's comfort and inexpres- 
sible relief, a more skilled follower of St. Crispin pro- 
duced some chef cToeum'es of ponderous construction, 
which the gipsies admitted to be masterpieces. The 
man who drove the nails had well-earned his wages ; 
the soles, indeed, at length resembled one of those old- 
fashioned oak doors, that one sometimes sees in ancient 
castles, or manorial residences. We duly discharged their 
cost, consolmg ourselves with the reflection that we had 



12 TENT LIFE IN NOEWAY. 

not to walk in them through Norway. Esmeralda had 
one dress to change. What it wanted in skirt, was made 
up by the ornamentation of plaid braid, and silver buttons, 
quite in accordance with the fashion of some Norwegian 
districts. She had no bandboxes, chignon-boxes, glove- 
boxes, parasols, umbrellas, caps, pomades, perfumes, and 
a thousand other things often required. A long Alpine 
cloak, and a few articles of change, formed a very slight 
addition to our baggage. 

There are Norwegian gipsies. Even Norway has 
been reached by wandering hordes of this singular 
people.* We were desirous of comparing the language 
of English gipsies with that of the Norwegian Zigeuner ; 
we were anxious to see some of the roving Tater-pak 
of this Northern land. In our researches into the his- 
tory, language, . origin, and probable fate of this wild, 
wandering people, who still cling with remarkable ten- 
acity to their ancient modes of life and language, we had 
met with the iateresting works of Presten Eilert Sundt — 
a gentleman who has given much time and indefatigable 

* Monsieur Bataillard, in his interesting work '^ Nouvelles Becherches 
sur rApparition et la Dispersion des Bohcmiens en Europe/' says that the 
earliest mention of Taters in Norway is found in a law of 1589. His 
opinion is that they did not enter Nonvay by way of Denmark and South 
Sweden, but through North Sweden and the Duchy of Finland, that is to 
say by the north of Russia. This opinion appears to have been supported 
by Presten Eilert Sundt. M. Batailhud, 'therefore^ considers that the 
Norwegian gipsies were not part of the numerous hordes who entered the 
south of Europe subsequently to the year 1417. M. BataiUard is the author 
of a work entitled " Dc TApparition et de la dispersion des Bohcmiens en 
Europe,** published in 1844, and now out of print. The same author has 
recently published another interesting and valuable contribution, entitled 
*' Les Demiers travaux relatifs aux Bohemiens dans TEurope Orientale," 
published 1872. In this work Monsieur Bataillard gives a most able review 
of the works of various authors who have written upon the gipsy people 
wandering in Eastern Europe. 



PRE8TEX EILERT SUNDT. 13 

energy to a complete investigation of the present state 
of the Norwegian gipsies, and has fonned a vocabu- 
laiy of the Romany language as spoken by them i^ 
Norway. 

Presten Sundt*s notes will remain a valuable record 
of the footsteps of this people in the world. His first 
work, "Beretning om Fante-eUer Landstrygerfolket i 
Norge," was published at Christiania in 1852 ; it w^as 
succeeded by " Anden aars Beretning om Fantefolket/' 
published at Christiania in 1862. To him the Nor- 
wegian Government are indebted for the only informa- 
tion which we believe has yet been given relative to the 
Norwegian gipsies. The extracts from Presten Sundt's 
works, expressly made for us, will be found in the 
Appendix to this work. 

Our preparations had wonderfully progressed : besides 
bags of various kinds we had three pockets^ as the 
gipsies call them, — one for each animal. The pocket is 
a large broad, flat sack, sewed up at both ends, with 
a slit on one side, which buttons. The blankets and 
rugs, &c., are folded and packed flat into it through the 
slit or opening. Any hard substances are placed at each 
end of the pocket, so that the donkey's back may not be 
injured. The pocket is placed flat over the tent covers, 
and then girthed tightly round the animal. The bags, 
tent-rods, and other things are fastened by cords passing 
between the girth and the pocket. 

A steamer was to sail from Hull in June, and we 
ultimately arranged to take a return ticket from Hull to 
Korway and back, ourself first-class, and the gipsies 
second-class : our return tickets cost us £25, including 



11 TEST LIFE IN NORWAY. 

the carriage of three animals, either donkeys or horses, 
whichever we might wish to take, going or returning. 
At one time we thought of going by the special steamer 
to Throndhjem, intended for the convenience of sports- 
men, but as the voyage was longer, and the fare 



considerably higher, we gave up the idea. Messrs. 
Wilson were most prompt in giving us every infonna- 
tion, and when we had decided to go, they secured us 
an excellent berth, and received our heavy baggage 
when forwarded. 

We soon received a small publication, by John 
Bradley, entitled, "Norway, its Fjords, Fjelds, and 
Fosses, and How to See Them for Fifteen Guineas : " 
with a tempting view of Norwegian scenery on the 
cover. Unfortunately we could not travel at so cheap a 



THE TOURISTS FRIEND. 15 

rate witt our party ; but we recommend the publication 
to intending tourists. 

We now wrote to Mr. Bennett, 17, Store Sirandgade^ 
Christiania, who is a perfect oracle upon all matters 
pertaining to Norway, and gives ready aid to northern 
tourists, and he at once sent the maps we required. 
We afterwards received his newly revised Guide Book, 
which is indispensable to all Norwegian travellers. 

A gipsy song was composed by us for our campaign, 
— a sort of souvenir, to be given here and there, — a 
memorial of our visit ; we had it translated into Nor- 
wegian. It was a guitar song, with an engraved border, 
illustrative of gipsy life. The music was arranged by 
our firiend, of whose regretted absence, we have already 
spoken. He had taken it from an air, which he once 
heard played, by an Italian boy, in the streets of London. 
It had since dwelt on his memory. The following is 
the music of the air, and the song follows, with a Nor- 
wegian translation, which is said, to be exceedingly 
good. 



16 



TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 



MUSIC OF GIPSIES' NORWEGIAN SONG. 



(^ 





f r ' > . 






CHAPTER m. 

'* Th» woods are green, the liedgee white 
With leareey and bloeioms Uii ; 
Tlierat*s moaic in the foreit new, 
And I too must be there.*' 

JSFfEBTe. 

A FBIESD'b lOBQIVING — ^DARK VOBSBODINGS — ^A SLKKPLRSS NIOHT— TRB 
BAILWAT BXATIOH — THE AI<BION — A PHILOSOPHSR^THE 8TREBT DOT 
— DISTDrGUXSHSD TRAYELLEBS. 

Wb had nearly completed our preparations, and were 
leaving town, wlien we dined one evening with a friend 
whom we had not seen for some time. He seemed 
interested in our approaching excursion, hut his astonish* 
ment was great, when our plan was divulged 

"What! going to Norway with gipsies?" said he in 
am^ement,as he poised in his hand, a glass of champagne. 
'* Why I don't helieve my. friend Tom Taylor, who has 
taken a great interest in the gipsy language, ever went so 
far as to camp with them. You'll be robbed, and 
murdered — ^not the slightest doubt. Travel with gipsies ! " 
exclaimed our friend, and he seemed to shudder at the 
thought. 

We were quite unable to say how much self-sacrifice 
^Ir. Tom Taylor may have made. We had read his 
interesting collection of Breton Ballads. He vaites well 
on a great variety of subjects, and is an excellent art 

c 2 



20 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

critic ; but we could not give any opinion upon his camp 
experience. My friend shook his head, " Write to mo 
when you get there -promise to write me a letter," said 
he earnestly. " Yes, you will be certainly robbed, and 
murdered,'* and he silently emptied his glass. 

There was something touching in his manner, as he 
gulped down the effervescent draught, with a look which 
showed plainly that he had no hope for our safe return. 

In the drawing-room the subject seemed one of interest. 
We gave our friend a promise to write. As we left the 
house, his adieux were those of separation, for the last 
time. 

It had been a wild rainy night. ^Vhat with packing, 
and writing letters, we never went to bed. Mes gens de 
la inaison remained up also. After a very early breakfast 
we were en route. As we drove up to the railway 
station of a large populous town, we caught sight of our 
gipsies. They were waiting for us with the three 
donkeys in the shelter of some open building of the 
station. The gipsies looked wet, draggled, and miry, but 
full of spirits. As we stepped from the carriage, a porter 
took charge of our twelve packages. 

We had received previously full and explicit informa- 
tion from the passenger department as to the trains and 
expense of transit, and had engaged a horse box to HulL 
One of the officials, seemed rather astonished, when he 
found three donkeys, were to be conveyed in the horse- 
box, he scarcely seemed able to connect a horse-box, with 
the proposed freight. 

A stray policeman seemed puzzled at the retinue. 
The three gipsies, saluting us with SJiawshon hangh, 
Sir ? (How do you do. Sir ?) marched up and down the 



THE RAILWAY 8TATI0X, SI 

platform, apparently much pleased at our arrival The 
stray policeman meandered about, as if he was up, and 
flown, and nohow, as to what it all meant, or whether the 
gipsies, belonged to us, or themselves. He was lingering 
near, when we produced a 10/. Bank of England note at 
the booking-office, in payment for our tickets. A new 
light then beamed on his mind, and we did not see him 
again. The horse-box was paid for. The porter got 
labels for all our packages, and timidly ventured to 
inquire the use of the tent-rods, which he luid curiously 
regarded for some time. We secured a second-class, and 
a first-class compartment in the same carriage, all was 
arranged, the signal was given, and we were off. We 
had only one change — at Leeds — and no stoppage. The 
horse-box went right through. A pleasant compagnon de 
voyage^ accompanied us most of the journey; he had 
lately come from the blue skies of Italy. 

The gipsies were joined by an inquisitive fellow* 
traveller, in a white hat. Some people trouble them- 
selves about everybody else's business but tlieir own. 
He cross-examined them, as to who we were, and where 
we came from. " Gloucestershire," said Noah — " we all 
came firom Gloucestershire this morning." " You must 
have started very early," said the inquisitive traveller, 
** Oh, yes," said Noah with emphasis — " very early." 

It was a damp^ wet morning, as we arrived on Friday, 
the 17th June, 1871, at the Hull station, and found 
ourselves on the platform. We left the gipsies, to look 
after the donkeys, which were put in some stables at the 
station ; and taking all our things in a cab to the Albion 
steamer, we put them on btfard. Messrs. Wilson were 
called upon. They are prompt men of business ; to 



22 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

their word in all things. Ample arrangements would 
be made to shelter the donkeys during the voyage, and 
we paid our fare. At the station on our return we found 
a civil porter waiting for us, and having paid the stout 
stableman Is. for each donkey, the gipsies took them on 
board about one or two o'clock in the day. 

Much curiosity was created when the gipsies came on 
deck. The steward of the vessel said, they seemed to 
have lately come from a warm countr5\ 

The Albion steamer had small, but comfortable second- 
class accommodation. No meal could be had until seven 
o'clock; but the second steward managed to get the 
gipsies some sandwiches and ale. They had been fed en 
route in the morning, and were quite satisfied, with the 
refreshments so provided. 

During the previous wet night, they had camped some 
distance from the starting point, and had ridden the 
donkeys through the rain to the railway station. Noah 
and Zacharia had no great-coats, but Esmeralda was 
dressed in her long Alpine cloak, and treble necklace of 
blue, and white beads. Her straw hat was surmounted 
by a small plume of feathers, dyed blue, by one of her 
brothers. She did not wear earrings, and had no other 
ornament. 

We had left the steamer to obtain some methylated 
spirit for our Russian lamp, and to call at Messrs. 
Wilson and Co.'s, when we remembered, that we had 
forgotten our watch-keys. A watchmaker's shop was 
soon found. The watchmaker was a merry-looking man- 
The watch had always been provided with one key to 
wind it up, and another to regulate the hands. We had 
always been assured, that two dififerent keys, were re- 



A FHILOaOFHBB. 83 

quired. " Ha ! ha ! ! ha ! ! ! " laughed the watchmaker, 
who was apparently a GermaD, " I will give you one key 
which will do the same thing — ha ! ha ! ! ha II ! " 

It was a beautifully fonned key, nor had we ever met 
with one like it before. 

The watchmaker appeared to us as a second Jean 
Batiste Schioilgui of Strasbourg.* " Ha ! ha ! ! ha ! ! ! " 
laughed the merry little man, " all is mystery. We eat 
and drink, but we comprehend nothing. Ah ! we often 
end in believing nothing.^' We remarked that no one 
who contemplated with attention the works of Nature 
could overlook the design of a great Creator. The 
watchmaker went to an inner door. A pretty girl pro- 
bably his daughter, changed a shilling for him. ^^ Ah ! " 
continued he, " you see by travel ; you t^ie in through 
the eyes ; they are the great vehicles of human life. I 
laugh at them, ha ! ha ! ! ha ! ! ! " and he bowed as I left 
tlie shop. 

We were now nearly ready for the voyage; as we 
passed from the gates of the railway station an interest- 
ing-looking boy, pleaded hard to black our boots. It is 
an honest way of making a livelihood. In this instance 
we stepped aside— one boot was just finished, when 
he suddenly bolted. Although he did not wait for 
his money, he did not forget the paraphernalia of his 
business. Another boy explained, that he was not al- 
lowed to black boots so near the station, and a police- 
man in the distance had caused his hasty disappearance. 

The boy again met us soon after, and completed his 
work ; we were glad to have the chance of paying him. 

* Jean Batiste Scliwilgu6 was bom at Strasbotirg, 18th Dec, 17Y6, a»<l 
completed the celebrated clock in the Straebourg Cathedral. 



24 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

When we went on board the steamer, all was confu- 
sion. On the wharf, we had Is. wharfage, to pay for each 
animal. The total expenses of our party to join the 
steamer amounted to 10?. 9^. &d. including 65. lid. for 
hay, supplied to the donkeys for the voyage. 

The' evening was damp and gloomy. An old weather- 
beaten Norwegian pilot wandered about the deck. Men 
in oilskin coats, smelling strongly of ta,r and tobacco- 
quid, hustle and bustle, against everything. Very com- 
fortable accommodation, had been erected specially for 
the animals near the engines, in the waist of the steamer. 
Esmeralda was feeding them with hay. 

When the gipsies were afterwards looking over the 
side of the vessel, they formed an interesting group. 
Then came the active steward, of the second cabin, who 
promised us to take care of them. The second steward 
was a small, but firmly-knit, active young fellow, who 
said he had been wrecked twice, in the old coat he was 
then wearing, and for which, therefore, he had a strong 
^fifection ; after saying he should go next winter to Cali- 
fornia, he left us to look after his many arrangements. 

We were informed that Sir Charles Mordaunt and 
also Lord Muncaster,* who had so narrowly escaped the 



* It may be that the noble descendant of the Penningtons owed his 
almost miraculous escape, to his possession of the curiously- wrought 
enameUed glass cup, given by King Henry the Vlth after the battle of 
Hexham, 1463, to his ancestor, Sir John de Pennington, knt, with a prayer 
that the family should ever prosper, and never want a male heir, as long as 
the cup remained unbroken. The cup is called the '' Luck of Muncaster," 
and Muncaster Castle, and its long broad winding terrace, commanding 
magnificent views over the vaUey of Eskdale, is one of those enchanted 
spots which we meet with in the picturesque county of Cumberland. It is 
singular that another family in Cumberland also possess a similar talisman, 
to which is attached a rare value, '' The Luck of EdenhaU,** belonging to 



TEE ZVCK OF MUKCA8TER 2:i 

Athenian brigands, had left Hull in the special etearaer 
for I%rtmdkfem on the previous evening. 

the andexit family of Mosgiaye. It is an old enamelled drinking glosSy 
said to have heen aeized in olden time by a Bntler of Eden Hall from 
«>me fairies he surprised dancing near St. Cuthbert's weU in the Park. 
The glass had been left by the fairies near the brink of the well, and the 
fairies, failing to TecoTer it^ yanished with the words ^ 

** If that glass either break or faU, 
Farewell the Luck of EdenhaU." 

An interesting acconnt is given of the "Luck of EdenhaU" in Roby*8 
interesting *< Tales and Traditions of Lancashire." 



CHAPTEBIV. 

'* Zakoa. It is welL 

You shall not long count days in weariness : 
Ere the full moon has waned again to new. 
We shall reach Almeria ; Berber ships 
Will take us for their freight^ and we shall go 
With plenteous spoil, not stolen, bravely won 
By service done on Spaniards. Do you shrink ? 
Aie you aught less than a Zincala ? " 

GFbobok Bliot's Spanith Gipty. 

ENGLAND'S FABEWELL — 8UHKER T0UBI8TS— THE CHEVALIER — SEAFARING 
— A GIPSY RECEPTION— CHANGE OP PLANS— NORWEGIAN PILOT — THE 
BIRMINGHAM BAGMAN — ^INDUCEMENT TO AUTHORSHIP — STRANGX WILLS 
— A SAILOR'S PHILOSOPHY— ICELANDIC LANGUAGE — PROGNOSTICATIONS. 

The steamer's saloon was elegantly fitted up. Bouquets 
of flowers shed their fragrance on each table ; books, 
pens, and ink had been supplied for the use of the 
voyagers. One passenger soon entered, carrying a long 
sword ; another — a French gentleman — ^followed, and ex- 
pressed a wish to be in the same cabin with his wife. Wo 
have pleasure in saying that we found the captain very 
agreeable, and courteous. 

The Albion steamer left the Hull docks at eight o'clock 
the same evening, being towed out by a steam-tug. The 
under-steward, went to meet some passengers, whose 
arrival was expected by a late train, but returned without 
having found them. The gipsies and ourself, as we stood 
looking over the bulwarks of the steamer, took our last 
view of the fading shore, and the steamer was soon fairly 



SUMMER T0UBI8TS. 27 

on her voyage. Our gipsies were almost famished ; but 

we managed to get them some tea, at nine o'clock, and 

they went off to bed 

Our cabin was one of the best in the steamer. We 
awoke as daylight dawned thioiigfa the open bull's-eye 
window of our upper berth. Not feeling decidedly well, 
or ill, we got up, to see how we were ; then we had some 
conyersation, with our fellow-passenger in the berth 
below. (We were the only two occupants of the cabin.) 
This traveller, who was invisible behind the curtain of 
his berth, informed us that he was going on business to 
Gottenberg ; while we told him, that we were going to 
make a tour, in the wilds of Norway. 

When we sought our gipsies, -we found that they were 
not up. In company with several of our fellow-passengers, 
we afterwards sat down to a capital breakfast provided 
for US in the saloon. The steamer had its usual comple* 
ment of travellers to Norway in summer — some for fish* 
ing, some for health, and some for business. 

One pale, gentlemanly passenger, whose acquaintance 
we made, had met with an accident to his leg. Another 
agreeable tourist, whom we will call Mr. C, was accom- 
panied by his wife — a tall young lady, with a Tyrolese 
hat and feather. A young invalid officer, just returned 
from Italy, had had the Roman fever, and was given up ; he 
had, however, recovered sufficiently to travel, and intended 
going to Lyngdal to join some friends. There were also 
two or three Norwegian gentlemen (one of them, a 
Chevalier de TOrdre de Wasa), a Scotch traveller with a 
large sandy beard, and a tall, portly gentleman, going to 
visit some friends near Christiania. 

Finding we had three donkeys on board, the Chevalier 



TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 



and another passenger accompanied us to see tliem. The 
first-named gentleman, was especially interested in our 
proposed excursion. How shall we describe him ? 



He was rather under middle height, thick-set, and 
strongly built ; and occasionally his countenance ex- 
pressed, much animation, and good-humoured energy. 
The information he possessed was extensive ; he spoke 
English perfectly ; had travelled much, and knew Scan- 
dinavia, and its people well. 

The donkeys were declared vei}' fine ones, Mpecially 
the large light-coloured animal, with a dark cross on its 
shoulders, long, finely-formed legs, and beautiful head. 
Tliis donkey was about six years old, and we called it 
the Puru Rawnee.* 

The next donkey, was a dark animal, five years old, 
strong, but not so finely formed; although not so spirited, 

* Puni Rawnee — old lady. 



SEAFARING. 99 

it endured all the fatigue of long travel, even better than 
its two companions ; we called it the Puro Rye.* 

The third was about four years old, with a beautiful 
head, very lively, and was called the Tamo Rye.f They 
seemed to relish the hay, and made themselves quite at 
home. 

The donkeys became objects of special interest, and 
the Puru Rawnee was much admired. Most of the pas- 
sengers had something to recount as to their impressions. 
A Norwegian gentleman said that they had no donkeys 
in Norway, which we afterwards found to be quite 
correct. Another good-humouredly said, that sixpence 
each ought to be charged, and the entrance closed. 
Many were the suggestions, and speculations, concerning 
them by the passengers, as they quietly puffed their 
cigars. The gentleman of the Roman fever, who seemed 
to be improving each hour, said in a significant manner, 
during a pause in the conversation, "You'll write a 
book; your experience will be interesting — ^you ought 
to write a book." 

We now went to find our gipsies, or what was left of 
tliem. Esmeralda was lying on the deck, with her head on 
a closed hatchway. She raised her head in a most doleful 
manner, and said, " Very bad, sir." Noah was lying 
next his sister, and sat up for a moment looking very 
wild. Zacharia was extended full length, perfectly speech- 
less. Evidently, they wished themselves on shore again. 

Great curiosity was excited among the passengers to 
see the gipsies. We explained, that they were in a very 
prostrate condition — in fact, quite unable to hold much 

* Poro Rye— old gentleman. In Turkish Romany, phura-old. 
t Tamo Rye — ^yonng gentleman. 



30 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

intercourse, with the outer world ; but at length we 
yielded, and introduced a party to them. The interview 
was short, and as our gipsies were still lying on the deck, 
and quite unable to do the honours of the reception, we 
soon left them in peace. The passengers were apparently 
much pleased with the introduction. 

They were real gipsies — ^gipsies who had all their life 
roamed England with their tents — ^none of your half-and- 
half caravan people — an effeminate race, who sleep in 
closed boxes, gaudily painted outside, with a stove, and a 
large fire within. Ours were nomads, who slept on the 
ground, and wandered with their tents, durmg every 
season of the year. 

The steward took care we did not starve. Our dinner 
was quite a success. The table groaned beneath the 
weight of soup, salmon, roast beef, veal, ducks and green 
peas, young potatoes, puddings, Stilton and Cheshire 
cheese, &c., with excellent claret from a Norwegian 
house at Chiistiania. ' 

The gipsies did not give much sign of revival. During 
the afternoon, we visited them now, and then, consoled 
them, and gave the steward orders, to let them have 
whatever they wanted. 

We had a long conversation, with the Chevalier, as to 
our route, through Norway. It had been our intention 
to make Christiansand our starting-point, go through 
the wilds of the Thelemarken, and visit again the Gousta 
Mountain, and the Rjukan Fos. The Chevalier sug- 
gested Christiania, as the best starting-point, taking 
railway to Eidsvold, where, he said, Presten Eilert Sundt 
resided. He then said, we could travel by road, or steamer, . 
to Lillehammer, and from thence through the Gud- 



NOBWEQIAN PILOT. 31 

brandsdaleiL He afterwards sketched out a very 
long and interesting route, having its termination at 
Christiansand, and ¥^e determined to follow as far as 
possible his suggestions. 

There were many inquiries by the passengers as to 
how the gipsies fared, and we went to see them again 
jnst before tea-time. Zacharia was in bed, and asleep ; 
Noah was just getting into bed ; and Esmeralda was 
m the second-class women's cabin, with some tea, and 
bread-and-butter before her, looking exceedingly poorly. 
The close proximity to a stout woman who was dread- 
fully sea-sick, was not enlivening. 

The Norwegian pilot, who was a good-tempered old 
man, had been much interested with the nails in the 
gipsies' boots ; when they were lying on the deck, he 
would sometimes stoop down to make a close inspection, 
as if he were counting them. He said nothing, but 
probably thought more. 

The occupant of our cabin, when we saw him, was a 
young man with an eye to ^business ; in fact, some ot 
the passengers averred aft;erwards, that he could calculate 
in a few moments, the exact amount, the steamer cost, to 
a fourpenny nail. He seemed, however, to be very well 
intentioned, in his inquisitive analysis of everybody, and 
everything. He was said by some one to be a Birming- 
ham bagman, whilst others said he was a wandering Jew ; 
but whether Jew or Gentile, he took a decided interest in 
the gipsies, and the donkeys, for which we suppose there 
was some excuse. He had dark hair, eyebrows, and beard, 
pale complexion, and generally walked with his hands in 
his pockets, and his shoulders screwed up to the back of 
his neck. His head, was inclined downwards, whilst he 



32 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

looked at you, with large rolling eyes, from under his 
bushy eyebrows, with a quick upward glance of inquiry. 
Now and then, he would walk off to see the donkeys, and 
report on his return, to the other passengers, his views 
as to their state of comfort, and happiness. 

Somehow his opinion, did not appear to have much 
weight with the other passengers — whether it was from 
want of intelligence on their part, or obscurity of per- 
ception, we could not say. At tea-time he sat opposite 
to us ; he dashed wildly into salad, and then said in a 
loud voice across the table, " I have seen your donkeys ; 
I should like to go with you." '* You seem to like them,'* 
we replied. "No!" exclaimed he, very wildly; "it is 
your gipsies' dark eyes." 

" He is insane,'' said the Chevalier, in an under tone, 
to which we readily assented. The bagman certainly 
did look wild ; and it inmiediately occurred to us that 
he slept under our berth, in the same cabin — not a lively 
contemplation, but we were determined, not to meet 
trouble halfway. 

We had entered up some of our notes, and had strolled 
on deck to enjoy the freshness of the sea-breeze, when 
we found ourselves one of a small party of passengers, 
whiling away the time, in pleasant conversation, in which 
our captain joined. 

"You must write a book," said the officer who had 
had the Roman fever. 

" And dedicate it to you?" we rejoined.. 

" I will take one copy," said one passenger. 

" I will take three copies," said our captain. 

" Ah ! " said another, " it should be on the saloon 
table." 



STRANG!! WILLS. 33 

*'And then," said another, "it will be interesting to 
know the fate of the three donkeys." 

We admitted that, after so much encouragement, we 
must write a book, and dedicate it to the officer, who 
had had the Roman fever. 

Several anecdotes were related. One passenger said, 
" There was a house near Hyde Park, which formerly 
belonged to an old gentleman, who left his property to 
trustees on certain truste, provided they buried him on 
the top of his house."* Several instances were told of 
persons desiring in their wiUs to be buried in their 
garden ; and one or two cases were mentioned where the 
wish had been disregarded. 

The weather became rainy, and our compagnons de 
voyagey sought shelter elsewhere. We, however, still 

* Although the account, edngular as it is, receives very general credence, 
and the place of sepulture, on the roof of the mansion near Hyde Park, is 
even pointed out, we must say, that a literary friend, who devoted some 
time to the inquiry, discredits the truth. In a letter written by a near 
relative of the titled possessor, which we have seen, it is stated, that the 
account is correct, and it is also stated, that the property, for that reason, 
was purchased for a lower price. The matter therefore remains involved 
in some mystery. We have since been informed by a cleigyman, that he 
weU remembers being told, of the sepulture of a body, on a house near 
Clapham Junction, on the London and South- Western Railway. Another 
instance has also been mentioned to us, as occurring in one of the midland 
counties. At the last moment, but in time to find a record in this note, 
a friend has kindly sent us the foUowing facts, illustrative of our page 
heading, '^ Strange Wills." At Stevenage, in Hertfordshire, a pleasantly 
situated place on the High North Boad, about eleven miles from Hertford, 
a resident, Henry Trigg, having peculiar ideas about the resurrection, left 
his property to his heirs, upon condition, and in trust, that they put him in 
an oak coffin, and placed his body on the rafters of his bam, attached to 
the Old Castle Public House, in the parish of Stevenage. There he was 
placed in 1724, and there he now remains. In the time when coaches 
stopped at the Old Castle Public House, there were many traveUers on the 
Qreat Northern Boad. The old oak coffin was then a lion of the place, and 
brought grist to the landlord of the inn. Even now it is occasionaUy 
visited by the curious. 



34 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

clung to the fresh sea-air, and as we paced the deck near 
the wheel, we could not help observing the silent seaman, 
gazing intently in solemn earnestness, on his compass, as 
if, like Dr. Dee, he noted many things, within a magic 
crystal. He was a good-looking, though weather-beaten 
man, with a dark moustache. 

In answer to an observation we made, as to the 
weather, he said, " Well, sir, I never felt it so cold as it 
was last Sunday — not even in the Baltic last winter, 
when I had ice, an inch thick on my back. Why, I had 
three coats on last Sunday T' 

We then remarked, that there were few accidents on 
the line of steamers. 

'* Accidents you think seldom occur on this line ? Well, 
I don't know. There was the Echo last winter ; not a 
soul saved ! Fve slipped four in my time, as have soon 
after gone down," 

" You've been lucky,*' said we. • 

" Lucky ? Well — if there is such a thing as luck ; but 
I think Providence ordains all things; I believe all 
things are ordained for us.'' Many sailors we have met, 
have been men of deep religious feeling ; below a rough 
surface, we have often found much true piety. 

The Chevalier still remained on deck, and we had a 

a 

long conversation about Iceland. The Icelandic lan- 
guage is the same as the old Norwegian language ; but 
he told us that it is difficult for one who speaks only 
modern Norwegian, to leam Icelandic. In Iceland, he 
said, they were great snuff-takers ; it was calculated that 
each person took 2lbs. of snuff per head each year. Like 
the Scotch, they had their mulls or snuff-horns. 

At twelve o'clock on this day, the thermometer stood 



PBOGNOSTICATIONS. 35 

at 62.° Tlie ladies had scarcely appeared ; they generally 
suffer more than gentlemen. 

It was nearly twelve at night when we entered our 
cabin to go to bed. The occupant of the second berth 
was invisible, but not asleep ; and he asked whether we 
objected to have the cabin-door open. We were only 
too glad to oblige him, and with the bull's-eye window 
open also, we had an agreeable atmosphere. 

His mind was apparently still dwelling upon the 
gipsies. An interrogating voice issued from the lower 
berth, as we were preparing to go to bed. 

" I suppose you have been writing yo\ir diary? '' 

"Yes.'* 

" Well, I suppose you will write a book ? I ^vill take 
two copies. Have you a bed or a mattrass in your tent ?" 

"No!" 

"That would not do for me. I should have an air 
bed to keep you off the ground. You will probably stay 
a day or two at Christiania ? I suppose the gipsy girl 
will cook for you ? She will suffer, and be ill, won't she ? 
You will have much trouble with her." 

» 

We informed him she had more spirit, and was quite 
as strong as her brothers. 

Our fellow-passenger again continued, "Where did 
you engage them ? " 

We answered, we had known them some tune, and 
they were attached to us ; and then, wishing him good- 
night, we left him to pursue his dreams of the gipsies' 
dark eyes, which had evidently made an impression upon 
him. 

Our shrewd calculator was evidently under the gipsies' 
spell. 

D 2 



CHAPTER V. 

** Que vent dire ce mot la, Bsmeralda f " 
" Je ne sais pas,'' dit-elle. 
** A quelle langue appartient-il V* 
" C'est de Tfigyptien, je crois." 

Notre Dame de Paris, par Viotob Hrao. 

** What is the meaning of the name Esmeralda V* 

" I don't know," said she. 

** To what language does it belong ?" 

" It is Egyptian, I believe." 

A seaman's adventures — THE UNFORTUNATE TOURIST — ^AN AFT QUOTA- 
TION — FREEMASONRT — CHRISTIAN8AND — PAST RECOLLECTIONS — THE 
RUNIC STONE—OVERPATMENT— TWO SALMON FISHERMEN — ^A TRAVEL- 
LER'S CURIOSITY — NORWEGIAN SNAKES — SCENERY — WE ARE ONE — 
GOLDEN OPINIONS. 

On Sunday morning, the 19th of June, we rose at four 
o'clock, and went on deck. The morning was cloudy ; 
not a passenger to be seen. The seaman at the helm 
received our salutation. This one did not possess a 
moustache, but he had his say, and said it. He philo- 
sophised thus. His wages were not 4Z. a month. " 41." 
said he, '' I ought to have ; but if I did not take less, 
they would ship men at Si. who would. There were 300 
men in the Custom House at Hull who never did more 
than two hours' work a day. They had not got it for 
them to do. He had been to California, and had, by 
gold digging, accumulated in a few months 350?. — was 
stuck-up coming down the country — lost all — shipped to 
'alparaiso, got about 80?., and set up in business. The 



lEE VNFORTXTNAtE TOURlST. 47 

Spaniards and the Chilians had a row, and he walked off 
and lost everything. Had not done much— did not know 
where a man could go to make money — England was 
overcrowded. They were emigrating now from Norway, 
to the United States and Canada. Had tried Australia, 
but did nothing there. Had seen men in Sydney who 
were walking about, and could not get more than two 
hours' work. Thought it best to stick to England, though 
he could not get higher wages ; but, somehow," said he 
(finishing up) as he gave the wheel a pull, " we seem to 
be all going along together ; I suppose we shall come 
out at some gate, or other. It beats me, but I suppose 
it will be all right at last." 

We took advantage of early hours — our diary pro- 
gressed. Leave nothing to memory, but that page of 
perception, which gilds the past, with a thousand golden 
spangles. The tints of remembrance, give more genial 
hue. As a record of truth, the facts must be rigidly 
noted ; they must have instant impress, if they are to be 
of value. 

One by one, passengers appear in the saloon from their 
cabins. The Scotch tourist with a large sandy beard 
enters. He was one in search of health, and had by 
accident fallen thirty-seven feet, which nearly killed him. 
Could not speak Norwegian — had been very sea-sick — 
was going through Norway — ^thought the fall had injured 
iis head — felt very unwell, and looked it. 

We get a cup of tea at 7 "30. At eight o*clock, 
stewards make their appearance, and bustle about. The 
morning began to clear ; passengers assemble at break- 
fast in larger numbers and in better spirits. A fine day 
is expected. 



38 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Many inquiries are made after our gipsies and donkeys. 
The gipsies were still unwell. Esmeralda managed some 
beefsteak and tea as she lay on deck. The gipsies had 
our best encouragement. 

The barrister and the officer recovered from the Roman 
fever (a member of the Naval and Military Club) were 
both charmed with our gipsies' names. 

The officer especially so, and gave occasionally, the 
following recitation : — 

'' Upon a time it came to pass 

That these two brothers die did ; 
They laid Tobias on his back, 
And Ezekiel by his side did." 

This quotation from a popular song, was considered a 
very apt illustration, of the probable fate, of our two 
gipsies, Noah and Zacharia, before the expedition was 
ended. 

The Birmingham bagman, was soon seen hovering on 
the narrow bridge, leading to the forecastle above the 
waist of the steamer. At times, .he leaned upon the 
handrail, and would look down upon the deck below, 
where our gipsies reclined. Sometimes after gazing at 
them, he made some observation to Esmeralda. Occa- 
sionally he came to us, and was exceedingly anxious 
about the donkeys. 

So frequently did he come, and so many were his 
suggestions, that at last we began to fear, we should be 
in the same melancholy position, as Sinbad the Sailor, 
with the Old Man of the Sea. 

The passengers seemed most pleased with the name of 
Esmeralda. The portly English gentleman said it was a 
gipsy queen's name. The barrister often hummed an air 



CHBI8TIAN8AND. 39 

firom a favourite opera called " Esmeralda," which had 
been brought out in London that very season. 

The Chevalier was in excellent spirits at dinner. He 
had been engaged upon a diplomatic mission to England. 
We discovered ourselves as Freemasons, which led to our 
taking champagne together at dinner. 

A yoimg Norwegian, who spoke English exceedingly 
well, and his English wife, sat near us. 

The day had gradually become bright and lovely. The 
steamer approached Christiansand. In the afternoon, we 
sighted its forts. The town looked smiling, as if to wel- 
come us from the ocean. Several passengers were going 
on shore : the portly gentleman, the oflScer who had had 
the Roman fever, the Chevalier, and ourselves and gipsies 
descended into a boat. The fare when we landed was 
16 skillings. The officer was going to some place near 
Lyngdal. We left him at the Custom House, passing his 
baggage. As he wished ourselves, and gipsies good-bye, 
his last words were, " Remember, I must have a copy of 
your book." We hope before this, he has recovered, and 
is able to read these pages. 

The houses of Christiansand are of wood ; the streets 
are broad, the pavement, when not Macadamized, often 
rough and uneven. The town had wonderftdly improved 
since our last visit. 

Christiansand recalled to mind the time, when a friend 
and ourself, once landed there from England. We had 
sailed in a small fishing-smack, commanded by Captain 
Dixon. It was our first visit to Norway. We stayed 
at the Scandinavian Hotel, kept by Madame Lemcou- 
The hotel was very like a private house. No one spoke 
English. Well, we remember our difficulties, and the 



40 TENT LIFE IN NOMWAY. 

kind old inhabitant, who called upon us. He had no 
doubt come to place his knowledge of the country at our 
service. His stock of English consisted of " your most 
humble obedient servant," which he often repeated. Our 
knowledge of Norwegian, at that time was in comparison, 
scarcely more extensive, so that our interview, ended 
much as it began. 

We rambled with our gipsies through the town. It 
was a sunny evening. The inhabitants were also en- 
joying their evening promenade. Although wann, and 
pleasant, scarcely any of the windows of the houses, were 
opened for ventilation. The sides of the wooden houses 
were often covered with weather-boards, and painted. 
Esmeralda, with her dark raven hair, and eyes ; Noah, 
with his tall figure ; Zacharia decorated with a flaming 
yellow " dicklo '' (gipsy handkerchief) flaunting round his 
neck in gipsy fashion, were severally scanned by curious 
observers as we passed. Noah heard one person say in 
English, ** How healthy-looking they are ! " We could 
not help being amused, at the puzzled expression of some, 
not excepting several young soldiers we met. 

We walked round the cathedral, which was not im^ 
proved by wljiitewash, and possessed no chef d'oeuvre 
of sculptured ornament, to make us linger in our con- 
templation. 

The old Runic stohe in the churchyard of Oddemoes 
Church, we had before visited. Noah — whose ideas no 
doubt connected most views with sites for a camp — 
pointed out one highly suitable on the bank of the 
Torrisdals Elv. Time wore away, and we at length 
made our way quickly down to the boats, waiting at the 
rough wooden piers of the harbour. 



OVERPAYMENT, 41 

We had a boat to ourselves. Esmeralda sat with us 
at the stern — her two brothers sat on the seat opposite. 
As the boatman rowed us from the shore, we thought 
iiow strangely, we wander through the world, as we 
follow the high road of life. When we reached the 
AJbion steamer, many passengers were looking over the 
^ide of the vessel. We had no small change, when we 
went on shore, but the portly gentleman kindly lent us 
the necessary amount. On our return it was necessary 
to pay the boatman. We gave him the smallest change 
we had, which was a quarter of a dollar, and then 
ascended the gangway with our gipsies. 

The Birmingham bagman had been watching us. 
'' Ah V said he, coming up, as we stepped on deck, " why 
you gave the man too much. I saw you give a large 
piece of silver to him. He pulled off hicj hat to you. 
You spoil them." We explained that we had no change. 
"But," said he, in a state of excitement, "you spoil 
them." We trusted it would do the boatman good, and 
left him, to communicate his ideas of pecuniary compen- 
sation, to some one else. 

This he appears to have done ; for very shortly after 
the Chevalier coming on board, grossly infringed, the 
bagman^s scale of payment, and he came in for another 
Btorm of indignant remonstrance. 

Monsieur le Chevalier, whose quiet humour nothing 
could disturb, asked the excited bagman, why he did 
not give the boatman the English half-crown he wanted 
to get rid of? "Can you give me any discount?" 
shouted the bagman, infiiriated. The Chevalier calmly 
answered, " Your appearance shows me, that you can 
give me nothing to discount upon." The bagman rushed 



42 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

off, and we found him some short time after, when we 
went into our cabin, lying in his berth. 

" I have had a row with that Dutchman," said he, 
beginning to unfold his melancholy history, when we 
advised him to mind his own aflfairs, and went on deck. 

Two gentlemen came on board at Christiansand, 
whom we at once noted as salmon fishermen. Both 
were handsome, though slightly past the meridian of 
life. One was taller than his companion, with a com- 
plexion, darkly bronzed in the summer's sun, and by 
exposure to the fresh air. He had been on board a very 
few minutes, when we entered into conversation. His 
companion, and himself, had been at Mandal, salmon- 
fishing, but the weather was hot, and the water low, and 
clear. The largest salmon they had taken wag 181bs. 
My expedition incidentally became partly known in con- 
versation. He seemed much interested. We showed 
him our donkeys, and he seemed to think our expedition 
a heavy cost. Very shortly after, when we had parted, 
our gipsies came on the after-deck, and said a gentleman 
in a velvet jacket had sent for them. We told them to 
return, and soon after saw Mr. T. interrogating Noah 
on the fore-deck. We were rather annoyed at the time, 
that any one should send for our people and question 
them as to who their master was, and his name. When 
we saw Noah afterwards, he said, " I told him nothing, 
sir. He asked your name, and I told him 'Harper.' " 
Afterwards Mr. T. again joined us on deck, with the 
portly gentleman and the ban-ister in search of health. 
Mr. T. was afraid of sleeping on the ground, and having 
rheumatism. He mentioned an American method — a 
kind of frame which kept you completely off the grouud, 



NORWEGIAN SNAKES. 43 

and folded into a small compass. We described our 
tent, and many questions were asked about our method 
of camping, which we explained. Most seemed very 
anxious to know, how we became acquainted with our 
gipsies. But we merely said that our interest in the 
kut-dwelling races, had thrown us in contact with them. 
The portly gentleman informed us that a species of viper 
existed in Norway, but the snakes were not numerous. 
He said he was once in the Thelemarken * district, and 
having put up the horses in a shed, he lay down on the 
turf. Some time afterwards when he got up, a small 
viper, was found clinging to his coat, which, falling off, 
the peasants cut it into pieces and burnt each piece 
separately, since they have an idea that if the pieces 
get together, the viper can piece itself again. When he 
afterwards got into his carriole to continue his journey, 
he felt a shivering sensation between his shoulders most 
of the day. Mr. T. asked a variety of questions, about 
our commissariat, and what we were taking, and seemed 
much interested in the expedition. We gave him the 
best information we could. He was one of the best 
types of an Englishman we met with in Norway. 

The passengers began to recover. The steamer had 
been nearly two days at sea. The evening was beautiful. 
We had been charmed with the rocks tinged with reddish 
hue, rising in picturesque outline, from the Topdals Fjord. 
The fringed pine woods of the shore, were mirrored upon 
the almost motionless water, of the Norwegian frith. 

The passengers were now more numerous at tea. Some 
ladies joined us. All were looking forward to their arrival 
the next morning at Christiania. 

* Sometimes spelt Telemarken. 



41 TENT LIFE lH NORWAY. 

It was delicious as we strolled on deck. What a 
pleasant freedom there is upon the sea, away from the 
hum, and noise, of the great human struggle, of many 
minds, in populous cities ! What bitterness and strife, 
misery and evil, we had left far behind us ! 

Ah we paced the deck in the delightful contemplation, 
of a summer's eve at sea, we could not help noticing, 
Mr. C. and his wife, with the Tyrolese hat and feather. 
They were seated side by side on the deck, with their 
backs towards us. In silence, they appeared lost in 
happy contemplation. The surrounding light of circum- 
stances seemed to say, " We are one ! " How pleasurable 



should be the feelings of two liearts firmly united, hold- 
ing, as it were, silent communion with each other. By 
a few touches of the pencil, in our small note-book, we 
caught their outline. We felt %ve were in the hallowed 
precincts of true love, and retired to another part of the 
vessel, lest we should disturb their happy dream. 

We again lounged near the man at the helm. There 
stood the sailor, with his compass before him, aa the 



aOLDEN OPINIONS, 45 

vessel glided onwards from England's shore. This sea- 
man was not one of our former friends, but he was a 
rough, honest-looking, thick-set, hardy fellow; one of 
those men, who carry honesty written in their counte- 
nance. " Well, sir, I hope you will have a pleasant time 
of it," said he. We thanked him for his good wishes, 
" That young lady,'' continued he, alluding to Esmeralda 
" has had more than one talking to her. There's that 
one, sir," said he, looking towards the Birmingham 
bagman, who was walking about in the distance, with 
his hands thrust deep in his trousers' pockets as usual ; 
" and there's another that is just gone. But she is not 
oue of that sort ; she let them go so far, and then she 
stopped them short. She's a very good young girl. They 
have had a good education ; " and he gave his wheel 
another tug, as if to clinch the observation. 



CHAPTER YI. 

" Fne M tlie vinds tlut tlinnigh the forest nuh— 

Wild as the flowen that bj the way-side blush. 
' Childxen of na tme -^i a iideriiig to and fro, 

Man knows not whence je come, nor where ye go. 

like foreign weeds cut np on western strands, 

Whieh sionny waTcs have borne from unknown lands ; 

like mnrmnzing shells to fsncy's ear that tell 

The mystic secrets of their ocean cell." 

TktGiptia, I>EAH Staklkt's Prize Pom. 

^ARIXra's UFK — ^THB EVASIVB ANSWER — A, TRUE PRESENTIMENT — THE 
KINO OF SWEDKH AND NORWAY— THE BEAUTIFUL FJORI>— GIPSY 
XUSIC — A CUSIOM-ROUSB DI7FICULTT — ANOTHER FREEMASON — AP- 
PSOPBIATB TSBSKS — CHRI8TIANIA — HORSE MONET — 17, STORE 



The stewards were excellent. One had been ship- 
wrecked several times. "Rough work in winter, sir. 
Most on the line get lost At Hull most of the young 
men who go to sea are drowned." Not very encouraging 
information, thought we, but such are the chances of a 
seaman's life. Having sent our gipsies to bed, we retired 
om^selves. About twelve o'clock our first doze was dis- 
turbed by a noise in our cabin. Looking round, we saw 
the bagman with a bottle in his hand. He was taking 
Laniplough's pyretic saline, which he strongly recom- 
mo»»^ ^ i^^ headache, or to set you right after drinking. 
A is draught, he disappeared into his berth. 

(i T was 66°, with both port-holes open. 

^mmended to look out for beautiful 



A TRUE PRESENTIMENT. *' 

scenery, at about seven o'clock the next morning. When 
we went on deck, at an early hour, the weather was damp 

and cloudy. 

Some time afterwards we had a chat on deck, with our 
f llow-passenger the barrister. He was going to Chris- 
tiania and from thence by the coast steamer to the North 
Cape.' The coast excursion is a very pleasbg one. Our 
fellow-passenger was full of anecdotes and mfonnation. 
Mr. T., after examining our gipsy, Noah, had said to the- 
barrister, " I find that tl»e gentleman's name is Harper." 
" You are quite in error, I can assure you," said th<' 
barrister, " the gipsies have only been cramming you." 
Mr. T. appeared much astonished, and we sad it was 
only what he could expect ; and, although not done in- 
tentionally, it was not exactly the right way to acquire 
information ; and any one doing so would not get much 
for their trouble. We had risen at four o'clock. Our 
portly fellow-passenger, was also up soon after, and wish- 
ing us good-bye, descended with his portmanteau into a 
boat, and left; the steamer. This he did to save time, 
not wishmg to go to Christiania. We found afterwards 
that a young Norwegian in the second cabin, would have 
gladly availed hnnself of the same boat.- He had been 
absent eight years firom his home, and fiiends, and was 
anxious to see them as soon as possible. 

When he afterwards arrived at Christiania, he said, " I 
have a dread, that I shall hear some bad news." After a 
short absence from the steamer, he again returned. His 
worst fears were but too true, and he sat down, and cried 
very much. Such are the melancholy scenes of life, 
meeting us at every turn, and sadly remind us, of the 
short existence of all things m this world. 



48 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

The early morning was rather damp and wet. The 
passengers were up in good time. Our gipsies we found 
as gay and sprightly, as they had been before ill, and 
prostrate. Mr. T. still seemed delighted with our expe- 
dition, and visited from time to time our gipsies, with his 
friend, whom we took for his brother. We mustered 
well at breakfast, under the presidency, of our polite 
captain. When we had finished, and returned on deck, 
our. title to be recognised as an accepted mason, after a 
very rigid and searching ordeal, was at length acknow- 
ledged, by Monsieur le Chevalier, who was exceedingly 
particular. 

From various circumstances, we had not been lately to 
our lodge in London. We still retained pleasant remi- 
niscences of former visits, and especially of our reception, 
at those Lodges we once visited in Paris, with our old 
friend the Chevalier M.* His Majesty the King of Sweden 
and Norway is now one of the most distinguished masons 
in Europe. May he long hold the proud position, of being 
a monarch, whose power rests upon the aflfections, of a 
free, and noble-hearted people.! 

The conversation at breakfast, was lively and animated. 

* Csesar Moreau, Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneor, was the author of 
' Precis BUT la Franc-Ma9onnerie ; son Oiigine, son Histoiie, ses Doctrines^ 
&c" Also the founder of the Soci^t^ de Statistique UniverseUe, et de 
TAcad^mie de Tlndustrie Fian9ai8e ; also Member of the Royal Society, 
and many other learned societies in Europe. 

t His Majesty, the noble-hearted Carl XV., patron of literature and 
art, himself an author, was bom 3rd May, 1826, and died, after a severe 
illnesR, in the noontide of his life, at Malmoe, in Sweden, on the IStli 
September, 1872, mourned and sincerely regretted by his attached subjects. 
The King was the eldest son of Oscar I., and grandson of the celebrated 
French General Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte ,Corvo, who ascended the 
throne in 1818 as Carl XIV. His Majesty Carl XY. was buried on the 9th 
October, 1872, in Ritterholm Church, and is succeeded by his brother, the 
Duke of Ostergdtland, under the title of Oscar II. 



GIPSY MUSIC. 49 

Most of the passengers were in good spirits, and seemed 
delighted witli the bright anticipations, of their approach- 
ing wanderings, over fjeld and fjord. Even the Birming- 
ham bagman was better, and we noticed him, at some 
distance from us, feeding Ins beard, in a most reckless 
maimer with egg. 

WTiat a delightful scene presented itself after break- 
fast ! From the steamer's deck, we gazed on the beautiful 
fjord, calm and glistening in the sun. The cloudy morn- 
ing was now changed — all was lovely, and filled the heart 
with a dreamy sensation of pleasure. Rocky shores, 
wooded islands, secluded maisonettes, and dark pine 
woods, extended as far as the eye could reach, into the 
l^oimdless distance of endless woodland — one eternity of 
nature, which reminded us of the stanza : — 

" There is a pleasure in the pathless woods ; 
There is a rapture on the lonely shore ; 
There is society where none intrudes 
By the deep sea, and music in its roar.'' 

Soon after breakfast Mr. T. came to us, and said, " I 
have asked your young man to play his violin, and he 
very properly says he cannot do so, without your permis- . 
sion." Mr. T. was anxious to hear them play; we there- 
fore at once gave our consent. Noah came for one of 
the Regent Street tambourines, then in our cabin, and in 
a very short time the gay sounds of violin and tambourine, 
were heard in the Christiania Fjord. Our gipsies were 
grouped below the fore-deck, the sun was shining. The 
travellers and sailors seemed much amused. " Why you 
are travelling with your band ! *' said some of the pas- 
sengers. Nor shall we forget the tall form of our gipsy, 
Noah, with his hat placed jauntily on one side his head, 
as he rattled the tambourme, with a verve, and feeling 



60 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

which only one, of wild, strong passions can do. Mr. T. 
came up. " I like your idea very much," said he ; " and 
I suppose that young gipsy girl, will cook for you. I 
admire her boots ; they are something like boots. What 
a difference,'' whispered he, as a genteel, ladylike 
passenger, passed near, whose small, thin, elaborately- 
worked, fashionable boots, with high heels, and small 
rosettes, just above the toes, certainly did not appear, 
fitted to promote, the elasticity of the footstep, or comfort 
of the wearer, among the Norwegian fjelds and fjords. 

Then we had much speculation as to the astonishment 
of the Norwegian people, when they saw our donkeys. 
We were informed that the Chevalier's father, had once 
possessed the only donkey in Norway. This animal had 
long since been dead, and Norway had been left without 
a single donkey in all the land. Some said we ought to 
make a charge for exhibiting them to the peasantry, and 
an animated discussion took place, as to the amount 'of 
duty to be paid, before they could be landed. One said 
it would be the same as upon horses ; another said that . 
the duty could not be the same as upon horses, and 

» 

they would have nothing to pay. Some passengers ex- 
pressed an opinion, that they would have to pass a law in 
the Storthing, to assess the amount of duty, before we 
could possibly land them, and it might cost us 201. to get 
them through. 

As we approached Christiania, and our voyage was 
nearly over, we had our account to discharge with the 
stewards. Our gipsies cost quite a fortune. If they had 
been ill at first, their appetites must have been ravenous, 
towards the close of the voyage. The steward had been 
told, to let them have everything they wanted to eat, and 



A FREEMASOy. 51 

to drink ; we could not, therefore, say much, so settled 
the bill. Both stewards, hoped we should come back in 
tlie same vessel, and took some trouble to give us the 
dates of sailing, from Christiansaiid. It was then our 
mteution to take the steamer from Christiansand, at the 
end of the summer. 

We met with another freemason on the morning we 
landed at Christiania, whom we beheve was chief en- 
gineer — a very stout-built man, with a kind, amiable 
disposition, whose every word rang, of open-heartedness, 
and benevolence. He had a jolly, merry wife, and a 
French poodle dog, which, of course, begged, and was as 
intelligent, as those animals usually are. We became 
very good friends. Before we landed he gave us a news- 
paper, containing some verses, which, if we remember 
right, were written by some man going to be hung. 
Unfortunately, we have mislaid the gift. Our friend said 
the verses had struck his wife, and himself, as being 
most appropriate to the wanderings of ourself, and the 
young people. They wished us all success, which we 
sincerely reciprocated. 

In the second cabin there was also a sea captain, and 
his wife, from AustraUa — very kind people to our 
gipsies ; in fact, we could not help feeling, some tinge of 
regret, that we were so soon to leave. Yet we were on 
the threshold of camp.Ufe. We were about to continue 
our former wanderings. The thread broken elsewhere, 
was to be resumed in Norway. We must admit, that 
the allurements of fresh scenes of nomadic life, softened 
our separation, and gave us new hopes for the approach- 
ing campaign. 
Our baggage was mounted on deck, as we approached 

E 2 



62 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Christiania. Very soon we had the city of Christiania 
in full view, with the King's palace, and castle of Agers- 
huus.* We could scarcely account for the feeling, but 
Christiania seemed to wear a pleasant, homelike aspect, 
which we liked. It was probably eleven o'clock when 
the steamer arrived. A number of the inhabitants had 
arrived on the pier. Mr. Bennett was there. Time had 
favoured him, for he looked stronger, and we might say 
younger, than when we were last at Christiania. One 
of the first incidents before landing was a solicitation for 
horse-money. It seems to be a kind of payment cus- 
tomary for the benefit of the sailors ; and it was hoped 
that the donkeys, although not horses, would still entitle 
the sailors to its payment. Wc had enjoyed such a plea- 
sant voyage, and were in such good temper, with all 
on board, that we did not raise any objection to the 
remuneration. 

What a quaint, foreign-looking court-yard you enter 
as you seek Mr. Bennett. Numbers of carrioles are 
crowded together at the end of the court, ready for 
distant journeys. Then you ascend some steps, to a 
wooden balcony, and enter his suite of rooms. One large 
room is completely full of Norwegian silver relics — 
tankards, belts of a past age, carvings, paintings, en- 
gravings, photographs of Norwegian scenery, maps, 
books, and all sorts of articles, illustrative of the manners, 
and customs of the Norwegians, of ancient and modern 
time. We seem to have wandered into a dream-land 

• Hoyland, the Robin Hood of Nor\i'ay, after three years' patient perse- 
verance, effected a clever escape, from the Agershuas. Being again retaken 
afterwards, he ultimately died, within the walls of this castle. It is said 
that some of his treasure is still buried in the fjelds of Norway, where he 
had deposited, his spoils for safety. 



17, SfOHE SfRANDOADE. 53 

of ancient sagas, and ten to one you meet other spirits 
who are doing the same. 

Mr. Bennett, the presiding genius of the place, had 
probably ceased to be astonished at any mode of travel- 
ling an Englishman might adopt. Williams had landed 
with his knapsack, which resulted in an interesting work, 
having the additional value, of giving a correct entry, of 
the expenses of his expedition. MacGregor came eti 
route to Sweden, with his canoe, and wrote another 
interesting work. Now an Englishman comes with 
gipsies and donkeys ! What next ? * The worthy Eng- 
lish consul, and chargerd^ affaires^ who so well represents 
our country, was absent from Christiania, but we were 
introduced to his son. When he heard of our retinue, 
grave doubts as to our safety, apparently crossed hia 
mind. He seemed to think it improbable, we should 
return to our friends. It could scarcely be expected, that 
Mr. Bennett could advise us, upon the best camping 
grounds, but we must ever feel grateful remembrance to 
him, for the trouble he took, to pass our things through 
the Custom-house, and forward those left behind to 
Eidsvold. 

The cicerone provided for us by the Chevalier, dined with 
US at the Victoria Hotel, Raadhuusgaden. The day was 
lovely. We found some of our fellow-passengers, already 
seated at the tahle d'hdte. 

* Two intrepid French travellers afterwards landed from their ballooD, 
" La Ville d'Orleans." Captain Rolier and Emile Cartailliac, during the 
siege'of Paris, ascended from that city, on the night of the 24th November, 
1870j and after a perilous voyage of adventure, across the sea, they ulti- 
mately descended in Norway, on the snows of the Lidfjeld, in the Thele- 
ntarken. The two aeronauts received shelter, and assistance from the two 
mountaineers, Clas and Harold Strand ; and with the welcome and hos- 
pitality of an ever-generous people, they were enabled to leave Christiania, 
and reach in safety their native land. 



CHAPTEE Vn. 

'* Gipsies, although long foi^otten, and despised, have claims which 
we must not resist. Their eternal destinies, their residence in our own 
land, point us to a line of conduct we ought to pursue. They show 
that Crod expects us, to be interested for them, and to impart to them, 
the crumbs which fall from our table.'* 

** The GipsUn.** By a Clergyman of the Church of England. 

THE VICl'ORIA HOTEL— THE gipsies' FRIEND — THE PAS8E-PABT0UT— PRESTEN 
EILERT SUNDT — ^THE CHRI8TIANIA RAILWAY— OUR DONKEYS APPRE- 
CIATED — GIPSY SPIRIT — THE "TOLK" — NORWEGIAN MONEY — LIN- 
GUISTIC DIFFICUTIES — GIPSY AUTHORS — GIPSY NUMERALS— DEPARTURE 
FROM CHRISTIANIA. 

There is often a pleasant sociability at a table d^hdte. 
Mr. T. was there, the invalid barrister, the tall Scotch- 
nian, and other travellers. Nor was the Bu'mingham 
bagman absent, as the background to throw out the 
lively tints of life's experience. Mr. T. and the hamster 
sat near us. Mr. T. was delighted with our plan of 
seeing -Norway, saying it was just what he should like. 
Time passed quickly. We hastily terminated our dmner, 
with some excellent Chateau-de-la-Rose claret, and then 
bade our fellow-travellers farewell. As we left the table, 
we saw the Birmingham bagman mournfully contemplat- 
ing his fork. Whether he was going to use it as a 
toothpick, or whether he was calculating its cost, or 
whether he was hesitating, as to the possibility of sleep- 
ing in a tent without a bed, we know not. Whatever 



THE GIPSIES' FRIEND. 65 

his thoughts may have been, we could have no un- 
friendly feeling at parting, especially after his extreme 
anxiety for the comfort of our donkeys, his admiration of 
Esmeralda's dark eyes, and his liberal oflFer, to take two 
copies of our book. Be this as it may, we trust by some 
mysterious method of calculation, he will make a hand- 
some profit to himself. 

We found that Presten Eilert Sundt had not yet re- 
moved to Eidsvold. The Chevalier kindly gave us a letter 
of introduction to him, and we drove at once to his resi- 
dence in the suburbs of Christiania, which we reached at 
about four o'clock. Ascending a large staircase, in a few 
minutes we were shown into Presten Sundt's sitting- 
room. The " gipsies' friend " was seated at his writing- 
table, with his books, papers, and various accessories, 
indicating active, and literary tastes. We met as two 
spirits, who, though taking far separate paths in life, had 
the same results in view — ^the same end to accomplish. 
Nor could we help being impressed with the energy 
written so strongly on his countenance. His forehead 
surmounted by thick, bristly hair, gave additional deter- 
mination, to an expressive look, tempered by gleams of 
strong feeling. Then we discovered the combination of 
great energy, with a deep interest in the welfare of his 
fellow-men. When Presten Sundt had read the Cheva- 
lier's letter, we at once explained that our time was 
limited, and we should shortly take the train from Chris- 
tiania to Eidsvold. Many were his inquiries about the 
English gipsies. The Norwegian gipsies, he said, were 
difi&cult to meet with. Presten Sundt, said a traveller 
had called upon him last year when he was from home ; 
Mrs. Sundt received the visitor, who said he was much 



56 TENT LIFE IS HORWAY, 

interested in gipsies, and before he left gave the name of 
Viscount Monroe. Presten Siindt showed us the works 
he had written, and their practical value cannot be too 
highly estimated. Foreseeing the many difficulties, our 
small gipsy party might encounter, in a strange country, 
Presten Sundt wrote out, signed, and sealed a document 
which he delivered to us. It was a kind oi passe-partout, 
requesting his countrymen at all times to give us aid 
and assistance, and a kindly reception was ensured. The 



name of Presten Eilert Sundt, was so well known, in the 
length, and breadth, of Norway's land, that a few words 
were the " open sesame " of our excursion, and possessed 
a talismanic value, we must always appreciate. Presten 
Eilert Sundt introduced us to Mrs. Sundt and his son. 
Coffee was brought in, but, alas! our time liad expired. 
Presten Sundt regretted our hasty departure, and suddenly 
decided to accompany us to the station and bring his son. 
We all stepped into tJie carriage, still in waiting, and 



TEE CBRISTIANIA RAILWAY. 57 

drove towards the station. En route our conversation 
was continued upon the subject of jfipsies. We sug- 
;;ested^ that in order to utilise the energy, and ability of 
tlie gipsy race, those paths in life, should be selected, in 
harmony with their previous habits. The descendants of 
[generations of tent-dwellers, could not be turned into 
lairengroes^ or house-dwellers, by a wave of the hand. 
Their employnaent must be consistent with their inborn, 
and inherent attachment, to the pure air of heaven. The 
rain poured down in torrents, as we drove up to the 
station, and entered the salle (Tattente. At first we 
could not see anything of our people, though the hour of 
departure was near at hand. As we waited in the salle 
iattente^ Presten Sundt pointed to a map of Norway, hang- 
ing on the wall. It was the " Reisekart over Norges," 
in two sheets. Presten Sundt recommended the map, as 
being coloured to indicate the cultivated, and inclosed 
portions of the country, so that we could distinguish with 
tolerable accuracy, the wild and open districts, likely to 
form our most convenient camping-grounds. Whilst 
there was yet time, Presten Sundt's son kindly purchased 
one for us. 

At length we found our cicerone in the left-luggage 
office. He had acted the part of pilot, to enable the 
gipsies and donkeys to reach the station. The donkeys 
had been the centre of considerable interest to the in- 
habitants of Christiania that day. Multitudes thronged 
on board the Albion steamer. The deck was trodden 
and tramped by an animated people, anxious to inspect 
the new arrivals. The gipsies must have felt some slight 
d^ee of envy upon the occasion. This curiosity of the 
inhabitants was only natural, when we consider that 



58 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

they had never seen any donkeys before, and they were 
quite as likely to excite special interest, as the hippo- 
potamus we well remember in the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park. Can we forget the intensity of the 
moment, when it rose to the surface of its tank, and its 
nose, was distinguished for a few moments above water ? 
Can we forget the satisfaction of impatient crowds of 
visitors, when such an event occurred? If we could 
know the discussions respecting our donkeys, they would 
doubtless be most instructive — a tome of literature, 
added to the natural history of the animal kingdom. 
The animals were pulled about from nose to tail. Their 
ears were pulled — a particular part of the back, was 
pressed with [the thumb, to gauge their strength ; their 
mouths opened, their teeth examined, their fore-legs 
smoothed down with many hands. One of the sailors 
being asked what he called them, answered, " Rabbits," 
and pointing to the " Puru Pawnee," informed them 
that she was the mother of all rabbits. No rest had the 
animals, and sorely puzzled they must have been, to 
make out what it was all about. The sailors could with 
difficulty manage to wash the decks. At length, one, 
either by accident, or intentio^, gave the crowd a sudden 
shower-bath with the ship's hose, bringing forth ejacula- 
tions, which my gipsies did not understand. Multitudes 
of pocket-handkerchiefs, removed the moist results, as 
our friends precipitately left the vessel. 

Our time had been so occupied, that we could not 
return to the steamer before the evening train. The 
gipsies had remained on board during the day in charge 
of the donkeys. They expected us from hour to hour. 
Esmeralda informed us afterwards, that they had alm'ost 



GIPSY SPIRIT. 59 

given ns up, we were so long. Before they left for the 
railway-station, Mr. T. and the invalid barrister had 
been to the steamer to inquire after their master, and 
joked them about onr absence. "What shall you do, 
now your master is gone away ? " Upon which Esme- 
ralda answered, " My word, I shall let him know what 
it is staying in this way ; I shall speak my mind.^' " You 
must keep your master under," said Mr. T. " Yes, I 
will," said Esmeralda, with assumed indignation, which 
caused much laughter. Yet, with all her wild spirit, 
we had no cause to complain of want of obedience in 
Esmeralda. Many long, long miles, we afterwards walked 
together, and we must always remember her willing 
attention, in our hours of camp life. When our gipsies 
saw us at the station, their eyes lighted up with a 
thousand smiles. 

On board the Albion^ a young man oflFered his services 
as an interpreter, or " Tolk," as they are designated in 
Norway. We were afterwards accosted in the street, by 
a smart-looking fellow, much more fit for a butler, than 
a campaigner, who also wished to accompany us. We 
declined their aid, preferring for the present to trust 
to our own resources, rather than make any addition to 
our party. 

Our donkeys, notwithstanding the various opinions 
expressed, were allowed to land without any duty being 
charged. Mr. Bennett kindly arranged for the railway 
tickets, and procured for us the amount of small money 
we required. Every traveller is obliged to take a good 
supply of small coin. It is not very easy to get change 
out of large towns in Norway. Mr. Bennett's Guide 
Book gives complete information as to the various small 



60 TENT LIFE IN NOB WAY. 

coins in circulation, and their actual value. Some are 
depreciated, to less than the amount marked upon them. 
Thus: eight-skilling pieces, with the crown itnd ' F.R.VI.' 
on the reverse, are now only worth six skillings; and 
four-skilling pieces, with the same reverse are only worth 
three skillings. This is often perplexing at the commence- 
ment of a Norwegian tour. 

NORWEGIAN MONEY. 

1 skilling . . . equals nearly a halfpenny. 
24 skillings equal a mark or ort, or lOf c?. 
5 marks or orts „ a specie dollar or 45. S^d. 
There are dollar notes. One (een), variegated coloured 
paper ; five (fem), blue ; ten (ti), yellow ; fifty (femti), 
green ; one hundred dollars (hundrede dollars), pink. 

Immediately Presten Sundt caught sight of our 
gipsies at the station, he commenced speaking in the 
Romany language. He tried their knowledge of Romany 
numerals. Noah, we believed, failed at five or six. Their 
reckoning powers are not of high order, especially as 
they are unable to read and write. 

Baudrmiont, in his work containing a vocabulary of 
the gipsy language, spoken by gipsies wandering in the 
French territory of the Basque Provinces, says, the gipsy 
women he questioned say " jec" for one, "doui " for two, 
and they did not know any liigher numeral, using beyond 
two, " bSter " (bouter) signifying " much." * 

* Colonel Harriot, whose collection of Romany words is, we believe, prin- 
cipally obtained from the gipsies of the New Forest of Hampshire, gives 
one, " yek ; " two, " due ; " three, " trin ; " four, " star ; " five, " panj ; " 
six, " shov ; " and says, " Beyond these numbers I never could proceed 
with any success." 

Dr. Bath C. Smart, in his collection of gipsy words to complete his gipsy 



LiyuUISTW DIFFIVULTIES. 61 

It is curious to notice, even in one word, the different 
methods of spelling, adopted by each author. The Ro- 
manes, not being a written language, and the oppor- 
tunities of obtaining it from these wanderers over tlie 
world, being few, each author has struggled into print, 
with a vocabulary formed on some phonetic system of 
his own. Again, what a different sound, may be given 
to a word, by some slight modification of accent, depend- 
ing upon the education, and temperament, of the indivi- 
dual speaking. For instance, if a stranger, unacquainted 
with English, but taking an interest in the language, 
came to England, for the firat time, and wrote doAvn in 
his note-book, English words spoken by the less educated 
natives, of Hampshire, Staffordshire, Lancashire, York- 
shire, Gloucestershire, Derbyshire, or Dorsetshire, what 
a variation he would find, in the spelling, and pro- 
nunciation, of many words, so collected. It is not, 
therefore, singular that gipsy philologists, should differ 
in their spelling.' It is only extraordinary, that the 
accuracy of sound, distinguishing each word, has been so 
well conveyed. For example, take the word " much." 
Baudrimont gives bSter (bouter) ; Bryant's collection, 
published 1785, gives "bootsee ;" Borrow gives Spanish 
gipsy " buter " and ** butre,'' signifying " more." Most 
of the other philologists give "but." Presten Eilert 

nameralB to ten, takes seven, "afta;" eight, "oitoo;" and nine, "enneah," 
fxom BTjant's coUection, saying he never met with any English gipsy 
acquainted with them. 

Hoyland obtained from the English gipsies one, " yake ; " two, " duee ; " 
three,^ " trin ; " four, " stor ; " five, " pan ; " ten, « dyche ; " but the re- 
mainder of his numbers he appears to have taken from Qrellman. Hoyland 
says it is not a little singular that the gipsy terms for the numerals seven, 
eight, and nine are purely Greek. 



62 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Sundt gives **but" in his extensive vocabulary of tlie 
Norwegian Romany. One author (Dr. Bath C. Snaart) 
gives " booty '' and " boot/' and also " kissy." Our 
own gipsies give "koosee" as the Romany for "much.'' 

At page 25 of his work,* M. Baudrimont says : " The 
gipsies have without doubt forgotten the numerals, for 
the women I questioned, only knew two." Mr. F. Michel 
gives five;f Mr. Balby gives ten. Baudrimont has 
collected 245 Romany words, which, with those taken 
from the vocabulary of Mr. F. Michel, increase the 
number to 352. We notice some repetition of words 
in his vocabulary, which reduces the actual number; J 

Our gipsies seemed to interest Presten Sundt. Noah 
and Zacharia were not so dark, as he expected to see 
them ; Esmeralda seemed quite equal to the standard 
of gipsy type. Their ages, and a variety of questions, 
were asked iii a very short time. Presten Sundt is a 
man of much energy, and rapidity of manner, and he 
was conversant with the English language. 

We were sorry Presten Sundt had not an opportunity 
of seeing our tents ; they were the same kind as those 
used by the gipsies who travel England. Esmeralda 
and Zacharia took their places in the second-class com- 
partment, of the same carriage in which we travelled. 
Noah went in the same van with the donkeys. 

Presten Sundt and his son, Mr. Bennett, Mr. T., the 

* YocabulAire de la Langue des Bohdmiens habitant les Pays Basques 
Fran^ais. 

t Author of '* Le Pays Basque, sa Population, sa Langue, ses Moeurs, sa 
Litt^rature, et sa Musique." 

X Presten Sundt ^ves the following numerals in Norwegian gipsy : — 
" Jikt," one ; " dy," two : " trin," three ; " schtar/' four ; " pansch/' five ; 
"sink," six; "schuh," oftener "sytt," seven; "okto,'* eight; **engja," 
oftener " nin,*' nine ; " tin," ten. 



DEPARTVllE FROM CHRISTIANIA. 63 

invalid barrister, and our active cicerone sent by the 
Chevalier, were assembled on tLe platfoim, and wished 
us ban voyage^ as the train moved out of tlie station. 
Was not one wanting? He may have missed his road. 
Ke was not there — tlie Birmingham bagman had been 
left behind. 



CHAPTER Vm. 

'* The moss yonr couch, the oak your canopy ; 
The sun awakes you as with trumpet call ; 
Lightly ye spring from slumber's gentle thrall ; 
Eve draws her curtain o'er the burning west, 
Like forest birds ye sink at once to rest." 

Thk Gipsies : — Dean Stanley's Prize Poem, 

A NORWEGIAN OFFICER — NORWEGIAN EMIGRATION — EIDSVOLD — THE 

. SKYD5KIFTET— QUIET RETREAT — HAPPY HOURS — BAIERSK OL ESMK- 

RALDA'S TOILETTE — ^THB TRANSFORMATION — CURIOUS ADDRESS— NEW 
ACQUAINTANCE — NOAH's ENGAGEMENT — NOAH's CONQUEST — ^AN UN- 
GRATEFUL VISITOR — A RELUCTANT PARTING. 

Two or three other passengers were seated in our first- 
class compartment. The accommodation was very com- 
fortable. In the carriage, above our seat, there was a 
small tap, and drinking-glass, for the supply of deliciously 
clear, pure iced water, for the convenience of the thirsty 
passenger. 

It was after five o'clock when we left Christiania. We 
had about fifty-two miles to travel that evening. Our 
attention was divided, between conversation, with one of 
our fellow-passengers — a military Norwegian officer — tlie 
contemplation of the country through which we passed, 
and the thoughts of what sort of place, we should have 
to camp in that niglit. The Norwegian officer was an 
interesting companion, the pay sage ^ we passed through, 
was picturesque, but the idea of our future camp, occu- 



NORWEGIAN SMIGRATJON. 65 

pied most of otir thoughts. We must say, they were very 
misty and uncertain. Our fellow-traveller continued with 
us longer than any of the other passengers. He had been 
in England some time, and was, we believe, an inspector 
of the Artillery, possessing a perfect knowledge of the 
English language. He told us that the trees in the 
forests were often cut down to such an extent, as to be 
Tcry detrimental to the climate and shelter required in a 
cold country. 

Great numbers of the inhabitants were now emigrating 
to America. Many sold their farms very cheap, in order 
to leave the country. The train stopped once for re- 
freshment, at a large wooden station, and we had an 
opportunity of seeing our gipsies. We passed through 
the largest plain in Norway. When we had nearly 
arrived at Eidsvold, our fellow-traveller left to visit the 
artillery practice-ground. We were then left to muse 
over our coining adventures. ' The train stopped at last 
on the side of a large platform. 

We were now close to the Mjosen Lake, and had 
reached the terminus of the Christiania and Eidsvold 
railway. Descending to the platform, we found that 
not a person spoke a word of English. With some little 
difficulty we got our luggage out, and the donkeys also, 
to the astonishment of a small group of people, including 
an old man in a white hat. Showers of rain had pre- 
Tailed during the route, and we could not see any conve- 
nient camping-ground near the station. 

We walked up the platform, and down the platform, 
followed by our retinue of three gipsies. The old man 
in the white hat continued to watch over us : he followed 
us, hovered round us. We tried to converse, but made 



66 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

nothing of it ; we were unable to understand what he 
wanted. At length, seeing a telegraph-oflfice, we sent a 
telegram to Mr. Bennett, relative to a coat, and books, 
we had left on board the Albion. Most of the small 
group of people departed after they had gazed a short 
time at the gipsies and donkeys. We could not see any 
outlet to our diflSculty, or where we were to go for the 
night ; our provisions were left behind, even if we could 
find a convenient camping-ground. At last the old man 
took a decided course, and, summoning courage, led off 
one of the donkeys, and the other two followed. With 
our usual reliance upon results, we let him have his own 
way, determined to follow whither he would. Some men, 
when they saw us moving ofi*, fastened our baggage on a 
small rough hand-cart. In a few. minutes, we were 
toiling up a steep, wmding road, and lost sight of the 
railway-station. Then we shortly after arrived at a 
large, sloping, open space, shut in by trees and comfort- 
able wooden buildings, which gave it an air of charming 
seclusion. The place was apparently a '' skydskift," and 
here seemed to be our destination. The old man went 
direct across the open space, in front of the wooden 
house, to what appeared a stable, and then halted. The 
donkeys were minutely inspected by the people. They 
brought some hay and water for our animals, who, 
placed in the stable, must have been astonished at their 
sudden transition, through such various scenes. We 
were then conducted through what appeared to be the 
doorway of the " Guest Huus," into a passage, up some 
stairs, into another passage, and through an open door- 
way into a very comfortable room. This was a sitting- 
room, and also a bed-room, on the first floor. There 






QXnST RETREAT. 67 

were two windows in it, which we put open ; a mirror 
between them, which our gipsies looked into, as the 
shades of night were &8t coming upon us. The furni- 
ture consisted of a sofa, and table, some chairs, a bed, 
and washing-stand. Up some more stairs, we had 
another narrow, but comfortable inner room, with two 
more beds. 

Saying something about '* speise,'* coffee and eggs and 

most excellent bread and butter were set before us. Our 

^S^S^ ^^s deposited in the passage. The gipsies, 

Noah and Zacharia, at our request, commenced playing 

the violin and tambourine, whilst the evening meal was 

being placed on the table. The old man, who came up 

with the luggage, still lingered to hear the music. We 

seated him on a chair near the door, for we began to look 

upon him as our guardian angel. The comely-looking 

" pige,"' or girl-in-waiting, at length seated us at table, as 

we set our musical-box to play. They had probably 

never heard one. There was a charming stillness about 

the place, broken by those liquid modulations of harmony, 

which seemed to create a thousand impressions, and 

agreeable sensations. Then we found ourselves taking 

our quiet evening meal with our three gipsies, who, 

to do them justice, passed muster wonderfully well. 

Esmeralda had the small sofa. After all the hurry, 

worry, and bustle of the day, as we sipped our coffee, we 

could not help feeling thankfiilness to the Giver of all 

things, peace with all men, and content with the world. 

Our repast ended, the musical box ceased to play, the 

old man, bowing, retired. The kind-hearted looking 

girls prepared the beds. Esmeralda had the best bed, in 

the sitting-room ; Zacharia, one made up for the night 

F 2 



68 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

on the sofa ; Noali and myself, the two beds in the 
narrow inner room. The beds were a serious business 
to Noah and Zacharia.- Noah could not find his road 
into bed. At length, with our guidance, he waa 
initiated into the mysteries ; the result was almost 
immediate sleep. With the windows all open, and not 
a sound to disturb the stillness of night, we were not 
long, before we became unconscious of all toil and 
trouble. 

Never shall we forget Zacharia in his bed, as we 
looked into the sitting-room the next morning. High 
above the sofa, one naked foot protruded, somewhere 
trailing near the floor we noticed some straggling locks 
of black hair, belonging to a head, whilst all the bed- 
clothes were tied, twisted, tumbled, and rolled into every 
conceivable shape. 

We had an early "frokost" (breakfast) — excellent 
coffee, eggs, bread, and butter. People are moving early 
in Norway. It was a fine, beautiful morning: gipsies 
must be employed, and the violin and tambourine were 
again in requisition, whilst we sat on the sofa, at our 
small table, writing up our diary. The servants came 
up occasionally, and listened to the music, as they stood 
at the open doorway of our room. So the morning 
passed in delightful rest and tranquillity. Who could be 
otherwise than happy, with such honnStes gens? Every- 
thing was so clean and tidy. Our "middags mad" 
(dinner, or midday meal) was served, at our request, at 
one o'clock. It is astonishing how a small stock of words, 
will enable you to supply your wants, in a foreign land. 
Yet we did not look upon Norway as foreign to us ; all 
vas so homely, that we felt at home with everything, and 



ESMERALDA'S TOILETTE. €0 

everybody. Possibly some of our very remote ancestors 
may have been Norwegians. AVe were soon quietly 
seated at our " middags mad " with our gipsies. A disli 
of mutton cotelettes, with bacon, very good potatoes, anil 
two small glasses of " baiersk 6l "* (bottled ale), completed 
our fare. The ale is peculiar in taste, but sparkling and 
<?lear ; like some of the Austrahan colonial ale, it is not 
to he taken in any quantity with impunity. 

After our dinner, Esmeralda decided to put on her new 
dress. She had one faded, worn frock, which she wore 
under her Alpine cloak. Her wardrobe being so limited, 
we had bought her a blue dress, at no great cost, before 
leaving England, and her mother made it up. In order 
that she should not be different from the Norwegian 
style of ornamentation, we purchased some plain silver 
buttons. They were stitched on in front, and at the * 
cuffs, on a Scotch plaid braid, which trimmed the dress, 
and was the selection of her mother. We were rather 
amused, as we looked up from our writing, to see her 
descend from the inner room, where she had completed 
her toilette. The silver buttons were resplendent on the 
dark plaid braid. The dress was made according to 
the gipsy fashion. We thought her mother might have 
allowed her a little more skirt, and the bodice was rather 
close-fitting — scarcely room enough for development. 
Esmeralda had naturally a wonderfully small waist, and 
the dress was so made that it seemed quite tight all the 
way down before, being more ample behind. There was 
DO concealment of legs ; she had put on some coloured 
stockings, and her Alpine slippers, which we had given 
her to rest her feet occasionally when she took off" the 

* Sometimea spelt Bainsk ol, the meaning being Bavarian beer. 



70 TENT LIFE IN NOB WAY. 

heavy boots so much admired by Mr. T. She had no 
reason to be ashamed of her foot and ankle. Her dark, 
raven hair was natural ; no wretched chignon, and masses 
of false hair, distorted nature— there was no deception, 
truth was represented, reality was without a rival. 
Esmeralda we shall always remember as she then ap- 
peared in the guest chamber of beautifiil Eidsvold. One 
of our attentive servants came up soon afterwards, and 
was apparently astonished at the sudden change to the 
gorgeous apparel she beheld. The transformation was 
as complete as one of those changes we read of in the 
old tales of enchantment. The " pige " did not stay long, 
but silently departed, and soon after returned, with 
another of our attendants, who gazed with a curious air 
of interest at what she saw. The old man soon came 
up, and occasionally stood in the passage. Sometimes he 
spoke — we did not understand him ; then he would take 
off his hat, bow, and retire, whilst we continued our 
writing. We now discovered, to our annoyance, that the 
guitar had been left behind, Zacharia was certain he 
had seen it on board the Albion. We began to think we 
should never be able to get our things together, and sent 
a telegram to Mr. Bennett, from the station, saying that 
our things had been put on board the steamer, and to ask 
him to kindly send us a copy of Murray's Guide Book. 
We were anxious to be well prepared with all informa- 
tion. Then we received a note addressed to us by name, 
but Mr. Bennett, not knowing where we were, and pos- 
sibly supposing us camped on the shore of the Mjosen 
Lake, had, to insure its delivery, added, " Den Herre som 
reiste igaaraftes med 3 oesler," meaning the gentleman 
travelling last night with three donkeys. 



NEW ACQUAINTANCE. 71 

It appeared that two packages had been found. Three 
others, Mr. Bennett said, were probably in the hold of the 
TesBel; and Captain Soulsby had reported several odds 
and ends, left in our cabin to be forwarded. We were 
almost au disespoir. 

My gipsies must do something; so the violin, tam- 
bourine, and castanettes, again sounded in a maze of 
polkas and waltzes. At times a succession of visitors 
came up, and stood in the passage to hear the music, but 
we could hold no converse with them. At last we had 
coffee, eggs, and bread and butter. What coffee ! We 
often wonder how it is we so seldom have in England 
anything which represents the name. In France, Ger- 
many, Norway, and Denmark you have excellent coffee 
almost everywhere. Our gipsies had managed wonder- 
ftilly well. Zacharia did once upset the contents of his 
cup of coffee over the white cloth. We made them use 
their napkins, and restrained as much as possible the use 
of the knives, at times, when the fork was the proper 
vehicle to the mouth. Much nervousness was in conse- 
quence avoided. As we were lounging over our coffee, 
our guardian angel, the old man, came up, and bowing, 
murmured something about Herre wanted to see us. 
Who could want to see us? Probably some matter 
connected with our baggage, which was strongly asso- 
ciated at that time with every idea. We went down 
soon afterwards, and entered the next house under the 
same roof. A stout, portly, nice-lookmg man in uniform 
took off his hat, and said a very good English " Good 
evening, sir." He was captain of the lake steamer, 
leaving the next morning for Lillehammer. The captain 
wished to know whether we were going next morning. 



72 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

He was also anxious to see the donkeys. Taking him 
with us to the stable, he said he would have a box ready 
to sling them on board, and they must be down at the 
place of embarkation, near the station at nine o'clock. 
We said they should be there, and that we should have 
much pleasure in going by his steamer, and avail our- 
selves of his knowledge of English. Wishing good even- 
ing, he strolled off to take a bath, in the large wooden 
bath-house, on the side of the lake below. 

Returning to our room, we continued our diary. Noah 
informed us at dinner, that he had put by an engagement 
of £1 a week, offered by some farmer, in order that he 
might accompany us. Much thankfulness was expressed 
at so much self-sacrifice, and it was the subject of many 
a quiet joke during our journey. How pleasantly the 
time passed. How smiling life seemed in the retu'c- 
ment of Eidsvold. Again Zacharia struck up his violin ; 
again Noah executed a clever roulade on his tambourine. 
More visitors occasionally appeared, and disappeared. 
Then we sent Noah and Zacharia down to the station, to 
see if any of our baggage had come by the last train, and 
we were fortunate enough to receive four packages, 
including our guitar, and one package by Captain 
Soulsby. Tlie case of provisions could not be found. 
Our telegrams increased. We hoped to get the case 
next morning before the steamer left Eidsvold. In the 
stillness of the closing evening, we sang with the guitar, 
our gipsy song. One of our attendants was most 
certainly in love with Noah. We had generally sent him 
to the other house, to ask for whatever we wanted. It 
was practice for him, and no doubt he had made a 
conquest. About ten o'clock the attendants made up 



AX UNGRATEFUL VISITOR. 73 

the bed oq the sofa, and we gave them another last air 
liefore we retired Well we remember tlie look our 
clean, tidy, and comely " pige " gave Noah, as he played 
his tambourine with an energy of feeling peculiar to the 
gipsy race. " Cushty ratty ^ (gip., good-night) to all, and 
we were soon asleep. 

It is light at an early hour in Norway. We were up 
at four o'clock, a number of letters were written. At si^ 
o*cIock it was found that Esmeralda had one eye nearly 
swollen up. A musketo had lounged in, through the 
open window in the night. It was natural that ho 
should be attracted by her dark eyes, but he should 
have been satisfied, with distant contemplation. I was 
called in as the " cushty drabengro '' (gip., good doctor), 
and by the aid of some glycerine rendered the bite less 
painful 

The rest were soon up. We had found Zacharia in 
some extraordinary complication of bed-clothes on the 
sofa. I think he was glad to regain tent life, for this 
was the last time he slept off the ground during his stay 
in Norway. 

" Frokost " was served at seven o'clock — coffee, eggs, 
bread and butter. As usual, all excellent. The bread, we 
understood, was sent from Christiania to Eidsvold. The 
morning was lovely — our spirits almost in-epressible. 
Esmeralda poured out the coffee — " del the moro " (gip.) 
" give us the bread," Romany and English sparkled on 
the board. 

After " frokost " we repacked some of our baggage, 
and Esmeralda brushed our coat. The bright anticipa- 
tion of a delightful trip along the Mjosen Lake, and the 
probability of our case of provisions coming by the 



74 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

morning train, in time for the steamer, had quite banished 
all melancholy. Noah and Zacharia gave one or two 
tunes after breakfast as a farewell, whilst the comely 
"pige" gazed at Noah in speechless wonder. She 
stood all spell bound. We fear the gipsy's eyes, for 
they had scarcely any other medium of conversation, had 
wrought much mischief Some man appeared at the 
open doorway, with his knife at his side, and seeming 
transfixed, so completed the tableau. Time flew on with 
rapid wing. Noah and Zacharia departed with the 
donkeys. We had more time; and as we sat on the 
sofa, waiting for our account, we took our guitar, and 
sang our last song at Eidsvold, " Welcome, you dear old 
land.'' 



CHAPTER IX. 

** Chori&ofte luttolaa 
Tristerie du cantetoen, 
Doelaiican cer j«ii^ 
CSer edAn, 

Gampoa da denntc«n ; 
Cereii) ceren 
Libertfttia hMin eder den." 

Le Pajfi Pcm^h^ par F&ivasQVi Miohil. 

" The little bird in the ctge 
BiBgeth sadly, 
Withal to eat, 
Withal to drink. 
He would be out ; 
BecauM, becanae 
Nothing is sweet but libetij.** 

JfODERATE BIIX — PB0TI8I0NS LOST— WE MEET AGAIN— OIP8IE8 IN AI>- 

TANC£ LEFT ALONE — A WELCOME TELEGRAM — NOBWEGIAN BATH 

BOOM SINGULAR PAINTINGS— ONCE MORE FAREWELL — THE TELE- 
GRAPH CLERK— THE MJOSEN LAKE — THE DRONNINGEN— RUINED 
CATHBDRAL — UTILITARIANISM— LILLEHAMMER— ONCE MORE IN CAMP. 

OuB bill was moderate — four dollars, four marks, and 
eight skillings; twenty-four skillings for attendance 
seemed quite sufficient. Our things were all placed on 
a truck ; Esmeralda carried Zacharia's violin, our guitar, 
and our two extra caps, whilst we took our courier-bags, 
and, under our arm, in two satchels made for them, 
the two Regent-street tambourines. Our appearance 
certainly much resembled travelling musicians. 

Bidding adieu to the kind people of the house, we 



V6 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

were soon descending the winding road to the steamer. 
As we walked along, we could not help alluding to the 
astonishment our numerous friends would express if they 
could see us. Noah and Zacharia soon after met us; 
they had left the donkeys at the railway-station, and 
came to say the provisions had not arrived. When we 
reached the station, another telegram was sent, in. which 
we mentioned Hudson Brothers, as consignors to Messrs. 
AVilson. The clerk of the telegraph office began to 
regard us as an habitu6 of the bureau, and we looked 
upon him as a pupil in the English language. We were 
astonished at his progress, and he was apparently equally 
so at our large expenditure of money in telegrams. 
Rather in mournful mood, we went to the wooden 
platform to which the steamer was moored. There was 
the box; there stood the donkeys; there the men to 
put them into the box, and the sling, to sling them on 
board. How are the donkeys to be put into the box? 
Vain were the efforts made — all to no purpose; the 
donkeys had made up their minds. At last, with the 
united efforts of four men, and Noah, one by one they 
were pulled, dragged, lifted, carried, forced, in wild re- 
sistance, over the passenger's bridge, and along the deck, 
in sight of the astonished lookers-on. The " Puru 
Rawnee" and his companions were at length safely 
placed before the windlass on the fore-deck, close to 
four brass guns, ready loaded for a salute. We decided 
to go to Christiania, in search of the provisions, and 
sent another telegram to Mr. Bennett. The passage- 
money of our gipsies, and the three donkeys to Lille- 
hammer, amounted to five dollars, seventeen marks ; we 
also paid six marks for our gipsies' dinner, includmg 



WE MEET AGAIN. 77 

one bottle of " Baiersk 01 " between tbem, and a cup of 
coffee Bach. The captain kindly promised to look after 
them, and arrange for them to camp, when they got to 
Lillelianimer. Just before leaving, we gave them some 
Norsk words for bread, cheese, coffee, &c. The old man 
in the whit^ hat, our guardian angel, was, of course, at 
hand. With much anxiety he wrote down the words 
for Noah. Unfortunately, Noah could not read; but 
as the old man pronounced each word aloud, Noah 
followed, and the old man did not suspect, apparently, 
the neglected education of his pupil. 

There was the sound of the coming train, just before 
eleven ; down came the passengers, hurrying with their 
things to the steamer. There was the officer, and his 
^fe, with the Tyrolese hat and feather — we had met 
again. Their two carrioles* are put on board — hasty 
salutations — we learn that the invalid barrister has left 
Christiania for Bergen — ^they are going to Gjovik. We 
told him our dilemma, and he said we had hurried too 
quickly through Christiania. They had been busy 



* The Garriole, called in Norwegian '' Kaijol/' is a light Norwegian 
cartiage, with long springy shafts, admirably adapted for travelling in a 
mountamoas country. A carriole will only accommodate one traveller, whose 
legs can be stretched ont at frdl length, in a horizontal position, and a long 
leather apron protects them from rain. A small flat board leaves just 
sufficient space for a portmanteau or trunk, which should not exceed 
tluity-f our inches in length, fifteen inches in breadth, and eleven inches high, 
with standing-room for the "skydsluarl" (boy), who accompanies the pony 
dmiiig the posting-stage. Carrioles may be hired or purchased from the 
Christiania Carriole Company, 17, Store Strandgade, and, being very jight, 
are easily taken on steamers, across lakes and fiords, to the next posting- 
station, from whence the traveller continues his land route with another 
pony. Carrioles are now often used by ladies, and are more easy and con- 
Tenient than the stolkjoerre, a light cart, which, being less expensive to hire, 
is occasionally used by travellers as a means of conveyance. 



78 TENX LIFE IN NORWAT. 

making purchases at ChriBtiania. Our conversation now 
ceaees, for the steamer muet depart. The stout captain 
took up his position on the steamer's pont, and, taking 
out his watch, he gave the signal for stEurting. As the 
Dronmngen glided along the still waters of the Mjosen, 
our " cushty chavos " (gip., good children) made farewell 
signals to their Romany Rye. 

Another telegram to Mr. Bennett, to say we should be 
in Christiania at seven 'o'clock in the evenmg, no train 



leaving Eidsvold before the afternoon. The telegraph 
clerk expressed his astonishment at the number of our 
telegrams, and increased his stock of English. We felt 
lonely away from our people. It was a very warm day, 
and we had some hours on hand. Crossing the bridge at 
the head of the lake, near the railway station, we passed 
the houses on the opposite side, and walked along tbe 
dusty narrow road beyond. We could see nothing but 
incIoBures on either side the road. The common style 



WELCOME TELEGRAM. 79 

of Norwegian road fence consists of posts, with two long 
parallel raOs, supporting a number of slanting rails, of 
shorter length, loosely placed between them. 

There was no shade. The wooden log houses, here 
and there, had generally tiled roofs. No attempt was 
made at ornament or picturesque effect. Everything in 
the rough. We sat on the narrow road side, and noted 
up our diary ; then we returned to the houses again near 
the bridge, and being hungry, boldly walked into one 
which bore some resemblance to a place of refreshment. 
They civilly said they had nothing, and that there was a 
house on the hill, beyond the station, where refreshment 
might be had. They meant the house at which we had 
lately stayed.* It was about half-past two o'clock when 
we again crossed the bridge, and called at the telegraph 
office. The polite clerk seemed rather pleased to see 
us, at the same time handing a telegram with much 
alacritv. 

A life-boat on the ocean to the shipwrecked mariner, 
could not have given much greater pleasure. The pro- 
visions had been found. Our name was not on the case, 
hut our mention of Messrs. Hudson Brothers, as con- 
signors, had fortunately famished the clue. They would 
reach Eidsvold that night. With some degree of satisfac- 
tion we soon ascended the hill, and came to our quiet 
retreat. The comely " pige '' welcomed us — she seemed 
much pleased — and we were shown into a finer, and more 
stately chamber, than the one we had before occupied. 
We were hungry, and our dinner was quickly served. 
Cotelettes, potatoes, and some kind of sweet dish, with 
some " Baiersk 01." Then we wrote letters at a table 

• A laige hotel has since been built at Eidsvold railway station. 



80 TENT UFE JN NORWAY. 

near the window, in view of the Mjosen Lake. AU 
was quietude; we felt as if we were lost. At six 
o'clock our thermometer was 82° Fahrenheit. We 
determmed to take a Badekar (bath). The large wooden 
bath-house was at a short distance below the 
" gjoestgiver-gaard." 

Crossing over a light wooden bridge from the lake 
shore, we were immediately on a balcony extending round 



the building, above the waters of the lake. Doors opened 
from the balcony into the bath-rooms. Each visitor has 
a small dressing-room adjoining another small room, in 
which stands a zinc bath. As we looked in, a cm-ious 
leather spout pendant from the ceiling supplied the water 
to the bath. It was a clumsy contrivance, and out of 
repMr ; part of the water poured in streams on the floor, 
whilst the other portion found its way into the bath. 

The man in attendance, who came to prepare the bath, 
could not understand what heat we required, especially 



SINGULAR PAINTINGS. 61 

as thej use Reaomur, anct we ase the Fahrenheit thenao- 
meter. A Norwegian gentleman, just taking his bath, 
and very scantily clothed, at the request of the man, 
poKtely came to the bath-room door to act as interpreter. 
He spoke Bome Englisb, and kindly relieved us firom our 
difficulty. Thanking him for bis aid, he bowed and 
retired. The price of our bath was fivepence. Giying 
tbe attendant a few skiltmgs, we returned to our pleasant 
room at the quiet " goestgiver-gaard." How dreamy we 



felt at eve, as we watched from our window the lights 
and shadows on the Lake Hjosen. A gilded surface in 
the evening sun — how fiiU of beauty — one seemed to 
view the imagery of other worlds. There is in nature 
more than art can tell, or language render. Not a leaf 
but has its history, a flower its tale, nor a sound without 
its music to the mind. There were some quaint old 
paintings on the panels of the chamber, which caught 
our attention as we sat musing there, and we hastily 
Bketched them. One represented a priest in old-fashioned 



82 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

clerical costume wallciag unconsciously as he reads, into 
a river, or out to sea. The priest is saying, as he reads : 
" Jeg maa gaae til Bunden i dette Problem for jeg gaae 
vidre." (I must go to the bottom of this problem be- 
fore I go farther.) 

The other painting represented a stout clergyman 
who is being rowed along a lake or river. He is so stout 



that the end of the boat in which he sits is nearly under 
water, He is supposed to be shouting to the boatman : 

" Hal'ud manne. Der gaa er Dampen." (Pull away, 
lad ! There goes the steamer.) 

With our mind much at ease we retired early to rest 
By some chance they put us to sleep in Esmeralda's bed. 
We rose at four o'clock the next morning, and wrote 
letters. Our " frokost " was served at seven o'clock. It 
was a beautiful morning : our comely "pige" was there, 
but she had no gipsy Noah to admire. We paid onr 
account — three marks sixteen skillings. Slinging our 



ONCE MORE FAREWELL. 83 

courier-b^ over our shoulder, as we gave the comely 
*'pige^' a douceur, we again wished these kind and 
attentive people farewell. It must be owned that we 
lingered for a moment near this quiet retreat, so full 
of pleasant moments and long-to-be-remembered remi- 
niscences. 

At the railway-station the case of provisions, which 
had arrived, cost us one dollar. Sealing our letters in 
the telegraph oflSce, w^e posted them. ' The case of pro- 
visions, which was veiy heavy, was brought down to the 
steamer, and placed on the jetty to be taken on board. 
We then noticed, fastened to it, a letter from Mr. Ben- 
nett, and Hudson Brothers' receipted bill, attached out- 
side the case. It appeared that some of the packages in 
the case had burst open. Pea-flour, wheat-flour, salt, and 
other contents had got mixed and spread about in wild 
confusion. Mr. Bennett had kindly had the pea-flour 
and salt put into a bag. Great care is requisite in packing 
for long journeys. The provisions were all right at last. 
Paying another visit to the telegraph office, we remitted 
to Mr. Bennett a sum sufficient to cover all costs inci- 
dental to the baggage and expenses, and also wrote 
a letter to him. We must ever acknowledge his kind 
attention. Mr. Bennett's services are invaluable to new 
arrivals ; ten minutes' conversation with him will often 
save the tourist days of trouble, vexation, and delay. 
Ton have, also, the feeUng that he is a gentleman, and 
jou can trust his advice. Our telegraph clerk was 
wonderfully polite, and we felt a certain amount of regi-et 
when for the last tune we wished him good morning. 
As we left the office, he said, in very good English, 
*' I think, sir, you are now all right." 

o 2 



84 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

We returned to the steamer, which left Eidsvold at 
half-past eleven in the forenoon.* The passengers were 
for the most part plainly dressed, and of the class of small 
farmers. The men wore large, ample trousers, and thick, 
heavy Wellington boots. The excursion along the lake 
was delightful. The Mjosen is sixty-three English miles 
in length. On the shores of the lake, the steamer passed 
numerous farms and pleasant homesteads, with pine and 
fir forests forming a distant background. Towards Lille- 
hammer the scenery becomes more picturesque ; the land- 
ing stations often reminded us of colonial settlements. 
Then we became acquainted with a young passenger and 
his friend who were going to Lillehammer. The friend 
spoke a few words of English. A tall, smart-looking- 
young Norwegian officer, neatly dressed in plain clothes, 
who had travelled in England, France, and Prussia, spoke 
English fluently. Whilst we were conversing, an old 
man came up with a number of knives to sell ; they were 
suspended to a wire. After some inspection, we selected 
two knives at six marks each, and one at one dollar. 
Then came the money payment ; it was a serious busi- 
ness. We produced a handful of those varied coins, 
many not counting for the value they are marked. A 
young man who spoke a few words of English volun- 
teered to count out the sum. The countenance of the 
old man gazing on my money, and the young man, who 
was anxious to be exact to a skilling, would have made 
a good subject for Frith, or some artist skilful in making^ 
a group on canvas convey its own wordless history. The 

* In a mansion at Eidsvold, formerly the residence of the Anker family, 
the Constitution of Norway was drawn up and signed, and the independence 
and free institntions of the Norwegian people guaranteed upon the unity of 
their country with Sweden, in 1814. 



THE MJOSEN LAKE. 65 

hunting-knives were intended as presents to our gipsies. 
Mthongh the only Englishmen on board, with such 
homely, kind people, we felt as with friends, and they 
seemed to give us welcome to their beautiful land. As 
ve surveyed the Lake scene, the Dronningen steamed in 
sight Our firiend the captain took off his hat in salutation 
to our captain and passengers. When we were returning 
his greeting he seemed to recognise us, and again waved 
his hat in final adieu. The Dronningen is said to be the 
best steamer on the lake. What a strange exhilaration 
we felt as we inhaled the pure lake breeze, whilst the 
steamer glided along the waters of the Mjosen. We had 
no care. The moments seemed an existence of perfect 
enjoyment, with only a short span dividing us from our 
tents, and people, and first Norwegian camp, whence we 
should wander over many leagues of natm^e's fairest 
scenes. On the shores of the lake, to our right, stand 
the ruins of Stor Hammer cathedral, forming some pictu- 
resque arches, in broken decay, nearly all that remains of 
a once noble pile destroyed in 1567. At this part of the 
lake, George Bidder, once renowned as the calculating 
boy, whose wonderful memory and rapid calculations we 
had often read of in days gone by, had purchased an 
estate.* 

* George Parkes Bidder was bom about the year 1800. So wonderful 
^ere his mental powers for giving ready solution to the most difficult 
<lQe8tions in aritluneticy without the aid of pen or pencil, that he was known 
i^ early life as the '' Calculating Boy." Among the many instances of hia 
ready ability, he once answered in a very short time the foUowing question : 
—"Supposing the sun be 95,000,000 of miles from the earth, and that it 
were possible for an insect, whose pace should be seven and a-half inches 
per minute, to travel that space, how long would it take him to reach the 
«aar Bidder became a civil engineer, and was at one time President of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers. 



86 TENT LIFE IN NOEWAY. 

Although there are not many castles in Norway, on 
the island of Helgeo are the ruins of a fortress built by 
nako IV. The old church of Ringsaker, on the eastern 
shore of the lake, is said to possess an altar curiously 
carved, and also the body of a priest, singularly preserved 
from the ruthless hand of time.* The old church is said 
to stand on the battle-field where St. Olaf gained one of 
his many victories, and adds one more interestiug asso- 
ciation to the shores of the Mjosen. 

Dinner on board the steamer is announced as "fertig'' 
(ready). It was not a table d'hote consisting of many 
dishes, but a substantial meal of fish, meat, and a Nor- 
wegian dish, of which milk formed a large ingredient. 
As we afterwards lounged on deck, the Norwegian officer 
looked over our song, gave us some hints of pronuncia- 
tion of Norsk words, and said the English verses were 
well translated into Norwegian. The song, with its 
engraved bordure of gipsy life and Norwegian scenery, 
seemed to interest him very much ; and before he left 
at Hammer he was much pleased with the copy we 
presented for his acceptance. 

One large island, in the lake, wo were told, was the 
most fertile in Norway. The shores of the lake are not 
very far distant from each other. All was sunshine, with 
a strong breeze upon the lake. How changed the scene 
in winter. One of the passengers told us the winter 
continued eight months, sometimes even nine months. 
The days in summer are often very warm, and the nights 
cold. The homesteads had no pretensions to Swiss 
decoration ; and the villages had a similar appearance to 
a new settlement in Australia. Without the forest trees 

* A similar inatance is mentioned in Lainf^'s '< Tour in Sweden." 



LILLEHAMMEK 87 

Norway would soon be a sterile spot. Take the timber 
from the mountains, and all would be a barren, cheerless 
wilderness of rocks and stones. It is to be hoped that 
government will one day restrain the rapid destruction 
of the forests. Even in England the shady lanes are 
fast vanishing before the close-cropped hedge-rows; 
barely a fence which is considered necessary in this 
utiKtarian age. The birds, which once found shelter and 
convenience for building their nests, are diminishing 
fast, and one must often listen in vain for their clieerful 
song.* 

The steamer passed a very picturesque rocky island 
towards Lillehammer. Only one traveller now remained 
who spoke English, and his stock was limited, consisting 
of two words. Fortunately, we arranged with the steward 
for a stock of three bottles of brandy, and two or three 
bottles of St. Jullien claret, before the officer who spoke 
English left the vessel. We paid one dollar for our fare, 
and three dollars one mark and eight skillings for dinner, 
coffee, ale, bread and cheese, three bottles of brandy, and 
two of claret. We tried in vain to pass an English sove- 
reign, to economise our small coin. The steward spoke 
a little English. He was a jolly-looking, buzzy, fuzzy, 
smick-smack, smooth, straight up-and-down, and no 
mistake, sort of fellow. He did his best to assist us. 
We soon steamed up to the wooden pier below Lille- 
hammer. Noah was standing between our two tents, 
pitched on a rise of ground, above a wooden building by 
the pier. Noah saw us at once, and came down to the 

* By an Act of Parliament, 35th and 36th Victoria, chapter 78, dated 
10th August, 1872, protection is now given to a large number of wild birds 
in England between the 15th March and Ist August in each year. 



88 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

pier as jauntily as possible, with a pipe, to our great 
surprise, stuck in his mouth. 

Waiting until the passengers had gone on shore, we 
called Noah on board, and gave him the bottles to carry- 
to our tents. The case was slung on to the pier. The 
steward referred to the captain, who spoke English, and 
decided that the amount we had already paid included 
carriage to Lillehammer. They wished us good-by, and 
we left the vessel. A porter from one of the hotels, who 
came to us, placed the case on a truck, and we told him 
to take it up to our tents. Esmeralda came forward as 
we approached the camp. The gipsies were much pleased 
to see us again, Esmeralda said she knew we were on 
the steamer. Whilst we were talking, we caught sight 
of the truck and case going up the road from the lake 
to the town of Lillehammer. Noah and ourselves went 
after it, and soon after Noah and the porter brought it to 
the tents. The case was a large wooden box of consider- 
able weight. With much satisfaction we contemplated 
its arrival in camp. The tents were now actually pitched 
on the shore of the beautiful Mjosen Lake. Its calm 
waters, lovely in the eventide, and the quietude of nature, 
gave us one more glimpse of perfect happiness. 



CHAPTER X. 

''Let ns rest a bit in our tent this fine eTening to collect our memo- 
nnda from the note-book huniedly pencillecL Tet it is not ea.sj to 
withdraw the eye from the beautiful picture before us, framed bj the 
cuitaiaB of our canvas boudoir." — The Rob Rojf on the Jordan. 

OCB UBS! CAMP— CAMP VI8ITOBS — GIP8T MUSIC— FOREIOX TABLEAU — 

CUBI0U8 OBSERVATIONS FBEFA&ATIONS FOB DEPABTUEE — EABLT 

ffEABT— LAING's SUGOESTIONS^THE GCDBBANSDALEX — THE HUKXKF03 
—THE AUSTRALIAN MEAT—CAMP BULES — THE PAIR OF GLOVES^ 
SUDDEN SHADOWS — OUR TALISMAN — NEW FRIENDS. 

The Mjosen is a fine lake. The scenery is not bold, 
or imposing in wild and rugged outline, but it is beautiful 
and pleasing. There is a richness often wanted in the 
wilder scenes of nature. Our contemplation must be 
short; we have work to do. Noah with my Tennant's 
geological hammer soon began to loosen the nails of the 
provision-case. A crowd of boys, who gathered round, 
and the tall man in the background, rendered the gi*oup 
of spectators a complete study ; there was an expression 
of deep interest as Noah loosened every nail. Our 
gipsies had been well cared-for by the gallant captain of 
the Dronningen. He had kindly arranged for our 
people to pitch their tents on some waste ground near 
the lake ; the woman of the house above seemed to 
exercise a sort of right over it, and had agreed to supply 
our people with food at the house. She was an ener- 



90 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

getic old woman, with not a very good-tempered expres- 
sion of countenance, but she had been very attentive. 

The captain had on the previous evening taken our 
gipsies in a boat across the lake. They had spent the 
evening very pleasantly with himself and wife. Some 
sympathy was expressed for the separation of Esmeralda 
from her husband, referring to myself. The gipsies, we 
afterwards understood, had a gay time on board the 
Dronniiigen ; they played at the captain's request, who 
collected quite a fortune for them. Noah and Zachariah* 
were also treated to cigars, and various liquids by the 
passengers. Their voyage on the Mjosen Lake seemed 
to have been unusually gay. Once more we were in 
camp, and the boys from the town above kept accumu- 
lating round our tents. Then we went up the road 
towards Lillehammer with our maps, and examined 
the route, and the direction ready for our jouniey next 
morning. When we returned, it was eight o'clock. 
There were so many people about, that Esmeralda and 
myself went up to the woman's house to have coflfee. 
Noah and Zachariah afterwards took their turn whilst 
we stayed at the tents. Noah had our instructions to 
pay the woman, but he was quite unable to regulate the 
account. We found the old woman, who was exceed- 
ingly polite, charged us three dollars for our coffee that 
evening, and a day and a half board for our gipsies, and 
the use of the waste ground. The charge was nearly as 
much as we had paid at the comfortable inn at Eidsvold, 
with lodgings for a longer period. The gipsies had 

• After the foregoing pages had passed through the press, we succeeded 
in obtaining from a parish in Gloucestershire the certificate of baptism of 
'* Zacharia ;" we shall therefore in future give the name exactly as it is 
spelt in the certificate of baptism. 



GIFSY MUSia 91 

promised her some music; and as we were anxious to 
pass the time until the people should disperse, Esmeralda 
and Zachariah came up to play one or two tunes. We 
had an upstairs room, very bare of fiuiiiture, containing 
odIj a small table and sofa and two or three chairs. 
Esmeralda sat on the sofa, and myself and Zacharia at 
each end of the table. Away went the violin and the tam- 
bourine, waltzes and polkas, in rapid succession. The old 
woman walked about in an ecstacy. Very shortly after- 
wards a large crowd of both sexes appeared at the doors 
of the room, and we motioned for them to dance or sit 
down. In came the steward of the steamer, smoking a 
cigar, and the cashier with him. Bang, bang, went the 
tambourine. Esmeralda, with her dark eyes flashing, was 
no mean tambourinist. With regard to dancing they 
seem very diflfident. Chairs were brought, and the 
steward and cashier were accommodated. The former 
smoked, and seemed on the best of terms with himself 
and everybody else. He was a good-humoured, good- 
tempered fellow, and pressed us to have something to 
drink. Notwithstanding we declined, in came the 
woman of the house with two bottles of beer and glasses 
for us. The bottles were uncorked and the steward 
came to pour out the beer ; but although he pressed us 
to take some, and also to allow our gipsies to do so, we 
were iSnn in our determination. With an air of almost 
disappointment that we did not accept their hospitality, 
he returned to his seat. Jingle, jingle, went the brasses 
of the tambourine. The room, and passages to it 
Became quite thronged. The steward smoked; the 
cashier seemed, we thought, to look with apparent admi- 
ration at our tambourinist. We had evidently an ap- 



92 TENT LIFE IN NOB WAY. 

preciative audience. The assemblage reminded us, as 
we sat there in quiet contemplation, of one of those 
foreign scenes at times represented in dramas in London. 
Gipsies, foreign costumes, log-house, landlady, peasants 
with knives at their sides, steward of steamer and 
cashier, wild strip of broken ground below the house, 
tents, donkeys, steamer, and the lake beautiful with the 
shadow of declining day^ — all the elements of romance 
were there, and it was a reality. 

We looked at our watch : it was nearly ten. We 
rose, and passing through the visitors wished them good 
evening, and were soon seated in our tents. Group after 
group of people came thronging down, taking a cursory 
glance, as they passed, as if unwilling to intrude. We 
were busy arranging and packing our things for the 
next morning : some would now and then peep in ; one 
went so far as to take hold of our tent carpet and 
examine it. Another laid hold of our iron kettle-prop 
outside, and it was amusing to see the earnest discussion 
that was going on as to its use. An intelligent man 
with a benign smile made a motion with it, as if making 
holes in the ground, and whilst pointing to the tent-rods 
looked at us for confirmation. He was evidently much 
gratified by our nod of assent. The centre of attraction 
were the donkeys ; party after party firom Lillehammer 
swept by our tents along the broken ground, to the spot 
where our donkeys stood. They were examined with an 
earnestness which showed our friends to be warmly 
attached to the subject of natural history. The steward 
came up to our tents, soon after we left the house, and 
pressed us to come with him on board the steamer, but 
we declined; whereupon he took off his hat and left. 



EARLY START. 93 

The goods porter of the steamer wandered about our 
tents for some time, and at last came up and said ho 
wanted half a dollar more for the carriage of the case. 
When we took out our money to pay him, he said it was 
a dollar. Perhaps we misunderstood him at first. Tlie 
captain had said we had nothing more to pay ; but, not 
having any time to investigate the matter, we trusted 
to the proverbial honesty of the Norwegians, and so paid 
the dollar required. Taking advantage of a lull in the 
nnmber of the visitors, as it was becoming late, the case 
was unpacked. Then more visitors came ; but we went 
on and repacked our provisions in our bags, for carriage 
the next morning on our donkeys. Some of the lookers- 
on near our tents criticised our biscuits, and especially 
our pea-flour which was scattered over everything. 
They did so good humouredly, and seemed astonished at 
our stores. Zachariah launched the empty case on the 
lake below. Our visitors at last became few in number, 
and less frequent. 

Esmeralda carefally packed up her dress with the 
silver buttons. She had hung it on a bush near the 
tents after they had arrived at Lillehammer. The blue 
dress and the silver buttons gleaming in the sun must 
have been a pleasing sight At last we went to bed ; 
that is, we retired to sleep on our waterproof rug and 
carpet within our tent partition. The indistinct sound 
of voices outside our tents and the noise of persons who 
appeared to be wandering about the donkeys still con- 
tinued, but we were all soon asleep. The thermometer 
had been at 86"* Fahrenheit in the day. 

The hum of a small mosquito awoke us at about two 



94 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

o'clock in the morning ; at half-past two o'clock we 
roused our gipsies. The things were soon packed on the 
donkeys by Noah, who was an excellent packer. We 
finally struck our camp at three o'clock a.m. The house 
where our coffee had been supplied the previous evening 
was shut up, and wrapt in silence ; the woman of the house 
was possibly slumbering with the three dollars under 
her pillow. The steamer lay moored at the wooden 
pier, where the steward and cashier, if they slept on 
board, may have been dreaming of the dark-eyed gitana. 

How silent all seemed in the early morning on the 
banks of the Mjosen Vand. Not a soul stirring, save one 
solitary fisherman in his boat in the far distance upon the 
lake. With our Alpine stocks, tents, and baggage, 
donkeys and gipsies, we slowly ascended the road to 
Lillehammer. How delightful in the freshness of the 
early morning to commence our nomadic wandering of 
many days. Laing says, in his excellent work on Nor- 
way,* " A young and clever English sportsman, especi- 
ally if he had a taste, also, for any branch of natural 
history, ought to pass a summer very agreeably with his 
rifle, fishing-rod, and his tent, among the fjelde and lakes, 
encamping where fancy and sport might lead him, and 
carry all his accommodation on a couple of ponies." 

As we passed through the town of Lillehammer we 
noticed that most of the windows were shut ; the inha- 
bitants were enjoying their morning sleep. We felt 
thankful that we carried our home with us. Lillehammer 
is not without its associations ; its former cathedral and 

* "Journal of a Residence in Norway during the years 1834, 1835, 
1836." By Samuel Laing, Esq. Published by Longman, Orme, Browne, & 
Co., in 1837. 



THE GUDBRANSDALEN. 9:1 

monastery were originally founded by an Englishman, 
Nicholas Breakspear, in 1160. He was afterwards Tope 
Hadrian IV. As we passed down the long street, one 
man was on tLe look-ont ; with hot haste he rushed to 
the back of the house, as if to apprise some one else of 
our coming ; he returned as we were going by, and said 
** Ya, ya ! " when we asked if we were in the right road for 
Ilolmen ; then standing in the street, he gazed after us 
imtil we were out of sight. 

With feelings of bright anticipation we had entered the 
long and fertile valley of the Gudbrandsdalen.* Com- 
mencing at Lillehammer, the valley of Gudbrcansdalcn 
extends 168 miles to the foot of Dovre Fjeld. Our route 
is on the right bank of the Logen. Many cultivated 
farms occupy the lower portions of the often narrow 
valley on each side of the main road, while hills and pine 
woods rise above them on either side. 

We all felt particularly hungry as we pushed on for 
some distance along a good road on the right of the 
river Logen. Coming to a small stream of water on the 
road-side, we partly unloaded our donkeys ; on a small 
space of rough ground the gipsies lighted a fire, and 
prepared our breakfast of tea, sardines, and college 
biscuits. One large carriage and pair passed us eii route 
for Lillehammer ; a pony with carriole was tied behind it, 
and all were jogging along at a comfortable pace, with 
the occupants fast asleep. Noah commenced repack- 
ing our donkeys, when a timber cart passed with two 
men upon it ; one wore a red cap. They stopped and 
scanned our donkeys with curious eyes ; then they 
vrished to know why we did not use the donkeys to draw 

• Sometmies spelt Guldbransdalen, meaning the "Golden VaUey.** 



96 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

a carriage. The man in the red cap offered Esmeralda a 
seat on his timber, which, though kindly meant, was not 
accepted. They went on before us, and evidently made 
known our coming, for from time to time men and 
women rushed up to the fences on the road-side to look 
at our cavalcade ; — it was a very picturesque one, includ- 
ing Zachariah almost fast asleep on one of the loaded 
donkeys. As we proceeded we were overtaken by a 
carriage, in which we recognised the inn porter who had 
assisted us with our case from the steamer. The two 
traveller in the carriage had been oiu: fellow-passengers 
by the steamer on the Mjosen ; they took off their hats. 
Another carnage afterwards followed, and another steam- 
boat passenger took off his hat and recognised us again* 
We were now some miles from Lillehammer, and Noah 
was sent to try a roadside house for bread ; the woman, 
who spoke a little English, recommended a house beyond. 
Coming soon after to an old road leading below the new 
main route — along the edge a deep declivity covered with 
trees and bushes, which formed the lofty bank of the 
rapid foaming river Logen — we halted. We were in 
sight of the falls called the Hunnefos. The river is 
broad and rapid; and the falls, although not of great 
height, are nevertheless picturesque. Above the old 
road an embankment of loose stones sloped up to the 
main route, which was not very far above us, although 
overlooked from the road ; the spot now overgrown with 
short turf was sufficiently level and out of the way for 
our camp. We were all rather sleepy, and wanted rest ; 
the day had become very hot. Esmeralda had not felt very- 
well ; a very small quantity of quinine helped her on the 
journey. Having decided to remain here, the donkeys 



AUSTRALIAN MEAT. 97 

were driven down the old road for a short distance. 
From this spot we had a heautifiil view of the falls ; our 
camp was probably not far from the station of Aronsveen. 
It was delightful to lounge among our baggage after we 
had unpacked. The road being a sort of cul-de-sac, we 
left the donkeys to ramble below. Noah went in search 
of bread and butter to a farm-house, and procured a small 
loaf and half a pound of butter, for one mark and a half; 
the loaf was black bread and small. Several very heavy 
showers came on, but our light siphonia waterproof from 
Edmiston's kept all om: things perfectly dry. Dinner 
was prepared at about one o'clock ; a case of the 
AustraUan cooked mutton was opened : with some hesita- 
tion we had added Australian meat to our commissariat ; 
we had ventured to take it, like the skater who tries the 
ice for the first time. Our sardine-opener in the form of 
a fish, which cost 6c/., soon gave us access to the tin of 
meat. All pronounced the Australian preserved mutton 
excellent. Esmeralda, who had been very sleepy and not 
very well, though revived by the quinine, did not entirely 
recover until after dinner. A bottle of claret was shared 
amongst us. It was our first day in camp, and our rule 
of no stimulants or smoking allowed was not rigidly en- 
forced. Two songs with the guitar enlivened the party ; 
then a duet, violin and guitar ; afterwards a duet, violin 
and tambourine ; finale, all the instruments together. 
Noah was chaffed as usual. The sun became so hot after 
dinner, that we could scarcely bear our terrace, placed as 
we were at the foot of an embankment of loose bare 
rocks. The donkeys escaped and went towards Lille- 
hammer. Noah had fallen asleep, but starting up in a 
sort of stupor, at length succeeded in bringing them back. 



98 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Some of the people passing along the main route stopped 
to gaze at Noah. Some few came down, and a small 
glass of brandy was handed to them to drink Gamle 
Norge. It was after all very convenient not to be able 
to answer all the questions asked ; much trouble was 
saved. . We had provisions, and it was not of much con- 
sequence to us, in the way we had chosen to travel, if we 
did not understand many words, and could not satisfy all 
curiosity. The trout from -the Mjosen, it is said, cannot 
ascend the falls of the Honnefos ; they are exceedingly 
good, and some are stated to have weighed 36 lbs. 
Gipsies being a restless people, Noah and Zachariah were 
sent to fish with two rods and some small trout flies ; we 
had no hope of their catching anything, but it employed 
their time, and was an occupation for them. The water 
was a light snowy blue, with a strong and rapid stream. 
Esmeralda felt sleepy, and was threatened with the loss 
of a pair of gloves ; yet we felt that we could not play 
with her, or approach her on any other terms than were 
honourable to both. We worked at our notes and maps 
while the gipsy maiden slept, and her brothers slashed 
the water in the rapids below; about seven o'clock 
Noah and Zachariah returned, as I expected, without 
any matchee (fish).* A number of people came down the 
embankment occasionally to look with curious interest on 
the donkeys. The animals were carefully examined, and 
another page was added to the natural history of 
Aronsveen. One interesting young person came and 
looked from the road above at Noah with much .interest ; 
she afterwards came a second time, and lingered ere she 

• Norwegian gipsy mattjo, sometimes in English gipsy pronounced 
matcho. 



SUDDEN SHADOWS. 09 

m 

left. We decided tliat, as we bad started so early, we 
should rest where we ^ere for the night, and start early 
the next morning, about four o'clock. 

Noah, after a coaching in Norwegian words, went to 
seek bread-and-butter (smor og brod) at the farm-house. 
He was to display some money in his open hand as an 
additional inducement. No result beiug reported on his 
return, we sent him a second time to the charge for 
fladbrod, but they had not got any to part with. We 
lighted our fire ; tea was made, and a pleasant meal of 
fried bacon, college biscuits and butter, was soon con- 
cluded. Bread was bought, when we had the chance, in 
order to save our biscuits. 

It was now decided to have our tents pitched for the 
night. Noah had just made the holes with the kettle- 
prop, and was putting in the tent rods, when a number 
of people suddenly appeared at the edge of the embank- 
ment above. Down came a tall gentleman, apparently 
between fifty and sixty, followed by probably his son 
and a short stout gentleman. He said something in a 
tone of authority to Noah, who, not understanding Avhat 
^as said, went on calmly with his tent-pitching. We 
^vere at a short distance firom Noah with Esmeralda, 
arranging some of our baggage. It appeared to us that 
something about illegal was said : breakers ahead crossed 
our mind ; we must port helm. We advanced to Noah's 
assistance, and said in Norsk— "Good evening ;" then we 
quietly reached out our silver-mounted flask, and pouring 
out a small glass of brandy, handed it to the senior of 
the party. He handed it back politely for us to drink 
first. We just tasted it, and said, Gamle Norge.* He 

• Old Norway. 

II 2 



100 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

took a small sip and then emptied the glass. We poured 
out another and handed it to the younger visitor, whom 
we took to be the son, a well-dressed, nice-looking, 
gentlemanly young fellow, who drank some of it. His 
father seemed one whose views of the world were stem 
and not on the lively side of the picture. His son had 
a pleasant twinkle in the eye, and seemed rather amused 
at the scene. The father then began apparently asking 
questions. We did not understand much of what he 
said, and Noah and Zachariah continued putting in the 
tent-rods, without troubling themselves about the matter. 
It was necessary to say something, and we informed 
them we were going at four o'clock next morning, pointing 
to our watch ; and thinking it best to clench the afifair, we 
quietly opened our courier-bag, and handed the document 
kindly given us by the Presten Eilert Sundt. We felt 
much in the position of the Harlequin and Columbine, 
who are suddenly brought to a dead lock in a Christmas 
representation, and have to invoke for their safety some 
good genius of extraordinary power. We quickly ob- 
served the countenance of the senior gentleman who 
commenced reading. " Herr Hubert Smith from England, 
with Tater (Rommanes gipsies), three donkeys, and two 
tents, &c., travelling from Christiania to Romsdal, 
Voringfos, &c., to Christiansand, to see the country and 
study the Norwegian gipsies, etc. ; with a final request 
that we should have help and assistance from his 
countrymen,'' &c.* When our visitors came to the sig- 
nature, "Eilert Sundt! ! !'' said the senior gentleman in a 
deep whisper to his son ; the son, who was also looking 
over the paper, seemed equally astonished. They ex- 

* The ori^nal document is written in the Norwegian language. 



OUR TALISMAN. 101 

amined the seal for a few moments, and handed the 
document back. Without saying more, they watched 
the tents which were put up soon after. They seemed 
rather surprised at our tent with all its paraphernalia 
and fittings, and then politely lifting their hats and bow- 
ing, without another word they suddenly left the scene. 
The people who were collected on the top of the embank- 
ment as spectators evidently did not seem to understa^nd 
how it was. Perhaps some terrific example was expected 
to be made of our tall gipsy, Noah, as a warning to all 
the gipsies in Norway. It is impossible to say, and pro- 
bably it will remain one of the links in the history of our 
wanderings which can never be supplied, nor is it of 
much consequence. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Ewn law law, cymin*rwii lili, 
A'u blodau*n rhanau i ni, 
A bysedd rh wymwn bosi, 
Ffel yw hyn nid ffol wyt ti, 
Bhoet yn glds, f el ar roeyn, 
Gwlwm da ar galon dyn. 

Let's band in hand pursue our way. 

And pluck the lily as we stray, 

Its flowers pretty we will take,— 

Our fingers can a poey make. 

This, and with a fragrant rose. 

Place on man's heart, whence goodness flows. 

WtUh PennUlion, b^ Leathabt. 

NIGHT ALARM—THE PURU RAWNEB — DONKEYS ADMIRED •— NORWEGIAN 

FONIEB — OUR GIPSY LIFE — NORWEGIAN FLOWERS — WILD FOREST 

THE PIPE OF TOBACCO — PICTURES OF IMAGINATION — THE CRIPPLED- 
MAN— CAMP NEAR HOLMEN — NOAH'S SELF-DENIAL — ^WET NIGHT — 

PEASANT girls' SERENADE— ZACHARIAH's GAIETY — LOVELY NATURE 

NORWEGIAN NEWSPAPER— THE MYSTERY EXPLAINED— FROKOST SPOILT. 

Our tents were pitched with a balk towards the 
embankment, made with our blue rug embellished with 
foxes' heads. The rug was stretched along our Alpine 
stocks driven in the ground. At the top of the embank- 
ment, some of the people still remained watching. Our 
large siphonia waterpi-oof was stretched, and fastened 
over the intervening space between the tents. Only an 
opening was left close to the edge of the steep and 
almost perpendicular declivity. 



THE FXmU BAWNEE. 103 

The sound of the river was music to us, as it foamed 
in the stillness of the night. We retired within tlie 
parascenium or partition of our tent, and were soon 
asleep. Soundly we slept, lulled by the roar of the 
Ms of the Honnefos ; we did not even hear the noise 
of a small stone afterwards thrown against the tent from 
above, or the rush of Noah and Zachariah outside with 
nothing on but their shirts, nor their shouts to the 
people above, who only laughed, and had no doubt done 
it merely to take a last fond look of our tall gipsy, Noah. 
They must have been profoundly impressed by their 
very picturesque attire. 

We awoke at 12.20 ; it was rather too early for our 
start, so we turned, missed the time, and awoke at half- 
past five instead of four o clocks The word was given. 
All were soon stirring. It had rained heavily in the 
night. Tents were struck, donkeys packed ; at a quarter 
past seven o'clock we were en route. Esmeralda was 
as lively as possible. We were all in excellent spirits, 
our donkeys stepping out bravely with their loads. Our 
beautiful Pura Rawnee leads the way, the hawk bells 
jingling on its light collar of scarlet bockiug. At every 
place we passed, we had a rush of the country peasants 
to see us. It was amusing to observe their eagerness 
to be in time, as they left their occupations in hot haste 
to gaze upon our donkeys. At some places we had been 
expected. Some mysterious intimation had been given, 
and the peasants were ready drawn up waiting with 
great expectations our approach. As we journeyed 
onwards, it was desirable to buy In'ead to save our stock 
of biscuits. Noah tried at one or two houses. The 
first was a large house where they were evidently waiting 



104 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

our arrival. The windows were embellished by many- 
heads : the female sex predominated ; most of the males 
appeared in a courtyard opening to the road. " Try 
here/' we said to Noah, giving him some money to 
take in his hand, " and say, * smor og brod.' " He was 
not successfiil, for he was shown into a large room, with 
coffee, breads &c., on the table. Probably he could not 
make any one understand, or they had no bread to sell, 
for he returned empty-handed. One man we noticed 
soon afterwards running in the distance across the fields. 
It was amusing to see the wild struggles he made to 
be in time. With much sympathy for his unwonted 
efforts to accomplish so much speed, we had regulated 
the pace of our donkeys to give him a chance. 

At last we came to a quiet part of the road between 
two fir woods, with a narrow space of green sward on 
each side; a rippling stream crossed the road in its 
course to the River Logan. The sun gleamed pleasantly 
forth. Our fire ttas Boon lighted, and our meal consisted 
of biscuit, Australian pl'e^erved meat, and tea. The 
Australian meat was much appreciated as an edible: 
we were all agreeably surprised to find it so good. In 
a country like Norway, it is indispensable to those who 
seek the freedom of camp-life. As we concluded our 
meal down came the rain, but we were prepared, and all 
our things were immediately under our large waterproof. 
Then we sheltered ourselves with the waterproof rugs, 
and quietly waited for the heavy shower to cease. Several 
carrioles were driven by, and some carts passed. Noah 
had to lead one pony who shied at our donkeys j another 
pony had to be taken out and coaxed by them. The 
Norwegian ponies, who are the most docile animals in 



OITR GIPSY LIFE. la") 

the world, were often suspicious of our harmless donkeys, 
who, quietly browsing, looked as unlike dangerous 
ferocity as could possibly be imagined. The rain ceased. 
It was eleven. Esmeralda and ourselves pushed on 
aloDg the road with two donkeys already loaded, whilst 
Noah and Zachariah were putting the remaining baggage 
on the third. When they came in sight shortly after- 
wards, Esmeralda said we must pretend to be strange 
gipsies, and ask them where they were gelling to. 

" Shawshon baugh ? " (how do you do), said Esmeralda, 
drawing herself up with an assumed look of contempt, as 
her brothers came up with their donkey and baggage. 

" Shawshon baugh ? '' said they ; " where be you a 
gelling (going) to ? I suppose you Romany's have been 
married some time." 

" Howah," (yes) said Esmeralda, " we've been married 
about a year." 

We must confess to a queer sensation that by some 
gipsy incantation we were no longer free. 

"Which is your merle?" (gip., donkey), demanded 
Noah, stalking up to the front. 

'* That's mandys " (mine), said Esmeralda, pointing to 
the Puru Rawnee, which she claimed for her own. 
Gipsy wives have evidently separate rights of property, 
thought we, which we were not before aware of. ** The 
^ther is my husband's," said Esmeralda, looking at us 
^ith her dark eyes, which made us feel as if we were 
morged into another individuality. 

'*Will you gipsies chaffer with us?" said Noah and 
Zachariah. 

But we remarked, " Your merle's got no tail." This 
was said in disparagement of the one supposed to be 



106 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

theirs, for our donkeys were by no means wantmg in 
this respect. The tail of one was perhaps rather smaller 
than the other's. 

" Why/* said Esmeralda, ** that's yom- donkey. You 
don't kno^ one merle from another." 

They had got mixed, and we had mistaken the one 
just come up. The serious earnestness of the gipsy girl 
gave us a hearty laugh. So they went on rockering 
(talking) in their Romany mous (gipsy language). As we 
journeyed onwards, how fragrant the wild flowers. Those 
wild flowers of Norway can never be forgotten. Gipsies 
like flowers, it is part of their nature. Esmeralda would 
pluck them, and, forming a charming bouquet inter- 
spersed with beautiful wild roses, her first thought was 
to pin them in the button-hole of the Romany Rye 
(gipsy gentleman). We were not the only party with 
tents and baggage ; for we had noticed, as we passed 
along the road from Lillehammer, a number of white 
military tents pitched in the valley below us, on a 
pleasant flat of turf land on the opposite side the River 
Logan. We were informed afterwards, it was an en- 
campment of the Norwegian militia for military training. 

Shortly afterwards we passed a large house near the 
roadside, which appeared to be a gjoestgiver gaard. 
The people came out to look at us. Noticing some 
articles for sale in the window, we sent Noah back with 
some money, and he soon after returned with ten loaves 
of bread, and a pound and a half of butter, for which he 
paid four marks and a half. Noah said he bought all 
the bread they had. We were so well pleased with the 
acquisition, that, finding it was a general shop, Zachariah 
was sent back to replace his dilapidated hat with a 



WILD FOREST. 107 

new wide-a-wake, which cost us one dollar. Wlien 
we examined the hat on his return, we read within it 
the well-known English name of Christy. Noah and 
Zachariah had each invested in a handkerchief; Noah's 
consisted of four pictures of the loudest pattern. Noah's 
commercial transactions had also extended to a pipe 
and tobacco, and he appeared smoking it to the disgust 
of the rest of the party. Indications of coming rain 
caused us to arrange the waterproofs over our baggage. 
Several people came up to look at our donkeys. 

The bread being packed safely away, we again pushed 
on, and entered a wild, thick forest at the foot of some 
steep rocky hills. The River Logan was not far to our 
left. Taking the first opportunity, we now told Noah 
that it was contrary to the rules of our camp to smoke, 
and that he must at once give up his pipe and tobacco. 

"No, no, sir,'' said Noah, in a melancholy tone, "I 
must have some tobacco." 

'* Well, Noah," we replied, " we must have our wish, 
we have always done what we could for you, and we 
expect some sacrifice in return.'' 

Esmeralda and Zachariah joined in the request. 

A slight cloud passed over Noah's look as he dropped 
behind. We must, however, do him the justice to say 
that his temper was excellent. Noah was ever cheerful 
imder the greatest difficulties. 

As we quietly journeyed through the forest, how de- 
lightful its scenes. Free firom all care, we enjoy the 
anticipation of a long and pleasant ramble in Norway's 
happy land. We felt contented with all things, and 
thankful that we should be so permitted to roam, with 
our tents and wild children of nature in keeping with 



108 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

the solitudes we sought. So we travelled onwards to- 
wards Holmen. The rain had soon ceased. Tinkle, 
tinkle went the hawk-bells on the collar of our Puru 
Rawnee, as she led the way along the romantic 
Norwegian road. 

'' Give the snakes and toads a twist, 
And banish them for eyer/' 

sang Zachariah, ever and anon giving similar wild 
snatches. Then Esmeralda would rocker about being the 
wife of the Romany Rye, and as she proudly paced along 
in her heavy boots, she pictured, in painful imagery, the 
pleasant Ufe we should lead as her Romany mouche. She 
was full of fun : yet there was nothing in her fanciful de- 
lineations which could offend us. They were but the foam 
of the crested wave, soon dissipated in air. They were the 
evanescent creations of a lively, open-hearted girl. Wild 
notes trilled by the bird of the forest. We came again 
into the open valley. Down a meadow gushed a small 
streamlet, which splashed from a wooden spout on to the 
road-side below. From a log cottage in the meadow 
above, a man quickly crawled down the steep bank, like 
a spider along in his web. He took his station on the 
bank near the streamlet's falling water. The man was 
pale and wan, and begged for alms. He seemed to have 
no use in his legs. Could we refuse ? We who roamed 
free as the birds of the air. We gave him some skillings. 
The man seemed very thankful, and we soon after saw 
him crawling slowly up to his small wooden cottage, 
from whence he commanded a view of the road. Now 
we came near the river-side, and pushed along to find a 
camping ground. We had again forest on either side. 
The river was near, and on the hills of the narrow valley 



CAMP NEAR HOLMEX. 109 

we could see many farms. At last we decided to carap 
on a rise of ground above the road : an open woodland, 
on tlie edge of the thick forest, which covered the hill 
above. The road wall was broken down in one place, 
giviog passage for the donkeys, after we had unloaded 
them. Our things were hoisted up, and soon carried to 
a pleasant slope, partly secluded with scattered brush- 
wood and trees, having a view of the road, river, and 
lofty hiUs on the opposite side of the valley. The rain 
commenced as we were pitching our tents. The first 
losses we discovered were our two caps and guard, with 
a carved fish at the end of it, and the green veil in which 
they were wrapped. It was provoking. They must have 
heen left on the roadside when we halted near the house 
where we bought the ten loaves of bread ; probably near 
Gillebo or Skardsmoen. They were of black felt, and 
we were now left with only the straw hat we then wore. 
Our tents had not been long pitched, and our fire made, 
when a tall, pale man came to us from the road. He 
carried a wallet ; had a walking-stick in his hand, and we 
understood him to say he was going to Romsdalen. He 
seemed much interested with our tents, and accepted 
some brandy and tobacco. The spot where our tents 
were pitched was near a sort of small natural terrace, at 
the summit of a steep slope above the road, backed by a 
mossy bank, shaded by brushwood, and skirting the dense 
foliage of the dark forest of pine and fir rising above our 
camp. We had tea and bread, and our Australian meat, 
which was excellent. The clouds gathered darkly over 
the mountains, and there were some heavy showers. 
More visitors came in succession; some had brandy. 
Their attention seemed divided between the tents and 



110 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

donkeys. At length the rain probably prevented more 
from coining. 

In the course of the afternoon, when we got into camp, 
Noah came and said, "I think, sir, instead of buying 
tobacco, I had much better have put the money by to 
get me a pair of stockings." We asked how much he 
gave, and he said half a mark. " Then, Noah, give up 
the pipe and tobacco, and you shall have the half-mark." 
Our gipsy came soon after. He had evidently made up 
his mind. 

"Mr. Smith, you don't like my smoking, sir; here's 
the tobacco and pipe. I don't wish you to say I didn't 
do what you requir'ed." 

As Noah handed over the pipe and tobacco, one would 
have thought he had given up some dearly-prized trea- 
sure. Although we gave him the half-mark with pleasure, 
we could not help feeling some compunction; still, as 
" shorengro " (gipsy chief) of the party, we were bound 
to see the camp rules obeyed, and Noah knew them 
before he started. Pusillanimity and want of firmness 
would have destroyed the success of the expedition. 

After tea we sat up to write our notes. The occur- 
rences and events of each day must be written whilst 
they are fresh in the memory. Nor must they be left to 
remembrance, or the clear lettering of correctness and 
truth will be lost. What are now given are mere tran- 
scripts of notes written on the spot, and at the time. 
Whatever be their worth, rough as they are, it is hoped 
their truth will give them some value. We were glad 
to retire to rest. It rained heavily in the night. Once 
or twice the light Siphonia waterproof was blown off. 
Noah hud to get up in the night to put it on, and to dig 



PEASANT GIRLS' SERENADE. Ill 

a trench round the tents. We could feel the moisture 
comiDg in from the bank above. It was wth diflficulty 
we kept our provisions dry. 

Our first Sunday morning in camp. It was one of our 
camp rules never to travel on a Sunday. It was made a 
(lav of rest for ourselves and the animals. We looked 
forward throughout our travels to our Sunday for quietude 
and repose. The morning was dull and wet. We break- 
fasted about seven o'clock. The frokost (Nor., breakfast) 
consisted of fried bacon, bread,- and tea. The materials 
for a soup for dinner were put ready. Whilst it was 
cooking, a German gentleman, accompanied by his 
skydskarl, came up from the road. He inquired if we 
were German. Then he informed us that there was an 
account of us in the newspapers. Having looked at our 
tents, we sent Zachariah with him to see the donkeys. 
The German gentleman seemed much gratified, and, 
shaking hands with Zachariah, left our camp. Many 
carriages passed along the road during the day. After 
our dinner of soup, made of ham, peas, flour, and Liebig's 
essence of meat, w^e remained in our tents. Some young 
peasant men and women came and sat in the rain outside 
looking at us. We gave two of the peasants some brandy 
and tobacco. Then all our visitors left, except four 
interesting young peasant girls, who still lingered. One 
had an umbrella, and all four standing in the rain at a 
short distance from our camp, sang for us a Norwegian 
song to a pretty Norwegian air. They had pleasant 
voices. We listened to them with much pleasure. There 
was so mucb sweetness and feeling in the melody. It 
was a serenade of four Norwegian peasant girls. We 
appreciated their kind attention to wanderers from a far 



l\ei 
tali 



It 

be 
eff 
the 



^ 






LOVELY NATURE, 113 

to, he would suddenly, with a hop, skip, and a jump, light 
in his tent, as if he had tumbled from the sky, and sitting 
bolt upright, making a hideous face, till his mouth nearly 
stretched from ear to ear, while his dark eyes sparkled 
with wild excitement, he would sing :— 

" Dawdy ! Dawdy ! dit a kei, 
Rockerony fake your boah." 

At one time a woman brought an exceedingly fat child 
for us to look at, and she wanted Esmeralda to suckle it, 
which was of course hastily declined. We began to ask 
ourselves, if this was forest seclusion. Still, our visitors 
were kind, good-humoured people, and some drank our 
brandy, and some smoked our English tobacco. Had 
they not partaken of our salt ? We, as Arabs of tent-life, 
gave them our friendly welcome. After our tea, at five 
o'clock we had a pleasant stroll. Once more we were 
with Nature. There we lingered, till the scenes round 
us, in their varied beauty, seemed graven deep in our 
thoughts. How graphic are the lines of Moore : — 

" The turf shall he my fragrant shnne, 
My temple, Lord ! that arch of thine 
My censer^B hreath the mountain airs, 
And dlent thoughts my only prayers. 

" My choir shaU he the moonlight waves, 
When murm'ring homeward to their cayes, 
Or when the stillness of the sea, 
Even more of music hreathes of thee." 

How appropriate, were the words of the great poet to 
our feelings. Returning between eight and nine o'clock, 
we found Esmeralda standing by the tents. We went in 
and sat down. Another party of visitors approached. 
Now and then they halted, as they looked towards our 



114 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tents, and would then refer to a paper. They stood 
occasionally for a few moments in earnest discussion. 
We were much puzzled to make out what they were 
doing, as we sat in our tent looking at them. One of the 
party, a tall, fine-looking man in plaid trousers, large 
beard, and cap, advanced. As we bowed, he handed us 
a Norwegian newspaper, and pointed to a paragraph, 
which we soon found related to ourselves. They all took 
some brandy; and when we ofiered to buy the news- 
paper, they most kindly presented it to us. Then 
Zacharia took them to see the donkeys. When they 
returned, we made them understand, that they were at 
the camp of the Englishman, referred to in the paragraph. 
They inspected the tents and pinthorns. They felt the 
blanket coverings, and also the waterproof Siphonian 
cover. Examined our camp kettle; and we explained 
to them the mysteries of our Russian lamp. There 
was much discussion among them about our tents. 
They stood by them for a quarter of an hour. Perhaps 
the description in the paragraph was not quite under- 
stood. The paragraph ran thus, and underneath we give 
an EngUsh translation : — 

EXTRACT FROM THE DAGBLADET, No. 142, 23rd June, 1870. 

CHRISTIANIA. 

"en original ENGELSKMAND. 

" Blandt den Maengde af fremmede Turister skrwer 
Mgbl., der i disse Dage opholder seg hei i By en for herfra 
at tiltraede Reisen om i Landet, er ogsaa en Engelsk- 
mand Mr. Smith, der er saa lykkeligat have opdaget en 
ny Specialitet inden Turistlwets Enemoerker. Han reiser 
nemUg ikke hrerkeu i Kariol, eller Kano, meu tilfods og 



NORWEGIAN NEWSPAPER. 116 

forer alligevel med sig Mad, Drikke, Kloeder, Sko, Hus, 
Hjem og alle andre Livets Velsignelser fige indtil gode 
Naboer. Han ledsages kort at fortoelle af 3 i£fler, paa 
Iwis Ryg der loesses allehaande Livsforn oden heder 
iberegnet Telle, som slaaes op, hvor og naar ban onsker 
at raste, for atter at tuges ned igjen, naar ban drager 
videre, og som under bans Reise belt oz boldent maa 
ers tatte bam almmdeligt Husly. Det er saaledes et 
fiildstaendig gjennemfort Romadelir, der udgjor Mr. 
Smith's Specialitet ; men for at gjore dette rigtig Kom- 
fort abelt bar ban taget med som sin Betjening paa 
Reisen et Selskab af veritable Romader, nemlig tro 
Tatere (gypsies) to Brodre og en Soster. Det skal vere 
Mr. Smitb's tanke at anvende 3 — 4 Maaneder paa et 
gjennemstreife vore Hoi^eldsegne, og riraeligvis vil man- 
geu af vore Turister da faa Leileghed til at se deu lille 
Kara Vane, der udgjor bans Reisetroen." 

TRANSLATION OF THE FOREGOING. 
"an ORIGINAL ENGLISHMAN. 

" Among tbe numerous foreign tourists, says the 
Morgen bladett (Morning Paper), tbere is at present stay- 
ing at Byen, with an intention of proceeding inland, an 
Englisb gentleman, Mr. Smitb, who bas made a new in- 
vention for tbe use of tourists. He neitber travels by 
carriage or boat, but on foot, and nevertheless carries 
with him food, drink, clothes, shoes, and every other 
necessary of life in a small compass. It consists of a 
folding contrivance on three donkeys, in which the articles 
are packed, and is carried on tbe back, forming when 
spread out a tent, whenever be wishes to halt, and the 

I 2 



114 ^E^^ life in norwat. 

tents, and would then refer to a paper, 
occasionally for a few moments in earnet 
We were much puzzled to make out wha 
domg, as we sat in our tent looking at them, 
party, a tall, fine-looking man in plaid trc 
beard, and cap, advanced. As we bowed, he 
a Norwegian newspaper, and pointed to a 
which we soon found related to ourselves. Tl 
some brandy; and when we offered to buy 
paper, they most kindly presented it to 
Zacharia took them to see the donkeys. ^ 
returned, we made them understand, that the 
the camp of the Englishman, referred to in the j 
They inspected the tents and pinthoms. Tht 
blanket coverings, and also the waterproof i 
cover. Examined our camp kettle; and we t 
to them the mysteries of our Russian lamp, 
was much discussion among them about on 
They stood by them for a quarter of an hour, 
the description in the paragraph was not quite 
stood. The paragraph ran thus, and underneath ^ 
an English translation : — 

EXTRACT FBOM THE DAQBLADET, No. 142, 23id Jus> 

CHRISTIANIA. 

"en original ENGELSKMAND, 

" Blandt den Maengde af fremmede Turister si 

Mgbl, der i disse Dage opholder seg hei i Byen for ]• 

at tiltraede Reisen om i Landet, er ogsaa en Eng 

mand Mr. Smith, der er saa IvlrtAJio-at have opdagt 

ny Specialitet inden Turis tl^ ^r. Hann 

nemlig ikke hrerkeu i KarioJ u tilfadfi 



----- K 



-, to 



: : — » 



the 
:ed 



CHAPTER Xn. 

• • 
'* Many times he would go into the forest of the peeke, and set np 
ther his tent, with great provision of viteles, and would remaine tber 
▼ii weeks or more hunting and making other worthy pastimes unto his 
company." — Huittbr's S<nUh Yorkshire, 

UNSUCCESSFUL FISHINO — A MILITARY OFFICER — THE DERNIER RE8SORT — 
OUR GIPSY RECEPTION — INTERRUPTED TOILETTE — PfiTE GHAMPdTRE — 
DANCING ON THE GREENSWARD — TINCTURE OF CEDAR — THE DISAP- 
POINTMENT — THE LOSNA VAND — THE KETTLE PROP LOST PEASANT 

CHILDREN — INTERESTING DISCUSSIONS— WRITING UNDER DIFFICULTIES 
— THE KINDLY HEART. 

When frokost (Nor., breakfast) was over, we sent Noah 
and Zachariah to the Logan, with a fishing-rod each, and 
some trout-flies. Esmeralda stayed at the tents, and added 
to the remains of the former stock of soup, some rice, 
Liebeg*s essence of meat, pea flour, and some mushrooms, 
gathered en route. She prepared some excellent soup 
for middags-mad (Nor., dinner). Esmeralda was standing 
outside the tents, when a traveller from Throndhjem came 
up with his Skydskarl from the road ; he spoke to her in 
English, but she did not appear to understand him. 
When we came out of the tents, the stranger bowed, and 
said it was a pleasant way of travelling. He asked if 
we were Italians, at the same time looking at Esmeralda. 
We informed him the others were Romanys. He wished 
to know if we had our wife with us, and we informed him 



MILITARY OFFICER 119 

we were not married Then our visitor asked how we 
managed in the rain, and when he had looked round our 
camp, politely took off his hat, and left. Noah and 
Zachariah returned without having had a rise. Leaving 
them in charge of the camp, Esmeralda and myself went 
to see a waterfall, but, missing our way in the forest, we 
returned laden with ferns, foxgloves, and lichens. We 
found at our camp a very respectably dressed young 
woman, accompanied by a girl with scanty white petticoat, 
barelegs and feet. Getting out our dictionary, we told 
them they should have some music, if they came at seven 
that evening. They mentioned otta klokken (Nor., eight 
o'clock), and it was so arranged. Noah and Zachariah 
having played them two or three tunes, our visitors left. 
The soup at dinner was excellent, and with some bread 
and butter, made a good meal. The weather now became 
very fine ; we seated ourselves on a mossy bank, some 
short distance at the edge of the tangled thickets of the 
forest, which skirted our camp. Gleams of sunshine 
enlivened the scene. Esmeralda was busily cleaning our 
boots, when we noticed close to us, a tall, gentlemanly, 
Norwegian officer. He wore a military cap, and had 
come along a narrow pathway through the trees. We 
had not heard his footsteps, and as he paused for a moment, 
a faint smile seemed to play on his countenance. We 
bowed, and asked him if he spoke English, but finding 
he was not able to do so, we sent Noah to show him 
the donkeys, Noah was busily levelling, with our camp 
spade, certain inequalities of the small terrace near our 
camp, so that our visitors might have level turf for their 
dancing in the evening. When the officer returned, 
he appeared to wish to say something in English; a 



120 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

dictionary was handed to him, but that failing, Mr. 
Bennett's " Dialogue Book " was given as a dernier 
ressort Whilst he was in search of words, Esmeralda 
was busy brushing our clothes ; sometimes he was 
turning over the pages, and sometimes he seemed rather 
astonished and amused at Esmeralda's style of brushing, 
especially when she pulled our coat, and gave us a 
bang with the brush for not turning round. In vain 
he searched the " Dialogue Book," and then .he shook 
his head. Esmeralda completed her task, and declared 
we looked five pounds better. We then ^showed the 
officer the tents. 

It was with much regret, we felt our inability to 
converse, yet it is astonishing what can be donje, by a few 
words and signs. His carriage was in the road below. 
The day had become pleasant and warm ; Zachariah and 
Esmeralda seated themselves on the mossy bank by the 
terrace, not far from our tents. Soon their wild music 
might be heard in the forest. The driver and a boy 
belonging to the officer's carriage came up. A militia 
soldier marching along the road in a light suit of jean, 
with his knapsack on his back, was called up by his 
officer, whom he saluted. Our audience was complete. 
The officer was going to the militia encampment we had 
noticed as we came from Lillehammer. The music 
seemed to please him ; he laughed at Zachariah's wild 
comicality. When they had finished, with an exchange 
of salutations, he wished us good-by, and left Our 
visitors were now gone. Noah and Zachariah washed 
themselves ; and we had our tea, with potted tongue, and 
bread and cheese. As we were seated by our camp-fire, 
a tall old man, looking round our tents, came and stood 



INTERRUPTED TOILETTE, 121 

contemplating us at our tea. He looked as if he thought 
we were enjoying a life' of happiness. Nor was he 
wrong. He viewed us with a pleased, and kindly ex- 
pression, as he seemed half lost in contemplation. We 
sent for the flask of brandy, and he drank to Gamle 
Norge (Nor., Old Norway), and then left to see the 
donkeys. In a few minutes Esmeralda cleaned and re- 
packed our tea things. 

Returning to our tent we put on our Napoleon boots, 
and made some additions to our toilette ; whilst we were 
so engaged, some women came to the tents. The 
curiosity of the sex was exemplified, for they were 
dying to look behind the tent-partition which screened us 
from observation. We don't know what they expected 
to see; one bolder than the rest, could not resist the 
desire, to look behind the scenes, and hastily drew back 
and dropped the curtain, when we said rather sharply, 
"Neilnei!" 

Esmeralda shortly afterwards appeared in her blue 
dress and silver buttons. Then we all seated ourselves 
on a mossy bank, on the side of the terrace, with a 
charming view across the valley of the Logan. At 
eight o'clock the music commenced. The sun shone 
beautifully, and the mosquitoes and midges bit right and 
left, with hungry determination. We sat in line on the 
soft mossy turf of the grassy slope, sheltered by foliage, 
Esmeralda and Noah with their tambourines, myself with 
the castanets, and Zachariah with his violin. We had not 
played very long, when a man passing along the road 
below heard the music, and ran up. Much astonished he 
seemed, as he stood at a short distance from us, on the 
Bide of the terrace, and gazed at each by turn. When a 



122 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

tune ended he smiled approvingly. Some peasant 
women and girls came up after we had played a short 
time. It was a curious scene- Our tents were plea- 
santly pitched on an open patch of green sward, sur- 
rounded by bordering thickets, near the sunny bank, and 
the small flat terrace, which Noah bad levelled in the 
morning. The main roq,d was immediately below ; and 
down the valley rolled the wide river Logan, with a pic- 
turesque island, dividing its rapid stream. The rising 
hills and rugged ravines on the other side the valley, all 
gave a singular, and romantic beauty to the lovely view. 
Although our gipsies played with much spirit until nine 
o'clock, none of the peasants would dance. At nine 
o'clock our music ceased, and we all retired to our 
tents, with the intention of going to bed. When we were 
going into our tents, a peasant, and several others with 
him, who had just arrived, asked us to play again. We 
declined, for we had already played an hour, and merely 
did so for our own will and pleasure. The peasants 
appeared very anxious, and offered us a three or four 
skilling piece, which we politely refused. At length, 
observing several peasant girls were very much disap- 
pointed, we decided to play once more. It was past 
nine o'clock when we again took up our position on the 
mossy bank. Noah was accepted by one of the Nor- 
wegian girls as a partner, and we made another couple 
with a good-looking young peasant *'pige" (Nor., girl)- 
When she was tired, we danced with Esmeralda. Both 
partners managed the schottische famously on the level 
turf. So we danced, and the peasant girls, until 
nearly ten o'clock. The terrace was rather limited in 
extent. Once we nearly whirled ourself and Esmeralda 



TINCTURE OF CEDAR. 123 

oyer the slope, and into the road below. The gipsies 
suffered grievously from musketos early in the evening. 

"Ah!" said we to the gipsies, "that is soon pre- 
vented." 

Producing a bottle of tincture of cedar, which a 
Canadian Mend had heard was an mfallible remedy, all 
our gipsies' faces, including our own, were carefully 
painted over with the brown liquid. For the information 
of our readers, we can only say it was a decided failure, 
and after several trials, in which the tincture only seemed 
to irritate the skin, without deterring in the slightest 
degree, the rapacity of hundreds of devouring insects, 
tincture of cedar was voted a miserable delusion, and a 
provoking sham. 

Soon after we had wished our visitors ** god afl;en,*' 
(Nor., good evening) and had retired to our tents, a 
carriage pulled up in the road below. The occupants 
came up and walked round our camp. We did not see 
them, but were told afterwards by our gipsies, that one 
of our visitors, was the young man who had assisted us 
with our provision case at Lillehammer. 

At half-past two o'clock the next morning, Tuesday, 
the twenty-eighth of June, all were moving. The idea 
that we were first up was speedily proved incorrect. 
Directly we left; our tents, a Norwegian tramp, of torn 
and tattered appearance, came and gazed at our camp in 
mute astonishment, and then silently departed. 

Esmeralda was soon up. Our kettle of soup was put 
ready to boil for breakfast, and the fire was lighted. 
Noah took charge of the kettle and pepper. The soup 
was boiled, and served out in our bowls, as we sat in the 
rather dull, cloudy, cold morning round the fire. Never 



124 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

shall we forget Zachariah's look of epicurean disappoint- 
ment, and misery, as he tasted the soup, and threw down 
his spoon. 

"Now then, Noah, I can't eat it!" We could not 
help laughing. Then it was tasted by ourselves. 
Esmeralda tasted it. Noah had Uterally deluged it with 
pepper. The soup was condemned. Noah took our 
anything but complimentary remarks upon his cuisine, 
with his usual good-temper, and, as if to show that the 
soup was really not so bad, he finished our shares as well 
as his own. Slices of bread and butter were cut for 
ourself, Esmeralda, and Zachariah, and we decided that 
Noah should never again attempt any culinary operations. 

Hastily striking camp, all our things were packed and 
loaded. Our party left the camp ground at half-past 
five o'clock. 

On the right of the road, going to Holmen, a short 
distance below our camp, we passed the mile-stone which 
marked two and a half Norsk miles, or seventeen and a 
half English miles from Lillehammer. 

At Holmen bread could not be purchased, but we were 
told that we could get some at a house beyond, where 
Esmeralda afterwards bought eight loaves for two marks 
and a half. Several men followed us along the road to see 
our donkeys. 

Passing a small sheet of water, some crows on the 
the bank were so tame that they allowed us to come 
close to them. The Norwegian crow has some white 
about it, but in size it is much the same as the English 
crow. 

As we reached the shores of the Losna Vand, a long 
narrow lake, the rain clouds seemed to be gathering over 



LOSNA VAND. 125 

some very picturesque mountains near its shores.* Coming 
to a small recess of ground, by a stream of water on the road 
side near the lake, a halt was called — in truth we were 
rather hungry. The remembrance of the hot soup had 
not become effaced from Zachariah's memory. When 
our things were unpacked, it was at once discovered, that 
our kettle prop had been left at our last camp. We were 
much annoyed, not only on account of the difficulty of 
boiling our things, but with regard to making holes in the 
ground for our tent raniers. As a substitute for our lost 
kettle prop, two Alpine stocks were brought into use, and 
some twisted wire was fastened between them, to suspend 
our kettle over the fire. Whilst we were engaged in 
preparing our meal, the rain storm gathered on the hills 
at the head of the lake. All our baggage was safely 
stowed away under our invaluable siphonia tent cover. 
Esmeralda was also sheltered in a comfortable place 
amongst the baggage. As her brothers and ourselves 
were pouring out the tea, it began to rain heavily. Soon 
afterwards, we found the donkeys had strayed out of 
sight, and Noah had to follow them at least half a mile, 
before he could bring them back, to the camp. 

A woman soon made her appearance and begged. 
We think she lived in a house on the road side, not very 
far from where we were. Four skillings seemed to please 
her very much. Then came a little boy dressed in only 

• To the left of our route, near Svatsum, a young English naval gentle- 
man, travelling in Norway in 1853, was so pleased with the scenery of the 
country, that he purchased a smaU farm, and resided there for five years, 
fishing in the Robv Vand (Fox Lake) and other lakes, and exploring the 
Qeldes with his tent and gun. To this incident the neighbourhood of 
Svatsum has become associated with the author of a small but interesting 
book, published i;i 1863, entitled, " RecoUections of a Five Years' Real, 
dencc in Norway." 



126 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

a few rags, who seated himself near our camp as we were 
taking our breakfast. The rain had almost ceased for a 
short time. The boy looked so piteous, as we were 
demolishing, with considerable appetite, tea, bread and 
butter, and sardines, that we could not help giving him 
some bread and butter. The little fellow said nothing, 
but putting out his hand, he clasped ours with a look of 
intense gratitude. Then came three small girls, and 
they also had bread and butter. The rain recommenced, 
but, breakfast being finished, Esmeralda was carefully 
covered up. Noah and Zachariah immediately disappeared 
underneath some part of the waterproof and fell asleep. 
We retired also, with our head just out, so that we could 
observe the travellers passing along the road. Several 
peasants came up, and stared at the donkeys, as they stood 
in the rain, near our dark mass of siphonian waterproof, 
with nothing else to be seen, but our head. They asked 
a number of questions with very little result, after which 
the donkies were again examined. Their mouths were 
opened, teeth reckoned, and their conformation carefully 
noted. Their tails were handled. Sometimes one of the 
donkeys, on such occasions, would move his hind leg, and 
great was the rush to get out of his way. We were 
asked their ages. The visit generally wound up with an 
earnest discussion amongst themselves, in which we could 
distinguish the words asen (donkeys), and heste (horses), 
often repeated. 

• Another group of women and men soon came to the 
spot, and, as we rested on our elbows with our head, out 
of our waterproof, we were again the subject of farther 
interrogatory. It is probable they did not elicit 
much, though our vocabulary improved with the journey. 



WRITING UNDER DIFFICULTIES. 127 

A peasant drove up with a crippled militia man. The 
driver at once got down in haste. He was particularly 
curious about the donkeys ; in fact the three donkeys were 
evidently expected to be seen somewhere on the route, 
and they had become the subject of eager anxiety. 

At one time, we almost expected to see the lone figure 
of the Birmingham bagman, in the driving rain, on the 
lake side, hovering near our donkeys, but he never came. 
Rain, rain, ever rain. We tried to write our notes, but 
our pencil formed all kinds of arabesque lines in zigzag 
pattern, which still remain in our note-book, and we fell 
asleep. The fallmg book awoke us to consciousness, and 
the necessity for action. We gave Esmeralda some 
quinine and water, and took some ourselves. Taking 
advantage of a lull in the rain-storm, the order was given 
to pack up, and we were soon en route. 

The Losna Vand is a picturesque lake, but its beauty 
would have been more appreciated on a fine day. Our 
party travelled on, till we crossed a bridge over a stream, 
at the foot of a vrild gorge. At the house near, we obtained 
two loaves of rye brod, and half a pound of butter for 9e?. 
The rain poured down heavily. We took shelter firom 
the driving rain and wind, for a short time, to the leeward 
of a small log hut, on the shore of the lake by the road- 
side, whilst the donkeys stood under the wall on the other 
side the road. The gipsies were as lively as usual, 
though they were wet through, and had no change. We 
had our light siphonia waterproof on, and Esmeralda her 
long Alpine cloak. The gipsies sang, whilst Zachariah 
tumbled, and danced, and laughed, and pulled all kinds of 
dreadful faces. Then Noah found a curious round stone 
of quartz, but it was too heavy to carry. Some women 



128 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

came and looked at us with curious interest. We did 
not stay long. Notwithstanding the wind and rain, we 
must continue our journey, till we come to some spot 
where we can camp. When we had passed a short 
distance along the road, an interesting child, ^^lio tad 
come down from a log cottage above, ofiFered us a skil- 
ling. The little girl and her parents had evidently com- 
miserated our forlorn condition as nomad wanderers, and 
were anxious to give their unsolicited assistance. It will 
not be forgQtten in their account with the next ^world. 
We were obliged to refuse, and, shaking the little girl by 
the hand, bade her farewell. May she have long happi- 
ness in life, as her kind heart deserves. 



CHAPTEB Xm. 

Twist ye, twine ye ! even so, 
Mingle ahades of joy and woe, 
Hope and fear and peace and strife, 
In the thread of human life. 

Song of Meg MerrUia. Sia Waltir Soon. 

WEI TRAVBIXrSa— VODVANCI — OUR BCS8IAN LAHF— SWEDISH VISITORS — 
AUu WBI*I* — MY HOBBINBNGREE— THE CHILD OF NATURE — GUITAR 

BONOS TSE VILLAGE BEAU — MERLES GONE— THE MUSKETOS' VICTORY 

ISOnB KAIN— SCOTCH TRAVELLER — ^TIMBER FLOATERS— GIPSIES — 

£NRA.GE:I> englishman — the frightened SKYDSKARL — GIPSIES* 
EHDTJBANCB— THE LI8TABI COMMOTION — U8TAD SCENERY. 

OuB donkeys were pressed onwards, and passed some 
carts laden with merchandise. Anxiously our gipsies 
looked out for a camping ground. The waters of the 
lake, dashed in waves on the stony shore. The wind and 
rain met us in the teeth. Misty clouds gathered on the 
summit of the. moimtains opposite, as we travelled along 
at a quick pace. The packs on our donkeys, were care- 
fully covered with our waterproofs. In vain we looked 
at every point for a camping ground. At one log cottage 
on the hiU above the road, a woman with a yellow hand- 
kerchief over her head, rushed out, and ran down towards 
the road. Then a boy suddenly appeared on the other 
side of the house, and throwing up his arms when he saw 
us, they revolved like the sails of a windmill, as he 



120 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

struggled with quickened pace after the woman. Both 
ran towards an eminence of ground at some distance 
below the house near the road. " I hope they will get 
safe down," remarked we to our gipsies. Sometimes the 
boy gained upon the woman. The race was exciting. 
Speculations were hazarded as to which would get in 
first. The woman might fall, but she did not, and won 
the race. Both stood in breathless contemplation as we 
passed. At last we reached Vodvang, splashed, wet, 
. and weary. 

There were not many houses at Vodvang. People 
were looking out of their windows, and several men had 
collected on the balcony of a large house, probably the 
gjoGstgiver-gaard, to see us as we passed. The church 
was a quaint wooden structure painted red. The monu- 
mental records in the graveyard round it, were few in 
number — small wooden crosses, generally of similar pat- 
tern. Two men followed us along the road. Noah was 
sent up a wild-looking pathway to the top of a wooded 
hill, but found no camping ground. Then we inquired 
from the two men, who pointed several times to a thick 
fir wood a short distance beyond. We gave them twelve 
skillings, which they seemed very reluctant to take, and 
wished to return, but we said it was drike penge, and 
left them. Proceeding as fast as our donkeys could 
travel, for it was now past eight o'clock, we at length 
came to a private road, leading, through a gate, to the 
wood. There was no time to hesitate. We must go 
somewhere. Zachariah swung open the gate, and our 
wayworn looking party, were soon in a large, and pic- 
turesque forest glade. The track apparently led to some 
house. Almost immediately, we unloaded our baggage, 



VODVANQ. 131 

and commenced pitching our tents, in a small guUey 
below the forest track. 

The tent rods were scarcely in the ground, when up 
came three men, and two boys. The brandy flask was 
brought out in the heavy rain, and brandy poured out for 
the three men. They seemed pleased that we were going 
to camp there, and showed us a better place in the wood, 
for the donkeys to graze, than where Zachariah had 
tethered them. It was raining fast Noah and Zachariah 
were wet through. Esmeralda not very dry ; and our 
own boots and legs very wet. Our gipsies were not easily 
dispirited. We could not have selected better people for 
oiir campaign; accustomed to all weathers from their 
infancy, they met with ourselves cheerfully, all difficulties. 
Oar tents were soon pitched, the siphonia waterproof 
cover fastened, and our things stowed away. Then the 
fire must be lighted in the rain. Whilst we prepared the 
Bn^ian lamp, Noah gathered sticks. Only damp ones 
could be got. A crowd of peasants had come to our 
camp, and watched with curious interest our Russian 
lamp. They looked on with much astonishment, espe- 
cially when the Russian lamp, underneath the sticks, gave 
forth its brilliant stream of flame. At the first trial the 
lamp ignited the sticks, but the fire was soon extinguished 
by the falling rain. 

A boy kindly brought ns some dry wood, and notwith- 
standing the rain, our' lamp succeeded upon the second 
trial, and our kettle was soon boiling for tea. 

Just as we had made the tea, Noah called out in 
Romany, that a boro rye (gip., great gentleman) was a 
vellin (gip., coming). The new visitor was a young gen- 
tleman wearing spectacles. He said he was not a native 

K 2 



133 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

« 

of Norway, but from Sweden. He was staying at a large 
house on the side of the wood above the road, and had 
seen our party come up m the rain from the main route. 
Two ladies who were travelling with him were in the 
forest track near our tents. Though he did not speak 
French, he informed us that one of the ladies was well 
acquainted with the language. The ladies then came to 
our camp. The rain had partly ceased. One of the 
ladies, yet young and good-looking, possessed an ease 
and dignity of manner we have seldom met with. She 
asked permission, in French, to see our tents. How 
usefiil we always find the French language as a medium 
of communication in our wandermgs over the world. 
The tents were examined. Our gipsies were described 
as gitanos, who always dwelt in tents and were faithful 
to us. The young lady, her companion, who seemed 
amused during the visit, was also much interested in our 
wild, wandering life. At length, after a pleasant con- 
versation, they all three left our camp. Then we had 
our tea. The peasants did not come during the meal, 
lest they might disturb us. When a number of them 
came afterwards, Zachariah played his violin, and Noah 
and Esmeralda their tambourines. Great curiosity w^as 
manifested, whilst Zachariah, all life and spirit, sitting in 
his damp clothes, on the wet grass by the fire, was ever 
pulling queer faces, now and then saying, " Dit a kei, 
look at that Bongy mouee, ha, ha " ; and again they 
played some lively and spirited tune. We lounged in a 
corner of our tent. The Swedish gentleman came again. 
For some time he sat with Noah by the camp fire, asking 
occasional questions in broken English. He was lively 
and pleasant, and much fun seemed going on. Noah 



SWEDISH nSITOBS,. 133 

gave him some very original answers. The peasants 
seemed anxious to see us all in bed, but at last dispersed, 
and we fell asleep. 

After a sound and refreshing night's rest we were up 
at 7 o'clock ; the morning was fine, and we could now 
appreciate the beauties of the woodland scene. The 
forest extended over the rocky hills, which bounded the 
valley. Esmeralda bustled about to prepare our break- 
fast; no one was the worse for the toil and fatigue of 
yesterday. Some peasants came, and were told we should 
give them some music at Otta Klokken (Nor., 8 o'clock). 
Xoah and Zachariah were furnished with fishing tackle, 
and sent off fishing.* The Swedish gentleman and the 

* The lake fishing in the JQelds beyond Syatsnm is said to be very good. 
Oret (Nor., trout) Bometimes weigh 10 lbs. The Rgdv Vand is associated 
vith a fishing adrentnre, an account of which we have never met with but 
in '^ Recollections of a Five Years' Residence in Norway," by Henry T. 
Xewton Chesshyre, who gives the narrative in extenso. The circumstances 
arc, briefly, as foUows : — On the 16th of August, 1715, two brothers, who 
▼ere students, on a fishing excursion, landed from their boat upon an island 
of barren rock, fifteen yards wide by twenty yards long, in the Rcev Vand. 
^^^Mlst there, a strong gust of wind, suddenly drifted the boat, to the shore 
of the lake. Neither of the brothers could swim. Lightly clad, they 
lemained nine days, in sight of their fishing boat, and faithful dog, who 
^ continued watching their things, and occasionally appeared on the 
gnnwaleof the boat, and whined piteously. They had put up a rude 
hovel of loose stones, which afforded them little shelter in an exposed 
situation on a lake 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. After the ninth 
<isy, they could not see their dog, and supposed he had died of grief and 
starvation. The dog, it appeared afterwards, had left, and, finding his way 
Home, by constant howling and importunity, gave the idea that some mis- 
fortune had happened. On the night of the twelfth day, the two brother 
^braced each other for the last time, as they believed, and awaited death. 
Their only sustenance had been about an ounce of wild sorrel each day. 
Suddenly, they heard the tramp of horses and the sound of voices on the 
«lge of the lake. One brother had just strength enough to make himself 
Heard, and they were rescued. The two students, after some weeks' illness, 
recovered ; but their faithful dog, Sikkert, died from the cflects of his long 
lasting, and found a resting-place in the students* gaulen. 



134 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

two ladies, we observed early in the morning, passing 
along a track through the wood near our camp. We both 
saluted. They were making an excursion, partly on foot, 
through Norway. As they crossed the river, they met 
Zachariah, and asked him if he always slept out in tents, 
and how many they were in family. The morning was 
devoted by Esmeralda and ourself to our camp arrange- 
ments ; she was becoming an excellent housekeeper. 
What an impulsive dark-eyed girl ! notwithstanding her 
odd sayings, and at times roughly turned phrases, one 
could not but admire the rude energy, and exercise of 
will she possessed. Noah and Zachariah returned. 
Mid-day meal consisted of broiled ham, tea, and bread and 
cheese. Two men came, and also the woman with bare 
legs, who had visited our last camp ; they took much 
interest in our Australian method of making tea.* Some 
children who came had bread and butter ; one man had 
tobacco, and as they sat near, our musical box seemed to 
give them much pleasure. The two men suggested a 
better spot in the wood for the donkeys to feed, and they 
were taken there. Esmeralda and ourself left at 3 
o'clock, and ascending a steep hill through the forest, 
reached some broken rocks, where we had a delightful 
view. After we had seated ourselves, we wrote our 
notes, and Esmeralda, who sat at our side, conversed 
occasionally. Who could feel other than regret, at so 
much want of culture, and so much wild sterility of mind, 
yet if she had undergone the modern methods of training, 

* The Australian bushman, when the water boils, takes the can off the 
fire, and, lifting the lid, puts in the tea on the boiling water. The lid is 
then replaced, the can is left to stand for a few minutes by the fire, and 
the tea is ready for use. The tea made in this way is very good, and a 
teapot is dispensed with. 



THE CHILD OF NATURE, 135 

she would no longer have been the wild flower of 
nomadic life ; she would not have been my companion in 
the wild forest, the valley, and lonely glen. There was 
much that was impulsive, and original, much that was 
impassioned, and sensitive in her powers of appreciation. 
It was astonishing, with all her disadvantages, she was 
what she was. As the brilliant sunshine of a Norwegian 
evening, gilded the pine forests, and distant fjelds, the in- 
describable feeling of happy freedom, cast its bright rays 
upon our hearts. Lingering for a moment, as we shut 
our note book we quitted a scene we may never view 
again, and returned through broken forest glades, to our 
camp, ready for tea at 6 o'clock. When we reached our 
camp, no one was there. Noah came in soon after, having 
been in quest of eggs. When our tea, and bread and 
butter was consumed, Zachariah returned from a boating 
expedition ; presently the peasants came, and asked when 
the music would begin. Taking out our watch we told 
them it was five minutes to 8, and we should begin at 8 
o'clock. We sat in our tents, and opened our concert, first 
with our gipsy song and guitar accompaniments, and then 
with the *' Mocking Bird." The tents were decorated 
with a picture of Alpine scenes. One or two tunes were 
played by all our gipsy party, but the peasants crowded 
round our tents until they nearly brought them down. 
Finding they wished to dance, we took some rugs, and 
went to the side of the flat roadway through the forest. 

The forest scene pleased us; the evenmg was very 
fine. Zachariah never tired as he played his violin; 
sometimes we joined with castanets, sometimes with 
guitar, and occasionally with tambourine, relieving each 
other by turns. 



136 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Noah and Esmeralda waltzed together, and the couples 
who danced increased. The young men who danced 
were not many ; the beau of the village, (and we always 
had one at all our peasant re-unions) was very active. 
We shall never forget, his good-tempered chubby face, 
and country bumpkin appearance, as he spun round in 
large low shoes, and worsted stockings, voluminous 
trowsers, and short jacket, which did not reach below his 
waist. The proportions of his Dutch build, were shown 
to advantage. It must have been warm work, as lie 
puffed in his thick cloth snuff-coloured suit. If we looked 
through a powerful microscope at the fat boy in '' Pick- 
wick " we should see our friend exactly represented. He 
was Wackford Squeers's sample schoolboy on a large scale. 
We can see him now in the open track of the forest at 
closing eve, with that stout young peasant girl of the 
Rubens style of beauty, twMing in an agony of exertion 
as Noah executed a roulade on the tambourine ; we liked 
to see him, and his dancing was no doubt the envy of 
those peasants, who would have done likewise, if they 
could. 

At half-past 9 our music ceased ; several peasants pressed 
us to continue ; the beau of the village even went so 
far as to offer us four skiUings — he was, no doubt,- a rich 
landed proprietor — of course we politely refused with 
mange tak (Nor., many thanks). Our heart at once re- 
lented — ^we have danced ourselves. The beau of the 
village, was again in his element, as a whale is at sea. 
They had got into step; we had found out the tunes 
they hked. At 10 o'clock our music again ceased. 
Wishing them good-night, we retired. Several peasants 
came to see the tents, one asked for more music, but 






MERLES GONE. 137 

finding we did not respond, the last group took off their 
hats, and left. 

The peasants had not long departed^ when down came 
Noah in haste to our camp : " The merles (donkeys) are 
gone, sir," said the gipsy. Noah could see how it was. 
The ropes were left, and the men who had told us that it 
was a better place for grass, had only done so to steal 
them. We could not bring ourselves to suspect our 
friends, the Norwegian peasants, whom we had just been 
entertaining as our visitors, and who were always so kind, 
and friendly with us. 

We immediately went with Esmeralda in search of our 
missing donkeys^ Taking a track through the forest, 
we met some peasant children, to whom, with some difiS- 
culty, we explained that the donkeys were gone. They 
seemed to divine our thoughts, " Nei, nei," said one little 
girl, pointing' to a particular part of the wood, and as she 
was coming with us, a shout from Noah, and Zacharlah, 
informed us they were safe. The peasants had kindly 
moved them to a better spot for grass. When the 
gipsies had tethered one of the donkeys, which they 
usually did, they returned to the tents. Noah said some 
of the peasants were still gazing at our merles. 
The thermometer had been 74'' during the day. 

Sleep, who could sleep? Myriads of musketos had 
invaded our tents. We were all dreadfully bitten. 
Sleeping in a rug bag, our face only suffered. Our 
forehead was one mass of small swellings. We were all 
up at 2 o'clock in the morning. In the tent or out of 
the tent it was all the same. . 

Grievous were the complaints as we ate our breakfast. 

Wildly Zachariah flourished his Norwegian knife, as the 



138 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

enemies of his comfort attacked him on every Bide. In 
vain he vowed vengeance against the "skeatos/' We 
were determined not to endure the persecutions of our 
numerous tormentors any longer. The morning was 
cloudy, with drizzling rain. Striking our tents, we 
loaded our donkeys, and a little before 6 o'clock left 
the forest, and Losnoes en route for Listad. Near a 
beautifiil lake, we passed two hamlets, at each of 
which our cavalcade occasioned great excitement. New 
and varied scenes met us at each turn, as we now left 
far behind us the town of Lillehammer, and the 
picturesque shores of the Mjosen Vand. It was 
astonishing the interest our donkeys occasioned. Here 
and there as we passed along, people rushed from their 
various pursuits, to get a glimpse of our party. One 
woman ran after us, and eagerly asked if the donkeys 
eat grass, at the same time plucking some from the road 
side, that we might better understand her question. At 
one place, we purchased four loaves of bread, and a pound 
of butter for Is. Sd. Esmeralda at the same time tried 
to buy a stardy (gip. for hat) to replace those lost, but 
could not get one. At length we reached a large wet 
marshy valley, and met some men with long poles tipped 
with iron hooks. Soon afterwards a gentleman driving a 
carriole overtook us, and asked Noah if we were Italians. 
Finding he spoke English, we went up to him, and he 
told us he was from Scotland. Telling him we were 
travelling d Fatse with our tents and baggage, the 
novelty of the idea seemed to delight him, and bowing, 
he continued his journey. The end of the marshy 
valley, through which the Logan still held its course, 
was at length reached. On the side of a large projecting 



TIMBER FLOATERS, 



masa of rock, on the road side, near a stream of water, we 
fonnd a large open space of ground, strewn with loose 
rocks. Part of the baggage was taken off the donkeys, 
who foraged about ia rocks for scanty herbage. Light- 



ing a fire, we had tea, bread, sardines, and Australian 
meat. The men with the poles again made their appear- 
ance with increased number. They drew up in line, and 
.having grounded their poles, stood at ease. First they 



140 TEJ{T LIFE IN NORWAY. 

stared at ourselves and gipsies, as we rested near our 
baggage, and then at our donkeys. There were nine of 
them, of all sizes, and miscellaneous costumes. They 
were timber floaters. Their long poles were used to 
push the logs of timber adrift, when they stuck fast on 
the sides of the river. Quantities of timber cut down in 
the forests, and marked, finds transit in this way to the 
sea. As we were writing our notes, we also made a 
rough sketch of the men. A boy soon afterwards came, 
and said something in Norwegian about a quarter of a 
mile, which we at last understood to mean a convenient 
camping ground at that distance beyond us. Several 
other people came, and stood in the road, gazing at 
the donkeys, as they wandered about the rocks. 

The sun was now brilliant ; the scene was particularly 
beautiful. Our gipsies after lunch fell into a sound sleep. 

We had halted about 10 o'clock, and we left at 4 
o'clock. Noah was quite unwell, and all suffered, more 
or less, from mosquito bites of the previous night. As 
we looked back, we could not help pausing some few 
mmutes, to admire the picturesque outUne of the moun- 
tains. We had not been long en route when three Eng- 
lishmen in carrioles, came suddenly round a turn in the 
road. We heard one exclaim, " Gipsies ! " as they over- 
took us, and drove by. We noticed the first was a 
bronzed, military, good-looking man. The driver of the 
second carriole, who was an excellent specimen of the 
Enghsh gentleman, said something, and bowed, and they 
were rapidly followed by a younger gentleman, and soon 
out of sight. Two or three travellers with carrioles met 
us afterwards, and looked at us with much curiosity as 
they passed. The evening was fine and enjoyable ; the 



ENRAGED ENGLISHMAN. 141 

country on either side, was well wooded and mountainous. 
The river Logan added much to the picturesque beauty 
of the scene. Suddenly a carriole appeared behind us. 
driven by one who was evidently bent on salmon fishing, 
He wore a mackintosh, and had a south-wester over his 
head. When any carriages appeai-ed my gipsies im- 
mediately got our donkeys in line along the side of the 
road. Noah at the head of the first, Zachariah the 
second, and Esmeralda led the third, so tliat they 
were all kept well out of the way. The traveller's 
Norwegian pony seemed a little shy in passing us ; but 
the traveller was driving quietly by, as the donkeys were 
halted, when down jumped the Skydskarl, and rushed to 
the pony's head, which was suddenly checked into the 
road fence. 

"What the devil are you doing, boy!" shouted the 
driver, whose nationality was unmistakable. 

Esmeralda went to the pony's head. We could hardly 
help laughing. 

" Let go his head," shouted our enraged countryman at 
the boy. Poor fellow, he was too bewildered, and prob- 
ably did not understand English. With redoubled energy 
as he stared at the donkeys, he kept pulling the pony's 
head against the fence, whilst Esmeralda was puUing the 
contrary way. In vain the traveller urged the pony. 
Wildly the Skydskarl held its head down. 

"Get behind, boy," shouted the traveller, "you're 
pulling back. He's quiet enough — ^let gt), boy ! ! " 

At last the Skydskarl retreated in confiision to the 
back of the carriole, half crying. Tlie traveller was soon 
out of his difficulty, and rapidly disappeared along the 
road, apparently intent on his fishing expedition. Occa- 



142 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Bionally we came to a rural cottage, at one of which we 
noticed a lamb, and a goat. Zachariah played a pretty 
slow waltz, as we lounged along the road, all rather 
sleepy and tired. There was something of pure romance, 
and feelmg, as we stood apart in spirit, and contemplated 
our calvacade, pushing their way to some unknown camp- 
ing ground. There was our fine, strong, light-coloured 
donkey, with its Jerusalem cross, carrying its heavy 
packs with ease, stepping to the music of the bells on 
its scarlet collar. There was something soothing in 
those bells, timed by the animal's movement. Then 
followed the puro rye, and the tarno rye, contrasting in 
colour. There was Zachariah walking by their side, now 
and then performing, a slow waltz, to the tune he was 
playing on his vioHn. However long the day, however 
wet and disagreeable the weather, still his gleaming eyes 
and merry ha ! ha ! dit a kei, the torno rye, by gum, Mr. 
Smith is going to dell (gip., give) mandy a metramengery 
(gip., tea) this evening. Then came the tall form of 
Noah with his Alpine stock, and deer-stalking hat, set 
jauntily on one side. Noah was an admirable fellow for 
loading and packing ; he had much improved since our 
campaign last summer ; never out of temper, with plenty 
of energy and determination. By our side walked 
Esmeralda, in her long tweed cloak, fastened round her 
waist, small hat and feather, and thick boots studded 
with nails. Our guitar, in a light cover, was slung over 
her shoulder, whilst we carried, in a light cover, made on 
purpose, her tambourine, with our courier bag. Tall 
and slim, with raven hair, and jet black eyes, about our 
own height, the young gipsy girl had an indomitable 
spirit. Sometimes she caught hold of our hand, so that 



LI8TAD. 143 

it might be more help to her, as we journeyed onwards, 
for she had had no sleep the previous night, and was 
much tired, all had been dreadfully bitten with mos- 
qmtos. The log houses we came to, had their groups of 
peasants waiting to see us. Some would run with 
tmnnltuous haste, to be in time, and a red cap generally 
appeared prominently as one of the number. They had 
often a good-humoured smile on their countenances. It 
was lovely scenery all the way, especially when we 
reached the turning to " Venebrygden '* and crossed a 
rapid, broad stream, issuing from a rocky gorge, beneath 
a lofty mountain, whose base to nearly its summit, was 
covered with fir. An old man with a wallet came from a 
log house, near the road, and we gave him a piece of 
money. At length we came to a place we were told was 
Listari. It was a large house of superior construction, 
on the road side, with extensive buildings, and an 
appearance of much comfort. Some heads appeared at 
the windows as we approached. Then we heard the 
sudden clatter of feet, running downstairs, to obtain a 
nearer view of our party. 

There was an excited rush. One gentleman stuck to 
a front window commanding the road, and looked at us 
with a curious, and amused expression of countenance. 
The old man with the wallet joined us again, and we gave 
him another piece of two skillings. He said something, 
which we thought meant camping ground beyond, and 
passed on. We were now anxious to camp. Coming 
near Listad we noticed some unenclosed ground, rising in 
a steep slope, to the base of some fine bold precipitous 
rocks, close above the valley. The sloping ground was 
steep, with little grass, covered with loose rocks and scat- 



U4 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

tered birch-trees. 'A rougli turf-way led apparently to a 
first ridge, of lofty ground, immediately above the road. 
Zachariah went up first, and hearing his peculiar gipsy 
whistle, we all climbed the track, rough with uneven 
grassy hillocks, studded with birch-trees, and sheltered by 
rocks. In a small hollow, near a rough fence, at the 
summit of the ridge, our donkeys were unloaded. It was 
a beautiful camping ground for our night's repose. 



CHAPTEK XIV. 

*' He growB, like the yoang oak, health j and broad, 
With no home but the forest, no bed but the swaitl ; 
Half naked, he wades in the limpid stream. 
Or dancee aboat in the scorching beam. 
The dazzling glare of the banquet sheen 
Hath never fallen on him, I ween ; 
But fragments are spread, and the wood-fire piled ; 
And sweet u the meal of the gipsy child.** 

Bliza Cook. 

A OOROIO COHFOBTABLE BOVDEOAARDB — MORE 8PEILE — THE LOST KET — 

DEK ASEN TOUJOUB8 — VEGETABLE BUBSnTUTE — THE OOODLO DI8CUS- 
gXON ^wives' UTILITY — FRIENDLY PEASANTS — NORWEGIAN WALTZ- 
GIPSY CHAFF — THE DARK WOMAN — ANXIOUS QUERISTS — EARLY 
TI8ITOBS — TIMID WOMAN — GIPSIES APPREOIATED--THE CHARMING 
POST-MIBTRESS— THE MANSION NEAR HARPE BRO. 

No sooner had we unpacked, and our things were 
under our waterproof, than a gorgio was announced. As 
if by magic, a middle height, thick set man appeared 
through some birch-trees. He hesitated, and did not 
speak. Our silver-mounted flask was quickly drawn from 
its plaid bag, and we handed him some aquavet. Silently. 
drinking, he nodded his head. Seeing the end of a pipe 
sticking out of his waistcoat pocket, we offered him some 
English tobacco, which he also took, and saying in a 
Tvbisper, " tak," vanished as silently as he came. A fire 
Tvas lighted to boil the water, which Zachariah procured 
from a torrent in the rocks above the camp. Metra* 



146 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

mengry consisted of tea, fried bacon, two small trout 
caught at Vodvang, and bread. The rain suddenly com- 
menced, and it poured in torrents. Dark clouds gathered 
thickly, as we sat at tea wrapped in our waterproof nigs. 
Not long afterwards the silent man returned with three 
others, who also had brandy. We pitched our tents in 
the rain, and, thanks to our waterproof covering, our 
things were kept tolerably dry. 

The view was magnificent. The broad waters of the 
Logan flowed in the valley below us. Islands in its 
stream heightened the picturesque effect. A considerable 
quantity of well wooded and grassy land formed the bed of 
the valley. Pleasant bondegaards, or farms, extended to 
the base of hills, crowned with forest. Beyond rose the 
peaks of the wild Fjelds. 

Esmeralda, had quite recovered from her fatigue ; Noali 
was now quite well. Tea is a grand restorer of failing 
energy. Esmeralda was at once active in our tent 
arrangements. All things must have their place. 

" Now, Mr. Smith, look sharp, or I must give you a 
severe doing," and Esmeralda's dark eyes flashed fire, and 
sparkled with merriment and witchery. Sometimes, when 
we were a careless lounger about the tents, she would 
say, ** Dableau ! you are going in and out, in and out, 
and never doing anything." 

Then Noah might be heard, ** What are you at, Zach- 
ariah ; can't you see where you are going to ? I think 
you are making yourself too much of a man ! " An ob- 
servation which Zachariah would answer with " Dawdy, 
dawdy, fake your bosh;" and, making a succession of 
droll faces, would skip about in the rain, singing, " Fem 
de dura." We will not answer for the correctness of 



MORE 8PEILE. 147 

Zachariah's intended quotation from the Norwegian pea- 
sant girl's song we heard at our camp near Holmen. 

More people came wandering about, some lookmg at 
our donkeys and others staring at our tents. They were 
all of the peasant class, kind, homely-looking people. It 
was about a quarter to 7 o'clock when we encamped. 
Taking our places in our tents at about 9 o'clock we 
commenced our gipsy Norwegian song, 'with guitar and 
violin accompaniment. Then followed our song, " Fare- 
well;'' afterwards dance music, violin and tambourine. 
A tolerable number of peasants were seated on the bank 
opposite the entrance to the tent. They sat in the rain 
on the wet grass until we had finished. After much 
talking, in which the female voices certainly predominated, 
they shouted " Farvel." The interest they seemed to 
take in our music was most amusing. They had such 
smiling countenances. One young peasant girl especially 
kept looking at each by turns, and then laughing, until 
we could hardly help relaxing our expression of insou^ 
ciance. As they departed, a peasant kindly suggested a 
better spot for the donkeys to graze than where the gipsies 
had first put them. Music being over, we all retired to 
bed. Just as we were dozing away, Zachariah's voice 
was heard : " Mr. Smith, sir ! " 

" What do you want, Zachariah ? " 

" I have got your key and pencil, sir." 

" Never mind, go to sleep ! " 

" But, sir, you can't unlock your box without it. You 
must have it, sir. Otta clocken, more music, ha ! ha ! " 

Then we heard scratch, scratch wildly at work, and 
presently Zachariah's voice : *' I can't stand it ! I cannot 
stand it any longer ; these skeato's will kill me ! " 

L 2 



148 TBNT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

We must say our sleep was sound and undisturbed 
until half-past 6 o'clock. Much rain had fallen in the 
night. It was the first of July. Noah lighted the fire, 
and boiled the water. Two men came to our camp and 
had some brandy whilst we conversed with them in 
broken Norwegian. One was a traveller from Christiania. 
We told them that if they came again we should play our 
music at 8 o'clock in the evening. As we took our 
breakfast of tea, bread and butter, and potted meat, stray 
parties of peasants watched us with much interest. We 
gave several small children some biscuits. An intelligent 
peasant came and asked a variety of questions about the 
donkeys. Another brought his wife and children, A 
large party came before our dinner at 1 o'clock, and a 
short stout, well-dressed man, with a turban cap, discussed 
in an animated manner various matters connected witli 
the donkey race. Their voices seemed constantly to 
mingle with our ideas as we wrote a letter to the gipsies' 
friends, in which Esmeralda inclosed some beautiful wild 
flowers. 

We sent Noah ajid Zachariah to the river to fish for 
dinner. When they were gone, a peasant boy came up 
with a large sack of hay, which he gave the donkeys. 
We were touched by his attention; for some time he 
silently watched them. Before he left we gave him a 
copy of our gipsies' Norwegian song. He took us by the 
hand, and looked with such a kindly expression in our 
face, that we could not help feeling that the world, aft^r 
all, was not so bad as we had thought it. As a substi- 
tute for vegetables, crystals of citric acid, dissolved in 
water, were occasionally taken by ourselves and the 
gipsies. Noah and Zachariah were full of fun when thev 



THE GOODLO DISCUSSIOS\ ' 149 

came back from fishing at 1 o'clock, having caught six 
small roach and perch. 

" Ha ! ha ! " laughed Zachariah, " Air. Smith, I know 
some good flies for my fishing this evening. All right, 
sir f and he danced a war dance on the turf till he fell 
backwards over a birch tree stump, to the great amuse- 
ment of himself and the peasants who were watching us 
with continuous interest 

We had tea, fish, and balivas (gip. for bacon) for 
dinner. Sugar was a source of difficulty. In putting the 
sugar first into each pannikin before the tea was poured 
out, Zachariah was not considered an example of eco- 
nomy. Not that we were inclined to limit very strictly 
liis penchant for it, but we were not sure where we 
might be able to get more when our stock was finished. 

Esmeralda was busy. We were writing. Noah there- 
fore officiated, whilst Zachariah, with a look of injured 
innocence, stood by, and said — 

"I shall not have anything more to do with the 
goodlo " (gip. for sugar) ; a resolution we entirely agreed 
to. 

Still Zachariah often had more than any of us, which he 
would occasionally acknowledge with " Thank you, sir," 
" God bless you," " Quite enough, sir," as he stirred it 
up in his pannikin with an air of extreme satisfaction. 

The bacon and' fish at dinner were excellent ; we hardly 
knew which was best. A peasant boy brought us a 
bundle of sticks for our fire. The sun became exceedingly 
liot. Esmeralda and myself went and sat in some shade 
near our tents. Zachariah found a shady corner under 
some rocks. Noah first looked out a few things in his 
tent for Esmeralda to wash. Then he afterwards stood 



150 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

in the shade of a birch tree, blacking his boots, and ob- 
served to Esmeralda — 

" I shall not help my wife as Mr. Smith does you." 
" Well," said Esmeralda, " what is a wife for ? '' 
"For?" retorted Noah sharply, giving his boot an 
extra brush, " why, to wait upon her husband." 

" And what," said Esmeralda, " is a husband for? *' 
"What's a husband for?" exclaimed Noah, with a 
look of profound pity for his sister's ignorance, " why, to 
eat and drink, and look on." 

It would seem to us that the more rude energy a man 
has in his composition, the more a woman will be* made 
take her position as helpmate. It is always a mark of 
great civilization, and tlie effeminacy of a people, when 
women obtain the undue mastery of men.* When Noah 
had finished blacking his boots, he went with Zacliariah 
to take the donkeys for water along the road towards 
Listad. As they returned, Noah and Zachariah astonished 
the peasants by racing along the road mounted on the 

* Three excellent sermons referring to marriage, entitled "A Good Wife 
God's Gift," " A Wife Indeed," and " Marriage Duties/' were published in tlie 
" Spiritual Watch" in 1622, by the eminent theologian, Thomas Gataker,B.D. 
He was the author of many learned works, and his annotations on " Marcus 
Antoninus " are well known to scholars. Thomas Gataker was bom in 
1574, of a very old and ancient family, stiU retaining their ancestral heri- 
tage of Gatacre, in Shropshire. The fonner Hall of Gatacre was built of 
stone, three sides of the exterior of the mansion being entirely covered with 
a glaze of greenish glass. It has puzzled many to account for the method 
by which the walls received their vitreous coating, eflfectually preser%-iiig 
the stone from the action of the w^eather. The foundation of a building on 
the estate, where the glass is supposed to have been made, stiU retains the 
name of the " Glass House." We have in our possession some of the stone, 
with its covering of glass, given to us by one of the family. The roof of 
the mansion is said to haVte been supported by an enormous oak tree, 
turned upside down. This interesting relic of former ages was pulled 
down during the last century, and replaced by the present large and 
spacious brick-buUt HaU of the Gatacres of Gatacre, 



NORWEGIAN WALTZ, 161 

donkeys, with their faces to their tails. Noah and 
Zachariah afterwards went fishing. 

We lounged on an eminence writing our notes, and 
Esmeralda washed for us a shirt and collar, and some of 
lier own and Noah's things. We had a succession of 
visitors all the afternoon. Some wore red caps ; all were 
deeply interested in the donkeys. In fact, if we could 
have kept them secluded in a tent, we might have made 
a large fortune by exhibiting them. We had, however, 
no vnsh to do so. Our peasant friends were welcome, 
and if our wild music gave them pleasure, they were 
welcome to that also. They certainly showed us much 
civility and kindness during our wanderings. We cannot 
forget them. 

When we were at the tents at 6 o'clock, Zachariah 
had returned with two small fishes, and Noah with one of 
tolerable size. Having made a hurried tea, a large* 
number of peasants collected, before 8 o'clock, about 
our camp. The music commenced at our tents soon 
afterwards, and then to give them an opportunity to 
dance, we went outside. There was a good space of 
ground close below our tents, but a tree was in the 
middle of the ground. This was at last uprooted by the 
peasants. Gur beau of the village on this occasion was a 
thin, rather roughly-dressed, young man, but an invete- 
rate dancer. The gipsies at once named him Arthur. If 
a house had interfered with the convenience of the dancers 
instead of a tree, it is possible that he would have pulled 
that down also. Of the females, two small girls were the 
best dancers ; and they seemed thoroughly to enjoy thetn- 
selves. 

The dancers patronised the skip waltz. It was a 



152 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

curious scene. Three or four of the peasants were 
dressed in blue jackets with silver buttons and silver 
frontlets hanging from their necks. 

My gipsies were particularly lively and in high spirits. 
The variety of costume, and any slight eccentricity of 
manner, was at once the subject of their criticism. We 
did our best to moderate their gaiety, and romauy chaff, 
now and then as they played their wild music, we could 
hear. 
y Dit a kei ! (gip., look there) there's Arthur ! " 
" Ha, ha ; no it isn't Arthur ; that's Johnny ! " 
" Ah, the sapeau (gip., snake) ! Why, he's got Crafty 
Jemmy's nose ! " 

" Dik the gorgio in Uncle Sam's stardy (gip., hat) ! " 
" Oh nei ! oh nei ! What are you a salin (gip., laugh- 
ing) at?" It's our Elijah vellin (gip., coming) from 
Bosbury, a seaport town in the middle of England. Look 
at his chokas (gip., shoes) ! Hasn't he got bongy mouee 
(gip., ugly mouth) \^' 

" Dik that fellow's swagler (gip., pipe)! " 
" Arthur can dance ! Now Arthur's a-going it ! Well 
(lone, Arthur ! ! " 

Bang-bang went the tambourine, as the beau of the 
village whirled his partner round, to the admiration of the 
surrounding throng. There was no harm meant by our 
gipsies' chaff. If anyone present had wanted their assist- 
ance, they would have been the first to give it them. It 
was quite impossible for them to remain quiet ; naturally 
impulsive and gay, they must laugh in their lightsome 
moods. There were some young ladies, and apparently 
their brother, sitting near. 

As we were standing with Esmeralda at our tents, 



THE DARK WOMAN, 153 

whilst Noah and Zachariah were playing, a dark thick- 
set, heavy-featured old woman pressed through the throng 
round us. She had all the appearance of a gipsy, when 
she suddenly shook Esmeralda by the hand. We thought 
she was a Norwegian Zigeuner. Then she took hold of 
Esmeralda's large necklace, and tried to take it off, before ' 
she could recover from her surprise. Immediately we saw 
what she was doing, we pulled her away, and she retired 
in silence through the crowd. We saw her afterwards, 
sittmg on a bank, watching us. 

It is ten o'clock, and our music ends, saying, " God 
nat (Nor., good night), god folk (Nor., good people).'' We 
retired to our tent. Most of our visitors left. One young 
gentleman, who spoke English, said to Noah outside our 
tents, ** A Kttle more music." 

" I can't, sir," said Noah. " The master never has 
any playing after ten. You should have come before. 
Sir. 

The young gentleman who had the young ladies with 
him then asked Noah what time we went in the morning. 

" At 9 o'clock, sir," said Noah. 

One of the young ladies then inquired in EngUsh if 
Noah could tell fortunes. 

"No," said Noah; which no doubt was a matter of 
great disappointment. 

Then the gentleman asked Noah his sister's name. 

" Agnes," said Noah. 

What next will he tell them, thought we, being 
anxious for him to go to bed. 

Then one of the young ladies asked his sister's age ; 
and Noah told her sixteen. Then he was asked who we 
were. Not knowing how long they would stay — for we 



154 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

had to rise early next morning, and knowing that any 
curiosity would only get wide answers from Noah — we 
went out, explaining that we had to travel early, and we 
liked all in camp to go to bed in good time. They did 
not say much, but, wishing us good evening, they all left. 
The young gentleman spoke very good English. We 
were still troubled with a number of children, making a 
noise about our tents, until after eleven, instead of going 
when the music ended at ten o'clock. At last all was 
silence. 

We were up the next morning at half-past 1 o'clock, 
enjoyed a good wash, lighted a fire, and had Noah and 
Zachariah up about 2 o'clock. We were anxious to 
give them all the rest possible ; Esmeralda was called 
the last. For frokost, we had tea, fish, bread, and potted- 
meat ; Esmeralda and myself had some citric-acid after- 
wards. Our donkeys were nearly loaded, and ready to 
start at 5 o'clock. We were just having a romp with 
Esmeralda and her two brothers, as we were packing up 
our things, and a men-y laugh, when some men appeared 
at the fence near our camping-ground. They seemed 
much astonished, and rather disconcerted ; probably, they 
expected to find us asleep. They lifted their hats, and 
. soon afterwards left. Our donkeys loaded, we looked 
careftilly round to see • that we had collected all our 
effects. The main road was soon gained, when we 
descended from the steep ridge on wjiicli we had camped. 
We had now travelled more than five Norse miles from 
Lillehammcr, or thirty-five English miles, as we proceed 
quietly along the road from Listad. 

We could never tire of the beautiftil valley of the 
Logan. Our mode of travel gave us ample opportunity 



GIPSIES APFRECIATED. 135 

to study its varied scenery. At any points of interest 
we could halt, without the thought of being behind- 
time at the next post station, or of being reminded by 
the Skydskarl that we were lingering too long. It was 
about seven o'clock ; the morning was very sunny and 
pleasant as we came to a place said to be Tresgone. 
The name is not marked in our map. Noah and 
Zachariah went to a small log-house, near a mill, at the 
foot of a gorge, to purchase bread and butter. Directly 
the woman saw them, she shut the door with consider- 
able haste; their Alpine stocks had created a sudden 
alarm. After reconnoitring them through her window, 
confidence was restored ; she opened the door and did a 
stroke of business, selling us four loaves for fifteen skil- 
lings. A man on horseback, with white hair, kept with 
us occasionally for some miles ; he had, naturally, white 
hair, like an Albino, and not the result of age. For 
some distance, at different points on the road, the 
peasants hurried from their work, and, with anxious 
faces, struggled to be in time to see our party pass ; 
sometimes, an aged man, with serious weather-beaten 
face, wearing a red cap on his head, was awkwardly 
scrambling towards the road-fence, followed by a woman 
and children. At other times, two or three men would 
race along the road-fence and take up their position at 
some distance before us, waiting the moment when we 
should pass. In fact, at times, we almost felt as if \ve 
were marching past the saluting-point, leading a com- 
pany at a review, though the group of peasants differed 
much from a staff of officers at a saluting-point ; we had, 
nevertheless, to stand the test of what appeared to be a 
close and scrutinizing examination of our company. 



156 TJSNT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

At one time, Noah played his violin as he sauntered 
along. Occasionally, Zachariah was a short distance 
in advance, with the donkeys, and the peasants collected 
at the road side, would politely take their hats off to him, 
an honour Zachariah appeared much to appreciate. We 
reached Bran void,* and at a station on the road side, we 
found we could post our letters. The house was re- 
markably clean and comfortable, and had, apparently, 
excellent accommodation. The civil pige found us a pen 
and ink, and went to call her young mistress, who had 
not yet left her room. We met a gentleman staying 
there who had been passenger on board the steamer on 
the Mjosen Lake ; he went out to ♦ look at the donkeys. 
The young post mistress took our letters ; one letter was 
to the gipsies' friends. She was a very agreeable, 
pleasant-looking girl, who spoke English with an 
admirable accent. We paid eight skillings, which she 
said the postage would amount to. Soon after we had 
left the station she came running to us, and said, 
" Mr. Smith, it is sixteen skillings ; " and received the 
money. Shortly after, she came driving up in her 
carriole, and said, " Mr. Smith, I find it is sixteen skillings 
more.'\ In truth, we were not sorry to see her again, 
she was such a kind, pleasant, meny ghl, withal neatly 
dressed, and good-looking. We laughed, as we held out 
the palm of our hand containing a number of Norwegian 

• On the left of our road, by Brandvold and Sothorp, are the Espedal 
Nikel Works, on the Espedal Vand, which belonged in 1853 to an English 
company, who were said to employ as many as 500 hands, under the 
management of Mr. Forbes, by whose enei^gy the nikel mines were first 
developed. The mines had many years previously been worked for copper. 
The nikel ore falling in value, the Espedal Works were sold to a Nor- 
wegian company. The scenery of the Espedal is wild and beautiful, and 
the lake is weU stocked with trout 



THE MANSION NEAR HARPE BRO, 

corns tliat she might count out what she wanted ; 
did ^we omit to pay a just tribute to her knowledge of 
English language. After the young post mistress 1 
left us, iw^e came along the road towards a large hoi 
having more of those characteristics of the coun 
gentleman's^ residence than any we had yet seen. 1 
house stood in its own grounds, at a short distance bef 
we reached the turning from the main route to " Ha 
Bro." When we passed by it, the gentleman and 
family were assembled near the entrance-gate to 
grounds. He was a fine, tall, gentlemanly man, accc 
panied by a very good-looking young lady, who st< 
near him. She was the best-looking young lady we 1 
yet seen in Norway. Two young gentlemen, we s 
posed to be sons, were also there. 

The g-entleraan lifted his hat, and seemed to give i 
kindly Tvelcome ; we returned his salutation. There 
something- pleasurable in such kindly feeling ; we li 
think how much we can do in this world to light( 
loneJy wayfarer's heart. 



CHAPTER XV. 

** We remounted, and I rode on, thinking of the vision of loTelinesB 
I was leaving in that wild delL We travel a great waj to see hills and 
rivers, thought I ; but, after all, a human being is a more interesting 
object than a mountain. I shall remember the little gipsy of Iladjilar 
long after I have forgotten Hermus and Sipylus.*' 

N. P. Willis. 

THE VELOCIPEDE — ROADSIDE HALT— LOVELY SCENERY — DISAPPOINTED 
AUDIENCE — THE LITTLE GIPSY— THE LOST POCRET— THE SEARCH- 
GIPSY LAMENTATION — AMUSED PEASANT GIRLS — NORWEGIAN HONESTY 
— ^THE POQKET POUND— A NOBLE HEART — PLEASANT VOYAGEURS— 
PATRINS — STORKLEVSTAD — TAMBOURINE LOST — NORWEGIAN HONESTY 
— ECCENTRIC VISITS — INTERROGATORY — ^THE CAPTAIN — THE INTERVIEW 
— ^THE VILLAGE MAGNATE- MEQET GODT— ESMERALDA IN CAMP — 
THE LAST VISIT- THE MOORLAND MAIDEN. 

We had not gone far along the road, when we saw a 
blacksmith's shop ; a man suddenly appeared from it, and 
came towards us on a velocipede 

"Why," said Esmeralda, ** there's a velocity " ! 

" What broad wheels," said Zachariah. 

" It's Arthur coming to town," answered Noah. 

The man was working it along might and main, with 
his hair flying ; he was a strong framed man, with an 
intelligent coimtenance. The velocipede was probably 
manufactured by himself ; although very roughly made, he 
managed to go at a fair pace ; when we came to the 
route turaing from • the main road to " Harpe Bro" 
our companion with the naturally white hair, who had 
occasionally ridden with us during the morning, and by 



ROADSIDE HALT. 159 

whose assistance we had increased our vocabulary of 
Norwe^an words, wished us good day. 

At a short distance beyond the blacksmith's shop, as 
our donkeys were in advance, they strayed off the road 
into an open fir wood. Two young ladies, and a man 
had followed us for a short distance; they seemed to 
think we were going to halt in the wood, and as they stood 
watching us, we thought they seemed disappointed, when 
the donkeys were driven back to the road, and continued 
their journey. It was rather too early in the day for rest. 
Sauntering quietly along, we at length came to an open 
space having a wooden seat; this accommodation we 
particularly noticed in Norway at some points on the way- 
side. Generally, in a pleasant romantic spot, the ground 
is gravelled from the road, and a long wooden seat is 
placed for the convenience, and rest of the weary way- 
farer. In selecting this spot, care is taken that it is near 
water, and close by, we usually found a deliciously clear 
stream, to slake the travellers' thirst. On this occasion 
we at once commenced unloading our baggage near the 
wooden seat, and as we did not intend to remain very 
long, Noah left the pockets girthed on two of the 
donkeys, who soon after wandered off to graze. 

When we looked round we were struck with the 
beauty of the scene. Not far above us, on the opposite 
side the road, a log cottage stood lonely on the side of a 
steep rising hill. A brawling stream passed underneath 
the road near us ; we saw it again, as it issued from a 
narrow brick arch, and was soon lost in the bushes of the 
declivity, which formed the bank of the Logan just below. 

The picturesque summit of a mountain closed the 
narrow valley from the world beyond. 



I 



leo TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Leaving our things ])y the seat, we went down to the 
stream at the arch below the road, and crossed to a small 
patch of green sward on the other side. It was quiet and 
sheltered, and our fire was soon lighted. Tea, sardines, 
bread and cheese, formed our repast. A w^oman from 
the log cottage came down and stood near looking at 
us. We gave some biscuits to a small child in her 
arms; Zachariah was sent off to fish. It was about 10 
o'clock when we arrived ; the view was charming ; Noah 
lounged on the grass with the violin ; as he was tuning 
it up, a young man came and leaned over the rails of the 
road above, in silent contemplation. He is expecting 
some music. You little think, my young friend, the treat 
you are going to have, thought we. When Noah began 
to scrape, the effect was marvellous ; we turned, and the 
young man was gone. The sounds ceased, for Noah 
himself fell asleep. Esmeralda had a very fair voice. 
It was pleasant to hear her sing at times, as we walked 
along the winding valley of the GudbransdaJen. Now we 
amused ourselves talking by the camp fire, and as we 
reclined on our waterproofs, we wrote down at her 
dictation, one of her ballads : " The Little Gipsy," with 
the addition of a few words, by a gipsy aunt, where 
Esmeralda's memory had failed. We now give the song 
in its entirety. It has been long a favourite with the 
country people. 

THE LITTLE GIPSY. 

1. 

My father's the King of the Gipsies, that's true ; 
My mother, she learned me some camping to do, 
With a packel on my back, and they all wish me weU, 
I started up to London, some fortunes for to telL 



THE LITTLE GIPSY. 161 



As I was a-^alking up fair London street:^, 

Two handsome young Bt^uires I cbtinced for to meet. 

They vievr'd my brown cheeks, and they liked them so well, 

They said, My little gipy girl, can you my fortune tell ? 

3. 

Oh yes ! kind sir, give me hold of your hand ; 
For you have got honours, both riches and land. 
Of all the pretty maidens, you must lay aside ; 
For it is the little gipsy girl that is to be your bride. 

4. 

He led me o'er hills, through valleys deep, I'm sure, 

Where I'd servants for to wait on me, and open me the door ; 

A rich bed of dowle, to lay my head upon. 

In less than nine months after, I could his fortune tell. 

5. 

Once I was a gipsy girl, but now a squire's bride, 
Fve servants for to wait on me, and in my carriage ride. 
The bells shall ring so merrily ; sweet music they shall play, 
And we'll crown the glad tidings of that lucky, lucky day. 



Two men with carts passed whilst we were resting, 
and they halted to look at our donkeys. 

It was nearly 2 o'clock, when myself and Noah went 
lip to the wooden seat to load the animals. As we were 
standing by our things, a carriage passed, a gentleman 
driving with apparently his son, asked if we were going to 
camp there, we told him we were going on ; He asked how 
many miles we travelled in a day, and we answered four- 
teen or fifteen. They wished us a pleasant excursion, we 
wished him hon voyage^ and, lifting our hats, he drove on. 
Two donkeys were packed, and Noah brought up the 
third. Where*^B the pocket? said Noah, looking rather wild. 
" Pocket V said we, " is'nt it among the things ? " No, sir, 
we never took it oflF; " it must have slipt off somewhere." 

M 



162 TENT LIFE JN NORWAY. 

In fact, we had not taken the pockets oflF two of the 
donkeys, but one pocket had been pushed off by the Puru 
Rawnee, against the road rails, whilst we were at lunch, 
and Noah had placed it by the seat ; what had become of 
the other we could not tell ; we both went some distance 
along the road where they had been browsing, but could 
not find it. Esmeralda was much enraged. All her 
things with Noah and Zachariah's scanty stock, and their 
sheets, tent blankets, and sleeping blankets, were also in 
the lost pocket. We went up to the house, and managed 
to explain to two women the position we were in. Noah 
said : " Sir, it must have been taken off, for there is no mark 
on the road where it has come down." Esmeralda fixed 
her suspicions on the unfortunate cart drivers, who had 
been looking at the donkeys; we repudiated the idea, 
and said they were driving the wrong way to have done 
so. A vigorous search was made, with the help of the 
younger peasant woman, amongst the bushes of the steep 
bank, between the road and the river, where the two 
donkeys had been also wandering, but no pocket could 
be found. 

We decided to go on. To the young peasant girl, who 
seemed as anxious as ourselves for its recovery, we gave 
a mark, and an address, so that the pocket, if found, 
might be sent to Nystuen, to the " Herren mit drei 
asen."* Esmeralda rode one donkey, and in no very 
enviable frame of mind, we hurried along at a rapid 
pace. 

Noah exclaimed, " I could sit down and cry, sir. I 
don't want no tea — I can't eat." 

" Well, I can," said Esmeralda, boiling with indigna- 

• To the gentlemen with three donkeys. 



GIPSY LAMENTATION. 163 

tioD. *' I know it is taken ; we shall never see it again. 
My small smoothing-iron, I would not have parted with 
it for anything, I have had it so long ; and my dress — " 
and she half gave way to a flood of tears. " It will do 
them as has taken it no good." 

Zachariah had just joined us from the river without 
a fish. 

" Ah," said he, in a weeping tone, " my pretty dicklo 
(gip. handkerchief) is gone." 

I believe this handkerchief constituted nearly the whole 
strength of his wardrobe, 

" It is fortunate," said we, " both pockets were not 
lost. We must manage as well as we can ; some shelter 
is left, and all our provisions. It might have been worse. 
You shall have more blankets, Noah. We are quite 
sure the pocket has not been taken ; they are honest in 
Norway — ^far more honest than most other countiies we 
have travelled." 

So we pushed along till we saw a blacksmith, and 
two other men standing at the road side. We ex- 
plained our loss to them as well as we could. They 
pointed to a fir wood above us as a convenient camping- 
ground, but we wanted to proceed on our journey, and 
went on. At the next place we came to, we pur- 
chased four loaves of bread for fifteen skillings. At 
one large house we passed, near the road side, a large 
number of persons were assembled, probably at some 
fete. There was a general rush to see us. When we 
came to a large wooden water trough on the road side, 
some girls who saw us, ran down the meadow above ; 
they were great loosely-dressed peasant girls, who 
laughed at us immoderately. 

M 2 



164 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

" T^Tiat are the sapeaus (gip. snakes) crying about ? " 
said Esmeralda, m no very good temper. 

At any other time she would have laughed with them. 

- " Ah ! the Bongy mouees " (gip. ugly mouths), shouted 

Zachariah. "They were tolerably well slap-dashed in 

Romany, as I have no doubt we were good-humouredly 

in Norwegian. 

We had not gone many yards from the water trough, 
when the young woman we had seen at oiu* mid-day 
halt, came running round a comer of the road. She 
seemed half fainting and exhausted, and, staggering to 
the water-trough when she saw us, she dashed some 
water over her face, and hurriedly drank some. We at 
once stopped the donkeys, and the girls above the road 
ceased laughing. They seemed puzzled at the scene. 
We went to the poor girl, who said, when she was able 
to speak, she had found the pocket, which had slipped 
off the donkey close to the river's edge. It was lucky it 
had not rolled in. Being satisfied from the things she 
found inside the pocket, that it belonged to us, she had 
followed us with it, and at last left it at some place on 
the road, so that she might more quickly overtake us. 
It was decided that Noah would take one of the donkeys, 
and go back with the peasant girl for the pocket. We were 
profuse in our thanks to her ; she was a good, honest girl. 
We don't think our gipsies will ever again believe, that such 
a thing as dishonesty, is possible in Norway. Pulling out 
a large* handful of money from our pocket, we pressed it 
into the girl's hands. She wished to give part back ; it 
was too much, she did not like to take it all. We would 
have no denial ; as she was returning she took out her 
handkerchief in which she had placed the money, and 



PATRIN8. 1C5 

again offered us part ; she did not like to take so much. 
We made her put it back. Under sucli circumstances 
what cared we what the sum was ; we felt inclined 
to give her all we possessed, she had been so honest. 
How much inconvenience we might have experienced, 
but for the activity and kindness of this Norwegian 
peasant girl. Shaking her heartily by the hand, she 
returned with Noah. We may never meet again; we 
do not even know hef name. Yet there is a world 
beyond this. May her fate be with the blessed of- a 
future and etema,l life. Continuing our route, we left 
behind us Burre^ and the tmn to Kvikne. It may easily 
be imagined we went along in much better spirits ; all 
was sunshine. Noah would follow with the lost pocket, 
and find us in our camping-ground. Patrins,* intel- 
ligible to our gipsy party, were strewed as we went along 

* Patron, Sundt's Norwegian gipsy, signifying a leaf, a signal ; Patrin, 
Paspati*s TnrkiBh gipsy, a leaf; Patrin, in the " Italien Lingua Zingaiesca '' 
of Francesco Predari ; Patrin, in Hoyland's " English Gipsy ;" Patrin in 
£iacho£rs " Dentsch-Zigeunerisches ; ** Patrin, in the ^ Qerman Qipsy 
Yocaholary " of Dr. Liehich. Patrin is also given as German gipsy by 
Orellmann. The word is used by gipsies, signifying a signal or sign on the 
gipsy trail to indicate to other gipsies, who understand this silent language, 
the route they have taken. The word is pronounced occasionaUy with 
isonie slight variation, as patteran, patrin. Borrow, in his admirable work, 
" The Zincali ; or An Account of the Gipsies in Spain," vol. i., p. 37, uses 
" Patteran." We have spelt the word as nearly as possible as pronounced 
by the gipsies of our party. Patrins of chor (gip. grass) are commonly put 
by gipsies. Some gipsies we have met with used to put patrins for their 
favourite blind dog, " Spot," when he had strayed or lingered far behind. 
A few blades of grass or leaves crushed in the gipsy female's hand, and cast 
on the road, were scented out by the blind animal, who ultimately reached 
the encampment. Spot would occasionally remain all day in charge of the 
tents, and would never steal a morsel of the hobben (food), though he were 
famishing ; " but," said the gipsy female, " dogs brought up in the tents 
are like nobody else's dogs, and they know our language as well as we do 
ourselves." Poor Spot strayed one day, and, losing the trail, they never 
saw him again. 



166 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

the road. Pieces of grass,* ta all appearance scattered 
carelessly along the route, yet they had a meaning, and a 
language which a gipsy easily reads. The points of 
the grass indicated the way we took. 

Although anxious to finish our day's journey, we could 
find no convenient camping-ground. We met the gentle- 
man we had conversed with in the morning. His son 
descended from the carriage to lead the horse by the 
donkeys. Kindly salutations were exchanged. Noah 
said that when the gentleman afterwards met him, he 
said, " Your master seems a pleasant gentleman." 

'* * Well, sir, he's always the same/ I answered, and 
the son gave me a cigar, whilst the gentleman sent his 
kind regards to you, sir." 

Our camp rules were relaxed, and Noah was of 
course allowed on tliis occasion to smoke. We continued 
our way up a narrow gorge between high mountains, but 
did not find any convenient camping-ground. In the 
distance we saw log houses near the river Logan. These 
were Storklevstad, Viig, and Qvam. As we descended 
the road we noticed a rough narrow way on our right, 
with a telegraph post in the centre. Zachariah went 
and reported that it led to a large common extending 
to mountains beyond. Esmeralda and myself were at 
first inclined to continue our route. As we were con- 
sidering, a young man having the appearance of a 
carpenter came by, and we asked him if we could camp 
there. He said " Ya, ya," and the lane bemg too narrow, 

• The gipsy word " chor/* Bignifying grass, is sometimes pronounced by 
English gipsies like " chaw," without the " r " being sounded. The Nor- 
wegian gipsies use ** Tjar " ; the German gipsies, " Tschar." Borrow gives 
"chur*" as the Spanish gipsy for grass. The Italian gipsies use "char" 
and"TBchar." - 



TAMBOURINE LOST. 167 

and awkward for the donkeys to go up loaded, the man 
helped us, very kindly, to unload our heavy packs, and 
assisted us to carry them to a rock on the common ; we 
gave him two demi vers of brandy. The distance we had 
travelled had been long, the weather seemed inclined for 
rain, and we were glad to get in for night quarters. 
This comer of the common was bounded by hedges. 
Under a thick high hedge on the common side we made 
a fire, and our tea was soon ready, with ham fried in oil, 
and bread. Noah came in time for tea, and, selecting a 
camping-ground on the common, put up the tent-rods. 
The moorland, extending up a mountain, was covered 
with large masses of rock and low bushes. Visitors soon 
came. An old man with a wallet gave our donkeys 
some bread whilst we were at tea, and we gave him 
some brandy. Women and children came, and were 
very civil. Our tents were soon pitched, and arranged, 
and our things carefully stowed away. Tlie watei-proof 
was 80 placed over our tents, that our visitors were obliged 
to sit down, in order to see us through the opening. 

Noah searched for his tambourine, but it could not be 
found, to his consternation ; we came to the conclusion 
that it must have been left on the hedge bank near the 
water trough. Noah was loud in his lamentation, when 
a peasant suddenly brought it to the tent. We had 
left it where we supposed, and the peasant honestly 
restored the tambourine. We gave him a good recompense 
with many thanks, though he did not seem to wish any 
money reward. We had seldom met such kindly people. 
Gladly we commenced playing our music, and having re- 
covered all our things, we were much pleased to find 
ourselves in a comfortable camphig-ground for the night. 



168 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Scarcely had we commenced playing, than the crowd of 
people increased round our tents. It was as much as we 
could do to keep them from crushing the tents in. One 
little man in spectacles, and a curious tumed-up hat, 
with a knowing comical expression of countenance, came 
crawling into our tent on all fours. First he looked up 
at Noah, then at Zachariah, then at Esmeralda, and then 
at myself. We did not stop our playing. He put up 
his finger as a signal for us to stop, but we could not 
interrupt the tune. Then he expectorated freely on the 
intervening space in our tents ; fortunately, that part 
was only turf, but the absence of saliva was at all 
times preferred. Then he stared curiously through his 
spectacles, being still on his hands and knees. Some 
village magnate, thought we. Then he suddenly sum- 
moned all his energy, and asked loudly all kinds of ques- 
tions in Norwegian, whilst we continued our music. We 
thought he was slightly intoxicated, but it may have been 
an eccentricity of manner. He seemed to know some 
words of English. Noah said *' Don't know " to most 
questions. We could distinguish the word Tater, and Noah 
said ** shoemaker," and nodding at Zachariah, " cobbler." 
Then he addressed some question to ourself, to which we 
answered "Nei, nei." " Jeg gaae Romsdalen," still per- 
severing, he pointed to Esmeralda, who was rattling her 
tambourine, and he seemed specially anxious to know 
what part she took in the economy of the tents. At 
last he was quiet for a short time, and some one who 
did not like his attempted interruption of the music, 
pulled him out by his legs. Alas! he soon returned, 
crawling in again to the tent, expectorating as usual. 
Noah seemed his grand point of attack. Addressing 



THE CAPTAIN, 169 

Noah, Le pointed to us with a look of triumphant dis- 
covery, and said, " Artistique," but Noah did not seem 
to comprehend. 

We are afraid his pertinacity met with very little re- 
ward. A considerable number of persons continued round 
our tents, and we finished music towards 10 o'clock. Then 
our visitors wanted more music. It was very • compli- 
mentary to our musical talent, but we did not play after 
10 o'clock. One young man who spoke some English, 
came to us, and asked to have more music. We ex- 
plained that we had been up at 2 o'clock that morning, 
and did not allow music after 10 o'clock, and wanted to go 
to bed. Our visitors did not go for some time, but kept 
talking, and making a noise, until nearly 11, when we 
gladly fell asleep. 

Another Sunday. We welcomed the day as we ate our 
breakfast of tea, potted meat, and bread. Then the word 
was given that the gorgios* were a vellin. Many visitors 
soon collected, who were so curious, that one of our party 
had to stand at the entrance to the tents during the 
morning. A young man in long riding boots and horse- 
man's cloak, with a whip in his hand, speaking English 
and German, informed us that an English captain would 
shortly pass if we liked to see him. We said if he were 
going to Lillehammer he might render us a service. An 
intelligent young Norwegian peasant said he would let 
us know, when the captain came along the road. We 
conversed some portion of the morning with our visitors, 
and added to our knowledge of Norsk language. 

At last the young Norwegian came and said the cap- 
tain was come. We took Noah and the young peasant 

* Goiigio — any person not a gipsy. 



170 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

with US, and started towards the village of "Qvam," 
After a sharp walk we reached a post station on the road 
side near the river, and leaving Noah and the peasant in 
the large kitchen with a bottle of " Baiersk 01," we went 
into an inner room to see the captain. 

The officer, whom we expected to find an Englishman, 
was Norwegian. The French language was at once our 
medium of communication. We quickly explained that we 
had lost two hats between the Honnefos and Moshuus, and 
if en passant he heard of them, we were anxious to have 
them forwarded to Nystuen, and a handsome reward would 
be given. He looked at our route on the map. Monsieur 
le Capitaine was just going to dinner ; a fine pink trout 
was served up. The captain asked us if we were going 
to dine, but was informed that our dinner waited us at 
the camp. He said he should be happy to inquire, and 
should meet us next morning, when he was returning. 
The captain spoke French very well, and at first sight 
we should have taken him for a French officer. There 
was a gentlemanly frankness about him which pleased us. 
Although not tall, he was of compact build, strong, and 
energetic, much indication of prompt and rapid action — 
one prone to vigour of thought, and quickness of decision. 
He possessed the bearing of a military man. We regretted 
we could not see more of him. ^ Giving him our card, 
and shaking hands, we parted. 

Noah and the Norwegian -were allowed another bottle 
of " Baiersk 01 " on our return to the kitchen, and taking 
a sip to drink " gamle norge," we immediately left. 

The peasant returned with us. At a short distance 
from our camp, the village magnate came forth fi:om a 
house, still wearing his curious turned-up hat The little 



MEGET GODT. 171 

man seemed rather pleased to see ns. As be advanced 
with a comical expression of countenance, he appeared to 
have something of importance to communicate. We 
politely paused a moment. He wanted to — to — " sell us 
a cheese ! " 

The peasant took a share of our dinner which was 
ready in camp. We were obliged to take our dinner 
inside our tents, on account of the number of visitors. 
They were never absent. It was a matter of conjecture 
whether they eter ate anything themselves ; they seemed 
to be at our camp from morning till night. Our sensa- 
tions were probably similar to those formerly experienced 
by the lions in Wombwell's well-known menagerie, when 
viewed at feeding time. 

Esmeralda had the soup ready, which consisted of 
white beans, pea flour, rice, and Liebig's essence of 
meat Our peasant, as he sat on the grass near us^ 
with his bowl of soup, seemed thoroughly to enjoy it 
We gave him some English Cheddar cheese, from 
Hudson Bros., which seemed to astonish him; and we 
heard him say to our mterested visitors " meget godt " 
(very good). 

Whilst we had been absent, one young fellow, who 
spoke a little English, came to our tents, and presuming 
too far upon Esmeralda's good nature, received a severe 
blow on the shoulder with a stick, which shut him up. 
Probably to raise his spirits, he asked Zachariah to give 
tim some of his master's brandy, which resulted in a 
sharp answer, «nd he left the camp. 

During dinner time a large number of visitors care- 
folly watched our smallest movements. We had no 
idea we could possibly meet with so much solicitude as 



172 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

evinced, by the good people of Storklevestad, Viig, and 
Qvam. 

After dinner, leaving our gipsies in charge of the tents, 
we retired to the mountain, to enjoy some quietude, and 
cotitemplation. How we watched the beautiful scene 
before us! The Blaa Fjeld, and the picturesque river 
Logan ! The nature of this world, as God made it, is 
ever beautiful. Who can tire of its contemplation ? 

When we returned at 6 o'clock, throngs of visitors — 
as a German would say, " Immer ! Ihimer ! " — were 
grouped about the tents. Esmeralda was at the fire pre- 
paring for tea, with several young fellows buzzing about 
her. We seemed to come like a cloud upon their sun- 
shine. Their fun was harmless, but obstructive to our 
chances for the next meal. Esmeralda was sent into the 
tents to get the tea things ready. Noah soon brought 
the tea, and we did not go out again. Our visitors wan- 
dered about round and round our tents, sometimes gazing 
at the donkeys, then returning, till about half-past 10, 
when they all left. 

How calm and quiet the Norwegian night, when the 
hum of voices is hushed ! How dehghtful, as we looked 
forth from our tents ! Then we distinguished three 
figures gliding over the moorland towards us. They ap- 
proached ; it was about 11 o'clock. There was the 
bright-eyed, good-looking Pige, whom we had noticed at 
our tents during the day, without shoes or stockings. 
Now she had some stockings on, probably borrowed from 
some friend, to give her a more respectable appearance. 
She was followed by a little boy and girl ; and as she 
hovered near our tents, she pointed to Noah, and then 
towards her cottage in the distance. She made love by 



THE MOORLAND MAIDEN. ' 173 

signs. In vain we wished her " good nigbt." Poor girl ! 
She stiD lingered, sometimes pointing to herself, and then 
towards the village. 

We were just going out to persuade her to go home, 
when Esmeralda asked, why we should trouble ourselves 
about her. 

" Why should we ? " We at once gave up the diplo- 
matic mission. Zachariah was sent outside the tents 
instead, and made signals for her to go. Smiling, she 
said, in a clear, pleasant voice, '* Farvel, adieu ! " and, 
kissing her baud, left. 

Oh, no ! she was quickly back again, followed by her 
Lilliputian retinue, who floundered after her among the 
rocks. There she lingered like the siren of the Rhine. 
Noah was fortunately spell-bound in his tent. Who 
knows, if he had gone, he may at this moment have been, 
a denizen of Storklevestad ! She again seemed going 
from our tents. 

Thank goodness ! we are now quiet. Vain delusion ! 
'' Farvel, adieu ! '' She was again standing on a rock near 
our tents. How she lingered! Perhaps Noah might 
change his mind. " Farvel, adieu ! " we said. " Farvel, . 
adieu ! " the gipsies shouted. She loved — she lingered. 
Koah came not. At last she went ; but we could see 
lier, as she went across the moorland, at times turn, and 
stand irresolute ; till the very last, " Farvel, adieu ! " of 
the Norwegian peasant girl died upon the wind, and we 
all went to sleep. 



CHAPTER XVL 



DIB DKBI ZIGBUNER. 

''Drei zigenner fand ich einmal 
Liegen an einer Weide, 
Alfl mein Fuhnrerk mit mUder Qiial 
Schlick diiTcli sandige Haide. 

Hielt der eine f iir sicli allein 
In der Ilanden die Fiedel, 

Spielte umglUht vom Abendschein, 
Sich ein fenriges liedel." 



THE THBEE aiPSISa 



LlHAU. 



« Once three gipsies did I behold ; 
In a meadow they lay, 
As my carriage heavily rolled 
Over the sandy way. 

" In his hands, as he sat alone, 
Fiddle and bow held one, 
Flaying an air with fiery tone, 
In the glow of the evening sun." 

Alfbed Baskkryills. 

colonel sinclair— qvam church — death op sinclair — honsi£ijr le 

capitaine— the hiohflter — the hedals— romantic jjbgend 

antique mansion— the kringelen — kind reception — wars! wel- 
come — the broken tent-pole — the reindeer hunter the 

rudane fjelde — qipst-looking woman — more pish—chiromakcy 
— Esmeralda's fortune — the handsome captain—his sporting 

ADVENTURE — ^ESMERALDA's GIFT— OUR SOIRAB DANSANTE — GIPSIES* 
GLEE. 

The next morning was fine, but dull. We were up at 
half.past 1 o'clock, and decided to try the artificial 



QVAM. 175 

minnow. The trout we had seen the day previous served 
up for the captain's dinner no doubt occasioned the 
resolution. 

The Logan was close at hand. Esmeralda's soup was 
warmed up for frokost. Our things were afterwards all 
carried down into the main road. Noah went for the 
donkeys to load them, and we fished along the Logan to 
Qvam. How still and quiet all appeared at Storklevestad, 
Viig, and Qvam ! Not a soul stirring I As we fished 
towards Qvam, we saw inscribed on a large stone on the 
roadside near the river — 

Her blev Skottemes anfarer 

Geox^e Sinclair 

Begraven efterat 

Han yar lalden 

ved Kringelen den 

26 AugUBt, 

1612* 

Our fishing resulted in the loss of our artificial minnow, 
no sport, and we put up our tackle. The Qvam church- 
yard on the right of the road was near us. Our party had 
not come up. Then we strolled round the church which, 
as usual, was built of wood, with very large porches. 
Flowers had been placed on one grave. It is here that 
Col. George Sinclair is buried. In 1612, Col. Sinclair 
landed on a farm near Veblungsnoes, in Romsdalen, in 
conunand of nine hundred Scotch troops. They marched 
towards Sweden to aid Gustavus Adolphus against Chris- 
tian IV. King of Denmark. 

At a hill called the Kringelen, beyond Qvam, near 
Solheim, the peasants rolled down large quantities of 

• Here was buried Geoige Sinclair, the leader of the Scotch, after having 
faUen at Kringelen, on the 26th August, 1612. 



176 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

rocks on his troops, who were either crushed to death, 
drowned in the river below, or killed by the peasants 
who attacked them when in disorder. Only two are said 
to have survived. 

We have never seen any minute particulars of the 
tragic end of this military expedition. It is said that a 
young lady, hearing that one of her own sex was with the 
Scotch, sent her lover for her protection. Unfortunately, 
as he approached, Mrs. Sinclair mistook his object, and 
shot him dead. 

The other Scotch and Dutch troops, who landed at 
Thronjhem, reached Stockholm, and helped the Swedish 
King to conclude advantageous terms of peace. What 
became of Mrs. Sinclair, we do not know ; or where the 
Scotch soldiers were buried. The colonel seems to have 
been a bold and daring man. The Norwegian peasants 
gave their enemy a quiet resting place in the pleasant 
churchyard of Qvam, and his melancholy history is 
another illustration of the uncertainty of human hope. 

Soon after 6 o'clock Noah, Zachariah, and Esmeralda 
came up with the donkeys. Noah was limping along 
very lame. In taking one of the donkeys to be loaded, 
the animal slipped over a rock and fell across his leg. 
Noah walked with difficulty, and was very sleepy — in 
fact, when we had left Qvam, and the sun became warm, 
we could scarcely keep our eyes open as we pushed on 
along the road as fast as we could for several miles. 

At a turn of the road, some distance from Qvam, we 
saw a number of men without uniform marching towards 
us. Zachariah was at first rather frightened. The men 
advancing took up nearly the whole of the road. 

Our friend. Monsieur le Capitaine, was marching at 



MONSIEUR LE CAPITAINE. 177 

tlie head of his men, who were going to their periodical 
militia training. We were looking out to see which side 
the road to take, when Monsieur le Capitaine opened out 
his men right and left, and we passed through their centre, 
which afforded them ample opportunity of observing our 
cavalcade. 

"Bon jour. Monsieur Smith," said the Captain; "plea- 
sant journey." 

TVe also wished him "bon jour," and with mutual 
salutations each passed on our different routes. 

They were a very fine body of men — an army of such 
men, properly handled, need not fear any other soldiers on 
equal terms. Had the opportunity permitted, we should 
have enjoyed a visit to one of their militia camps. 

It was very warm. Zachariah played his violin along 
the road in advance; Esmeralda and Noah were very 
sleepy and tired, and we were not disinclined for a halt. 
For some time we could not meet with a convenient 
resting-place ; at last we came to a delightful valley. 
There was the open macadamised space on the roadside, 
with wooden bench considerately placed for the conveni- 
ence of travellers. The same acconmiodation might with 
advantage be adopted in England. Then there was a 
small space of broken greensward, sloping from the road, 
where we could light our fire. A large bondegaard 
below, near the River Logan, gave us the impression of 
contentment and comfort. It was a charming valley. 

As we came up to the wooden seat we observed a 
curious-looking man, who the gipsies said was some 
travelling " Highflyer." The man was reclining on the 
the open patch of greensward near the seat ; his wallet 
was beside him, and he was smoking his pipe — who 

N 



178 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

knows ? he was probably experiencing more enjoyment 
than the most wealthy millionaire. 

The donkeys were soon unloaded. Noah went down 
to get some water at the farmhouse, and shortly returned 
with the " vand " (Nor., water). A woman and a boy 
brought up some grass for the donkeys, and she after- 
wards oflfered us the use of some rough ground above the 
road for the donkeys to graze in. The offer was accepted, 
for the herbage was very scanty on the roadside. Our 
water was soon boiled, and we had tea, bacon, and bread . 
Taking out the packet of tobacco given up by Noah, we 
gave some to the Highflyer. It is not surprising that 
Noah was reluctant to part with it. Printed on the out- 
side of the packet we observed the following — 

Petum optimum supter solem, 
De beste Tobac onder de Son ; 
Der beste Toback under solen 
Af C. Andersen, 
Lillehammer. 

The Highflyer seemed much pleased. The sun was 
exceedingly warm, and, placing some rugs in the scanty 
shade of some rocks on the opposite side of the road, 
Esmeralda fell asleep. The woman brought us some 
milk, and, finding it impossible to write, we gave way to 
inclination and indulged m a good sleep. Noah and 
Zachariah went to the river fishing, and Zachariah 
caught four not very large trout. Then we woke up and 
worked at our notes. 

A young farmer, a fine young fellow, his wife, and 
son and daughter, came up. The young farmer had been 
at our camp near " Storklevstad " ; they brought up fresli 
grass, and were very attentive. The "Hedals" rose 



ROMANTIC LEGEND, 179 

above ns, with snow still remaining on the higher 
ridges. 

Not so very far from this point, across the mountains, 
is the " Ridderspranget *' (the Knight's Leap). Tradition 
says that a knight of Valders wooed a young lady of Lom. 
The friends did not favour the lovers' wish. The knight, 
at last, mounted on a swift horse, carried the lady off, 
and, heing closely pursued by the friends, jumped a wide 
cliasm, and escaped with the girl of Lom, for whom he 
had risked so much. The spot, which is between two 
lakes, still goes by the name of the " Ridderspranget." 

Esmeralda, probably owing to the heat, did not feel 
well. Before we left, Noah and Zachariah played for the 
people of the bondegaard, who had been so attentive, 
several tunes with the violin and tambourine. The High- 
flyer went towards Qvem. 

At 3 o'clock — ^having presented the good woman 
with a mark, and the children with three skillings each — 
as they gave us their kindly wishes, we again continued 
our way. Noah had added four more trout to our stock, 
so that we had now eight fish for the evening's meal. 
We were all very sleepy, but kept on with much perse- 
verance. Zachariah, who rode on one of the donkeys, 
fell asleep and his hat fell .off, and then he dropped his 
violin in the road, but both were picked up. After we 
had passed Dengarden — so we made out the name — 
Noah was so sleepy that he became a straggler ; his legs 
almost reftised to serve him, and we at last lost sight of 
him at a turn, in the road. 

A very interesting house on the roadside attracted our 
attention. We understood the name was Nusamberg; 
it had the appearance of an old mansion. Though con- 

K 2 



1 



180 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

structed of wood, its massive timbers gave it structural 
solidity ; extensive granaries and outbuildings surrounded 
the house, and one portion of buUdrng was surmounted 
by a kind of cupola with a large bell. If it had been in 
England we should have taken it for an old manor 
house, 

Noah did not overtake us, and we went back, expect- 
ing that he had fallen asleep on the roadside ; at last we 
saw him in the distance, walking slowly along, with diffi- 
culty getting one leg before the other. 

As we came m sight of " Breden," which stands near a 
lake, our party were at once perceived. A boat pushed 
oflf in hot haste across the lake with a number of peasants 
to see us. When we entered the small village of houses 
grouped on either side the road, great was the excite- 
ment People ran hastily up to see our donkeys ; a pony 
in a " stolkjoerre," or light cart, turned restive, and occa- 
sioned much confiision. Our donkeys ran against one 
another, and our things becoming entangled, the packs 
were nearly pulled to the ground. 

At last, when we were clear of the village, Noah and 
Zachariah were sent to a landhandelri * to buy butter and 
bread. The young man at the shop had been at our 
camp at Qvem. They could only get fladbrod and butter. 

The steeps of the Kringelen, memorable for the destruc- 
tion of Col. Sinclair and his soldiers, were passed. The 
spot had been well selected by the Norwegians. Then 
we came in sight of Sels. Having risen early, we were 
all tired and hungry. At this juncture, seemg a woman 
driving some cows from the road, we asked to camp on 
some rough broken ground above the house. A quiet 

* A general shop. 



KIKD RECEPTION. 181 

spot was selected, where, undisturbed by visitors, our 
tents were pitched. Looking down upon the narrow 
valley, it was delightful to enjoy the repose of a quiet 
evening. Few were permitted to come near our tents. 
Our donkeys had, as usual, their admirers, but they were 
few and select The woman brought us a bowl of milk 
wlulst we were at tea. 

We were up at seven o'clock next morning. After a 
quiet breakfast, Zachariah caught four trout in the river. 
Giving these kind, homely people some music and two 
marks, our party left Sels in the distance. 

The scenery during the morning was very picturesque, 
and coming to a portion of newly-made road we halted 
in a recess of broken ground at the bottom of a wooded 
hill, near a log cottage. One of our gipsies went to the 
house for water, and the woman kindly oflfered to boil it, 
but this we did not require. 

As we were taking our lunch we became the subject of 
much interest to the road men and some boys ; to some of 
the men we gave tobacco. After the meal our gipsies 
played their music, whilst we lounged, looking at the 
beautiftil scene before us. The road men appeared to 
enjoy themselves quite as much as we did — ^they sat on 
the roadside, smoking their pipes and listening. 

It was not long before we were en route^ and being 
still in sight of the river Noah and Zachariah were sent to 
fish. Esmeralda and myself made the best of the way 
with the donkeys towards Laurgaard. Great improve- 
ments were being made upon this part of the road ; in 
some places the road was diverted and the distance 
shortened — sometimes we had to change from the old 
road to newly made portions, and then back to the old 



182 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. ' > 

road not yet altered. At every place the peasants 
flocked out to see us. One place we especially remember 
as being near a wild gorge leading to the mountains from 
the valley. An old man gave us such a kindly hearty 
welcome to his land that we presented him with some 
tobacco. 

lu passing a narrow part of the old road one of ouv 
donkeys ran against the Paru Rawnee, and the baggage 
becoming entangled my tent pole was broken through. 
It was very annoying. At last we came in sight of the 
Laurgaard. A peasant who had walked with us some 
little distance, and who seemed desirous to aid us as 
much as possible, was asked if we could find a camping- 
ground on the other side Laurgaard. He shook his head. 

We had just passed some picturesque rocks ; the river 
Logan was on our left, the rocky slopes of the mountain 
on our right. Our peasant pointed to what appeared- to 
have been an old road, now disused, a short distance 
above us along the hill side. The old roadway formed 
an admirable terrace of flat ground for our tents. Our 
donkeys soon struggled through the bushes and broken 
rocks to the spot we selected, and were then unloaded. 
Several peasants appeared at the place, and also a Nor- 
wegian officer. Our first care, as the gipsies unloaded our 
things, was to splice our tent pole, which we did with a 
flat piece of wood we had found en route^ and some 
waxed string caiTied with us. Our proceedings were ob- 
served with great interest as we pitched our tents. The 
visitors increased, and we promised to give them some 
music for dancing after we had finished our tea. Imme- 
diately afl;er tea, as the peasants assembled at close of 
eve, our guitar, violin, tambourine, and castinets broke 



THJE BEINDEBB HUNTER 183 

the stillness of the Norwegian valley. On this occasion 
we had two beaux of the village instead of one. The old 
road being level was well adapted for dancing. There 
were several peasant girls, whose quiet and modest 
manners were very pleasing. One beau was a Ught 
haired young man who borrowed a friend's shoes to dance 
in. The other beau was a slim-slam, away-with-care 
sort of young fellow, who had the appearance of "un vrai 
chasseur," an intrepid reindeer hunter. He was a good- 
looking fellow, carried hard sinew and muscle, well-pro- 
portioned, moderately tall and strongly knit, wiry and 
active, wore very large capacious trousers, and strong 
Wellington boots. • A hunting knife hung by his side, 
and a close-fitting shirt and small cap Ughtly stuck on his 
head completed his attire. He held himself very erect, 
and danced in a stiflF, jerky, jaunty style. We had the 
usual complement of children, in many and various kinds 
of tattered garments. The peasants seemed to enjoy 
themselves. Esmeralda danced with her brother, and 
we also took her for partner ; but the half-hour is ended, 
our visitors leave as the rain conmiences. We had 
very heavy rain in the night 

Ourself and the gipsies were up at 4 o'clock, and 
went fishingi The river Logan near our camp was in- 
terspersed with pools and shallows, and appeared very 
likely m appearance for fish. The bridge at Laurgaard 
is said to be 1000 Enghsh feet above the level of the 
sea. We must confess that Noah and ourself returned 
without fish to breakfast. Directly the meal was con- 
cluded Noah and Zachariah were dispatched to the river 
again. A fine-looking old man came to see our tent 
after breakfast. He wore a red cap, and said he was a 



184 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

great fisbennau. We found him full of information. 
His sseter was on the Rudane Fjeld, where he said there 
were many reindeer ; in summer the weather was beauti- 
ful. The old man' came often during the day, and we 
bought some trout from him, and also from several 
peasant boys, who immediately they caught a fish 
brought it up to our tents. 

In the road below we noticed a curious dark little 
woman accompanied by a middle-aged man, a tall young 
woman without shoes or stockings, and two young boys. 
They carried their effects apparently for sleeping and cook- 
ing. Directly they saw the donkeys they came towards 
our camp. The boys tried to touch our donkeys, but 
the young woman held them back, and one was smartly 
cuffed. When the elder woman reached our tents we 
at first thought she was a gipsy. Her complexion was very 
dark, and she had black hair ; she had pleasing manners, 
but in person she was very short, with small hands 
and feet, and a peculiar redness round the eyes, as if from 
smoke. Esmeralda tried her in Romany, but she could 
not speak it. She was very probably a Lap. The others 
of her party seemed to hold her in great respect. She 
carried a courier bag suspended to a girdle, exactly similar 
to the one we bought in the Valders, and of which an en- 
graving is given in this book. We gave her some 
brandy and the man some tobacco, upon which she 
opened her bag, and in the politest manner possible, 
offered us two skillings, which we did not accept. Every 
now and then as she looked at our tents and then at the 
donkeys grazing near, she smiled and bowed in an ectasy 
of pleasure, raising her hands often, saying " Nd^ nei!V' in 
a sweet plaintive voice. Esmeralda asked if she told for- 



CBIROMANCY, 185 

tunes, and she said yes. It is probable that she did not 
understand the question. She offered to sell Esmeralda 
a ring, but she did not require it. As they left they 
lingered again near the donkeys. The old lady seemed 
in raptures with them. One of the boys again made a 
sudden attempt to touch one, and was dragged away by 
the younger woman as if his life was in jeopardy. 

They at length left and slowly disappeared through the 
rocks at a turn in the road beyond the camp. Noah 
and Zachariah caught several fish during the morning. 
The fish were fried for dinner with the usual accompani- 
ment of tea. We scarcely knew whether we dined 
early or late, both meals were so much the same. From 
time to time travellers passing along the road suddenly 
pulled up when they saw our tents and donkeys, and 
getting down slowly made their way up to our camp. 
The donkeys seemed, as usual, to excite a wonderful 
amount of interest. 

We had finished our mid-day's meal. Noah and 
Zachariah had gone to the river to fish. Esmeralda and 
myself were sitting in our tents; the gipsy girl was 
occasionally rockering Romany whilst we wrote our 
notes. Then the thought occurred to her that we should 
tell her fortune. 

'' Your fortune must be a good one," said we, laughing. 

" Let me see your hand, young woman, and your lines 
of life." 

We shall never forget Esmeralda. She looked so 
earnestly as we regarded attentively the lines of her open 
hand. Then we took her step by step through some 
scenes of her supposed future. We did not tell all. The 
rest was reserved for another day. There was a serious 



186 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

look on her countenance as we ended, but reader, such 
secrets should not be revealed — say what we will the 
hand carries the same language as those thought&l lines 
on your face, or the conformation of your head. It is not 
all who can interpret them. Though we do not believe 
in chiromancy and ghosts, how many in the world do. 
We do not say such things are impossible; there are 
warnings, forebodings, and presentiments at times too 
strong to be doubted. There are curious facts noted 
which cast singular light upon these links between two 
worlds. Instances of spirit travel are given. The open 
pages of nature reveal strange things. Pliny, Scott, 
Byron, Johnson, Wesley, and Baxter*, seem to have been 
imbued with some belief in the supernatural. We know 
not what it is ; we call it superstition. When we express 
our unbelief, somehow there is often an inward conscious- 
ness to belie our words. Surrounded by much that is 
false, there may be some reality. We halt on the thres- 

* A work was published by Baxter, entitled, " The Certainty of the 
Worlds of Spirits, folly evinced by Unquestionable Histories of Appari- 
tions and Witchcraft, Operations, Voices, etc Written for the conviction of 
Sadducees and Infidels, by Richard Baxter. London : Printed for T. 
Farkhurst, at the ' Bible and Three Crowns,' Cheapside ; and by J. Sains- 
bury, at the 'Eising Sun,' over against the Boyal Exchange. 1691." An 
ancient timbered house, the early residence of Richard Baxter, may stiU 
be seen at Eaton Constantine, in Shropshire. Richard Baxter was bom 
at Rowton, in the parish of High Ercall, in the county of Shropshire, 
12th November, 1615, and received part of his education at Donnington 
Grammar School, in the same county, where several distinguished scholars, 
'including the staunch Royalist, Dr. Allestree, afterwards Provost of Eaton, 
were also educated. Baxter ministered successively at Bridgnorth, Kidder- 
minster, and other places. His mental activity for literary production 
was extraordinary. Twenty thousand copies of his '* Call to the Uncon- 
verted " were sold in one year. Baxter died 8th December, 1691, and was 
buried in Christ Church. ^' Baxter's House " (and about 100 acres of land) 
was purchased some years since by William Hancocks, Esq., of Blake's Hall, 
near Kidderminster, a magistrate for the county of Salop. 



SPORTING ADVENTURE. 187 

hold of indecision. One thing is certain, there is a dark 
mysterious veil across man's future in this world. Will 
it profit him to raise its folds ? We think not. 

Esmeralda conmienced to tell our fortune; we were 
interested to know what she would say. We cast our- 
self on the waves of fete. The gipsy girl raised her dark 
cjes from our hand as she looked us earnestly in the face. 

" You are a young gentleman of good connections ; 
many lands you have seen ; but, young man, something 
tells me you be of a wavering disposition." 

We looked up, and a Norwegian peasant stood close 
by ; we had not heard him approach. He was at the 
entrance of our tents in puzzled contemplation ; we lost 
the remamder of our fortune. 

Not very long afterwards, we were sitting in our tent, 
when Esmeralda, who was looking out, said, a "Boro 
Rye's a vellin." We went out ; an English ofiBcer was 
coming to our tents ; he was travelling from Throndjhem 
to Christiania. His name was one of a family renowned 
in Scottish history. Our visitor was very good-looking, 
and seemed much interested in our camp. Seeing our 
tents from the road, he came up to inspect them; a 
heavy shower of rain coming on, he accepted our shelter, 
and reclined in our tent with Esmeralda and ourselves. 
The carriole driver sat at the entrance. Our visitor 
informed us that a friend and himself had been out with 
a pony, tent and provisions, upon a fishmg expedition, 
on the Tana. It did not appear that he remained long 
with his tent, for we understood him that his friend had 
been unwell and they soon returned. The country of 
the Tana seemed to please him very much. We gave 
our visitor some results of our practical experience in 



188 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

4 

camping, as he sat waiting for the rain to cease ; in 
truth, he seemed in no hurry to continue his journey. 
One of our gipsy songs was presented to him as a 
souvenir of his visit; then we purchased some trout 
from the Skydskarl, for one mark, eighteen skillings, very 
fine ones they were, and had been caught in a lake. 
Esmeralda presented the captain with a " pinthom," 
used to fasten the blankets of our tents. This present, 
which he told Esmeralda he should keep, was placed 
carefully in his pocket-case. In making the expedition 
to the Tana he had taken out a tent from Throndjhem 
with a pole in the middle and pieces stretching out from 
centre. 

Our gipsy tents were carefully inspected, then our 
waterproofs, pockets, bags, and other things. The 
method of pitching our tents was explained. Before he 
went he gave us a bottle of brandy which he did not 
want, and promised to inquire if anything had been heard 
of our lost caps. His driver, we thought, was imder the 
impression that the captain would take up his residence 
with us. Noah came up as our visitor was leaving. 
The rain cleared oflf, and, wishing us good-by, he was 
soon driving rapidly towards Christiania. Our visitors 
continued, successively, until tea time. For our tea, we 
had more fried trout. An old man brought us a quantity 
of fladbrod and butter, for which we paid tenpence. 
Wire was procured at Laurgaard to suspend our boiling- 
can and kettle over the fire. The loss of our kettle-prop 
put us to much inconvenience. At eight o'clock, the 
peasants, notwithstanding the rain, came to our camp for 
dancing ; fortunately, the rain ceased, and they seemed 
to enjoy themselves very much. One tall, powerful, 



GIPSIES' GLEE. 189 

middle-aged peasant, who came with our visitors, was 
very fond of dancing. He was, apparently, the respect- 
able owner of a gaard in the neighbourhood. Though 
very anxious for Esmeralda to dance with him, she would 
only dance with ourself or Noah. Then he asked us to 
dance with one of the young peasant girls, probably, a 
daughter, or some relation, which we did. She was the 
best dancer ; a very good type of the Norwegian peasant- 
girl, tall, quiet, modest, and good-looking ; we found her 
an excellent partner. Our beaux of the village kept up 
the dancing and the gipsies their music. "Lend me 
your shoes " must have put his friend to some expense 
for repairs, and " Slim-slam,** the reindeer-hunter, nobly 
did his duty. We were almost bewildered at times. It 
was hard work to control the exuberant spirits of our 
gipsies. The amount of Romany chaff was something 
extraordinary. Fortimately, our visitors did not under- 
stand it, nor do we think the gipsies understood much of it 
themselves. Their gaiety knew no bounds. Esmeralda 
once laughed loud enough to frighten the reindeer from 
the Rudane Fjeld. She had more than one severe doing, 
as she called it, during the evening. 



CHAPTER XVn. 

No lost of wealthy nor scent of distant war. 
Nor wisdom's glory lures them on afar ; 
'TJB not for these the children of the night 
Have burst at once on resklms of life and light ; 
'Tis the dread curse — ^behind them and before — 
That goads them on till time shall be no more ; 
They claim no thrones— they only ask to share 
The common liberty of earth and air — 
Ask but for room to wander on alone, 
Amid earth's tribes, unnoticed and unknown. 

DisAir Staklet's Oxford Prize Poem^ The (Hpeies, 

aiPSIES' APPECTION — LAURGAARD ADIBU— BEAUTIFUL GORGES — ONWARD 

EVER — Esmeralda's irish song — dovre — ^friendly travellers — 

THE KRAKBOD— THE HERR TOFTE — KING's VISIT — OUR NIGHT OAMP 

NIGHT DISTURBANCE — KINDNESS TO ANIMALS — OUR BBAUTIFri. 
BOUQUET — SNEHiKTTEN PJELD— D0MBAA8 — COMPORTABLE SITUATION^ 
— WILD SCENERY— OPPORTUNE VISIT— ILLUSORY HOPE. 

More than once we were half-inclined to tie a loose 
piece of rock to our gipsies' necks and throw them into 
the Logan ; still, we had promised to bring them back, 
dead or alive, to their parents. Gipsies, whatever their 
faults may be, have boundless affection for their offspring, 
perhaps too much so. A promise is a promise ; we kept 
ours. Our music ceased in the valley of Laurgaard, and 
we wished our visitors all good-by. Many lingered by 
the donkeys as we retired to our tent, and watched the 
picturesque valley before us. The delightftil stillness 
seemed to give to our musings a charm and novelty 



LAUBOAABB ADIEU. 191 

only experienced in tent life. Then we heard the sound 
of merry voices in the road below ; a children's game ; 
the peasant boys miited to keep the girls from coming 
up the bank to the road. Sometimes there were sharp 
and vigorous contests, and the girls, for a time, had 
almost taken the road by storm. Here and there we 
saw single-handed encounters; then several girls, who 
had maintained the struggle, would be pushed down, and 
rolled over the bank pell-mell on one another. Now 
and then boys would be dragged from the road and 
swung in a heap on the green sward. To whom the 
victory, we know not ; exposure to the open air pre- 
disposes to sleep. What a deep and refreshing sleep 
was ours when all was still. In the early morning, 
within view of Laurgaard and its bridge, the tents of the 
wanderers, with three donkeys browsing near, might be 
seen on the hill side. 

We were late the next day, for we did not rise before 
seven o'clock. At eight o'clock, we had a good breakfast 
of trout ; they were excellent. The old fisherman with, 
red cap came to see us again, and gave us some reindeer 
flesh ; we made him a present of some fishing-flies. 

Striking camp, with a hearty farewell to those peasants 
who came as we were leaving, we were again en route. 
Esmeralda, Noah, and Zachariah were full of spirits, as 
we entered the beautiful wild gorge beyond Laurgaard. 
A man from a saeter in the mountains followed us for 
some short distance, and we saw him afterwards sitting 
on an eminence, watching us as we toiled up the steep 
ascent of the romantic glen. 

At Romungaard, near Laurgaard, Colonel Sinclair 
stayed the night previous to his death at the Kringelen. 



192 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Tlie road also branches oif from Laurgaard to Vaage. 
On either side the mountain slopes were thickly wooded 
with Scotch fir, interspersed with birch. We had a long 
ascent from Laurgaard, but the scenery amply repaid 
us for our toil.* The river foamed in the rocks below, 
and at one place Zachariah tried his fly, but without 
success. The Haalangen Pjeld, and the Rusten Fjeld 
bounded our route on either side. We met several 
carrioles, and some peasants followed us. At last, we 
came to a small wood of alder bushes, open to the road. 
On the opposite side the valley we noticed a very large 
house. The donkeys were no sooner unloaded, than a 
tall young man and several peasants came to us. 
It is not pleasant to have visitors pressing round when 
you are preparing for your bivouac meal. Explaining 
that if they would leave us for half-an-hour we would 
give them some music they at once left. Our mid- 
day's meal, consisting of fish, was scarcely finished when 
our visitors returned. The tall young man was a very 
intelligent fellow. The peasant who had introduced us 
to our partner the evening before was there. We sang 
our gipsy song with the guitar; Zachariah and Noah 
played for them; and one of om' visitors also played 
some Norwegian airs. The order was at length given 
to load ; Noah did so, with a considerable amount of 
chaflf with his brother and sister. All being ready, we 
bade our visitors adieu, who seemed disappointed we 
were not going to camp there for the night. 



• Bayard Taylor, in his work called " Northern Travel," published in 
1858, says : '^ Beyond Laurgaard, Guldbrandsdal contracts to a narrow 
gorge, down which the Logan roars in perpetual foam. This pass is caUed 
Eusten ; and the road here is excessively steep and difficult." 



ESMERALDA'8 80N0. 19? 

The valley now became more open, and we began 
to descend towards "Dovre." Tbe usual number of 
peasants came at various points on the road to see us ; 
sometimes Zachariah played his violin, sometimes Es- 
meralda 'sang. One song was an Irish song; it is a 
curious specimen of song lore. Esmeralda would some- 
times dance as she sang the words of the song ; we have 
never met Tvith it before, and therefore give the words. 
The song and the dance; and air, by the gipsy girl, 
with all the accessories of pine forest, rising mountains, 
and a wilderness of interesting scenery, was very 
effective. 

ESMERALDA'S SONG. 

<' Sbola gang shangh gig a magala, 
111 set me down on yondeis hiU, 
And there 111 cry my fiU ; 
And every tear 8haU- tarn a miU, 
Shula a gang sbaugh gig a magala 
To my Uskadina slawn slawn. 

Shula gang shangh gig a magala ; 
rU buy me a petticoat, and dye it red, 
And round this world 111 beg my bread. 
The lad I love is far away, 
Shula gang sbaugh gig a magala 
To my Uskadina slawn slawn 

Shul, shnl gang along with me, 

Gkmg along with me, I*U gang along with you ; 

111 buy you a petticoat, and dye it in tbe blue ; 

Sweet WiUiam shall kiss you in the rue, 

Shula gang sbaugh gig a magala 

To my Uskadina slawn slawn." 

We passed " Broendhaugen," having the Jetta Fjeld 
on our left and St. Kaven and Vesle Fjeld on our right. 
Two very civil peasants at length joined our party. The 



194 TENT LIFE IN NOIIWAY. 

clouds seemed very wild and dark over the mountains of 
the Dovre Fjeld. At length we crossed a bridge near 
Dovre. The loose blocks of water-washed stones on 
our road towards the bridge added to the wildness of 
the evening scene. After some failures, we made the 
men understand that we wanted to find a shop to buy 
bread. When we had passed the bridge a lame boy 
came to solicit alms, and we gave him two skillings. 
As we approached the village of Dovre a close carriage 
drove up, and the donkeys were halted for it to pass. 
The traveller also pulled up and began leisurely to 
inspect the donkeys through the carriage window. 
Our time was pressing. Noah was indignant that we 
should be expected to wait to satisfy the curiosity of 
every traveller. If they had been ladies the case 
might have been diflferent, but now our party moved on 
without delay. 

The road we had followed during the day was at 
one time as high as 1800 feet above the level of the 
sea. Now we had descended to about 1500 feet. A 
gentleman drove past in his four-wheeled carriage, 
having apparently some of his family with him. Stopping 
his carriage, he seemed much interested with our party. 
Some hay was given to the donkeys from the stock he 
had for his own use. There was something so friendly 
in his manner, that if he had wished to gaze on the 
donkeys all night they would probably have remained 
where they were. Comfortable houses were scattered 
here and there, and we noticed posts and rails set up in 
the fields, which seemed to us to have no sort of use as 
fences. At first we thought they miist be somehow 
connected with the winter's snows, as drift barriers, but 



THS HEER TOFTE, 195 

we afterwards found that the grass when cut is placed 
on them to dry, and in many places we observed the 
same method of making hay. 

The village landhandelri, or shop, stood near the 
church. Noah was sent with money to buy bread, whilst 
we went down a short steep descent of the road beyond 
the churchyard and halted. In a very short time a number 
of boys and children collected around us ; a dog began to 
bark at the donkeys, and a man immediately hit the dog 
and took him away. We afterwards gave the man some 
tobacco. We could not help remarking the kmd and 
orderly conduct of the peasant children. 

The church, of wood, is roofed with large slates sur- 
mounted by a steeple painted green. Though, not in 
accordance with our idea of architectural taste, it was 
immeasurably superior to the green pagoda we once saw 
on the top of the old church of Gu^rande, in Brittany. 
Noah was very successful, and bought nineteen loves of 
bread for three marks nine skillings. As we left Dovre, 
Zachariah was sent back for eggs, and he jomed us soon 
after with twenty-one eggs in a handkerchief, for which 
he had given one mark nineteen skillings. 

Our way continued along a very pleasant road to 
Toftemoen. A number of peasant boys followed us, who 
were, no doubt, anxious to see us camp. The station of 
Toftemoen stands from the road, with a large open space 
before it. A great number of Norwegian ponies were 
loose near the station. The house seems very comfort- 
able, with ample accommodation. It is the residence of 
Herr Tofte, a descendant of Harold Haarfager (the Fair- 
haired). Harold Haarfager died in 933, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Hako the Good, so that Herr Tofte 

o 2 



196 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

has a splendid and royal ancestry. It is stated they 
never marry out of their own family. 

In Mr. Bennett's hand-book it is noted that the king 
dined here on his way to be crowned at Throndjhem, 
in 1860, and Herr Tofte had sufficient silver plate for 
the use of his Majesty and all his retinue. 

A traveller accosted us near the station, who was pro- 
bably one of the passengers of the close carriage we had 
seen near Dovre. He seemed anxious to know how far 
we were going. No time was to be lost, for it was eight 
o'clock. We passed along the sandy road by a piece of 
rough broken ground, and then all the peasant boys 
left us when they found- we did not camp there. At 
last, descending a short declivity of the road, we came 
to some open greensward lying between the road and 
the river. A narrow patch of turf with a stream running 
through it. On the opposite side the road a thick wood, 
inclosed by a fence, made an admirable shelter ; a quiet 
retired place between two hillocks. As we came to the 
flat we saw the trace of fires, and at once unloaded and 
pitched our tents as far fi'om the roadside as possible, 
and very near to the low river bank. It was a romantic 
camp-ground. 

The view was beautiful — a rocky island in the river 
formed the foreground, and beyond we gazed upon the 
mountains of the Dovre Fjeld. The day's toil was soon 
forgotten as the fire burnt brightly and night cast its 
dark shadows on our lonely camp. Our eggs were 
broken one by one into a bowl. If stale, they were con- 
signed to the river ; if fi:esh, to the fi:ying-pan. About 
seventeen out of twenty-one remained for the omelette, 
which with bread formed our evening's meal. 



NIGBT'DISTUBBANCE, 197 

A jolly, pleasant old man came up whilst we were 
camping, and taking a dram of brandy bowed and retired. 
Then the donkeys strayed and a tall j)easant came and 
helped Zachanah to search for them. The donkeys were 
found up a lane, at some distance from our camp, and 
Zachariah asked the man to ride one of them back, but 
the peasant shrunk from it with alarm, and said some- 
thing which probably meant, "Not if I know it." 
Zachariah mounted on one cf the donkeys, drove the 
other two before him at racing speed, whilst the peasant 
followed almost dead with laughter. Zachariah informed 
us some carriers were halted for the night on the road- 
side, at a short distance from our camp. The name of 
the place, as far as we could make out, was Losere. 
We were left undisturbed, and in the quiet enjoyment 
of our camp fire, till we retired to rest. 

On the top of the short road ascent, near our 
camp, a large gate led from the road towards a 
house above. Some traflBc seemed to be going on 
towards this place. About four o'clock in the morning 
we heard a heavy tramp of horses' feet, apparently close 
to our tent. Then there was the sound of a man's 
voice — ^pur-r-r-r! pur-r-r-r. It was evident that the 
animal fought shy of our tent or the donkeys. We 
called to Noah, but beyond a heavy snort or two we 
had no response. We went out twice ; the second time 
we saw a man with a pony going up the opposite 
ascent. His pony still fought very shy of one of the 
donkeys grazing near the road. About seven o'clock, 
when we were getting ready for breakfast, we saw a boy 
driving a load of wood towards the gate. The pony 
just as he came to the gate, seeing our tent below, 



198 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

turned suddenly round. We struck our tent, and going 
up found the boy with the wood fastened on a low, light 
Norwegian wood-carriage, overturned in a ditch. With 
Noah's assistance the pony, timber, and carriage passed 
without difficulty, through the gate, and we gave the 
boy four skillings, which seemed to astonish him. 

In Norway we particularly noticed the temperate 
manner with which drivers manage their horses. All is 
patient kindness. The animals are in consequence docile 
to a degree. Beyond the quiet pur-r-r-r, and a shake of 
the reins, nothing is heard ; no coarse expletives, no 
brutality of treatment, such as we have occasionally 
witnessed in our own country, unworthy the Christian 
and the man. In England, necessity founded a society, 
and passed a stringent Act of Parliament, for the pro- 
tection of dumb animals, &c., but in Norway it is 
unnecessary.* 

A few peasants came up as we were loading our don- 
keys, and the gipsies gave them some music before we 
continued our journey. The soil now became very sandy, 
and the ground below the road jutted out into large pro- 
montories towards the river's bank. 

We were joined by a travelling shoemaker and his 
companion, who evinced much curiosity about the boots 
worn by our party. The route now ascended far above 
the river Logan, and the view became very wild. In 
some Scotch firs Noah and Zachariah and the shoemaker 
saw a squirrel, which had a narrow chance for its life ; 
but to our satisfaction escaped. The wild flowers were 

• Captain Campbell, in his useful work, " How to See Norway,'* men- 
tions that a society is now formed at Christiania for the prevention of 
cruelty to animals, called ** Foreningen til Dyrenes Beskyttelse." 



8NEH(ETTEN FJELD. 109 

beautifol. Esmeralda plucked them as we went along, 
and, as usual, presented the Rye with a handsome bou* 
quet The shoemaker and his friend left us at some 
bondegaard, and we soon after reached Dombaxis. This is 
apparently named as Ine station in an early edition of 
Murray. The Dombaas Post Station is a short distance 
from the junction of the Romsdal and Throndjhem routes- 
The road to Romsdalen branches oflF to the left, and 
that to Throndjhem to the right. Dombaas appears to be 
an excellent station. We, of course^ cannot give our 
actual experience ; but we have no doubt most excellent 
accommodation would be found there. We halted in some 
open ground of the extensive forest on the opposite side 
the road to the station. What a ravishing scene met our 
view, as we sat down on the mossy turf, whilst the gipsies 
made preparations for dinner. What a wilderness of pine 
forest ! On our right, the road we had just turned from 
continued over the Dovre Fjeld to Throndjhem. Not far 
from us, on the left of the road to Thronjhem, is the 
Snehoetten Fjeld, 7714 English feet above the level of 
the sea. The ascent to this mountain is gradual, and its 
peaked summit is only 3500 feet. Some few people 
came to see our donkeys ; but they did not disturb us 
whilst we were preparing and taking our mid-day's meal. 
Our meal consisted of fried bacon, one fish Zacharia had 
caught, and bread and tea. A very intelligent, pleasant 
young Norwegian came to us afi;erwards and spoke 
English. It is possible that he was the son of the owner 
of the station. He told us where there was good pasture 
for the donkeys; but we were going on, and did not 
intend to camp for the night. Yet we left with regret, 
for it was a beautiftil ground for our tents. Large forests 



200 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

extended on various sides, with excellfent pasture. A 
young ragged boy, to whom we gave some tobacco and 
brandy, came and conversed, whilst one, who was pro- 
bably the owner of the station, stood in the road above, 
smoking his pipe as he contemplated our party. Whilst 
we wrote our notes, Noah loaded the donkeys, and be 
chaffed his brother and sister in a jumble of English, 
Romany, and a few Norw^egian words he had now learnt. 
Two or three respectably dressed, quiet, well-fed men, 
who had come to see us. were probably connected with 
the station. The gipsies played a few tunes, and then 
we passed through the forest across two wild, brawling, 
rapid streams ; and, ascending the steep road on the side 
of a picturesque valley, we came to some houses. We 
were at once followed by several boys ; one of whom was 
very intelligent and spoke some English. Zachariah was 
mounted on the packs of one of the loaded donkeys. The 
boys evidently expected us to camp ; but at last, after 
walking some distance, gave up in despair. The road 
now crossed the side of a mountain, with no inclosures. 
Below us lay the valley and the river. Finding we should 
shortly come to more houses and inclosures, we at once 
decided to camp without delay at the foot of a rocky 

ft 

slope covered with low scrub and bushes. As we were 
just unloading our donkeys, a man came in sight with an 
axe in one hand and a piece of wood in the other. The 
sight of our party soon stopped his progress. He looked 
as if he thought we were fairies or some such visitants to 
earth. The axe reminded us that our tent pole was now 
so broken as to be almost useless. We beckoned him in 
vain. The peasant had evidently resolved not to venture 
nearer. Noah and ourself, taking the broken tent pole, 



ILLUSORY JWPE. 201 

went to him and gave him a dram of brandy to screw up 
his courage. The peasant soon saw what we wanted, 
and taking the broken pole as a pattern, went off to make 
a new one. 

As the gipsies lighted our fire, they noticed in the 
valley far below us, at the base of the mountains, a 
curling smoke, which they thought in the indistinctness 
of the evening to be a " gipsies' camp." Very anxious 
indeed were we to meet with a camp of Norwegian gipsies. 
Ever on the look-out — as yet we had been unable to 
meet with any Romany tents — the meeting of Enghsh 
gipsies with Norwegian zigeuner, and their greeting in 
Romany, would have been a most interesting study. The 
route we were travelling was evidently too much popu- 
lated and frequented for these wanderers. Proesten Sundt 
indeed says, " They choose the most devious and least- 
frequented roads or ways between Stavanger and Agger- 
huus, and northwards away to Throndjhem and Fin- 
marken." Still there was the chance, and we hoped as 
we travelled northwards we should be fortunate enough to 
meet some gipsy tribe of dusky wanderers with their 
tents, horses, trappings, pigs, and baggage. In this 
instance, after watching for some short time with earnest 
attention, it was decided by our gipsies that the smoke 
did not issue from the camp of any of their people. 



CHAPTER XVJII. 

From erery place condemn'd to roam, 
In every place we seek a home. 
These branches form our summer roof, 
By thick-grown leaves made weather-proof. 
In shelt'ring nooks and hollow ways, 
Wc cheerily pass our winter days. 
Come, circle round the gipsies' fire, 
Come, circle round the gipsies' fire ; 
Our songs, our stories never tire. 
Our songs, our stories never tire." 

The Gipfies* Glee, Rbevk. 

THE NEW TENT POLE— WHAT IS INDIGESTION? — PEASANTS AT CAMP — A 
NEW FRIEND — HOLIAKER STATION — ^NORWEGIAN HONESTY — LOCSJE 
VAND — ^THE TBTTERAMENGRY — ^AN UNSOLVED MYSTERY — ^THE OIPSY 
COLLAPSE— GOOD ADVICE — ^INTEREST IN DONKEYS— A MOUNTAIN DIS- 
TRICT—NO CHURCH BELLS — ^THB BOY's QUESTIONS- THE KJOLEN 
FJELDENE. 

The old man presently brought a new tent pole, for 
which we paid sixteen skillings. We had left Dombaas 
about half-past 5 o'clock. Our present camp was called 
by the people, " Losere." A few peasants came to our 
tents, and we must say presented a starved and worn 
appearance. They were a kind people, and brought us 
Srewood. We had bread, butter, cold bacon, and tea. 
The peasants were told they could have some music 
when our meal was ended. How we enjoyed the evening 
scene when the peasants approached our fire ! and we 
invited them, as usual, in our well got-up plirase in 



WHAT IS INDIGESTION. 203 

Norwegian, " Ver so artig tage en stole " (Be so good as 
to take a seat), pointing to the turf, which was the only 
seat we could offer them. The moon rose upon the sum- 
mits and ranges of distant mountains beyond the valley. 
Its pale rays gleamed in the still night on the waters of 
the Logan. Nature was lovely in all her beauty. As 
our bivouac fire glimmered on the peasants' hard-worn 
countenances, furrowed with lines of hardship, we could 
observe the pleasure which our music gave them. Wild 
though it was, it seemed to suit time, place, and circum- 
stance. The vioKn, tambourine, castanets, and guitar are 
admirably adapted for the minstrelsy of the wanderer's 
life. As our music ended they left, and we retired to 
our tents. The ground was high ; the night was cold ; 
we had little shelter ; but we were now habituated to 
camp life, and did not feel any inconvenience. Our sleep 
was ever deep and refreshing. If any of our party had 
been asked, "What is indigestion?" we could not have 
given them any decisive answer. 

The morning was fine and beautifiil, as we rose at 7 
o'clock. From the mountain where we had camped we 
could see Holiaker. Our breakfast consisted of tea, and 
bread and butter ; at Dombaas we had given our gipsies 
citric acid and water ; it is a substitute for vegetables, 
which we had not been able to procure since we left the 
Mjosen Lake. Zachariah had refused to take any citric 
acid until he reached Dombaas ; whether it was firom want 
of vegetables we could not tell, but what with musketos, 
insects of various kinds, and possibly the want of vege- 
tables, his skin was irritable to an uncomfortable degree, 
especially at night. This irritation of the skin we have 
known before in camp life. A friend of ours tenting 



204 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

with US the year before, had suffered very much from 
similar irritation of the skin not the result of musketo 
bites ; sometimes we thought it was nettlerash, but in two 
or three days after our friend had quitted the tents the 
irritation had disappeared. In Zachariah's case the gipsies 
and ourself thought he had been bitten by creas (gip. 
, ants) or that musketos might have occasioned it ; then it 
was assigned to want of vegetables or impurity of the blood. 
Should any one of our readers be able to suggest the 
cause and remedy we should be much obliged for their 
communication. In this case, as the Cushty Drabengro of 
the party, we prescribed citric acid, which we carried in 
crystals, and dissolved in water. One peasant brought a 
large basket of hay for the donkeys, for which we paid a 
mark. The basket conveniently fitted on the back like a 
knapsack. Before we left our camp, we thought it 
might be well to buy a sheep, for we had not purchased 
any meat since we left. Christiania, and it might be 
prudent to save our commissariat. 

We explained to the peasants by aid of our dictionary, 
and they seemed to understand our wishes, but whether 
they were afterwards unable to procure the sheep, or 
did not distinctly comprehend, is doubtful, for our nego- 
tiations were without result. Zachariah and Esmeralda 
played a few airs for the peasants whilst Noah loaded 
the donkeys. 

Soon after we left our camp the route lay between 
enclosures. No lack of excitement on all sides ; at one 
house a stout good-tempered woman and a dark good- 
humoured seafaring-looking man, probably her husband, 
came out. 

Finding we wished to purchase something to eat, 



NOBWEQIAN HONESTY. »^6 

he went with us along the road to the Holiaker 
station. 

Whether he was the master, or a friend of the house 
we could not decide. In the large clean kitchen he 
conversed with a tall, respectable, delicate-looking woman. 
At first she began to make coffee for us ; then we 
explained through the seafaring man we did not want 
coffee, but bread, butter, and eggs ; then she commenced 
to boil the water for the eggs. At last we made her 
understand that what we purchased the gipsies would 
take with them. 

The donkeys were brought down to the station door, and 
we bought a quantity of fladbrod, twelve eggs, some 
potatoes, 5^ lbs. of what appeared to be the shoulder of 
very dry wasted-looking mutton, and some salt. It was 
proposed to have some treacle, but we could not find the 
Norwegian word in the dictionary. 

As we put the different things we bought down in our 
note book, our seafaring-looking fiiend priced them ; 
an old man came in whilst we were there, and our gipsies 
took the things to the donkeys. Whether we misunder- 
stood the weight of the mutton, we cannot tell, but we 
gave him eight marks five skillings, though we thought the 
price rather high. Upon counting it, they honestly said 
we had made a mistake, and returned three marks ; they 
also, we found, gave us the salt and six eggs into our 
bargain ; many lands we have travelled, but never have 
we met with a more honest race of people than the 
Norwegians. Our things being packed away by the 
gipsies, we shook hands with these honnStes gens. 

The idea occurred to us that they took us for a wan- 
dering artist. - Farewell, honest people ! For some time 



206 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

« 

they watched us from the house, as we went along the 
road towards Holiaker church. 

On our left we saw the Lake by Lcesje, and at last 
came to a shallow stream in a large forest of Scotch 
firs open to the road. The soil was light and sandy; 
large masses of moss-covered rocks were scattered 
through the forest, and here and there we saw open 
glades amongst the trees. To a spot pleasantly 
secluded from the road the donkeys were driven. The 
day being Saturday, we expected our Sunday would be 
spent as a day of quiet and repose, but it was an illusory 
hope. The ground was covered by a kind of heath 
with foliage like our boxtree. We had no sooner 
unpacked, than the gipsies looked round and two gorgios 
were announced. It did not matter how secluded the 
spot, in less than two minutes one or two Norwegian 
peasants seemed to rise out of the ground ; indeed if they 
had been smaller, and had not chewed tobacco, we should 
have taken them for fairies ; two peasants were now 
gazing at our party. 

The plaid bag was called for, and they quaflfed brandy 
to Gamle Norge and filled their pipes with tobacco. One 
said something about a better place, but we were content 
to rest where we were now that we had unloaded. 

The stream flowing to the Lake on the other side the 
road was conveniently near. A slice of fried ham and an 
egg each was consumed, and Noah and Zachariah were 
sent to the Lake to fish. When they returned at eight 
o'clock, Esmeralda had the tea ready ; they had caught 
five trout, which were soon in our tetteramengry (gip. 
frying-pan) with four eggs. The news had spread. The 
peasants came in numbers ; whilst Esmeralda was fryino- 



AN UNSOLVED MYSTERY. 207 

our fish our visitors earnestly chewed and spit in all 
directions about our fire; some went to the donkeys, 
some inspected our things, the rest closed in upon 
Esmeralda, who could scarcely complete her cookmg. 

We could see indications of a white squall on the 
usually smiling countenance of our gipsy Hohhenengree ;* 
sometimes she shoved them right and left, and said 
something about gorgios getting in her road. 

"Now then!" said Esmeralda in a fume^ " chiv the 

Metteramengery, just dik the gorgios all round. I can't 

thmk what they all want to see." It was very excusable, 

our peasant friends had never seen our donkeys, or tents, 

or gipsies before, still if they would have left us quietly 

whilst we were at tea we should have much preferred it. 

When we were seated near the fire, the peasant men, 

women, and children closed round us ; it was difficult to 

decide, as we watched their countenances, whether they 

thought our meal well or indiflferently cooked ; it might 

not have been up to a dinner produced at Les Trois Fr^res, 

(we hope the Communists have spared it). Nor had we 

champagne frapp^ but under the circumstances we found 

our tea from Phillips's, King William Street, a very good 

substitute. Esmeralda was an excellent cuisiniere^ 

especially when the gorgios gave her sufficient elbow 

room ; nor had we any means of ascertaining their ideas 

as to the luxury of the diet. This with some other 

matters must remain one of the unsolved mysteries of 

this book. The intense and solemn earnestness with 

which our visitors watched every scrap we ate was 

interrupted by a peasant woman's child, who was taken 

with a cascade fit, and very neai' made an important 

* Gip. housekeeper. 



208 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

addition to ZachariaVs pannikin of tea. This closed 
rather abruptly our soiree. Noah went to pitch the tents, 
Esmeralda put up the tea things, and though rather 
reluctant, as she said, to play for the gorgios, at our 
request accompanied Zachariah on the tambourine. Our 
visitors seemed much pleased; Zachariah was irrepres- 
sible with Romany chafif, although I had cautioned him 
to be careful when we had visitors. The music ended, 
eleven o'clock came, no signs of any one leaving ; what 
with Esmeralda shouting from the inside our tents at 
those who touched the outside, and Noah and Zachariah 
tumbling with wild merriment, we were au dSsespair, 
until taking hold of Zachariah, we threw him, after a 
brief tussle, into the tent, and caught him such a box 
that he was effectually silenced." There was a gipsy 
collapse. We informed the visitors we wanted to go to 
bed, and they quietly left, except some few who still 
clung to the donkeys at some distance away. 

We began to think we should end our days as a show- 
man, or the respectable manager of a strolling company 
of players. It was a beautiful moonlight night, as we 
strolled forth for a few minutes before retiring to rest. 
Just going to sleep, we heard Zachariah's voice, in me- 
lancholy and watery tone : " Mr. Smith's tired of me," 
whimpered he; "next time he'll try and do without me; 
some people change. Mr. Smith's changed ; I hope he'll 
get another as will do as well." We seized the oppor- 
tunity to explain his real position, and his proper line of 
conduct; the gipsies had received much kindness from 
us, we shared with them our provisions whatever we 
had. Somehow gipsies, donkeys, tents, and accessories 
seemed to have become part and parcel of our existence. 



A MOUNTAIN DISTRICT, 209 

They gave us a dreamy happiness, as we floated along by 
mountain, river, lake, and forest. The gipsies* wild 
energy never flagged ; we could pull through any difficulty ; 
wet and fine, storm and sunshine, still our tents found a 
resting-place in the wild scenes of a beautiful and hos- 
pitable land. The gipsies saw the force of our observa- 
tions, and with " cushty raty " to all, we were soon in a 
sound sleep. 

We did not get up very early ; it was nearly nine 
o'clock ; Esmeralda had a slight cold. The morning was 
very fine, and the last three or four days had been very 
warm. Noah went out, and found the peasants had 
already collected, and were increasing in numbers. Noah 
made tea, firied two excellent trout with four eggs, which, 
with bread and fladbrod and butter, formed our frokost. 

The visitors were so numerous that we had breakfast 
in our tent. Whilst at breakfast a peasant would occa- 
sionally try to look at us through the opening we were 
obliged to have for ventilation. We were at last obliged 
to speak rather sharp to those pressing against our tent, 
and they were more careful ; we had very little fault to 
find. We do not believe they would ever give inten- 
tional annoyance ; in fact, the kindness we received on 
all occasions throughout our wanderings will ever be 
remembered. 

As the sun rose, our tents became very warm ; we 
strolled out, dressed in our light blue flannel jacket, 
white waistcoat, hght trousers, long Napoleon riding 
boots, and straw hat, which was the only one we pos- 
sessed. It was a deliciously warm morning; on the 
opposite side of the lake we could see the Kjolen Fjeldene 
rising above it. Our camp was in a large forest, extend- 



210 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

ing towards the Stor Horungen. The Jora Elv, which 
we had crossed near Dombaas, flows between the Stor 
Horuugen and Hundsjo Fjeldet ; then on its left banks 
are the mountains called " Sjung Ho " and the 
** Tvceraatind," and on the right the "Mjugsjci Ho," 
"Skreda Ho," and beyond are the wilds of the 
** Sneha^tten. The Jora Elv falls into the Logan near 
Dombaas. This extensive tract of mountain, forest, lake, 
and river is as yet, we believe, little known to anglers. 

We bought twelve eggs from a peasant woman for 
twelve skillings ; a boy brought six trout, which we also 
bought for twelve skillings. We confess to feelings of 
melancholy that, with three fly-rods and an immense 
stock of flies, in a country like Norway, we should so far 
lower our dignity as a sportsman as to buy trout. Still 
four hungry people to be fed much influenced the pur- 
chase. Wc hoped for better things, which might remove 
this passing shadow from*the annals of our angler's life. 

It occurred to us to go to church, but there was the 
uncertainty as to the time the services commenced, and 
whether there would be any service on that particular 
Sunday. In some districts service is only held on occa- 
sional Sundays, as we remember to have been the case in 
some parishes m Wales. The country churches are built 
of wood ; we only met with one exception. No churcli 
bells in the valley sounded over the waiters of the lake. 

A large number of peasants congregated round us as 
we sat down on a rock ; wherever we moved there they 
came. As we lounged about near our tents, and looked 
round at the peasants of all sizes and ages, females with 
children in their arms, young girls and ragged boys 
wandering after us through the rocky mazes of the broken 



KJOLEN FJELDENE. 211 

ground, like a comet's tail, but not quite so luminous, we 
resigned ourselves to our fate. The peasants seemed as 
interested as usual, and we conversed as well as we could 
with them. They are a friendly, kind people. One boy 
spoke English very fairly, though he had never been in 
England ; there was an intelligence about him which 
pleased us. Several questions were propounded, one 
was whether we had grapes in England — if we had 
much fruit — whether we could fish free — what kind of 
winter we had hi England — ^if we had been in France 
and Germany ? The boy was much astonished when we 
told him we had not only been to France and Germany, 
but all round the world. The boy was told, if he would 
come to our camp in the evening, he should have an 
English book as a present. 

Notwithstanding frequent solicitations that we would 
give them some music, we Remained firm, and gave 
our reasons. They asked if we had any objection 
to a peasant playing. They were told to please them- 
selves, so that it was not close to our tents. The 
peasant had a large, powerful, fine-toned accordion, and, 
if it had not been Sunday, we should have managed a 
pleasant concert. 

Noah and Zachariah had leave of absence till three 
o'clock ; they returned at half-past two o'clock. Having 
crossed the lake in a boat, they had been for a ramble on 
the " Kjolen Fjeldene." A peasant boy had offered them 
the use of the boat if we stayed a day longer. Our 
dinner consisted of six fish and five eggs, fried in oil, 
with black bread and tea. Though our visitors were then 
reduced to about twenty-five persons, at three o'clock 
there were again fresh arrivals ; one peasant woman 

V 2 



212 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

brought the donkeys fresh grass. They hurried up in 
parties, perspiring in the warm sun, inquiring for " den 
asen." Then they hastened as fast as they could over the 
rocks to where they were. Endless discussions were 
held over them ; our poor donkeys must have been much 
astonished at their sudden importance. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



SRBBNAD& 

^7 gipfly-eye* bright as the itar 
That sends its light from hearen a£u:, 
Will, with the Btnuns of thy guitar. 

This heart with rapture fill. 
Then, maiden fair, beneath this star, 
Ck>me^ tench with me the light guitar. 

Thy brow, nnmarked by lines of caie, 
Deck*d with locks of raren hair, 
Seems ever beautiful and fair 

At moonlight's stilly hour. 
What bliss ! beside the leafy maie, 
Illumined by the moon's pale rays, 
On thy sweet face to sit and gase, 

Thou wild, uncultured flower. 
Then, maiden fair, beneath this star. 
Come, touch with me the light guitar. 

ESMJ:RALI>A at the lake— our CADEAU — THE VISITORS — DISAPPOINT- 

]ft£irr AN ADONIS — THE SILENT VISIT— THE OLD MILL — ^A NOR- 

WSaiAH FOX— THE PURU RAWNEE'S PALL — THE FOREST SCENE 

ZACSABIAH's torment— under DISCIPLINE — MUSIC IN THE FOREST — 
I>IBTAKT ADMIRERS— THE ENGLISH HUNTER's OIFT— OUR GIPSIES 

FISBIKG ^THB MILITIA CAMP — SILENT VISITOR— ORNAMENTAL FLAD- 

BRC]> — A FOREST CONCERT. 

SoMK of the peasants, especially women, were most 
anxious to explore the hidden recesses of our tents, 
but this could not be permitted. Our gipsies were 
very i?vell conducted, and quiet in their demeanour, as 
befitted the day. 



214 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

After dinner Esmeralda, who had washed and dressed 
herself in her robe with silver buttons, accompanied us 
for a quiet stroll to the shores of the lake ; her brothers 
were left in charge of the tents. The distance was not 
very far. Seated on a wooded knoll above the shores of 
the lake, we watched its silvery waters and the pictu- 
resque outline of the Kjolen mountain ; its patches of 
snow near the summit were not yet melted by the 
summer's sun. How enjoyable was life in the wild moun- 
tains near the smooth lake whose silvered waters seem ever 
smiling ; all seemed in repose as we breathed the pure 
air of heaven. The lake, we understood, was called the 
Logan Vand. A peasant woman, at a house near the 
lake, asked us to come in, both going and returning, but 
we ptefen'ed the open air. 

We returned to tea at about seven o'clock. A large 
number of peasants were scattered in all directions about 
our camp and round the donkeys. Four eggs were 
boiled for our tea, with bread and butter. After tea, we 
presented our friend, the boy who spoke English, with 
"Views of Jerusalem and its Environs." The boy read 
a passage, vivd voce, from it in English with great cor- 
rectness and good accent ; the present pleased him very 
much, and we were glad we had thought of giving it to 
him. If we spoke to a peasant a crowd immediately- 
collected round us. It appeared to disappoint them that 
music was not permitted, but we were quite firm. 

At nine o'clock we wished them good night ; still they 
remained, and a large number kept wandering round our 
tents. Some few lighted a fire of juniper ; the smoke 
blew towards our tents, and Noah rushed out with an 
alpenstock and put it out. 



. AN ADONIS. 215 

The hum of voices at length became less distinct, and 
we were thinking of retiring to rest. Esmeralda was 
already partly asleep behind her tent partition, we were 
seated opposite our gipsies, when another party came up 
from the road. One was upwards of six feet high, and 
dressed differently from the peasants' usual costume — a 
tall young fellow with a very long pipe. The waterproof 
cover was arranged so that the entrance to our tent was 
only about two feet high ; tho tall visitor, who seemed to 
have been enjoying himself, and was rather unsteady, lay 
down on the turf, so that he could see us. At first he said 
to Noah, " Spille a little," meaning that we should play. 
Then he turned to us, " You speak English ? " But when 
we spoke to him, he said, " I cannot understand you." 
Then he asked Noah if he >8poke Norsk. Noah's know- 
ledge of the Norsk language was still very limited. Our 
tall visitor, whiflSng his pipe in a half-fuddled state, kept 
saying in English, " I have beautiful girls, mony, mony — 
you have beautiful girls." We said, " Nei, nei/' And as 
he said something about " den asen," we pointed in their 
direction, and he went off with his friends to see them. 
We thought they were gone, when our tall Norwegian 
suddenly came back again, and lay down on the turf. 
After a pause he said, " Spille a little ; " and then said, 
" I hear you have beautiful girl ; I should like to see her. 
I have beautiful girls — mony, mony." He tried to pull 
the curtain aside, but we prevented him, with " Nei, nei." 
In vain we wished him good night ; still he kept saying 
occasionally, " You have beautiful girl, I have heard ; I 
will show you my beautifiil girls — I have beautiful girls, 
mony, mony." His friends, however, seemed anxious to 
get him away, and at last, with some reluctance, he left 



216 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

our tents, probably to join the beautiful girls, of which he 
said he had mony, mony. 

At the last moment, before going to bed, we strolled 
out in the stillness of the night. We were just at the 
moment standing in the shadow of some firs, when we 
observed the figure of a man advancing noiselessly 
towards the tents. When he saw them, he retired, and 
soon after returned, followed by another man. We could 
only just discern the two figures as they advanced, step 
by step, cautiously towards the tents. They paused. 
Very probably they thought we were all fast asleep, and 
did not wish to disturb us. They stood for some short 
time gazing motionless at the tents, and then retired as 
quietly as they came. 

At half-past five o'clock we were again bustling about. 
More peasants came even at that early hour. The man 
from the house near the lake brought six trout, which we 
bought for six skillings. An old woman brought some 
grass for the donkeys. One woman brought milk, but too 
late for breakfast ; not being able to carry it with us, we 
did not buy it An old peasant woman, with a peasant 
man in a red cap, wanted us to play some music for 
them. They looked disappointed, when we said we were 
going off at once. " 

It commenced to rain when we were packing, and we 
were anxious to proceed on our wanderings. We turned 
from our camp to the road, and bade adieu to our peasant 
friends, whom we left sitting in the rain, looking at our 
now-deserted camp. 

Proceeding up the valley, the views were pleasing. 
The rain was not heavy. At Motterud a curious old mill 
attracted our attention. Passing through the hamlet of 



A NORWEGIAN FOX, 217 

Moseneden, as we understood it to be, we reached the 
open forest just beyond, and halted on the right of the 
road. Our middags-mad consisted of tea, fried fish, 
fladbrod, and butter. Some peasant girls watched us at a 
distance in the forest. A jolly, pleasant old man came 
to us, and a boy, with a large hump on his chest instead 
of his back. The order was given to load, but no donkeys 
could be found ; fortunately a stream of water between 
two deep banks at some distance gave us a clue to the 
direction they had gone. 

After some trouble, and a hint from the jolly peasant, 
the donkeys were found near the hamlet of Mosen- 
eden, on the borders of the forest, and brought 
back When Noah was loading the puru rawnee we 
presented the jolly peasant with an oil bottle just 
emptied. The peasant seemed very pleased with his 
sudden acquisition of fortune, and showed it to the 
peasant girls, who brought down a Norwegian fox for us 
to see. 

The girls had the fox fastened by a chain. It is 
called a " Rcev *' in Norwegian, and is smaller than the 
English fox, being rather lighter in colour. Foxes are 
very numerous in some parts of Norway. The peasant 
did not smoke, but the usual discussion took place about 
the donkeys. 

At this juncture a storm of rain came on, and my 
gipsies disappeared with the baggage under the large 
waterproof. The peasant contented himself with the 
scanty shelter of the trees ; and we were protected by our 
light waterproof coat. Whilst we conversed with the old 
man, Noah now and then put his head out from under- 
neath the waterproof, and would say " Blankesko." The 



218 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

peasant, looking round, could see nothing, and appeared 
puzzled to understand what blacking shoes had to do with 
his observations about the donkeys. Sometimes it was 
" meget godt," or a " Romany*' word, or scrap of a soDg, 
with smothered laughter from Esmeralda. We spoke to 
Noah afterwards, and he promised to be more careful. 
Some license we permitted among themselves, to exhaust 
their exuberant spirits. 

The rain ceased. The donkeys were loaded. Wishing 
the peasants adieu, with mutual salutations, we continued 
our route through the forest. Scotch firs, and light sandy 
soil ; no enclosures— nothing but open forest. Here and 
there, the trees were scattered thickly near the road. 
Occasionally we came to an open glade. Zachariah, who 
had gone on before, fell asleep on a rock on the road- 
side. As we came ne^u-, he suddenly jumped up, and our 
puru rawnee, taking fright, shied across the road, and fell 
all fours under her load. 

Of course there was a torrent of Romany and English 
poured by Noah on his brother's devoted head. The 
puru rawnee was unloaded,* and fortunately unhurt. The 
place where she fell was soft, with loose sand. Our 
journey continued, and at about half-past four o'clock we 
came to some open greensward in the forest. The road 
made a curve round it. At the farther corner, sloping 
from the road, about a hundred yards distance, at the foot 
of a wooded bank, near a small narrow purling stream 
of clear water, we pitched our tents. 

A picturesque mountain, with pointed summit, rose 
to vie.w above the dense mass of forest trees which 
intervened between our camp and the Logan. On the 
other side the stream, a nan'ow green mossy glade, 



ZACHARIAH'S TORMENT. 219 

fringed with thickets, diverged to another bend of the 
main road through the forest 

Our tents, when pitched, could be seen from the road. 
Zachariah suflFered every kind of misery it was possible to 
imagine from irritation of the skin, resulting frohi bites 
of insects or impurity of blood — perhaps both. His feet 
were the worst. We made him bathe his feet in warm 
water and oatmeal, which relieved him very much. At 
night, when he was warm, the itching was intolerable. 
Instances of this kind only experienced at night without 
eniption or rash on the skin's surface, we had met with 
before in camp life. Yet it does not seem to be a com- 
mon occurrence in gipsy life. Potatoes enter largely 
into their diet in England. Noah's feet were slightly 
troubled with this irritation. When an opportunity 
occurred, we determined to dose them all with brimstone 
and treacle. 

Noah went to look out for a bonde-gaard, and pur- 
chased some fladbrod for twelve skillings, and a pound 
of butter for one mark. Just before tea, a boy in a red 
cap came to our tents. The boy was a fair, interesting, 
slim boy, about seventeen. His features were good. 
There was a serious earnestness about him which we 
admired. He had a. small quantity of brandy to drink, 
and he left. Then his father and mother came, as we 
supposed them to be, to the tents, and some other 
people. They came from the fanp-house, where Noah 
had bought the fladbrod. The father was a bearded, 
thickset, middle-aged man. There was a look of much 
intelligence about him. Whilst we were taking our tea 
and fladbrod and butter, they all sat on the opposite side 
the stream looking at us. Noah commenced pitching our 



220 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tents directly after. When Noah had put up our tent, 
and our things were all arranged in it, they seemed much 
astonished. After we had shown them the arrangements 
of our tent they were going away, when we went after 
them, and said, if they came back, we would give them 
some music. Noah and Zachariah played several airs. 
Esmeralda began to remark upon our visitors' appear- 
ance ; but we very sharply rebuked her, and, murmuring 
something about not being able to say a word, she retired 
submissively into the privacy of the tents. Upon an 
expedition of this kind it is necessary to maintain dis- 
ciphne. 

One of our female visitors had a child slung on her 
shoulders. When they had left in the still hour of 
closing evening — so delicious in the forest — we sang two 
songs to the accompaniment of the guitar, violin, and 
tambourine. 

Our health had wonderfully improved. Continued 
and incessant reading was now impossible. The mind 
transplanted, as it were, to new fields of observation, 
gathered fresh tone and vigour. The physical senses 
became quickeniEjd. The disturbing influences of the busy 
world were felt no longer. Seated on the turf near our 
tents we were busily engaged writing our notes. The 
gipsy girl came noiselessly behind us — so quietly we did 
not hear her, as she came from the tents in her stockings, 
treading lightly on the green sward. Silently she gave 
us a chuma (gip. kiss). It was a kiss for reconciliation. 
We looked up surprised. A peasant boy, till now 
unseen, stood looking through the bushes in amazement. 
He did not appear to comprehend the scene, nor could 
we give him any explanation. We turned, and were 



DISTANT ADMIRERS, 221 

again alone. What could we do ? We dismissed it as the 
chimera of a forest dream. We had forgotten it ; yet it 
is upon our notes, and so it is left. 

Several peasants were looking at the donkeys quite 
late. We alone were up. They afterwards came to our 
tents, and conversed till we wished each other good 
night. The musketos continued their attacks during the 
evening. 

The morning was very rainy. About eight o'clock 

some people came and walked round our tents. We were 

not up. They walked away without observation. When 

we got up at half-past eight o'clock, the rain had partly 

abated. We were not troubled with musketos in our 

tent during the night. Zachariah was much benefited by 

the oatmeal and water. A mark's worth of fladbrod was 

consumed for breakfast ; this, with the addition of butter 

and tea, completed our meal. Whilst we were at breakfast 

the farmer's son came by carrying three calves' skins on 

Ins back, accompanied by some peasant boys. Nearly all the 

Norwegians caiTy hunting-knives by their sides. Another 

boy afterwards passed by our tents with a long pole, used 

as a "fisk-stang," or fishing-rod. After breakfast two 

women tramps, or "highflyers," as the gipsies called 

them, passed along the road. One had a child fastened 

on her back, and was leading another by the hand. They 

seemed astonished at our tents and donkeys, and sat down 

looking towards our camp for sotae time. 

The weather being unsettled, we sent Noah and 
Zachariah with their fishing-rods towards the Logan. 
They were told to try a lake in that direction through 
the forest. Directly they were gone, a man and some 
boys came to see us, and the man had some tobacco. He 



222 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

possessed a pipe which he seemed to prize verj 
much; the pipe had been given him by an English 
gentleman named Ferrand, who had been in the 
mountains, reindeer hunting. Our visitor was a fine 
strong fellow, and said that the reindeer were numerous 
in that part of Norway. The hunter was exceedingly 
pleased with the tents, as also another man who after- 
wards came. 

In the course of the morning a carriage and pair 
passed along the road ; they were evidently English. 
We heard one young lady exclaim, as shq caught sight 
of our camp, " What aii awfully comfortable tent." 
A lady in a carriole followed them. They stopped 
a short time in contemplation and then continued their 
journey, which we hope they enjoyed as much as we 
did ours. 

A young Norwegian traveller and his wife drove up in 
a Stolkjcerre. They both got down and came to our 
camp, and asked a number of questions about the 
donkeys. 

We made a sketch of our camp whilst Esmeralda, or 
" daughter," as her brothers sometimes called her, went 
up to the " Bondegaard." Esmeralda returned with 
twenty-three fladbrod cakes, and eight extra ones given 
as a present by the farmer's wife — a kind, homely, 
respectable woman. She was very busy baking, and 
asked Esmeralda in, and said they should come down for 
some music in the evening. 

The rain cleared off*, and about half-past three Noah 
and Zachariah returned. Noah had caught twenty-one and 
Zachariah ten grayling and trout, some of fair size. The 
addition to our provisions was very satisfactory. All the 



ViaiTORS, 223 

fisli had been caught in the river Logan ; some of the 

fish were immediately fried, and eaten for dinner with 

fladbrod. Noah was the subject of some amount of joking 

about his success, and we kept an account of the number 

of tish he and Zachariah liad caught during the journey. 

At half-past four o'clock we started them off again to 

the river. After Esmeralda had cleared up her things, 

and put the dinner away, she went up to the ** Bonde- 

gaard " for another pound of butter, and a mark's worth of 

flabrod and salt. Whilst she was away a militia soldier in 

dark green uniform tunic, and cap, came by in a " Stolk- 

joerre/' a sort of light cart. When he saw our tents 

from the road, he pulled up. After waiting some time, 

looking towards our camp, he came down and saluted. 

It appeared he had come from the camp near Lilleham- 

mer. As one who had had some experience in camp 

matters be appeared much interested in our arrangements. 

We explained everything as well as our knowledge of 

the language permitted. After he had drunk to Gamle 

Norge, he returned to his conveyance. Then his wife 

came down, and looked at our tents ; she also drank to 

Gamle Norge,* and then returned, and they continued 

their journey. 

The. soldier and his wife seemed very quiet and respect- 
able people. Esmeralda had only just returned when down 
came three travellers from their carrioles. Our visitors 
were in light summer blouses and straw hats, and had 
round tin cases suspended from a strap over their 
shoulders ; they were evidently men of education. One, 
I believe, was from Throndjhem, another from Drammen, 

• The expression " Gamle Norge " (Old Norway) is used in the same 
sense as the saying '* Old England." 



224 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

and the third from Christiania. We answered their 
questions about our tents, and informed them they were 
English gipsy tents (zigeuner). Our visitors were ap- 
parently going to Romsdal themselves. As we shook 
hands we hoped their journey would be a pleasant one. 
When they were gone another traveller drove along the 
road in a carriole, and came down. He was dressed in a 
white round-crowned hat, black surtout coat, and pos- 
sessed a German silver watch-chain. He wandered about 
our tents ; we could not make much of him ; whatever 
we said scarcely produced a word, and we at last left 
him to contmue our writing. Then he came and looked 
over our notes as we wrote — a breach of good manners 
which occasioned us to shut our book. He then walked 
away to our camp spade, scanned it very minutely, and 
left. 

The farmers* wife came down to our camp with her 
three children, and made us a present of some fladbrod and 
milk. The fladbrod we had from this farm was the best 
we met with in Norway. They made three kinds : one 
kind of fladbrod was very thin, and stamped with curious 
tracery that made us regret its demolition ; so much did 
the ornamental fladbrod excite our admiration that we 
managed with much care to bring back one specimen to 
England. A representation of it is now given, together 
with an ornamental Norwegian box-lid which we after- 
wards found on the shores of the Lille Mjosen. We trust 
the fidelity of the engraving will be recognised by the 
farmer's wife if she ever sees this book. We told her our 
music would commence at nine o'clock. 

After she had left, an old peasant with a round cap came, 
and we showed him our tents and donkeys. He seemed 



OBNAMENTAL FlAItBROD. 8U 

in raptures nvith the donkeys, and kept exclaiming Peen 
gioere ! Peeu gicere ! ! — meaning very beautiful. This 
was a common expreesion of the peasants as they lifted 
their bands and expressed their admiration of our donkeye. 
As far as we could make out we were near " Loesjesko- 
gen," and the station of "Lesje Vcerk." On our right 
are the mountains of the " Stor Ha,", and the " Soeter 
Fjeld." Across the Logan are the Toever Fjeld, 
Hyrion Fjeld, and the Skarvehoerne. We ahould think 
this would be a good position for fishing, and reindeer 
hunting, though we scarcely think the reindeer hunting 
of these parts is so good as formerly, and a sportsman 
must seek the wilder recesses of the mountains. 



Our gipsies, Noah and Zachariah, returned. Noah had 
canght four trout, and Zachariah one. Although cautioned 
specially, Noah had been wading, and his feet were very 
wet. Some of our trout were fried for tea. Three men 
and a woman came down to the stream, and watched with 



226 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

interest our method of cooking. After tea we gave our 
visitors some music — ^guitar, violin, and tambourine. It 
was a very damp evening, and few visitors came. At 
last Zachariali broke a violin-string, and the rain com- 
mencing, ended our concert. 



CHAPTER XX. 

*' There was a pfefn tent, cloae beside me, and a party of about ten 
of this wandering tribe were seated aronnd a wood fire, which habit 
seemed to make them approach closely to, whether it was cold or hot 
weather." 

S^iior JuAH Di Yma, the Spanish Minstrel of 1828-9.* 

iOAH irSWKLL — THE TINE — NEW SCENES — THE LEPER — HASTT DEPAR- 
TURE — LESJEVOERKS YAND — WELL MET — AGREEABLE WANDERERS — 
SPECIALTY OF TRAVEL— DELICIOUS TROUT — LAKE SCENERY — NOR- 
WEGLAK POSTMAN — NIQHT VISITORS — MORE TOURISTS — MOLMEN 
CHURCH. 

Immediately alter our music had ceased, Noah was 
taken ill with severe rheumatism resulting from getting 
wet. Our services as the " Cushty Drabengro." (Gip., 
"good doctor") of the party were in requisition. He was 
sent to lie down in the tents, and we rubbed his' back and 
body well with brandy, giving him a stiff glass of brandy- 
and-water to drink. All had retired to rest, but ourself. 
Hearing voices near our donkeys, we went up and found 

* SenoT Juan de Vega is the name assnmed by a young English gentle- 
man of noble family, who wandeied through England, Wales, Ireland, and 
Scotland with hia guitar, in the character of a Spanish minstrel, and who 
uot only entirely supported himself during his wanderings, by his minstrelsy, 
but realised a surplus of £b^, which he charitably presented to the com- 
mittee of Spanifih officers, for the relief of the refugees, then lately arrived 
from Portugal His work, entitled the " Spanish Minstrel's Sketch Book," 
in two volumes, containing a record of his minstrel wanderings, vras pub- 
lished for the author by Simkins and Marshall, 1832. 

<) 2 



228 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

a number of peasants and peasant girls near them. We 
had an idea that they had been teasing them. Taking 
the peasants down to our tents they looked romid our 
camp, and when we wished them good-night they left. 
It rained heavily as we went to sleep. 

Much rain had fallen in the night. We looked out 
about seven o'clock on the morning of 13th of July ; the 
rain had ceased, but misty clouds gathered thickly on the 
mountains. A fire was lighted, and Noah was better, 
and we made him rub some of our bruise mixture on his 
knee. 

Noah promised never to go into the water again. As 
we were getting our breakfast, the farmer's son passed 
with a wooden bottle of milk and a wooden " Tine." 
This word is pronounced ** Teena," It is a small wooden 
oblong box with a slide lid used for carrying provisions. 
A box of this kind is in common use all over Norway. 
Some of them are curiously ornamented, according to the 
fancy of the possessor. For Frokost we had fried trout, 
fladbrod and butter, and tea. Two women came to our 
camp ; one wore men's Wellington boots, and they were 
both knitting. 

Whilst Noah was packing up, he said he dreamed we 
lived in a beautiful wooden house, and were going to the 
East Indies. The gipsies dreamt very often of their 
Romany Rye — sometimes Noah, sometimes Esmeralda, 
and sometimes Zachariah. It was impossible to leave 
such a beautiful camping-ground without regret. Whilst 
we were getting our things together three young tourists, 
carrying their knapsacks, came to our camp ; they were 
very intelligent, agreeable companions. One of them said 
his father lived at Veblungsnoes. They lefl before the 



NEJr SCENES, 229 

gipsies had loaded our donkeys. The weather now cleared 
up, and we were soon en route. As we afterwards 
passed " Lesje, Jemvoerk '' (ironworks), we saw the three 
tourists at the station. Mr. Bennett, in his handbook, 
says it is a tolerable inn kept by civil people. Our road 
lay through a pleasing diversity of lake, mountain, and 
pine forest. The tourists soon afterwards overtook us ; 
one knew something of French, and we were able to con- 
verse more at ease. As we passed a house on the road- 
side, we observed our silent visitor in black surtout coat, 
and German silver watch chain, standing outside immo- 
bile with all his schoolboys. He was a schoolmaster. 
They seemed as a guard just turned out, and not a sound 
was heard as we passed. The peasants evinced the 
usual curiosity. One old Woman who was knitting ex- 
hibited great signs of pleasure. One of our tourists said 
she was in an " extasy.'' We had the donkeys, much to 
Noah's chagrin, stopped for her inspection. The usual 
exclamation "Peen gioere!" was marked with much 
emphasis. Our tourists had gone on. The old lady followed 
along the road. As we went down a short descent to 
a bridge, we noticed a beautiful level camping-ground 
along the brook-side, sheltered by a few bushes, at 
a convenient distance from the road. 

The camping-ground was all we could desire ; saying, 
" We will camp here for to-night," the word was given 
to halt. The donkeys were driven down to the brook- 
side. The old lady, who had been joined by three boys, 
still walked after us. The gipsies were so busy unload- 
ing that they did not pay much attention to our visitors. 

As we suddenly looked round we were astonished at 
the appearance of one boy about sixteen ; his face was 



23C) TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY, 

completely eaten up with a kind of leprosy (spedalskhed) 
frightful to see. The boy wore a cross-belt, and carried 
a knife. He withdrew behind some bushes close by, 
perhaps to screen himself from observation, when he 
saw the countenances of ourself and gipsies — we had only 
had one glance — it was quite enough. Esmeralda said 
she should never forget it. It was quickly decided that it 
would be impossible to eat anything in comfort whilst the 
unfortunate boy was near our camp. One donkey was 
already nearly unpacked, but we did not see why we 
should be troubled with the vision of the afflicted leper 
whilst we could move to a more favoured spot. Order- 
ing the donkeys to be reloaded, which my gipsies obeyed 
with wonderful alacrity, we were soon again en route. 

The old lady was talking to a man driving a cart, 
apparently full of school children. He had pulled up at 
the bridge. They were evidently discussing a variety of 
matters relating to us. Without looking behind, we left 
the poor boy and his companions in complete possession 
of our intended camp. 

At a stream of water we overtook our three tourists, 
lying down. Two had their shoes and stockings oflf, and 
were bathing their feet. Telling them we should push on 
till two o'clock, we left them. 

Following the main road in sight of the " Lesje Voerks 
Vand," a lake seven EngUsh miles long, and 2,050 feet 
above the sea-level, we reached a stream flowing into the 
lake. Descending to the bridge, we crossed the stream 
which flowed down a sheltered gully. There was a con- 
venient camping-ground on the brook-side below the 
bridge and near to the lake. A few bushes between our 
camjp and the lake made the spot more sheltered. We 



WELL MET. 231 

liad just unloaded when our three tourists came up. 

Before they left we presented each with one of our 

gipsy songs. Zachariah in a very short time added a 

beautiful pink trout from the lake to our broiled ham, 

fladbrod and tea, for dinner. Up to this time Noah had 

caught thirty-seven trout, and Zachariah thirty-four. 

Taking Noah with us after dinner, we went through a 

wild tract of moorland, thinly treed, along the lake for 

about three ElngUsh miles. After crossing some wild 

streams, we came in sight of the wooden church and the 

station of " Molmen," which stands a short distance from 

the road. Noah went down to the station, while we 

lounged by the side of a stream near the road, and wrote 

up our notes. 

" Molmen in the distance," we mentally observed. Out 
came pencil and book. There was a charm in one's 
existence as we seated ourself on the turf which formed 
the bank of the clear pure stream. What mingled hues 
of delicious colouring caught the eye as we gazed on the 
various grasses, wild flowers and heath which formed the 
nature painting of the scene about us. The mind had not 
long been engaged in quiet contemplation, when we ob- 
served a gentleman in a straw hat walking along the road 
drawing after him a light kind of trjick. Underneath the 
framework, on a suspended netting, we noticed his knap- 
sack, sac de nuit^ and other articles du voyage for the 
use of his family. The gentleman and his light truck 
was followed by his family. Three good-looking grown- 
up daughters, and their friend or govemxmte ; two 
young boys in long Alpine boots, hoUand trousers and 
check shirts, and a fine large black dog followed after. It 
was a case of nomad meet nomad, wanderer meet wan- 



232 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

derer, each foUowiug his own idea, and each, I believe, 
thoroughly enjoying his own will and fancy. How could 
we be mistaken, there was a joyous expression of coan- 
tenance. One rapid glance was sufficient. They were 
happy in their way of travel. Far happier than very 
many we met in their carrioles or stolkjoerrer as we 
journeyed up the " Gudbransdalen." An interest quickly 
gathered round the travellers as they passed, which 
riveted our attention. They were gone, we were left, 
yet we seemed to regret that we had not somehow made 
their acquaintance. Pencil in hand we still hngered by 
the stream when we saw the tall form of our gipsy Noah 
coming along the road. One mark's worth of fladbrod and 
ten eggs for 18 skillings had been purchased, Noah said 
the gentleman who had just passed had seen him at the 
station, and finding who we were, had asked about ourcamp 
and vnshed to see it. Noah told him we were staying in 
sight of the road near to the lake. As we soon after re- 
turned towards our camp, the gentleman and his family 
were resting near a house on the road-side. Very shortly 
after we had reached our tents, we heard their voices in 
song, as they walked along the road. We listened with 
pleasure to some pretty Norwegian air which came to us 
on the wind. Very soon they reached the bridge. Wc 
both saluted as we went towards them from the brook- 
side. We were two wanderers happily met. Each fol- 
lowing his own speciality of idea. Each apparently suc- 
cessful in result. Our baggage was heaped on the ground 
as they came a short distance from the road to our camp. 
Our visitors conversed in Norsk, French, and English. 
He asked if it was not very cold and damp on the ground. 
They saw our donkeys, and our various things, including 



SPECIALITY OF TRAVEL. S33 

the gaitar and tambourines. The gentleman was a Mr. 
B., of good position in Norway, who had landed from the 
steamer at Veblungsna^s, with his light truck and family, 
and had travelled through Romsdalen when we met. 
At parting we presented one of the young ladies with our 
gipsy song, and with mutual good wishes we watched 
them ascend from the bridge of our retired gully, and 
disappear over the top of the abrupt ascent. 

The time was half-past five ; the small amount of suc- 
cess we had had fishing during our travels was not cal- 
culated to raise our reputation with the gipsies as an 
expert angler. Up to this time we had not caught a 
fish. Noah had caught fish ; Zachariah had caught fish. 
Esmeralda had cooked them, and we had only eaten 
them ; something must be done. Metteramengry* (Gip., 
*'tea") was postponed. Noah was told off to accompany 
us. The fishing-rods and tackle were ready, and we were 
soon on the light gravelly shore of the charming lake. 
It was all that could be desired for fishing, yet we did not 
for some short time get a rise. 

Ah ! what ! a fine trout heavily fighting ; no landing- 
net, but he is safely landed, just one foot long. The light 
evening breeze caused a ripple on the surface of the lake, 
another rise and another trout hooked. Our tackle was 
light, and just as we had him at the shore he broke 
the fly. It was but the glance of an instant as we saw 
him steady himself in the water. At once we were in 
the lake, and threw him on the shore with both hands. 
The trout was caught, and equalled the first in size. 

How lovely the gleams of evening sun upon the lake. 
The romantic islets, and the rising mountains from the 

• In Frendi gipsy pronounced " Mutramangri.*' 



234 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

opposite shore. Again we have another trout hooked ; 
this time it is a very fine one. Steadily and cahnly we 
handled a difficult adversary, and landed our trout with- 
out a landing-net on the lake shore. The trout measured 
one foot four inches. Noah, who had caught nothing, 
was astonished, and soon after we returned to our camp 
at seven o'clock. Esmeralda and Zachariah had our tea 
ready, and the largest trout was soon in the fiying-pau. 
Pink as salmon the trout eat with a delicious flavour, and 
was soon consumed with our fladbriid. 

After tea the postman pulled up at the bridge. We 
had seen him before, and some men came up who ap- 
peared to have been surveying, Zachariah then played 
his violin, and Esmeralda her tambourine, and Noah put 
up the tents whilst we lounged on the turf, and the men 
gazed at us fi-om the road. When our tent was up we 
took Esmeralda's tambourine, and she went to arrange 
our things for the night. The peasants left when the 
music ceased. It is not so easy to play the tambourine. 
Much suppleness of the hand is required. The exercise 
is excellent for the arms and fingers. The roulades and 
the burr of the jingles with the tips of the fingers re- 
quire practice. Noah gave us a lesson when our visitors 
were gone. Then we had more peasants. One woman 
we imagined wished to know if we wanted cofiee, and 
did not seem to think we understood clearly the luxury 
she proposed. She went to each in turn, and at last 
gave us up in despair. The peasants who came to see 
us seemed hard driven for an existence, their clothes were 
patched and mended, and their faces expressed endurance 
and hard life. Noah, who was much better, had a glass 
of brandy-and- water before retiring to sleep. After our 



NIQHT VISITORS. 235 

party were at rest for the night we heard the voices of 
women, and went out of our tent It rained hard ; the 
women were at the top of the ascent by the bridge, look- 
mg at our tents. One had an umbrelhi. The sound of 
talking was very distmct for some time after wc had gone 
to bed. 

The night was wet, and the morning damp and 
drizzly. We were up between seven and eight o'clock, 
and went fishing in the lake before breakfast, where we 
caught another trout a foot long. The breeze from the 
lake had given us an excellent appetite when we re- 
turned, and we found Esmeralda had cooked the two large 
trout of yesterday for breakfisist \vith four eggs. The re- 
putation of the Eomany Rye as a fisherman after catching 
four feet four inches of trout from the lake in so short a 
time was completely established in the minds of the 
gipsies. We had no means of weighing our fish. The 
trout out of this lake are beautifully pink, and delicious 
to eat. 

Frokost was finished. Esmeralda was putting the things 
away. The morning was now finer, and we perceived 
passing over the bridge two young tourists, dressed in red 
shirts, with white trousers tucked into their high boots, 
which laced up in front. These kind of boots, similar in 
make to the style of the ladies' Alpine boot, seem to be 
much patronised in Norway by walking tourists. They 
appear to be excellent boots; but we doubt whether 
they will stand heavy mountain work with the same com- 
fort to the wearer as our ordinary Alpine boot. During 
all our long and continued walking through Norway in 
all weathers, the strong Alpine boots made at Medwin's, 
Regent Street, never gave us a single blister. Each 



236 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tourist carried his knapsack, and seeing our tents they 
sat down on the road-side, on the top of the declivity by 
the bridge, to look at our camp. When we went up to 
them, and asked them to come down to our camp, we 
found them very nice fellows. One spoke English. The 
donkeys were shown them, and the tents ; and then we 
presented each vrith a copy of our gipsy song. They 
seemed much pleased. Yet, in after years, if they chance 
to meet with it among their souvenirs de voyage^ they 
will again remember the '' Englishman and gipsies " 
camped by the little bridge and vrild stream near Mol- 
raen. After the tourists had continued on their way 
towards the Gudbransdalen, some peasant men and 
women arrived. One peasant woman seemed, as &r as 
we could make out, to wish' us to stay longer to attend 
some fete. Probably they wished to engage our musical 
services. We could not make out very distinctly what 
she did want. As we struck our camp and packed up, 
they asked us to spille* a little ; but the weather was 
again cloudy and inclined for rain, and we at once left 
for Molmen. There is a very pretty wooden church at 
Molmen. An old man and several peasants were at the 
road-side near the turn to the station, which is a short 
distance from the road. The old man advanced and said, 
" Velkommen." There was somethmg touching in this 
honest and hearty and kindly word to the nomad 
strangers. 

• Nor., play. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

If the gipeieB Are not the dispened ^gypiiftiu^ where are that 
scattered people ? If the durpened and scattered gipsies are not the 
descendants of the offending ^gyptiansy what are they t" 

The Oipsiea, By Samvxl Bossbts. 

• 

THE BAUMA — ^A LOFTY CLIMB — KOBE BAIN — THE FOREST WALK — TENT 
UFE — PEASANT FftTB — NORWBGUN'daNCINO — ^ZACHARIAH'S RIDE — THE 
^VrOOD CARVINGS— A PSALMODION — BTUEFLAATEN — THE ROHSPAL — 
MAGNIFICENT SCENERT — ^ENGLISH SPOKEN. 

Taking Noah down to the station, we purchased one 

mark of fladbrod, one mark of butter, and four skillings' 

worth of soap. Esmeralda had used all our stock of 

soap. The quality of soap in some parts of Norway is 

indiflFerent. The kitchen was extremely hot; but we 

went into a small comfortable sitting-room, where we 

inspected photographs of various eminent men of Norway, 

and some carved spoons, during the few minutes we stayed. 

As y^e returned to the road, the old man asked us how far 

we Tvere going, and seemed disappointed when we said, 

**Langt/' It is probable he wished to see our camp. 

Our party were soon following the banks of the river 

Ramna. 

From the "Lesje Voerks Vand" the Logan flows 
south, and the Bauma, whose banks we had now 
reached, flows north. The picturesque lake, from which 
these two rivers have their source, is about one Norsk 



238 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

* 

mile long. The Logan falls into the Mjosen Lake 
at Lillehammer ; the Rauma falls into the IsQord, a 
branch of the Romsdal Fjord near Veblungsnoes. Roms- 
dalen begins at Holsoet,* near our camp at Loesje, and 
is about fifty-six miles long. The country through 
which we travelled on the banks of the Rauma was very 
beautiful. Molmen is a good fishing station. We saw 
some large trout in the Rauma, near Molmen. The same 
interest continued with regard to our donkeys. One 
peasant got out on the roof of his house to get a better 
view. At one place a peasant came after us, and sug- 
gested we should camp on some wild waste land through 
which our route passed, and across which the wind was 
coldly blowing. There was little shelter. The place was 
not inviting, and we had yet time to be fastidious in the 
selection of a camping ground. Having passed " Enebo," 
we continued our route. Zachariah rode on the top of the 
baggage of one donkey, and occasionally played his violin. 
At length we came to a wild extent of open moorland, 
with mountains rising on either side. Over the plain, 
detached clumps of trees, gave the scene a more cheerful 
aspect. On the moorland's edge, to the right, hanging 
woods covered the base of the mountains to a considerable 
height. 

The picturesque mountain, called the Raanaa, dark hi 
its wild clouds, and a mountain we understood as the 
Konokon, also the Kongel, the Kolho, and Boverho 
Mountams were before us. We turned off the route to 
the right across the moorland, and halted near a small 
lake by a clump of trees, in sight of a picturesque water- 
fall. The donkeys were unloaded in a cold wind and 

* Sometimes spelt Hoset and Holsetli. 



PROPOSAL TO VISIT WATERFALL. 239 

heavy rain. Two boys came up almost immediately, and, 
putting up our fishing-tackle, we followed them, with 
Zachariah, across the moorland to the left of our route, 
and, reachiDg the enclosure of a hanging wood on the 
steep bank of the Rauma, we were soon fishing in its 
stream. The water had a thick greenish hue. The 
wind -was very cold, with occasional rain. Some of the 
throws were exceedingly good ; but not a rise, and we 
returned in about an hour to our camp. Dinner consisted 
of three pounds of our dried meat, from Holaker, boiled 
with potatoes, rice, pea-flour, and remdeer moss, to 
flavour it. Very good it was: soup first, then meat, 
potatoes, and fladbrod, water being our beverage instead 
of tea when we had soup. A man and two boys came, 
and we gave the man brandy, and the two boys brandy- 
and-water. When the peasant took his brandy neat, he 
seemed thoroughly to appreciate it, and his visage bore 
marks of a fondness for aquavit. A tall, respectable- 
looking old man, in an ample black cloth dress coat, with 
a belt round it outside, to which his hunting-knife hung, 
and large gloves on, came up. They stood in the rain 
looking at us, as we sat in the wet enjoying our dinner, 
with the exception of the meat, which was too tough even 
for ourself and three hungry gipsies to masticate. The 
greatest part of the meat was put by, to be again made 
into soup. 

Dinner being finished, and being extremely wet about 
the legs, we proposed to visit the waterfall we saw in the 
distance. It was about four o'clock, and Esmeralda 
accompanied us, whilst Noah and Zacharia remained in 
charge of the camp. Passing by the moorland lake, we 
were soon m the forest, sometimes nearly over our boots 



S40 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

in wet marshy ground, and at other times climbing pre- 
cipitous rocks, covered with moss and foliage, overhung 
with pine and birch. Our route was devious and uneven, 
damp and moist. The vand fos was given up. A beau- 
tiful bouquet of wild flowers was secured, and at six 
o'clock we sighted our camp. Our feet were wet through 
as we came up, and found our tents had been pitched by 
Noah in our absence. Changing our wet things, we had 
tea and fried trout in our tents. It was delightful to find 
ourselves comfortably seated in the luxuriousness and inde- 
pendent freedom of our tents, in sight of the forests and 
picturesque fjelds. A gentleman came whilst we were at 
tea, probably from his carriole, which he had left on the 
main route. As he walked round the tents, he bowed, 
and seemed much pleased with a scene illustrating nomadic 
life in wet weather. 

The clouds cleared towards half-past eight, and the 
peasants made up a large fire for us. Then they came 
round the tent, and we sang our gipsy song and the 
" Mocking Bird," with the guitar accompaniment. 

The weather being now tolerably fine, we went to the 
fire and played some few airs. The peasants evidently 
wanted to dance. Two beaux of the village were as usual 
there: one a slim, short, pale young man, with black 
surtout coat; and the other a young man in ordinary 
peasant costume. They began dancing together to our 
music, and the pale young man took oflf his hat very 
politely to Esmeralda, who was seated in the tent Find- 
ing the peasants wished to dance, and that the turf was 
too uneven, we went up to the road, and taking our 
waterproof to sit upon, the gipsies, Noah, Zachariah, and 
ourself played them a number of polkas. The two beaux 



NORWEGIAN DANCING. 241 

of the tillage soon found two stout peasant girls for part- 
ners, and danced to an admiring audience. Noah danced 
with one ; but he said she smelt so much of ointments he 
could not go on. The peasants seemed much pleased 
with the music — in fact, I believe we were improving. 
Zachariah played a Norwegian tune he had picked up on 
board the steamer going to Lillehammer, which seemed 
to suit them exactly. The pale young man in the surtout 
coat, and an active peasant girl, danced to it in' a peculiar 
Norwegian step. We liked to see them. As they danced, 
sometimes the pale young man relinquished the waist of 
his partner, and they both turned the reverse way apart, 
keeping up the step till they again met once more, and 
whirled round rapidly together. The stillness of evening, 
with its freshness after rain, as the dancers waltzed in the 
midst of the wild moorland, to the sounds of the violin, 
guitar, and tambourine, — a thousand different dreams • 
crowded upon our fancy. That Norwegian air I — again 
and again we played it, till our dancers were almost 
tired. The spectators apparently enjoyed looking on 
quite as well. There was the peasant who appreciated 
spirits, and many more. .They are a good-humoured 
people. One peasant girl would insist upon Esmeralda 
coming up. The pale young man wished to dance 
with Esmeralda; but she would only dance once with 
her brother before he went to take her place at the 
tents. All things have an end. Our music ended. 
Wishing our friends, including oiir two beaux of the 
village, good night, we went to our tents, and the 
peasants soon after left. Esmeralda was rather un- 
well, for she had neglected to change her wet boots. 
Bmndy-and-water was administered to Esmeralda and 



I 



242 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Noah. The night was damp and cold, and we could 
scarcely keep our feet wann. 

Rising at about seven o'clock we went again to the 
Rauma ; but fished without success. The morning was 
cold. Returning to breakfast, Esmeralda had prepared 
four eggs, tea, and fladbrod and butter, for the party. As 
the gipsies were striking our tents and loading our baggage 
a man and two boys came, and a little girl with some 
milk, but too late for our breakfast. She had brought it 
some little distance, and we bought it for five skillings. 
Leaving our camp, we passed the waterfall, and crossed 
a bridge, leaving the open moorland for the enclosed 
road. The river seemed well adapted for fish ; but we 
do not think much sport can be obtained at this part of 
the Rauma. Very soon after we commenced our day's 
journey, Zachariah, who had ridden on one of the loaded 
donkeys most of the previous day, wished to ride again. 
Occasionally we did not object; but our donkeys had 
already quite sufficient weight without the addition of 
Zachariah. His brother and sister were of the same 
opinion as ourself, and, although he alleged pain in his 
stomach, we suggested that walking would be its best 
antidote. With a wild waywardness of disposition, he 
soon after jumped on one of the loaded donkeys from 
behind, which resulted in his being pulled oflF with a shake, 
which, if it did not bring him to his senses, brought him 
to his feet for the rest of the day's journey. 

The Shorengro (gip., chief ) of a party should be firm. 
Camp laws, as laid down before starting, should be 
adhered to. In matters requiring the decision of the 
directing mind, caution should be used. When settled, 
arrangements should be firmly acted upon ; wavering 



THE WOOD CARVINGS. 2i3 

and feebleness of purpose will soon ruin the success of 
any expedition ; calm serenity of mind, and good temper 
through all di£5culties, is indispensable. The peasants 
showed the same anxiety as usual to see our donkeys. 
The former station at Nystuen is now discontinued. 

Before we reached Stueflaaten a reindeer-hunter came 
to us in the road, a thick-set intelligent man, dressed in 
good clothes and wearing long boots. The hunter spoke 
a little English. We went with him up to his house, 
close to the road. The large family room, used as kitchen 
and general room, was as badly ventilated as usual. 
Very seldom we ventured into the close atmosphere of 
the Norwegian farm-houses. There are, no doubt, ex- 
ceptions. Many of the houses have very small windows, 
which do not open, and they are therefore closed winter 
and summer. The musketos and flies and heat are kept 
out, but then it is generally at the cost of fresh air, that 
invaluable health-producer, too lightly estimated. The 
room had a trap-door in the floor, with a ring to it, 
which somehow we always connect with a scene of 
mystery; some adventure requiring to be worked out 
with a melodramatic denouement The reindeer-hunter's 
wife furnished us with some butter, two eggs, and some 
fladbrod, for which we paid one mark three skillings. 
The butter was of dark yellow colour, but we found it 
good. They had a very primitive weighing-machine, 
a short piece of round wood with a knob at one end, 
and a small hook at the other. The article to be weighed 
is hung on the hook, and the machine is balanced on the 
finger at certain marks, which indicate the weight. Seve- 
ral carved spoons, and an ingeniously carved butter-cup, 
were produced. For the butter-cup, which the reindeer- 

H 2 



244 TENT LIFE IN NOnWAY. 

hunter had carved himself, he wanted three marks. At 
our request he reached. a "Psalmodion " down — a very 
primitive Norwegian inetrumetit — one string stretched 
over a flat board, played with a kind of fiddle-bow. 
The sound is neitlier harmonious or lively, though the 
hunter, who played it, was probably a good performer. 
There vpaa much that was ancient and belonging to a 
past age, in the house. We afterwards bought one of 



raiMttiTK wiiaHtHa lucauii. 



his carved wooden spoons for ten ekillings, which seemed 
to please the reindeer-hunter very much. The carved 
spoon was given to Esmeralda, and ultimately broken. 

The station of Stuefiaaten stands upon a rise of 
ground forming a kind of promontory, round which the 
road circles, so that you can walk up one side to the 
station and descend on the other into the road. There 
is a sort of balcony, with seats round it, and steps up 
to it, in front of the entrance door. A very civil hostess 
— we took her for such — met us from the kitchen. They 
had also an inner room, in which a large fire was burn- 
ing. Our stores were replenished with three marks' 
worth of fladbrod, potatoes, and twelve eggs. The people 
of the station came down to see our donkeys. At a 
short distance from Stuefiaaten the route descends tbe 
side of steep rocky cliffs by a zig-zag road cut through 



8TVEFLAATEN. 245 

the rocks. A large expanse of fjeld and forest, broken 
and intersected by rushing torrents, leaving nothing but 
streaks of white foam visible in the distance, converged 
to the deep, deep, narrow romantic valley we were now 
entering. The day had become fine and beautiful. We 
gazed in silence as we commenced our descent down the 
road, carried in a slanting direction to an angle, so as to 
render the way less difficult and steep. At a very short 
distance after we had turned the angle of the road a 
halt was called. In a recess covered with wild flowers, 
and bushes on the top of the sloping bank, above the 
road, we found sufficient room for our middags-maA 

The broken bank was overhung by steep rocks. The 
fire was soon lighted. Esmeralda peeled some potatoes. 
An excellent soup was made from our stock of yester- 
day, to which was added the dried meat from Holiaker, 
to be boiled a second time with potatoes, Liebig's 
essence, and a quantity of wild sorrel. What a beauti- 
ful scene ! What numberless streams dashing in their 
deep-worn watercourses into the blue waters of the 
Rauma, which loses itself in the deep ravine of the 
narrow valley; so we stayed until it was found to be 
six o'clock. Hastily loading again we followed the 
gradual descent of the road. Before us rose the 
singularly shaped mountain, said to be the Dontind.* 
Its shape is peculiar, with its escarped precipices and 
snowy summit A very picturesque waterfall came dash- 
ing down the rocks to our right, and close by stood a 
very small wooden mill, with its simple and primitive 
method of grinding. The miller was there as we looked 

* We believe this is the same mountain caUed in the Guide Book 
" Storhcetten,'' 



246 TENT LIFE JN NORWAY. 

in, and had just room to stand inside. He was grinding 
oats. If many articles of food are not so fine in quality 
in Norway, there is one satisfaction, that what you have 
is generally genuine. 

At last we came to where the Rauraa, at a short 
distance from the road, enters a deep gorge, and forms 
the beautiful fall of the Soendre Slettefossen. The river 
passes through a deep chasm of rock, and is spanned by 
a narrow log bridge. Not far from the fall, on the 
opposite side of the road, we found some rough broken 
ground at the back of a rocky cliff. An old carriage- 
way had once gone through the rocks, but was now 
stopped up, so that we found ourselves on a comfortable 
platform above the main road. 

The view was beautiful. The donkeys were driven up, 
and quickly unloaded. An old peasant man and woman, 
and one or two children were there, as if they had been 
forewarned of our arrival, and were ready to receive us. 
Out came our silver-mounted brandy-flask. It was of 
handsome spiral shape and formed of glass. How it 
escaped being broken we could never make out, but we 
have it now. The old man and woman drank their 
brandy, and seemed much pleased. They plucked some 
grass to feed the donkeys. Very soon other peasants 
came, and a reindeer-hunter, who spoke some English. 
The hunter was a very civil intelligent man ; he could 
read English, and spoke it tolerably well, telling us there 
were many reindeer, and he would go with English 
gentlemen shooting them. 

Our evening meal was soon ready, four eggs, fladbrod, 
butter, and tea. The peasants were told that after our 
tents were pitched they should have some music. Two 



THE R0M8DAL. 247 

^^ xjQy tent-rods were broken, and we had to splice them- 
^^ consequence of the loss of our kettle-prop we were 
^^Wged to make holes for our tent-rods with the sharp 
pmm:>mt of one of Tennant's geological hammers. Whilst 
\tame tents were being pitched we continued our notes de 
'^^oycige. 

The peasants were not numerous, but they were appre- 
^^iative as we played. It was interesting to watch their 
■feiindly countenances as they gazed on the nomads, with 
tleir tents and donkeys, on the sheltered platform of a 
^ocky cliff above the Rauma. When our music ended, 
^nd we wished them good night, they did not remain 
^bout our tents, but quietly left us to take our rest. 



CHAPTER XXn. 

** Commend me to gipsy life a&d hard Uying. Bobust exercise, out- 
door life, and pleasant companions are sure to beget good dispositions, 
both of mind and body, and would create a stomach under the very 
ribs of death, capable of digesting a bar of pig iron." 

GsoBOB S. Phulips (January Searle). 

THE DONTIND — ORMEIK — MOUNTAIN ROAD— OUR BIVOUAC — DELIGHTED 
VISITOR — THE WATER ELP — EXCITED GIPSIES — TAGE EN BTOL— NOR- 
WEGIAN GIRLS — SUNDAY ON THE RAUMA — CARRIOLE TRAVELLING- 
COMING TO GRIEF — " SPILLE " A LITTLE — ESMERALDA's BIRTHDAY— THE 
NORWEGIAN CLIMATE — THE SJIRIAGLNS — UNCOMFORTABLE BED— THE 
LARGE ANT. 

It was a channiDg night. The Rauma foamed beneath 
and lulled us to sleep. The snow-covered and singularly 
shaped " Dontind '' towered in the distance above the 
valley. 

At seven o'clock the next morning we were up and 
had breakfast, tea, fladbrod, and' butter. Whilst the 
gipsies were loading, we went to the log bridge, and 
viewed the picturesque fall of the Rauma, the " Soendre 
Slettefossen," foaming through high and overhanging 
rocks. Returning soon afterwards to our camp, we found 
Noah and Esmeralda in high dudgeon. A gale at sea, 
a simoom, or even an earthquake, could only be com- 
pared to it. The gist of Noah's wrong was some real 
or fancied neglect on the part of Esmeralda to pack one 



ORMEIK 249 

pocket properly. In travelling our tent-cover, rugs, 
wardrobe, and a number of minor articles, were packed 
into one pocket, which was placed on the puru rawnee, 
and formed a pad for the other things she carried to rest 
upon. To avoid injury to the animal's back it was, there- 
fore, very essential that all hard substances should be 
placed in the comers of the pocket, so that they should 
not bear upon the animal's back. It was necessary to use 
great care, especially during the long and difficult journey 
we had before us. Pouring oil on the troubled waters 
of the boro panee (gip., sea), we started with the thermo- 
meter at TS"* Fahrenheit. All soon subsided into tran- 
quillity and friendly feeling. 

The sun now became very hot. Everywhere we were 
greeted with the same excitement, and the donkeys were 
much admired ; grass was at times given them, and a 
friendly welcome to ourselves. Descending the beautiful 
road on the right side of the narrow valley, with pleasant 
farms below us on the slopes to the Rauma, we reached the 
post station of Ormein. Beautifully situated as it is, this 
station would be excellent quarters; and a comfortable 
resting place for the lover of nature, and the fisherman. 
There was a general rush as we came up. The donkeys 
were surrounded, and water and grass were brought for 
them. We went into the station and purchased a large loaf 
of bread, some excellent crisp fladbrod, a pound of good 
butter, and two kinds of Norwegian soap, for one mark 
and twenty skillings. There was a bed in the kitchen, 
covered with an animal's skin. The fire was made on a 
raised hearth, the chimney rising straight from it, but with- 
out contact with the sides of the room ; so that there is 
great economy of heat obtained. As you look from the sta- 



250 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tion to the " Alter Ho " on the other side the valley, the 
picturesque vandfos, called Vermedalsfossen, dashes down 
the mountain side through wild and moss-covered crai^ 
to the Rauma. From this place the Dontind or Storhoet- 
ten may be ascended. Leaving the kind and civil people 
of Onnein about half-past twelve o'clock, we continued 
our journey on the right bank of the Rauma. The road 
was still inclosed, and the immediate banks of the Rauma 
were cultivated for hay, potatoes, and grain, which 
seemed to thrive in sheltered situations. At length the 
mountains became more steep, lofty, and rugged on either 
side the valley, which formed a narrow flat through which 
the now level road ran. Coming to a gate we entered a 
space of wild broken ground open to the Rauma, which 
was close to the road, A very large mass of rock pitched 
on end, looking not unlike the representations of the cele- 
brated English rocking-stone in Cornwall, stood not far 
from the ^ate, to the right of the road. The open green 
sward was margined by thick and tangled brushwood, 
rising immediately to the mountain precipices which over- 
hungthe valley. At a short distance beyond, the lofty mural 
steeps of a snow-covered mountain seemed to leave no pos- 
sible outlet. Towering precipices of barren rock rose almost 
at once from the banks green with foliage on the opposite 
side to Rauma. Cascades fell in fleecy clouds of spray on 
either side into the valley below ; we were never tired of 
watching them. The banks of the Rauma were low, the 
stream broad and broken in its course, and had a thou- 
sand rippling eddies and swirls formed by its rough and 
uneven bed. Birch- woods clothed the lower sides of the 
valley. One small log cottage m the distance, close to 
the road and near the river, was the only sign of human 



OUR BirOVAC. 261 

life we could see. The marks of bivouac fires under the 
shelter of the large leaning rock showed that it was a 
favourite halt for wayfarers. 

The tents were pitched on a dry hillock near the low 
bushes beyond the leaning rock. We had just said to 
the gipsies that we should shortly see a peasant perched 
on a rock or on the top of a mountain, when two peasants 
immediately appeared, and some brandy was handed to 
them. One drank his glass with evident satisfaction, 
but the other pointed to his chest, so his companion 
swallowed his share. They got some grass for the donkeys, 
and afterwards left. A boy, who was travelling on foot 
with a satchel and his coat hanging from it, came from 
the road ; he wore long boots much patched, home-spun 
brown trowsers, and waistcoat to match, with large black 
buttons having a flower on them in relief. Poor fellow, 
he was delighted with the animals, and for a considerable 
time sat watchmg them, with a smile of intense satisfac- 
tion on his countenance. The donkeys, we think, began to 
feel their social position in the animal world much elevated. 
The boy at last went some distance up the steep side of 
the mountain to get grass for them. He first ascertained 
fi:om us that they eat grass, which he might have seen 
had he noticed what they were doing. Some weak 
brandy-and-water was offered to him, but he declined to 
drink it. The musical box was set playing near him 
as he lay on the grass, and he seemed delighted. Another 
boy came, and they seemed very reluctant to tear them- 
selves away from our donkeys, but at last they left. 

After a dinner of tea, ham, eggs, fladbrod, and butter, 
Noah washed his shirt, and went fishing with Zachariah. 
Esmeralda went to the river to wash some of our things, 



252 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

and we lounged by the tents. Several peasants came to 
see the donkeys. 

The scenery of the valley was charming, and the evening 
wore on till six o'clock. First Zachariah returned dripping 
with wet, looking like a water elf fresh from the Rauma. 
He produced a grayling more than a pound weight, and 
some small trout, and related that he had nearly caught 
the grayling, and was getting it to the bank when the fly 
came out of its mouth. In an instant he plunged in, 
and threw it out. As he was changing his wet thmgs, 
which we at once insisted upon, some people passed along 
the road who seemed much amused, and he had to play 
at hide-and-seek round the large rock to conceal himself. 
We rubbed him over with brandy, and he went fishing 
again. 

Esmeralda, who had completed her washing, made tea, 
and whilst we were finishing our meal, some carriers came 
up and halted near the rock. They were informed they 
might have the use of our fire. Zachariah's tea was put 
by for him. The carriers were rough, hardy men, well- 
dressed, and respectable in appearance. They had a 
light cart heavily laden. One of them sat down, and 
producing a quantity of fladbrod from a tine (pronounced 
teena) and a small wooden box of butter, commenced 
leisurely consuming his provisions. Most of the peasants 
we met chew tobacco. We often saw them produce 
a quid from their pockets, and, putting it in their mouths, 
spit in all directions. Snufi'-taking did not seem to be a 
habit. The carriers said they had come from Veblungs- 
noes, and had halted to rest their horses, and would not 
remain the night. They were delighted with our tents, 
the interior fittings, and especially with the donkeys. 



EXCITED 0IP8IE8. 263 

It was after ten o'clock when Zachariah returned with 
his eyes sparkling with fire, and seventeen small trout. 
The usual animated discussion arose between the gipsies 
as to who had caught the most fish. " Now then, Lucas/' 
Noah would vociferate, "I say you have only caught 
twenty-three." " What, only twenty-three ?" Zachariah 
would answer, his eyes wildly flashing with excitement, 
and shouting in a still higher key, "No such thing, 
Noah." *' Now you count, Mr. Smith ; here are seventeen, 
and nine before, make twenty-six." 

What a picture study! wild valley, night-fall, two 
excited gipsies, ourself arbitrator, trout lying near on 
the turf, hanging rock, camp fire, gipsy girl standing by 
the tents, roar of river, dark gloom of precipices above 
our camp. Can we forget the scene ? About ten o'clock 
several peasant girls arrived to lend more romance to 
the evening incidents. One or two old men in red caps 
also arrived. The night was beautiful ; we sat down on 
the turf outside our tents, Zachariah boshamengro (gip., 
violin-player), myself with castanets, and Esmeralda with 
her tambourine. Bowing to the peasants, we said in 
our best Norwegian, " Ver so artig tage en stole " (be so 
good as to take a seat), pointing to the turf, upon which 
they sat down. After some musician intelligent-looking 
young Norwegian played some Norwegian tunes on an 
accordion he had brought. It was not in very good tone, 
but we were glad to hear the Norwegian airs he played. 
Then we suggested a dance. 

" Ah ! " said Esmeralda, *' look at that Hackly a salin 
at Noah." 

Noah at once got up, and whilst a young peasant was 
apparently trying to prevail upon her to dance, Noah 



2'>4 TENT UFE IN NORWAY. 

seized her round the waist ; the ice was broken, and they 
whirled round in a polka on the turf. Then the young 
peasant took her for a partner ; she was a nice-looking 
girl, but wanted rather more agility of step. The Nor- 
wegian girls, as a rule, want the elasticity of the southern 
belles. Norwegian girls have, however, a quiet and 
kindly expression of all that is good and sweet in disposi- 
tion, and true-hearted feeling. What a contrast between 
them and the dark-eyed olive-complexioned girl of the 
south. Equally in contrast the warm-blooded animation 
of the southern girl, when roused by the excitement of 
some strong and sudden emotion. 

Only one Norwegian peasant girl joined in the evening 
green-sward waltz. The accordion-player had his dance 
with the Rankny* Rackly (gip., pretty girl), as the gipsies 
called her. We played two more tunes for thera, and 
when we had finished we wished them good night, and 
they left. The carriers then departed on their journej', 
and as we were going to bed some more came up and 
halted for the night by the leaning stone. The newly- 
arrived immediately went to the donkeys, and got some 
grass for them. One man brought me something to drink, 
but we declined it with thanks. To one we gave some 
tobacco for his pipe, and, retiring to our tents, we were 
soon all asleep. 

Another Sunday. We lay unusually late — ^nine o'clock. 
The morning was not inviting, but very dull and cloudj^ 
The rain fell fast, and we could hear the roar of many 
waterfalls down the precipitous sides of the lofty moun- 
tains above us. The sound of the river and the roar of 
waterfalls in a wild valley were conducive to sleep. The 

* Sometimes pronounced ** Rinkenno." 



COMING TO GRIEF. 2:)5 

gipsies soon had a fire under the shelter of the leaning 
rock. The carriers were gone. Our irokost copsisted of 
tea, fried trout, bread, and potted tongue. After break- 
fast Noah and Zachariah rode the donkeys, in search of 
bread and butter. We stayed in our tent writing. Some 
peasants came, from time to time, to look at our camp 
and donkeys. 

As we were writing before dinner, we observed several 
carrioles coming along the road en route towards Ormein. 
The carriole is a light easy carriage, admirably suited for 
a hilly land, and well adapted to the small sure-footed 
ponies of the country. The only objection we are disposed 
to make is the necessity of travelling along the road alone ; 
if with friends, you post from one station to another, at 
some distance apart, without being able to hold much 
converse or communication. In this instance the carrioles 
followed, one after the other, at some short distance. As 
they passed our tents and the hanging stone, two of the 
travellers, in knickerbockers and Scotch caps, appeared 
to be Englishmen. The driver of one of the carrioles was 
dressed in black, and appeared to be a Norwegian. The 
animal he drove was rather larger than a pony, and 
apparently timid and shy. Suddenly the horse swerved, 
and the driver checked him rather sharply. In a 
moment both shafts broke through with a crash. The 
traveller got out; the horse remained still. We went 
down to the broken carriole, and said it was unfortunate. 
The traveller said something quietly in Norsk. Returning 
to the tents, Esmeralda gave me some rope. In the 
meantime two or three of the other voyageurs came back 
from their carrioles, including one of the Englishmen 
in knickerbockers. Three of the party seemed Nor- 



256 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

wegians. Very few words were said — they were men of 
action. In less time than it has taken us to write this, the 
broken carriole was fastened with the rope they brought 
with them to a stolkjoerre. The other travellers went 
forward, and getting into their carrioles, they were all 
soon out of sight. Noah and Zachariah met them as they 
returned, in pouring rain, from a farm, where they had 
purchased butter and excellent fladbrod. The people were 
very kind, and gave them some milk, and the donkeys 
grass. They were both very wet ; but had no change. 
At two o'clock, a second tin of Australian meat was 
opened. We had tea, Australian preserved meat, pota- 
toes, and fladbrod. The Australian meat was excellent, 
and a very good dinner we all made. From our tents we 
could see very plainly all who travelled along the road. 
During the afternoon a close carriage drawn by three 
horses abreast pulled up, and a lady and children inside 
seemed much interested. A gentleman outside said to 
them, the tent is waterproof. They all stayed for a short 
time, looking from the Toad'at the fragile abri which 
sheltered us from the elements. Several peasants arrived, 
and immediately went to see the donkeys. We gave two 
of the peasants some tobacco, and one brought us a steel 
pen which we had dropped on the turf near our camp. 
They wanted us to " spille *' a little ; but it was Sunday, 
and we made it a day of rest. It rained heavily during the 
afternoon. Thick mist clung to the summits of the steep 
and lofty mountains. Noah, Esmeralda, and Zachariah 
all fell asleep till seven or eight o'clock. 

A Sunday on the banks of the Eauma. — With how 
much pleasure we welcomed a day ordained for the 
world's especial rest. To our party it was welcome after 



BSMBBALDA'S BIETHDA Y. 257 

the wanderings of each preceding week. This Sunday 
was also Esmeralda's birthday, and we had wished her 
happiness.* One could not help feeling regret as we 
reflected upon the condition of these light-hearted wan- 
derers, Esmeralda knew one prayer. We hoped on our 
return to England to have her confirmed. With all 
their waywardness, wilfulness, impulsiveness, irrepressible 
energy, and at times apathetic listlessness, careless alike 
of to-day or to-morrow, there were still some redeeming 
points of character, gleams of sunshine, which gave 
uncertain glamour to their mystic fate. 

We talked to some of the peasant visitors as well as 
we could. They sat at our tent entrance. One young 
peasant came in with his pipe, and began to smoke 
and spit in all directions. When he understood that 
no smoking was allowed inside, he seemed annoyed at 
his own forgetfiilnesa, and took his seat again at the tent 
entrance. 

There is a high principle of character about the Nor- 
wegian people, which won our respect and esteem. It was 
not on one occasion, but many occasions, that we had 
instances of their strict probity. Many are poor ; but they 
are honest. That conscious feeling of good intention, 
produces the manly bearing, and national independence 
of spirit, with which the Norwegian people are so largely 
imbued. 

Many of the peasants wished particularly to know what 
the donkeys cost^ and were often loud in their exclamation, 
"peen gioere," "peen gioere," as they walked round 
them. 

Yesterday the temperature had been, at three o'clock, 

* 17th July. 

8 



268 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

up to 90^ Fahrenheit ; to-day, in the evening, it was only 
68°; towards seven o'clock it became cold. Between 
seven and eight o'clock we had tea of fried grayling, 
fladbrod, and butter. 

After tea, taking Noah and Zachariah with us, we went 
to see a beautiful waterfall not very far along the valley, 
on the right of the road going to Veblungsnoes. The spray 
from it was at times blown in thin mist across the road. 
The steep, dark gray rocks of the " Sjiriaglns," as we un- 
derstood the name (it was so written down for us, but we 
do not find it marked in any of our maps), overhung the 
road. In the picturesque gorge of this part of the valley 
three diminutive log houses stood at some short distance 
apart from each other-:-the lowly shelter of the peasants 
of this rugged glen. What must be the life of these 
poor people ! How hard their fare ! but still they seemed 
contented. It may be they have a larger share of happi- 
ness than we could imagine possible. When we returned 
to tlie tents Zachariah tried to dry his trousers at a fire at 
the hanging rock.* Noah and Zacharia had been very 

• This large isolated mass of rock or stone, pitclie<l on end, near the road- 
way and river, a few yards from our camp, was sometimes called by us the 
"Hanging Bock," sometimes the "Hanging Stone," and very often the 
" Leaning Stone." In future mention in Uiese pages we shaU call it the 
" Leaning Stone." This large stone was so overhanging on the side to- 
wards Orniein, that it formed an excellent shelter for the traveller to rest 
and light his Livouac fire. Occasionally the "Leaning Stone " brought to 
mind the " Druids' Stone " we once sketched, at Stanton, near Monmouth ; 
bometimes it reminds us of the famous " Boulder, or Bowder Stone," in the 
romantic gorge of Borrowdale, near " Castle Crag " and Derwent "Water, in 
Cumberland ; but the " Bowder Stone " has this difference, that it over- 
hangs on both sides, and has a narrow aperture underneath, through which 
two persons or lovers, joining hands, it is said, will have their secret wish. 
Perhaps the Leaning Stone of the beautiful valley of the Sjiriaglns has 
some such mystic power — who knows? "We leave it to some other 
Wanderer over fjeld and fjord to discover. 



\ 



UNCOMFORTABLE BED. 259 

wet in the morning. Noah had no change of trousers. 

Zachariah's were soon smoked and singed, as the legs 

were stretched oiit on two crossed sticks fastened together, 

giving them the appearance of a mawkin to frighten the 

birds. Ultimately, at bed -time, it was stuck up within 

the tents near the water-cans and other things. As we 

were going to sleep, the unfortunate mawkin fell down 

^vith a tremendous clatter amongst the cans. Noah said it 

was a ghost. Zachariah pushed it at Noah. Noah sent 

it spinning at Zachariah. " Now then, Abel ! " " Here, 

Lucas!" Bang went the mawkin into the pans again. 

We got up to lay the ghost, and ejected the mawkin 

forcibly from the tent ; but in doing so our le^ accidentally 

caught a can full of water, which emptied itself into 

Zachariah's blankets. Zachariah's hilarity was at once 

damped. As we turned to go to sleep, we heard him in 

loud lamentation about his uncomfortable state, which he 

had partly originated. 

It was very wet the next morning. We awoke at seven, 
and somehow fell asleep again. The gipsies would sleep 
for ever. • To our astonishment it was ten o'clock. Our 
gipsies got frokost ready at eleven o'clock. The damp 
mist gradually cleared from the mountains, and we had 
tea, fladbrod, and butter for breakfast. Noah and Zacha- 
riah were dispatched after breakfast to the bondegaard 
they had been to on the previous day, and returned with 
a mark's worth of fladbrod and butter. They were very 
kind to them at the farm. We made a sketch of one of 
the peasants' lonely log-houses of the valley, whilst Noah 
and Zachariah were fishing for our commissariat. The 
narrow road winds close to the cottage beneath the 
broken cliff. A snow plough lies on the other side the 

s 2 



260 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

road. . A narrow inclosure separates the road from tlie 
Rauma. 

What a wild solitary existence in the depth of winter's 
snow must the peasant owner of this cottage lead ! 

For dinner we had soup made of ham, peaflour, wild 
sorrel, rice, Liebig's essence, and the dried meat of Holiaker 
for the third time. We tried to purchase some potatoes 
from the peasant living in the nearest log cottage to our 
camp, but he had none ready to get up. The musketos had 
not troubled us much since we had camped in the valley ; 
but we had met with two large black ants, or, as the 
gipsies call them, " creas," near our tent. They measured 
exactly three-quarters of an inch long: 

After dinner we all went out fishing, whilst Esmeralda 
was left in charge of the tents. Several peasants came to 
look at the donkeys during the afternoon. Some travellers, 
hastily proceeding, stopped their stolkjerrers and, looking 
wildly round, hastened to where the donkeys were quietly 
grazing. 



CHAPTER XXm. 

*' He checked his steed, and sighed to mark 
Her coral lips, her eyes so dark, 
And stately bearing — as she had been 
Bied up in courts, and bom a qneen. 
Again he came, and again he came,— • 
Each day with a warmer, a wilder flame ; 
And still again,— till sleep by night. 
For Judith's sake, fled his pillow qnite.** 

Judithf the Oipsy Belle, "By Dklta. 

MUSICAI* PEASANT — CASCADES — THE LEANING-STONE — THE SERIOUS 
PEASANT — ^ZACHARIAH ILL — NO VENTILATION — THE MAGICIAN's PEAKS 
— THB MAN0EH6e — " RAMULOUS "—ROMANTIC VALLEY — AGREEABLE 
TISITOnS — THB SERENADE — ^FUTURE ROUTE — HORGHEIM — RIP VAN 
WIKKLiE. 

The young peasant who played the concertina came 
and looked at the fence next the leaning-stone. He 
probably owned the adjoining enclosed land. Esmeralda 
said she thought he seemed doubtful whether part of his 
fence had not gone on to our fire. Esmeralda at once 
gave him some brandy, and he seemed pleased, and went 
and brought her a large heap of fire-wood. Strict in- 
junctions had been given, that the dead wood, and there 
was plenty of it, should only be taken from the adjoining 

bushes. 

A party of English travellers passed towards Veblungs- 
noes, and another towards Christiania. One young lady, 
who saw Noah fishing, asked if he had caught any. Our 



TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 



gipsies retvimed to tea at eight o'clock. Plenty of fried 
trout, tea, fladbrod, and butter formed our meaL Zacia- 
riah was very cold, and unwell at tea, with severe ptun in 
his shoulders. We sent him to bed, and rubbed him with 



T LKAJIiaO-BtOKE, SJIKUaUN. 



brandy, and gave him some to drink. One young peasant 
came, and seemed to have ridden some distance to see 
the donkeys. The valley of our camp was beautiful. 
Like Rasselas, we seemed completely shut in from the 



CASCADES. 263 

outer world ; that portion of the valley towards Veb- 
luDgsnces, by the Sjiriaglns Fjeld, which forms a barrier 
of three lofty bastions of rock, jutting forth in rugged out- 
line, and rounded summit, miarked with streaks of snow. 
Sterile crags of dark and green rock have here and 
there cascades, falling through the air, from the highest 
summits of these mural precipices. No egress seems pos- 
sible from below. "White fleecy clouds of mist gather on the 
upper cliffs, relieved by the green verdure which clothes 
the sides of the valley. The foliage creeps and feathers 
up the high ramparts of rock, till lost in the regions of 
desolation and sterility. What magnificent waterfalls 
leap forth from the hidden recesses of mist and cloud. 
They fall in thick white foam, are scattered in floating 
spray, glittering in a myriad of spangles, when illumined 
by the passing gleams of sun. Down, down, the white 
foam falls to depths far beneath. Birch-woods mingled 
with the fir stand forth from their mossy beds, and line 
the valley with the richest colouring. The gurgling waters 
of the Eauma wind their course along, fringed at the 
sides with birch and alder,* wild flowers, grass, and fern. 

* AJnus glutinosa. — ^This tree is often met with on the banks of the 
Tiveis of England and Wales, as in Norway. Occasionally we have met, in 
a sednded vaUey in Walea^ a party of "doggers," who have bouglit a 
quantity of this wood, and are converting it on the spot into clogs. They 
are doggers out for the summer. The alder wood is being worked up 
under a light awning, or half-tent sort of abri, from the rain and sun. The 
doggers generally sleep at some house until the stock of wood is converted 
into men's, women's, and children's dogs, which are consigned from time to 
time, by the nearest railway, to Lancashire. The alder wood is valuable 
for piles for bridges, as it lasts long under water. The Rialto at Venice is 
built on dder pUes. The bark and leaves are useful for dyeing and tanning 
leather, and in staining sabots in France, which are also made of this 
wood. Alder wood is light in weight, and easily worked. The dark 
bark and foliage of the spreading branches of the tree, which overhangs 
the river's edge, gives picturesque effect to many a Norwegian rivejr scene. 



264 TENT LIFB IN NORWAY. 

Unceasing moisture gives the freshest green, and a 
luxuriant ground of varied colour carves forth a natural 
setting, to the romantic woods of birch, the juniper, and 
the Norwegian pine, unrivalled in conception, and inimi- 
table by the art of man. 

About eleven o'clock at night we were writing these 
notes by the leaning-stone, near the remains of our camp 
fire, when the old man from the nearest log cottage came 
up, and asked what o'clock it was. As he came noiselessly 
round the leaning-stone, we motioned him to take a seat, 
on a loose piece of rock near to us. When he sat down 
we noticed that he was one of those deep-lined featured 
men, who seem worn by exposure and hard living. Telling 
him the hour, he looked curiously at our gold watch, 
which we at once showed to him. This was supplemented 
by a glass of brandy, and some tobacco, with which he 
filled his pipe. As he sat by the embers of our fire, in 
answer to some questions about the winters in Norway, 
the peasant looked fixedly, and earnestly at us, and said, 
" Meget kalt, meget ice, meget snee," and he raised his 
hand high above the ground. The tone in which he 
slowly said these words, in deep-marked emphasis, we 
shall not easily forget. Many of his countrymen, he 
said, went to America. The peasant then asked 
about England, and its climate. He told us there were 
many reindeer, and he went affcer them into the mountains. 
No one was allowed to shoot them from the Ist April to 
the 1st August He remained sitting with us, and 
talking by the large stone. At last he suddenly asked 
what o'clock it was, and when we told him the hour, he 
wished us good night, and departed. It was nearly twelve 
o'clock when we went to bed. 



NO VENTILATION. 265 

DuTiBg the night Zachariah was groaning and com- 
plaining ; his head was veiy bad, and his stomach. 
Noah was up at twenty minutes past four o'clock, and he 
had breaMast ready at twenty minutes to five o'clock. 
We gave Zachariah a hot glass of brandy-and-water with 
sugar. Our breakfast consisted of the remainder of our 
trout and grayling. Zachariah could take very little to 
cat or drink. The morning was fine, the sun just tipped 
the edge of the mountains above the vaUey. We decided 
to go if Zachariah could be removed, when the sun had 
reached us in the valley We got Zachariah out, and 
placed him in a snug comer under the leaning-stone, 
Avhilst the tents were struck, for it was about eight 
clock. When near the river, a tall young English 
traveller passed, who was anxious to catch the steamer 
at VeblungsnoBS, and, saying the scenery was the 
finest he had seen, asked if we had caught many fish. 
He was soon after followed by a traveller in another car- 
riole, whom we took to be his friend. The donkeys being 
loaded, we placed Zachariah on the packs of one, and 
were leaving, when a man came up just in time to see 
the donkeys, with which he was much delighted. We 
left him sitting on a rock watching us as we went out 
of sight. 

The Sim became clouded before we had proceeded far 
down the valley. The two first cottages we passed were 
shut up, but at the third we saw a peasant woman, who 
seemed much pleased when we gave her an empty bottle. 
The three small homesteads of this part of the valley 
were of the most humble description — far inferior to an 
out-building, or hovel of some of our second-rate farms in 
England Ventilation m sciarcely ever thought of, and 



TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

cleanliness much neglected. We were told that a clever 
scientific Norwegian gentleman had lately given especial 
attention to this subject, and had written upon the sani- 
tary condition of the Norwegian people. It rained 
heavily as we passed through a succession of narrow and 
romantic glens, of the valley of the Rauma, The peasants 
collected as usual with unabated interest to see our 
donkeys. Purchasing a mark of fladbrod and butter at 
one place, and a mark's worth of butter at another, we 
passed "Kors," and at a large house which we be- 
lieved to be the Fladmark Post Station, they came up 
to the road, and grass was placed for the donkeys to 
refresh themselves. They all seemed to give us a friendly 
welcome. The Rauma formed most picturesque falls 
and torrents along its rough and broken course. Some- 
times we passed through pine woods on its rocky shelving 
banks, and at other times through the cultivated land of 
some Bondegaard. As we travelled onwards all was en- 
closed from the road, and though inclined to halt for 
dinner, we could not find one convenient place. Our 
gipsies, notwithstanding the dismal weather, were as 
lively as usual, and wandered at times from the road in 
search of wUd strawberries, cranberries, and bilberries. 
They had a plentiful harvest of bilberries, and even 
Zachariah's voice lost much of the melancholy of its tone. 
At length we entered a wild valley shut in on the left by 
Troldtinderne, commonly translated into English as the 
" witches' peaks," but we were informed by an excellent 
authority that the translation should be the " magician's 
peaks." Nothing could be more wild and picturesque in 
outline. In front, as we advanced, rose the magnificent 
single peak of steep gray rock called the Romsdalshom, 



THE MAKGESOK 267 

rising to its lofty height from the hanging crags which 
formed a massive wall of rock to the valley in the dis- 
tance below. On our right the dark precipices of the 
Mangehoe rendered the valley narrow and secluded. It 
was impossible not to feel the wild grandeur of the scene. 
The broken barren ground forming a hillock below the 
precipice of the Mangehoe seemed just suited for our 
camp. At a house beyond, the peasants were collecting 
in the road to see us pass, and, taking Noah, we asked if 
we coidd camp. A man said, " Ya, ya." The donkeys were 
at once turned from the road across some rough ground. 
The hillock in sight of the road was gained, and our tents 
pitched in the heavy rain. Peasants — ^men, women, and 
children — collected to see us. Some well-dressed boys 
also came, and may have belonged to a pleasant resi- 
dence, across the Bauma, which we had seen before 
coming to our camp. It was with difficulty we could 
moderate the loud energy of our gipsy housekeeper ; in- 
deed she required a very heavy curb to repress, at times, 
the too boisterous spirits of her wUd free heart. Our 
tents being pitched, our middag's mad was prepared. 
The Australian meat was excellent as usual, and fladbrod 
and butter completed the meal The butter we had 
bought at the farm en route was not good. Our gipsies 
pronounced it bad, and it was ordered to be used for 
frying purposes. This was the only instance when we 
had met with indifferent butter ; at other times we found 
the Norwegian butter exceedingly good. 

The woman of the nearest house showed Zachariah 
where he could get water for our tea, and we bought from 
her two pounds of very good butter for two marks, six eggs 
for twelve. skiUings, some milk eight skiUings, cream six 



268 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

skillings, and £rom another woman a small goats' cheese 
eighteen skillings. 

In the evening we had tea, and fladbrod, and the goats' 
cheese. The cheese was good of the kind, .but the gipsies 
pronounced it " ramulous/' It is not unusual to find in 
those classes of people, who may be said to be poor, 
proneness to criticise what is placed before them, and 
often to have a greater want of economy than many who 
have been accustomed to plenty. In this instance we 
spoke in its favour, and said it was good enough for 
our camp, and in a day or two the gipsies took a great 
fancy to it, and in a very short time it was aU eaten. 

After tea we gave the peasants, who collected at our 
tents, some music. How we enjoyed the picturesque 
scene ; wild nature seems to give singular inspiration. 
The music of a mountain land has a melody peculiar to 
itself. It seems to come forth fix)m the deepest recesses 
of the heart, — those fine vibrations in nature, which seem 
but the echoes of other worlds. First we sang them our 
gipsy song with violin, and guitar accompaniment ; then 
the " Mocking Bird." Afterwards we played a number 
of airs. Sometimes we played the tambourine with the 
gipsies, sometimes the castanets. It rained, but what 
cared the Norwegian peasants for rain ? There they sat 
till about ten o'clock, when we told them that after two 
more tunes we should go to bed. The music ceased ; a 
kindly good night, and they left our camp. Then we 
watched the splendid outlines of the magician's peaks 
above us, in the silent night, the stillness was only broken 
by the loud rumbling sound of falling snow from some 
shelving ledge, to the rocks beneath. As we sur- 
veyed the lofty "Skulnablet" above the Eauma, we 



AQREEABLE VISITORS. 269 

decided to tiy some part of the Eomsdalshom or adjacent 
mountains if the next morning was fine. We retired to 
our tent, with all the pleasure of one who enjoys re- 
freshing repose in the midst of nature. 

It rained in the morning, and we could not attempt a 
mountain ascent About nine o'clock we had breakfast, 
and sent Noah and 2iachariah off to the Bauma fishing 
for our commissariat. We had tea, boiled milk, and flad- 
brod and butter for breakfast The gipsies caught some 
fish for dinner, — ^Noah 10 and Zachariah 9, one being 
a grayling one foot two inches long* The morning was 
showery, and we wrote letters in our tent to post at 
Veblungsnces ; Esmeralda was cooking dinner. We noticed 
a young lady looking at our donkeys with the peasant 
boy from her stolkjaerre ; very soon afterwards she came 
up to our tents, with her three sisters and a taU young 
gentleman, lier brother, — he did not appear in very strong 
health. They spoke to Esmeralda, and then looked into 
our tent, where we were writing our letters, we bowed, 
and they seemed rather surprised at the interior comfort 
of our tent. Then taking one of our gipsy songs, we pre- 
sented it to one of the young ladies ; she seemed much 
pleased at the unexpected present, and they tried to sing it 
to a tune. Taking our guitar we sang them the song ; 
their brother took off his hat when we concluded As we 
were sitting in our tent, they sang a Norwegian song very 
nicely together. The incident gave us much pleasure, as 
it was unexpected ; one sister spoke English, she had a 
brother a clergyman on board some vessel in England, so 
Esmeralda informed us. They had not long left when 
the boy came back with the song, and a note on the 
back ip pencil with Miss M.'s compliments, asking us to 






1 






HOBGHEIM. 271 

10 o'clock ; before we reached the station of Horgheun 
we were overtaken by the Miss M — s and their 
brother ; they had been to see the waterfall near Ormein ; 
we came up with them again at Horgheim, and asked 
their advice about our route from Veblungsnoes over the 
mountains. In answer to our inquiries, they said gipsies 
were sometimes seen about Veblungsnoes ; when they were 
told our gipsies' names and ages, they were much pleased 
with the name of Esmeralda. The young lady, who spoke 
English, said that Mr. Sundt had interested himself very 
much, with the gipsies, and had written upon the sub- 
ject! We told them we had a resumS of Proesten Sundt's 
works, and were also very much interested on behalf of 
the gipsy people. 

They told us they were going to take steamer at 
Veblungsnoes, and passed us soon after we left Horgheim. 
As we followed the road round the base of the Eoms- 
dalshom, we came to some waste ground open to the 
road, and partly covered with bushes. The donkeys were 
driven to a shady spot near a small stream of water. 
The Magician's peaks rose immediately above us ; at 
irregular intervals, we heard about its summits a noise 
hke distant thunder, the sound was produced by falling 
masses of snow loosened by the summer sun ; we could 
ahnost imagine ourselves in the Catskill Mountains, where 
Kp Van Winkle met Hudson and his spectre band. A 
witchery seemed to hang about those grey fantastic 
peaks. The middags-mad consisted of fried cheese, tea, 
fladbrod and butter, and potted tongue. We can assure 
our readers that few can realize the luxury of lounging 
on soft mossy .turf, after a pleasant meal, though simple 
it may be, near a rippling stream, shaded from the 



272 TENT LIFE IN NORIVA Y. 

mid-day sun, at the foot of lofty and pictiiresque motin- 
tains. Half listless and dreamy, we gazed on the smgolar 
outUnes of the Magician's peaks ; a tliousand spells of 
enchantment seemed to chain the spirit to an absence 
from all care, trouble, anxiety, and woe, which is wearing 
to the grave three parts of the mortals of this world! 
All our gipsies were at once in a delicious state of 
ijnconsciousness, in ttimbled heaps, as part of the bag- 
gage, lying on the turf around. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

"For the dance, no mnaic can be better than that of a gipey band ; 
there is a life and animation in it which carries yon away. If you 
Ikave danced to it yourself, especially in a czardas, then to hear the 
stirring tones without inTolontarily springing op, is, I assert, an abso- 
lute impossibility."* 

Bovsii*s Transylvania^ 

THJB INVA.LI1> — BESTTVB DONRETS — FIVA — AAK — VEBLUNGflN<E8 — THE 
NORWEGIAN FARMER — THE 0RAS8T KNOLL — ^A NORWEGIAN TOWN — 

THE fjord's shore — THE VEBLUNGSNCES' BATHS — ^HERR SOLBERG 

HOMME GALANT — MUSICAL CONVERSAZIONE — GIPST MUSIC. 

Supremely happy in our wandering existence, we con- 
trasted, in our semi-consciousness of mind, our absence 
from a thousand anxious cares, which crowd upon the 
social position, of those who take active part, in an over- 
TVTought state of extreme civilization. How long we 

* What IB meant by a czardas, or csdrdds, as it is usually spelt in the 
Hungarian language ? It is a celebrated Hungarian dance. The Magyar 
peasant seldom dances anything else. The csard^ is a national dance of 
Hungary, as much as the sailors' hornpipe is of England. We give the 
foUowing description of the csdrdds, from the interesting work of Arthur J. 
Patterson, " The Magyars ; their Country and Institutions," vol. i, p. 194, 
published by Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. in 1859 : — " Its name is the ad- 
jective form from " cs4rd4," which designates a solitary public house ; an 
institution which plays a considerable part in all romantic poems or ro- 
mantic novels whose scene is laid in Himgary, as a fitting haunt for 
brigands, horse-thieves, gipsies, Jews, political refugees, strolling players, 
vagabond poets, and other melodramatic personages. The music of the 
csard^ is at first slow, solemn, and, I may say, melancholy. After a few 
bars, it becomes livelier, which character it then keeps up, occasionally 



274 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

should have continued our half-dormant reflections, 
which might have added a few more notes upon the 
philosophy of life, we know not, but we were roused by 
the rumble of a stolkjaerre along the road ; it was quite 
time we moved on towards Veblungsnoes, and the gipsies 
began to get our things together. The stolkjaerre stopped. 
A tall pale invalid man descended ; he struggled through 
the bushes to where we were, though the exertion evi- 
dently cost him much, but he conquered ; he came, and 
he saw the donkeys. A faint smile lighted up a coun- 
tenance, expressive in its deep-lined features, of a once 
firm and determined will, but now marked with the last 
stage of consumption. Enveloped and wrapped up in dark 
clothes, wearing gloves, long boots nearly to his knees, 
although in the height of summer, he surveyed with a 
quiet smile our donkeys, ourselves, our gipsies, and our 
baggage. He had a female with him whose countenance 
was the exact expression of anxious care, and a young 
* man who seemed astonished at the weight of the baggage. 
What was to be done to show our hospitality. Lucky 
thought; out came the quinine, a small tiunbler filled 
with water, and the white powder was mixed in it ; we 
intimated that it might be of benefit. Poor fellow ! he 

becoming very fast indeed, and at last ends in a delirious whirl of con- 
fusion. The movements, of course, correspond. The dance openis with a. 
stately promenade ; then, as the music quickens, each couple take a tw^irl 
or two, and breaking away brusquely from one another, continue a series of 
pantomimic movements, now approaching coquettishly like parted lovers 
desiring reconciliation ; then, as if the lady thought she had given suffi- 
cient encouragement, she retreats with rapid but measured steps, while her 
partner pursues, and, gradually gaining on her, again seizes her waist ; they 
whirl swiftly round two or three times, and then, breaking away, continue 
the pantomime as before. What makes the csdrd^s unrivalled is its 
variety. One seldom sees the couples perform exactly the same figure at 
the same time.'' 



FIVA. 275 

wanted a strength-giving potent draught; it could do 
him no harm, it might do him some good. Taking a sip 
ourselves, and handing it to him, he drank it every spot. 
How did he know that, like Rip Van Winkle, he might 
not have fallen in with another Hudson and his band, 
and would sleep for twenty years beneath the shadow of 
the Magician's peaks. The tall, careworn-looking man 
handed me back the glass, and seemed much pleased. We 
gave him the tin cannister which had contained our 
potted tongue, with all the wonderful hieroglyphics 
generally scrolled outside : it was a parting souvenir of 
the nomads. Just as he had turned to go, the tamo-rye 
made a dash through the bushes, with Zachariah and 
Esmeralda dragging, fighting and struggling with him ; 
crash, crash went the bushes close by us ; the invalid was 
nearly frightened out of his boots. What did he know 
about these animals, and what habits of ferocity they 
might possess ? The contention was fierce between the 
tamo-rye and oul- gipsies, imtil he was brought to the 
baggage for loading. The invalid struggled, with un- 
steady gait, through the bushes, and, with the aid of his 
female attendant, ascended with difficulty into his stolk- 
jaerre, which was immediately driven away. He escaped 
the fate of Kip Van Winkle ; may the draught he took 
under the Magician's peaks give him health for twenty 
years. Some young woodcutters, with axes in their hands, 
came up as we were starting ; they accompanied us along 
the road. On our left across the Eauma, we noticed a large 
pleasant residence called " Fiva." The woodcutters' said 
it was the property and residence of Mr. Bromley Daven- 
\)OTt and a Mr. Ingram. They must have a splendid 
\iew from the house toward the Eomsdalshorn; we 

T 2 



270 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

were informed that three farms had been purchased Ly 
the owner along the banks of the Bauma, which made 
the fishing very complete. The salmon in the Rauma 
do not ascend above Ormein. The situation of " Fiva " is 
admirable ; the various bends and windings of the river 
round the estate are full of rapids and pools, that would 
have delighted the English father of all anglers, Isaac 
Walton. 

The valley now became more fertile. We passed 
through pleasant grassy meads. Our woodcutters went to 
some houses on the roadside. We met several stolk- 
jserrers, whose horses were rather shy in passing our 
donkeys. The peasants manifested the same curiosity 
about them. Now the valley assumed a more smiling 
aspect, and we came in sight of Aak " Lehnsmoend/ 
Andreas Landmark's House. The Hotel Aak is seven 
miles from Horgheim, and three from Veblungsnoes. As 
we saw the comfortable wooden house standing on a rise 
of ground above the road, with a diversity of green slopes 
and shady woods about it, we knew it to be the spot men- 
tioned by Lady Diana Beauclerk in such high terms of 
commendation. In contrast with the wild valleys we 
had left, it seemed a sort of oasis in the desert 

When we passed Aak, some ladies who saw our party 
ran down from the house to see us ; but a turn of the 
road soon hid us from them. Crossing two bridges, and 
passing a large comfortable house, we ascended the steep 
hill to a rise of ground above Veblungsnoes. Then pass- 
ing through a gate upon the road, we saw a quiet lane 
through some waste ground covered with bushes, where 
we told Esmeralda and Zachariah to stay with the don- 
keys. Taking Noah, we went to reconnoitre for a camp- 



VEBLUNQSXOSS. 277 

iiig ground. Very soon we came to the edge of the 
descent to Veblungsnces. Pausing a moment to look at 
the wooden church and town below, we went to the left, 
across a large space of open ground used as a drill-ground 
for the Militia; and, after looking at a large wooden 
building erected for military stores, we went down a lane 
to a gate, through which we saw several men and women 
raking up new-mown hay. This quiet spot formed a 
sort of knoll, above a small dingle, at the back of the 
bondegaard. 

A green slope, and wooded mountain, rose abruptly 
from the other side of the stream. This seemed a haven 
of rest, ajB Veblungsnces was to be our farthest point of 
travel north, our Ultima Thule. At once we entered, 
and going up to the farmer's son, as we rightly took him 
to be, we proposed to come there and camp. Very much 
astonished he seemed. When he recovered his breath, he 
said something about his father, and went with us 
towards the bondegaard. The farmers house was of 
the better class, and substantially built of wood. We 
entered a kind of family room, where the master and his 
wife were seated at table, taking milk, and raw dried 
salmon cut in slices on their fladbrod. The bonde was 
dressed in dark clothes, being upwards of sixty; of 
respectable appearance, weather-worn countenance, with 
sharp angular features, at once expressive of shrewdness 
and cupidity. In social relations of life, he was a very 
respectable man. Of generosity he had none in his com- 
position — one who would drive a hard bargain to the 
uttermost farthins:. 

The farmer came with us to the gate in a sort of be- 
wildered state. It was a fine scene as he came along 



278 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

with his son and a retinue of peasants and peasant ^rls 
holding rakes in their hands. Then there was the con- 
sultation at the gate opening to the junction of two 
deserted lanes. Our imperfect Norsk was aided by signs ; 
but we plunged through, with Noah standing as .a sort of 
aide-de-camp waiting for orders. 

A consideration was mentioned. "Ah! a consideration ! 
money penge/ ha, money penge! The silver key!" 
The donkeys must be seen. Noah soon had them down 
with his peculiar whistle. The old man's eyes twinkled 
as he surveyed them. A consideration ! we saw crossing 
his mind, as the hero in Hans Breitman's ballad, " He 
stood all shpell-pound." The donkeys were driven up to 
the knoll, and our things were unloaded down. 

"Well," thought we, " if we have to pay, we shall have 
strict privacy — private ground ! " 

The hay was cleared oflF the knoll, the tents pitched ; 
the donkeys were put up in the wood above the mown 
elope, on to the other side the dingle. Esmeralda said 
an officer, whom she designated as the Conmiandant of 
VeblungsncBS, had passed them near the gate, and was 
a very pleasant gentleman, who lived in the large house 
we had passed near the bridges. 

Eggs and bread could not be purchased at the farm. 
Some visitors came to our tents after tea; amongst 
others, Mr. L., of the telegraph office, who said he should 
be glad to give us any assistance. Our visitors did not 
stay late, and we retired to rest at an early hour. 

It is Friday, the 22nd July. The morning being wet, 
we did not rise very early. Taking Noah and Zachariah, 
we left our camp for Veblungsnoes, at about three o'clock 
in the afternoon. Passing from the bondegaard, across 



THE FJORjyS SHORE, 279 

some open arable fields, to an avenue of trees, we 
entered under its shade into a small wooden town. 
Passing up the main street, we soon found ourselves in a 
kind of conglomeration of houses, with short lanes having 
no continuance. One open space represented a kind of 
square. Alleys, at occasional angles, debouched to the 
waters of the Isfjord, which partly surrounds the town. 
Veblungsnoes is the port of Eomsdal. Though we could 
not account for it, we were at once interested in the place. 
There was a charm about its silent quaintness which made 
us linger with pleasure. 

The telegraph office was closed till four o'clock. Ve- 
blungsnoes evidently was buried in its siesta. The siesta, 
or kief, in mid-day is claimed by the inhabitants of many 
northern countries. The tradesmen would be quite offended 
if you went to their shops in their mid-day hours of refresh- 
ment and repose. How different from the American style 
of one, two, gulp, and gone ! No busy scenes or people 
met our view. The extreme quietude of the town seemed 
to communicate itself, and exercise its influence on the 
spirit. At times we imagined we were in a large ship or 
timber-yard, when the workmen had all gone to dinner. 
Strolling down a short alley, we were at once on the 
strand of the Is^ord. Walking along the water's edge, 
we could not help admiring the beauty of the evening 
scene. No one was visible. One small fishing-boat, partly 
drawn up on the beach, was just ready for a cruise. Nets, 
everything — even the dried fish, probably the store of 
provisions for the fishermen till their return — were placed 
in order. Some curious-looking fish, probably rejected 
as unsaleable, were lying on the shingle. One had green 
eyes, with its mouth in its throat ; two or three mouse- 



280 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

coloured fish, equally singular and repulsive, were tlirown 
near. It is strange what deformity occurs in the fish 
creation. It is said that in a lake in Wales the fish are 
all deformed. We have not yet verii&ed the fact. Re- 
turning to the telegraph oflfice, we saw Mr. L. All that 
he could do to render our stay agreeable he did. Our 
future route was discussed, and it seemed quite clear that 
it would be impossible to reach Christiansand before the 
end of the summer season. The idea that our party 
might take l)aths next occurred to us ; not that we ex- 
pected to find anything approaching the accommodation 
or luxury of ancient Rome. Baths, containing hundreds 
of seats of marble, adorned with splendid fi-escoes, and 
whose fittings were of alabaster, porphyry, and jasper, 
where every luxury was found that human thought 
could devise.* What the baths of Veblungsnoes would 
have been we know not ; but they had only one, the 
spreading waters of the Fjord, before us. The post-office 
was in the main street, and kept by polite and kindly 
people. The postage of each letter to England cost 
twelve skillings, and those to France fifteen skiUings. 

* The splendid vestiges of the Boman baths, called " thermse," " banios," 
or hot baths, at Borne, attest their former extent and magnificence. The 
Eomans began their bathing with hot water, and ended with cold— the 
hot, " caldarium ; " the tepid, " tepidarium ; " the cold, " frigidarium." 
Vast numbers of magnificent baths were erected by the Boman emperors. 
They had spacious porticos, rooms for athletic exercises, haUs for tlie 
declamation of poets and the lectures of philosophers. Perhaps the moat 
interesting remains of Boman baths in England are those discovered in the 
buried city of Uriconium, or Wroxeter, on the banks of the river Severn, 
about six miles from Shrewsbury, in Shropshire. For an admirable account 
of this city, supposed to have been taken by force, with much carnage, 
plundered, and burnt, between about the year 420 and the middle of the 
fifth century, we refer our readers to a work of great antiquarian research) 
published in 1872, entitled, " Uriconium : A Historical Accoimt of the 
Ancient Boman City," by Thomas Wright, M.A, F.S. A, &c., and also io 



HOMME QALANT. 281 

We sent a telegram to the Chevalier to announce our 
safe arrival ; another to Kongsberg, for our letters to be 
sent to Lorn. It was also mentioned to us that Herr 
Solberg, of Molde, wished very much to take photo- 
graphs of our donkeys and camp, if we would kindly 
consent. We were even offered some copies without 
charge, as an inducement. The news of the day was 
also important ; for the first time we learned that France 
and Prussia had declared war, and England would be 
neutraL Before we left we purchased a large quantity 
of bread, which Noah took into his possessicm. Leaving 
the quiet little town, we at length approached our tents, 
where we found two Norwegian officers seated in cheerful 
mood talking to Esmeralda at the tent entrance. 

They were gayety itself as they reclined on the green 
turf. One officer, who seemed about sixty, had all the man- 
ners of the "homme galant,". and spoke some English. 
AVhen they saw me they at once rose, saluted, and left. 
Esmeralda said the older officer, who spoke some English, 
was very polite, and said to her, ** How do you manage 
with four men ? " To which she answered, " I have only 



the concise and useful woik, " The Koman City of Uriconium," by J. 
Corbet Anderson. We believe that the private subscriptions, although con- 
siderable, which have been collected for excavation, are now aU exhausted ; 
and, unless Qovemment aid is given, it is improbable that the excavations, 
however interesting, can be resumed. The number of relics of the buried 
city, a very small portion of which has been explored, show the antiquarian, 
we may say, historical importance of further research. Bandall, in his in- 
teresting and beautifully illustrated work, the " Severn Valley,*' published 
(1862) by Virtue, says — " As excavations proceed, the plan of the city un- 
folds itself. . . . The forum, the baths, the market-place, and the sites of 
public and private buildings become clear ;*' and again the author says, 
"but with ruins, three miles in circumference, much remains to be explored. 

" All desolate lies Uriconium now, 
The dust of ages piled upon his brow/ 



282 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

three men." Then the officer said, " Who do you talk to 
most — I suppose your beloved Mr. Smith ? " Esmeralda 
said she did not talk to anyone. The oflScer then 
wanted to purchase a lock of her hair ; but she would not 
let him have any. We cannot venture to dwell on his 
feelings of cruel disappointment. 

We were much pressed by the people of the farm to 
give them some music in a large room, probably used as 
a granary. We went to see it first. The room was large 
and lofty on the ground-floor. We consented to play for 
them at nine o'clock. The farmer himself we saw very 
seldom, and it is scarcely probable that he originated 
the idea. 

An English gentleman staying at Aak, who had been 
to the telegraph office, came to our camp, and sat down 
in our tents. From his intimate knowledge of Norway, 
he was able to give us considerable information. It was 
very fortunate. We presented him with a copy of our 
gipsy song, before he left, as a souvenir of our camp. 

At nine o'clock, chairs having been placed for us, we 
took our seats and commenced playing, ourself the 
guitar, Noah the tambourine, and Zachariah his violin. 
We had a large party — ^unexpectedly so, some of the 
officers and their wives, and many of the principal in- 
habitants of Veblungsnoes ; and we had not anticipated 
more persons than the people of the bondegaard. Es- 
meralda was left in charge of the tents ; but our visitors 
had so much delicacy that directly we left the tent no one 
went near it. • What a scene 1 The room was suddenly 
filled with dancers and visitors. One tall young officer, 
a fine young fellow, was especially active. We had a 
favourite polka for them, which we afterwards christened 



OIPSY MUSia 283 



f< 



Veblungsnoes/' Zachariah put all his gipsy nerve and 
feeling into his music. Nay, our Romany Boshamengro, 
almost rivalled, if he did not surpass, Bama Mihali, the 
celebrated gipsy violinist of Hungary.* Even Orpheus 
might have bit his lips ; but he was not there. All that 
wild gipsy inspiration could do, was done — ^tones that 
produced a whirl of sensation. Noah did his part stoutly 
on the tambourine. We made the acquaintance of several 
very pleasant officers and others — one or two we had 
met in our wanderings. They seemed like old friends. 

Then Esmeralda came and played, in place of Noah, 
with her tambourine. Between the dances we conversed 
as well as we could with the officers and other visitors. 
Mr. L. was also there. The Norwegian officers have 
much military smartness about them. Many of them 
can speak French or English, and sometimes botL We 
always found them gentlemen. The Militia officers 
receive regular pay all the year ; their men are only paid 
whilst on duty. The Militia men we saw, were fine strong 
young men, capable of any amount of endurance. Such 
was our introduction to the inhabitants of Veblungsnoes. 
We saw almost aS much of them, as if we had made a 
series of visits to their houses. At the same time we had 
escaped the inconvenience of too much hospitality, and 
stiU more, of being obliged to sit in close warm rooms. 



* There is a favourite Hungarian melody, called by the Magyars the 
" E4k6tzy," of which Paget, in his comprehensive work, in 2 vols., " Hun- 
gary and Transylvania," published in 1855, says — " I am now more than 
ever convinced that none but a gipsy band can do it full justice. The effect 
of the melancholy, plaintive sounds with which it begins, increased by the 
final discords which the gipsies introduce, and of the wild burst of passion 
which closes it, must depend as much on the manner of its execution as on 
the mere composition. '^ 



284 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

^vhich, to one accustomed to the natural saloons of the 
wild forest, is at any time a very severe penajice. In the 
clear light of a Norwegian evening, the younger people 
danced to the strains of our wild music ; others looked 
on, and conversed ; all seemed to enjoy themselves. Ten 
o'clock came: our music ceased. Specially requested, 
as we ] eft, we seated ourselves on a slope of turf near 
our tents, and sang, "The Gipsy Song,'' with guitar 
accompaniment They seemed pleased. With many 
adieux, they left. So ended what may be termed our 
gipsy conversazione at Veblungsnoes. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Where is the little gipey'e home f 

Under the spreading greenwood tree, 

WhereTer she may roam, 

Where*er that tree may be ; 

Roaming the world o'er. 

Crossing the deep blue sea^ 

She finds on eveiy shore 

A home among the free ! 

A home among the free, 

Ah, Yoilk la gitana, Yoilk la gitana. 

Dronna of * * Notre Dame, " By H ALunir. 

PURCHASES — ZACHARIAH's TBOUBLE — ESKERALDA'b PHO TOORAPH — THE 

KIOD PRICE OP MEAT — THE YACHTSMEN — THE THREE PEAKS — THE 

BPIRIT-WORLD — PR08T BITES — ULTIMA THULE — ESMERALDA OAL- 
VANISKD— -THE FJORD— HEEN KIRKE — ^PARELIUS — EIDER DUCKS — 
BBAUTIFUL BOUQUETS. 

OuK gipsies had breakfast ready soon after 7 o'clock, 

and taMng Noah with us, we found Mr. L. at 

Veblungsnoes. With his assistance we obtained from an 

excellent general shop, the only one of the kind apparently 

in Veblungsnoes, two bottles of very good port wine, for 

one dollar two marks twelve skillings, twelve poimds of 

brown sugar, for one dollar four skillings, or about eight 

shillings and eight pence English money; some brim- 

stone and treacle for the gipsies, soap, and some small 

items came to another dollar. The owner of the shop, 

which contained a variety of almost everything, had a 



286 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

counting-liouse attached, where he changed for us a 
ten-pound Bank of England note, into a quantity of 
small money of the country. We forget his name. All 
tradesmen should have their name and address printed 
at the head of their bills, and give one on all oc- 
casions, so that chance customers may have some 
means of reference and recommendation. Noah was 
heavily weighted ; more bread cost two marks four 
skillings, and some sundries, and gurnet for dinner, 
made our expenditure nearly another dollar. Mr. L. 
had read much in English, and, although he had never 
been in England, conversed with great ease and fluency 
in the English language. We returned to our camp, to 
meet Herr Solberg, the photographer. 

The day was beautiful, Herr Solberg was ready with 
his apparatus. The photographer came from Molde ; he 
is a tall, pale, quiet, intelligent man. Esmeralda had 
put our things ready, so that our toilette was soon made. 
As to herself, she was resplendent in the blue dress, 
plaid braid, and silver buttons. Her brothers had very 
few additions they could make, but Noah contrived to 
buy at Veblungsnoes a paper front and collar, which gave 
him immense satisfaction. Zachariah was in a melan- 
choly temper; no one had bought him a churie (gip. 
shut-knife) at Veblungsnoes. His existence was blurred, 
his cheerfulness clouded, and his smile was gone. 

About 12 o'clock Herr Solberg took his first stereo- 
scopic view. Mr. L., some ladies, and one of our 
former visitors, a Norwegian captain and his son and 
children, came to our camp. The stereoscopic view 
was pronounced perfect. The donkeys were a success, 
and the wooded hill above our camp came out with 



^ 4 N*«l*^ 



t • V.' ' 

.... . »— ^ 



t 






ESMERALDA'S FHOTOQEAFH. 287 

the background exceedingly well. Another photograph 
of ourselves, tents and donkeys, was afterwards made, 
and also a carte de yisite of Esmeralda, standing under 
a birch-tree, with Jier tambourine in her hand. On her 
finger is a silver ring, presented to her by one of our 
fiiends, as a memento of Veblungsnoes. As the ladies 
sat on the grass looking on, we set our musical-box 
to pl^ near them, and so the day passed until 3 o'clock, 
when the sun having been too high and powerful for 
a good single photograph, Herr Solberg left us to have 
our dinner, and to return again at 4 o'clock. Our gurnet 
was very good, but exceedingly reduced in substance in 
boiling. Upon Herr Solberg's return, he took another 
Buccessful photograph of our camp, and left. The 
donkeys are very difficult to take, but by a happy chance 
they wer6 exceedingly quiet at the right moment. The 
engraving now given, is taken from Herr Solberg's pho- 
tograph of our gipsy camp at Veblungsnces. 

Noah was soon reijuired on duty. Having sufficient 
time before tea, we went to Veblungsnoes, and bought 
some sealing-wax and glue, whilst Noah went to a 
spirit store, kept by an old man, who had all the ap- 
pearance of a jovial Bacchanalian. Two or three bottles 
of aquavit, or brsendeviin, a sort of corn brandy, was 
bought by Noah. We afterwards imagined the bottles 
were filled with the dregs of one of the casks, perhaps, 
the brandy was therefore more potent. Certain im- 
purities floating about did not inspire confidence. It 
was inferior to that we had purchased from the steward 
of the steamer at Lillehammer. The brandy was in- 
tended for our peasant visitors at camp. We were 
annoyed, but found they were not very squeamish, and 



288 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

seemed to like it ; yet we wished to give them the very 
best> and were always ready to give the highest price. 

Meat, or as it is called in Norwegian, kiod, is not 
very obtainable. No butchers' shops are to be met with 
at Veblungsnoes. No joints of meat hanging up for sale. 
Mr. L. believed that a large ox had been killed for 
the funeral of a substantial bonde, residing at a large 
house, on the high-road near Veblungsnoes churclr, and 
he would inquire. We had just returned to our camp 
when we received a letter from Mr. L. and went 
with the bearer to the bondegaard. They could let us 
have ten or fifteen pounds of beef, at ten skillings per 
pound. We went up some steps from the road to the 
house-door ; but the atmosphere was too close for us to 
remain inside. Going with a man to a door at one end 
of the house, he entered a kind of cellar, and we were 
shown the meat in a cask. They kindly sold us ten 
pounds of the beef, which Noah took away. We paid 
four marks four skillings, or thi^e shillings and nine 
pence English money value. Being uncertain when we 
should have another chance of buying fresh meat, we 
thought it desirable to save our stores as much as 
possible. 

Visitors were at our tents when we returned for tea. 
Sounds of voices speaking nautical English met our ear : 
the skipper of the yacht " Claymore " introduced himself, 
with one of the yacht's crew and their Norwegian pilot. 
The skipper said two or three young English gentle- 
men were cruising with their yacht, and she was at 
anchor in the Fjord,* near Veblungsnoes. The yacht 
had reached Christiansand about the time we reached 

* Fjord is pronounced Fee-or, 



THE YACHTSMEN. 280 

Christiania. We gave them some brandy, and tho 
skipper seemed quite delighted to see anyone who could 
talk English. He told us they had an ancient claymore 
for a figure-head on board, and three dogs and a monkey 
On leaving they said we might probably come to see the 
yacht before she left 

The Norwegian Sunday conmiences at 5 o'clock on 
Saturday afternoon, Ajs usual, we determined not to 
allow any music in the evening, and we heard after- 
wards, the farmer, who was very scrupulous upon tho 
observance of the Sunday, was much pleased. 

When our visitors from the "Claymore" were gone 
we were ready for tea. Zachariah was unable to eat 
any of the fried meat. Our can of water was boiled, and 
our beef fried, at our camp fire, at the bottom of the 
grassy knoll, on which our tents were pitched. A clear, 
winding, narrow brook, shaded by alder and birch bushes, 
rippled below us; the grass was short, having been 
newly mown, and the hay was taken away. A fine 
bold mountain rose before us, with rocky peaks, as we 
looked from Veblungsnoea The summer's sun had not 
melted all its winter snow. Its three peaks were called 
the King, Queen, and Bishop. After tea Captain C. 
came by our tents en route to the telegraph office. All 
were anxious to hear tidings of the war. Mr. L. coming 
to our camp soon after, told ns the news, and we all 
walked together to Aak. 

The walk from our camp to Aak must have been 
about two miles. Mr. L. conversed with a young 
Norwegian gentleman who joined us, and we sauntered 
along with Captain C. The calm stUlness of the 
Norwegian evening was very refreshing. By some chance 



290 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

our conversation turned upon ghost lore as one of 
our subjects. Each had our idea. Captain C. relatdi 
one or two singular instances of undoubted occurrences. 
Wraiths, it has been said, may be accounted for by the 
wave of thought in distant manifestation. The body 
in one place and the spirit in another ; voices as sounds 
seemingly distinct, sometimes heard through the wide 
distance between two souls inseparable^ Before de- 
parture from the world, the spirit sometimes manifests 
itself to some loved friend. The wraith has accomplished 
its mission, and it is gone -for ever. People who dwell 
with Nature seem peculiarly susceptible to such in- 
fluences. In the regions of the mightiest works of our 
Creator's hand, we find them naturally most prone to such 
impressions. Gipsies are not without their experiences 
on such subjects. More than one instance has found a 
place in our gipsy lore. 

We have reached Aak, our discussion on a variety of 
subjects, ends in our finding ourself in a most com- 
fortable room, hung round by photographs of Norwegian 
scenery, and seated at a small table, quafl&ng a glass of 
sparkling baiersk ol. The presence of English travellers 
was evident, from a marked attention to ventilation. A 
tidy pige, or waiting-girl, with quiet manner, and ready 
attention, attended to some travellers, who were taking 
their evening meal, at a long table near us. All was 
cleanliness and comfort at Aak. 

Our stay at Aak was brief. We returned to our tents 
with Mr. L., who was full of information about his 
country. Those who are accustomed to our JEnglish 
climate, can scarcely realize the length of a Norwegian 
winter. It is very cold at Veblungsnoes, from about the 



JPjBOOT bites. 291 

middle of September to the middle of MarcL All that 
we now saw before us, so pleasant and smiling, would 
in a short time be covered with a white fleecy mantle 
of deep snow. Many scarcely venture out from Sep- 
tember to March, and the cold winds sometimes pro- 
duce on the face, not inured to continued exposure, what 
is called the Rose. It is a pink tinge upon the counte- 
nance, which in some is not altogether a blemish. Frost- 
bites and chilblains are of course the occasional result of 
so much cold. Frost-bites should be rubbed at once with 
snow. The oil from reindeer cheese is said to be a cure 
for frost-bites. Although the cold is intense at times, the 
atmosphere is dry and not unhealthy. If the Norwegian 
summer were twice the length, Norway would be a 
paradise. 

The morning was windy, Noah's tent was almost 
blown over. Our breakfast consisted of tea and bread 
and butter. Esmeralda was not well ; Zachariah was still 
afficted with a churie (gip., shut-knife) monomania. Two 
days' inactivity and extra good living, was evidently 
plunging our gipsies, into the depths of biliousness. It 
was in vain we had dosed Zachariah with brimstone and 
treacle, until he was a qualified inmate for Dotheboys' 
Hall, and a fortnight with Wackford Squeers, would 
have done him an immense amount of good. Noah 
was always lively. A few hours' rapid movement would 
restore alL 

With all their waywardness, and restlessness of spirit, 
we had the elements for rapid action, and a physical 
energy, with which to push through any obstacle. 
Veblungsnoes, it was determined, should be our Ultima 
Thule, and striking our tents on Monday morning, we 

V 2 



292 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

should seek new scenes in the wild Norwegian f jelds. 
Still wandering south — still on our homewards route, our 
little band of hardy nomads, would have to brace them- 
selves to fresh exertion. What a vast expanse of 
mountain, glen and forest lay before us, which we must 
traverse, before we again reached the sea. 

At half-past nine o'clock Esmeralda was ready to 
accompany me to Veblungsnoes. She looked well in her 
blue dress, plaid braid, and silver buttons, and her heavy- 
boots were blacked and shining, specially for the visit. As 
we entered the avenue of trees all was quiet and repose. 
A Sunday in England could not have been more calm, 
and free from busy turmoil and bustle. The town of 
Veblungsnoes seemed to have a perpetual Sunday, for it 
was the same on week days ; there was nothing dull, or 
dreary about the place, yet there was nothing to see in 
it ; it possessed an indefinable charm, arising out of its 
attempt at nothing. We left it as we found it, to be 
remembered with pleasure. 

Esmeralda had been promised to see the telegraphic 
apparatus. Our word to our gipsies was always relied 
upon by them ; if it was said to them, it was done. 
Mr. L. was ready to receive us, and the apparatus 
was explained, and Esmeralda was electrified. With a 
present of a quantity of strawberries from Mr. L 
she departed for our camp, whilst Mr. L. arranged for 
our departure in a boat to see the " Heen Kirke," on the 
Isfjord. 

The Isfjord is a fine expanse of water. Our two oars- 
men were ready, strong hardy men, chewing tobacco 
without intermission, and spitting perpetually. Their 
pallor of countenance may have been produced by im- 



HEEN KIBKE. 293 

moderate chewing. The yacht, " Claymore," was resting 
at anchor; the owners of the craft were enjoying a 
sporting tour. There is a great enjoyment of inde- 
pendence in a yacht cruise, Norway is admirably 
adapted for yachting; but our time was limited, and 
getting the wind, our sail was hoisted, and we soon left 
Veblungsnoes in the distance. Gentle slopes rise from 
the margin of the Fjord for a short distance, dominated 
by lofty steeps and rising hills ; here and there small 
log houses, being the residences of the peasant owners, 
come into view. The small property round each, is their 
farm. 

The cost of an ordinary sized farm on the shores of 
the Fjord, would average about 600 to 700 dollars, or 
about £157. 10s. English money, according to the size 
of the farm. Few attempts are ever made to give to 
the Bondegaard, the picturesque appearance of the Swiss 
cottage. With very little more expense and labour, the 
Norwegian peasant's cottage, might be made exceedingly 
pretty, and ornamental. 

The " Heen Kirke " had no unusual attraction in itself ; 
one Norwegian church is so like another, • No old 
monuments to please the antiquarian taste ; no mediaeval 
tombs ; no brasses, Norman arches, Saxon doorways, 
and decorated windows ; no corbels, bosses, and gro- 
tesque imagery of ancient stone sculpture ; no tesselated 
pavement, and richly ornamented cloisters, dark with 
age, and dim with poetic light. No peel of bells, and 
massive tower covered with ivy, resorted to by owls, 
and jackdaws. No ecclesiastical library of black-lettered 
books, curiously and substantially bound, in dark and 
dusty covers, crammed into shelves, and forgotten in 



294 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

some comer of the vestry. The worm-eaten oak chest 
was wanting also, containing well-thumbed registers and 
sacramental plate, secured by three large locks, one for 
the vicar and one for each of the churchwardens. The 
Norman stone font, with elaborate carving was absent 
The crypt and sedilia,* were not to be found, and a 
chained Bible we did not see.f Yet, withal, the people 
are earnest in their prayer, their ways are those of peace, 
and their pastors appear to hold the affections of their 
flock. 

We had a beautiful view of the "Kavlee Fjeld"a5 
we returned Stretching forests of pine extended beyond 
the head of the Fjord. On our left we saw the once 
abode of " Parelius," a wild spot beneath a precipice, 
near the margin of the Fjord. Parelius was a great 
linguist. No one appears to have chronicled his lin- 
guistic skill, though he learned a living language, which 
few if any can. Even the Parisien of the Jardin des 
Tuileries, whose command over birds is wonderful, did 
not seem to know their language ; even Mademoiselle 
Vanderschmeck, could not rival Parelius, who lived in 
the solitary Bondegaard, on the shore of the Isfjord. 
Parelius conversed with birds ; he is said to have known 
their language. On one occasion some peasants asked 
him, when he was in another parish, away from home, 



* Beautiful examples of the sidilia and piscina may be seen in Dorcbeister 
Abbey Church, Oxfordshire. The small openings or windows at the back 
of the niches are remarkable. Another interesting example of the aediliA 
and piscina may be seen at Grafton Underwood, Northamptonshire, where 
the niches have ogee heads, cinque-foiled. 

t The largest number of chained Bibles we have seen are in the old library 
of Wimbome Minster, in Dorsetshire. The libraiy is also interesting as 
associated with Matthew Prior, the poet. 



PARELIdS. 295 

what the crows hard by were saying — " They say," said 
Parelius, " that a bear has just killed one of my oxen, 
and I must go home." He returned to verify his loss. 
Whilst Parelius was from home one day, an avalanche 
from the precipice above, destroyed his house. We were 
told he lived some fifty years ago. Parelius is gone — 
the house is gone. Whether he was a native of Veb- 
lungsnces we cannot say. No record appears to have 
been made of this eminent man, some account of his 
life, scanty though it be, may rescue his name from 
oblivion. 

The fjords of this coast are well stocked with fish, and 
the islands and rocks with wild fowl. The eider ducks 
are numerous ; their nests are made on the ground, and 
the down is taken from the nest after it is placed there 
by the bird. About half-a-pound of down is taken from 
each nest, which is reduced to a residue of about a 
quarter-of-a-pound for sale or use ; a very small quantity 
of the down is sufficient to stuflF a coverlet ; its wonderful 
hghtness and warmth renders it extremely valuable. There 
is now a law for the protection of the eider duck ; they 
may not be caught or killed from 15th April to 
15th August* 

Fiva is said to have the best salmon fishing on the 
Rauma. We had a fresh wind on the Fjord as we 
returned. Birch twigs are used as fastenings for the 
boat sail instead of rope, in fact, the birch twigs, or 
withes, are substituted for rope in every variety of way 
After a pleasant cruise we landed, and left our friend, 
and reached our camp with an excellent appetite. 

* An eider-down quilt in London costs sometimes as mncb, as five to 
seven guineas. 



296 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Our dinner consisted of soup, meat, and bread and 
butter. Esmeralda was unwell and could not eat any- 
thing. Zachariah was stiU murmuring about tie chmie 
(shut knife) no one had bought for him. He received a 
lecture ; the shadows of his future were forcibly set 
before him. 

After dinner the " Lehnsmoend's " lady from Aak, and 
her two daughters came to see the donkeys. A very beau- 
tiful bouquet of flowers she brought for our acceptance. 
Lady Di Beauclerk, in her Journal,* speaks of the beau- 
tiful flowers of Aak. Whilst our visitor and her daughters 
sat in our tents, we sent for the donkeys, which were 
much admired. Zachariah was presented with a box of 
ornaments before they left. So our visitors came and 
went in succession during the evening, and our first 
idea of strict seclusion, by camping in private ground, 
we found an illusory dream. 

• " A Summer and Winter in Norway," by Lady Di Beauclerk, puV 
lished by Murray, 1868. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

These prophecieB are repeated, particularly by Kzekiel, many times 
almost in the aame words in different chapters (see particularly the 
whole of the 30th and 32nd), as if he were desirous in an especial 
DAimer to enforce them. These denunciations and prophecieS| then, 
seem clearly to establish three distinct important events to the 
Egyptians— first, their complete conquest and dispersion ; secondly, 
their remaining dispersed, without idols, among all nations, and 
countries, in the open fields, during forty years ; and, finally, their 
being again brought to the land of their habitation, where they shall be 
taught to know the Lord. 

The Oijmes* By Saxusl Bobsbts. 

OUR OXTIDE — TO THE MOUNTAINS— MYSTIC LIGHT — THE PHOTOGRAPHS — 
THE CLAYMORE YACHT — NORWEGIAN GIPSIES — SINGULAR RACE — 
OCCUPATIONS — GIPSY BURIALS — ROMANTIC LOVE — PREDESTINATION — 
THE BONDEGAARD — THE HIGH DEMAND— ESMERALDa'S SOUVENIR. 

A KOTE was soon after placed in our hands, by a broad- 
shouldered thickset muscular man, rather under middle 
height, with a thick sandy almost red beard ; his small 
quick eye betokened alertness, and self-possession, his 
countenance expressed good temper, fidelity, and rectitude. 
It was not necessary to look agaip, as we took the note. 
He was a broad-chested, sturdy reindeer hunter, of the 
Fjeld; the note was an introduction given by Mr. L. 
the bearer was Ole Halvorsen, or as he is usually 

* A fifth edition of " The Gipsies : Their Origin, Continuation, and 
Destination ; or, the Sealed Book Opened," by Samuel Roberts, •was pub- 
lished by Messrs. Longman, 1842. 



298 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

called Ole RSdsheim, from the name of his station and 
land in Boeverdal. A certificate of strong recoramen- 
dation by two English gentlemen, for whom he had 
recently acted as guide, and had lately parted from, was 
also given us. Captain C/s name was also used with his 
permission. We at once liked Ole Rodsheim ; his quiet 
manner, and appearance, was so diflFerent from many of 
the " Tolks," and guides, who are often more trouble, and 
expense than use ; most of thein would sneeze for an 
hoiu-, at the idea of sleeping on some damp heath, under 
a rock during a windy wet night, near the exhilarating 
influence of a cold snow field ; such were not the men 
for our expedition, and Ole Rodsheim was. After a 
careful inspection of our maps, we soon arranged in our 
minds, the course for our future expedition after we left 
Veblungsnoes. The summit of the Galdhoepiggen, the 
Morkfos, and the valders, with a long route through 
many Mountain and Lake scenes, we proposed to 
accomplish. Ole Rodsheim spoke good English, and 
the following arrangement was soon concluded; he 
was to join us near Molmen, and guide our party 
over the mountains, to Skeaker, Lom, and Rodsheim, and 
ascend with us the Galdhopiggen, for the sum of three 
dollars and a half, finding himself board and lodging ; 
his services afterwards, if required, to be 4 marks a day, 
including everything. Deciding to make a forced march, 
and travel in two days what we had before travelled 
in four, we agreed to be at the Bover Moen (Beaver 
stream) between Stueflaaten and Molmen on the follow- 
ing Wednesday morning. 

With what pleasure we looked forward to fresh scenes 
travel and adventure in even \\dlder scenes of nature 



>. 



..»*»f» 


.-•■ 


•.'.' 


• V 


11 lifA-* 


r'3 


^i 


.*t f 


> 









MYSTIC LIGHT. 299 

than those we had yet traversed. Those we had seen 
were very beautiful ; each camp seemed to eclipe the 
last, in the beauty of its scenery. On those still clear 
Norwegian nights, full of mystic light, lovely in their 
starlight stillness, the mind seemed enthralled, in a 
thousand pleasing fancies; the music of the waterfall; 
the voices on the breeze. The melody of nature, pro- 
duced impressions we can never forget. 

Norway is not the country for the sybarite, faineant, 
and the Mneur ; it is the home of the hardy mountaineer, 
the angler, the reindeer hunter, and nomad wanderer, 
the lover of nature and nature's works in her wildest and 
most beautiful forms. 

Plants, mosses of every hue, trees, rocks, glaciers, 
torrents, lakes, fjords, waterfalls, mountains, woods, 
and glens, are, in their perfection, met at every step, in 
Norway's free romantic land. 

When Mr. L. came to our camp in the evening with 
Herr Solberg, we arranged for our photographs, and paid 
for them. The views of Romsdalshom, Veblungsnoes, 
and Troldtindeme, from which the engravings in this 
book are taken, had yet to be completed specially for us. 
They were afterwards forwarded; Herr Solberg was 
allowed the privilege of disposing of the stereoscopic view 
of our gipsy camp, and the carte de visite of Esmeralda. 
The specimens he brought to show us, were presented to 
Esmeralda. 

Our last walk with Mr. L. is taken by the Isi^^^^d. 
As a parting souvenir we gave him an illustrated copy of 
Her Majesty the Queen of England's Journal, with which 
he was much interested ; Mr. L. added much to the 
pleasure of our visit to the quaint old town of Veblungs- 



8(X) TENT LIFE IN NOMWAT, 

noes. When shall we meet again ? So it is in this world ; 
we meet and we part, but fortunately the memory retains 
friendship's recollection not so easily eflfaced. 

From the Isfjord, near Veblungsnoes, the farm was 
pointed out to us where Colonel Sinclair, who perished 
at the Kringelen, landed with his forces. 

The church of Veblungsnoes is represented in the en^ 
graving of the town. There was nothing remarkable 
about this church to note, A newly dug grave was pre- 
pared in the churchyard for the deceased Bondegaard, 
who had resided near. If it happens that the clergjnnan 
cannot attend when the corpse is buried no delay occurs ; 
the service is read over by the clerg)Tnan at some future 
time, when he attends for church service. The yacht 
Clajrmore added a charm to our evening contemplation 
of the Tsfjord. Noah said he had seen one of the gentle- 
men of the yacht on shore, who had that day ascended 
the mountain above our camp. 

Our stay was now nearly ended. Hitherto our travels 
had through every difficulty, been most successful ; we 
had scarcely lost anything ; the two hats, musketo veil, 
and kettle prop we could manage without. Mr. L. 
told us that two young Norwegian friends who had made 
an excursion, came to him with scarcely anything left ; 
they had forgotten some article at nearly every place 
they went to. With some trouble the things were again 
recovered. When the travellers departed, they again 
contrived to leave behind them an umbrella and a pair 
of galoshes. 

Some of the Norwegian gipsies usually attend the 
October fair at Veblungsnoes. The women are very hand- 
some, and some of the men. When they attend the fair, 



NORWEGIAN GIPSIES. 301 

the women drink even more than the men. They are 
very fond of music, and at the fairs, when they have 
drunk to excess, are very quarrelsome and passionate. 
Under the Norwegian law any person who arrives at a 
certain age without being able to read or write, and who 
has not been confirmed, is liable to be committed to gaol. 
There they remain imtil they can read, write, and are 
properly instructed in religious knowledge. Many of the 
gipsies when examined by clergymen, have been found so 
ignorant, and without instruction, that they have from 
time to time been committed to prison, and detained 
there, till they came up to the standard of required 
proficiency. Proesten Eilert Sundt had therefore good 
opportunities of seeing them, and conversing with them. 
The vocabulary of Romany words, as spoken by the 
Norwegian gipsies, which he has collected, with other 
information, is very valuable.* His mission seems to 
have been performed with much energy. The short 
r^sumd of his works, given in the appendix to this 
book, we had specially made for our English readers ; it 
gives some idea of the state in which he found this 
wandering and singular people in Norway. The Storthing 
granted a large sum for the amelioration of their con- 
dition. We were told that some gipsies who had money 
given them, and were settled in farms on the shore of 
the Is^ord opposite Veblungsnoes, did not remain long, 
EDd, selling their farms, disappeared with the money 
Many of the gipsies who attend the Veblungsnoes fair, 
when asked where they came from, say the Valders. 

* A comparison of many words of the Norwegian and English gipsy 
languages, showing their similarity, is given in the appendix to this 
book. 



302 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

This was one reason why we decided to return with our 
gipsies through that part of Norway. Notwithstanding, 
Proesten Sundt's account of their mode of life, and predi- 
lections, and the very unenviable notoriety they seem to 
have attained in Norway, we were certainly anxious to 
fall in with a band of these wanderers, so that our people 
might hold converse with them. We were told that 
some of the gipsies had land in the Valders ! but it is very 
possible that the statement that they came from that part 
of Norway was an evasive reply. It is very seldom, 
gipsies wiU give even their right names to curious 
questioners ; as in other countries where they are found, 
and in very few they are not, they deal in horses and 
work in metals. The Norwegian gipsies are skilful 
workers in brass ; we were told that they live in houses 
in the winter, the cold being too intense for them to 
travel with their tents. 

The circumstance of the non-burial of the gipsy dead 
in the Norwegian churchyards, as stated by the Proesten 
Sundt, is not confined exclusively to the gipsies of 
Norway. Baudrimont in his " Langue des Bohdmiens," 
as spoken by those living in the Basque provinces, says 
at page 27, " We know not what becomes of the gipsies 
who die ; not the slighest trace of them is ever met with. 
This has given rise to the idea, that they turn the course 
of rivulets, and, digging a pit, place the body in the 
torrent's bed, and again let the water resume its course." 

Francisque-Michel in his work, ** Le Pays Basque,"* at 
page 143, says: — "*I have noticed in many localities/ 
said Monsieur le Vicomte de Belsunce, who was for a 

♦ Published Londres et Edinbourg : Williams and Noigate. 1857, 



ROMANTIC LOVE. 303 

considerable period the mayor of a district, ' that gipsy 
men and women of great age, long known to the present 
generation as old people, disappear suddenly, and never 
return. It is a common occurrence, and yet no labourer 
in the fields, or traveller on the roads, or shepherd, or 
hunter in the mountains, ever sees the trace of a grave.' " 
And the same author says : — " Was Grellman* right, 
or was it true, as many assert, that these people turned 
the course of some brook whilst they made the grave, 
and turned the stream over it immediately afterwards ? 
Such a burial would not leave any trace, and it was so 
they buried Attila, who followed, when he came into 
Europe, the same route as the gipsies." 

The more the gipsy element becomes mingled with 
other house-dwelling races the less strongly will they cling 
to their tents. We who have tried it must confess to a 
strange fascination in tent life. To our own knowledge 
we have known instances of gipsies who have married 
house-dweUing gorgios. One singular instance of ro- 
mantic love was once narrated to me of a young gentle- 
man of birth, who became so infatuated as to leave all for 
a handsome gipsy girl he met with. She left the neigh- 
bourhood of his home, but he could not rest, and, with a 
few things, followed and found her, and at last submitted 
for her sake to be her husband and adopt tent life. His 
end was sad. He was making some pegs for her to seH, 
but being unpractised in the art, and clumsy with his 
knife, it slipped and entered his thigh, probably severed 
the femoral artery, for he died soon after. 

• Heinricli Moritz Gottlieb Grellman is the author of a standard work, 
written in German, entitled, "A Dissertation on Gipsies." A translation, 
by Matthew Roper, Esq., F.R.S. and A,S., was published in 1787. 



304 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

As long as much of the gipsy element remains, it is not 
probable that they can be bent to the steady pursuits of 
a stationary house- dwelling population. As well try to 
turn the falcon into a barn-door fowl; but Christian 
charity should lead us, if we cannot alter their nature, 
to aid in placing them in such course of life, as may best 
improve and raise their moral condition, without requir- 
ing them to sacrifice entirely, those strong and restless 
feelings, which seem inherent in their being, and the 
necessity of some mysterious law or predestination. 

We sat out late by our tents, writing our notes ; the 
long evenings of clear light, enabled us often to snatch 
those hours which in England, would be quite dark The 
gipsies, before we retired to rest, had their dose of brim- 
stone and treacle, and with many anticipations, we were 
soon buried in repose. 

All was stir and bustle. Up, Noahl — ^up, Zachariah! — 
vand 1 All were moving before six. Eggs, bread, butter, 
and tea for breakfast. Esmeralda had been unwell all 
night. Our gipsies had been living well, and without 
their usual exercise. Ei:meralda was evidently bilious. 
She had behaved very well, and was now deep in the 
mysteries of cooking and housekeeping. 

The old farmer hovered near as if he was looking 
out for his quarry. We had scarcely seen him about 
before. We were uncertain when Mr. L. would come, 
and therefore mentioned to the farmer that we wished to 
pay him for our accommodation. 

He led the way into his house, and we found ourselves 
in a little parlour, comfortably furnished, but without 
any ventilation : a picture of the death-bed of King Oscar 
in 1859, two prints of the Emperor Napoleon III. and 



THE BONDEQAARD. 305 

the Empress, and a German coloured print called Elise, 
and Our Saviour, were placed on the walls. 

His daughter brought in a bottle of some wine or 

cordial, and a wine-glass, but we asked for a cup of 

coffee in preference. In answer to my request, the old 

man, w^ho sat on the other side of the table, counted 

slowly on his fingers five marks — " Een thaler," said he. 

It was what we expected, and proceeding to pay him, we 

pulled out three dollar notes. Not wishing to pay more 

of our silver away than we could help, we thought it a 

good opportunity to pay one of our dollar notes. Directly 

the old man saw the notes he suddenly counted three on 

his fingers, and raised his demand to "drei thalers." It 

was of little consequence, and we paid him his demand, 

disgusted with his cupidity — ^three dollars, or 13^. 6d» 

English money, which in Norway was equivalent to the 

rent of a cottage and ground for one year for a Huusmand, 

\Vhat different hospitaUty the wanderers met with from 

many not half so wegjthy, who brought to our camp 

fladbrod for our acceptance. This, and the one at LiUe- 

hammer, were the only two instances we met with of any 

over-exaction in Norway. We were told afterwards that 

one dollar was amply sufficient. 

We had almost loaded our donkeys when Mr. L. came ; 
and at our wish a boatman brought up two very fine sea 
trout, for which we paid three marks and twelve skillings, 
and took them with us. 

The militia were to commence their training at Veblun- 
gsnoes that morning. One of our former acquaintances, a 
Norwegian captain — a fine specimen of a thorough-going 
military man, erect and handsome, with his grey mou- 
stache — had come to see us off. Esmeralda stepped for- 



306 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

ward, and pinned some beautiful flowers, selected from 
the Aak bouquet, in Mr. L/s coat A copy of our song 
was left for Monsieur le Capitaine's son ; another for Frue 
Landmark, of Aak ; and one for Herr Solberg ; and two 
copies for Mr. L. to do what he liked with. The chevalier 
had sent a very nice return telegi'am to us. Mr. L. and 
the Captain were astonished at the -weight our donkeys 
carried. We wished the farmer's wife and daughter and 
son good-by. The old man was absent, probably gloat- 
ing over his sudden acquisition of wealth. His son and 
daughter were very quiet, respectable young people. The 
farm people collected on the ground, and, saluting each 
other with our hats, we left the camp, and passed up the 
wide lane leading to the main route. As we were disap- 
pearing over the edge of the ascent, we saw the Capitaine 
and his son still looking after us ; they waved their hats 
9s we vanished with a farewell signal in return. 



S'f ' 



f' 






CHAPTER XXVn. 

There U eometiiuig remarkable in the eye of ihe Bomanj. Should 
Kis hair and complexion become as fair as those of the Swede or the 
Finn, and his jockej gait ae grare and ceremonious as that of the 
natiTe of Old Castile ; were he dressed like a king, a priest, or a 
warrior, still would the Qitftno be detected in his eye, should it con- 

tinne unchanged . Its peculiarity consists chiefly in a 

strange, staring expression, which, to be understood, must be seen, and 
in a thin glaze which steals over it when in repose, and seems to emit 
phoephoric light. That the gipsy eye has sometimes a peculiar effect, 
we leam from the following stania : — 

A gipsy stripling's glossy eye 

Has pierced my bosom's core, 
A feat no eye beneath the sky 

Could e'er effect before. 

The Gipsies, By Samuu. RoBxaTS. 

ADIEU AAK ROMSDAL8HORN — TROLDTINDERNE — PLADMARK —YOUNG NOR- 

WSaiAN LADIES — OUR FAIR VISITORS — A NIGHT SCENE— MORNING 
MSAL — EXHAUSTED PEASANTS — ESMERALDA's COMPLIMENT — A GIPSY 
CUISINE — HOW GIPSIES SLEEP — OUR GUIDE ARRIVES — THE INVISIBLE 
BATHBR — THE RACE — THE RIVER GRONA. 

We passed the quiet scenes of Aak and its beautiful 

scenery ; we saw Captain C- , and some joujig ladies 

coining down to the road from the house. The charming 
terrace before the house and grounds are kept in ex- 
cellent neatness and order. Frue Landmark also 
came down to see our donkeys again. Captain C. was 
going south, and might probably overtake us, but we 

z 2 



308 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

did not see him again.* Very useful indeed was the in- 
formation he gave us. Frue Landmark, whom we saw in 
earnest conversation with Esmeralda, presented her with 
some ear-rings. So we made our adieux to all, and left a 
spot so pleasantly described by Lady Di Beauclerk. 
Her ladyship is the daughter of the ninth Duke of 
St. Albans, whose first wife was Mrs. Coutts, the once 
celebrated Miss Mellon, whose interesting memoirs were 
published some years since. 

The sun was very warm. We were all in excellent 
spirits ; who could be otherwise in the midst of so much free 
life ? Herr Solberg, the photographer, met us, apparently 
looking for a Point de Vue. Then we passed Fiva, 
and a short distance beyond we halted in the old place 
among the green bushes, by the rippling stream, at the 
foot of the Romsdalshom and Troldtindeme. Our 
dinner consisted of some of the boiled beef, fried with 
butter. It was about twelve o'clock ; Zachariah was de- 
spatched trout-fishing. Esmeralda was better ; some 
quinine in the morning had spirited her up. She was not 
allowed to be idle. As we bustled her about, she said she 
thought the Rye was in a murmuring way. Then, as 
we lounged note-book in hand, we had a chaflf at Noah, 
who was half asleep, and woke up looking very wild, to 
be asked, what he would take for his paper front, and 
collar, for which he had given four skillings. The front 
was now. all but gone. "What you like, sir," said 
Noah, and hea^dng a deep sigh, fell back into the region 
of gipsy dreams sounder than ever. We looked in vain 
for the invalid visitor who was to take the place of Kip 

* Captain CampbeU, author of the excellent and useful work on Nor- 
way, publiflhed soon afterwards, entitled *' How to See Noiway.'* 



TROLDTINDERNE. 309 

Van Winkle, and somnolency resulting, who knows but 
we ourselves might not have been there now ; but the 
good genii of the magician's peaks awoke us. There 
were the dark fantastic rocks, streaked in gilded rays of 
the summer's sun. The distant roar of thunder in the 
lofty precipices, produced by falling snow, sounded in 
the narrow gorge. Our donkeys had strayed ; we 
aroused Noah from a deep sleep, who disappeared down 
the valley and brought them back. On his return, he 
said he had seen a number of gentlemen along the 
Eauma near Fiva, with guns and fishing-rods. It was 
nearly four o'clock. The donkeys were hastily loaded, and 
we were again en route. Zachariah was overtaken before 
we reached Horgheim, and had succeeded in catching 
twenty-three small trout. A young traveller and his 
wife came up in a stolkjoerre, and kept behind us till we 
got to Horgheim. They wanted us to stay there, so that 
they might get first on account of the donkeys, but we 
were pressed for time, and when they came up after- 
wards, their horse passed very quietly. The traveller, 
who was Norwegian; spoke English, and they appeared 
a newly-married couple. We passed our old camping- 
ground beyond " Horgheim," and bought a mark's worth 
of fladbrod from the woman of the house. Our old camp 
near the leaning-stone was our intended destination. At 
one part of the road we met a number of carrioles. A 
lady in a green Tyrolese hat and feather, who seemed 
unaccustomed to driving, was one of the party. As she 
passed, the^pony shied, and the boy who stood upon the 
board behind her, with great quickness, seized the reins. 
"P-r-r-r-h — ^p-r-r-r-h," said the boy, and away they dashed 
past us. The boy, afterwards, reined the pony up rather 



310 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

sharply ; the pony reared, and the lady jumped out vith 
a small scream ; the gentleman we took for her husband 
bringing up the rear, parsed quietly enough, and as no 
one was hurt, we again continued our way. 

We passed Fladmark ; our donkeys had not lost their 
interest to the peasantry ; many collected to see them. 
Fladmark seems a large station and the scenery is veiy 
picturesque. In fact, at every turn we had fresh scenes 
to admire. When we had passed Kors and were drawing 
near our old camping ground, in passing through a gate 
on the road, our Puru Rawnee ran our packs against the 
gate-post, and broke a bottle of port wine. Noah and 
Zachariah caught some in the kettle lid, which they were 
allowed to drink. We did not feel inclined to take any 
ourselves. Esmeralda had a very small quantity, but 
the stimulant made her feel, she said, very queer. Then 
we followed on slowly with her, for she was rather tired, 
whilst Noah and Zachariah pushed on in advance. We 
were soon afterwards overtaken by a stolkjoerre ; a man 
was driving two young ladies, and a young gentleman, 
their brother, was walking. They stopped after they 
had passed us, and seeing that they wished to speak, we 
addressed them. The one young lady, who spoke Eng- 
lish very well, said they had come to Veblungsnoes by 
steamer, where they had heard of us, and had seen our 
song. They wished very much to see our "deer." 
Many in Norway took our donkeys for a species of rein- 
deer capable of carrying weights. The young ladies were 
very agreeable and good looking ; something very charm- 
ing about them. They seemed much interested in our ex- 
pedition. Being told that our gipsies were in advance, 
and where we should encamp, they drove after them. 



OUR FAIR VISITORS, 311 

When Esmeralda and myself reached the leaning-stone 
in the valley of the Sjiriaghis Fjeld, it was getting dusk. 
The young ladies were looking at our things just un- 
packed, and Noah was putting up the tents on the old 
camp ground near the large rock. The young ladies 
wished to hear us play, but something to eat was a pre- 
liminary necessity before we could give them any music. 
They decided, therefore, to wait The young ladies 
said, " We should much wish to hear you play ; we heard 
of you at Veblungsnoes/' Our tents were soon pitched, 
and Zachariah, who had given up grumbling about his 
churie, got our tea and broiled meat ready with remark- 
able celerity. The young ladies said, "We should so 
like to sleep in a tent." ** Do you not find it cold ? " 
" No," we said, " We have a waterproof on the ground, 
and a carpet over that. It is all we require for our bed." 
Then as we were going to tea in our tents the young 
ladies decided to take something to eat themselves at our 
camp fire.* They gave us some dried rein-deer meat, 
and we gave them some of our biscuit. Noah said they 
were such nice young ladies he could give them any- 
thing, and sent Esmeralda with his panakin of tea in- 
stead of having it himself. Esmeralda did not eat any- 
thing, and went and talked to them. Then we sent 
them bread-and-butter, and finished our tea. The 
young ladies sent their cards to our tents whilst we were 

at tea. Miss Grethe S , of Halsund, and Miss Marie 

B , of Molde. Then they came from the camp fire 

where they had finished their repast. The shades of 
evening had fallen; the sound of the waters of the 

• The engraving of the valley of the Sjiriaglns Fjeld represents our 
camp, near the " Leaning Stone." 



312 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Rauma came upon the night. Their brother and the 
driver of their stolkjoerre joined them as they stood at 
our tents, in the valley of the cascades, of wild scenery, 
of all that was beautiful in nature. Much pleased they 
seemed, as they listened to our gipsy song, and still 
more pleased they appeared when we presented each 
with a copy. We played for them several airs with our 
guitar, violin, and tambourine. It was twelve o'dock 
when they left to go on to Ormein for the night. We 
had had a long day ; as they left, I found that one of 
the young ladies had presented Noah with a cigar-holder. 
Soundly we slept, for we did not awake until eight 
o'clock. One of our sea trout fried in buttered writing 
paper was delicious for breakfast We were just leaving, 
at twelve o'clock, when a drayman came up, and we 
gave him some brandy. He said an English gentleman 
was coming to Ostersund to fish in the " Glommen," in 
August. The man said his son could speak English 
very well. For some time he followed us along the 
road, but at last we left him behind. The sun was 
exceedingly hot when we reached Ormein.* As we 
approached the station the two young ladies rushed out 
One had two plates in her hand. They shook hands 
with all of us, and we had a very warm welcome indeed. 
Their brother brought some water for the donkeys. The 
young traveller and his wife were also there. A very 

enthusiastic reception we had. Miss S , said, she 

had come there to meet a sister from Christiania. But 
time presses, we must away; the comfortable station 
must be left. With many adieux and godt reisen from the 

* So spelt in the Kristians Amt map ; occasionally spelt Onnen. 



EXHA USTED PEASANTS. 313 

young ladies, we ascended the hilly road from the station 
and left the beautiful scenery which surrounds it. 

Staying at our old camping-ground near the " Soendre 
Sletten fossen," we had our mid^day meal — tea, fladbrod, 
and butter. Noah and Zachariah played some music, 
whilst Esmeralda had some instruction in dancing. 
Between four and five o'clock our party were again en 
route up the zig-zag hilly road, with Vand fos, rock, or 
forest, continually in view. 

At one point of the road a man, woman, and child 
came running after us. They wished to see the donkeys. 
Noah and Zachariah were far on before. The peasants' 
countenances were marked with an expression of earnest 
anxiety. The gipsies kept pushing on. Esmeralda said, 
"We can't stop for every gorgio," and away ran the 
man up the hill with his small boy tugging at his belt 
behind, and the wife following, ready to sink for want 
of breath. We came just in sight of our gipsies at a 
turn of the road, and shouted, when they at last halted 
very reluctantly. 

The peasants, we were glad to see, reached them, but 
nearly exhausted with haste and fatigua Some more 
people came from a house near, and brought some hay 
for the donkeys. We were anxious for our peasant 
friends to see the animals, and many were the ques- 
tions they asked. When we talked of winter they 
seemed to shiver, and a shade of melancholy passed over 
their countenances. After a halt of about ten minutes 
we again continued our journey. 

As we reached the summit of the hill near "Stue- 
flaaten" the clouds threatened rain. At Stueflaaten 
station a delicate-looking woman with a stout chUd 



314 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

showed us into the guest-chamber. There were two 
beds. The walk of the chamber were painted green and 
red. Some photographs also adorned the room, which 
was very clean, but to us the atmosphere was too close 
to be pleasant. They procured for us some butter, 
potatoes, and fladbrod, for which we paid three marks. 
They gave us full value for our money. The evening 
was wearing rapidly on as we left the station. Very soon 
after we met a carriage and pair, in which sat a dark- 
eyed traveller. His hair was jet black. Our gipsies had 
to look sharp to get our donkeys in single file, and as we 
brought up the rear with our alpenstock the traveller 
scanned our party with much curiosity. Esmeralda paid 
hun the compJent afterwards of Zying hie hair wae 
as dark as any Romany's. 

It was getting late, as dusty and travel-worn we came 
on to the open moorland by "Bover Moen." This 
time we camped near two or three broken firs, not very 
far from the road, and near a hedge enclosing a thick 
wood. Very shortly after our gipsies had unloaded our 
things, and had lighted our fire, three fishermen, appeared 
in the distance coming towards us. One was better 
dressed than the others, and was the only wooden- 
legged man we saw in Norway. He was stout and 
portly. From his waistcoat he had suspended two small 
trout, the result of his fishing expedition. Each had 
some of our brandy-and- water, and drank to Gamle Norge. 
Some boys came afterwards and brought some grass for 
the donkeys. Then they watched our cooking with 
interest. Whilst Esmeralda was getting the potatoes 
ready, we fried some sea-trout in buttered writing-paper. 
Very much surprised they seemed at the luxury of our 



HOW GIPSIES SLEEP. 316 

cuisine. Then Esmeralda fried some fish in the ordinary 
way, and also some sliced potatoes. We enjoyed our tea on 
that open moorland, in sight of a foaming waterfall down 
the mountain-side by the Boverho. Brandy-and-water 
was handed round to those peasants assembled. Ourself 
on guitar, and Zachariah with his violin, sitting as much 
in the smoke of the fire as possible, on account of the 
myriads of musketos, played lively airs, whilst Noah 
was pitching the tents. Esmeralda was engaged putting 
up the tea-things with every now and then a hearty de- 
nunciation of the " migs " or musketos. Some young 
peasant-girls came in time for the music. One, a 
very modest, pretty girl, knitting a stocking, or a 
strumper, as the gipsies called it Another peasant-girl 
brought us some milk, which she sold us for three 
skiUings. When our music was finished, and the pea- 
sants had wished us good-night, we retired to rest. Rest 
indeed for Zachariah. He was the smallest of the party, 
and the mosketos with excellent generalship concen- 
trated their attacks upon the weakest point, when 
Zachariah killed one, two were in its place. Wildly he 
scratched, slapped, tumbled, and tossed, to his brother's 
disgust^ who would say sharply, ** Now then, can't you 
be quiet ?" Where are you getting your piro* (gip., foot) 
to. Can't you lie still, and let me go to sleep." 

Many readers may imagine that the brothers slept side 
by side. They slept in true Romany fashion, that is, the 
feet of each are placed on each side of the head, or under 
the arms of the other. In this way a wonderful amount 
of warmth is obtained. One blanket covered both, and 

* Piro ia used in the Norwegian, German, French, Italian, Spanish, and 
Turkish gipy language to signify foot. In the Turkish gipsy, pinro, pimo, 
and pindo are also used. 



316 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

sometiines we might see in a morning NoaVs feet 
sticking out on each side of Zachariah's head. 

The weather seemed inclined for rain the night before, 
but the morning of Wednesday, 27th July, was delightful 
Noah was roused before six o'clock. To-day we should 
be in the mountains. We heard Ole Kodsheim had 
been at Stueflaaten. The trout Zachariah had caught 
were fried for breakfast ; four pounds of beef, the re- 
mainder of what we had bought at Veblungsnoes was re- 
luctantly condemned as spoilt. The hot weather had 
quite spoiled it Some Norwegian girls came, and we 
had three skillings' worth of milk, and twelve skillings' 
worth of stamped sweet fladbrod. Our donkeys were 
nearly loaded about nine o'clock, when we saw Ole 
Rodsheim stepping over the moorland. He did not 
think we had arrived, but came to look out for us. 
He scarcely expected we should manage the distance in 
the time. 

Ole Rodsheim had stayed the night at " Enebo." As 
we pissed the house he took a cup of coffee, and we 
soon after crossed the Enebo bridge, entered a beautiful 
green lane, and left the main route before coming to 
Molmen. It was delightful to find ourselves no longer 
on the hard road. 

Ole Rodsheim led the way from the lane by a track 
through the open woodland. Now we come suddenly 
upon a purling stream of water with deep holes, shaded 
from the summer sim of the hot and sultry day. What 
is this we see on the bank near a pool in the stream ? A 
heap of woman's clothes ; even her shoes ; but where s 
the woman ? Instinctively we looked into the quiet 
pool formed by the stream, but no water-nymph was 



THE INVISIBLE BATUEK 317 

there. There was the clear gravelly bed which made us 
wish to taJ^e a refreshing plunge. 

The clothes were left. The woman was gone. Pro- 
bably wandering about in the forest. We hope she did 
not unhappily lose herself. It is one of the mysteries 
of this book we shall never be able to clear. 

At one log chalet Ole Eodsheim took an old man with 
us for a short distance. At another part of our winding 
way up some open ground towards the woods, we could 
see on the opposite side the valley sloping to the stream 
below a man and woman running at the top of their 
speed in the hot sun towards a bridge over the river. 
Our party were fast ascending towards the ridge of the 
ascent, and would soon be out of sight. Sometimes the 
woman gained ground upon the man. Every muscle was 
strained. It was the best steeplechase we ever saw. 
Then they dashed wildly across a slight wooden bridge at 
some distance off. We purposely delayed our cavalcade, 
to let them have a chance, and panting for breath and 
almost exhausted, they ultimately reached us. The admi- 
ration they exhibited for the noble animals with which 
we travelled left no doubt that they felt quite rewarded 
for their long and well-contested race. We forget which 
came up first. 

Passing to the " Grona elv," above Molmen, we had 
the opportunity of seeing the picturesque waterfall 
called the Grona fos. It roars through overhanging 
rocks, and high above the Grona we reached a slight 
horse-bridge stretched over a wide deep chastn, with the 
rapid waters of the river below. Very little attention 
appears to be given to these bridges. The planks were 
loose, and in places out, and some were not fastened. 



318 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

Stopping up the open places as well as our materials 
WQuld allow, we determined to risk our animals. They 
fortunately went over the bridge exceedingly well, kt 
the last heavily laden donkey nearly slipped its hind 1^ 
through an awkward crevice, and was only just savei 

Ole Rodsheim was very handy in our first experience 
of Norwegian mountain-bridges, and quite verified our 
early formed opinion of his quick readiness of resource. 

Now we were winding through a forest of firs and birch. 
Very warm it was, but the way was delightful. There 
were two tracks to the Ny Sceter, but Ole chose the track 
by a soeter, we believe called the Grona Soeter.* This we 
reached in good time. The soeter is built on a wooded 
plateau above a wUd gorge through which the river 
Grona takes its course. 

* Soeter is pronounced "saiter," and, like the chftlet in Switaerland, 
affords rough accommodation on the cattle run, in the mountains, often at 
a long distance from the valley farm to which it belongs. The cattle are 
driven up from the valley, at tiie beginning of the summer, for pasture, ana 
the butter and cheese are made at the soeter. At the end of the snmmeri the 
cattle are driven back to the valley farms, and housed for the winter. 



CHAPTEB XXVm. 

— Je ne connaiB pas de reine de oe oom-UL 

— ^MSme parmi lea nngariB ? 

— C'eat vrai, dit Femand, j'onbliaia lea Boh^miena ont dea roia. 

^Et dea reineay dit Gineata. - 

L$ SaUSador, par Albxaitdrx Dvuab, 

" I do not know any queen of tliat name." 

" Even among the gipeiea ? " 

" It ia true," said Femand, *' I had foigotten the gipaiea hare kings." 

** And queens," said (Hnesta. 

BOTANIBIKO — ^BSMEBALDA LOST — FOUND AGAIN — THE EAGLE — MOUNTAIN 
DIFFICULTIEa— MOUNTAIN BIVOUAC— ESMERALDA ILL — OLE'S BED — 
HOTEL BILLS— BOUGH ROUTE — DONKEYS IN SNOW — THE PURU 
RAWNEE DOWN — THE NT SCBTER — GIPSY DISCUSSION — THE ENGLISH- 
MAN'S HOUSE — HOSPITALITY — NORWEGIAN NAMES — FILLINGSHd— 
LARGE LAKE. 

No one was at the soeter. After a middags-mad of tea, 
bacon, potatoes, fladbrod and butter, and a rest, we con- 
tinued our journey. After pursuing our rough mountain 
track for a short time, we left the forest of the steep 
mountain side, and commenced a toilsome ascent, in a 
warm sun, across a wild rocky ravine, bare of trees, with 
a stream running down it. It was not very deep. Our 
party slowly ascended one side of the ravine towards the 
higher slopes of the mountain. 

Gradually Esmeralda and ourself, who were collecting 
wild flowers, and Alpine Flora, were left behind. 
Patches of snow rested here and there as we ascended 



320 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

the sides of the " Hjrrjon Fjeld." The open mountain 
was rocky and bare of vegetation. Gradually and slowly 
we ascended higher and higher, when we suddenly missed 
our party. Track there was none distinguishable. We 
ascended to some higher ridges ; but could see nothing of 
our guide, gipsies, or donkeys. A white handkerchief 
was fastened to the end of our Alpenstock. We used 
the shrill cry of the Australian signal and cooed loudly, 
but could. hear no signal in return. Not a vestige of 
human life was to be seen on the rugged mountain slopes 
around us. It was quite deal* that somehow we were 
lost We had our compass ; but then, we had no ide^ 
as to the course across the mountains Ole Rodsheim pro- 
posed to take, 

Esmeralda did not appear much disconcerted by the 
incident. It was a scene for the artist's pencil, as the 
gipsy-girl ascended a hillock strewn with loose grey rocks, 
covered with lichen. There she stood in the evening 
sun, in a distant land across the sea, the blue feathers of 
her small straw hat, waving in the light warm breeze. 
One could not help feeUng, that there was something 
more than common in this mystic race. The lone figure 
of the gipsy-girl, whose home was nature, seemed the 
queen of the wide expanse of barren " Fjeld " which she 
then surveyed. She gave a whistle — that peculiar shrill 
whistle which is known among themselves ; a whistle, 
which, if not heard quite at Christiania, certainly must 
have disturbed the wild rein-deer of the surrounding 
iQelds from their slumbers. 

We had almost come to the conclusion that we might 
have to spend the night as best we could on the "Hyijon 
Fjeld ; " just then we heard a return signal across some 



THE EAGLE. 321 

ravines beyond us to our right Zachariah had come back 
in search. They had turned sharply across the mountain 
slope to the right, and were hidden from view by the 
intervening ravines. We raced across the mountain side, 
and crossing some snow slopes of a ravine, getting well 
ahead, we kept up a sharp and rapid fire of snowballs at 
Esmeralda, prudently retreating immediately afterwards 
in pursuit of our party.* 

Noah and Ole Eodsheim were waiting. The donkeys 
were soon in motion. 

" Ah 1 " said Noah, who had a great contempt for 
botanical research ; " That's the way with Mr. Smith ; he 
plucks a flower, and then calls daughter to look at it» 
She says it's very pretty; and there they stand till 
nobody can tell what has become of them." 

Poor Noah ! botany was not his forte. But all was sun- 
shine again, and we quietly pursued our rough uneven 
way. 

Our path was now in the wild i^^lds. Ole had his 
peculiar landmarks. Sometimes it was a rock ; some- 
times a large stone placed edgeways or on the top of 
another. For some time we kept along the side of a 
rugged slope. A large black and white eagle soared above 
us with a hawk near it. It gave life to the scene. Soon 
afterwards we came to an old reingrav. This i^ a kind 
of pit or trap formed of loose stones, into which the rein- 
deer were sometimes driven by the hunters. A portion of 
a reindeer's horn was picked up by Noah and given to us. 

* We were more fortunate than Williams, who, during his knapsack 
tour, lost his way when crossing over the Kj6len Fjeldene to Skeaker, and 
was alone, without food or rest, for nearly twenty-four hours— page 202 of 
" Through Norway with a Knapsack." 



322 TENT UFE IN NORWAY. 

Our way became more difficult. Each of the gipdes 
had to lead their donkey. The ground was in places very 
treacherous, and we often came to steep descents. The 
Puru Rawnee, who was loaded much more heavily than the 
other two, got her hind legs into very deep ground near 
some rocks, and was with difficulty extricated. At some 
distance beyond, in descending a slope, the Puru Rawnee 
went right into a quicksand. We had to imload her, 
and the ground being full of loose stones, we were afraid 
she would cut her legs all to pieces. Noah was almost 
despairing. It was his first experience of mountain work. 

"What can we do, sir?" said he, in a melancholy 
tone, *• in such rough roads as these ? " 

Ole Eodsheim came back to us, and we carried most of 
the things some distance down to firmer ground. Again 
loading, we started once more. ♦ Zachariah was as hvely 
as ever, with his donkey the Puro Rye, making short cuts, 
and going now and then in advance, until warned to be 
careful. We kept our course, until at last, crossing a 
streamlet, in spite of every precaution, the Puru Rawnee 
sank right into another quicksand, out of which we had 
much difficulty in extricating her. The things had to be 
taken off! We proposed camping out where we were ; 
for the donkeys, especially the Puru Rawnee, were getting 
tired. 

Ole Rodsheim suggested that there was better camping 
ground on the other side a mountain ravine, a short dis- 
tance beyond. We decided to make a push for it, and 
soon after succeeded in reaching a wide rocky ravine. 
The stream was broken into many rivulets. The torrent's 
bed was strewn with loose rocks ; so that with our tired 
loaded animals, we crossed with difficulty, and winding 



CLE'S BED, 323 

round the foot of a lofty knowle above the ravine, we 
entered a shallow gully at the back of it. Ascending a 
gentle slope to the flat summit of the knowle, we found an 
excellent camping ground. 

The conical hill was just adapted for our tents. To our 
right the waters of many streams issued from the large 
snow-field we could see at a short distance up the ravine. 
In front, at the foot of a long slope, and crossing the end 
of the ravine, we could see the deep valley of the Grona, 
and above us the Skarvehoeme. 

' Our tents were soon pitched. Ole Eodsheim said he 
should camp out if we could lend him a blanket. Our 
fire was lighted, and we shared with him our tea, eggs, 
fladbrod, and butter. Esmeralda lay on the ground near 
the camp-fire, and could not take anything. She was 
taken very unwelL She wished to be left in peace, ' and 
to Noah, who asked her again, she said " No ! " so sharply 
that he quickly left her. 

Ole Eodsheim went to make his bed under a rock on 
the side of the gully below us. His little wallet, and 
small brass camp-kettle in it, were left by our smouldering 
fire. Almost immediately after down came torrents of 
rain. We had just time to seize our waterproof rug 
which we slept on, and our guide's wallet Our first 
thought was for him. He had just formed a sort of 
nest like a coflBn with loose stones, the lower part covered 
over by flat stones stuffed with loose heath and stunted 
birch. In an instant he was stretched in his form. 
Throwing the waterproof over him, we gave him his 
wallet underneath, and left him for the night. There was 
one satisfaction, our guide would be perfectly dry if not 
particularly warm in his mountain quarters. 

Y 2 



324 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Eetuming to the tents in pouring rain, we unfolded 
our waterproof, and placed it over the tents, for the 
moisture was akeady making its way through our 
blanket covering. Esmeralda had crawled in, and was 
lying in a very helpless state. We had to move her, whikt 
we made her bed, and packed her up comfortable for 
the night. She might be bilious from the middags-mad 
of potatoes and bacon ; but she said afterwards it was 
owing to a sudden chill when she ate some snow, or from 
her wet feet Giving her some brandy the last thing, 
for she did not know how she felt, we hoped our universal 
panacea would effect a cure. 

Just before going to bed, the rain ceased; and going 
to Ole, a voice under the waterproof said he Wiis 
very comfortable. As we were going into our tents, 
we could not help gazing on the magnificent sea 
of white mist rising from the deep valley of the Grona 
below.* 

Soon after five o'clock we were up, and descending in 
a thick mist to the ravine, we had a good wash. The 
donkeys were inspected, and their legs carefully rubbed 
down with our bruise mixture, which was an universal 
remedy for all cuts, bruises, aches, and pains. Ole was 
apparently sleeping soundly, and we did not disturb 
him. Our gipsies got up, and at six o'clock Ole was 
moving and none the worse for his rough accommodation. 
He had, I believe, been up before to see if the donkeys 
were safe. Everything was wet, and no fuel could be 
found but one or two damp sticks from the ravine, and 
the roots of heath and dwarf birch. A fire seemed 
hopeless, but our Eussian lamp overcame all difficulty, 

* Qrona elv, green river. 



DONKEYS IN SNOW. 325 

and we soon had a fire. Tea and fladbrod and butter 
formed our breakfast. 

Whilst we were loading our donkeys, a pale, large- 
boned peasant appeared. No one knew from whence, 
but he was able to quaff some of our brandy. Esmeralda 
was again tolerably well. As Ole proceeded in advance, 
and we were ascending the right slope of the ravine, he 
shouted — " Ah, Mr. Smith 1 you have no hotel bills to 
settle, sir." Ole seemed to have taken a deep interest in 
our mode of life. 

Our ascent up rocky slopes was laborious and heavy. 
The Digervarden Fjeld on our left, and the Gronhoeme 
on our right. In the distance was the Skarvdalseggen 
and the Digerkampen. With even pace we followed our 
rough stony track, often near slopes of snow. All nature 
was as desolate and sterile as could well be imagined. 
Although lightened of its load, our Puru Rawnee had 
stUl a heavy weight It was necessary to be very careful 
as to boggy ground. At one place, notwithstanding all 
care, she was effectually bogged in a deep quagmire, and 
with difficulty pulled out. Crossing a sterile ridge of loose 
gray rocks, Ole suggested we should try some large 
snow slopes as easier, which we did. Sometimes where 
the snow was not deep we managed very well, and passed 
over slopes of smooth frozen snow glittering in the sun. 

Occasionally, as we again came to the rocks, the snow 
was deep, and we found ourselves for a few feet plunging 
with our donkeys above our knees in snow, and the 
loaded animals could scarcely get through. Again we 
were picking oiu* way over loose rocks, with occasional 
reaches of frozen snow to cross. Our journey was toil- 
some. The upper portions of our route were sterile and 



326 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

dreary, without that abrupt boldness of outline which 
gives an interest to the scene. As we commenced our de- 
scent to the valley of the Lora Elv, to reach the Ny Sceter, 
we had to descend a very rough mountain track, difficult 
for our already tired donkeys. Still we were anxious to 
reach the Ny Soeter before we called a halt At last, 
at an awkward place, the Puru Rawnee fell, and, in 
trying to recover itself, again fell, with its head doubled 
under its body. The Whole weight of the packs slipped 
forward upon it. As it rolled over and lay motionless, 
we thought our beautiful Puru Rawnee had broken its 
neck. Quickly getting the baggage away, we let it he 
quiet. After some short time, it seemed to recover, and 
got up. Ole Eodsheim shouldered our fishing rods and 
some heavy packs. Each took something to hghten 
materially our gray donkey, and, walking quickly down 
past an old reindeer grav,* we soon reached several small 
log-houses, near a brawling snow stream, called the Lora 
Elv. We had arrived at the Ny Sa3ter.f 

Near the Ny Sceter there was a fenced paddock, and 
close to the Soeter a sheltered flat of turf, where we un- 
loaded and pitched our tents. Our day's journey had 
taken us from half-past nine o'clock till four o'clock. The 
Lordalen, as it is called, is now almost bare of trees, cold, 
and uninteresting in appearance even in the height of the 
summer season. The rage for cutting down the forests 
in Norway will render the country in some parts ahnost 
uninhabitable. In Wales the climate would be wanner, 
and the mountains more picturesque, and the country 
far more beautiful, if still clothed with its ancient 

* Reindeer pits, fonned in the fjelds, for taking reindeer. 
+ New Boeter. 



THE NY S(ETER 327 

forests ; but Norway can never be used for sheep pas- 
ture, as the hills of Wales, on account of the climate ; 
and the forests for shelter are still more necessary in the 
northern clime. 

Middagsmad consisted of tea, ham, potatoes, and 
pickled walnuts. Ourself, Noah, and Zachariah went 
fishing; but, not meeting with any sport, we soon 
returned with Noah. The peasants at the Soeter were 
very kind, civil people. They were all women and 
cmldren, one being a boy. One very nice little girl 
hummed very prettily several Norwegian airs for us. 
The wind blew cold in the evening. Zachariah came 
back to tea, with two trout. For our aftensmad we had 
Zachariah's two trout, with fladbrod and butter from the 
ScBter. Esmeralda was very bilious; could not finish 
her tea ; said she could not touch tea again ; was imwell. 
The tea, she said, was not good, or the fladbrod. Her 
brother Noah said she ate too fast, and so made herself 
unwell ; for, said Noah, the tea is excellent. Our gipsies 
would now and then wrangle and chaff*, till a stranger 
would suppose they were going to fight, as on this 
evening. 

" Now, then, Lucas, don't tell lies. Dawdy. There's 
a state he puts himself in, the ballo shero ! " 

" Dik the Bongy Mouee ! " exclaimed another. " Sheep's 
eyes ! ah, you talk backwards, like Amy, you do ! " 

Then Esmeralda would say satirically, " Well indeed, 
so manly ! Doesn't he put himself over every one, 
Ambrose does." 

" What is daughter sajmig ? " answers Noah. " Blan- 
kesko ! look at Ezekiel." 
" Don't say so,", shouted Zachariah. 



328 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

" Ask Mr. Smith whether it is a lie. Oh, yes ; Am- 
brose can do anything, he can." 

It was, however, satisfactory to know that in a few 
minutes they did not trouble themselves about their 
hastily expressed opinions of one another. 

Our gipsies were shortly afterwards singing, '' Gamle 
Norge," humming a tune, or arranging our things with a 
merry laugh. Poor Mr. Rodsheim was sorely puzzled at 
the variety of names they seemed to possess ; but at last 
Noah settled down into Mr. Ambrose, Esmeralda into 
Miss Daughter, and Zachariah into Master Zakee. 

In the evening, as the Sceter girl collected her cows, 
there was something charming in her pecuUar call. The 
high modulated pitch of the voice — ^tones at once plain- 
tive and persuasive, seemed to lure the animals to her 
from the far distance. It was nine o'clock when we sang 
our gipsy song for them, and then ourself, Noah, and 
Zachariah sat by the fire playing the guitar, violin, and 
tambourine, as the young girls danced on the level green 
till ten o'clock. 

Ole Rodsheim slept in state that night — ^the English- 
man's house was placed at his disposal This log-house 
appeared to have been built for sportsmen, and had been J 
occupied by English gentlemen, in 1869, for reindeer 
shooting ; but on these i^^lds, we were told, the reindeer 
were now scarce, and the rype not plentiful.* 

* Of the Norwegian winged game, the " capercailzie,'' or, as the male 
bird ifl caUed in Norsk, " tiur," is, perhaps the finest, vaiying from nine to 
sixteen pounds in weight They feed much on the cranbeny, red whortle- 
berry, bilberry or bleaberry, wild strawberry, raspberry, and on juniper 
berries, insects, and also on leaves of the Scotch fir and spruce pine. Then 
there are the ptarmigan of two kinds — the " Qeld lype," mountain ptanni- 
gan, and the"skov rype,'* or wood ptarmigan; also the "hjerpe," hiule 
hen, hazle grouse — the handsomest of the grouse species — ^the " aaifugl,'' 



THE ENGLISHMAN'S HOUSE. 329 

» 

Ole was stirring in good time. Eggs for breakfast, 
with tea, fladbrod, and butter, from the Soeter, for which 
we paid two marks, twelve skillings. Ole Eodsheim, 
who at first was scarcely inclined to touch tea, as he 
usually drank coffee, now seemed getting quite fond of 
it. One English gentleman to whom he had been guide, 
seems to have been equally fond of brandy. It was 
during forest travel in Australia that we first acquired 
the habit of taking tea with each meal. It is the custom 
in the Bush ; and, as regards ourselves, we have found it 
sufficient stimulus for every kind of exposure and hard 
mountain work. 

At breakfast, the women of the Sceter brought us a pre- 
sent of some milk, and Esmeralda a cake of best fladbrod, 
with clotted cream upon it — very different hospitality 
from our host at Veblungsnoes. It was excellent ; but we 
think added slightly to the biliousness of Esmeralda. 
Then they brought us more cake and clotted cream ; but 
we were obliged to beg off and get Ole Eodsheim to 
explain that we had really had quite sufficient. 

The woman took us to see the Englishman's house. It 
was very clean ; but bare of furniture. The Englishmen, 
who were evidently of lively temperament, appear to have 
stayed there some time. As a change from hard life in 
the :Qelds, a Norwegian musician would occasionally 
come, and the Soeter girls from the district assemble for 

black cock or black grouse ; also ** raphone,** partiidges ; " vagtel," quail ; 
and *' rugde," woodcock. Partridges and quails are not numerous. We 
refer those who wish to know more about the game birds of Norway to a 
most complete and beautifully illustrated work,'" Game Birds and Wild 
Fowl of Sweden and Norway," by li. Lloyd, author of " Field Sports of 
Northern Europe," published by Day & Son, 1867. Many of the beautiful 
illustrations of this work are by the celebrated Swedish artist, the late 
M. Komer. Several excellent woodcuts are by Wol£ 



330 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

a dance on the level green. Their names were recorded 
inside the door of the Englishman's wooden house as 
foUows : — 



Oline Flikle 
Aniie Brenyord 
Eli Loflinsmoe 
Marit NoTstigaatd 
Marit Thorhola 
Marit Brenyord 



Toraana Norstigaaid 
Man Thorok 
Mari Rudi 
Marit Stavem 
Anne Skarpol 
Britt Skarpol 



Giving the woman's son a present of some fishing flies, 
which he wanted, and the woman a large tin water-can 
which we managed to spare, our party left about ten 
o'clock The first difficulty was a bridge, but after much 
trouble we got the donkeys over, and ascended the 
mountain slope of the valley through the few scattered 
birch trees which were left. 

The track was not beset with much difficulty, and, 
ascending the high lands of the Fillingsho Pjeld, we had 
the Skardstind and Kjolen Fjeldene on our left, and 
the Jehansho Fjeld on our right. We were now 
in the Gudbransdalen. Traversing wild open moor- 
lands, with scarcely any vegetation, we halted about 
two o'clock by a small streamlet, on the open moun- 
tain. A few sticks we had collected on our way 
enabled us to make our fire. Tea and fladbrod and 
butter formed our meal. The fladbrod was not of the 
best description. Zachariah called it bearskin, but after 
all it was palatable to a mountaineer, and we bid him be 
satisfied he did not fare worse ; it was nearly all con- 
sumed at this meal, to Zachariah's intense satisfaction. 

We were soon ready for a start The animals had 
rested ; the Puru Bawnee did not seem much the worse for 
its fall the day before. It is not well to keep them en 
^oute more than four hours without a rest. The Puru 



AUB VAND. 331 

Eawnee's back was slightly sore, and we adopted the plan 
of folding the tent cover into two rolls, and placing 
one on each side its back, so as to relieve all pressure. 
This plan answered exceedingly welL 

Leaving about four o'clock, we passed near the Aur 
Vand, or, as it is marked in one map, the Horgven Lake. 
It is a large lake, and Ole said it was celebrated £br its 
fish. As we continued our way down a very steep moun- 
tain track, descending towards Skeaker, the Lomseggen 
came in view, and snowy hills on our right. On one side 
we had the Bipsberg, and the other the Loms Horungen. 
Zachariah, who had ridden with the packs on his donkey 
along the undulating plateaux, had now to dismount. 
Each had to go to the donkey's head ; the track was pre- 
cipitous on the side of a deep ravine. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

The yeiy look of each of them denotes strong talent ; while in 
whatever they have undertaken to perform, they seem to have sur- 
passed others, whilst they are at once unabashed and polite. It is true 
Ijiat tbey have not been tried in many things ; but they are, it seems, 
the best fortune-tellers, the best singers, the best boxers, and, per- 
haps, the best doctors in the world. . « . . They speak, too, the 
several languages of each country with much greater propriety than 
the lower ranks of natives themselves do. 

The Oipsies, By Samusl Sobsbis- 

THE feasant's WOOD^SKEARER — OUB FAIB VISITOR — ^ESMERALDA^S IK- 
DIGNATION — THE GIPSY HORNPIPE — THE FATE OP EZEKIEL — TBEBli 
ADVOCACY — THE RANKNY* RACKLY — THE OTTA VAND. 

Noah broke his alpenstock. Descending still lower, 
we saw a waterfall formed by the stream from the lake. 
In a large extent of wood, on the other side, nmnbers of 
firs, which had once formed a pictmresque shelter, had 
been cut down, and were Ijdng on the ground. The 
owner, a well-to-do farmer, had yielded to the soUcita- 
tions of a timber-merchant, and had cut down much of 
his wood. The timber-merchant, after buying and 
taking some of the best, found it- was not worth his while 
to remove the remainder of the trees, owing to the rough- 
ness of the stream down which he intended to float them. 

* " Ilankny rackly," pretty girl ; Bometimes pronounced "rinkenno'* and 
" rankno," pretty. In the Italian gipsy, it is pronounced " rincano," bello. 



8KEAKER. 333 

The timber was therefore lying as we saw it, probably to 
be used as firewood. 

By a short cut we descended down a very steep bank, 
with our animals and baggage, to the level road to 
Skeaker. The road was an extremely narrow lane, with 
a wooden fence on both sides ; fields of grain were im- 
proved in luxuriance by irrigation. At one place we saw 
a peasant throwing water over his grain with a wooden 
shovel The peasants seemed well-to-do. [The farms 
on each side the road were numerous, but small in 
size. 

Then we had the usual rush to see the donkeys, and 
an occasional meeting in the narrow lane with ponies, 
who obstinately refused to fi^temise with our cavalcade. 
At last, after passing a large well-built wooden house, 
with a stufied owl on the summer-house of its garden, 
we crossed a bridge over the Otta Elv. 

Our camp was selected on a large open common, under 
the shelter of a wooden fence, not very far firom the road. 
Ole went to a farm-house for provisions, and to say we 
had camped there. The tents were soon pitched, a fire 
lighted, and we had tea and eggs in our tents. The 
gipsies were very lively; the day^s exertions had quite 
cured Esmeralda, 

Nmnbers of peasants came in groups toward the camp. 
One man, dressed in black with a slouched hat, was the 
most solemn-looking individual we ever saw. The gipsies 
called him Uncle Elijah ; another was styled EzekieL 
Ole said there were some peasants who did not like music 
or dancing. 

The numbers increased, and they thronged round with 
eager curiosity. We were thankful that Ole was now 



334 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

showman ; no doubt, with much ingenuity, Ole made 
many difficult explanations. Our guide was quite equal 
to the task. 

The donkeys were ever surrounded by anxious visitors. 
One very pretty girl came up, as we were standing at the 
tent entrance ; speaking English with a strong American 
accent, she said, " And where do you live ? " 

Our answer that we occasionally resided in London, 
seemed a sufficient address, for she continued, " Are you 
married ? '* 

" Oh, no," said we, with a tone of much melancholy. 

Then she told us she had been in America and Eng- 
land ; that she liked England better than Norway. She 
said she wanted to get married, and stayed in Norway to 
be with her mother. Her brother had sold the large 
house and farm, on the other side the river, to the 
government for 6,300 dollars. For some time we con- 
versed together. 

After the pretty Norwegian had left., we went to sit in 
our tent. As we entered, Esmeralda drew herself up 
with much dignity. A storm was coming — indications 
of the hurricane appeai*ed on the surface of her dark 
flashing eyes. 

" The Rye had better have his Norwegian Hackly at 
once ! She'll keep your tents for you 1 Didn't you hear 
how they rocker'd together, Noah ?" 

" Well," said Noah, in secret enjoyment of his sister's 
indignation, " the Rye did say something about marriage, 
when she axed him." 

"Won't she see after the Rye's things?" exclaimed 
Esmeralda, more and more indignant 

" Dawdy ! dawdy 1 " said Zachariah, in his blandest 



ESMERALDA'S INDIGNATION, 335 

accents, as he sat on the ground, and quietly rubbed his 
hands, swaying to and fro, whilst his dark eyes sparkled 
with malicious fire. " Dawdy ! dawdy ! but the Rye 
can tice it on with the girls, can't you, sir 1 " 

" Tice it on,*' answered Esmeralda ; " I'm not to be 
deceived. Noah, let's be a gellin." 

There was an expressive tinge of indignant melan- 
choly as Esmeralda said this. 0\ir position was liko 
the mariner in a heavy sea. After all, we really 
had no desire to change our hobbenengree, Esmeralda, 
who had tmvelled with us so many miles, and shared 
with us so many fatigues. Why should we change ? Why 
should not Noah ask the pretty Norwegian girl in mar- 
riage ? Indeed, we at once undertook to carry out the 
delicate mission. The question should be asked when 
she came. Noah was not unwilling. 

Notwithstanding Esmeralda said, " Dawdy 1 There's 
a scheme of the Rye's," she was evidently more at ease, 
and in a few minutes we were playing some of our gipsy 
and other tunes, nor did we forget the " gipsy hornpipe," 
the favourite air of our gipsies' ancient grandmother, who 
had recently died at some incredible age, after giving 
to the world seventeen children. 

The number of our visitors increased. Seated in our 
tents, we played a variety of airs. Some few danced on 
the greensward near ; many tried to get a view of us by 
looking over the baulk between our tents, Ole was the 
centre of many a circle, as the peasants grouped round 
him, asking him all sorts of questions. 

At length the push and pressure was so great our tents 
were in danger of being levelled with the ground. In vain 
Esmeralda became impatient and remonstrated, still the 



336 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

peasants, anxious to see us, crowded against the tents and 
baulk. 

Well we remember the tall active form of the gipsy 
girl, rising suddenly from the ground. Never shaU we 
forget the amazon of our tents, the wild spirit of our 
many wanderings, seizing Noah's broken alpenstock. We 
were reminded of 

*^ Charge, Chester, charge ! On, Stanley, on t 
Were the last words of Marmion ! " 

as she went forth. There was a sudden withdrawal of 
pressure from our tents ; there was a tramp of feet, a 
hurried stampede of short duration. Whether Uncle 
Elijah was knocked down, or what became of Ezekiel, we 
never knew. We did not go out to pick up the wounded. 
Probably their bodies, like that of Bang James IV. at the 
battle of Flodden, were never discovered. They did not 
appear the next morning. We mourned them as amongst 
the slain. Flushed and heated from the fray, Esmeralda 
soon returned. Our music continued till closing eve 
warned us it was time for rest. The peasants wished us 
good-night, and departed. 

Yet once more before they all departed we held con- 
verse with the very pretty girl of Skeaker. Esmeralda 
had the satisfaction of hearing us propose for NoaL Our 
visitor did not appear altogether adverse, but we fear our 
advocacy was feeble, for nothing ultimately came of it, 
and we retired to rest. 

We mused lightly upon the novelty and charm of our 
wild wandering life as we rose at six o'clock. Ole Rods- 
heim procured us eggs for breakfast. Fire was lighted ; 
Zachariah tried the river for fish. In vain we sought a 
spot sufficiently private for matutinal ablutions ; the river 



THE RANKNY RACKLY. 337 

banks were almost level with the water's edge ; our camp 
was almost on an island. We afterwards retired beneath 
the arch of the second bridge, where we had all the 
seclusion of a private boudoir. 

As we appeared on the bridge, refreshed and braced up 
for the da/s exertion, to our surprise we again met the 
pretty girl of Skeaker. She had a young companion with 
her. Her American accent seemed now to give us plea- 
sure, and then she spoke English very well As we 
exchanged greetings chance caused us to look towards 
the river ; the tall slim form of our hobbenengree (gip. 
housekeeper) was standing by the water's edge, looking 
towards us. Her dark flashing eyes followed every 
movement. 

As we slowly returned to the tents we expected 
another storm, but Esmeralda waited till she was 
gone. *'I saw it all," said Esmeralda, somewhat re- 
proachfully. " How artfully the Rackly waited till 
you were on the bridge; but never mind, you can 
take her." 

It was difficult to convince her that Noah's suit re- 
quired several interviews and much pressing solicita- 
tion. 

Our camp ground was delightful ; several visitors 
came to our camp. Noah was loading the donkeys for 
our departure. Then we soon perceived our pretty 
Norwegian friend who spoke English; she had one or 
two young ladies with her. 

Whilst Ole Rodsheim gave Noah some assistance, I 
proposed to give our visitors a few parting tunes ; in 
fact, they were anxious to hear us play once more. 
Esmeralda looked in no lively mood towards her 



338 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

supposed rival. She would not play for the gorgios. 
Taking our guitar, we sat down, and, accompanied by 
Zachariah on his violin, we gave them some farewell 
music. 

All is ready. The morning is beautiful. About ten 
o'clock the word was given to start. Ole formed our 
advance guard, and led the way, staflf in hand, some 
distance a-head.- By some shuffle in the cards of fate, 
Esmeralda was in the rear guard as we bowed farewell to 
our friendly visitors, and especially to the long-to-be- 
remembered pretty girl of Skeaker. 

Our party quietly followed the narrow road along the 
right shore of the beautiful " Otta Vand." The road was 
very narrow, and fenced in. Comfortable homesteads of 
the peasant farmers were delightfully placed between the 
road and the lake. We remarked their substantial, and 
well-to-do appearance. This seemed one of the most 
fertile districts we had yet traversed. 

Crossing the "Sand Aa" (Nor. sandy rivulet) we 
gradually approached Lom, which is about six or seven 
English miles from Skeaker. Some of the farm houses 
buUt on promontories, stretching from the shores of the 
lake, have names terminating in " uses " (Nor. point), as 
for instance, Studnses (rough point), and many others. 
At a farm called Sundtna^s, we bought twenty-five eggs 
for one mark five skillings. Our expenses at Skeaker, 
including butter, eighteen eggs, and fladbrod, amounted 
to three marks. 

On our way from Skeaker, Esmeralda soon recovered 
her wonted spirits, and said quietly, she hoped we 
would not think anything of what she had said; she 
did not mean it ; was it likely we should have anyone 



THE OTTA VAND. 339 



else to look after our things. It is wonderful how 
soon -the heart inclines itself to forgive; yet in after 
days TLOw, and by chance, a quiet allusion to the pretty 
girl of Skeaker produced its effect on our suspicious 
liobbeneiifiTee. 



z 2 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Tour pulaes are quickened to gipsy pitch ; you are readj to nuke 
love and war, to heal and slay, to wander to the world's end, to be 
outlawed and hunted down, to dare and do any thing for the sake of 
the sweet, untramelled life of the tent, the bright blue sky, the 
mountain air, the free savagedom, the joyous dance, the passionate 
friendship, the fieiy love. 

Matilda Bsthax Edwards's Through SfoiJi. 

THE WASPS* NB8T — LOM — KIND FRIENDS — SONGS OP BJORNSEN— THE 
PR(E8TEN'S ministration — THE REPULSED STUDENT — BEAUTUTL 
VALLEY — THE TWO ARTISTS — THE BiEVER ELYEN — RODSHEIM — THE 
RAVINE — THE LOST STARDY — ASCENT OP GALDHOPIGGBN — THE 
HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN NORWAY — THE NIGHT ASCENT — THE DOME OF 
BNOW — THE SUNRISE. 

Zachartah, the Mephistopheles of our party, desiring 
probably to afford more varied incident for our " impres- 
sions de voyage '' declared war upon a wasps' nest 

Although warned, but too late, he took a hasty shot 
with a stone at the nest, artistically constructed, on a 
bough, hanging on the road side. 

What business had we to quarrel with these paper 
makers, who knew their art long before man had emerged 
from his pre-historic condition ? why needlessly destroy 
their curious homestead ? but the stone had gone upon its 
mission. 

Zachariah soon became acquainted with the "lex 
talionis" of the invaded colony ; strange to say, the wasps 



LOM. 341 

directed their attack only on himself. He was singled out 
as the aggressor, and a sharp sudden sting, under one eye, 
entirely ruined his personal appearance for the morning. 

We arrived at Lorn about mid-day. Ole went in 
advance to see the Proesten Hailing. As we approached 
a large open expanse of meadow land, open to the junc- 
tion of roads, from Skeaker, Vaage and Rodsheim we saw 
the church, which picturesquely stands near the lake.* 
Near it, the charming manse of the Proesten Hailing. A 
large wooden structure near the road, we were told, had 
been used formerly as a granary to store the grain, paid 
as tithe, to the clergyman of the parish. This payment 
is now, we believe, made in money. As we looked upon 
the church and parsonage, surrounded as they were, by 
the meadow park, with the broad silver lake near, the 
rising mountains on all sides, and the. clear blue sky 
above, our senses * seemed entranced with the passing 
beauty of the scene ; it was one of those chance glimpses 
of perfect nature, which cast their anchor deep in memory, 
and leave a lasting impression of bygone days. 

That the Proesten was in harmony with so much that 
was pleasing, we did not doubt, and when he came to 
meet us accompanied by our guide, he warmly welcomed 
our gipsy party ; he would have us enter beneath his 
roof, and accept his kindly hospitality ; we did not value 
the proffered hospitality the less, though we did not 
accept it. Ours was a life of travel in the fresh, air of 

* The following description is given of Lom Church in " Wild Life in 
the Fjelds of Norway," by Francis M. Wyndham, published by Longmans, 
1861 :— *»The church is a very picturesque building, made. entirely of wood, 
even to the roof, which is composed of small pieces of wood, shaped and 
laid on like tiles. A beautiful tapering spire rises from the centre of the 
building, and forms no insignificant object in the view of Lom," ^ 



342 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

heaven ; air that myriads are dying for every day. It is 
as essential to man as water is to fish. The delightful 
shade of some trees near the road, a short distance firom 
the parsonage, tempted us ; there we halted, and there, 
reluctantly, the Proesten allowed us to remain. After 
strolling with him for a short time along the pleasant 
walks of his grounds, he left us to take our mid-day meal ; 
we enjoyed it in our own gipsy fashion ; our meal con- 
sisted of fried bacon, fladbrod and tea. Ole obtained our 
letters and newspapers from the Loms Postaabneri. We 
had telegraphed our correspondence from Kongsberg; 
the packet was large, and cost us three dollars and forty- 
four skillings. Our newspapers which had been sent to 
Bergen, we left to their fate ; the " Illustrated London 
News " seemed to please the Proesten HaUing, and his 
family. Whfen our mid-day meal was concluded, Proesten 
Hailing, Mrs. Hailing, three young ladies, her sisters, a 
brother, and two gentlemen staying with Mr. Hailing, 
came to see us ; They were much interested with our 
gipsies ; Zachariah's swollen face had unfortunately marred 
his beauty, Noah had xmfortunately taken some offence 
at his sister Esmeralda. Noah's temper was to blame ; 
occasionally an interchange of Romany and English 
terms flashed between them. 

We had wished our gipsies to appear to the best ad- 
vantage. One with a swollen eye and two at cross 
purposes had a jarring effect on our nervous system, 
nevertheless, our visitors seemed interested with them. 
We trust they made allowance for the wildness of their 
nature. We can assure them, Zachariah had not always 
a swoUen eye, and Noah was rarely out of temper; 
even our hobbenengree had her moments of sudden 



THE PBCESTEira MINISTRATION. 343 

sunshine, delightful after previous storms, and the 
fitful passions of her gipsy soul. All was harmony 
after we had commenced our music — guitar, violin, and 
tambourine. We sang for our visitors the gipsy song, 
and gave the Proesten Hailing a copy of it, as a parting 
Bouvenir; the ladies, and some of the gentlemen, sang 
several Norwegian melodies for us. They had good 
voices ; *' over the high i^eld " was a beautiful song, and 
seemed appropriate to our parting. Some charming Nor- 
wegian ^Vare written by Bj»m«n. Very plelntly 
passed our mid-day halt, with the Proesten Hailing and his 
Lay. Wide Bpid, we .fl^ard, found, wa. L W 
of the Proesten Hailing* for his kindly heart, his true 
christian feeUng. and invariable hospitaUty to travellers. 
Speaking English perfectly, we were tbld he had oflBicially, 
much and active ministration, among the English navvies 
employed, during the construction of the Railway from 
Christiania. 

Our donkeys were again loaded. The Puru Rawnee 
had a chafed back, but by careful folding of our tent- 
cover, we prevented pressure upon it ; sore backs are 
always difficult to prevent in crossing a mountainous 
country. We had reached Lom about twelve o'clock, and 
left about four. Our gipsies were ready ; we bade all 
farewell, perhaps never to meet again, but not the less to 
be held in our pleasing remembrance. 

The evening was very warm; indeed, as we slowly 
followed the road up the " Boeverdal Elv," we found it 
exceedingly hot. It is about nine miles distance from 
Lom to Rodsheim; comfortable homesteads met our 

* In a recent guide book we notice that Prcesten Hallen is now entitled 
Provsten HaUen. 



344 TENT LIFE IX NORWAY, 

view as we passed along. The usual excitement to see our 
donkeys was here and there met with. It is said there 
are four hundred farms in the parish of Lorn, and every 
tenth man had lately emigrated, but no inconvenience 
had been felt by the diminution of population. 

Not far along the road, we met a young Norwegian 
student en route towards Lom. Ole conversed with him. 
He was dressed in light tourist costume, and high lace-up 
boots, and had attempted alone the ascent of the Graldho- 
piggen. The student had failed, and was returning with 
all the weight of disappointed ambition upon his mind. 
Ole had predicted the failure. Well we remembered our 
similar fate in former years, when we ourselves, and 
several fellow-tourists, headed by the celebrated mo\m- 
taineer, poor Hudson, returned from an attempted ascent 
of Mont Blanc. Tired, wayworn, torn, and jaded, and, 
worse, disappointed, we reached the picturesque Hotel 
Mont Joli at Saint Gervais only to try again with better 
success. 

Ole, anxious to reach Kodsheim as soon as possible, 
went on in advance. We saw him again, when he had 
reached his father's farm near the road side. Ole and his 
father were just going to start for Rodsheim in a stolk- 
joerre. His services were unnecessary as guide to Rod- 
sheim. It was useless for Ole to remain with us. They 
wished us much to go with them in the stolkjoerre, and 
leave our gipsies and donkeys to foUow after. 

Ole's father was a fine, hale, strong old man, and his 
wife a comely stout woman. We preferred to remain 
with our gipsies and baggage, feeling a sort of independ- 
ence of all kinds of lifts. Possessing good health and 
spirits, we felt no fatigue from our daily exertion. 



THE TWO ARTISTS. 345 

Exposure to the fresh air seemed to give us an endur- 
ing strength quite beyond the requirement of stimulant 
or the necessity for artificial locomotion. 

It was now determined to push on after Ole Rodsheim 
as rapidly as we could, Zachariah was mounted on the 
top of the baggage on the Puro Rye. Noah took the lead 
on foot in care of the Puru Rawnee and Puro Rye. 
Esmeralda, who was tired^ we mounted on the baggage of 
ber Merle^ the Tarno Rye, and brought up the rear. The 
road was tolerably level and we proceeded along at a 
sharp pace. Every turn of the valley brought us in view 
of fresh scenes to admire. 

Passing a wicket on the road side, we caught sight of 
two young artists in the garden of a small cottage. Their 
canvas was upon an easel. One was then painting a 
scene from nature. They were apparently taking a bend 
of the valley down which the glacier-coloured waters of 
Boever Elv* dashed its wild course. The maisonette 
was so homely, the point of view so picturesque, we 
could not help pausing. Quickly callicg a halt we ex- 
changed salutations with them. They were both very 
good looking young fellows. The one, we were informed 
afterwards, was considered the handsomest man 'in Nor- 
way. He was certainly exceedingly handsome, though 
a trifle too effeminate for a man ; yet there was much to 
admire in the form and expression of the countenance. 
They accepted an offer of some aquavit to drink ** gamle 
norge." Our flask was brought into requisition. Some- 
how the brandy seemed rather muddy, both in flask and 
bottle newly opened. Noah accounted for it by saying 
that when the old man at Veblungsnoes sold it to him, the 

* Beaver stream. 



346 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

brandy was nearly out of the cask, which had to he lifted 
up, before he could £01 the bottles. A passing suspicion 
crossed our mind that it may have been caused by the 
addition of water, but still we did not like to suspect any 
one of our party. Be that as it may, the artists both 
quaflFed oflf a small tumbler each without even winking 
their eyea With a hasty farewell, we continued our 
road, pushing on at a rapid pace. 

As evening fell, and we gradually lost the heat of 
the sun, there was a refreshing coolness in Boeverdalen. 
On our right the lofty heights of the Lomseggen Fjeld, 
extending from Lom, rose above us ; on our left the 
Boever Elv was ever near the road, — ^at times wide, 
broad, and broken into many rough and shallow rapids. 
Our party was not out of place in such picturesque 
scenes. The two leading merles, loaded with various 
baggage, tent raniers, and camp appliances, including 
Zachariah, the Mephistopheles of our party, mounted on 
one, were followed by the tall, lank, muscular form of 
Noah. He combined the appearance of the smuggler, 
brigand, the chamois hunter, and gipsy. Noah was the 
beau ideal of the " genus homo," as we see them depicted 
according to the conventional rules of art. At a short dis- 
tance behind, as a sort of rear guard, Esmeralda was 
mounted on the miscellaneous baggage of the Tamo Rye, 
with ourselves near. How lively and happy the hob- 
benengree seemed ! Bronzed by exposure to the hot 
Norwegian suns, hardened by rough spare diet and con- 
tinued travel through all weathers, ours was indeed a life 
of health, freedom, and pleasure. 

About eight o'clock we came in sight of Bodsheim. It 
is a substantial wooden house, with capacious out- 



RODSHEIM. 347 

buildings, near an excellent mountain road. The house 
stands at the foot of a rocky hill at the head of an ascent 
where the valley becomes narrow. On the other side the 
road, close to the house, the Boever Elv dashes through 
a deep cleft of narrow gorge in the rocks. There is no 
fishing in the glacier water of the river. The house at 
Eddsbeim was very clean and well Ventilated. Ole well 
knew the English penchant. especiaUy of the mountain 
tourist. The comfortable guest chamber of his house 
had always its open window, with pleasant view down 
the valley. 

Ole Rodsheim* was ready to receive us. He pointed 
out a convenient camping ground a short distance beyond 
the house, just below the road, close upon the edge of the 
precipice of the ravine* It suited us exactly. Ole knew 
it He had not been camping with us some days with- 
out knowing the foibles of our heart. 
" There's the spot for the Herre." 
Ole was quite right ; and the roaring waters of 
Boeverdal Elv in the stillness of that night hushed our 
party to sleep. Our tents were quickly pitched by our 
gipsies. The pige from the house brought us firewood. 
We had eggs, bread and butter, and tea, for our evening's 
meaL Ole Bodsheim brought out a bottle of his home- 
brewed beer. We had one glass each, for we shared 
everything with our party. It was exceEent beer. Then 

♦ Our guide, Ole, was commonly called " Ole Rttdsheim," from the name 
of his farm and station ; bat lus right name is Ole Halvorsen. Ole is 
spoken of in Mr. Bennett's Guide Book as a thoroughly honest, trustworthy 
man. The author of "How to See Norway** says — "Ole Eodsheim of 
Bod&heim is a justly celebrated guide." The author of " Wild Life in the 
Fjelds of Norway/' speaking of the station of Rodsheim, says : — " For- 
tunately, however, in compensation for the delay, the station was very clean 
and comfortable, and a Ixmdfide bed was not unwelcome. 



348 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY., 

we went to the house, and made acquaintance with Mrs. 
Rodsheim, a quiet, pale, industrious helpmate- She 
appeared an excellent housewife. After a chat with Ole, 
we returned to our camp. Our music enlivened the qiiiet 
valley before we retired to rest. 

Mephistopheles was in sad tribulation. May it be 
recorded, that the evening before> the hat from Christy s 
of London, purchased in Norway, which had cost us one 
dollar, was blown into the ravine, and had disappeared. 
It was an occurrence which could not long be concealed. 
The hat must be produced some time, or accounted for. 
We certainly were annoyed when he confessed the fact 
Something was said about the owner going to Christiania 
without one. Ultimately the Rye relented. Ole Rod- 
sheim lent Zachariah a cloth military-looking cap, which 
was afterwards purchased second-hand for less than half 
the price of the hat lost. 

Sunday morning at Rodsheim. We were up in good 
time. How we enjoyed our breakfast in the rocks at the 
edge of the deep ravine. The day was very hot. It was 
the last day of July. Most of the peasants would be 
actively engaged next month in their harvests. Ole came 
occasionally to see that we had everything we wished. 
Once Ole said, in a melancholy tone, he wished to speak 
with me aside. We went with him away from the tents, 
and he placed in our hands a blacked-edged letter, saying 
it might contain bad news, and we might wish to be 
alone when we received it. Fortunately, the emblem 
of mourning referred to past events already known. 
Yet we did not think the less of Ole s kind thought. 
Some peasants came to see our camp and the donkeys. 
All was quietude and peace at Rodsheim. 



ASCENT OF GALDBOFIQGEN. 349 

One of the points to be attained in our line of travel, 
was the ascent of the highest mountain in Norway, the 
Galdhopiggen, or pike of Galdho. Who Galdho was we 
could not ascertain.* Although we were unsuccessful in 
obtaining the origin of the name, we determined, if pos- 
sible, to make the ascent of this mountain. 

It was arranged that we should start at nine o'clock at 
night, Ole, ourself, and Noah, for the expedition. Esme- 
ralda and Zachariah to be left in care of the tents. 

At mid-day we had ham, eggs, and potatoes for dinner, 
close to our camp. On the edge of the ravine stood a small 
log-hut used as a blacksmith's shop. Since our kettle 
prop had been lost, we had substituted two Alpine stocks 
with a wire between them for boiling our water for tea. 
It was a clumsy substitute, which necessity imposed upon 
us. Ole now arranged that a blacksmith should make 
us another prop before we left Kodsheim. 

At nine o'clock Ole was ready, and ourself and Noah 
were each armed with an Alpine stock. Each took a 
small supply of bread and goat's cheese. Making our adieu 
to Esmeralda and Zachariah, we were soon en route up 
the valley. 

We had not proceeded far when a farm servant from 
Rodsheim overtook us, and said that two English gentle- 
men required Ole's presence as guide. They were certainly 
unfortunate; the expedition had commenced, and Ole 
sent back a message of excuse. 

Ole soon afterwards left the main road. Entering a 
thick wood to our left in Indian file, we ascended a steep 
Ending foot path, until an open plateau was reached. 
Very shortly afterwards we reached the "Kodberg 

* The mountain is said to be named after a fann at its base. — " How to 
See Norway," p. 48. 



350 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

Soeter.'' Ole knocked at the door, and obtained a rope 
from the woman. It was exactly half-past ten o'clock. 
Walking over some undulating turf ground we soon 
afterwards commenced another steep ascent. The slope 
was covered with loose stones, scattered on all sides. It 
was quite dusk, and deliciously cool after the heat of the 
day. At half-past eleven Ole called a halt, and we had 
a slight repast of bread and cheese and cold tea. 

Again we were en routes still walking in Indian file, 
and soon reached another long narrow plateau. Over 
loose rocks, in the dim light, we picked our way as we 
could for some distance. The Dogurdsmaals Kampen, a 
steep sharp mountain, rose above us. We at length 
skirted the glacier lake of the Gjuvbroeen. In this lake 
we were told by Ole, the Herre Watson, the tourist of 
tourists, once bathed. Ole evidently considered our 
countryman one of the best mountaineers he had seen. 
It must have been a cold plunge ; but what is there that 
an Englishman will not undertake ? If we had passed it 
at mid-day the example may have been followed. 

The long reach of stones, whose angular points made 
it necessary to keep a sharp look-out at every step, were 
at last exchanged for a gentle slope of tolerably hard level 
snow. It was a great relief, after the rough pathway of 
stones just left. A false step on such an irregular cause- 
way involves a broken leg, a grazed shin, or at least a 
sprained ankle. 

At last we reached the edge of a broad but at this 
point tolerably level glacier, across which we could in the 
dimness of the night see the dome of the Galdhopiggen 
rising beyond. Its summit, a dome of hard frozen snow, 
rests against a precipice of rocks, above which it rises 
some feet From the small nearly flat space, which forms 



THE HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN NORWAY. 351 

the head of the Galdhopiggen, the frozen, snow imme- 
diately slopes oflF at an angle of from 40 to 50 degrees, 
and joins the glaciers in the isiX distance below. It was 
a wild and desolate scene, as we sat on some broken 
rocks. Another precipice rose to our right, as if to test 
supremacy with the Galdhopiggen in this region of eternal 
snow. After some slight refreshment we roped ourselves 
together. No great diflficulty presented itself as we 
crossed the glacier to the rocks which formed an arrSte 
to tilie snow dome of the Galdhopiggen. Once or twice 
Noah sank up to his middle, but the crevasses were 
narrow and easily crossed. Very easy work to one who 
had crossed the Glacier des Bossons. 

Then commenced the ascent of the steep arrfete of rocks, 
but even these presented no great diflSculty to a fair 
average mountaineer. Then came a rise of frozen snow 
at the junction of the dome with the rocks. There was an 
awkward crevasse to cross. Ole carefully tested the snow, 
and it was soon overcome. We were now on the frozen 
slope of the snow dome. On this, as we had no nails in 
our thick fishing-boots, with the utmost difficulty we 
could keep our legs. With the aid of our Alpine stock 
the summit was at length reached at five minutes past 
four o'clock. This is the highest mountain in Norway, 
8300 feet above sea level. When we were on the rocks 
of the arrete we saw a glorious sunrise over the Lauvhoen 
Fjeld. The morning light enabled us to see a vast 
wilderness of dark rocky peaks rising from a setting of 
eternal snow. No sign of human habitation, no signs of 
animal Ufe — silence reigned around us. Keindeer's bones 
were lying on the rocks near the dome. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

It waa the afternoon of the third day after the arriyal of Cadnrcis at 
the gipsy encampment, and nothing had yet occurred to make him re- 
pent his flight from the abbey, and the choice he had made. He had 
experienced nothing but kindness and hospitality, whUe the beantifol 
Beruna seemed quite content to pass her life in studying his amuse- 
ment. 

DiSRABLf s Venetia, 

THE reindeer's PATE — DESOLATE SCENE — SEVERAL ASCENTS— THE 
FRIGHTENED PEASANTS — A COAT LOST — ESMERALDA'S VIEWS— ABSENT 
TREASURES — OLE RE-ENGAGED — A NEW ILETTLE PROP — THE HASD- 
BOME ARTIST — COMFORTABLE STATION — ADIEU RODSHEIM — OUR 
EXCELLENT GUIDE — CROSSING THE BRIDGE — ZACHARIAH'S ESCAPE. 

On the hanging precipice of rocks, the highest in Nor- 
way, a reindeer had met its death. The large glaciers 
of Tverbroeen Svelnaasbroe and Styggebroeen we coulJ 
see below us. The glorious sunrise had lighted up the 
Lauvhoen, Hestbroepiggene, Hestho, Sandgrovho, Tvoer- 
fjeld, Lomseggen, and Grjotaa Fjeld with its large glaciers. 
Then we had the deep valley of Visdalen on one side 
and Leirdalen on the other. The lofty Fjelds of the 
Eisteinshovd, Kvitingskjolen, and Hjem Fjeldene in the 
distance. Across Visdalen and near to us the mour- 
tains of the Glitterho, Glittertind,* Glitters Rundhii, 

• This mountain was ascended for the first time on the 27th August, 
1870, by Messrs. Browne and Saunders. An interesting account is given 
by T. L. Murray Browne, in the " Alpine Club Journal " for Februarv, 
1871. 



DESOLATE SCENE, 353 

and Troldsteens Rundlio. To the west are the mountains 
of the Vesle Fjeld, the KjoerringhoBtta and many others. 
What a wild boundless region of peaks to the south — far, 
far beyond our sight. An endless extent of riven rock, 
above the glaciers snow, of an ever frozen region. The 
Stygeho, Tverbottenhome, Kirken. Uledals Tindeme, 
one of whose peaks was also afterwards ascended by 
Messrs. Browne and Saunders. The Leirho, Memurutinden, 
Heilstuguho, Tyknings, Sneho, Besho, Sikkildals Ho, 
Heimdalsho, Simletind, Skarvdalstind, Knudshultinden, 
Mugna, Kalvaahogda Melkedals-tindeme, Skagastoltind, 
the Koldedals-tinderne, and the wild peaks of the Horun- 
game. 

Noah lighted a fire on the rocks near the dome. AVe 
sang a gipsy song. Then a memorial of our visit was 
placed in a bottle, and added to those records of former 
ascents already there. At five o'clock a.m. we commenced 
our descent, Ole leading, ourself next, and Noah bringing 
up the rear. In the same order we had ascended. With 
difficulty we kept our legs on the frozen snow sloping 
from the dome. If we had rolled with Ole and Noah to 
the glaciers below, our wanderings would certainly have 
been at an end. 

The rocks were soon reached, and, descending to 
the glaciers below, we reached Rodsheim before ten 
o'clock the same morning. This gives thirteen hours 
from Rodsheim and return. Mr. Watson, who is a 
member of the Alpine Club, accomplished the ascent in 
1868 in nine hours and a quarter actual walking. The 
Proesten H. Hailing had made the ascent, and also one of 
the young ladies we had met at the Proesten Ballings. What 
cannot ladies accomplish when they make up their minds ? 

A A 



354 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

The Galdhopiggen, we were told, was 6rat ascended 
in 1851 by a schoolmaster and a fanner, who took three 
days to succeed. In 1864 Ole Halvorsen, or, as he is 
very often called from his farm, Ole Rodsheim, ascended 
it from Rodsheim. Captain R. J. Campbell ascended it 
in 1866 ; since then to the present time there have been 
several ascents from Rodsheim. The Proesten Honoratus 
Hailing, of Lom, Messrs. H. Smith, Wright, and G. H. 
Wright, from Lom Rectory, H. S. Harriot, H. W. Cuth- 
bert, J. Djrmsdale, Mr. and Mrs. Watson, aiid lastly, 
Messrs. Boyson and Harrison, to whom Ole Halvorsen had 
acted as guide before we engaged his services. Some 
tourists have ascended, we believe, from Visdal since lie 
first ascent was made. 

Esmeralda and Zachariah welcomed us at our camp at 
Rodsheim. They had felt quite lost. Esmeralda did 
not approve of our staying out all night. They had not 
been able to sleep. In the middle of the night they said 
an attempt had been made to steal the donkeys. Two 
men were near them, and one was actually trying to 
mount one of them. Esmeralda and Zachariah went up to 
them, and both meti ran away along the mountain road 
with Esmeralda and Zachariah in pursuit. We can 
imagine Mephistophiles, the descendant of some count 
of Lesser Egypt, with nothing on but his shirt, swiftly 
pursuing two heavy peasant descendants of some Nor- 
wegian chief of ancient time, flapping the road with 
their heavy shoes, panting and breathless to escape the 
unexpected apparitions fi'om the rocks of the Bcevcr 
Elv in the dead of night. "Norwegians stealing, 
ce n'est pas possible !" said we. " Curious to examine 
the animals near the road, they had merely ventured to 



ESMEBALDA'8 VIEWS. 355 

inspect them closely, and you nearly frightened them to 
death.''* 

A dismal revelation had also to be made, for on 
returning from the Galdhopiggen it was discovered that 
our siphonia overcoat, secured by straps, had been lost 
on the arr^te near the mountain's summit Ole would 
then and there have returned for it, but this we would 
not allow ; and a look-out was to be made during the 
next ascent. 

Then our boots, which were not new when we com- 
menced our wanderings, were declared by Esmeralda to 
be a complete wreck. Before our ascent of the Galdho- 
piggen, they had been severely tested by nearly all the 
wear and tear of the distance to Rodsheim. Even 
Medwin's won't last for ever. Then it must be remem- 
bered we never had a single blister during the journey. 
C'est quelque chose, thought we, as Esmeralda looked out 
from the wardrobe pocket, another pair of Medwin's 
fishing-boots nearly new. Shall we ever forget the look 
Esmeralda gave us when she held up the ddbris of those 
replaced ? Can we forget the tone in which she some* 
what reproachfully said, " Now, look at these chockas ! " 

Having made a rapid but unsatisfactory r^sumd of the 
results of our ascent, Esmeralda treated the whole affair 
in a most contemptuous spirit. Instead of receiving 
much laudation, our mountain expedition was looked 
upon as a profitless expenditure of time, and energy, and 
a reckless desertion of our tents. In our mind we con- 

* An additional reason quite accounts for the rapid flight of the night 
viBitoTs. Esmeralda, who was with her brother, suddenly shouted when 
she saw them, " Halloo ] What are you doing there 1^ and preceded her 
brother in the pursuit, which must have had a still more startling effect on 
the exaggerated fancies of the fugitives. 

A A 2 



368 TENT LIFE IN NORWAT. 

traated our reception with what it might have been else- 
where. No cannons fired as at Chamounix. No " bouquet 
of flowers " as wo remember at St. Gervais. No " vin 
d'honneur," no anything. We sat down to breakfast, and 
felt very much as if we had done something wrong with- 
out having done it. 

One thing is quite certain, the appetite of the two 



"KOT, LOOK ^i t: 



mountaineers had not lost anything by the expedition. 
Breakfast being completed, we adjourned with our note- 
book to the cool shade of some rocks just above the 
road. Esmeralda came to talk to ua as we wrote. Two 
or tliree lines went tolerably easy, then the pencil and 
note-book glided from our hand, and we fell fast asleep 
till mid-day. 



OLS RB'BNGAOED. 357 

As we awoke, we perceived the silent figure of 
Esmeralda still watehing by us. It was found to be 
time for dinner and we returned to our tents. 

Two Swedish travellers were at Rodsheim. They 
had visited our tents before we returned from the Gald- 
hopiggen. One young traveller spoke some English ; 
he said we came to see the pretty valleys and the pretty 
girls, but we see no pretty girls. We went to a saeter, 
and they oflfer us a bed, but we see it was dirt, and sleep 
in the grass. He then asked them if we could speak 
Romany. "Oh, yes," said Zachariah, " he taught us, sir." 
Then he inquired how we learned it. " I don't know, 
sir,'' answered Zachariah, " but he has books." 

In arranging our things before tea time, we fancied that 
the aquavit in our flask had somewhat diminished since 
the replenishment for the two artists. The subject 
being mentioned to Esmeralda, for we were always plain 
with them, Noah seemed so hurt, that at last our sus- 
picions were disarmed. We were not very certain ; we, 
at any rate, blamed Noah for buying such brandy at 
Veblungsnoes ; it was peculiarly muddy in appearance. 
We had always found Noah honest, so we ultimately 
left the matter in the same inextricable confusion we 
had found it, freely giving him the benefit of all doubt. 
Having written a letter or two and entered a memo- 
randum of our ascent in the guest-book at Ole's, he came 
to our tents and had tea. As we left the house to 
return to our tents we met the two artists at the door, 
who we found were going to remain at the station for 
the night. 

Ole Rodsheim had given us so much satisfaction as 
guide, that we detennined to engage him again. We 



358 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

paid him three dollars, two marks, and twelve skillings 
for his previous services, which included our ascent of 
the Galdhopiggen. Another engagement was made to 
take us through the mountains to the Mork Fos, and 
vid Eisbod and the Tyen Vand to the Bergen road, near 
Skogstad. It was arranged that he should have four 
marks a day and two days' pay, eight marks more, for his 
return home ; this amount to include Ole's board and 
lodging. 

Having carefuUy gone through the maps of the 
different routes with Ole, we decided to start the next 
day. 

The blacksmith, who was a sober, sedate looking man, 
had come occasionally to the log hut during the day to 
make our kettle prop in the most approved gipsy fashion, 
size, and shape. Imagine his horror and astonishment, 
when he returned, after an absence, to find Mepliis- 
topheles hammering a piece of iron into some incon- 
ceivable shape; sparks flying, tools freely used, fire 
blazing, and anvil ringing. The usurpation was ahnogt 
too much for him. AVith a caution to Zachariah to keep 
to his own affairs, and explaining the matter to Ole as an 
unfortunate instance of out-of -place ingenuity, the 
kettle prop was ultimately finished and Noah's Alpine 
stock mended at a cost of three marks and a half. 

This was to be our last evening at Rodsheim. Wc 
were honoured by a visit from one of the beaux of the 
village, who danced at Laurgaard. Alas ! there was no 
more dancing for our beau. The girls were either 
engaged in the harvest or at the Soeters. AU the 
peasants were now busy in their harvest. The farmer 
was carrying hay on the steep slope of the valley opposite 



ADIEU R6D8HBIM! 359 

our tent. Ole had a large flock of goats brought in ; 
the largest number we saw together in Norway. The 
handsome artist, whose photograph hung in the station 
at Rodsheim, came to see our tents at about ten at 
night ; we were just going to bed, so he did not remain 
long. The Swedish travellers had left, we hope, to see 
many pretty girls before they returned home. We did 
not see them to speak to, or we should have recommended 
them to visit Skeaker. 

Tolerably well rested, we were up at six o'clock on 
Tuesday, the 2nd of August. At seven we had break- 
fast of broiled bacon, bread, and tea; Noah soon after 
struck the tents, and the things were packed up ; a -goat's 
cheese and a "myse ost,"* and all the bread Ole could 
spare, was added to our commissariat. The station at 
Rodsheim is well supplied with excellent bread, beer, tea, 
biscuits, potatoes, and, in fact, most requirements which 
constitute the comfort of the hungry tourist. They are 
comfortable quarters, and the house very clean and well 
ventilated. We had no opportunity of seeing the 
sleeping accommodation, but if we could form an opinion 
from what we saw below, we have very little doubt that 
travellers are well cared for in that respect. 

Our cost for provisions, butter, cheese, bread, potatoes, 
eggs, and milk, came to two dollars, three marks, and 
fifteen skillings; and we paid three marks, eight skil- 
lings additional postage of letters vid Lom. Some of 
the bread and cheese we took with us for future con- 
sumption. At ten o'clock we took our departure after 

• The "myse ost" is a cheese, shaped like a brick, yellowish brown in 
colour, and very hard, with a peculiar flavour much relished. Small, thin 
shavings are sliced off the cheese on to fladbrod and butter, and so it is gene- 
rally eaten. Occasionally the thin shavings of cheese are eaten with grod. 



360 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

we had wished Mrs. Rodsheim farewell She was a quiet, 
delicate, person, but very neat and industrious and 
attentive. The artists were still companions of Morpheus, 
so we left them a song each, and made Mrs. Rodsheim 
the present of an English book. To Ole, also, we gave 
one of our songs. We also left the last " London Ne'ws," 
and copies of the " Standard " at the station, and so 
ended our pleasant visit at Rodsheim. 

Noah and Zachariah went on before us with the merles 
and baggage, Ourself and Esmeralda sat upon a rock 
a short distance above Rodsheim waiting for Ole to 
come up. The valley at this point widens ; the river is 
very broad, shallow, and picturesque, before it loses 
itself in the deep rocky gorge at Rodsheim. 

The scene was so charming and the morning so lovely 
we could have lingered there with hours of pleasure. In 
the distance up the valley we could see the small wooden 
church of Boeverdal ; but Ole is come, and we must 
away. 

Ole equipped for the mountains. He had high Nor- 
wegian boots, lacing up, much resembling the ladies' 
Alpine tourist boot, but of course of rougher make. Ole 
had left his dark coat behind him, so as to be more at 
ease. His trousers were tied round the leg below the 
knee with pieces of cord ; he had his knapsack, wallet, 
and staflf. The photograph represents Ole Halvorsen, of 
Rodsheim, near Lom, as he appears in his coat. We 
esteemed ourselves fortunate in having secured the 
services of a guide in every way trustworthy, and 
thoroughly acquainted with an extensive region of moim- 
tain land. Ole was in the best period of his life, when 
man's strength and experience unite in maturity; as the 



ZACHARIAS'S ESCAPE. 361 

the companion of the reindeer hunter and Alpine tourist 
he is invaluahle ; never makes difficulties, speaks English 
well, will do the best he can to save expense, talks little, 
but to the purpose, is always ready for a start at what- 
ever early hour you name. Turning along the mountain 
road from the valley to the left of the church, we over- 
took Noah and Zachariah. We were told that service is 
performed in the church every fourth Sunday. It was 
built, Ole said, for 2000 dollars; 500 dollars from Govern- 
ment, 500 dollars secured by a chief rent, and 1000 
dollars contributed by the inhabitants. Not much of 
our morning route had been accomplished, when we 
came to a narrow bridge over a wild, rapid, foaming, 
torrent, rushing over a declivity. Vain was our attempt 
to get any of the donkeys over the bridge. It was 
amusing to see the fierce contention ; gispies pulling, 
gipsies pushing, Ole and ourself mixed up in the general 
struggle without avail. Then we determined to force 
them through the torrent, which rushing swiftly over 
large stones, and then falling in cascades below, was 
difficult to wade. We could not remain all day. One 
donkey was forced in, and got safe through ; another, 
also, but the third, which was rather heavily laden, 
would not stir till Mephistopheles suddenly jumped on 
the top of the baggage. The donkey was soon stag- 
gering through, guided by Zachariah in the rough rocks 
of the stream. For a moment, the animal faltered in 
its foot-hold. Are they both to be carried down the 
roaring cascades? Another plunge, and by good for- 
tune, the donkey reached firm ground and more shallow 
water ; they were soon safely landed. 

Very thankful we were that Zachariah had come out 



362 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

of t he adventure safely. We had no desire to lose our 
Mephistopheles, and if he had not suddenly mounted on 
the spur of the moment we should have prevented him 
from incurring such a risk 

The route was delightful; sometimes through forest 
scenes and along the mountain stream, till at last we 
came to the Elv Soeter at about half-past twelve 
o'clock. 

The Elv Soeter is now a large form, though origmally 
it was, as the name indicates, probably nothing but a 
mountain soeter. 



CHAPTER XXXn. 

What if in yonder chief, of tattered vest, 

Glows the same blood that warmed a Pharaoh's breast ? — 

II in the fiery eye, the haughty mien. 

The tawny hue of yonder gipsy queen, 

Still dwells the light of Cleopatra's charms, 

The winning grace that roused the world to anns— > 

That called Bome*s legions to a watery grare, 

And bound earth's lord to be a woman's slaye f 

Deah Stanley's Prize Poem, '^The Gipsies.'* 

THE ELV 8<ETER — A MOUNTAINEER — THE YTTERDAL SCBTER — TO MAKE 
GROD — THE GROD STICK-— EVENING CONCERT — ^A WILD NIGHT — THE 
WATERFALL — MOUNTAIN GLACIERS — THE. LERA ELV — CAMP BY A 
GLACIER — NOMADIC HAPPINESS — A GIPSY mAeLSTROM— INSECT LITE. 

The wooden buildings are large and capacious and in 
good order, and one portion of the building was sur- 
mounted by a cupola, with a large bell to call the farm 
people to meals. We noticed two enormous pine-tree 
logs as we passed through the yard of the farm. 
Near a log hut, a short distance beyond the farm-house, 
we camped at the edge of the deep, narrow ravine, in 
the depth of which we could hear the sound of the 
river below. Ole said we could have some reindeer 
meat, and, going to the farm, we were shown a cask 
half full of salted reindeer, in a dark store under 
a sort of granary. For one mark we purchased about 
four pounds weight, without bone. There was a kind of 



364 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

crate near, with a small grod span in it, a sort of barrel 
for carrying food. We afterwards purchased a rope 
made of pigs bristles, very light and useful, and nine 
pounds of barley-meal, and another mark's worth of 
reindeer meat. The whole cost — 

Rope of pigs' bristles 2 12 

lbs. barley meal 112 

Beindeer meat, about Slbs. . . . .20 

Total |1 1 

Ole said the reindeer had been killed some time, and 
when we seemed to doubt whether it was killed in season, 
he remarked it occasionally happened that they were 
killed by accident The reindeer hunter came to our 
camp when we were having our fried reindeer and tea. 
He was the son of the widow of the owner of the farm, 
and she was then at a soeter. The reindeer hunter was a 
tall, spare, active young fellow, fair, with his hair cut 
short. He wore a Norwegian cloth cap, a coarse shirt, 
without necktie, secured at the neck by a large silver 
button. His loose trousers were faced with dark leather, 
and also the seat; large Wellington boots of pliable 
rough leather came up to nearly his knee, with red 
leather let into their tops. He had something of the 
bearing of Slim-slam, our friend at Laurgaard, and his 
tout ensemble was decidedly picturesque. Ole told us 
he had once been out with some artists upon the moun- 
tains with a tent. 

Our gipsies packed up and we left about half-past 
four o'clock, which aflforded us sufficient time to enter 
up our notes. Our way is now through forest scenes, 
up a rough mountain road. At no very great distance 



THE YTTEEDAL 8(ETEE. 365 

on our right we had " Raudals Vand," a large lake, and 
the " Blaaho/' and " Hest-brsB-piggene " mountains. 
Sometimes we were close to the Lera Elv ; at other times 
our route took us more into the forest. Often we 
lingered to make a hasty sketch, and then Esmeralda 
would wait on the side of the rout^ lest we should miss 
the track in the forest. No hobbenengree could be more 
careful of the Shorengro of the expedition* Later in 
the evening a mizzling rain fell, and at last we crossed 
the river through a shallow ford. Near the river, below 
a lofty mountain, we reached the Ytterdal Soeter. 

The Ytterdal Soeter consisted of a collection of log 
huts, with a loose stone-wall paddock behind. Cows, 
goats, and bristly pigs were scattered about the trampled 
ground among the rocks close to the soeter. Down the 
steep mountain above we could see a picturesque vand 
fos. When we came to the soeter a shepherd's dog kept 
up a constant barking which Mephistopheles did his best 
to perpetuate until sharply rebuked. 

Ole and Noah then went round the house to select a 
camp ground in the inclosure. All was damp with 
drizzling rain, as our gipsies drove the donkeys through 
a broken gap in the wall, and pitched our tents in the 
comer of the inclosure, near the soeter. Being rather 
damp we changed our things, and then decided to have 
grod for our aftens-mad. Ole went to prepare the grod 
at the sceter; the rest went to learn the method of 
making it. First, he filled the large iron pot of the 
soeter with water, to which he added a small quantity 
of salt, and a little barley-meal; the water boiled in 
twelve minutes ; then the woman placed the large end 
of the short grod-stick in the boiling water, and kept 



366 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

rapidly swirling it backwards and forwards between tie 
palms of ber hands, whilst Ole added from time to 
time barley-meal from the bag, till the proper consisu 
tency was obtained ; the pot was taken ofiF the fire in 
about three minutes after the water conmienced boiling ; 
the grod was then ready to be eaten. This, with a 
large can of milk, was carried to our tents for the 
evening's meal. 

It is usual when the grod is eaten for each person t*} 
have two small bowls, one containing milk and the other 
the grod, and then a spoonful of grod is taken and 
dipped in the milk and so eaten. Our party afterwards' 
dispensed with two bowls, the grod and milk being pnt 
into one bowl, which saved trouble, with the same 
result. 

The wooden bowl, and the wooden spoon, and the 
grod-stick, which is made of a small fir sapling taken up 
by the roots and peeled, and the roots and stump cut to 
the length required, we purchased for twelve skillings 
next morning from the woman of the Ytterdals Soeter, 
and they are represented in the following engraving. 

Some of the grod we reserved for breakfast, and it is 
considered all the better after it has been kept for a 
short time. 

Noah informed us at tea that he should let into the 
pobengree (gip., cider) when he reached England, and 
have a good soak. Gently, Noah, or there will be none 
left for anyone else. 

The women of the soeter were all lightly dressed, a 
chemise and a petticoat being nearly all they had oa 
They keep about twenty cows, and make from thii'ty to 
forty cheeses in the summer season, which sell for four 



QR0D-8TICK, SPOON, AND BOWL. 367 

marks each. We counted forty-five goata near the soeter. 
The woman's husband was engaged at the harvest in the 
lower valley. 

It waa veiy dark as we went to the sceter, after our 
evening meal was concluded. We found three other 
women there. The room was scrupulously clean. It is 
certainly the most comfortable, and cleanly soater, we met 
with during our wanderings ; they had a good bedstead, \^ 



convenient fire-place, and a very ingenious folding table. 
It was a curious scene, as we played our music by 
the fire-light and watched their interested countenances. 
The women were very fair. All mountain races are fond 
of music. It wodd seem as if the quickened instincts 
of the people, whose lot is cast so much in mountain 
scenes, are attuned to harmony with nature. The 
women seemed much pleased. The room was dread- 



368 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

fully hot and we had the door propped open, whici 
was the cause of occasional contests with a tame goai, 
who seemed detennined to come in. At last we 
were glad to escape the* heat and went out into a dark, 
windy, rainy night It poured with rain as we got to 
our tents, yet we did not envy Ole Rodsheim hii 
night's rest in the hot room of the soeter ; but hot and 
cold seemed all the same to .Ole. Then the rain camt 
down so heavily it began to come into our tent, and a 
trench being now dug round it we soon fell asleep. 

The grod and some more milk fonned our frokost, 
and saved tea, sugar, bread and butter. Mixed occa- 
sionally with other food it is excellent for the mountains 
where vou can have fresh milk at the soeters. The 
nutriment was quite sufficient for mountain work. A 
meal of grod and milk for five hungry people cost 
on an average the sum of about sixpence. The cost of 
the five kops of milk at the soeter was twenty skillings.* 
The woman seemed well satisfied with eight skillings for 
the trouble we had given her. The two pounds of 
butter we purchased to take with us cost two marks 
more. 

Whilst the donkeys were being loaded, taking Zachariah 
with us, we went to see the waterfall above the soeter. The 
torrent dashes from the steep mountain above, and de- 
scends in fleecy clouds to the broken rocks below. Occa- 
sionally, above the continuous sound of the falling waters, 
we could hear a rattling roar, as if loose rocks were 
suddenly dashed about in the waters far above. Then 
all subsided into the same constant hum of the falling 
torrent. It is picturesque, but quite below comparison 

• Kop i» the Norwegian for cup. Milk is often sold in Norway by the kop. 



THE LEkA ELV. 369 

^with. many we had before seen, especially in Boms* 
dal. 

Wlien we returned, and were ready to start, we missed 
Ole, Noah, and Esmeralda, who we at last found eating 
best fladbrod and cheese in the soeter. It was a present 
from the woman. 

Saying adieu to the women of the soeter, we now left 
at ten o'clock The fir woods had been left behind, and 
we proceeded up the wild valley of the Lera from the 
Ytterdals Soeter. 

The Vesle Fjeld and its glaciers were on the right bank 
of the Lera. One peak of dark rock rising fix>m glaciers 
on either side, Ole said had never been ascended. Ole 
said Messrs. Boyson and Harrison were much pleased 
with the scenery. 

At the soeter Ole had found one of Mr. Boyson s 
spoons, which had been left there, and he was going to 
xetum it. We were told that at one place Mr. Boyson 
had accidentally left a bag containing £30, but of course 
in Norway it was perfectly safe, and was afterwards 
restored safely to his possession. 

The sun became very hot. Esmeralda and Zachariah 
both rode upon the baggage of their donkeys. The road 
now became a mere narrow track. All the donkeys were 
evidently suffering from the heat. The Puru Rawnee 
had fallen once, and the Tamo Rye, after falling with 
Esmeralda two or three times, was unloaded, and we 
halted at some rocks above a waterfall on the Lera. 

It was an exceedingly warm spot, with no shade. The 
second piece of reindeer meat was boiled in our kettle, 
with some potatoes. Though rather salt, the soup was 
excellent Some of the boiled meat and potatoes were 

B B 



370 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

also eaten, and washed down with spring water. After 
middags-mad we tried to write our notes, and fell fast 
asleep. In fact, we were all disinclined to move, but 
managed to start about four o'clock 

Mephistopheles was in high spirits. Noah was very 
lively, which soon ended in a disagreement with Esme- 
ralda. We had to quiet the contending parties. The 
oflFence charged against Noah we noted down, and it 
was a serious one. In a surreptitious manner Noah had 
possessed himself of his sister's cloak, which he had tried 
on, with an attempted imitation of her dtstinguS style of 
stepping over the rough banks of the Lera Elv. In 
Noah's clumsy imitation of his sister's movements, which 
were just the reverse of clumsy, he contrived to poke a 
hole through the Alpine cloak. We say no more, only 
we refer the reader to a paragraph of the short extracts 
from Proesten Sundt's work, in our Appendix, and, as 
there described, we feared similar results. 

At about seven o'clock we encamped. The donkeys 
had done better in the cool of the evening ; it was 
decided that they had quite enough to cany, without the 
addition of extra weight, especially over the rough and 
stony route before us. Adhering firmly to this resolve, 
unless for the purpose of crossing some river, the a-niTnalfi; 
enjoyed this immunity for the rest of our wander- 
ings. The part of the valley where we had halted for 
the night was very wild ; there was very little verdure, 
except some low stunted bushes, moss, and heath. Ole 
and the gipsies gathered heath enough to make a fire for 
tea. The tents were pitched exactly opposite the " Smor- 
stab Braeen" (Butter glacier). We contemplated with 
interest an outline of sharp dark peaks rising before us* 



NOMADIC HAPPINESS. 371 

Close to US, on the east side of the Lera Elv, extended 
the glacier of the " Blaabrseen." Beyond we could see the 
Tverbottenhomene. A short distance from our camp we 
found a deserted cabin occasionally used by reindeer 
hunters. 

It is with much pleasure we are able to say that Noah 
and Esmeralda were not prevented, by results similar to 
those described in the paragraph referred to in the 
Appendix, from appearing at tea. 

There was something so hors de voyage ordinaire in 
our wandering existence, so charming in the freshness of 
-wild nature, so free from conventional restraint, lingering 
in regions not yet spoilt by so-called art, and disfigured 
by man's attempts at civilisation. All was so silent, as 
Tive looked from our camp fire in delighted contemplation 
of the great glacier of the " Smorstab," and the sharp- 
peaked mountains separating us, as it were, from other 
vrorlds. We had escaped for a time, the thousand and 
one cares, which beset us on every side in dense popula- 
tions, and had left far behind those scenes, and voluptuous 
lures, which the poet saith 

Meek Peace was ever wont to shim. 

Tea was cleared away by our energetic hobbinengree. 
We often silently congratulated ourselves that the tea 
service was of tin, such was the rapidity with which they 
sometimes vanished into her kettle bag. 

Mr. Kodsheim, as the gipsies generally called Ole, 
commenced the manufacture of birchwood cruppers for 
our animals, in anticipation of steep mountain ways, and 
he also engaged his time on some hobbles of the same 
wood, which we wished to take to England. Then, as 

B B 2 



372 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

night came fast upon ub, Ole selected his bed between 
two large rocks ; with our spade he made with rongb 
Boda a sort of turf coffin, about a foot deep, over which 
he placed a largo moss of heath roots, and moss whicli 
he had peeled off the ground, the moss being turned 
downwards ; then our waterproof was placed OTer all 
When his bed was ready, he proposed that we should 
start at five o'clock the next morning. 

" I shan't get up at five o'clock 1 " shouted Esmeralda, 



in a shrill voice, which nearly broke the drum of Ole'a 
right ear. " I don't care ; I shan't get up to please any- 
body 1 " 

No^ and Zachariah looked at one another, as much as 
to say, " Dawdy ! she's up ; may our good shorengero 
land safely on the other side." 

" The next day's journey is a long one," saggeated 
Ole, slowly recovering; and we promptly decided for 
half-past five. Ole screwed himself into his turf coffin, 
and, wrapping his head' in his woollen shawl, we laid tJie 



INSECT LIFE. 373 

w^aterproof over him, and he was comfortable for the 
night. 

''Well/' said we to Esmeralda, being determined to 
maintain discipline, "you shall please yourself, but 
remember we move on in good time to-morrow." Our 
hobbenengree was at once a study, which would have 
made the fortune of an artist. 

For a time we wrote up our notes, till the shadows of 
night descended on the dark peaks, and a chill air came 
from the Smorstab glacier, when we retired to rest. 

Our sleep the next morning was disturbed by Ole 
asking for matches and paper to light a fire. Very 
shortly we joined him. "Now, Zachariah!' — ^vand! vand!* 
Zachariah and Noah were soon up. We had only made 
eight miles yesterday, and it was a long day's journey 
' to reach the Utladal Stol. The morning was windy, with 
a heavy dew, but we could see the sun creeping down 
the opposite mountain peaks, promising a hot day. 

Tea was soon ready; a tin of potted meat was 
opened, and spread upon slices of bread. All four com- 
menced breakfast with a good appetite. 

When Esmeralda found that we did not attempt to 
disturb her, it is wonderful how quick she appeared, and 
the tents were immediately after packed up. Our camp 
was about 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. We 
observed some cow-dung flies and spiders in our tent 
before it was packed up. 

The rugged peaks of the Tverbottenhornene (signifying 
peaks of the pass from one valley to another) rose before 
us. What a line of dark peaks ! The scenery of this 
valley is extremely wild. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

" That the langaage of the Hindooe and that of the ancient ESgyptians 
may haye sprang from the same root ia veiy probable ; nay, it U 
almost certain. The language of the latter is a lost language, that of 
the gipsies a found one, claimed by and for no other people. AH 
these things tend to confirm the snrmise (may I say the fact ?), that the 
gipsies are the long-dispersed Egyptians. To talk of their being 
Sondras (without showing a miraculons change of natare)| would be ss 
absurd as to affirm that they were expelled Esquimaux. " 

The Oipsies, By Samuml Bobuis. 

THE VIEGIN PEAK — ^ESMERALDA IN THE LBRA— A DRIPPTNO NBRETO— 
HEAVY CLOUDS — THE CHURCH MOUNTAIN — WILD REINDEKB— WHEEE'S 
THE TEA ?— SINGULAR GLACIER — ^VALLEY OF RED SANDSTONE— 
THE hunter's cave — THE UTLADAL STOl— -THE MUMPLY VALLEY— 
FLODSGROD — A MOUNTAIN STOL — ^A JIOUGH PATH — THE PURU 
RAWNEE's ESCAPE — THE NARROW BRIDGE. 

At eight o'clock we were en route up the valley, and 
at length came in sight of the steep, dark, and pointed 
mountain called " Kirken," or " Church Mountain." This 
mountain reminded us very much of the " Trifaen Moun- 
tain," near the gloomy lake called Llyn Idwal, in North 
Wales, which we once ascended. Even the barren sterility 
of the * 'Trifaen," and the shores of Llyn Idwal, and the 
" Devil's Kitchen " above ; the stony wastes of the glyders, 
and the rugged pass of Llanberis, have no scenes of 
extreme desolation, and absence of vegetable and animal 
life, similar to some of the wilder Norwegian valleys 
through which we wandered. " Kirken," we were told, 



ESMERALDA IN THE LERA. 375 

had never been ascended. Had time permitted, we 
should have been much tempted to have spent some days 
on the shores of the lake near. 

Alas ! the Norwegian siunmer is too fleeting. When 
we came up the valley, near the Leir Vand, which is 
4736 feet above the sea, Ole proposed that the party 
should cross the Lera. It was a tolerably wide, rapid, 
broken stream, where the donkeys had to cross. 

Ole and myself went some distance up the river, and 
Ole soon crossed. We were preparing to do so, when 
we saw Mephistopheles, mounted on the top of his loaded 
donkey, stemming the rapid waters of the Lera in the 
distance below. 

The loaded Puru Eawnee was also bravely struggling 
in the rapid current of the river for the other bank. 

Then, as we turned again, we saw Esmeralda's blue 
feather flaunting in the wind, as, mounted on the bag- 
gage of her loaded donkey, she was plunging across the 
rough 'bed of the river, when, oh ! the Tamo Eye has 
made a false step ! Our baggage gone — saturated and 
spoilt ! Instantaneously, a fearful splash : Esmeralda is 
tumbled into the river, and the baggage saved. 

Are those sounds of suppressed lamentation we hear 
from Ole and Mephistopheles, on the bank of the Lera ? 
It seemed to us more like laughter than anything else 
we ever heard. - 

We were too far off to render assistance, before we saw 
the dripping form of our high-spirited gipsy girl rise 
from the cold icy waters of the Lera. Esmeralda looked 
hke a beautiful Nereid— a wild water-nymph. Her long 
raven hair, now without a hat, glistened with the falling 
moisture of a thousand spangles in the sun. Will no one 



376 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

plunge in to help her ? Would we were there ! Now she 
has reached the shore. Crossing the river we were soon 
with our party. Esmeralda was very wet Although 
the stream was not very deep, falling in as she did, her 
clothes were completely soaked. The straw hat and blue 
feather, carried off by the stream, was recovered some 
distance below. 

The cold waters of the Lera had not improved the 
temper of our hobbenengree. We offered her our best 
consolation, and at once proceeded en route as the best 
means of drying her clothes. Her amour propre had 
been touched by the laughter of Noah and ZachariaL 

Ole, with his usual tact, went as far in advance as was 
compatible with his duties as guide. 

Mephistopheles, in his most insinuating tones, said: 
'* Dawdy, wouldn't the Rye have gone into the panee to 
save his Romany Juval ? Wouldn't ypu, sir ? " 

" And why didn't he do so ? " said Esmeralda, sharply. 
" Nobody stirred ; I might have drowned over and over 
again for what they cared." 

" Well, daughter, we were just agoin' in," said Noah, 
with a grim snule. 

" Going ! " shouted Esmeralda ; " go to Gorsley, and 
see Lizzy. Ambrose can do it ; can't he ? What a state 
he makes himself over everybody else." 

Now Noah was up. Esmeralda, by her allusion to 
Gorsley, had hit Noah in some vulnerable placa 

The pretty little donkey, which had done its best with 
a heavy load, and the addition of Esmeralda's weight, 
was of course severely anathematized; but, strange to 
say, like the Kttle jackdaw in the " Ingoldsby's Legends," 
it seemed ' never a penny the worse." 



KIRKEiJ MOVNTAIN. 377 

Indeed, Esmeralda was very angry ; but at last she 
became more cheerful in proportion as her clothes be- 
came more dry. We were still in sight of the Leir Vand. 
There are no fish in it, or apparently in the Licra Elv, 
Kirken (Church) Mountain is extremely steep and pic- 
turesque. This view of Kirken (Church) Mountain, 



ZIBKBV KODHTIIV, rSOM 



steep, dark, and esciup^, and of the Tverbottenhomene, 
the dark rocky mountain to the left, standing almost 
isolated and apart, as seen from a point of view in the 
Gravdal, we sketched during our mid-day halt. I 

We were not far from the Iiang Vand and Visdal. Ole \ 
said that four valleys commence near Church Mountain : 
Visdal, Leirdal (Clay Valley), Gjendindal, and Gravdal 



373 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

(Valley of the Grave). Four rivers have also their source 
here : Visa Elv, Lera Elv, Gjendin Elv, Gravdal Elv, We 
had to ford several smaller streams, and our route lav 
over a wUd, ^e, .toBy tr«t. «nong pictureaq-e. Aarp, 
peaky moimtains. We could see the peaks of Uledals 
Tindeme, one of which was soon afterwards ascended 
by Messrs. Browne. Coming at length to a small lake, 
we distinctly saw on a glacier below a mountain called by 
Ole the Hogvarden Tind (Peak of the High Pass), a herd 
of about forty-five wild reindeer. We were not very far 
from them. Under the shelter of scattered rocks we 
could have had a still closer view. Ole regretted he had 
not brought a rifle. They might have been stalked 
easily. The sun was also in our favour. Although for 
some time we were in view of the reindeer, they did not 
notice us, and when we went out of sight the herd were 
still on the glacier. It was a beautiful sight as we watched 
them on the sloping snow. Descending down the valley, 
we called a halt at a large rock near a small mountain 
stream. We had accomplished a distance of about eight 
or nine miles. It was about twelve o'clock. Not far 
from where we halted runs Simledal (Hart's Valley), and 
beyond us Ole pointed out the direction of the Randal 
(Red Valley). 

We were now in our element. How could we be un- 
happy in such picturesque scenes, pure nature, pure air, 
free existence ? Even our gipsies were in keeping with 
the rough unhewn rocks and wild flowers of this unfre- 
quented region. Just at this point of reflection Mephis- 
topheles, who was boiling our can of water over a fire of 
heath roots and moss, called out in a melancholy scream- 
ing tone of voice, exactly imitating his sister at our camp 



SINGULAR GLACIER. 379 

the evening before, "Where's the tea? Zachariah!! 
where's the tea ? " It was so trae to tone and manner 
that, braving Esmeralda's displeasure, even Ole joined in 
the laugh. AU was immediately fun and merriment in 
our camp. Even Esmeralda deigned to laugh. The rein- 
deer meat, boiled the day before, was fried with potatoes. 
This with tea formed an excellent meal — in fact, Ole 
said many in Lom never had such a dimier. 

Our gipsies were full of fun. Zachariah put up an 
impromptu tent with two of our tent raniers and an 
Alpine stock, to ishade Ole from the sun, and he at once 
fell asleep. Then Zachariah contrived one for himself, 
which was taken possession of by Noah, after a mimic 
battle. Esmeralda put the things away, and all took 
their siesta, while we made two sketches and entered 
up our diary. At twenty minutes to four our party 
were again en route down the valley. 

The donkeys were quickly loaded. Over rough uneven 
ground we descended the valley until we were below the 
picturesque Storbeatind and its singular glacier.* Ole 
said it was so called, and that the Utladal Elv derived its 
source from the Gravdal Vand. The river from this sin- 
gular glacier branched into many streams. Between two 
sterile steeps the glacier narrows in its course and falls 
abruptly into the valley. 

Above the almost straight line of glacier wall we saw 
an isolated, lofty, peculiarly-shaped mass of ice, which- 
put us in mind of one of the ice cliffs in the Glacier des 
Bossons at Mont Blanc, so well represented by Coleman 
in his " Scenes from the Snow Fields, or the Upper Ice 

• This iininense glacier is also called " SmOrstaLben.*' 



380 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

World/'* The glacier seemed to overhang the narrow 
valley. The approaching night added to its picturesque 
effect, t 

Ole crossed the river at some rocks below. Noah, 
Zachariah, and Esmeralda crossed with the donkeys. They 
all had to stand a thorough drenching of their legs and 
feet in the ice cold-water fresh from the glacier. Esme- 
ralda stood it manfully. We went a short distance below, 
and, taking off our trousers, boots, and stockings, waded 
through. The cold was intense. As we came up with 
our party, they had just seen a reindeer ; it was coining 
towards them, and was quite close before it perceived 

* "Scenes from the Snow Fields, or the Upper Ice World of Mont 
Blanc/' by Edmund T. Coleman, was published, at the cost of three 
guineas each copy, by Messrs. Longman, in 1859. Mr. Coleman, who is 
still a member of the English Alpine Club, has since extended his travels 
to British Columbia and California. In 1868, in company with Messrs. 
Ogilvy, Stratton, and Tennent, he finally succeeded in making the first 
ascent of Mount Baker, and planting the American flag on its highest peak, 
which he named " Grant's Peak," in honour of the President of the United 
States. Mount Baker is 10,613 feet above the level of the sea, and is the 
most northerly of the great cones of the Cascade range, being only fourteen 
miles from the boundary line dividing America from English possessions. 
Like another " snowy Olympus," it towers above the rest, as the sentinel of 
a solitary land. The justly celebrated and successful American serial, 
" Harper's New Monthly Magazine," of November, 1869, page 793, contains 
a most interesting article, entitled " Mountaineering on the Pacific," by Mr. 
Coleman, with numerous engravings from Mr. Coleman's drawings, de- 
scriptive of his successful ascent. Illustrations and a paragraph referring 
to the ascent also appeared 29th June, 1872, in a number of the lUustraiid 
London News, 

t So singular was the appearance of the ice cliff, rising on the glacier 
and towering above us in the waning light of a Norwegian sunmier's eve, 
that after describing it to.an Alpine traveller of much experience, we wrote 
to our guide, and the following extract from Ole's letter, dated 12th Apnl, 
1872, may be interesting : — ** I am apt to think that the Ice Cliff, which I 
perfectly well remember, consists of rock on the side we did not see. I can 
hardly believe it to- be entirely of ice. It certainly seemed so to us from 
the view we had at it ; but there must be rock on the other side, I should 
think." 



VALLET OF RED SANDSTONE. 381 

our party and turned again. Zachatiah gave chase ; but 
it slowly made its way among some loose rocks, and he 
lost eight of it. 

The t^k was now extremely rugged, tortuous, and 
steep at times. We had several streams to cross, and 



made our way with difficulty. In crossing one narrow 
brook Zachariah's donkey, which was very sure footed, 
slipped back, and part of its load, containing Ole's things 
in a pig's bristle bag, and the pocket containing Noah's 
blankets, and our kettle bag, got slightly wet before we 
could get it out. 
There was no time to lose ; on we went, and at length 



382 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

we came to a very interesting steep mountain way be- 
tween red rocks. Here we had the Red Sandstone forma- 
tion suddenly appearing near mountains of gneiss. The 
gipsies had hard work of it. Each of the donkeys had to 
be carefully led, and the loads steadied. Sometimes the 
loads, in going down a steep descent, would slip for- 
wards, and in ascending would get nearly over the animal's 
tail ; so that the load had to be readjusted. We did the 
best we could with Ole's impromptu cruppers. It was 
hard work for Esmeralda ; but we relieved her as much 
as possible. Ole was ever at hand when a difficult}^ 
occurred 

We must say that our gipsies stuck to their work 
bravely. It was not long after we had come to the Red 
Sandstone rocks, that the Puru Rawnee slipped backwards 
into some deep boggy ground. It was impossible to avoid 
at times such mishaps. We had sometimes no choice, 
and on we must go. Noah, Ole, and Zachariah, at last, 
by pushing and lifting and dragging, got it out. 

Mephistopheles, whose loud laugh rang amongst the 
rocks, was ever gay ; but his laughter became wonder- 
fully like poshavaben (gip., false laughter), when Ole said, 
in joke : " Master Zakee, we shall have to cross the 
river just now." 

Night was rapidly drawing on, and we had not yet 
reached the Utladal Stol. At last we came to a romantic 
reindeer hunter's cave. It had a narrow entrance in the 
rocks ; no outlet for the smoke from the inside but the 
entrance. Traces of fire remained, and we noticed marks 
on a bank near where the hunters had tried their rifles. 
We had only time to explore it, and make a hasty 
sketch. 



UTLADAL 8T0L. 383 

Shortly afterwards, just at dusk, we came to the open 
ground of the Utladal Stol. It was a small melancholy 
valley. On a rise of ground, a short distance from us, 
we could see the stol or soeter built of loose stones, one 
story high with one window. Somehow the stol had a 
dismal deserted appearance. Some cows were grazing 
near. 

We were close to the river, some hillocks covered 
with low bushes only intervening. The donkeys were 
very tired, and it was just nine o'clock. Even Noah was 
out of sorts. The cows rendered the camp ground far 
from desirable. There was no time for much choice, or 
we should have tried some other ground The woman of 
the soeter was out, so that we could not have cream 
porridge as intended. A small boy represented the 
woman. Our tents were quickly put up. Noah said he 
liked places where you could see plenty of people. This 
was the only camp ground we had disliked through our 
wanderinga It seemed like a valley where a dozen 
suicides had been committed, supplemented by an un- 
discovered murder. Though the influences were dull 
and gloomy, we made an excellent meal of tea with 
fried ham, and Ole informed us that the woman had 
returned, and we could have "flodsgrod" the next 
morning. 

Ole, in answer to our inquiries, said that there were 
no fish in the Utladals Elv, only newts, black-looking 
water lizards, sometimes called " asgals," in England 
**lacerta palustris." There were no birds; even the 
" philomela lascinia,'* or one-headed nightingale, usually 
considered a foolish bird and easily caught, was not fool 
enough to perch in this Valley. 



\ 



384 TENT LIFE IN NOB WAY. 

Ole retired as quickly as he could to occupy the hed 
at the stol, where we were told Messrs. Boyson and 
Harrison had stayed one night — we do not say slept, 
for we are extremely uncertain whether they did so. 

Notwithstanding the Romany chaff — ^for the gipsies 
were blowing great guns during tea, and pronoimced the 
place in an impressive manner to be ** mumply " — we 
got an excellent night's rest in our comfortable tent, 
lulled quickly to sleep by the rushing waters of the 
Utladal Elv. 

At six o'clock we were performing our matutinal 
ablutions on the banks of the Utladals Elv, regardless of 
the newts, who might be staring at such an unusual 
visitor. Then we had a consultation with Ole about 
our future route. On reference to our maps and a cal- 
culation of the different routes to be followed, it seemed 
that we should reach Christiania with difficulty at the 
time we proposed. We sighed for a double summer in 
such a splendid country for mountaineering. At first 
we thought of giving up our visit to Morkfos; then 
remembering Captain Campbell's description of this 
magnificent fall, we determined it must be visited, even 
if we pushed through the rest of the journey by forced 
marches. 

Our breakfast of "flodsgrod" was prepared by the 
woman and ready at eight o'clock. For the information 
of our readers, we will describe how it is made. Two 
quarts and a half of beautiful cream were boiled by the 
soeter woman in an iron pot, to which we added some of 
our barley meal carried from Elvsoeter. This was mixed 
together with the grod-stick, and carried down to our 
tent. The flodsgrod was quite sufficient for the break- 



TnE MUMPIY VALLEY. 385 

fast of five persons, and is a dish highly prized l>y the 
Norwegians, being eaten without the addition of any- 
thing else. It is very rich ; the butter from the cream 
floating about at the top in a melted state. 

The two quarts and a half of cream cost us one mark 
twelve skillings, and we gave the woman four skillings, 
which Ole su^ested as quite sufficient. All the party 
excepting perhaps Ole, preferred the ordinary grod with 
milk. 



The woman was a thick-set strong young person who 
lived alone at tlie soeter with her little boy. She had 
plenty of occupation ; seventeen cows to milk every 
day, besides taking care of seventeen goats and twenty 
sheep. 

The Utladal Stol was built with loose granite stones, 
earth, and sods, forming one long low building, divided 
interiorly into three compartments, one opening into the 
other across the ground floor. They had hardened mud 
floors. The second room contained a fire hearth and 



too TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

chimney and bed, and was lighted with one small 
window which did not open ; the compartment was used 
as a dairy. There were three ventilators or holes in the 
roof, which, by the aid of a long stick attached to a 
square piece of board, could be lifted or closed at pleasure. 
The Utladal Stol was roofed partly with turf and partly 
with flat stones. In the Bergen Stift we were told that 
the soeters are called "stols." The Utladal Stol was 
much like the dwelling-houses which were often met 
with formerly in the wild parts of Carnarvonshire and 
other counties in North Wales. In Norway the stols are 
not used as dwellings like similar buildings were in 
former times in Wales. They are only occupied for a 
short period of the year in summer. Two guns, for 
shooting reindeer, hung from the roof of one of the 
rooms. 

We were glad to leave, at ten o'clock, this melancholy 
part of the valley, which is between the Eaudals Ho, or 
Hill of the Red Valley, and the Utladals Axelen. The 
donkeys were not very fresh, and ascended slowly the 
steep ascent from the stol. Esmeralda's donkey, the 
Tarno Rye, was rather weak at starting. The Puru 
Rawnee was stronger, but its back was a little sore. 
Our cruppers were made of twisted birch twigs wrapped 
with a piece of carpet. Birch twigs are used for a 
variety of purposes in Norway — crates, net baskets, 
hobbles, cruppers, fastenings for sails, oars, withes for 
gates, &c. 

Soon afterwards we descended the other side of the 
hill towards a stream called the Lille Utladals Elv. The 
gipsies called it a "slem drom." Our donkeys made 
their way with difficulty, and great care had to be used 



THE PUEU RAWNEE'S ESCAPE. I^Sl 

to keep the loads in place and the donkeys on their 
legs. 

Reaching the rapid waters of the torrent in order to 
avoid the deep boggy ground on its bank, we were 
oBHged to go upon the loose stones and shelving rocks on 
the brink of the stream. 

In reaching the river the Puru Rawnee had fallen twice, 
and the second time had broken our tent pole into two 
pieces. Ole and ourselves took some of the things and 
carried them to Ughten the weight. 

The Utladals Elv, by which we had camped the previous 
night, was roaring between some precipitous rocks just 
beyond, and flowed into the stream we were following. 
At the junction we had to cross a narrow bridge over 
the Utladals Elv. 

Some sloping sUppery shelving rocks at the brink of 
the Lille Utladals Elv, had to be crossed to reach the 
bridge over the other stream. The first attempt was 
made with the Puru Rawnee, whose legs sUpped from 
under it, and sliding down the slippery rock on its side, 
was held back by Noah just in time to prevent its going 
into the river. One end of the -pocket was already in the 
stream, an4 the Puru Rawnee and our baggage upon her 
in another minute would have probably been carried down 
the rapid torrent and lost. Noah succeeded in holding 
her on the rock till we got some of the baggage unloosed. 
She was at length recovered, and the other donkeys were 
afterwards safely guided over the same rock to the 
bridge. 

There was no wading at this part of the Utladals Elv. 
We had a strong, deep, heavy current of waters rushing 
with wild impetuosity under the overhanging rocks. 

c 2 



388 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

High above the foaming waters, a narrow frail bridge, 
with a wicket and slight hand rail on each side, spanned 
the river. The Utladals Elv formed its junction just 
below with the Lille Utladals Elv. Ole stepped across 
the bridge with I don't know how many pounds of 
baggage, on his shoulder, as if he expected the whole 
cavalcade to follow d pas de chasseurs de Vincenne& 



CHAPTER XXXrV. 

As Cadnrds approached, he ohserred some low tenia, and in a few 
minntea he was in the centre of an encampment of gipriea. He waa 
for a moment somewhat dismayed ; for he had heen brought np with 
the nsnal tenor of these wild people ; nevertheless, he was not unequal 
to the occaaion. He was suxrounded in an instant, but only with 
women and childron ; for gipsy men noTer immediately appear. Th^ 
smiled with their bright oyes, and the flames of the watch fire threw a 
lurid ^ow oyer their dark and fl*»lti«g countenances ; they held out 
their practised hands ; they uttered unintelligible, but not unfriendly 
sounds. 

DiBRAXLi's Vendia, 

A DIFUCTTLT CBOSBIKO — ^AGAIN en BOUTE^— BKOOADAL BCBT£R->B<BT£R 
ACGOHHODATION — SPLENDID BCENEBT— THE BKOOADALS ELY— THE 
MT8TEBI0US BONE — ^MOUNTAIN EXPLOBATION — THE PACK HOBSES— 
A SLIPFEBT FLOOB— HUSIO IN THE 8<ETEB— FLOESKEDAL BTOL— THE 
MOBK FOB— MAGNIFICENT FALL— THE CLIFF'S EDGE— THE IBIS— ALL 
PAT AND NO COMFOBT— A BEINDEEB SHOT— THE DE8EBTED FAB1|— A 
MOUNTAIN SHADOW. 

The three donkeys looked as if they much preferred 
remaimiig where they were. Esmeralda said we should 
never get over, 

Noah said " No donkeys can go over such places as 
these, sir." 

" What can we do in such ways?" 

Even Mephistopheles had not quite shaken off the 
gloom of our last camp, and looked " mumply." We did 
not say much. 

*' There's the other side. They must go." 



TENT LIFE IN NORIVAY. 



And without losing more time we all set to work and 
caiTicd the baggage over. Then came the Tamo Rye's 
turn ; Zsichariah pulled ut itfl head, whilst ouraelf ami 



•, OILIDIL. — RUTIVB MNEKTS. 



Noah pushed behind, and forced it by main strength up 
the stones to the wicket. It was almost over the cliff 
once, but we both laid hold of a hind leg each, whilst 
Mephiatopheles tugged at the donkey's head. As the frail 



A DIFFICVLT CB088ING. 391 

bridge shook it is lucky we did not all vanish into the 
chasm below. With main force the Tarno Eye was 
lifted on to the bridge, and finding itself there quietly 
allowed itself to be led by Zachariah and Ole to the 
other side. 

It was rather expected we should succeed in the same 
way with the other two, but they made such a resolute 
fight that there was considerable risk of losing one of the 
donkeys through the handrail at the end of the bridge. 

" Bring the tether rope, Noah." 

We then proposed to noose them by the head, and so 
drag them over. Noah further suggested that we might 
double the rope and pass it round the donkeys hind 
quarters. It was a good idea immediately adopted. The 
Puru Rawnee was the first. Esmeralda and Zachariah at 
the ends of the doubled rope across the bridge. Ourself 
on the bridge steadying its head. Noah and 01c pushing 
behind. 

Sharp was the contest, first at the stones leading to 
the bridge, then at the light rails at the end of the 
bridge which shook under our weight as the donkey re- 
sisted. Now and again Esmeralda pulled. Mephi- 
stopheles pulled, and the Puru Rawnee, at length, sorely 
against her wiU, was dragged over the bridge.* The 

* Exposed to the heavy BnowB of winter and t&e stonns of each 
changing season, some of the frail bridges which span the mountain torrent 
of many a deep and narrow gorge are very insecure. Many districts are 
remote, and the bridges seldom used. This danger to traveUers has not 
escaped the attention of the Norske Turistforening. A melancholy acci- 
dent occurred, just before we left Norway, to a young gentleman named 
Wright, travelling with his party in the north-west of Norway. AU had 
safely passed across a wooden bridge but his sister. She was afraid to 
venture. Her brother was testing the stability of the bridge to remove 
her fears, when a portion gave way. The tourist fell with it into the 



392 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Puru Rye was also soon pulled over by the same 
method, amid much laughter fix)m our gipsies. In a few 
minutes the donkeys were again loaded. 

"What is the name of the bridge ?" asked we. 

"Lusehaug Bro/' said Ole as we pushed along the 
Utladals Elv, and whilst we gradually ascended obliquely 
higher above the Utladals Elv, so the Utladals Elv 
seemed to sink deeper, and deeper, into the hidden 
recesses of a bottomless ravine. In a short time we 
entirely lost sight of its rapid waters.* 

This river is ultimately joined by the waters from the 
Morkfos. After winding along the hill side we reached \ 
a sort of upper plateau at the foot of the Skogadal. 

Near the Skogadals Elv are two soeters some short 
distance apart, on the banks of the Elv, whose swift ,' 
course is soon lost down the precipitous steeps which 
abruptly fall from the plateau to the dark narrow 
ravine below. Halting at a short distance from the 
Skogadal soeters, a fire was lighted, and we had fried 
bacon and potatoes and tea for dinner. Until we had 
another tent pole it was impossible to pitch our tent 
Shortly after dinner it poured with rain, but our baggage 
was all safely covered with our siphonia waterproof. 
Ole showed his ready skill by cutting down a small 
birch tree in the wood just above us, which he shaped out 
with his hunting knife to the proper size and length, and 
then cut holes sufficiently large for our tent raniers. A 
very good substitute Ole made. We have it now, after all 

torrent below, aiid lost his life. We were told he was afterwards buried 
at Bergen. 

* The Nurwcglim word «Elv" signifies a river; and "Aa" means \ 
arivn.et 



8K0GADAL 8(ETEB. 393 

the rough work of our remaining campaign. There was 

a slight cessation of rain, during which the tents were 

pitched. We were delighted with our camping ground. 

All were pleased with it. It was certainly a wild, 

secluded, and beautiful spot. There was the pleasing 

reflection that we were at home in our pleasant camp. No 

care, no trouble, no sleeping in soeter beds in a suffocating 

close atmosphere, or lying on mud floors, slimy with 

spilt milk and damp moisture. No anticipation of fleas, 

with the certainty of such anticipation being realized to 

the fullest extent of human endurance. Then there are 

floating visions as to the number and variety of people 

who have previously slept in those beds. Some idea may 

be formed of soeter life by the following extract of recent 

personal experience, related by Mr. Murray Browne : — 

" I prepared for the night by pulling on my second 

shirt and second pair of trousers over that which I 

was wearing at the time. 1 then lay down on the 

floor with a rug — a sort of horse-cloth — ^under me, and 

a rope for my pillow. My brother and Saunders slept 

on a sort of bench, with their legs stretched under a 

kind of shelf which served as the only table. The 

women and children occupied the only bed, and Hans 

■ 

and his son slept, like myself, on the floor. Before i 

long it got very cold." * 

On the right of the Utladals Elv a foaming torrent 
falls from an upper plateau of the Horungeme. On our t 

left we could see the Skogadals Mv, and on the opposit43 \ 

side the Aurdals Axelen, forming the two sides of the [ 

valley out of which issues the Skogadals Elv, and falls 
down rocky steeps into the deep gorge of the UtladaL 

* The *' Alpine Club Journal," February, 1871. 



304 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

A beautiful green, moss-covered, rocky, low hill, formed 
our foreground on the opposite side of the Skogadak 
Elv. As you look down the deep gorge beyond, two hills 
rise in picturesque outline, one with a very steep, 
dark summit. The white foam of a waterfall contracts 
with the dark rocks of the mountain down which it falk 
In the far distance a small pointed hill stands alone. It 
is far down the gorge, as far as the eye can reach. For 
our tea we had grod and milk. Ole retired to the soeter 
at eight o'clock, and as it rained heavily we all went to 
bed. When we retired to rest on the mossy turf ; ve 
could not help expressing pity for the unfortunate people 
stoved up in the soeters. Ole said it would probably rain 
next day, but if fine it was arranged that he should call 
us up at three o'clock the next morning. 

It rained heavily when we awoke about three o'clock 
so that we continued our repose. Ole called us at a 
much later hour. We gave him out of our tent, matches, 
and material for making the fire, and soon joined him. 
The gipsies also were up and stirring. Esmeralda soon 
managed the breakfast service from her kettle bag, which 
was quite equal to Pandora's box for the extraordinary 
quantity and variety of things it contained. The frokost 
consisted of fladbrod, butter and tea. The day was dull 
and cloudy. We could hear with greater distinctness the 
roar of the rising waters of the Skogadals Elv. This was 
pleasant, except that we had the prospect of having one 
or two of our donkeys drowned in crossing the rapid 
waters. 

The morning gradually cleared^ and we diligently 
wrote up our notes till one o'clock. Esmeralda then an- 
nounced our mid-day meal. The hobbenengree had 



SPLENDID SCENERY. 395 

boiled some of Ole's bacon with the unfortunate piece of 
dried meat from Holaker, which had persistently haunted 
our soup kettle for so many nules. There was no mis- 
taking it as Noah pronged it out with a fork, and suddenly 
let it fall back into the soup, as if he had seen the ghost 
of his Uncle Elijah. 

Although not in our arrangement Ole had always had 
his meals from our commissariat. Ole Rodsheim was 
worthy of our hospitality, and we had enough to spare. 
On this occasion Ole said he had shared all our meals, 
and we might as well consume the bacon, and three 
loaves of bread he had brought with him. As to our tea 
Ole had acquired such a taste for it, that we doubt 
whether he will ever again be able to do without it. 
Our meal consisted of soup, boiled bacon, the mysterious 
piece of dried meat, potatoes and fladbrod. 

When we looked over the maps after dinner with Ole, 

we could not help being astonished at the Stendue and 

wonderful extent of wild mountain terrain scarcely 

explored by the Alpine Club. What a network of 

deep gorges, glens, valleys, lakes, and glaciers, out of 

which rise hundreds of steep and rugged peaks ; very 

many have never been ascended and are scarcely known. 

Three lakes were pointed out by Ole as having been 

purchased by English gentlemen ; the Eus Vand, the 

Heimdals Vand, and the Sikkildals Vand. Some of the 

lakes are of considerable extent, as the Bygdin Vand, 

which Ole said was about seventeen and a half miles 

long. The Gjendin Vand and the Tyen Vand were also 

large lakes easily reached from near our tent. After a 

careful inspection of our maps, we decided to take Ole 

early the next morning and visit the Mork Fos, leaving 



306 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

the gipsies in care of the camp, and returning in the 
evening. A reconnaissance was made up the Skogadals 
valley above the soeters to find a crossing for our 
donkeys; the usujJ ford was too deep. Noah said 
Zaehariah said no donkey could stand with water above 
his knees. The place, at last selected, was certainly 
better for our purpose, but we were not very sanguine. 
Ole said a carrier was expected at the soeter that evening, 
and some help might be obtained. 

It waa a beautiful evening after the rain. The view 
up the Skogadal (wooded valley) with Melkadalstin- 
derue (the peaks of the Milk valley) in the distance, and 
across the river the Aurdals Axelen, which Ole said 
meant the shoulder of the stony valley, completed a 
scene long to be remembered ; the sides of the Skogadal 
valley being covered in places with birch wood, has not 
the too sterile and desolate appearance of some valleys 
through which we had passed. About five o'clock, 
when we were having our grod and milk for tea, the 
expected carrier and his boy were seen coming up 
the mountain track below our tents. The horses shied 
at first at our camp, but Noah went down and 
led one, and they passed without difficulty. Each 
horse can carry about eight vaage, rather more than 
3 cwt., each Norwegian vaage being 38 lbs. One 
of the carrier's horses was a powerful animal, larger 
than the Norwegian pony. Two strong wooden barrels, 
with lids, are slung on each side a wooden frame or 
saddle furnished with iron rings and a leather crupper. 
The barrels are two feet two inches long, by eleven and 
three-quarter inches wide, and one foot eight inches 
deep. The weight is well balanced, and the fastenings 



A SLIPPERY FLOOB. 397 

very strong and well adapted to stand the rough stony 
tracks of the Norwegian ^jelda. An arrangement waa 
quickly made for the carrier to take Ole and ourself 
across the Skogadals Ely the next morning, and bring us 
back in the evening, for half a mark each. It rained 
heavily after tea. About nine o'clock, when it was over, 
we took Noah and Zachariah to the upper sceter to give 
the people some music. Ole was there, the carrier, and 
his son, and the sceter women. As we came in we 
made our ddbut in the Skogadal world of music by 
slipping on the uneven mud floor of the first room, and 
falling down, nearly upsetting the sceter woman's bucket 
of milk, who was milking, and if we had not been 
very quick completely smashing our guitar. Our 
satisfaction at having rescued our guitar which had been 
carried without injury by Esmeralda so many miles, 
quite healed any bruises we sustained No bones broken ; 
we were soon up, and in the second room. The violin, 
guitar, and tambourine, soon waked up the stillness of 
the night. We must say that no artistes of the greatest 
celebrity could have had a more pleased and admiring 
audience. As we retired we felt quite giddy from the 
extreme closeness of the atmosphere of the sceter. Noah 
had also carried off two fleas ; so much the better for 
Ole. The night was damp and windy as we sought our 
camp and went to bed. 

Early awake, we were completing our toilette to the 
music of snoring gipsies when Ole came. Half-past five, 
grod and milk formed our breakfast, Ole adding to his 
own some myse ost, to qualify, as he said, the milk. 
The carrier came with one of his horses ; we both 
mounted and forded the Skogadals Elv, and turning the 



398 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

horse back he returned across riderless to his master. 
Commencing our expedition at seven o'clock, we made 
our way for some distance through a large birch wood, 
and at length descended into the valley called Aurdal * 
This part of the narrow valley which we crossed is com- 
pletely full of enormous stones piled one upon another 
in wild chaos. Ole called the valley Urdal or Aurdal. 
All was wild sterility, and the separate detached blocks 
of loose stone were often so enormous, that it was slowly, 
and with diflficulty we made our way to the opposite 
side. A stream flowed far beneath the loose stones 
tossed and piled above its course in extraordinary 
masses. Its waters were at times obscured and hidden 
by the blocks of stone of all shapes and sizes, piled in 
heterogeneous confusion. When we left this stony valley 
we continued our route along the sloping sides of the 
mountain beyond, to the left of the deep gorge of the 
Utladals Elv. At about eleven o'clock in the forenoon we 
reached the " Fleskedal Soeter." The stol is pleasantly 
situated on a rise of open mountain ground near a clear 
stream of water. Leaving our things with the soeter 
woman, we descended through a steep forest of birch 
and firs, and at last crossing a new bridge over a wild 
torrent soon afterwards reached another stol or soeter 
which was closed. This was the Vettismark forest and 
soeter. Ole said that this forest was renowned for its 
large trees. Eound the soeter the trees were partly 
V cleared ; some were left scattered here and there. The 
whole scene reminded us of a sheep station in an 
Australian forest. From this picturesque plateau we 
had splendid views of some of the summits of the 

* Sometimes spelt " Uradol." • 



f 



THE MORKFOS, 399 

Horungeme mountains. The scene was beautiful in the 
sunshine of mid- day; it made us wish to linger there 
for ever. What a spot for a tent. Crossing the narrow 
stream near the soeter, and passing through a lovely 
forest view, we were soon near the edge of the hanging 
cliff, over which the narrow river we had crossed, falls 
in one straight and almost perpendicular column of 
water, not less than 800 feet — we thought it more. In 
a note to Captain Campbell's interesting article on the 
Morkfos, published in the " Alpine Journal " of August 
1870, it seems that the height of the fall is about 
1000 feet.* 

We refer our readers to this article for an excellent 
description of this waterfall, and especially to the en- 
graving there given of the fall, which is from an original 
sketch by Captain Campbell. 

The sun shone high ; the sky was Italian blue. Ole 
produced his rope ; carefully securing it round our body, 
he steadied himself at a small tree and held the other 
end of the rope. Then we advanced to the edge of 
the hanging cliff. The wild heath formed an arched 
and matted roof above the far distant rocks in the 
abyss below. As we cautiously leant over. Nature broke 
upon us in all the light of her splendid magnificence. 
Who can doubt the power of a great Creator who 
views such scenes ? We could have stayed there never- 
tiring to eternity. As we seemed to catch as it were the 
broken ground with our legs, almost suspended in mid 
air, we could not divest ourselves of the thought that 

• A description of this fall, with engraving, is also given in Captain 
Campbell's concise and useful work, " How to see Norway," published by 
Messrs. Longman and Co, 



400 TENT LIFE IN NOB 1^ AT. 

Bome of the finest scenes in Nature are often oyerlooked. 
Had the shelving cliff given way we were secured by a 
rope, but we must say our position would have beea 
unpleasant. The cliffs on either side stand abruptly out 
and are overhanging, so that it is difficult to get a good 
view of the fall from above, except at the point we 
were looking over. The rocks below, which receive the 
waters of the fall, for some distance upwards are ahnost 
black. 

When we retired from the cliff's edge, we roped Ole 
and he had a similar view. Notwithstanding all that 
had been said by Captain Campbell, the Morkfos far sur- 
passed our expectations in height, volume of water, and 
picturesque beauty. There is no drawback. All accessories 
are perfect Mountain outline, rock, tree, forest — all 
that surround the fall, rival it in their several perfectiona 
of harmonious beauty. Reluctantly we must say, that 
even the Sjukan fos and its romantic association of the 
"Lovers" or ** Marie stein" is scarcely equal to the 
Morkfos.* Other lovers of nature who visit this wild 
scene may probably pass a decisive opinion either to coii- 

* When we visited the Bjukan fos Bome years aince we were certainly 
under the impression that the name applied to a rock on the face of the 
precipice above the fall, where the lover slipped at the first meeting after a 
long absence, and was lost in the abyss below. The name may probably be 
derived from the footpath, which at that time was very similar to a ladder, 
and Williams, in his work '< Through Norway with a Knapeack,*' calls it 
<^ Marie Stige," saying in a note, " stige " is the Dansk and Norsk for ladder ; 
and placing the article *' en" at the end of the word, as is usual, it becomes 
stigen, the ladder, hence the local name, '^ Marie Stigen," the Hair's 
Ladder, which most English writers have misunderstood or Germanized into 
'^ Marie Stein,'' or Mary's Bock ; others spell it '* Marie Stegen," wliicli, 
translated, signifies Mary's try, Mary's roast meat« In Murray it is 
called Marl Stien. The legend has associated a romantic interest with 
the Rjukan fos. 



THE IBIS. 401 

firm or reverse ours. Both falls have their separate 
beauty. 

The Valley of the Aardal below, is all the most enthusi- 
astic lover of nature could desire.* Opposite to us were the 
magnificent steeps of the Maradaktinder. The waterfall 
roaring down its sides, was only dwarfed, by its more 
splendid rival the Morkfos. The fall opposite is the 
Maradals elv fos. As we watched it, a beautiful iris of 
red, yellow, and blue, hovered above the foaming waters, 
the only one, we had ever seen. 

Before we left, we contemplated the deep valley of the 
Aardal, and its wooded sides. Trees covered the sunmiit 
of the cliffs, on either side the Morkfos. One mountain 
ash, bad caught its roots in a cleft, and overhung in mid- 
air. Scotch firs crowned the rocks above. 

We left at a quarter to one. Never shall we forget a 
small patch of golden moss, formiug a miniature island in 
a small forest tarn ; its resplendent colour in the glowing 
sun. Near the soeter in the Vettismark forest, a few 
large trees scattered near, were without bark, and dead. 
The Vettismark Soeter, and the Fleskedal Soeter, Ole said, 
belonged to the same owner. The ascent to the Fles- 
kedal Soeter was very steep, but we reached it at five 
minutes past two o'clock. 

Our middags mad, on the banks of the stream, near 
the Fleskedal Soeter, consisted of cold bacon, fladbrod, a 
box of sardines, and kage brod, or ovens brod (bread 
baked in an oven), which we had brought with us. Ole 
boiled our water at the soeter, and we had two pannikins 
of tea. The Fleskedal Soeter is a new soeter. One 

* It may be well to note that the Utladal Ely and the Aardal Ely are 
the same zivei ; and the Morkfos is sometimes called the Vetje fos. 

D D 



4u2 TENT LIfE IN NORWAY. 

woman, and some children, were staying there. The 
sc3eter is built of wood, and of the usual size. We paid 
the woman four skillings, for allowing Ole to boil our 
water at the soeter. 

It appears that Messrs. Boyson and Harrison stayed at 
the Fleskedal Soeter one night, with three other gentlemen 
going to Lyster. We were told that for one bed, for two 
of the party, the other three sleeping as they could, and 
for some fladbrod, butter, and milk, they were charged two 
specie dollars, or nine shillings English money, when they 
left. An English gentleman, accompanied by a reindeer 
hunter, came to the Fleskedal Sceter the day before we 
arrived, and stayed all night. Early in the morning 
he had shot a reindeer in the mountains. 

The English sportsman returned to the soeter for a 
pony, but could not get one, and went to obtain one some- 
where else. He said he should reserve the reindeer's skin for 
himself, and send the carcass to a friend at Bergen. Ole 
said he would probably have to pay two or three dollars, 
and if he had sent it down to Skogadals Sceter, the 
carrier would have met the steamer for Bergen, and it 
would have gone at a much cheaper rate. 

Leaving Fleskedal Soeter at about four o'clock, we had 
a delightful walk along the mountain slopes. At one 
point, in the depths of the valley below, on the opposite 
bank of the Utladal Elv, we could see the Bondegaard of 
Vormelid. A deep dark shadow seemed to hang about it 
in the far distance below. What a solitary abode. Few 
footsteps would ever pass its threshold. Imagine the 
winter solitude of this homestead. The silence broken 
by the wolfs howl. Ole said the bears had destroyed the 
cattle of the former owner. He waa nearly ruined. The 



A MOUNTAIN SHADOW, 403 

bridge acro8s the torrent was broken down, and the house 
deserted. Ole signaled as we approached the Skogadals 
Elv. The gipsies were soon on the alert to give us wel- 
come. The carrier brought two horses, and we crossed 
the river. Our tents were reached at seven o'clock. 

The gipsies appeared to have slept most of the day. 
They had not even quarrelled. We began to think they 
must be ill, until we found they had diligently inspected 
nearly every single article we possessed, which were 
afterwards carefully arranged upside down. We decided 
to move very early the next day, and Ole had the grod 
at once prepared for breakfast the next morning. 

Before retiring to rest, we strolled on the turf near our 
tents, and watched the secluded valley by moonlight. 
Vast ranges of snowy mountains were before us silvered 
by the moon. As we looked down the valley, we could 
not help observing, a large shadowed outline, representing 
the figure of a woman, singularly distinct, and formed by 
the conformation of a hill above the ravine. It was 
Sunday, and no music was given at the soeters. 



D t) 2 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

'' That gipey grandmother has all the appearance ol a sowanee" (sor- 
ceress). — ''All the appearance of one!" said Antonio; ''and is she 
not really one ? She knows more crabhed thingSy and crabbed words 
than all the errate betwixt here and Catalonia ; she has been amon^ 
the wild MoorSy and can make more drows, poisons, and philtres than 
any one alive. She once made a kind of paste, and persuaded me to 
taste, and shortly after I had done so, mj soul departed from my 
body, and wandered ihrough horrid forests and mountains, amidst 
monsters and duendes, during one entire night. She learned many 
things amidst the Corahai, which I should be glad to know." 

Sorrow's Bible in Spain. 

THE MBISaBIE — WB CROSS A RIVER — THE SLIPPERY ROCK — AK 
ACTIVE aUIDE — THE CARRIER'S AID — THE LAME HORSE— MELKE- 
DALSTINDERNE — THE STONY WAY — THE NEDREVAND — OLE'b NIGHT 
QUARTERS — THE LAKE BY MOONLIGHTS—EARLY RISING — EISBOD OK 
THE BYGDIN LAKE — THE POET's HOUSE — VINJB THE POET — THE 
POETICAL MORTGAGE — PLEASANT ACQUAINTANCE — OLD NORWEGIA^f 
POETRY — THE REINDEER HUNTER — ^ESMERALDA CONDONED. 

At twenty minutes past two o'clock we were up. 
Calling Ole and our gipsies, we had our grod and milk 
for breakfast. Our expenses at Skogadal amounted to 
nine marks eighteen skillings, as follows — 

fft, t, 

2 lbs. butter 2 

Cheese 6 

36 cakes of fladbrod 2 6 

6 cans milk, 9 skillings per can . . . . 1 21 

8 lbs. barley meal 18 

Sceter women 13 

Carrier crossing river 10 

9 6 



WE CROSS A RIVER 405 

Some little delay occurred in getting the carrier and 
his horse. He was the husband of the woman of one of 
the soeters. She was a tall powerful woman, with a red 
face, and sharp temper, much older than himself. It was 
whispered that he had married her for her money. If he 
had, she had certainly the best of the bargain. Our tents 
and heavy baggage, were soon packed up in a meisgrie or 
crate, and slung up on the wooden packsaddle of the 
carrier's horse. The Norwegian meisgrie is a capital con- 
trivance. It is a kind of network made of birch twigs, 
which laces up with a long tie, one foot eleven inches long. 
It is very strong and very light. Wishing the soeter women 
farewell, and they seemed sorry to lose ns, especially the 
music, we soon reached the river. 

Our people and baggage were soon forded across. We 
remained behind with our three donkeys, having a 
tether rope stretching across the river. Fastening it with 
a noose roimd the Puru Eawnee's neck, she was first 
pulled across, plunging and struggling to the other bank. 
The Tamo Eye was assisted through the stream in a similar 
manner. The Puro Rye saved us the trouble by jumping 
into the stream, to follow his companions. There was a 
loud outcry by the gipsies that he would be drowned, 
but he fought through the torrent famously, and reached 
the other bank in safety. 

The view was beautiful as we looked up the SkogadaL 
The Melkadalstind towered above the mountain ranges, 
which closed the upper portion of the valley, leaving no 
outlet, but a stony col on the distant ridge. The occa- 
sional wooded sides of the valley, with firs, birch, and 
dark foliaged alder, relieved the valley from all appear- 
ance of desolation. The white foam of two torrents, and 



TENT LJFB IN NORWAY. 



occasional patches of snow, on the mountain ades, at die 
head of the valley, contrasted well with wooded slopes 
which margined the winding streanL 

We had now crossed the river, and, following over the 



< TBR VALLIT OF SIfiOADU, SKHOASILS ■ 



broken ground of its right bank, we at length reached 
the head of the pleasant valley of Skogadal. Again we 
had to cross the Skogadals Elv, now a narrow impetuous 
torrent, rushing forth from a glacier, at some distance to/ 
our right. '^ 



THE SLIPPEBY BOCK. 407 

The carrier with his strong horse, for which he wanted 
sixty dollars, crossed easily enough. Noah and Zachariah 
managed somehow to get to the other side with the 
donkeys. The Skogadals Elv was now not very wide, 
but rapid, and over our knees, in the middle of the stream, 
which was icy cold Never shall we forget Ole in a 
narrow part of the stream, out of which rose two rocks, 
balancing on one, whilst he steadied Esmeralda, who 
had jumped on the other. The torrent narrowed in its 
course, swift, and impetuous, occasionally laved with its 
flowing waters Esmeralda's boots, as she stood on the 
slippery rock, preparing, with Ole's assistance, to make 
another jump. It was a question for some minutes 
whether Esmeralda would not lose her foothold, and drag 
Ole after her, into the foaming waters. 

The scene was charming, the reindeer himter on one 
rock, Esmeralda on the other, both hand in hand. 
Balanced above the flowing waters; sometimes we / 
thought Esmeralda was slipping backwards, now with / 
Ole's assistance she has recovered herself. Another jump 
across the foaming waters ; Esmeralda hesitates. A word 
of encouragement, Esmeralda jumps. She has reached 
Ole's rock, she balances again ; thanks to Ole, by another 
hasty spring, she is safe on the other side. 

Soon joining our party, we ascended a winding stony 
track from the Skogadal, passing through a col, we 
reached a second long wild valley, wild and stony in 
the extreme, here and there a glacier above. The fine 
peak of the "Melkedals" above us. Sometimes we 
skirted the margin of small sheets of water, and lonely 
mountain tarns. Over this long reach of broken rock we 
made our way slowly ; at last we again ascended towards 



408 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

another col, to reach apparently another valley heyond. 
We had nearly reached the top of the ascent towards the 
next valley, when the carrier suddenly halted, and Ole 
said he wished to take something to eat. Our carrier was 
a quiet, spare, muscular, and not bad-looking man ; we 
had noticed him when we crossed the river ; no shouting, 
bustle, bewilderment, or gesticulation, he simply did 
quietly what he thought best If it did not succeed, 
and we had all been drowned, it is doubtful whether he 
would have moved a muscle of his countenance. Yet he 
was not a man without feeling, and would probably have 
felt all the more. All was regulated to one steady pace 
for horse and man, and to save the world he would not 
have gone slower or faster. A fire was made with the 
roots of stunted juniper, and our water boiled for tea. 
Our carrier had only some fladbrod, and raw old bacon 
for his dinner. From our commissariat we supplemented 
it with tea, and brandy and water. It was soon found 
that when we had halted at twelve o'clock, he considered 
his bargain ended, and that he was entitled to his dollar, 
and an extra mark for his second horse, to cross the 
Skogadals river. It was thought we should have had his 
services for the best part of the day. 

Ole asked our carrier to give us another hour which 
would make what he considered the value of the dollar, 
but the man would not go any farther ; an extra mark 
would not tempt him. He had come eleven miles ; one 
of his horse's shoes was loose. Our gipsies thought he 
should have continued until one o'clock. Lending the 
man our hammer, and axe, to fasten the horse shoe on, 
which was much too small, we paid him his six marks. 
Advancing towards us in a solemn maimer, he shook 



MELKEDALS, NEDRE VAND. 409 

hands^ and with his horse rather lame, he went off at the 
same regulated steady pace. If intcUigence had been 
suddenly brought that the Skogadals soeter, had been 
burnt down, and his taU wife in it, we do not think he 
would have gone one step faster towards the scene of 
conflagration. 

Noah ! Zachariah ! let the donkeys be loaded. Esmeralda 
clears oilr dinner service into the kettle bag. Ole is up 
and stirring ; we are soon off at ten minutes past one 
o'clock. Our party was soon over the ridge ; a long 
stony valley lay before us beneath the rugged steeps of 
the Melkedabtindeme. The donkeys did their best 
with their loads ; the lift with the carrier's horse in the 
morning, had been, very useful. Ole had evidently 
resolved to make a determined push towards Eisbod. 
Many swift, but shallow streams coming from the glaciers 
above, were crossed without difficulty. With some perse- 
verance the Melkedals vand* is reached ; it is called the 
cevre vand or upper lake. A still dark lake, nothing 
but masses of loose rocks for its shores. Ole said there 
were no fish in it. How we made our way over the loose 
masses of stone on the left bank, from one end to the 
other, is a marvel, sometimes up, sometimes down, with 
often nothing, but pointed rocks, for our loaded animals 

♦ Vand is the Norwegian for water in its general signification, though it 
is often used as a term for lake, in the same way that the English word 
** Wat^r " is often used in Cumberland and Westmoreland instead of Lake. 
Thus we have Wastwater, Ulleswater, Derwentwater, Lowwater, Brothers- 
ivater, Devokewater, Crummockwater, Elterwater, Leverswater, Small- 
water, and Rydalwater. The Norwegian word for lake is "stte" and 
** indsoe ;" but " vand *' (water) is most commonly used instead of lake, as 
Losna Vand, Lejevoerks Vand, Otta Vand, Leir Vand, Melkedals Vand, 
Tyen Vand, Rus Vand, Heimdals Vand, Vinster Vand, Espedals Vand, 
Boev Vand, and many other instances too numerous to enumerate. 



\ 



410 TENT LIFE IN NOEWAT, 

to stand upon. Noah did his best. At last the Puru 
Rawnee slipped with her load, and fell with her legs 
between the rocks. We were much afraid she would 
break or cut her legs all to pieces. She was quickly 
unloaded. By good fortune our handsome Puru Sawnee, 
had not broken any bones ; the hair was bruised off in 
some places ; she was able to go on. Quickly reloading 
again, we were thankful to leave the desolate shores of 
the Melkedals vand, stiQ struggling on step, by step, with 
our tired animals ; at length we reached a small wild 
mountain tarn. At one place we crossed the track of a 
reindeer ; time was fast fleeting towards night, we could not 
very well camp where we were, nothing but rocky steeps, 
and loose masses of stone on every side, not a blade of 
grass to be seen for our donkeys. Leaving the lonely 
tarn we came to a mountain stream. Our route now 
became very steep, often down loose masses of rock. 
Ole and ourself had to lead the way, and occasionally 
form a rough road, or form steps with loose fragments of 
rock, to enable our animals to proceed. All the care of 
our gipsies was necessary. A false step by either of tie 
donkeys would probably disable it for further exertion. 
At some places we had to pile up masses of stone for a 
considerable height, to enable the donkeys to descend 
the rough, and broken declivities of rock. Slowly and 
cheerfully we made our way, everyone doing his best. 
Now and then some small streams of water had to be 
crossed. Coming down a steep declivity we at length 
came in sight of the waters of the Melkedals, " Nedre 
Vand," or the Lower Lake. 

As the shades of night were fast descending, we reached 
the lake, and making our way slowly along the left 



MEZKEDAIS, NEDSB VAND. 411 

bank, we halted on a slope, close to the shore of the 
lake. There was a semblance of green; just enough 
blades of grass, to enable us to fancy we were on turf. 
Seeing nothing bat loose rocks beyond, we decided to stay. 
" Well, sir," said the gipsies, " where's the fire V 



" Ah," said Ole, " perhaps you can do without one 
this evening, or we will go on if you like." 

We determined to stay. 

" It is uncertain," said Ole, " if we come to any 
better camping-ground." 

Zachariah, who was always foremost in settling all 



412 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

matters, had first to be extinguished before we could 
light our camp fire at the Nedre Vand. 

" Fire," said we ; " some fuel shall be found some- 
where — ^warm tea we will have." 

The donkeys were soon relieved of their burthens. It 
is astonishing how soon men accustomed to camp life 
in the moimtains, Quickly avail themselves of all material 
With a few roots, and some dry turf, our water soon 
boiled over a camp fire. We had never failed during 
our campaign. There is, besides, something very cheerful 
in seeing your fire in the shades of evening, on the 
shore of a lake. Our spirits were soon as gay as usual 
After our tea, fladbrod and butter, Ole made himself com- 
fortable under a rock First, putting up some sods with 
a spade; then placing a large flat piece of turf, and 
stunted juniper roots above, Ole slipped himself under, 
and wrapping a handkerchief, and his bag of pig s 
bristles round his neck and head, with our waterproof 
over all, was soon asleep. 

Ole said we had travelled about seventeen miles from 
Skogadal soeter. At one time just before tea, Ole 
went up the ridge beyond our camp, to examine the 
way. He thought he heard a rifle shot, and might meet 
some reindeer hunters. 

It was a beautiful moonlight night ; we stood on the 
shores of the lake after aU had gone to rest. There was 
our sleeping guide under his rock. There our sleeping 
gipsies 'neath their tents; near our camp our three 
gallant merles. They had indeed fought their way well 
for us; nor did we forget to caress them sometimes. 
The Puru Eawnee had to be bathed occasionally with 
a little weak brandy and water; sometimes to be 



THE LAKE BY MOONLIGHT. 413 

strengthened up with a little bruise mixture ; biscuit, and 
now and then a piece of bread, also fell to their share. 

Beyond a picturesque island on the other shore, we 
could see a large glacier stretching apparently into the 
very waters of the lake.* How beautiful in the moon- 
light below those wild peaks. There were some dark 
crevasses to be seen on the glacier's surface. At times, 
in the stillness of the night, we could hear that sound 
peculiar to glaciers, a loud cracking noise, which echoed 
across the waters to our camp. 

Up at half-past three o'clock. Zachariah! Vand! 
water ! yog 1 fire I now quick, Noah 1 Our gipsies are 
up. Ole is up, of course. We saw him to bed, or we 
should think he sat up over night to be ready. Tea, 
fladbrod, and our last tin of potted meat, for breakfast. 
Tents struck ; all moving along the slope from the lake 
at seven o'clock. 

We slowly make our way over loose stones, and a 
mountain ridge is soon gained. We commence our 
descent towards the Lake Bygdin far below us. De- 
scending carefully down a snow slope, we crossed a 
wild torrent. Sometime afterwards we reached the left 
slopes of Melkedalen, between the Grava Fjeld and 
Slaataa^eld. Still continuing our descent of Melke- 
dalen, we reached the shores of a lake. 

As we came in sight of this long, and beautiful lake, 
Ole pointed out the " Poet's House " on a bold pro- 
montory. At the head of the lake we could perceive it. 
It has just the appearance of a newly-built chalet, or 
soeter ; something lonely and picturesque in its position. 
Its association with poetry gave it a further charm. 

* The Melkedals Broeen. 



414 TENT LIFE IN NOMWAY. 

We were still at some distance from the "Poet's House." 
Ole signalled for a boat. In the distance we could see 
some figures near the house, apparently watching our 
party. They were probably puzzled, as to who we could 
be, issuing forth in early morning, from the wild recesses, 
of Melkedalstindeme. 

Two boats came to the shore where we were. All our 
baggage was placed in one ; we handed Esmeralda into 
the other. Ole, Noah, and Zachariah started off on the 
donkeys to ford the river, and roimd the upper bend of 
the lake to the " Poet's House." 

The boats glided on the smooth water of the lake. 
The smi gilded the lofty mountains on either shore ; all 
quietude, peace, and contentment. The Norwegian poet 
has well chosen, thought we, this charming seclusion 
from the world. 

Our boats rounded the promontory past the '* chalet" 
Two ladies, and three gentlemen were near it ; some were 
seated, watching us as we came near. They were making 
use of a large telescope. 

Our boatmen landed at some little distance past the 
" Poet's House " on the beach of the promontory, — a sort 
of inland bay. As we came to the shore, we noticed 
a man seated near a hut, whisking a leafy branch 
over some dark looking pieces of meat, hanging from a 
line. We afterwards found it was rein-deer meat, being 
dried in the sun. The man was keeping the flies off, 
while the meat was being dried for future consumption. 

Our baggage was all safely deposited on a pleasant 
slope of ground, not far from the rein-deer hunter's hut 
We had a good view of the ** Poet's House." Ole, and 
Noah, and Zachariah soon joined us. Our boatmen were 



EISBOD OJV TBE BYQDlN LAKE. 415 

well satisfied with one mark. Noah and Zachariah had 
got their legs wet in crossing the river, but Ole had the 
forethought to take off his stockings, before he rode into 
the stream. 

The history of the " Poet s House " appeared to be as 
follows : — ^The wooden cottage, which consists of two 
small rooms only, cost 100 dollars, Norwegian money, or 
about 20l. English. The poet, Aasmund Olafsen Vinje, 
joined with others in the cost of erection. When the 
poet was required to pay 25 dollars, his stipulated share, 
he was unable to do so. He had certainly more than 
25 pence, but he could only spare 5 dollars. This was 
certainly better than the man who owed i65l. is. 6ci, 
and offered his creditor the 4^. 6c?. Poets, somehow, are 
seldom wealthy. We have occasionally bright excep- 
tions. Vinje was not one. To release the poet from 
his difficulty, it was agreed that he should mortgage his 
interest in the house, and write a mortgage in poetry for 
the sunL Vinje did this. The mortgage deed in poetry, 
will ever remain, a curious, and interesting association, 
with the "Poet's House " on the Bygdin lake.* 

Our experience does not enable us to give a single 
instance of any of the English lawyers writing a 
mortgage in poetry. The only instance we know of any 
legal document being written in poetry, in England, is 
the wiU of Sir Willoughby Dixon, of Bosworth Park, 
Leicestershire. It was written by himself. United to 
the refinement of the scholar, there is often a sharp, 
sound, practical hitting the-right-nail-on-the-head sort of 
ability, among the country gentry of England. A manly 

* The poef 8 pa&tebTev, or mortgage, with a translation, is given in the 
appendix. 



416 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

vigour of intellect, united to an intense love of honour- 
able dealing, and fair play, in all the affairs of life. 

A rein-deer hunter, a friend of Ole's, soon afterwanls 
came to us. He was a tall, spare, keen man, and brought 
some rein-deer meat up in a small wooden tub. AYe 
were afraid to buy more than one piece ; the weather 
was hot, and the meat would not keep' long. Another 
reason for not buying more rein-deer meat was^ our 
chance of obtaining fish at the Tyen Lake, which we 
expected to reach the same afternoon. Our fire was 
soon lighted. One of the gentlemen fix>m the " Poet's 
House " came up. The gipsies were very busy preparing 
our dinner. A young Norwegian gentleman, who wore 
a uniform tunic and trousers of green cloth, came to our 
camp. He was fair and prepossessing. Amiability was 
written in his countenance, witlfout looking in his hand 
He spoke some English. After our meal, it was arranged 
we should pay himself and friends a visit at the " Poet's 
House,'' where they were staying, Tea, fried rein-deer, 
pickled wahiuts, and fladbrod, formed our repast. A 
short man, in a leather jacket, trousers, and cap, came up, 
and we paid him sixteen skillings for the rein-deer meat, 

Skeaker was before us. . Resolving in our mind to go 
without our gipsies to the " Poet's House," we left them 
to pack up and load the donkeys, whilst we went with 
Ole to visit the poet's retreat 

The chfilet is built of logs, on a rising point of land, at 
the head of the lake. The first of the two rooms it con- 
tained, had a fireplace for cooking, and two boarded 
bedsteads, not unlike " bunks," but more finished, and 
elaborate. The room had also one window, which would 
not open. A door gave entrance to the inner room, also 



THE POETS souse. 417 

provided with two similar bedsteads. The inner chamber 
Wiis occupied by the ladies, and had only one window,- 
which apparently did not open for ventilation. A 
beautiful bouquet of wild flowers, stood upon the room 
table; all was order and neatness. How soon we 
distinguished the female hand, in domestic arrange- 
ment. 

The view from the ch^et was a scene of enchantment^ 
as we looked in the glorious midday sun, over the distant 
expanse of lake. On the left shore of the lake, rise the 
mountains of the Grava Fjeld, Galdeberg, the lofty 
Sletmarkho, and the Svartdalspiggne. Again, to our 
right, rise the wild mountain ranges of the Dryllenoset, 
Volaahomene, and Oxendalsnoset, the home of the rein- 
deer, the eagle, the wolf, and the bear. 

The visitors at the " Poet's House " appeared to do 
everything for themselves. They had, no doubt, their 
commissariat^ like ourselves. The young ladies were very 
agreeable, and good looking. We were told they were 
the daughters of a banker. The elder gentleman of the 
party, who spoke a little English, pointed out some old 
Norwegian poetry, written in pencil, on the inner room 
door. They had been staying at the chalet about eight 
days. Often, in after life, shall we remember our 
pleasant visit, to the " Poet's House," on the beautiful 
Lake Bygdin. 

On our return to our party, we found Noah had broken 
his Alpine stock. Zachariah had commenced fishing in 
the lake, but was referred by some man to a stream near, 
which Zachariah alleged was destitute of fish. Esmeralda 
was short and chaffy. 
One rein-deer hunter, made a start for the mountains 

K 25 



418 TENT LIFE IN NOBWAY. 

with the telescope. We were told that it belonged to 
Proesten Hailing, who seemed either in person, name, 
or belongings, to be everjrwhere. The rein-deer hunter 
swung off at a jaunty pace, as if he would make short 
work of the very steep mountain before him. Ole said 
he was going to look out for rein-deer. 

The party from the " Poet^s House " came up to see 
us off. They seemed interested in our equipment We 
also showed the young ladies our guitar. A copy of 
our song, had previously been given to one of the 
party. With very little delay, we hastened away from 
this region of poetry. Esmeralda was getting impetuous. 
Even the donkeys, after all their mishaps during the 
previous day, were eager to proceed on the journey. 
With many adieux to the very pleasant visitors at 
the "Poet's House*' we l^ft Eisbod, and the Bygdin 
Lake.* 

Esmeralda was very determined, stepping after the 
baggage, as only a gipsy can step. Ole, of course, 
leads the way. Three merles loaded, Noah and Zacha- 
riah, and then Esmeralda, and then ourselves. 

Esmeralda had been very quick in movement, up and 
down, and everywhere, with now and then, something 
to say. We were thankful when we were removed, with 
this restless orbit of our wanderingsf, from the " Poet's 

* Before we left the Bygdin Lake^ a ramour reached us, that the poet 
Vinje was dead. His spirit had departed to some far-distant world. It 
was quite true : Aasmund Olafsen Vinje died 30th July, 1870, at Sjo, in the 
parish of Gran, Hadeland. He was bom of poor parents, in the parish of 
Vinje, in Thelemarken, about 1818. The exact year of his birth appears 
to be doubtful. A soft and melancholy stillness seemed to pervade the 
air, as if the departed spirit of the poet lingered near his once favourite^ 
haunt. It glided silently over the Sletmarkh6, and was for ever gone. 



ESMERALDA CONDONED. 419 

House.*' Yet she said soon afterwards, she had only 
pretended to be offended, we must think nothing of it. 
AVe i^v^ere on the eve of fresh scenes, why should we 
remember a slight ripple on the glittering surface of 
tlie w^aters of Lake Bygdin. 



E £ 2 



CHAPTEE XXXVI. 

The guitar is part and parcel of the Spaniard and hia ballada ; he 
slings it across his shoulder with a ribbon, as was depicted on the 
tombs of Egypt four thousand years ago. The performers seldom are 
very scientific musicians ; they content themselyes with striking the 
chords, sweeping the whole hand over the strings, or flourishing, and 
tapping the board with the thumb, at which they are reiy expert. 

Fokd's Spain. 

LAKE TYEN— THE TOURIST CLUB CHALET — LORTWICK S<ETER — LAKE 
DRIFTWOOD— A COLD MORNING— A CHEAF MEAL— THUNDER IN THE 
AIR — SUNSHINE AGAIN — THE SEPARATION — THE GALLANT OLE 
FAREWELL — TO CHRISTIANA — ENERGY ALWAT8 — PUSH ON — THE BER- 
GEN ROAD — THE VIOLINIST— ONE DOLLAR MORE — PICTUHE8QUE 
SCENE. 

EiSBOD, on Lake Bygdin, had been left at one o'clock. 
The Lake Tyen was soon reached. The Lake Bygdin 
is said to be 1 7^ English miles long, Lake Tyen about 
12 miles. The evening was beautiful when we reached 
Lake Tyen. Our route lay along its left shore nearly 
the whole length of the lake. 

After we had journeyed some short distance, follow- 
ing the narrow footpath or rough track, we reached 
Tvindehougeii. 

This is also a wooden chalet, on a rise of ground 
above the lake, erected, we were told, at the cost of 
the " Norwegian Tourist Club " for their accommodation 
in summer. The cost, we were told, was 100 dollars, 



THE TOURIST CLVB CBALET. HI 

equivalent to about 20^: The sketch of the ch&let we 
then made is given below, with a view of the lake, and 
the Koldedalstindeme {peaks of the cold valley).* 

Ole shouted to some fishennen at " Fiskebod," on the 
other side of the lake. It was expected they would bring 
some fish. One man came in his boat after we had waited 
quite a quarter of an hour. Ole was disappointed to find 



NOBWBatAa I0D8IST CbDB CBALET, 

he had brought no fish. It occurred to us we should have . 
to pay him after calling him over : a glass of aquavitie 
settled matters to his satisfaction. There were two men 
at the " Tourists' Chiilet." One was a tall thin fellow, 
draped in leather, and nothing else — coat, breecbea, 
stockings, and a sort of skin shoe. The chSlet consists 
of two rooms, with superior kind of " bunks," or bed- 

* Tbia extensive moantain region, with its wild wilileme»9 of peaks, 
rifling in fantastic forai and eharp outline, especially the Koldedalstind, 
StClsnaaatinder, Dryhaugtinden, Skagaatolstinden, and StyggedalBtinder 
of HoTungeme and Fleskenaastiad, and Melkedalalind, and others too 
nnmeroua to mention, present a wide field of intereet, and at present are 
little known and seldom explored bf the Norwegian toumt. 



422 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

steada, but no fittings of any kind. The ^windows aie 
too low to obtain a pleasant view of the lake when 
standing up, and are not adapted for ventilation. 
Travellers staying at the chSlet must take everything 
with them, including bedding, &c There is a stove in 
one room. We must, of course, consider that this ch41et 
of the Norwegian club, is only intended for summer 
residence. Travellers who avail themselves of its ac- 
commodation, must be mountaineers. It is a shelter 
from the storm, wind, and night-air, and is not intended 
for anything more. The evening was warm and sultry ; 
at the same time we enjoyed the summer's sun, as we 
made our way, as best we could, along the narrow 
broken track. 

Except ourself, all the party were very thirsty ; even 
Ole, seldom troubled with thirst, made frequent visits to 
the clear rippling mountain streams, which often crossed 
our path. 

At evening close, we reached a green, pleasant slope, 
below a rising bank, covered with juniper bushes, and 
very near a shingly beach on the lake. 

We were within five or ten minutes of the time, Ole 
predicted we should reach the soeter of Lortwick. The 
name, Ole said, meant dirty. Not from the state of the 
soeter, hut from the prevailing bad weather of that part 
of the lake. If we could judge from the outside of the 
soeter, it might also have suited the name. 

At first the gipsies did not see any dry fire-wood. 
" Go to the shingly beach," said we, " you will find 
plenty." There is always some rough wood, drifted up 
by high winds on every beach. They found plenty, and 
we had a good fire. 



LORTWICK SCETEE. 423 

What is that we hear, as Noah is putting up the 
tents ? Esmeralda's voice to her brother Zachariah, 
in severe reproof — '* Push it on. Highflyer. — What, 
pushing the prop the wrong way. Oh, Lucas ! Lucas 1 
you were always a mumper ! " 

We had tea, fladbrod, and butter, for our aftens-mad, 
Ole afterwards went to the soeter, and had their iron 
pot cleaned out for grod in the morning. 

Noah produced a meerschaum pipe, and began to 
smoke. What camp rules — smoking ! Noah was, upon 
explanation, found to have picked it up at a spring, and 
said he was only drawing out the contents of the tobacco 
in it, to empty it. He very soon put it up. After re- 
flection — ^Why are thoughtless tourists so careless, as 
to leave their pipes about, to the serious injury, and 
temptation of our gipsies ? 

Just as we were retiring to bed, Esmeralda thought 
she heard a toad croaking — didn't like it. As far as 
we could ascertain, it was her brother Zachariah, who 
was fast asleep in bed snoring. 

Up at half-past three o'clock ; a very cold morning ; 

there is a wintry feeling about the air. To-day is 

Wednesday, the 10th August, yet, after all, we can 

stand without inconvenience, the chilliness of an early 

sunrise in the mountains. The view was beautiful, as the 

sun rose beyond the lake, over the sharp peaks of Kolde- 

dalstindeme. We went to the Lortwick soeter. Ole was 

of course up. Does he sit up all night ? was a question, 

we again asked. He had got the iron pot full of water 

ready to boil. When we returned Noah was sent for the 

grod. How we enjoyed, notwithstanding the extreme 

freshness of the morning, a summer's day iced, as we had 



424 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

our matutinal splash in the lake. Noah soon brought the 
grod to the tents ; Ole joined us, and we had our break- 
fast. Grod and milk is certainly a cheap meal, suffi- 
cient for five people scarcely exceeds the cost of ten 
skiUings. We found the grod very good for hard work ; 
our cost at the Lortwick soeter was — 

2lb8. butter 2 

Fladbrfid 12 

Milk 8 

Soeter • • ' . . . . . ..04 

Total cost 3 

At six o'clock in the morning, we passed the Lort- 
wick soeter on the Tyen Vand. Esmeralda and Noah 
had evidently got up on the wrong side the turf. 

The Lake Tyen is picturesque, but not so wild as 
the Lake Bygdin. Time did not permit us to test 
the fishing. The view, especially from the " Tourist's 
ChSlet," Tvindehougen, is very picturesque. On the op- 
posite shore there are generally some Norwegian fisher- 
men, at a place called Fiskebod. 

As we left the shores of the lake, the gipsy storm rose 
higher ; the hurricane of human intellect was even too 
great for Zachariah to swim in — ^Mephistopheles kept 
aloof with his donkey, as a mariner shuns a maelstrom. 
Even Ole pushed ahead some yards farther than usual, 
not altogether out of reach of the wordy projectiles, which 
fell around. 

We were used to it — ours was a kind of charmed life; 
it is marvellous how we sometimes escaped. Fancy the 
melancholy termination of our career, as a wandericg 
gipsy, on the shores of the Tyen Vand. 

The Birmingham bagman would have lost two copies 



TEVNDER IN THE AIR. 425 

of this work The fete of the Eoglish gipsies in Norway, 
would have remained an impenetrable mystery. 

Esmeralda, as we passed the Lortwick soeter, would 
now and then advance rapidly from the rear, and fire 
a heavy broadside into Noah. The Romany chaff was 
very severe on both sides. "Isn't Ambrose a ballo- 
shero? Oh, yes, Ambrose is like vamon, when he 
rockers like a galdering gorgio. Ambrose can talk, 
can't he ? The mumply dinlo ! What a state he puts 
himself in, over everybody else." 

Noah was by no means wanting in ammunition. When 
Esmeralda fell back to the rear, we did our best to 
keep her there. Noah kept a running fire all the time. 
The tall gipsy kept his temper very well, except when 
severely hit, by some more than usually sarcastic 
allusion. 

Leaving the lake, we passed down a narrow gorge. 
At the head of this gorge, Esmeralda again brought 
up all her reserve of the Romany artillery. Uncle 
Elijah was brought iip, knocked down, and killed ten 
times over. 

How well we remember the tall active form of the 
gipsy girl, rapidly bringing up her merle and baggage 
fri Z rear. h« eyeTlhLg with mdign«».t ^ 
poor Noah — what will be his fate? The battle of 
Dorking was nothing to it. Noah stands firm. He 
takes advantage of the intricacy of t^e narrow path- 
way; the broken nature of the ground separates their 
forces. Ole, we see, is still ahve ; a stray shot is only 
heard now and then. 

Again we had calm, and quiet, on the horizon. Shortly 
after coming forth from the defile, we halt. Our 



426 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

donkeys axe unloaded on the summit of a lofty slope. 
At a short distance from us there is a soeter. Below, at 
the bottom of the valley across a small river, we see the | 
Bergen road. The gipsies had had their say. No one J^ 
had any conception, or they themselves, what it was all 
about. An exhaustion of superabundant animal energy, 
and intense physical force. All was forgotten. A fire 
was quickly lighted in the now warm sunshixie. Ole and 
ourselves were now to part. The middags-mad con- 
sisted of fried English ham, vinegar, fladbrod, butter, 
ovensbrod, and tea. Ole was delighted with our tea. 
He carefully measured the tin pannikin we had given 
him to use. Ole always had the same. Noah said he 
knew it by a dinge on the side. Our guide said he 
shoilld have one made like it All our camp arrange- 
ments had, apparently, much interested Ole. Moun- 
taineers are naturally interested in the most portable, and 
convenient methods, of affording food and shelter, in those 
regions where accommodation is scanty and uncertain. 
There was very little that we had not provided ; scarcely 
any addition necessary, beyond those things we had 
already brought. Such was the practical result of our 
camp experience. 

After our middags-mad, slightly tinged perhaps with a 
shade of melancholy, we strolled aside with Ole. The 
cost of Ole's services amounted to eight specie dollars, 
calculated at the rate of four marks a day, and including 
his return allowance. Our coat, lost on the Galdhopiggen, 
was to be sent by parcel post if found. The postage 
would be twelve skillings per pound, and we gave him 
one mark twelve skillings. 

Ole said he hoped to see us again ; we hoped so loo. 



THE GALLANT OLE, FAREWELL. 427 

With unfeigned regret we parted with our gallant 
Ole Halvorsen, of Bodsheim. Always punctual, even- 
tempered, and ever anxious to save us any unnecessary 
expense; possessed of much practical experience of a 
large region of wild country ; ready to camp out on the 
mountain side without a tent ; undaunted in the hour of 
difficulty ; never at fault, quick in expedients, cool and 
cahn ; of few words, but full of information ; we pay 
this parting tribute to our excellent Ole Halvorsen. 

Ole said he had never fared so well in the mountains. 
It was a compliment to our cook and commissariat. 

" Good-by, Mr. Ambrose, good-by, Miss daughter, 
and master Zakee," said Ole, 

" Good-by, Mr. Eodsheim,'* said our gipsies as we 
shook hands, and with our parting farewell, and good 
wishes, Ole was soon far up the mountain side. 

Our donkeys were already loaded. In a very short 
time we had crossed the river, and had reached the 
Bergen road. Our party came forth from the deep 
recesses of the Horungeme mountains with new energy ; 
issuing forth, as it were, from the vast wilderness of 
peak, glacier, lake, and river, to the civilized world. 
The distance to Christiania was yet considerable; the 
time we could allow ourselves was short ; the summer 
fast waning, yet we had gathered renewed energy. Our 
donkeys pricked their ears when they found themselves 
on the hard road. Nothing could exceed the health 
and spirits of our party. A few forced marches would 
accomplish all we required. Mephistopheles said it could 
not be done in the time, and was quickly snuffed out. 

It is necessary to push on in this world. Splangy 
when he goes out to hunt, will always be in somewhere. 



428 TENT LIFE IN NOBWA Y. 

It is true his weight may be a stone or two more than 
his hunter can well carry. It is equally certain that 
Splangy's mare is disinclined to jump if it can bore 
through a fence. If she stumbles into the first ditch, 
Splangy tumbles into the second. Still Splangy never 
looses the reins; he pulls through, and is always in 
somewhei-e. 

Then there are Johnson and Toboys, men of business. 
Johnson is said to sleep with one eye open, and Toboys 
never sleeps at alL They have business all over the 
world. For instance, when an order is given, it is sent 
in to the day. It is pushed through. The set of chairs 
are in the drawing-room, never mind if the owner, a few 
days afterwards, sits on one with a defective leg, and is 
flat on the floor, with the chair upon him. He is pain- 
fully reminded of Johnson and Toboys' address. Well, 
after all, says he, they were delivered in time for me to 
receive the Prussian Ambassador. With many other 
firms, says the owner, I should have had to wait two 
years, when the chintz would be faded, and the fashion 
gone. Johnson and Toboys, of course, get the order for 
his dining-room. The furniture van dashes up ; aU is 
delivered on the day. What matter if one chair is 
afterwards discovered legless. Ah! says the owner, 
holding it up, it is well cushioned, and comfortable. 
What matter if, forgetting the legs, he sits down, turning 
an acrobatic back-somersault in the air ? Carpets are 
thick now-a-days ; no bones are broken. The owner is 
only painfully reminded of Johnson and Toboys' address. 
Never mind, says the owner, after all, they were in time 
for me to receive my friend Fitful and his wife from 
India* It soon turns out the workman who had the legs, 



THE BEROEN ROAD. 4i0 

liad no head ; they were only forgotten. Johnson and 
Toboys have made their fortune, whilst some firms arc 
thinking about it. Let us push on. 

The Bergen road was reached by our party, at a point 
between Nystuen and Skogstad. The trout of Nystuen 
are said to be exceedingly good. We were at the foot of 
the Fille Fjeld* The scenery was charming as we 
followed the road down to Skogstad ; all down hill, and 
an excellent road. Groves of birch, mountain willow, 
and alder trees, alternating with rock scenes, and fir 
wood. The Findal's Horn rises to our right. Allons 
done I How gaUy the Puru Rawnee, with her jingling 
bells stepped out ; ever leading ; head well up, as if in 
her pride, she knew she was always admired. We shall 
never see another donkey like her ; such fine long legs, 
clean, and admirably shaped, stepping under her heavy 
load, as if it was nothing. Allons done! as we rapidly 
followed the winding road, and our party soon reached 
Skogstad Station. We had parted from Ole at the 
soeter, at twenty minutes past twelve o'clock, and 
reached Skogstad at half-past one. In we went to get 
some fladbrod. Whilst the pige was getting the fladbrod, 
we went into a very small comfortable side room. Seeing 
a curiously inlaid violin hanging up, we asked the pige 
the price. She brought the master of the station ; he 
called the ostler. It now appeared the ostler was a 
fabricator of violins ; a musical genius. The short old 
man, who wore breeches on very bow legs, reached out 
another violin from a cupboard. This was of more recent 
manufacture, and far better tone. The station-master, 
who was a very pleasant obliging man, prevailed on the 
ostler to play a tune. " An ancient Norwegian air," said 



430 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

the station-maBter. We can only say the composer must 
have been far from lively at the time of composition. 
The old man sawed away in a slow methodical manner. 
As contrasted with our camp music, it was lugubrious. 
How delighted Ole Bull, the celebrated Norwegian vio- 
linist, would have been with his countryman's performance. 
Mephistopheles was nearly in a fit. We ordered a bottle 
of excellent ale, and gave the ostler a glass to drink gamle 
norge. The ostler had exhausted his inspiration, and 
the ale had no reviving efiect. The gipsies and myself, 
therefore, finished the rest. Ah! what about strict 
camp rules? We are not in camp, we are in the 
Skogstad Station. Then Mephistopheles played some 
rather stirring airs on the new violin and the old one. 
We imderstood it was one of the Hardanger violins, and 
asked the price. The station-master and the two pige 
stood by, whilst Mephistopheles played. Then the 
station-master said, " English,*' and smiled. The ostler 
wanted three dollars. We were considering, trying, 
discussing, when up drove some carrioles to the station ; 
English travellers in knickerbockers. Out went the old 
ostler ; out went the station-master. We paid the pige 
for the fladbrod and 61. Noah took the Hardanger 
violin, if it was one, under his arm. The ostler was out- 
side, standing by the pony of the first carriole just put in. 
We handed three paper dollars to the old man. " Fire," 
said the old fellow, showing four fingers. " Nei ! Nei ! " 
said Noah. " No," said we, finding the old man had 
suddenly raised his price. ** Tre,'' and we put out our 
hand with our three dollars. The two young girls were 
close by him with anxious countenances, evidently 
expecting we should give up the purchase. 



TSe VIOLINIST. 431 

The scene was famous, Skogstad Station, and its 
picturesque scenery. Carrioles before the entrance with 
ponies just put in, and ponies just taken out. Jolly 
station-master ; English traveUera in knickerbockers just 
getting into carrioles. Two rather pretty Norwegian 
girls standing beside the old ostler; old ostler, the 
picture of irreaolutioa. Hie melancholy countenance, 



m vavnaux tiouh. 



expressing anxiety to get one dollar more. Esmeralda at 
our elbow, telling us not to let the gorgio do Mandy. 
Her tall gipsy brother waiting for the ancient violin, 
Mephistophelea saying : " Maw kin the Bosh, sir, if he 
don't lei the three dollars."* We were just going off; the 
old man suddenly clutched the three dollar notes. Noah 

* Don't buy the fiddle, air, if he does not take three doUara. 



432 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

quickly placed the ancient violin and bow under Ms 
arm. Away we went from the road side scene, and soon 
joined our animals and baggage. 

The violin as represented still remains a souvenir of 
Skogstad. 

Scarcely had we left^ when a tall powerful man, in 
breeches, came running after us in breathless haste ; taking 
off* his hat, we found he wished to see the donkeys ; 
staying a few moments to gratify his curiosity, he ex- 
claimed many times Peen gioere! ! ! peen gioere! ! "Ya, ya," 
said Noah, and we again continued our journey, wishing 
him god morgen. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

The gipsies are not destitute of good qaalitiea Thej have a species 
of honour ; so that^ if trusted, thej will not deceive or betray joiu 

l%e (Gipsies, By Saxubl Roberts. 

CAMP ON LILLE MJdSEN~THE 8KJYRI PJELD— AN ACQUAINTANCE FROM 
£ISBOD — CAMP RULES CONFIRMED — OUR GIPSY NOAH — ENGLISH 
SPOKEN — SINGULAR STONE — ILOE STATION — OUR FRIEND FROM 
EISBOD — ARTIST SOUVENIRS — ZACHARIAH's SPORT — FAST TRAVELLING 

— harvest time — secluded camp — able pleading — the steb 
station — obliging hostess — tether rope lost — the kindly 
welcome — ^an englishman's wish — an open air concert — 
Esmeralda's flowers — adieu, but remembered — a mid-day rest. 

A WILD river on the left of the road soon found its 
outlet in a small lake. A man and woman, in a boat 
upon the lake, were fishing with a net ; soon afterwards 
we came to Oye on the "Lille Mjosen Vand." We 
purchased five eggs at a house near the road, for five 
skillings ; and the young Norwegian girl showed us a 
curious violin they had in the house. The Lille Mjosen 
is a very beautiful and picturesque lake ; the road lay 
through wooded slopes, on the right bank, steep rocky 
clifis towered above us. Before reaching Tune, we came 
to a charming grassy knoll, immediately above the road ; 
the small stony gully, on one side, was convenient for the 
donkeys to graze. A large forest of spruce fir surrounded 
the knoll on all sides, except towards the road, below 

F F 



434 TENT LIFE IN NOHWAT. 

which the stony shingly shore of the lake extended; 
above the forest slope were some lofty picturesque rocks. 
From the knoll, we had a delightful view across tiie 
lake, which was not very broad at this part On the 
opposite shore, the Skjyri Fjeld rose in very lofty steeps, 
almost immediately fix)m the waters of the lake. We 
noticed also, on the other side, one small gaard, lonely by 
itself, on a narrow slip of reclaimed land, a few acres, 
between the water, and the base of the precipice, which 
rose almost straight to lofty summits, covered here and 
there by fir wood. 

Our knoll was delightfully shut in and secluded ; the 
lofty trees of the spruce fir stretched to the base of the 
cliflf above. So steep were they, that verdure could not 
exist. Although only four o'clock, the camp ground was 
so tempting, we determined to halt. Noah and Zachariah 
fished in the lake without success. The evening was 
very warm and simny. Our aftens-mad consisted of tea, 
fiadbrod, eggs^ and butter. 

At the Skogstad Station, we had had one mark's worth 
of fiadbrod, and the bottle of ale cort twelve skiUings, the 
usual price. Our violin three dollars, the price at first 
asked. A few carrioles passed underneath during the 
evening, but the travellers did not observe us. Our 
music in the stillness of evening sounded across the lake. 
In the dim light, we could see a fire on the other shore. 
The evenings now get more damp, night begins sooner. 
Quite late, as Noah was putting up our tent, a Stolkjoere 
came by ; the traveller pulled up, and, to our surprise, 
we again met our acquaintance of the Bygdin Lake, 
the young gentleman who wore the uniform tunic. We 
welcomed him as an old friend ; he said he had come to a 



CAMP RULES CONFIRMED. 436 

certain point on the route with the ladies, and they had 
met Ole. Our Mend said he had parted from the other 
visitors we met at the '* Poet's House/' and hoped to be 
in Christiania on Sunday. We gave him one of our best 
cigars, which he said were not ofben met with in the 
mountains. A short chat, of course, about the war, and 
we parted, probably to meet again in Christiania. 

Near our tents there was an exceedingly large nest of 
creas (gip-> ants), as my people called them. Their com- 
munistic ideas were at once apparent; they swarmed 
about our camp, taking away all they could carry. 

They had three large tracks diverging from their nest 
to the road, down which thousands were hastily hurrying 
to and fro ; it was very interesting to watch them. 
Nature has an ever-varied, and instructive page to set 
before you at every step. \] 

Going out of our tents the last thing, we were astounded 
at what we saw by the camp fire. The appearance of a 
Huldre (fairy), or a JotuJ (giant), could not have astonished 
us more. Noali was seated, and actually smoking a 
pipe; it was as the French say, "un peu trop fort," / 
camp rules infringed, laws broken, what next? we of ' 
course spoke upon the subject. 

We shall not trouble our readers with our Nicotian 
lecture. It was in vain Noah advanced that smoking 
was better than chewing ; we were firm. He had given 
his word, knew the camp rules, and we could not have 
any future confidence in any man who broke his word 
with us. Noah, with a melancholy look, slowly put out 
his pipe, and it disappeared. " You shall not say I am a 
liar, sir ; I shall keep my word, as I have promised." After 
all, Noah, in his wild way, is not a bad fellow ; he has 

F F 2 



436 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

been thrown into all kinds of temptation, without care, 
or instruction of any sort, leading a wild wandering life. 
yet, throughout our campaign, we never heard him oBit 
utter an oath. It is more than we can say with regani 
to many others we have met, persons more educated, and 
with better opportunities. Yes, Noah is tolerably steady ; 
notwithstanding, a few cigars, and a little brandy, might 
be much imperilled if placed in his way. We must 
however give Noah his due, to us he was ever ready to do 
his share in the rough work of our Norwegian wanderings. 
We must ever take an interest in Noah's fate. 

It is Thursday the 11th of August, the morning is ven' 
fine, our party up at twenty minutes past four o'clock. 
Our fladbrod was exhausted; nineteen college biscuits 
were allowed to each, with butter and tea for breakfast. 
The morning was cold till we had the sun upon the 
valley. The Lille Mjosen is a charming lake. Our 
party were soon off. 

We had not long left our camp, when we met a 
gentleman carrying an umbrella to shade himself from 
the morning sun. He was a Norwegian clergyman, who 
spoke English very well, and had been staying with an 
English family in Christiania. Evincing much interest 
in our expedition, he kindly gave us some very useful 
suggestions with regard to our future route. The route 
he suggested as best suited for camping purposes, and as 
also being very picturesque, was via Kroemmermoen, the 
Spirilen Lake and the Krogkleven. When he left us to 
continue his walk, we immediately afterwards reached 
an inn, which appeared very comfortable; several 
travellers were staying there. They were attired in their 
best wearing apparel, and were evidently enjoying a 



SINGULAR STONE. 



437 



summer tour. We tried to get some Kagebrod ; all they 
could offer us were some very seedy pieces of bread, rather 
mouldy, and one piece of fladbrod, which Noah could have 
demolished at a mouthful. The bread we left, but a 
pound of fresh butter, at twenty-two skillings, we took 
with us. 

Soon afterwards a man came running after us in 
breathless haste ; our donkeys were the object of attrac- 
tion ; great was his admiration before he left us. 

In a roadside churchyard we soon after passed, we 
believe it was Vang, there is a singular stone, carved with 
an interesting relief, and an inscription. 

In some churchyards we passed in Norway, a mere 
cross of wood marks the grave. Now and then we 
ol^crved a railing round a grave, and occasionally, but 
very seldom, a marble head-stone, with an inscription. 
Then we came to birch woods, and a beautiful road along 1 
the side of the lake. Sometimes, as we journeyed close \ 
to the water edge, shaded by lofty rocks, our gipsies, as 
tbey caught sight of the large trout, would exclaim — 
" Dawdy, what a borrieck matcho ! "* 

In the Lille Mjosen, we observed nets set with floats. 
Spruce fir is the predominant tree of this district The 
scenery is very beautiful ; wood, mountain, rock, and 
water in great perfection. 

Our gipsies pushed the donkeys on rapidly ; some- 
times on the trot. About one o'clock we saw to the right 
of the road " Oiloe Station." 






• Meaning in Eomany a large fish. "Borrieck" is evidently derived 
from " boro," great. It is spelt " baro " in the Turkish gipsy. The word 
" borrieck," as used by our gipsies, meaning great, we have never met with 

before. 



438 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

We were delighted with the scenery of this place. 
Sending Esmeralda and Zachariah on with the bc^age, 
with instructions to halt at the first convenient place, ve 
went with Noah up the road to the station. 

We had to forage for bread. The mistress of the 
station, a portly good-natured woman, looked out of an 
upstairs window, as we came up. When we entered the 
old house, we were surprised to meet our Mend, from the 
" Poet's House," at the Bydgin Lake. It seems he was 
waiting for a carriole to take him on. Through lus kind 
assistance, the mistress spared us part of a loaf, sue ^gs, 
and some fladbrod, for sixteen skillings. Noah at once 
took possession of the provisions. 

The mistress, who was a fine-looking woman, possessing 
some remains of former beauty, took us upstairs. It was 
a sort of large guest room, with two windows, and three 
or four beds. The station seemed to have been a perfect 
nest of artists. We were not surprised. The scenery 
around was lovely. Not that it was as impressive, as 
that we had lately left; but all the elements which 
entrance, and captivate the mind, of those who seek 
nature, were there. The artists had left their marks. 
One artist of the name of Lorck, had, on the morning of 
his departure, painted his watch on the wall, above the 
head of his bed. When he had left, the pige, thinking 
he had forgotten it, attempted to take it down. Another 
had painted a key on the wall, almost, if not quite equal 
to the one on the wall of Wiertz's celebrated, and singular 
Mus^e at Bruxelles. There was also a landscape scene 
painted on the wall, of another part of the room, over one 
of the beds. 

Of course the pencil of an industrious countryman was 



ABTI8T SOUVBNIBS. 43» 

busy—" W. J. PhiUipa, Prestwieh, 20-7-70." Then wc 
were shown a small likeness of Eekersbei^ the artist, 
"vrhich represented him as dressed in a red coat ; the 
portrait had been painted by himself. We were told he 
had died three weeks before our visit, and the artist 
would never again visit the scenes which had afforded so 
many subjects for his pencil. 

Then the hostess produced two girdles for sale, the 
ovraers being poor and wanting money. We at last 
bonght one of the girdles as a souvenir — a Norwegian 
maiden's girdle. 



■0>VMU> lUIDKl's BILT, Slt^H. 



An engraving is now given of the belt. The omamenta 
and fastening are all in brass. The only similar belt we 
saw in Norway, was worn by the little dark woman, who 
visited our tents at Lauigaard. 

The hostess afterwards brought us some milk, for which 
she would not make any charge. In fact, our Bygdin 
friend, the hostess, oursclf, and Noah, had quite a 
delightful conversazione. Vague news was of course 
given about the war. 

When we had just descended the extremely primitive 
stairs, and were going out of the door, the husband met 



440 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

US. He gave a sort of suppressed shriek, when he sav 
Noah with the provisions. Our friend from the Bygdin 
Lake, and the man's tall wife, said some words to him. 
Noah had certainly not taken the watch and key painted 
on the guest-room wall Whatever they said, the effect 
was magical ; the husband disappeared. With kindly 
salutations, we left the abode of artists. 

What a charming spot Esmeralda had selected for the 
mid-day's halt, at a short distance from the statioD, 
where the road traversed some new-mown, parky-looking 
ground, open to the road ; they had unloaded near a 
clump of trees. 

The river from the Lille Mjosen Lake, broken into 
picturesque rapids, was close to us, Esmeralda was 
seated midst the baggage, and the donkeys were grazing 
near. Zachariah was at once started to fish for the 
commissariat, and afterwards returned with seven 
delicious trout ; one was a very fine one, one foot three 
inches long; beautifully pink. For our middags-mad, 
we had eggs, potatoes, fladbrod, and cheese. Our friend 
from the Bygdin Lake, soon after passed along the road, 
en route to Christiania, and waved his adieux. Several 
carrioles and carriages passed along the road towards 
Bergen. Some were apparently English travellers, and 
seemed rather astonished to see a party of gipsies near 
the roadside. 

Occasionally the travellers looked with curious interest, 
as they contemplated, en passant, our mode of travelling. 
It was a glorious warm sun, and we enjoyed our halt 
amid the lovely scene. 

The animals are reloaded, and we are off at half-past 
three o'clock. Shortly afterwards v^e were overtaken by 



FAST TRAVELLING. 441 

a German smoking in his stolkjoerre. Very much 
interested he seemed in our cayalcade, and evidently took 
us for strolling players and musicians. He passed, and 
then pidled up ; stared, lingered, and ultimately ofifered 
Ssmeralda a seat in his stolkjoerre. She declined his 
offer. Then he pressed it. We then came up, and told 
him our party always preferred walking. He asked us 
"w^hat we performed, and begged our pardon when he was 
told we travelled for our pleasure, with our tent, and 
baggage, to see the country. 

The German said — " You are looking well ; it agrees 
with you. I prefer to travel faster. I do fourteen 
Norsk miles a day (ninety-eight English). Wish you 
all a pleasant journey." And he drove oflf towards 
Christiania. 

The road was very pleasant. Sometimes through 
forest, sometimes through the cultivated enclosure of a 
gaard. A young Norwegian passed us at one place, who 
spoke English. In passing through a forest, Noah picked 
up a small spruce fir which was uprooted, and was lying 
by the way. This replaced his broken alpenstock. It 
was carefully peeled, and made into a respectable walking 
stajBT. 

At a short distance from Stee, we came in sight 
of the river, and a fall of water, near some saw-mills, 
apparently closed during the absence of the workmen at 
the harvest. All were now busy in the fields. In 
Norway the summer is short. To harvest quickly is a 
matter of pressing necessity. Everything gives place to 
the harvest. A tolerably quick man on a farm, we were 
told, earned about twenty dollars a year wages — rather 
more than four pounds English — his food lodging, two 



442 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

pairs of shoes and two pairs of stoddngs^ and two shirts. 
Men engaged by the day receive, we were told, about 
one mark twelve skillings. 

Near the mills, a stream of water crossed the road 
firom a thick wood on the left. The stream afterwards 
joined the river near the mills. Through the wood, there 
was a pathway leading to some open broken ground 
surroimded by treea It was a pleasant secluded spot, 
not far from the road. Here we camped. Our aftens- 
mad consisted of Med trout, tea, and barley-meal cake& 
made in the %ing pan. Zachariah caught seven txout, 
and Noah three trout, in the river. We went after tea to 
fish, but it was almost dark, and we returned to our camp. 

In the early morning, at twenty minutes to four 
o'clock, when we got up, the air was rather cold. Our 
fire being lighted, we had for breakfast fried trout, 
fladbrod, and tea. Zachariah went fiBhing, whilst Noah 
was having his matutinal wash. Esmeralda, seated near 
the fire, commenced. She was sorely grieved to think 
we should part with the donkeys. The poor animals 
would be left to be ill used in a strange country. She 
did not like to part with things she was used to, after 
they had gone with us so many miles. She looked as if 
we were going to have them shot immediately after we 
arrived at Christiania. 

She pleaded so earnestly on their behalf, that she 
would have won the heart of any one of the members 
of the Humane Society, if he had been present 

What could we do ? One, of course, was promised to 
our friend the chevalier ; but the other two ? These 
^ere not promised. We, of course, took what our 
hobbenengree had said into consideration. 



THE 8TEE STATION. 443 

It was a lovely mornings when the sun was up. In 
the first burst of its splendour, we watched its broken 
rays^ gild the wateis of the shaded stream, near our camp. 
How rich in colouring, t^e tinted moss on the broken 
rocks^ We could have lingered long in contemplation. 
Yet our party must quickly move. Our tents are struck, 
and we are again en route. 

Zachariah tried with his rod and line, as we went along 
the road, but without success, and at last he put up his 
tackle. 

Shortly afterwards we arrived at the Stee Station. The 
house was not far jfrom the road on our left. Taking 
Noah with us, we went up to purchase for our com- 
missariat. 

The guest-chamber is tolerably large, and well lighted, 
but not very lofty. All the furniture was in the old 
Norwegian style. On the walls we noticed likenesses of 
Prindsesse Alexandra og Prindsen af Wales ; also 
Eugenie Keiserinde and Napoleon 3rd Keiser af 
Frankrig. 

Two travellers appeared below with carrioles. The 
very civil and obliging mistress, we supposed her to be, 
of the Stee Station, soon provided us with a beautifully 
cooked pink trout from the Slidre Fjord, fladbrod, eggs 
and potatoes and butter, for which we paid — 

Fladbrod 10 

Fiske 12 

12 eggs . . . . • . . . . 12 

1 lb butter 10. 

Potatoes .10 

4 

Then our young Norwegian hostess came down to the 



444 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

road, with one or two piges of the house, to see our 
donkeys, and have a chat with us, each knowing very 
little of what the other said. Yet it is astonishing how 
we managed to make ourselves understood, with our small 
vocabulary of Norwegian words. They wanted us to 
play, but Zachariah's violin was out of order, and time 
pressed. Bidding them all farewell, we were once more 
en route. 

The Stee Station is pleasantly situated, not far from 
the Slidre Fjord. Bears and game are said to be in 
plenty in the neighbourhood; and we are able to say 
that the trout are excellent. Those caught by Mephis- 
topheles in the river, a short distance before we came to 
Stee, at our last camp, were delicious. Very shortly 
after we had left Stee, the melancholy discovery vas 
made, that our donkey's tether-rope, and neck-strap, had 
been left behind at the last camp. 

General recrimination among our gipsies. Esmeralda 
had unloosed the Puru Rawnee the first thing in the 
morning, to give it more liberty,- and the rope was left on 
the ground. Noah thought it was put up. Well, after 
all, it may be of some use to those who found it. They 
had no chance of restoring it, and we managed without, 
during the rest of our travels. 

Now we were again in enclosures. The road lay along 
the left shore, and a short distance along the length of 
" Slidre Fjord.*' It is a long, and considerable extent of 
water. 

Our party had not gone very far, when we passed an 
excellent house on the right of the road — much better 
than those generally seen. Soon after, when we had 
partly passed down the short descent beyond the house, 



THE KINDLY WELCOME, 445 

a gentleman came after us. As he came up and addressed 
us, we at once called a halt. 

Two ladies then joined him. The gentleman was a 
pale, and exceedingly intellectual-looking man. Wo 
understood him to say that he had seen some account of 
us in the Times. Afterwards, we heard him addressed 
as Doctor. 

Directly after, some more ladies came down the hill 
from the opposite direction, accompanied by one or two 
young gentlemen. One, a tall, gentlemanly, amiable, 
young Norwegian, is especially selected to converse with 
us in English, and act as interpreter. 

In very good English he said, " I pray you, sir, speak 
slowly, and I can understand you." We did so, and 
managed exceedingly well. 

Our visitors had now increased to quite a large party 
of ladies and gentlemen, all surrounding our gipsies and 
donkeys, talking, discussing, asking questions, all in one 
breath. It was quite a roadside scene, as we almost 
blocked up the narrow part of the way at the foot of two 
short ascents. The sun was exceedingly hot, fiery, and 
bright. 

Just at this moment, a lady in a carriole, driven by her 
skydskarl, came down the rather steep descent towards 
us. She was of English distinguSe type of beauty, 
and did noi appear either comfortable, or delighted with 
her mode of travelling. There was a pallor on her 
countenance ; she seemed nervous and delicate. 

Another carriole, coming immediately behind, was 
driven by a nice, good-humoured, handsome fellow, we 
judged to be her husband. His wife, who did not speak, 
had, like many who journey through life, a care-worn 



446 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY, 

■ 

impran writtm on efco^ line of her thoughtfdl counte- 
nance. 

They had scarcely gone past^ when the Ebg^idi traveller 
suddenly pulled up, and we had a few minutes' conyomi 
We thought he seemedi half to envy our independent 
mode of travelling, for at parting he said, ''Just the 
thing I should like/' and, smiling, wished us a pleasant 
journey. 

After our English travellers had left us, we found our 
visitors still interested in our gipsies, animals, and baggage. 
Noah soon unpacked our tin box, and we presented one of 
our songs to the Doctor, one to the young gentleman who 
spoke English, and one to a very pleasant^ kind, amiable 
lady of the party. 

Whilst Noah was rearranging our baggage, the young 
gentleman who spoke English said, " Come further, where 
there is ombre." Very shortly we came to another ex- 
ceedingly comfortable, good-sized house, standing in its 
nice pleasant garden, with an approach from the road. 
The "Slidre Fjord" was below it, and the situation was 
delightful. There they pressed us to remain, and take 
rest ; we would find shade and convenience. Finding we 
C9uld not stay, one of the ladies ordered her servants to 
bring out bottled Baiersk 61 and glasses, and a large jug 
of excellent draught beer, which at last we consented to 
have. We halted 'neath the shade of a tree which over- 
hung the road. Our gipsies were very thirsty ; we were 
obliged to be very firm as to quantity. Our kind friends 
pressed us much to stay with our tents, but our time was 
limited. 

Then our guitar, and Zachariah's violin were tuned up : 
the heat and knocking about had not improved their 



AN OPEN'AIB CONCEBT. 447 

tone. We sang for our kind entertainers our g^psy flong. 
Afterwards, three of the young ladies (and liiejr were very 
.^ood-looking), joined by one of the young gentlemen, 
sang for us- Vary nicely they sang ; one held a small 
book of Ninrwegian songs, to assist the memory. Noah 
and Zachariah afterwards gave them some music, with 
their violin and tambourine. 

The lady had firuit brought out. In all our wander- 
ings they were amongst those whose acquaintance — ^alas ! 
too short — will always be remembered with pleasure. 

Time pajsses rapidly. The gipsies' instruments are put 
up. The kind Norwegian lady gave Esmeralda a bouquet 
of flowers from her garden. There was much in this 
present, which drew us still closer, in our appreciation of 
her friendly thought The heroine of our book receives 
a bouquet of flowers! It is not thrown down at her 
feet, with the grandiose air of " There, take it ! " It is 
given her by one whose amiable spirit had our sympathy, 
and for whom we felt at that moment we could have 
risked muck She had given the bouquet to the heroine 
of our wanderings — Esmeralda, the true, not the ficti- 
tious, heroine of this book ! 

The young gentleman who spoke English expressed in 
English terms their good wishes. They were thoroughly 
good people, with all the refinement, and gentleness of 
those best feelings, which should predominate in our 
nature. As we went out of sight, in passing a turn of 
the road, we saw them in the distance, waving their 
handkerchiefs in parting adieux. 

It was now midday ; the sun was intensely hot. Our 
animals, who could stand almost anything, seemed 
oppressed with the heat. We had, we believe, just left 



448 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

" Lomen." There were enclosures on both sides the road; 
no convenient place to give us shade and rest We mus; 
push on. Each day, as we wandered on, we never knew 
where we should dine or sleep. 

The district we now passed through was well culti- 
vated. Many gaards on each side the road. The pea- 
sants were busy with their harvest Even their anxiety 
to make provision for the winter of life did not prevent 
them from running, at times, with excited and unwonted 
energy, to the road fences to see us go by. 

At one place, we observed a tall peasant running down 
a steep declivity ; in his hurry he had left one of his 
shoes behind, one on and the other off. " Here comes 
neck or nothing," said Esmeralda, as he nearly took a 
header down a steep rock. 

Still we had to keep on. Small patches of hops, we 
noticed at some of the gaards, perhaps a few perches ; 
never, we remember, more than a rood. Yet they seemed 
to grow luxuriantly. Trailing in their rich foliage, and 
blossoms, they are always an interesting feature in any 
scene. Now and then, we noticed hemp. There was 
a well-to-do appearance in this district 

We had gone some distance in the heat of the sun, 
travel-worn, and dusty ; at last we descended a steep 
declivity, and on our left we perceived a rough piece of 
open ground, covered with scattered trees and bushes, 
sloping to a dingle. A cool, clear stream, rippled near 
an old mill, and crossed the road. The road descended, 
and again as rapidly ascended. All was secluded. 



CHAPTER XXXVin. 

Now, where is tiie ketUe ? bo hitngiy are we, 
Surely oar sapper the next thing most be ; 
The fire already is blaxing ap high, 
And asking for rashers of bacon to fry ; 
The damper is perfect, the pannikin's found. 
And all laid out on the banqueting-ground ; 
When eyeiything's ready, I have not a doubt 
A monarch might envy our '* camping out. '* 

Bush Flowers from Australia, 

AN ENGLISH PIskERMAN — THE HAUNTED MILL — THE TOURIST's PURCHASE 
— NOAH'S (JOOD fortune — THE STRAND FJORD — A WOMAN's CURIOSITY 
— THE HEROINByOF OUR BOOK — ^A NORWEGIAN SEAMAN — THE MIS- 
TAKEN MANSION — THE AURDAL CHURCH — ^PRYDBNLAND STATION — 
A BOADSIDE HALT — TflE APPRECIATED GIFT — THE SEVERE YOUNG 
LADY — THE KIND-HEARTED PEASANT — KRCEMMSRMOEN — IMPULSE AND 
REASON. 

What delicious shade. Our water was soon boiling 
near the old milL Our readers must not suppose the 
mill was a large one ; it was about four times as large 
as a good-sized sentry-box. We may have even ex- 
aggerated the size. Norwegian mills are not on the 
ponderous scale of English ones. 

The middags-mad consisted of our Stee trout cold. 
It was a fine trout, either steamed or boiled. In the 
heat of the day, the trout was pronounced by our 
gourmand gipsies excellent ; some vinegar was allowed 
with it, besides tea, fladbrod, butter, and fried eggs. 

Q U 



450 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

The time had maxked two o'clock when we arrived. 
The pleasant slope of green turf where we sat com- 
manded the road. Whilst we were taking our midday 
meal, two Englishmen, one having a fishing-basket dung 
over his shoulder, passed in a stolkjoerre. Then we 
saw two young Norwegian tourists, in their high 
laced-up boots, one of whom carried a skin knapsack; 
they were pushing on at a swinging pace. Noah and 
Zachariah of course fell asleep. Esmeralda went to 
the old mill, and fancied she heard a curious moaning 
sound, something like groaning in it. We did not 
investigate it ; besides, the mill was fastened ; neither 
had we any permission from the owner to go into his mill 
— sit up in a haunted mill a few feet square ! If the 
wheel should be turned by the ghost, where should 
we be ? Ground to flour, eaten by a Norwegian 
for his middags-mad — made into fladbrod, and eaten 
by some English tourist. If we are to see ghosts, 
let it be in an old castle, family mansion, or the 
ruins of an abbey ; but a miU ; — besides, where was 
the owner ? 

As we sat on the green slope, we observed a wooded 
promontory, stretching into the fjord, below the road, and 
sent Noah to reconnoitre for camping ground. The 
Tamo Eye, we found, had a sore back; our bruise- 
mixture was applied, Noah reported unfavourably for 
remaining. The donkeys were loaded, and we quickly 
left the dingle, and the haunted mill Somehow we had 
lingered, and lounged, in the pleasant shade, till after 
five o'clock. JEn avant was the word ; away went tall 
Noah in advance, with the Puru Rawnee before him, 
the rest following, bag and baggage, as hard as the 



NOAirS GOOD FORTUNE, 451 

party could go, Noah with his coat off and his trowsers 
tucked up. 

In the distance we could see Ulno3s church, near the 
" Strand Fjord." Now we met a party of English 
tourists, bent upon enjoying themselves. Donkeys are 
drawn up in line for them to pa3s as we push on, with 
Noah, in front. One said "Hvor meget," pointing to 
Noah's stick ; probably he took us for Norwegian gipsies. 
Noah, made no demur. The fir staff was in the English- 
man's hands in two seconds, whilst the gipsy pocketed 
two coins, which, we believe, made him one mark two 
skill ings richer. Our passing was so hasty, that nothing 
more was said, as the jovial party, with mugh glee, 
carried with them Noah's staff, as a souvenir of the 
incidents of travel. 

Noah was well chaffed by Zachariah and Esmeralda. 
Noah was in high glee ; he had sold the stick he had 
picked up yesterday, for one mark two skiUings. 
Mephistopheles was miserable with vexation, that he 
had not a fir stick, to sell at one mark two skillings, to 
some English tourist. A division was even suggested. 
As the shorengro of the party, we should have come 
in for the lion's shara Nay, there is a precedent in 
Isaac Walton, where the gipsies divide a sovereign. 
Esmeralda supported the idea, but the suggestion was 
without result. 

Very shortly after we had passed Ulnoes church, we saw 
a peasant standing on the roadside. His gaard was not 
far from the road. At first, when we asked him, he said 
he had no fladbrod, but afterwards said " Ya." Esme- 
ralda and ourself went down to his house. First, he 
brought down two very large rounds of fladbrod. When 

ti u 2 



452 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

we gave him a mark, he gave us half a mark back, and 
brought four more large rounds down- One large round 
of fladbrod generally costs two skillings. 

It is difficult to purchase, even fladbrod, in harvest 
time : most of the peasants are away from their houses. 
If we had not been provided with a good commissariat, 
and had trusted to what provisions we could purchase, 
our party would have, indeed, fared very badly during 
their wanderings. 

It was now getting dusk. We were near the shores 
of the Strand Fjord ; nothing but inclosures met our 
view on either side the road ; we must soon camp some- 
where. It was nearly nine o'clock, when we came 
to a steep, barren, stony bank above the road. The 
upper portion was scantily wooded with birch trees 
and bushes. Hobson's choice. The donkeys were un- 
loaded, a fire lighted, and our baggage put on the only 
available ground, behind a low rock, just above the road. 

Our aftens-mad was not lively. Midges and musketos 
attacked us on every side. Esmeralda got the water for 
tea from the fjord; she had to go from the road, across 
some enclosure, belonging to a cottage near. The woman 
shortly after came up to the road fence. Mephistopheles 
was interrogated in Norsk. Mephistopheles did not 
understand a word the woman said. Mephistopheles 
was extremely civil, saying " Ya, ya," to every question 
she asked. At length she wound up with " Hvor 
fra" (where from?). To which Mephistopheles an- 
swered, " Coryadreadaminch." The woman immediately 
left. 

Very soon after we had halted, the loss was announced 
of the brass fishing-reel, from the fishing-rod, Zachariali 



THE BEBOINE OF OUR BOOK. 453 

had been using. Zachariah had forgotten to take it off 
the rod in the morning. 

Notwithstanding our tent was pitched on the only 
available spot, consisting of loose angular stones, in 
spite of midges and musketos, we were soon sound 
asleep. The English gipsies in Norway, were long past 
that deplorable state of modern effeminacy, when you 
are unable to sleep comfortably on a gorse bush, with a 
bundle of thorns for a pillow. 

It had thundered, and lightened, and rained heavily in 
the night. We were all fearfully bitten with musketos. 
Noah had been unable to sleep ; Esmeralda not much 
better. Mephistopheles slept the best. 

Being Saturday, the 13th August, we were anxious to 
secure a good camping-ground for our Sunday's rest, and 
another day of quiet and repose. At three o'clock in the 
morning our gipsies struck the tents. The frokost con- 
sisted of tea, bacon, potatoes, cheese, and fladbrod. 
Esmeralda was rather bilious, with a sore lip. Our anxiety 
was great for the health of our Hobbenengree. Supposing 
anything happened to Esmeralda, the heroine of this 
book would be lost ; and what is a book without a 
heroine ? The Birmingham bagman would at once 
decline the work, as not according to contract. It 
would have been utterly impossible to supply her loss. 
There is no second Esmeralda — none like her. In 
truth, with all her tempers, all her faults, Esmeralda was 
the spirit of our wanderings. The pure Romnechal of 
our expedition. 

Our donkeys were nearly loaded, when we were sur- 
prised by the apparition of a tall seaman, standing in 
the road close by. He informed us he had stayed the 



454 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

night at the house near — the same, prohably, where 
our friend, the woman of the previous evening, lived. 
His ship had been lost near Throndhjem, and he was now 
going to Bergen. Had been in America ; spoke English 
very well, with a strong American accent. We gave 
him a dram of brandy, and two skillings ; whereupon lie 
said, ** It's d — d bad for you not speaking Norsk,'' and 
wishing us a good voyage, departed. 

Before six o'clock we were en route. The rain had 
laid the dust ; the morning was cloudy. There were 
two fishermen's boats on the Strand Fjord. We passed 
the Strand Kirke. The scenery was very picturesque, 
rocks towering above us on our left, the Strand Fjonl 
on our right. Some goats were racing and jumping on 
the narrow crags of a steep precipice above us. 

Coming to some saw-miUs, we crossed a wild ravine. 
Shortly after passing through a fir wood, we came in sigbt 
of the Fagemoes station. A shop is said to be attached 
to it. Upon inquiry, we found they had no shop, and 
we could not purchase anything. Some people came 
out to look at our donkeys, and we were soon en route. 

The district through which we now passed seemed 
more populated, and is called North Aurdal. Two 
English tourists overtook us ; one had a fishing-basket^ 
and said he had not had much sport. He shortly 
after changed horses with a post-man, opposite a large 
building to our right. At first we took it for a gentle- 
man's mansion. It was the second building of stone, we 
had seen, since we left Lillehammer. All was neatne^^s, 
with a drive to it from the road. When the English 
tourist changed horses in the road, opposite the entrance, 
we thought it might be a very first-class station. "WTien 



AURDAL CHURCH. 455 

^ve carae up, and had some conversation with a very 
pleasant, well-dressed Norwegian, who was standing at 
the entrance, we found it was the gaol of the North 
AurdaL He spoke English well, and had been in 
America. It is very probable he was the governor. 
They have a nice church at Aurdal, and a pleasant grave- 
yard, close to the road. The wooden crosses were in the 
usual style. There was one simple marble monument, 
bearing an inscription ; we notice it, for its brevity— 

CliriBtopheT Bogge 

Todt 21 April, 1863, 

Dod Nov., 1866. 

As we came towards the Frydenland station, there 
were many houses along the roadside ; some, apparently, 
for private residence. Two well-dressed young ladies 
passed us, and one smiled so pleasantly, that we could not 
omit the poUteness of lifting our hat. 

The Frydenland station is close to the road, and 
seemed very comfortable. They have a good-sized 
sitting-room, with a sofa, and all is exceedingly clean. 
The mistress was very civil and attentive. Whilst she pro- 
vided us with three loaves of excellent bread, and a pound 
of good butter, we discussed a bottle of baiersk ol in the 
sitting-room. Noah and Zachariah came in for their 
share. Esmeralda took charge of our baggage outside. 
Our bread, butter, and bottle of 61 cost two marks twelve 
skillings. As we came out into the road, the donkeys 
had found their admirers. A tall old gentleman with an 
immense hat, a stout lady, and a young lady, from a 
neighbouring house, and several people, were inspecting 
OUT animals and baggage. As we left, we exchanged 



466 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

good-humoured salutations, and their looks implied their 
best wishes for our hon voyage. 

About twelve o'clock we approached to very nearly 
the turn from the main road towards " Kroemmermoen." 
Coming to a large wooden trough on the roadside, 
supplied with clear water by a wooden spout from the 
rocks above, we called a halt. On the opposite side the 
road, a convenient space had been left, with a long 
wooden bench for travellers to sit upon. This is an 
excellent provision for the convenience of the wayfarer, 
which might be copied with advantage in England. 
Below the stone wall, along the roadside, the ground 
sloped to a valley. 

Our baggage was all heaped behind the bench against 
the wall. A fire was lighted in the rocks above the road, 
and our water soon boiled for tea^ A peasant, who lived 
at a house near, soon came down the road. He was a 
strong, powerful, intelligent-looking man, dressed in 
leather knee-breeches, woollen stockings, large shoes, one 
brace, and a spotted woollen shirt. The man was soon 
joined, by two comely, young, good-humoured females, 
probably his daughters. Then a peasant woman came 
from another house ; soon after, a tall man came from 
we don't know where. Peen gioere ! Peen gioere ! they 
all exclaimed, as they gazed in bewildered admiration at 
our donkeys. Out came the flask. We like to have our 
things admired. Out came the tobacco, and the man in 
leather breeches, borrowed a pipe from the tall man, and 
began to smoke. We were evidently looked upon as 
strolling actors of the better sort ; yet the donkeys were 
their chief delight. Then they were much interested in 
our mode of making our tea in the Australian fashion, 



THE SEVERE YOUNG LADY. 457 

putting the tea into the boiling water, and reversing the 
usual mode. At length all, except one woman, and one 
or two children, left us. After the sardines were gone 
we presented the woman with the empty sardine box, 
whereupon she seized us by the hand, and shook hands, 
and immediately afterwards left, probably to place it in 
the strong armoire of her salle K manger. 

Then, as we were at our middags-mad, a carriage and 
pair came in view, en route towards Bergen. Our- 
Tamo Eye stood in the road. Noah was detached, but 
the Tamo Rye took himself oflf to the roadside, as soon 
as he saw the carriage. 

The skydskarl was driving. A young lady was seated 
in front by the driver. An old gentleman and lady, 
probably her parents, were behind. Never shall we 
forget the young lady as the carriage came near our 
Tamo Rye. With desperate eagerness she suddenly 
snatched the whip from the boy. Then she dealt with 
all her might one vigorous stroke at our Tamo Rye, who 
was quietly standing on the roadside. We were amused 
at the expression of determination, and serious earnestness 
her countenance assumed. It is dreadful to think that 
our gallant Tamo Rye, after all his wanderings, was so 
nearly annihilated. What would Esmeralda have done ? 
Fortunately our Tamo Rye, like the little jackdaw, in 
the Ingoldsby legend, was never a penny the worse. 

Immediately after the carriage passed us, we saw what 
we at once knew before, that she was English. A heavy 
shower of rain came on soon afterwards, and, covering 
our baggage with the waterproof, we all availed ourselves 
of the same shelter. Our friend, the Norwegian farmer, 
came down the road through the pouring rain, and asked 



458 TSNT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

US to take shelter in Ms house. We explained that our 
coveriDg was waterproof. He said something about our 
being wanderers, pointing good-naturedly towards liis 
house, and then left. He had come through the rain 
himself, to offer us shelter and hospitality. 

The rain cleared a little at half-past four o'clock, and 
we left at five. The farmer came down again. We 
gave him one of our gipsy songs as a souvenir, and he 
seemed much pleased. Afterwards, he came and showed 
us the turn from the Bergen and " Gjovig '* road to 
Kroemmermoen. Shaking hands, he left us, with many 
wishes for our prosperous journey. 

The road towards Kroemmermoen was similar to 
one of our English country lanes, very pleasant, and 
picturesque. At times we passed through thick fir 
woods open to the road. It soon rained heavily. Noah 
and Zachariah had no overcoats or change, and were 
obliged to take their wetting philosophically. At some 
places we tried for fladbrod, but in vain. One woman 
came across a field, with wild fruit to sell us. We did 
not take the fruit ; but as she stood in the wet, we could 
not help giving her some recompense. Ultimately, we 
came to the edge of a tremendous declivity. - If you 
make a zigzag road down the outside of St. Paul's, you 
have got it. A very small piece of broken ground lay 
on our right, at the edge of the steep precipitous descent. 
On this we drove the donkeys. Just then, up drove a 
carriole, and we recognised one of the young gentlemen 
from Lomen. The carriole was one of the l^est we had 
seen, and was drawn by a beautiful Norwegian pony. 
Directly the pony caught sight of our donkeys, out got 
our friend, with the inevitable p-r-r-rh p-r-r-r-rh. The 



IMPULSE AND REASON, 459 

pony, with Noah's assistance, was safely led past. Then 
our Norwegian friend came to us, and we conversed, as well 
as our knowledge of each other's language would allow. 
When he was gone, Noah and Zachariah were dispatched 
to seek a camp-ground, lower down the hill, nearer to 
Kroemmermoen. We were now above the deep and 
charming valley of Lille Bang. ' The rain drizzled down 
occasionally, as we stood on the broken ground, at the 
edge of a deep, wooded steep. One donkey lay down 
with its load. Esmeralda in her long cloak, paced the 
wet turf, hot, and fiery. Our beautiful Puru Rawnee 
had given her some offence. It seldom rains but it 
pours. The Tarno Rye had escaped a young English 
lady, and now our Puru Rawnee, was to be knocked 
down by the heroine of our book Very likely 1 Sup- 
posing our Puru Rawnee killed ! what then ? The 
Birmingham bagman will refuse his two copies. " You've 
fallen short. Don't find the Puru Rawnee at the end ; 
contract not complete." Esmeralda makes a dash at our 
beautiful donkey ; her dark eyes flash fire. The spirit 
of the young English lady pales before her. If the 
young English lady had been there, it is probable she 
would have learned a lesson in humanity. We inter- 
posed. Fancy a studious, thoughtful, wanderer of nature, 
staying, for the moment, the torrent of impetuous feeling 
of the tall handsome gipsy-girl, Esmeralda, about to 
overwhelm the beautiful Puru Rawnee, at the edge of 
a wooded steep, in the mizzling rain, of a Norwegian 
summer's eve ! Gipsies are creatures of impulse. Few 
words said we. Strong, and impetuous as were the 
passions of our heroine, she had a heart — at times, could 
deeply feel. The Puru Rawnee escaped unhurt. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 



Helpe me wonder, her*s a booke 

Where I would for ever looke* 

Never did a gipsie trace ^ 

Smoother lines in hands or face ; 

Venus here doth Saturne move, 

That you should be the Queene of Love. 

Masque of Gipsies. Bxir JomoTS.* 

THE GIPSY SIGNAL — OUR AUSTRALIAN MEAT — THE FAIR POETESS— OUR 
FRIEND PROM EI8B0D ILt— THE RYE*8 UNWELL — THE LEHNSMCEND OP 
BANG — THE FERRYMAN AND SON — WE CROSS THE BEINA~TATER8FR0G 
— A KIND FAMILY — 8T0RSVEEN STATION — SECLUDED , VALLEY — A 
TOURIST LELS US — ESMERALDA'S ADVENTURE —THE PEASANT WOMEX's 
SONG — SORUM STATION — TENTS PITCHED BY A LAGOON — N(ES— SO 
H0R8EB0AT — IMPROMPTU H0R8EB0AT — HOW WE GOT ACROSS — A RIVER 
SCENE. 

In a short time, Esmeralda and ourself slowly 
descended the steep winding road towards Kroemmer- 
moen, as we heard the gipsy's whistle in the distance. 
Evening was fast closing. The road wound zigzag 
round the head of a deep gorge. Soon afterwards, to our 
left above the road, we saw Noah, with a fire blazing in 
the rocks. 

• This author, by many ranked Becond to Shakspeare, was bom 1574, 
and rising by his own perseverance, and energy of mind, became, in 1619, 
Poet Laureate. Many of the dramatic pieces of Jonaon were masques per- 
formed before the King and Court. Jonson, when he was appointed Poet 
Laureate, made a journey on foot from London to Scotland. When met, it 
is said, by Dninmiond of Hawthomden (to whom, amongst other friends, he 
paid a visit), Drununond said, " Welcome, welcome, royal Ben !" to which 



KROSMMERMOEN. 461 

It was a retired nook of the road, whicli had been 
almost made on purpose. The last of our Cheddar cheese 
was brought out for our evening meal. The cheese had 
kept good through all our wanderings. We had also tea, 
broiled ham, and what remained of our fladbrod. A few 
people passing down the road, came up to our tents. 
Night closed in, and the wanderers, after their long day's 
journey, were soon soundly asleep. 

Heavy rain fell in the night. We were up in good 
time next morning. For frokost, we had biscuits, and 
butter and tea. The morning was showery ; but many 
visitors. came to see us. Then the Lehnsmoend, a brother, 
we think, of the Freest of Bang, came to our tents. The 
herre had a young lady, we believe a niece, with him. He 
was a pleasant, gentlemanly man, who spoke English 
very well. After we had shown him our tents, he said, 
if we stayed the next day, he should be happy to 
introduce us to his brother. As he left our camp, we 
presented him with our gipsy song, as a souvenir. 

A tin of preserved Australian meat was opened. Eeally 
this meat, is excellent. What could be better ? Even 
our gipsies were perfectly satisfied, and thoroughly 
enjoyed it. With some boUed potatoes, we made an 
excellent middags-mad. 

At five o'clock we sent Noah and Zachariah down to 
Kroemmermoen to buy bread. They met with our 

Jonson aptly replied, "Thank you ! thank you, Hawthornden !" "The 
Masque of Matamorphosd Gypsies" was presented to King James at 
"Burleigh," " Belvoir," and Windsor. A printed copy we have is dated 
1621. Jonson wrote to the last ; but, after some years of great literary 
success, and prosperity, he died, 1637, in needy circumstances, and was 
huried in Westminster Abbey, the only inscription on the poet's tomb 
being " O rare Ben Jonson ! " 



4G2 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

friend from Eisbod, on the Bygdin Lake. He had been 
taken ill, and could not proceed on his journey. 

Whilst they were away, some young ladies came to 
our camp, and sat on the rocks near. At last one bo^ed 
to Esmeralda, who spoke to her, and asked her to take a 
seat in our tent; but she hesitated. We went to them. 
They seemed much interested in our tent life. The 
young lady, who spoke English, said she was merely a 
visitor at Bang. She expatiated on the beauties of the 
valley, and then she asked us, if we would kindly give 
her one of our songs. She said she had written some 
verses herself, and begged our acceptance of them. The 
young Norwegian lady had very pleasing manners — 
something winning and charming. Perhaps she had not 
the highest type of beauty ; still there was a power to 
fascinate, such as we had not often met with, even in 
those of a more perfect mould — a softness, a gentleness of 
manner, always accompanied with goodness of disposition, 
and kindness of heart Poetry ! Yes ; it vibrated in 
every word she spoke. Could we refuse her anything ? 
Two copies of our songs were brought forth from the 
recesses of our tin ,box. We presented one, to our fair 
visitor, and the other, to one of her friends. There was a 
third ; but unfortunately we had forgotten there were 
three lady-visitors. The verses presented to us we shall 
prize. Reader, we must give them place in this account 
of our wanderings. Our book would be incomplete with- 
out them. 

The following are the Norwegian verses. The transla- 
tion we have had made, is also given with them. Our 
readers will not now be surprised that we admired the 
beautiful scenery of Lille Bang. 



ULLE BANG. 463 

1. 

Hvor deiligt er det liUe Bang 

Naturen mig indbyder, 
Til ret at stemme i en Sang 

Som udaf Hjertet Ijder. 

2. 

Hvad er det dog som mangier her ? 

Alt i en skjon Forening, 
Natorens Kroefler i sig bier 

Deroni er kun een Mening. 

a 

Sig Fjeldet alynger i en Kranda 

Om Dalens Yndigheder ; 
Hvor Elven i en lang Runddandsy 

Let gjennem denne swoevec* 

4 

Ved Siden af den stille Elv, 

Sig frem med Bulder troenger, 
Det rige store Fossevoeld, 

Og Klippens Masser apranger. 

5. 

£i heller Skovens Donkelhed, 

Man blandt det Andet Bayner, 
Thi Fjeldet prydet er denned, 

Og Dalens Skyod den favner. 

6. 

Hvad staaer der da tilbage som, 

Det liUe Bang ei eier ? 
Hvis du det kan saa Kom o Kom 

Katuren alt opveier. 



Sweet lille Bang, delightful spot ; 

Nature herself, impelling, 
Bids me pour forth such tuneful song, 

That now my heart's o'erwelling. 

What now, then, may be wanting ? 

All Nature's powers combine, 
With order and with harmony. 

To perfect the design. 



464 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

The Fjeld-slopes' flowery garlandB 

En wreath the little dale ; 
And, winding in and outwards. 

The rippling streams prevaiL 

Yet, 'twixt the banks so stilly, 

The murmuring waters flow, 
Till down a rapid torrent, 

Restless, on they go. 

Nor wanting from the gloam-land, 

'Mid the grove's secluded alley, 
Is the eider duck to give some life 

To hill-side and to valley. 

What charm is there yet wanting, 

Which lille Bang has not ? 
Her voice invites all Nature 

To show a fairer spot 

Noah and Zachariah returned with the kagebrod, dark, 
heavy bread, with carraway seeds in it.* Our friend 
from Eisbod had sent to say, he would come up to our 
camp, if well enough. They had also made acquaintance, 
with an old Norwegian, who resided near the village. 
He showed them his violin, for which he wanted four 
dollars. 

After we had finished our tea, bread, and butter, more 
visitors arrived. One peasant was an important repre- 
sentative of royalty. He wore a large waistcoat; on 
every button he had a photograph of some potentate. 
The King and Queen of Sweden, the Prince and Princess 
of Wales, and the King of Sardinia, were among the 
number. His waistcoat, in fact, included nearly all the 
crowned heads of Europe. After tea, we sat in the rocks 

* Not unlike coarse rye bread, we have eaten in Germany, called 

** Pumpernickel," but whence the derivation of the name, we could never 
ascertuiu. 



OUR FRIEND FROM EISBOD ILL. 466 

above our camp The evening was very damp, and 
showery. When we returned, our visitors were still 
sitting by our tents. Notwithstanding heavy rain, they 
continued until about nine o'clock. 

It was three o'clock in the morning when we were 
stiiring. The Tamo Rye's back was much chafed. The 
donkeys had eaten the best part of one of our pocket 
handkerchiefs, the day before. For frokost we had tea, 
black-bread, and cheese. 

The morning was cloudy, as we left our camp at half- 
past six o'clock. ' We did not feel so well as usual. Our 
health had been excellent throughout As we passed a 
cottage, the gipsies pointed out the old man's house, with 
its flag, and large stone, with a photograph let into it, of 
his majesty Carl John.* 

When we came to the Kroemmermoen station soon 
afterwards, Noah and Zachariah were sent to buy bread, 
and wire at the shop. The station is apparently 
exceedingly comfortable. Rsmeralda went on with the 
baggage. Going up stairs, we were shown into our 
friend's bed-room. Our friend from Eisbod was in bed 
looking very pale and unwell. Something had disagreed 
with him, and he had not been well since he left Skogstad. 
Apparently he had a severe attack of diarrhoea. Our 
bread cost us one mark, potatoes four skillings, and wire 
ten skillinga 

As we left our friend, he said he should try and 



• Bemadotte ascended the throne of Norway in 1818, as CarlJohn XIV. ; 
died 8th of March, 1844 ; was succeeded by his son, Oscar I., who died 
1859. His son ascended the throne as King Carl XV., who died 18th Sep- 
tember, 1872, and was succeeded by his brother, Oscar XL, the present 
king of Norway. 

u H 



466 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

continue his journey the same morning. It seemed as if 
we were ever destined to pass, and repass, and meet 
continually. 

When we overtook our baggage shortly after, near the 
village church of Bang, we found our lady visitors of the 
previous day, and the Lehnsmoend, and their friends, 
assembled, to give us their parting good wishes. Much 
we regretted, that bur time did not permit us to stay 
another day. Bang is delightfully situated. However 
powerful the description, there is much that the poets 
pen, will fail to convey. 

The Lehnsmoend, our agreeable visitor of the previous 
day, the young gentleman we had seen at Lomen on the 
Slidre Fjord, the ladies, especially our fair visitor, who 
had given us the verses, were as charming as before. All 
united to say to us *^ Bon voyagel' as we left the lovely 
dale of Lille Bang.* 

After we had left Bang, the road reached the river s 
bank. Fortunately there was a horse-boat, with a landing 
and all complete. The ferry-house was on the other 
side ; the river Beina was before us. The old man at 
the ferry wore breeches and stockings, and very large 
shoes. He was h^avy, stooping, and slow, and was 
followed by his son, who was his duplicate, in large 
baggy trousers, and immense shoes, and a shade slower 
still. They were a perfect study. A draper's assistant 
would have measured up their time, at five minutes the 
yard. Both had a sparkle of comicality in their eyes, as 
they helped our gipsies to carry our baggage from the 
donkeys into the boat. Strange to say, the donkeys 

* Little Bang. 



WE CR088 THE BEINA. 467 

walked on to the horse-boat, without a moment's hesita- 
tion. The old man rowed with two very large oars, 
whilst his son slowly used a shaft. 

The boat reached the opposite bank, and the donkeys 
were safely landed Two females, we took for his wife 
and daughter, came to a fence to look at our donkeys. 
The old man began to assist in taking our baggage on 
shore. Presently Mephistopheles rushed on deck. The 
old man was slowly dragging at a heavy pocket, which 
generally took the strength of Noah, and ourself, to lift 
on to the Puru Eawnee. Suddenly Mephistopheles, 
spinning the old man almost round, like a tee-to-tum, 
swung it over his shoulder like a feather, and in two 
seconds deposited it on shore. We shall never forget the 
old man's look of amazement, and his son's sudden pause 
to take another look at Mephistopheles. Then Mephis- 
topheles in his hurry tumbled headlong over some bags, 
to the amusement of the two ferrymen. . 

It was found that a rope had been left on the other 
side the river. Mephistopheles jumped into a light 
pram, and by his rapidity, almost tumbled the man's son 
into the bottom of the boat. Away went Mephistopheles, 
with two oars, splashing across the river. Now they are 
coming back, the old man's son sprawling in the stem, as 
he holds on, with astonished look ; whilst Mephistopheles, 
with fearful irregularity, is sending the waters of the 
Beina in all directions. 

Our gipsies are screaming with laughter. " Ha, ha ! 

Uncle Sam coming from Bosbury, a seaport town in 

England 1 Dik the Balo-Shero. Look at Elijah ! Why, 

he's got a square nose." 

We were exceedingly thankful that our gipsies 

H H 2 



468 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tatersprog and English slang was never understood. 
" Coming from Bosbury," had reference to a question, a 
countryman once asked one of the tribe, "Where's 
Bosbury ? " " Bosbury ? why, it's a seaport town in the 
middle of England, with lots of ships ! " " Well," said 
the rustic, " I never heerd on it afore." 

Whilst the ferryman's son was enjoying his rapid 
transit, his father, mother, and sister, as we supposed 
them to be, were enjoying our brandy. Of course, the 
son, when he did land, drank " gamle norge " to his 
happy escape. It was not the first aquavit he had taken. 
Energy is catching; they began to look quite sharp. 
Our transit cost twelve skUlings. Mephistopheles played 
them a tune on his violin. The ferryman and family 
seemed highly delighted. We left with their good wishes, 
to continue our journey. 

Still we became more and more unwell Slowly we 
went on, until we came to a large gaard, of superior size, 
and comfort 

The road passed through a large open meadow, shut 
in by gates, on the banks of the river. Near the river 
the grass had been newly mown. The farmer, and some 
of his family, came to see the donkeys, which the gipsies 
halted for their inspection. The farmer's wife asked if 
they stood on their hind legs. The people seemed so 
kindly ; the meadow so charmingly situate, on the banks 
of the broad river, that we decided to stay. We made 
the farmer, and his wife, understand that we wanted a 
mark of fladbrod, and six skillings' worth of milt. 
Esmeralda went to the gaard for it. They nearly filled 
one large can full of milk. Noah in the meantime lighted 
a fire, and made the grod. The donkeys were driven 



A KIND FAMILY. 469 

across a dry portion of the shingly bed of the river, to a 
green island for rest and shade. 

The fanner and his wife sat down near us. It was 

astonishing the kindly interest they took. We fancy we 

looked ill and worn. At first we said nothing to our 

gipsies. It may probably pass away, thought we. "Du 

courage.'' Esmeralda soon discovered that something was 

the matter with the Rye, and we told her. Still we sat 

on the beautiful new mown turf, gazing on the rapid 

broad flowing river, the farmer, and his wife and family 

near. Then the donkeys were driven back for us to 

go. Some of the family brought green com, and green 

peas, for the donkeys to eat. Then we gave the farmer s 

wife a song, for, somehow, we seemed to have established a 

friendship with them. The farmer's wife seemed anxious 

to know our name ; so we wrote it on the back of 

the song, with the date. Then she asked, whose wife 

Esmeralda was, and if we worked in metals. They did 

not quite seem to understand, when we said we travelled 

for pleasure. So we parted fix)m the friendly farmer, 

and his wife, and family, at about twelve o'clock, and 

continued our journey. 

Passing the Holer Elv, we came towards Storsveen. 
Once a man came out of a wood, hastily put up his 
scythe, and followed us. He wanted to see our donkeys. 
The grain is stacked up in the fields, sheaf upon sheaf, 
round poles, six feet high. Zachariah tried the river, but 
could not catch any fish. It did not appear there were 
many. 

Near Storsveen, we saw a pig with a broken nose. 
Soon after we had passed the turn down to the Storsveen 
Station, we noticed behind us a traveller. It was our 



470 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

friend from Eisbod, walking after us with his knapsack. 
We had met again. Our friend said he was much better, 
and was going to Storsveen ; but seeing us before him, 
he had overtaken us. After a pleasant converse, he 
returned to Storsveen Station to get "a conveyance, and 
said he should overtake us again. 

Struggle as we would, we got worse. Our gipsies 
noticed it. They became more silent. We told Noah 
to camp, at the first convenient spot About two 
o'clock we came to a beautiful part of the valley. 
All that we could desire. The road passed through an 
amphitheatre of green turf, closed in by rising rocks, 
covered with dense, and thickly hanging woods. In 
front we had the broad river. A dry, level, shingly 
beach, stretched out, to nearly the middle of the stream. 
On the opposite bank, to our right, there was a mag- 
nificent clifi*, above the river, clothed with wood. Tbe 
scene was well suited for a rest Our gipsies quickly 
drove the donkeys to a rising hillock, beneath the wood, 
a short distance from the road, and pitched our tents. 
Our friend from Eisbod, came soon after in a con- 
veyance. Paying a short visit to our camp, he had 
one of our cigars, a pleasant converse, and had almost 
recovered. 

As he was leaving in his conveyance, two smart 
young tourists came along the road ; they were on foot 
Their whole equipment was neatness, even to the 
umbrella. As, very far from well, we sat near our 
tent, we could see them in conference, with our friend 
from Eisbod. Immediately afterwards, one produced 
a sketch-book, and apparently sketched the donkeya 
Then he appeared to be taking a sketch of our camp, 



A TOURIST LEL8 US. 471 

and Esmeralda, and ourself. Noah got up, and in an 
earnest tone said, *' They are * lelling ' you, sir," and 
vanished off to the river, where Zachariah was disporting 
himself on the shingly beach, with nothing on but his 
shirt.* They at last appeared to have completed the 
sketch of our donkeys, and camp, for suddenly the book 
was shut. They took off their hats ; we, of course 
returned the salute, and they continued their excursion. 
If we had not been so unwell, we should have sought 
their acquaintance. 

Very quietly we rested in our camp. Esmeralda did 
what she could. No one came. It was just such a 
spot one could wish to die in. Yes ; but who is to 
write " Tent Life with the English Gipsies in Norway " ? 
Where are the Birmingham bagman's two copies ? 
Where will be the many others required, including that 
for the officer with the Roman fever? Are they to 
be disappointed ? No : we shall not fail them, in the 
closing scenes of our nomad wanderings. 

Noah came back before our aftensmad, with thirteen 
minnows, and Zachariah three, which were fried for tea, 
with fladbrod and butter. The afternoon was beautiful, 
and at nine o'clock we retired to rest. 

It is Tuesday, 16th August. JEn route Zachariah, 
''Vand" "Yog." We are all up at half-past three 
o'clock. It rained a little, and was very cloudy. One 
carriole passed on the road in the night, and another 
escrly in the morning. Noah lighted a fire, and we had 

* Some gipsies have an idea that if they have their likenesses taken, it 
does them an injury. We have known one gipsy who would not he taken. 
On one occasion, when a gipsy had allowed his photograph to he taken to 
oblige us, he said, ^ WeU, sir, don't you lose something from you, and are 
never so well afterwards ?*' 



472 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Australian preserved meat, and fladbrod, and tea for 
breakfast. * 

When the gipsies were packing up, a man and a boy 
came across the river in a boat, to look at the donkeys. 
Whilst they were absent from their boat, Esmeralda 
went to the river to wash, and getting into the boat 
to amuse herself, it got detached from the side, and she 
was floating away, without oars, into the middle of the 
river, when she jumped out nearly up to her middle. 
This incident, she did not relate until afterwards, 
thinking we might be angry with her, for getting into 
the boat. 

The tents are struck, the donkeys loaded, and we 
are off at eight o'clock. The rest and repose at our 
beautiful camping ground, had given us renewed spirit. 
We were decidedly better. The weather cleared. The 
road winds, through a diversified scene, of thick fir 
woods, and occasional enclosures. One very large gaard 
on the opposite side the river, before we reached Sorum, 
was admirably arranged for comfort and convenience. 
It was pleasantly placed above the river. We noticed a 
pigeon-box against a large granary, the only one we saw 
in Non^^ay. 

Coming to a delightful spot, near a stream of water, in 
a wood, not far from the road, we halted. There were 
some houses on the other side the road. One woman 
was singing, who had an excellent voice. We seldom 
heard any singing in Norway. Singing birds, and singing 
women, were scarce. We were pleased with this woman^s 
voice. 

Our middag's-mad consisted of Australian meat, flad- 
brod and butter, and cheese and tea. We had also 



80RUM STATION. 473 

chocolate. An altercation took place between Noah and 
Zachanah. Mephistopheles shouted, so loud, we gave him 
a bang on the head, which effectually laid his spirit 
low. 

At half-past three o'clock, the party were again en 
route. The country was very pleasing; the weather 
delightful. Zachariah played, from]time to time, his violin, 
as we slowly journeyed along. The Sorum Station is a 
quaint old place. The road passes through a sort of 
court surrounded by wooden buildings. It is kept by 
very respectable people. We purchased twenty-two 
skillings* worth of fladbrod and butter. All the gens de 
la maison assembled to see us, including the traveUer, 
who had passed in his carriole. 

With mutual salutations, we again left, Zachariah play- 
ing his viohn, as we passed through a thick forest. Then 
we had more enclosures, and some pretty rural lanes. 
At last, towards the close of evening, when the road 
passed through an open fir wood, we noticed a large 
lagoon, or open arm of the river, to our left, on the 
margin of the wood. 

A halt was called, and we camped on the edge of the 
wood, below the road. Our tents were pitched near two 
tall Scotch firs, standing outside the wood, with a plea- 
sant view across the lagoon. It was fi:om six to seven 
o'clock, when we halted. Noah and Zachariah went fish- 
ing, but without success. Our aftens-mad consisted of 
tea, ham, fladbrod, butter, and chocolate. Esmeralda 
and ourself practised Romany. Our health was fast 
returning— in fact, we were almost as well as usual. 

Up at four o'clock. Now, Noah ! Zachariah ! Noah got 
the water, and our fire was lighted. We were just going 



474 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

to breakfast at five o'clock, when three men, and a pea- 
sant woman came by. They were going harvesting. 
Loud were their exclamations of "peen giaere" (fine 
beauty), " meget peen," " nei, nei" They looked curi- 
ously at our preparations for breakfast, and then left. 

When Noah was loading our donkeys, three men and 
a girl came to see the donkeys, and were surprised at 
the weight they carried. It appeared we were at a 
place pronounced like Helgst, about one furlong from 
Noes. 

At seven o'clock, pushing onwards along a pleasant 
forest road, we again came to enclosures. Then a church 
appeared to view and a rifle range. The range appeared 
a very short one, having a booth, apparently used as a 
shelter for the marksmen.* We had now left the 
Valders, and had seen some of the beauties of the 
Aadalen. Noes was at the upper shore of the Spirilen 
Lake, and it would be necessary to cross the Beina at its 
outfall to the lake. 

The Noes Station is large, and in a wooden building 
near, we found a shop containing a variety of goods of all 
sorts, and sizes. First we bought wooden spoons, and soap, 
for twenty-two skillings, and then some fladbrod for 
one mark. Noah had gone beyond the house, to the 
ferry-boat, on the lake shore. Esmeralda and ourself 
were leaving the shop, when we met Noah, with a gloomy 
countenance. He informed us there was no horse-boat, 
and the donkeys could not possibly cross. 

Saying we should soon see whether we could cross, we 
all went down with a civil man, who seemed the owner 

• We were informed that the Remington rifle was generally used in 
Norway. 



IMPROMPTU H0E8EB0AT. 475 

of the ferry, and premises. After much talking, he ex- 
plained that the steamer left at seven o'clock in the 
morning, and it was now nine o'clock, and we were too 
late. 

Looking at the two small boats, we explained to the 
ferryman, that we must get across somehow. He seemed 
to catch our meaning ; but our gipsies shook their heads, 
and said the poor donkeys would be drowned. 

To continue our journey, we were determined. The 
obstacle of a river was not to be thought of, for a moment 
A day would be lost, by camping at Noes until the next 
morning. Although we might probably make up lost 
time in the steamer, still we preferred going on by land, 
if possible. 

Returning to the shop, we bought a pound of white 
sugar for 20 skillings. The old man in the meantime 
appeared with two men, and poles, and a strong tether 
rope, and an axe. Again we returned to the sandy beach. 
Noah and Zachariah were very desponding at the sight* 
It looked very much as if they were going to erect a 
scaffold, and behead the donkeys on the spot. The 
owner of the ferry shortened one of the poles, and in a 
few minutes, the two small boats were securely lashed to 
the two poles, extending over them crossways. Our 
gipsies were still unable to disconnect the donkeys, with 
anything short of drowning. 

A small crowd of peasants now collected to view the 
passage of the Beina by the English gipsies in Norway, 
with their animals and baggage. Most of the men, who 
chewed tobacco, were dressed in light jumpers, patched 
trowsers, and large heavy boots, without stockings ; the 
kind-looking stout female, who sold us the fladbrod, was 



476 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

there, and young peasant girls, with handkerchiefs tied 
over their heads. 

The Tamo Eye was first bridled, and led to the "boats by 
Zaehariah, There it decidedly refused to go any further. 
Zachariah pulled, Noah lifted at its hind legs, ourself and 
two men lifted at the fore legs. The struggle ended, in 
our fairly carrying the donkey into the one boat, at the 
risk of all coming down into the water, together with one 
tremendous splash ; the other boat was turned sideways, 
and we forced the Puro Rye into it, whilst a man held 
its head. The boats were quickly rowed oflf by another 
man, and the animals safely landed. 

One man was bold enough to ride one of the donkeys 
to a wood close to the sandy beach. Zachariah rowed 
back. All were highly pleased at the success. The 
Puru Rawnee made a trejnendous fight Zachariah tugged, 
and the Puru Rawnee got one hind leg over the boat's 
side ; but a stout fellow, who ultimately nearly pushed it 
over Zachariah, placed its leg safe in the boat The 
baggage was put in the other boat, to balance the donkey, 
and then they crossed the river. 

The boats retimed. We paid the man fifteen shillings, 
which seemed to satisfy all, and with our gipsies, and the 
rest of our baggage, soon reached the other side. Several 
were collected, when we landed : one gentlemanly, well- 
dressed Norwegian, looked at our maps, and pointed out 
the route. Esmeralda immediately began to castigate 
her donkey, then scolded Zachariah, and was in her turn 
scolded by ourself, whilst the boatmen drank '* gamle 
norge " in our aquavit. 



CHAPTER XL. 

They played on the guitar until the warm day had given place to the 
starry night. I sat on my balcony, and looked on with pleaanre at 
the gaiety of yonth* 

With castanets they danced, 

Their only music this ; 
Their eyes into each other's glanced, 

Quaffing sweet draughts of bliss. 

In Spain, Hasb OHBianiv AvDiBnv. 

WK LEAVE THE BEINA — THE ULLB PIGB — ANT PORT IN A STORM — THE 
fairies' visit — THE SPIRILEN — ^TTRE AADALEN VAL — ^LARGE BONDE- 
GAABD— HEEN WOODLAND CAMP — ^EVENING VISITORS— THE HONEFOS 
— INTELLIGENT POSTMASTER — NORDERHOUG CHURCH — HALT NEAR 
VIK — THE gipsies' POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY — NOAH AND THE PHILAN- 
THROPIST — STEENS FJORD— THE KROGKLEVEN — BEAUTIFUL GORGE — 
— GAMP NEAR THE KING'S VIEW. 

Noah and Zachariah quickly loaded the donkeys ;* one 
of the boatmen showed us the way. We followed a 
track from the river through the wood. An old boat 
near the river, in the wood, turned on one side, with the 

* Shelley, the poet, during his totix in 1814, being at Paris, purchased a 
donkey to cany his baggage, and, by turns, his two companions dt voyage^ 
Mary WoUstonecraft Godwin, and her relation, a lady friend. They aU 
proceeded towards Charenton, when SheUey, who had, probably, made an 
indifferent piirchase, discarded the donkey, and bought a mule for ten 
napoleons. With many adventures, the party at length reached Troyes, and 
Shelley, having sprained his ancle, the party accomplished the rest of the 
journey in an open carriage. — " Shelley and his Writings," by Middleton. 
1858. Shelley was bom 1792, and was drowned, 8th July, 1823. 



V 



478 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

marks of a fire having been lighted before it, showe^i 
that it had been used as a bivouac. 

Passing through the court of a large house, near the 
wood, we shortly afterwards, entered by a gate into a 
pleasant shady way, leading along the left shore of the 
Spirilen Lake. A large crowd were stiU watching our 
cavalcade from the house. 

It was about twenty minutes past ten o'clock, when 
we left the river Beina ;* a halt was called at eleven, in a 
wood, on the shores of the Spirilen, 

Our middags-mad consisted of soup, made of potatoes, 
ham, bacon, and Liebig's essence, with addition of some 
grod. 

Zachariah went fishing, but was unsuccessful. The 
rain commenced, and we either slept, or wrote our notes 
from about two o'clock until four o'clock. 

Again we were all on the move. Following the rough 
track through the fir-forest, we had pleading vistas of the 
lake. Then we came to where some men were making 
a new road, and sometimes, we had to change from the 
old road, on to the new portion, lately opened for traffic ; 
passing Bjonvicken to Engordden the road had enclosures, 
and farms on either side. About six o'clock we noticed 
the steamer going up the lake to Noes. At one place, we 
passed a new house, which appeared to have a shop. 
Soon after, a little girl followed us with something 
wrapped in a white napkin. It occurred to us, to send 
Noah back, and see if he could get bread. The little girl 
at once guessed what we wanted, and told us bread could 

* Spelt Boegna £lv in the Kristians ampt map. Much difficulty occun 
with regard to the orthography of Norwegian names, which are very often 
Bpelt diflferently, according to tiie map or guide-book in which they appear. 



ANY PORT IN A STORM. 479 

be purchased, at six skillings a loaf. She was a neatly 
dressed, intelligent Httle girl, and we gave her 3 skillings 
for her information ; she at once seized our hand, and said 
tak ; soon afterwards she went into a house on the roadside. 
There were nothing but inclosures for some distance. 
The evening was rapidly closing ; on we pushed : no camp 
ground ; still we hurried along. We were now on a 
part of the road recently made, and must shortly sleep 
somewhere. At last, just at dark, a small driftway was 
noticed, to a narrow strip of new-mown turf, between the 
road, and the lake. No time for hesitation ; the donkeys 
w^ere quickly driven down to the turf. Some high 
bushes formed a screen from the road, and a shelter for 
ourselves. A boat was moored on the sandy beach near. 
The donkeys were at once unloaded in a quiet comer, a 
fire was lighted on the shore, and our water quickly 
boiled.* Zachariah was on the look-out for Noah, who soon 
came with three loaves of bread, which had cost a mark. 
The tents were at once pitched. Our gipsies made short 
work of tea, bread and cheese. " Let's gell to our wood- 
rus,''t said Noah. " Cushty ratti,'' J said we; and they were 
soon asleep. It was a dark murky night, as we sat by the 

♦ The tea-pot and kettle are both called by our gipaiea "piri;" and 
it is interesting to note that the Norwegian gipsies, according to Proesten 
Sundt, use piri to mean pot, and the Turkish gipsies also use the same 
word piri, with the same signification. 

f " Let us go to bed." The French gipsies use " Wuddress," bed. 

t Good-night. "Cooshko," " Cooshto" "Kosko" also used by the English 
gipsies. " Cushty " is not used by the gipsies of some countries to signify 
good ; for instance, the French gipsies use " ladscho " and " mischdo." The 
Turkish gipsies use "latcho," good, and the Norwegian gipsies "lattjo,'*good. 
Borrow, in his work, "The Zincali; or, an Accoimt of the Qypsies of 
Spain," gives "kosko" as the English gipsy for "good." Colonel Harriot 
has given " kashto " and " kashko " ; and for " good-night," " kashko rati," 
as used by the gipsies of North Hampshire. 



480 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

dying embers of our fire. Gradually the rain inereaaed, 
and we retired to our tent The turf had been newly mown, 
and was delicious to rest upon. We listened to the boat 
rising and falling on the waves, as they dashed in the 
night wind, on the sandy shore. It had rained heavily 
during the night, accompanied by lightning. Between two 
and three o'clock in the morning we were up, the morning 
was dark and cloudy, with misty rain. Fire was lighted ; 
Noah warmed up some simmin (gip., soup),* saved from 
yesterday's mid dags-mad : we had also tea, and bread and 
d>e«,e-an odd combmation-whid, was hastily dkpo»d 
of. The top of a house could be seen on the other side 
the road, close above us : the inhabitants little thouglit 
they had visitors sleeping just below them. It is 
probable that they would be sorely puzzled, when they 
went for the boat's paddles, in the bushes behind our tent, 
to see the impression on the turf — ^the impression left 
by our sleeping forms. Perhaps they might think, some 
Huldre or fairy had been there : at any rate, we did not 
wait to elucidate the occurrence, which may be involved 
in mystery to this day. At five o'clock, animals, baggage, 
and gipsies were well on the road towards Finsarid. 

There was something exciting in our wanderings. Our 
animals still continued quite equal to their work, and 
every day decreased the weight of the commissariat ; the 
weight they had to carry was now much lighter. At 
eight o'clock we halted on the margin of an open bay 
of the Spirilen Lake, near some houses. As we were 
having another meal of cold bacon, meat, and bread 
and cheese, and tea, we saw the steamer pass down the 

* The Norwegian gipsies use nearly the same word for soup, namely 
Bummin." 



LARGE BONDEGAAED. 481 

lake from Noes. A woman and a man came and wanted 
to buy one of the donkeys. 

At nine o'clock, we were again on the move towards 
Somdalen. Then we came to a narrow channel of the 
lake, through which the steamers pass to the Aadals Elv. 
The road, after passing through Somdalen, continued 
through fir-forests, and pleasant scenes. At one part of 
the forest, we saw some wood pigeons, and at another, a 
jackdaw. When we had passed Somdalen, we halted 
again ; our rest was on a greensward surrounded by a 
stream, in an open space below the road, surrounded by 
a wood. It was a nice secluded spot. We halted at a 
quarter to twelve ; the sun was warm and pleasant ; 
we had tea, fried ham, and bread. Esmeralda's spirits 
were in the ascendant. We left at twenty-five minutes 
to two o'clock. * Our way was through beautiful forests, 
which reminded us of some of the wild scenes of Aus- 
tralia As to Mephistopheles, he was buzzing about 
like a butterfly ; we nearly crushed him once or twice. 

At last we came to a large farm on the borders of the 

forest, by Ytre Aadalen Val. The road led from the 

forest, over a rise of open cultivated groimd, near a 

large and convenient gaard. We had lingered behind. 

As we again came up with our gipsies, they were 

passing over the cultivated land near the gaard. 

The master of the Bondegaard, a stout man, and 

apparently his wife and two daughters, and a large 

retinue of dependants, were grouped to see us pass. 

They surveyed us with curiosity, but did not speak. 

Scarcely had our gipsies got out of hearing, than one 

of the dependants was the subject of severe criticism. 

** Look at that country gorgio," said Mephistopheles. 

I I 



482 TENT UFE IN NORWAY. 

" Ha, ha ! " said Esmeralda ; " why, he's a kok-y-yock" 
(cock-eye). 

" No," said Noah ; " that's our vamon.'** 

" nei 1 nei 1" said Mephistopheles ; " peen giaere, 
peen giaere ! " 

Somebody was extinguished, and order was restored. 
Gipsies, as a rule, not being educated, and having a 
great amount of gaiety, and physical energy, in default, 
occasionally, of rational conversation, seize upon circum- 
stances, and things, of the most minor importance, to 
occupy their attention, in a warfare of Eomany chaff 
against everyone, and everything, with singular expres- 
sion, tempered with strange energy, and Uvely spirit 

The master of the Bondegaard was exceedingly stout, 
and we reasoned afterwards, upon the inconvenience of 
being so stout, and the advantage of a gipsy hfe, in 
keeping the body, in its proper symmetrical proportions. 

Now we are in the forest again, and this portion of 
our route, is much more beautiful than we expected 
The Spirilen does not rival many of the Norwegian 
lakes, though there are many pleasant scenes along its 
shores. 

At this part of our route we saw some of the most 
lofty spruce-fir we had seen during our wanderings in 
Norway. 

We were now fast coming towards Heen, where the 
steamer meets, we were told, the railway to the Rands 
Fjord. 

Through the forest we went Esmeralda, who was so 

• Vernon is a tall, powerful gipsy, in the prime of life, six feet two 
inches high, who travels England and Wales with his tent. His name 
was generally pronounced " Yamon " by our gipsy, Noah. 



BEEN, WOODLAND CAMP. 483 

lively at our last halt, seemed getting tired, and wanted 
to ride, but our camp rule did not allow it. Again, we 
hoped soon to halt : the heroine of our book was not to 
be neglected, and lost by the way, for the want of care 
and proper attention. 

Soon after we descended a steep declivity in the forest, 
and came upon a charming glade on a stream, which, 
we believe, is called the Voels Elv. At the foot of the 
declivity, flowed its shallow stream of water. On the left 
of the forest-way, before we reached the stream, we saw 
some open green turf, secluded by clumps of forest trees, 
and beyond, and on all sides, a woodland of apparently 
interminable forest, as far as the eye could reach. 'Twas 
a lovely spot for the tired Esmeralda to repose. 

The tents were put up at once in the open glade, 
near the flowing stream. We were soon engaged writing 
letters. Esmeralda was washing at a fire near a clump 
of trees, not far from the stream. Noah was making a 
basket. A tall blacksmith, as we supposed him to be, 
carrying a rifle, came to our tents. He told us there 
were wolves, and bears in the forest. Then we had 
afterwards, a party of three gentlemen, and a lady; 
they were very nice people. One dark, good-looking 
young gentleman, spoke English. We were pleased to 
see them at our tents. They inspected our camp, 
Russian lamp, cooking apparatus, and our donkeys. 
They seemed much pleased. It would have given us 
pleasure to have known more of them. 

It was, indeed, a beautiful camping-ground, in a large 
wild forest. Our fourth meal this day — for we had 
crowded on considerable sail — consisted of tea, sardines, 
bread and cheese. At nine o'clock, all were resting in 

I I 2 



484 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

our tents. It is noted in our impressions^ that the 
evenings get colder and shorter, chilly and damp. 

Friday, the 19th of August; we are again stirring 
at twenty minutes past three o'clock. Up rise our tlire€ 
gipsies, in the wild Norwegian forest : en avant is the 
word. 

As we were standing by our camp-fire, we heard 
footsteps ; a man and a boy appeared at that early 
hour, to see our donkeys. They were astonished to find 
anyone already up and moving. 

The frokost consisted of tea, biscuits, and cheese. 
Our donkeys loaded, we moved off at six o'clock. Noah 
left his unfinished basket on our camp-ground, as a 
souvenir. Soon we passed imder the arch of the Rands 
Fjord Railway. Then the road lay through enclosures, 
and we came in sight of Honefos. 

Before we entered the town of Honefos, we cautioned 
Mephistopheles, as to propriety of conduct It was, 
perhaps, about nine o'clock ; many people came out of 
their houses, and anxiously inquired what the donkeys 
were. Mephistopheles called for a glass of sherry, and 
imitated a drunken man, until he was called to atten- 
tion. A civil Norwegian coming up, we inquired for the 
Postaabneri and a krambod. 

Keeping Noah with us, we sent the donkeys and 
^^gg^g® through the town, in care of Esmeralda and 
Zachariah. Coming into a sort of square, our first visit 
was the post-ofiice ; we went into a court-yard, and 
entering the back of a house, we soon found our- 
selves in a small room, with a kind of bank counter, 
behind which sat a respectable-looking, pale, intelligent 

^Ji. By his side, he had an ear-trumpet, for he was 



THE HONEFOS. 485 

deaf ; behind him, he had shelves, filled with books ; on 
his long table, he had writing materials, documents, 
and papers relating to his duties. He spoke in English 
with a very good accent ; we wrote our answers, for he 
uvas deaf. The postage of our English letter, was six- 
teen skiUings, and four skillings each for our letters 
to Christiania. Readily giving us some information, 
about the steamers with mails from Christiania, we left 
our civil postmaster. The war seemed the all-engrossing 
topic of the time, and we had, of course, some converse 
on the subject. 

Our next visit was to the shop, where we bought five 
pounds of sugar, for three marks eight skillings ; five 
loaves of bread, for one mark six skillings ; and, at a 
baker's, we bought two loaves of bread, for eight skillings 
and six cakes for six skillings. 

Honefos is a spirited town, and a pretty one. Crossing 
the Honefos Bridge we soon rejoined our baggage. As 
we ascended a hill, and continued our route along the 
new road, which is being made, we had a beautiful view 
of the town. 

A French gentleman, who was driving towards the 
Honefos, had asked Esmeralda and Zachariah, if they 
were French. 

Soon afterwards we came to an iron mile-stone, marked 
five miles to Christiania og Dramen (thirty-five English 
miles). 

Then we saw Norderhoug churcL It is large, aa 
compared with many of the Norwegian churches we 
had seen. The parsonage and village have an air of 
substantial comfort. Geese and ducks, and cherry-trees 
were seen for the first time during our wanderings in 



480 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Norway. This village is noted for the destruction of 
a small Swedish force, which was quartered at the 
Parsonage House in 1716. 

Still following onwards along our route, we came to 
enclosed lands, which appeared qnite as fertile as any 
we had seen. Here and there, the harvest people wonld 
hurry towards the road fence, to catch a sight of our 
donkeys, as they passed. Some asked one question, 
some another. Our gipsies answered wildly any Nor- 
wegian word at hand, or ya ! ya ! Now we meet a 
carriage and pair, and the gentleman tak^ off his hat, 
which we of course acknowledge. 

At length we halt on the right of the road on tte 
hill above " Vik Station," on some rocky open ground. 

It was twelve o'clock. Our gipsies obtained some 
water for our tea at the Vik Station from their private 
supply. A servant girl, and man, with some childreii 
from the station, brought our donkeys some grass. It 
was a kindly thought. The sun was warm as we sat 
amid the rocks and heath. Whatever faults our gipsies 
have they are not tainted with Fenianism or Com- 
munistic ideas. They have ever held for Monarchy, 
and evQn among themselves, they have from time to 
time, their kings and queens. Our gipsies are extremely 
ignorant of political philosophy. They do know that 
her Majesty Queen Victoria, is the Queen of England 
The names of Disraeli and Gladstone had not yet reached 
them.* They have no Komany words for poUtical 

• In 1873, tall Noah had never heard of the name of Disraeli, the author 
and the statesman. Koah thought he had heard of the name of Gladstone, 
hut did not know who he was. He had heard of Dickens ; for he kept a 
post-office in a country village, near which they sometimes camped. We 
did not pursue our inteirogatories any further ! ! 



THE KROQKLBVEN. 487 

regeneration ; they take no interest in the rights of 
man. Let them foUow their wild nomadic life, they 
are satisfied. The Queen has worse subjects than our 
gipsies. It is possible that tall Noah, would answer 
a political philanthropist, much in the words of the 
" needy knife-grinder," — " I shall be glad to drink your 
honour's health, in a pot of beer, if you will give me 
sixpence, but, for my part, I never love to meddle with 
politics, sir.'' 

It is probable that tall Noah might be answered in 
the well-known words of the philanthropist, — " Wretch, 
whom no sense of wrongs can rouse to vengeance ; sordid, 
unfeeling reprobate, degraded, spiritless outcast !" 

Then we can only say it would be very inconvenient 
for the philanthropist, if he was within a mile of tall 
Noah's tent. 

. Our middags-mad consisted of tea, bread, butter, and 
cheese.* At half-past three o'clock we were once more 
en route for the Krogkleven. Descending the hill by 
the Yik Station, the master of the station came out. 
We halted the donkeys for him to see theuL He is 
a very pleasant man. The station seems very comfort- 
able. It is mentioned, that there is good fishing near. 

Reaching the shore of the Steens Fjord, a storm seemed 
to be gathering. Then, as we came to a fisherman's 
house, and saw him leave with his boat, and nets, we 
deemed it a sure harbinger of calm weather. Soon after 
the threatened storm cleared away. We crossed the 
bridge over the Steens Fjord to Sundvolden. 

* Besides the Norwegian cheese, called "Myse Ost," before described, 
they have a very old, decayed kind of cheese, called " Qammel Ost," which 
is mnch esteemed in Norway. 



488 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

The magnificent cliffs of the Krogyeven were nov 
above ns. A man pointed out the Kongen's Udsigt 
or King's view. At Sundvolden they accommodate 
travellers. The house seems large and commodious. 
They have a pleasure garden, with a small fountain, but 
we observed that the garden lacked taste in arrangement, 
and freshness, and beauty in flowers. 

When our cavalcade passed the. large open space 
in front of the station, a tall, pale, young Norwegian, 
apparently belonging to the house, said to Noah, with 
some authority, " Hvor fra reisen de."* Noah, who was 
in advance, probably did not understand, or as usual, 
did not answer every inquisitive question, and kept 
pushing on. Immediately after we commenced the 
steep ascent to the heights of the Krogkleven. It is 
generally said, that the ascent to the Kongen's Udsigt 
takes about an hour. Very shortly afterwards, we were 
overtaken by the pale young Norwegian, with an elder 
companion, who took off his hat, and bowed. He said, 
in excellent English, that he had seen an account of us 
in the newspapers. He owned a farm in the neigh- 
bourhood, and wished to buy one of our donkejrs. 
Explaining that we had already promised one as a 
present, and that we should probably take the other two 
to England, after a short conversation he left. The road 
was most picturesque. It would have been a sad 
omission, had we left Norway, without returning by thi^ 
route. In about three-quarters of an hour, we reached 
the house at the top of the gorge. A woman lives in the 
house, which being near the King and Queen's View, is 
used for the temporary reception of travellers, and 

♦ Where do you travel from ? 



CAMP NEAR THE KINCP8 VIEW. 489 

pic-nic parties. From the large open space, at the 
summit of the ascent, the main road, now level and flat, 
passes through the forest towards Christiania. A track 
leads through the woods on one side to the Kongens 
Udsigt,* and on the other to the Dronning's Udsigt.t 
At the summit of the ascent near the house, a large 
board is fixed up, upon which is painted the figure of a 
navvy, with his spade ; an iron box is placed under, with 
a narrow sHt, to receive money, for the benefit of the 
men who made the road. We read de haute voix, for 
the satisfaction of Esmeralda, the following inscription : — 

Oh, I have Toamed o'er many lands, but never yet have seen 
Nataie's face so grand and fair, as in this land, I ween. 
And from this cleft, how calmly grand, the varied beauties vie— 
The nestling hamlet, glassy lake, and mountain towering high. 
'Tis true ! 'tis worth a pilgrimage ; but why not smooth the way ] 
Help us, my friend ; yon box, your mite, it shaU be, as you may. 

We gave a mark. The inscription is also written in 
Danish and German. 

From this point we were now only twenty-one English 
miles fix)m Christiania. 

As we were copying the inscription, Noah and 
Zachariah, had proceeded onwards, along the road towards 
Christiania. 

After following them about a mile, we returned back 
in a heavy shower of rain, to camp on the open space at 
the head of the Krogkleven gorge. 

* King's View. t Queen's View. 



CHAPTER XLI. 

"I fear, Colonel," I replied, "that I most plead guilty to having 
been an aawciate of these gipsy Tagabonds, and I may as well add Ihst 
I have spent nearly aU the summer with them, and found them 
pleasaat, healthy, and instmctiye companions. I like the gipsies, and 
the wild life they live; and it is a pleasant occupation for me to 
study their manners, customs, traditions, and language." 

GB0IU3S S. Phillips (Januaiy Searle). 

BUlOffBR WANINO — NORWEGIAN SCENERY— SPLENDID VIEWS — THE CBOSS 
PIRB — 80RTB d6d — ROMANTIC CAMP— MANDY'S A RTB — THE TOURIsfS 
DOG — THE HOBBENENGREE's SURPRISE — THE BARON AT BCERUMS TEBK 
— SNAKE KILLED NEAR OUR TENT— OUR LAST NIGHT IN CAMP- 
ADIEU, CAMP LIFE. 

On the open space near the road, our donkeys were 
unloaded. The spot was surrounded by forest. It was 
convenient for an early visit to the King and Queen s 
views next morning. A can of milk was procured from 
the house near, for nine skillings, and with some barley- 
meal, we had our aftens-mad, which consisted of grod. 
It was rather thin, but Noah pronounced it meget godt 
"WhUst the tents were being pitched, the pale young 
Norwegian from Sundvolden passed by our camp, and 
conversed for a short time, and then contiuued his route. 
We retired to rest at eight o'clock The nights were 
now getting cold, and damp, with heavy dews, and the 
air had a wintry feeling. Night draws on quickly, and 
the ferns are already changing tint. 



NORWEGIAN SCENERY. 491 

It is Saturday, the 20th of August. We rise at five 
o'clock. Noah obtained water ; a fire was lighted, and 
we had tea, bread, butter and cheese for our breakfast. 
First we took Noah with us up a broken, rough track, 
through the forest to the Kongen's Udsigt. It was not 
far from our camp. A lady and gCDtleman had pre- 
ceded us on horseback The morning was dull, and 
cloudy. In twenty minutes we were at the top of the 
cliff, and standing on a kind of large balcony of rough 
boards. 

An old man suddenly appeared from the rocks near, 
as a spider would pounce on two flies. He pointed out 
different Qelds, and told many of their names. What a 
magnificent extent of wild mountain, wood, and water 
lay before us! The Gousta we could distinctly see, 
although said to be distant seventy English miles. It 
recaUed to mind a period of former travel, when we once 
ascended its wild, and narrow ridge, of loose rocksj to its 
highest point. 

Far below us, we could see the smooth waters of the 
Tyri Fjord, the Steens Fjord and the Holz Fjord. 

As to the wooden frame- work, it was covered with 
names — the pencilled autographs of numerous travellers ; 
many now dead and gone. Yet, amongst the many, we 
saw the name of '' B. Disraeli." 

Half a mark as we left made it indispensably necessary 
that we should shake hands with the old man of the 
Krogkleven. 

In a short time we reached the Dronning's Udsigt. 
The plateau is at a somewhat lower elevation, between 
two cliffs wooded with birch and fir ; whilst we sat on the 
wooden seat, Noah quite agreed with ourself, that the 



492 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Tiew, though very beautiful and extensive, did not equal 
the Kongen's Udsigt 

As we returned to our camp, we observed on a gate 
the name of Luk Grindon. At the house, the woman 
showed lis a horn of birch wood, about a yard long, 
which she sounded for us> and ultimately Esmeralda 
succeeded in blowing it. 

When we came to our camp, Zachariah had struck our 
tents, and packed the things up ready for loading. The 
pale young Norwegian again passed along the road ; 
speaking in Norwegian, he said, " It must be very cold/' 
Esmeralda got out our tin box, and we presented 
him with our gipsy song. Esmeralda was fuU of 
energy and 6re. Our visitor seemed much as- 
tonished, as she flung the things about, and occa- 
sionally we had a cross-fire of English, and Ro- 
many, which he did not understand. Our visitor, 
apparently, did not know what to make of it as he left, 
but Esmeralda meant no harm. The superabundant 
energy must be exhausted, and, occasionally, like other 
people, she got up on the wrong side the turf. 

Away we aU go at ten o'clock, through the charming 
wild forest towards Christiania. The sky has cleared, 
and it is a sunny day. 

During our route from Stee by Lomen, Slidre, and 

other places in the district of the Valders, until we 

reached Aurdal, we had looked in vain for anyone 

resembling a gipsy. The gipsies who visited the fairs 

at Veblimgsnoes generally stated they came from the 

Valders, so that we had some hope, that in passing 

through the district, we might meet with some of this 
people. 



SORTE DOD. 493 

As we now refer to the Valders, it was this district 
that suffered so severely in the llth century from the 
Sorte Dod (black death). 

It is said that a foreign vessel stranded on the 
Norwegian coast with a dead crew. In a short time 
a kind of plague, called the " black death," depopu- 
lated many districts, so that not a single inhabitant 
remained.* 

We soon came near a Bondegaard in the forest, and 
met a young Norwegian lady ; she smiled as she passed 
us. "Ah, sir!" said Zachariah, "you diks as if you 
would like the cova juval for your Rawnee." 

Again we came to open ground in the forest, and 
halted at twelve o'clock. Our middags-mad consisted 
of tea, sardines, bread and cheese. The oil from the 
sardines had a most soothing effect on Esmeralda's 
temper, she became the perfection of amiability, and 
politeness. 

Again we were moving, at three o'clock in the after- 
noon ; our wanderings seemed somehow coming to a 
close. ** Upmyderydowno," said Noah, as he lifted the 
heavy pocket on our Puru Eawnee. 

• In a work, entitled " The Black Death in the Fourteenth Century/' 
translated by Dr.. Babbington from the German of Dr. Hecker, published 
in 1833 by A. Schloss, 109, Strand, London, it is stated that the contagion 
was carried from England to Bergen, where the plague broke out in the 
most frightful form, and throughout the country, not more than a third of 
the inhabitants being spared. The sailors found no refuge in their ships, 
and vessels were often seen, driven about, on the ocean, and drifting on 
shore, whose crews had perished to the last man. This reminds us of the 
skeleton crew of the " Glenalvon," bound from Charleston to Sydney, met 
with by Captain Martin, of the ** Lancaster," an account of which appeared 
in the newspapers of last October. Such tales of the sea, dreadful in their 
reality, are closely associated with the Phantom ship said to sail the stormy 
seas near the Cape of Good Hope, which has often furnished an interesting 
subject for the sailors' night-watch yams of spectral fmcy. 



494 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

Mephistopheles soon after took his violiiL The echoes 
of the forest were awakened with wild gipsy music, as 
we tramped along at a swinging pace. Sometimes Noah 
with the tambourine — sometimes Esmeralda, even the 
Rye, we believe, took it occasionally, to the astonish- 
ment of one or two stray peasants. 

It was a sunny evening; except at one place, near 
a sheet of water, we scarcely saw a house. After cross- 
ing a picturesque river in a deep ravine, we reached 
the borders of the forest, at a less distance than a 
mile. An extensive view of cultivated country, and 
enclosures, towards Boerum, decided us to return to the 
ravine. 

"We had noticed a steep, and lofty wooded knoll on 
our left, above the broken river of the ravine. On our 
return to it, we found an open space on its summit to 
pitch our tents. It was a beautiful camp-ground; a 
thicket of firs secluded us; we had bilberry bushes 
and juniper, heath and moss in luxuriance. A steep 
and lofty bank of loose stones, covered with moss, 
sloped steeply to the river. From our camp we could 
command a view of the road crossing the river. At 
the side of the stream, on the opposite side the forest 
road, some green turf gave excellent pasture for our 
donkeys. The river wound its broken course round our 
camp, and was lost in the deep and tangled thickets. 
Esmeralda at once went down to the river, near where 
the road crossed, to wash. Noah had only one shirt, 
and he did not like to take it ofi" to be washed, and 
be without one. At last we gave him one. of our old 
white shirts. 

Noah wafi delighted— " Dawdy ! " said Noah, skipping 



MANDTS A RYE. 495 

about, when he had put it on, and had given his own 
for his sister to wash. " Dawdy ! mandy's a Rye,"* 

Presently two tourists crossed the river below, with 
their knapsacks and dogs ; one traveller was tall, the 
other short, with sandy hair. The dogs commenced 
barking at the donkeys. They seemed surprised to see 
Esmeralda, apparently alone. Whilst calling their dogs 
away from our donkeys, they spoke to Esmeralda ; as 
they looked up, they saw us looking down, from our 
camp. 

Immediately after they came up, and we foimd them 
very agreeable ; one spoke French. They had come 
from Christiania, and were going to the Krogkleven. 
They told us some news of the war. The tall tourist's 
English dog sat up with a pipe in his mouth, and his 
master's hat on. This formed an exception to our rule — 
no smoking in camp. 

Before they left> Noah pitched our tents. Then Esme- 
ralda came from her washing. They were much pleased 
with two copies of our songs, and, as they left, they 
said they should call on their return, but we never saw 
them again. 

The aftens-mad consisted of soup, made of our last, 
ham bones, Liebig's essence, pea-flour, rice, and bread. 

There is something delightful in the closing evening 
of the wild forest ; the murmuring waters are below us ; 
Esmeralda has gone into our tent ; our visitors are gone. 
As we linger near, we can perceive that our Hobben- 
engree is surprised at the confusion in which we have 
left our things ; she has turned aside our blue curtain, 
with its zig-zag braid, as she enters. Soon we hear an 

* Mandy — ^me, myself. 



496 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

exclamation, — •'Well, now, 111 be blessed! Dableau! 
If the Rye hasn't pulled out everything, and put 
nothing in 1 My word, I will warm somebody's listner 
just now ! " 

Reader, we must plead to being rather absent Our 
campaign is nearly ended ; we are going to rest 
Mephistopheles comes in. "Sir, I have just seen an 
adder in the stones below the tent" 

" Let the sapeau alone, Zachariah," said we, not wish- 
ing to hear more about adders. 

Our camp was soon buried in sleep. 
On Sunday, 21st August, it was a beautiful morning, 
when we rose at four o'clock. Our breakfast consisted 
of cold ham bones, biscuits, and English cheese. About 
half-past ten o'clock we took Noah wath us to Sand- 
viken. Our route lay through Boerums Verk. It is an 
interesting spot as belonging to one of the last Barons 
of Norway. A fine chateau stands upon the crest of a hill 
above the village, something in the style of Oscars-halL 

The Baron is a courteous and polite man. We at 
once noticed the influence and effect of such a mind 
upon the manners of his dependants. The Baron pos- 
sesses large iron works at Boerums Verk, The church 
near is built of bricks, and, for the first time in Norway, 
we heard beUs. There is something about bells which 
reminds us of prayer, of peace, and contentment At 
the inn at Sandviken we found every attention we 
could wish. They must have been somewhat astonished 
at tall Noah, my Sancho Panza, his trowsers being 
patched to the utmost extent human ingenuity could 
devise ; they included the best part of a coat, amongst 
other additions. 



SNAKE KlLLEt> NEAR OUR tENf. 49? 

At the inn at Sandviken there is a sort of travellers' 
room. Our middags-mad consisted of a beefeteak each, 
at one mark six skillings the steak, and one bottle of 
Baiersk 6l at twelve skillings ; we gave the pige four 
skillings. Sandviken is a pleasant village, about nine 
miles from Christiania. We arranged for a carriole, £ix)m 
Sandviken to Christiania the next day, and, leaving, we 
reached our camp, at seven o'clock* 

Esmeralda and Zachariah had not taken any dinner^ 
but had waited our return. Mephistopheles had actually 
killed a snake in the stones near our tent. It 
measured one foot eight inches long, having a brown 
back, and black belly. It was the only one we saw 
in Norway ; it was no myth ; Mephistopheles said there 
were more. 

Two tourists, when we returned, were looking at our 
tents, and talking to Esmeralda; they were going to 
take the steamer, at nine o'clock that night, from Sand- 
viken, and were obliged to leave at once. They were 
very nice young fellows. As we sat in our tents, taking 
our tea, biscuits, and cheese, another party of tourists 
came, and bowed to us. When we had finished, a 
number of peasants congregated round our camp fire. 
They did not seem disposed to leave, although we were 
anxious to retire for the night. Mephistopheles at length 
approached the fire in a mysterious manner, and throw* 
ing into it some crumpled paper, walked away. They 
thought it explosive, for they quickly left. 

Now the closing scenes of summer had come, we 
were told that the nights in Norway were cold, and 
frosty, from the 20th to the 23rd of August. No one 
will ever know our feelings as we paced, up and down, 

X X 



408 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

on this last evening of our camp wanderings. It ¥ras 
the last night of our tent life in Norway. Somehow 
even our donkeys seemed to take an enlarged sphere, in 
the region of our affections, as we viewed them, quietly 
grazing, in the picturesque ravine. A clinging affection 
seemed to return, now that we were about to bid adieu 
to our tents, equipage, to our gipsies, even to our 
donkeys ; we were now to end our camp life, with our 
English gipsies, in this wild Norwegian forest. 

We had for a time escaped from our books, which 
are as whetstones to the human understanding; yet, 
occasionally, they wear away the intellect, imtil it 
has nothing left to sharpen. Is it necessary to bestow 
so much time in classical study ? There was a time 
when it entered largely into our necessities. Now there 
is a great change. Our intercourse with all parts of the 
world requires a knowledge of many modern languages. 
Life is short. One often doubts if competitive exami- 
nations are useful. Some individuals, all mind, and no 
energy, occasionally attain to positions, requiring more 
physical energy than mind, to the country's disadvan- 
tage, and their own misery. Camp life is the obverse 
of book study ; whilst it fosters the physical energy, it 
develops, and strengthens, the nervous system, and gives 
a self-reliance, which cannot be comprehended by the 
Kairengro, of what is called civilized life. 

It is our last morning; we are up at four o'clock 
Our breakfast consisted of bread and cheese, and tea. 
Noah was presented with another pair of trowsers, to 
appear at Christiania. Taking our courier bag, and a 
few books, and clothes, we left ; reluctantly, 'we must 
say. More than once, we turned, as we saw our tents 



ADIEU, CAMP LIFE. 499 

above the ravine. More than once, as we turned, we 
saw our beautiful Puru Rawnee on the greensward near 
the river ; we had reached the top of the ascent. As we 
left the ravine, once more, we saw the form of some one 
coining after us — it was Esmeralda. Our camp life in 
Norway has ended. 



CHAPTER XLH. 

"The King of the Gipeies, or El Gapitan as he is called, is a fine 
musician, and we invited him to come up to the hotel one eyening to 
play to us. Captain Antonio's company is not to be had for the 

asking It was a wretchedly poor instrument, and we 

began to wonder what sort of torments were about to be inflicted upon 
us, when on a sudden the tuning ceased, and the music seized hold of 
us like galvanism ; for it was such music as one had never dreamed of 
before." 

Matilda Bsthax Edwasds* Through Spain,* 

CHRI8TIANIA— GENEROUS OFFER— ADVICE WE DO NOT TAKE— THE PAPER- 
VIKEN FISHERMEN — CHRISTOFHERSON's — NORWAY FAREWELL — 
DONKEYS* ACCOMMODATION — WANT OF FEELING— OUR STEWARD— THE 
gipsies' friends— THE SPANISH COURIER — THE LITERARY AMERICAS 
— THE gipsies' MAL DE MER— THE DONKEYS IN A SMOKE ROOM— THE 
LOST NECKLACE — ENGLAND'S SHORE — TO OUR READERS. 

Very lightly shall we touch upon the remaining por- 
tion of our journey. A carriole fix>m the Skyds Station 
at Sandviken conveyed us to the Victoria Hotel at 
Christiania. We had dined there on our first landing ; 
we went there on our return. Every attention, and com- 
fort, is to be found at the Victoria. 

Our friend the Chevalier gave our gipsies a beautiful 
camp ground for the tents, on a wooded knoll, near the 
Cliristiania Fjord. « 

They were to follow us to Christiania the next morning 
after we left them. 

• " Through Spain to the Sahara," by Matilda Betham Edwards (the 
authoress of " A Winter with the Swallows " ), published 1868. 



GENEROUS OFFER. 601 

About noon on the following day after our arrival, we 
strolled out of the city to meet them. Our gipsies had 
halted in the shade of some trees. A young officer had 
stepped down from his carriage, and was speaking to 
Esmeralda. The lady in the carriage had kindly offered 
them camping-ground on her property. It was kindly 
meant, but we had already arranged. The same evening, 
our gipsies were encamped near Christiania Fjord — the 
last camp of the English gipsies in Norway. 

It seemed as if we had left the Bendigo, or the Goul- 
bom gold-diggings, or some scenes of the boundless Bush 
forest of Australia, and had just come down to Melbourne. 
Aiistralian readers will understand the feeling. 

Our steamer would leave on Friday afternoon. It is 
the " Hero,'^ under command of Captain Nicholson. 

We call at H. Heitman's office, and showed our return 
ticket, and informed him that two of our donkeys would 
return with our party. H. Heitman made some objection 
about finding accommodation for the donkeys, and sug- 
gested leaving them behind. Either, said he, they must 
be on full deck, or go below. The full amount for their 
return passage had been paid as for horses, and they were 
entitled to proper accommodation. We said we had quite 
determined to take them with us. 

The time passed quickly from Monday until Friday 
the 26th August. It is not our intention to give any 
description of Christiania. Excellent descriptions of all 
worth seeing in this beautifully situated capital, have been 
given by many English writers, and in Murray's Guide 
Book. We like Christiania, for the home-like feeling we 
experienced, as we wandered through its streets, and con- 
versed with its people. The city has nearly, if not quite, 



602 TENT LIFE IN NORIVAY. 

doubled, its poptdation, within the last twenty years, 
Norway must advance.* It is a country where one breathes 
a true spirit of freedom. Norway exhibits an instance 
of the greatest amount of liberty being quite compatible 
with a monarchical form of government. 

Sometimes we lounged at Paperviken, watching the 
anglers, as we waited for the steamer, when we were gomg 
to visit our friend the Chevalier. 

The hospitality of the Chevalier and his agreeable wife 
was boundless. 

We believe we only slept once in our room, at the 
Victoria. Then our host had Mends, and very pleasant 
hours we spent with them. 

One clergjrman knew something of the Romany 
language, and was much interested in our gipsies. Then 
we had Norwegian souvenirs to purchase for our friends 
in England. 

A camp kettle was purchased for tall Noah, exactly of 
similar pattern to that used by Ole Halvorsen. It was 
the one great wish of Noah's existence. Esmeralda was 
not forgotten. 

Then there was the usual lounge at that quaint old 
place 1 7 Store Strandgade, where you are sure to find Mr. 
Bennett, and some English tourists whose heads are full of 
carrioles, forbuds, fast and slow stations, routes, provisions 
for their Tine,t and a bewildering amount of small money 
of all sorts and sizes. 

* Lieutenant Breton, R.N., in Iub " Scandinavian Sketches ; or, A Tonr 

in Norway," published, 1836, by J. Bohn, King William Street, Strand, 

says, at page 50, with reference to Christiania, " Fifty-six English visited 

the city last year.'' The annual number of tourists since that period 

have wonderfully increased. 

t Pronounced " Teena," a small wooden box, often used in Norway to 
carry provisions. 



CHR18TIANIA. 503 

Then we met with our friend from the Poet's House at 
ELsbod, who had quite recovered. He dined with us, 
and whiffed his cigar in the charming smoking, and 
lounging-room of the Victoria- 

Nor did we forget to look into Christopherson's dining- 
room, or take our eup of coffee under the verandah 
there, with its trees before it, and the small tables and 
chairs under it, reminding us of the Paris boulevards. 

The weather was so sunny, the atmosphere so pure 
and clear, and our visit rendered so pleasant by kind 
friends, that with much reluctance we ordered our things 
to be taken from the Victoria to the steamer. 

Christiania, with its palace, Storthing House, Library, 
Museum of Northern Antiquities and zoological collection ; 
its Oscarshall with Tiedman's paintings, the old castle 
of the Agershuus, must now be left. 

Our gipsies left their last camp on the Christiania 
Fjord that morning. The wooded knoll above the Fjord 
to the left of our engraving was the last camp of the 
English gipsies in Norway. 

Parting souvenirs had been given them by our friends 
which showed the interest they had taken in them. All 
our baggage was safe on board the steamer, and our 
Puru Rawnee and Puro Rye were on deck. 

The steam is up. We say farewell to our valued 
friend the Chevalier. The view of Scandinavian scenery 
he left in our hands, as [a parting gift from his lovely 
young wife and himself, will always be prized. Adieu, 
also, to our friend from the " Poet's House " at Eisbod. 
Adieu, Norway, adieu I ! I 

Esmeralda's and Noah's tambourines may never again 
be heard in the Norwegian valleys. Zachariah's violin is 



B04 TENT LIFE IN NOSWAT. 

Bilent. Our guitar is put up, Onoe more ve say 
fiurewelini 

We had our usual complement of pasaengera, officers, 
tourists, and fiahermen, including our former fellow pas- 
Bengeis, the officer and bia handsome wife, witli the 
Tyrolese hat and feather, and the portly gentleman, whom 
we had also met at Christiania. The Birmingham bag- 



:i LIST outt or the bnoli^h • 



man had, somehow, not found his way out of the Honm- 
gerne mountains, or wherever he might be. 

The vessel was well ventilated, but we preferred the 
"Albion;" the " Hero" lieing full-decked from stem to 
stem, there was very little shelter, except in the smoke- 



room. 



We had a number of Norwegian emigrants, going to 
America, in the second-class cabins. 



OUE 8TEWARU. 605 

No accommodation had been provided for our donkeys. 
They were left to take their chance on deck, in a cold, 
damp night, at sea. When we went to see them, our 
Puru Rawnee looked as if she could have kicked H. Heit* 
man overboard. Captain Nicholson did what he could for 
us, when we spoke to him about them. No agent of 
common feeling would have left them thus to take their 
chance. As God is to man, so man is to animals. Kind* 
ness is required from man to those Uving creatures 
created for his use. 

We could not help liking Captain Nicholson. There 
was a manly spirit about him, and at the same time we 
saw he possessed a kindly heart. The sailors put up by 
his directions afterwards, a sort of rude tent of sails,^ 
under which our donkeys had to balance themselves, on 
the wet deck, looking exceedingly uncomfortable, and out 
of place. They had been exposed all the Friday night 
near the fore-hatchway, without the slightest shelter. 

It so happened that by good fortune John Smith was 
our steward, his wife the stewardess. They axe wonderful 
people. John Smith is slightly past the meridian of age ; 
a little bald, but active and stirring, and of such energy I 
Always on his legs. He could far surpass the most distin- 
guished, and eminent acrobat, in the way he balanced 
plates, dishes of fowl, bottles of champagne, anchovy 
sauce, wine glasses, and dozens of other things besides. 

" Coming, sir. Iced champagne, if you please ; who 
said seltzer water and brandy ? Mange tak. Eating 
sir I notlung but eating ! '' 

Impatient tourist. — " John Smith, you have not given 
me any sauce with my fish." 

" Caper, sir, or Worstershire ? Coming, captain. Oh, 



506 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

dear 1 what are they about up there ? Oh, here it is, all 
hot. That's right,'* says John Smith, balancing hot plates, 
on the tips of his fingers, as if he expected a round of 
applause from the passengers. " Here you are — ^hot 
plates^ sir. Perry for yoiL Did you say tea ? ver so 
artig. Sugar and cream — ^Tak skal de have. The year's 
over — ^bang, bang. Thank goodness, here are some 
empty bottles broken — ^I did not know what to do with 
them. How could I find a father for so many dead 
men ? Ah, pease pudding for you, sir — ^half a pound 1 
No, not for you, sir. You, sir ? Here it is on a smaller 
plate, so that you should not think it was the same. 
I wish I could change my name ; Fm tired of hearing it. 
Have you everj^hing you want, sir ? " as he looked across 
the table at us. " More bread ? here it is, sir," and the 
identical John Smith still pushed about without assist- 
ance, but every finger, was worth its weight in gold. 

On Saturday morning we came to Christiansand, and 
on going ashore received two letters from the post-office, 
paying eighteen skillings. They were both from some 
English gipsies, who expected we should be all killed 
in the war. Their ideas of geography were veiy loosa 

Our gipsies are quite hors de combat, and wretchedly 
seasick and helpless. On Sunday, our last day at sea, 
the weather was rough, wet, and excessively disagreeable. 
We were up at five o'clock. Only four passengers, and 
Captain Nicholson, appeared at breakfast when we sat 
down. 

A Mr. McG , an old veteran fishing-tackle maker, 

was never sea-sick, and particularly hardy. The Honour- 
able Mr. V , who had camped out in America, with 

his tent, and the tall owner of the Rus Vand, were 



THE LITERARY AMERICAN. 507 

amongst the passengers, who seem quite at home during 
the voyage. 

Tlie Honourable Mr. V was a fine-looking, hand- 
some fellow, who had been fishing between Christian- 
sand and Throndjem, 

Amongst other passengers we had an American gentle* 
man, and his wife, and courier. His cooriar was 
apparently Spanish, and was much interested in our 
gipsies. He expatiated on the El Capitano of the 
gipsies at Granada. The tall, intelligent American 
gentleman, and his wife, we had observed at the table- 
d'hdte at the Victoria Hotel. 

Before landing, he told several of us he was going 
to Ireland to examine for himself, and ascertain how 
it was possible so many uneducated, bigoted, quarrel- 
some, discontented, drunken people could be annually 
sent to the American shores, from any country supposed 
to be civilized, and under a good government. 

Some passenger suggested, he would see the bright 
side of society when he reached Ireland, the Irish being 
extremely kind and hospitable. 

The American passenger, said he would see the dark 
side also. He was a tall, intelligent-looking man, and 
evidently a man of observation. 

Few of the passengers escaped sea-sickness. The 
captain told our gipsies that we stood the sea exceedingly 
well ; our appetite was very good, and we were never 
unwell aU the voyage. 

Land was announced about eight o'clock. John Smith 
began lighting the saloon lamps; when they did not 
light readily, he said, "God bless the Queen and all 
the Eoyal Family ! " which fervent, and loyal ejacula- 



608 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

tion seemed to facilitate amazingly the imdertaking on 
hand. 

When the saloon was lighted up, we could enjoy the 
views on the saloon panels, of Windsor Castle, and tbe 
King of Sweden's palace at Stockholm, until John Smith 
suddenly sjdd we had twenty-five miles of river before 
landing, which apparently dulled most of the passengers' 
appreciation of the beautiful. 

Several passengers were determined to go on shore 
when they had the opportunity, at any early hour in the 
night Our donkeys were put near the engine boiler for 
warmth. The gipsies were dreadfully sea-sick, as we 
went to bed. 

We were told that some time afterwards John Smith, 
who was at any hour, night and day, here, there, and 
everywhere, had been suddenly called to the smoke-room 
on deck. Some of the passengers, possibly belonging to 
the Humane Society, had placed our donkeys in the 
smoke-room. The biscuits on the table had rapidly 
disappeared. 

Fancy John Smith m the dim light of the deserted 
smoke-room, with his head whirling round from his 
attendance on passengers, politely inquiring at the door 
what the gentlemen pleased to want. 

Getting no answer, it seems he went in to see if the 
gentlemen were hopelessly sea-sick, and some jovial 
passenger, we were told, locked him in with his strange 
companions.* 

By some means our steward was released, for he sup- 

* We have since been informed that, with the joint assistance of some 
of the passengers, he was actually lifted upon one of the donkeys, and left 
to enjoy a solitary steeplechase in the darkness of the smoking saloon. It 
is also told that on this occasion John Smith, for once in his life, lost his 



ENGLAND'S SBOBE. 509 

plied ns with tea in the early morning, when we also 
settled our expenses, for the gipsies, and ourselves, at 
£3 95. Nor did we forget John Smith's and the second 
steward's fee. 

We had another item for com, for our donkeys from 
Christiania — 3 marks 16 skillings. We are afraid our 
faithful animals had a miserable voyage. 

Our gipsies would require the donkeys before they 
reached their friends, and they ultimately found them 
somewhere in Gloucestershire. The Tamo Rye was left 
as a souvenir with the Chevalier, the only donkey we 
believe in Norway.* 

Before we left the vessel, Esmeralda discovered that her 
necklace of blue and white beads, and Norwegian coins, 
had been stolen. Captain Nicholsou, and the stewards, did 
all they could to recover it. Although not of much intrinsic 
value, it was a gipsy relic, which Esmeralda prized. We 
offered a reward, which was afterwards increased to £10, 
but without result. 

Fortunately, another similar necklace was in the pos- 
session of the family. This was given to her, and we 
supplied other Norwegian coins in the place of those 
stolen. 

As we left the Hero, and landed on England's shore, 
John Smith was still on the wing, for a thousand different 
requirements. " Coming, sir ! there is no peace for the 

temper ; but this seems so impossible, the statement most be received with 
considerable doubt. 

* Some interest may be felt in the fate of our gallant and beautifal Puru 
Bawnee. She has since died in one of the green lanes of England. She 
was in foal. Our gipsies did all they could to save her. A neighbouring 
farmer permitted the gipsies to bury her in a quiet corner of a field on hi 
fann. She is now no more. 



510 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

wicked ; I must be very wicked, I know I must" Would 
that all discharged their duty as faithfully as John 
Smith! 

Header, I gently take you by the hand. We have 
met, but in the pages of this book. Yet^ if you have 
followed us in our wanderings, we have made some 
sort of acquaintance. Perhaps we may meet again— 
perhaps not ; — farewell. 



CHAPTER XLEI. 

So farewell, 
The students' wandering life ! Sweet serenades 
Song under ladies* windows in the night, 
And all that makes vacation beautiful ! — 
To you, ye cloistered shades of Alcald, 
To yoD, ye radiant visions of romance, 
Written in books, but here snipassed by truth. 

LoiroFBLLOw's Spanish Student. 

ALLCRISO PROMISES— COMPLIMENT TO ENGLISHMEN — TRUE SKETCHES OP 
GIPSY LIFE — THE GIPSIES* ORIGIN — ^YET A MTSTERT — ESMERALDA — 
NOAH AND ZACHARIA — ^BEFORE THE CURTAIN — THE END. 

We have felt that the alluriiig promises of our fellow 
voyageurs must not be neglected. So many copies of 
this record of our wanderings already ordered. Even 
the Birmingham Bagman, of far-seeing speculative mind, 
had. ordered- two copies ; this in itself would give con- 
fidence. What became of him we do not know. We 
trust he did not see fit to follow us, and so get lost in the 
wild recesses of the Horungeme. Again, much curiosity 
has been evinced by friends, to know the incidents of our 
expedition. Only a short time since, we received the 
following letter, from a French gentleman, who, although 
he has never been in England, is a devoted student of 

* Homngenie. — In the Norwegian language ^' er," placed at the end of 
of a word, makes the plural, and the further addition of '< ne " gives the 
article "the." We have used the article "the" before Horungeme, 
though not necessary, because, to English readers, the sound is better* 



512 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

the English language. We know our friend will not be 
offended if we give the letter. There is so much genuine- 
ness of feeling about it, that the reader will not be sur- 
prised, if it added another reason to those mentioned :— 

" I learn always English, but I am a dull learner. 
I not plod on, but I work on — ^gift comes by nature. 
I am steady, and I am not cast down by unsucceasful- 
ness. 

** You are upon a journey ; doubtless you shall dimb 
up some hill covered with snow, or you shall go into 
some country which the sun dry or dries up ; or you will 
go into some old castle haunted by the ghosts, but you 
cannot light upon such buildings, amongst the Nor- 
wegians or in Australia. 

" If you relate, or you give forth, which you saw, send 
me that writing. Write a letter, is a hard work to me, 
but translate, or read, is more facil. 

" I am much pleased by reading the book you have 
presented me, I read it over. It affords illustrations of 
English character — daring, patience, energy, are the 
qualities of the Englishmen. 

"I remain, &c." 

Again, our intention has been to give some truthful 
sketches of gipsy character, divested of any imaginary 
fiction. 

Esmeralda, Noah, and Zachariah are, we believe, a fair 
average type of the true tenting gipsy. There has been 
a scrupulous avoidance of anything tending to gloss their 
faults. They are presented to the reader, rough as they 
are, surrounded with only such romantic interest as they 



YET A MYSTERY, 513 

derive from the real occurrences, incidents, and adven- 
tures, which occurred in every- day life. We did not 
leave them any the worse than we found them ; indeed, 
we trust that some influences may not be lost on their 
future. In utilising their rough gipsy energy, no attempt 
was made to struggle against the established instincts 
and traditions of their race. Past experience shows the 
inutility of all hope of much practical result in trying to 
do so. For some purpose we know not of, they have 
fulfilled, and now fulfil, a singular destiny. The facts 
before us, as given by the research of many authors, in 
various parts of Europe, leave no doubt as to the inscrut- 
able hand of Providence, in their mission upon earth. Not 
before that is accomplished, will they, like other races, be 
blotted out. 

Even to the present time, their origin is a mystery, not 
yet solved.* Their language, to which they have clung, 
as the drowning man clutches the straw, links them 
undoubtedly to a very early date, a bygone past, far 
remote in the history of men and nations. 

Esmeralda ! Oh, yes, my readers ; the Eye has had 
painful experience of the Rawnee's temper. She is now 
seventeen years of age, five feet eight inches high, and dark 
to the extreme gipsy eyes and hair. Yet she is honest, 
energetic, and kindly in disposition; which covers a 
multitude of faults, in these nomads of the world. She 
can sing, and she likes to dance. Yet she has much tact, 
control, and common sense. Few girls at Esmeralda's 



* Monsieur Bataillard, at the conclusion of his clever work, " Nouvelles 
Becherches snr TApparition et la Dispersion des Bohemiens en Europe," 
inclines to the belief, that, for the complete solution of the question of the 
origin of the gipsies, it is necessary to extend investigations to Africa. 

L L 



614 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

age would have ventured with the Rye, and her brothers, 
over the eea to a distant land. She followed them 
through all their wild wanderings.* No I Esmeralda 
has aomething of the Cleopatra blood, which is not 
quite used up. 

Well, readera, after aU, Noah ia not a bad young 
fellow, six feet high, without hia boots, about which so 



much trouble had been taken, and which cost so much. 
He is in want of a wife. In camp, and out of camp, his 
temper is excellent. Noah at times ia chaffy — Noah 
likes dancing. Noah ia honest, and Noah likes his beer, 
when camp rules, which are very stringent, permit it. 
Noah can pack and pitch tents — can you doubt it ? He 
packed our donkeys tlirough -Norway, and unceasingly 

* Nearly 2,000 miles. 



OUR FAREWELL. 515 

rockered his brother and sister, to use a mild term, 
whilst they did their abare in that interesting department, 
and failed to hit his rigid regulations to a shade. 

Well, readers, Zachariah, Mephistopheles, after all is a 
nice dark yoxcag fellow when you don't put him out of 
temper, and then — we won't say what. He can fish, 
go for vand, and light the yog.* He is honest — we 
hope he won't be hung ; at the same time our experience 



'^-'^^^#«^-^- 



sbows he cannot be drowned. If you attend our camp, 
he can play the violin. 

As we are about to make our parting adieus, do we not 
hear some call for Uncle Elijah — Ezekiel — Uncle Sam of 
Bosbury — the beaux of the village, the Reindeer hunters, 
more than all, the pretty girl of Skeaker, and our many 
peasant friends. No one answers ; where is our guide to 

• " Yog," the English gipsy word for fire j the Norwegian gipsy 
being "jag." 



51(1 TENT LIFE IN NORWAY. 

lead the way ? Ever ready, our gallant Ole Halvorsen. 
steps to the front, and for himself and them bids you all 
good-by. 

Nor shall our gipsy band be wanting at the last. 
Come, Esmeralda, Noah and Zachaiiah — quick ! Meplii- 
stopheles, to the front. Kind readers, we bid you all 
farewell. 

And now, adieu ! we must leave yon, 

To wander o'er forest and fell, 
Our blusaing for ever nttcnd you. 

And echo our parting farewell ! 



APPENDIX, 



PRCESTEN EILERT SUNDTS WORKS ON THE NORWEGIAN 

GIPSIES. 

The very important works relating to the Norwegian gipsies which 
have been compiled and published for the Norwegian Gbyernment, by 
ProBsten Eilert Sundt, are peculiarly interesting, not only as afford- 
ing the most recent and reliable information regarding this singular 
people, but from the many details and facts which are noted, as to 
their modes of life, langpiage, religion, customs, and occupations. The 
first work, ''Beretning om Pante-eUer Landstrygerfolket i Norge,' 
published in Christiania in 1850, followed by another edition, 
published, Christiania, 1852,* contain the results, and the most 
reliable information that ProDsten Sundt, then a candidate for holy 
orders, could collect during two years' patient and persevering re- 
search. During this period, he was able to obtain with tolerable 
accuracy, their probable number, and a great amount of reliable in- 
formation, relating to their habits, means of existence, and, above all, 
the prospect of inducing them to abandon their ordinary mode of life. 
Proesten Sundt had many facilities to aid him in accomplishing this 
undertaking, with the sanction and authority of the Norwegian Govern- 
ment. He had free access to all local and public records and docu- 
ments, and thus had unusual opportunities of satisfying himself, from 
time to time, and testing the truth and falsehood of the accounts given 
to him by the gipsies. Again, his clerical character was a ready pass- 
port to every village clergyman and PrcBstgaard. 

pHBsten Sundt describes the Norwegian gipsies as a race of yellowish- 
brown, black-haired people, having dark, piercing eyes, and who are 
of foreign and suspicious aspect. Wandering incessantly, up and down 
the country, they frequent the most devious and solitary roads and 
ways between Stavanger and Agershuus, and, northwards, away to 
Throndjhem and Finmark. 

* " An aocount of the Gipsies of Norway/' both editions, of 1850 and 1852, arc 
exactly the same in title, number of pages, and contents. We had not seen the first 
edition of 1860 until after page 13 of this work was printed. 



518 APPENDIX. 

Their bands vary in number, and consist of men, women, and 
children, provided, sometimes, with horses, carts, and some fev 
domestic animals, particularly pigs. They assume the most varied 
characters, and some of them are tinkers, sievemakers, horsedealen, 
and horse-doctors, and, in fact, follow many of those occnpations 
generally adopted by the gipsies of every country, as most compatible 
with a roving life. Prccsten Sundt also states that many are plunderers 
and robbers, and our own experience has clearly shown, that the 
gipsies, deservedly or otherwise, have acquired a very indifferent 
reputation in Norway.* They are clearly regarded with far less favour 
than in England, where the romantic life they lead has furnished end- 
less incidents for the novel, the draifia, and the feuilleton of the press. 
This, and their strange, wandering life, and mysterious origin, may 
account in some degree for the passing interest they at times create 
and obtains for them, here and there, par souffranee though it be, 
occasional shelter and protection. The earliest mention, according to 
ProBsten Sundt, of the gipsies in Norway, is to be found in an Ordinance 
of 1589, and he is of opinion that they did not enter by way of Den- 
mark and South Sweden, but through the north of Sweden, and Ducbj 
of Finland ; in fact, throngh North Russia. 

Another reason stated by Froesten Sundt, why the gipsies are re* 

* We have been told tb&t the Norwegian gipsy is sometimes called an "earth- 
digger." Possibly at times, in winter, they may shelter themselves in holes ss some 
of the gipsies do in Transylvania. We have only been able to ascertain one instance 
of ''gipay earth dwellings*' in England. Oar informant, now advanced ia life, 
remembers, when shooting in the winter, about the year 1818, on Finchley common, 
near London, to have eeen excavations in the common used as dwellings by gipsies. 
One kind of earth -dwelling, he remembers, was formed by sinking a deep hole, from 
the bottom of which an excavation made at right angles served the gipsies for sleeping 
purposes. Another kind of earth-dwelling he then remembers was an oblong excava- 
ti( n, at no veiy great depth, below the surface of the soil, having an arched covering 
above ground formed with branches cut from the pollard oaks near, and covered with 
turf. In a paper read before the Anthropological Society of London, by Dr. E. S. 
Chamock, F.S.A., P.R.a.S., on the 4th May, 1866, entitled **The peoples of Tnms- 
sylvania," an interesting account is given of the gipsies inhabiting that country. Dr. 
Chamock says that the gipsies of Transylvania ordinarily dwell in tents in the summer, 
and their winter habitation are holes in the earth which they excavate for the purpose. 
The holes are usually from eight to twelve feet deep. Dr. Chamock also s^rs that 
many of the gipsies have fixied habitations in Transylvania, and keep wine shops and 
public-houses. The dwelling are usually situate on the outskirts of a town or 
village. Some dwell in the suburb of the capital of V&s4rhely. A little hill outside 
the town of Klausenberg is covered with gipsy dwellings. The located gipsies are 
generally honest, and their females virtuous. Many of the located gipsies are skilled 
in music. Dr. Charnock states that the number of gipsies in Transylvania h 
variously estimated at 7^,92 J and 60,000. 



APPENDIX. 519 

garded with a mixed feeling of fear and aversion, is on account of a 
belief, of which the Norwegian peasant cannot altogether divest him- 
self, that the foreign-looking "Fanter" has power to bewitch both 
man and beast. 

They invest these wanderers with supernatural powers, a power 
which has occasionallj been attributed to wme of the peacefid Lap- 
landers, who dwell in Norwegian Finmark ; for Laing sajs, in his 
work on Norway, page 411, when referring to the Laplanders, " The 
idea of witchcraft is not entirely worn out ; and the bonder have many 
tales of the supernatural powers of the old fjelde women.'' 

Originally, these wanderers were all of pure gipsy blood; but in 
recent times they have gradually become, in many instances, mixed 
with a section of the Norwegian population, vagrant outcasts or 
'* Bkoiem," a class which they woidd at one time have refused all 
intercourse with ; and the result is, the occasional mixture of fair- 
h^red children. 

The blending of such a strain of Norwegian blood would not improve, 
but rather have a deteriorating effect. This has not happened to the 
same extent in England, where the admixture has often been from 
those of the better class of the English population, to the proportionate 
advantage of the gipsy tribe. 

Yet, even in England, there is a feeling among gipsies, once still 
stronger than it is, against mixed marriages, and ono of their own 
people is generally preferred to the gorgios. 

Since the beginning of the present century, Norwegian laws relating 
to gipsies have been made much less stringent, and therefore more 
easily enforced. The regulations, also, with regard to all persons being 
required, at a certain age, to know how to read and write, and to be 
confirmed, has consigned many gipsies to prison, until they were suffi- 
ciently instructed, as ^lentioned at page 301 of this work. 

From inquiries made by Proesten Sundt, it appears that gipsies who 
remember " the good old times," deeply lament their admixture with 
other blood, and formerly, according to their accounts, a gipsy woman 
who had consorted with a fair-skinned man, became " food for fir« ;" 
that is, she was tied to a stake, and burnt. In the case of male 
offenders, the old gipsy law was less severe ; for they were expelled 
the tribe. His doom — "fallen i brodt" — was pronounced, and he 
became an outcast for ever. 

It would appear that Froesten Sundt's efforts to reclaim the Nor- 
wegian gipsies mot with little success, and he found much which led 
him to fear, that it is very improbable they will ever adopt the habits 
of civilised life. An irrepressible desire to wander seems natural to 



520 APPENDIX, 

the race ; and even their children, adopted and well-treated hy flunners 
and clergymen of the country, generally run away to the woods, in 
search of their relatives, as soon as they are able. From the accoants 
given by ProBsten Sundt, it would seem that the Norwegian gipdee 
are much lower in morality than the gipsies of some other countries. 
It is a mere chance if they arebapti2ed ; they seldom, if ever, finequent 
church ; an impenetrable mystery surrounds the death of their aged 
people. No Norwegian pastor has ever been present at the burial of a 
gipsy, unless, indeed, we except such as may have died in prison. 
Though Prcesten Sundt carefully questioned the gravediggers of the 
parishes wherever he went, one alone was able to remember that he 
had once dng a grave for a gipsy.* 

Nothing being known as to what becomes of their dead, it is not 
singular that the Norwegian people believe that the gipsies kill their 
aged parents and relatives, to save themselves the trouble of taking care 
of them. This conclusion is quite contrary to our own experience of 
the English gipsies, who exhibit great affection towards their aged 



* Oar enquries incline ns to believe that in England gipsies nsoallj seek the bap- 
tismal rite for their children, and that their dead are generally buried in consecrated 
ground. On some occasions the attendance at a funeral has been large, and a tomb 
or grave-stone erected to the memory of the gipsy who sometimes was said to be a 
gipsy king, as, for instance, James Boswell, buried at Bossington, near Doncaster, 
1708-9 ; also the instance of a gipsy said to be a gipsy king mentioned in " Notes and 
Queries" as haying been, buried at West Winch, Norfolk. In the " Gentleman's 
Magazine " mention is made of Henry Boswell, said to be a gipsy king, who died in 
affluent circumstances, and was buried in 1687, at the parish of Wittering. We are 
also informed that a grave-stone marks the grave of a gipsy in the chnrchyud of 
Winchcombe, Gloucestershire. In the churchyard of Calne, Wiltshire, a handsome 
tomb was erected. to the memory of Inverto Boswell, said to have been the son of a 
gipsy king, who was buried there, 1774. In '* Notes and Queries," series 4, vol. 4, 
page 206, it is stated that a grave-stone erected on the grave of a gipsy buried in the 
churchyard of Coggeshall, Bssez, has the following inscription : — 

"In 
Memory of 
Cassbllo Chiloott, 
Who died in this Parish, 
Sept. 29, 1842, 
Aged 28 Years. 
Caasello Chilcott truly was my name, 
I never brought my friends to grief or shame ; 
Yet I have left them to lament. But why 
lAment for death ? 'Tis gain in Christ to die ! " 

We could cite many other instances, if space permitted ; and wo believe that the non- 
burial of their dead in consecrated ground in England has occurred only under very 
exceptional circumstances. 



APPENDIX. 521 

people, many of whom have Burvived to great ages, receiying to the 
last oonstant care and attention.* 

Froesten Sundt says the gipsies vehemently deny that they kill their 
old people, hut state that, in former days, the aged people killed them- 
selves, and that even yet, weak folk end their days as their fathers did. 

It may he imagined hy some, that the gipsies may have heen of the 
same race as the nomadic Laplanders, hut it is conclusively shown 
that the Norwegian " Tatare" or "Fantefolket" are not in any way 
belonging, either in blood, or in language, to the Laplander of Fin- 
mark. With regard to language, it is entirely different, and we havo 
extracted from Frcesten Sundt's work, published in 1852, some words 
of comparison between the Norwegian gipsy and the Norwegian Lap, 
having added the synonymous English, English gipsy, Hindee, and 
Sanscrit words. 

* GKpsies have occasionally attained to a veiy advanced period of life. Margaret 
Finch, who, during the greater part of her life, wandered oyer England, at length 
settled at Norwood, and died at the age of 109. Her fame as a fortune-teller brought 
many TisitorB to her camp to consult her, and she had the title of queen of the gipsies. 
She waa buried at the parish of Beckenham, in Kent, on the 24 Oct., 1740. Her 
funeral was said to be attended Ky two mourning coaches, a funeral sermon was 
preached on the occasion, and a great concourse of people attended her funeral. It is 
stated in " Dugdale's England and Wales," that, from the habit of sitting on the 
ground with ber chin resting on her knees, her sinews at length became so contracted, 
she could not rise from that posture, and after her death they were obliged to enclose 
her body in A deep square box. At an inn called the ** Qijtsy House," at Norwood, 
her picture adorned the sign-post. Another instance is that of "Liddy the Gipsy," 
who not many years since wandered through Radnorshire and the adjoining counties. 
She is said to baye danced at a wedding at the age of 100. Towards the close of her 
life, she trayelled with a knife-grinder, sleeping at the towns on her route. She was 
of actiye, restless, blithesome temperament, and ?ras lost in a snow drift whilst crossing 
through Radnor Forest, at the age, it was said, of 104. We afterwards questioned 
one of her people, and he said she was only 102. 



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APPENDIX. 523 

Prom ibis comparison of words, it appears that the Bomany has no 
resemblance or affinity to the Lap ; whilst the similarity of the-Nor- 
wegian Tater, or gipsy language, to that spoken by the gipsies of all 
the countries of which examples are given, leaves no doubt that they 
speak one language, peculiar to themselves* 

The Norwegian gipsies are mentioned as a warlike race, travelling 
with weapons, especially knives, and a dangerous weapon, called 
''Tjukei." This weapon, used by the Norwegian gipsies, is most 
commonly made of Bamboo cane, and is about the length of a walking 
stick, being covered with hide or leather. The middle of it, where it 
is held, is covered with brass, and both ends of the *' tjukei " are 
heavily loaded with lead. It is formidable, and a blow from it is often 
most dangerous. The Norwegian gipsies use this weapon with much 
skill, twirling it round in their hand with wonderful rapidity, passing 
it dexterously from one hand to the other, in an almost imperceptible 
manner, a feat which enables them to continue the combat after an arm 
is disabled, and also to attack their opponent where it is least expected. 
The ** tjukei '' seems to be used in similar manner to the Irish shillaly, 
with which an Irishman is so expert. 

As the Tinklers, or Scottish gipsies, the Norwegian gipsies seem to 
have had their feuds and disagreements, ending in severe fighting and 
bloodshed. Their animosity and feelings of revenge were doubly 
dangerous, from the uncontrolled and strong impulses of their nature, 
the fuU extent of which can scarcely be comprehended by a kairengro, 
or housedweller. Even in England, curious instances of wild revenge 
have occasionally occurred, resulting in the death of one party. On 
the occasion of such contentions in Norway, the women often join in 
the fray, and an instance of the ferocity of the gipsy women is given by 
Prsesten Sundt, as occurring at TJUensaker, some time since, at a fight 
which took place between two strong bands of Norwegian gipsies, 
which was long remembered in the district. Two of the gipsy women 
there fought with such violence and determination, that at last they 
stood face to face, without a shred of clothes left for their comfort and 
convenience. 

This hostile encounter of Norwegian Tatare is similar to some of the 
gipsy contests mentioned by Simpson as occurring occasionally between 
bands of Scotch gipsies. One fight occurred at Eommano, on the 1st 
October, 1677, between two gipsy clans — the Fawes and the Shawes — 
about some spoil, after Haddington fair, when old Sandie Fawe and 
his wife were both killed, and George Fawe dangerously wounded. 
In the February following, old Robin Shawe and his three sons were 
hung for killing Sandie Fawe and his wife. Dr. Pennecuik erected 



524 APPENDIX. 

on the spot a dove-cote to commemorate the battle, with the following 
inscription: — 

A.D. 1683. 
The field of GHpsie blood which here joa see, 
A shelter for the harmless dove shall be. 

Another fierce contest is described as having occurred in the spring 
of the year 1772 or 1773, the battle originating from the encroach- 
ments of one tribe on the district assigned to another, the fertile sooioe 
of many gipsy quarrels. 

This battle happened near Hawick, and, according to Simpson, the 
celebrated Alexander Kennedy, a handsome, athletic man, at the head 
of his tribe, with litUe Wull Euthven, the father-in-law of Kennedy, 
and commonly known over the country as the Earl of Hell, and 
Muckle Wull Euthven, a man of uncommon stature and personal 
strength, with Kennedy's wife, Jean Euthven, and a great number of 
inferior members of the clan, males and females, including children, 
were opposed to old Eobert Tait, chieftain of his horde, whose forces 
consisted of Jacob Tait, young Eobert Tait, three of Tait's sons-in-lair, 
Jean Gordon, old Tait*s wife, and a train of youths of both sexes, of 
various ages, composing his family adherents. The whole of the 
gipsies were armed with cudgels, except some of the Taits, who carried 
cutlasses, and pieces of iron hoop, notched and serrated, and fixed at 
the end of sticks. 

This fray appears to have been prolonged with desperate determina- 
tion, both parties observing silence, and nothing being heard but the 
heavy rattle of their sticks, till at last the Earl, who had retired to get 
his wounds dressed, seeing his daughter, Kennedy's wife, dreadfully 
wounded, lost heart, and, with the rest of his party, fled, leaving 
Kennedy alone, with the infuriated Taits striking at him on all sides. 
Kennedy, who handled his cudgel with extraordinary dexterity, judi- 
ciously retreated to the narrow bridge of Hawick, where he was 
severely pressed by the Taits, and there is little doubt they would have 
killed him, but for his advantageous position. With one powerful 
sweep of his cudgel, he disarmed two of the Taits, and felled another to 
the ground. Kennedy's determined stand, single-handed, without a 
follower left, against all the Taits, excited a warm interest and sym- 
pathy in his favour among the inhabitants of the town, who had 
witnessed the conflict with amazement and horror. When Kennedy 
broke a cudgel on his enemies with his powerful arm, they handed 
him another, till at length a party of constables arrived to his relief, 
and apprehended the Taits ; but as none of the gipsies were actually 



APPENDIX. 525 

slain, the Taits were afterwards set at liberty; In this battle, it was 
Baid that every gipsy, except Alexander Kennedy, the brave chief, was 
severely wounded. Simpson remarks, that what astonished the in< 
habitants, was the fierce and stubborn disposition of the gipsy females, 
who, when they were knocked down senseless to the gpx>und, rose again 
with redoubled vigour and energy for the fight. This conflict was 
called by the English gipsies, the " Battle of the Bridge." 

Many other instances could be given with regard to gipsy contests ; 
but enough is before the reader to show that the wild, lawless life of 
the Norwegian gipsies was formerly equalled by those of Great Britain, 
especially in Scotland, where they often carried arms, and in some 
instances, their bands were attached to some noble house, from whom 
they derived occasionally protection. It is a peculiar feature of their 
history, that in almost every country through which they wandered, 
Ihey have at times drawn upon themselves the strongest hostility of 
the administrators of the law, and very often a policy of extermination ; 
yet they have still managed to survive, as a distinct people, still 
clinging to many of their hereditary usages and nomadic habits with 
singular tenacity. 

Proesten Sundt observes, that it is strange, living, as they do, in 
small detached bands, they should still retain so many usages, tradi- 
tions, and habits in common. The true reason he conceives to be, that 
their meetings are more frequent than we could suppose possible. 

On the authority of an old gipsy, he states that when a band comes 
to cross roads, they are accustomed to place on the right-hand side of 
the one they are following, some small twigs o{ fir, upon which they 
lay a small stone, in order that the wind may not displace them. Any 
one passing who does not know the meaning of the sign, either does 
not attach any importance to it, or, at most, thinks that a child has 
been there at play. The object of the sign is to show to another band 
where they may meet with their own people ; and it is always of gieat 
service to such good " Komany " as may require food and shelter, to 
be able thus to distinguish the route by the sign called the " patron," 
placed at intervals on some gipsy trail. 

In the winter, the Norwegian gipsies use another sign, which they 
make in the snow with their whips. The sign is called by them 
« faano," and resembles a sack with the mouth closed. 

These two signs are very useM when two bands agree to travel 
in company; for, in order to avoid attracting attention, they are 
obliged to have always at least one day's journey between the two 
parties; and it is by the aid of these signs, they are able to follow 
each other with ease. At times, too, messengers pass between the 



526 APPENDIX, 

bands, to give tiinelj warning should the authorities be in puisnit of 
them. 

PFoesten Sundt cautiouslj hesitated to believe this, as well as much 
which the gipsies told him ; but the authority of Borrow upon this sab- 
ject, and from the practical and certain information we ourselves have 
gained, as to the use of " patrins," leave no reason to doubt the truth 
of the account given bj the Norwegian gipsy. 

In August, 1855, a royal proclamation, in reference to further eflforts to 
be made to control and reclaim, if possible, all Norwegian and Swedish 
gipsies, gave additional evidence of the interest with which they were re- 
garded by the authorities, and a large sum of money having been voted 
by the '* Storthing,'' Prcesten Sundt was enabled to publish his work, 
"Forsat Beretning om Fantefolket." Christiania: 1859.* In this 
work the author gives most minute particulars concerning the succeBs 
of his efforts, and quotes the cases of upwards of four hundred indi- 
viduals, who had been maintained at the charge of the State, during the 
years 1855-9, at a comparatively trifling expense. The children had 
also, in most cases, been placed with peasant families. Proesten Sundt 
gives a vivid picture of the vicissitudes in life of the gipsies, who, 
however, cannot be said to be neglected by the authorities. In 1862, 
Prcesten Sundt issued a small volume, entitled "Anden Aars Beret- 
ning om Fantefolket," which contains many interesting and additional 
particulars relative to the Norwegian gipsies. This was followed by 
a Special Report of 56 pages, issued in 1863, and a small volume of 
1 13 pages, published in 1865, both relating to the Norwegian gipsies. 

* This govenunent proclamation is noticed hy the Rev. Frederick Medcalfe in 
" The Oxonian in Thelemarken," vol. 1, page 160, who says — *' I make a point in 
all these spots of examining any printed notice that I may come across as being likely 
to throw light on the country and its institutions. Here, for instance, is a gorem- 
ment ordinance of 1855 about the Fantefolk, otherwise Tatare or gipsies. From Has 
I learn that some fifteen hundred of these Bedouins are moving about the kingdom, 
with children, who, like themselves, have never had Christian baptism or Christian 
instruction. They are herewith invited to settle down, and the government promises 
to afford them help for this purpose ; otherwise, they will still be called 'gipsies,' 
and be persecuted in various ways." 



APPENDIX. 



527 



II. 

Tabulates Compa&isok of the Norwegian gipsy (Tatersprog), and the 
English gipsy (Romanes), showing the similarity of many words 
in the two languages, notwithstanding the early separation of this 
people, in detached hordes, in two distinct kingdoms. 



PBCESTEN SUWDT'fl 






NORWKIJIAM 


Eholish Gipst. 


EWOLIBH. 


Gipsy. 






Aya 


Av, Aval, Avellin 


To como, coming 


Bol 


Bal 


Hair 


Balo 


Balo 


{ Pig, swine 

( Balo Shero, pig's head 


Baliyas 


Balivas 


Bacon 


Bar 


Bar 


Stone 


Baro 


Boro 


Great, fine 


Barvalo 


Barvalo 


Wealth, much 


Basscha 


Bosch 

• 


( Fiddle, to play 

\ Boshamengro, a fiddler 


Beng 


Beng 


The devil 


Berro 


Bairo 


Boat 


Beescha 


Besh, Beschellay 


To sit, sitting 


Bittaa 


Bitty, Bitta 


Tiittle 


But 


( But, Bootsee, ) 
\ Kissy, Kooseo, ) 


Much 


Dad 


Dad 


Father 


Deia 


Daya, Day 


Mother 


Devel 


Dovel, Duvel 


God 


Diklo 


Dicklo 


Handkerchief 


Diyes 


Divus 


{ The day 

( Guahly divuB, good day 


DoBchta 


Doosta 


Enough 


Drabb 


Drabengro 


Doctor (one who dispenses 
medicine; 


Dromin 


Drom 


Boad, way 


Dummo 


Dummo 


( The back ; Dumo, Turkish 
( gipsy for back. 


Dur 


Dur 


Long 


Doi 


Doi 


There 


Ful 


FuU 


Dirt 


Gav 


Gav 


(ViUage 

( Boro gav, town 


Giv 


Giv 


1 Com 

i Givengro, farmer 


Grasni 


Grasny 


( Mare 

( Grashnia (Basque Romany) 



52s 



APPENDIX 



Gtr»T. 



Grai 

Gumi 

Ja 

JiU 

Juklo 

Kaa 

Ket 



Guvr. 



KVCUML 



Kil 

Kokkm 

Kokkero 

KoUiTa 

Kalo 

Lfl 
Lon 

LOTO 

Ma 
Kaio 

Mas 

Moi 

Matejo 

Mommali 
More 
Mulo 
Masai 

Nak 
Nav 

Fab 

Pani 
Farikka 

Patron 

Pi 

Piro 

Pin 

For 

Pral 

Pupo 

Poena 

Bakra 

Bakli 
Bankano 



Grei, grye 
Gtuny 
Jee, jaw, gd 
Gilee, girdee 
Jukel, Joklo 



Kei 



; Kil 

I 5 Hokerpen ) 

I )Hoki^>eii { 

Kokero 

OlliTawB 

Calo 

Lfl 
Lon 

LoTO 

Maw 
Moro 

Maas 

Monee 

Matcho, Matchee 

Momlee 

Mooah 

Moolo 

Moschee 

Nok 

Nay 

Fob 

Panee 
Parik 

Patrin 

Pi 

Peeio 

Pin 

For 

Pal 
(Puro \ 

\ Puni (feminine) j 

Pen 

Bocker 

Backly 

Bye 



1 



I 



Hone 

Cow 

Togo 

Song 

Dog 

Hay 

Here 

iHonae 
Eairengro, lioase-dweUer 
Batter 

A lie, £Edaeliood 

Self 

Stockings 

Black 

Letter, a writing ; chinomen- 
gree also nsS in English 
gipay for letter 

Salt 

Money 

Not 

Bread 
(Meat 
( Moolo mas, canion 

Mouth 
(Fish 
( Macho (Basque Bomany) 

Candle 

Man 

Dead 

The ann 

Nose 

Name 
( Apples 
( Fobengxee, cider 

Water 

To thank 

! Leaf-signal 
Patrin(Turki8h Bomany] loaf 

To drink 

The foot 

Pot or kettle 

Feather 

Brother 
(Old 
( Phuro (Turkish Bomany) 

Sister 

To talk 

Girl 

Gentleman 



APPENDIX. 



520 



Propstbn Sctndt'b 






NORWKQIAH 


Ehglibh Oifbt. 


EVOUSH. 


GIP8T. 






Bani 


Eawnee 


• 

Tiady 


Basscho 


Eashei 


Priest 


Eat 


Eat 


Blood 


Eatti 


Eatti 


Night 


Eup 


Eup 
ShilliDo 


Silver 


Schelano 


Gold 


Schero 


Schero 


Head 


Sira 


Siv 


To BOW 


Sonnelut 


Soonakey 


Gold 


Rtadi 


Stardy 


Hat 


Brnnmin 


Simmin 


Soup 


Tatto 


Tatto 


Warm 


ajavo 


Charo 


A child 


^amma 


Kei 


A girl 


Chiima 


A kiss 


Trash 


Trash 


Fear 


Tud 


Tud 


Milk 
( The hand 


Yascht 


Yastee, Ya«t, Yastro 


< Basta (Basque Eomany) 
( Yast (Turkish Eomany) 


Voflch 


Yesh 


Wood, forest 



The foregoing comparison of the gipsy language (Eomanes), as 
sppken hy the Norwegian and English gipsies, will prohahly he suffi- 
cient to satisfy our reader that hoth languages are the same. 

Long as their separation has heen, from whatever portion of the 
world they came, the Norwegian and English gipsies are evidently one 
and the same people. 

The circumstances and causes which have separated and scattered 
this singular people in detached hordes, to he wanderers in the midst of 
civilisation, at present remains an impenetrahle mystery. 



III. 

Thb following tahle of comparison of Eomany numerals, which we 
have arranged, may he interesting. The English gipsy numerals are 
completed to ten, partly from Bryant's collection of English gipsy 
words, published in the "Annual Eegister*' of 1785. We do not 
know any instance of an English author, since that date, obtaining 
from the English gipsies, Eomany numerals so high as ten. Hoyland, 

M M 



530 APPENDIX, 

in his work; published in 1818, gives a list from Grellmann, whose 
work was translated into English by Eaper, in 1785. Hoyland also 
gives some examples from Bryant, but only yerifiea, firom his own 
research, the gipsy numerals up to five, and the numeral ten. Crabb, 
the gipsies' Mend, who published a work in 1818, g^vee examples of 
gipsy numerals from Grellmann, Hoyland, and Captain Bichaidson. No 
other succeeding authors appear to have been able to make up their list 
of English gipsy numerals to ten, without having recourse to Bryant or 
Grellmann. Simpson, who has written an interesting work upon the 
Scotch gipsies, a work evidently the result of much patient research, 
gives the Scotch gipsy numerals as far as ten ; but, after six, the re- 
maining numbers given have evidently no affinity to the Bomsny 
language. Either the gipsies, not knowing the numerals to ten, gave 
him wrong words, or he mistook the Bound. Although many words of 
the language may have been gradually lost, we can only wonder how 
they have managed to preserve, through all their wanderings, hard- 
ships, and difficulties, this link, frtigmental though it be, to an early 
past, in some long-forgotten land, whence they originally came. 






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632 APPENDIX. 



IV. 

THE NORWEGIAN POET'S MORTGAGE 

OB 

PANTEBREV. 

Eg er, Bom vel Da veit, ein Fjellets Mann, 
og derfor dreg til Fjells, so tidt eg kan, 
at firiaka meg paa Fly og bratte Bryn, 
og Bjaa ikring meg alle store Syn. 

Men efter som eg meir paa Alder steig, 
og Foten mindre lett frametter seig, 
so laut eg soleids sveiva meg og snu, 
at eg i Jotunheimen fekk ei Bud, 
der eg ein MaaDads Tid kan liya vel 
og styrkja millom Fjellom Skrott og SjeL 

Eg plassen valde, etter Syn paa mange 
vcd Bygdins vestre Ende paa ein Tange. 
Fraa logne Heim, der ser Du Tinder vaja, 
og Sletmarkho, som likjest Himalaya. 
Med kvite Lokkar stend ho som i Tankar 
so nett som hsegsta Tinden Gaurisankar. 

Eg tri fekk med meg til det Byggjeverk, 
men endaa er min Pong so litet sterk 
at ikke eg, som er ein afsett £ar, 
kan loysa in min Fart i denne Gard. 
Fem Daler hadd' eg, so var Pungen torn, 
og fem og tjuge er den heile Sum. 
Men dette vantad Tjug til Samskotslag, 
det fekk af £onsul Heftye eg idag. 
For dette og den gode VHjen sin 
eg gev'n Pant i denne Garden min. 



APPENDIX. 533 

So, om eg doyr, hel dreg af Landet ut, 
80 eig i Garden han den fjorde Lut, 
imot at han fern Daler legger af 
til deim, Bom paa mit Ba kan hava Krav 
foratan Alt, som etter Svart paa Evitt, 
paa Garden kostad verdt i Navnet mitt, 
i Fall han ikkje vil, som hender tidt, 
til Andre selja dette pantet sit, 
og draga pantegummeu derifraa 
hjaa deim, som Garden etter Auktion faa, 
Til krert eit Nytaar fcer han Benta plent, 
i Eongens Mjmt med Eetten fem procent. 

Og BO han hev for Gud og Betten sin 

der fjrrBte Pant i Eidsbu Garden min 

som vel er ny, men derfor god som gyld, 

og faer nok Numer og Matrikulskyld, 

og 80 i Thingets Bok eit Berskilt Hum 

paa lange, Btore mugne FoUam. 

Og Baa Bom Yitne Btend her, daa til SvarB 

YoldmeBter Thjome, Archiraren Sars, 

Bom eiga Garden etter Lod og Linje 

isaman med med meg — Aabmuitd Olsen Yxnoe.* 

ChriBtiania, 28de November, 1868. 

Til VitterUghed : 
H. J. Thjoms. E. Sarb. 

Laest, extraheret, og protokolleret ved Maanedsthinget for Yang og 
Slidre Thinglag den 16de December, 1868. Det bemcerkoB at Debitor 
ei erfares at have thinglsest Hjemmel paa Pantet, ligesom det ei kan 
crfares at Ysere skydsat eller at henhore nnder noget Bmg, hvorfor 
naervserende Dokmnent er bleven extraheret paa Yangs Sameies 
Folium. 

For Thingl og Anm, 60 — sexti skill. 

Enoelschjov. 



* The poet's right name is AAsmand Ola&en Yinge. The poet has signed 
** Olsen " instead of " Olaisen," probably because the name would not scan otherwise 
in the last line. The poet is said to have been bom, 6 April, 1818, b a poor cottage 
(hnnsmands plads) in the parish of Yinge Thelemarken. 

In his early yonth his library consisted of his Bible, some of HoIberg*s works, and 
A few religious books. Most of his early days were spent in tending goats and cattle 



531 APPENDIX. 

in the woods, where he received those strong impressions of the wonders of natare and 
the beauties of moantain scenery which formed the poet of after-yeare. When he was 
grown np, he received snfficient instruction to become a teacher at Mandal, where he 
studied navigation and commerce. 

At a comparatively hite period of life, in 1850, when he was 32 years of age, he 
entered as a student of the university of Christiania, and, taking his degree in lav, 
commenced practice as a solicitor. 

The poet, as might be expected, was little suited to Ihe practical requirementi of 
the profession, and his peculiar views placed him in antagonism with the state of 
literature, religion, and politics of the time. The Danish book-language spoken by 
the educated classes, and now used as the language of literature, did not please him ; 
and he strenuously advocated a return to the old Norsk or Icelandic language. Through 
the interest of friends, Yinge had obtained an appointment in a government office, 
which gave him the absolute necessities of life ; but this he lost in consequence of his 
persistent attacks upon the unity of Norway and Sweden under one king, forgetting 
that the union of the two countries gives them an additional element of power in the 
north. 

In 1858 Yinge published a weekly periodical, the " Dolen,** which, with oocasioDal 
interruptions, he continued for eight years, contributing articles on various subjects, 
almost entirely written in the ancient Norsk. In this periodical most of his poetry 
was first published. 

As a poet, he is said to excel more particularly in idylls ; and as a prose author, by 
his genial humour. During a residence in ScotUuid and England in 1862 and 1863, 
he wrote in Bnglish *' A Noneman's Yiew of Britain and the British," published 1863. 
With much originality of thought, it is encumbered with false conclusions and extreme 
views. The work consists of a series of sixteen letters, and is most interesting as an 
analysis of the poet*s mind, who might have cast his fate on more peaceful waters. 
They are in striking contrast with " De TAvenir politique de I'Angleterre (England's 
political future) par le Comte de Montalembert,** published 1856. Tet, withal, there 
is a freshness in the northern poet*s views. They are the real emanations of real and 
earnest thought, and so command respect, attention, and consideration. Of the society 
of England, we are sorry to say, Yinge took a desponding view, forgetting, as the lofty 
mind of Milton speaks^ 

** Orders and degrees jar not with liberty. 
But well consist.*' — 

In his letters on England, Yinge, in order to give a melancholy illustration of the 
state of society, alludes to the true but romantic marriage of the Lord Buighley, who, 
staying at a country village in Shropshire as a landscape painter, under the sasumed 
name of Jones, married, in 1791, being then about the age of 37, a country maiden 
named Sarah Hoggins. After their marriage, Lord Bnrghley becomes Marquess of 
Exeter in 1793, and takes his wife, to her surprise, to his magnificent mansiott of 
Burghley House, near Stamford Town, where she afterwards dies in 1797. The 
incident is described in one of the most beautiful poems Tennyson has ever written. 
Yinge, whilst he admires the poem, sees much to deplore in the fact that such a state 
of socieV should exist, in which a village maid, when she married a nobleman, shoolU 
feel oppressed, to use the words of Tennyson, 

" With the burthen of an honour 
Unto which she was not bom. ** 

Yinge forgets that the viUage maiden may have done worse in her own position of 
life. It was quite within the range of possibility for her to have a husband, who, 



APPENDIX. 635 

when occasionally inebriated, might Bometimes give her a good beating, or indulge in 
language not suited to the poetry of Yinge. The poet also overlooks the fact that 
Lord Burghley gave an honourable love to the village maid. He did not deceive her, 
but} as Tennyson beautifully describes — 

' ' An* a gentle consort made he ; 
And her gentle mind was such, 
That she grew a noble lady, 
And the people loved her mudi. 

Nor did the Lord Burghley forget the maiden's relatives and friends ; but made a 
most ample provision for them. One feels some pride that in England a respectable 
village girl, whose countenance is said to have expressed sensibility, purity, and 
happiness, should have had that respect due to her change of rank, and be received 
at conrti where her quiet, unassuming manners are said to have been much admired 
by her Majesty Queen Charlotte. ** But," says Yinge, "she was not bom to honour. 
There is the deep cause of all the mischief, and it is no burlesque ; on the contrary, 
it is very pathetic." 

Still we do not see any reason for the poet^s complaint ; and though the Lady of 
Burs^ey died early, the Marquess did not long survive her, for he died in 1804, and 
society oonld not have had anything to do with his death. The present Muquess and 
Earl of Exeter is their grandson. In allusion to the death of the Lady of Burghley, 
the poet laureate concludes : — 

*' So she droop'd and droop'd before him. 
Fading slowly by his side ; 
Three fair children first she bore him. 
Then before her time she died. 

Weeping, weeping late and early. 

Walking up and p^ing down, 
Deeply mourned the Lord of Burghley, 

Burghley House by Stamford Town. 

And he came to look upon her, 

And he looked at her and said^ 
' Bring the drees, and put it on her. 

That she wore when she was wed.* 

Then the people, softly treading^ 

Bore to earth her body, drest 
In the dress that she was wed in, 

That her spirit might have rest." 

Yinge has also published a collection of poems, sketches of travels, scraps of poetry 
and prose, and a long epic poem called " Store Gut*' (the big boy). Isstly he pub- 
lished " Yaar Politik ** and ** Om Professor Schweigaard." The last named work he 
had just published when he died, 80 July, 1870. Yinge was one of those visionary 
poets who would take society up by the roots and plant it branches downwards, 
expecting it to thrive and flourish. It seldom answers in nature ; but then poets 
cannot be judged by the standard of ordinary men. Shelley and Yinge were of such. 
His life was an unbroken struggle. He was a highly intellectual and mo^t interesting 
man. In Gran churchyard, Hadeland, rest the remains of Aasmund Olafsen Yinge. 



356 APPENDIX. 



TRANSLATION OF THE NORWEGIAN POErS 
MORTGAGE, OR PANTEBREV. 



THE MOETOAOE. 



I AX, as well you know, a man of the mountainBy 
And therefore go to the Fjelda as ofb as I can. 
To freshen myself on craig or broad hillside^ 
And look around to see as flu as I can. 

But as I find Fm getting on in years, 
And that I am not so fleet of foot as I was, 
I lie and bask in the sun, and think 
That I should like a hut in Jotunheim,* 
Where I could live well for a month's space. 
And strengthen body and soul among the fjelds. 

I chose the spot, after looking at many, 

With the we^t end of the hut upon a tongue of land. 

From the little hut you see the peaks so lofty. 

And Sletmarkho, so much like Himalaya. 

Bareheaded, thus I stood in contemplation. 

On mighty GFaurisankar's highest peak. 

I took three with me for this building work ; 
But then my purse is so extremely light, 
That I, who am but an humble feUow, 
Cannot pay my share in this property. 
I had five dollars — so light was my purse. 
And flre-and-twenty was the sum required. 
But this much wanted, twenty in the total, 
I got to-day from Mr. Consul Heftye. 
For this, and for his kind goodwill, 
I give a mortgage on this house of mine. 
So, if I die, or if I leaye the land. 
He shall possess the fourth part of the house 
On paying down fire dollars to the man 

* Home of the giants. 



APPENDIX. 537 

Wlio may have any claim upon my hut, 
Excepting all that, as the receipt does show, 
Was spent npon the house in my own name, 
In case he will not, as ofttimes occurs, 
Sell this, his mortgage, to another man. 
Deducting the amount of the mortgage fix)m 
That which the house will fetch when sold by 
Auction. With each new year he interest shall 
Beceive, in Royal coin, at legal five per cent. 

And thus, before Ood and the law, he has 
The first mortgage on this isthmus house of mine, 
Which is quite new, and, therefore, good as gold. 
And shall have number and matriculation, 
And have a space allotted in the books of the 
Court, in their great big, musty folios. 
As witnesses appear the Dike inspector, 
Thjome, and the Keeper of the Archives, Sars, 
Who own a share and portion in the house, 
Together with myself — ^Aasmund Olsex Yinge. 

Ghiistiania, 28th November, 1868. 

Witnesses: 
H. J. Thjomb. E. Sabs. 

Bead, extracted, and protocolled at the Monthly Court for the dis- 
trict of Yang and Slidre, the 16th December, 1868. 

It is observed, that the debtor is not aware of having produced any 
proof of the mortgage ; neither can it be ascertained that it has been 
taxed, or that it belongs to any custom, for which reason this docu- 
ment was extracted on the folio for joint ownership for Yang. 

Por production and entry, 60 — sixty skil. 

Ekoelschjon. 



538 APPENDIX. 



V. 

We have thought it well to insert m the Appendix, the following 
notice from J. P. Laurent's " li^et i Felten/'* relative to Mr. Sennett, 
80 well known to almost every tourist and sportsman who has visited 
Christiania during the last twenty years ; and to those of our readers 
who have chanced to linger in the quaint old rooms at 17, Store Stnmd- 
gade, mentioned at page 52 of this work, the notice may probably hare 
an additional interest. 

*' Til min store Sorg erfoer jeg her, at vor Engelskmand under mit 
Ophold i Eolding havde forladt Korpset og var dragen til Norge, som 
hau pludselig havde faaet Lyst til at see. Da jeg anseer det meget 
uvist, oro han atter faaer L3rst til at vende tilbage hertLL, ved Udgangen 
af Yaabenstilstanden, og om han oTerhovedet nogenainde kommer 
tilbage til Danmark, baaber jeg ikke, at jeg begaaer en Indiakretions- 
fejl ved at navngive dette Menneske, der med saamegen Interesse per- 
sonlig hai fulgt Tor Sag i over et halvt Aar. Da han paa XJdrejsen 
bad Obersten om et maatte folge Korpset som eiyil Ledsager, natur- 
b'gviis uden at staae i nogetsomhelst Forpligtelsesforhold til Xorpset, 
tilbod han sig at assistere Loegeme, og, efterat han var bleven Alminde- 
lig kjendt, kaldte Karlene ham ' den Engelske Doktor.' Han hed T. 
Bennett og Kaldte sig for Spog : Voluntary assistant to the medical 
officers of the Danish army. Inden han forlod Korpset var han afholdt 
af Alle paa Grund af sin godmodige Gharacteer og utrsBttelige Tjens- 
tvillighed imod Alle. Ved Eetiraden fra Norre Maestrup efler det 
natlige Overfald laa en af vore Jsegere syg i den Gkuurd, Fjendeme 
havde omringet, og var ganske sikkert bleven fangen, hvis ikke Bennett 
havde taget ham paa sin Eyg og sloebt afsted med ham, saaloenge han 
Kunde. — Paa Maeschenf {s%e) vandrede han bestandig paa sin Fod, 
skjondt man ikke vilde have noegtet ham Plads paa Bagagevognene, 
og paa Icengere Toure tog han ofte Gevoeret eller Tomystren fra de 
Troetteste og bar det ufertrodent. — Naar det var, at vi laae i Bivouak, 
eller i loengere Tid maatte staae opstillede paa et eller ander Sted uden 
at turde forlade samme, ilede Bennett stedse omkring og forskafFede, 
hvad han kunde, til at vedergvoege Obersten og OfUcererne med, og 
stedse bar han til det Ojemed et Par Flasker Yiin i sin Tomyster. 
Man kunde vedblive at fortoelle mange Hgnende Exempler paa den 

* ''Livet i Felten. Uddrag af en Loeges Dagbog i Sommem 1843." Published 
at Copeahagen. 1849. 

t Probably misprint for Marschen. 



APPENDIX. 539 

Hengivenhedy hvormed han folte sig knyttet til yort Eorps, og den 
rastloae Iyer, hvonned han stroebte efter at tjene AUe, og vi vare Alle 
enige om, at han fortjente en o£fentlig UdrocBrkelse. 

**I>en noermere Anledning til, at han fulgte med ob, samt han noble 

Adfoerd i den Anledning foitjener ogsaa at omtales. Da Koipset 

forlod Kjobenhavn, var det egentlig en Broder til en af de Friyillige, der 

onskede eom Ciyil at ledsage oa, i Begyndelaen rigtignok Kun til Boes- 

kilde, men senere hile Felttoget med. Benhett troede at vcere den 

FriviUiges Eamilie nogen Forbindtlighed skyldig og skrev hjem til den, 

at naar den yngre Broder maatte gaae med, vilde han, Bennett, be< 

standig ledsage denne og folge ham hjem, naar han selv yilde. Og da 

den yngre Broder forlod Eorpset i Ejstrup i Begyndelaen af Juli 

Haaned, ledsagede Bennett ham ganske rigtigen til Ejobenhavn, og 

blev i den Anledning forsynet med en Boerdelea smigrende Skriyelse 

. fra TOT Oberst. Men neppe var Bennett kommen til Ejobenhavn, 

forend han nopfordret lob omkring til Officieremea Familier og bragte 

HiUener fra Moend og Sloegtninge, og derpaa vendte han tilbage til 

Armeen og bragte os en Deel personlige Hilaener fra Hj emmet. Inden 

han hlev mere bekjendt, paadrog han sig flere XJbehageligheder. Paa 

Ala bley han antagen for en Spion, og i Hadersley yilde Politiet abaolut 

arreatere ham som Friskaremand til Engelskmandens store Fornojelse. 

Sely Karlene ansaae dette lange Menneske med stort, rodligt Skjoeg og 

hyidt Halstorklcede for en forloben tydsk Haandycerkssyend og holdt 

Oje med ham paa Marschen, indtil, de loerte ham bedre at Kjende. — 

Endelig bor jeg ogsaa omtale, at han er Forfatter af de engelske 

Vers og Krirgssange, som i afyigte Sommer fandtes indrykkede i den 

Berlingike Tidende.*' 

TRANSLATION. 

" To my great sorrow, I here learn that onr Englishman, during my 
stay at Kolding, has left the corps, and gone to Norway, as if he had 
suddenly formed a wish to see it. As I consider his return yery un- 
certain preyious to the expiring of the armistice, or whether he will 
reyisit Denmark at all ; whether or no, I wish to mention the person 
who has supported our cause with such personal interest for more than 
half a year. "When he first arriyed, the Colonel asked him whether he 
would accompany the army in the capacity of a ciyil officer, of course 
without any military obligation towards the corps. He yolunteered 
his assistance in the medical department, and, after remaining some 
time with us, and becoming generally known, the men called him 
' the English Doctor.' After this, T. Bennett sportively called him- 
self ' Voluntary Assistant to the Medical Officers of the Danish Army.' 



540 APPENDIX. 

Although ho has left the corps, he was esteemed by every one, on 
account of his kindly character and earnest desire to be usefdl to every- 
one. On the retreat from Norre Maestrup, after the noctamal attack, 
one of our Jagers was lying in a yard ; the enemy had surTonnded it, 
and he was certain of being taken prisoner, had not Bennett carried 
him oiF on his back, and trudged away with him as far as he oonLL 
On the march he was always on foot, notwithstanding that he might 
have had a place on the baggage waggons, and on longer expeditions 
he would frequently take muskets or knapsacks from the weary, and 
carry them forward. When we happened to be lying in bivoaac, or 
were forced to stop in any place, without daring to advance or recede, 
Bennett always went with the Colonel and officers to reconnoitre, for 
which purpose he carried a couple of bottles of wine in his knapsack. 
Many similar instances might be related of the devotion with which he 
felt himself bound to our army corps, and of his ardent zeal to be 
useful to all, and how all our men loved him. He deserved a public 
distinction. 

** On the last occasion he accompanied us, his noble behaviour again 
deserves an excellent report. When the corps first left Copenhagen, 
there was a brother of one of our volunteers, who wished to accom- 
pany us in a civil capacity, and, indeed, reached Boeskilde sufftciently, 
but his health broke down at the review. Bennett deemed it his duty 
towards the volunteer's family to write, that if the younger brother 
should join, he would be a companion to him, and bring him home if 
he wished it. And when the younger brother left the army, at Ejstrup, 
in the beginning of the month of July, Bennett most kindly went with 
him to Copenhagen, and, provided with a most flattering letter from the 
Colonel, was to remain there. Scarcely, however, had Bennett reached 
Copenhagen, ere he, unsoUcitedly, visited the officers' families, bringing 
greetings firom friends and kindred, after which he immediately returned 
to the army, with many personal messages from home. 

'* Until he had become better known, he had many annoyances. At 
Als he was taken for a spy, and in Hadersleben the police actually 
wanted to arrest him, to the Englishman's great amusement. Our men 
even looked upon the taU man, with his fair beard and white necker- 

. chief, as a Oerman mechanic who had deserted, and kept an eye on 
him while on the march, until they learned to know him better. 

" I should also finally mention, that he is the author of the English 
poem and war songs, which I found last summer printed in the 

JSerlingske Ttdende" 

THE END. 



ThB folhtomg Works are adveriised by the Author of *' Teni Life in 
Norway '* at his oum easpensej as either relating to the scenes of his 
travels, or to subjects connected with his book, or from a feeling of 
personal interest, and a wish to promote their auihori siuxess. 



H 



OW TO SEE NORWAY. By John R. Campbell. 

London : Longmans, Gbeen & Co. 1871. 



npHE PLAYGROUND OF EUROPE. By Leslie 

Stephen, late President of the Alpine Club. 

London : Longmans, Green & Co., Fttemoster Bow. 



T AST RAMBLES amongst the INDIANS of the 

"^^ ROCKY MOUNTAINS and the ANDES. By George Catlin, 
Author of '' Life Amongst the Indians,*" &c., &c. 

London : Sampson Low, Son k Mahston, ^Milton House, Ludgate Hill. 

1868. 



npHE SEVERN VALLEY : a Series of Sketches 

Descbiptivb and Pictoriai^ of the Course of the Severn, &c By 
J. Randall. 

London : James S. Virtue, City Road and Ivy Lane. 1862. 



A POET'S DAY-DREAMS. By Hans Christian 

Andersen, Author of " Pictures of Sweden," " Improvisatore." 
London : Richard Bentlet, New Burlington Street. 1853. 

TNVESTIGATIONS in the THEORY of RE- 

"^ FLECTED-RAY surfaces, and their RELATION TO PLANE 
REFLECTED CAUSTICS. Also in the Appendix, a Theory of Plane Caustic 
Curves, identified with the Evolute of the Auxiliary Curve of Equiangular 
Intersection. By the Rev. G. F. Childk, M.A., Mathematical Professor in the 
South African College, Cape of Good Hope. 

Cape Town : Published by J. C. Juta, Wale Street. 1868. 



AN RELATED CAUSTICS of REFLECTION, and 

^ the EVOLUTE of the LEMKISCATA, as derived from a CAUSTIC 
OF THE Hyperbola. By the Rev. G. F. Childe, M.A. 

Cape Town : Published by J. C. Juta, Wale Street. 1859. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



aiNGULAR PROPERTIES of the ELLIPSOID, 

•^ AND ASSOCIATED SURFACES of thr NORTH DEGREE. Dedicated 
by penniiMioii to his Royal Highness Prince Alfred. By the Rev. G. F. 
CuiLDE, M.A., author of ''Ray Surfaces/' '* Related Caustics,'* &c., Matbe- 
matical Professor in the South African College, Member of the Board of I^ihlic 
Examiners at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Macmillan k Co., Cambridge ; J. C. Jtjta, Cape Town. 



nPHE RELIQUARY: A Depository for Precious 

Relics, Leoendaby, Biographical, and Historical. Edited by 
Lliwellynn Jrwitt, F.S.A., Member of the Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, &c., Ac. 

London : John Russell Smith, 36, Soho Square ; Derby : Benrose & Sons, 
Irongate. 



"DISHOP PERCY'S FOLIO MANUSCRIPT BAL- 

•^ LADS AND ROMANCES. Edited by John W. Hales, M.A.. Fellow 
and late Assistant Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Frederick J. 
FuRNiVAL, M.A., of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, assisted by Professor Child, of 
Harvard University, U.S., W. Chappel, Esq., &c. 

London : N. TRt^BNER & Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 1867. 



a OUTH AMERICAN SKETCHES ; or, a Visit to 

Rio Janiero, the Organ Mountains, La Plata, and the Parana. By 
Thomas Woodbine Hinchcliff, M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of ** Summer Months 
Among the Alps." 

London : Lonqhan, Green, Longman, Roberts ft Green. 1863. 



a GENES FROM THE SNOW-FIELDS ; being Illus- 

^ trations of the Upper Ice-World of Mont Btjinc, from Sketches 
made on the spot in the years 1856, 1857, 1858. With Historical and Descrip- 
tive Remarks, and a Comparison qf the Chamonix and St Gervais routes. By 
Edmund T. Coleman. 

** But the feeding of rivers and the purifying of mnds are the least of the 
services appointed to the hills. To fill the thirst of the human heart for the 
beauty of God's working—to startle its lethargy with the deep and pare 
agitation of astonishment— are their higher missions. They are as great and 
noble architecture ; first giving shelter, comfort, and rest ; and covered also 
with mighty sculpture and painted legend.*' — RirsKiN. 

The Views lithographed and printed in colours by Vincent Brooks. 

London : Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans k Roberts. 1859. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



T^HE HISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of CHARN- 

WOOD FOREST. By T. R. Potter. With an Appendix on the 
Geoi/x>t, Botany, and Ornithology of the District. The Geology by J. B. 
Jukes, Esq., M. A., F.G.S. The Botany by the Rev. Andrew Bloxam, M. A., 
and Churchill Babinoton, Esq., Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge ; 
and the Ornithology by Churchill Babinoton, Esq. 

Ijondon : Hamilton, Adams, k Co., Paternoster Row ; R. Allen, Not- 
tingham ; K Allen, Leicester. 1842. 

QCRAMBLES AMONGST THE ALPS in the 

'^ YEARS 1860-69. By Edward Whtmper. With five Maps and 120 
Illustrations. Second Edition. Price One Guinea. 

London : John Mubray, Albemarle Street. 

Jtt^ PMishedf in 12mo., pages 470, price 16«. 

rrHE LICHEN-FLORA of GREAT BRITAIN, IRE- 

"*- LAND, AND THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. By the Rev. W. A. Leiohton, 
B.A, F.L.S., F.B.a Edin. 

Apply for Copies to the Author, Lnciefelde, Shrewsbury, with P.0.0. or cheque, 
and postage 5d. 

Also by the tame Author, 
Price One Guinea to Subscribers, and One Guinea and a Half to Non-Subscribers, 

A CONSPECTUS OF ALL THE LICHENS hitherto 

"^ DISCOVERED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. With Diagnoses, Ac. 

Apply for copies to the Author, Rev. W. A. Leighton, Luciefelde, Shrews- 
bury. 

rpHE BIBLE m SPAIN. By George Borrow, 

Author of *' The Gipsies in Spain," &c. 

London i John Murray, Albemarle Street 1861. 



TIAPPY THOUGHT HALL. By F. C. Burnand, 

-*^ Esq. 

Published by Bradbury & Agnew, 10, Bouverie Street, Whitefriars. 



rrHE ART OF TRAVEL; or. Shifts and Con- 

TRITANCES AVAILABLE IN WiLD COUNTRIES. By FrANCIB GALTON, 

F.R.G.S., Author of " The Explorers in Tropical South Africa," and Honorary 
Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society. 

Published by John Murray, Albemarle Street. 



AD VERTI8EMENT8. 



n.UIDE TO THE PYRENEES, for the Usk of 

^^ M0UKTAINESB8. By Charles Packb. . Second Edition, with Hap and 
Ulostrationa, 78. 6d, 

rriHE ALPINE GUIDE. By John Ball, M.RLA., 

late President of the Alpine Club. Thoroughly revised Editions, in 3 vola, 
with Maps and other Illustrations. 

GUIDE TO WESTERN ALPS, including Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, «iid 
Zermatt, 6s, 6d. 

OUIDE TO CENTRAL ALPS, including all the Oberhind DUtrict, 7jl 6d 

GUIDE TO EASTERN ALPS, price lOs. 6d. 

INTRODUCTION on Alpine Travelling in general, and on the Geology of the 
Alps, price Is, 

Each of the three volumes, or parts of the '* Alpine Guide,'* may be had with 
this Introduction prefixed, price Is. extra. 

rpHROUGH NORWAY with a KNAPSACK. By 

"^ W. Mattieu Williams. With six Tinted Views and Map. 
London : Smith, Elder k Co., 65, Comhill. 1859. 

rTHE HANDBOOK FOR NORWAY. By T. Bennett. 

Christian ia. 

: ) 

p AN ADA IN 1864 : a Handbook for Settlers. 

^^ By Henrt T. Newton Chksshyre, late R.N., Author of " RecoUections ' 
of a Five Years' Residence in Norway." 

London : Sampson Low, Son & Marston, 14, Lndgate HilL 1864. ) 



rTHE GAME BIRDS and WILD FOWL of 

-■" SWEDEN AND NORWAY. Together with an Account of the Seals 
and Salt- Water Fishes. Embellished with a Map, and Illustrations executed in 
Chromo-Lithography, and 65 Woodcuts. By L. Lloyd, Author of "Field Sports 
of the North of Europe *' and " Scandinavian Adventures.*' 

London : Day & Son (limited;, 6, Gate Street, Lincoln^s Inn fields, W.C. 
1867. 



QLD SPORTS AND SPORTSMEN ; or, the Willey 

^^ CouNTBY. With Sketches of Squire Forester and his Whipper-in, Tom 
Moody. 

"You sll know Tom Moody, the Whipper-in, well" 

By John Randall, F.G.S., Author of "The Severn Valley," &c. Illustrated 

with numerous Engravings. 
London : James S. Virtue, City Road and Ivy Lane. 



MaiDliUHY, AO.WA.W, AM> CO., PKIKTEJta, WmTZFRlABH. 



November, 1873. 



A Classified Catalogue of 

Henry S. King & Co.'s PuuncATiONa 



History and Biography 
Voyages and Travel . 



CONTENTS. 

PACE . PACK 

. . I , India and the East .... 19 
. . 5 Books for the Young, &c. ,21 



Science 7 , Poetry 24 



p:ssays. Lectures, and Col- 
lected Papers .... 12 
Military Works 15 



Fiction a6 

Theological 31 

CoRNHiLL Library of Fiction 36 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, 



THE NORMAN PEOPLE, And their existing descendants in the 
British Dominions and the United States of America. One 
handsome vol. 8vo, Price 2IJ. [/« the Press, 



This work is the result of many years 
of research into the history of the Norman 
race in England. It is generally supposed 
to have become extinct; but careful study 
has shown that it exists and forms a large 
part of the English people. In the course 



of the work the early history of the whole 
aristocracy is revised, reconstructed, and 
verv many thousands of families are uiown 
to be Norman which have never before 
been accounted for. 



A MEMOIR OF THE LATE REVEREND DR. ROWLAND 
WILLIAMS, With selections from his Note- books and Correspondence. 
Edited by Mrs. Bowland Williams. With a Photographic Portrait. 

[In the Press, 

THE RUSSIANS IN CENTRAL ASIA. A Critical Examination, 
down to the present time, of the Ge<^raphy and History of Central Asia. 
By Baron F. Von Hellwald, Member of the Geographical Societies 
of Paris, Geneva, Vienna, &c., &c Translated by Lieut. -Gk>l. 
Theodore Wir^man, LIj.B., late 6th Inniskilling Dragoons; for- 
merly of the Austrian Service ; Translator into English verse of Schiller's 
** Wallenstein*s Camp/' [Nearly ready. 



65, Conihill ; dr* 12, Paternoster Ron; London. 



IVorks Published by Henry S. King 6^- G?., 



History and Biography— r<?;/////f/A/. 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NATIONAL DEFENCE. Fn>ni 
the 30th June to the 31st October, 1870. The Plain Statement of a 
Member. By M0&8. Xoles Favre. i vol. Demy 8vo. lOf. 6e/. 



BOKHARA: ITS HISTORY AND CONQUEST. By Professor 
Arminias VAmbdry, of the University of Pesth, Author of " TraTels 
in Central Asia," &c. Demy 8vo. Price i8f. 



** We conclude with a cordial recommen- 
dation of this valuable book. In the 
present work his moderjuion, scholarkhip, 
insight, and occasionally very impressive 
style, have raised him to the dignity of 
an YCaXxxnaxC* ^Sahtrday Revino, 



'* Almost evciy page abounds with com- 
position of peculiar merit, as well as with aa 
account of some thrillang event more excit- 
ing than any to be found in an ordkiary 
work of fiction. " — Aloruing Pat. 



THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF IRELAND: Primitive, Papai, 
AND Protestant ; including the Evangelical Missions, Catholic Agitations, 
and Church Progress of the last half century. By James GodkiB., Author 
of "Ireland, her Churches," &c. I voL 8vo. Price izr. 



" For those who shun Uue books, and 
yet desire some of the information they 
contain, these Utter chapters on the statis- 
tics of the various religious denominations 
will be welcomed." — Exttning Standard. 



" Mr. Godkin writes with evident honeur, 
and the topic on which he writes is one 
about which an honest book is greatly 
wanted.*'— jF.rff/i»Mirr. 



'ILAM feN NXS. Historical Tales and Anecdotes of the Times of the Early 
Khalifahs. Translated from the Arabic OriginaLs. By ICrs. Godfrey 
Clerk, Author of "The Antipodes and Round the World." Crown 8va 
Price 7J. 



" But there is a high tone abcHit them, 
a love of Justice, of truth and integrity, 
a sense of honour and manliness, and a 
simple devotion to relinous duty, which 
however mistaken accoraing to our lights, 
is deserving of every ren)ect. llie 
translation is the work of a Vdjr» and a 
very excellent and scholar>like translation 
it IS, cleariy and pleasantly written, and 



illustrated and explained by copious Bote<, 
indicating considerable learning and re- 
search.** — Saturday Rrview. 

"Those who like stories full of the 
genuine cdour and fragrance of the East, 
should by all means read Mrs. Godfrey 
Clerk's volume."— ^^//f/«'. 

" As full of valuable informatioa as it v* 
of amusing incident.'* — EveningSUutdard. 



ECHOES OF A FAMOUS YEAR. By Harriet Parr, Author of 
"The Life of Jeanne d'Arc," "In the Silver Age," &c Crown 8vo. 
8x. 6(/. 



"A graceful and touchin;:, as well as 
truthful account of the Franco-Prussian 
War. Those who are in the habit of read- 
ing books to children will find this at 
oi«ce instructive and delightful.*'-'^'«i^/Mr 
Opinwn, 



" Mi&sParr has the great gift of diarm- 
ing simplicity of style : and if children are 
not interested in her book, many of their 
will htT—BritUh Quarterly R^ 



seniors 
view. 



65, Cornhill ; d* 12, Paternoster R(nv^ Lotidon. 



tVorh Published by Henry S. King 6* Co., 



History and Biography— f<?«//»«^</. 



ALrBXIS DE TOCQUEVILLB. Corresponde'hce and Conversations with 
Nassau W. Senior from 1833 to 1859. Edited by ICrs. M. C. M. 
Simpson. In 2 vols., laiige post 8vo. 21s, 



"Another of those interesting; journals 
in which Mr. Senior has, as it were, crys- 
tallized the sasrings of some of those many 
remarkahle men with whom he came in 
contact*' — Morning P<fsi. 



I* 



'A book replete with knowledge and 
thouKht**— ^Mtfr/^nT)^ Review. 

"An extremely interesting book."— 
Saturday Review. 



JOURNALS KEPT IN PRANCE AND ITALY. From 1848 to 1852. 
With a Sketch of the Revolution of 1848. By the late Nassau William 
Senior. Edited by his Daughter, H. C. K. Simpson. In 2 vob., 
post 8vo. 2\s. 

"The book has a genuine historical them to put themselves unreservedly in 

value." — Saturday Review. his hands without fear of private circula- 

'*The present volume gives us conver- ixan.**^Athen»Mtn. 
sations with some of the most prominent " No better, more honest, and more read- 
men in the political history of France and able view of the state of politioil society 
Italy. . . Mr. Senior has the art of inspiring during the existence of the second Republic 
all men with frankness, and of persuading could well be looked for." — Exatniner. 



POLITICAL WOMEN. By Sutherland Hensies. 2 vols. Post 8vo 
Price 24J. 



" Has all the information of history, with 
all the interest that attaches to biography." 
— Scotsman. 

"A graceful contribution to the lighter 
record of hfatory," — English Chnrckman. 



" No author could have stated the case 
more temperately than he has done, and 
few could have placed before the reader so 
graphically the story which had to be told." 
— Leeds Mercury. 



SARA COLERIDGE, MEMOIR AND LETTERS OF. Edited 
by her Daughters. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. With 2 Portraits. Price 24^. 
Second Edition, Revised and Corrected. 



" We have read these two volumes with 
genuine gratification." — Hour, 

"We could have wished to give speci- 
mens of her very just, subtle, and concise 
criticisms on authors of every sort and time 
— poetSy moralists, historians, and philoso- 
l^ers. Saua Coleridge, as she is revealed, 
or rather reveals herself, in the corre- 
spondoice, makes a brilliant addition to 
a brilliant family reputation." — Saturday 
Review, 



" These charming volumes are attractive 
in two ways : first, as a memorial of a most 
amiable woman of hj^h intellectual mark : 
and secondly, as rekmdlhi^ recollections, 
and adding a little to our information re- 
garding the life of Sara Coleridge^s &ther« 
the poet and philosc^her." — Atheuaum. 

" An acceptable record, and present an 
adequate image of a ^ mind of singular 
beauty and no inconsiderable power."— > 
Examiner, 



PHANTASMION. A Fairy Romance. By Sara Coleridge. 

[In preparation. 



65, Cornkill; 6-12, Paternoster Row, London, 



li^0rks Published by Henry S. Kifig 6- Co., 



History and Biography — continuta. 

LEONORA CHRISTINA, MEMOIRS OP, Daughter of Christian IV. 
of Denmaik : Written during her Imprisonment in the Blue Tower of 
the Royal Palace at Copenhagen, 1663— 1685. Translated hj 7. S. 
Buimetty Translator of Grimm's "Life of Michael Angelo," &c With 
an Autotype Portrait of the Princess. Medium 8vo. 12/. 6</. 



"A valuable addition to history.** — 
DaihSeats. 

"This remarkable autobiography, in 



vhi<^ we gratefully reccignize a valuaUe 
addition to tlie tragic romance of history.** 
— spectator. 



THE LATE REV. F. W. ROBERTSON, M.A., LIFE AND 
LETTERS OF. Edited by Stopford Brooke, K.A., Chaplain in 
Oidinaiy to the Queen. In 2 vols., unifonn ^nth the Sermons. Price 
7/. 6t/. Library Edition, in demy 8vo, with Two Steel Portraits. \2J. A 
Popular Edition, in I vol. Price df. 



NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, A MEMOIR OF, with Stories now 
first published in this country. By H. A. Page. Lai^ge post Svo. *js. 6J. 



" The Memoir is followed by a criticism 
of Hawthorne as a writer; and the criticism 
is, on the whole, very^ well written, and 
exhibits a discriminating enthusiasm for 
one of the most fascinating (^ novelbts." — 
Saturday Rer'iftv. 

" Sddom has it been our lot to meet with 
a more appreciative delineation of character 



than this Mem<Mr of Hawthorne. "—JH^nc- 
Myr Post. 

" He has done full justice to the fine 
character of the author of *The Scarlet 
Letter.' *'—StaMdnni. 

"A model of literary wock of art.*— 
EdimbuTgk CouramL 



LIVES OF ENGLISH POPULAR LEADERS. No. i.— Stephen* 
L.\NGTox. By C. Edmund Kaurice. Crown Svo. ^s, 6d. 



** Mr. ^f atiricc has written a 
resting book, which may be 



pleasure and 



verv mte- 

read with 

profiL*'— J/^fwiVf^ 



equal 
Pes/. 
** The volume contains many interesting 



details, tncludin|^ some important docu- 
ments. It will amply repay those who 
read it, whether as a chapter of the consti- 
tutiooal history of England or as the tile of 
a great Englishman. "—.Sy^i^/W-. 



CABINET PORTRAITS. Biographical Sketches of Living States- 
men. By T. Wemyss Beid. i vol crown 8va yx. &d. 



*'We have never met with a work 
which we can moie unreservedly ^aise. 
The sketches are absolutely impartud.**— 



"We can heartOy conunend his work.** 
^^tandanii, 

** The ' Sketches of Statesmen ' are draws 
with a master hand."*— Kmi«A«r^ Post. 



65, Cortihill ; 6^ 12, Paternoster PcWy London. 



Works PublisJud by Henry S, King 6- Co,^ 



VOYAGES AND TRAVEL. 



ROUGH NOTES OF A VISIT TO BELGIUM, SEDAN, AND 
PARIS, In September, 1870—71. By John Ashton. Crown 8vo, 
bevelled boards. Price 3^. 6r/. 

This little volume derives its chief interest from the accurate descriptions of the scenes 
visited during the recent struggle on the Continent 

THE ALPS OF ARABIA ; or, Travels through Egypt, Sinai, Arabia, and 
the Holy Land. By William Charles Maug^han. i vol. Demy 8vo, 
with Map. Price lOtf. dd. 

A volume of simple "impressions de voyage**— but written in pleasant and interesting 
style. 

THE MISHMEE HILLS : an Account of a Journey made in an Attempt 
to Penetrate Tibet from Assam, to .open New Routes for Commerce. 
By T. T. Cooper, author of **The Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce." 
Demy 8vo. Illustrated. 

THE PEARL OF THE ANTILLES; The Artist in Cuba. By 
Walter Goodman. Crown 8vo. yj. 6</. 



" A good-sized volume, delightfully vivid 
and picturesque. . . . Several chapters 
devoted to the characteristics of the people 
arc exceedingly interesting and remarkable. 
. . . The whole book deserves the heartiest 
commendation . . . sparkling and amusing 
from beginning to end. Reading it is like 
rambling about with a companion who is 
content to loiter, observing everything, 
commenting upon everything, turning 



everything^ into a picture, with a cheerful 
flow of spirits, full of fun, but far above 
frivolity. * —^Spectator, 

** He writes very lightly and pleasantly, 
and brightens his pages with a good deal 
of humour. His experiences were varied 
enough, and his book contains a series of 
vivid and miscellaneous sketches. We can 
recommend his whole volume as very 
amusing reading." — PaU Mall Gazette. 



PIELD AND FOREST RAMBLES OF A NATURALIST IN 
NEW BRUNSWICK. With Notes and Observations on the Natural 
History of Eastern Canada. By A. Leith Adams, M.A., &c., Author 
of ** Wanderings of a Naturalist in India,*' &c, &c. In 8vo, cloth. 
Illustrated. 144-. 

" Will be found interesting by those who 



take a pleasure either in sport or natural 
history. * — A thetuemn. 

" liie descriptions are clear and full of 
interest, while the book is prevented from 
degenerating into a mere scientific cata- 
logue by many graphic sketches of the 
rambles."— yMw Bull. 

** To the- naturalist the book will be most 
valuable. ... To the general reader the 



book will prove most interesting, for the 
style is pleasant and chatter, and the infor- 
mation given is so graphic and full, that 
those who care nothing tor natural history 
as a pursuit will yet read these descriptions 
with great interest," — ifrvw/V/jj- Standard. 
" Both sportsmen and naturalists will 
find this work replete with anecdote and 
carefuUy-rccordea observation, which will 
entertain them." — Nature. 



TENT LIFE WITH ENGLISH GIPSIES IN NORWAY. By 
Hubert Smith. In Svo, cloth. Five full-page Engravings^ nnd 31 
smaller Illustrations, with Map of the Country showing Routes. Price 2ix. 

" If any of our readers think of scraping ] " Written in a very lively style, and has 
an acquaintance with Norway, let tnem ' throughout a smack of dry numour and 
read this book. The gypsies, always an ' satiric reflection which shows the writer to 
interesting study, become doubly interest- 
ing, when we are, as in these pages, intro- 
duced to them in their daily walk and 
conversation. " — Ejcantiiier. 



be a keen observer of mcn'and things. ^ We 
hope that many will read it and find in it 
the same amusement as ourselves." — 
Times. 



65, Cornkill ; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ London. 



Works Published by Henry S. Kinsr 6r* Co.^ 



VoYAGi^ AND Travel — continued, 

FAYOUM ; or, Artists ik Egypt. A Tour with M. Gerome and others. 
By J. Xie&oir. CroiKii 8vo, doth. Illustrated. *js, 6d, 

ever may take it up will find he has vith 



"A pleasantly written and very readable 
book. ''— Examiner, 

The book is very amusing. • . . Who- 



«< 



him a brisbt and pleasant companioB."— 
S/ectatifT. 



SPIT2BERGEN THE GATEWAY TO THE POLYNIA; or, a 
Voyage to Spitzbergen. By Captain John C. Wells, B.H. 
In 8vo, cloth. Profusely Illustrated. Price 2is. 

"Blends pleasantly science with ad- 
venture, iMcturesque dcetches of a stuoflier 
cruise among^ the wild sports and fantastic 
scenery of Spitzbergen, with earnest advo- 
cacy of Arcuc Exploratian.''— ^n^jMar. 



Straightforward and clear in style, 
securing our confidence by it« unaffected 
simpliaty and good sense."— ^a/»n/Ay 
Revuw. 

"A charming book, remaricaUy well 
wrritten and well illustrated.*'~5'/«Mtfan/. 



AN AUTUMN TOUR IN THE UNITED STATES AND 
CANADA. By Lieut. -Colonel Julius George Medley. Crown- 
8vo. Price 5/. 



"Colonel Medley's little volume is a 
pleasantly written account of a two-months* 
visit to America."— Ar<?iirr. 



May be recommended as manly, sen 



sible, and pleasantly written. 



LS manly, 
"-—Glohe. 



THE NILE WITHOUT A DRAGOMAN. By Frederic Eden. 

Second Edition. In one voL Cro^-n 8vo, doth. yj. ()d, 

" It is a book to read during am autunm 
holiday. **— Spectator. 

*' Gives, within moderate compass, » 
suggestive description of the charms, cu- 
riosities, dangers, and discomforts of Uie 
Nile voyage. — Saturday Review, 



^ Should anv of our readers care to 
imitate Mr. Eaen's example, and wish to 
see things with their own eyes, and shift 
for themselves, next winter in Upper Egypt, 
they will find this book a very agreeable 
guide.'*-^(mri. 



ROUND THE WORLD IN 1870. A Volume of Travels, with Maps. 
By A. D. Carlisle, B.A., Trin. Coll., Camb. Demy 8vo. idr. 

"Makes one understand how going " We can only commend, which we do 

round the world is to be done in the 
quickest and plcisantest manner."— »S'/r^- 
tator. 



very heartily, an eminently sensible an<^ 
readable book."— ^rimA Quarteriy Re- 
view, 



IRELAND IN 187a. A Tour of Observation, with Remarks on Irish Public 
Questions. By Dr. James Kacaulay. Crown 8vo. is, 6d. 



" A careful and instructive book. Full 
of facts, full of information, and full of 
interest."— ZiV^nt^y ChHrckman. 

" We have rarely met a book on Ireland 
which for impartiality of criticism and 
general accuracy of information could be 



so^ well recommended to the fair-minded 
Irish Ttzdct/'—RTteHing^ Sta9uiarti. 

"A deeply interesting account of what 
is called a tour of observation, and some 
noteworthy remarks on Irish puUic ques- 
tions." — liinttrated LomdoK JVewt, 



OVER THE DOVREFJELDS. By J. S. Shepard, Author of "A 
Ramble through Norway," &c. Crown 8vo. Illustrated.' Price 4f. Sd. 



"We have read many books of Nor- 
w^an travel, but . . . we have seen 
none so pleasantly narrative in its style, 
and so varied in its sulject." — Spectator, 

" Is a well-timed book.^—fc^. 



As interesting a little volume as could 
be written on die sul»ect. So interesting 
and shortly written that it will commend 
itself to all intending tourists.** — Exa- 
ntiner. 



A WINTER IN MOROCCO. By Amelia Ferrier. Large crown 8vo. 
Illustrated. Price lox. dd, 

"Well worth reading, and contains 
several excellent illustrations." — Honr. 

'* Miss Perrier is a very amusing writer. 
She has a good deal of humour, sees the 



oddity and quaintness of Oriental life with 
a quick observant eye, and evidently tunrnl 
her opportunities of sarcastic examination 
to account." — Daily Nertt, 



65, Camhiil; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ Londoft. 



V- 



Works Published by Henry S. King &* Co,^ 



SCIENCE. 



PRINCIPLES OF MENTAL PHYSIOLOGY. With their Applications 

' to the Training and Discipline of the Mind, and the Study of its Morbid 

Conditions. By W, B. Carpenter, IiL.B., H.B., F.B.S., &c. 

8vo. Illustrated. \lmmediatdy, 

THE EXPANSE OF HEAVEN. A Series of Essays on the Wonders of 
the Firmament By B. A. Proctor, B.A,, author of ** Other Worlds," 
&C. Small Crown 8vo. {Shortly, 

STUDIES OF BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA. By M. Tu. 
Gruner, President of the General Council of Mines of France. Trans- 
lated by L. B. B. Gordon, F.B.S.E., F.G.S., &c. Demy 8vo. 
Price Is, 6d, 

These^ are some import&nt practical studies by one of the most eminent metallurgical 
authorities of the Continent. 



LEGAL HANDBOOK FOR ARCHITECTS. By Edward 
Jenkins and John Raymond, Esqrs., Barristers-at-Law. In i vol. 
Price df. 



The Publishers are assured that this 
book will constitute an invaluable and 
necessary companion for every architect's 
and builder's table, as well as a useful in- 



troduction for architects* j^upils to the 
practical law of their profession. 

Dedicated by special permission to the 
Royal Institution of British Architects. 



CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH PSYCHOLOGY. From the French of 
, Professor Th. lEtibot. An Analysis of the Views and Opinions of the 
following Metaphysicians, as expressed in their writings : — 

Jambs Mill, A Bain, John Stuart Mill, Gborgb H. Lewes, Hehbbrt 
Spbncbr, Samuel Bailey. 

Large post 8vo. 



PHYSIOLOGY FOR PRACTICAL USE. By various Eminent writers. 
Edited by James Hinton. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. With 50 illustrations. 



lliese^ Papers have beem prepared at 
^preat pains, and their endeavour is to fami- 
harize the popular mind with those physio- 



logical truths which are needful to all who 
desire to keep the body in a state of 
health. 

[In the Press, 



THE PLACE OF THE PHYSICIAN. The Introductory Lecture at 
Guy's Hospital, 1873-4 y ^^ which is added 

Essays on the Law of Human Life and on the Relation 
BETWEEN Organic and Inorganic Worlds, 

By James Hinton, Author of " Man and His Dwelling-Place." Crown 

Svo. Limp cloth. 



65, CornhiU; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ Loftdan. 



8 



Works Pubiished by Henry S. King &» Co., 



Science — continued, 

THE HISTORY OF THE NATURAL CREATION, Being a Series 
of Popular Scientific Lectures on the General Theory of Progression of 
Species ; with a Dissertation on the Theories of Darwdn and Goethe ; more 
especially applying them to the Origin of Man, and to other Fundamental 
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fieackel, of the University of Jena. 8vo. With Woodcuts and Plates. 

[/» the Press. 

Second Edition. 

CHANGE OF AIR AND SCENE. A Physician's Hints about Doctors, 
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AN ARABIC AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE KORAN. 
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MODERN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Cro\^'n Svo. Price 5j. 



By T. G. Jackaon. 



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tration, and in style of composition, which 
tends to commend tus views. — Sdinhurgk 
■O^f'tv Keview. 

" This thoughtful little book is worthy 
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TREATISE ON RELAPSING FEVER. By B. T. Iiyons^ 

Assistant-Suigeon, Bengal Army. Small po§t Svo. *js. 6d. 

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65, Cornhill; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ London. 



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SciEN'CE — continued, 

FOUR WORKS BY DR. EDWARD SMITH. 

I. HEALTH AND DISEASE, as influenced by the Daily, Seasonal and 
other Cyclical Changes in the Human System. A New Edit. 7j. 6</. 

II. FOODS. Second Edition^ Profusely Illustrated. Price $/. 

III. PRACTICAL DIETARY FOR FAMILIES; SCHOOLS, AND 

THE LABOURING CLASSES; A New Edit. Price 3x. 6</. 

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THE PORT OF REFUGE ; or, Coinskl and Aid to Shipmasters 
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of "A Handbook of Average," **A Manual of Insurance," &c. Cr. 8vo. 
Price 6j. 

Subjects :— The Shipmaster's Position »nd Duties.— Agents and Affcncy.— Average. — 
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*' Combines in quite a marvellous manner 
a fullness of information which will make 
it perfectly indispensable in the captain's 
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of shipping in all its multitarious ramifi- 
cations and the hints he gives on a variety 
of topics must be invaluable to the master 



mariner whenever he is in doubt, difficulty, 
and danger."— Mercanii/e Marine Mag- 
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*' A truly excellent contribution to the 
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*' Anybody who wishes to have a clear 
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CHOLERA: HOW TO AVOID AND TREAT IT. Popular and 
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65, Cornhill; 6-12, Paternoster Roiv, London. 



lO 



Works Published by Henry S. Kifig <&- Cb., 



Sci iL^CB.'^cofUinued^ 



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Th; Volumes already Published are : — 
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THE FORMS OP WATER IN RAIN AND RIVERS, ICE 
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glaciers."— ^cr«/«^ PosU 



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forms of water. * **'^Gi<fie. 

** Eloquent and instructive ia an eminent 
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PHYSICS AND POLITICS; or, Thoughts on the Application of 
THE Principles of "Natural Selection" and "Inheritance" 
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Second Edition. 

FOODS. By Dr. Edward Smith. Profusely Illustrated. Price 5^. 



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MIND AND BODY : The Theories of their Relations. By Alex- 
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Four Illustrations. 4/. 

THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY. By Herbert Spencer. Crown 8vo. 
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ON THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. By Professor Balfour 
Stewart. Fourteen Engravings. Price 5^. 

ANIMAL MECHANICS; or, Walking, Swimming, and Flying. By Dr. 
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mrkf Published by Henry S. Kh^ 6p Co. 



II 



JLIST OF A UTHORS AND SUBJECTS OF THEIR BOOKS, 



TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE 



INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SERIES. 






HXNBT MAUB8IJBT. 
Responsibility in Mental Disease. 

Prof. B. J. MARIBY. 
The Animal Frame. 

j RaT. M. J. BSRKlEIilBT, M JL, F Ii.a, 
\ and M. COOKE, M.A.. IiUD. 

Fungi ; their Nature, Influences, and Uses. 

Prof. OSCAR BCHMIDT, 

(University of Strasburg). 
The Theory of Descent and Darwinism. 

Prof. W. KINQDOM dilFFORD, M.A. 

The First Principles of the Exact Sciences 
explained to the non-mathematical. 

Prof. T. H. KUZLST, IiIi.D., F.R.B. 

Bodily Motion and Consciousness. 

Dr. W. B. OARFUNTIBR, IiIi.D., F.R.a 
The Physical Geography of the Sea. 

Prol WIIililAM ODZilMG, F JLB. 
The New Chemistry. 

Prot SHSSLDON AMOS. 
The Science of Law. 

W. LAUDBR lilNDBAT, M.D., F.R.B.a. 
Mind in the Lower Animals. 

Bir JOHN IiUBBOOK. Bart., F JEt.B. 
The Antiquity of Man. 

Prot W. T. THIBKLTON DTSB, B.A. 
B.BC. 
Form and Habit in Flowering Plants. 

Mr. J. N. IjOOKTXB, F.Ra 

Spectrum Analysis. 

Prof. MIOBAlEIi FOBTBR, ICD. 
Protoplasm and the Cell llieory. 

Prof. W. BfFAKIilSY JXYONB. 
The Logic of Statistics. 

Br. H. CHARIiTOH BASZIAN. M.D.. 
F.Ra 
The Brain as an Organ of Mind. 

Prof A. O. RAMSAY, Iii:i.D., F.Ra 

Earth Sculpture: Hills, Valleys, Moun- 
tains, Plains, Rivers, Lakes ; how they 
were Produced, and how they have been 
Destroyed. 

pro! RUDOIiPH VIROHOW, 

(University of Berlin) . 
Morbid Physiological Action. 



Frof OIiAnDX BERNARD. 

Physical and Metaphysical Phenomena of 
Life. 
Prof. A. OUlBTXIiliT. 

Social Physics. 
Prof H. ElAINTX-OIiAIRX DXYHiZiB. 

An Introduction to General Chemistry. 

Frof. WURTZ. 

Atoms and the Atomic Theory. 

Prof DB QUATRBFAaxa 

The Negro Races. 
Prof IiAOAZX-DUTHIBRa 

Zoology since Cuvier. 
Prof B]fiRTH]lIX>T. 

Chemical Synthesis. 

Prof J. ROSSNTHAIj. 

General Physiology of Muscles and Nerves. 

Prof JAMKS D. DANA, MA., IiI<.D. 
On Cephalization ; or, Head-Qiaracters in 
the Gradation and Progress of Life. 

Frof a W. JOHNSON, MA. 

On the Nutrition of Plants. 
Frot AUSTIN FlilNT, Jr. M.D. 

The Nervous System and its Relation to 
the Bodily Functions. 
Frot W. D. WHITNJSY. 

Modem Linguistic Science. 

Prof BSRNSTXIN (University of Halle). 
Physiology of the Senses. 

Prof. FBRDINAND OOHN, 

(Univeisity of Breslau). 
Thallotyphes (Algae, Lichens, Fungi). 

Frof HXRMANN (University of Zurich^ 
Respiration. 

Frof. UBUCKART (University of LeipsicX 
Outlines of Animal Organization. 

Frof IjISBRSIOH (University of Berlin). 
Outlines of Toxicology. 

Frof KUNDT (University of Strasburg). 
On Sound. 

Prof IjONMEIj (University of ErlangenX 
Optics. 

Frof RBSB (University of Erlangen). 
On Parasitic Plants. 

Frof STRINTHAZi (University of BerlinX 
Outlines of the Science of Language. 

Prof. VOOBIj (Polytechnic Acad, of BerlinX 
'llie Chemical Effects of Light. 



65, Cornhill: 6'« 12, Paternoster Rmv^ London, 



V 



12 



Works Published by Henry S. Kifig &* Co., 



ESS A YS, LECTURES, AND COLLECTED PAPERS, 



IN STRANGE COMPANY; or, The Note Book of a Roving Corresponded!. 
By James Oreenwood, '' The Amatetir Casual. " Crown Svo. dr. 



MASTER-SPIRITS. By Bobert Budianan. Post Svo. los, 6ti, 

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Critidsm as a Fine Art. 

Charies Dickens. 

Tennyson. 

Browning's Marteyneco. 

A Voung English Positivist. 

Hugo in xSra. 

Prose and Verse, 



Birds of the Hebrides. 
Scandinavian Studies: — 
z. A Morning in Copen- 
hagen. 

2. Bjomsen's Masterpiece. 

3. Old Ballads of Den- 

mark. 



4. Modern Danish Bafiac^^ 
Poets in Obscurity : — 
X. George Heath, tfie 

Moorland Poet. 
2. William Miller. 



These are some of the author's lighter 
and more generally interesting Essays on 
literar>' topics of permanent interest. His 



other prose contributions, critic^ attJ 
philosophiad, to our literature are indudci 
m Uie collected editions of his works. 



THEOLOGY IN THE ENGLISH POETS. Being Lectures delivered 
by the Bev. Stopford A. Brooke, Chaplain in Ordinary to Her 
Majesty the Queen. 

MOUNTAIN, MEADOW, AND MERE; a Series of Outdoor Sketches 
of Sport, Scenery, Adventures, and Natural History. -By G. Chris- 
topher Bavies. With 16 Illustrations by W. Harcourt. Crown Svo, 
price 6j. 

HOW TO AMUSE AND EMPLOY OUR INVALIDS. By Harriet 
Powers Fcap. Svo. Price 2j. 6r/. 



What Invalids may do to Amuse Them- 
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What Friends and Attendants may do for 
them. 

Articles for comfort in a Sick 

c qucsiion, i.u yrWTT put by invahd^^B 

J^nl^**!" •^"** ^*"«'^ »» th/little hoik, 
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STUDIES AND ROMANCES. 

Crown Svo. Price 7^. 6</. 

Shakespeare in Blackfriai* 
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;• Vivacious and intepesting."-^rtf/«trM«. 

upen the book, however, at what page 

the reader may, he will find something to 

amuse and instruct, and he must be ^ry 



Amusement for Invalid Children. 

To the Invalid. 

Comforts and Employment for the Aged. 

Employment for Sunday. 

not find me something to do?" is 
up a subject but little touched 

fyaj/ ovt. 



\ 



•D -KT a ^"^» Wilson. I vol. 
By H. Schu'^ 

^ \|istmas Dinner. 

Harry Ormond's C 
Agnes Bemauerin. 
"Yes" or "No "f 
A Model Romance. "^« 
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Dmmg. tt^ 

The Record of a Vanished iS" 

hard to please if he finds nofK 
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Z 



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or ro- 



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13 



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SHORT LECTURES ON THE LAND LAWS. Delivered before the 
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AN ESSAY ON THE CULTURE OF THE OBSERVING 
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Supplement, by Joseph Paynes F.C.P., Author of "Lectures on the 
Science and Art of Education, &c Crown 8vo. 2s, 6d, 



This study, according to her just notions 
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THE GENIUS OF CHRISTIANITY UNVEILED. Being Essa>-s 
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ti 



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THE SECRET OP LONG LIFE. Dedicated by Special Permission to 
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THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. By Walter Bagehot. A New 

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\S 



MILITARY WORKS. 



THE GERMAN ARTILLERY IN THE BATTLES NEAR METZ. 
Based on the official reports of the German Artillery. By Captain 
Hofnbauer, Instructor in the German Artillery and Engineer School. 
Translated by Capt. S. O. Hollist. 

Appendix, furnishing full details as to the 
number of killed and wounded, expen- 
ditiure of ammunition, &c. The campaign 
of 1870 — 71 having demonstrated the im- 
portance of aruUery to an extent which 
has not previously been conceded to it, 
thi-t worlc forms a valuable part of the 
literature of the campaign, and will be 
read with interest not only by members of 
the reeular but also by those of the aux- 
iliary forces. 



This history gives a detailed account of 
the movements of the German artillery in 
the three days' fighting to the east and 
west of Mete, wbicn resulted in paral3rzing 
the army under Marshal Bajaine, and its 
Subsequent surrender. The action of the 
batteries with reference to the other arms 
b clearly explained, and the valuable maps 
show the positions taken up by the inai- 
viduaL batteries at eadi stage of the con- 
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THE OPERATIONS OF THE FIRST ARMY, UNDER STEIN- 
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THE OPERATIONS OF THE BAVARIAN ARMY CORPS. By 
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DRILL REGULATIONS OF THE AUSTRIAN CAVALRY. 
From an Abridged Edition compiled by Captain Illia Wornovits, of 
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Translated by Captain W. S. Cooke. Crown 8vo, limp cloth. 

THE OPERATIONS OF THE FIRST ARMY UNDER GEN. 
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History of the Organisation^ Equipment^ and War Services of 

THE REGIMENT OF BENGAL ARTILLERY. Compiled from 
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Major Francis W. Stubbs, Royal (late Bengal) Artillery. Vol. I. 
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VICTORIES AND DEFEATS. An Attempt to exnlain the Causes which 
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THE FRONTAL ATTACK OF INFANTRY. By Capt. Laymann, 

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THE OPERATIONS OF THE FIRST ARMY IN NORTHERN 
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author, supplemented by official docu- , Mititary Gasettc. 
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STUDIES IN THE NEW INFANTRY TACTICS. Parts I. & IL 
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'* Major Von SchcreflTs * Studies in Tac- 
tics' is worthy of the perasal— indeed, of 
the thoughtful study — of every military 
man. The subject of the respective advan- 
tages of attack and defence, and of the 
methods in which each form of battle 
should be carried out under the fire of 



modem arms is exhaustively and admir- 
ably treated ; indeed, we cannot but con> 
sider it to be decidedly superior to any 
work which has hitherto appeared in Eng- 
lish uDon this all-important subject'* — 
Standard, 



TACTICAL DEDUCTIONS FROM THE WAR OF 1870—1. By 
Captain A. Von Bogpislawski. Translated by Colonel Lnmlev 
Oraliam, late i8th (Royal Irish) Regiment. Demy 8vo. Uniform with 
the above. Price ^s, 

British Service ; and we cannot commence 
the good work too soon, or better, than by 
placmg the two books (' The Operations of 
the German Armies' and 'Tactical Deduc- 
tions') we have here criticised, in every 
military library, and introducing them as 
class-books in every tactical school" — 
United. Service Gazette., 



^ "Major Boguslaw&ki's tactical deduc- 
tions from the war are, that infantry still 
preserve their superiority over cavalry, 
that open order must henceforth be the 
main principles of all drill, and that the 
chassepot is the best of all small arms for 
precision. • , . . We must, without delay, 
unpress brain and forethought into the 



-THE ARMY OF THE NORTH-GERMAN CONFEDERATION. 
A Brief Description of its Organisation, of the different Branches of the 
Service and their ' Role ' in War, of its Mode of Fighting, &c. By a 
Prussian General. Translated from the German by Col. Edward 
Kewdigate. Demy 8vo. 5/. 



The authorship of thu book was erroneously ascribed to the renowned General von 
Moltke, but there can be little doubt that it was written under his immediate inspiration. 



• « 



THE OPERATIONS OF THE GERMAN ARMIES IN FRANCE, 
FROM SEDAN TO THE END OF THE WAR OF 1870— i. 
With I-arge Official Map. From the Journals of the Head-quarters Staff, 
by Major Wm. Blume. Translated by E. M. Jones, Major 20th 
Foot, late Professor of Military History, Sandhurst. Demy 8vo. Price 9J. 

addition to our stock of works upon the 
war that our press has put forth. Major 
Blume writes with a clear conciseness much 
wanting in many of his country's historians. 
Our space forbids our doing more than 
commending it earnestly as the most au- 
thentic and instructive narrative of the 
second section of the war that has yet 
appeared." — Saturday Review. 



''The book is of absolute necessity to the 
military student. . . . The work is one 
of high merit.** — United Set vice Gazette, 

** The work of translation has been well 
done. In notes, prefaces, and introductions, 
much additional information has been 
given." — A thenentm. 

" The work of Major von Blume in its 
English dress forms the most valuable 



THE OPERATIONS OF THE SOUTH ARMY IN JANUARY 
AND FEBRUARY, 1871. Compiled from the Official War Docu- 
ments of the Head-quarters of the Southern Army. By Count Hermann 
Von Wartensleben, Colonel in the Prussian General Staff. Translated 
by Colonel C. H. von Wright. Demy 8yo, with Maps. Uniform 
with the above. Price dr. 



65, Cornhill ; 6-12, Paternoster PoWy London, 



i8 



Works Published by Henry S, King &» Co.y 



Military '^OKSS—continued. 



HASTY INTRENCHMENTS. By Colonel A. Brialmont. Trans- 
lated by Lieutenant Charles A. Empeon, S.A. Demy 8vo. Nine 
Plates. Price 6x. 



"A valuable contribution to miUtary 
litentturs." — A tketutum. 

" In seven short chapters it pves plain 
(Srections for forming shelter -trenches, 
with the best method of carrying the neces- 
sarv tods, and it offers practical illustrations 
of the use of hasty intrenchments on the fidd 
of battle. ''—Untied Service Mt^asine. 

" It sulkies that which our own text- 



books give but imperfectly, viz., hixOs as 
to how a position can best be stren^;tbeiied 
by means ... of such extemporised in- 
trenchments and batteries as can be thrown 
up by infantry in the space of four or five 
hours . . . deserves to become a standard 
military woric** — StoMdard. 

" Cleariy and critically written.-— IK*/- 
Um^oh Gaxette. 



STUDIES IN LEADING TROOPS. By Colonel Von Verdy Da 
Vemois. An authorised and accurate Translation by Ideut^ant 
H. J. T. Hildyard, 71st Foot. Parts I. and II. Demy 8vo. Price ^s. 



*•* General Bbauchamp Walkbr says 
of this work: — "I recommend the fint 
two numben of Colonel von Verdy's 
' Studies ' to the attentive perusal of my 
brother officen. They supply a want 
which I have often felt during my service 
fai this country, namely, a minutar tactical 
detail <^ the minor operations of the war 
than any but the nuwt observant and for- 



tunatdy-placed staff-officer b in a poation 
to give. I have read and re-read them 
verv carefully, I hope with profit, cxrtainly 
witn ^reat interest, and believe that prac- 
tice, ui the sense of these ' Studies,' would 
be a valuable preparation for majxEuvres 
on a more extended scale." — ^Berlin, June, 
187s. 



THE SUBSTANTIVE SENIORITY ARMY LIST, Majors and 
Captains. By Captain F. B. P. White, ist W. I. R^ment. Svo, 
sewed. 2f. 6d. 



CAVALRY FIELD DUTY. By Uajor-General Von Kirus. Trans- 
lated by Captain Frank 8. BuBsell, 14th (King's) Hussars. Crown 
8yo, limp cloth. 7^. 6d, 



*•* This is the text-book of ins^ction 
in the German cavalry, and comprises all 
the^ details connected with the military 
duties of cavalry soldiers on service. The 
translation is made from a new edition, 
which contains the modifications intro* 



duoed consequent on the experiences of 
the late war. The great interest that sm- 
dents feel in all the Geraoan military 
methods, will, it is believed, render this 
book especially accepuUe at the present 
tiwi e. 



DISCIPLINE AND DRILL. Four Lectures delivered to the London 
Scottish Rifle Volunteers. By Captain S. Flood Page. A New and 
Cheaper Edition. Price is. 



"One of the best-known and coolest- 
headed of the metropolitan regiments, 
whose adjutant moreover has lately pub- 
lished an admirable collection of lectures 



addressed by him to the men of his ocvps.** 
—^Times. 

** The very useful and interesting wcffk. 
— Voitrnteer Service Gazette. 



65, Cornhill ; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ London. 



Works Published by Henry S, King &* Co,, 



19 



INDIA AND THE EAST. 



THE ORIENTAL SPORTING MAGAZINE. A Reprint of the first 
5 Volumes, in 2 Volumes, demy 8vo. price 28j. 



These volumes contain many quaint and 
clever papers, among which we may men- 
tion the famous Sporting Songs written by 
S. Y. S., of "The Boar, Saddle, Spur, 
and Spear,** &c., &c.— Oipt. Morris, of the 
Bombay Army ; as well as descriptions of 
Hog Hunts, Fox Hunts, Lion Hunts, 
Tiger Hunts, and Cheeta Hunts; ac- 
counts of Shooting Excursions for Snipe, 
F^iridgeSy Quail, Toucan, Ortolan, and 



Wild Fowl : Interesting details of Pigeon 
Matches, Cock Fights, Horse, Tattoo, and 
Donkey Races : descriptions of the Origin, 
Regulations, and Uniforms of Hunting 
Cliibs; Natural History of rare Wild 
Animals : Memoranda of Feats of Noted 
Horses ; and Memoirs and Anecdotes of 
celebrated Sporting characters, &c., &c. 

{Jttst cut. 



THE EUROPEAN IN INDIA. A Hand-book of Practicallnformation 
for those proceeding to, or residing in, the East Indies, relating to Outfits, 
Routes, Time for Departure, Indian Climate, &c. By Edmund C. P. 
Hull. With a Medical Guide for Anglo-Indians. Being a Com- 
pendium of Advice to Europeans in India, relating to the Preservation and 
Regulation of Health. By B. S. Mair, M.I>., F.B.C.S.E., Late 
Deputy Coroner of Madras. In I vol. Post 8vo. 6s, 



** Full of all sorts of useful information 
to the English sctder or traveller in India.*' 
— Standard. 

*' One of the most valuable books ever 
published in India — valuable for its sound 
information, its careful array of pertinent 
facts, and its sterling common sense. It is 



a publisher's as well a« an author'* ' hit/ 
for it supplies a want which few perM>ns 
mav have discovered, but which everybody 
will at once recoenise when once the con- 
tents of the book have been mastered. 
The medical part of the work b invalu- 
able." — Calcutta Guardian. 



THE MEDICAL GUIDE FOR ANGLO-INDIANS. Being a Com- 
pendium of advice to Europeans in India, relating to the Preservation 
and Regulation of Health. By B. S. Mair, F.B.C.S.E., late Deputy 
Coroner of Madras. Reprinted, with numerous additions and corrections, 
from ''The European in India." 



EASTERN EXPERIENCES. By L. Bowrinfir, C.S.I., Lord Canning's 
Private Secretary, and for many years the Chief Commissioner of Mysore 
and Coorg. In I vol. Demy 8vo. i6j. Illustrated with Maps and 
Diagrams. 



"An admirable ^md exhaustive geo- 
graphical, political, and industrial survey." 
'^Athenttum. 

"The usefulness of thLs compact and 
methodical summary of the most authentic 
information relating to countries whose 
welfare is intimately connected with our 



own, should obtain for Mr. Lewin Bow- 
ring's work a good place among treatises 
of Its kind." — Daily News. 

" Interesting even to the genoiil reader, 
but more especially so to those who may 
have a specutl concern in that portion oi 
our IndiauQ Empire." — Post, 



TAS-HIL UL KALAM ; or, Hindustani Made Easy. By Captain 
W. R. M. Holroyd, Bengal Staff Corps, Director of Public Instruction 
Punjab. Crown 8vo. Price Ss, 



65, CornhiU; 6-12, Paternoster Row^ London. 



20 



Works Fiibiis/ied by Hairy S. Kifig &- Cb., 



India and the East — continued. 

IVESTERN INDIA BEFORE AND DURING THE MUTINIES. 
Pictures drawn from Life. By Major-Qen. Sir Geor^ lie Grand 
Jacob, K.O.8.I., C.B. In i vol Crown 8vo. 7^. 6d. 



"The most important contribution to 
the history of Western India during the 
Mutinies which has yet, in a popular 
form been made public." — Aiheturum. 



(« 



Few men more competent th^n hhn* 
self to speak authoritatiTdy oonceniix^ 
Indian w»sx%^''^Standard, 



£DUCATIONAL COURSE OF SECULAR SCHOOL BOOKS 
FOR INDIA. Edited by J. S. liaurie, of the Inner Temple, Barrister- 
at'Law; formerly H.M. Inspector of Schools, England; Assbtant Royal 
Commissioner, Ireland; Special Commissioner, African Settlements; 
Director of Public Instruction, Ceylon. 



Extract from Prospectus. 



The Editor has undertaken to frame for 
India.^what he has been eminently suc- 
cessful in doing for England and her 
colonies, — a series of educational works, 
which he hopes will prove as suitable for 
the peculiar wants of the country as they 
will be consistent with the lending idea 
Above alluded ta Like all beginnings, his 
present instalments are necessarily some- 
<iK'hat meagre and elementary ; but be only 



awaits official and public af^roval to com- 
plete, within a comparatively brief period, 
his contemplated plan of a specinc and 
fairly comprehensive series of works in the 
various leading vernaculars of the Indian 
continent.' Meanv^le, those on his general 
catalogue may be found suitable, m tb»r 
present form, for use in the An^lo-ver- 
uacular and English schools of India. 



T?ie Jollaiving Works are itozv ready: — 



FIBST HINDUSTANI 
RBSADSB, stifflinen wrapper . 

Ditto ditto strongly bound in cloth . 

THIB BJCGOND HINDUSTANI 
RlSADgR, stiff linen wrapper . 

Ditto ditto strongly bound in cloth . 



s, d. 

o 6 

o 9 

o 6 

o 9 



aSOGRA^FHY OF INDIA, with 
Maps and Historical Appendix, 
tracing the growth of the British 
Empire in Hindustan. rzS pp. 
Cloth. 



s.d. 



In the Press. 



SUBMBNTABY 
INDIA. 



aSOaRAFHT OF 



FACTS AND FSATUKES OF INDIAN 
HISTORY, in a scries of alternating 
Reading Lessons and Memory Exercises. 



£XCHANGE TABLES OF STERLING AND INDIAN RUPEE 
CURRENCY, UPON a new and extended system, embracing Values 
from One Farthing to One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and at rates pro- 
gressing, in Si.xteenths of a' Penny, from is, 9^. to 2j. yi, per Rupee. By 
I>oiiaId Frasdr, Accountant to the British Indian Steam Navigation Co., 
Limited. Royal ovo. lOr. 6d. 



*'The calculations must have entailed 
f^reat labour on the author, but the work 
IS one which we fancy must become a 
standard one in all busmess houses which 



have dealings with any country where the 
rupee and the English pound are standard 
corns of currency. —Jnvermcss Ccnrier. 



6$, Cornhili ; 6-12, Paternoster Ro%v^ London. 



Works Puhlislud by Henry S. King &* Co,^ 21 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG AND FOR LENDING 

LIBRARIES. 



LAYS OF MANY LANDS. By a Knight Errant. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 

Pharaoh Land. Wonder Land. 

Home Land. Rhine Land. 

SEEKING HIS FORTUNE, AND OTHER STORIES. Crown 8vo. 
Four Illustrations. Price 3^, 6d. 

Cow TENTS.— Seeking his Fortune. — Oluf and Stephanoff. — What's in a Name? — 
Contrast. — Onesta. 

A series of instructive and interesting stories for children of both sexes, each one 
enforcing, indirectly, a good moral lesson. 

DADDY'S PET. By Mrs. Ellen BrOSB (Nelsie Brook). Square crown 
8vo, uniform with " Lost Gip." 6 Illustrations. 

A pathetic story of lowly life, showing the good inHuence of home and of child-life 
upon an uncultivated but true*hearted "navvy. ' 

THREE WORKS BY MARTHA FARQUHAR80N. 

Each Story is independent and complete in itself. They are published in uniform 
size and price, and are elegantly bound and illustrated. 

I. ELSIE DINSMORE. Cro^vn 8vo. 3/. 6d, 

II. ELSIE'S GIRLHOOD. Crown 8vo. 3^.6./. 

III. ELSIE'S HOLIDAYS AT ROSELANDS. Crown 8vo. 3;. M. 

The Stories by this author have a very high reputation in America, and of all her books 
these are the mo&t popular and widely circulated. These are the only English editions 
sanctioned by the author, who has a direct interest in this English Edition. 

LOST GIP. By Hesba Stretton, Author of "Little Meg," "Alone in 
Londojn." Square crown 8vo. Six Illustrations. Price is, (>d, 

A HANDSOMELY BOUND EDITION, WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRA- 
TIONS, PRICE HALF-A-CROWX. 

formist. 
"An ( 
— Church Het 



* • 
« 



''Thoroughly enlists the sympathies of 
the reader." — Church Revitw. 

"Full of tender touches." — Noucon- 



"An exquisitciv touching little story.' 
'*raia. 



THE KING'S SERyANTS. By Hesba Stretton, Author of "Lost 
Gip." Square crown 8vo, uniform with "Lost Gip." 8 Illustrations. 
Price IS, id. 

Part I.— Faithful in Little. Part 1 1.— Unfaithful. Part II I. -Faithful in Much. 

AT SCHOOL WITH AN OLD DRAGOON. By Stephen J. 
Mac Kenna. Crown 8vo. 5^. With Six Illustrations. 



"AtGhuraeeVaia." 

Introductory. 

Henry and Amy. 

A Story of Canterbury. 

A Disastrous Trumpet CalL 

A Baptism of Fire. 



A Baptism of Frost. 
Who Shot the Kafirs. 
John Chinaman and the 
Middies. 



In a Golden Fort. 
A Little Game. 
True to his Salt. 
Mother Moran's Enemies. 
Sooka the Sycee; or. Sea 
Horses in Reality. 

A Series of Stories of Military and Naval Adventure, related by an old Retired Officer 
of the Army. 



65, Cornhill ; 6^ 12, Paternoster Row^ Loftdon, 



22 



IVoris Published by Hairy S. Kitig ^ Co., 



Books for the Young, etc. — cantinued, 

FANTASTIC STORIES. Translated from the German of Richard 
Leander, by Paulina B. Granville. Crowa 8vo. Eight fiill-pa^ 
Illustrations. 



The Ma^ic Oi^n. 

The Invisible Rinedooi. 

I1ie Knight who Grew 
Rusty. 

Of the Queen who could not 
mnlce Gingerbread Nut<, 
and of the Ring who could 
uot play the Jew's Harpc 



The Wishing Ring. 

The Three Princesses with 

Hearts of Glass. 
The Old Bachelor. 
Sepp's Courtship. 
Heino in the Marsh. 



The Dreamjoe Beech. 
The Little Huinp-&»ck«i 

Maiden. 
Heavenly Music 
The Old Hair Trunk. 



Uu lucky Dog and Fortune's 
Favourite. 

These are translations of some of the best of Richard Leandev's well-known stories fcr 
children. I'^e illustrations to this work are of singular beauty and finish. 



THE AFRICAN CRUISER. A Midshipman* s Adventures on \h^ West 

Coast. A Book for Boys. By S. Whitckurcli Sadler, K.W. Three 

Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 31'. 6r/. 

A book of real adventures amooe slavers on the West Coast of Africa. One dutf 
recommendation is the faithfulness of the local colouring. 



THE LITTLE WONDER-HORN. 

Series of ''Stories told to a Child:' 
y, 6d, 

** Full of fresh and vigorous &ncy : it is 
worthy of the author of some of the best of 
our modem verse." — Standard, 



By Jean Ing^low. A Second 
Fifteen Illustrations. Cloth, gilt 

" We like all the contents of the ' Little 
Wonder-Horn * very much." — Atkememm. 

*' We recommend it with coofideoce." — 
Pall MaU Ga»€tU. 



Second Edition. 

BRAVE MEN'S FOOTSTEPS. A Book of Example and Anecdote for 

Young People. By the Editor of '< Men who have Risen." With 

Four Illustrations. By C. Doyle. y, dd, 

'* The little rolume is precisely of the 
stamf) to win the favour of those who, in 
chousing a gift for a boy, would consult his 
moral development as well as his temporvy 
pleasure." — Vaily Telegraph, 



"A readable and instructive volome.**— 
Examiner, 

** No more wdcome book for the school- 
boy could be imagined.** — BirmiMgkam 
Daily Gatettt, 



Third Edition. 



STORIES IN PRECIOUS STONES. By Helen Zimmem. With 

Six Illustrations. Ciown 8va 5j. 

*'A pretty little book which fanciful 
young i>ersons ivill appreciate, and which 
will remind its readers of many a legend, and 
many an imaginary virtue attached to the 
gems they are so fond of wearing." — Post. 



"A series of pretty tales which are half 
fantastic, half natural, and pleasantly 
quaint, as befits .stories intended for the 
young." — Daily TeUgrapk, 



Second Edition. 

GUTTA-PERCHA WILLIE, THE WORKING GENIUS, By 
(George Macdonald. With Illustrations hy Arthur Hughes. CiOMm 
8vo. 3^. (id. 

** The cleverest child we know asmres us 
she has read this story through five times. 
Mr. Macdonald will, we are convinced, 
accept that verdict upon his little work as 
fia3l"—S/ectatar. 



"An amusing and instructive book.*' — 
Yorkshire Post. 

*' One of those charniing books for which 
the author b so well known.** — Edin^rgk 
Daily Review. 



65, Cornhill ; dr* 12, Pattrnoster Row^ Loftdan. 



Works Published by Henry S, King 6r* Co., 



23 



Books for tHE Young, etc.— c^/i//»ii«/. 

TRAVELLING MENAGERIE. By Charles Camden, Author 
of "lloity Toity." Illustrated by J. Mahoney. Crown 8vo. y. 6d, 

/* A capital little book .... deserves a I *' A very attractive story." — Public 
wide circulatioa among our boys and girls.** | Opinutu 
— Hintr. 



I>LtJCKY FELLOWS. A Book for Boys. By Stephen J. Mac Kenna. 
With Six Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Price jr. dd. 



" 7*hls is one of the very best ' Books for 
Boys ' which have been issued this year." — 
MorntMg Advertiser. 

"A thorough book for boys . . . written 



throughout in a manly straightforward 
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children for wfaomit is intended.** — LmuUn 
Society. 



THE GREAT DUTCH ADMIRALS. By Jacob de Liefde. Crown 
8vo. Illustrated. Price 5j; 



" A really good \iWi\tJ*— Standard. 

** May be recommended as a wholesome 
present for boys. They will find in it nu- 
merous tales of adventure." — Alkenaum. 



** Thoroughly interesting and inspirit- 
ing.*' — Public opinion. 

'A really excellent \xxik.**-^pectaior. 



New EditiOH, 

THE DESERT PASTOR, JEAN JAROUSSEAU. Translated from 
the French of Eugene Pelletan. By Colonel E. P. De li'Hoste. 

In fcap. 8vo, with an Engraved Frontispiece. Price 3X. 6d, 

"This charming specimen of Eugene 
Pellecan*5 tender grace, humour, and lugh- 
toned morality.'* — Notes and Queries. 

" A touching record of the struggles in 
the cause of religious liberty oia real 
man. *' — Graphic. 



*' There is a poetical simplicity and pic- 
tur»queness ; the noblest heroism ; unpre- 
tentious religion ; pure love, and the 
spectacle of a household brought up in the 

fear of the Lord ^^lUtairated 

London Nertn. 



THB DESERTED SHIP. A Real Story of the Atlantic. By Cupples 
Howe I Master Mariner. Illustrated by Townley Green. Crown 8vo. 
3J. (id. 



"Curious adventures trith bears, seals, 
and other Arctic animals, and with scarcely 
more human Esquimaux, form the mass of 



material with which the story deals, and 
will much interest boys who have a spice 
of romance in their composition." — Courant. 



HOITY TOITY, THE GOOD LITTLE FELLOW. By Charles 
Camden. Illustrated. Crown 8yo. 3/. 6d. 

a charming little fellow who meddles always 
with a kindly disposition with other people's 
affairs and helps them to do right. There 
are many shrewd lessons to be picked up in 
this clever little story." — Puiflic Opini/m. 



** Young folks may gather a good deal of 
wisdom from the story, which is written 
in an amusing and attractive style." — 
Courant. 

" Relates very pleasantly tlie history of 



65, Cornhill ; dr* 12, Paternoster Row, London. 



24 



Works Published by Henry S, King &» C^., 



POETRY. 



LYRICS OF LOVE FROM SHAKESPEARE TO TENNYSON. 

Selected and arranged by W. Davenport Adams. Fcap. 8vo, pnce 
3J. 6rf. 

" He has the prettiest love-songs for maids." — Shakespeare. 

Dedicated by permission to the Poet Laureate. 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT'S POEMS. Red-line Edition. Hand- 
somely bound. With Illustrations and Portrait of the Author. Price ^s, 6*/. 

A Cheaper Edition is also published. Price 3^. dd, 
Tktse art the only complete English Edit tans seutctioMed by ike Author, 

ENGLISH SONNETS. Collected and Arranged by John Bexmis. 

Small crowTi 8vo. Elegantly bound, price 3J. dS. 

HOME-SONGS FOR QUIET HOURS. By the Bev. Canon H. H. 

Baynes, Editor of ** English Lyrics" and "Lyra Anglicana." 

Handsomely printed and bound, price '^s, 6d, 

THE DISCIPLES. A New Poem. By Harriet Eleanor Hamilton 
King. Crown 8vo. p. 6if, 

The present work was commenced at 
the express instance of the great Italian 
patriot, Mazzini, and commemorates some 
of his associates and fellow-workers— men 
who looked up to him as their master and 



teacher. The author enjoyed the pnTilegc 
of Maizini's friendship, and the first nut 
of this vrork was on its way to him woen 
tidings reached this country that he bad 
passed away. 

SONGS FOR MUSIC. ByFonr Friends. Square crown 8vo. 

CONTAINING SONGS BY 

Reginald A. Gatty. Stephen H. Catty. 

GrevilleJ. Chester. J. 11. E. 

THE POETICAL AND PROSE WORKS OP ROBERT BU* 

CHAANAN. Collected Edition, in 5 Vols. 



Vol. I. Contains.— " Ballads and Ro- 
mances :" " Ballads and Poems of Life." 
Vol. II.—" Ballads and Poems of Life ;" 



"Allegories and Sonnets." 

Vol I II.—" CruLskcen Sonnets ; " " Book 
of Orm :" •• Political Mystics." 



The Contents of the remaining Volumes ivill be duly anttcn/tced. 



7H0X7aE7B IN VXREOC. Small crown 8vo. 

This is a Collection of Verses e\'pressl%*e 
of religious feeling, written from a Tbeisiic 
.stand-point. 

COSMOS. A Poem. Small crown 8vo. 

Subject.— Nature in the Pjist and in the 
Present. — Man in the Past and in the Fte- 
sent. — The Future. 



ViaNXTTSS IN RHYIOB. Collected 
Verses. B y Austin Dobson. Crown 8vo. 
Price 5X. 

A Collection of Vers de Soci^t^, for the 
most part contributed to various magazines. 



NARCISSUS AND • OTHSB 

Bjr S. Carpenter. Small crown 8vy>. 
Pnce sr. 

A TAIiB OF THE 8SA, BONNBTS, 
AND OTHSB POSM8. By James 
Howell. Crown 8vo, cloth, 5/. 

IMITATIONS FBOM THB Q2RMAN' 
OF 8PITTA AND TSR8TXa£N. 
By Iiady Durand. Crown Svo. 4X. 

"An acceptable addition to the reltgtous 
poetry of the day.*' — Courani. 

METBIOAIi TRAN6I1ATION8 FROM 
THX OBXBK AND LATIN POSTS. 
AND OTHSR POSMB. By R. B. 
Boewell, M.A Oxon. Crown Svo. 



65, Cornliill ; 6*» 12, Paternoster Row^ London. 



Works Published by Henry S, King 6- Co,, 



25 



VoZTKt—continufd. 



TIGIm and FLUTS. a New Volume 
of Poems, by Xdzntind W. Gosse. With 
a Frontispiece by W. B. Boott. Crown 
8vol 

SABTXRN ZJBOaNDS AND STOBIX8 
IN SNaUBH VXRSa. By liiau- 
tenant Norton Fowlett, Royal Aitillen'. 
Crown 8vo. 5x. 

" Hare we at length found a successor 
to Thomas Tngoldsbyf We are almost 
inclined to hope so after reading * Eastern 
L^ends.' There is a rollicking sense of 
fun about the stories, joined to marvellous 
power of rhyming, and plenty of swing, 
which irresistibly reminds us of our old 
favourite."— <;ni/A*r. 



OR, Lovs AND Lirs IN Chbshirk. 
By T. Aaha, Author of the ** Sorrows of 
Hypsipyle/* etc Sewed. Price &/. 

"A reallv fine poem, full of tender, 
subtle toucnes of feeling." — Manche*trr 
Nnvs. 

** Pregnant from beginning to end with 
the results of careful observation and ima- 
ginative power." — Cfuxter Chronicle. 

■FSB OAIiUBRY OF FiaJBONS, AND 
OTHXR POSMa By Theo. Mar- 
Jdals. Crown 8vo. 41. 6a. 

"A conceit abounding in prettiness." — 
Rjraminer. 

** Contains as clear evidence as a book 
can contain that its composition was a 
source of keen and legitimate enjoyment. 
The rush of fresh, sparkling fanctes is too 
rapid, too sustained, too abundant, not to 
be spontaneous. "—^riM^xr;'. 

VSXS INN 09 BTRANOa MXSTIN08, 
AND OTHXR POElCa BylCortim«r 
Cdlllns. Crown 8vo. sx. 

" Abounding in quiet humour, in bright 
fancy, in sweetness^ and melody of esipres- 
don, and, at times, in the tenderest touches 
of Dothos. "— ^m/^AT. 

''Mr. Collins has an underctirrent of 
<^ivalrT and romance beneath the trifling 
vein of good-humoured banter which is 
the special characteristic of his vene.*'— 

3BROS AGONIBTX8. ByX.B.D. Crowri 
8vo. 3*. d«i 

*'The author of these verses has written 
a very touching story of the hiunan heart 
in the story he tells with such pathos and 
power, of an affection cherished so long 
and so secretly. . . . It is not the 
least merit of these pas^ that they are 
everywhere illumined with moral and re- 
ligious sentiment suggested, not paraded, 
of the brightest, purest character."-* > 
Siamfard. 



CAIiDXRON'S DRAMAa 

The PiRCATORY OF St. Patrick. 
The Wonderful Magician. 

LiFB IS A DrKAM. 

Translated from the Spanish. By Daniv- 
Flofence MacCarthy. lor. 

These translations have never before 
bfccn Dublished. ITie " Puigator>- of St. 
Patrick " is a new version, with new and 
elaborate historical notes. 

BONGS FOR BAHjORB. By Dr. W. C. 
Bennett. Dedicated by Special Reque^t 
to H. R. H. the Duke of Edinburgh. 
Crown 8vo. 3*. 6</. With Steel Portrait 
and Illustrations. 

An Edition in Illustrated paper Covers 
Price IS. 

WAI^D IN, AND OTHSR POSICS. 
By the Rev. Henry J. Bulkeley. Crowa 
Svo. 5X. 

"A remarkable book of genuine poetry.* 
— Evening Standard. 

** Genume power dispbyed." — Exa* 
ntiner, 

" Poetical feeling is manifest 

here, and the diction of the poem is unim- 
peachable."— /»«// Mall CaxetU. 

''He has successfully attempted what 
has seldom before been well done, viz., the 
treatment of subjects not in themselves 
poetical from a poetic point of view." — 
Graphic. 

'* Intensity of feelins, a rugged pathos, 
robustness of tone, ana a downriehtness of 
expression which does not shrink from e>'en 
slanff if it seem best fitted for his purpose.'* 
— luttstrated London News. 

BONOS OF IiIFB AND DEATH. By 
John Payne, Author of *' Intaglios,'* 
"Sonnets,** **The Masque of Shadows,'* 
etc. Crown Svo. $t. 

" The art of ballad-m-riting has long been 
lost in England, and Mr. Payne may claim 
to be its restorer. It is a periect deUght to 
meet with such a ballad as ' May Mari^ret* 
in the present volume." — IVestmwsUr 
Review, 

ASPROMONTK. AND OTHSR POSMS. 
Second Edition, cloth. 4X. td. 

"The volume is anonymous, but there 
is no reason for the author to be adiamed 
of it. The ' Poems of Italy ' are evidently 
inspired by genuine enthusiasm in the 
cause espousM : and one of them, ' The 
Execution of Felice Orsini.' ha.s much 
poetic merit, the event celebrated being 
told with dramatic force.*' — Athentrunt. 

*• The verse b fluent and free."--*S*/ff- 
taior^ 



65, Cornhill ; 6-12, Paternoster R(nv, London. 



26 



IVorks PuhlisJud by Henry S, King (St- Co.y 



VonTJiY^conHnwd, 



A NXW VOIiXTMi: OV 80NNXTS. By 
the BeT. O. Tenayson Tiim«r. Crown 
8vo. 4r. 6d, 

*' Mr. Turner is a genuine poet ; his song 
is sweet and pure, beautiful in expression, 
and often subtle in thought."— /'o/^ Mall 
Gazfttt, 

" The dominant charm of all these sonnets 
is the pervading presence of the writer's 
pervonality, never obtruded but idways 
impalpabiy diffused. 'Ihe light of a devout, 
gentle, and kindly spirit, a delicate and 
graceful fancy, a keen mtelligence irradiates 
these thoughts." — ConUmporary Review, 

aOXTHX'B FAUST. A New Translation 
in Rime. By the Bey. O. Kegan FauL 
Crown 8vo. (a. 

"His translation is the most minutely 
accurate that has yet been produced. . . ^* 
-^Examiner. 

"Mr. Paul , evidently understands 
' Faust,' and his tran^ation is as well 
suited to convey its meaning to English 
readers as any we have yet seen." — Edin- 
bureh Daily Rfvietv. 

"Mr. Paul is a zealous and a faithful 
intcrjircter." — Saturday Reviitu. 

XBS DiUDAM AND THB DSIBD, AND 
OTHXR FOB MB. By Patriok Boott, 
Author of " Footpaths between Two 
Worlds," etc Fcap. 8vo, cloth, 5*. 

"A bitter and able .satire on the vice 
and follies of the day, literary, social, and 
political." — Standard. 

*' Shows real poetic power coupled with 
evidences of satirical energy. *^—EdiHlmrgh 
Daily Review. 



BONaS OF TWO WOBIUDB. By a 
New Writer. Fcap. 8vo> ckch. jc 
Second Edition. 

"lliese poems will assuredly take high 
rank among the class to which tfacy brioiig.'' 
—BritisA Quarterly Review, A^ril ut, 

" If these poems are the mere prdudes 
of a mind growing in power and in indt^- 
tion for verse, we have in them the promise 
of a fine poet."— >S/Vr//e/<v-, February xjtk. 

"No extracts could do jusdce to the 
exquisite tones, the felicitous phi^unng and 
delicately wrought harmonies of some of 
these poems." — Noncon/ffmtist, Mardt 
^-jtA. 

" It has a puri^ and delicacy of fedtng 

like morning 9xc.—Gra/k£c, Af^rck tUk, 

THBS UEGENDS OF ST. PATBICK 

AND OTHXR POXMa By Aubrey 

de Vere. Crown 8vo. 55. 

"Mr. De Vere's vorsiiicatiaa in his 
earlier poems is characterised by great 
sweetness and simplicity. He is master of 
his instrument, and rarely offends the tax 
with false notes. Poems such as tlusse 
scarcely admit of quotation, for their charm 
is not, and ought not to be, found in Uolated 
passages ; but we can promise the patient 
and thoughtful reader much pleasure in the 
perusal of this volume." — /\i/? Mall 
Gatette, 

"We have marked, in almost every 

fage, excellent touches from which we 
now not how to select. We have but 
space to commend the varied structure fA 
his verse, the carefulness kA his grammar, 
and his excellent English." — SeUurday 
Review. 



FICTION. 



THE OWL'S NEST IN THE 
CITY. In I vol. Cloth, crown 
8vo. 

TWO GIRLS. By Frederick 
Wedmore, Author of ** A Snapt 
Gold Ring." In 2 vols. Cloth, 
crown 8vo. 

A powerful and dramatic story of Bo- 
hemian life in Paris and in London. 

JUDITH GWYNNE. By Liftle 
Carr. In 3 vols. Crown 8vo, cloth. 



MR. CARINGTGN, A Tale of 

Love and Conspiracy. By Kobert 

Turner Cotton. in 3 vols, 
Cloth, crown 8vo. 

TOO LATE. By Mr«. Newman. 

Two vols. Crown 8vo. 

A dramatic love story. 

LADY MORETOUN'S DAUGH- 
TER. By Mrs. Siloart. In 
3 vols. Crown 8vo, cloth. 



65, CornhUl; d^• 12, PaternosUr Emv, LomlofK 



Works Publis/ied by Henry S. King dr* Cc.^ 



27 



Fiction — continued. 



HEATHEROATE. In 2 vols. Cr. 
8vo, cloth. A Story of Scottish 
Life and Character by a new Author. 

THE QUEEN'S SHILLING. By 
Captain Arthur OrifflthSi 
Author of " Peccavi." 2 vols. 

" .... A very lively and agreeable 
no\e\."— Vanity Fair. 

'*«The Queen's Shilline' is a capital 
story, far more interesting than the meagre 
sketch we have given of uie fortunes of the 
hero and heroine can suggest Every scene, 
character, and incident of the book are so 
life-like that they seem drawn from life 
direct. "—/>«// Matt Gazette. 

M IRAN DA. A Midsummer Madness. 
By Mortimer Collins. 3 vols. 

" There is not a dull page in the whole 
three \o\\xmt%."— Standard. 

** The woric of a man who is at once a 
thinker and a poet."— J/ffur, 

SQUIRE SI LCH ESTER'S 
WHIM. ByUortimerCollins, 
Author of ** Marquis and Mer- 
chant," "The Princess Clarice," 
&c. Crown 8vo. 3 vols, 

" Wc think it the best (story) Mr. Collins 
has yet written. Full of incident and 
ad venture,"— /*«// Afatt Gazette. 

" Decidedly the best novel from the pen 
of Mr. Mortimer Collins that we have yet 
come across." — Graf/tic. 

" So clever, so irritating, and so charm- 
ing a story.**— Standard. 

THE PRINCESS CLARICE. 
A Story of 1 871. By Mortimer 
Collins. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 

"Mr. Collins has produced a readable 
book, amusingly characteristic . . . ." — 
^tAensrum. 

"Very readable and amusing. We 
would especially give an honourable men- 
tion to Air. CoUins's *vers de sociiti^ the 
writing of which has almost become a lost 
aiTtr-^Pall Malt Gazette. 

" A bright, fresh, and original book."— 
Sta$ularn. 

WHAT 'TIS TO LOVE. By the 
Author of " Flora Adair," " The 
Value of Fosterstown." 3 vols. 



REGINALD BRAMBLE, ACynic 
of the 19th Century. An Auto- 
biography. One Volume. 

"There is plenty of vivacity in Mr. 
Bramble's narrative.'' — Athenerum. 

* ' Written in a lively and readable style.'* 
— Hour. 

"The skill of the author in the delinea- 
tion of the supposed chronicler, and the 
preservation of his natural character, is 
beyond pr^'st."— Morning Post. 

EFFIE'S GAME; How she Lost 

AND HOW SHE WON. By Cocil 

Clayton. 2 vols. 

"Well written. The characters move, 
and act, and, above all, talk like human 
beings, and we have liked reading about 
them." — S/ectator. 

CHESTERLEIGH. By Ansley 
Gonyers. 3 vols. Crown 8vo. 

" We have gained much enjoyment from 
the book," — Spectator. 

"Will suit the hosts of readers of the 
higher class of romantic fiction." — Morn- 
ing^ Advertiser. 

BRESSANT. A Romance. By 
Julian Hawthorne. 2 vols. 
Crown 8vo. 

" The sen's work we venture to say is 
worthy of the sire. . . . The story as 
it stands is one of the most powerful with 
which we are ao^uainted." — Times. 

" Pretty certain of meeting in this country 
a grateful and appreciative reception." — 
A then^um. 

" Mr. Tulian Hawthorne is endowed with 
a large share of his father's peculiar genius.'* 
—Pall Mail Gazette. 

" Enough to make ushopeful thatweshall 
once more have reason to rejoice whenever 
we hear that a new work is coming out 
written by one who bears the honoured 
name of HaMrthome.** — Saturday Review, 

HONOR BLAKE : The Story of 
A Plain Woman. By Mrs. 
Keatinffe, Author of ** English 
Homes m India," &c. 2 vols. 
Crown 8vo. 

"One of the best novels we have met 
with for some time." — Momittg Post. 

" A story which must do good to ali, 
young and old, who read i\."--Daity News. 



65, Carnhill; <S- 12, Paternoster Roiv^ London. 



28 



Jlori's Published by Henry S, King \>* CV?., 



Fiction — contimua. 



OFF THE SKELLIGS. By Jean 
Ingelow. (Her First Romance.) 
Crown 8vo. In 4 vols. 

" Qever and tparkling." — Standard. 

" We read eacn sucCMding volume with 
increasing interest, going almost to the 
point of wishing there was a fifth." — 
AthenttutH. 

" The novel as a whole is a remarkable 
one, because it is uncompromisingly tnie 
to Xxicy—Daily Ncius. 

SEETA. By Colonel Meadows 
Taylor, Author of " Tara,'* 
" Ralph Darnell," &c. Crown 
8vo. 3 vols, 

"The story is well told, native life is 
admirably described, and the petty intrigues 
of native rulers, and their hatred of the 
Englinh, mingled with fear lest the latter 
should eventually prove the victors, are 
cleverly depicted." — Athenttum. 

** We cannot speak too highly of Colonel 
Meadows Taylor's book. . . . We would 
recommend all novel readers to purchase it 
at the earliest opportunity. " — yoAn Bull, 

"Thoroughly interesting and enjoyable 
reading." — Examiner, 

HESTER MORLEY'S PRO- 
MISE. By Hesba Stretton. 
3 vols. 

"'Hester Morley's Promise' Ls much 
better than the avem;;c novel of the day ; 
it lias jnuch more cl.iim to critical con- 
sideration as a piece of literary work, — ^not 
mere mechanism. The pictures of a narrow 
society - narrow of soul and intellect — in 
which the book abounds, are very clever." 
— Sp<ctator^ 

"Its charm lies not so much, perhaps, in 
any special excellence in character, draw- 
ing, or construction— though all the cha- 
racters stand out clearly and are well 
sustained, and the interest of the story 
never flags— as in general tone and colour- 
ing."— C^/'j^rjrr. 

THE DOCTOR'S DILEMMA. 
By Hesba Stretton, Author ot 
"Little Meg," &c., &c. Crown 
8vo. 3 vols. 

**A fascinating story which scarcely 
flags in interest from the first page to the 
last. It is all story; every page con- 
tributes something to the result. —i^r/V/V/i 
Quarterly Kevi4nv, 



I 



I 



THE ROMANTIC ANNALS OF 
A NAVAL FAMILY. ByKrs. 
Arthur Tralieme. Crown 8vo. 
los. 6d. 

*' A veiy readable and interesting bode" 
— United Service Gazette, June 28, 1873- 

" Some interesting^ letters are introduced, 
amongst others, several frc»m the late 
King William IW'' - Sj^tatar. 

''Well and pleasantly told. There are 
also some capital descriptions of £ngli-Ji 
country life in the last century, preseating 
a vivid picture of England beuire the intro- 
duction of railways, and the busy life ac- 
companying them." — Evening StaisdarJ, 

JOHANNES OLAF. By E. de 
Wille. Translated by F.S. Bun- 
nett. Crown 8vo. 3 vols. 

*' The art of description is fully exhibited : 
perception of character and capacity <br 
delineating it are obvious ; while there :\ 
great breadth and comprehensaveness in 
the plan of tlie story." M truing Pcsi. 

THE SPINSTERS OF 
BLATCHINGTON. By Mar. 
Travers. 2 vols. Croxvn 8vo. 

*' A pretty story. Deserving of a £aivx)ux* 
able reception.** — Graphic, 

"A book of more than average merit?, 
worth reading.**— J?jr<»w/>r^r. 

A GOOD MATCH. By AmeUa 

Perrier, Author of * * Mca Culpa. " 

2 vols. 

" Racy and lively." — Atheneeum. 

"As pleasant and readable a novel as we 
have seen this season." — ExantiHrr, 

"This clever and amusing novel." — Pali 
Mall Gazette. 

"Agreeably written.** — Pubiic O^inhr., 



THOMASINA. By the Author of 
"Dorothy," " De Cressy," etc. 
2 vols. Crown 8vo. 
"A finished and delicate cabinet picture, 
no line is without its purpose, but all con- 
tribute to tlie unity of the work." — Athe- 
ittrurn. 

•' For the delicacies of character-drawings 
for play of incident, and for finish of style, 
we must refer our readers to the story 
itself."— Z?^f/7y Neu*s. 

"This undeniably pleasing story.'* — 
Pali Mall Gazette. 

VANESSA. By the Author of 
* * Thomasina. " 2 vols. Crown 
8vo. [S/tortI}', 



65, Cornhill; ^Sn 12, Paternoster R<yiv, London, 



lybrJb Published by Henry S. King cn C^., 



29 



Ticmo^^contittuai. 



THE STORY OF SIR ED- 
WARD'S WIFE. By Hamil- 
ton ICarslxall, Author of ^' For 
Very Life," i vol. Crown 8vo. 



•( 



A quirt graceful little story.*— i'/n-- 
tator. 

*' There are many clever conceits in iL 
• . . Mr. Hamilton Marshall can tell a 
story closely and pleasantly."— /'a// Mall 
Caxetie. 



LINKED AT 
Bunnett. 



LAST. By F. B. 

1 vol. Crown 8vo. 



" ' Linked at Last ' contains so much of 
pretty description, natural incident, and 
delicate portraiture, that the reader who 
once takes it up will not be inclined to re- 
linquish it without concluding the volume." 
"—Mcming Post. 

"A very charming story." — John 
Bull, 



PERPLEXITY. By Sydney 
Kostyn. 3 vols. Crown 8vo. 

"Shows muchlucidity — ^much power of 
portraiture. " — Exntniner. 

" Written with very considerable power, 
great cleverness, and sustained interest" 
— Standard. 

** The literary workmanship is good, and 
the story forcibly and graphically told."— 
Daily News. 

MEMOIRS OF MRS. L^TITIA 
BOOTHBY. By William 
Clark BiiBsell, Author of '*The 
Book of Authors." Crown 8vo. 

** Clever and ingenious.** — Saturday 
Rnnew. 

"One of the most delightful books I 
have read for a veryr long while. . . . 
Thoroughly entertaining from the first page 
to the \3&i:*—Judy. 

'•Very clever book."— t7»an/iV»f. 

CRUEL AS THE GRAVE. By 
the Countess Von Bothmer. 
3 vob. Crown 8vo. 

" Jealousy is cruel as the Grave.** 

** An interesting, though somewhat tra^c 
story." — Athefueum. 

"An agreeable, unaflected, and emi- 
nently readable noveV— Daily News, 



Thirty-Second Edition. 

GINX'S BABY; His Birth and 
OTHER Misfortunes. By Ed- 
ward Jenkins. Crown 8vo. 
Price 2J. 

Fourteenth Thousand. 

LITTLE HODGE. A Christmas 
Country Carol. By Edward Jen- 
kins, Author of-**Ginx*s Baby,"^ 
&c. Illustrated. Cro'wn 8vo. 5j» 
A Cheap Edition in paper covers, price is. 

"Wise and humorous, but yet most 
pathetic." — Noticonformist. 

** The pathos of some of the passages is 
extremely touching.'* -» AfancAester Ex- 
aminer. 

Sixtli Edition. 

LORD BANTAM. By Edward 
JenkinSy Author of " Ginx*& 
Baby." Crown 8vo. Price 2J, 

LUCHMEE AND DILLOO. A 
Story of West Indian Life. By 
Edward Jenkins, Author of 
** Ginx's Baby," ** Little Hodge," 
&c. Two vols. Demy 8vo. lUus- 
trated. \Prcparing, 

HER TITLE OF HONOUR. By 

Holme Lee. Second Edition. 

I vol. Crbwn 8vo. 

" With the interest of a pathetic story is 

united the value of a dcfmite and high 

puipose. " — Spectator. 

*^A most exquisitely written itory." — 
Literary Churchman. 

THE TASMANIAN LILY. By 
James Bonwick. Crown 8vo. 
Illustrated. Price 5/. 

" The characters of the story are capitally 
conceived, and are full of those touches 
which give them a