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PHILLIPS LIBRARY 

OF 
HARVARD COLLEGE OBSERVATORY 



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TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL 

GLOBES 



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TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL 

GLOBES 

THEIR HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION 

INCLUDING A CONSIDERATION OF THEIR 

VALUE AS AIDS IN THE* STUDY OF 

GEOGRAPHY AND ASTRONOMY 



BY 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., LL.D. 

MBMBBR OF 
THB HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



VOLUME II 




NEW HAVEN: PUBLISHED FOR 

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA BY THE 

YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONIX>N* HUMPHREY MILFORD • OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MDCCCCXXI 



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COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



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Table of Contents 

PAOB 

List of Illustrations vii 

Chapter X: Globes and Globe Makers of the Early 
Seventeenth Century. The Dutch Scientifk 
Masters and Their Preeminent Leadership . i 

The shifting of globe making interest to the northwest of Europe 
at the close of the sixteenth century. — ^The Van Langrens as 
leaders^ — Jodocus Hondius and his son HenricuSd — ^Willem 
Jansz. Blaeu and his sons, John and ComcliuSi^ — The Fcrreri 
armillary sphere^ — Globes of Peter Plancius,. — ^Isaac HabrechL — 
Globes of Mattheus Greuter and their reproduction by Rossi. — 
Manf redus Sett2da^— Abiaham Goos^— Adam Heroldt 

Chapter XI : Globes of the Second Half of the Seven- 
teenth Century 72 

Certain striking tendencies exhibited in the matter of globe mak- 
ing in this periodd — ^The Gottorp globes^ — ^Weigcl's globes. — 
CSarlo Benci. — Amantius Moroncelli. — Castlemaine's immovable 
globe-— The armillary of Tieffler^ — ^Armillary sphere of Gian 
Battista Alberti^ — ^The numerous globes of P. Vincenzo Coro- 
nelli.^ — Certain anonymous globes of the period. — Johannes 
Maccariusw — Jos. Antonius VolpeSd — ^Vitale Griordani^ — George 
Christopher Eimmart^ — Giuseppe Scarabelliw — Giovanni Battista. 
—Joseph Mozonw — ^Thc Chinese globes of Peking. 

Chapter XII : Globes and Globe Makers of the First 
Half of the Eighteenth Century — from Delisle 
to Ferguson 137 

Activities of Guillaume Delisle^ — Jean Dominique Cassini and his 
reforms^ — ^Vincenzo Miot^ — The globes of Gerhard and Leon- 
hard Valkw— Activities of John Senex^ — ^Nicolas Bion^ — The 
armillary sphere of Carmelo Cartilia^ — Mattheus Seutter of 

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Table of Contents. 

PAGE 
Augsburg. — Robert Morden. — Jean Antoine Nollct^— Johann 
Gabriel Doppelmayr of Numbergv— TcrreBtrial globe of Cu« 
saniw— Terrestrial globes of Sicna^ — The work of the^ monk 
Pietro Maria da Vinchiow — James Ferguson of Scotland. 

Qiaptcr XIII: Globes and Globe Makers of the Sec- 
ond Half of the Ei^teenth Century . . • 175 

Few globe makers of striking distinction in this periods— An ap- 
parent decrease in scientific interest in globes, but an apparent 
' increase in popular interest — Gilles and Didier Robert de 
Vaugondy^ — ^The work of Desnos. — Globes of Gian Francesco 
Costa the Venetian^ — Globes of Akerman and Akreld — ^The 
French globe makers Rigobert Bonne and Lalande^ — Charles 
Messier and Jean Fortin^ — Globes of George Adams the Elder, 
of George Adams the Younger, and of Dudley Adams^ — Small 
globes of Nathaniel Hill^—The work of Innocente Alessandri 
and Pietro Scaltaglia^ — Charles Francis Delamarche. — ^Manu- 
script globes of Vincenzo Rosa^ — Geographer and globe maker 
Giovanni Maria Cassini. — Globes of William Cary. 

Qiapter XIV: The Technic of Globe Construction — 

Materials and Methods 196 

General problems to be met — Development from the simple 
armilla to the complex sphere. — The references of Ptolemy, 
Leontius Mechanicus, Alfonso. — ^Behaim's leadership in practical 
globe making,^ — ^Materials employed. — Experiments in map pro- 
jection. — The beginning and rapid development of globe-gore 
construction. — ^Various examples of early gore maps. — Equatorial 
polar and ecliptic polar mountings. — Special features of celestial 
globe maps^ — Globe mountings. — ^Varying sizes of globes. — The 
uses of globesw— Moon globes and planetariums. 

Bibliographical List 220 

Index of Globes and Globe Makers 249 

General Index 276 



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List of Illustrations 

Frontispiece^ Rembrandt's Philosoi^ers Vol. II 

no. CHAPTER X page 

88. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius» 1600. From origv' 

nal in Library of Henry E. HunHngton^ New York . 4 

89. Celestial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. From origin 

nal in Library of Henry £. Huntington^ New York 8 

90. Dedication Appearing on Glob^ of Jodocus Hondius» 

1600 6 

91. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius* i6i8. From origin 

nal in collection of The Hispanic Society of America^ 
New York 14 

92. Portrait of Willem Jansz. Blaeu. From engraving by 

Fold 18 

93. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1606. From 

original in collection of The Hispanic Society of Amer* 

ica^ New York ....... 30 

94. Terrestrial and Celestial Globes of Willem Jansz. Blaeu» . 

1616. From origiifals in collection of The Hispanic Sod' 

ety of America^ New York ..... 32 

95. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. From 

original in collection of The Hispanic Society of Amer- 

icot New York ....... 34 

96. Section of Jodocus Hondius World Map, 161 1. From 

Stevenson*s reproduction ..... 40 

97. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. From 

original in Chigi Library ^ Rome .... 44 

98. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. From origi' 

nal in Liceum Foscarini^ Venice .... 44 
98a. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca. 1640. 

From original in Royal Library^ Madrid ... 66 
98b. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca« 1640. 

From original in Royal Library^ Madrid ... 66 

99. Portrait of Peter Plancius. From an old print 46 

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List of Illustrations. 

no. PAGE 

100. Terrestrial Globe of Peter Plancius, 1614. From original 

in Astronomical Museum^ Rome .... 48 

101. Terrestrial Globe of Isaac Habrccht, 1625. From original 

in the collection of The Hispanic Society of America, 
New York 50 

102. Terrestrial Globe of Matthens Greater, 1^32. From origin 

nal in ike collection of The Hispanic Society of Amer^ 

ica. New York 54 

103. Terrestrial Globe of Matthens Greater, 1^38. From origin 

nal in the collection of The Hispanic Society of Amer^ 

ica. New York 62 

103a. Terrestrial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus Grreu- 
ter), 1695. From original in the collection of The His* 
panic Society of America, New York .... 64 

iP3b. Celestial Globe of Dominico Rossi (Mattheus Greater), 
1695. From original in the collection of The Hispanic 
Society of America, New York ..... 64 



CHAPTER XI 

104. The Gottorp Armillary Sphere, 1657. From original in the 

National Museum^ Copenhagen .... 74 

105. Terrestrial Globe of Silvester Amantius Moroncelli, 1672. 

From original in Marciana Library, Venice 84 

io6. Manuscript Celestial Globe (Moroncelli?), Late Seven- 
teenth Century. From original in Library of William R, 
Hearst, New York 92 

107. Portrait of Earl of Castlemaine. From an old print 94 

108. Globe of Earl of Castlemaine, 1679. From CoronelH^s 

Epitome Cosmografica ...... 94 

109. Globe of Christopher Treffler, 1683. From CoronelWs 

Epitome Cosmografica 95 

110. Portrait of P. Vincenzo Coronelli. From his Atlante 

Veneto 98 

111. Emblem of the Venetian Accademia Cosmografica dcgli 

Argonauti. From Coronellfs Atlante Veneto 100 

112. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. From 

original in Marciana Library y Venice .110 

113. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. From 

original in Marciana Library^ Venice . .112 

114. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. From 

original in Landesmuseum^ Ziirich . .114 

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List of Illustrations, 
na PAOB 

1 15. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenxo Coronelli, 1696. From 

original in collection of The Hispanic Society of Amer' 

ica^ New York 116 

1 15a. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenso Coronelli, 1693. From 

original in Academy of Sciences^ Turin . 1 18 

115b. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1693. From 

original in Academy of Sciences^ Turin 120 

116. Portrait of Joseph Mozon. From his Mechanick Exercises 124 

117. Ancient Mongolian Armillary Sphere, ca. 1274. From 

Thompson's Illustrations of China .... 130 
117a. Armillary Sphere and Celestial Globe of Ferdinand Ver- 

biest, 1673. From Thompson's Illustrations of China . 132 

CHAPTER XII 

1 18. Terrestrial Globe of Guillaume Dclisle, I'joo* From origi-' 

nal in Royal Library^ Madrid ..... 140 
1 18a. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Ludovicus Andreae, 1717. 

From original in City Historical Museum^ Frankfurt . 138 

1 19. Portrait of Jean Dominique Cassini. From an old print . 142 

120. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 

( f ). From original in collection of The Hispanic Sod' 

ety of America^ New York 144 

120a. Southern Hemisphere Celestial Globe by Gerhard and 
Leonhard Valk, with Author and Date Legend, 1750 
(^). From original in collection of The Hispanic Sod- 
ety of America^ New York ..... 146 

121. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 

(?). From original in collection of The Hispanic Sod* 

ety of America^ New York 148 

121a. Celestial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 
(?). From original in collection of The Hispanic Sod* 
ety of America^ New York ..... 150 

122. Terrestrial Globe of John Senez, 1793. From original in 

Royal Library 9 Madrid . .152 

123. Portrait of Nicolas Bion. From an old print . 142 

124. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. From origi' 

nal in Astronomical Museum^ Rome . • ^54 

125. Celestial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. From original 

in Astronomical Museum^ Rome .156 

125a. Terrestrial Globe of Van Laucn Zonen, 1745. Fromorigi' 

nal in City Historical Museum^ Frankfurt . . 158 



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List of Illustrations. 

FIG. PAOB 

126. Terrestrial Globe of Johann (rabriel DoppelmaTr, 1728. 

From original in collection of The Hispanic Society of 
America^ New York ...... 160 

126a. Celestial Globe of Johann (rabriel Doppelmayr, 1728. 
From the original in collection of The Hispanic Society 
of America^ New York ...... 162 

126b. Celestial Globe of Johann Puschner, 1730. From original 

in Math, Phys, Salon^ Dresden .164 

127. Portrait of James Ferguson. From an old print 168 
127a. Pocket Globe of James Ferguson, 1750 ( f ). From origi' 

nal in collection of The Hispanic Society of America, 

New York 170 

127b. Terrestrial Globe of Herman Moll, 1705. From original 
in collection of The Hispanic Society of America, New 
York 170 

CHAPTER XIII 

128. Terrestrial Globe of Pietro Rosini, 1762. From original in 

the University Library, Bologna .... 180 

129. Armillary Sphere of Jean Fortin, 1780. From original in 

collection of The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York 184 

129a. Globe of L. C. Desnos, 1782. From original, Fiacenza . 178 

130. Terrestrial Globe of George Adams, 1782. From original 

in Astronomical Museum, Rome .... 186 
130a. Terrestrial Globe of Nathaniel Hill, 1754. From original 

in New York Public Library 188 

131. Terrestrial Globe of Giovanni Maria Cassini, 1790. From 

original in Astronomical Museum, Rome . .192 

132. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1800. From original in 

collection of The Hispanic Society of America, New 
York 194 

CHAPTER XIV 

133. Astrolabe. From Joseph Moxon, A Tutor to Astronomy 

and Geography, 1695 197 

134. Globe Gores of Henricus Glareanus, 1527. From his Geo- 

graphia liber unus ....... 203 

135. Gore Map of Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1515 . . 206 

136. Anonymous Globe Gores in Plane Map Construction, ca. 

1550. From original manuscript in John Carter Brown 
Library, Providence ...... 206 



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List of Illustrations. 

FIG. PAOB 

137. Portrait of Johann Hevellus (Hcvel). From his Prodro^ 

mus 208 

138. Constellation of Orion by Hevelius. From his Prodromus 212 

139. Constellation Ursa Major. From Afrianus Cosmographicus 

liber, 1529 210 

140. Terrestrial Globe Gores by Johannes Oterschaden, ca. 

1675, P^om original in collection of The Hispanic Soci- 
ety of America ....... 214 

141. Celestial Globe Grores by Johannes Oterschaden, ca. 1675. 

From original in collection of The Hispanic Society of 
America ........ 216 

142. Engraved Sections for Globe Horizon Circle by Johannes 

Oterschaden, ca. 1675. From original in collection of 
The Hispanic Society of America .216 

143. The Orrery. From an engraving by William Peiher after 

engraving by Joseph Wright . . . . .218 

CHAP. TAILPIECES PAGE 

X. Armillary Sphere. From Blagrave^ Mathematical Jewel, 

1585 71 

XII. Ship. From Jodocus Hondius* World map, 1611 . • ^74 
XIV. Printer's Mark of the Blaeu Press . .219 



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Chapter X 

Globes and Globe Makers of the Early 

Seventeenth Century. The Dutch 

Scientific Masters and Their 

Preeminent Leadership 

The shifting of globe making interest to the northwest of Europe 
at the close of the sixteenth century^ — The Van Langrens as 
leaders. — Jodocus Hondius and his son Henricus. — ^Willem 
Jansz. Blaeu and his sons* John and Cornelius. — The Fcrreri 
armillary sphere.-"-61obes of Peter Plandus. — Isaac Habrecht. — 
Globes of Mattheus Greutcr and their reproduction by Rossi. — 
Manfredus Settala#-*Abraham Groos. — ^Adam Heroldt. 

AS the first post-G)lumbian century came to its close 
/% the center of interest in great transoceanic explora- 
J J^tion and discovery shifted to the northwest of 
Europe, to England, and to the Netherlands. Since ejqpedi- 
tions were daily setting sail to all shores of the world, 
'"Quoniam in omnes mundi plagas quotidie magis magisque 
navigatur," quoting the word of the enthusiastic Hondius, 
the chart and globe makers found their services in great 
demand, globes both terrestrial and celestial being still re- 
garded as essential to a navigator's complete outfit of sailing 
instruments. The quick-witted Netherlander;, with well- 
developed business instincts, engravers, printers, map and 
globe makers, set to work to correct the old and to construct 
new "seamen's cards" to serve the seafarers in their enter- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

prises, and it was not long after entering this field of scien- 
tific endeavor that leadership by them was clearly attained. 

Although of Danish origin, perhaps logically the Van 
Langren family should have had first consideration in this 
chapter, since father and sons came to be loyal supporters of 
their new homeland's interests, and it was in the Nether- 
lands where were laid the scenes of their activities in the 
field here under consideration. Chronologically, however, 
they had place in the preceding chapter because their work 
as globe makers began in the early ei^ties of the sixteenth 
century. They, at least, be it said to their credit, led the way, 
achieving some of their hi^est successes in the early seven- 
teenth century. This, too, was the time when the Hondius, 
the Blaeu, the Jansson, and the Goos families came to the 
front to contribute their part, in a very distinguished man- 
ner, toward the promotion of the work so ably begun by 
their contemporary. Jacobus Florentius van Langren. 

Jodocus Hondius (1567-1611) was a native of Wacken 
(Fig. 60).^ To this village his parents, shortly before his 
birth, had fled from Ghent to escape the persecuting hand 
of Count Egmont. The father, Oliver de Hondt, a modest 
teacher but a man very learned in theology, had embraced 
the reformed faith and therefore became an outlaw by decree 
of the government. On the arrest of Egmont, he with his 
family returned to Ghent, to remain but a short time, for in 
the year 1569 we find a residence had been taken up at 
DuflFel near Antwerp. In this city two children were bom, 
a daughter whose name is now unknown and a son Henry, 
usually referred to as Henry the Elder. 

Jodocus at an early age gave evidence of possessing very 
remarkable talent for designing and engraving. We are told 
that at the age of ei^t he began to apply himself to the art 
of portraiture, of ivory carving, and of copper engraving, 
and that his father, noting the exhibition of special talent 
in the son, placed him as an apprentice with an engraver and 
sculptor in Antwerp. During this period of apprenticeship 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

he carried on his studies of the fine arts, also of Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics, under the direction of his father, at the 
same time applying himself to the work of map engraving. 
It probably was about the year 1585 that he went to Eng- 
land, where, by reascm of the talent he exhibited, he found 
employment with the English geographers, Richard Hakluyt 
and Edward Wri^t, during which period he appears to have 
engraved and printed a small world map in hemispheres. In 
the year 1592 he returned to Amsterdam, where he estab- 
lished himself as an engraver and printer, turning his atten- 
tion especially to the issue of geographical maps.' Among 
his friends he numbered the men most prominent in his 
field, notably Petrus Bertius, very learned as a geographer, 
and Petrus M ontanus/ It appears to have been Bertius who 
informed him of the intention of the heirs of Mercator to 
dispose of that illustrious geographer's engraving and print- 
ing establishment, and who perhaps negotiated the sale of 
the same. At any rate, we find that in the year 1604 Jodo- 
cus Hondius came into possession of the Mercator copper 
plates of the Ptolemy maps, and at the same time he seems 
also to have acquired the greater part of the edition of Mer- 
cator's 'Atlas' of 1602 then remaining unsold. In the year 
1605 Hondius prepared and issued a third edition of the 
Ptolemy maps; in 1606 he issued a third edition of Mer- 
cator's 'Atlas'; in 1608 he published a fourth edition; in 
1609 and in 1610 other editions.^ It must have been in the 
year 1611 that he issued his great world map in two hemi- 
spheres, bearing the title ''Novissima ac exactissima totius 
orhis terrarum descriptio magna cura & industria ex optimis 
quibusque tabulis Geographicis et Hydrographicis nuper- 
rimisque doctorum virorum observationibus duobus planis- 
phaerijs delineata. Auct. I. Hondio." This work has been re- 
cently issued in a superb facsimile of the ooly known extant 
original copy, now in the possession of Prince Maximilian 
of Waldburg 2u Wolfegg-Waldsee.* Of such superior 
excellence is the work of Hondius, as exhibited in this 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

masterpiece, that it justly entitles him to first place among 
those who, up to this date, had undertaken to construct 
world maps. 

It seems to have been early in his career as engraver and 
printer that he prepared his first globe gores and issued 
his first celestial globe. The director of the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum of Numberg, in courteous communication, 
reports that in the rich collection of that institution there is 
a Hondius globe of the year 1592, which date, if accurately 
read, makes this to be the only known copy of what must 
be taken as his first issue. The map is a colored copper en- 
graving covering a ball of wood having a diameter of 60 cm. 
The mounting of the globe, which clearly is the original, 
consists of the usual circles, resting upon six wooden sup- 
port columns. A more detailed description of this particular 
example it has not been possible to obtain.* 

Not until the year 1600 does there appear to have been 
a second issue of his globes. Of this second issue a remark- 
ably fine pair (Figs. 88, 89) was recently acquired by Mr. 
Henry E. Huntington of New York City.^ Excepting very 
slight damage to the celestial ^obe in the north polar region, 
they may be said to be in practically as fine condition as 
they were when first given out from die master's workshop. 
Their complete history has not been obtainable, but so re- 
markably well preserved are they that it seems quite prob- 
able they have been kept throu^ all these years in the 
library case of some rich Italian treasure-loving family. 
There cannot be the sli^test doubt of their age, certainly 
none of the age of the spheres themselves, but the exact date 
of the bronze mounting, though clearly in the style of cer- 
tain Italian workmanship of the period, is less easy to de- 
termine. These globes have a diameter of about 34 cm. and 
an entire height, including the base, of 73 cm. The spheres 
on which have been pasted the twelve engraved gores arc 
of papier-mach6, over which is a covering of plaster and a 
coating of thick varnish or Celiac giving a smooth surface 

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Fig. 88. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

for the terrestrial and the celestial maps. To each, color 
was artistically applied by hand, which still retains a rich- 
ness of tone. Each is supplied with a bronze -meridian and 
horizon circle and with an hour circle attached in the accus- 
tomed manner at the north pole. These circles are appro- 
priately graduated, the horizon circle having, in addition 
to its graduadon into three hundred and sixty degrees, a 
series of concentric circles engraved, counting from the outer- 
most, with the names of the winds, compass directi<His in 
the Dutch language, the names of the months, and the signs 
of the zodiac. Each sphere with its circles is carried on a 
base composed of three artistically designed and engraved 
bronze supports, these being attached at their lower extremi- 
ties by an appropriately designed plate, and in this plate has 
been set a compass, still apparaidy in perfect condition, the 
dial face of this compass having a diameter of 8 cm. Aside 
from their scientific value for the student of geography and 
of astronomy, these are fit pieces to adorn the library shelves 
of a prince among American book collectors; as they must, 
in keeping with the custom of the time, have once adorned 
the shelves of an Italian patrician book lover. 

The terrestrial globe has the following dedication: 
'"Illustrissimo Principi D^ Mauritio a Nassau, Principi 
Auraico, Comiti a Nassau, etc. Gubematori Provinciarum 
Foederatarii Summoque Praefecto mari Inferioris Ger- 
maniae Domino suo colendissimo. Jod. Hondius Flander 
L. M. D. D. Cum privilegio decem annonmi." "To the 
illustrious Prince D. Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, 
Knight of Nassau, etc. Governor of the Federated Provinces 
and Hi^ Prefect of the Lower German Ocean, his Most 
Worshipful Master, Jodocus Hondius dedicates (this globe). 
With privilege for ten years." This dedication is placed 
within an artistic cartouch (Fig. 90) which is surmounted 
with the coat of arms of the Princes of Nassau, to which 
appropriate colors have been added. To the left of the above 
is an address to the reader: "lod. Hond. Lectori S. P. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Quoniam crebriores in omnes mundi partes quotidie navi- 
gationes instituut unde situs ejusdem oertius pcrspicitur 
atque innotescit; nemini idciioo minim spero visum iri, si 
haec nostri globi descriptio ab aliis antehac in luccm editis 
plurimu discrepcL Quin uti par est, nostrae diligcntiae et 
curae favebit, qua rccens patefacta et cognita, qua direc- 
tiones, latitudines et similia cograenter distincta suis locis 
habentur. Quod ipsum in ducendis lineis Dircctorii fecimus 
et peritis cumulate satisf actum confidimus. Postremo lectore 
benev. rogam9 ut si quam loci alicujis pleniorem notitiam 
habeat eandem nobiscu, provehcdi boni publici gratia, lubens 
comunicet. vale." 'Ilondius to the reader greeting. Inas- 
much as frequent voyages into all parts of the world are 
undertaken every day, whereby the several locations (of 
places) are more certainly seen and are made known, I hope 
therefore no one will be surprised to find this delineation 
on our globe very different from that on most others pre- 
viously issued. But who, as is ri^t, will not prefer our dili- 
gence and care, whereby recently discovered and known 
lands, and whereby directions, latitudes, and such like are 
all properly distinguished and are to be found in their places. 
What we have done in drawing the lines of direction, we 
trust will be satisfactory on the whole to experts. Finally, 
we ask the kind reader that, if he has fuller knowledge of 
any place, that of his own free will he will communicate 
the same to us, to the end of advancing the public welfare. 
Farewell." Within the Arctic circle and north of North 
America is the tide and date legend reading "Globus Terres- 
tris de integri revisus & emendatus an. 1600." "Globe of 
the entire earth revised and corrected in the year 1600." To 
the right of the dedicatory legoid we find instruction given 
as to the method of finding the direction from one place 
to another, of which one may be desirous of having 
knowledge; it reads: "Modus investigandi locoru direc- 
tione. Duorum locorum in hoc globo quorum directionem 
scire cupis hoc est in quam coeli partem alter ab altero ver- 

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Fig. 90. Dedication Appearing on Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

gat, primo longitudinis et latitudinis differentiam notabis, 
qua cognita vertas globtim donee Rhtimbus aliquis inter- 
secet meridianum in latitudine primi loci, deinde volvas 
versus Ortum aut Occasum, prout res postulat, donee gradus 
aequatoris numero aequales differentiae longitudinis duoru 
loconun meridianum pertranseant postea vide nma assuptus 
Rhumbus intersecet meridianum in latitudine loci. Quod si 
fecerit hie est horum locoru Rhumbus sive linea direcrionem 
indicans: sin secus, alius assumendus est, usque diun occurs 
rat qui hoc praesriterit. Subjecimus scalam longitudinum." 
"Of two places on this globe whose direction from one 
another you are desirous of knowing, that is in what part of 
the heavens the one diverges from the other, first of all note 
the difference of latitude and longitude. This ascertained 
tum the globe until some one rhumb cuts the meridian in the 
latitude of the first place, then tum to the east or to the 
west as is required, until the degrees of the equator through 
which the meridians of the places pass equal in number the 
difference in longitude of the two places. Then note whether 
the selected rhumb cuts the meridian in the latitude of the 
place. If it does so then this is the rhumb of these places or 
the line which shows the required direction: but if it does 
not then another rhumb must be chosen until the condition 
is satisfied. We subjoin a scale of longitudes." Other legends, 
describing briefly some event in the history of discovery, or 
describing briefly the characteristic features of some locality, 
are exceedingly numerous. As a record of the geographical 
knowledge of the time, this Hondius terrestrial globe map 
may justiy be referred to as one of the most valuable of 
the period. 

For astronomical study the celestial globe is none the less 
valuable and interesting than is the terrestrial for the study 
of geography. Its descriptive titie reads: ''Globus coelestis. 
In quo Stellae fixae omnes quae a N. viro Tycone Brahe 
suma industria ac cura observatae sunt accuratissime desig- 
nantur: nee non ea quae a peritis. nauclero Petro Theodori. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Matcseos studioso aimotatae sunt/' ''Celestial globe, in 
which all of the fixed stars which were observed by the illus- 
trious Tycho Brahe, with great care and industry, are most 
accurately shown for the scientific student : also those which 
were noted by the distinguished navigator Peter Theodorus." 
The dedication differs somewhat from that on the terrestrial 
globe and reads: ''Clarissimis Belgii luminib9 sapientiae doc- 
trinae et verae pietatis ofBcinis Academiae Lugdunensis 
Batavorum et Francveriensis. Hos globos ad Mathematicas 
artes promovendas manu propria a se caelatas luculentissime 
dedicat consacratq? Jodocus Hondius ami. 1600/' 'To the 
most renowned lights of Belgium, fountains of wisdom, of 
doctrine and of true piety, of the Academy of Leiden and 
of Frankfurt these globes, for the promotion of the 
mathematical arts and constructed with his own hands, are 
dedicated and consecrated by Jodocus Hondius in the year 
1600." The several constellations arc artistically represented 
in appropriate figures which include, in addition to those 
of Ptolemy, a considerable number in the southern hemi- 
sphere, for which, as the author states, he made use of the 
observations of the navigator Theodorus. That star in the 
constellation Cassiopeia, which so greatly interested Tycho 
Brahe, has a special but brief legend distinguishing it, read- 
ing "Stella mirabilis quae insolito prae aliis fulgore 2? 1572 
p. an. et trientcm apparuit.'' "Remaricable star which ap- 
peared with brightness beyond all others in the year 1572 
and for a year and one third.'' 

A second pair of Hondius' globes of the year 1600 is 
reported as belonging to Count Rocco Giannini of Lucca. 
Fiorini says of them that they have mountings of bronze, 
resembling in this respect the pair described above, but he 
adds that they are without inscriptions of special note.' 
Either the information which he received concerning them 
was inaccurate or there exists a very marked difference 
between these pairs, the only ones it has been possible to 
locate. 

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Fig. 89. Celestial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. 



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Early Seventeenth Century, 

In the year 1601 Hondius issued a pair of globes which 
were somewhat smaller than the preceding, each having a 
diameter of 21 cm. The inscripticm on the celestial globe, 
in which appears the date of construction, differs but little 
from that appearing on the issue of the year 1600; it reads: 
''Globus coelestis in quo fixae omnes quae a N. viro Thicone 
Brahe suma cura observatae sunt, accuratissime designantur 
quibus adjuncta sunt circa Pol. Australe stel. quae a per- 
tissimo nauclero Petro Theodori. annotatae simt simul ac- 
comodatae ad annum 1600. editus vero 1601." ''Celestial 
globe in which all the fixed stars which were observed with 
the utmost care by the illustrious Tycho Brahe and accu- 
rately noted, to which are added the stars around the south 
pole which were observed by the skilful navigator Peter 
Theodorus. Adapted to the year 1600, but edited in the year 
1601." The general design of the figures of the several con- 
stellations agrees with that of the first editicm, the chief 
difference lying merely in the matter of size. 

On the terrestrial globe is the following dedication: 
"Serenissimis Prindpibus Alberto et Isabellae Qa. austriacis 
Brabantiae Ducibus. Jodo. Hondius. auctor et Joan Bap- 
tista Vriendt. Antuerpiae." "To the Most Serene Rulers 
Albert and Isabella, the renowned Princes of Austrian 
Brabant, Jodocus Hondius author and John Baptist Veen 
(dedicate this globe). Antwerp." 

The author has added a rather lengthy address to the 
reader, in which is interesting reference to die difficult prob- 
lem of determining the longitude of places.* "Hondius 
Lectori S. In locorum longitudine hactenus mirifice pecca- 
tum esse hydrographiae peritis satis constat: Regicmes enim 
fere onmes descriptae simt prout naucleri in suis navigationi- 
bus directionem duonun locorum ab uno loco ad alterum 
invenerunt, idque nulla habita ratione loci tertii, vel devia- 
tionis acus nauticae, vel etiam directorii nautici, quo indif- 
ferenter utuntur, quamvis in imo non aeque ac in alio chaly- 
ben ille acus ponatur, et a vero septentrione magis vel minus 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

divertatur, pro uso loci in quo directx>ria fabbricata sunt, 
unde necessario longitudo locorum distorta est. Multi hos 
errores f rustra conati sunt emendare per polares Stellas, alii 
per Lunae cursum, alii certius per eclipses. Verum hoc opus, 
ille labor. Quis enim in tanta locorum multitudine eclipses 
observabit? At cum jam tandem per variationem, aut devia- 
tiouem acus nauticae, ut vocant, locorum, longitudo invenia- 
tur, operae praetiiun me facturum putavi si in hoc globo 
regiones omnes (saltem quarum longitudo jam cognita est) 
suis quasq veris longitudinis gradibus delineavero, quamvis 
id non exigui laboris fuerit. Longitudines incepimus non ab 
Insulis Fortunatis ut Ptolomeus, sed ab iis quae a9ores vo- 
cantur quod acus nautica ibi recta in septentrionem vergat. 
Vale. Anno 1601." "Hondius to the reader greeting. In the 
matter of the longitude of places all hydrographers, it is 
agreed, have blundered marvelously, since nearly all regions 
have been described as navigators, in their voyages, found 
the direction from one to another, of any two places, with- 
out reckoning having been taken from a third place, or ac- 
count having been taken of the variation of the nautical 
needle, or even of nautical direction, which they indefinitely 
make use of, althou^ in one place the needle does not 
point exactly as in another, being deflected more or less from 
the true north according to the usage of the country in which 
the compass card employed was made, and thus the longi- 
tude of places is made to vary. Many have tried in vain to 
eliminate these errors by the polar stars. Others have tried 
to do the same by noting the course of the moon, and others 
again, with more certainty, by observations of eclipses; but 
all this is with much labor, and who will be able thus to 
get an accurate observation? But now since the longitude of 
places has been sought through the variaticm or deviation of 
the needle, as they say, I thou^t it would be a work of 
merit if I noted on this globe all the regions (at least all 
whose longitude is known) each with its own degree of 
longitude althoti^ knowing this would be no little labor. 

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Early Seventeenth Century* 

We have b^un our reckoning of Icxigitude not from the 
Fortunate Islands, as did Ptolemy, but from those which 
are called the Azores, because there the nautical needle 
points directly to the north* Farewell. In the year 1601." 

These globes of 1601 are composed of a hollow wooden 
shell, over which have been pasted the twelve engraved 
gores. They are moimted on well-constructed bases of cop- 
per from which rise the supports for the horizon circle, oa 
the surface of which are the usual graduations, the calendar 
and zodiacal representations. The meridian circles are of 
brass, are graduated, and have in addition the engraved 
designations ''Zona torrida," ''Zona temperata," "Zona 
frigida." An example of each of these globes of 1601 may 
be found in the Museo Municipale of Milan, and one of 
the celestial globes in the library of the Seminario Vescovile 
of Rimini. 

In the year 1613, shortly after the deadi of Jodocus 
Hondius, there was issued in Amsterdam, by Adrian Veen^^ 
and Jodocus Hondius, Jr., a terrestrial and a celestial globe, 
each having a diameter of about 56 cm. The dedicaticm of 
the first reads: "Illustrissimis, Nobilissimis, Amplissimis et 
Prudentissimis Federatarum Inferioris Germaniae Provin- 
ciarum Ordinibus ac Patribus Patriae Dominis Suis Clemen- 
tissimis Dedicabant Jodocus Hondius Junior et Adrianus 
Veen. In the year 1613." "To the Most Illustrious, Most 
Noble, Most Exalted, Most Prudent Lords of the Federated 
Provinces of the Netherlands, and Fathers of their Country, 
their Most Benign Masters, Jodocus Hondius Jr. and 
Adrian Veen dedicate (this globe)." The title of the terres- 
trial globe is given as "Globus terrestris summa cura ac 
diligentia a Jodoco Hondio piae memoriae inchoatus, globo- 
sis autem directorii nautici lineis ab Adriano Venone ad 
usum navigantium accomodatus, illiusque et Jodoci Hondii 
junioris ope et industria absolutus atque perf actus. Amstero- 
dami 1613." "Terrestrial globe begun with great care and 
diligence by Jodocus Hondius of pious memory, furnished 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

with the lines of nautical direction (loxodromes) for the use 
of navigators, by Adrian Veen, and finished by the industry 
and labor of the same and of Jodocus Hondius, Jr. Amster- 
dam 1613.'' It seems probable that the Jodocus Hondius 
here referred to was Henricus Hondius, who for reasons of 
business had taken the name of his father, affixing the word 
"Junior." 

The celestial globe to accompany the above terrestrial has 
the title, "Globus coelestis in quo stellae fixae omnes, quae 
a Nob. viro Tychone Brahe summa industria ac cura obser- 
vatae sunt, accuratissima designantur, nee noa circa polum 
austrum eae quae a Peritiss. nauclero Petro Theodorico et 
Friderico Houtmanno Mathessos studioso annotatae sunt." 
"Celestial globe on which are accurately depicted all the 
fixed stars that were observed by the illustrious Tycho Brahe, 
with great industry and care: also those stars around the 
south pole which were noted for the scientific student by the 
skilful navigator Peter Theodorus, and by Frederick Hout- 
mann." Surmounting the cartouch containing the above 
title is a portrait of Tycho Brahe with the legend "Effigies 
Nob. viri Tychonis Brahe Dani Domini de Knudstrup. 
Summi Mathematici. Aetatis 47." "Portrait of the illus- 
trious Tycho Brahe, Danish Lord of Knudstrup, the great 
mathematician, in his 47th year." The dedication of this 
globe differs somewhat from the former, reading, "Illustris- 
simis, Amplissimis, Clarissimisque D. D. Dominis Ordinibus 
Provinciarum Foederis Belgici, Donis suis Clementissimis in 
assiduae Gratitudinis memoriam, Dant Dedicantque Ad- 
rianus Veen et Jodocus Hondius Junior. Aimo 1613." "To 
the Illustrious, the Great, the Renowned Lords of the Prov- 
inces of United Belgium, their Most Benign Masters, as a 
token of constant gratitude, Adrian Veen and Jodocus Hon- 
dius Jr. give and dedicate (this globe). In the year 1613." 
There is evidence that Hondius drew from the work of 
Willem Jansz. Blaeu for certain features of this edition, in 
which he followed a practice of the time. Frequent com- 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

plaint is to be met with, that this borrowing was not always 
done with the proper note of credit. We find, for example, 
that in the year 1608 Blaeu presented a special plea to the 
States of Holland and West Friesland that he be made 
secure against the loss caused by pirated editions of his 
works. He informed the States that he had given himself 
hope of being able to support his family in an honest way, 
and that he would have succeeded widi God's mercy and 
blessing, if certain individuals engaged in the same business 
had not undertaken to copy his productions/^ It seems prob- 
able that Blaeu's complaint touched in some manner his 
large world map of the year 1605, since there is striking 
resemblance between this and the world map of Hondius 
issued in the year 1611, and, as noted above, we find that 
Jodocus Hondius' son, signing himself Jodocus Hcmdius, 
Jr., continued to borrow from his distinguished contem* 
porary's work. The practice of borrowing, however, seems 
to have been later reversed, when Blaeu, undoubtedly noting 
the success of Hondius' large globe of 1613, decided himself 
to produce one yet larger, as a result of which we have 
the splendid Kaeu ^obe of 1622. 

A pair of this issue of the year 1613 may be found in the 
Biblioteca Barbarini of Rome, and another pair in the Bib- 
lioteca Civico of Treviso. An example of the celestial globe 
may be found in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi di Astro- 
nomia e di Fisica of Florence. 

Li the year 1615 we find that Josef de Rossi of Milan 
undertook, without giving proper credit, the publication of 
the Hondius globes of the year 1601." In size there is agree- 
ment, but certain changes in dates are to be noted, as in the 
address to the reader, wherein we find 1615 instead of 1601, 
but in other respects there has been a literal transcription. 
In the celestial globe of 1601 we find the following reference 
to the recorded position of the fixed stars, ''Accomodata ad 
annum 1600, editus vero 1601," whereas in the Rossi copy 
we find ''accomodatae ad annum 1614 editus vero 1615." 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

The dedication of this terrestrial globe of 1615 reads: "111^0 
viro optimaraq artium amatori et Fautori D. Paulo Mellino 
Romano. Josephus de Rubeis Mediolanensis devoti animi 
monumentum dat dicatque." "To the. Most Illustrious, the 
Lover and Promoter of the best arts D. Paulus Mellinus of 
Rome, Joseph de Rossi of Milan gives and dedicates this 
token of devoted friendship." A copy of the terrestrial globe 
of 1615 may be found in the private library of the Italian 
artist, Lessi, of Florence, and a copy of the celestial globe 
belongs to CoUegio Romano of Rome. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a terrestrial 
globe signed Jodocus Hondius and dated 1618 (Fig. 91). 
Jodocus the elder died in the year 161 1, and while the map 
of this globe may be a reprint of one which he had engraved, 
it should be noted that it does not agree in all of its details 
with any other known globe of his, and may therefore be the 
work of the son. The sphere of papier-^mache has a diameter 
of 20 cm. and is supported on a base of wood which includes 
a horizon circle, having pasted on its surface the tisual repre- 
sentations of zodiacal signs, the calendar, and the names of 
the principal winds or directions. This horizon circle rests 
upon four small turned legs joined at the bottom by cross 
bars, covering which bars is a circular turned disc 22 cm. in 
diameter, from the center of which rises a short post. 
Throu^ a slot in this post passes a graduated meridian 
circle within which the globe ball revolves. 

The map is slightly water-stained, but the American por- 
tion is particularly well preserved. A crack in the sphere 
along the meridian of 150 degrees east extends from pole to 
pole, and is rather a disfigurement than a serious injury to 
any part of the surface. The map is a remarkably fine exam- 
ple of the Dutch map engraver's art. The lettering and the 
continental outlines were remarkably well cut in the copper 
plate used in the printing, and in many places the luster 
of the ink is srill preserved. In the northern part of North 
America is the brief and interesring dedication "Clarissimis 

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Fig. 91. Terrestrial Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1618. 



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Early Seventeenth Century, 

CoQSultissimique Nauticae Belgicaeque Federatarum Infe« 
rioris Germaniae Regionum Praefectis D. D. Jodocus Hon- 
dius." "To the most illustrious and most prudent prefects 
and seamen of Belgium and of the region of lower Ger- 
many, Jodocus Hondius gives and dedicates (this globe)." 
In the "Terra Australis incognita" is the address to 
the reader which is practically identical with that to be 
found on the Hondius terrestrial globe of 1601, omitting, 
however, the word **Valc" and changing the date to "1618." 
Near the entrance to Hudson's Bay is a legend reading "Hue 
retrocesserunt Amstelodamensis anno 1612." 

From this bay an arm extends to the southwest which is 
referred to as "The bay where Hudson did winter," and an 
ami extends to the southeast, which is referred to as "The 
Bay of Gosnercs." A few other brief legends are given, re- 
ferring to an event or to events supposed to have taken place 
in the locality in which they are placed* Small but artisti- 
cally engraved ships sail the Atlantic and the Pacific, and 
here and there a marine animal is represented. Loxodromic 
lines are made a conspicuous feature, having their crossing 
centers at longitudes o, 90, 180, and 270 cm the equator, 
likewise on the prime meridian at latitude 35 degrees both 
north and south, as well as at the same latitudes on the 
<^po6ite side of the sphere, where the prime meridian be- 
comes the meridian of 180 degrees. In addition to this exam- 
ple belonging to The Hispanic Society's collection, one may 
be found in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of Num- 
beig." 

Not until the year 1640 do we find the name Hondius 
again appearing on a dated globe. Attention has been called 
to the fact that Henricus, the son of Jodocus, continued, 
with more or less diligence, the work of map engraving and 
map printing, which the latter had carried on so success- 
fully in Amsterdam until the time of his death. We arc told 
that a partnership in the business, about the year 1639, was 
fomied by Henricus Hondius with Jdban Janssonius, his 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

brother-in-law, and that this business, after the year 1644, 
passed entirely into the hands of the latter. It was in the 
year 1640 that the finn referred to undertook the reissue of 
the Hondius globes of earlier date* These had a diameter of 
about 52 cm« The gore maps, consisting of twelve parts, 
were made to extend to within twenty degrees of each pole, 
the polar space being covered with the usual polar cap. 
The address to the reader, to be found on the terrestrial 
globe of the year 1613, is repeated on this of 1640,^* but the 
dedication differs somewhat in the two, reading, on those 
of the 1640 issue, '"Illustrissimis, Nobilissimis, Amplissimis 
et Prudentissimis Foederatarum Inferioris Germaniae pro- 
vinciarum Ordinibus ac Patribus Patriae Dominis suis cle- 
mentissimis dedicabat Henricus Hondius. Henricus Hon- 
dius excudebat An. 1640." "To the Most Illustrious, Most 
Noble, Most Exalted and Prudent Lords of the United 
Netherlands, the Fathers of their Country, his Most Clem- 
ent Master, Henricus Hondius dedicates (this globe). Con- 
structed by Henricus Hondius in the year 1640." There have 
been added a number of interesting legends, sudi as the fol- 
lowing: "Inter S. Laurentii et los Romeros insulas vehemens 
admodum est versus ortum et occasum fluxus et refluxus 
maris." "Between the islands of St. Lawrence and Los 
Rcxneros there is an exceedingly strong ebb and flow of the 
sea eastward and westward" ; "Psitacorum rcgio sic a Lusi- 
tanis appellata ob eorum avium ibidem magnitudinem." 
"The region of the parrots, and this is so called by the Por- 
tuguese because of the great number of these birds found 
here";^* "Promontorium tcrrae australis distans 450 leucas 
a capite Bonae Spei et 600 a S. Augustini." "This promon- 
tory of the southern land is distant 450 leagues from the 
Cape of Good Hope, and 600 from Cape St. Augustine"; 
"Accolae Freti MagpUanici septentrionem versus procerae, 
meridiem vero versus exiquae magnitidinis rcperiuntur." 
"The inhabitants of the Strait of Magellan toward the 
north are of large size, but toward the south they are of 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

small stature" ; "Lybia inferior quae hodie Saara appellatur 
quae vox idem quod desertum significat/' "Lower Lybia 
is called today Sahara, which word means desert." In the 
Hudson Bay region we find, 'In sinu Maris Hudsons Bay 
vulgo dictus ubi M. Hudson hybemavit, ibidem maris 
aestus non ultra duos pedes accrcscebat, quod et observabit 
D. Thcxnas Jacobus a. 1631 in sinu 'James his Bay' dicto 
et ubi mensuram duorum pedum non excedebat maris 
tumor." "In the bend of the sea called Hudson's Bay, where 
Hudson passed the winter, the tide of the sea did not rise 
more than two feet, which also was observed by Thomas 
James in the year 1631^* in the Bay called James his Bay 
where the rise of the sea likewise did not exceed two feet." 
Near the last-quoted legend we find, "Thomas Button hibcr- 
nans in portu Nelscm ad altitudinem grad. 57 observavit 
singulis ex horis aestum maris accrescere 15 pedes aut ultra, 
qui flante Zephiro solito magis instar plenilxmii intumesce- 
bat. Sequenri aestate animadverrit quoque ad altitudinem 
grad. 60 similes aestus maris qui nunc orientem versus nunc 
occidentem vergebant." "Thomas Button," who passed the 
winter in Port Nelson, at the high latitude of 57 degrees, 
observed hour by hour the tide of the sea to rise 15 feet or 
more, which tide, with the accustomed wind blowing, 
swelled very like a (spring) tide. Next summer he noticed 
at a latitude of 60 degrees similar ocean tides which now 
had an eastward flow and now a westward." A legend has 
been added relating to the magnetic poles and to the difH- 
culty of locating the same, reading "Duos in hoc loco 
Gerardus Mercator et alii eundem secuti posuerunt Polos 
magnetis, unum respectu insularum capitis viridis, alterum 
respectu insulae Corvi et Floridis: cum vero de his nihil certi 
sit, et quotidiana experientia nos aliter doceat de deviatione 
acus nauticae ambos omissimus." "Gerard Mercator and 
others following him have placed two magnetic poles in this 
locality, one according to the direction indicated (by the 
compass needle) at the Cape Verde Islands, the other ao- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

cording to the direction indicated at the Islands of Corvus 
and Flores: but as nothing is known for a certainty ccmi- 
ceming these, and a daily experience teaches us otherwise 
concerning the variaticHi of the magnetic needle, we have 
omitted both poles/'" 

The globes of this editicm were supplied with the usual 
brass meridian circles, wooden horizon circles, on the sur- 
face of which was pasted the printed representation of the 
zodiacal signs, the names of the mcxiths, and of the prin- 
cipal winds or directions. 

The celestial globe follows, in its records, more closely 
than does the terrestrial, the issue of 1613. The title legend, 
the reference to Tycho Brahe, and the reference to the star 
which appeared in the year 1572 in the constellation Cas- 
siopeia, all agree with those in the earlier edition, as do, in 
the main, the representations of the figures of the several 
Ptolemaic constellaticms and those added in the southern 
hemisphere. The dedication reads, "Illustrissimis Nobilissi- 
mis Amplissimis Clarissimisque D. D. Dominis Ordinibus 
Provinciarum Foederis Belgici Dominis suis Clementissimis 
in assiduae gratitudinis memoriam dat, dicat dedicatque 
lUustriss. Amplit. Vest, devotus Henricus Hondius." "To 
the Most Illustrious, Most Noble, Most Exalted, Most Re- 
nowned Lords of the United Provinces of Belgium, his 
Most Clement Masters, as a memorial of constant gratitude, 
gives and dedicates to Your Illustrious Highnesses (this 
globe). Henricus Hondius." 

A copy of each of these ^obes of 1640 may be found in 
the library of the Seminario Vescovile of Portogruaro, a 
copy of each in the Biblioteca Quiriniana of Brescia, and 
one of each, though undated, in the Museo Civico of 
Vicenza. 

If the Van Langren family and the Hondius family 
brought renown to their country through the excellence of 
their work in the field of cartography, so likewise did the 
Blaeu family, father and sons. Perhaps to Willem Jansz. 

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Fig. 92. Portrait of Willem Jansz. Blacu. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

Blaeu (Fig. 92) and his son, John, belongs first place in 
the long line of distinguished map and globe makers of the 
Netherlands." 

A record which finds general acceptance tells us that 
Willem Blaeu was bom in the village of Alkmaar in the 
year 1571-*^ Of his childhood years very little is known. 
It was some time in his early boyhood that he went to 
Amsterdam, where he found employment, it appears, at 
first in the house of a Holland merchant, and later as a 
joiner's apprentice. We can be certain neither of the time 
when he decided to leave Amsterdam, nor of the exact cir- 
cumstances which induced him to visit the island of Hveen, 
then belonging to Denmark, an event of much significance 
in his life. We, however, cannot be far wrong in asserting 
the promptings for this visit to have been his early liking 
for mathematical, geographical, and astronomical studies. 
It was here that he first came into intimate relations with 
Tycho Brahe, the famous Danish astronomer, who, in the 
year 1576, throu^ princely favor, came into possession of 
this island, and, as before noted, had erected here his remark- 
ably well-appointed astronomical observatory, which he 
called Uranienburg.** For nearly a quarter of a century this 
was one of the most famous centers in all Europe for the 
study of astronomical science and of its practical applica- 
tion. Blaeu, however, was not the first of the young Neth- 
erlanders to find the way to Uranienburg to receive instruc- 
tion from the great master.*^ Of his sojourn on the island we 
have but little direct information. It appears certain that 
he passed at least two years with Tycho, engaged the while 
in study and in the construction of mathematical and astro- 
nomical instruments. That the relations between the two 
distinguished scientists continued to be of the most friendly 
character after Blaeu returned to Amsterdam is very certain. 
Not a few of those who in later years praised Blaeu's scien- 
tific attainments refer to him as ''the pupil and longtime 
friend of Brahe," and Blaeu himself, in certain legends 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

appearing on his globes and maps, refers to him as his 
teachen It cannot be doubted that Blacu owed to his abode 
on the Island of Hveen the real foundation of his scientific 
knowledge, both in the field of geography and astronomy, 
as well as his knowledge of the construction and the skilful 
use of mathematical instruments. We have reason for be- 
lieving that a number of the instruments which served the 
great astronomer in his investigations^* were the work of 
Blaeu, and it is an interesting fact, as we know, that 
Brahe's observati<»is, here made, formed the basis for Kep- 
ler's calculations, leading him to the discovery of the laws 
which immortalized his name.*^ 

It was perhaps late in the year 1596 or early in the year 
1597 that Blaeu returned to Amsterdam, where he soon 
established himself as a maker of mathematical instruments, 
of maps and of globes, and as an engraver and printer. 
There is good reason for thinking that from the first he 
prospered in his undertakings, and, from incidental refer- 
ences to his activities, it may be inferred that it was not 
long after 1600 he was in his own fully equipped house. 
From his presses numerous works were issued, the many 
examples of which, still adorning the shelves of most promi- 
nent libraries, are a monument to his great abilities. 

On his Taescarte,' one of his earliest publicaticxis,** and 
usually referred to the year 1606, we read that it was 
"Ghedruckt t' Amsterdam bij Willem Janssoon op't Wacter 
inde Sonnewijser," a location often referred to in certain 
later publications as "op' t water In de vergulde Sonne- 
wyscr," reference here being to the gilded sundial which, as 
a business sign, adorned the gable of his establishment. It 
appears that in this originally selected locality his work was 
carried on until the year 1637, when his entire plant was 
moved into more commodious quarters in the Blumcn- 
gracht, one year only before his death. The sons, John and 
Cornelius, succeeded to the business, and to the former espe- 
cially belongs the credit of issuing the most sumptuous atlas 

[20] 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

in that period of remarkable map making.^ In the year 1672 
practically the entire establishment was destroyed by fire. 

Willem Blaeu's training admirably fitted him to serve 
his country in matters pertaining to its maritime interests, 
and its calls as well as its rewards for service were not 
infrequent. As proof of the confidence that his contempora- 
ries had in his knowledge of geography and navigation, the 
Estates General of Amsterdam, January 3, 1633, by resolu- 
tion, appointed him Map Maker of the Republic, an hon- 
orable position held by him until his death, then being suc- 
cessively passed on to his son and to his grandson.*^ 

We are told that Tycho had given to Blaeu a copy of his 
astronomical observations before their publication, that this 
copy was carried to Amsterdam, and that after a careful 
study of the records contained therein the latter began the 
practice of globe making.'' The implication contained in 
this reference is that his first work as a globe maker was 
the preparation of material for a celestial globe, but no such 
globe of his, bearing date earlier than 1602, is known. His 
first dated work appeals to have been a terrestrial globe of 
the year 1599. In many of its features it gives evidence that 
Mercator was the master followed, notably in the repre- 
sentation of the loxodromic lines which radiate from the 
numerous wind or compass roses, or from centers regularly 
placed on the surface of the ^obe. 

This first issue has a diameter of 34 cm., which is less 
than that of Mercator^s globe of the year 154I9 but greater 
than that of the Van Langren globe of the year 1585." The 
gores, twelve in number, were cut seven degrees from the 
poles, the polar space being covered with a circular disc. 
Blaeu, as many other globe makers of his period, found that 
by thus dividing the engraved globe map a more nearly per- 
fect covering for the sphere could be obtained. Meridians and 
parallels are drawn at intervals of ten degrees, the prime 
meridian passing through the island of Santa Maria in the 
Azores group. In a conspicuously placed cartouch he pre- 

[21 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

sents his address to the reader. "Spectatori meo S. Hanc 
terrae marisque faciem qui aspicis sic inspice ne dispicias: 
multa hie mutata, (sed nihil temere) quae, nisi attendas, 
facile fugiant. Ratio constructionis in multis nova, sed 
proba. Gibbum piano, planum globo commutavimus: dupli- 
cato labori : sed certiori : idque ut vcntorum spirae justis per 
orbem trrarum gyris discurrerent: hinc factum ut in omni- 
bus terrae oris praeter parallelorum et meridianorum etiam 
plagae ratio nobis fuerit habenda. Quae quidem omnia at- 
tento spectatori facile apparebunt. Vale ct fruere. Guiliel- 
mus Jansonius Alcmariensis auctor et sculptor. 1599." 
"Greeting to my observer. This representation of the earth 
and sea, which thou beholdest, be pleased to take note of in 
this manner. Many things here have been changed, but 
nothing without reason,, and unless thou art attentive these 
things might easily escape thee. The method of construction 
is in many points new, but correct. We have changed that 
which is relief into the flat, and the flat into the globular, 
a double labor but more nearly correct, and we did this 
that the directions of the winds throughout the world mig^t 
be given their proper (loxodromic) spirals: and we have 
made a representation of the coast lines of all shores of the 
earth, besides a representation of the parallels and merid- 
ians. All this will be seen by the attentive observer. Fare- 
well, and may you be happy. William Jansz. Alcmar, 
author and sculptor. 1599." Fiorini is of the opinion the 
expression "multa hie mutata" in the above quoted inscrip- 
tion indicates that the copies in which it is found are re- 
prints of an earlier edition, and that it has been inserted for 
the purpose of keeping the globe on sale.*® Is not the refer- 
ence rather to this simple fact that Blaeu borrowed much 
of his geographical information from others, as he admits, 
including Mercator and Van Langren, and that he had 
merely altered the same to the end of bringing his records 
to date? The dedication reads "Noblissimis, Amplissimis, 
Clarissimis, D. D. Dominis Ordinibus Foederatarum Infe- 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

rioris Germaniae Provincianim dignissimis fidis Patriae 
Patribus hoc terrae marisque Theatnim L. M. Q. Dat, 
Dicat, Dedicat Cliens Vcster subjcctis. Guilielmus Janso- 
nius Alcmarianus." "To the Most Noble, Most Distin- 
guished, Most niustrious, Lords of the United Provinces 
of Lower Germany, Fathers of their Country this represen- 
tation of the land and the sea gives, grants, and delivers 
your humble client Willem Jansz. Alcmar." It will be noted 
that the family name Blaeu was not employed in the signa- 
ture, but instead Alcmar, the name of his native place. He 
apparently did not consider it essential always to employ 
the same name* Sometimes he gave this as Guilielmus Jans- 
sonius Blaeu, Guil. Jansz. Blaeu, Guiljelmus Blaeuw; 
sometimes he gave it as Guilielmus Janssonius Alcmaria- 
nus, or Guil. Jansz. Alcmar; sometimes as Guiljelmus 
Caesius or J. G. Caesius, in which he had classicized his 
name Blaeu; sometimes the name is coupled with that of 
the soa as Guil. et Johan Blaeu. The legends on this globe 
are numerous which tell of great discoveries and explora- 
ticxis, of which the principal ones are here quoted frcxn 
Baudet's readings from the Leiden copy. Near the north 
pole we find "Hie tandem passi graviora'Batavi, proxima 
tempestate diversum iam iter ingressi, nostrum altius mundi 
vcrticem versus progressi, ignotas quaerere terras, et si qua 
proprior ad Chinam aditus aggressi sunt. Mirum quid in- 
venerint! immane quid evcnerit! Sic, macte Proles Nep- 
tunia novisque honoribus banc gentem nostram cumula, 
male coepisti, si hie sistas. Durum hoc, sed perdura, nee 
cede malis sed contra audentior ito. Fata viam expedient.'* 
''As far as this, after suffering great hardships, the Dutch, 
in recent times have progressed toward the top of the world, 
seeking unknown lands, and if there is any shorter way to 
China. Wonderful arc their discoveries ! Strange things have 
happened! Go on, O blessed progeny of Neptune, and add 
new honors to our race. You have begun ill if you stop here. 
It is a hard task, but endure. Do not yield to misfortune, but 

[23] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

on the contrary be more daring. Fate will clear the way/' 
In the same locality ''Immortale nomen & gloriam incom- 
parabilem vobis, Columbe et Americe comparastis, Qui 
primi has terras (alteram orbis partem) tot iam secula 
latentes adire, detegere, Instrare et utinam perlustrare vo- 
luistis: Fnict* vero maximos mnltis perperistis." "Ye have 
gained an immortal name, and incomparable glory for your- 
selves, Columbus and Americus, who were the first to ap- 
proach these lands to discover and disclose them (the other 
part of the world) unknown for so many centuries, and I 
would that you had desired to explore them. You have 
brought forth much fruit for the many." Another reads, 
"Magnam porro gloriae partem Ferdinande Magellane, 
iure tibi vendicas: cui . . . vastae regionis Australem ter- 
minum quaerere eamq. f reto cognimini nobis perviam facere 
lubuit & liaiit." *'A large share of the glory thou doest 
ri^tly claim, O Ferdinand Magellan, to whom it was 
pleasing and to whom it was allowed to seek the southern 
bounds of a vast region, and to open the Strait for us that 
bears thy name" ; also a legend referring to the Cortereals, 
'TLJtinam vero par eventus Casparo Cortereali contigisset, 
qui iam ante maiori conatu quam successu transitum a 
Borea attentaverat : et quoties Britannis idem fervide mo- 
lientibus et aeris iniutiis gradum revocarc coactis." "I wish 
that like success had come to Gaspar Cortereal, who before, 
with greater effort than achievement attempted to find a 
passage by way of the north. Likewise to the British (I 
wish success) strenuously attempting the same but forced 
to retreat by reason of adverse weather." 

As in the issue of his sheet maps, Blaeu was not always 
careful to add an exact date of preparation, in the majority 
of instances, indeed, omitting the date altogether, so also 
in the issue of his globes he frequently omitted dates or 
gave one which we know to have been later than was that 
of the original issue. His g^graphical records serve us, 
however, as fairly accurate guides in the determination of 

[^1 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

these dates, and what was so frequently true of the globes 
he constructed in the last years of his life was true of this 
his first. We have, for example, copies of this bearing date 
1599, which contains geographical records of the year 1616, 
indicating therefore a later reprint with a few alterations. 
It was not until the year 1603 that he undertook the 
preparation of a celestial ^obe to serve as a companion of 
his first terrestrial. This he dedicated, "lUustriss® Principi 
ac Domio D. Mauritio, Principi Auraico Comiti de Naussau 
etc., Marchi<mi Venae et Flissingae etc., Domino suo Cle- 
mentissimo, Hos astriferum, stellarum arte coelo deducta- 
rum, coelum Gratus M.O.D.D.C.Q. GKiilielmus Janso- 
nius Alcmarianus." 'To the Illustrious Prince and Lord D. 
Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau, etc., Marquis 
of Veria and Flissingen, etc., his Most Benign Lord, this 
globe of the stars brou^t down from heaven by art is 
gratefully dedicated by its maker with dutiful mind. 
Willem Jansz. Alcmar." In his title legend he makes par- 
ticular reference to his teacher Tycho, which legend reads : 
"Sphaera stellifera. In qua ut speculo quondam firmamenti 
Universaum Syderii omatum ac stellarum ordinem summa, 
qua fieri potuit, industria a Guilielmo Jansonio, magni 
Tychonis quondam discipulo, accuratissime disposititum : 
earumque numerum multo quam hactenus, auctiorem ex 
observationibus recens. a Nob. viro D. Tychone Brahe, 
astronomo incoparabili, habitis, depromta anno 1600, et 
quo deinceps seculo, accommodata intueri liceat/' ''Celestial 
sphere. Herein as in a mirror all the stars of the firmament 
are depicted, and in proper order with the greatest possible 
industry and accuracy by Willem Janson the former pupil 
of the great Tycho: their number much increased from re- 
cent observations made by the noble D. Tycho Brahe, that 
incomparable astronomer, taken from his observations made 
in the year 1600, and made with an accommodation for 
the coming century." Near this cartouch is a portrait of the 
great astronomer with his favorite motto, "Non haberi, sed 

[25] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

esse." Near the south pole we find a reference to recent 
astronomical discoveries in the following words: "Habetis 
hie, Astronomum studiosi, trecentas et plures antarctici 
mnndi vertici viciniores Stellas, ex observationibus secundum 
jam a Frederico Houtmanno, majori studio et accommoda- 
tioribus instrumentis, ad Stellas a Tychone positas f actis, de- 
promptas: auction numero et accuratiori dispositione vcstro 
commodo et delectationi depictas A. 1603." *Thou hast 
here, O student of astronomy, more than three hundred 
stars, that are nearest the pole of the antarctic world, from 
the observations made by Frederick Houtmann with fur- 
ther study and with more suitable instruments, along with 
the stars that were located by Tycho: this increased num- 
ber and this more accurate location having been set down 
for your use and delight in the year 1603." He adds here 
and there a brief legend in which he directs attenticxi to 
recently discovered stars. 

The purchase of a pair of these globes, that of 1599 and 
of 1603, was reported in the year 1885 by Dr. Baumgart- 
ner,*^ who refers to them as having a diameter of 34 cm., 
as being well mounted and artistically colored. On the first, 
he notes, are represented sea monsters swimming in the 
oceans, and the natives of many of the litde known regions 
appear in picture, as, for example, in the region of Pata- 
gonia, near which appears the legend, 'Tatagonae regio ubi 
incolae simt gigantcs." "The region of Patagonia where 
giants live." Greenland is laid down as a small island, as 
is also Corea. The region of Bering Sea shows clearly how 
inexact was the knowledge of the North Pacific in his day, 
and the same inexact geographic knowledge of the southern- 
most region of South America and of Australia is strikingly 
recorded. There are slight differences apparently existing 
between Dr. Baumgartner^s globes and certain other known 
copies of the same date, but differences which arc of no 
special significance. 

A pair of these globes was announced in the sales cata- 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

logue, "Geographic cartographic & voyage, 1891," of Fred- 
crik Muller of Amsterdam. A geographical record on the 
terrestrial globe clearly indicates that it was not issued, 
however, imtil after 1616, although dated 1599, since it 
contains a reference to the Van Schouten voyage of 1615- 
1617. It was on this voyage, says Van Schouten in his 
'Journal,' that he gave the name "Staten Lant" to that 
region on the left as one enters the Lemaire Strait, and the 
name "Isle of Bamevelt" to the island discovered in this 
strait.^ Both of these names appear on this globe. It has 
in addition an interesting legend which might be taken to 
suggest that the globe was not constructed until the year 
1682, althou^ the gores, save for this legend, may have 
been printed much earlier. This legend reads, " 't Amstel- 
dam by Joannes van Ceulen, Joanniszoon op de hoek van 
de Mol-stee^, in de Nieuwen Atlas, werd gedruckt en op 
nicu uytgcgevcn met Pracvilcgic . . . alle de Globes en 
Spaeren by den Heer Joan Blaeu Ta\. nagelaten. Ao. 1682.'' 
TTie celestial globe seems to agree with other known copies. 

Two copies of the terrestrial globe of 1599 and two of 
the celestial of 1603 ^^^y ^ found in the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum of Numberg. A pair may be found in the 
Biblioteca Angelica of Rome and a pair, reported to be in 
good condition, belongs to the Biblioteca Comunale of 
Fano. Adam Kastner reports, in his *Geschichte der Mathe- 
matik,' the purchase of a pair of this first edition of Blaeu's 
globes.** According to a catalogue entry of objects belong- 
ing to the University of Leiden in the year 1716 there is 
reference to two pairs of Blaeu's globes. Only one pair of 
these, however, seems now to be known, which pair a few 
years since was removed to the Astronomical Observatory.** 

In the year 1602 Blaeu issued a terrestrial and a celestial 
globe, each having a diameter of 23 cm. In a legend on his 
terrestrial globe he refers to it as an improvement, doubt- 
less meaning that he had undertaken to bring its geographi- 
cal records to date. This globe he dedicates as follows: 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

"Noblis^ Ulustr^ HoUandiae Zelandiae ac Westphrisiae 
ordinibus, P.P.P. Clemcntiss" banc terrae marisque aphae- 
nim summa diligentia accuratissime fabricatam: debiti 
honoris gratique animi testimonium L.M.D.D.D. Amstelo- 
dami. Guilielmus Jansonius Blaeu. anno 1602." 'To the 
Most Noble, Most Illustrious Princes of Holland, Zeeland 
and West Friesland, Most Benign Rulers. This sphere of 
the earth and sea, accurately constructed with the utmost 
care is dedicated by Willem Jansz. Blaeu of Amsterdam as 
a testimony of honor due and of a grateful mind. In the year 
1602." Over this legend have been placed the coats of arms 
of the three provinces designated and near it a legend read- 
ing, "'En denuo studiose Geographiae, terrestrem contrac- 
tioriforma globum, multo, quam ante hac imquam, emenda- 
tius et auctius confectum: a ventorum spiris navigantium 
comodo, exquisitius adomatum : nee non navigationis curri- 
culo, ab Oliverio van Noort Batavo in orbem peracto, nota- 
tum. Auctor Guilielmo lansonio Blaeu." "Here again, O 
student of geography, thou hast a terrestrial globe in smaller 
size, much smaller than ever before, and more accurately 
and completely furnished, having the spiral directions of 
the winds (the loxodromes) represented for the use of navi- 
gators. These have been carefully drawn, and there is also 
indicated the course of circumnavigation of the Dutchman 
Oliver van der Noort.'* Willem Jansz. Blaeu author." Van 
der Noort, to whom reference is made in this legend, had 
started out in the year 1598, hence his expedition was a 
recent event and was therefore thought worthy of reference. 
He sailed through the Strait of Magellan, readied the Indies 
of the E^t, and with four of his original ships returned to 
Holland in the year 1601. Blaeu, as he states, marked on 
his globe the course of this expedition. The celestial globe 
constructed as a companion of the former has a similar dedi- 
cation reading, "Nobilis"^ Dlust^ HoUandiae Zelandiae 
Westphrisiae Ordinibus D. D. suis Clementis** hunc astri- 
ferum inerrantium stellanim globum, summa cura et indus- 

[28] 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

tria adomatum debiti ossequii et gratitudinis . . . D. D. 
D. Guilielmus Janscxiius Blaeu." 'To the Most Noble, and 
Illustrious Princes of Holland, Zeeland, and West Fries- 
land, Most Benign Rulers: this celestial globe of the fixed 
stars, prepared with the greatest care and industry is dedi- 
cated as a gift of obedience due and of gratitude. William 
Jansz. Blaeu." A legend somewhat descriptive in character 
near the former reads, "Habes hie Astrophile stellarum 
inerantium ex certis*" D. Ticho Brahe (mci quondam prae- 
ceptoris) observationibus numero et dispositione piiae aliis 
ano 1600 accomodatarum sphaeram accuradssime expolitam 
et Australibus asterismis quod novum a Federico Houtmano 
observatis exomatam. Auctor Guilielmo Jans® Blaeu/' 
*Thou hast here, O lover of the stars, a ^obe of the fixed 
stars from the most accurate observadons of D. Tycho 
Brahe (my onetime preceptor) in their number and dispo- 
sition, besides other observadons accommodated to the year 
1600, finished and furnished with (a representadon) of the 
southern stars which have of late been discovered by Fred- 
erick Houtmann. Willem Jansz. Blaeu author." Stars vary- 
ing in magnitude from the first to the sixth, receive each an 
appropriate representation or sign, and there is a separate 
distinguishing mark for the nebulae. To each of the con- 
stelladons is given its Latin name. In addition to the forty- 
ei^t constelladons of Ptolemy he gives the two sometimes 
referred to by the ancients, "Bemice's Hair^' and "Anti- 
nous,'' adding, with names, more than ten constellations in 
the southern sky. A legend in the constellation "Cepheus" 
tells us, with reference to one of its stars, "Haec stupendae 
magnitudinis Stella insolito fulgore anno 1572 in Cassiopeia 
scde amicuit." "This star of great size and imwonted bril- 
liancy appeared in the Chair of Cassiopeia." In the constella- 
tion "Cygnus" is a legend reading "Novam illam stellam 
quae anno 1600 primum in pectore Cygni apparuit (atque 
edam nunc immota parte) ex diligend nostra ad eandem 
Lyrae lucidac observadone Longitudo 16'' 15^ ladtudo 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

55"" 30' labore comperimiis." "The new star which in the 
year 1600 first appeared in the breast of the Swan and to the 
present has not altogether disappeared, this we have located, 
by diligent search in Lyra long. 16"* 15' and lat. SS"" 3o'-" 

By reason of the fact that so few copies of this issue are 
known to exist, it has been thought that for some reason 
Blaeu issued a very limited number. We know, however, 
that his terrestrial ^obes were hi^ly valued and were much 
in demand, because of the care with which they had been 
prepared, because of the efforts to give information con- 
cerning the latest discoveries, and because of his representa- 
tion of the loxodromic lines which made them of special 
value to navigators; that his celestial globes found favor by 
reason of the fact that he was known to be a pupil of Tycho 
Brahe, and that he himself was known to be a mathemati- 
cian and astronomer of distinction. To the following known 
examples of the 1602 issue brief reference may be made. 
In the Accademia dei Concordi of Rovigo, Italy, there may 
be found a fine pair. The Stadtbibliothek of Numberg 
possesses a fine pair, reported by the librarian to be in excel- 
lent condition, and two copies of the celestial globe may be 
found in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of the same 
city. A copy of the terrestrial globe is. to be found in the col- 
lection of the Konigliches Museum of Gassel, and one in 
the town of Rudingen near Schaffhausen. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses, in its rich 
collection of globes, a fine example of Blaeu's terrestrial of 
the year 1606 (Fig. 93). It has a diameter of 13.5 cm., is 
mounted on a substantial wooden base, has a graduated 
meridian circle, half of which, however, is missing, a 
wooden horizon circle, on the upper surface of which is 
pasted an engraved slip of paper with the usual graduation, 
the calendar, and the names of the zodiacal signs. A legend 
in the great austral land which is called "Magallanica," at- 
tains the date and refers to its dedication to Blaeu's leamed 
friend of Edam, Cornelius Petrius. This legend reads 

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Fig. 93. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1606. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

"Omnium virtutu genere omatissimo viro Domino Comelio 
Petrcio ecclesiastae apud Edamenses vigilantiss. et mathc- 
matico eximio suo singulari banc orbis spbaerae a se boc 
modo delineatae L. M. Q. D. D. Guilielmus Blaeu. Anno 
D. 1606." "To Dom. Cornelius Petrius, a man adorned witb 
all virtue, a most vigilant ecclesiastic among tbe people of 
Edam and a matbematician of singular renown, Willem 
Blaeu dedicates tbis terrestrial globe now completed by bim 
in tbe year 1606." In tbe nortbem part of Nortb America is 
the title leg^d reading "Nova et accurata terrae marisque 
sphaera denuo recognita et correcta a Guilielmo Blaeu." 
"A new and accurate spbere of tbe eartb and sea newly re- 
vised and corrected by Willem Blaeu." Tbe globe ball is of 
hollow metal thinly covered witb a preparation of plaster 
on which have been pasted tbe twelve engraved gores ex- 
tending from pole to pole. As in tbe case of tbe MuUer 
copy of the issue of 1599 tbis one, though dated 1606, con- 
tains a record of tbe discoveries of the Van Schouten expe- 
dition, that is, tbe names "Staten Lant," "I. Bamevelt," 
and "Fr. le Mairc," discoveries made in tbe year 1616, as 
before mentioned.'* Tbe magnitude of tbe austral land is 
made to equal or to exceed that of tbe entire Old World, 
the most nortbem extension of which, in the East Indian 
region, bears the name "Nova Guinea."" Its geographical 
information in g^eral agrees with that so carefully recorded 
on tbe Blaeu maps. In the western and southern sections of 
North America the source of information has been largely 
Spanish, in the eastern tbe source has been French and Eng- 
lish, and in tbe northeast almost entirely English. In tbe 
north Atlantic we still find "Brazil," "Maides," and 
"Frisland»" tbe mythical islands of the Zeno Brothers, and 
north of Europe a record of tbe attempts of tbe Netber- 
landers to reach ^'Nowaja Semi j a." For so small a globe tbe 
detailed geographical information given is very remarkable. 
In addition to tbis example tbe British Museum kindly 
sends tbe infonnation that in its collection there is a copy 

[31 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

of Blaeu's terrestrial globe of the year 1606, agreeing in its 
dimensions with the copy in the collection of The Hispanic 
Society of America, also of a celestial globe of the same date 
which appears to be a unique copy. 

The Hispanic Society of America also possesses a terres- 
trial and a celestial globe, the work of Blaeu, globes clearly 
issued as companion pieces (Fig. 94), which appear to 
be the only copies known, the latter dated 1616, the 
f oraier undated." The spheres have each a diameter of about 
10 cm., a substantial and artistic mounting of brass, includ- 
ing meridian and horizon circles, four twisted support 
columns, and a circular base plate. Though small in size, 
probably the smallest constructed by Blaeu, in their geo- 
graphical and astronomical details they are remarkably full. 

The terrestrial globe, in an artistic cartouch near the south 
pole, is referred to as "Nova Orbis Terrarum Descriptio 
Auctor Guilielmo Blaeu." "A new description of the world 
by Willem Blaeu author." Unlike that of the year 1606, 
noted above, it contains no reference to the expedition of 
Van Schouten and Le Maire, and records only the Strait of 
Magellan at the southern extremity of South America. 
G>ntinental contours, even that of "'Magallanica" and of 
the New World, agree in practically all details with his 
earlier globes and general world maps. He has retained cer- 
tain geographical names which appear more or less con- 
spicuously on some of the earlier maps, as "Estotiland" 
north of Labrador, "Frisland" and "Island" in the north 
Atlantic and "Norembega" applied to the coast of Maine. 
The north Pacific is entirely too narrow and the island of 
"Japan" is located not far from the west coast of North 
America. Bering Strait is well represented but is unnamed. 
The map is not well preserved, the chief injury to it being 
in the western part of North America and in the central and 
eastern Pacific. 

The celestial globe, which is the companicm of the 
former, has a similar brass mounting. It is remarkably well 

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vO 



s 



c 
6 

9J 



o 

5 






9J 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

preserved and all inscripti<»is on the surface of the ball are 
easily legible. It is made to revolve about the axis of the 
ecliptic. The figures representing the several constellations 
have been artistically engraved, and stars up to the sixth 
magnitude have appropriate and distinct representation. 
A legend near the south pole reads ''Sphaera stellata in qua 
ceu speculo Stellae fixae ex accuratis Nobilis viri D. 
Tychcxiis Brahe observationibus ad annum 1600 accommo- 
datae conspicuae sito ponuntur." "The starry sphere in 
which as in a mirror the fixed, stars are placed by the accurate 
observations of the Noble D. Tycho Brahe, acconunodated 
to the year 1600." 

Blaeu's earliest globes, as has been noted, were of small 
dimensions. It must have been shortly after the year 1616 
that he decided to undertake the construction of those of 
much greater size, to the end of making his work the more 
serviceable; but to this he may have been led in part, as 
before noted, by the success of the large globes of Hondius 
of the year 161 3.'* Unfortunately it is not easy to determine 
the exact date of the several issues of his work appearing in 
the last twenty years of his life. In general, the date of the 
construction of the globes of these years is altogether want- 
ing. The dedications in the several reprints or editions vary, 
as do many of the inscriptions, while the large size of the 
globes remains practically the same. One cannot feel cer- 
tain that a date, apparently given as the year of construc- 
tion, is accurate, since it is very evident in the several 
reprints care was not always given to this detail. 

The first issue of his large terrestrial globes seems to date 
from the year 1622, though the suggestion is not wanting 
that he had actually completed the celestial globe before 
the close of the year 1616. 

With but sli^t variation in the form of the expression, 
we find on all examples of his largest globes the inscription 
"Amstelredami. Ebccusum in aedibus auctoris . . . ," indi- 
cating at least that the printing was done in the author's 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Amsterdam workshop. All have a diameter of about 68 cm., 
though the mountings of the several known examples differ 
somewhat. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a fine exam- 
ple of the terrestrial globe, dated 1622 (Fig. 95). The ball 
is formed of papier-mache, having over its surface a thin 
coating of plaster made perfectly smooth and shellacked to 
receive the thirty-six engraved gores, or twice eighteen half 
gores, and the usual circular polar caps. It is well preserved, 
considering its great size and its age, though somewhat 
injured in the region of the western Mediterranean, in the 
East Indian Islands, in West Africa, in South America, and 
in parts of the Pacific Ocean. It is furnished with an elabo- 
rate wooden base, a considerable part of which appears to 
have been added subsequent to that constituting the main 
support, a horizon circle of wood, and a meridian circle of 
brass. The map is a fine example of the work done in the 
Netherlands by the copper engravers and printers of the 
period, in particular of the work which issued from the 
Blaeu press. Continental outlines are well drawn, lands and 
seas arc crowded with geographical records, including indi- 
vidual names and legends. Very artistically designed ships 
sail the oceans singly or in fleets, and compass lines as well 
as loxodromic lines are very numerous, radiating from cen- 
ters distributed over the surface of the map. Much of the 
original color which had been artistically applied by hand 
still remains, particularly on the southem hemisphere, which 
has been less exposed to the light and to careless handling. 
The author and date legend placed near the south pole in an 
artistic cartouch reads, "In ista quam exibimus, terreni globi 
descriptione onmium regionum juxta et insularum, quotquot 
hacetnus a nostris Argonautis, vel etiam ab aliarum gentium 
Naucleris visae et notatae, loca in suo secundum longitu- 
dinem et latitudinem situ, summa sedulitate et industria 
disposita invenies, quae res noa solum Geographiae studiosis 
jocunda, verum etiam iis, qui terras longe dissitas et sub alio 

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Fig. 95. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

sole calentes frequentent, maxime utilis futura est. In quo- 
nun gratiam etiam iliombus nauticos (ita vocantur Helices 
lineae secundum ventonim plagus delineatae) quam accu- 
ratissime expressimus. Hunc igitur laborem nostrum ut tam 
Gratis animis accipiatis, quanta sedulitate a nobis est obitus, 
ex aequo oomes rogatos volo. Guiljelmus Caesius Auctor. 
Anno CID lOCCXXII." "In this terrestrial globe, which we 
here present, you will find all the regions and islands as far 
as they have been seen, up to the present, and marked by 
our navigators, or have been seen and marked by the navi- 
gators of other nations, placed in their own proper position 
of longitude and latitude, with the greatest care and indus- 
try, which not only will be a source of pleasure to the stu- 
dents of geography but also of the greatest utility to those 
who visit far distant shores, which are warmed by another 
sun. And for their benefit we have also inserted the nautical 
rhombs (for so are designated the lines which show the 
direction of the winds). This labor of ours I hope and pray 
you will accept with as much gratitude as we have be- 
stowed care upon it. Willem Caesius. In the year 1622." 
A citation of all leg^ds which the author has placed on 
his map would indeed fill many pages, and but few of 
these are here quoted. 

In the southern hemisphere, and particularly conspicuous 
by reason of the artistic cartouch in which it is placed, we 
find a reference to the question of the proper location of the 
prime meridian,** somewhat lengthy but quoted here in full. 
"Quamvis longitudinis initium arbitrarium esset, ab occasu 
tamen ejus auspicium facere ideo veteribus placuit quod illic 
aliquis terrae limen esset, qui ortum versus nullis expedi- 
rionibus deprehendi potuisset. Atque eam ob causam Ptole- 
maeus (cujus sedulitati et industriae Gepgraphiae incolu- 
mitatem oomes, vel inviti, deb^it) ab ultimo termino 
occidends cognito, quae Insulae in Adantico Mari Fortuna- 
tae dictae sunt, auspicium fecit in eisqueprimum Meridianum 
defixit: quod theticum principium deinceps fere omnes ejus 

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auctoritate moti retinucrunt. Interim hoc seculo nonnulli 
hoc principium ex ipsa natura cruendum censuere. Qua in 
re acus Magneti junctae indicium sequendum sibi sumpse- 
runt, eumque primum Meridianum statuunt quo in loco ea 
Boream spectat Quos plane allucinari addita ilia Magneti 
vis convincit, penes quern nullum longitudinis arbitrium sit, 
cum is ipse sub eodem meridiano varium habeat enclisin 
prout huic aut illi continenti vicinus fucrit. Sed et illi'ipsi 
qui ita sentiunt, ob instabile magnetis indicium, in primo 
Meridiano, multum inter sc dissentiunt. Quamobrem ut 
summo Geographiae commodo, certus aliquis Meridianus 
tamquam primum principium servari ct retineri possit, 
Ptolemaei vestigiis insistcntes, easdem Insulas, et iis Juno- 
nem, quae TcnerifFa vulgo creditur, delegimus, cujus excelsa 
ilia et praerupta petra, perpetuis nebulis obsessa, Indigenis 
El Pico dicta, primi Meridiani terminus esto. Qua in re ab 
Arabum longitudinibus (qui extrema Africac littora versus 
occidentem delegerunt), vix unius gradus quadrante abimus 
diverei: quod quoque monuisse operae prctium putavi." 
"Although the beginning of longitude is arbitrarily selected 
nevertheless it pleased the ancients to begin the counting of 
it from the west, because there was the limit of the earth, 
as some thought, while no expedition to the east was able 
to determine this. Therefore Ptolemy, to whose application 
and industry all men, even though unwilling to admit it, 
owe the preservation of geography (geographical science), 
made the location (of the beginning of longitude) in the 
farthest known limit of the west, which is called the For- 
timate Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, and in them he fixed 
the first meridian. This hypothetical beginning, almost all 
who came after him retained because of his influence. But 
in our century there are some who have said that this begin- 
ning should be taken from nature herself, and in this matter 
they have taken the indication of the magnetic needle as 
their guide, and fix the first meridian in that place in which 
the needle points to the true north: That this is clearly an 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

error is proved by this additional (and peculiar) property 
of the magnetic needle, that on the same meridian it has a 
variation according as it is near to this or that continent. 
But the very men who think this, on account of the uncer- 
tainty of the variation, disagree much among themselves as 
to where the first meridian is to be located, and so for the 
hi^est good of geography, that this same fixed meridian as 
a first beginning may be marked and be retained, we our- 
selves, following in the steps of Ptolemy, have chosen the 
same islands as he, and from their number that one which is 
called Juno, or commonly Tenerif ; of these (islands) that 
high and steep rock beset by perpetual clouds and called by 
the natives £1 Pico, shall for us be the location of the first 
meridian. In this matter, from the longitude of the Arabs, 
who selected the shore of Africa farthest toward the west, 
we vary scarcely the fourth part of a degree, and this I 
thought worthy to be noted." 

There is a brief but important legend near the Strait of 
Magellan reading, 'Tretum Magellanicum, sic dictum a 
Ferdinando Magellano Lusitano, qui omnium primus id 
aperuit atque emensus est, anno 1520, Franciscus Draach et 
Thomas Candish, uterque anglus Fretum emensi sunt, ille 
anno 1579, hie anno 1587. Oliverius van Noorth et Georgius 
Speilbergius, uterque Belga annis 1600 et 1615." "The 
Strait of Magellan, so called by Ferdinand Magellan a 
Portuguese who was the first to discover it and to sail 
through it in the year 1520, Francis Drake and Thcxnas 
Candish, both Englishmen, sailed through the strait, the 
one in the year 1579, the other in the year 1587. Oliver van 
Noort and George Spilbergen, both Belgians in the years 
1600 and 1615." Near the last-quoted legend we find "Fre- 
tum Le Maire a Wilhem Scouten Hemano et Jacobo Le 
Maire per eum inventum et lustratum A® 1616." "The 
Strait of Le Maire discovered and surveyed by Wilhem 
Scouten and Jacob Le Maire in the year 1616." To the 
northwest in the Pacific we find "Magellanus ad insulas has 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

delatus, aim in iis nee hominum uUa vestigia, nee quicquam 
hiimano usui opportunum invenisset, Infortunatus nuncu- 
pavit/' "Magellan came to these islands and finding in them 
no trace of man nor of anything suitable for human use 
called them the Unfortunate Islands." Near New Guinea is 
the infomiation recorded "Novissime detecta ct lustrata est 
a Wilhclmo Scouten anno 1616." ^'Very recently discovered 
and surveyed by Wilhelm Scouten in the year 1616/* 

In the far north is a reference to the attempts made by 
numerous explorers to find a passage to the east by way of 
the north, reading, "Quemadmondum post apertum a Lusi- 
tanis iter illud ad regiones orientales, quod Promontorium 
Bonae Spei navigantes circumducit non defuere qui et ante 
Ferdinandum Magellanum, breviorem aliquam per Sep- 
tentrionem Cauriumque ad easdem illas regiones opulentissi- 
mas ac toto orbe decantatus, Moluccas, indagarent viam: et 
nominatim quidem anno jam tum 1500, duobusque seqq. 
Graspar et Michael Cortereales, f ratres lusitani, et post eos 
anno 1507, Sebastianus Cabotus venetus: ita et post supera- 
tum jam a praedicto Magellano Fretum, quod de ejus 
nomine Magellanicum dicitur, extitere celebres aliquot 
praestantes naucleri, qui ne codon quidem itinere contend, 
tum per easdem regiones septentrionales Caurique tractus, 
tum per Aquilonaria quoque Moscoviae Tartariaeque littora, 
idem tentaverint. Tales, ut alios nunc omittam, f mere anno 
1553 Hugo Willoughbeus, Eques anglus, annis 1576 ct 77 
Martinus Forbisherus, et annis 1585, 86, 87 loannes Davi- 
suis, uterque itidem anglus, item Gruilijelmus Bernard et 
loannes Hugo Linschotanus, Batavi, annis 1594, 95 et 96. 
Quibus onmibus etsi, post incredibiles exantlatos labores, 
conatus non successissent, non destitere tamen Henricus 
Hudsonus, et ipse anglus ac post eum Batavi quidam Am- 
steredami emissi, eandem terram (quod did solet) recipro- 
care. Is HudsonuS anno 1611, superato, ad Americae borealis 
oras, sub latitudinis 61, 62 et 63 gradu, ut indicat globus 
noster, praelongo freto, in exitu ejus engens ac late diffusum, 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

inyenit pelagus: cujus quidem detectio, multis spem addi- 
dit fore ut tandem inibi transitiis aliquis inveniatur. Utrum 
vcro huic spei eventus sit responsurus, propediem, quod 
vovcmus, ipsiun tempus ostendet." "When the way had been 
opened by the Portuguese to the eastern regions which led 
the navigators round the Cape of Good Hope, there were 
some who said there was a way, even before Ferdinand 
Magellan, a shorter way by the north and the northwest to 
those opulent and world famous regions, the Moluccas. To 
name these, in 1500, the two brothers Miguel and Gaspar 
Cortereal, and after them in the year 1507 Sebastian Cabot 
a Venetian, and after the Strait had been navigated by the 
aforesaid Magellan, which is called the Strait of Magellan 
after him, there were certain famous and excellent navi- 
gators who, not content with a knowledge of this passage, 
attempted another both by the same northern and north- 
western route and by the northern coasts of Moscovie and 
Tartary, among these, to omit others for the present, there 
were in the year 1553 Hugo Willoughby an English Knight : 
in the years 1576 and 1577 Martin Frobisher: in the years 
1585, 86, 87 John Davis, both of the last named being 
Englishmen: also William Bernard and John Hugo Lin- 
schoten, Dutchmen, in the years 1594, 95, 96. Although 
none of these attempts, in spite of the Herculean labors, 
were successful, ncverdielcss Henry Hudson, himself an 
Englishman, and after him certain Dutchmen sent from 
Amsterdam, did not give up the attempts to find that land, 
as it was called. Hudson himself, in the year 161 1, having 
navigated along the shore of North America in latitudes 61, 
62, and 63, as our globe indicates, a very long inlet at its 
farthest extremity discovered an immense and far-stretch- 
ing sea, the discovery of which gave hope to many that at 
last some outlet would be found therein. Whether the event 
would answer to this hope, and we pray it may, only time 
will tell."** Somewhat nearer the pole we read "Anno 1594 
et seqq. lUmorum D. D. Ordinum Foederatorum, anno vero 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

1596 Amplis°^ Senatus Amsterodamensis jussu atque a\is- 
piciis. Fortissimus Archithelassus lacobus Heelmstcrchius et 
cum eo pertissimus navarcha Guilijelmus Bernard filius 
utcrque civis Amsterodamensis viam per Septentrionem ad 
regna Cathayae et Chinae indagaturi, cum littora Novae 
Zemlae usque ad gradum latitudinis 78 perlustrassent, neque 
immensis e glacie coacervatis montibus impcdito, ulterius 
possent tendere, tertio postremoque itinere, quo loco casam 
a nobis expressam vides, hibemare coacti sunt." "In the 
year 1594 and the following years, by the command and 
under the auspices of 'the illustrious Lords of the United 
Netherlands, and in the year 1596, under the auspices of 
the distinguished Senate of Amsterdam, the brave sea cap- 
tain Jacob Heelmstrech, and with him the skilful navigator 
William Bernard's son, both citizens of Amsterdam, sought 
passage by the north to the regions of Cathay and China. 
When they had passed the shore of Nova 2iembla to latitude 
78, without being stopped by the immense mountains of ice, 
and could have gone further^ on this third and last journey 
they were compelled to pass the winter at the spot where 
you see a hut depicted by us.'* In addition to the above 
legends we find such as "Hie anno 1611 H. Hudson hiber- 
navit." "Here in the year 1611 Henry Hudson passed the 
winter." "Hue usque processit H. Hudson anno 1612." 
"As far as this Henry Hudson came in the year 1612." In 
the western part of North America, that is, in "Nova Al- 
bion," there is a legend referring to the expedition of Fran- 
cis Drake, reading, "Hoc loco ad latitu. 42 grad. appulsus 
Franciscus Dracus in gentem incidit prorsus indolatricam, et 
quod merito quis miretur ipso adeo mense Jimio prae f rigoris 
quam acerrime sacvientis vi coactus est, terram banc Novae 
Albionis nomine a se decoratam deserere." "In this place, at 
latitude 42** Francis Drake came upon a tribe wholly idola- 
trous and what is justly to be wondered at, in the month of 
June he was compelled by the violence of the cold that 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

raged here to desert this land of New Albion which he dis« 
dnguished with its name."^' 

The great inland sea appearing on the large world map 
of Jodocus Hondius of the year 161 1 (Fig. 96), and called 
"Mare Septentrionale Americac," is here represented as 
"Lacus iste quantum ex accolis coUigi potuit trecenta ut 
minimum miliaria in longitudinem pateat." "This lake, as 
far as can be learned from the inhabitants, stretches at least 
three hundred miles in length."** 

This representation is of particular interest in connection 
with a grant to the London Company, as expressed in its 
charter of the year 1609 wherein the jurisdiction of the 
company is defined as extending "In that part of America 
called Virginia, from the point of land called Cape or Point 
Comfort, all along the sea coast, to the northward two hun- 
dred miles, and from the said point of Cape Comfort, all 
along the sea coast to the southward, two hundred miles, 
and all that space and circuit of land, lying from the sea 
coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the land, throughout 
from sea to sea, west and northwest."** It is of further inter- 
est to note that on this globe of Blaeu there appears for 
the first time on a dated map the representation of Man- 
hattan as an island. 

The Osservatorio Astronomico, located near Florence, 
possesses a fine pair of Blaeu's large globes, the terrestrial 
being signed, at the conclusion of the address to the reader, 
"Guiljelmus Blaeu" instead of "Guiljelmus Caesius," as on 
The Hispanic Society's copy, although as on this copy the 
signature "Guiljelmus Caesius anno 1622" appears on the 
celestial globe. The dedications of these Florentine examples 
read, "Serenissimo Potentissimoque Principi Ferdinando 
Secondo Magno Etruriae Duci, Domino Suo Clementissimo. 
Suos hosce Coelestem et Orbis Terrarum Globos accuratius 
pleniusque quam hanctenus descriptos editosque L. M. D. 
C. Q. Humillimus Cliens Guilielmus Blaeuw." "To the 
Most Serene, Most Powerful Prince Ferdinand II, Prince 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

of Etruria, his Most Clement Lord, these globes, both celes- 
tial and terrestrial, more carefully and more accurately de- 
picted and edited than has been done previously, Willem 
Blaeu His Most humble client dedicates and consecrates/' 
It may here be noted that Ferdinand II was of the house of 
Medici and that he came to the throne in the year 1621. 

A pair of Blaeu's globes of 1622, signed "Guiljelmus 
Caesius,'* belongs to the Biblioteca Comunale of Palermo, 
reported to be without mountings and otherwise in bad con- 
dition. Most of the terrestrial globe map is missing but 
there remains enough of each to determine their original 
likeness to the preceding pair. 

In the archaeological section of the Biblioteca Gamba- 
lunghiana of Rimini there may be found a well-preserved 
pair, each dated 1622. 

A terrestrial ^obe dated 1622, and a celestial clearly 
intended as its companion but dated 1616 and signed ''Gui- 
lielmus Janssonius," belong to the Biblioteca Barbarini of 
Rome. If correctly dated it is evident that Blaeu completed 
his work on this globe of large size in the same year that 
he completed his work on the smallest of all his globes, to 
which attention has been called above. These examples are 
in a fair state of preservation, having each a base consist- 
ing of a single column supported on the backs of two satyrs 
who are seated with hands upraised. 

A pair of these globes of 1622 may be found in the Museo 
Civico of Venice with dedication differing from those which 
have been previously noted. On these globes we read, "Scre- 
nissimo Potcntissimo Gustavo II ejus nomine Suedorum 
Gothorum, Vandalorum Regi et Principi hereditario, 
Magno Duci Finlandiae, Estmanniae, Westmanniaeque 
Domino Suo Clementissimo, Suos hosce coelestem et Ordis 
Terrarum Globos accuratius pleniusque quam hactenus de- 
scriptos L. M. D. C. Q. Humillimus Cliens Gmiljelmus 
Caesius." "To the Most Serene and Most Powerful Gusta- 
vus II, King and Hereditary Prince of the Swedes, Groths, 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

and Vandals, the Mighty Ruler of Finland, Eastmania and 
Westmania, his Most Clement Lord, these his celestial and 
terrestrial globes more accurately and fully depicted and 
edited than previously, Willem Caesius, his humble client 
dedicates and consecrates.'' 

A copy of the 1622 celestial globe, signed "Guilielmus 
Caesius," belongs to the Stadtbibliothek of Numberg, and a 
copy of the same, dedicated to Grustavus II of Sweden, is in 
the possession of Reichsgraf Hans von Oppersdorf in Ober- 
glogau. 

Eleven additional pairs of Blaeu's globes, reprints, and 
reissues, not all agreeing in details, but alike in their main 
features, have been located. These belong to the years 1622- 
1640, having only an occasional record or date in legend to 
indicate, though indefinitely, the year of construction. A 
very brief reference to these editions here follows. 

A pair may be found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of 
Bologna, somewhat damaged by neglect and careless han- 
dling.. It seems probable, though the records are imperfect, 
that these are the globes referred to in an old catalogue of 
the Specola Library, and that they have been in the observa- 
tory since its founding in the year 1724.** 

The Royal Estense Library of Modena is in possessi<m of 
a well-preserved pair of Blaeu's large globes, as the librarian 
has kindly informed the author.^ Each is supplied with an 
artistic wooden base, with a meridian and a horizon circle, 
the whole being about 79 cm. in height. Each is furnished 
with a domelike cover of pasteboard, over the outside of 
which, and crossing at ri^t angles, are two bands of carved 
leaves, and in each of the four spaces thus formed is a deco- 
ration consisting of the lily of the Royal House of France. 
It appears not to be known how or when these globes came 
to the Estense Library; perhaps as a gift to a prince of the 
Ducal House of Este, from a member of the House of 
Orleans, or they were purchased perchance by an Estense 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

ambassador once having residence in Holland, as has been 
suggested. 

Other undated pairs of the 1622 and 1640 issues may be 
found in the Seminario Vescovile of Chioggia, in the Museo 
di Strumenti Antichi of Florence, in the Biblioteca Govema- 
tivo of Lucca, in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Naples, in the 
Biblioteca Chigi of Rome (Fig, 97), in the CoUegio delle 
Scuole Pie of Savona, in the Liceo Marco Foscarini of 
Venice (Fig. 98), in the Pinacoteca Quirini of Venice, and 
in the private library of Coimt Francesco Franco of Venice. 
A copy of the terrestrial only may be found in the Biblio- 
teca Comunale of Cpmo, in die Konigl. Math. Phys. Salon 
in Dresden, in the Istituto Tecnico of Florence, in the Bib- 
lioteca delle Misione Urbane of Genoa, in the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum of Niimberg, and a copy of the eighteen 
unmounted terrestrial globe gores, probably of the year 
1647, in the British Museum. A copy of the celestial globe 
only may be foimd in the Biblioteca Civico of Aquila in the 
Konigl. Math. Phys. Salon of Dresden, and one in the Brit- 
ish Museum, which is reported, however, to have a diameter 
of only twenty-four inches. 

The Biblioteca Barbarini of Rome possesses four armil- 
lary spheres, all appearing to be of the early seventeenth 
century. A description of two of these, neither signed nor 
dated, it has not been possible to obtain; two are the work 
of J. Paolo Ferreri, the one constructed in the year 1602 
according to the brief record "Jo. Paulus Ferrerius f . f . an. 
1602," and the other in the year 1624 being inscribed "P^ 
gio. Paulo Ferreri Ro^^ ano 1624." Professor Uzielli has 
given to the author the information that these are of brass, 
having each a graduated horizon circle supported by four 
half circles which in turn rest on a single brass colunm. 
Through this horizon circle passes an adjustable meridian 
circle 39 cm. in diameter, which is graduated and which sup- 
ports other movable circles, such as. the colures carrying the 
polar circles, the tropics, which are graduated, and the eclip- 

[44] 



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Fig. 97. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. 



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Fig. 98. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1622. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

tic, a broad band inclined 23J^ degrees to the equator, like- 
wise graduated and engraved with the names of the months 
and of the constellations of the zodiac. Within the circles 
of each of these spheres, placed at what may be called their 
common center, is a small solid sphere to serve as a repre- 
sentation of a terrestrial globe but without geographical 
details. There appear to be but slight differences in the con- 
struction of these two armillary spheres, the one of 1624 
having certain circles which are slightly smaller than are 
the corresponding ones on that of earlier date. From the 
same source it is learned that the artist, Tito Lessi of Flor- 
ence, possesses an armillary sphere signed and dated ''Lud: 
" Sem: • Bon: Fac: A. D. MDCXII," near which is a repre- 
sentation of a coat of arms with a dragon. The sphere is of 
brass, the diameter of its greatest circle being 63 cm. We 
know nothing of the Ludovico referred to as the maker, but 
who, as is noted, was a Bolognese. The same artist, as we 
are informed, likewise possesses another unsigned and im- 
dated armillary sphere which presumably is of the early 
seventeenth century. 

Peter -Plancius (1552-1622), a native of Drane-outer, 
West Flanders, is especially remembered as a militant the- 
ologian (Fig. 99) and as one of the most influential men 
active in the shaping of the colonial policy of the States 
of the Netherlands in the late sixteenth and early seven- 
teenth centuries. His was indeed a stormy career wherein it 
touched the Reformation movements. In early life a monk, 
he later became an ardent reformer supporting the Calvinis- 
tic faith. After passing some years in Germany and in Eng- 
land in study, he became, in the year 1578, a pastor in the 
city of Brussels. When persecution threatened him, he fled, 
in the year 1585, to Amsterdam, where he again became a 
pastor, exerting for many years a far-reaching influence in 
matters touching the relations of the reform movements and 
the state. Plancius, however, was not only learned in mat- 
ters theological, he was interested, as stated above, in Dutch 

[45] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

colonial enterprise, was a geographer, and a map and globe 
maker of great distinction. He in part planned and actively 
supported the Dutch expeditions of Barents, Hemskerken, 
Linschoten, and Le Maire, who undertook to find new routes 
to the Indies, both East and West. He assisted in the organi- 
zation of the East India Gxnpany, which company made 
l^ge contributions to the commercial prosperity of the 
Netherlands/' He was instrumental, with his countryman, 
William Usselinx, and others, in organizing the West 
India Gxnpany/* He took an active part in the planting of 
New Amsterdam in the New World, and in the establish- 
ment of Batavia in Java. He was counselor for twenty-five 
years in practically all matters pertaining to the welfare of 
the peoples of the Netherlands. 

As map maker Plancius appears to have begun his activi- 
ties shortly after taking up a residence in Amsterdam. His 
great world map in two hemispheres, one of his first pro- 
ductions, and one which may in part have served Blaeu and 
Hondius in the preparation of their masterpieces, of the 
years 1605 and 1611, respectively, was issued in the year 
1592, a unique copy of which belongs to the G)llegio del 
G)rpus Christi of Valencia.^* This map, bearing the title 
''Nova et exacta terrarum orbis tabula geographica ac hy- 
drographica,'' is composed of eighteen sheets, which, when 
joined, give a world map measuring 146 by 233 cm. Blunde- 
ville makes interesting reference to this map under the fol- 
lowing caption: ''A Plaine and full Description of Petrus 
Plancius his vniuersall Mappe, seruing both for Sea and 
Land, and by him lately put forth in the yeere of our Lord 
1592. In which Mappe are set downe many more places, as 
well of both the Indies, as Af rique, together with their true 
Longitudes and Latitudes, than are to be found either in 
Mercator his Mappe, or in any other Modeme Mappe what- 
soeuer: And this Mappe doth show what Riches, Power, or 
Commodities, as what kind of Beasts both wild and tame, 
what Plants, Fruits, or Mines any Region hath, and what 

[46] 



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^A^xtmiu/.JwmMd. cum. rmmt ffvpxi . 

vJtuuj atcrtu coaoatLf )zjaiazniy^cc/uic 

cM^crifutiiiU (L (tJiJOjCvnirc tndj. 

C/tnevaadRnvmPldtiaum vtvum mitreftt 
a S-S-ThaHopar'thdcai hvfufor 



Fig. 99. Portrait of Peter Plancius. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

kinds of Merchandize do come from euery Regicm. Also the 
diuers Qualities and Manners of the People, and to whom 
they are subiect. Also who be the most mightie and greatest 
Princes of the World: A Mappe meet to adome the House 
of any Gentleman or Merchant, that delighteth in Geog- 
raphic: and herewith this Booke is also meete to be bought, 
for that it plainely expoundeth euery thing contained in 
the said Mappe/'** Blundeville notes further that Plancius 
drew another map of the whole earth in two hemispheres, 
employing the polar projection. He does not give the date of 
this map, but it presumably was issued shortly after that of 
1592. A Plancius world map in two hemispheres, bearing 
title "Orbis terrarum typus de integro multis in locis amen- 
datus, auctore Petro Plancio 1594,'' appears in the account 
of Linschoten's expedition of 1599.*^ It is a well-drawn 
map, containing much valuable geographical data. Like 
Mercator, Hondius, and Blaeu, Plancius also undertook the 
construction of globes. Of these the oldest known appears 
to have been begun as early as the year 1612, the date 
appearing in the following dedication, ''Nobilissimis Am- 
plissimis Consultissimis ac Prudentissimis Dominis Con- 
sulariis Thalassiarchis atque Thalatto Oratoribus HoUan- 
diae 2ielandiae et Frisiae occidentalis nee non Magnificis ac 
Clarissimis Dominis Consulibus praeclarissimi Emporii Am- 
stelodami, Petrus Kaerius humillimus cliens L. M. Q. dat, 
dicat, dedicat. Anno 1612/' "To the Most Noble, Exalted, 
Learned and Prudent Consular Lords and Orators Mari- 
time of Holland, Zeeland and West Friesland, also to the 
Great and Disinguished Lords Counselors of the Renowned 
Emporium of Amsterdam, Peter Kaerius their humble client 
gives and dedicates (this globe). In the year 1612." Below 
the legend is engraved "Petrus Kaerius excudit ann. 1614," 
the date here given clearly indicating the year of issue. Not 
far from the dedicatory legend appears the following: 
"Ipsa experienda peritos Naucleros docuit volubiles libel- 
las magnetis virtute infectas in Insulis Corvi et Flonim 

[47] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Mundi polos recte respicerc : idcirco ibi, taquam a communi 
Mundi Magn. Meridiano Logitud. justis de causis initum 
sumunt Petnis Kacrius et Abrahamus Goos patnieles sculp- 
tores/' "Experience itself has tau^t skilful mariners that 
loose leaves when under the electrical influence, in the islands 
of Corvo and Flores, turn directly toward the poles of the 
world, and for this reason it is here, as a common magnetic 
meridian of the world, that Peter Kaerius and Abraham 
Goos his cousin, engravers, locate with reason the beginning 
of longitude." The customary address to the reader, though 
here not so designated, reads, "In hujus nostri Globi delinea- 
tione ubique castigatissimas Tabulas Hydrographicas ac 
Greographicas sequuti sumus, quibus Grermani, Hispani, 
Galli, Itali, Angli, Scoti, Dani, Norvegi, Suedi nee non et 
navigationibus utuntur: ad quae omnia comparanda nuUi 
nee labori ncc sumptui pepercimus: ventorum quoque re- 
gimmes ad usum navigantium admussim acoHnodavimus: 
quemadmodum artis periti, proprius inspiciendo, rcpcrient. 
Vale ac frere. Petrus Plancius." "In the delineation of this 
our globe, we have everywhere followed the most correct 
hydrographic and geographic tables which the Germans, 
Spaniards, French, Italians, English, Scotch, Danes, Norwe- 
gians and Swedes use in their voyages. In doing this we have 
spared no labor nor expense. The directions of the winds 
(loxodromic lines) we have laid down with great exactness 
for the use of sailors, as those experienced in navigation will 
see on close inspection. Farewell and be happy. Peter Plan- 
cius." This gives us definitely to understand that this terres- 
trial globe was the work of Plancius. 

The sphere is covered with a world map engraved on 
twelve gores^ truncated at latitude 70 degrees, the polar 
spaces being covered by the usual circular discs, each having 
in this case a radius of twenty degrees. 

On his celestial globe, probably issued at the same time 
as the terrestrial just referred to, and intended as a com- 
panion of the same, having the same dimensions, we find 

[48] 



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Fig. 100. Terrestrial Globe of Peter Plancius, 1614. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

the following legend: ''In hac coelesti sphaera stellae afBxae 
majore quam hactenus numero ac accuratiore industria de- 
lineantur. Novos Asterismos in philomatheom gratiam de 
integro addidi: quae omnia secundum Astronomorum Prin- 
cipis Tychonis Brahe, ac meam observaticmem verae suae 
Longitudinis ac Latitudinis ad amium Christi 1615 restitui. 
Petnis Plancius/' ''In this celestial sphere the fixed stars 
to a greater number than previously and with more exact- 
ness are depicted. I have added for the use of the student 
some entirely new star readings according to the prince of 
astronomers Tycho Brahe, and also my own observations of 
their true latitude and longitude adapting these to the year 
of Christ 1615. Peter Plancius." It then will be noted that 
the position of the stars located thereon is computed to the 
year 1615. In the southern hemisphere is a portrait of Tycho 
Brahe with the inscription "D. Tyco Brahe Summ. Mathe- 
matics" below which is the leg^d "Tabula continens quan- 
tum quovis proposito anno vel addendum vel demendum sit 
Logitudini aiBxarum: nam hae 70 annorum et 5 mensis 
spacio unicum gradu secundu signoru ordine, super Pol. 
Zod. progrediuntur/' "Table indicating how much for any 
given year is to be added to or to be subtracted from the 
l(Migitude of the fixed stars. For these in the space of 70 
years and 5 months move one degree reckoned on the signs 
of the zodiac/' But one pair of Plancius' globes can now be 
located, this pair having been acquired a few years since 
for the Museo Astronomico of Rome (Fig. icx)). They are 
reported to be in excellent condition. The spheres are of 
wood covered with plaster, having a diameter of about 21 
cm., upon which the gores have been pasted. Wind roses 
are numerous, from which the usual direction or loxodromic 
lines radiate. Ships and sea monsters add to the decoration 
of the terrestrial globe map, and the figures of the several 
constellations have been artistically drawn. Each globe is 
furnished with a wooden base, having its horizon circle sup- 
ported by four colunms which are joined below by cross^ 

[49] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

bars. Each has a brass meridian circle within which the globe 
is adjusted to revolve. 

Fiorini reports information received from Gabriel Marcel 
of the Bibliotheque Naticmale and Captain F. v. Ortroy 
that there may be f oimd in the Stein Museum of Antwerp a 
terrestrial globe of copper, neither signed nor dated, but 
which is thou^t to be the work of Peter Plancius." Addi- 
tional information concerning this globe has not been obtain- 
able. 

Isaac Habrecht (1589-1633), physician and mathema- 
tician, was a native of Strassburg, where he passed the 
greater part of his life." Incidental references to him assure 
that he was regarded in his day as a man of much ability. 
Among his publications, not numerous but scholarly, refer- 
ence here may be made to his Tractatum de planiglobio 
coelesti & terrestri,* issued in Latin in the year 1628, and 
again in the year 1666 in both Latin and German, by Jo- 
hann Christqph Sturm of Numberg.** In this work Habrecht 
describes his terrestrial and celestial globes, ccMistructed, it 
appears, a few years previous to the issue of the publication. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a fine example 
of what appears to be his first terrestrial globe (Fig. 101). 
It is undated, but intemal evidence assures us that it was 
not constructed prior to the year 1612. Near the Arctic cir- 
cle and north of the representation of Hudson's Bay we 
read "Hue usque retrocesserunt Amstelodamenses anno 
1612." "At this point the Amsterdam (explorers) turned 
about in the year 1612." His first celestial globe, referred 
to below, seems clearly to be of the year 1619, and there is 
reason for placing his first terrestrial globe in the same year, 
since, in their size, and in many of their general features 
there is agreement. The globe ball of wood has a diameter 
of 20 cm. Its horizon circle, which has pasted on its upper 
surface the usual information relative to the names of the 
months, to the principal directions, and to the signs of the 
zodiac, is supported by four turned legs joined below by 

[50] 



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Fig. 101. Terrestrial Globe of Isaac Habrecht, 1625. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

crossing bars, these bars in turn supporting a carved circu- 
lar disc with a raised center through a slot in which the 
meridian circle is made to pass. The whole is indeed a re* 
markably well-preserved example of Habrecht's work. 

In an artistic cartouch to the south of the East Indian 
Islands and within "Terra Australis" is the following 
signed dedication: 'Terillustri et Generossissimo Dn^ Dn^ 
Eberardo Dynaste in Rappolstein. Hohenaccio et Gerolt- 
zecdo ad Vogasinum Divi Mathiae II Imp. nee non Sere- 
niss. Maximilian! Archiducis Austriae. P. M. Camerario et 
Citeriorum Ordinum Provincialium Praesidi Magnifico: ex 
antiqua Duca Spoleti familia oriundo: Domino meo Cle- 
mendssi^ Triplicem hunc globum: G)elestem scilicet: con- 
vexum et concavum et hunc terrestrem novissimae editionis 
et correctionis. D. D. D. Isaacus Habrect Phil, et med. d. 
Argentinensis.'' "To the Most Illustrious and Most Gen» 
erous Lord Eberhardt Ruler in Ruppelstein. Hohenau and 
Geroldseck in the Vosges, Divine Emperor Matties II and 
also die Most Serene Maximilian Archduke of Austria, the 
Exalted President of the Provincial Orders of the Cameria, 
and those on this side of the mountains, sprung from the 
Ancient Ducal Family of Spoleto, my Most Gracious Lord, 
this triple globe, that is celestial, convex and concave ter- 
restrial, corrected according to the latest informaticm, gives 
and dedicates Isaac Habrecht, philosopher and physician of 
Strassburg." In the northern part of North America is a 
legend referring to the expeditions of Davis, Schouten, and 
Le Maire reading, "Versus Articum polum ulterior trans- 
gressus hactenus ab Herculis licet Davis Angli labore id 
examinatus f uerit sicut et circa antarcticum fretum noviter 
a Guilielmo Schout detectum Le Maire nuncupatum extre- 
mus adhuc navigationum est terminus. Quamvis nullus 
dubitet maxima totius orbis magnalia sub polls delitescere 
quorum detectionem forsitan summus Deus suo tempore re- 
servat. Typis Jacop. ab Heyden Argentinae." "Toward the 
Arctic pole the last voyage up to the present was made, with 

[51 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Herculean labors, by Davis an Englishman. Around the 
Antarctic a strait has lately been discovered by William 
Schouten and named Le Maire, and this, up to the present, 
is the extreme limit of navigation, althou^ no one doubts 
that the greatest wonders of all the world lie hidden under 
the poles, the discovery of which, it may be that Almi^ty 
God reserves for his own time. Printed by Jacob von Hey- 
den of Strassburg/' It is probable that the Jacob von Hey- 
den here referred to was a relative of Christian Heyden of 
Numbei^, mathematician and globe maker of renown/' Be- 
low the legend last quoted is a brief one reading, ''America 
septentrionalis a Christoforo Colombo 1492 detecta/' 
'"North America discovered by Christoi^er Columbus in 
the year 1492." This appears to have been quoted from the 
Hondius globe of the year 1618. The austral c<Hitinent is 
referred to as 'Terra Australis incognita," and near New 
Gruinea is inscribed the following, likewise quoted from 
Hcmdius: "Sic dicta quod ejus littora locoruqj Guineae Af- 
fricanae multum sint similia. Dicitur a ncMinullis Terra de 
Piccinaculi; et sit ne insula an pars coritinentis Australis 
incertum est." "So called because its shores are much like 
those of African Guinea. It is called by some the land of 
Piccinaculi: and it is uncertain whether it is an island or a 
part of the Australian continent." 

A considerable number of brief legends appear upon dif- 
ferent parts of the globe map, each having a local signifi- 
cance. In coloring the map attention was given to the repre- 
sentation of territorial boundaries which gives an added 
interest to the globe. The "Meridianus Primus" is made to 
pass through the Island of Corvo, and other meridians are 
drawn at intervals of ten degrees. The loxodromic lines, as 
on the Hondius globes, are made a conspicuous feature of the 
map, having their crossing centers at longitudes o^, 90'', 
iSo"", and 270'' on the equator, and on the prime meridian at 
latitude 35"" both north and south, as well as at the same 
latitude on the opposite side of the sphere, where the prime 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

meridian becomes the meridian of 180''. Habrecht appears 
to have followed somewhat closely the globes of Hondius 
for his geographical data. 

In addition to the Habrecht terrestrial globe in The 
Hispanic Society's collection, two other copies are known, 
which likewise are undated. One of these belongs to the 
Biblioteca Comunale of Sondrio, and the other to the 
Archivo Municipale of Asti. 

Of the celestial globes of Habrecht four copies have been 
located; one being in the Biblioteca Comunale of Sondrio, 
in a good state of preservation; one in the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum of Numberg, wanting, however, the origi- 
nal mounting, having its map engraved, as stated in a 
legend, by Jacob von Heyden et Jdiann Christoph Weigel; 
one in the Biblioteca Comunale of Asti; oat in the Royal 
Museum of Cassel. 

It is strikingly evident that Habrecht followed in the 
main the work of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, and Jodocus Hon- 
dius for his celestial ^obes. As the year 1619 was selected 
as the one in which star positions were to be recorded, it 
is probable, as intimated above, that these globes were con- 
structed in that year. Each of the globes referred to is 
reported as retaining the brilliant coloring which had been 
laid on by hand. 

Garcia de Cespedes, writing in i6o6,'* calls attention to 
a globe, concerning which nothing farther is known, refer- 
ring to it as a ''Globillo que hizo en Portugal aquel grau 
Piloto que se emborrachana cuyo nombre no me acuerdo." 
"A small globe constructed in Portugal by a great pilot, 
whose name is unknown, but who was a great drunkard." 

In the year 1893 Baron Nordenskiold presented to the 
Royal Geographical Society a facsimile in gores of a globe 
map, which fact is noted in that society's Journal. The 
globe is one of silver, bearing the author and date legend 
"Johann Hauer. 1620." The record tells of its having been 
presented in the year 1632 to Gustavus Adolphus and that 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

it is now one of the treasures of the National Museum of 
Stockholm. The engraved map is of the Hondius or the 
Mercator type presenting in the main the best geographical 
knowledge of the time. Its many legends are in the Latin 
language; the lettering, though small, is easily legible. The 
engraver has adomed the seas with ships and with such 
marine animals as are frequently to be found in the maps 
of the period.'^ 

It has been previously noted that the employment of 
engraved gore maps in globe construction was not received 
with general favor in Italy in the sixteenth century, al- 
though Mercator^s globes were copied to some extent, as 
were those of De Mongenet. Toward the close of the cen- 
tury, the preference for manuscript globes, or for engraved 
bronze or copper globes seems gradually to have yielded to 
a belief in the more practical method of ccMistruction which 
had established itself in the North. Originality, however, 
does not appear to have been a striking feature of Italian 
endeavor in this method of globe making. There was an 
occasional manifestation of independence and individuality, 
it is true, but in general there was a disposition to copy, and 
the early seventeenth century furnishes us an example in the 
reissue by Giuseppe de Rossi of the work of Jodocus Hon- 
dius, but without credit, as has been previously observed. 

Among those who attained distinction in Italy in the first 
half of the seventeenth century in the construction of globes 
having engraved gore maps, may be named Mattheus 
Greuter. He was bom in Strassburg in the year 1556, where 
he learned designing and engraving. In early life he went 
to Lyons in France where he carried on his work, but later 
he removed to Avignon, adding to his art in this city that 
of type cutting. We next find him in Rome, busily engaged 
in the work of engraving, in which he had become exceed- 
ingly proficient, winning for himself a high place among the 
Italian artists of his day. Map engraving, we learn, early 
claimed his attention, and among his masterpieces in this 

I 54] 



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Fig. 102. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1632. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

field may be mentioned a large map of Italy. Of this work 
no copy is at present known, but it is thou^t that it prob- 
ably served Magini as a model for his 'Italia'' which was 
published in the year 1620. It could not have been lixig 
after he had taken up his residence in Rome, where he be- 
came a naturalized citizen, that he began the preparation 
of his first terrestrial globe, which he issued in the year 1632. 
So well did he perform his work that he is entitled to rank 
with the leading globe makers of the Netherlands. 

An excellent example of this first issue may be found 
in the Museum of The Hispanic Society of America (Fig. 
102), this being one of the most valuable in its larg^ collec- 
tion. It has a diameter of 50 cm., and is mounted on a 
wooden base having four feet, which, thou^ evidently very 
old, is clearly not the original base. It is furnished with a 
narrow wooden horizon circle which is not graduated, and 
the calendar and other representations, which one usually 
finds pasted on this circle in early globes, are entirely want- 
ing. The meridian circle of iron, likewise, is not graduated, 
and like the wooden base is not a part of th^ original mount- 
ing. The sphere itself is remarkably well preserved, there 
being scarcely a noticeable injury to its surface save the 
slight discoloration of age. The engraved gore map covering 
the papier-mache ball, which is of very light construction, is 
composed of twelve sections, or rather of twenty-four, since 
each of the sections is cut at the equator, and tiie poles are 
covered with small circular discs. 

In the south Atlantic and near the great southem cchi- 
tinent, in a neat cartouch surmounted by the coat of arms 
of the Boncompagni family of Bologna, is the following 
dedication: ''Ulustrissimo et Excellentissimo Principi D. 
lacobo Boncompagno Sorae Arcisque Duci Marchioni Vig- 
nolae Aquini Comiti Dno suo colendissimo. Mattheus 
Greuter Humill. obseqii ergo. D. D." "To the Most Illus- 
trious and Excellent Prince Lord Jacob Boncompagni, Duke 
of Sora and Arce, Marquis of Vignola and Count of Aquino, 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

his Most Worshipful Lord Mattheus Grcuter with humble 
obedience dedicates (this globe)/' lacopo BonoMiipagni, to 
whom Greuter dedicated his work, belonged to a famous 
family of Bolc^a/* He was bom in Sora in the year 1613 
and died in the year 1636. It was his great-grandfathen 
Hugo, who, in the year 1572, at the age of seventy, became 
Pope Gregory XIII, and who immortalized himself through 
his refomi of the calendar. lacopo, the grandfather of that 
member of the family to whom Greuter dedicated his globe, 
was in position, at ^e time of the elevation of his father 
to the Papacy, to have bestowed upon him great honors 
and riches. He was nominated Castellan of St. Angelo, and 
shortly thereafter, receiving the tide General of the Holy 
Churdi, was sent to Ancona with a commission to defend 
the maritime regions of the papal states. He was soon 
thereafter admitted to the nobility of Rome, of the King- 
dom of Naples, and of Venice. Through the riches of the 
Papacy he was able to purchase from Alfonso II of Este the 
Marquisate of Vignola for seventy-five thousand Roman 
scudi, the Duchy of Sora and of Arce from the Duke of 
Urbino for one hundred and ten thousand ducats, and the 
lands of Arpino and Roccasecca, together with the County 
of Aquino from Alfonso of Avalon, Marquis of Guasto, for 
one hundred and forty thousand ducats. 

In the austral continent, and on the opposite side of the 
globe to that on which the dedication is placed is an address 
to the reader which is inscribed in a neat cartouch, reading 
'In ista quam exhibemus terreni globi descriptione cxnnium 
regionum iuxta et insularum quotquot hactenus ab Argo- 
nautis tarn Lusitaniae quam aliarum gentium Naucleris 
visae et notatae loca in suo secundu longitudinem et latitu- 
dinem situ suma sedulitate et industria disposita invenies 
quae res non solum Geographiae studiosis jucuda, verum 
etiam ijs, qui terras longe dissitas et sub alio sole calentes 
frequentent, maxime udlis futura est. Hue igitur laborem 
nostrum ut tarn gratis animis acceptatis sedulitate a nobis 

[56] 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

est obitus ex aequo onrnes rogatos volo. Mattheus Greuter 
auctor. Excudit Roma Anno MDCXXXII." "On this globe 
which we exhibit, you will find all the regions and islands 
as far as they have hitherto been seen and noted by navi- 
gators of Portugal and of other nations, set down in their 
proper positions of latitude and longitude with the greatest 
care and industry. This will be pleasing not only to students 
of geography but it will be especially useful to those who 
visit far distant lands (which are) warmed by another sun. 
I hope therefore that all those whom I ask will accept this 
labor of ours with as much gratitude as we have employed 
care upon it. Matthew Greuter maker. Made in Rome in the 
year 1632." This address agrees with that on the Blaeu ter- 
restrial globe of 1622 except that Blaeu wrote "vel etiam 
ab aliarum gentium . • • ," whereas Greuter writes "tam 
Lusitaniae quam aliarum gentium . . . /' and Blaeu in- 
serted a reference to the loxodromes he had drawn on his 
map, which loxodromes Greuter, omitting, had therefore no 
occasion for such reference. In the inscription referring to 
the prime meridian, Greuter again borrowed from Blaeu 
with scarcely an alteration, as he did in his reference to 
recent discoveries made for the purpose of finding a way to 
the East by the North. Blaeu's legend in the vicinity of the 
Tiborone Island, that near the Cape of Good Hope, and that 
near the Strait of Magellan were all c(^ied literally by 
Greuter, and likewise that referring to the Le Maire Strait. 

Greuter employed, in general, for the names of the re- 
gions of the Old World and for the seas, the Latin language, 
though he wrote "Mar del Nort" for the Atlantic and "Mar 
del Zur^' for the Pacific. For the names of the New World 
he used the Spanish or the Portuguese, but occasionally the 
English, the French, the Dutch, or the language native to 
the region bearing the name. For the names of the cities he 
generally employed the language of the country or the 
Italian language. 

Numerous ships are represented sailing the seas, and the 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

pictures of sea monsters are many. A few wind roses adorn 
the map, but, as before stated, loxodrome lines, regarded in 
general at that time as of great importance to sailors who 
had occasion to make use of the chart or the globe, were 
omitted by Greuter, 

Huds(Hi Bay, which is left nameless, is represented with- 
out a definite coast line in the north, but through a wide and 
extended channel it opens into "Fretum Davis/' The St. 
Lawrence River appears to drain a lake, which may be taken 
from its location to be Lake Ontario; but the remaining four 
Great Lakes appear as one great inland sea with an outlet 
of somewhat imcertain character northward toward Hud- 
son Bay. The geographical representations in this region 
are of special historical interest, as are indeed the geographi- 
cal records in the several sections of North America, particu- 
larly in the South and the West- 

As a companion to the terrestrial globe of the year 1632, 
Greuter prepared a celestial globe of the same dimensions, 
and with similar mountings, which he issued in the year 
1636. He gives due credit, in one of his legends, to Tycho 
Brahe and to Willem Blaeu as sources of information for 
his representation of the stars and the several constellations, 
following, in particular, Blaeu's globe of 1622. His explana- 
tory leg^d reads "In hoc coelesti Globo notantur omnes stel- 
lae fixie an annum 1636 accomodatae q iuxta observatione 
Nob. viri Tychonis Brahe, in max illo lansonii, ano 1622 
edito, positae sunt additis stellis q a peritiss^ nauclero Petro 
Theod: circa Pol. Aust. notatae su novisque Asterismis et 
stellis min. apparetib', ab aliis sum studio observatis, omnia 
in Philomatico gratia copiosa delineata. Romae, 1636, M. 
Greuter." "In this celestial globe arc noted all the fixed 
stars accommodated to the year 1636, which are placed (on 
the map) according to the observations of the noble Tycho 
Brahe in that great (work) of Jansson (Blaeu), edited in 
the year 1622, to which are added the stars noted by the 
skilful navigator Peter Theodori aroimd the south pole and 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

the new and less apparent stars observed by others with 
great zeal. All these have been represented for the use of the 
student. At Rome, 1636. M. Greuter." As to how much he 
thought should be added to or subtracted from the longitude 
of the fixed stars each year, to the end of taking due note 
of the precession of the equinoxes, he copied Plancius liter- 
ally. The equatorial circle, the tropics, the polar circles, the 
equinoxes, the solstitial colures, the ecliptic, and twelve 
meridians are all represented. The constellations include the 
Ptolemaic, with the addition of those recently discovered 
and named in the southern hemisphere. The figures of the 
several constellations are well drawn, having their names 
in Latin or in Arabic, and are artistically colored in most 
of the copies of the globe known. 

Greuter's globes all appear to have been made in the same 
size, and they have the same general construction, with the 
exceptions noted below. 

A pair of these globes, that is, of the terrestrial, of the 
year 1632 and the celestial of 1636, may be found in the 
following public and private libraries and museums in addi- 
tion to those above mentioned : Scuole Comunale of Ancona; 
in the Biblioteca Comunale of Bologna; in the Biblioteca 
CcHnunale of Camarino; in the Seminario Vescovile of 
Carpi; in the Biblioteca Comunale and also in the Museo 
Agabiti of Fabriano; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Ferrara; 
in the Biblioteca di Santa Maria Nuova of Florence; in the 
Biblioteca Comunale of Gubbio; in the Biblioteca Govema- 
tivo of Lucca; in the Biblioteca Capitolari of Reggio; in the 
Museo Astronomico, also in the Biblioteca Chigi and 
the Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele of Rome; in the Bib- 
lioteca Comunale of Sanseverino; in the Biblioteca Gonzaga 
of Mantua; in the Biblioteca Universitario of Messina; in 
the Biblioteca Nazionale of Milan; in the Museo Civico of 
Modena; in the Museo di Fisica and also in the Seminario 
Vescovile of Padua; in the Biblioteca Palatina of Parma 
and a pair in the possession of Joseph Baer & Company of 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Frankfurt, 19^4* A copy of the terrestrial globe of the year 
1632, in additicm to the one described above as belonging 
to The Hispanic Society of America, may be found in the 
Biblioteca Comiuiale of Bassano; in the Ateneo of Brescia; 
in the Museo di Fisica of Catania; in the Archivo di Stato 
of Venice. In private libraries copies of these globes may be 
found in the possession of the Greneral Antonio Gandolfi of 
Bologna; of Sr. P. Marezio Bazolle, once belonging to the 
Counts of Piloni of Belluno; of Professor Luigi Bailo of 
Treviso; of Sr. D. Luigi Belli of Genga. A copy of the celes- 
rial ^obe of the year 1636 may be found in die Biblioteca 
Comunale of Serra S. Quirico, and also a copy in the library 
of Mr. W. B. Thompson of Yonkers, N. Y. 

It does not appear that Greuter himself issued other edi* 
tions of his globes. His death occurred in the year 1638, and 
in this same year what may be called a second edirion of his 
globes of the years 1632 and 1636, having the same dimen- 
si<xis, was offered to the public. It has been noted above that 
one Giuseppe de Rossi of Milan reprinted in Rome, in the 
year 1615, the Hondius terrestrial and celestial globes of 
1601, making but sli^t alterations in the same but giving 
the impression that he was the original author. It was per- 
haps a near relative of this Milanese engraver and printer, 
Giovanni Batrista de Rossi, who in the year 1638 reprinted 
in Rome the Greuter globes with but few changes, none of 
which can be considered of special import save the intro- 
ducticm of his own name as printer instead of that of Greu- 
ter. It may, however, be noted that both globes are dated 
1636, that below the Tropic of Capricorn on the terrestrial 
globe is the legend "Si stampa da Gio Batta de Rossi Mila- 
nese in Piazza Navcxia. Roma," and that the title legend of 
the celestial reads '"In hac coelesti sphaera stellae fixae ma- 
jori quam hactenus numero et accuratiori industria delinean- 
tur novis Asterismis in Philomaticom gratiam de integro 
additis: quae omnia secundum Astronomorum Principis 
Tychonis Brahe et aliorum observationem verae suae longi- 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

tudini ac latitudini ad annum Christi 1636 restituta sunt. 
Romae Matteus Greuter cxc. 1636." 'In this celestial globe 
are shown the fixed stars in greater number than previously, 
and with greater care and industry, the new constellations 
being added for the sake of the student. All these, according 
to the observations of the Prince of Astronomers, Tycho 
Brahe, and likewise the observations of others, have been 
assigned to their proper latitude and longitude for the year 
of Christ 1636. Made at Rome by Mattheus Greuter 1636." 

A pair of these globes of the second edition may be found 
in the private library of Cav. Giampieri-Carletti of Piticchio 
in the Marche; in a private library of Ancona (owner un- 
known) ; in the Seminario Vescovile of Toscanella. A copy 
of the terrestrial globe may be found in the Seminario Vesco- 
vile of Macerata; and of the celestial in the library of Count 
Francesco Conestabile of Perugia. 

The Hispanic Society of America has in its collection a 
unique globe which is clearly the work of Mattheus Greuter 
(Fig. 103), although issued by Giovanni Battista de Rossi, 
as is attested by the legend, "Si Stampa da Gio Batta de 
Rossi Milanese in Piazza Navona Roma." This legend, ap- 
pearing in a neat cartouch, occupies the same position in the 
southern hemisphere, near the prime meridian, as that in 
which one finds the dedication of his first issue, but that part 
of the cartouch in the earlier issue showing the coat of arms 
of the Boncompagni family is here left blank. The title of 
the first issue is repeated save in the concluding words. Here 
we read "In iste quam exhibimus . . . Mattheus Greuter 
auctor. Excudit Romae 1638." Other legends, such as those 
in the northern part of North America beginning, "Post 
apertum a Lusitanis . . . ," that southeast of Africa be- 
gioning, "Quam longitudinis initium . . . ," and the 
briefer ones referring to the discovery of the Cape of Good 
Hope, to the expedition of Schoutcn, and to that of Magel- 
lan, are identical in the two editions. It, however, is to be 
noted that many of the briefer legends appearing in the 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

first edition are wanting in this of the year 1638, and that 
in the latter the place names are greatly reduced in number. 
It is further particularly worthy of note that the North 
American continent in this later issue is very much altered 
in its outline. California appears as an island, "Insula Cali- 
fornia," and is separated from the great northwestern sec- 
tion of North America, which is likewise represented, though 
S(xnewhat doubtfully, as an island, by the ''Stretto di 
Anian," while the "Estreito de Jeso" separates the New 
World from Asia. The globe ball has a diameter of 26 cm. 
Its mounting is of wood. It has a broad horizon circle, on 
which are the representations of the signs of the zodiac, the 
calendar, the Roman and the Italian names of the winds or 
directions appearing in concentric circles, the whole being 
supported on a base consisting of four exquisitely carved and 
rather heavy support colimuis which are joined below by 
carved cross bracings. Its meridian circle is a comparatively 
recent and very clumsy substitute of wood for the original 
which doubtless was of brass. It is very seldom that one finds 
a globe of a date so early as is this which is so well preserved. 
The engraved map has the freshness of a new and unused 
print, excepting a very slight yellow tinge which is the con- 
tribution of age. On this globe map may be found one of the 
earliest attempts to give boundary lines to territorial divi- 
sions in the New World such as "Virginia," "La Florida," 
"Nuovo Mexico," "N. Amsterdam," 'W. Suetia." 

Attention has previously been called to the reproduction 
in Italy of the Hondius globes by Giuseppe de Rossi in the 
year 1615. 1^ appears that to the Rossi family belonged a 
number of map engravers and art printers during the seven- 
teenth century and particularly to that branch making its 
home in the city of Rome. As globe makers we however find 
them playing the role of copyists rather than that of inde- 
pendent producers. 

In The Hispanic Societ/s collection of old globes may be 
found a pair in an excellent state of preservation signed 

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Fig. 103. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Greuter, 1638. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

"Dominici dc Rubcis (Rossi)," and dated "1695." Each 
globe ball is composed of papier-mache, having a diameter 
of 49 cm. and each is covered with a map printed on twelve 
gores, with a small circular disc for the polar space (Figs. 
103%^). In the List of Globe Makers other examples are 
noted. 

In the South Pacific, on the terrestrial globe, one finds the 
inscription "Romae ex Chalcographia Dominici de Rubeis, 
heredis 70. Jacobi, ad templum S. Mariae de Pace, Anno 
1695." Dominico, whose name here appears, achieved con- 
siderable distinction as the publisher, with his relative 
Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi, of an atlas of one hundred and 
fifty-two maps, one of the finest examples of Italian cartog- 
raphy of the period. In a cartouch in the South Atlantic, on 
this globe, we find the name Mattheus Greuter given as the 
engraver, whose work has been referred to above, clearly 
suggesting that Rossi had merely reissued a globe of earlier 
date, since Greuter had died in the year 1638. A careful 
examination of the globe map confirms the suggestion, since 
no record is made of geographical discoveries after the year 
1630. In the region of the North Pole the discoveries of the 
English and of the Dutch are recorded to the year 1628, and 
it may further be noted that in this same northern region 
the islands of "Frislanda" and "Brasil" are laid down, 
while in Greenland is a reference to the location of the 
fabled Monastery of St. Thomas. 

References are made in legends to the discoveries of 
Magellan, Lemaire, Schouten, Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, 
and Drake. The regicm about New York is called "Nieu 
Nederland.'' One can recognize the representation of the St. 
Lawrence, and the Mississippi. In the western region of the 
New World there appears to be considerable confusion as to 
the geography of the country, apparently the result of read- 
ing, without understanding, the records of the Spanish and 
of the English. One finds, for example, California repre- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

sented as an island, and a double representation of the 
Strait of Anian. 

The Spanish, French, English, Dutch, and Latin lan- 
guages have been employed in names and legends. 

The mounting of the globe is artistic and substantial, con- 
sisting of the usual horizon circle, octagonal on its outer 
edge, but circular on the inner edge to receive the globe ball, 
and having pasted on its upper surface the usual engraved 
paper strips and all that there is engraved thereon in the best 
examples of globe making. The meridian circle of wood, 
within which the sphere is made to revolve, is graduated. 
The supporting base consists of four exquisitely turned 
columns, braced at bottom with correspondingly well-turned 
crossbars. 

The celestial globe has a mounting altogether like that 
of the terrestrial, and in the character of the map engraving 
there is agreement. The figures of the several constellations 
are copies of these drawn by Tycho Brahe, and all have been 
exquisitely colored. Stars from the first to the sixth magni- 
tude are represented, while special attention is called to the 
new star in Cassiopeia first appearing in the year 1572, and 
to the comets of the years 1597 and 1616. Near Ursa Major 
is the author and date legend reading 'Tn hoc Caelesto 
Globo notantur omnes stellae fixae, ad annum 1636 accom- 
modatae, quae iuxta observationes Tychonis Brahae maximo 
illo Jansonii anno 1622 edito positae sunt, additis stellis 
quae a nauclero Petro Theod. cii^ca Polum Australem nota- 
tae sunt . . . Romae ex chalcographia Dominici de Rubeis, 
her. Jo. Jac. de Rubeis anno 1695." 

The twelve gores of the map have been mounted so as 
to join at the north and south poles of the ecliptic, there 
however being a small covering disc at each pole, so fre- 
quently employed since Mercator's day, the globe itself 
being made to revolve on its equatorial axes. 

To the makers of armillary spheres in the first half of the 
seventeenth century there may be added the name of Adam 

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Fig. 103a. Terrestrial Globe of Dominico Rossi 
(Mattheus Greuter), 1695. 



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Fig. 103b. Celestial Globe of Dominico Rossi 
(Mattheus Greuter), 1695. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

Hcroldt, a native of Germany. Wc know litde, however, 
of the extent of his activities. One example of his work is 
known, which bears the simple inscripticm engraved near the 
south polar circle ''Adam Heroldt fecit Romae anno dfii 
MDCIL." "Made by Adam Heroldt in the year 1649." This 
sphere once belonged to the astronomer De Gasparis of 
Naples, but passed some years since into the collection of 
the Museo Astronomico of Rome. It is constructed entirely 
of brass, the diameter of the largest circle being about 14 
cm. Its several circles, including the polar, the equatorial, 
the zodiacal, and the horizon, are graduated, the last-named 
having engraved on its surface the names of the months and 
of the winds, and resting on two semicircles, which in turn 
are supported by an artistically designed foot. The entire 
height of the sphere is about 20 cm. At the north pole is an 
hour circle bearing the inscription "Index Hor: Italic." 
Within and at the common center of the several circles is a 
small ball representing the terrestrial sphere, which has a 
diameter of but 1 cm., and within the circle of the ecliptic 
and coordinated with it is a ring carrying the sun, while 
within this is one for the moon. The piece may be referred 
to as a fine example of the armillary sphere of the period. 

Manfredo Settala (i6cx>-i68o), a nobleman of Italy, 
was in his day a distinguished promoter of sdience and art, 
and an intelligent collector of rare objects, which he brought 
together in a museum of his own founding. This he described 
in a work bearing title 'Museum Septalianum,' which was 
published in Italian in the year 1666 by Scarabelli. This 
museum later passed into the possession of the Ambrosiana 
of Milan, where it has been considered one of the choicest 
additions. 

Settala had included globes in his collection, among 
which there has previously been mentioned that made by 
the Cremonese Gianelli, in the year 1549. But not .only was 
he a collector; he likewise became interested in the actual 
work of globe construction. Among the objects coming to 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the Ambrosiana from his museum is an amiillary sphere 
bearing the inscription, "Manfredus Settalius fecit MD- 
CXLVI."**^ It is described as a sphere having a base of brass, 
its several circles including those representing the zodiac, 
the equator, the meridians, and the horizon, all being mov- 
able on a common axis, cm which axis at the common center 
of the circles is a small ball 4 cm. in diameter, representing 
the earth. To this sphere rather extravagant praise is given in 
the descriptive catalogue referred to above. 

There is a third armillary sphere belonging to the Set- 
tala collection, which is of silver and which probably was 
constructed near the middle of the seventeenth century, al- 
though it is neither signed nor dated. It is 40 cm.' in hei^t, 
having a circle representing the ecliptic 15 cm. in diameter, 
which is graduated, having on its upper surface engraved 
figures representing the twelve zodiacal constellations. The 
meridian circle has a diameter of 16 cm., the horizon a 
diameter of 16 cm. and a breadth of 3 cm., on the upper 
surface of which have been engraved the names of the 
months, and the signs of the zodiac. In addition to the parts 
mentioned it has two small polar circles, and at the commcm 
center a small silver ball 1 cm. in diameter representing the 
earth. 

Attention has been previously called to the transfer of 
the business of Jodocus Hondius into the hands of the son- 
in-law, Johan Janssonius, and of Abraham Goos, by whom 
it was carried on after the year 1640. This firm continued 
to issue the Hondius globes, modifying them from issue to 
issue with the addition of some of the latest geographical 
information obtainable. In the year 1648, with Johan Jans- 
sonius as editor and Abraham Goos as author and engraver, 
there was issued a pair of these revised Hcmdius globes, each 
having a diameter of 87 cm. On the terrestrial globe we read 
''Amstelodami Edebat Joannes Jansonius Sculpebat mag- 
noque studio componebat Abrahamus Goos Amstelodamen- 
sis." '"Amsterdam. Edited by Johan Jansonius. Composed 

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Fig. 98a. Terrestrial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca. 1640. 



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Fig. 98b. Celestial Globe of Willem Jansz. Blaeu, ca. 1640. 



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Early Seventeenth Century. 

with much study and engraved by Abraham Goos a native 
of Amsterdam/' Further details concerning this globe have 
not been obtainable, but it is very certain, although differing 
in size, it contains practically all the features common to the 
earlier editions of the Hondius terrestrial globes, and espe- 
cially of the later ones. 

The celestial globes have the following inscription: 
"Sphaera nova summo studio summaque diligentia atque 
industria Clarissimi viri D. Adriani Metii Watheseos apud 
Frunequeranos Professoris Ordinarii ad abacos Nobilissimi 
vin Thiconis Brahe configurata observationibus quampluri- 
mis turn circa polum arcticum a discipulo suo Houtmanno 
adhibitis aucta et in annum 1620 reducta. Edente Joanne 
Jansonio 1648." "'A new globe constructed with the greatest 
industry, zeal and diligence accommodated to the tables of 
the most noble Tycho Brahe, enlarged by very many obser- 
vations, those around the Arctic pole being made by myself, 
and those around the Antarctic by his disciple Houtmann. 
All, accommodated to the year 1630. Constructed by Jdian 
Jansonius, 1648/' A pair of these globes may be found in the 
library of the Marquis Borromeo of Milan. 



NOTES 

1. Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. XXVII, p. 242 ; Aa, A. J. v. d. 
Biogiaphiiche Woordenboek dcr Nederlanden. Haarlem, 1853. "Hondius* 
Jodocm," to which notice there is appended a list of short bibliographical 
references ; Kramm, C. De Leven en Werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche 
Kunstenaars. Amsterdam, 1857- 1861. "Hondius, Jodocus." 

2. See for an interesting example of his early work his world map printed 
at The Hague in the year 1595. This map, in two hemispheres, lays down 
the track of Drake's circumnavigation, 1577-1580, and that of Cavendish, 
1586-1588. An original of this may be found in the Grenville Library of 
the British Museum, a reproduction in the work referred to below, n. 42. 

3. Aa, op. ciL, "Bertius, Petms de," "Montanus, Petrus." See also Kramm, 
op. cit. 

4. For a list of the Hondius Atlases of various dates see Phillips, P. L. 
A list of Geographical Atlases. Washington, 1909-1914. 3 vols. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

5. Stevenson* E. L.. and Fischer, J. Map of the World by Jodocus 
Hondius, with the title, 'Novissima ac ezactissima totius orbis terrarum 
dcscriptio magna cura & industria ex optimis quibusque tabulis Geographicis 
et Hydrographicis nuperrimisque doctonim virorum observattonibus duobus 
planisphacrijs delineata. Auct. I. Hondio.' New York, 1907. Facsimile in 
eighteen large sheets with key map and text. 

6. There is much doubt as to the correct reading of the date. 

7. These globes were acquired by Mr. Huntington at the auction sale held 
in the rooms of the American Art Association, November 24, 1916. They 
were listed in the catalogue of "Art treasures and Antiquities from the 
famous Davanzati Palace, and the Villa Pia, Florence, Italy," under No. 
575 as "a pair of sixteenth century Italian globes.'* No other printed 
reference than that contained in this catalogue has hitherto appeared. It 
is hardly probable that a finer pair of these early Holland globes can be 
found in any of the museums or private libraries of Europe. 

8. Fiorini. Sfcrc tcrrestre e cclesti. p. 265. 

9. Wagner, H. Lehrbuch der Geographic. Leipzig, 1903. pp. 78^1 ; Frisius, 
G. De principiis astronomiae et cosmognphiae. Antwerp, 1530. Chap, titled 
"De novo modo inveniendi longitudinem" ; Ptolemaeus. Geographia. Chap. 
4. Ptolemy here refers to an eclipse of the moon, in the year 331 B. C., 
which was observed in Arbela the fifth hour, in Carthage the second hour. 
He therefore noted a difference in time of three hours between the two 
places, and he therefore concluded the difference in longitude to be 43 
degrees. Since the actual difference in longitude is but 34 degrees his error 
was of considerable magnitude, which found expression in his maps, and 
in the maps of those who followed him, as the greatest of geographical 
teachers, well into the seventeenth century. The method of determining 
longitude by means of the observation of the eclipses of the moon remained 
practically the only method until the end of the fifteenth century. Atten* 
tion may here be called to work of Cassini and of other astronomers of his 
period. See II, 141. 

10. Aa, op. cit., "Veen, Adrien," also Kramm, op. cit 

11. Baudet, P. J. H. Leven en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu. Utrecht, 
1871. pp. 156-158; "Extract uit de Resol. der Staten van Holland en West- 
Vriesland, 5 Aug. 1608." 

12. Ilorini, op. ciL, p. 271. 

13. Information kindly furnished by the director. 

14. See II, 11. 

15. The parrot particularly interested the early explorers who visited the 
South American coast. See the artistic representation appearing on the 
Candno map, in apparently the oldest extant representation of an American 
landscape. 

16. Voyages of Fox and James to the Northwest. Ed. by Christy Miller 
for the Hakluyt Society. London, 1894. See especially the second part of 
Vol. n, "The strange and dangerous voyage of Captain Thomas James, 
London, 1633." 

17. The voyage of Thomas Button was made in the years 1612-1613, an 
account of which is given in Voyages of Fox and James, Vol. I. pp. 160-201. 

18. Bauer, L. A. Principal Facts Relating to the Earth's Magnetism. (In: 
United States Magnetic Declination Tables and Isogonic Charts for 1902. 
Washington, 1902.) Printed also as a separate; Wolkenhauer, A. Beitrige 
zur Geschichte der Kartographie und Nautik des 15 bis 17 Jahrhundert. 

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Early Seventeenth Century, 

Mfinchen, 1904; Hdlmann, G. Uebcr die Kcntmss der magnctischen De- 
klinadon vor Christopher Columbus. (In : MeteorologiKhe Zeitschrif t Braun- 
schweig, 1906.) Gilbert, W. De Magnete. London, 1600, and reissued in 
translation in 1895. This work is one of great significance in its treatment 
of magnetism and electricity. See especially Bk. IV on Variation, Pedro 
Medina in his Art de Navigar, Valladolid, 1545, contended that the mag- 
netic needle always points to the true north ; Stevenson, £. L. Early Spanish 
^rtography of the New World. (In: Proceedings of the American An- 
tiquarian Society. Worcester, 1909.) Attention is called in this paper to 
certain errors in early Spanish maps, probably due to a failure to note 
properly the declination of the magnetic needle. 

19. ]&iudet, op. cit.; same author. Nachscnft, 1872; same author. Notice 
sur la part prise par Willem Jansz. Blacu dans la determination des longi- 
tudes terrestres. Utrecht, 1875. Stevenson, E. L. Willem Janszoon Blaeu 
(1571-1638), a sketch of his life and work with an especial reference to his 
laige world map of 1605 with facsimile. New York, 1914; Aa, op. cit.. Vol. 
lit PP- 578-580; Dozy, C. M. Willem Janszoon Blaeu. (In: Tijdschrift van 
het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. Amsterdam, 1887. pp. 206- 
315.} ; Tiele, P. A. Levcn en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu door P. J. 
Baudct. (In : De Gids. Amsterdam, 1872. Dorde Serie, Vol. I, pp. 356-367.) ; 
Tiele, P. A. Nederlandschc Bibliographie van Land- en Volkerkunde. Am- 
sterdam, 1884. See this work for a bibliography of the works of Blaeu. 

20. Baudet, op. cit., pp. 77-114. 

21. See reference to Tycho Brahe, I, 183. 

22. See I, 184. 

23. Pictures of these instruments may be found in Le grand Atlas. 

24. Kepler, J. Astronomia nova . . . De Motibus Stellae Martis. Prague, 
1609; Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, "Kepler, Johann"; Wolf, Geschichte 
der Astronomie, pp. 281-310. 

25. In his earliest maps and charts Blaeu clearly had as his main purpose 
that of being of service to navigators. 

26. Blaeu, J. Le grand Atlas ou Cosmographie Blaviane. Amsterdam, 1663- 
1671. 12 Vols. Practically the same woik in the Latin, the Dutch, and the 
Spanish languages. A bibliographical list of Blaeu's principal geographical 
publications is given in Stevenson, op. cit., pp. 65-67, in Phillips, op. cit., 
and in Tiele, op. ciL 

27. Stevenson, op. cit., p. 25. 

28. Genard, P. M. N. J. Les globes de Guillaume Blaeu. (In: Bulletin 
Soci^te G^ographie d'Anvers. Anvers, 1883* Vol. VIII, pp. 159-160.) ; Baudet, 
op. cit., pp. 35-52 ; Stevenson, op. cit., pp. 15, 43-50. 

29. The Mercator globe has a diameter of 41 cm. and the Van Langren 
a diameter of 32 cm. 

30. Fiorini, op. cit, p. 242. 

31. Baumgartner, J. Zwei alte Globen von Blaeu. Erdkugel von 1599 und 
Himmel-Globis von 1603. (In: Das Ausland. Stuttgart, 1885. No. 15, pp. 
299-300.) 

32. (In: Hakluyt Society Publications, Ser. II, Vol. XVIII, pp. 187, 189.) 

33. Kistner, A. G. Geschichte der Mathemadk, Vol. Ill, p. 86. 

34. Catalogus librorum, tam impressorum, quam manuscriptorum, Biblio- 
thecae publicae Universitatis Lugduno-Batavae. Lugduni apud Batavos, 
1716. p. 500. 

35. Van der Noort sailed in the year 1598. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

36. See reference in note 32 above. 

37. Compare the austral land on this globe with that on Mercator's globe 
of 154], on the Hondius globe of 1600, on the Spano globe of 1593, et al. 

38. Photographs of these globes were reproduced in Stevenson, Willem 
Janszoon Blaeu. p. 44. 

39. See II, 13. 

40. There was much discussion throughout these years as to the proper 
location of the prime meridian. 

41. Asher, 6. M. Henry Hudson the Navigator. (In: Hakluyt Society 
Publications. London, i860. Ser. I, Vol. 27.) 

42. Drake, Sir F. The World Encompassed, with introduction by Vauz, 
W. S. W. (In: Hakluyt Society Publications. London, 1854. First Series, 16. 

43. Stevenson and Fischer. World Map of Jodocus Hondius. The evolu- 
tion of a knowledge of the Great Lakes region and its cartographical repre- 
sentation should prove to be a topic of absorbing interest. 

44. Brown, A. The Genesis of the United States. Boston and New York, 
1891. Vol. I, p. 229. 

Historians of this period in American history, with scarcely an exception, 
have taken it for granted that the expression "from sea to sea" means from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, apparently not stopping to inquire as to the 
geographical notions entertained at the time of the granting of the Charter 
concerning the regions in question. The interpretation here offered takes 
into consideration the fact that Jodocus Hondius, perhaps the most dis- 
tinguished geographer and map maker of his day, was much in favor in 
England at the time of the formation of the London Company and was 
much consulted concerning the geography of the New World. What he 
thought of the Virginia region to the "west and northwest" he has laid 
down in his large world map. It seems all but proven that the statement 
"from sea to sea west and northwest" means from the Atlantic to the great 
but indefinite inland sea "Mare Septentrionale Americae." 

To interpret this expression as meaning from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
shows the historian, as Freeman has stated it, "in bondage to the modem 
map." Here is a striking illustration of the importance attaching to the 
study of historical geography, and to its subordinate branch, historical 
cartography. Blaeu, Plancius, Greuter, and others, if not so clear and 
emphatic in their presentation of this region, evidently entertained prac- 
tically the same geographical notion as Hondius. 

45. Florini, op. cit, p. 257. 

46. Letter to the author signed and dated, D. Fana, 28/1/1914. 

47. Founded in the year 1602. 

48. Jameson, J. F. Willem Usselinx, Founder of the Dutch and Swedish 
West India Companies. New York, 18S7. 

49. 'Wieder, F. C. De Wereldkaart van Petrus Plancius in het Colegio 
del Corpus Cristi te Valencia. (In: Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aard- 
rijkskundig Genootschap. Leiden, 1915. pp. 301-318.) 

50. Blundeville. Exercises, pp. 245-278. In this volume pages are numbered 
on recto only. 

51. Linschoten, J. H. v. Itincrarium ofte schipvaert naer dost ofte Portu- 
gaels Indien. Grroningen, 1614. 

52. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 278. 

53. Doppelmayr, op. dt., pp. 101, 115, 116. 

54. See Doppelmayr. 

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Early Seventeenth Century. 

SS» See reference to Christian Heyden, I, 156. 

56. Grarcia de C^spedes. Rcgimiento de Navigacion. Madrid, 1606. p. 148. 

57. Royal Geographical Journal, London. London, 1893. p. 384. 

58. Baglione, G. Le vite de' pittori, scultori, architetti ed intagliatori dal 
pontificato di Gregorio XIII del 1572 fino ai tempi di Urbano VIII nel 
1642. Napoli, 1743. p. 282; Vaugondy, R. d. Essai sur Thistoire de la 
Geographic. Paris, 1775. p. 189; Magini, A. Italia di Gio: Al Sercnissimo 
Ferdinando Gonzaga duca di Mantova e di Monferrato, cum privilegio. 
Bononiae, MDCXX. 

59. Litta, P. Le famiglie celebri d'lulia. Milano, 1819. 
6a Ilorini, op. cit., pp. 299-301. 




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Chapter XI 

Globes of the Second Half of the 
Seventeenth Century 

Certain striking tendencies exhibited in the matter of globe mak- 
ing in this period. — The Gottorp globes. — ^Weigel's globes. — 
Carlo Benci. — ^Amantius Moroncelli. — Castlemaine's immovable 
globe. — ^The armillary of Treffler. — ^Armillary sphere of Gian 
Battista Alberti. — The numerous globes of P. Vincenzo Coro- 
nelli. — Certain anonymous globes of the period. — Joannes 
Maccarius. — Jos. Antonius Volpes. — Vitale Giordani. — Greorge 
Christopher Eimmart.— Griuseppe ScarabellL— Griovanni Bat- 
tista. — Joseph Mozon. — The Chinese globes of Peking. 

A MONG the globes constructed in the second half of 
/% the seventeenth century there were none which sur- 
1 m passed in scientific value, if indeed any equaled, 
those sent out from the workshops of the Netherland mas- 
ters in the first half. The work of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, the 
Venetian monk, crowns the period. His abilities were of a 
high order, and entitle him to a place among the world's 
great map and globe makers, but the traces of his influence 
seem not to be so pronounced as were those of his immediate 
northern predecessors. 

The period was one which lent encouragement to some 
extravagance in globe making. The earliest of those con- 
structed in the post-Columbian years, as has been noted, were 
of small size, but before the close of the sixteenth century 
we occasionally find one of large dimensions, as, for exam- 
ple, that of the great Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe. 

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Blacu's globes of the year 1622 were thought to be of ex« 
traordmary size, but the half century here under considera- 
tion furnishes us with examples of globes having gigantic 
proportions, globes such, for example, as would have pleased 
the Greek geographer, Strabo,^ who thought that one to be 
of value should have a diameter of at least ten feet. The 
Gottorp globe, the globes of Weigel, the Coronelli globes 
constructed for Louis XIV, were not such as would lend 
themselves to easy duplication, certainly not as to size, 
ranging as they did from about nine to fifteen feet. Of real 
value they possessed but little. They were interesting me- 
chanical curiosities, representing a tendency in globe con- 
struction which might be referred to as the ultrapractical. In 
the following century we find the opposite extreme exem- 
plified in what were known as pocket globes. 

The so-called Gottorp globe, constructed in the years 
1654-1664, at the instance of Duke Frederick of Holstein- 
Gottorp, we may refer to as the first one of importance of 
the period, as it was one of the largest, being, however, 
rather an object* of interest by reason of its peculiar con- 
struction, than one of great scientific importance for the 
study of astronomy and geography. This globe, about eleven 
feet in diameter, was prepared by Andreas Busch of Lim- 
berg under the direction of Adam Oelschlager (Olearius)* 
(1599-1671), Duke Frederick's librarian and court mathe- 
matician. The world map on the outer surface of the sphere 
included a record of the recent discoveries according to the 
most reliable sources of information. It was furnished with 
a brass meridian circle, and within this it was so adjusted 
as to make one revolution every twenty-four hours. The pole- 
elevation could not be altered, it being permanently set for 
the latitude of Gottorp, that is, for latitude 54"* 30'. Its 
horizon circle was broad, and served as a platform upon 
which an observer might walk, he being thus enabled to 
examine the terrestrial map to the best advantage. A door 
was provided which could be opened and closed, permitting 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

not less than twelve persons to enter the sphere at one time. 
On its inner surface was represented the entire expanse of 
the sky with the several constellations properly located, 
having their figures carefully outlined; the several stars 
being placed according to calculation for the year 1700, and 
each star was gilded that it might the more easily be seen. 
From the inner axis was suspended a circular gallery or plat- 
form from which the machine could be set in motion, and 
from which, as representing the horizon, one might observe 
the rising and the setting of the stars. The whole interior 
was lifted by two small lamps. At the center of the sphere, 
the inner surface of which, as stated above, represented the 
starry heavens, was placed a small ball, about 15 cm. in 
diameter, representing the earth. The great globe, driven by 
water power, was therefore made to appear to revolve 
around this central terrestrial globe. A representation of the 
stm, made of glass, had its own proper motion along the cir- 
cle of the ecliptic, and a representation of the moon likewise 
was made to move in its own proper course. This globe, in 
the year 1713, was presented by the grandson of Duke Fred- 
erick to Czar Peter the Great of Russia. 

A note in the Royal Geographical Journal refers to this 
as a seventeenth-century globe, adding in substance that the 
St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences has lately installed at 
Tsarskoe Selo this large globe, weiring some three and one 
half tons, constructed in the seventeenth century for Duke 
Frederick of Holstein, under the superintendence of Olea- 
rius, the astronomer and traveler. On its completion it was 
placed in the castle of Gottorp, from which fact it became 
known as the Grottorp globe. It was presented to the Acad- 
emy in the year 1725 and up to the present has remained 
in the Zoological Museum.^ 

Information has been kindly given by the director of the 
National Museum of Copenhagen that an exceedingly fine 
armillary sphere (Fig. 104) may be found in the Museum 
of National History in the Friedricksborg Castle. From the 

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Fig. 104. The Gottorp Armillary Sphere, 1657. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

catalogue of this institution we Icam that it was constnicted 
in the year 1657 by Andreas Busch, under the guidance of 
Adam Olearius, for Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp. As 
will be noted from the illustration it is an elaborately con- 
structed piece of mechanism. What we may term the globe 
proper is composed of six great circles on which are the 
fixed constellations, having the several stars represented in 
silver. Throu^ the mechanism passes a steel bar which car* 
ries a ball of brass representing the sun, which is at the 
center of the complicated system of circles. Around the sim 
are six circles of brass representing the orbits of the planets 
each carrying a small silver angel. That part of the mechan- 
ism which represents the equator and the zodiac is calcu- 
lated to make one revolution in 25,000 years. In the base 
of the globe has been placed the clockwork by which the 
several movements of circles and planets are effected, and 
time is told by the striking of hours and quarters. Topping 
the piece is a small armillary sphere representing the Ptole- 
maic system. 

We are likewise informed that in the National Museum's 
collections may be found a celestial globe which is attributed 
to Petrus Theodorus. It is of gilded brass, having a diameter 
of 24 cm., and while undated presumably is of the last 
quarter of the seventeenth century. The globe ball is sup- 
ported by a bronze figure of Atlas, the whole standing 86 
cm. in height. Tycho Brahe is the accredited authority for 
the representation of the several fixed stars. 

Erhard Weigel (1625-1699)* has place among the globe 
makers of the period as one who sought to reform, and, in 
some measure, to popularize both astronomical and geo- 
graphical science, particularly the former, applying his own 
inventive ability to that end in the matter of globe construc- 
tion. In this he appears to have been rather more ingenious 
than practical. He seems to have achieved special distinction 
in his day as thedlogian, philosopher, astrologer, and 
mathematician. 

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Weigel was a native of the Rhenish Palatinate. Under 
many difRculties, on account of the poverty of the family, he 
acquired the necessary educational training for admission 
into the University of Halle. Here he soon found himself in 
favor with Professor Bartholemeus Schimpfer,' who was 
counted oat of the leading astrologers of the time. In addi- 
tion to the youthful student's general duties as secretary to 
the professor, there was assigned to him the task of calendar 
making. This was a task which especially appealed to him, 
and he soon had a following, as a tutor, among those stu- 
dents who like himself found the astrological science one 
of absorbing interest. Led by the fact that students from the 
University of Leipzig came to him for instruction, he trans- 
ferred his residence from Halle to this University, thinking 
thereby to improve his opportunities for mathematical stud- 
ies. Here he continued his astrological work, not so much, it 
appears, because of a genuine belief in the practical value of 
the science, as such; the rather because he found in its pur- 
suit a good source of income.^ His theological bent soon led 
him to a conclusion that the science of astrology rested upon 
a very unsubstantial foundation. 'If God be the creator and 
supporter of the universe, what an insignificant part," 
thought he, "can the stars play in determining the destiny 
of the individual." 

In the year 1654 he became a professor of mathematics in 
the University of Jena and sprang immediately into favor 
as a lecturer.' Naturalism, as heralded in his day, appealed 
to him and he became an outspoken opponent of the Latinists 
and of the Scholastics. When his knowledge of mathematics 
failed him he was inclined to resort to theology as a subject 
furnishing endless themes and illustrative material. From 
his early belief in astrology he turned to astronomy, but he 
remained a visionary, making some contribution to the sci- 
ence but none of lasting value. He appears to have been 
particularly distressed over the heathen names of the several 
constellations and the figures which so long had been em- 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

ployed to represent them, regarding such representations as 
sacrilegious and wholly unworthy the great inventive genius 
of man. All this he wished to have swept from the heavens, 
proposing to substitute for the same the coats of arms of the 
ruling houses of Europe.' For Ursa Major he proposed the 
name Elephas with the figure of the Danish elephant, for 
Orion the name Aquila biceps and the Austrian double 
eagle, for Hercules the name Eques cum districto gladio and 
the insignia of Poland, for Leo the name tria Castella cum 
Aureo Vellere and the insignia of Spain, for Erichthonius 
the name Lilia tria and the insignia of France, for Lyra the 
name Citharae and the insignia of Britain, running thus 
through the entire list. In assigning his new names to the 
constellations he endeavored, in so far as possible, to assign 
them to such relative position in the heavens as the respective 
countries or houses occupied on earth. 

In one of his publications" Weigel describes his several 
mechanical devices, including his globes, to which he refers 
as "Globus Mundanus," "Viccglobus," "Globus coelestis 
perpetuus," and "Geocosmus," the latter being referred to 
by the author as a useful terrestrial globe, which exhibits 
not only all countries, but the time of the day and of the 
year in all localities; also the wind and the rain and volcanic 
eruptions. Coronelli gives a brief description of the same, 
which he calls a "Pancosmo, o Mondo Universale,'* from 
which, in the main, the following is taken." 

This machine, he says, has a circumference of thirty-two 
feet, being constructed in the form of an armillary sphere. 
On its surface thi stars are represented, each in its proper 
size and place, and Coronelli, perhaps indirectly quoting 
Weigel's own opinion of his production, notes its real supe- 
riority to nature, for he states that the stars, as represented, 
can be seen at all hours of the day and night and as well in 
sunshine or rain. This "Pancosmo" was made to appear, in 
its mounting, as if standing or resting on the clouds, the 
whole being supported by two statues each eight feet in 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

height, the one representing Hercules and the other Athene. 
Through a door, which was practically invisible, the great 
sphere could be entered by a considerable number of persons 
at one time, and be enjoyed by them, implies Coronelli, some 
standing and some sitting. It was so arranged within that 
when one half of the celestial sphere was lifted the other 
half remained in darkness, the revolution of the sphere giv- 
ing a representation of the rising and the setting of the stars. 
At the center was placed a small terrestrial globe within 
which was a reservoir; this could be made to serve in a repre- 
sentation of the subterranean fires which issued, at times 
most opportune, from the craters of volcanoes represented, 
such as Vesuvius and Aetna in the south of Italy, others in 
the East Indian Islands and still others in America. 'They 
give out steam, flames, and pleasant odors," says Coronelli, 
"which please the spectators." By means of a screen and 
lantern it was made possible to represent the inhabitants of 
any country desired, moving about as in actual life, even 
"the antipodes," says the author, "with heads downward 
and feet upward." At pleasure a breeze could be made to 
blow from any desired quarter, meteors could be made to 
flit across the sky; rain- and hailstorms, lightning and thun- 
der, could be imitated. On the surface of the terrestrial 
globe were represented the several countries of the earth, 
likewise the several seas. Coronelli notes that which 
Weigel seems to have regarded an especially commendable 
feature, the grouping of the stars into new constellations, 
which grouping was particularly designed to aid the 
memory. This of all the large ^obes constructed in the 
period seems especially to have represented the ultrapracti- 
cal, and we have no knowledge that it was ever regarded in 
any other li^t than as a great mechanical wonder. The 
final disposition of this "Pancosmo" is unknown. Gunther 
doubts that globes such as Weigel proposed to construct are 
still in existence. He, however, refers to a globe in the coUec- 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

tion of the Germanischcs Museum which exhibits the con- 
stellations somewhat after Weigel's plan. 

That a certain preference manifested itself in Italy, dur- 
ing the greater part of the sixteenth century, and among 
certain individuals interested in geographical and astronomi- 
cal matters, in engraved metal globes or in globes with 
manuscript maps, has been previously noted. An argument 
frequently advanced in opposition to that favoring the use 
of printed maps was that the manuscript globe could the 
more easily be made of large size, indeed could easily be 
made of any desirable size. The later years of the seven- 
teenth century furnish us with excellent examples in proof 
that a preference for such globes lingered in certain circles 
in the peninsula. 

Carlo Benci ( 1616-1676), a Silvestrian monk, bom in the 
Tuscan town of Montepulciano, may be named as one of 
the foremost among the manuscript globe makers of the 
period.^ At the age of twenty-one he entered the monastery 
of S. Benedetto of Fabriano, receiving in the ceremony at- 
tending his admission the name D. Doroteo. One year later 
we find him in the monastery of S. Giovanni in Montepul- 
ciano, and in the year 1652 in the convent of S. Stefano del 
Cacco of Rome, <hi entering which he changed his name to 
D. Carlo Benci, we are told, attained to a place of eminence 
among men of learning in Italy on account of his philosophi- 
cal and theological studies. In the, year 1645 he was chosen 
for an administrative ofBce in his order, and later he suc- 
cessively became sacristan, curate prior, and titular abbe of 
S. Bonifazio near Cingoli in the Marche, retaining to the 
end of his life the headship of the parish of S. Stefano. 

To his fame as philosopher and theologian he seems to 
have added that of expert cosmographer, winning through 
the wide extent of his interests the special favor of Pope 
Clement X, who selected him as his spiritual adviser. It 
must be noted, however, that his name nowhere appears 
especially conspicuous among contonporary writers on phil- 

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osophical, theological or scientific subjects, and we have 
only the tangible evidence of his cosmographical interests 
in a fine pair of globes constructed in the year 1671, now 
belonging to Prince D. Camillo Massimo of Rome. 

These globes have a diameter of about 1 m. and still 
retain the greater part of their original mounting, which, in 
each, consists of a meridian circle (this in the terrestrial 
globe is modem) not graduated, within which they arc 
adjusted to revolve on their equatorial polar axes, of a 
horizon band, likewise not graduated, being circular on the 
inner edge, but octagonal on the outer, the whole being 
supported by four tumed legs joined by crossbars at their 
lower extremities. Both spheres are of papier-mache and are 
well preserved, the terrestrial having suffered sli^tly more 
injury than the celestial. The spheres are covered with some- 
what irregular pieces of paper, though carefully matched, 
which are yellow with age. On this paper surface the maps 
terrestrial and celestial were drawn with a stylus. 

On a plate attached to the terrestrial globe we find a dedi- 
cation to Pope Clement X, this being surmounted with a 
coat of arms of the Altieri family, of which family Pope 
Clement was a member. This dedication reads: 

• '^Beatissimo Padre. Non si debbono questi due globi rap- 
presentanti il Cielo e la Terra da me con diligente studio 
composti consecrare ad altri che alia S** V"^, come quella, 
che deir tmo maneggia le Chiavi e dell' altra regge lo Scet- 
tro. Considerava io, che V Lnperio di V* Beatit^ per non 
avere confini, che lo restringano, e contanto vasto, che non 
puo quasi essere da humano intendim^ compreso^ poiche non 
ha la Terra, nc monte, nc fiume, ne TOceano istesso, che i 
termini gli prescriva, ne ha il Cielo, ne Asterismo, ne gruppo 
di stelle si f olto che f accia sbarra et impedisca che V autorita 
ddla Sta V.fa non giunga alle porte deir Empireo, che 
chiude e disserra a suo talento. Quindi riflettendo io sopra 
Tampiezza o per coa dire incomprensibilitsi del suo sacro 
Regno, per agevolare il suo conoscim® mi disposi di portare 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

quasi in compendio dc 1' uno e Taltro orbe, cioe Celeste e 
Terreno, in queste due moli di giro noil ordinario la descri- 
tione dove possa Tocchio con un semplice sguardo rawisare 
cio che non puo la nostra mente con la sua acutezza com« 
prendere, e dove la S.ta V.fa, soUevata tal' hora dal peso 
delle cure gravissime, possa rivolgere le luci per contemplare 
la D. grandezza del suo Sacro dominio. Di qui spero che 
V.ra Beatitudine sia per gradire queste mie deboli fatiche, 
come di un suddito che porta il carattere di suo servitore 
attuale, e che sia per misurare dalla grandezza di queste 
Sfere I'eccesso delle obbligazioni che le professo. E. qui 
augurandole I'eta e gl' anni di Nestore, le bacio humilmente 
prostrato a terra i Santissimi piedi. 

"Di S. Stefano del Cacco di Roma li 28 di Dicembre 
1671 

"Di V.Ta Beatitudine, 

"Hum"*^ Devot"*^ Oblig»«> serv~ e Suddito 
"D. Carlo Benci Mon«> Silvestrino."" 

"Most blessed Father, These two globes, which represent 
the heavens and the earth, ccmstructed by myself with pains- 
taking industry, ought ^not to be dedicated to any one but 
to Your Holiness^ who with one hand controls the keys and 
with the other wields the scepter. I reflect that the empire 
of Your Holiness, having no boundaries to restrict it, is so 
vast that it scarcely can be grasped by the human imagina- 
tion, since earth has not mountain, river, or even ocean that 
can set limits thereto; nor is there sky, or planet, or star, or 
constellation so dense as to check or hinder Your Holiness 
from reaching the gate of empyrean which You open and 
shut at will. Reflecting therefore upon the expanse, and so to 
speak, upon incomprehensibleness of Your Holiness' Em- 
pire, I determined, with a view to furthering the knowledge 
of it to give a representation of both worlds (that is of the 
celestial and of the terrestrial), much reduced, as it were, 
upon these two spheres of no mean size, on which the eye 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

will be able at one glance to recognize what the human 
intellect with all its powers is impotent to grasp; and over 
which Your Holiness, when at times relieved from the pres- 
sure of overwhelming responsibilities, will be able to cast 
your glance in order to view the aforesaid vastness of Your 
Dominion. 

"Wherefore I trust that Your Holiness will be inclined 
to accept these my feeble labors, as those of a subject whose 
real capacity is that of Your Holiness' servant, and that 
You may be willing to take the great size of these globes as 
the measure of the vastness of the obligation which I avow 
myself under to Your Holiness. And now wishing Your 
Holiness the age and the years of Nestor, I humbly prostrate 
myself upon the ground, and kiss Your Most Holy Feet. 

"San Stefano del Cacco, Rome, 28, December 1671. 

"Your Holiness' most humble, most devoted, and most 
obliged servant and subject, 

"Dom Carlo Benci 

"Silvestrin monk." 

Near this dedication is a portrait of the Pope, the subscrip- 
tion reading "Clemens Decimus Pont. Max." 

The terrestrial globe shows the parallels at intervals of 
ten degrees, and the meridians at like intervals counting 
from that passing through the Island of Ferro which has 
been taken as the prime meridian. The polar circles, the 
tropics, and the ecliptic are made especially pr<xninent. 
Place names and legends are given either in Latin or in 
Italian, some of the briefer legends taking note of geographi- 
cal discoveries of special importance, and clearly indicating 
that the author was well informed on the progress of dis- 
covery. 

The celestial globe has represented on its surface both 
the equator and the ecliptic with their respective poles indi- 
cated; circles of latitude and of longitude arc (Knitted. The 
year 1600 was selected as the normal year for recording 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

the position of the stars, and a statement is made noting the 
corrections becoming necessary by reason of the precession 
of the equinoxes. Only the Ptolemaic ccmstellations are 
given, and the figures representing the same are very artis- 
tically drawn. The famous star which appeared in the year 
1572 and the position of numerous comets are indicated, 
with the date of the appearance of each. 

Until the year 1862 these globes were preserved in the 
Altieri Library, when they were offered for sale and were 
purchased by Prince D. Camillo Massimo, finding a place 
in his palace at the Villa Peretti. 

If Benci, through his cosmographical studies, as well as 
through his other studies, brought fame to himself and to 
his order of Silvestrin monks, to Amantius Moroncelli, like^ 
wise a member of this order and a contemporary, no less 
credit should be given for his achievements as a maker of 
manuscript globes.^^ It has been noted that but one pair of 
Bend's ^obes can now be located, but no less than ten con- 
structed by Moroncelli may today be found in Italian libra* 
ries and museums, most of which possess both scientific and 
artistic value of a high order. 

A pair of his earliest globes is in the possession of the 
Biblioteca di S. Marco of Venice (Fig. 105). These were 
probably constructed as early as the year 1672 for the mon- 
astery of Cassenesi, located on the Island of S. Georgio Mag^ 
giore. The director of the S. Marco Library informs the 
author** that they have a diameter of more than 2 m., and 
that through want of proper care they are in a very bad 
state of preservation, being so darkened with age as to render 
their maps quite illegible. On the terrestrial globe there is 
a portrait, opposite which is a representation of the coat of 
arms of a bishop. The celestial globe is somewhat better 
preserved, having a title, only a part of which can be deci- 
phered, reading ^'In hoc coelesti globo adnotantur onmes 
stellae fixac ad annum. . . . ac cometae," and concluding 
''Extruxit D. Silvester Amantius Moroncellus Fabrianensis 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

benedictinus sub congregationem Silvestri Abbatis. Venetiis 
in Augustissima bibliotheca S. Georgii Majoris. • . ." The 
director of the library reads the date as 1683, others have 
thought it to be 1672. 

In the Biblioteca Alessandrini of Rome may be found 
two manuscript globes of Moroncelli, a terrestrial and a 
celestial, each having a diameter of about 88 cm. These 
spheres are covered with paper gores fashioned as are printed 
gore maps, ei^teen in number, the polar space being cov- 
ered with semicircular sections, two in number for each pole. 
On this paper covering the maps were drawn by hand. Each 
of the globes is furnished with a brass meridian circle and a 
horizon circle of wood, the whole being supported by a plane 
base. Under the portrait of Pope Innocent XI is the follow- 
ing inscription: ''Regnante Innocentio XI. Hos cosmograph- 
icos globos toto studio constnudt, calamoque conscripsit, D. 
Silvester Amantius Mon. Benedictinus Cong. Silvestrin. Ann. 
D. MDCLXXVII.*' "In the Pontificate of Innocent XI 
these cosmographic spheres were constructed with all zeal, 
and completed with the pen, by D. Silvester Amantius a 
monk of the Benedictine order and of the Silvestrin Congre- 
gation. In the year 1677." Th^ legend containing the usual 
address to the reader is taken from Greuter's globe of 1632 
or from Blaeu's globe of 1622,^* concluding, however, with 
the following, "D. Silvester Amantius Moroncellus Fabria- 
nensis Monachus Silvestrinus auctor, constnudt et notavit. 
Aetatis suae an. 27. 1679." "D. Silvester Amantius Moron- 
celli of Fabriano, a monk of the Silvestrin order; con- 
structed and lettered (this globe) in the 27th year of his 
age. 1679." On the terrestrial globe meridians and parallels 
are indicated at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian 
passing through the Canary Islands. 

On the celestial globe is the following legend or inscrip- 
tion : ''Laudatissimum Astronomiae studium atquum sit diffi- 
cilimum, jucunditas tamen cum difRcultate conjimgitur, 
prospere ut homines et coelum ]x>tius quam calcata intueri. 

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Fig. 105. Terrestrial Globe of Silvester Amantius 
Moroncelli, 1672. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

Creator noster omnipotens cetera animantia per terrain ster- 
nere jussit, at homines non sic, sed totum ad sidera extoUi. 
Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terrae Os homini 
sublime dedit. coelumque videre Jussit, et erectos ad sidera 
tollere vultus. Et ideo optimum erat ut alicjuod exemplum 
sub oculis hie opponeretur quod noa immerito in medio 
sapientiae sistit, ut sciant non aliter quam et per sapientiam 
ipsum posse cognosci. 

''In isto igitur per ipsum coelcstium siderum ordinem 
cognoscent et nomina astrorum juxta exactum observation 
nem Hipparchi, Ptolomei, Alphonsi, et Q>pemici per Tico- 
nem Brahe ad trutinam examinatiae, et ne octium me op- 
primeret, in istud quod cemunt per me accurate delineata. 
Ita ut omnes cognoscant in vita quod post mortem omnibus 
opto valeant Romae apud S. Stephanum supra Caecum die 
VI men. Jan. MDCLXXX. D. Silvester Amantius Moron- 
cellus Fabrianensis Mon. Cong^ Silvestrinorum." 'The 
much lauded study of astronomy, althou^ it is very diffi- 
cult, yet pleasure is joined with the difficulty, for it is a 
happier lot for men to look at the sky, than to look at the 
road trodden by their feet ; our Omnipotent Creator ordained 
that other living beings should be prone on the earth, that 
man should not be so, but should be wholly lifted up to the 
stars. For while other living beings look earthward, He has 
given man an uplifted countenance and bidden him look 
heavenward, and raise his uplifted face toward the stars. 
And therefore it was good that some example should be 
placed here under his eyes, which mi^t assist him to stand 
in the midst of wisdom, so that men might understand that 
God could be known in no otherwise than by wisdom. On 
this globe therefore, and by its aid will be known the order 
and the names of the celestial stars according to the exact 
observations of Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Alfonso, and Coperni- 
cus, and arranged for general use by Tycho Brahe; and that 
idleness might not oppress me, accurately depicted by me, 
according to their discoveries. This I have done in order 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes, 

that all men may know in their lifetime what I hope they 
may all attain to know after their death. At Rome, from S. 
Stevens on the hill, January 6th, 1680. D. Silvester Aman- 
tius Moroncelli of Fabriano, a monk of the Silvestrin 
Congregation." 

The tropics, the polar circles, and the ecliptic are repre- 
sented, and the figures of the several constellations are artis- 
tically drawn, the effect being heightened by skilful shading. 

The Biblioteca Municipale of Fermo possesses a fine 
manuscript terrestrial globe made by Moroncelli and dated 
1713. This globe is not a perfect sphere, having a polar 
diameter of 180 cm. and an equatorial diameter of 194 cm. 
The ball is composed of thin strips of wood extending from 
pole to pole, having first, over the same, a covering of heavy 
parchment paper, and over this somewhat irregular but well- 
joined pieces of fine draughting paper. It is furnished with a 
meridian circle of iron, a horizon circle of wood, the whole 
resting on a wooden base. The author and date legend, 
placed in a shield-shaped cartouch, reads, ''Opus meccanicum 
hoc mirifice compositum ab 111. mo Domino Philippo An- 
tonio Morrono Archipresbitero Firm^® Mirificentius verc 
geographice distinctum a Rev"*® P. Abb. D. Silvestro Aman- 
tio Moroncello Fabrianensi. Anno a Redemptore nato 
MDCCXIII." "This mechanical work was marvelously con- 
structed by the Illustrious D. Philip Antony Morono, Arch- 
deacon of Fermo. Its geographical details were wonderfully 
inserted by the Rev. Father Abbot D. Silvester Amantius 
Moroncelli of Fabriano, in the year of Redemption, 1713/' 

In a cartouch similar to that containing the legend just 
quoted, though much larger and resting on a representation 
of the imperial eagle of Fermo, having a white cross on its 
breast and the motto "Firmum firma fides Romanorum 
colonia," there is drawn a picture of the city of Fermo with a 
red background. Near the Tropic of Cancer, on the meridian 
of 250 degrees, there is a shield with the coat of arms of the 
Morone family, and below the Tropic of Cancer, on the 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

meridian of 200 degrees, is the coat of arms of the author, 
likewise within a shield and artistically sketched. The pic- 
ture of a Moor and of a black eagle, around which is a band 
of blue with three golden stars, the whole surmounted by a 
prelate's black hat with tassels, the Moor indicating the 
origin of the name Moroncelli, and the prelate's hat honor- 
ing the author^s intimate friend, Gian Francesco Albani, 
who became Pope Clement XI and who had nominated him 
a domestic prelate. 

In Jiongitude 1 13 degrees, in a shield, is the coat of arms 
of this pope, at the right of which is the inscription, "Imple- 
bitur vaticinium," at the left "Replebitur majestate omnis 
terra," and below "Irradiatibur evangelio, studio recentis 
Clementiae et Successorum." There are two or three addi- 
tional shields, in one of which is an illegible inscripticxi, and 
one has been left blank. Although meridians and parallels 
are indicated, loxodromic lines are wanting, which so gen- 
erally appear on those globes constructed in the Netherlands. 
The nomenclature is either Latin, Italian or local. Mytho- 
logical and allegorical figures are numerous, as are also 
representations of sea monsters and sailing ships. 

A pair of Moroncelli's globes, in excellent condition, may 
be found in the Accademia Etrusca of Cortcma. These are 
reported to have come to the Academy in the year 1727 as 
a gift from the Abbe Onofrio Baldelli. They have each a 
diameter of about 80 cm., are mounted on plain bases, and 
are furnished with the xisual meridian circles within which 
they may be revolved. On the terrestrial globe a legend is 
placed within a shieldlike cartouch surmounted with a coat 
of arms of the patrician family Baldelli of Cortona, and 
reads, "Virorum probitas, erudirio et virtus exisrimationem 
exigunt. Hacc in IIP® D. Abb. Onofrio Baldelli Patritio 
Cortonensi miriiice effulgent. Ne dum in Humanis Arribus 
summopere praedito. Verum etiam in Magnanimitatem lau- 
dabili: Diim ad complementum Bibliotechae, pro Studiorum 
C(Hicivium utilitate et eruditione, ab ipso erectae, globos 

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etiam cosmographicos, licet ctiam dispendio trescentonim 
scutonim libenter auxit. Quamobrem tantis mentis coactus 
D. Sil' Amantius Moroncelli Fabrianens: Abb: Bened. 
Congr. Silvestrinorum Auctor ad perpetuam rei memoriam 
Monumcntum hoc posuit Ann. Sal. MDCCXIV." "The 
upri^tness of men, their learning and virtue call for 
respect; these qualities marvelously shine forth in the illus- 
trious* lord Abbot Onofri Baldelli of patrician rank of Cor- 
tona; not only was he endowed beyond others in the humani- 
ties, but also he was praiseworthy for his magnanimity. To 
furnish the library erected by him, for the use and the in- 
struction of his student fellow citizens, he generously con- 
tributed these cosmographic ^obes, althou^ they cost 300 
scudi. Wherefore, being executed by his great abilities, D. 
Silvester Amantius Moroncelli of Fabriano, Benedictine 
Abbot of the Silvestrin Congregation, has erected this 
mcmument for their perpetual remembrance of his generos- 
ity. In the year of our Salvation 1714." 

A second legend in a less decorative cartouch reads, "Or- 
bis Terraquei, juxta presentem notitiam, cum multa adhuc 
invenienda remaneant, non solum in Terra Australi incog- 
nita, verum etiam in Septentrionalibus Americae Superioris 
ubi molta Jam occulta manent a D. Silvestro Amantio 
Moroncelli Fabrianensi Abb: Bened: Congr. Silvest. Cosmo- 
grapho Reginae Svecorum, nee non Sapientiae Rom. Anno 
etatis sue, 64, Red. vo. MDCCXV." "In our present knowl- 
edge of the terraqueous world much yet remains to be dis- 
covered, not only in the unknown lands of the south, but 
also in the northern regions of North America where many 
things are still undiscovered. D. Silvester Amantius Moron- 
celli of Fabriano, Benedictine Abbot of the Silvestrin Con- 
gregation, Cosmographer of the Queen of Sweden and also 
of the Roman Academy (made this globe) in the 64th year 
of his age, and in the year of Redemption, 1715." 

The parallels and meridians are drawn at intervals of 
jfive degrees, and <xie compass is placed in the southern hemi- 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

sphere. Both Latin and Italian have been employed for the 
geographical names. 

The celestial globe contains the figures of the several con- 
stellations exquisitely drawn, the name of each being given 
in Latin, in Arabic, and in Greek. One finds on this globe 
but the one short legend reading "Stella praeclara et pere- 
grina Anno D. 1572 et per annum et quatuor menses, scilicet 
a principio Nowemb. usque ad ultimum Martii 1553*" "A 
very bright and wandering star (appearing) in the year 
1572 and for one year and four months, visible from the 
first of November to the last of March 1573." 

Another fine pair of Moroncelli's manuscript globes, con- 
structed in the year 1716, is to be found in the Biblioteca 
Casanatense of Rome. They have each a diameter of about 
160 cm. and are mounted on plain octagonal bases. The 
terrestrial has a graduated meridian of brass, a horizon cir- 
cle of wood, likewise graduated and having indicated on its 
surface the several signs of the zodiac, the names of the 
months, and of the principal winds. On the surface of the 
globe, the parallels and the meridians are drawn at intervals 
of five degrees, the prime meridian passing throu^ the most 
western island of the Canaries. The address to the reader, 
like that on the globe in the Alessandrian Library, is prac- 
tically a copy of the one to be found on the Greuter globe 
of the year 1632. A lengthy legend relating to the prime 
meridian reads: ''Ut recta methodo ad cognitionem Greo- 
graphie deveniamus, Principium desimiere a p^ M eridiano, 
a quo longitudo habetur, debemus. Unde sic. Quamvis igitur 
Longitudinis initium arbitrarium sit, ab occasu tamen ejus 
auspicium facere ideo Veteribus placuit quod illic aliquis 
Terre limes esset inventus qui Ortum versus nullus expedi- 
tionibus deprehendi potuisset atque eam ob causam Ptole- 
mens cujus sedulitati ac industriae Geographic incolumita- 
tem omnes vel inviti debent ab ultimo termino Occidentis 
cQgnito que Insule in Atlantico mari Fortunate olim dicte 
nunc Canariae vocantur auspicium fecit. In iisque Primum 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

meridianum defixit quod theticiun principium deinceps fere 
omnes ejus auctoritate moti retinuerunt. Nunnulli quidem 
Seculo transacto principium tenendum censuere ubi Acus 
Magneti junctae recta in boream spectat: Sed multum inter 
se dissentientes allucinantur. Nos autem Ptolomei vestigiis 
insistentes easdem Insulas delegimus et Lineam meridiona- 
lem in Insula De Ferro dicta que de Fortunatis ut olim et de 
Canariis nimc, una de Principalibus est fiximus/' "That we 
may come to the right method for acquiring a knowledge 
of geography we must make a beginning from the first merid- 
ian from which longitude is reckoned. Although the begin- 
ning of longitude is arbitrary it pleased the ancients to 
make this beginning from the west because there was found 
a limit of the earth which could not be found by voyages 
toward the east. For this reason Ptolemy, to whose applica- 
tion and industry all men owe the preservation of geography 
though grudgingly, made the beginning from the farthest 
known bounds of the west, which are the Fortunate Islands 
in the Atlantic Ocean, but now called the Canary Islands. 
In these he fixed the first meridian, and this hypothetical 
beginning almost all who have followed him have been led 
by his authority to retain. Not a few in the century just 
passed have thought that the beginning should be made 
where the magnetic needle points directly to the north. But 
these, as they disagree among themselves are mistaken. We 
follow in the footsteps of Ptolemy and have chosen the same 
island, and placed the meridian line in the Island of Ferro, 
one of the principal islands of the Fortunate group now 
called the Canaries." 

In addition to the one just quoted there are a few other 
legends relating to geographical discoveries which contain 
allusions, very similar to the many which may be found on 
certain other globes of the period, adding little or nothing 
that is new. 

The celestial globe, mounted practically the same as the 
terrestrial, contains the following legend: "Ecce damns 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

methodo Ptolemaica seu Orteliana coelestium sidenim quot- 
quot hodie extare comperimus schemata, situs et ut decet 
reperiuntur perfccta. Sunt enim ex dcscriptionibus Hippar- 
chi, Ptolomei, Alphonsi, Copemici, per Tyconem Brahe ad 
trutinam examinata, nee non Joannis Bayeri, qui Uranome- 
triam per imagines in tabulis aeneis expressit. Et nunc per 
me D. Silvestrum Amantium Moroncelli Fabrianeii Abba- 
tem Bened. Ccmgreg. Silv. calamo descripta coloribusque 
efBgiata adattataque ad Ann. 1716." "Observe that we give 
after the method of Ptolemy or Ortelius the settings of the 
stars of heaven, as far as they have, to the present, been dis- 
covered, and as far as their positions have been made known. 
We have employed the descriptions of Hipparchus, Ptolemy, 
Alfonso, and Copernicus, as tested and confirmed by Tycho 
Brahe, and also by the observations of Johannes Bayer, who 
expressed the star system (of Tycho Brahe) objectively in 
brass tables, now by myself D. Silvester Amantius Moron- 
celli of Fabriano, Benedictine Abbot of the Silvestrin Con- 
gregation. All these have been expressed in letters and rep- 
resented in colors, and accommodated to the year 1716." 

There is given a second legend of some importance read- 
ing, "Tabula continens quantiun quovis proposito anno vel 
addendum vel demendum sit longitudini aifixarum. Stellae 
enim spatio septuaginta Annorum et quinque mensium imi- 
cum gradum secondum Asterismorum ordinem super Polum 
Zodiaci progrediimtur ab Occasu ad Orientem. Ex hujus- 
modi Regula invenitur Sidera migrasse a Mundi creatione 
usque ad himc annum 6915, Gr. 98, M. 47, S. 20. Et ab 
adventu D. N. J. C. usque ad hunc annum 1716, Gr. 24, 
M. 30, S. 25." 'Table noting how much must be added to or 
subtracted from the longitude of the fixed stars in any given 
year. The stars move from west to east one degree in the 
space of seventy years and five months according to the 
order of the constellations of the zodiac. From this rule it is 
found that the stars have moved from the creation of the 
world a period of 6915 years to the present 98 degrees, 47 

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minutes and 20 seconds, and from the advent of Our Lord 
Jesus Christ to this year 1716, 24 degrees, 30 minutes, and 
25 seconds/' 

In addition to the above-menticxied examples of Morcxi- 
ccUi's work, there may be cited a number of allusions to 
others which cannot now be located. Fiorini notes first a fine 
cosmographic sphere designed to represent both the terres^ 
trial and the celestial, having a circumference of 2.62 palms, 
and probably constructed for the patrician family Trevi* 
siani.^^ It appears that it later passed into the hands of 
Prince Lucio Odescalchi of Milan, and in the year 1849 
was taken to Rome, after which it appears that all trace of 
it was lost. It is said to have been a very ardsric piece, bril- 
liantly colored with numerous pictures executed in min* 
iature, and to have been dated 1690. The ancmymous 
biographer of Moroncelli, whose account exists only in man- 
uscript and is frequently cited by Fiorini, notes that Moron- 
celli constructed a manuscript globe for Queen Chrisrina of 
Sweden.^' This has been thou^t by Porti to be the globe 
just referred to, but the identity is doubtful. Again Fiorini 
makes allusion to the probable existence at oat time of a pair 
of Moroncelli's globes in the Mcxiasterio Biblioteca of S. 
Benedetto of Fabriano, and of still another pair in the Col- 
legio De Vecchi of the same city, but of these nothing at 
present is known.^* The anonymous biography likewise 
alludes to one of his celestial globes which he constructed 
and dedicated to Cardinal Alessandro Albani of Urbino. In 
this the author undertook, like certain others of his day, to 
substitute for the Greek mythological characters or figures 
representing the several constellations, pictures of biblical 
objects and characters, or of individuals selected from Chris- 
tian martyrol<^.** While this particular globe cannot now 
be located, there is a small one of similar character which 
belongs to the Accademia Etrusca of Cortona, having a 
diameter of about 27 cm., its map being partiy in manuscript 
and partiy printed. There is the following author and date 

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Fig. 106. Manuscript Celestial Globe (Moroncelli^), 
Late Seventeenth Century. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

legend : ''Sacrometria omnium asterismonim coelestium figu- 
ris Aecclesiasticis reforaiatonim a Rev. Abb. D. Sil. Aman- 
tio Moitmcelli Fabrianen. Silvestrino Ann. 1710." "Sacred 
measurements of all the heavenly stars expressed in ecclesi- 
astical notation by the Rev. D. Silvester Amantius Moron* 
celli of Fabriano, a Silvestrian, in the year 1710." A brief 
descriptive legend reads, 'In hac coelesti sphaera Stellae 
aiBxae majori quam hactenus numero et accuratiori indus- 
tria delineantur novis asterismis in Philomateoru gratiam de 
integro additis: quae omnia secondum Astronomorum Prin- 
cipis Thyconis Brahe et aliorum observationem verae suae 
Longitudini ac Latitudini ad annum Christi 1636 rcstituta 
sunt." ''In this celestial sphere the fixed stars are depicted 
in greater number than previously and with more accurate 
care, the new stars being added for the use of the student; 
all of which, according to the observations of that Prince 
of astronomers Tycho Brahe, and of others, are given with 
their true latitude and longitude, and accommodated to the 
year of Christ 1636." This library of Cortona possesses a 
manuscript of Moroncelli titled "Sacrometria omnium aste- 
rismonim continens schemata figuris ecclesiasticis expressa 
Silvestri Amantii Moroncelli Fabrianensis ecc. anno 1707." 
"Sacred measurement of all the stars being a scheme express- 
ing in ecclesiastical notation by Silvester Amantius Moron- 
celli of Fabriano in the year 1707/' The constellations he 
divides into three groups : the boreal from 1-19, the zodiacal 
from 20-31, the southern from 32-58, giving to each a new 
name. Hercules, for example, he changed to Samson; Lyra 
to David; Cassiopeia to Eve; Virgo to Virgo Maria As- 
sumpta in Coelum. One can scarcely affirm that Moroncelli 
exerted a wide-reaching influence, nevertheless he has, for 
his day, a place of considerable prominence among globe 
makers. 

Mr. William R. Hearst of New York possesses an exceed- 
ingly fine manuscript celestial globe which circumstances 
have not left it possible to identify. He has courteously fur- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

nished the photograph from which it is here shown ia illus- 
tration (Fig. 106). Once belonging to Mr. Stanford White, 
it probably was purchased in Italy, passing in the year 1907 
into the hands of Mr. Hearst. In the sales catalogue of The 
American Art Society it is referred to as a globe of the six- 
teenth century. There, however, is reason for assigning it to 
the latter part of the seventeenth century, as there is reason 
for attributing it to the Abbot Silvester Amantius Moron- 
celli. If the authorship is correctly attributed it may be 
counted one of great value. The figures of the several con- 
stellations are well colored. The mounting is of wrought 
iron, with gilt ornaments. The globe itself has a diameter 
of about 90 cm., while its entire hei^t, including the tripod 
base, is about 200 cm. 

Roger Palmer (Fig. 107), Count of Castlemaine (1634- 
1705),** published, in the year 1679, a work bearing the 
title The English globe being a stabil and immobil one, 
performing what the ordinary globes do, and much more.' 
In this he described a globe of his own invention, having 
a diameter of about one foot. It does not appear that the 
Earl especially distinguished himself in matters either 
geographical or astronomical. As a diversion from his other 
interests which claimed his attention, he appears to have 
turned to the oHistruction of a globe for which he claimed 
an especial superiority over all others, primarily on accotmt 
of its simplicity. He set forth in his descriptive text more 
than twenty of its superior features, and it is interesting to 
note that Moxon thought well enou^ of the work to 
reissue it in the year 1696." (Fig. 108.) 

Coronelli gives us the following information conceming 
a rather remarkable globe which he had occasion to examine 
in the city of Augsburg, of which he made a drawing for 
the Venetian Academy (Fig. 107), as he tells us, afterward 
reproducing the same in his 'Epitome Cosmografica.'" This 
globe he says was the invention of Christopher Treffler of 
Augsburg and was constructed by Christopher Rad, jeweler 

[94] 



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ROGKK TaLMER 

/nm a/i ^n^irm/ fy Sir d /Tnel/rr. ^l 

Fig. 107. 



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Thf^ ^j/bXJSjf\Gl^OB^ 




Fig. 108. Globe of Earl of Castlemaine, 1679. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

to His Majesty the Emperor, in the year 1683. ^^ ^^Is it an 
^'Automaton Sphaeridicum," that is, a celestial globe pro- 
vided with an automatic movement, so contrived as to ex- 
hibit accurately the course of the stars, and to indicate the 













Kg, 109, Globe of Christopher Treffler, 1683. 

years, months, days, hours, and minutes, t(^ther with the 
eclipses for seventeen years in advance. At the top of the 
instrument was placed a little sphere by means of which one 
could represent certain celestial phenomena, past and 
future. This mechanism, says Coronelli, is ornamented with 

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great ingenuity, good taste, and all regardless of expense. 
In its construction eighteen hundred ounces of gold and 
silver had been used. Its height was seven feet, and at the 
bottom it measured four feet, the entire work rising in the 
manner of a pyramid above its support of four artistically 
designed figures. This globe, says Coronelli, which we have 
seen and handled, and of which we have an exceedingly hi^ 
opinion, was for sale at eight thousand thaler, and had been 
fully described in a duodecimo volume printed by the House 
of Koppmeyer, in the year 1683.** It is not known what 
became of this globe which Coronelli found to be so worthy 
of his commendation. 

The Atheneo of Brescia possesses an armillary sphere, 
having on one of its armillae an inscription which tells us 
that it was constructed by Gian Battista Alberti in the year 
1688, for G)unt Martinengo.'^ The graduated horizon cir- 
cle, on which appear the names of the sixteen principal winds 
or directions, rests upon two semicircles, which in turn rest 
on a support of brass ornamented by six allegorical figures. 
In this supporting base there has been placed a compass. Its 
graduated hour circle • ^'*^ ^^hed with a movable index, 
such as had become v.. ,.^^^,^^'1X1 globe construction. Five 
prominent circles represent the equator, the tropics, and the 
polar circles, to which is added a zodiacal band which is 
graduated and bears the names and the symbolical ^gures of 
the twelve constellations, and the names of the months. Two 
rings for the purpose of indicating celestial latitude and 
longitude are placed within the above-named circles and 
carry representations of the sun and the moon. 

A contemporary of Alberti, Giovanni Maccari of Miran- 
dola, likewise a maker of armillary spheres, is known to us 
throu^ one only, but a fine example of his work.** This 
sphere belongs to the Liceo Spallanzi of Regio Emilia. The 
meridian circle, having a diameter of about 16 cm., is grad- 
uated both for latitude and co-latitude by fives. Adjusted 
to this meridian is a circle representing the colures, likewise 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

graduated both for latitude and co-latitude, but by tens, and 
adjusted to these are the polar circles, the tropics, and the 
equator. On the zodiacal circle are engraved the names of the 
twelve constellations, the names of the days, and on the 
inner surface the inscription ''Joannes Maccarius Mirandu- 
lanus Feccit 1689." The supporting base is triangular in 
shape, having a compass placed in the center. Within the 
three angles of this base shields have been placed, the one 
bearing the inscription ''Anno Domini 1689," the second 
the name "Jo Vulpis Mirandulanus Dom™," by whom the 
work was probably ordered; the third has a representation of 
a fox, the emblem of the Volpi f alnily. In addition to the 
above the base is omamented with a bronze scroll, to the 
points of which are attached semicircles which support the 
horizon circle. This circle has a diameter of about 15 cm., 
on which are engraved the usual zodiacial names and signs, 
the names of the months, and of the principal winds or direc- 
tions. An hour circle is placed at the south pole with a mov- 
able index, and within, at the common center of the circles, 
a small sphere to represent the terrestrial globe, through 
which the polar axis is mad^^j^ajtoj . 

In the Biblioteca Estense ffiH^Uk ^ diere may be found 
three armillary spheres apparently of about the same date as 
the two just described.*^ One of the three bears the inscrip- 
tion "Jos Ant^ Vulpes Mirandula Domin. anno Domini 
1689." The other two, somewhat larger in size than the pre- 
ceding, give us no particular indication of the maker, and 
no exact date of construction. They may be the work of 
Alberti or of Maccari. 

In Italy's long line of illustrious geographers, cartog- 
raphers, and globe makers none has rank in advance of P. 
Vincenzo Maria Coronelli (1650-1718)." His achievements 
within his field were prodigious.** While, as noted above, 
there is wanting the evidence that his influence was extended 
in striking manner into transalpine countries, he seems at 
least to have won the enthusiastic recognition of contempo- 

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rary men of science, as one w<nthy of honor for his great 
achievements. 

He was a native of Ravenna (Fig. no), a member of 
the Franciscan Order of monks, serving in the last years 
of his life as its general. It was in his yoimg manhood 
that he went to Venice, which city became the scene of the 
greater part of his literary and scientific activities. 

More than four hundred maps were drawn, engraved, 
and printed by him in the Franciscan Convent located on 
one of the Venetian islands, and known as the Gran Casa 
del Frari, where he lived with other brothers of the Order. 
It was in this convent that Coronelli founded, in the year 
1680, the first geographical society, to which he gave the 
name Accademia Cosmografo degli Argonauti,'^ which in 
its organization followed somewhat that of certain other 
learned societies owing their origin to the literary and scien- 
tific activities of the renaissance period. Its membership, in 
the course of years, included men of distinction in other 
cities of Italy and in the North; men famous for their 
achievements and for their interest in geographical science, 
literary men, men who held high rank in Europe's aristoc- 
racy, cardinals, prelates, princes, and monarchs.'^ The soci- 
ety became one of the most active of the period, and the list 
of publications which issued from its press, each bearing 
the argonautic emblem or device — sl ship on a terrestrial 
globe with the motto "Plus Ultra'* (Fig. 111) — ^is a long 
cme.*' 

So great had become the fame of Coronelli as early as the 
year 1685, that he was honored with the title Cosmografo 
della Serenissima Republica, and was granted an annual 
allowance of four hundred florins, and a copyright privilege 
protecting him in his ri^t to print and publish any of his 
works for a period of twenty-five years.** 

We have no definite information as to the circumstances 
attending Coronelli's first interest in globe construction. It 
appears that his first work in this line, a pair of large manu- 

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Fig. 110. Portrait of P. Vincenzo Coronelli. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

script globes, opened immediately to him a path to fame, 
for these had come to adorn the library of the Duke of 
Parma to whom the French Cardinal, d'Estrees, in the year 
1680 had occasion to pay a visit and they immediately wcxi 
the cardinal's interest. A pair of such globes, thou^t he, 
for so runs the story, would be a source of great delight to 
His Majesty the French King, Louis XIV. Learning that 
the constructicxi of still larger globes was altogether possi* 
ble, but that their removal from Italy to France would be 
attended with great difficulty, he persuaded Coronelli to 
accept an invitation to take up a residence in Paris, there 
to direct the construction of a terrestrial and a celestial 
globe, sparing neither labor nor expense that they mi^t be 
worthy of presentation to the Grand Monarch. If Olearius 
could construct a globe ten feet and more in diameter for 
Duke Frederick of Holstein, and Weigel one of similar di- 
mensions for the demonstration of his theories, why, thought 
Coronelli, should I not undertake the preparation of those 
at least fifteen feet in diameter, which in all the details of 
globe construcrion should be made to surpass any that had 
hitherto been conceived? The author himself has given us 
the first though brief description of his completed work,'^ 
and the royal astronomer. La Hire, supplemented this de« 
scription in his little volume published in the year 1704, 
when the globes had been placed in the Chateau Marly.*' 
In the author's own account he alludes to the globes as 
having been constructed at Paris imder his direction, and 
by order of the Most Eminent Cardinal d'Estr^ for the 
service of His Most Christian Majesty. Great care was espe- 
cially exercised in the construction of the machinery designed 
for the rotation of the spheres, the author being especially 
proud of the fact that, so delicate was this mechanism, each 
could be set in motion by a single finger. He further gives us 
to imderstand that each sphere was so well fashioned ''one 
could design upon its surface all the degrees in the manner 
in which a tumer designs any circle on a ball without having 

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it removed from the turner's lathe," and that the material 
of which they were constructed was so sdiid and so well 
joined that each was able to sustain the weight of thirty 
men. Each was furnished with a door through which a con- 
siderable number of persons mi^t enter at one time, their 
presence within slffecting in no wise the solidity of construc- 
tion. Each was covered with fine canvas so carefully laid 
on that none of the joints could be seen, giving a surface 
smooth as ivory. The meridian and horizon circles were of 
bronze, the whole being supported by columns which were 
nchly ornamented. In the base, between the four columns 
supporting the meridian circles, large compasses were placed, 
being so designed as properly to indicate the needle's 
declination. 

On the celestial globe the greater and the lesser circles 
were represented in gilt bronze, and were so graduated for 
both latitude and longitude, ascension and declination, that 
it was made easy for an astronomer to pass from one co- 
ordinate to the other without the aid of trigonometry. On a 
fine background of ultramarine the several constellations 
with their respective figures were represented, each of the 
planets and fixed stars being gilded in order to give it due 
prominence. The author so designed his star map as to repre- 
sent the appearance of the heavens at the time of the birth 
of the Grand Monarch,"* as is told in the following dedica- 
tion engraved on a brass tablet and attached to the surface of 
the sphere: "A TAuguste Majeste de Louis le Grand ITnvin- 
cible, I'Heureux, le Sage, le Conquerant. Cesar Cardinal 
d'Estrees a consacre ce globe celeste, ou toutes les etoilles 
du firmament, et les planetes sont placees au lieu mesme, ou 
elles estoient a la naissance de ce Glorieux Monarque, afin 
de conserver a Tetemitc une image fixe de cette heureuse 
disposition, sous laquelle la France a receu le plus grand 
present, que le ciel ait iamais fait a la terre. M.DC.- 
LXXXIII." "To His August Majesty Louis the Great, the 
Invincible, the Happy, the Wise, the Conquering. Cesar 

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Fig. 111. Emblem of the \'enetian Accademia Cosmografica 
degli Argonaut!. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

Cardinal d'Estrees has dedicated this celestial globe, on 
which all the stars of heaven and the planets are placed in 
the same position in which they were at the birth of the 
Glorious Monarch, in order to preserve throughout eternity 
a fbced image of that happy disposition \mder which France 
has received the most noble present which Heaven has ever 
made to earth." 

On the terrestrial globe, which in its general features re- 
sembled the celestial, the seas were painted blue and the 
land white, that the several names and legends mi^t appear 
the more distinct. A portrait of the King was placed above 
a cartouch containing the dedication, resembling that on the 
celestial globe, reading ''A I'Auguste Majeste de Louis le 
Grand Tlnvincible, I'Heureux, le Sage, le Conquerant. Cesar 
Cardinal d'Estrees a consacre ce globe tcrrestre, pour rendre 
un continuel hommage a sa Glore, et a ses Heroiques Vertus, 
en mostrant les pays ou mille grandes Actions ont este 
cxecutees et par Luy Mesme, et par ses Ordres, a I'estoime- 
ment de tant de nations, qu'il avroit pu soumetre a son em- 
pire, si sa Moderation n'eust arreste le Cours de Ses Con- 
questes, et prcscrit des homes a Sa Valeur, plus grande encore 
que sa Fortune. M.DCXXXXIIL" "To His August Majr 
esty Louis the Great, the Invincible, the Happy, the Wise, 
the conquering. Cesar Cardmal d'Estrees has dedicated this 
terrestrial globe, in order to render perpetual homage to His 
Glory and to His Heroic Virtue in representing the coun- 
tries wherein a thousand great acts have been performed 
both by Himself and by his Order, to the astonishment of all 
nations, which He would have been able to bring under his 
subjection if his moderation had not restrained the course 
of his Conquests and prescribed bounds to his Courage yet 
greater than his Fortune. M.DC.LXXXIIL" 

Below this dedication, likewise below the corresponding 
dedication on the celestial globe, we read ''Cet ouvrage a 
ete inventc et acheve par le Pcre Corcmelli Venitien des. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Min. Conv." "This work was conceived and accomplished 
by P, Corcmelli, a Venetian of the Minorite Order." 

In his brief description, the author says that he has shown 
on his terrestrial globe all ancient and modem discoveries, 
basing the same on the maps, the observations, and the re- 
ports of the most renowned geographers, to which he has 
added the results of his own studies not recorded on other 
globes nor in other maps. Special mention is made of infor- 
mation given concerning the interior regions of Africa, not- 
ing that '1>esides outlining the Monomotapa and Abyssinia 
countries, we have been die first to describe correctly the 
source as well as the course of the Nile River correcting, by 
many degrees the errors of the ancients.*' Andrea Baba, pub- 
lic censor and secretary of the Argonauts, notes, in his letter 
to the reader appearing in the first volume of the 'Atlante 
Vcneto,* that the author of the two globes, constructed for 
the King of France, had obtained numerous authentic re- 
reports of geographers and explorers, which he had included 
in his work. Ludolf, writing in the year 1691 concerning 
Ethiopia, records '"Ethiopia: Nostram tabulam chorograph- 
icam comimicavimus cum P. Vincentio Coronellio, nunc 
cosmographo Veneto, qui eam adhibuit in globis quos Car- 
dinalis Estresius pro regc Galliae construi fecit, maximos, 
qui unquam visi f uerint. Ibi in Globo terrestri Habessina et 
Nilus secundum nostram delineationem visitur. Satis ma- 
ture eam communicaverim Adamo Oleario, cum insignem 
globum, qui Gottorfii cemitur, construeret, sed ille mihi, ut 
tum temporis juveni, fidem noo habuit" "Ethiopia: we 
made known our chorographic record to P. Vincentio Coro- 
nelli now cosmographer of Venice, who included it on his 
globe which Cardinal d'Estrees had made for the King of 
France, the largest globe ever seen. There, on the terrestrial 
globe, Abyssinia and the Nile are seen following our repre- 
sentation. Quite a long time ago we made this known to 
Adam Olearius, when he was making the renowned globe 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

which may be seen at Gottorp, but he, as I was then a young 
man, did not have confidence in me/'*^ 

Marcel, in writing of the Portuguese in Africa, observed: 
''Si nous examinons les cartes de Mercator, de Bertius, de 
Hondius, de Meursius, de Sanson, de Duval, nous y trou* 
vons \m coats du Cuama ou Zanbesi absolument f antaisiste. 
II f aut arriver au f ameux globe de Coronelli pour y trouver 
en 1683 le cours de Zambese trace comme sur la carte que 
nous rcproduisons. II est evident que ce geographe venitien 
a pu consulter des documents portugais aujourd'hui perdus, 
cartes ou relations de voyages, qui viendraient jeter un jour 
infiniment precieux sur les explorations des Portugais et les 
relations qu'ils entretenaient avec les populations belli- 
queuses du bassin du Chir6." "If we examine the maps of 
Mercator, of Bertius, Hondius, Meureius, Sanson, Duval, 
we will find the course of the Cuama or Zambesi absolutely 
fantastic. One must examine the famous globe of Coronelli 
to find in 1683 ^^ course of the Zambesi represented as on 
the map which we reproduce. It is evident that the Venetian 
geographer had been able to consult Portuguese documents 
which today are lost, maps or accounts of Voyages which 
would throw light of great value on the explorations of the 
Portuguese and the relaticms they had with the warlike 
people of the basin of the Chire."** 

Coronelli adorned his globe map with very artistic repre- 
sentations of merchant ships sailing over die ocean hi^- 
ways, and with elaborate pictures of many naval battles. 

It was in the year 1704 that these globes were placed in 
the royal Chateau Marly,** where they remained until the 
year 1722, when they were placed in the old Palace of the 
Louvre. A final resting place was foimd for them in the 
Royal Library, now known as the Bibliotheque Nationale, in 
a room especially constructed to receive them. Recent infor- 
mation from the library notes that, on account of certain 
reconstructive work, they have been placed in an inaccessible 
part of the building, and cannot be photographed. 

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The success of this first endeavor to construct globes of 
large size led other Princes to entertain the thou^t of 
adorning their palaces with similar productions. It is not 
known, however, that the great Venetian actually set him- 
self to the task of duplicating his French masterpieces; 
we have rather the assurance, as is noted below, that he 
thought better of a plan for issuing globes of smaller size, 
whose map records should contain practically all he had 
been able to include in his large work. The Royal Estense 
Library of M odena possesses a manuscript, cited by Fiorini, 
which assures us that Coronelli had been approached with 
a proposition to construct for Francis II of Modena a pair 
of globes equal in size to those he had prepared for the 
French King. This document reads: ''Rispondendo il P.re 
Cosmografo Coronelli alii di lei questiti per la f abbrica delli 
globi, gli dice, che il fara tanto grandi, quanta sara la capa- 
city della stanza, e bisognando fabbricare anco una stanza 
dentro del Globo, resta solo che il Principe che la desidera, 
habbia curiosita e volonta do spcndere; limitandosi pero il 
P. Cosmografo alia grandezza di Globi di diametro di quin- 
dici piedi, dice, che per il solo pagamento di materiali, e 
degli Artifici, si ricercano ducento doppie; che per delineare 
la Geografia, scriveri, coUocarvi le stelle, cd assegnare il 
luogo alle figure vi vorra di spesa quattrocento doppie. Per 
accomodare il luogo che sia capace per la f abrica delli Globi 
di questa grandezza, vi vogliono cinquanta doppie. Per gli 
omamenti della Pittura, Miniatura, Scultura, et altri, si 
potra fare quella spesa che parera piu propria al Principe, 
che desidera; mentre in questi si puo o meno. E perchc il 
Principe conosca il genio dell' autore in questa materia, 
osservera nella picciolezza delle due mostre, ch'esibisce, con- 
f rontandole colle migliori carte, di qual perfetione e pulizia 
sarebbe questa di quindici piedi. II P. Coronelli per ricom- 
pensa desidera una pensione annua sua vita durante di quella 
soma che parera propria alia generosita del Principe. 
S'aggiunge, un quintemetto della supputazione delle stelle 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

d'Orione, perchi il Principe osservi raccrescimento delle 
stelle di questa costdlazionc, come sono accresciute di gran 
numero tutte le altro del Globo del Ciclo del P. Coronelli/' 
'Tather Coranelli, in reply to your questions regarding the 
construction of the globes whidh you say you wish to have 
made as large as the capacity of the room will allow, and 
with space in the globe itself, says that all that is necessary 
is to Imow how much his Excellency the Prince should wish 
to expend. However Father Coronelli limits himself to the 
construction of globes of fifteen feet in diameter, for which 
the cost of the material alone and of the workmanship is two 
hundred doubloons. For outlining the geographical map, 
for the proper placing of the stars, and the representation 
of the figures, the cost will be four hundred doubloons. To 
arrange a place for globes of this size another fifty doubloons 
will be necessary. For the decimations, the miniatures and 
engravings His Excellency can spend as much as he desires. 
In c^der that His Excellency the Prince may appreciate the 
great genius of the author in this matter, he will please take 
note of the two small globes which he exhibits, (and think) 
how perfect and attractive those fifteen feet in diameter will 
be in comparison with the best of maps. Father Coronelli 
desires, as compensation, an annual pension for life, such 
sum as His Elxcellency the Prince considers sufficiently 
generous. We enclose an account showing the representation 
of the stars of Orion, in order that the Prince may note the 
increase in the number of the stars in this constellation, and 
also note how all of the other constellations as represented 
on the globe of Father Coronelli show an increase in the 
number of stars."*® There is no evidence known that this 
work was actually undertaken by our Venetian globe maker, 
the presumption being that the matter did not receive further 
consideration. 

As an expression of appreciation for the honors shown to 
him by the Academy of the Argcmauts, Coronelli decided to 
issue his Paris globes reduced in size, choosing a diameter of 

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three and one half feet or about 107 cm. instead of fifteen 
feet. His globes, therefore, of the year 1688 were the largest 
to date in whidi engraved gore maps had been employed in 
construction. In one of his legends he thus alludes to the 
Academy. '11 gcnio ddla virtu raccomanda aU'etcmit^ il 
nome di Cesare Cardinale eminentissimo d'Estrto, Duca e 
Pari Francia, mcntre fece elaborare per Ludovico il Magno 
dal P. Coronelli due gran Globi V idea dei quali ha poi 
epilogata in questi per TAccademia cosmografica degli Ar- 
gonauti. Uanno MDCLXXXVIII." "The genius of virtue 
commends to posterity the name of Cesar, most eminent 
Cardinal d'Estrees, Duke and Peer of France, since he had 
constructed for Louis the Great by P. Coronelli two larg^ 
globes, the idea of which he then summarized herewith for 
the Cosmographical Academy of the Arg<mauts. In the year 
1688.'' The dedication, the same as that on the celestial 
globe, reads as follows: "Alia Serenissima Republica e 
Serinissimo Principe Francesco Morosini Doge di Venezia 
Capitan Gen: de Mare. Vincenzo Coronelli M. C. Suddito 
Cosmografo e Lettore publico." "To the Most Serene Repub- 
lic and the Most Serene Prince Francesco Morosini, Doge of 
Venice, Captain General of the Sea, by Vincenzo Coronelli 
M. C, the above mentioned cosmographcr and public 
reader.'' Placed below this legend in a cartouch containing 
the portrait of the author is the inscription "P. V. Corcmelli 
M. C. Cosmografo Publico." There is an inscription on the 
celestial globe which reads, "Si presentano a V. Serenita li 
Globi del Mondo, Teatro delle cospicue attioni de' Principi, 
perche mcntre corre il terzo decimo secolo (ch'e quasi la 
quarta parte della vita d' esso) ne' quali la Serenissima Re« 
publica agisse ugualmente e coUo splendore delle lettre c 
col luminoso dell' armi, Vedc I'Univcrsalc delle gcnti col 
mezzo di Stampa cosi reguardevole sin dove si vada sempre 
piu cstendendo la gloria del Veneto Nome. Quella che se 
ne assume I'Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti nella 
presente dedicazione e chi vive di V. V. Coronelli Cosmo- 

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graf o ddla mcdesima.'' "There are hereby presented to Your 
Serene Hi^iness these globes of the world, the scene of the 
remarkable deeds of Princes, in order that while the thir* 
teenth century is passing (which makes nearly a fourth part 
of the life of the world) wherein the Most Serene Republic 
has proceeded equally with the splendor of letters and the 
brilliancy of aims may be seen by the universality of the 
races; by means of this so important publication however 
there is more widely spread the glwy of the Venetian name; 
of which glory a portion is assumed by the Cosmographical 
Academy of die Argonauts, in the present dedication, and 
by him who lives by our permission, G>ronelli, O)smog- 
rapher of the same/' 

The author selected the year 1700 as that in which to 
indicate the position of the stars which he represented on his 
globe, referring to this fact in his legend. "L'epoca di questo 
globo e perfissa neir anno futuro 1700 acciocche I'arte in 
quest* opera precorra quel tempo che per natura dovri con- 
sumarla. Prevenendo questo globo tardo il Corso veloce del 
Cielo, comparisce presente il secolo venturo acci6 possi 
ognuno con ordine piu facile ridurre agli anni scorsi le stelle 
fisse coUa sottrazione di 51 secondi come place a Ticone, o 
50 seguendo il parere del Ricciolo. Volendo specolare il 
sistema degli anni anco posteriore air epoca stabilita, ag* 
giungasi proporzi<malmente al 1700 che seguira ia ridut- 
tione senza errore sensibile per tutto lo spazio di 400 anni." 
"The epoch of this globe is fixed for the year 1700, in order 
that the labor in its construction may have the time which 
naturally will be required for its completion. As this belated 
globe anticipates the rapid movement of the sky, the coming 
century appears as though present, anyone may be able in 
easier fashion to change to past years the fixed stars, by the 
subtraction of fifty-one seconds as Tycho reckons, or fifty 
according to the opinion of Ricciola. If one desires to specu* 
late also upon the system of the years posterior to the estab- 
lished epoch, let him add proportionsdly to 1700, and the 

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change will follow without sensible error for the entire 
period of 400 years." 

To the constellations he makes the following reference: 
'Turono osservate molte stelle in vicinanza del Polo antar- 
tico incognite non solo agli Egizij e Greci, ma ancora a 
Ticone Brahe. Osservo parimente Fedcrico Houtmano, neir 
Isola Sumatra, molte stelle vicine al Polo medesimo, le quali 
essendo state incognite agli accinnati autori, le ridussero in 
13 costellazioni cioe Fenice Col<»nb Mosca, Pesce volante, 
Camaleonte, Triangolo Australe, Uccello Indiano, Pavone, 
rUomo Indiano, la Gru, il Toucan, THindro e il dorado; 
altri dopo v'hanno aggiunto la Nube Grande, la Picciola e 
la Romboide. Noi abbiamo anicchito questo Globo d'un 
maggior numero di stelle, scoperte dair Hallei Inglese, che 
si trasporto a tal effetto nell' Isola S. Elena, coir aggiunta 
d'altre osservatione, cosi do questo come d'altri scrittcm." 
"There have been observed many stars in the vicinity of the 
Antarctic pole, unknown not only to the Egyptians and 
Greeks, but also to Tycho Brahe. There have been observed 
likewise by Frederick Houtmann, on the Island of Sumatra, 
many stars near the same pole which having been unknown 
to the above-mentioned authors, they reduced to 13 con- 
stellations, namely the Phoenix, the Dove, the Fly, the Fly- 
ing Fish, the Chameleon, the Southern Triangle, the Indian 
Bird, the Peacock, the Indian Man, the Crane, the Toucan, 
the Water-Snake, and the Goldfish; others since then have 
been added to these, tHe Greater Cloud and the Lesser, and 
the Rhomboid. We have enriched this globe with a consid- 
erable number of stars discovered by the Ekiglishman Hal- 
ley, who was sent to the Island of St. Helena for this 
purpose, with the addition of other observations as they 
have written." 

Thirty-eight constellations are designated in the northern 
hemisphere, twelve in the zodiac, and thirty-three in the 
southern hemisphere, thus adding thirty-five to the number 
as given by Ptolemy. Instead of Ptolemy's 1022 catalogued 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

stars, including fifteen of the first magnitude, forty-five of 
the second, two hundred and ei^t of the third, four hun- 
dred and seventy-four of the fourth, two hundred and seven- 
teen of the fifth, forty-nine of the sixth, and forty which 
were nebular and indistinct, Coronelli gives the number as 
1902, including eigihteen of the first, sixty-eight of the sec- 
ond, two hundred and thirty-seven of the third, four hun- 
dred and ninety-six of the fourth, four hundred and eighty- 
nine of the fifth, five hundred and sixteen of the sixth, and 
seventy-ei^t which were nebular and indistinct. Five of the 
latter, having been discovered in the previous one hundred 
and twenty-five years, had wholly or in part disappeared 
in Coronelli's day, of which, that making its appearance in 
the constellation Cassiopeia in the year 1572 disappeared 
in the year 1574, that discovered in the year 1596 in the 
Whale was rapidly diminishing in size, that discovered by 
Tycho Brahe in die Swan in the year 1600 ceased to be 
visible in the year 1629 to reappear in the year 1659, that 
in the Serpent larger than the planet Jupiter which was 
visible but thirteen months, that in the head of the Swan 
discovered in the year 1670 and still visible. 

Coronelli seems to have made every endeavor to produce 
maps for his terrestrial globes which ^ould omit nothing of 
real interest and value to geographers, navigators, and ex- 
plorers. He added a rather unusual number of legends, ex- 
planatory and informative in character, but never seemed to 
crowd the space which he had at his disposal. So exquisitely 
engraved were his maps that he was able to avoid the appear- 
ance of confusion noticeable on certain other globes of his 
century, as, for example, in the Old World parts of Blaeu's 
globe of 1622. It is very evident that many pages would be 
required for anything like a detailed description of his 
records, and the great majority must necessarily be omitted. 
To those quoted above a few, however, may be added. 

Blaeu's reference to the prime meridian was cited in full 
as was that of Moroncelli; Coronelli's reference is here like- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

wise cited, which, it will be noted, is not without errors. It 
is one having to do with problems concerning the determina- 
tion of longitude, hence involving interests of vital concern 
to navigation. ''Del primo meridiano. Sono in questo 72 
meridiani, 36 con linee continuate, le altre sono di punti, da 
ciascuno dei quali e diviso in G. 5 di longitudine che e il 
corso del Sole in un terzo d' oro. Li Geografi antichi e mo- 
demi non convengono nel luogo dove passa il primo meri- 
diano; tra li primi Eratostene V ha posto alle Colonne d' 
Hercole, Marino di Tyr all' Isole Fortunate, Tolomeo nella 
sua Geografia ha seguito la stessa opinione; ma ne' suoi libri 
di Astroncxnia 1' ha passato per Alessandria d' Egitto. Tra 
li modemi Ismaele Abulfeda lo segna a Cadiz, Alfonzo a 
Toledo, Pigafetta et Herrera hanno fatto il m^isimo; Co- 
pemico lo pone a Frcudenburgo; Renoldo a Monte Reale o 
Konisberg; Keplero a Uraniburgo; Longo Montano a 
Kopenhagen; Lansbei^us a Goes; Ricciolo a Bologna. Gli 
Atlanti di Jansonio e di Blaeu a Monte Pico. Per continuare 
r origine della mia Geografia ho posto in questo Globo il 
primo meridiano nella parte piu occidentale della Isola di 
Ferro, com' onche per seguire il Decreto di Luigi XIII, che 
col consiglio de' Geog. nel 1634 lo determin6 in questo stesso 
luogo." "Concerning the first meridian. There are repre- 
sented on this 72 meridians, 36 with continuous lines — ^the 
others are marked, — ^by each of which it is divided into 5 de- 
grees of longitude, which is the course of the sun in one third 
of an hour. The ancient and modem geographers do not 
agree upon the place through which the first meridian passes : 
among the former, Eratosthenes put it at the Pillars of 
Hercules; Marinus of Tyre at the Canary Islands; Ptolemy 
in> his geography has followed the same opinion, but in his 
books on astronomy he has located it as running through 
Alexandria in Egypt. Among the modems, Ismail Aboulfeda 
puts it at Cadiz; Alfonso at Toledo; Pigafetta and Herrera 
have done the same; Copernicus puts it at Freudenberg; 
Reinhold at Mount Royal (Konigsberg) ; Kepler at Ura- 

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Fig. 112. Terrestrial Globe of P. \'incenzo Coronelli, 1688. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

nienburg; Longomontanus at CoptnhsLgai; Lansberg at 
Goa; Ricciola at Bologna; the atlases of Jansson and Blaeu 
at Mount Pico. To continue the precedent of my geography 
I have on this globe placed the first meridian in the most 
western part of the Island of Ferro, — ^as also to follow the 
decree of Louis XIII, who on the advice of the geographers 
in 1634 assigned it to this same place." California he lays 
down as an island, west of which is a legend relating to 
"Nuova Albione," and north in the Pacific one relating to 
"Stretto di Anian." There is reference to the route to Groa, 
which is placed near the Island of Madagascar. The refer- 
ence to the Zambesi River clearly gives evidence of acquaint- 
ance with Portuguese records of which we have no other 
knowledge. This legend reads, "Rio Zambese: Citta e for- 
tezza di Tete de Portugal; Fortezza di S. Estevao; Minere 
di Ferro; Minere d' argento che il Re di Mon(xn. promise al 
Re di Spagna nel 1604; Fortezza di Chicova." ''Zambesi 
River: City and fortress of Tete of Portugal; fortress of 
S. Estevao; iron mines; silver mines which the King of 
Monomotapa promised to the King of Spain in 1604; for- 
tress of Chicova." Like the other leading map makers of the 
period he has indicated the course of certain transoceanic 
expeditions, occasioijally noting the distance sailed on each 
successive day, with other valuable and interesting informa- 
tion relating to the position of the sun and the moon, to 
atmospheric conditicxis, to the appearance of sea birds and 
of certain marine animals. 

Globes of this 1688 edition may be found in the Biblio* 
teca Comimale of Fano; in the Biblioteca Comunale of 
Faenza; in the Kdnigliche Mathematisch-Physikalischer 
Salon of Dresden, celestial imdated; in the Biblioteca Civico 
of Bergamo; in the Biblioteca Gkmzaga of Mantua; in the 
Biblioteca Marciana of Venice (Figs. 112, 113); in the 
Museo Civico of Venice; in the Biblioteca Universitario of 
Naples; in the Palazzo Manin of Passeriano. The twelve 
gores of the terrestrial globe may be foimd in the British 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Museum; a fine copy of the twelve gores may also be found 
in the Library of Congress, Washington; a copy of the 
mounted terrestrial ^obe belongs to the Biblioteca Eman- 
uele of Rome; three copies of this globe in addition to the 
pair referred to above belong to the Museo Civico of Venice. 

It appears that Coronelli's terrestrial globe gores of the 
year 1688, which were frequently reissued^ were but little 
altered in the several editions. His celestial globe in succes- 
sive issues seems to have been much altered. France had 
specially honored the Venetian globe maker in ^ving to him 
every facility for the production of his great masterpieces, 
the Marly globes. The Society Gallica of Paris decided, in 
the year 1693, to add to his honors, and to give expression to 
an appreciation of his merits through the publication of a 
new edition of his globes, at least of the celestial, the Vene- 
tian terrestrial of 1688 being made to serve as a companion. 
In the following legend we have information concerning 
the date, and concerning the participants in its preparation : 
''Orbis coelesti typus. Opus a Coronelli Serenissimae Rei- 
publicae Cosmographo inchoatum Societatis Gallicae sump- 
tibus absolutum, Lutetiae Parisiorum. Anno N. S. MD- 
CXCIII. Delin. Amoldus Deuvez Regiae Acad. Pictor; 
Sculp. I. B. Nolin Reg. Chr. Calcographus." "Representa- 
tion of a celestial globe. A work begun by Coronelli, the cos- 
mographer of the Venetian Republic; finished at the expense 
of the French Society at Paris in the year 1693. Drawn by 
Amold Deuvez painter of the Royal Academy; I. B. Nolin 
Royal Cartographer, draughtsman." 

The Parisian Society did not find it necessary to substitute 
the French language in the legends for the language of the 
author, as appears in the address to the reader, which of 
course is not Coronelli phrasing. "Amico lettore. Rapprc- 
senta questa Globo le Costellazioni del Firmamento, quali 
agli occhi nostri compariscono e non come negli altri esposte, 
poiche nel centro loro bisogna immaginarsi d' essore per 
intenderle. Le stelle d' esso calcolate all' Epoca 1700 sono 

[ 112] 



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F 




Tl 


^^^^^' 


^^^^H 


1 


^H 




C 




1 ■^. 


^ 


^^9 






^_ 


^IHH 


P — 




^^^^^I^^B^^^B ''^^1 




n-trm 


P 


H 


9 


R 



Fig. 113. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

pubblicati. Quelle comprese dalle Costellazicmi di Baiero, 
come le piii cognite, perche con maggiore facility si possino 
coUe nostre confrontare, sono accompagnate cogli caratteri 
gieci e latini da es so usati. Le stelle, eh' appresso Baiero» res- 
tano informi, sono, da noi segnate di giallo; le Nuove colo* 
rite di minio; le osservate dal P. Antelmo di verde, quelle del 
r Hallei di pavonazzo, V altre di Hevelio di lacca; le cor- 
lette da Baiero di Cinabro, e V osservazioni fatte dagli altri 
autori si distinguono nel nostro Epitome Cosmografico, stam- 
pato in Venetia nel 1693. In questo pure vengono dilucidati 
gli Numeri, Caratteri, le Frezze, che passano diametralmente 
per le stelle, la loro Obliquity Lun^ezza, I'Acume, gli 
Pianeti che I'accompagnano; il moto diario delle Comete, 
disegnate di molti secoli, ed ogni altro peiticolare che per 
I'angustia del sito non h permesso esprimere senza il di cui 
libro non possono avere uso gli Globi present! che pure 
restano descritri nel nostro Atlante Veneto non per6 cosi 
diffusamente." "Dear reader. This globe represents the con- 
stellations of the firmament as they appear to our eyes and 
not as shown by others, since it is necessary to imagine that 
one is in their center in order to conceive them. The stars 
of the globe are represented as calculated for the year 1700. 
Those included in the constellations of Bayer, as the best 
known, in order that they, with greater ease may be com- 
pared with ours, are designated by the Greek and Latin 
characters used by him. Stars, which according to Bayer 
remain undetermined, are indicated by us as yellow; the new 
ones colored with red; those observed by P. Antelmo, with 
green, those of Halley with violet, the others of Hevelius 
with lake color; the stars corrected by Bayer with cinnabar; 
and the observations made by other authors are distinguished 
in our Cosmographical £pit(xne, printed in Venice in 1693. 
In this also are elucidated the numbers, characters, the lines 
that pass diametrically through the stars, their obliquity, 
length, extremity, the planets that accompany them, the 
daily movement of the comets, traced for many centuries, 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

and every other particular which because of the limitations 
of space it is not here permitted to express, — ^without which 
book it is not possible to make use of the present globes, 
which are also described in our Venetian Atlas, but not so 
detailed." 

Pairs of his globes are very numerous which include the 
terrestrial of the year 1688, now and then with some modi* 
fications, and the celestial of the year 1693, these being 
usually, but not in all instances dated, the latter being the 
Paris issue or apparently a sli^tly modified Venetian edi- 
tion of the same. It must be admitted that it is not easy to 
classify the copies of his globes which followed his first 
issue of the year 1688, but which have the same dimensions. 
In not a few of these provision was made for a special dedi- 
cation, the cartouch for such dedication being often left 
blank, to be filled when occasion seemed to offer for the be- 
stowal of the special honor. Some of these globes containing 
such special dedication are known, to which reference is 
made below. 

Examples of Coronelli's work belonging to this group may 
be found in the following libraries or museums: In the 
Landesmuseum of Zurich (Fig. 1 14) ; in the Seminario Ves- 
covile of Aversa; in the Biblioteca Comunale of Bologna; 
in the Archivo di Stato of Bologna; in the Biblioteca Privato 
of Professor Liuzzi of Bologna; in .the Convento delF Os- 
servanza of Bologna; in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi of 
Florence; in the Museo Civico of Genoa; a copy of the 
celestial in the British Museum of London; in the Bib- 
lioteca Brancacciana of Naples; in the Biblioteca Na- 
zionale of Naples; in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Palermo; 
in the Biblioteca Antoniana of Padua; in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale of Paris; in the Biblioteca Classense of Ravenna; 
in the Biblioteca Lancisiana of Rome; in the Accademia 
dcUe Scienze of Turin; in the Seminario Patriarcale of 
Venice; in the Biblioteca Comimale of Vicenza; of the ter- 
restrial in the Royal Library of Madrid. The Vicenza exam- 

[ 114] 



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Fig. 114. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

pies, also those in the Archivo di Stato of Bologna and in 
the Biblioteca Nazionale of Paleraio, are dedicated to the 
"Eminentissimo e reverendissimo Principe" Cardinal Pietro 
Ottolxmi. The interesting brief legend, reading ''Alexander 
a Via VercMiensis sculpsit" on the celestial globe, gives us 
clearly to understand that there were Venetian issues of that 
edition which made its first appearance in Paris under the 
auspices of the Societe Gallica. The gores of this issue 
Corooelli printed in his 'Atlante Veneto,' Volume XI. 
' In the year 1696 Coronelli made an extensive European 
tour which carried him as far as En^and, an account of 
which he published in Venice in the following year under 
the title 'Viaggio de Venezia fino in Ingihilternu' In this 
work the authpr describes an edition of his globes which he 
referred to as having a diameter of "un piede e mdzzo," or 
about 48 cm., prepared in London and dedicated to the 
English King William III, of which it has been possible to 
locate several examples. A particularly fine copy of the ter- 
restrial may be found in the collection of The Hispanic 
Society of America (Fig. 115), agreeing in all its details 
with die other copies, in so far, at least, as the information 
obtained seems to indicate. In an elaborately decorated 
cartouch near the south polar region is the dedicatory inscrip- 
tion, reading "Globum hujusmodi Terraqueum Guglielmo 
invictissimo ac potentissimo Magnae Britaniae etc. Regi 
Dicat, Vocat. consecrat. Pater, Magister Vinccntius Coro- 
nelli Mon. Con. S. Francisci Serenissimae Venctorum Rei- 
publicae Cosmographus MDCLXXXXVI. Londini." "This 
terrestrial globe. Father and Master Vincentio Coronelli, 
Brother of the Franciscan Order and Cosmographer of the 
Venetian Republic, dedicates, names and consecrates to Wil- 
liam ni, the Invincible and Mighty King of Great Britain." 
Not far f r(xn the above is a somewhat elaborate representa- 
tion of the king's coat of arms with the motto "Hony soit 
qui mal y pense. Je maintienderay.*' Its mounting consists 
of a narrow graduated meridian circle of wood which is 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

made to pass, in the usual manner, throu^ a horizon circle 
of wood, the outer edgp of which is octagonal. The upper 
surface of this horizon circle is covered with an engraved 
horizon sheet giving within concentric circles the names of 
the zodiacal constellations, names of the months with the 
names of the prominent saints, the names of the principal 
winds, and of the principal directions in Italian. It has a 
supporting base of four artistically turned columns with 
binding crossbars extending from each post to a central dr- 
ctilar plate 17 cm. in diameter, carrying the post throu^ a 
slot in which the meridian circle is made to pass. The north 
pole is topped with a thin pasteboard hour circle and pointer. 
The globe map is composed of twelve gores which are tnm- 
cated in latitude 80 degrees both north and south, the polar 
spaces being covered with circular discs, and arc cut on the 
line of the equator. The sphere is exceedingly li^t in 
weigiht, being composed of papier-mache. In every particular 
the globe is one remarkably well preserved, and is one of the 
finest examples of early globe making in the society's 
collection. 

In geographical names the map records are very full, these 
being given either in Italian, Spanish, Latin, Dutch, Eng- 
lish, or in the native language of the country in which they 
appear. Curiously enough in many instances the author ap- 
pears to give his own peculiar spelling, approaching therein, 
to the best of his ability, the spelling suggested by the pro- 
nunciation of the several names. Legends are exceedingly 
numerous, many of them recording incidents relating to 
certain expeditions or to certain discoveries, such as the 
expedition of Magellan; early expeditions along the west 
coast of North America, including reference to Cortes, 
Ulloa, Alargon, Cabrillo, Guzman, Drake; expeditions to the 
East Indies, including that of Le Maire, Hoora, Van Diemen, 
Chaumont, and others. Boundary lines of local regions, in 
both the Old and the New World are exceedingly numerous, 
which fact in itself gives a sc»newhat unique value to the 

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Fig. 115. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1696. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

map as of geographical and historical value. California ap- 
pears as an island, and a great stretch of ocean appears 
between northwest North America and northeast Asia 
wherein is located land with indefinite outline marked, 
*Terra dc Jesso 6 Jeco, Yedco, Esso et Sesso Scoperta dagli 
Hollandesi Tamio 1643/' The map of North America is 
particularly of interest and value, especially for the region 
of the United States. 

Pictures of ships sailing the ocean, those of the oriental 
peoples as well as those of the occidental are numerous, as 
are also pictures representing seal fishing, and pictures repre- 
senting the methods of capturing polar bears and whales. 
It is interesting to note that loxodromic lines or sailing lines 
have disappeared from such maps, that the map and the 
chart are here seen to mei^. 

The celestial globe of this edition has practically the same 
dedication as the terrestrial, the word 'Terraqueum'' alone 
being changed to "Coelestem." There is on this the follow- 
ing address: "Amico Lettore. Oltre ai molti Globi delineati 
dal P. G)smografo Coronelli per Sovrani diversi di varie e 
vaste misure, ne ha ultimamente composti e stampati di 
cinque grandezze a pubblico beneficio, fra i quali i piu 
comodi ed esatti sono i presenti. I numeri che accompagnano 
le stelle calcolate air epoca del 1700; cosi 1' altre notizie, 
ad uso dei medesimi Globi, vengono nel suo Epitome Cos- 
mografico diffusamente spiegati." ''Dear reader. Besides the 
many globes delineated by the cosmographer P. Coronelli, 
for divers Sovereigns, he has recently composed and printed 
some in five sizes for the use of the public, among which the 
most convenient and exact are the present ones. The num- 
bers that accompany the stars are calculated for the epoch 
1700; moreover the other particulars for the use of these 
same ^obes are extensively developed in his Epitome 
Cosmografico.'' 

In the reference to the several constellations there is re- 
peated, with but slight alteration, the statements made on 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

his larger globes, the position of the fixed stars being re- 
ferred to the year 1700. 

Examples of the 1696 edition of Corcmelli's globes may 
be found in the Seminario Vescovile of Finale; in the Bib* 
lioteca Franzoniana of Genoa; in the Germanisches Na- 
tionaimuseum of Numberg; in the Biblioteca Comunale of 
Perugia; in the Museo Civico of Trieste; a copy of the ter- 
restrial in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, and one in 
the Certosa of Pisa; the unmounted gores of the celestial in 
the Museo Astronomico of Rome. 

The globes of the year 1696 were reissued in the year 
1699, with certain unimportant alterations. It may be noted 
that as in certain copies of the 1693 edition the cartouch 
designed for a dedicatory inscription was left blank, that the 
author might insert the name of the recipient whom he mi^t 
choose to honor. So in his globes of the year 1699 he left a 
like blank space, but in the terrestrial globe he inscribed 
what he evidently felt he should want to insert in each 
instance — a dedication in blank, as it were, reading ''D. 
D. D. Pater Magister Vincentius Coronelli Mon: Con: 
Francisci Serenissimae Venetorum Reipublicae Cosmogra- 
phus MDCLXXXXIX.'' One example has been located in 
which the name of the honored individual has been inserted, 
reading, in addition to the author and date as above, ^'lUus- 
trissimo et Praexcelso Nobili Viro D. D. Gxniti Aloysio 
Paoluccio Militiae Sanctae Apostolicae Sedis in Piccno Prae- 
fecto," this copy being in the Biblioteca Privato of Sr. Remi- 
gio Salotti of Modena. Copies of each of the 1699 issue may 
also be found in the Biblioteca Marucelliana of Florence; 
in the Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele of Rome; in the Biblio- 
teca of the Marquis Piero Bargagli of Rome; a copy of the 
terrestrial in the Museo Astronomico of Rome, a copy of the 
same in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, and a copy 
in the Certosa of Pisa. 

In one of his own publications issued in Venice in the year 
1697 Coronelli tells us of an edition of his celestial globe 

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Fig. 115a. Terrestrial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1693. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

which he was preparing." He announces "To the Public" 
that the large celestial globe, three and one half feet in 
diameter, which he was then having recngraved and which 
would exhibit all of the artistic features of the Paris edition 
of 1693, would be one of superior excellenqe. He adds that 
the many corrections and additions, as the parts already 
completed clearly indicate, would make it one very exact, 
and its completion was promised before the end of the year 

1698. This celestial globe was issued in Venice in the year 

1699, edited, according to an inscribed legend, by Coronelli 
and the Academy of the Argonauts. We cannot with cer- 
tainty locate a copy of this globe. Perhaps it may be found 
in one of the und^ated examples, now known, of the size 
designated. 

The Abbot Gimma, to whom reference has been made, 
informs us that Coronelli constructed other globes, the same 
having diameters respectively six, four, and two inches, and 
in the 'Epitome Cosmografica' of the author, under the para- 
graph heading, "Opere stampate dal Padre Coronelli," we 
read that he constructed celestial and terrestrial globes three 
inches in diameter for the pocket. In Volume X of the 
'Atlante Veneto,' under the title "Globi del Coronelli," the 
gores of these globes are reproduced, and from these reprints 
we are able to g^t certain information concerning them. But 
one pair of his six-inch globes has been located and none 
of the smaller size, this one pair being the unmounted gores, 
twelve in number for each globe, to be foimd in the British 
Museum. The terrestrial has the following dedication : "Hos 
Globos Terraqueum ac Coelestem dicat et donat R. mo P. D. 
Sigismundo Pollitio a Placentia Praeposito Generali Mo- 
narchorum Ermitorum S. Hyeronimi Congreg. Lombardiae 
P. M. Coronelli Cosmographus P." "These ^obes, a terres- 
trial and a celestial P. M. Coronelli gives and dedicates to 
the Rev. P. D. Sigismund PoUitus head of the congregation 
of Hermit Monks of St. Jerome of Lombardy. At Placen- 
tia." And the celestial has the following, "R. mo P. D. Sigis- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

miindo PoUitio Praep. Generali Mon. Ercm. S. Hyeron." 
"To the Rev. P. D. Sigismund PoUitus. General of the 
Hermit Monks of St. Jerome." Three other inscriptions of 
the celestial globe read respectively "Auct. P. Vinccntius 
Coronelli G>smog. Publ.," "Stellae supput. fuerunt ad 
annum 1700/' and "Venetiis. In Academiae Cosmog. 
Argon." 

Fiorini makes brief mention of a rather remarkable ar- 
millary sphere, cut out of a solid block of alabaster, now 
belonging to the Museo Civico of Siena.^' It is neither 
signed nor dated, but was probably constructed toward the 
close of the seventeenth century. 

It has two meridian circles, circles representing the tropics 
whose outer circumference is 66 cm., polar circles having a 
circumference of 21 cm., and circles representing the solsti- 
tial colures and the equator, the latter having an outer cir* 
cumference of 72 cm. All circles are graduated, but in the 
case of the polar circles the numbers of the degrees are not 
marked. In addition to the above-mentioned circles, there is 
one representing the zodiac which is exceedingly heavy, on 
which have been cut the signs of the several constellations 
and the names of the months. 

This assemblage of armillae is adjusted to revolve within 
a brass circle, the whole resting upon a base of alabaster. At 
the common center is a small ball mounted on a metallic 
rod which passes through the poles of the circles. This small 
terrestrial sphere has a diameter of 8 cm., and around it 
are two small circles probably intended to represent the path 
of the moon and of the planet Mercury. 

Word has been received of another armillary sphere of 
about 1700, thou^ tmdated, constructed by Vitale Gior- 
dani ( 1633-171 1 ), a mathematician of some note in his day. 
This sphere belongs to the Biblioteca Lancisiana of Rome, 
which, as noted above, possesses one by Barocci of the year 
i57o« 

The idea of constructmg large manuscript globes, such as 

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Fig. 115b. Celestial Globe of P. Vincenzo Coronelli, 1693. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

were those of Benci and of Moroncelli, was taken up by Giu« 
seppe Scarabelli of Mirandola, who appears to have won 
special distinction in his day as an engineer/^ Althou^ the 
large globes, terrestrial and celestial, three braccia (ca. 200 
cm.) in diameter, which he is known to have made, assisted 
by his son Massimo, cannot now be located, we are told 
that they were of such size and quality that their equal could 
not be found ''in Milan, in Venice, or in Rome/' 

In what has been stated above concerning globe makers of 
Italy in the late seventeenth century and the early ei^t* 
eendi, it has been noted that a number of those most promi- 
nent were members of some one or other of the many monas- 
tic orders. Benci and Moroncelli were of the Silvestrin 
Congregation; Coronelli was a Minorite, being honored with 
an election to the office of General of the Franciscan Order. 
It was in the late seventeenth century that Giovanni Battista 
da Cassine,^* a Capuchin monk, began to achieve distincti(xi 
as a map and globe maker, in particular, however, through 
the maps he drafted of the various provinces of his order 
which he described in his 'Descrizione cosmografica della 
Provinde e dei Conventi de FF: Min. Cappuccini di S. 
Francesco.'** He was a native of Cassine in the district of 
Alessandria, and entered in early life into the Convent of the 
Immaculata Concezzione of Milan. He tells us, in his intro- 
duction to his work noted above, that he oxistructed two 
globes for the library of his convent in Milan, a terrestrial 
and a celestial, adding, "Quondam aedificabam, simul et 
delineabam pro Bibliotheca nostra Immacolatae Concep- 
tionis duos satis grandes Globos nimirum coelestem unum, 
terrestrcm alium/' "I once designed and constructed for our 
library of the Immaculate Conception, two large globes, one 
a terrestrial, the other a celestial.'* We do not know the 
exact date of the construction of these globes, but it prob- 
ably was near 1700.** It is further probable that these globes 
were examples of Italy's best productions within this field. 
They, however, cannot now be located, having disappeared 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

at the time of the dissolution of the coavent in die year 
1810. 

Georgie Christopher Eimmart (1638-1705), a native of 
Ravensburg, was one of Gennan/s most famous mathema- 
ticians of the seventeenth century.^ He is reported to have 
been for some time associated with Erhard Weigel in 
the University of Jena, where he won distinction for him- 
self in his mathematical and law studies. It was about the 
year 1658, after the death of his father, that he became 
especially interested in the art of copper engraving, and in 
the year 1660 he established himself in this business in the 
city of Numberg. The study of mathematics, however, con- 
tinued to interest him, and we soon find him giving especial 
attention to astronomical science, to the construction of 
astronomical instruments, such as quadrants, sextants, tele- 
scopes, astronomical clocks, and celestial spheres. In one 
of the fortifications of the city he erected a small observa- 
tory, in which he carried on his astronomical studies, evinc- 
ing, as the months passed, much interest in giving practical 
instruction to many of the young students of the city, among 
whom may be named Johaimes Philipp Wurzelbauer, who 
later was ennobled by Emperor Leopold on account of his 
scientific attainments, and who at the time of the reception 
of this honor changed his name to Wurzelbau. Eimmart 
counted among his friends, with whom he was in constant 
communicaticNi, Leibnitz, Cassini, La Hire, Flamsteed, Hevel, 
and others. His correspcmdence with these distinguished men 
of science, together with his numerous papers relating to his 
mathematical and astronomical studies, are still preserved 
in manuscript, filling no less than fifty-seven volumes.^* In 
the year 1695 ^^ published a description of an armillary 
sphere which he had constructed to represent the Copemican 
system, but this cannot now be located."® In the year 1705, 
the year of his death, he issued a pair of globes, an example 
of each being now kept in the Museo Astronomico of Rome. 
These spheres of papier-mach^, each having a diameter of 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

about 30 on., are supplied each with a base of wood, con- 
sisting of four turned columns, which support a horizon cir- 
cle of wood, on which are the usual engraved concentric 
circles bearing respectively the names of the principal direc- 
tions or winds, the names of the zodiacal constellations, 
with their respective figures, the names of the principal 
festivals, and names of the saints. They are made to revolve 
within a graduated meridian circle which is adjusted to move 
within the horizon circle. The globe balls are covered with 
engraved gore maps, each consisting of twelve sections cut 
at the equatorial line and in latitude 80 degrees, the polar 
areas being covered with a circular disc, having the necessary 
radius of ten degrees. 

On the terrestrial globe we find the following author and 
date legend: ''Cum geographica Orbis Terrarum descriptio 
secundum long, et lat. non nisi vel per peregrinationes marit- 
timas vel observationes coelestes emendatior in dies prodeat, 
istud autem per experimenta propria (quo ad exiguam 
saltem partem) perfecisse, e' mille, vix uni contigat; Opor- 
tuit nos Recentiorum accuratissimis observationibus insis- 
tore et quatenus cxim veritate congruant vel discrepent exac- 
tion tuo judicio relinquest. Nos eadem loca bona fide, nihil 
immutantes, prout ab auctoribus novissimis accepimus usui 
tuo exhibibemus. Norimbergae apud G. C. Eimmartum A^ 
Chrisd 1705." "Since the geographical description of the 
earth according to latitude and longitude, both by maritime 
voyages and by celestial observations becomes more accu- 
rate day by day, it happens to scarcely any one man to per- 
fect (a globe) by his own observations for these can be par- 
tial only. Therefore it behooves us to make use of the most 
accurate modem observations. In so far as they agree with 
the truth or depart from it it is left for you with your more 
exact judgment to decide. We, for our part, exhibit for your 
use the places in all good faith, as we have received diem 
from the latest authorities and have changed nothing. 
Numberg. By G. C. Eimmart, 1705.*' 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. , 

Meridians and parallels are represented at intervals of 
five degrees, the ecliptic and the equator being graduated. 
Compass roses are numerous, from which radiate numerous 
loxodromic lines. The several compass roses are located on 
the equator, and at latitude 35 degrees and 70 degrees both 
north and south, where these parallels are crossed by the 
prime meridian and the meridians of 90 degrees, of 180 
degrees, and of 270 degrees. 

In the southem hemisphere of the celestial globe is the 
following inscription: ^'Loca stellarum coelesti huic Globo 
insertarum a Jo. Hevelio astronomo insigni ad ann. 1700 
complet. sumo studio ac diutumis vigiliis restituta sunt; 
quae in hujusmodi Typum ad perpetuam Coeli conformita* 
tern juxta modum quern Problema inferius adjectum prae- 
scribit noviter redacta a G. C. Eimmarto." 'The position 
of the stars inscribed on this celestial globe were determined 
by J. Hevelius, renowned astronomer, and completed to the 
year 1700 through deep study and ni^tiy vigils. And these 
observations on this ^obe are made perpetually to conform, 
according to the method which is described below, and these 
have been revised by G. C. Eimmart." 

Attention is called to the stars of the various magnitudes 
up to the seventh by an appropriate illustration of each 
placed in a small but artistically designed wreath. Latin 
names are given to the several constellations and to a num« 
ber of the individual stars, thou^ one finds an occasional 
Arabic name. Among the several c(mstellati(ms one notes 
certain modem names such as ''Scutum Subiescianum." 

In additi(xi to the pair referred to above, a copy of the 
celestial globe may be found in the Biblioteca Civico of 
Bergamo. 

Joseph Moxon (1627-1700) (Fig. 116) was an English 
mathematician and hydrc^apher of great distinction.*^ 
His earliest business, dating from about 1655, was that of 
a maker and vender of mathematical instruments, but he 
later turned his attention toward the designing of letters 

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JofcphMoxon. 



Fig. 116. Portrait of Joseph Moxon. 



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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

and the making of printing types, achieving, for his work 
in this field, a very remarkable reputation. It was in his 
early years, when especially interested in making mathe- 
matical instruments in his shop in Russell Street, at ''The 
Sign of the Atlas," that his thou^t was turned toward 
geography, astronomy, and navigaticxi; at any rate, he pub- 
lished in the year 1657 an edition of Edward Wrist's 
'Certain errors in navigation detected and corrected.'*^ In 
1659 he published in London the first edition of his import 
tant work which he called 'A Tutor to Astronomy and 
Geography, or an easie and speedy way to know the Use 
of both the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial.' This work, 
frequently reissued during his lifetime, was followed at 
intervals by a number of publications chiefly relating to 
the art of printing." As to the importance he attached to 
his own knowledge of globes, he states on the title-page of 
his book^on their uses that he explains therein "More fully 
and amply than hath yet been set forth, either by Gemma 
Frisius, Metius, Hues, Wright, Blaeu, or any others that 
have tau^t the Use of the Globes: and that so Plainly and 
Methodically, that the meanest Capacity may at first Read- 
ing apprehend it, and with a little Practice grow expert in 
these Divine Sciences." In his address "To the Reader," 
appearing as an introduction to this same work, he gives us 
further word not only concerning his own globes, but an 
interesting insight into what a globe maker of that time 
conceived as essential points to be noted when directing 
attention to his own special work. Though somewhat 
lengthy, it is here quoted as an interesting early statement. 
He observes in his introductory paragraph that he is writing 
not "to expert Practitioners but to Learners; to whom 
Examples may prove more Instructive than Precepts. 

"Besides," he states, "I hope to encourage those by an 
ample liberal plainness to fall in love with the Studies, that 
formerly have been disheartened by the Crabbed brevity of 
those Authors that have in Characters as it were rather writ 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Notes for their own Memories, than sufficient Documents 
for their Readers Instructions. 

"The Globes for which this Book is written are new 
Globes that I set forth, which as I told you in my Epistle to 
the Reader of Blaws Book differ somewhat from other 
Globes; and that both the Celestial and the Terrestrial; 
mine being the latest done of any, and to the accomplishing 
of which, I have not only had the help of all or most of the 
best of other Globes, Maps, Platts, and Sea-drafts of New 
discoveries that were then extant for the Terrestrial Globe, 
but also the Advice and directions of divers able Mathemati- 
cians both in En^and and Holland for Tables and Calcula- 
tions both of Lines and Stars for the Celestial; upon which 
globe I have placed every Star that was observed by Tycho 
Brahe and other Observers, one degree of Longitude far- 
ther in the Ecliptick than they are on any other Globes: so 
that whereas on other Globes the places of the Stars were 
correspondent with their places in Heaven 69 Years ago, 
when Tycho observed them, and therefore according to his 
Rule want almost a degree of their true places in Heaven 
at this Time : I have set every Star one degree farther in the 
Ecliptick, and rectified them on the Globe according to the 
true place they had in Heaven in the Year 167 1 . 

"On the Terrestrial Globe I have inserted all the New 
Discoveries that have been made, either by our own For- 
raign Navigators, and that bothe in the East, West, North, 
and South parts of the E^rth. In the East Indies we have in 
the latter Times many spacious places discovered, many 
Islands inserted, and generally the whole Draught of the 
Country rectified and amended, even to the Coast of China, 
Japan, Giloli &c. In the South Sea between the East and 
West Indies are scattered many Islands, which for the un- 
certain knowledge former Times had of them are either 
wholly left out of other Globes, or else laid down so erro- 
neously that litde of credit can be attributed unto them. 
California is found to be an Island, though formerly sup- 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

posed to be part of the main Continent, whose North- West 
^oar was imagined to thrust itself forth dose to the Coasts 
of Cathaio, and so make the supposed Strai^ts of Anian. 
The Western Shoars of the West Indies are more accurately 
described than formerly, as you may see if you compare my 
Terrestrial Globe: that I have lately set forth with the 
Journals of the latest Navigators : And if you compare them 
with other Globes you will find 5, 6, yea 7 degrees difference 
in Longitude in most Places of these Coasts. Magellanica 
which heretofore was thou^t to be part of the South Con- 
tinent called Terra Incognita is now also found to be an 
Island. All that Tract of Land called Terra Incognita I 
have purposely omitted, because as yet we have no certainty 
whether it be Land or Sea; imless it be of some parts lately 
found out by the Dutch, who having a convenient Port at 
Batavia in Java, have from there sent forth Ships South- 
ward, where they have found several very large countries; 
one whereof they have called HoUandia Nova, another 
Zelandia Nova, another Anthoni van Diemans Land; and 
divers others; some whereof lie near our Antipodes; as you 
may see by my terrestrial Globes. Again, Far to the North- 
wards there are some New Discoveries, even within six 
degrees of the Pole: The Drafts to the North Eastwards I 
have laid down even as they were described by the Searchers 
of those parts for a passage into the East Indies. And also 
the Discoveries of Baffin, Captain James, and Capt. Fox 
(our own Country-men) that attempted the finding a 
passage that way into the South Sea. 

"I also told you what difference there is in several 
Authors about placing the first Meridian, which is the be- 
ginning of Longitude; that Ptolemy placed it at the For- 
tunate Islands, which Mr. Hues pag. 4. chap. 1. in his Trea- 
tise of Globes proves to be the Islands of Cabo Verde, and 
not those now called the Canary Islands; because in his 
Time they were the farthest place of the Discovered World 
towards the setting of the Sun; Others placed it at Pico in 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Teneriffa; Others at Corvus and Flora; because under that 
Meridian the Compass had no Variation, but did then duly 
respect the North and South; Others for the same Reason 
begin their Longitude at St. Michaels; and Others between 
the Islands of Flores and Fayal : And the Spaniards of late 
by reason of their great Negotiation in the West Indies, have 
begun their Longitude at Toledo there, and contrary to all 
others account it Westwards. 

''Therefore I, seeing such diversity among all Nations, 
and as yet an Uniformity at home, chose with our own 
Country-men to place my First Meridian at the He Gratiosa, 
oat of the lies of Azores. 

''By the different placing of this first Meridian it comes 
to pass that the Longitude of Places are diversely set down 
in different Tables; For those Globes or Maps that have 
their first Meridian placed to the Eastwards of Gratiosa, 
have all places counted Eastwards from the Meridian of 
Gratiosa, and their first Meridian in a greater number of 
degrees of Longitude, and that according as the Arch of 
Difference is." 

At the conclusion of this work we find printed a catalogue 
of his books, maps, and instruments, including globes celes- 
tial and terrestrial of all sizes, and, what is of considerable 
interest and value, the price of each given.'* 

We know that the Chinese, very many centuries ago, 
manifested a considerable interest in astronomy; nor was 
there wanting with them an interest in geography. It was, 
however, especially in the former science they may be said 
to have made contributions of real value. An unreliable 
record, telling us of the interest exhibited by the Emperor 
Shun, reigning more than two thousand years before the 
beginning of the Christian era, notes that he made use of an 
armillary sphere in his study of the stars. Little is there to 
assure us that prior to the time of Kublai Kaan (1216- 
1294) there were those who turned their attention to the 
construction of globes. That great Mongol Emperor's 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

astronanier Ko-Shun*King, having demonstrated the supe- 
riority of his astronomical wisdom, was directed to insti- 
tute reforms in Chinese chronology and to construct for pur- 
poses of scientific investigations such instruments as he 
thought to be necessary. Accordingly he removed from the 
old observatory ''an armillary sphere dating from 1049/' 
substituting in its place a number of large and small instru- 
ments, two of which have survived to our day — an armil- 
lary sphere and a celestial globe, which may be said to date 
from about the year 1274. These instruments of the astron- 
omer Ko-Shun-King had place in an observatory which he 
had erected on the site of an ancient structure at the south- 
east comer of the Tartar city wall, being raised above the 
parapet. There they remained until the year 1673 when the 
Jesiiit astronomer Father Ferdinand Verbiest judged them 
to be useless and persuaded the Emperor to pull them down 
and put up new ones of his own contriving." The old instru- 
ments were stored away at the foot of the terrace, and of 
these, as before noted, but two now remain. 

Le Comte refers to the celestial globe as one well cast, and 
having a diameter of about three feet, the degrees and min- 
utes being marked both ''longitudinally and latitudinally." 
An early description tells us that its equator is in the center, 
equidistant from the two poles^ in each case a quarter of a 
circumference. The ecliptic is elevated above and depressed 
below the equator, in each case barely twenty-four degrees. 
The elevations and depressions of the moon in its orbit 
being variable, a bamboo hoop, divided into degrees equally 
throughout, is used to verify the intersections with the eclip- 
tic and accordingly is moved from time to time. The globe 
rests on a square box, the north and south poles being re- 
spectively above and below the surface fully forty degrees, 
half of the globe being visible and half concealed. Toothed 
wheels, set in motion by machinery concealed within the 
box, are so adjusted as to cause the globe to revolve. 

The armillary sphere (Fig. 117) stands at the east end 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

of the court. It is an instrument of huge dimensions being 
described in early records somewhat as follows, in each ref- 
erence there being allusion to its beautiful workmanship, 
and to its design as possessing remarkable excellence. The 
supporting base of the piece has a mythological significance. 
The four dragons, which play such a part in the Giinese 
geomancy, are here represented as chained to the earth, while 
upholding the spheres. Its substantial horizcxi circle, crossed 
at right angles by a double ring representing an azimuth 
circle, forms the outer supporting framework. The upper 
surface of the horizon circle is divided into twelve equal 
parts, marked by the several Chinese cyclical characters 
applied to the twelve hours into which the day and ni^t 
was divided. Around the outside of this horizon circle these 
twelve characters appear again, with the Giinese names for 
the several points of the compass. On the inside of this 
circle one finds the names of d[ie twelve States into which 
the ancient Empire was divided, each State being thought 
of as under the influence of a particular quarter of the 
heavens. 

Inside this frame is placed an equatorial circle within 
which is a series of movable circles made to turn on polar 
pivots attached to the azimuth circle. These movable circles 
consist of an equatorial circle, a double ring ecliptic, an 
equinoctial colure, and a double ring solstitial colure. The 
equator is divided into twenty-eight unequal portions 
marked by the names of as many constellations of very 
ancient origin. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-four 
equal parts according with the divisions of the year. Within 
the circles just described there is a double revolving merid- 
ian with a double axis and within this a fixed tube for taking 
sights. 

All the circles of this armillery sphere are divided into 
365^ degrees corresponding to the days of the year and 
each degree is divided into hundreds. At the comers of the 
base outside the dragons are four miniature rocks in bronze, 

[ 130 ] 



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E 

< 

.2 

1 

c 
o 

c 

OP 

< 






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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

with the respective inscriptions "Keen Shan," northwest or 
celestial mountain; "Kwan Shan/' southwest or terrestrial 
mountain; "Seuen-Shan," or southeast mountain; "Kan 
Shan,'' northeast mountain. 

When the astronomer Pcre Ferdinand Verbiest (1623- 
1688),'' undertook the survey and management of mathe- 
matics for the Emperor he, like his predecessor Ko^him- 
King four hundred years before, began his task, as noted 
above, by ordering the removal of the (Ad instruments from 
the observatory and the construction of new ones. Six of 
these are referred to in the records of the period as possessing 
especial merit, including a zodiacal armillary sphere six feet 
in diameter, an equinoctial armillary sphere six feet in diam- 
eter, a horizon azimuth likewise six feet in diameter, a 
quadrant having a radius of six feet, a sextant with a radius 
of eight feet, and a celestial globe having a diameter of 
six feet. 

The armillary spheres have each but four circles, being 
of excellent workmanship, and having mountings of elab- 
orate Chinese designs. 

That which especially interests us here is the celestial 
globe (Fig. 117*) which Le Compte describes somewhat in 
detail. "This in my Opinion," he says, "is the fairest and 
best fashioned of all the Instruments. The Globe itself is 
brazen, exactly round and smooth; the Stars well made, and 
in their true places, and all Circles of proportional breadth 
and thickness. It is besides so well hung, that the least touch 
moves it, and tho' it is above two thousand weight, the least 
Child may elevate it to any Degree. On its large concave 
Bases are placed opposite four Dragons, whose Hair stand- 
ing up on end, support a noble Horizon commendable for its 
breadth, its severd Ornaments, and the delicacy and nice- 
ness of the Work. The Meridian in which the Pole is fixed 
rests upon Qouds that issue out of the Bases, and slides 
easily between them, its Motion being facilitated by some 
hidden Wheels, and moves with it the whole Globe to give 

[ 131 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

it the required Elevation. Besides which, the Horizon^ 
Dragons and two brazen Beams, which lie cross in the 
Center of the Bases Concavity, are all moved at pleasure 
without stirring the Bases which still remain fixed; this 
facilitates the due placing of the Horizon, whether in re- 
spect of the Natural Horizon, or in respect of the Globe. I 
wonder how Men who live six thousand Leagues from us 
could go through such a piece of Work; and I must own, 
that if all the Circles which are divided, had been corrected 
by some of our Workmen, nothing could be more perfect in 
this kind." This piece, it may be noted, was carried away 
to Potsdam at the close of the Boxer Rebellion, copies of 
them being left in the old observatory. The Treaty of Ver- 
sailles directed that the originals sho\Ud be returned to their 
early home. 



NOTES 

1. See I, 8. 

2. Coronelli, V. Epitome Cosmografica. Colonia, 1693. pp. 330-331. 

3. AUgemeine deutsche Biographie, "Olearius"; Varenius, B. Geographia 
generalis. Cambridge, 1672. Bk. Ill, chap, zzzii; MoUer, G. I. Cimbria 
literata. Hanniae, 1744. Vol. I, p. 195: 

MoUer says : "Nee silentio sunt involyenda duo adminuida orbis authomata 
astronomico-cosmographica, juxta delineationem ipsius ingeniosissimam A. 
1654 et seqq. ab And. Boschio Mechanico Dedalaeo ct in Matfaesi ver^ 
satissimo, dirigente laborcm Ad. Oleario, Principis hujus sui etiam mathc- 
matici, fabrefacta, quibus similis Europam, imo orbem majorem universum, 
non vidisse, praeter Olearium Heun. Heuningi et D. G. Morphosius sunt 
persuasi. . . .'* Weidler, J. F. Histona astronomiae. Wittenberg, 17419 p. 

541. 

Weidler says: "Globum a. 1654 Fredericus dux Holsatiae, dirigente opus 
Adamo Oleario, e cupro fabrefieri et in arce Gortorpicnsi curaverat. 
Diameter ejus 10 1/2 pedes capiebat, totusquc globus rotis, flumine 
circumjactis movebatur.'* 

4. Gunther-Fiorini. Erd- und Himmelsgloben, p. 83; Royal Geographical 
Journal. London, 1901. p. 219. 

5. Bartholomaei, F. Erhard Weigel; ein Beitrag zur Geschlchte der 
mathematischen Wisscnschaften auf den deutschen Univenit&ten im XVI 

[ 132] 



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c 



9J 

o 

5 



0/ CO 

C CO 









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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

Jahrhundcit. (In: Zcitschrift fur Mathematik und Phytik. Leip2ig, 1866. 
Sup. Heft. pt. 1.) ; Allgemein« deutsche Biographia, "Weigel, Erhard." 

6. Schimpfer was a native of Niimberg and active in his profession about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. 

7. Bartholomaei, op. cit. 

8. Bartholomaei, referring to the popularity of Weigel as a lecturer, 
states that some of his lectures were given in the open because there was 
no available room sufficiently large to accommodate his hearers. 

9. Weigel, E. Sphaerica Euclidea methodo conscripta; accessit globorum 
heraldicorum ipsiusque pancosmi descriptio et usus. Jenae, 1688; Wolf, 
Gcschichte der Astronomie, pp. 420-427. In a very early day the Venerable 
Bede had suggested a change from the heathen names of the several con- 
stellations to Christian names. See in this connection Schiller, J. Coelum 
stellatum christianum. Augsburg, 1627. 

Schiller was a pupil of the famous astronomer, Johannes Bayer, from 
whom he probably received his impulse to inaugurate a reform in the 
matter of naming the constellations. Schiller felt much annoyed that 
heathen names for stars and star groups should be retained by Christian 
peoples, and it was probably with Bayer that he worked out his scheme for 
a new nomenclature. To the twelve signs of the zodiac, for example, he gave 
the names of the twelve apostles. For the constellation Perseus he proposed 
the Apostle Paul, for the Great Bear the Ship of Peter, for Hercules the 
Three Kings, for Cassiopeia the name Maria Magdalena, for Auriga 
Saint Jerome ; he further proposed to change the name Ophiuchus to Pope 
Benedict, Pegasus to the Angel Grabriel, Orion to Joseph, Canis Major to 
King David, the Ship Argo to the Ark of Noe, the Centaur to Abraham, the 
Peacock to Eve. 

It was proposed to change the name Sun to Christ, the Moon to Maria, 
Saturn to Adam, Jupiter to Moses, Mars to Joshua, Venus to John the 
Baptist, and Mercury to Elias. 

The suggestions of Schiller, of Bayer, and of their contemporaries, or 
near contemporaries, Schickard, Bartsch, and Harsdorfer, with the added 
support of Weigel, seem to have found little favor among astronomers. 

la Weigel, E. Universi corporis pansophici prodromus. Jena, 1672; 
same author. Beschreibung der verbesserten Himmels* und Erdgloben. 
Jena, 1681. 

11. Coronelli, op. cit., pp. 331-33^* Wolf, op. cit., pp. 426-427, n. 16; 
Gfinther-Fiorini, op. cit., p. 85, n. 

12. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 308-310. 

13* Quoted by Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 306-307. 

14. Practically the only information we have concerning Moroncelli, aside 
from that which may be gained from his globes^ is contained in a manuscript 
preserved in the Biolioteca Municipale of Fabriano, titled, "Vite dei Monaci 
lUustri di S. Benedetto in Fabriano,*' by the Monk Feliziani, who died in 
the year 1683. Extracts from this have courteously been sent the author 
in reply to letters of inquiry. See also Fiorini, op. cit., p. 31a 

15. Letter from the director. Dr. 6. Coggiola, dated January 4, 1914. 

16. See II, 34. 

17. Fiorini, op. dt, p. 323. 

18. Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, succeeded her father as 
mler of Sweden. In the year 1654 she abdicated the throne, became a devout 
Catholic and passed a considerable part of her remaining years in Rome, 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

residing at first in the Palazzo Famesc, and later in the Palazzo Riario. 
bringing together in the latter place of residence a large collection of books 
and objects of art Much of her collection later passed to the Vatican. 
I9w Fiorini, op. cit., p. 323. 

20. See note 9, above. 

21. Coronelli, op. dt., pp. 32^*330; Dictionary of National Biography, 
"Palmer, Roger" (Count of Castlemaine), to which is appended a somewhat 
lengthy list of bibliographical references. 

22. Moxon, J. The English globe, being a stabil and immobil one, 
performing what the ordinary globes do, and much more. Invented and 
described by the Right honorable, the Earl of Castlemaine. The second 
edition corrected by J. Mozon. London, 1696. 

23. Coronelli, op. cit., p. 333. 

24. It has been impossible to locate a copy of this work or to get further 
information concerning Treffler. 

25. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 376. 

26. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 377. 

27. Briefly described in a letter received by the author from the Biblioteca 
Estense of Modena. 

28. Fiorini, M. Vincenzo Coronelli ed i suoi globi cosmografici. (In: 
Annuario Astro*Meteorologico. Roma, 1893.) ; Rigobon. Biografia e studi 
del P. Vincenzo Coronelli. (In: Archivo Veneto, Vol. Ill, pL i, p. 267.); 
Ginanni, P. P. Memorie storico critiche degli scrittori Ravennati. Faenza, 
1769. Vol.. I, p. 162; Pasolini, S. Huomini illustri di Ravenna antica ed altri 
degni professori di lettere ed armi. Bologna, 1703. p. 63. 

29. Among his more important woriu the following may here be cited; 
Atlante Veneto, nel quale si contiene la descrittione . . . dcgl' Imperij. 
Regni, Provincie, e Stati dell' Universo. Venetia, 1691-1696. 3 Vols, in 4 
pts.; Biblioteca universale sacro-profano, antico-modema. Venezia, 1701- 
1706. Vols. I- VIII, but not completed beyond "Caque"; Epitome Cosmo- 
grafica, o compendiosa introduttione air Astronomia, Geographia, et Idro- 
grafia. Colonia, 1693 ; Viaggi del P. C. Venetia, 1697 : The Royal Almanack : 
containing a succinct account of the remarkable actions of K. William III: 
with the year and the day of the month when each happened. Tr. from 
Italian into English. London, 1696. See also Giannini, G. Titoli della opere 
. . . stampate dal anno 1704, dal P. M. C. . . . publicate dair Accademia 
degli Argonaut! in aggiunta deir indice gii dato in luce. Venetia, 1708. 

30. Not until the following century does it appear that such societies 
were organized north of the Alps. 

31. See list given by Coronelli, Epitome, in introductory pages under 
heading "Catalogo . . •" 

32. See Coronelli. Epitome. 

33. This privilege is quoted by Coronelli, Epitome, in introductory pages. 

34. Coronelli. Epitome, pp. 334-342. 

35. La Hire, P. de. Description et explication des Globes qui sont places 
dans les pavilions du Chateau de Marly par ordre de Sa Majeste. Paris, 
1704. 

36. Bom September 16, 1638. 

37. Ludolf, H. Jobi Ludolfi ... ad suam historiam Aetiopicam ante hac 
cditam commentarius. Francforti ad Moenum, 1691. p. 22. 

38. Marcel, G. Les Portugais dans I'Africe Australe. (In: Revue de 
Geographic. Paris, 1890.) 

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Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. 

99. This chateau was erected in the year 1693. 

40. Cited by Florini, op. cit., p. 338. 

41. Viaggi, del P. C. p. 28. He gives us in this wotk a statement of prices 
for his globes as follows: 

"Globes of various sizes. 
Celestial and terrestrial three and one half feet in diameter, with 

the addition of many stars and of newly discovered lands, 

painted and varnished, without supports, 100 ducats . . . L.260: 
The same with their supports and with meridian of brass . . 1240: 
The same one foot and a half in diameter with their pedestals 

and with brass meridians 1^5: 

The same six and a half inches in diameter with feet and with 

meridians L.31: 

The same four and a half inches in diameter with their feet and 

with meridians 24:16 

The same two and a half inches in diameter with their feet and 

with meridians 18: 12" 

42. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 378. 

43. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 379. 

44. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 370. 

4^. Porena, F. Un cartografo italiano del principio del secolo XVIII. 
(In: Memorie della Societik geog. ital. Roma, 1895. VoL V, pt. 1, p. 45.) 

46. Published in Mediolani, 1712. 

47. Bernardo, F. da Bologna. Biblioteca Scriptorum Ordinis Minorum S. 
Francisci Capucinorum. Venetiis, 1747. 

48. Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 127. 

49. Laland states that these fifty-seven came into the possession of the 
Jesuit College of Polotsk in Russia. 

50. Eimmarto, 6. C. Sphaerae armillaris a Gcorgio Christophoro Eim- 
marto ex aurichalco constitutae, interius systema planetarum ex mente 
Copemid repraesentatis, brevis eluddatio, Ed. Jo. Christ. Sturmio-Altdorfii, 
1695. 

51. Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XXXIX, p. 242. 

52. This wo^ was first published in London in the year 1599. 

53. As a result of Moxon's interest in this field we have from him one of 
the most satisfactory of the early manuals of typography, bearing the title 
'Mechanick Exercises or the Doctrine of Handy- Works applied to the Art 
of Printing,' London, 1683. This work was reprinted, "iine-for^line and 
page-for-page** of the original, with preface and notes by Theodore L. 
Devinne. New York, 1896. 2 Vols. 

^4. It is from the last-mentioned wotk that the following citations are 
made: 

"Books. Moxon, J. A Tutor to Astronomy and Geography, or the Use of 
both the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial; by Joseph Moxon, A Member 
of the Royal Society, and Hydrographer to the Kings most Excellent 
Majesty. Price $*» 

The Use of the Copemican Spheres, teaching to solve the Phaenomena 
by them, as easily as by the Ptolomaick Spheres; by Joseph Moxon, &c. 
Price 4s. 

The Use of Astronomical Playing Cards, teaching an ordinary capacity 
by them to be acquainted with all the Stars of Heaven ; to know their places. 
Colours, Natures and Bignesses. Also die Poetical Reasons for every Con- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

ttellation. Vtry uBcf ul, pleaiant and delightful for all loTcn of Ingeniety. 
By Joseph Moxon, &c. Price 6d. 

The Astronomical Cards. By Joseph Moxon, &c. Price plain u. Coloured 
IS. 6d. best coloured, and the Stars Gilt, 5s. 

Geographical Playing Cards, wherein is exactly described all the King- 
doms of the Earth, curiously engraved. Price Plain is. Coloured as. best 
Coloured and Gilt 5s. the Pack. 

The English Globe, invented by the Right Honourable, the Earl of 
Castl^maine (and of which this Book shews the use) containing about a 
Foot in Diameter, are made by Joseph Moxon. Price ordinary made up 
40s. and with the projection described in Section 6. of this Book. Price 50s. 

To the above is added the following interesting information: 

A Catalogue of GLOBES, Celestial and Terrestrial, Spheres, Maps, Sea- 
Plates, Mathematical Instruments, and Books, with their prizes, made and 
sold by Joseph Moxon, on Ludgate-Hill, at the Sign of Atlas. 

GLOBES 26 Inches Diameter. The price aol. the Pair. 

GLOBES near 15 Inches Diameter. The Price 4I. . 

GLOBES 8 Inches Diameter. The price 2I. 

GLOBES 6 Inches Diameter. The price il. los. 

CONCAVE HEMISPHERES of the Starry Orb, which serves for a Case 
to a Terrestrial Globe of 3 Inches Diameter, made portable for the pocket. 
Price i^s. 

SPHERES, according to the Copemican Hypothesis, both General and 
Particular, 20 Inches Diameter. Price of the General 5I. of the Particular 
61. of both together lol. 

SPHERES, according to the Ptolomaick System, 14 Inches Diameter. 
Price 3I. 

SPHERES, according to the Ptolomaick System, 8 Inches Diameter. 
Price il. lOs." 

55. The following woriu may be cited for further reference to these early 
Chinese globes of Peking: Wylie, A. Mongol astronomical instruments in 
Peking. (In : Chinese Researches, Shantung, 1897, Part III, pp. i«20.) ; Le 
Comte, L. D. Memories and Observations. London, 1699; Du Halde, J. B. 
Description geographique de Tempire de la China. Paris, 1735; Yule, H. 
Travels of Marco Polo. London, 1893. Vol. I, pp. 448-456, with four 
illustrations. 

56. Carton, Abb^ C. Biographique sur le Pire Ferdinand Verbiest. Bruges, 
1^9; Thompson, J. Illustrations of China and its people. London, 1874. 
Vol. iv. 



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Chapter XII 

Globes and Globe Makers of the First 

Half of the Eighteenth Century— 

from Delisle to Ferguson 

Activities of Guillaome Delisle. — Jean Dominique Cassini and his 
reforms. — ^Vincen2o Miot. — The globes of Grerhard and Leonhard 
Valkd — ^Activities of John Senex. — ^Nicolas Bion. — The armillary 
sphere of Carmelo Cartilia. — ^Mattheus Seutter of Augsburg. — 
Robert Morden. — Jean Antoine NoUet.— ^ohann Gabriel Dop- 
pelmayr of Numberg. — Terrestrial globe of Cusani. — Terrestrial 
globes of Siena. — The work of the monk Pietro Maria da 
Vinchio. — ^James Ferguson of Scotland. 

A MONG the numerous globe makers of the eighteenth 
/\ century, there are few, if any, entided to rank with 
A jJI^Blaeu or Hondius, with Greuter or Coronelli of the 
seventeenth. There was much written during the period, it is 
true, on the value of globes in geographical and astronomical 
studies, and there were many globes constructed, of which a 
very considerable number still have a place in our libraries, 
museums, and private collections. 

With the improvements in scientific map construction, 
improvements amounting to a complete reformation, and 
ushered in during the closing years of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and the opening years of the eighteenth, by such men 
as Ricciolif Picard, Cassini, and Delisle, not to mention a 
number of their distinguished immediate predecessors and 
contemporaries, the last above-named working throu^ the 

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patronage of the Royal Academy of Science of France/ — 
with these improvements there appears to have been a de- 
cline in the relative value which the late sixteenth and the 
seventeenth centuries set upon globes. Once regarded as an 
essential part of a seaman's instruments for use in naviga- 
tion, they gave place, just as the portolan chart of the earlier 
day gave place, to an improved sailor's chart. Globe makers, 
however, of this period, such as Delisle and Bion, as Ger- 
hard and Leonhard Valk, as Vaugondy and Fortin, as Fer- 
guson and Adams, have an honorable place in the history of 
globes and of globe construction. 

France was leading at the turn of the seventeenth century 
in the field of geographical and astronomical science, a fact 
in part due to the generous subsidy allowed by royalty. 
GuUlaume Delisle (1675-1726), perhaps the greatest 
among the reformers active in these years in improving the 
methods of map construction, was a native of Paris, in which 
city he passed practically his entire life.* The father, Claude 
Delisle, famous as a teacher of history and geography, 
inspired in his son a particular love for the latter subject, 
or perhaps this may the better be referred to as a love for 
historical geography. The period was one in which there was 
much emphasis placed upon the relationship existing be- 
tween the two branches of study, and it is interesting to 
note that this phase of geographical study is again coming 
into favor.* 

Doubtless it was in part the influence of Cassini's teach- 
ing which found expression in Delisle's lifelong efforts to 
eliminate the numerous errors which he had found existing 
in the maps of his day, efforts which even in his early life 
won for him distinction as a map maker. In the year 1700, 
when he was but twenty-five years of age, there appeared 
under his name a world map and likewise maps of the sev- 
eral continents.^ In these there was exhibited much original- 
ity, they being constructed in the main on the basis of astro- 
nomical observations which had been made at the Royal 

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Fig. 11 8a. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Ludovicus Andreae, 1717. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

Academy. Hitherto the Ptolemaic cartography had exerted 
an overpowering influence. Errors in the location of places 
still remained on the maps, attributable in large part to that 
ancient cosmographer, who continued for so long a period 
a most influential teacher of geography, and map making 
after the renaissance of his 'Cosmographia' in the early fif- 
teenth century. Among the greatest errors still to be found 
in the maps in Delisle's day was the excessive length given 
to the Mediterranean, this being about sixty-two degrees of 
longitude instead of its correct length, which is about forty- 
two, and the extension of Asia much too far to eastward, 
together with other errors following upon these.* Delisle, 
having the support of the Royal Academy, and of the King 
himself, was able to carry through the reforms in map con- 
struction, the fundamental principles of which, it is true, 
had been suggested before his day, based upon such astro- 
nomical observations as were those of Cassini, Picard, and 
La Hire, wherein there had been an attempt to determine 
the exact location in longitude of important places on the 
earth's surface and wherein they had been aided by the use 
of the telescope. Through the employment of this instru- 
ment they were able to fix the exact time of eclipses and 
determine the time of the transit of the moons of Jupiter.* 
In the 'Journal des Savants' of the year 1700 is given a 
letter addressed to the engraver and map maker, Nolin, and 
signed "Delisle." In this there is reference to a manuscript 
globe of the year 1696, the implication being that Guillaume 
was its author.^ The probability is that we have here a letter 
written by Qaude, the father, it being hardly probable that 
the son drafted a globe map at the age of twenty-one. We, 
however, know, as before stated, that he achieved great 
distinction through the maps he published in the year 1700, 
when he was but twenty-five, and we are also informed that 
even at the age of eight he attracted attention to himself 
through the maps he drew to illustrate ancient history. 
In the same year that he published his epoch-making maps 

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he issued the first edition of his globes, those having a diam* 
eter of about 31 cm. and those having a diameter of about 
15 cm. The ^obe balls were constructed of papier-mache 
covered with plaster over which were pasted the gore maps, 
each map composed of twelve parts with the usual polar 
discs. The engraver, we are told, in a brief legend on the 
terrestrial globe, was Carolus Simonneau, "Car. Simon, del. 
et sculpsit.*' On the larger of the terrestrial globes is the 
title legend "Globe terrestre dressc sur les observations de 
TAcademie Royale des sciences et autres memoires," and a 
dedication reading, "A Son Altesse Ro3rale Monseigneur Le 
Due de Chartres. Par son tres humble et tres obeissant servi- 
teur G. De Tlsle Geographe. Berey sculpsit." 

The celestial globe bears the tide, "Globe celeste calcule 
pour Tan 1700. Sur les observati(Mis les plus recents. Par. G. 
De risle Geographe,'* and is dedicated "A Son Altesse 
Royale Monseigneur le Due de Chartres. Par son tres hum- 
ble et tres obeissant Serviteur De Tlsle," with the following 
reference to the privilege "A Paris Chez TAuteur sur le 
Quai de THorologc k la Couronne de Diamans. Avec Privi- 
lege du Roy pour 20 ans. 1700." 

While it has not been possible to obtain a detailed de- 
scription of Delisle's globe maps, they are referred to as 
giving practically the same information as his plane maps, 
many of the latter to be foimd in our important library 
collections, and cannot be considered rare.* 

The several constellations which he has represented on 
his celestial globes are those of Ptolemy to which have 
been added two in the northern hemisphere and thirteen in 
the southern, and the year chosen for the representation of 
the position of the stars is 1700. In general the names chosen 
for the several constellations are French, though a few are 
in Latin. 

A pair of Delisle's globes may be found in the Konigliches 
Museum of Cassel, dated 1709; a pair dated 1700 in the 
Museo di Strumenti Antichi of Florence, and a terrestrial 

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Fig. 118. Terrestrial Globe of Guillaume Delislc, 1700. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

globe dated 1700 in the Real Biblioteca of Madrid (Fig. 
118). 

Weigel, Castlcmaine, Coronelli, and Treffler, as has been 
noted, represented a tendency in globe construction in their 
day which we have referred to as the ultrapractical. It was 
impossible that their ideas should find anything like a gen- 
eral acceptance and approval. A globe eleven or fifteen feet 
in diameter, in the better judgment of astronomers and 
geographers, could not be coimted as possessing superior 
scientific value, and globes of such dimensions seem only to 
have won the praise of the novelty-loving contemporaries, 
and the same general criticism may be passed upon the 
smaller globes of Castlemaine and Treffler. Perhaps, how- 
ever, one may well add that in all this a desire was express- 
ing itself for improvement in globe construction. 

In this connection attention may be called to a plan for 
reform in globe making proposed by Jean Dominique Cas- 
sini (1625-1712), one of the most famous astronomers of 
the period.* Cassini was a native of Perinaldo, Italy (Fig. 
119). Eariy in life he became interested in the study of 
astronomy, and at the ag^ of twenty-five received an ap- 
pointment as professor of this science at the University of 
Bologna. Recommended by Colbert as one worthy his royal 
master's patronage, Cassini in 1669 accepted the invitation 
of Louis XIV to fill the chair of astronomy in the College 
de France, a position once held by Pierre Gassendi.**^ In 
1671 he became the director of the Royal Observatory of 
Paris, a position held in succession by four generations of 
his family. To him we owe the determination of the rota- 
tion periods of Jupiter, Venus, and Mars, the discovery of 
four of Saturn's satellites and the determination of tiieir 
periods of revolution. He devoted much time and study to 
the problem of the obliquity of the ecliptic, to the preces- 
sion of the equinoxes,** and to the determination of the lati- 
tude and longitude of places.** This precession, he found, 
could not be represented on a celestial globe such as hitherto 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

had been constructed, and he set himself to the task of de- 
vising one on a new plan. The position of the constellations, 
as indicated on the ordinary celestial globe, he, as others, 
noted would soon be found to be inaccurate. What he pro- 
posed was a globe capable of such adjustment as to obviate 
this difficulty; in other words, he proposed the constructicm 
of a globe by means of which this perpetual change might 
be indicated, or one which would serve to indicate the posi- 
tion of the several constellati<xis at any time, past, present 
or future. 

It was to Nicolas Bion, map and globe maker of Paris 
that the astronomer Cassini entrusted the manufacture of 
such an instrument, and it is from him that we have a brief 
description of its peculiar features.^ He tells us that the 
sphere on which the several constellations were represented 
was enclosed within a number of armillae representing the 
celestial circles, that is, the colures, the ecliptic, the tropics, 
the equator, and the polar circles. This inner sphere was 
attached to a meridian circle at the poles of its equator, 
within which circle it turned as the ordinary sphere, and it 
was also attached to the same meridian at the poles of the 
ecliptic. Around this polar axis of the ecliptic the sphere, 
with the attached meridian, could be made to revolve, the 
pole of the equator in its revolution tracing a circle having a 
radius of twenty-three and a half degrees, a complete revo- 
lution being made to represent a period of twenty-five thou- 
sand two himdred years, or the time required for the com- 
plete precession of the equinox according to his reckoning. 
This pole in its circle of revolution could be immovably set 
at any desired point to represent any time past or future, 
and the sphere then revolved aroimd die pole of the equator. 
The several stars or constellations could thus be represented 
in their proper position for the time selected. Bion's refer- 
ence to this globe seems to assure us that he completed its 
c(xistruction, yet no trace of it has been left, imless we have 
such in a record to be found in the history of the Royal 

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Fig. 119. Portrait of Jean Dominique Cassini. 



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Fig. 123. Portrait of Nicolas Bion. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

Academy for the year 1727. In this we find that a globe 
constructed on the principle laid down by Cassini was pre- 
sented to the Academy, in the year designated, by Outhier, 
a priest of Besan9on/^ This globe, which has disappeared, 
had the double movements, one about the axis of the equa* 
tor and one about the axis of the ecliptic. It was a globe 
which would represent the daily and annual movements of 
the sun, the diflFerence between the true and the mean time, 
the movements of the moon and its phases, the eclipses, and 
the passing of the several fixed stars across the meridian. 

Vincenzo Miot, a little-known Italian globe maker of the 
early ei^teenth century, holds a place among the men who 
were interested in this field, throu^ cme extant example of 
his work, this being a small celestial, having a diameter of 
about 17 cm.^* Its author and date legend reads, ''Sphaera 
Mundi majoribus et minoribus circulis distincta praeci- 
puisque stellis in nostro Horizonte conspicuis omata ad 
annum 1710. Studio et opera D. Vincentio Miot." "World 
globe marked by large and small circles, and adorned with 
the principal stars visible in our horizon calculated for the 
year 17 10. By the learning and labor of D. Vincentio Miot." 
The sphere is covered with an engraved map showing the 
several constellations and the principal celestial circles. Its 
twelve segments are fashioned to terminate at the poles of 
the ecliptic, instead of at the poles of the equator, a practice 
not uncommon. The globe has a simple mounting of wood, 
is reported to be in good condition, and may be found in the 
Liceo Marco Foscarini of Venice, to which library it came, 
in the year 1807, from the Convent of S. Georgio Maggiore. 

It is not a littie surprising that our information is so 
meager concerning men as active in the field of map and 
globe making as were Gerhard and Leonhard Valk in the 
latter part of the seventeenth and early eighteenth century. 
We cannot be certain of their relationship; apparently they 
were not brothers, as has been sometimes stated. If there is 
not left to us a biographical word by any admiring or ap* 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

prcciativc contemporary of these praiseworthy Netherland- 
ers, there is extant a very considerable amount of their work 
which warrants our giving them rank well toward the van 
of those interested in their particular field. Of the two, 
Gerhard seems to have been the more prominent, his name 
very frequently appearing as the engraver or maker of many 
of the maps one finds in the collective atlases of the early 
eighteenth century/* With Leonhard he was the maker of 
globes, large and small, ranging from about 7 cm. to 46 cm. 
in diameter, of which a very considerable number may still 
be found in our libraries and museums. 

In an undated work published by Gerhard on the uses of 
celestial and terrestrial globes,^^ he tells us of the improve* 
ments he introduced, noting that he had attempted to give 
the location of the stars on his celestial globe as late as 1700, 
while on those issued prior to his own, the dates selected 
were in general 1640 or 1660. The suggestion contained 
herein is that he at least began the construction of his globes 
as early as 1700, although none are now known bearing date 
so early." There appears to be an example of his work in 
the University Library of Ghent, dated 1707, but a descrip- 
tion of this it has not been possible to obtain. The date most 
commonly foimd on the Valk globes is 1750, all of which, 
if correctly dated, were issued long after their death. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses three pairs of 
the Valk globes, each apparently dated 1750, though in some 
instances, as noted below, these dates have been altered by 
skilfully cutting out the last two figures of the original and 
inserting the number 50. The diameter of each of the 
largest pair is 46 cm. (Fig. 120). Each is supplied with a 
graduated meridian circle of brass, the celestial being fur- 
nished with a brass hour circle and pointer, and the terres- 
trial with a brass quadrant of altitude. Each is further fur- 
nished with a broad horizon circle of wood on which has 
been pasted an engraved paper giving the names of the signs 
of the zodiac, the various chronological signs, such as golden 

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Fig. 120. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 (*?). 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

numbers, epacta, and dominical letters, the names of the 
months, and points of the compass, including both the old 
and the new nomenclature for the directions of winds, as 
"Borro Lybicus" or "Noord-West," "Zephynis" or "West." 
The under supports of the globes consist in each instance of 
four turned columns attached at their lower extremities by 
crossbars cm which rests a circular turned plate 42 cm. in 
diameter. From the center of these plates rises a post 10 cm. 
in length through a notch in which the brass meridian circle 
is made to pass in moving the globes to an adjustment for 
^ any desired altitude. The gpres of each are twelve in num- 
ber, those of the terrestrial globe having an equatorial 
mounting while those of the celestial globe have an ecliptic 
mounting, that is, the meridian lines pass from pole to pole 
of the ecliptic instead of from pole to pole of the equator. 
In each, the gores have been truncated twenty degrees from 
the poles, the polar space being covered by circular discs. 
The engraving of both the terrestrial and the celestial map is 
exquisitely done, and much of the color originally applied 
by hand yet remains. The several figures representing the 
constellations are copies of the figures as represented by 
Hevelius in his Trodromus Astronomiae,' and reference to 
this great astronomer is made in the title legend quoted be- 
low. These figures are among the most artistic representa- 
tions to be found on any of the globes of the period, which 
the author is preparing to reissue in facsimile as a by-product 
of these globe studies. (Fig. 120*.) 

Between the constellations "Cetus" and "Phoenix** on the 
celestial globe is a cartouch which appears to have been 
pasted over an older title, reading, "Uranographia Syderum 
et Stelarum in Singulis Syderibus ccmspicuarum, exhibens 
Delineatonem accuratissimam qua ex observationibus Astro- 
nomi plane Singularis Johannis Hevelii usque ad finem anni 
MDCC emendata est. Nova praeterea mediodo additus est 
ex mente Lotharii Zumbach M. D. et Mathem. Cearis Hori- 
zon ad Meridianum Amstelaedamensem accurate per annos 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

plures quam ducentos Lunae Syzygias indicans praeter annos 
communes et bissextiles. Opera et Studio Gerhardi et Leon- 
hardi Valk Amstelaedamensium 17 [50] /* "Uranography of 
the constellaticms and of the single stars, exhibiting an accu* 
rate delineation (of the same) corrected from the observa- 
tions of the renowned astronomer Johannes Hevelius, and 
conformed to the year 1700. Besides a new method is added, 
the invention of Lothar Zumbach, M. D., and a renowned 
mathematician, accurately exhibiting the horizon on the 
meridian of Amsterdam for more than 200 years, also the 
changes of the moon in addition to the common years and 
leap years. By the learning and the labor of Gerhard and 
Leonhard Valk, citizens of Amsterdam, 1750." 

Near the constellation Argo appears the dedication to the 
Burgomaster of Amsterdam and President of the East India 
Company, Johannes Trip J. U. D. (1664-1732). In this 
there is, of course, conclusive evidence that the globe must 
have been made before the year 1732. The dedication reads, 
'"Viro amplissima dignitate ac meritorum Splendore, con- 
spicuo Johanni Trip J. U. D. Reipublicac Amstelacdamen- 
sis Consuli Gravissimo, Societatis Indiae Orientalis Modera* 
tori integerrimo Toparchae in Berkenroden iustissimo & banc 
Universi Orbis Terrarum Faciem ea qua par est revercntia 
D. D. D. Gerhardus et Leonhardus Valk.*' "To John Tripp 
J. U. D., Consul of the Amsterdam Republic, President of 
the East India Company, the upright and honorable magis- 
trate of Berkenrode, a man conspicuous by reason of his 
great worth and the splendor of his achievements, this globe 
is dedicated with reverence which is befitting by Gerhard 
and Leonhard Valk.'* 

Near the first legend has been pasted the following brief 
printed statement, "Propter motum, Stellarum fixarum ver- 
sus ortum post annum 1750 additione ^ gr. Correctio Lon- 
gitudinum ut instituatur monendus Uranophilus." "Because 
of the movement of the fixed stars toward the east since the 
year 1750, the student of astronomy is advised to correct the 

[ 1461 



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Fig. I20a. Southern Hemisphere of Celestial Globe by Gerhard 
and Leonhard Valk, with Author and Date Legend, 1750 (*?). 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

longitude by the addition of ^ of a degree/' The terrestrial 
globe map, composed of eighteen gores, is filled with inter- 
esting geographical details, with geographical names and 
brief explanatory legends, being a fine example of the supe- 
rior cartographical work published in that century in the 
Netherlands. There is something of an exaggeration in the 
representation by waving line of the several coasts and 
river courses, all of which appears to have been done for 
artistic effect rather than for a desire to be stricdy accurate. 
In the New World we find such regional names as "Penn- 
sylvania,-* the first part of the name being north of Lake 
Ontario, also "Carolina," "Virginia,*' "Belgia Nova,*' "An- 
glia," "Scotia Nova." Many provincial names are given in 
South America with boundary lines drawn. California is 
represented as an island, stretching northward to "Fretum 
Aniani." To the west of this stretches as far as the north- 
east coast of Asia, through about seventy-five degrees of 
longitude with definitely drawn southern coast line but 
extending indefinitely northward, a continental region bear- 
ing the legend "Terra incognita sive terra Esonis." Loxo- 
dromic lines are represented as on the best globes of the 
period radiating from numerous compass roses located along 
the meridians o degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees. Fro- 
bisher's Strait is strangely duplicated at the southern extrem- 
ity of Greenland. The title legend of this terrestrial globe, 
placed in the southern Pacific, reads, "Universi Orbis Ter^ 
rarum Facies cum industria ac fide Secundum certissimas et 
novissimas Praestantissimiorum Geographorum Observa- 
tiones denuo luci exposita; cuique praeterea longitudinis et 
latitudinis gradus Secundum Uranographiam novam, ac 
proinde &c rei veritate sunt inscripti per Gerhardum et Leon- 
hardum Valk, Amstelaedamenses 1750, cum privilegio." "A 
representation of the land of the whole earth exhibited with 
industry and accuracy according to the most reliable and 
the most recent observations of the most renowned geogra- 
phers, on which, in addition the degrees of latitude and lon- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

gitude according to a new method and also in acc6rd with 
truth, have been inserted by Gerhard and Leonhard Valk. 
Amsterdam. 1750. With privilege/* 

In the second pair of Valk globes belonging to The His- 
panic Society of America (Fig. 121), both terrestrial and 
celestial have diameters of about 30 cm. The mounting of 
these globes is practically the same as that in the larger pair. 
An author and date legend appearing in the Pacific to the 
west of South America reads: "Gwmotheore. Coelesri nostro 
Globo, Par et plane Novus. Hie Terrestris Ut existeret: 
certo facias: Errore Veterum Sublato, Non tantum Utrisque 
Orbis Lcmgitudines ac Latitudines, per reiteratas Neoteri- 
corum Observaticmes. Hicce esse resritutas; Sed et nullum 
typis Emendatiorum pro diisse. Hoc igitur Novissimo tarn 
diu f mere, Donee, sub M ajori forma, Me5 aere Alios excude* 
mus. Ger. et Leon. Valk Calcographi Amstelaedami. Revis. 
A® 1750 Cum Privilegio.** "Cosmotherium. That this terres- 
trial globe might equal (be a companion to) our celestial 
globe and entirely new, be assured that after correcting the 
errors of those who have preceded us, not only the longitudes 
and latitudes of each sphere have been corrected by the re- 
peated observations of later astronomers, but likewise no 
(globe) has appeared more carefully corrected in the print- 
ing. This most recent globe therefore make use of unril in a 
larger form at my own expense we Gerhard and Leonhard 
Valk, engravers shall construct others. Amsterdam. Revised 
to the year 1750. With privilege." 

A dedication, such as appears on the first pair referred to, 
is wanting. There is no particular improvement to be noted 
in this revision. California is still laid down as an island. 
The uncertainty as to the outline of "Holandia Nova" is a 
striking feature, as is the omission of an austral continent. 
Geographical details are less numerous than in the larger 
pair, but in the matter of the engraving of the map it 
exhibits practically the same characteristics. 

The celestial globe map has the author and date legend 

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Fig. 121. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard and 
Leonhard Valk, 1750 (^). 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

placed near the constellation "Cetus." It reads, "Urano- 
graphia Coelum omne hie Complectens, ilia pro ut aucta, et 
ad annum 1750 Completum MAGNO ab HEVELIO cor- 
rccta est; ita ejus ex Prototypis, sua noviter haec Ectypa 
veris Astronomiae cultoribus exhibet ct consecrant GER. ct 
LEON. VALK, Amstelaedamcnses. Cum Privilegio." "Star- 
Map comprising the entire heavens according as it has been 
corrected to the end of the year 1750 by the Great Hevelius; 
so from his prototype Gerhard and Leonhard Valk present 
and dedicate these their own recent copies to the true lovers 
of astronomy. With privilege." 

Near this legend, now appearing as a part of the original 
engraving, is that which, in the larger globe referred to 
above, had been pasted on as a separate slip, reading "Prop- 
ter motum . . . Uranophilus." Near the constellation "Hy- 
dra" is the legend reading "Monitum Novis hisce Sphaeris 
Novissimus. Ex praescripto Lotharii Ziim-Bach Med. Doct. 
imus, et alter additus Horizon : Quorum Is, qui huic Caelesti 
siiigularis, Praeter Communes atque Bissextilem, Ut exac- 
tior, Luminarium indigetur Locus ad Meridianum Amstelo- 
damens. Plus quam per Ducentos Annos, Suis Mensium 
Diebus Appositas Lunae Syzygias, Medio Tempore Medias, 
Ingeniosa Methodo et emit, et exhibet." "Notice. To these 
our spheres, in accord with the directions of Lothar Zum- 
Bach, Doctor of Medicine, there has been added one very 
recent, and also a second horizcxi ; of these two the one which 
belongs to the celestial globe has in addition the common 
and bissextile years, in order that the location of the stars 
may the more exactly be discovered; it both works out and 
exhibits by an ingenious method, according to the meridian 
of Amsterdam, over a space of more than two hundred 
years the syzygies of the moon placed opposite their proper 
days of the month, the middle ones being in the middle 



time." 



Each of these globes is well preserved, the colors origi- 
nally applied remaining particularly bright in the southern 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

hemispheres, these being better protected from light and 
from injuries incident to the more exposed upper surfaces. 

In the third pair of Valk globes belonging to The His- 
panic Society (Fig. 121*) the diameter of each is about 23 
cm. In geographical details, in legends, etc., each of these 
agrees with the preceding second pair. It is, however, to be 
noted that the date on the terrestrial globe has the figure 50 
appearing in the date 1750 skilfully inserted after the re- 
moval of the original, and that the loxodromic lines are on 
this more numerous; indeed, it is one of the most interesting 
globes examined for the representation of these lines, which 
become curiously, but necessarily, somewhat intricate in 
their crossings as they approach the poles. Of the three pairs 
of these globes referred to above, this third pair seems to be 
the best preserved; the only injury to be especially noted is 
that appearing on the celestial, this being a crack in the sur- 
face extending from pole to pole. The original colors in 
each are particularly well preserved. 

In addition to the examples of Valk globes referred to 
above as belonging to the University of Ghent and to The 
Hispanic Society of America, a pair may be found in the 
Konigliches Museum of Cassel, said by G^erland to be dated 
1715, and to have each a diameter of 45 cm., also a terres- 
trial globe in the same museum said to be dated, though 
doubtless erroneously, 1700, and to have a diameter of 23 
cm., also a celestial globe of the same date having a diam- 
eter of 30 cm. In the Mathematische Salon of Dresden is a 
celestial globe having a diameter of 30 cm., and a pair in 
the Museo di Fisica of Bolpgna, the diameter of each being 
about 46 cm. The date has not been ascertained. In the Ger- 
manisches Nationalmuseum of Numberg may be found a 
well-preserved pair of the Valk globes said to be dated 1700 
and to have each a diameter of 31 cm. 

John Senex, a noted English cartographer and engraver 
(d. 1749),** appears to have given some attenticm to the 
construction of globes, which were sold at his establishment 

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Fig. 12 la. Celestial Globe of Gerhard and Leonhard Valk, 1750 (^). 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

in Salisbury Court, London. In the year 1714 we find his 
name associated with that of John Maxwell in the issue of 
'The English Atlas/ and in 1721 he appears as the editor of 
*A New General Atlas.' It was in the year 1720 that he made 
a representation to the House of Commons on the subject of 
"A New Globular Projection/* with the thought of eliciting 
encouragement for the employment of better methods in 
map ccxistruction. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1728, and in 1738 read before that society a noted paper 
on his "'Contrivance to make the Poles of the Diurnal Mo- 
tion in a Celestial Globe pass round the Poles of the Eclip- 
tic." This globe was to be "so adjusted as to exhibit not only 
the risings and the settings of the stars in all ages and in all 
latitudes, but the other phenomena likewise, that depend 
upon the motion of the diurnal axis rotmd the annual axis." 
From what is stated in this paper one is led to associate his 
idea with that of Cassini, to which attention was directed 
above. If, however, such a globe was constructed as that re- 
ferred to in this scientific address it is not now known. Five 
of his globes have been located, two of them \mdated, and 
three of them dated 1793, which, if the correct date of issue, 
it will be noted, is more than fifty years after his death. A 
pair of his globes may be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale 
of Paris undated. These are reported as having a diameter 
of about 40 cm. They are furnished with brass meridian 
circles, with horizon circles of wood, and each with a wooden 
base. The dedication reads: "Philosopho ac Grcometrae 
summo D® Isaaco Newton, equiti, Regalis Societatis Lon- 
dini, ad scientias promovendas institutae^ Praesidi dignis- 
simo, ejusdemque consilio et sodalibus hos Globos qua par 
est humilitate D.D. C. Johannes Senex. London." "To the 
great philosopher and geometrician Sir Isaac Newton, 
Knight, most worthy President of the Royal Society of 
London, for the promotion of knowledge, and to the Com- 
mittee and Members of the same Society these globes with 
befitting humility are dedicated by C. John Senex. London." 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Further descriptive details of these globes it has not been 
possible to obtain. 

The Biblioteca Real of Madrid possesses a terrestrial 
globe by Senex (Fig. 122), whidi bears the title legend, "A 
new and most correct Globe of the Earth laid down from 
the latest observations from the most judicious astronomers, 
navigators, & travelers, by John Senex, F. R. S. Now made 
and sold by Dudley Adams (only)*^ with all the latest dis- 
coveries together with many new improvements etc. 1793." 
This globe has a diameter of about 40 cm., is furnished 
with a broad band which serves as a horizon circle, a merid- 
ian circle of brass within which it is made to revolve, and a 
tripod base. Its three fluted support columns are strength- 
ened in their position by three curved iron braces which 
carry at their juncture a short carved post, throu^ a slot 
in which the brass meridian is movable. While the surface 
of the sphere is somewhat injured, being crossed by numer- 
ous cracks, the engraved map is fairly legible in all of its 
parts. 

The British Museum likewise possesses one of Senex's 
terrestrial globes, which seems to be practically like that to 
be f otmd in the Madrid Library. 

It will have been noted that many of those reputed to 
have been globe makers in these early years did not actually 
apply themselves to the constructive mechanical work, this 
being passed over to skilled artisans, to workers in metal 
and wood, to engravers and to mathematical instrument 
makers, who, if possessing generally recognized ability, often 
insisted on having their names associated in the author 
legends with the real authors of the globes. Nicolas Bion 
(1652-1733) may be cited as an excellent example of such 
a skilful workman, achieving in his day great distinction as 
a globe maker.** He seems not to have thought of himself 
as one meriting special honors as geographer, cartographer 
or astronomer (Fig. 123). By reason of his marked abilities, 
exhibited in the manufacture of mathematical instruments, 

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Fig. 122. Terrestrial Globe of John Senex, 1793. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

he was honored by his royal patron with the title Engineer 
of the King for Mathematical Instruments. Through his 
principal work,** a treatise on the construction and uses of 
globes in which the subject is treated in both a theoretical 
and a practical manner, he is entitled to rank with the lead- 
ers of the century in this particular field of scientific en- 
deavor. True to the spirit of the age Bion gave much thought 
to the idea of reforai in the matter of globe construction, 
especially in the matter of fashioning globe gores and their 
attachment to the surface of the sphere. He seems to have 
prospered in his business, and we are told by his son that 
he constructed numerous armillary spheres, likewise many 
terrestrial and celestial globes of various sizes. Reference 
is made above to a task assigned to him by the great 
astronomer, Cassini.'* 

A few of the globes of this distinguished man have been 
located. Fiorini reports" that one of his celestial globes may 
be found in the private library of Count Malvezzi de' 
Medici of Bologna, having a diameter of about 32 cm. Its 
twelve gores have been cut at latitude 70 degrees both 
north and south, the polar spaces being covered by four 
sectors instead of by the usual circular disc. The globe is 
made to revolve on its equatorial axis, not on the axis of 
the ecliptic. It has a simple mounting, including a meridian 
circle of brass and a horizon circle of wood. Star names are 
given in French and in Latin. The dedication reads, "Dedie 
et presente k Monseigneur le Dauphin par son tres humble 
et tres obeissant Bion," but there appears to be some uncer- 
tainty about the date, which is probably between 1700 and 
1710. There is one of Bion's terrestrial globes dated 1712 
and dedicated to "Monseigneur le Due de Berry," in the 
Istituto tecnico of Florence, which is reported to be in a 
good state of preservation. Loxodromic lines are drawn on 
the map in accord with the best practices of the time, which 
radiate from wind or compass roses, one being placed on the 
equator and one at latitude 35 degrees south. A third ter- 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

restrial globe made by Bion may be found in the Osscrva- 
torio AstTonomico of Rome, which is wanting both dedica- 
tion and place of publication. 

The Osservatorio Astronomico also possesses a fine annil- 
lary sphere, the work of Carmelo Cartilia,** the diameter of 
whose largest or meridian circle is about 26 cm. It is de- 
scribed by a former director of the observatory as being made 
of brass, and a companion of a globe constructed by Bion, 
having a similar mounting. The equatorial circle, the tropics, 
and the colures have the usual graduation. The ecliptic con- 
sists of a band 4 cm. in width, having engraved on its sur- 
face the signs of the zodiac and the days of the months. At 
the north pole is attached an hour circle with index. At the 
common center of the circles is a small ball 27 mm. in diam- 
eter representing the earth, through which the axis of the 
ecliptic passes. Arotmd this small ball is adjusted a circle 
on which is engraved the word "Luna." There is an addi- 
tional small circle which represents the course of the sun, 
and attached to this is a silvered ball to represent that 
luminary. Circles are provided representing the planets, on 
which we find such names as "Marti," "Giove," "Satumo," 
and circles arotmd the sun representing the course of the 
planets Mercury and Venus. On one of the supporting arms 
of the sphere is the author and date legend, reading, "Car- 
melus Cartilia et Francalancia Siculus fecit Taurini anno 
dfii 1720." 

Mattheus Seutter (1678-1756) was a map and globe 
maker of this period, whose activities centered in the city of 
Augsburg.** His early training as engraver was received in 
the establishment of Johann Baptista Homann in the city 
of Nuinberg, but in the year 1707 he established himself 
in his native city, Augsburg, setting up an independent busi- 
ness for the production of maps, globes, and mathematical 
instruments. Seutter holds his place in the history of car- 
tography not so much by reason of the hi^ quality of the 
work done as by reason of the quantity.*^ The number of 

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Fig. 124. Terrestrial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

maps, large and small, battle plans and city plans, charts 
g^eological, chronological, and heraldic, which he published 
may be counted by the hundreds, the majority being modi« 
fied copies of maps and charts which others had previously 
issued. As a reward for the dedication of his large atlas to 
the Emperor Charles VI, issued in the year 1725, he was 
named ''Imperial Geographer," a title which had been held 
by Homann \mtil his death in the year 1727. 

Following the practice of the more prominent map makers 
of the period, Seutter tumed his attention to globe construc- 
rion, and not a few examples of his work can srill be found. 
Some of his globes were of large size, having a diameter of 
about 160 cm. The terrestrial as well as the celestial globe 
balls he covered with twelve engraved sections, or twice 
twelve, these being cut at the line of the equator, and at lati- 
tude sixty-seven both north and south, the polar space being 
covered, as was usual, with a circular cap or disc. The mount- 
ings of these globes consist of a wooden meridian circle and 
a graduated wooden horizon circle, having each on the upper 
surface the usual concentric rings with the names of the 
months, the names and signs of the zodiacal ccmstellations, 
and the names of the principal winds, the whole being sup- 
ported by two semicircles attached below to a single colum- 
nar base 28 cm. in length. A brief author legend reads, 
"Globus terrestris juxta recenrissimas observation: et navi- 
gation: peritissimor: Geograph: delineat. cura et sumptibus 
Matth. Seutteri Calcogr: August.'* "Terrestrial globe ac- 
cording to the most recent observations and voyages of the 
most skilled geographers. Made by the labor and at the 
expense of Mattheus Seutter renowned engraver." 

The maps on these globes present no features of special 
scientific value, the author following in the main the best 
contemporary geographical and astronomical records. It 
should, however, be noted that he introduced an improve- 
ment in the construction and printing of the circular polar 
discs. To the end of remedying the difficulty in attaching 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

this part of the corcring, having obscnrcd, as others, diat 
die paper would expand widi the opfiicauaa of paste, and 
ooold therefore not be adjusted widi the s tricte st aocniacjr 
and nicety, he conceived the idea of catting from diis disc 
a very small section or small sections, so that idicn it was 
2q)plicd to the sphere after being moistened with the paste 
die amount of stretdiing was suflBdent to cover the space. 
In other words, he made his circular disc one of 350 d^ices 
instead of one having the fuU 360 d^iccs. In this connec- 
tion, it mig^t be noted that the quality of the paper was an 
element always to be taken into account in calculating the 
amount of expansion after moistening. 

A pair of Seutter^s globes may be found in die Biblioceca 
Comunale of Macerata. A copy of the terrestrial is reported 
in 1892 to have been in the private library of Professor 
Maximilian Tono of Venice, a pair in the M useo Astio- 
nomico of Rome (Figs. 124, 125) and also in this museum 
may be found a complete set of the gores for one of his 
terrestrial as well as a set for one of his celestial ^obcs, but 
which by Professor Jacoli of Venice have been thought to 
be reprints and not originals. A copy of the celestial ^obe 
may be found in die Biblioteca Universitario of Urbino. 

Robert Morden,^ active in London in the closing years of 
the seventeenth and early years of the eighteenth century 
as map and globe maker, seems, however, not to have won 
for himself a place of particular prominence, his maps not 
being held in especially hig^ repute. He was for some time 
associated with Thomas Cockrill at ''The Sign of the Adas" 
in Comhill. Morden, however, published a small work on 
geography and navigation in the year 1702, in which he 
attempted to set forth the value attaching to globes for 
those interested in the general subject of which he treated 
in his work.'* While his map publications are numerous, it 
has been possible to locate only the gores of one of his 
globes, which gores may be found in the British Museum. Of 
the twelve sections which made up a complete set for 

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Fig. 125. Celestial Globe of Mattheus Seutter, 1710. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

covering a sphere about 35 cm. in diameter, but nine remain, 
three having disappeared. 

Jean Autoine Nollet, a French physicist (1700-1770), 
was a man of science held in hi^ esteem in his day.*^ In his 
early years he entered the College of Clermont, later studied 
philosophy at the University of Paris, where, against the 
wishes of his parents, he finally turned his attention to the 
study of the natural sciences, particularly to experimental 
physics. Early in his career he was honored with member- 
ship in the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris and in other 
similar organizations in Europe. In the year 1739 he was 
called to the Court of Sardinia, where he gave lessons in 
physics to the Duke of Savoy. Later he was called to the 
University of Turin, and was here especially hmored by 
having his name associated with those who were the found- 
ers of the institution. In the year 1753 he was called to the 
chair of physics at the College of Navarre, which position 
he so acceptably filled that he received the title Master of 
Physics and of Natural History for the Royal Children of 
France. His published works, which are very numerous, 
treat of his studies in the physical sciences, particularly in 
the field of electricity. 

NoUet's instruments, made for use in the study of the 
physical sciences, included terrestrial and celestial globes, 
six of which have been located, dated 1728 and 1730. The 
spheres are of papier-mache, having each a diameter of about 
35 cm.** The engraved maps covering the spheres arc comr 
posed of twelve gores, which are cut at the line of the equa- 
tor but extend to the poles, omitting therefore the usual 
polar circular discs. Eadi is furnished with a horizon circle 
of wood, on the surface of which is the usual paper covering 
with the names of the principal directions, of the zodiacal 
constellations, and of the names of the months in concentric 
circles. Each also has a graduated meridian circle, the whole 
resting on a base of four turned and rather artistically 
fashioned columns. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

His terrestrial globes have the following title: "Globe 
terrestre dresse sur les obsenrations les plus nouvellcs et le 
plus exactes approuvces par M" de TAcademie Royalc des 
sciences. A Paris avcc privilege du Roi. Monte par Tauteur." 
"Terrestrial globe made according to the most recent and the 
most exact and approved observations by the Royal Acad- 
emy of Sciences. Paris, with the approval of the King. Made 
by the author." The dedication reads "Dcdie et prcsentc a 
S. A. Madame La Duchesse du Maine par son tres^humble et 
tris-obeissant serviteur NoUet Lie. en Thfologie. 1728." 
"Dedicated and presented to Her Highness the Duchess of 
Maine by her very humble and very obedient servant NoUet 
Licentiate in Theology. 1728." Numerous inscriptions relate 
to well-known geographical discoveries. Meridian and paral- 
lel circles are drawn on the globe at intervals of five degrees, 
the principal ones, including the equator, the tropics, and 
polar circles, being made especially prominent. The prime 
meridian, passing through the Island of Ferro» is designated 
"premier meridien de ITsle Fer. Declaration du Roi Louis 
XIII du Juil. 1634.'' 

The celestial globe is titled "Globe celeste calculc pour 
Tannee 1730 sur les observations les plus nouvelles et les 
plus exactes. A Paris avec privilege du Roi. Bailleul le jeune 
sculpsit. Mont^ par Tautcur." "Celestial globe calculated to 
the year 1730 according to the most recent and the most 
exact observarions. Paris, with the privilege of the King. 
Bailleul the younger engraver. Constructed by the author." 
It is dedicated "Dedie et presente k S. A. S. Monseigneur le 
Comte de Clermont par son tres-humble et tres-ob^issant 
serviteur NoUet de la Soci^te des Arts. 1730." "Dedicated 
and presented to His Most Serene Highness Seigneur The 
Count of Clermont by his very humble and very obedient 
servant NoUet of the Society of Arts. 1730." The equatorial 
circle and the ecliptic, as represented on the map, are grad- 
uated, but the tropics and the polar circles are merely drawn 
as continuous black lines. The figures representing the sev- 

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Fig. 125a. Terrestrial Globe of Van Lauen Zonen, 1745. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

cral Ptolemaic constellations are artistically drawn and re- 
tain much of their original color, which was added by hand 
at the time of construction. 

Of NoUet's globes a pair may be found in the Biblioteca 
Maldotti of Gxiastalla, a pair in the Seminario Vescovile of 
Mondovi, a copy of the terrestrial in the Archivo Fenaroli 
of Brescia, and a copy of the celestial in the M useo Astro- 
nomico of Rome. 

Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1671-1750) was one of 
Numberg's famous eighteenth-century mathematicians who 
was especially distinguished as writer, translator, editor, and 
teacher.'* A part of his early training he received at the Ege- 
dian Gymnasium of his native town, where from 1704 to 
the time of his death he was actively engaged as teacher of 
mathematics and physics. In the year 1696 we find him 
registered as a student of law at the University of Altdorf , 
though turning betimes with much enthusiasm to the study 
of mathematics imder the directicMi of Joh. Christoph Sturm. 
In the year 1700, after some months passed at the Univer- 
sity of Halle, he determined to add to his equipment for his 
life work such experience as could be gained through travel ; 
accordingly he visited in turn the more important cities of 
his own country and those of Holland and England, spend- 
ing in his travels a period of ten years. Among his more im- 
portant publications may be mentioned a translation of the 
^Astronomy' of Thomas Street,** a work by Bion in a Ger- 
man translation from the French, which at the same time 
he enlarged.** His 'Einleitung zur Geographic,' appear- 
ing as an introduction to Homann's 'Adas' issued in the 
year 1714, and his *Atlas Coelestis,' issued in the year 1742, 
are among his more important works original in character, 
which he published on the subject of geography and astron- 
omy. His principal work is his 'Notes' on the mathematicians 
and artists of Numberg." 

It was doubtless through his connection with the carto- 
graphical establishment of Homann that he felt induced to 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

undertake the construction of his globes, examples of which 
exist dated 1728. In the collection belonging to The His- 
panic Society of America (Fig. 126) there may be found a 
fine example of his terrestrial globes, which has a diameter 
of about 32 cm* Over a carefully prepared h(dlow wooden 
ball twelve gores, cut at the line of the equator and five 
degrees from each pole, have been pasted. The anall polar 
spaces lying between latitudes 85 degrees, both north and 
south, are covered by circular discs, having a diameter of 
but ten degrees, on the one is engraved 'Tolus Arcticus" and 
on the other "Polus Antarcticus/' The globe is furnished 
with a narrow graduated meridian of brass within which 
the s{^ere turns on its polar axis, a horizcm circle of wood, 
circular on its inner edge but octagonal on the outer. The 
engraved paper strip containing the zodiacal figures, calen- 
dar, and directions, has practically disappeared. The base 
support consists of four small turned columns of wood, at- 
tached at their lower extremities by crossbars over which is 
a circular plate, provision having been made for insertion 
into its surface of a compass, which instrument, however, 
has disappeared. Excepting slight damage to its horizon 
circle the globe may be said to be in an excellent state of 
preservati(Hi. In a neat cartouch in the North Pacific is the 
title legend reading, "'Globus terrestris in quo locorum insig- 
nionmi situs terraeque facies secundum praecipuas celeberri- 
morum nostri aevi AstrcHiomorum et Geographorum observa- 
tiones opera Joh. (Jabr. Doppelmaicri M athem. Prof. Publ. 
Norib. exhibentur, conciimatus a Joh. Georg. Puschnero 
Chalcographo Norib. A. C. 1728.'" 'Terrestrial globe on 
which the position of the principal places on the surface of 
the earth are shown according to the principal observations 
of the most celebrated astronomers and geographers of our 
times by the labor of John Gabriel Doppelmayr, mathema- 
tician, professor and publisher of Numberg. Engraved by 
John George Puschner, engraver of Numberg** in the year 
1728." An interesting legend in the South Pacific tells us 

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Fig. 126. Terrestrial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, 1728. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

"Exprimit Globus hie noster quicquid Geographia recens ex 
Observationibtis fide dignis suppeditat tarn in situ locorum 
plurium, quam in terrarum novanim etiam mariumque am- 
bitu. Meridianus primus per Insulam Fer inter Canarias 
(quae olim Fortunatae dicebantur) occidentalissimam duc- 
tus a quo Parisiensis Meridianus Probatissimarum Observa- 
tionum testimonio 20 Gradibus, Noribergensis vero 28 Gr. 
40 Min: distat." "This globe of ours shows that which the 
latest geographical information furnishes from the trust- 
worthy observations both as regards the location of new 
places and the extent of the new lands and seas. The first 
meridian passes through the Island of Ferro in the Canary 
Islands (called the Fortunate Islands), which is the most 
western point and from which the meridian of Paris, ac- 
cording to the testim<»iy of the most approved observations 
differs by 22 degrees, while that of Numberg differs by 28 
degrees and 40 minutes/' Arotmd this legend are the en- 
graved portraits of famous explorers, "Mart. Bohemus 
Norimbegus," "Americus Vesputi," "Franc. Draco,'* 
"Schouten,'' "Georg Spilbergius," "R. P. Tachard," "Wilh. 
Dampier,'' "Mon. de la Salle," "Thomas Candisch," "Oli- 
virius a Nord," "Ferdin. Magellanicus,'' "Qirist. Colum- 
bus." 

While the representation of the world is not so detailed in 
certain respects as we find, for example, on the Valk globes, 
there nevertheless is the evidence that the author wished to 
include such information as in his judgment should be re- 
corded. There are records of interest in the newly explored 
regions of America* California is laid down as a peninsula. 
In about latitude 41 degrees there appears a Drake record 
reading "Pt. F. Drack." "Fretum Anian" is represented at 
latitude 45 degrees. Sixty degrees to the west of this is the 
somewhat mdefinitely indicated coast line of *Terra Borea- 
lis incc^ita detecta Dom. loh. de Gama," this being sepa- 
rated from the coast of "Kamtzadalia Terra Jedso" by "Fre- 
tum Vries." The recently explored regions in the Far East, 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

as in Australia, New 2^aland, Van Diemen's Land, — each, 
however, being represented as imperfectly known, — ^are 
made very prominent. There are scarcely any map records 
of the period more interesting than are those to be found 
on this globe of Doppelmayr's. The routes of Magellan, 
1519; Nord, 1600; Roggeveen, 1722; Dampier, 1700; 
Tasman, 1624; Loys, 1708; Lemaire, 1616, are all laid 
down. In latitude 60 degrees south and longitude 300 de- 
grees we find, "Port detecta per Fr. Drack," and again in 
latitude 67 degrees south and longitude 310, "I. deton de- 
tecta per F. Drack." 

To accompany his terrestrial globe, Doppelmayr issued 
a celestial globe bearing the same date. A title legend on the 
latter reads, "Globus coelestis novus Stellanim fixanmi loca 
secundum celeberrimi astronomi Dantiscicani Joaimis Heve- 
lii Catalogum ad annum 1730 compl. sistens opera Joh. 
Gabr. Doppelmaieri M. P. P. exhibitus a Johanne Georgio 
Puschnero Chalcographo Noribergensi. A. C. 1728." "A new 
celestial globe giving the location of the fixed stars accord- 
ing to the record of the celebrated Danish astronomer Jo- 
hannes Hevelius conforming to the year 1730, by the labor 
of Johannes Gabriel Doppelmayr, mathematician, professor, 
publijsher, engraved by Johannes George Puschner, en- 
graver of Niimberg, in the year 1728." In size and in gen- 
eral features of construction these globes seem to agree, 
being scientifically • and carefully constructed. A pair of 
these globes may be found in the Biblioteca Capitolare of 
Verona, a pair in the Geographisches Institute of Gottingen, 
a copy of the celestial in the Mathematical Salon of Dres- 
den, a copy of the terrestrial in the Museo di Fisica of Pavia, 
a pair dated 1728 in the Grermanisches Nationalmuseum 
of Niimberg, a pair dated 1736, 20 cm. in diameter, and 
three copies each of his globes issued in 1730, 20 cm. in 
diameter, and a celestial globe dated 1730 and 20 cm. in 
diameter, in Dresden. (Fig. 126*.) 

Fiorini notes the existence of a large terrestrial globe be- 

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Fig. 126a. Celestial Globe of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, 1728. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

longing to the Marquis Lnigi Cusani/^ which probably was 
ccmstructcd in the early eighteenth century, perhaps before 
1730, by order of Cardinal Agostino Cusani. The globe, un- 
signed and undated, is of papier-mache, having a diameter 
of about 120 an. The paper gores with which the sphere is 
covered are not all of like form, but all are cut at the line of 
the equator and at latitude 80 both north and south, the 
usual circular disc being provided for covering the polar 
areas. On its surface the map has been drawn by hand, and 
practically all of the geographical names recorded are in 
the Italian language. The globe is mounted on a solid base, 
having a heavy horizon circle of wood, which is graduated, 
and on its surface are the names and the signs of the several 
zodiacal ccnostellations, the names of the months and of the 
principal winds or directions. The meridian circle, within 
which the sphere revolves, is of brass and is graduated. It is 
reported to be in a good state of preservation. 

The Biblioteca Comimale of Siena possesses two ancHiy- 
mous terrestrial globes, according to report of Fiorini, the 
one having a map in manuscript, the other having an en- 
graved map.'* The first of these, unsigned and undated, 
probably of the second quarter of the century, has a diameter 
of about 120 cm. The sphere is of wood, the surface of which 
is covered with mastic or varnish, and on this the map has 
been drawn. It is constructed to revolve within its simple 
mounting of wood by means of a crank. The title legend 
reads ^'Globe terrestre Dresse sdon les observations de 
I'Acad. Royale de Paris et des autres Acad, plus celebres 
d'Europe.*' "Terrestrial globe constructed according to the 
observations of the Royal Academy of Paris and of other 
Academies the most celebrated in Europe." In addition to 
the above legend one finds the following inscription: "On a 
pris la longitude des villes principales des Tables de NT" 
Philippe de La Hire. Les autres villes ou il n' a point d'ob- 
servati(»)s s<Mit icy places en la meme distance des villes 
principales dans la quelle on les voit dans les cartes de M . 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Guillaume de Tlsle/' "The longitudes of the principal towns 
have been taken from the tables of M"' Philippe dc La 
Hire.** The other towns which have not been located from 
observation are placed at the same distance from the prin- 
cipal towns as they are located on the maps of M. Guillaume 
dc risle/' 

It seems probable that this globe was constructed in 
France, and from the particular references to La Hire and 
Delisle one may infer, as noted above, that it belongs to the 
early eighteenth century. Parallels and meridians are drawn 
on the surface of the globe at intervals of ten degrees, and 
one conspicuous wind rose with sixteen radiating lines is 
placed in latitude 30 degrees north and longitude 350 de- 
grees counting from the prime meridian, which passes 
through the Island of Ferro. This globe, it is thou^t, came 
to the Siena Library about the year 1810, at the time of 
French rule in Tuscany, together with the library of the 
G>nvent of S. Augustine, but how it came to have place in 
the Augustine ccmvent is unknown. 

The second Sienese terrestrial globe, like the one just de- 
scribed, probably belcHigs to about the same date.^^ It has 
the following legend conspicuously placed: "Globo tcrrac- 
queo corretto et accresciuto secondo le nuove scopertc. Anno 
1744. In Roma nella Calcografia del R:C:A: al Pie di 
Marmo." "Terrestrial globe corrected and enlarged accord- 
ing to recent discoveries. 1744. In Rome in the engraving 
establishment of R. C. A. at the foot of the marble." The 
globe ball is of wood, having a diameter of about 50 cm. 
Additional information concerning this globe it has not been 
possible to obtain. Copies of it may be found in the Biblio- 
teca Comunale of Imola, in that of Osimo, in that of 
Savignano, and in the Seminario Vescovile of Ivrea. 

In the M useo di Strumenti Antichi of Florence there is 
a well-preserved armillary sphere," having the usual large 
circles the outer one measuring about 15 cm. in diameter, 
of four lesser ones and of these there are two small ones 

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Fig. 126b. Celestial Globe of Johann Puschner, 1730. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

representing the sun and the moon. The meridian and the 
equator are graduated, as is likewise the ecliptic, having 
engraved on its surface the names of the principal winds 
in the Italian language, and the ecliptic having engraved 
in Latin on its surface the names of the signs of the zodiac. 
On one of the arms which supports the horizon circle is the 
author and date legend, reading, "Joseph Torricelli F. Flo- 
rentiae 1739." Fiorini thinks it probable that Joseph was a 
relative of Evangelista Torricelli, inventor of the barometer. 
Pietro Maria da Vinchio, a monk of the order of St. 
Francis, deserves a word of special praise for the skill with 
which he labored as a map and globe maker about the middle 
of the eighteenth century." He seems to have followed in 
the main the work of Moroncelli, and that of the unknown 
maker of the Cusani globe, yet he should be counted a work- 
man possessing greater technical ability. His first pair of 
globes have a diameter of about 60 cm. The mounting con- 
sists of a meridian and a horizon circle of wood, the whole 
resting on a somewhat elaborate wooden base. The gores 
with which he covered his spheres are in each instance eight- 
een in number, but each gore has been cut into three sec- 
tions — at the parallel of 40 degrees, both north and south, 
and also at the parallel of 80 degrees, the polar spaces hav- 
ing the usual circular disc covering. The terrestrial globes 
have represented on their surfaces the polar and the tropi- 
cal circles, also the ecliptic and the equator, together with the 
several parallels and meridians at intervals of ten degrees. 
Artistic wind roses are placed at each of the equinoctial 
points, each with points representing the eight principal 
directions. The tide legend reads, '^Globus terrestris juxta 
geographicas mappas novissime editas accurate descriptus, 
in quibus, exactiori observatione praemissa, errores multi- 
plices sunt emendati, qui in veteri geographia detinebantur 
impressi. F. Petri Mariae a Vinchio opus et labor 1739/' 
'Terrestrial globe accurately delineated according to the 
most recent geographical maps in which, by more exact 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

observations, numerous errors are corrected which continued 
to be printed in the old geography. Fra Peter Maria a 
Vinchio, his work and labor, 1739." 

The celestial globe, similar in its construction in prac- 
tically every respect to the preceding, has its system of 
circles represented according to the equatorial system instead 
of the ecliptic system. All of the Ptolemaic constellations are 
represented, the figures of the several constellations being 
very artistically painted. Its dedication reads, "Illmo ac 
Revmo D. D. Petro Hieronymo Caravadossi Episcopo Casa- 
lensi Ordinis Praedicatorum parvum hoc Firmamentum 
dicatum a F. Petro Maria de Vinchio Ord. Min. Stric. Obser. 
operis auctor. 1745-" "Dedicated to the Illustrious and 
Reverend D. D. Peter Hieronymus Caravadossi Bishop of 
Casale of the Preaching Friars, by Fra. Peter Maria de 
Vinchio of the Strict Minorite Order, who is the author of 
this work, in the year 1745." The pair just described may 
be found in the Biblioteca Seminario Maggiore of Casale 
Monferrato. Fiorini is of the opinion that these globes, pre- 
sented to the learned Father Pietro Girolamo Caravadossi of 
the Preaching Friars, Bishop of Casale, must have been 
given by him to the seminary library, that they might serve 
in the education of the priests. It is even probable that the 
two globes came to the library by a direct clause in the will 
of the bishop, since it is known that he bequeathed to the 
same library all of his books and an annual sum, that the 
library might be used not only by the members of the semi- 
nary but by the general public as well. 

Not long after the completion of the pair just described, 
da Vinchio imdertook the construction of a second and 
larger pair. These he began in the year 1746 and completed 
in the year 1751. These globes have a diameter of about 105 
cm. Like the preceding they are of papier-mache. Each is 
furnished with a meridian and a horizon circle of wood, 
and a somewhat elaborate supporting base. On the parch- 
ment covering of the spheres the maps have been drawn by 

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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

hand. On the terrestrial globe the meridians and the parallels 
are represented at intervals of ten degrees. Place names, the 
names of the seas and of the rivers are in the Italian lan- 
guage or in the language of the country claiming possession. 
Very many of the discoveries are referred to in appropriate 
legends. The title and date legend reads "D. O. M. Globus 
terraqueus Juxta geographicas mappas novissime editas ac- 
curate descriptus, in quibus, exacriori obscrvatione prae- 
missa, longitudinum, ladtudinumque pimctis verius universe 
compertis, errores multiplices sunt emendati, qui in veteri 
geographia detinebantur impressi. Inferius scripti mens, 
labor, ars, et opus. F. Petnis Maria a Vinchio. In Conventu 
S. M. de Templo Casalis annis 1746-1747-1748.*' "D. O. 
M. Terrestrial globe accurately described according to the 
latest geographical maps in which by a more exact observa- 
don and by a truer location of the points of longitude and 
latitude many errors have been corrected which continued 
to be printed in the old geographies. What follows is the 
work and labor of Fra. Peter Maria a Vinchio, made in the 
Convent of Santa Maria at the Temple in Casale in the years 
1746-1747-1748." 

The celestial globe is similarly mounted, having a title 
legend which reads "Globus coelestis Circa quem spectabi- 
liores, magisque obviae stellae juxta disposidonem et situm, 
longitudinis scilicet ac latitudinis gradu, in quo ab Auctore 
Universi in Firmamento sunt positae, dispositae inspiciun- 
tur; singulis tamen figuris a Poetis ideads, ab AstromcHnis 
diductae, et assignatae novissime auctus. F. Maria a Vinchio 
O. M. S. O. Anno 1750. — Opifex. — 1751." "Celesdal globe 
in which are to be seen more clearly a^d more distinctly set 
forth the stars according to their places and posidoos, that is, 
their degrees of longitude and latitude where they have been 
placed in the firmament by the Creator of the Universe. To 
which have been added the figures of the constellations ideal- 
ized by the poets, brought to earth and assigned their true 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

places by astronomers. F. Maria a Vinchio of the Strict 
Order of the Minorites maker. In the year 1750-1751." 

The figures of the constellations are well drawn and are 
colored, the names of these constellations being given in 
Latin. This pair of Maria's globes may be found in the 
Biblioteca Municipale of Alessandria, in which town he 
probably lived at the time of their construction, and prob- 
ably at the convent of the Capuchin monks. 

Prefixed to his 'Select Mechanical Exercises,' first issued 
in the year 1773, James Ferguson (1710-1776), Scotch 
experimental philosopher, physicist, and astronomer (Fig. 
127), gives us a most interesting specimen of autobiography.*' 
It is a remarkable story of native genius and of self-instruc- 
tion. Herein he tells us how the child of poor parents, with 
an unquenchable desire for scientific knowledge, proceeded 
in his early years, step by step, until at length he attained 
to a position of great renown, not only in his own country 
but as well in other lands. He tells of his early interest in 
simple mechanical problems and of his attempts at the solu- 
tion of the same, but what is of special interest here, he 
relates how it was he became interested in geography and in 
the construction of globes and orreries. From a description 
of a globe he had foimd in ^Gordon's Geographical Gram- 
mar,' as he tells us, "I made a globe in three weeks turning 
the ball thereof out of a piece of wood." This he covered 
with paper and delineated thereon the map of the world. 
He was happy to find, as he says, "that by using the globe, 
which was the first I ever saw, I could solve the problems." 
In his second attempt at globe making, his boyish ingenuity 
particularly exhibited itself. Finding two large globular 
stones on the top of a neighbor's gate-posts, he painted on 
one of these, with oil colors, a map of the terrestrial globe, 
and on the other a map of the celestial, from a planisphere of 
the stars which he had copied on paper from a celestial globe 
belonging to a neighboring gentleman. "The poles of the 
painted globes stood toward the poles of the heavens. On 

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Fig. 127. Portrait of James Ferguson. 



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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

each the twenty-four hours were placed around the equi- 
noctial so as to show the time of day when the sun shone 
out, by the boundary where the half of the globe at any 
time enlightened by the sun was parted from the other half 
in the shade: the enlightened parts of the terrestrial globe 
answering to the like enlightened parts of the earth at all 
times : so that whenever the sun shone on the globe one might 
see to what place the sun was then rising, to what place it 
was setting, and all the places where it was then day or 
night, throughout the earth." 

Turning his attention especially to the movements of the 
stars, he contrived an orrery to show the motions of the 
earth and the mocxi, of the sun and the planets, both diurnal 
and annual, and it was in his first literary attempt, pub- 
lished in the year 1746, that he described *The Use of a 
New Orrery/ Ferguson published many works on scientific 
subjects, lectured extensively before learned societies, was 
honored with the royal bounty of King Greorge III, and 
became a member of the Royal Society without initiatory 
or annual fees. 

Of globes constructed by Ferguson other than those he 
contrived in his boyhood days, eight copies are known. In the 
collection of The Hispanic Society of America (Fig. 127*), 
there appears to be a unique example of his first published 
globe work, constructed perhaps as early as the year 1750, 
since it records the route followed by the Englishman, George 
Anson, in circumnavigating the earth in his expedition or 
expeditions of the years 1740-1744, and omits reference 
to the expeditions of Captain Cook. The terrestrial globe, 
a solid wooden ball, 7 cm. in diameter, is enclosed in a black 
leather covering, on the inner surface of which is pasted an 
engraved gore map of the celestial sphere. It appears to be 
constructed as were those referred to by Moxon in his cata- 
logue of globes which were ''made and sold by himself on 
Ludgate Hill," that is, ''concave hemispheres of the Starry 
Orb which serve for a case to a Terrestrial Globe of 3 inches 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in diameter, made portable for the Pocket." The covering 
of this Ferguson globe is made to open on the line of the 
celestial equator. In a neat cartouch placed in the North 
Pacific is the author and title legend reading, ^'A New 
Globe of the Earth by James Ferguson." The meridians are 
drawn at intervals of fifteen degrees, the prime meridian 
passing through Greenwich, and the parallels are drawn at 
intervals of ten degrees, being graduated on the meridian 
of 145 degrees west, excepting the tropics and the polar 
circles, which are drawn in their proper latitudes, respec- 
tively 2^yi degrees from the equator and 23 J4 degrees from 
the poles, j^erguson followed such geographical records as 
were laid down by Hondius in his world map of the year 
161 1, or by Greuter in his globe map of the year 1632 in the 
North Pacific region, indicating there the existence of a 
great expanse of ocean, between northwest North America 
and northeast Asia. "Anian St." is marked as separating a 
somewhat indefinitely outlined coast from America. The 
Antarctic continent is altogether omitted; the cmly inscrip- 
tion appearing in that region is 'The South Pole." Geo- 
graphical names are as numerous as one could expect to 
find them on a globe of such small dimensicms. 

The figures on the celestial map pasted on the inner sur- 
face of the terrestrial globe covering representing the several 
constellations have been very artistically drawn. Both the 
terrestrial and the celestial parts of this combination globe 
are remarkably well preserved. A second and later example 
of this Ferguson globe may be found in the Harvard 
University Library, once belonging to Ebenezer Storer of 
the class of 1747. It came into the possession of the Uni- 
versity in the year 1914. In addition to the globes of Fergu- 
son, just described, two pairs are known, dated each 1782, 
subsequent to the author's death, it will be noted, each having 
a diameter of 30 cm. These are mounted in the usual manner 
with wooden horizon and brass meridian circles, with sup- 
port base columns of wood. On the terrestrial globes English 

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o 



o 

G 

B 



o 
o 

5 










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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

is the language employed, while all names of the constella- 
tions on the celestial globes are in Latin. As on the small 
terrestrial globe in The Hispanic Societ/s collection, the 
route of Admiral Anson is indicated, omitting that of Cap- 
tain Cook, and numerous brief legends are given referring to 
various geographical discoveries. One pair of these globes 
may be found in the Biblioteca Comunale of Palermo and 
the other pair in the Osservatorio Meteorico of Syracuse. 



NOTES 

1. This society was founded in the year 1666 hy Louis XIV, after the 
model of the Royal Society of London. It was liberally endowed and sup- 
ported, its members devoting themselves to the science of physics, mathe- 
matics, astronomy, botany, zoology, and medicine. The observatory, founded 
in the year 1667, was an adjunct of the society. 

2. Niceron, J. F. "Delislc." (In: Mcmoires pour servir i I'histoire des 
Hommes illustres dans la r^publique des lettres. Paris, 1729. Vol. 1, p. 214.) ; 
Fontenelle, B. le B. de. Bloge des acad^miciens. A la Haye, 1731. Vol. II, 
pp. 324-339; Sandler, C. Die Reformation der Kartographie um 1700. 
Munchen, 1905. pp. 14-21. 

3. Not that there is less of interest in physical, in commercial, in descrip- 
tive geography, but that there is a decided tendency in this day to stress 
what is sometimes called human geography, which consists in emphasizing 
the relation of geographical study to real life. 

4. This work appears to have established his reputation. In the year 1702 
he became a member of the Academy, not as a geographer — ^this department 
was not established until the year i73C>-*but as an astronomer under CassinL 
Sandler, loc. cit.; Vivien de Saint-Martin, M. Histoire de la geographic. 
Paris, 1875. P* 4^ I'his last-named author says : "La Mappemonde de Guil- 
laume Delisle et ses cartes particulieres des quarte partiee du monde, pub- 
liees en 1700, remenirent enfin pour la premiere fois i leurs veritables places 
et i leurs dimensions r6elles les parties orientales de I'ancien continent. 
Quelle que fussent les ameliorations de detail que diit recevoir par la suit 
la carte du monde^— et ces ameliorations etaient immense — llionneur d'en 
avoir ap^r^ la r^forme radical suffit pour etemiser le nom Gruillaumc 
Delisle." 

5. Sandler, op. cit. This was an error having its origin in Ptolemy's geog- 
raphy, as set down in the Ptolemy maps. The two most significant errors 
in the Ptolemaic cartography were (a) the representation of the Indian 
Ocean as an enclosed sea; (b) the too great extension in longitude given 
to the Mediterranean Sea. A correction of the first of these errors followed 
quickly after the discovery of the sea route to the Indies of the East. As a 
result incident to the second error the Asiatic regions were extended much 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

too far eastward, the maps as late as the seventeenth century showing the 
coast of China to lie at least twenty-five degrees too far in that direction. 
The invention of the telescope in the first decade of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and of the pendulum clock about the middle of the century made 
possible a more accurate determination of the location of places, and an 
improvement in map construction soon followed. See also Wolf, Geschichte, 
pp. 355-362; 369-373. 

6. Wolf, op. cit., pp. 400-403. This came to be but one of the many 
methods employed in the effort to determine longitude. One of the most 
interesting and most recent is that in which wireless telegraphy has been 
called into service. See Hoogewerff, Capt. J. A. Washington-Paris Longitude 
by radio signals by F. B. Littell and G. A. Hill. (In : Astronomical Journal. 
Albany, 1915.) 

7. See "Nolin" and "Delisle." (In : Memoire pour Thistoire des sciences et 
des beaux arts. Trcvouz, 1702. p. 166.); "Nolin." (In: Nouvelle biog* 
raphie.) ; Lelewel. Geographic du moyen age, II. p. 202 ; Sandler, op. cit., p. 

15. 

8. Sandler, op. cit., reproduces Delisle's world map of 1700, pi. iv. 

9. Wolf, op. cit., pp. 449-452; Mcmoires pour servir a Thistoire des 
sciences et a celle de Tobservatoire royal de Paris. Paris, 1810. pp. 255-309; 
"Cassini, Jean-Dominique." (In: Nouvelle biographic.) In this last article 
may be found a long list of Cassini's publications. 

10. "Gassendi, Pierre." (In: Nouvelle biographic.) Gassendi achieved dis- 
tinction for his works on astronomical subjects. In the year 1645 he was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics in the College Royal of Paris, a position 
he held with interruptions until his death. 

11. The term "Precession of the Equinoxes," as used in astronomy, refers 
to the slow retrograde motion of the equinoctial point to the west, or con- 
trary to the order of the signs of the zodiac, this precession being estimated 
by Hipparchus to be one degree in one hundred years; in sixty-nine years 
by Ptolemy ; in sixty-six years by Albategnius ; in seventy years by Cassini, 
but it is now estimated to be one degree in about seventy and one half 
years. For one complete revolution of this equinoctial point through the 
twelve signs of the zodiac Hipparchus estimated a period of 36,000 years 
would be required ; according to Ptolemy a period of 24,840 years ; accord- 
ing to Albategnius 23,760 years ; according to Cassini 25,200 years ; whereas 
the period is now estimated to be a little more than 25^00 years. An impor- 
tant consequence of the precession of the equinoxes lies in the fact that the 
zodiacal constellations do not agree with the signs with which they coin- 
cided in ancient times, i-e^ in the beginnings of astronomical science. The 
first star of Aries, which at the time of Eudoxus was at the intersection of 
the equator and the ecliptic, or at the equinoctial colure, has continued to 
increase its position in longitude. At the time of Ptolemy this was 6 degrees 
40 minutes. Its longitude is now about 31 degrees, which places it entirely 
out of its original sign. 

12. Among the more important worics of Cassini bearing upon this par- 
ticular subject may be mentioned, Methode pour trouver la difference des 
longitudes des lieux par les observations correspondantes des phases des 
Eclipses de soleil 1670. (In: Histoire de I'Acad^mie Royale des Sciences. 
Paris, 1733. Vol. I, p. 133.) ; La methode de determiner les longitudes des 
lieux de la terre par les observations des satellites de Jupiter. (In: Mc- 
moires de TAcademie. Paris, 1743. Vol. X, p. 569.) ; De la methode de dittT" 

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First Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

miner les longitudes des lieuz de la terre par Ics observations des satellites 
de Jupiter. (In: Observations physiques et mathematiques. Paris, 1688. pp. 
232-278.) ; Les hypotheses et les tables des satellites de Jupiter, rcformees 
sur de nouvelles observations. (In: Memoires de rAcademie, 1693. Paris, 
1730. Vol. VIII, p. 363.) ; Methode de determiner les longitudes des lieuz 
de la terre par des ctoiles fixes et des planctes par la Lune. (In: Memoires 
de TAcadcmie. Paris, 1703.) 

13. See p. 349 of Bion's work referred to below, n. 22. 

14. Histoire de I'Academie Royale des Sciences. Paris, 1727. 

15. Fiorini. Sfere terrcstri e celesti. pp. 401-402. 

16. Zedler, J. H. Groses universallezikon aller Wissenschaf ten und Kunste. 
Leipzig- Halle, 1745. Vol. 46, p. 153; Giinther, Erd- und Himmelsgloben, 
p. 107, n. 1, reports that two of his Atlases, one of which is a particularly 
fine ezample of work representing astronomical geography, may be found 
in the K. Hof und Staatsbibliothek of Miinchen. More than one hundred 
and twenty-five maps of Grerliard and Leonhard Valk are listed by Phillips 
in his ezcellent work on Atlases in the Library of Congress. See indez. 

17. Prazis astronomiae utrisque ut et geographiae ezercita per usum 
Globi coelestis et terrestris tum et Planetolabii. Amstelodami, sumptibus 
Gerhardi Valk Calcographi apud quem prostant una globis et Planetolabio. 
n. d. 

18. There is considerable doubt as to the date assigned to the Valk globes 
in the Konigliche Museum of Cassel, and to those in the Germanisches 
Nationalmuseum of Numberg. See reference to these above, p. 150. 

19. ''Senez, John," with appended short bibliographical list. (In: Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.) 

20. See reference below. Chap. XIII, to Adams. 

21. "Bion, Nicolas," with portrait. (In: Nouvelle biographie. Paris, 

1853.) . 

22. Bion, Nicolas. Usage des globes celestes et terrestres, et des spheres, 
suivant les differents systemes du monde. Paris, 1699. This work was reissued 
no less than siz times before 1751, there being added to the title in the sizth 
edition, "Precede d'un Traite de Cosmographie. Sizicme edition, revue et 
corrigce par le Sieur N. Bion, ingcnieur du Roi pour les instruments de 
Mathematique, sur le Quai de I'Orloge du Palais, au Soleil d'or, ou trouv^ 
des Spheres et des Globes de toutes fa^ons"; same author. Traite de la 
construction et des principauz usages des instruments de nuithematique. 
Paris, i7p. Bion's work was translated into English by Edward Stone and 
published in London, 1723, under the title 'Bion's construction and prin- 
cipal use of mathematical instruments.' 

23. See p. 142. 

24. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 402-405. 

25. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 430-431. 

26. "Scutter, Mattheus." (In : AUgcmeine deutsche Biographie.) ; Sandler, 
C. Mattheus Seuter und seine Landkarten. (In: Mitteilungen des Vereins 
fur Erdkunde zu Leipzig. Leipzig, 1894. pp. 5-38.) This article contains a 
brief biography, a list of his several map publications, his colaborers, and a 
special consideration of his landkarten. 

27. See the list as given by Sandler, op. cit. 

28. "Morden, Robert." (In: Dictionary of National Biography.) 

29. Morden, R. An introduction to astronomy, geography, navigation, etc., 
made easy by the description and uses of the coelestial and terrestrial globes, 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in MTcn parts. London, 1702. A list of his maps and principal geographical 
works is given in the article referred to in note 28. See also British Museum 
Catalogue of Printed Books and Maps. 

30. rfiloge de TAbbe Nollet. (In: Histoire de TAcad^mie Royale des 
Sciences. Paris, 1773. p. 121.) ; Querard, J. M. La France Litteraire. Paris, 
1826-1842. 10 vols. Vol. VI, p. 444; "Nollet, TAbb^, Jean Antoine." (In: 
Nouvelle biographic.) 

31. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 407^409. 

32. "Doppelmayr, Johann Grabriel." (In : AUgemcinc deutsche Biographic.) 

33. Street, T. Astronomia Carolina. A new theory of the celestial motions* 
' London, 1661. 

34. This was a translation of Bion's Traite de la construction et des 
principaux usages des instruments de mathematique, to which he gave a 
general title 'Neuerofnete mathematische Werkschule.' Leipzig, 1713. To the 
title of a later edition of this translation was prefixed, "Dritte Er5f nung," 
Numberg, 1741. The reference is to a technical school of Numberg. 

35. Doppelmayr, Johann Grabriel. Historische Nachricht von numbergis* 
chen Mathematiscis und Kfinstlem. Numberg, 1730. 

36. Doppelmayr, op. cit. 

37. Horini, op. cit^ p. 394* 

38. Fiorini, op. dt., pp. 414-415. 

39. A noted French geometrician, professor of mathematics at the College 
Royal de France, and at TAcademie d'Architecture, 1640-1718. 

40. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 415. 

41. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 431-432. 

42. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 410-414. 

43. Ferguson, James. Select mechanical exercises with a short account of 
the life of the author by himself. London, 1773; "Ferguson, James." (In: 
A biographical dictionary of eminent Scotsmen, originally edited by Robert 
Chambers, revised by Rev. Thos. Thompson. London, 1856.) ; "Ferguson, 
James." (In: Dictionary of National Biography.) The last two articles 
contain extensive references to Feiguson's works, many of which are of a 
high order of merit. 




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Chapter XIII 

Globes and Globe Makers of the Second 
Half of the Eighteenth Century 

Few globe makers of striking distinction in this period. — ^An ap- 
parent decrease in scientific interest in globes, but an apparent 
increase in popular interest. — Gilles and Didier Robert de 
Vaugondy. — The work of Dcsnos. — Globes of Gian Francesco 
Costa the Venetian. — Globes of Akerman and Akrel. — ^The 
French globe makers Rigobert Bonne and Lalande^ — Charles 
Messier and Jean Fortin* — Globes of Greorge Adams the 
Elder, of George Adams the Younger, and of Dudley 
Adams.— Small globes of Nathaniel Hill.— The work of Inno- 
cente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia. — Charles Francis Dela* 
marche. — Manuscript globes of Vincenzo Rosa. — Greographer 
and globe maker Griovanni Maria Cassini. — Globes of William 
Cary. 

DURING the second half of the eighteenth century 
there is a continued interest in globe construction, 
yet the period is not one which is at all striking 
by reason of the good quality of the work done in this field. 
Since the latter part of the sixteenth century and the early 
part of the seventeenth, when, as has been noted, globes 
were so generally thought to be an essential part of a sea- 
man's outfit of navigating instrunnients, there had been a 
remarkable improvement in the construction of sailors' 
charts resulting from carefully devised methods for the 
determination of geographical position and the employment 
of the results in map construction. The plane or sheet chart 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

was again regarded as a more convenient, a more handy 
guide in navigation than was the globe. If plane chart 
making had improved so had plane map making. There 
must, however, have been a considerable popular interest 
in globes, judging from the number which we know were 
constructed, and from the number of publications issued 
which were intended to point out the particular value 
attaching to globes in geographical and astronomical instruc- 
tion, to explain their construction, and to indicate the char- 
acter of the problems which, by their use, could be easily 
solved. The interest in such objects in this period, perhaps 
we may say, was rather more extensive than intensive, 
having more of a popular than of a scientific character. 

Among the most prominent French map and globe makers 
of this period were Giiles Robert de Vaugondy ( 1688-1766) 
and Didier Robert de Vaugondy (i723-i78i6), father and 
son, reference usually being made to these men in g^graphi- 
cal literature under the name "Robert" or **Vaugondy."* 
Giiles, the grandson of Nicolas Sanson,' who had achieved 
first rank among geographers in his day for his maps and 
atlases, proved himself to be a worthy member of the family. 
He doubtless owed his earliest enthusiasm for geographical 
science to an inheritance of the maps, atlases, and other 
geographical publications of the grandfather, many of which 
he reissued, adding to the same his own valuable and inde- 
pendent work. Didier seems to have possessed talents none 
the less brilliant than were those exhibited by the father, 
and upon him, in succession, the king conferred the title 
Royal Geographer. In addition to his issue of maps and 
atlases, the father, often referred to simply as Robert de 
Vaugondy, became interested in the construction of globes, 
issuing his first pair, which must have been of small size, 
in the year 1751, in which work he doubtless was assisted 
by the son. The king, it appears, being so well pleased with 
these, directed the construction of others of larger dimen- 
sions, and in the same year a pair was issued, each globe 

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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

having a diameter of about 48 on/ In the same preface^ it 
is stated that the king gave orders for a terrestrial globe 
with map in manuscript, the same to have a diameter of 
about six feet, and the author further notes that '"when 
this work shall have been completed and presented to His 
Majesty, I shall give an explanation of the work which I 
shall have been obliged to put upon the mechanical con* 
struction of the ball, also a description of the allegorical 
ornaments which will adorn the globe support, and a de- 
scription of the geographical labor I shall have expended/' 
There appearing no later reference to this particular work, 
it seems hardly probable that it was ever actually under- 
taken. Delamarche gives us to understand that the king 
could not have been altogether pleased with Vaugondy's 
first work, observing that while ''it was done to the satis- 
faction of the Prince, he would have received the compen- 
sation due his talents and painstaking labor if the order of 
the king had been followed/'* Wherein he failed we do not 
know. It may have been this fact which discouraged him in 
his thought of undertaking the larger work. 

In the construction of his globes having a diameter of 
48 cm. he was assisted by the engravers, De la Haye and 
Gobin, the results being the production of a terrestrial and a 
celestial globe map of superior excellence. 

While it has not been possible to obtain photographs of 
any of the Vaugondy globes, his map of the world dated 
1751 is doubtless much the same as his globe map, present- 
ing geographical records as he thou^t proper to present 
them, including a representation of the route of a number 
of the recent exploring expeditions. 

Copies of his globes of the year 1751 cannot now be 
located, but reproductions of the same, the terrestrial dated 
1773 and the celestial dated 1764, may be found in the 
Biblioteca Govemativa of Lucca, in the Biblioteca Real of 
Caserta, and a copy of the celestial in the Osservatorio 
Patriarcale of Venice. Shortly after the first issue of the 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

globes in the year 1751 Vaugondy constructed other pairs, 
each having a diameter of 23 cm. These are dated 1754, 
copies of which may be found in the Biblioteca Palatina of 
Parma (two copies of the celestial), in the Pinacoteca 
Quirini of Venice, and a pair in the Palazzo of the Marquis 
of Spinola of Tassarolo. 

L. C. (Pierre-Joseph ?) Desnos, a contemporary and an 
intimate friend of Didier Robert de Vaugondy, was a 
Danish geographer of distinction, winning for himself in 
early life the favor of his king and the title Geographical 
Engineer/ A considerable number of his maps are known, 
and especially worthy of note is his atlas, titled *Atlas Ge- 
neral et filementairc,' dated Paris, 1778, there being other 
editions of the same with modifications. It has been possible 
to locate a few of his globes. The first, a celestial, appears 
to have been issued as early as the year 1750, a copy of 
which may be found in the Liceo of Reggio, as there may 
also be found in the same collection a Desnos terrestrial 
globe dated 1760. These have each a diameter of about 22 
cm. and are reputed to be in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. On the brass meridian circle of the second, one reads, 
"Se fait et se vendre chez Desnos rue St. Julien le pauvre 
1753," which legend su^ests an issue of the same as early 
as the date given, and this idea finds support in an engraved 
legend referring to this particular issue as being one revised 
and corrected. There is additional support for the belief that 
a pair was issued in the year 1753 in the fact that this date 
appears on the base of the celestial globe. The Desnos maps 
are all well engraved and, like others of the period, much 
was made of indicating the routes of many of the famous 
explorers, including a reference to the success of Bering as 
follows, "Lcs Moscovites ont rccouvre ici en 1743 sur les 
terres basses." In this we have one of the very early refer- 
ences to the Russian successes in this region. 

In the year 1754 Desnos issued a pair of globes somewhat 
larger in size, giving to them a diameter of about 26 cm. 

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Fig. 129a. Globe of L. C. Desnos, 1782. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

Copies of these globes may be found in the private library 
of the Marquis Lalatta Costerbosa of Parma. In their gen- 
eral features they resemble the previous edition, with every 
evidence that the author wished to bring his records to date 
and to make them quite as full as his space would allow, 
noting in one of his inscriptions, ^'Nous n'avons trace que 
par des points la figure des terres que I'Admiral De Fonte 
detaille dans se lettre que Mr. Delisle a redu publique, en 
attendant Tauthenticite de cette lettre, se que les relations 
des nouvelles dccouvertes rendent probable." In the year 
1772, it appears, he issued a third edition, noting that he 
had made use of the most recent observations of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Paris, bringing his star records down 
to the year 1770. Copies of this edition are in Piacenza. 

Gian Francesco Costa, a Venetian engineer, architect, and 
engraver, gave some attention to the construction of globes/ 
In the year 1754 he prepared and issued, for the Venetian 
Academy, a terrestrial and a celestial globe, each about 24 
cm. in diameter, basing the former on the work of Delisle 
and the latter on the observations and records of the English 
astronomer, John Flamsteed.' There is little of special value 
attaching to the globes of Costa. They give merely the well- 
known ge(^raphical and astronomical records of the day. 
Copies of his celestial globe may be found in the Biblioteca 
Municipale of Cagli and in the Osservatorio Astronomico of 
Rome. Fiorini refers to a copy of the terrestrial as belonging 
to the Biblioteca Universitorio of Urbino, and to one in the 
private library of Canon Ettore Fronzi of Senigallia. 

There is said to be a fine manuscript terrestrial globe, 
dated 1756, in the private library of Professor Maximilian 
Tono, director of the Osservatorio Patriarcale di S. Maria 
della Salute in Venice. The ball is of wood, over which is a 
coating of varnish, and on this a world map has been drawn 
by hand. It appears to have been constructed merely for the 
personal use of the maker, P. Francesco Grandi. 

In Andrea Akerman we find a native of Sweden interested 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in the matter of globe making. Observing him to be (me in 
possession of commendable talents, the Academy of Sciences 
of Stockholm, about the year 1750, granted to him a sub- 
sidy for the establishment of a workshc^ in Upsala« Here 
he undertook the construction of a terrestrial and of a celes- 
tial globe. So successful was his enterprise that, we are told, 
his productions found favor not only among those interested 
in his field within his own country, but amcxig those simi- 
larly interested in Denmark, Germany, and Russia. Lalande 
makes mention of his work published throu^ the Geograph- 
ical Society of Upsala, dated 1776, noting that they had 
a diameter of about 22 inches.* A copy of his celestial globe 
may be found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Milan, 
having a diameter of about 59 cm. It has an author and date 
legend, reading ''Globus coelestis ex Catalcigo Brittanico et 
De la Caillii observaticxiibus ad annum 1800 cura Soc. 
Cosmog. Upsal. delineatus ab Andrea Akerman Reg. S. S. 
Apt. sculptore 1766." 

A pair of Akerman's globes may also be found in the 
Geographisches Institut of Gottingen, the terrestrial dated 
1759, and the celestial dated 1760 and dedicated to the 
President of the Academy of Sciences by the Ge(^aphical 
Society of Upsala. His globes, it appears, were reissued by 
Frederick Akrel," an engraver who had assisted him in his 
work. The reissue of the Akerman globes dated 1779 con- 
tained corrections and additions which brought them to date, 
a fact which is noted in the following legend : "Globus ter* 
raqueus cura Societatis cosmographicae Upsalensis, editus 
ab Andr. Akerman Nunc emendatus. . . . opera Frederici 
Akrel 1779." "Terrestrial globe issued under the auspices 
of the Cosmographical Society of Upsala, edited by Andrea 
Akerman, now corrected. ... the work of Frederick Akrel 
1779." 

The Biblioteca Universitario of Bologna possesses a very 
interesting manuscript terrestrial globe (Fig. 128), the work 
of P. D. Pietro Rosini, an Olivetan monk. Word from the 

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Fig. 128. Terrestrial Globe of Pietro Rosini, 1762. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

librarian with photograph kindly sent" gives us the infor- 
mation that this splendid globe was constructed in the year 
1762, that it is a fine example of the period and is in an 
excellent state of preservation. It has a diameter of about 
150 cm,, being one of the largest constructed in Italy. The 
sphere is constructed of wooden plates securely braced. It has 
a meridian circle- of heavy brass, a horizon circle of wood, 
having oa its upper surface the usual representations refer- 
ring to the constellations of the zodiac, the names of the 
months, and the principal directions. The circle on its inner 
edge is fashioned to receive the sphere, but it has an outer 
edge which is octagonal. Over the surface of the ball irregu- 
lar pieces of paper were pasted and oa this the geographical 
map was drawn by hand. Practically all ge(^aphical names 
are in the Italian language, as are the few geographical 
legends. The author and date legend in Latin reads, "D. 
Petrus Rosini de Lendinara Mon^ Oliv™ fecit ann: 1762." 
"D. Petrus Rosini of Lendinara, an Olivetan monk made 
this in the year 1762." Fiorini cites a reference to a letter 
written by Rosini wherein he is referred to as a professor, 
noting that other information concerning him seems to be 
unobtainable. From the fact of his having constructed a 
terrestrial globe and of his reference in his letter to an 
eruption of Mount Vesuvius, one would obtain the impres- 
sion that he was a lover of scientific studies, and especially 
of geography. 

Rigobert Bonne (1727-1794), a distinguished French 
hydrpgrapher and engineer, achieved likewise a very con- 
siderable reputation as a geographer and cartographer; in- 
deed, the great majority of his scientific publications were 
within the field of geography.** With Joseph Jerome Le 
Fran9ais de Lalande (1732-1807), one of the most famotis 
of French astronomers,** he undertook the construction of a 
terrestrial and a celestial globe on which it was proposed to 
record in particular all of the most recent discoveries in 
both the field of geography and that of astronomy. To these 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

globes they gave a diameter of about 31 cm., following, in 
constructing the gore maps with which each sphere was 
covered, the method of Bion, giving very careful considera- 
tion to the fact that the paper on which the maps were 
printed would expand somewhat unevenly when moistened 
with the paste used in the mounting. It seems probable that 
Bonne completed the terrestrial globe about the year 1771, 
and Lalande the celestial about the year 1775, and that the 
engraving of the maps was entrusted to Lattrc, who had 
at this time a place of marked distinction in the profession 
he represented. Lalande says of the first issue of their work: 
"M. Lattre, Graveur ordinaire de Mgr. le Dauphin et de 
M. Ic Due d'Orleans, publiera vers la fin de cette annee 
1771, deux globes d'un pied de diametre, faites avec le plus 
grand soin, et sur les observations les plus recentcs dessines 
avec une nouvelle exactitude; M. Bonne s'est charg^ du 
globe terrestre, et je suis occupc actuellement du globe 
celeste. Ces globes seront en meme temps reduits a 8 pouces 
et a six; chaque assortissement aura des spheres du meme 
diametre. Les prix seront annonces dans les joumaux." A 
short time later these globe makers issued a publication in 
which they especially described their work, and Lalande 
noted in his 'Bibliographic astronomique' under the year 
1775: "On trouve dans le Globe celeste toutes les etoiles 
alors connues, toutes les constellations nouvelles de la 
Caille, celle que j'avais introduite sous le nom de Messier, et 
toutes les decouvertes g^ographiques obtenues depuis quel- 
ques annees par plusieurs voyages autour du monde. On 
trouve ces globes chez Lamarche, rue du Foin." While it 
has not been possible to locate a pair of the first edition of 
these globes, there may be found in the Osservatorio As^ 
tronomico of Palermo an undated terrestrial globe by Bonne 
and a celestial, clearly intended as a companion piece, dated 
1779. In all probability they are but reprints of the first 
edition, having the same diameters, that is, about 31 cm. 
Each is furnished with a graduated horizon circle of wood, 

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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

a graduated horizon circle of brass, and a small brass hour 
circle marked from I to XII, the whole being supported by 
three turned columns. They arc reported as being well pre- 
served, A pair has likewise been located in the Geo- 
graphisches Institut of Gottingen. 

The British Museum possesses a small terrestrial globe 
7 cm, in diameter, signed N. Lane and dated 1776. Over 
a sphere of wood has been pasted the engraved gore map, 
which gives but little gec^raphical information. It has not 
been possible to obtain a biographical reference to this globe 
maker, who probably was an unimportant printer of maps in 
London at this time. 

Charles Messier ( 1730-1817), a French astronomer, map, 
and globe maker, was a native of Lorraine.^^ In the year 
1751 he went to Paris, where he soon became associated with 
Delisle, first as his secretary, during which period he gave 
striking proof of his abilities, and later as his trusted assist- 
ant. His fame quickly extended to other lands, and he be- 
came a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin, also 
of the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, each of 
which organizations published a considerable number of his 
scientific papers. It appears that his fame as an astronomer 
rested chiefly on his investigations of the nature and the 
movements of comets, becoming known as "le furet des 
cometes." Messier's contemporary and intimate associate was 
Jean Fortin (1750-1831), whose fame as a scientist rests 
primarily upon his work as a maker of mathematical instru- 
ments. Like Bonne and Lalande, who labored jointly in the 
construction of terrestrial and celestial globes. Messier and 
Fortin were active in the same field. In the year 1780 they 
placed on sale at the shop of Fortin in Rue de la Harpe 
pairs of their globes, each having a diameter of about 31 
cm. Lalande refers to them as "'Globes d'un pied de dia- 
mctre. Chez Fortin. Paris 1780. Le Globe celeste par Mes- 
sier: Les etoiles reduites k 1800, d'apres les tables que j'avais 
faites pour mon Globe. Le Globe terrestre par Fortin d'aprcs 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

les nouvelles decouvertes gec^raphiques/' It has not been 
possible to locate a copy of Fortin's terrestrial globe, but an 
example of Messier's celestial may be found in the Osserva- 
torio Meteorico of the University of Parma, in the Istituto di 
Fisica of the University of Siena, in the Biblioteca S. Sco- 
lastica c S. Benedetto in Subiaco, and in the Liceo Machia- 
velli of Lucca. Copies of a celestial globe by Fortin, each 
about 22 cm. in diameter, may be found in the Convento dei 
Frati della Missione of Chieri, in the Biblioteca Comunale 
of Correggio, and in the Liceo Andrea Doria of Novi. 

The Hispanic Society of America possesses a good exam- 
ple of Fortin's work (Fig. 129), this being an armillary 
sphere, having at the common center of its system of circles 
a terrestrial globe about 5 cm. in diameter. It is without 
date, but probably was constructed about the year 1780. 
In the South Pacific within a cartouch is the inscription ''A 
Paris chez le Sr. Fortin. Rue de la Harpe.'' This example 
is 41 cm. in height, having a graduated horizon circle 31 
cm. in diameter, supported on a turned wooden base by four 
arms or quadrants. The terrestrial globe map of twelve gores 
is much darkened with age but gives in good outline the 
several omtinents with a few geographical names. Its armil- 
lae are of pasteboard, consisting of a supporting meridian 
circle within which the several celestial circles can be re- 
volved on the extended polar axis of the terrestrial globe. 
These celestial circles represent the zodiac, on the surface of 
which are given the names of the several zodiacal constella- 
tions and the names of the months, the meridian circles, the 
tropics, the equator, the two polar circles with an hour cir- 
cle at the north pole, all of these being so attached as not to 
permit of independent motion. Attached to one of the merid- 
ian circles is a device for representing eclipses, the one of 
the sun and the other of the mooa. 

George Adams, the elder (fl. 1760), maker of mathemat- 
ical instruments and optician to His Majesty George III of 
England, won great distinction for himself as a maker of 

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Fig. 129. Armillary Sphere of Jean Fortin, 1780. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

terrestrial and celestial globes, and as a writer on geqgraphi* 
cal and astronomical subjects. With him in his work were 
associated his sons George (1750-1795) and Dudley, to 
whom, after the death of the brother, fell the management 
of the business. We know of Dudley's success in his work, 
which he must have carried on well into the first quarter of 
the nineteenth century, thou^ we know neither the date 
of his birth nor of his death. In the year 1766 the elder 
Adams issued the first edidon of a very useful work on 
globes, including a consideration of their construction and 
their uses.^* In the year 1810 appeared the thirtieth editicxi 
of this work, with a preface and additions by the son, Dud- 
ley. The title of the work suggests that the first issue was 
prepared as a description of globes which the author had 
just put upon the market, but globes of his bearing a date 
so early seem to be unknown. None have been located 
which appear to have been issued earlier than the year 1772, 
after which time we know there were repeated issues signed 
cither "G. Adams" or "D. Adams." A pair of the date 1782 
may be found in the Museo Astronomico of Rome. These 
appear to be in a fair state of preservation (Fig. 130). Each 
has a diameter of about 46 cm., being furnished with a 
graduated brass meridian circle within which the sphere re- 
volves, a graduated horizon circle of wood, having pasted 
thereon the usual records referring to the zodiacal constella- 
ticxis and to the time reckoning. This horizon circle rests 
upon four supporting arms or quadrants, which in turn are 
carried by a tripod base of wood. The sj^eres are of paste- 
board with plaster of Paris covering, on which the respective 
maps have been pasted, each map being composed of twenty- 
four gores or biangles, or of twice twenty-four, since each is 
cut on the line of the equator to facilitate mounting. The 
geographical records given on the terrestrial globe map are 
practically such as one could find on the best plane maps of 
the period, alwajrs, however, in this connection remembering 
that those regions which had not been visited or carefully 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

charted by explorers gave to the map maker consideraUe 
latitude for a play of his imaginaticm. It is interesting, for 
example, here to note that Adams appears to have been very 
uncertain about his information relative to the western and 
southwestem part of the present United States. He seems to 
have caught from some explorer's account that the Colorado 
River flows westward, emptying directly into the Pacific, 
and he so marks it, giving, however, to the river the name St. 
Bartholomew. The celestial globe revolves on the axis of 
the equator, the gores being made to terminate at the poles 
of the ecliptic. G>nstellations are represented so far as they 
have been named by astrcxiomers to date, the several figures 
being artistically drawn, on which color has been somewhat 
sparingly employed. Each constellaticm is given its old 
name with an English translation; star names, when given, 
are frequently in Arabic, Latin or Chinese, and are dis- 
tinguished by Greek letters. Recently discovered stars are 
so marked as to be easily distinguished. 

In addition to the above, a pair of Adams globes may be 
f oimd in the Osservatorio Astronratiico of Naples and a pair 
in the Biblioteca Classense of Ravenna. A copy of the terres- 
trial may be foimd in the Seminario Vescovile of Padua. A 
copy of the terrestrial dated 1785 may be found in the 
Biblioteca Real of Madrid, agreeing in general with the 
preceding except in the mounting. The author and date 
legend appears in a neat cartouch in the North Pacific, read- 
ing: ''Britanniarum Rigi Augustissimo Georgio Tertio 
Scientiarum Cultori pariter et praefidio Globum hunc Ter- 
restrem. Qmnes hactenus exploratios terrarum tractus. Ad 
Observationes Navigantium Itinerantium et Astronomorum 
recentiores, accuratissime descriptos exhibentem Grati animi 
et pietatis monumentum D. D. Q. Omni cultu et officio 
devinctissimus. G. Adams. Londini apud G. Adams artificem 
regium in vico (?) Fleet Street, 1785.'* 

The American Geographical Society possesses a pair of 
the Adams globes, the gift of Mrs. Thomas F. B3rmes, dated 

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Fig. 130. Terrestrial Globe of George Adams, 1782. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

1797, and made by "Dudley Adams Globe Maker to the 
King, Inst. Maker to his Majesty & Optician to H. R. H, 
the Prince of Wales. No. 60 Fleet Street, London." They 
are in a fair state of preservation, the celestial, however, 
being somewhat damaged through attempts to turn the 
sphere, which does not move freely on its axis within the 
meridian and the horizon circle. These are mounted cm a 
high tripod base and are movable right or left, just as they 
are movable for elevation or depression of the pole in the 
usual manner. It does not af^ar that additions or correc- 
tions were made for this issue. 

Nathaniel Hill of London, active as a map engraver 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, likewise turned 
his attention to the construction of globes.** Those of his 
make now known, however, are very small, consequently 
they present but meager geographical details. Like certain 
productions of James Ferguson, the Hill globes might be 
referred to as pocket globes. 

The New York Public Library possesses a fine example 
of his work (Fig. 130*), bearing the tide and author legend 
placed in the North Pacific, "A New Terrestrial Globe by 
Nath. Hill 1754." This globe has a diameter of 7 cm. It is 
furnished with a graduated meridian circle, surmounted at 
the north pole with an hour circle and pointer. The gradua- 
tion is somewhat unusual, beginning as it does with o de- 
grees at either pole and marked by tens on the right half of 
the circle through 90 degrees or to the equator, and with 90 
degrees at either pole and marked by tens on the left to o de- 
grees at the equator. The horizon circle of wood has repre- 
sented on its surface the names of the zodiacal constellations, 
the names of the months, and the thirty-two conpass direc- 
tions, and rests upon a base of four branching arms or quad- 
rants, which in turn are supported by three widely spreading 
feet, this base being fashioned and carved in the Chippendale 
style. The sphere is covered with the usual twelve gores 
truncated in latitude both north and south at about 68 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

degrees and has the polar spaces covered by circular discs. 
The entire piece, including the map, is remarkably well pre- 
served. The Pacific is called "The Great South Sea,'* while 
just off the coast of "S. America" we read "Pacific Sea." 
Between "N. America" and "Asia" is a great open sea, 
Alaska being omitted. We find such names given as "Flor- 
ida," "Virginia," "Carolina," "Maryla": the Missouri River 
is called the "Long R." The meridian on which the gradua- 
tion in latitude is represented is 150 degrees west, passing 
through the Pacific slightly to the west of California. In 
"S. America" there arc numerous regional names given, 
including "Brazil," "Peru," "Terra firma," "Chili." In the 
East Indies we find "New Holland," "New Zeeland," 
neither with completed coast line. An attached card tells us 
that this globe was "Presented to the New York Public 
Library by Mrs. Henry Draper, Oct. 9, 1908." 

There likewise may be found in the British Museum a 
copy, presumably of this same globe, dated 1754, and a 
copy in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, signed and 
dated. This Paris copy is furnished with a cover opening 
along the line of the equator and having on its inner surface 
a representation of the celestial sphere which is neither 
signed nor dated, but which is in a good state of preserva- 
tion. 

Fiorini refers to certain pairs of globes being apparently 
copies of the work of Gian Francesco Costa without credit 
being noted. These globes, inferior in the matter of engrav- 
ing to the work of Costa, were issued as the work of Inno- 
cente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia.^^ The terrestrial 
globe bears the inscription, "Nova et accurata descrizione 
del Globo Terracqueo dirizzato sopra le piu recenti Osserva- 
zioni del Sig' Delisle e de^i ultimi viaggiatori. Per uso dell' 
Accademia Veneta. Composto da Innocente Alessandri e 
Pietro Scaltaglia incisori in rame. L' anno 1784. Matteo 
Viani in Campo S. Bartolamio. Venezia." "New and accu- 
rate description of the Terrestrial globe based on the most 

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Fig. 130a. Terrestrial Globe of Nathaniel Hill, 1754. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

recent observations of Sr. Delisle and the latest explorers. 
For the use of the Venetian Academy. Composed by Inno- 
cente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia, copper engravers. In 
the year 1784. Mattio Viani in Campo S. Bartolamio. 
Venice." A legend very similar to that on the terrestrial 
globe appears on the celestial, reading, "Globo celeste nel 
quale sono accuratamente descritte le stelle fisse col loro 
preciso numero e Magnitudini secondo il Catalogo Brit- 
tanico del Sig' Flamstadio. Per uso deir Accademia Veneta. 
Composto da Innocente Alessandri e Pietro Scaltaglia inci- 
sori in Rame. L'anno 1784. Matteo Viani in Campo S. Bar- 
tolamio. Venezia." "Celestial Globe in which is accurately 
described the fixed stars with their precise number and mag- 
nitude according to the British Calendar of Sr. Flamsteed. 
For the use of the Venetian Academy. Composed by Inno- 
cente Alessandri and Pietro Scaltaglia copper engravers. In 
the year 1784. Matteo Viani in Campo S. Bartolamio. 
Venice." A copy of the terrestrial globe belongs to the 
Biblioteca Comunale of Cagli, likewise one may be found 
in the office of the Eredit^ Bottrigari of Bologna. Copies of 
the celestial may be found in the Musco Astronomico of 
Rome, in the Scminario Vescovile of Brescia, in the Tipo- 
litografia Roberto of Bassano. Somewhat later it appears 
that the bookdealer Viani reissued the terrestrial globe, un- 
dated, perhaps with the thought of bringing them to date, 
that diey might not be crowded out of the market by the 
recently cwistructed globes by Giovanni Maria Cassini. The 
inscriptimi on this globe reads, "Nova et accurata descri- 
zione del Globo Terracqueo dirizzato sopra le piu recenti 
Osservazioni del Sig' dell' Isle e degli ultimi viaggiatoriedel 
Cap. Cook negli ultimi suoi viaggi. In Ven^ appo Mattio 
Viani in Campo S. Bartolomeo." ''New and accurate descrip- 
tion of the Terrestrial globe based on the most recent obser- 
vations of Sr. Delisle and on the records of the most recent 
navigators and of Captain Cook in his last voyages. In 
Venice by Mattio Viani in Campo S. Bartolomeo.'' Copies 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

of this issue may be found in the Museo Astronomico of 
Rome, in the library of the artist Giuseppe Bortognoni of 
Bologna, in the library of Sr. Fenaroli of Brescia, in the 
Biblioteca Vescovile of Rimini, and in the TipolitQgraiia 
Roberto of Bassano. 

Among the geographers of this period who were contrib- 
udng to French leadership may be named Charles Francis 
Delamarche (i740-i8i7). He was a native of Paris, in 
which city, under the patronage of King Louis XV, he 
carried on his activities as map and globe maker, conducting 
at the same time a shop for their distribution. He seems to 
have patterned his globe work largely after that of Gilles 
and Didier Robert de Vaugondy, giving to his completed 
products practically the same dimensions and motmting. 
His earliest examples bear the date 1785, of which only oat 
copy, a celestial globe, has been located, this now belonging 
to die Osservatorio Meteorico of Venice. In the year 1791, 
he constructed a pair of globes each having a diameter of 
about 18 cm., only the terrestrial being dated, and in the 
same year he issued his treatise which doubtless was intended 
to serve as an explanatory text for these globes, at the same 
time advertising and popularizing his productions.^* Elxam- 
ples of this issue may be found in the Biblioteca di Brera of 
Milan, and in the Liceo Carlo Alberto of Novara. A copy 
of the terrestrial may be foxmd in the Istituto Nautico of 
Palermo, and a copy of the celestial in the G>nvento dei 
Frati della Missione of Chieri. It could not have been long 
after this issue of 1791 that he undertook the construction 
of a terrestrial globe about 31 cm. in diameter, a copy of 
which may be foimd in the Istituto di Fisico of the Uni- 
versity of Siena. 

We know that like his contemporary, Fortin, he also con- 
structed armillary spheres, <xie example of which it has been 
possible to locate. Fiorini thus refers to it, his citation being 
given in free translaticm.** It is a G>pemican sphere, that is, 
having a representation of the sun placed at the common 

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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

center of the annillae instead of a representation of the earth 
as in the Ptolemaic sphere. It may be f oimd in the palace of 
Sr. Scaramucci in S. Maria a Monte in the province of 
Florence. Attached to a base of wood about 20 cm. in height 
is an iron rod 35 cm. long. This rod passes throu^ the 
several rings^ about which they can be revolved, each being 
in its movement independent of the others. The first circle 
about the central sun represents the orbit of Mercury, and 
has written upon it '"filoignc du Soleil 8537, incline 7 degr., 
fait sa revolution en 87 jours, 23 heures, 50 m." The seccxid 
represents the orbit of Venus, having written upon it the 
distance 15928J4 diameters of the earth, inclination 3 de- 
grees and 22 minutes; it completes its revolution in 2224 
days 16 hours and 41 minutes. In a space much larger than 
that which separates the other circles, there is the orbit of the 
earth, upon which is written that this planet passes over 
the ecliptic in 365 days 5 hours and 49 minutes, and that 
it is 22000 diameters distant from the sxm. This ring rep- 
resenting the orbit of the earth is opened for the insertion of 
a representation of the moon, adjusted to revolve aa an 
adjusted pivot. Armillae have been provided representing 
the orbits of Mars, of Jupiter, and of Saturn with statement 
concerning their respective distances from the sun and their 
respective periods of revolution. The outer and larger armil- 
lae represent the colures, the ecliptic, and the horizon, and 
on the last the inscription, '^A Paris chez Delamarche Geog. 
Rue du Foin Saint Jacques au College de M^ Gcrvais." 

In the year 1793 Vincenzo Rosa, a little-known Italian 
cosmographer, constructed two terrestrial globes, the maps 
of which being in manuscript. The spheres are of papier- 
mache covered with a light coating of plaster. Each of these 
globes has a diameter of about 100 cm. An inscription in 
Italian reads, '"Vincenzo Rosa fece nel 1793 n. 24. La geo- 
graiia e quasi tutta delle carte di Robert del Vaugondy e di 
De-la-Marche." "Made by Vincent Rosa in the year 1793 
n. 24. The geographical information is almost entirely from 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the maps of Robert de Vaugondy and of Delamarchc/' One 
copy may be f oimd in the Biblioteca Univcrsitario of Pavia, 
and the other in the Liceo Foscolo of the same city. Fiorini 
notes that the "n. 24." of the first is given as "n. 2i/' in the 
second.** 

The last important globe maker of the ei^teenth cen- 
tury in Italy was Giovanni Maria Cassini (fl. 1790), an 
engraver, and a geographer of distinction, to the truth of 
which statement his excellent work gives testimony. As evi- 
dence of his interest in the matter of globe ccmstruction we 
have the introduction to his 'Nuovo atlante geografico uni- 
versale . . . ,' wherein he gives carefully devised rules 
for the construction of globe gores, and in addition we still 
find a number of his completed globes, particularly in Italian 
museums and libraries. These globes (Fig. 131 )t dated, the 
terrestrial 1790, and the celestial 1792, have each a diam- 
eter of about 35 cm., each covering map being composed of 
twelve gpres cut at latitude 80 degrees both north and south, 
the polar space having the usual circular disc covering. Each 
is furnished with a brass meridian circle within which the 
sphere may be revolved, an hour circle, a horizon circle, on 
the surface of which are the usual concentric circles with 
the names of the several zodiacal ccmstellations, the names 
of the months, and the principal directicms. The terrestrial 
globe has an author and date legend reading, ''Globo ter- 
restre delineato sulle ultime osservazioni con i viaggi e nuove 
scoperte del Cap. Cook inglese. In Rome.'" 

In The Hispanic Society's collection is a terrestrial ^obe 
(Fig. 132), being a solid wooden ball 21 cm. in diameter, 
over which has been pasted the gqrc map composed of twelve 
sections, each cut at the parallel of 70 degrees both north 
and south, the polar space being covered with circular discs 
each forty degrees in diameter. It is neither signed nor dated 
but is clearly of German origin, since practically all geo- 
graphical names and legends are in the German language* 
The title, placed within a circle to the west of Australia, 

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Fig. 131. Terrestrial Globe of Giovanni Maria Cassini, 1790. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

"Ncu Holland," reads "Die Erdc nach den neusten Ent- 
deckungen und besten Charten entworfen." Its date can- 
not be far from 1800, perhaps a little later, seeing that it 
assigns the name '^ord Amerikanisdier Staat" to the region 
east of the Mississippi River, except to "Florida" which 
extends westward to tiiis river. We find but one actual date 
given, this referring to the discovery of a small group of the 
"Gesellschafts Inseln," reading "Inseln welche die Spanier 
entdekt haben soUen 1773." It is constructed to revolve 
within a graduated meridian circle of brass and an octagonal 
horizon of wood, on which are indicated in picture the 
twelve signs of the zodiac, the calendar, and the thirty-two 
winds or directions, the whole resting on four plain supports 
of wood strengthened below by light crossbars. 

The map is one well drawn for the period, and the en- 
graving of the several names and legends has been most 
skilfully done. Regional names are numerous, but there has 
not been an overcrowding of the map with minute details. 
On the west coast of North America, for example, we find 
such names as "Norfolk," "Neu Comwallis," "Neu Han- 
over," "Neu Georgia," "Neu Albion," "Neu Navarre," 
"Mexico odcr Neu Spanien." Central America with the West 
Indies is called "Mittel America oder West Indien." In 
South America we find "Neu Granada," "Peru," "Chili," 
"Brasilien," but "Prasilisches Meer." Certain localities are 
especially distinguished by the addition of color, as the 
coast of Australia except the southern coast, which is marked 
with a dotted line. Many of the East Indian islands and 
the islands of the Indian Ocean are outlined in color, as also 
the coast of "Vorder Indien," and "Hinter Indien," the 
coast of "Arabien," and certain other sections. The geog- 
raphy of the interior of Africa is not as well represented as 
on many an earlier map, a fact particularly noticeable with 
reference to the Nile River. The prime meridian is made 
to pass through Cape Verde, to the west of which, stretching 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

practically along its entire length, we read ''Der Ameri- 
kanische Ocean." 

Among the globe makers of the ei^teenth century whose 
work carries us over into the nineteenth may be named 
William Gary ( 1759-1825).** At first associated with Rams- 
den, a renowned mechanic, he established himself in an 
independent business in London in the year 1790. He is 
reputed to have constructed the first transit circle made in 
England, which circle had a diameter of two feet and was 
provided with a reading microscope. One of his circles of the 
above date, 41 cm. in diameter, is reported as belonging to 
the Observatory of Zurich. In addition to the altitude, 
azimuth, sextant, reflecting and refracting telescopic, and 
microscopic instruments made by him, he interested himself 
in the construction of terrestrial and celestial globes. Those 
examples of his to which reference may here be made do not 
appear to be of the highest order, perhaps due to the fact 
that he was primarily an instrument maker and not a geog- 
rapher or an astrononer. Further, the majority of his globes 
which have been located bear dates subsequent to the year 
1800, and therefore do not properly call for reference here. 

In the private library of Sr. Vittorio Bianchini of Mace- 
rata four of the Gary globes may be foxmd, three celestial 
and one terrestrial dated 1799. A celestial globe of the 
same date may be found in the Osservatoria Astronomico of 
Rome, but its companion, a terrestrial globe, bears the date 
1815. Extant Gary globes of the early nineteenth century 
may be considered numerous. 



NOTES 

1. NouTcUe biognphie g^n^rmle, "Robert de Vangondy, GiUei," "Robert 
de Vangondy, Didier," with references to their woxks. 
a. Sanson was the author of numerous maps and atlases. His woiks are 

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Fig. 132. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1800. 



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Second Half of the Eighteenth Century. 

cxtensiTcly referred to by Phillips in his List of Geographical Atlases. See 
also list of his works in Britannica» ''Sanson, Nicolas." 

3. These are referred to in the preface of a woik titled 'Usages des 
Globes celeste et terrestre, faits par ordre du Roi, par le S. Robert de 
Vangondy, fils.' Paris, 1751. 

4. See woik referred to in preceding note. 

5. Cited by Fiorini, Sfere terrestri e celesti, p. 417, n. 2. 

6. Fiorini, op. dt., p. 419. 

7. Fiorini. op. cit., p. 421. 

8. John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer royal, author of 
'Atlas Coelesds' and other woiks treating of astronomical subjects. The 
figures of the several constellations appearing in this atlas were drawn by 
James Thomhill. Artistically they are not equal to those appearing in 
HcTelius' Prodromus astronomiae. 

9. Akerman, A. Globes cfleste et terrestre de Tingt-denx pouces. Upsala, 
1766. 

la Poppe. Ausffirliche Geschichte der Anwendung aller kmmmen Linien 
in mechanischen Kunsten und in der Architektur. Niimberg, 1882. p. 65. 

11. Letter and information from the librarian dated Jan. 14, 1914. 

12. Reference to his publications in Nouvelle biographic, "Bonne. 
Rigobert.'' 

13. NouTellc biogrsphie, 'Talande, Joseph Jerome." This is an excellent 
article with references to his numerous publications. His 'Bibliogrsphie 
astronomique/ Paris, 1803, has been of particular Talue in the preparation 
of this work. Sec also Nouveaux globes, celeste et terrestre, d'un pied de 
diamitre par M. De la Lande et M. Bonne, avec I'cxplication en une 
brochure in- 12. Paris, 1775. Lalande, op. cit., refers to a woik titled IJsage 
du Plan^taire ou sphere mouvante de Copemic, qui se trou^ chez Fortin. 
ingcnieur-m^canicien du Roi.' Paris, 1773. Fortin issued a French edition 
of Flamsteed's Atlas under the title 'Atlas celeste de Flamsteed approur^ 
par I'Acad^mie Royale des Sciences. Secondc ^tion par M. J. Fortin In* 
genieur-M^canicien du Roi et de la Famille Royale pour les Globes et les 
Spheres.' Paris, 1776. 

14. NouTclle biographic, "Messier, Charles," with a very long list of his 
publications. 

!$• Adams, G» A treatise describing and explaining the construction and 
the use of new celestial and terrestrial globes, designed to illustrate in the 
most easy manner the phenomena of the earth and heavens, with a great 
variety of astronomical and geographical problems. London, 1766; A trea- 
tise on the construction of globes. London, 1769; Geometriod and geo- 
graphical essays, containing a description of mathematical instruments. 
London, 1791 ; Astronomical and geographical essays. London, 1795. 

16. We find that Nathl. Hill engraved the title-page and maps in an atlas 
by Lewis Morris. Plans and Harbours, etc. London, 1748. 

17. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 439. 

18. Delamarche, C. F. Les usages de la Sphere et des Globes celeste et 
terrestre. Paris, 1791. 

19. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 432. 
2a Fiorini, op. dt., p. 441. 

21. Dictionary of National Biography, "Cary, William"; Wolf, Ge- 
schichte der Astronomic, pp. 562, 563. 

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Chapter XIV 

The Tcchnic of Globe Construction- 
Materials and Methods 

Greneral problems to be met«F— Development from the simple armilla 
to the complex sphere* — ^The references of Ptolemy, Leontius 
Mechanicus, Alfonso. — ^Behaim's leadership in practical globe 
making. — ^Materials employed. — Experiments in map projec- 
tion. — The beginning and rapid development of globe-gore con- 
struction. — ^Various examples of early gore maps. — ^Equatorial 
polar and ecliptic polar mountings^p— Special features of celestial 
globe maps. — Globe mountings. — ^Varying sizes of globes. — ^The 
uses of globes. — Moon globes and planetariums. 

IN this concluding chapter it is not proposed to consider 
in detail the technical features of globe construction, 
as these features have presented themselves in the long 
period which has been under review; the rather to give, 
somewhat in the nature of a summary, a general word as 
to the development of the simple armilla of the ancients, 
''in continued succession, receiving ripeness and perfection'' 
in such celestial spheres as were those of Mohanuned ben 
Helal, of Tycho, of Hondius, or of Blaeu; into the terres- 
trial spheres of Schoner, of Mercator, of Greuter, or of 
Coronelli. 

We have seen that during these years there were problems 
mechanical, mathematical, and artistic continually arising, 
in the solution of which talent of a high order was often 
exhibited; problems having to do with the kind of material 
to be employed, with the shaping and the graduation of the 

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rings or circles, with the construction of the supporting bases 
which entered into the completed product, with the engrav- 
ing of the map on the surface of the metal sphere, or with 
the designing and the engraving of the plates for the print- 
ing of the map to be used in covering the prepared ball, and 
the fitting of the same to its curved surface. 




Fig. 133. Astrolabe. 



The principal astronomical instrument employed by such 
ancient astronomers as Eudoxus, Timocharis, and Hippar- 
chus appears to have been at first but a single metal ring, 
perhaps of brass. At any rate their instruments must have 
been exceedingly simple, perhaps the simplest form of the 
astrolabe (Fig. 133), yet they sufficed as aids in the solu- 
tion of such astronomical problems as suggested themselves 
in that early day. The addition of a second ring to the 

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simple instrument gave further aid to the observer in his 
efforts to determine the declination and the right ascension 
of any of thie heavenly bodies. These rings came to be con- 
sidered, the first as a celestial meridian circle, the second 
as a celestial horizon circle, and in the passing years others 
were added to represent the ecliptic, the colures, the tropics, 
the polar circles, and the orbits of the several planets, until 
we have the fully developed armillary sphere of a Vopcl 
or a Santucci.^ 

Relative to globes proper in antiquity, it will have been 
noted that in general there is an element of uncertainty as 
to their exact character, which speaks out in the numerous 
allusions to them. None has survived to our day save the 
Atlante Famese. This globe of marble is not so mounted 
as to permit its revolution, resting as it does upon the 
shoulders of the mythical Atlas, yet in its representation 
of the figures of the several constellations, then recognized 
by astronomers, it differs practically but little from the 
celestial globes, that is, solid spheres, constructed a millen- 
nium and a half later.* We cannot, however, draw the con- 
clusion from this one example that such globes were gen- 
erally looked upon as practical instruments for use in 
astronomical studies, yet there clearly were those who did 
so regard them. 

Doubtless the globe or globes to which Ptolemy alludes 
were intended to be of practical value. He tells us they 
should be constructed of brass, and as before noted, he 
describes the use and the construction of such instruments. 
Like the maps he probably made, thou^ none survives, it is 
not difficult, from his description, to reconstruct diem. 
Such celestial globes as Ptolemy may have prepared were 
doubtiess adjustable, but were not made to revolve by 
mechanical device such as we f requentiy meet with in glolx^ 
of the seventeenth and the ei^teenth centuries, nor were 
they like the mechanical contrivance of Archimedes, clearly 
intended to represent the movements of the celestial bodies, 

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and perhaps their movements relative to the earth. No 
description of Archimedes' mechanism survives by means 
of which it could now be reproduced with anything like a 
satisfactory degree of certainty. 

The allusions of Leontius Mechanicus, referred to in 
Chapter III, read like a globe maker's instructions of the 
eighteenth century. He knew his Ptolemy whom he followed 
in the main, but he wrote as one who clearly did not sense 
the approaching decline of interest in the physical sciences. 

And what can be said of the methods and the materials 
for globe making during the period of the so-called middle 
ages? The survivals, and these are only of the later years 
of the period, are of Arabic origin, which, without excep- 
tion, appear to have been intended primarily for use in 
astronomical studies. They are either armillary spheres, or 
metal balls, on the surface of which are the engraved repre- 
sentations of the starry heavens, with the figures of the 
several constellations. Without a known exception these 
are of small size, and if furnished at all with mounting, 
only that of a simple character. There is reason for thinking 
that such astronomical instruments were made in great 
numbers, and that they were to be found in practically all 
Arabic observatories/ 

The interesting allusions in King Alfonso's 'Libros del 
Saber de Astronomia,' from which citations may be found 
in our Chapter IV, give us information concerning both 
methods and materials which mi^t be employed in globe 
c<Mistructi(Mi in his day. It is not there stated that the author 
had information concerning the actual use of the more than 
twenty named materials which mi^t be chosen for their 
manufacture. He does, however, lead us to infer that there 
may have been experiments by his contemporaries in which 
trial was made of the fitness of the several materials named, 
his condusicm being that wood or brass was the most 
suitable. 

It has previously been noted that globes appear to have 

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been made now and then for use in the monastic schools, 
but we find no detailed description of their special char- 
acter. Here and there, it is true, may be found reference 
to the adjustability of their parts, and to their rings which 
made them serviceable for furthering astronomical studies. 
The inference is fair that the globes of these Christian 
schools were amiillary spheres, and were not solid or holl6w 
balls on the surface of which the starry firmament or the 
earth had been depicted. 

Behaim's globe of the year 1492 seems to represent a 
radical departure in globe constructicHi. His idea appears to 
have been novel. He employed a mould in the making of his 
globe ball, and over tfic surface of this completed ball 
pasted irregular strips of parchment which furnished a 
suitable ground for the draughting of the map with its geo- 
graphical outlines and its artistic adornments in color. 
Behaim's globe mounting was of the simplest character, 
consisting of a metal meridian circle within which the sphere 
could be revolved, a horizon circle of like material, the 
whole resting upon a tripod base. Although effort was made 
to establish in Numberg an institute wherein globe making 
might be taught especially, the plan seems not to have 
carried, and such as were later produced in this city were 
merely the output of the mathematical instrument maker's 
shop or of the geographical establishments. 

Throughout all the early years of the modem period, 
metal globes continued to find favor, to the making of 
which skilled workmen in the thriving industrial centers 
of Southern Germany, Southeastern France, Northern 
Switzerland, and Northern Italy set themselves. Brass, 
copper, silver, and gold were employed very frequently in 
their construction, the last-named metals being used in the 
making of globes primarily for ornamental purposes.* 
Globes with manuscript maps, as before noted, seemed to 
find especial favor in Italy, in the making of which much 
artistic skill was displayed. The spheres for such globes 

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were usually of wood either solid or hollow, of well-fash* 
ioned strips of wood, canvas covered, the whole carefully 
glued and braced that the spherical shape might not be 
affected with time. In the preparation of the sphere to re- 
ceive the manuscript map, workmen proceeded much as did 
Behaim, pasting over its surface irregular strips of parch- 
ment or paper, adding occasionally a groimdwork of paint 
suitable for taking the sketch of the draughtsman. As the 
years passed, and the engraved map found increasing favor, 
practically all globe balls, with exceptions as noted above, 
were made either of plaster shot through and through with 
a binding material, usually of fiber, and fashioned over a 
mould, or of a preparation of papier-mach^. 

The increasing interest in globes and globe making mani- 
festing itself in the early years of the sixteenth century led 
to the devising of methods for their more rapid construction. 
If the opening years of the sixteenth century witnessed a 
rapid expansion of geographical knowledge, none the less 
did they witness an improvement in the making of maps 
wherein this expanding knowledge could fittingly be re- 
corded. It is interesting to note how rapidly change was 
made from one method of map drau^ting to another in the 
search for a projection which might prove itself to be alto- 
gether suitable. As a result of this striving we have for 
example the projection of Donnus Nicolas Germanus cm- 
ployed in his maps of the geographer Ptolemy, and often 
referred to as the Donis projection." Then we find the 
stereographic meridional* and the stereographic polar,^ the 
cordiform single and double' which seem to have been a 
development from the orthographic projection well repre- 
sented in the map of Johannes Stabius (Fig. 45) who ap- 
pears to have been the first to give the method prominence. 
In addition to the projections mentioned there were many 
modifications, to suit the notions of the draughtsmen, which 
were employed in the early sixteenth century.* With the 
fuller realization of the fact that the earth is a sphere, the 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

desire accurately to represent in the maps its spherical sur- 
face continued to seek for expression, an expression that 
would do least violence to the fact that the degrees of lati- 
tude and longitude vary in length, particularly those of 
longitude as one passes from the equator toward the poles 
or from the poles toward the equator. If the earth is a 
sphere then why could a map so draughted as truly to repre- 
sent the surface of a sphere not be counted the most accept- 
able? This must have been the argument of those who 
especially applied themselves to the designing of maps suit* 
able for a sphmcal surface, that is, for application to a 
globe balL 

Who first conceived the idea of fashioning globe gore 
maps we do not know. Fiorini cites evidence^* that Fran- 
cesco Rosselli (1445-1510), a printer of large and small 
maps in Florence, included in his productions gore maps to 
be used in globe construction, and this probably before the 
year 1507, but none of his work of this character has come 
down to us. The so-called Waldseemuller gores are the old- 
est known, of which but erne copy is extant.^^ By some they 
are thought to have been c(xistructed for his glc4)e to which 
he refers in his 'Cosmographiae Introductio,' but they are 
unsigned and undated. They are somewhat crude and much 
manipulation would be required to fit them to the surface 
of a sphere. Before the first quarter of the sixteenth cen- 
tury had passed other globe gore maps made their appear- 
ance, such as those undoubtedly the work of Schoner or 
of the Schonerian school, or such as the gores of Boulengier^ 
exquisitely engraved and printed, thou^ so far as we know 
never used in covering the surface of a sphere. 

The artist Albrect Durer (1471-1528), as we are in- 
formed, was one of the earliest to set himself to the solu- 
tion of the problem having to do with the development of 
a spherical surface into a flat surface, yet he never seems 
to have thou^t an exact mathematical solution possible. 
It was a problem, he realized, in which there could be but 

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an approximate solution. In trying to illustrate what he 
thought to be the nearest approach to the same he found 
himself led to the idea of the globe gore.^' Of his illustra* 

SkSnedd hJntri^UitqnmimifdpdntStqudafiB 
fjdi ^^rMcs£qumoSuM$ temds bMt. Pomrd ardm 
mpiimdttnm in h^aUtrum extttAm o, pcaiiieM 
trdnfmittisf^ia^diic 4mm q r. Dr mdc ex h frcimut 
cinmimuHopur^Jtdtn'mdkaptsm nuenkt.Tim 
twrfm due dremmt^t^ kdieinceps^donec in c iiuintim 
fknit* Dtiniein mdrfftem dkenm trdnsfir circinun 
idmmdpofHownopcdiJm idkamexHnddi^dt^ilbc 
iKCdnum $UfTtmtrffiino4icamd pdrifxffuiaqni 
qiidrmmcsit*D€mdeexdfron»k€tmotHm^ 
timnntdntumdkaromdr^ncficimns.iidenim€pc$di 
HrumetMdemcepspromaneduieeddp deuencrkyu 
hMk duodetim pdkespdpyri, qnSglotodptt cireSm 
pomrt potm$,qitdnquil9fp€me propter f^£r£ eodrm 
Odimmnomvhi^perdtii.SedidemiffrebdKdmiB 
gffo neffto qm exerekdiuipoteri^ 




Utmctlcnfc 



Fig. 134. Globe Gores of Henricus 
Glareanus, 1527. 

tion, he said, ''Die sphera oder ein Kugel wenn man sie 
durch jr mittag linien zerschneydet, und in Planum legt, so 
gewinnt sie ein Gestalt eines Kam, wie ich das hie hat 
auffgerissen.'' "Should one divide the sphere or ball on the 

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liae of the equator and lay this out as a plane, one has 
the figure of a comb, as is here shown." Diirer worked out 
a simple rule for the construction of the globe biangles," 
which rule served measurably well for the purpose intended. 
While it would not be inappropriate to give here a resume 
of his foraiula, as well as the formulae of others who set 
themselves to a like task, we should in so doing be carried 
into a field rather more technical than seems fitting for our 
purpose." 

Two years after Durer had published his observations on. 
this subject Henricus Loriti Glareanus (1488-1551) issued 
a small treatise on geography," devoting his Chapter XIX 
bearing title *De inducendo papyro in globo' to globegore 
construction. He proposed the employment of twelve gores 
or biangles (Fig. 134) so arranged for printing that the 
shorter diameter of each should represent 30 degrees of 
longitude, the sum therefore representing 360 degrees or 
the equatorial circumference of the globe they were intended 
to cover; the longer diameter of each gore representing the 
semicircumference of the globe and extending from pole to 
pole, that is, a meridian. We do not know that his formula 
for gore construction was closely followed by any globe 
maker of the period, nor does Glareanus himself appear to 
have attempted a practical application of his method, at 
least we have no evidence that he ever actually attempted 
to construct a globe. He, however, had made an important 
contribution toward the solution of the problem of how 
best to multiply these instruments which were increasingly 
recognized as of great value in geographical and astronomi- 
cal studies. The general method of gore map making rapidly 
found favor despite such practical difficulties, for example, 
as arose from the peculiarity inseparable from the quality 
inherent in any and all paper, that is, its irregular expansion 
when moistened. This difficulty the globe makers, of course, 
were continually seeking to overcome or reduce to a mini- 
mtmi, as the years passed, through a careful selection of 

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paper to be used, through a more skilful manipulation of 
the paper made moist by the application of the paste or 
glue employed in attaching the map to the surface of the 
sphere/^ and through a more careful working out of the 
mathematical problem having to do with the proper pro- 
portions of each of the gores. 

Durer had proposed the employment of sixteen segments, 
WaldseemuUer, Schoner, Boulengier, and Glareanus had 
thought twelve a more suitable number. As the years passed 
we find a preference manifesting itself now for twelve, 
now for sixteen, now for eighteen, twenty-four, or thirty- 
six with a more common preference for the smaller number. 
The several bian^es for the maps alluded to above were 
fashioned to extend from pole to pole in what we may call 
the equatorial system; Mercator, as has been noted, intro- 
duced the novel idea of truncating his gores twenty degrees 
from each pole, preparing as a covering for the remaining 
polar space a circular disc, having the required diameter of 
forty degrees." This plan he proposed for the practical 
reason that a paper covering for a sphere so constructed 
could be applied with greater ease and with greater accu- 
racy than one consisting of complete biangular figures, re- 
membering the tendency of the paper to expand and the 
difficulty in avoiding folds. 

As there was much inclination among map makers to 
experiment in the matter of map projection so there was an 
inclination to experiment, as the years passed, in the matter 
of design for the globe gores. In the so-called Da Vinci 
gores we find them drawn in two groups of four each (Fig. 
135), and instead of the globe biangle we have the globe 
equilateral triangle. Their application to a spherical surface 
could only have been made with difficulty, if at all; indeed 
we cannot be certain that in so outlining a map of the world 
the draughtsman's intention was to use it in globe construc- 
tion. The plan seems never to have been followed by any 
of the other map makers, or by any globe maker. We find an 

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4^ 

c 

C 
^ P 

O 4^ 

IS 
§^ 

CO 



CUD 



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The Technic of Globe G)nstruction. 

interesting early instance in which the gore map construction 
was clearly employed merely as a method for plane map 
making, a method having certain very commendable fea- 
tures (Fig. 136). The author of this map is unknown. 

In referring to unusual forms in gore construction atten- 
tion may again be called to the map of Alcmso de Santa 
Cruz and to that of Antonius Florianus, in which maps the 
plan was hemispherical/* the central point in the construc- 
tion of each hemisphere, a northern and a southern, being 
the pole, the circumference of the circle in which the thirty- 
six gores were drawn, representing the equator. But again 
we do not know that such a gore map was ever employed in 
^obe construction though the method, it seems, would lend 
itself to that end. 

It can be readily understood that numerous modifications 
in the matter of globe-gore construction and their applica- 
tion to the surface of the sphere, more or less detailed in 
character, were introduced as the years passed, but the modi- 
fications were by no means at all times in the line of im- 
provement.*® The technical skill of the present day does not 
surpass that which one occasionally finds exhibited in the 
work of some three hundred years ago. 

In the matter of geographical record terrestrial globe 
maps stand with the plane maps of the same period. While 
they are by no means as numerous as the plane maps, there 
attaches to them an importance no less historically signifi- 
cant. Not infrequently diey give us records not to be found 
elsewhere. In their general features, differences can hardly 
be said to exist between plane maps and globe maps. In the 
matter of adornment there is similarity; each following the 
practice of the time when constructed. As pictures and 
legends hold a place of prominence, particularly on mediae- 
val maps,** so even to tfie close of the period we have had 
imder consideraticm, that is, the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, these adornments have place on globe maps, sometimes 
few, sometimes many, the same, if in picture, exhibiting the 

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inhabitants of land and sea, if merely a legend, giving 
information of geographical importance on the terrestrial 
globe and of astrcmomical importance on the celestial, these 
legends being often placed in an artistic cartouch. 

To the printed or engraved globe map, ccdor was generally 
added by hand with an effect often very artistic, in contrast 
with which the modem machine methods of ccdor printing 
are deplorably crude. 

On most terrestrial ^obe maps meridian circles are repre- 
sented at intervals of ten, twenty, or thirty degrees, the 
prime meridian on which the degrees of latitude are marked 
being usually made very conspicuous, and to the close of the 
period under consideration usually made to pass through the 
Cape Verde Islands or the Canaries, a point always to be 
carefully noted in attempting to get a reading for the Icxtigi- 
tude of any particular place. Parallels are usually drawn at 
intervals sknilar to those of meridians, the equator on which 
the degrees of longitude are marked, the tropics, and the 
polar circles being always conspicuous. The ecliptic or 
zodiac is usually indicated encircling the globe from the 
solstitial point on the tropics, intersecting the equator at 
the two opposite equinoctial points, through which as 
through the solstitial points the colures are made to pass. 

Hues states that ''Those lines which a ship, following the 
direction of the Magnetic Needle, describeth on the surface 
of the Sea, Petrus Nonius calleth in the Latin Rumbos, 
borrowing the appellation of his Countrymen the Portugals; 
which word, since it is now generally received by leamed 
writers to express them by, we also will use the same," that 
is, rhumbs or rhumb-lines. 

These were represented on the globe, first by Mercator, 
by greater or lesser circles or "winding lines," and were 
intended to be of aid to seamen in navigating from port to 
port across the great oceans. In their representation on the 
globe map cognizance was taken of the fact that all merid- 
ians of all places pass through both poles, crossing the 

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Fig. 137. Portrait of Johann Hevelius (Hevel). 



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The Technic of Globe Construction. 

equator therefore at ri^t angles and all other circles parallel 
to it, and that if the navigator's course is in any other direc- 
tion than toward one of the poles he is continually changing 
his horizon and his meridian. The rhumbs as drawn were 
made to cut all meridians of all places at equal angles and 
to respect the same quarters of the world, that is, direction, 
whatever the horizcm. Rhumbs can represent great circles 
only when they coincide with the equator or with any 
meridian.** 

In the matter of draughting, printing, and mounting celes- 
tial globe gore maps the method employed may in gen- 
eral be said to be identical with that followed in terrestrial 
globe construction. It should, however, be noted that in 
pasting the gores on the surface of the sphere they were 
often so applied as to have their points or angles meet at 
the pole of the ecliptic, in what may be called the ecliptic 
system, instead of applying them to meet at the poles of 
the equator, the globe itself being generally so mounted 
as to revolve in the equatorial system, its poles of revolu- 
tion being attached to the meridian circle.** 

The figures of the several constellations were usually 
drawn with care, occasionally with high artistic taste, as 
those drawn by Hevelius (Fig. 137) and copied by (Jer- 
hard and Leonhard Valk for their celestial globes (Fig. 
138). The several stars represented on the map, the majority 
of them being either lettered or named, were usually from 
the first to the sixth magnitude, each represented in its pro- 
portional size, while an explanatory table for the several 
magnitudes was usually given on some ont of the gores. 
The stars and the figures of the several ccxistellations, let it 
be noted, were not made to appear on the surface of the 
sphere, with rare exceptions, in their relative location as 
diey appear to the ol^rver who beholds them from his 
position on the surface of the earth, but are reversed. To 
the astronomer the earth is but a point in space, to the lay- 
man, so far as mere appearance is concerned, it is the center 

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about which the starry heavens appear to revolve. With the 
pole (north for us in the northern hemisphere) as the center 
of the dial face the stars appear to move in a direction the 
reverse of that in which the hands of a clock are made to 
move. The astronomet, that is, the celestial globe maker, 
thinks of himself as placed beyond the vaulted heavens 
in which the stars appear to be located, and as looking down 
upon this vaulted dome as on the surface of his celestial 
globe. An illustration may here well serve us. As one ob- 




Fig. 138. Constellation Ursa Major. 

serves Ursa Major on any starry night, which constellation 
we commonly call the Great Dipper, the bowl of the dipper, 
which is located in the body and flank of the bear, leads 
in its apparent motion around the pole star, being followed 
by the handle of the dipper or the tail of the bear (Fig. 
139). On the surface of the celestial sphere, however, the 
position of bowl and handle was usually reversed, the con- 
stellation appearing as it would to the beholder who finds 
himself beyond the stars. Naturally the planets could not be 
represented on the surface of a solid celestial sphere; only 
in the armillary sphere or the orrery could they find place. In 
these instruments we generally find them represented, each 

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with its circle or orbit properly given, and relatively 
properly placed. 

In the ge<^raphical records as they appear on the several 
terrestrial globe maps, it is to be admitted that the authors, 
with rare exceptions, undertook to set down what they 
thought to be fact, shall we say the real tangible geographi- 
cal fact or facts. The maker of the star map, on the con- 
trary, clearly gave his imagination play, not in his attempt 
to mark in the proper location the several stars as they came 
to be known and catalogued, but in the draughting of the 
figures of the several constellations. The imaginative figures 
of the ancients, of Eudoxus, of Aratus, of Ptolemy and 
others survived throughout the period we have had under 
consideration, and to the forty-eight constellations of 
Ptolemy others from time to time were added until more 
than one hundred have been named and figured. In general 
the several constellations, as the various astronomers and 
makers of star maps have conceived them, may be said to 
be identical, while some of the names which have been pro- 
posed have been accepted but for a time only and then re- 
jected. Some of the groups to which names have been given 
have later been divided, thus giving rise to a new group 
name and to the draughting of an appropriate figure for this 
new group.** 

Attention has been called to certain suggested changes in 
the names of constellations as given by the ancients, as for 
example those suggested by the Venerable Bede, by Jo- 
hannes Bayer, by Julius Schiller proposing that biblical or 
Christian names should be substituted for pagan names, and 
for these changes there was of course suggested an appro- 
priate change in the figures for the several constellations. 
The proposal of Erhard Weigel has likewise been noted urg- 
ing a substitution of the several coats of arms or heraldic 
devices of the European dynasties for the figures which had 
been so long and so generally accepted. There seems scarcely 

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to be the need of stating that the names and figures of the 
ancients remain.*' 

A comparison of the work of the several artists who have 
set their hand to the drau^ting of figures for the numerous 
constellations is not without interest. Attention may here 
be directed in passing to the decidedly oriental cast of these 
figures as they appear on Arabic globes.** 

It is to be regretted that in the present very practical or 
scientific day the star map, wanting the figures of the con- 
stellations or giving them in but the faintest outline, has 
come to supplant the artistic and not imscientific creations 
of earlier years. 

The earliest references we have to globes, that is, to solid 
balls or spheres, make mention of their mountings, that is, 
to their encasing circles and their bases. The simplest mount- 
ing consisted of but a meridian and a horizon circle with 
probably a simple supporting base. The earliest spheres 
were doubtless made to revolve just as the globes of today, 
aroimd their polar axes which turn within sockets firmly 
attached to the meridian circle. This meridian circle of 
brass or wood was usually graduated from one to ninety 
degrees, that is, from the equator to the poles, and being 
adjustable relative to the horizon circle, a globe could be 
set with a polar elevation for any desired latitude. Those 
who have had occasion to refer to the construction and the 
uses of the globe more or less in detail, make mention of 
what they call its threefold position. In the first of these 
positions either pole may be at the vertical point, the equa- 
tor and the horizon being parallel or coinciding. This diey 
termed a parallel sphere. In the second position the equator 
and the horizon circle are set at right angles. This they 
called a right sphere. In the third position, which was 
called an oblique sphere, the pole could be set at any ele- 
vation from zero to ninety degrees, counting from the hori- 
zon circle. In illustration of this third positicm it may be 
said that for the latitude of New York City, the north pole 

[ 212 ] 



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Fig. 138. Constellation of Orion by Hevelius. 



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The Technic of Globe Construction. 

of the ^obc should be devated 40 degrees 48 minutes above 
this circle. 

More conspicuous by reason of its width and importance 
in the mounting of the globe than the meridian is the horizcm 
circle. It is through notches in this circle at the north and 
south points that the meridian circle passes, the notches also 
serving as gauges to keep the .meridian from inclining more 
to the (xie side of the horizon circle than to the other. On 
the upper surface of this circle there were usually represented 
several concentric circles, the same being either engraved 
thereon, if it were of metal, and printed or pasted thereon 
if of wood, just as the globe map proper which covered the 
surface of the sphere. The number of ccmcentric circles, and 
the inf ormati(»i carried in each, varied, nor was the order 
of the circles invariably the same. Those ^obes giving full- 
est information exhibit ten or more of these circles. That 
one which was innermost and next to the body of the ^obe 
was divided into twelve parts, each part carrying the name 
of one of the signs of the zodiac with its character, and each 
divided into thirty equal parts or degrees, these being num- 
bered by tens, as o, 10, 20, 30. Next to the circle of signs, 
always remembering that the order might vary, was that 
containing the calendar including the names of the months, 
as January, February, March, etc., the da3rs of the week 
being either distinguished by numbers or names. The old 
calendar was likewise usually given and so represented as 
to show the beginning of each month ten days earlier than 
in the new calendar. Here also were given the names of the 
church festival days. In the next circle were the names of 
the winds or directions, and first the Greek, Latin or Italian 
names of the ei^t, twelve or sixteen winds, as Greco, 
Libeccio, Ponente, Maestro, and next the names or initials 
of the thirty-two compass directions, the same generally in 
English or Dutch abbreviations. It may further be noted 
that a compass was often fixed in the horizon circle's upper 
face. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

A complete globe was further famiafacd widi a quadrant 
of altitude, ninety degrees in length, this being attadied at 
one end to the meridian drde, yet movable to any d^ice 
of die meridian, thou^ commonly set at the zenith. This 
quadrant served for measuring alritudcs or for finding am- 
plitudes or azimuths. 

The small hour dide,^ fitted to the meridian, its center 
being the pole and for us the north, was marked with the 
twenty-four hours of the day, each hour being again divided 
into halves and quarters. An index attadied to the axis of the 
^chc pointed out successively the hours as die globe was 
revolved. The use of this hour circle was to indicate the 
time of the successive mutations, including the rising and 
the setting of the celestial bodies and the time of thdr 
passing successively the meridians. 

As a compass was often set into the horizon drde so 
also we frequently find a large or small compass set into 
that plate which in certain globes was employed as a sup- 
port, tying togedier, as it were, the lower extremiries of the 
base columns." 

It will have been noted that die globes referred to in the 
preceding pages varied gready as to size, from the small 
ball representing the earth, and but a few centimeters in 
diameter, to be found in the center of those armillary spheres 
representing the Ptolemaic geocentric system, to the great 
^obe of Cormielli fifteen feet in diameter constructed for 
Louis XrV of France. With rare exceptions metal globes 
were made small in size. Those globe balls or spheres, in the 
construction of which a mould was employed, usually had a 
diameter under 50 cm., although we find some of them 
twice this size. Such spheres had the advantage of li^tness 
though often were frail in structure and liable to lose their 
perfect sphericity. 

In the matter of special oraamentadon or decoradon, to 
be observed in globe mountings, individual taste was given 
unlimited freedom to eagpress itself, and in certain instances 



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Fig. 140. Terrestrial Globe Gores by Johannes 
Oterschaden, ca. 1675. 



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The Technic of Globe Construction. 

it will have been noted that these mountings were exceed- 
ingly elaborate. 

Primarily we may say that globes were constructed for 
the usefiil purpose of promoting geographical and astro- 
nomical studies, generally recording the latest and best 
geographical or astronomical information and in form supe^ 
rior to that which coiild be set down on the plane map, but 
they also had a place of importance, secondary we may call 
it, on account of their decorative value. They came to be 
considered almost essential as adornments for the libraries 
of princes, of prosperous patricians, and of plodding stu- 
dents, and their mountings were often especially fashioned 
for the places they were to occupy. They seemed to lend an 
air of scholarly respectability; to suggest that their pos- 
sessors wished to pay, certainly a modicum of homage to 
the sciences which globes were calciilated to promote. 

A brief concluding word may well be added touching 
those globes which may of course be classed as celestial, 
but which are known as moon globes and planetariums 
or orreries. There could be no practical value in an attempt 
to set forth a map of the surface of the stars, nor of the 
planets while our knowledge is so limited, although Schia- 
parelli has undertaken, with measurable success, to map the 
surface of Mars," and it would be next in order to con- 
struct a Mars globe. Of the surface of our moon much is 
known and maps of it have been constructed, as indeed have 
been moon globes. We are infomied that about the middle 
of the seventeenth century the Danish astronomer, Heve- 
lius, who designed so successfully st^ maps, entertained the 
idea of constructing a moon globe,'^ but we do not know 
that he set his hand to the work. A century later it appears 
that the French astronomer La Hire actually completed a 
moon globe,*^ but it has been possible to obtain only the 
briefest reference to it. 

Tobias Mayer of Numberg, a contemporary of La Hire, 
set himself to the drau^ting of gore maps" intended for use 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in the manufacture of moon ^obcs. Mayer found employ 
ment in the Homann establishment of Numbeig, being re- 
garded as an exceedingly skilful drau^tsman, able to sketch 
<m his drau^ting sheet that which he saw thitni^ his tele- 
scope. His plan contemplated the making of twelve gores 
or segments, six for the northern half of the moon and six 
for the southern. His plan, of course, would enable him to 
represent but <me side of the moon, — ^that turned toward 
the earth, — althou^ it appeared that he contemplated the 
addition of two segments on which, in at least a frag- 
mentary manner, he was to represent what we may call the 
border of the opposite side of the moon. Mayer seems not 
to have completed his work, since we find nowhere an 
example of his finished product. 

It was not imtil near the dose of the ei^teenth that we 
again meet with an attempt to construct a moon ^obe and 
it seems that the task was accomplished by the Englishman, 
Jotm Russel. It was in the year 1796 that he proposed 
to raise by subscription the necessary funds for making his 
undertaking a success. His globe has a diameter of 12 
inches/* and was furnished with the necessary adjustable 
shield that the moon's waxing and waning could be repre- 
sented. That this moon globe was actually constructed, 
althou^ no copy has been located, we are informed by 
Wolf. Such attempts as were made in the nineteenth cen- 
tury with a good measure of success do not here call for 
consideration. 

It has been previously noted that the so-called globe of 
Archimedes may have been a sort of planetarium, and that 
during the middle ages such instruments were constructed 
and employed in astronomical instruction. None, however, 
have come down to us out of those early years. Astronomers 
of the seventeenth and ei^teenth centuries, as we know, 
made frequent use of planetariums, such for example as 
were constructed by the Dutch astronomer, Christiaan 
Haygens (1629-1695) for the illustration of planetary 

[216] 



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Fig. 141. Celestial Globe Gores by Johannes 
Oterschaden, ca. 1675. 



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Fig. 142. Engraved Sections for Globe Horizon Circle by 
Johannes Oterschaden, ca. 1675. 



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The Technic of Globe Construction. 

motion according to the Copcmican system. Each of the 
planets was represented in his machine by a small ball, 
attached to an arm, which could be made to move through 
an orbit around the sun. In the more complicated machines 
the several planetary moons, such as the moons of Jupiter, 
were represented and were made to perform their proper 
motions. 

In the ei^teenth century the instrument maker, George 
Graham (1675-1751), constructed a complicated planeta- 
rium, in honor of Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery (1676- 
1731), which he called an orrery. His machines, varying 
much in the character of construction, were especially popu- 
lar in the eighteenth century. The nineteenth century saw 
them frequently in use for purposes of instruction and the 
regret may well be expressed that for serious purposes they 
seem to have lost favor. 



NOTES 

1. See Fig. 56, 1, 116. 

a. Compare for example ilgi. 8 and 89. 

3. Consult the 'Fihrist' referred to in Chap. Ill, n. 4. 

4. Note such examples as the globe of Robertus de Bailly, I, 108, the 
Lenox globe, I, 72, the Nancy globe, I, 102, and the Morgan globe in the 
Metropolitan Museum, I, 200. 

5. See Fig. 3. 

6. See Fig. 43. 

7. See Apianus' Cosmographicus liber. 

8. As for example the World map of Meitator of the year 1538, an 
original copy of which may be found in the New York Public Library, 
also a copy in the Library of The American Geographical Society. 

9. D'Ave^ac, M. A. P. Coup d'oeil historique sur la projection des cartes 
de geographic. (In: Bulletin de la Society de Greographie de Paris. Paris, 
1863, pp. 274 ff.) ; Breusing, A. Das Verebnen der Kugeloberflache. Leipxig, 
1892 ; Zondcrvan, H. Allgemeine Kartenkunde. Leip2ig, 1891 ; Fiorini, M. 
Le proje2ioni dclle carte geografiche. Bologna, 1881. The literature rela- 
tiye to map projection is very extensive. 

10. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. pp. 93*102. 



11. See Fig. 32. 

12. See Fig. 40. 



[ ^17 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

13. Durer, A. Undenrcysung dtr Mcsung mit dcm Zifkel und Richt- 
scheyd, in Linien ebnen und ganzen Corporcn. Nurabcrg, 1525. 

14. Buchlf in, pp. 5 ff. 

14. Consult Gfinther. Erd- und Himmeliglobesi. pp. 7a-73; Kittncr. 
GcBchichte dcr Mathcmatik. Vol. I, p. 684. 

15. See Guntheri op. cit., chaps, vii, x, idi, ziii, ziy» with nunaerous 
references. 

16. Henrici Glareani poetae laureati de geogiaphia liber onus. Bttilrar, 
1527. 

17. There 11 an interesting bit of information given by Coronclli in 
his 'Epitome Cosmografica' relative to the making of an adhesive macerial 
for use in the mounting of globe maps. 

18. See Fig. 61. 

19. See Figs. S9 and 66. 

20. Such, for example, as might consist of xonal strips, one for the torrid, 
one for each of the temperate, and one for each of the polar zones. Such 
strips perhaps could not properly be termed gores. 

21. Pictures are a particularly striking feature of the cloister amp9 of the 
middle ages. The idea of such adornments may have come down from 
Greek or Roman days. Plutarch tells us in his 'Theseus' that "Geographers 
crowd into the edge of their maps parts of the world about which they 
have no knowledge, adding notes in the margins to the effect that only 
deserts full of wild beastt and impassable marshes lie beyond." Jonathan 
Swift, humorously referring to maps of the early period, writes: 

"So geographers in Af ric maps 

With savage pictures fill their gaps 

And o'er unhabitable downs 

Place elephants for want of towns." 
The early map makers as illustrators should be an interesting theme for a 
special monograph. 

22. Nonius, P. De arte atque ratione navigandi. Conimbriae, iy73» lib. 
II, c. zxi, zxiv ; Hues. Tractatus de Globis (Hakluyt Soc Pub.), pp. 127- 

147. 

23. For illustration of the method, see Fig. 89. 

24. Burritt, L. H. The geography of the heavens. New York, 18133; 
Allen, R. H. Star names and their meanings ; Wolf. Greschichte der Astrono- 
mic, pp. 188-191, 420-427: Olcott, W. T. Starlore of all ages. New York, 
1911. The literature relating to this particular branch of astronomy is 
extensive. Wolf, loc. cit., with references. 

26. See especially Fig. 13. 

27. See Fig. 121a. 

28. See Fig. 88. 

29. Wolf, R. Handbuch der Astronomic, ihre Geschichte und Litterator. 
Ziirich, 1893. pp. 451 ff.; Frobesius. Bibliognphie Selenogxaphoninu Helm- 
stadt, 1718. 

30. Hevelius, J. Selenognphiae sive Lunae descriptio. Danzig, 1647. 
pp. 492 ff . ; Beziat, L. C. La vie et Ics travaux de Jean H^v^lius. 

31. Lalande. Bibliognphie astronomique, "La ^ire.** 

32. Mayer, T. Abhandlung uber die Umwilzung des Mondes um acine 
Achsc und die scheinbare Bewegung der Mondflecke. Niirnberg, 175O; same, 
Bericht von den Mondskugeln, welche bei der kosmographischen Gteell- 

[218] 



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9J 






CUD 



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The Tcchnic of Globe Construction. 

flchaf t in Niirabeig aus ncuen Beobachtungen yerfcrtigt wcrdfn. Niirnbeigi 
1750. 

33. RuMcl, J. A dcflcription of the selenogniphia, an apparatus for ex* 
hibiting the phaenomena of the moon ; together with an account of some of 
the purposes to which it may be applied. London, 1797. In his effort to obtain 
funds for the construction of his globe he issued an announcement which 
he called a "Proposal for publishing by subscription a Globe of the Moon." 




[ 219 1 



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Bibliographical List 



THE following bibliographical list includes the works referred 
to in the body of the foregoing pages, with certain additions of 
those touching incidentally globe making and globe makers. It is a 
suggestive list* not one that can be called exhaustive. Practically all 
those works in which the subject of geography and of astronomy has 
been treated historically may be consulted with interest and profit. 

Aa, a. J. V. D. Biogniphiich Woordenbock dcr Ncdcrlanden. Haarlem, 

1852-1878. 
Abiaham bin Chijah. Liber df Sphacra. 1 105. MS. 
Abulfbda, I. E. I. Takwim al Boldan (Geogiaphy). Tr. by M. Reinaud 

into French. Paris, 1848- 1883- 
Adams, G. A treatise describing and explaining the constmction and the 

use of new celestial and terrestrial globes, designed to illastrate in the 

most easy manner the phenomena of the earth and heavens. London, 

1766. 

Astronomical and geographical essays. London, 1795. 

^A treatise on the construction of globes. London, 1769. 

Geometrical and geographical essays, containing a description of 

mathematical instruments. London, 1791. 
Akbbman, a. Globes celeste et terrestre de vingt-deux pouces. Upsala, 1766. 
Albbrtus Magnus (Albert of BoUstadt). Opeia omnia. Ed. by P. Jammy. 

Leyden, 1651. 21 vols. 
Alfonso X. Libros del Saber de Astronomia del Rey D. Alfonso X de 

Castilla. Ed. by Don Manuel Rico y Sinobas. Madrid, 1863-1867. 5 vols. 
Allbn, R. H. Star names and their meanings. New York, 1899. 
Allgbmbinb Dbutschb Bioobaphib. Leipxig. 

AlLOBMBINB OBOOBAPHISCHB EPHBMBBIDEN. See ZaCH, F. V. 

Amabi, M. Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia. Firen2e, 1868. 

Ambbican Scbnic AND HisiOBic pBESBBVATiON SoaETY. Fifteenth Annual 

Report. New York, 1910. 
Andbba, M. J. L. Zweifache Stemkugel oder Himmelskugcl. n. p, 1724. 
Annalbs db GioGBAPHiB. Paris, 1891 — . 

Annuabio Astbo-Mbtbobolooico con efemeridi nautichi. Venezia, 1881—. 
Anonymous. Treatise of the use of globes celestial and terrestrial. London, 

1647. 

[ 220 ] 



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Bibliographical List. 



Anonymous. W. J. BUcut Antheil an der Bcttimmung d^ Erdlangea. 

Stuttgart, 1875. 
Portnitt dc8 hommct ct dcs femmcs illustres par renaissance, n. p.» 

Aratus. The Phaenomena and Diosemia of Axatus. Tr. by J. Lamb. 

London, 1847. 
Archabolooia. London, 1865. 
Archer, G. M. Henry Hudson, the Navigator. (In: Hakluyt Society Pub* 

lications. London, i860.) 
Arco, C. di. Delle arti e degli artifici di Mantova. Mantova, 1857. 
Aristotle. De Coelo. Tr. by T. Taylor, with title On the Heavens from 

the Greek with copious elucidations. London, 1807. 
Arx, J. V. Geschichte des Kantons St. Gallen. St. Gallen, 1810. 
AscHBACH, J. Die Wiener Universitat und ihre Humanisten im Zeitalten 

Kaiser Maximilians I. Wien, 1877. 
AssEMANi, G. Globus coelestis cufico-aiabicus Velitemi Musei Borgiani. 

Patavii, 1790. 
AusLAND, Das. Stuttgart, 1828—. 
AvERDUNK, H. and Mullbr-Reinharo, J. Grerhard Mercator und die Greo- 

graphen unter seinen Nachkommen. (In: Petermanns Mitteillungen. 

Gotha, 1914. Erganzungsheft, Nr. 182.) 
AvEZAC, M. A. P. DE. Notice des d^couvertes faites au moyen ige dans 

rOcean Atlandque. Paris, 1845. 
Coup d'oeil historique sur la projection des cartes. (In: Bulletin de 

la Societe de Geographic. Paris, 1863.) 

-Martin Hylacomylus WaltzemuUer, ses outrages et ses collabora- 



teurs. Paris, 1867. 

-Sur un globe terrestre trouv^ i Laon, antcrieur i la dccouverte de 



rAm^rique. (In : Bulletin de la Society de Greographie. Paris, i860.) 
AzuRARA, G. E. DE. The Chronicle of the discovery and conquest of Guinea 
done into English by C. R. Beazley and E. Prestage. (In : Hakluyt Society 
Publications. London, 1896-1899. 2 vols.) 

Bacon, R. Opus Mains. Oxford, 1897. 

Baoia, J. DEL. Egnazio Danti cosmogiafo e matematico. Firenze, 1882. 

La bottega di Alesandro di Francisco Rosselli merciaje e stampatore 

(152s). Firenze, 1894. 
Del Baoia, J. Egnazio Danti cosmografo e matematico. Firenze, 1882. 
Baglione, G. Le vite de pittori, scultori, architetti et intagliatori dal pontifi- 

cato di Gregorio XIII del 1572 fino a tempo di Papa Urbano VIII nel 

1642. Napoli, 1753. 
Bailly, F. The catalogues of Ptolemy, Ulug Beigh, Tycho Brahe, Halley, 

Hevelius deduced from the best authorities. London, 1843. 
Bartholomasi, F. Erhard Weigel: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der mathe- 

matischen Wisscnschaf ten auf den deutschcn Universit&ten im XVI Jahr- 

hundert. (In: Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik. Leipzig, 1866.) 

[ "1 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Baudst, p. J. H. Leyen en wezken van Willem Jansz. Blmcn. UitgegeTcn 

door hct provincial Utrcchtsch genootschap van kunsten en wetemchappen. 

Utrecht, 1871. 
-Notice 8ur la part prise par Willem Jansz. Blaeu dans le determina- 
tion des longitudes terrestres. Utrecht, 1875. 
Baukr, L. a. Principal facts relating to the earth's magnetism. (In ; United 

States Magnetic Declination Tables and Isogonic Charts. Washington, 

1902.) 
Baumoahtker, J. Zwei alte Globen von Blaeu: Erdkvgel von 1599 und 

Himmcl-Globcn von 1603. (In : Das Ausland. Stuttgart, 1885.) 
Bayir, J. Uranometria, sive omnium asterismonim schemata quinquaginta 

et unum in totidem tabulis nova methoda delineata. Augustae Vindel, 

1603. 
Bbazlby, C. R. The Dawn of Modern Geography. London, 1897*1906. 

3 vols. 

Globe of 1593. (In: Royal Geographical Journal. London, 1904.} 

Prince Henry die Navigator. New York* London, 1895. 

See Gomez, E. 

——See Azurara, G. E. 

BsDA. Opuscula scientifica. Ed. by J. A. Giles. London, 1843. 

BsiOBL, W. Nachricht von eincr Arabischcn Himmelskugel mit Kufischer 

Schrift welche im Churfurstlichcn Mathematischen Salon zu Dresden 

aufbewahrt wirt. (In: Bodes Astronomischcs Jahrbuch fur das Jahr 180B. 

Berlin, 1808.) 
BsROER, H. Die geogiaphischen Fragmente des Eratosthenes. Leipzig, 1880. 
Entwickelung der Geographic der Erdkugel bei den Hellcnen. (In: 

Grenzboten. Leipzig, Jahrgang 39.) 
Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen. Leipzig^ 

1903. 

^Die geographischen Fragmente des Hipparchus. Leipzig, 1869. 

Bernardo, F. Biblioteca scriptorum Ordinis Minorum S. Francisci Capn- 

cinorum. Venctia, 1747. 
BiRTHOUD, F. Histoire de la mesure du temps par les horologes. Paris, 1803. 
Bbrtolotti, a. Artisti in relazione coi Gonzaga Signori di Mantova. 

Modcna, 1885. 
Beste, G. a true discourse of the late voyages of discovery, for the finding 

of a passage to Cathaya, by the northweast undeer the conduct of Martin 

Frobischer Grencrall. London, 1578. 
Beyer, J. Descriptio globi coelestis et terrestris nova ratione composuitL 

Hambuigi, 1718. 
B£zuT, L. C. La vie et les travauz de Jean Hevelius. Rome, 1876. 
BiON, N. L'usage des globes celeste et terrestre, et des spheres suivant les 

differens systemes du monde. Ed. by N. Bion (son). Paris, 1751. 

T he construction and principal uses of mathematical instruments. 

Tr. from the French by Edmond Stone. London. 1723. 

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Bibliographical List. 



BioN, N. TxaitI de la construction ct dct principaiiz usages des instruments 

dc math^matique. Paris* 17^, 
Blaxu, G. (W. J.) Institution astronomique dc Tusage dcs globes et spheres. 
Amstelodami, 1642. 

G uilielmi Blaeu institutio astronomica de usu globomm & sphaerarum 
caelestium ac terrestrium. Amsterdam, 1655. Ed. by J. Blaeu. 

-Tafelcn van de declinatie dcr sonne, ende dcr voomaemstc vastc 



sterren. Amsterdam, 1625. 
Blabu, J. Le Grrandc Atlas ou Cosmographie Blavtane. Amsterdam, 1663- 

1671. 12 vols. 
Blaoravb, J. The Mathematical Jewel. London, 1585. 
Blau, M. Memoires de la Soci^t6 Royal de Nancy. Nancy, 1836. 
Blundbviixb, T. Mr. Blundeville his Exercises. London, 1594. 
BoDB, J. K Astronomischcs Jahrbuch. Berlin, 1781-1826. 
BoLLBTTiNO DBLLA SoasTA Gbografica Italiano. Roma, 1868. 
BouROBAT, J. B. £tudes sur Vincent de Beauvais. Paris, 1856. 
BouiKB, £. G. Spain in America. New York, 1904. 
Brahb, T. Astronomiae^'instauratae mechanica. Noribergae, 1682. 
^Tychonis Brahc mathim: eminent: Dani opera omnia. Ed. by J. G. 

Schonvetteri. Francofurti, 1648. 

Epistolarum astronomicarum libri. Uraniburgi, 1596. 

Brandstaiixil, F. a. HeveFs Leben und seine Bedeutsamkeit. Danzig, i86i. 
BaxHAUT, £. An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages, Isidore of Seville. (In: 

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New York, 1912.) 
Brbusing» a. Gerhard Kremer, genannt Mercator, der deutsche Geograph. 

Duisbourg, 1869. 
^Leitfadcn durch das Wiegenalter der Kartographie bis zum Jahre 

1600. Frankfurt, 1883. 

^Das Verebnen der Kugelfliche. Bremen, 1893. 

BaiON, M. Tablettes astronomique ou abr^g^ elementaire de la sphere et 

des differens systemes, avec I'usage des globes. Paris, 1774. 
British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books. London, 1841 — . 
Britten, F. J. Old clocks and watches and their makers. London, 1899. 
Brown, A. The genesis of the United States. Boston and New York, 1891. 
BuDiNOSR, M. Ueber Gcrberts wissenschaftliche und politischc Stellung. 

Kassel, 1851. 
Bulletin of The American Geographical Society. New York, 1852—. 
Bulletin de la SoatTi de G£ographie d'Anvers. Anvers, 1876—. 
Bulletin de la SociiT^ de GiooRAPHiE de Paris. Paris, 1822 — . 
Bulletin de g^ographie historique et descriptive. Paris, 1894--. 
BuNBURY, E. H. History of Ancient Geography. London, 1883. 3 vols. 
BuRRiTT, L. H. The geography of the heavens. New Yoik, 1833. 

Campano da Novara, G. Liber de Sphaera; de modo fabricandi Sphaeram 
solidam; de compositione quadrantis; de quadtatura circuli. MSS. 13th 
Century. See Lalande. Bibliographic astronomique. 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Caniok, M. Vorlesungcn uber Geschichte der Mathcniatik. Leifizig, 18^ 
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Robertson, J. A. See Pigafetta. 
RoMMERicK. Spharologia, oder kurtze tJbersicht, wie sowohl die Himmel- 

als die Erdkugel beschaffen und zu gebrauchen. Lemgo, 1745. 
Rosenthal, L. Catalogue No. 100. Munchen, 1893. 

Auktions Katalogue der Bibliothek Lebris. Munchen, 1895. 

Royal Asiatic Society Pubucations. London, 1823. 

RuoE, S. Aus der Sturm- und Drangperiode der Geographic. (In: Zeit- 

schrift fur Wissenschaftliche Geographic. Wien, 1885.} 
^Abhandlungen und Vortrige zur Geschichte der Erdkunde. Dresden, 

1888. 
RuoE, W. Ein Globus yon Gremma Frisius. (In: Intemationaler Ameri- 

kanisten-Kongress, vierzehnte Tagung. Stuttgart, 1904.) 
RuscELLi, G. La Greogra£a di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrino nuovamente 

tradotto di greco in italiano. Venezia, 1561. 
^Espositioni et introduttioni universal! sopra tutta la Greogra£a di 

Tolomeo. Venezia, 1561. 
RussEL, J. A description of the selenographia. London, 1797. 

Sacco, B. De italicamm rerum varietate et elegantiae. Papiae, 1565. 
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Sandersonus, G. Tractatus de globis et eorum usu. London, 1594. 
Sandler, C. Die Reformation der Kartographie um 1700. Munchen, 1905. 

Die Anianstrasse und Marco Polo. (In: Zeitschrift der Gresellschaft 

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graphie. (In: Zeitschrift der Gresellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin. Berlin, 

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Vereins fur Erdkunde zu Leipzig. Leipzig, 1894.) 
Santarem, V. DE. Atlas compost de mappemondes et de cartes hydrogn- 

phique et historique depuis le XI* jusqu' au XIII* siecle. 

[24» ] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Santarbm, v. db. Notice sur plusienn moniimeiits geographiqacs incdttt. 

(In: Bulletin de la Societe de G^ognphie. Paris, 1847.) 
Sanuio, L. Gcogiafia di livio Sanuto diftinta in XII libri. Venezia, 1588. 
Savbuen» M. Dictionaire uniyersel de math^matique et physique. Parts, 1753. 

^Description et usage de la sphere et des globes. Paris, 1750. 

ScHAKZ, M. Greschichte der rdmischen Littentur bis zum Gresetzgebungs- 

werk des Kaisers Justinian. Miinchen, 1890. 
ScHBDLBR, J. An illustrated manual for the use of the terrestrial and 

celestial globes. New Yoik, 1875. 
ScHEFER, C. H. A. Le discours de la navigation de Jean et Raoul Pannen« 

tier. Paris, 1884. 
ScRBiBEL. Erlauterungen und Zusfttze zu den yoUstandigen Unterricht Tom 

Gebrauch der kunstlichen Himmels- und Erdkugel. Breslau, 1785. 
ScHEiK. Uber die Himmelsgloben des Anazimander und des Archimedes. 

Hanau, 1843. 
ScHiBR. Globus coelestis arabicus. (In : Zeitschrift fur Allgemeine Erdkunde. 

Vol. 16.) 
ScHiLLBB, J. Coelum stallatum Chrisdanum, ad majorum Dei omnipotentis 

sanctaeque ejus ecclesiae gloriam, obductis gentilium simularis eidem 

domino et creatori suo, postliminio quasi restitutum sociali opera Jo. 

Bayeri. Augustae, 1627. 
Schmidt, C. Histoire litteraire de I'Alsace ii la fin du XV* et au commence- 
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151S' 

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expeditS prazim eiusde ezpromctes. Nurenbergae, 1517. 

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quibus quicquid de primo mobili demonstrari solet, id universum prope 
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libris ac cards summa cura k diligentia collectum, accommodatum ad 
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congesta. Norinbeigae, 1551. 

[ 242 ] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bibliographical List. 



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[ 243 ] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes* 

with new translation and notes on the Globe hy Henry Stevens. Ed. with 
an Introduction and Bibliography by C. H. Coote. London, 1888. 

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size of the original, with explanatory text and key maps. New Brunswick, 
1906. 

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unique original, measuring 160 x 246 cm., in the Library of His Highness 
Prince Max von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsec, with explanatory text. 
Issued jointly with Professor J. Fischer. New York, 1907. 

-Marine World Chart of Nicolo de Canerio Januensis (ca.) 1502. 



Facsimile of the unique original, measuring 1 15 x 225 cm., in the Archives 
du Service Hydrographique de la Marine, with critical text. New York, 
1908. 

-Early Spanish Cartography of the New World with special reference 



to the Wolfenbuttel-Spanish Map and the work of Diego Ribero. (In: 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, 1909.) 
Genoese World Map, 1457. Facsimile of an original parchment manu- 
script measuring 42 x 81 cm., in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of 
Florence, with critical text. New York, 1912. 

-Willem Janszoon Blaeu. A sketch of his life and work, with an 



especial reference to his large World Map of 1605 reproduced in fac- 
simile of the unique original measuring 134 x 244 cm., in the Library of 
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tory text. New York, 1916. 

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Stobnicza, J. Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographiam. Krakow, 1512. 
Stoffler, J. De artificiosa globi terrestris compositions Marburg, 1537. 
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Stmabo. Geographia. Tr. by H. L. Jones. The Greography of Stiabo. New 

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Street, T. Astronomia Carolina: a new theory of celestial motions. London, 

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Stricker, a. Z. Zur Geschichte der Universitat Strassburg. Strassburg, 

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Bibliographical List. 



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[MS] 



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ViOKAUD, H. Histoire critique de la Grande Entreprife de Christophe 

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Wachsmuth. De Cratete Mallota. Leipzig, i860. 

Waoenaer, L. J. Spieghel der Zeevaert van de navigatie der westersche 

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Waoner, H. Lehrbuch der Geographic. Leipzig, 1903. 
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Beschreibung der yerbcBMiten HimmeU- und Erdgloben. Jena, 1681. 

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Cruz, Cosmografo Mayor des Kaisers Karl V mit der spanischen Original 

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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes* 

Sphere, and Orrery exemplified in a Taricty of problems in Astronomy. 
London, 17^3- 
WuoHT, T. The Use of the Globes or the general doctrine of the Sphere. 
London, 1740. 

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Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. London, 1903. 2 vols. 

Zach, F. v. Monatliche Korrespondence. Gotha, 1806. 

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ZiDLEK, J. H. Grosses Univcrsal-Lezikon aller Wissenschaften and 

Knnste. Leipzig-Halle, 1745. 
ZEiTSCBun DEE Gesellschar fur Erdknnde zn Berlin. Berlin, 1866 — ^. 
Zeitscbeir fue Mathematik ukd Phtsik. Leipzig, 1856 — . 
ZEiTscHEin DE^ Veeeinb FUE Hessischb Geschichte ukd Landeskumdb. 

Kesscl, 1834— 

Zeitscheifi fur Wisscnschaftliche Geographic. Weimar, 

ZiwotMBLt A. Martin Behaim, der geistige Entdecker Amerikas. Dresden, 

1859. 

^Regiomantanns, ein geistiger Vorlanfer des Columbus. Dresden, 1874. 

ZiBGLEEus, J. De sphaerac solidac constnictionc. Basilac, 1536. 
ZiMMEEMANN, J. J. Coniglobium noctumale stelligerum seu conus Actrola- 

bicus geminus. Hamburg, 1704. 
ZiMMBEMANN, M. Couiglobium. Le Globe celeste transporte sur deux 

cones. Hambourg, 1770. 

Hans Muclich und Herzog Albrecht V. Munchen, 1885. 

ZocKLEE, O. Geschichte der Bezichungcn zwischen Thcologie und Nature 

wissenschaft. Gutersloh, 1877. 
ZoNDEEVAN, H. Allgcmcine Kartcnkunde. Leipzig, 1901. 



[248] 



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Index of Globes and Globe Makers 



TABLE including alphabetical list of globe makers, the location 
of individual examples, the kind of globe indicated by asterisk 
(*) whether terrestrial (Ter.)^ celestial (CeL)^ armillary sphere 
(Arm.)f the date of the globe {Date)^ the diameter expressed in 
centimeters (Diam.)^ and where mention has been made in the text, 
a reference to volume and page (^.^., II, 185). 



Ter. 

Adams, Dudley (fl. 1797)> H* 1S5. 
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 

11,186 ♦ 

American Geographical Societj, New 

YoriK, II, 186 ♦ 

Adams. Gkorob, Siu (fl. 1760), II, 184. 

British Museum, II, 185 * 

British Museum, II, 185 * 

Adams, Gkoroe, Jr. (i750-i795)f II> 185. 

University Library, Bologna, II, 186 * 

Royal Library, Madrid, II, 186 * 

Capodimonte Observatory, Naples, II, 186 * 

Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 186 * 

Classense Library, Ravenna, II, 186 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 185 * 

AXBRMAN, AnDRRA (1718-I778). II, 179* 

Greographical Institute, Gottingen, II, 180 
Geographical Institute, Gdttingen, II, 180 * 
Astronomical Observatory, Milan, II, 180. . 

Albbrti, Gian Battisxa (fl. i675)> H* 9^* 
Atheneum, Brescia, II, 96 

Alsuh Abul Hassan (ca. 1000). 
See reference in text, I, 28 

Andreas, Johann (fl. 1720). 
City Historical Museum, Frankfurt, II, 140 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel * 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483) * 

[ H9 ] 



C£/. Arm. Date Diam. 



1797 46 
1797 46 



* 


1769 


46 


* 


1772 


46 




1782 


46 




1782 


46 


* 


1782 


46 




1782 


46 


« 


1782 


46 


* 


1782 


46 


♦ 


1759 


30 




1779 


30 


* 


1766 


59 




♦ 1688 


1 


* 


1 


1 


* 


1717 


45 




172^ 


25 


* 


1726 


14 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



TVn 

Anonymous (not otherwise listed^-Anmnged 
alphabetically according to locality). 

Royal Museum, Cassel * 

Royal Museum, Cassel 

Cusani Palace, Chignolo, II, 163 * 

References in the 'Fihrist,' I, 28 

Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166 

Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166 

Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166 

Laurentian Library, Florence, I, 166 

National Library, Florence, I, 166 

National Library, Florence, I, 166 * 

Musce Ariana, Geneva 

Communal Library, Imola, II, 164 * 

Episcopal Seminary, Ivrea, II, 164 * 

British Museum, London * 

Record Sixth International Geographical 

Congress, London * 

Library Sir A. W. Franks, London * 

Ambrosiana Library, Milan, II, 66 

Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 97 . . . 
Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 97 . . . 
Royal Bavarian Court and State Library, 

Munich, I, 177 (numerous examples) .. * 
Library W. R. Hearst, New York, II, 92 
The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 192 * 

Metropolitan Museum, New Yorit, I, 201 
Library Professor David E. Smith, New 

York (Italian) 

library Professor David E. Smith, New 

York (French) 

Library Professor David £. Smith, New 

York (Italian) 

Library Professor David £. Smith, New 

York (Arabic) 

Library Professor David E. Smith, New 

York (Arabic) 

Library Professor David E. Smith, New 

York (German) 

Library Professor David E. Smith, New 

York (French) 

Library Professor David £. Smith, New 

York (Hindu) 

[ 250 ] 



C#/. Afim. Dan Diam. 



* 




1725 


7 


* 




1725 


5 


« 




1725 
1 


120 






1575 


32 






1575 


23 






1 


f 


« 




1575 


10 


* 


* 


1575 
1600) 


S 
f 






1744 


50 






1744 


50 






1590 


25 


* 


* 
* 

* 


1580 
1569 
1650 
1689 
1 


f 
f 

f 
f 


* 


« 


% 


f 


« 




1700 1 


90 






1800 


21 


« 




1575 


8 




♦ 


17c 


16 




« 


17c 


8 




« 


17c 


11 


« 




17c 


21 


* 




17c 


15 




* 


18c 


9 




* 


18c 


6 




m 


18c 


10 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ter^ 

Library Professor David £. Smith, New 

York (Italian) 

Library Professor David £. Smith, New 

York (Japanese) 

Grerman National Museum, Numberg . . . 
German National Museum, Numberg ... 
German National Museum, Numberg ... * 

National Library, Paris, I, 106 * 

National Library, Paris, I, 107 * 

Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 129 
Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 16^ . . * 

Communal Libraiy, Siena, II, 164 * 

Collection John Wanamaker, New York . 
Collection John Wanamaker, New York . 
Communal Library, Savignano, II, 164 . . . * 

Communal Library, Siena, II, 163 * 

Communal Library, Siena, II, 120 

Library Professor Tono, Venice, II, 179 . . ♦ 
Libraiy Admiral Acton, I, 79 * 

Apianus (Bbnbwitz), Petbh (1495-1552), I, 
176. 
See reference in text, I, 176 * 

Apianus (Bsnbwitz), Phiup (fl. 1575), II| 
178. 
Royal Bavarian Library, Munich, II, 178. * 

AXCHIMEDSS (287-212 B. C). 

See reference in text, I, 15 

Atlantb Farnese (250 B. C. ca.)* 

National Museum, Naples, I, 15 

Bailly, Robbrtus (fl. 1525), I, 105. 

Libraiy J. P. Morgan, New Yorit, I, 106 * 

National Library, Paris, I, 105 * 

B. F. 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 215 

Barrocci, Giovanni Maria (fl. 1560), I, 165. 

Lancisiana Library, Rome, I, 165 

Basso (Piuzzoni or PsixicaoNi), Fran* 
CBSco (fl. 1560). 

National Library, Turin, I, 163 * 

Bathsta, Giovanni, da Cassinb (fl. 1560). 

Sec reference in text, II, 121 * 

Beraim, Martin (1459-1506), I, 47. 

German National Museum, Numberg, I, 
48 ♦ 

[^51 ] 



C//. Arm, DatelDiam. 



18c 



18c 


22 


16c 


14 


1686 


11 


17c 


42 


1575 


12 


1575 


21 


1074 


1 


1575 


70 


1744 


45 


17c 


150 


17c 


30 


1744 


50 


1730 


120 


1690 


66 


1756 


% 


^ 


^ 



1576 


118 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1530 


14 


1530 


U 


1600 


12 


1570 


36 


1570 


17 


1700^ 


^ 



1492 50 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



7Vr. CtL Arm. DaU Duam, 



BZLOA, GUILIELMUS NiCOLO (fl. 1600). 

Bodcl Nycnhuis, Leyden (gores) * 

Bbnci» Carlo (fl. 1660), II, 79. 

Palace Prince Massimo, Rome, 11, 80 ... . * 
Bbmbo, Pietro (1470-1547). 

See reference in text, I, 120 ♦ 

Bbyer, Johann (fl. 1720). 

Royal Museum, Cassel * 

BioN, Nicolas (1650-1733), II, 152. 

Malvezzi Library, Bologna, II, 153 

Technical Institute, Florence, II, 153 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 154 * 

Blaeu, Willbm Jansz. (1571-1638), II, 18- 
44- 

MuUer, Frederick, Amsterdam, II, 27 * 

MuUer, Frederick, Amsterdam, II, 27 

Communal Library, Fano, II, 27 * 

CoRununal Library, Fano, II, 27 

Libraiy Dr. Baumgartner, Gottingen, II, 
26 ♦ 

Libraiy Dr. Baumgartner, Gdttingen, II, 

26 

University Library, Gdttingen, II, 26 * 

Libraiy Adam Kslstner, Gottingen, II, 27 * 
Library Adam Kastner, Gottingen, II, 27 

University Library, Leiden, II, 27 * 

University Library, Leiden, II, 27 

German National Museum, Numberg, II, 

27 * 

German National Museum, Numberg, II, 

27 * 

Grerman National Museum, Numberg, II, 

27 

Grerman National Museum, Numberg, II, 

27 

Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27 * 

Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27 * 

Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27 

Angelica Library, Rome, II, 27 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 30 * 

City Library, Numberg, II, 30 * 

German National Museum, Numberg, II, 

30 ♦ 

[ 252 ] 



1603 


f 


1671 


120 


1547 


f 


1718 


30 


1710 


^ 


1712 


f 


1712 


1 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1603 


34 


1599 


34 


1599 


34 


1603 


34 


1603 


34 


1602 


24 



1602 



1602 24 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Tir. I Cei. 



Arm, Date Diam, 



German National Museum, Numberg, II» 

30 ♦ 

Concordia Academy, Royigo, II, 30 * * 

City Library, Rudlingen, II, 30 * 

British Museum, London, II, 31 * * 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II. 30 * 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 30 * * 

MuUer, Frederick, Amsterdam * "* 

Public Library, Aquila, II, 44 * 

Astronomical Observatory, Bologna, 11, 43 ''^ * 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 44 * 

Episcopal Library, Chioggia, II, 44 * * 

Communal Library, Como, II, 44 * 

Astronomical Observatory, Florence, II, 41 * * 

Technical Institute, Florence, II, 44 * 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

11,44 ♦ * 

Mission Brothers, Genoa, II, 44 * 

Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 44 ... . * * 

Royal Estense Library, Modena, II, 43 . . * * 

National Library, Naples, II, 44 * * 

The Hispanic Society of America* New 

York, 11,44 * 

City Library, Numberg, II, 43 * 

German National Museum, Numberg, II» 

44 * 

Library Reichsgraf Hans v. Oppersdorf* 

Oberglogau, II, 43 ♦ 

Conmiunal Library, Palermo, II, 42 * * 

Gambalunga Library, Rimini, II, 42 * * 

Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 42 * * 

Chigi Library, Rome, II, 44 * * 

Scuole Pie, Savona, II, 44 * * 

Marco Foscarini Liceum, Venice, II, 44 . . * * 

City Museum, Venice, II, 44 * 

Quirini Pinacoteca, Venice, II, 44 (2 

copies) ♦ * 

Library Count Francesco Franco, Vicenza, 

11,44 ♦ * 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 44 * * 

British Museum, London, II, 44 * 

British Museum, London, II, 44 (gores) . . * 

[ ^53 ] 



1602 


24 


1602 


M 


1602 


M 


1606 


13 


1606 


13 


1616 


10 


1616 


10 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1622 


67 


1640 


76 


1640 


24 


1640 


60 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes- 

Ttr. I CeL \Arm. \ Dau\Diam. 

Geographical Institute, Utrecht * 1640 67 

Royal Library, Madrid * * 1640 67 

BoDB, JoHANN Elert (i747-i826). 

German National Muaeum, Nfimberg ... * 1790 32 
BONNB, RiOOBBIlT (i737-i795)> II» i8i- 

See reference in text, 11, 181 * 1771 31 

Astronomical Observatory, Palermo, II, 

181 * * 1779 3> 

Library Mrs. C. L. F. Robinson, Hartford * 1779 3i 

Geographical Institute, Gdttingen, II, 18a * * 1779 31 
BoNiFAaus, Natoli (1550-1620). 

See Gunther (E. u. H. GU p. 68) * 1552) 9 

BORSAKI, BOMIFACIUi (fl. I760). 

City Museum, Modena * 1764 18 

BouLBNOin, Louii (fl. I5i5)- 
Public Library, New Yoxk, I, 79 * 1518^ 11 

BONCOMPAGNI, HmONYMO Dl. 

See reference in text, I, 165 * 1570 29 

Brahs, Tycho (1546-1601), I, 183. 

See references in text, I, 185 * * 1584 150 

BucHUN Globb (WaldscemailerY). 

See reference in text, I, 71 * 1509 Y 

BChlir, Jambs A. (fl. 1790). 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat 483) ... * 1795 10 

BOnau, Hbnry. 

See reference in text, I, 67 * 1507^ ' 

BuBoi, JosT (1552-1633). 

Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196 (numerous 
examples) * * 1585 9 

Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196 * 1582 72 

Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196 * 1592 72 

Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 196 * 1592 72 

BuiCH, Amd&bas (fl. 1650). See also Olxa« 
Bius, Adam, and Goxxorp, II, 73. 

National Museum, Copenhagen, II, 74 . . . * 1657 120 

Tsarskoe Selo Castle, II, 74 * * * 1664 441 

Cabot, John (fl. 1495). 

See reference in text, I, 53 * 1497^ 1 

Caissar bbn Abul Alcasbm (fl. 1225). 

National Museum, Naples, I, 29 * 1225 22 

Campano, Giovanni da Novara (fl. 1300). 

See reference in text, I, 42 * 1303^ 1 

Caraffa, Giovanni (fl. 1561). 

See reference in text, I, 152 * 1575 66 

[ 254 ] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



7Vr. 

Cartaro, Mario (fl. 1575), I, 167. 
Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

I, 168 

Ltbranr Mr. Reed, New York, I, 168 ... . * 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 168 .... * 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 168 .... 

Cartiua, Caxmblo (fl. 1720). 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 154 .... 

Gary, William (1759-1825), II, 194. 
Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleve^ 

land 

Library Lorenzo Novella, Loano * 

British Museum, London * 

Library Vittorio Bianchini, Macenta, II, 

194 * 

Library Vittorio Bianchini, Macerata, II, 

194 (2 copies) 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 194 ... . * 
Library Count Vespignani, Rome * 

Cassini, Giovanni Maria (fl. 1790), 11, 192. 

Communal School, Ancona * 

Communal School, Ancona 

Liceum, Arpino * 

Liceum, Arpino 

Maletesta Library, Cesena * 

Maletesta Library, Cesena 

Communal Library, Crevalcuorc * 

Communal Library, Crevalcuore 

Collection John Wanamaker, New York * 

Cathedral library, Perugia * 

Cathedral Library, Perugia 

Nautical Institute, Palermo * 

Nautical Institute, Palermo 

Episcopal Seminary, Rimini * 

Episcopal Seminary, Rimini 

Astronomical Museum, Rome * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome 

Episcopal Seminary, Vigevano * 

Episcopal Seminary, Vigevano 

Caitlxmainb, Earl of (Room Palmir) 
(1634-1705). n. 94- 
University Libnry, Cambridge, II, 94 ... . * 

CAuaoH, R. P. Michabl (fl. 1725)* 
German National Museum, Nftmberg ... * 

[ ^55 ] 



Cil, \Arm. Dau Diam. 



* 


1577 


16 




1577 


16 


* 


1577 


16 


4r 


1577 


16 



1720 





1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1799 


54 




1790 


34 




179a 


34 




1790 


34 




179a 


34 




1790 


34 




179a 


34 




1790 


34 




179a 


34 




* 179a 


34 




1790 


34 




1792 


34 




1790 


34 




1792 


34 




1790 


34 




1792 


34 




1790 


34 




1792 


34 




1790 


34 




1792 


34 




1679 


29 




1726 


17 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes- 



Ter. CeL Arm, Datt Dutm, 



Cbltbs, Conrad (1459-1508). 

See reference in text, I, 54 

Chignolo Globb. 

library Marquis Cusani, Chignolo 

Cocco, Jacomo (fl. 1575). 

See reference in text, I, 152 

Columbus, Christophbb (1451-1506). 

See reference in text, I» 52 

See reference in text, I, 52 

Columbus, Bartholomew (1460-1514). 

See reference in text, I, 53 

Corokblu, p. Vincbnzo (i650-i7i8)» II, 98. 

National Library, Paris, II, 100 

Episcopal Seminary, Aversa, II, 1 14 

City Library, Bergamo, II, 111 

Communal Library, Bologna, II, 114 

State Archives, Bologna, II, 1 14 

Convent Osservanza, Bologna, II, 114 ... 

Library Professor Liuzzi, Bologna, II, 114 

Royal Library, Brussels, II, 114 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, ill 

Communal Library, Faenza, II, 111 

Communal Library, Fano, II, 1 1 1 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

II. 114 

City Mission, Genoa, II, 1 14 

British Museum, London, II, 114 (gores). 

Gonzaga Library, Mantua, II, 111 

Astronomical Observatory, Milan, II, 114 

Brancascia Library, Naples, II, 1 14 

National Library, Naples, II, 1 14 

University Library, Naples, II, 111 

National Library, Palermo, II, 1 14 

Antonian Library, Padua, II, 1 14 

Library Count Manin, Passeriano, II, ill. 

Classense Library, Ravenna, II, 114 

Cathedral Library, Reggio, II, 114 

Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 1 18 . . 

Lancisiana Library, Rome, II, 114 

Academy of Sciences, Turin, II, 114 

Marciana Library, Venice, II, ill 

Patriarchal Seminary, Venice, II, 114 .... 
Civic Museum, Venice, II, 114 (3 copies). 
Communal Library, Vicenza, II, 114 

[256] 



* * 


1495^ ^ 




1731 130 




1575 « 




1480) f 




1501? 1 




I480I 9 


* * 


1683 475 


* * 


1688 110 


♦ ♦ 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 




1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


♦ • 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 




1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* « 


1688 no 


* 4c 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 




1688 no 




1688 no 


* * 


1688 no 


« * 


1688 no 


4t * 


1688 no 




1688 no 




1688 no 




1688 no 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



7>r. 



CeL Arm, DaU Diam. 



Episcopal Seminary, Avena, II, 1 14 

City Museum, Grenoa, II, 1 14 

British Museum, London, II, 1 14 

National Library, Paris, II, 1 14 * 

Academy of Sciences, Turin, II, 114 .... 

Library of Congress, Washington, 11, 112 

Episcopal Seminary, Finale, II, 118 

National Library, Florence, II, 118 

Franzoniana, Genoa, II, 1 18 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 
York, II. 115 

German National Museum, Numberg, II, 
118 

Communal Library, Perugia, II, 118 

Certosa, Pisa, II, 118 

Certosa, Pisa, II, 118 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 118 .... 

City Museum, Trieste, II, 1 18 

Marucellian Library, Florence, II, 118 .. 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig 

library Sr. Remigio Salotti, Modena, II, 
118 

Certosa library, Perugia, II, 118 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 1 18 ... 

Library Giovanni Bargagli, Rome, II, 118 

Victor Emanuel Library, Florence, II, 118 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (gores) 

British Museum, London, 11, 119 (gores) 

Royal library, Madrid 

See reference in text, II, 1 19 

Atlante Veneto of Coronelli, II, 119 

(small globes) 

C08TA, GiAN FiANCBSCO (fl. i775)t Ilf 179. 

Conununal library, Cagli, II, 179 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 179 .... 

library Sr. Fronzi, Senigallia, II, 179 ... 

University library, Urbino, II, 179 

Crates (fl. 150 B. C). 

See reference in text, I, 7 

Cruz, AloǤo db Santa (1500-1572), I, lai. 

Royal Library, Stockholm, I, lai (gores). 
Danti, Ionazio (1537-1586), I, 158. 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, FlorencCt 
I, 162 

[257] 



1693 110 

1693 110 

1693 110 

1693 110 

1693 110 

1693 no 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1699 48 

1696 48 

1696 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1699 48 

1704 364 

1754 20 

1754 ao 

1754 20 

1754 20 

2C ^ 

1542 39 



1567 200 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Tir, CiL Arm, Date Duam, 



Set reference in text* I, 162 

Dasypodius, Conrad (1532-1600), I, 173. 
Strassburg Cathedral Clock, Strassburg, I, 

175 * 

Db Burs. See Gilt Globb, I, 96. 

DsLAMARCHB, Charlbs Framcois (i740-i8i7)» 
II, 190. 
Patriarchal Obtenratory, Venice, 11, 190 . * 
Mission Brothers Convent, Chicri, II, 190 
Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483) ... * 

National Library, Milan, II, 190 * 

Charles Albert liceum, Novara, II, 190 . . * 

Nautical Institute, Palermo, II, 190 * 

Palace Sr. Scaramucci, S. Maria a Monte, 

II. 191 

Physics Museum, Siena, II, 190 * 

Patriarchal Observatory, Venice ♦ 

Dbuslb, Guiixaumb (1675-1726), II, 138. 
Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

II, 140 * 

Royal Library, Madrid, II, 141 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 140 * 

Db Monobnbt, Franqom (fl. iSSo), 1$ 147- 
Library Count Pilloni, Belluno, I, 150 . . . * 
British Museum, London (12 gores), I, 150 * 
New York Public Library, New York (12 

gores), I, 148 * 

Grerman National Museum, Numberg, I, 

148 ♦ 

British Museum, London (12 gores), I, 150 * 
Library Prince Trivulzio, Milan, I, 150 . . * 

National Library, Paris, I, 150 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 150 .... * 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 150 .... 
Dbsnos, L. C. (fl. 1750), II, 178. 
Spallanzani Liceum, Reggio Emilia* II, 

178 

See reference in text, II, 178 * 

Library Marquis Costerbosa, Parma, II, 

179 * 

Spallanzani Liceum, Reggio Emelia, II, 

178 * 

Library Alberoni College, Piacenza, II, 179 * 

[258] 



1567 200 



1574 82 



1785 


48 


I79I 


18 


1791 


18 


179" 


18 


1791 


18 


1791 


18 


1791 


^ 


1791 


30 


1791 


18 


1700 


32 


1700 


32 


1709 


16 


1552 


9 


15P 


9 


15P 


9 


1552 


9 


1560 


9 


1560 


9 


1560 


9 


1560 


9 


1560 


9 


1750 


22 


1753 


^ 


1754 


26 


1760 


22 


1772 


26 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ter, CiL Arm, Datt Diam, 



Dbur, Johannes (fl. 1725). 

Frederick MuUer (Cat. Maps and Atlases), 

Amsterdam * 

DoNDi, Giovanni (fl. 13^0), I, 136. 

See reference in text, I, 136 

DOPPBLMAYR, JOHANN GaBUBL (167I-I750), 

II, 159. 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, H. 162 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 160 

City Library, Nnmberg, II, 160 

German National Musum, Numberg, II, 

160 

Physics Museum, Pavia, II, 162 

Cathedral Library, Verona, II, 162 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162 

Greographical Institute, Gottingen, H, 162 
German National Museum, Numberg (4 

copies), II, 162 

Library of Congress, Washington 

German National Museum, Nfimberg, II, 

162 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 160 

DuRBE, Albibcht (1471-1^). 

See reference in text, I, 88 

Edrisi (1099-1164). 
See reference in text, I, 27 

ElMMART, GbOBGB CrBISTOPHER (1638-I7O5), 

II, 122. 

See reference in text, II, 122 

City Library, Bergamo, II, 124 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 122 .... 
Elcano, Sbbastun (fl. 1520). 

See reference in text, I, 82 * 

EuDoxui (fl. 366 B. C). 

See reference in text, I, 15 

Emmosbi, Gbbhard (fl. 1575), I, 179. 

Metropolitan Museum, New York, I, 179 
Fabnbsb, Atlantb. 

National Museum, Naples, I, 15 

Fabbb, Samuel (i657-i7i6). 

German National Museum, Nurnberg . . . 

[ ^59 ] 



1720 6 
♦ 14c 1 

1728 32 





1728 
1728 


32 
32 


* * 

* * 


1728 
1728 
1728 
1730 
1730 


32 
32 
32 
20 

20 


* * 


1730 
1730 


20 
20 


4t * 


1736 


20 


« 4c 


1736 


20 


* * 


1515 


^ 




♦ I2C 


1 


4t • * 


♦ 1695 
1705 
1705 


30 
30 


* 


1526 


^ 


* 


% 


^ 


* 


1579 


13 


* 


3CB.C 


65 


♦ 


1705 


48 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



TVr. Cel. Arm. DaulDutM. 



Ferguson, James (1711-1776), II, 168. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, 

II. 171 ♦ 

Karl Hierscmann, Leipzig * 

Tbe Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 169 * 

Communal Library, Palermo, II, 171 * 

Meteorological Observatory, Syracuse, II, 



171 



Fbrrsri, Giovanni Paolo (fl. i6oo), II, 44. 

Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 44 

Barbarini Library, Rome, II, 44 

FiUBBiiTO, Emanublb (fl. iS7S)f h 165. 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 165 * 

Fzx>iUANUi, Antonius (fl. 15^0), I, 150. 

Harvard University Library, Cambridge, 
I. 152 (36 gores) ♦ 

Library Professor Giovanni Marinelli, 
Florence, I, 151 (36 gores) ♦ 

New York Public Library, New Yoxk, I, 

152 (36 gores) ♦ 

British Museum, London (36 gores), I, 

153 * 

Library Baron Nordenski61d, Stockholm, 

I. 152 (36 gores) * 

Victor Emanuel Library, Rome (36 gores), 

I. 151 * 

City Library, Treviso (36 gores), I, 151 . . * 
State Archives, Turin (36 gores), I, 151 . . * 
Marciana Library, Venice (36 gores), I, 

151 * 

library of Congress, Washington (36 

gores), I, 152 ♦ 

FoRTiN, Jean (1750-1831), II, 184. 

See reference in text, II, 184 * 

Convent of Mission Brothers, Chieri, II, 

184 

Communal Library, Corregio, II, 184 .... 
The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 184 

Dorian Liceum, Novi, II, 184 

FiACASTORo, GiROLAMO (i6th Cent.). 
See reference in text, I, 136 * 

[260] 



1783 7 

1782 7 

1782 7 

1782 7 

1728 7 

160a 23 

1624 39 

1575 28 





tsss 


V 




iSis 


V 




IS§S 


25 




iSSS 


V 




iSSS 


V 




tsss 

iSSS 






iSSS 


V 




tsss 


V 




1 


1 


* 
* 




33 
33 


* 


* 1780 
1780 


33 
23 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



3^ 

Fmiius, Gemma (i5o8-1565), I, 102. 

See reference in text, I, 102 * 

Frandsceum Grymnasinm, Zerbst, I, 103 . . * 
Franciaceum Grymnasiuin, Zerbst, I, 105 • . 

FUKTIMBACH, MiATIN (fl. 1 52$). 

See reference in text, I, i lO * 

Gb&bbu (Pops Silvbstir II) (fl. looo). 

See reference in text, I, 38 

Gessner, Abraham (15P-1613), I, 199. 

Library S. J. Phillips, London, I, 218 . . . * 

Museum des Cordeliers, Basel (3 goblets), 
I, 201 

Wolf egg Castle, Wolf egg, I, 199 * 

National Museum, Ziirich, I, 200 * 

GiANELu, Giovanni (fl. 15^)* It 135- 

Ambrosiana Library, Milan, I, 135 

Gilt Globe. 

National Library, Paris, I, 96 ♦ 

GlOBDANI, VlTALE (1633-I7II), II, 120. 

Lancisiana Library, Rome, II, 120 

Glaeeanus, Heneicus (i488-i550> Ih 203. 

See reference in text, II, 203 (globe gores) 
Globus Mvndi. 

See reference in text, I, 72 ♦ 

GoNZAOA, GuEzio (fl. i55o), I, 154- 

See reference in text, I, 154 * 

Goos, Abeaham (fl. 1640), n, 66. 

Library Marquis Borromeo, Milan, II, 67 * 
GoROEp Globe. 

See BuscH, Anmleas, and Olbaeius, Adam. 
Geandi, p. Feancesco (fl. i75o)> U, 179- 

See reference in text, II, 179 * 

Geeen Globe. 

National Library, Paris, I, 76 ♦ 

Geeutee. Mattheus (i564-i^)> Ih 54- 

Library Communal School, Ancona, II, 59 * 

Library Communal School, Ancona, II, 59 

Communal Library, Bassano, II, 60 * 

Library Count Piloni, Belluno, II, 60 ... . * 

Library Count Piloni, Belluno, II, 60 .... 

Communal Library, Bologna, 11, S9 * 

Communal Library, Bologna, II, 59 

Library General Antonio Gandolfi, Bo- 
logna, II, 60 * 

[261 ] 



CiL Arm. Datt Diam. 



1530 
1530 
1537 

1535 
* 1000 

* 1595 

* 1600? 

* 1600^ 

i6oof 



1549 14 

1527 33 

1690 9 

1527 

1509 ^ 

1561 203 

1648 44 

1755 21 

1515 M 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Ter. 



CeL Arm, \ Date \Diam. 



library General Antonio Gandolfi, Bo- 
logna, II, 59 

Atheneum, Brescia, II, 60 

Communal Library, Carmarino, II, 59 ... 
Communal Library, Carmarino, II, 59 . . . 

Episcopal Seminary, Carpi, II, 59 

Physics Museum, Catania, II, 60 

Communal Library, Fabriano, II, 59 .... 

Communal Library, Fabriano, II, 59 

Agabiti Museum, Fabriano, II, 59 

Agabiti Museum, Fabriano, II, 59 

Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 59 

Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 59 

Library Santa Maria Nuova, Florence, II, 

59 

Library Santa Maria Nuova, Florence, II, 

59 

Joseph Baer, Frankfurt, II, 59 

Joseph Baer, Frankfurt, II, 59 

Library Sr. Luigi Belli, Genga, II, 60 ... 

Communal Library, Gubbio, II, 59 

Communal Library, Gubbio, II, 59 

Governmental library, Lucca, II, 59 • - . - 
Governmental library, Lucca, II, 59 • • • • 

Gonzaga library, Mantua, II, 59 

Gonzaga library, Mantua, II, 59 

Private library, Matelica 

Private Library, Matelica 

University library, Messina, II, 59 

University library, Messina, II, 59 

National library, Milan, 11, 59 

National library, Milan, II, 59 

City library, Modena, II, 59 

City library, Modena, II, 59 

Ludwig Rosenthal, Munich 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York. 11,55 

Physics Museum, Padua, II, 59 

Physics Museum, Padua, II, 59 

Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 59 

Episcopal Seminary, Padua, II, 59 (2 

copies) 

Communal library, Palermo 

Communal library, Palermo 

[262] 



1636 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1^ 50 

1636 50 

1^ 50 

1632 50 

1^6 50 

1^ 50 

1636 5^ 

1^ 50 

1696 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1^ 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1696 50 

1632 50 

1696 so 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 

1632 50 

1636 50 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ter, 


Cel. Arm, Dau\ 


Diam. 


Palatin Library, Parma, II» 59 




1632 


50 


Palatin Library, Parma, II, 59 




• ida6 


50 


Capitulary Library, Rcggio, II, 59 




1632 


50 


Capitulary Library, Reggio, U, 59 




* 1636 


50 


Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 59 




1632 


50 


Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 59 




* 1636 


50 


VvctOT Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 59 • • • 




1632 


50 


Victor Emanuel Library, Rome, II, 59 • • • 




♦ 1636 


50 


Mercantile Marine library, Rotterdam . . 




1632 


50 


Communal Library, Sanseverino, II, 59 . . 




1632 


50 


Communal Library, Sanseverino, II, 59 . . 




♦ 1636 


50 


Library Canon, Luigi Belli, Treviso, II, 60 




1632 


50 


Library Canon liuigi Belli, Treviso, II, 60 




♦ 1636 


50 


State Archives. Venice. IL 60 




1632 
♦ 1636 


50 
50 


Cbiffi Liibrarv^ Rome. II. W 




Communal Library, Serra S. Quirico, II, 




60 




* 1636 


50 


Library W. B. Thompson, Yonkers, II, 60 




• 1636 


50 


Private Librarv. Ancona. IL 61 


« 


* 1638 
1638 


50 
50 


Epiteopal Seminary, Macerata, II, 61 . . . 


* 


Library Count Conestabile, Perugia, II, 61 




♦ 1638 


50 


Library Cav. Carlotti, Piticchio, II, 61 .. 


* 


* 1638 


50 


Episcopal Seminary, Toscanella, II, 61 . . . 


* 


♦ 1638 


50 


Joseph Baer, Frankfurt 


* 


* 1695 


50 


Episcopal Library, Benevento, II, 63 ••• 


« 


* 1695 


50 


Technical Institute, Casale Monserrate, 








IL 63 


« 


* 1605 


50 
50 


**• WQ .•.•••■•.••**•••....•......••■.. 

Communal Library, Ferrara, II, 63 




* 169^ 


Technical Institute, Florence, II, 63 


♦ 


ifiSi 


50 


Badia of Santa Maria, Gretta Ferrata, II, 








63 




* i<i9/ 


50 
50 


Communal Library, Imola, II, 63 


« 


Episcopal Seminary, Ivrea 




* i6qc 


50 


The Hispanic Society of America, New 




•^^j 


York, II, 6a 


* 


* 1695 


50 


Communal Library, Osimo 




* 1695 


50 


Communal Library, Palestrina 


« 


♦ 1695 


50 


Communal Library, Savignano, II, 63 • • • 




1695 


50 


Cathedral Library, Pescia 


« 


1695 


50 


Habrbcht, Isaac (fl. 1625), II, 50. 








Communal Library, Asti, II, 53 


* 


* 1619 


21 


Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 53 




* 1625 


21 



The Hispanic Society of America, New 
York, II, 50 ♦ 

[263I 



1625 21 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Ter, Cel, lArm, Date Diam, 



German National Museum, Numbeig, II« • 



53 



Communal library, Sondrio, II, 53 

Hahn. p. G. (1739-1790). 

Herman National Museum, Numberg - . • 

Hartmamm, Gborob (fl. 1535)> I» ii7 

Hauer. Johamn (fl. 1625). II. 53* 

National Museum, Stockholm, II, 53 .... 
Hauslab Globes. 

Library Prince Liechtenstein, Menna, I, 
75 (13 gores) 

Library Prince Liechtenstein, Vienna, I, 75 
Hbydbn, Christian (1526-1576), I, 156. 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 156 

Hbroldt, Adam (fl. 1650), II, 64. 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 65, 
Hill, Nathakibl (fl. 1750), II, 187. 

British Museum, London, II, 187 * 

New York Public Library, New York, II, 
188 ♦ 

National library, Paris, II, 187 * 

HipPARCHUs (fl. 160 B. C). 

See reference in text, I, 19 

HOMANN, JOHAKN BaPTISTA (1663-I727), U, 

154. 

German National Museum, Numberg ... * 
See reference in text, II, 154. 

HOKTER, JOHANN (fl. I540). 

See reference in text, II, 93 * 

HoNDius, Hbnricus (1580-1644), II, 18. 

Quirinal Library, Brescia, II, 18 * 

Episcopal Seminary, Portogruaro, II, 18 . . * 

City Museum, Vicenza, II, 18 * 

HoNoius, JoDocus (1546-1611), II, 4. 
German National Museum, Niimberg, II, 

4 • 

Library Sr. Giannini, Lucca, II, 8 * 

Library Henry E. Huntington, New York, 

II.4 * 

Municipal Museum, Milan, II, 9 * 

Episcopal Seminary, Rimini, II, 1 1 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

11.13 

Barbarini library, Rome, II, 13 * 

[264] 



1625 


21 


1625 


21 


1780 


^ 


1620 


^ 


1515 


37 


1515 


37 


1560 


7 


1649 


13 


1754 


7 


1754 


7 


1754 


7 



2cB.C. ^ 



1715^ 7 



1542 



« 


1640 


53 


« 


1640 


53 


* 


1640 


53 


* 


159a 


60 


* 


1600 


34 


♦ 


1600 


34 


* 


1601 


21 


* 


1601 


21 


* 


1613 


SS 


* 


1613 


5S 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



TVr. 



CeL Arm. Date Diam, 



City Library, Treviso, II, 13 ♦ 

Library Sr. Lessi, Florence, II, 14 (Rossi) * 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 14 

(Rossi) 

Private Dutch Collection, II, 68, n. 12 . . . * 
German National Museum, Numbeiief, II, 

15 * 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York,II, 14 * 

Ibrahim Ibn Said-as-Sahli (fl. 1075), I, 28. 
Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

1.28 

Jaillot, Chaklbs Hubbet Alexius (1640- 
1712). 
German National Museum, Nflmberg ... * 
Jaoblloxicus. 

Jagellonicus Library, Cracow, I, 74 * 

Japanbsb Globb. 
Library Professor David £• Smith, New 
York 

JoNSSONIUi, JOHANN (fl. l620), II, 66. 

library Leiden University, Leiden, II, 66 
(gores) * 

See reference in text, II, 66 ♦ 

Julius II, Pope (1503-1513). 

Sec reference in text, I, 62 ♦ 

Vatican Observatory, Rome, I, 62 

Kbulbn, Johann van (fl. 1675), II» 66. 

Marine School, Rotterdam, II, 66 (Blaeu, 

1599) ♦ 

Klinger, Johann Gborob (fl. 1790). 

History Museum, Frankfurt ♦ 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483) . . . 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig (Cat. 483) ... * 
Ko-Shun-King (fl. 1250). 

Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 129. 
Lane, N. (fl. 1775). H, 183. 

British Museum, London, II, 183 * 

Laon Globe. 

City Library, Laon, I, 51 * 

Lalande, Joseph Jerome le Fban^ais (1732- 
1807). II> 181. 

Astronomical Library, Palermo, II, 182 . . 

[265] 



1613 55 

1615 21. 

1615 21 

1615 21 

1618 34 

1618 21 

1080 20 



1700^ 


41 


* I5I0 


7 


1600Y 


10 


1621 


12 


1 


^ 


1504 


95 


1504 


95 



1682 34 



1792 


25 


1790 


331 


179a 


331 


1274 


194 


1776 


7 


1493 


16 


1779 


32 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



7>n 

L'ficUY, ABBt. 

National library, Paris, I, 188 * 

Lbgrand, p. (fl. 1720). 

College of Dijon, Dijon (see Laland, Bib. 

Astr.) ♦ 

Lbnoz Globe. 

New York Public library. New York, I, 

74 * 

Lbontius Mbchanicus (fl. 550). 
See reference in text, I, 21 

LiBU, FKANCBSCO DAI. 

See reference in text, I, 100, 136 * 

Liechtenstein Globe. 

See reference in text, I, 77 * 

LuD. Sem. (unknown). 

library Sr. Lissi, Florence, II» 45 

Maccari, Giovanni (fl. 1685), 11, 96. 

Liceum, Reggio Emelia, II, 96 

Magellan Globe. 

See reference in text, I, 81 * 

Maria, Pietro (fl. 1745), U, 165. 

Episcopal Seminary, Casale, II, 166 * 

Municipal library, Alessandria, II, 166 .. * 
Martyr, Peter (1455-1526). 

See reference in text * 

Maurouco, Francesco (i494-i575)* 

See reference in text, II,. 167 

Mercator, Gerhard (i5i2-i594)t Ii 124- 

Convent Adamont, Adamont, I, 133 * 

Royal library, Brussels, I, 127 * 

Royal Library, Brussels, I, 131 

Governmental library, Cremona, I, 133 . . * 

Governmental library, Cremona, I, 133 . . 

German National Museum, Nfimberg, I, 

133 * 

Grerman National Museum, Nlimberg^ I, 

133 

Astronomical Observatory, Paris, I, 133 . . * 
Astronomical Observatory, Paris, I, 133 . . 
library Marquis Gherardi, Piato, I, 133 . * 
library Marquis Gherardi, Prato, I, 133 . 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 134 (2 

copies) * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 134 

[266] 



C//. \Arm. Date Diaau 



1578 25 



1720 


190 


1510 


13 


^ 


% 


1529 


1 


1515 


37 


1612 


20 


1689 


16 


1519 


% 


1745 


60 


1751 


105 


1514 


1 


1575 


^ 


1541 


41 


1541 




1551 


41 


1541 


41 


1551 


41 


1541 


41 


1551 


41 


1541 


41 


1551 


41 


i54i 


41 


1551 


41 


1541 


41 


1551 


41 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



City Archives, St. Nicolas, I, las * 

City Archives, St. Nicolas, I, 133 

Monastery Library, Stams, I» 133 * 

Communal Library, Urbania, I, 134 * 

Communal Library, Urbania, I, 134 

Imperial Library, Vienna, I» 133 * 

Imperial Library, Vienna, I, 133 

Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 133 • • - * 
Mbssier, Charles (1730-1817). II> 183. 
Machiavellian Liceum, Lucca, II, 184. .... 

City Library, Numberg, 11, 184 

Meteorological Observatory, Parma, II, 

184 

Physics Museum, Siena, II, 184 

Monastic Library, Subiaco, II, 184 

MioT, ViNCBNZO (fl. 1700), II, 143- 

Marco Foscarini Liceum, Venice, II, 143 . 
Mohammed ben Helal (fl. 1275), I, 29. 

Royal Asiatic Society, London, I, 29 

Mohammed bbn Muwajid al Oedhi (fl. 
1275). I. 30. 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 30 

Mohammed, Diemat Eddin (fl. 1575)* It 31 • 

National Library, Paris, I, 31 

Moll, Herman (fl. 1700). 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 170 * 

MoLYNEuz, Emery (fl. 1590). I» 190. 

Royal Museum, Cassel, I, 195 (Sanderson) * 

Middle Temple, London, I, 190 * ' 

M0NACHU8, FRAMascui (fl. 1525)» It 9^ 

See reference in text, I, 96 * 

MoRDEN, Robert (fl. 1700), II, 156. 

British Museum, London, II, 156 * 

MoRONCELU, Silvester Amantius (1652- 

i7i9)» n, 83. 

Mardana Library, Venice, II, 83 * 

Alessandrian Library, Rome, 11, 84 * 

Alessandrian Library, Rome, II, 84 

See reference in text, II, 92 (2 or more). . ♦ 

Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 92 

Communal Library, Fermo, II, 86 * 

Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 88 * 

Etruscan Academy, Cortona, II, 93 

[267 ] 



Ce/. Arm. Date Dsam. 



1541 
1551 
1541 
1541 
1551 
1541 
1551 
1541 



1780 31 

1780 3t 

1780 31 

1780 31 

1780 31 

1710 23 

1275 ^ 

127? 14 

1573 15 

1703 8 





1592 


66 


* 


159a 


66 




1525 


^ 




1683 


35 


♦ 


1672 


200 




1679 


89 


« 


1660 


89 


« 


1690 


26 


* 


1710 


27 




1713 


194 




1715 


80 


* 


1715 


80 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Ter, 

Casanatense Library, Rome, II, 89 '^ 

Casanatense Library, Rome, II, 90 

M. P. 
Vallicellian Library, Rome * 

MoxoK, Joseph (1627-1700), II, 124. 

See reference in text, II, 126 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel * 

MuTH Brothers (fl. 1720). 
Royal Museum, Cassel 

Nancy Globe. 
City Library, Nancy, I, 102 * 

Newton, George (fl. 1780). 
Astronomical Observatory, Padua *■ 

NoLLET, Jean Antoine (1700- 1770), II, 157. 
Library Count Fenaroli, Brescia, II, 1^9 . . * 

Maldotti Library, Guastalla, II, 1^9 * 

Maldotti library, Guastalla, II, 159 

Episcopal Seminary, Mondovi, II, 159 .. * 
Episcopal Seminary, Mondovi, II, 159 . . 
Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 159 ... 

NORDENSKIOLD GORBS. 

library Baron Nordenskiold, Stockholm, 

1,77 ♦ 

Olearius, Adam (1600-1671), II, 73. 

See BuscH, Andreas, and Gottorp, II, 73- 
Ottbrschaden, Johann (fl. 1675). 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 214, 216 (gores), II, 214 '^ 

Outhier (fl. 1725). 

See reference in text, II, 143 

Parmentxer, Jean (fl. 1530). 

See reference in text, I, 99 * 

Plancius, Peter (15^-1622), II, 45. 

Stein Museum, Antwerp, II, 50 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 48 * 

Francisceum Grymnasium, Zerbst, I, 140 . . 

See reference in text, II, 50 * 

Pilot Globe. 

See reference in text, II, |3 * 

Platus, Carolus (fl. 1580), I, iSo. 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 
I, 180 

Barbarini library, Rome, I, 180 

[268] 



CiL Arm. Date Diam 





1716 


160 


* 


1716 


150 


* 


1600 


S5 


* 


1700^ 


^ 


* 


1700 


^ 


* 


1721 


4 




1540 


16 


« 


1787 


38 




1728 


35 




1728 


35 


4t 


1730 


35 




1728 


35 


* 


1730 


35 


* 


1730 


35 



1518 10 



* 


1675 12 


* 


1725^ ^ 




^ ? 


* 
* 


1614 26 
1614 26 
1614 26 



1606 1 

♦ 1578 20 
1598 14 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



P08IDONIU8 (fl. 260 B. C). 
Sec reference in text (Ptolemy 'Almagest') 

Prabtorius, Johannes (1537-1616), I, 158. 

See reference in text, I, 158 * 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 158 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 158 * 

German National Museum, Numberg, I» 
158 ♦ 

Ptolbmy, Claudius (fl. 150 A. D.), I, 5. 

See reference in text, I, 5, 19 * 

Public Library, Kahira, I, 28 

PUSCHNBR, JOHANN GeOROB (fl. I730), II, 
160. 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 162 

University Library, Gottingen, II, 162 .. * 
QuiRiNi Globb. 

See Grben Globb, I, 76. 
Ramusio Globes. 

See reference in text, I, 137 * 

RiDHWAN (fl. 1700). 

Imperial Library, Petrograd, I, 32 

Rinaldi, Pier Vincbnzo Dantb (fl. 1550). 

See reference in text, I, 158 

Roll, George, and Rbinholo, Johannes 
(fl. 1585). 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, I, 181 

Royal Library, Vienna, I, 181 

Astronomical Observatory, Naples, I, 182 
Rosa, Vincbnzo (fl. 1790), II, 191. 

University Library, Pavia, II, 192 * 

Foscolo Liceum, Pavia * 

ROSINI, PlElRO (fl. 1760), II, 180. 

University Library, Bologna, II, 180 ... . * 
RossBLLi, Francesco (fl. 1526). 

See reference in text, I, 64 * 

Rossi, Dominico. 

See Grbutbr, Matthbus. 
RovBRB, GiuLio Fblhuo dalla. 

See reference in text, I, i^ ♦ 

Rouen Gu>bb« 

See L'lkuY, Abb£, I, 188. 
Sanderson, Wiluam (fl. 1590). 

See MoLYNEux, Emery. 

[269] 



Cel. Arm. Date Diam. 



* 
* 


1566 
1566 
1568 


28 
28 
28 


* 


1566 


28 


* 

* 


* I^ 
1 


1 
1 


* 
* 

* 


1728 

1730 
1730 


28 
28 
28 


* 


1540 1 


1 


t^ 


1701 


19 




* ^ 


^ 


* 


1586 

i|88 
1589 


35 
21 




1793 
1793 


98 
98 




1762 


150 




1 


^ 




1575 


104 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Ter. 

Santa Cruz, Alonso db (1500-1572), I, 121. 

Royal Library, Stockholm, I, 122 * 

Santucci, Antonio (fl. 1590), I, 212. 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

I. 213 

Sanuto, Gxulio (fl. 1560). 

See reference in text, I, 154 * 

SCARABELLI, GlUSEPPB (fl. 1690). 

See reference in text, II, 12I * 

SCALTAGLIA, PlEmO (fl. I780), II, 188. 

See also Viani, Mattio La Venezia. 

Roberti Tipografla, Bassano, II, 189 * 

Eredita Bottrigari, Bologna, II, 189 

Communal Library, Brescia * 

Episcopal Seminary, Brescia, II, 189 

Communal Library, Cagli, II, 189 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 189 ... 

ScHXEPP, Christoff (fl. 1525), I, 108. 
National Library, Paris * 

ScHONER, JoHANN (i477-i547). If 82. 

City Library, Frankfurt, I, 84 * 

Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 84 * 

Library Wolf egg Castle (gores) 

German National Museum, Nambeig, I, 

86 * 

See reference in text, I, 87 * 

Grand Ducal Library, Weimar, I, 108 . . . * 
See reference in text, I, 108 

Senez, John (fl. 1740), II, 150. 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig * 

British Museum, London (12 gores) * 

British Museum, London, II, 152 * 

Royal Library, Madrid, II, 152 * 

National Library, Paris, II, 151 * 

Settalla, Manfredo (1600-1680), II, 65. 
Ambrosiana Library, Milan, II, 65 

Sbutter, Matiheus (1678-1756), II, 154. 
Communal Library, Macerata, II, 156 ... . * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 156 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 156 .... * 

See reference in text, II, 156 * 

University Library, Urbino, II, 156 

Library Professor Tono, Venice * 

[ 270 ] 



CeL Arm, D€Ue Diam. 



1542 



* >593 


22 


1561 


% 


1690 


188 


1784 


23 


1784 


23 


1784 


23 


1784 


23 


1784 


23 


1784 


23 


1530 


24 


1515 


27 


1515 


27 


1517 


f 


1520 


87 


1523 


% 


1533 


27 


1533 


27 


1 


40 


1720 


40 


1793 


40 


1793 


40 


1793 


40 


* 1646 


18 


1710 


23 


1710 


23 


1710 


23 


1710 


23 


1710 


23 


1710 


23 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ter. 

Spano, Antonio (fl. 1590), I, 201. 

Library J. P. Morgan, New York, I, 201 . . * 
Stampfer, Jacob (1505-1579). 

Sec illustration, I, 102 * 

Stofflbr, J0HANNX8 (1452-1531), I, 53. 

Liceum Library, Constance, I, 53 

German National Museum, Numberg . . . 
S1RAB0 (54 B. C.-24 A. D.). 

See reference in text, I, 8 * 

Thbodorus, Pbtbk (fl. 1590), II, 75. 

National Museum, Copenhagen, H, 75 

TiTON DU TlIXlT. 

See reference in text, I, 188 * 

ToRRiCELu, Joseph (fl. 1730), II, 165. 
Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

11.165 

T08CANELLI, Paolo (1397-1482). 

See reference in text, I, 52 * 

Tkansilvanus, Maximilian (fl. 1520). 

See reference in text ♦ 

Trefilxr, Chustophbr (fl. 1680), II, 94. 

See reference in text, II, 95 * 

Ulpius, EuPHROsiNUS (fl. i54o),J, 117. 
Library New York Historical Society, 

New York, I, 117 * 

Valk, Gerhard (1626-1720), II, 143. 

Physics Museum, Bologna, II, 150 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden, II, 150 

Grerman National Museum, Niimbeig, II, 

150 * 

University of Ghent, Ghent, II, 144 * 

Royal Museum, Cassel, II, 150 * 

Private Dutch Collection, Amsterdam .... * 
The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 144 * 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 144 * 

The Hispanic Society of America, New 

York, II, 144 * 

Frederick MuUer, Amsterdam (CaL maps 
and atlases) * 

[271 ] 



CeL \Arm, DaU Diam 





1593 


8 




♦ 1539 


1 


* 


1499 


48 


* 


1499 


48 




^ 


^ 


* 


1595 


^3 




1587 


% 




* 1739 


15 




1474 


1 




1522 


1 




* 1683 


1 




1542 


39 


« 


1700 


46 




1700 1 


23 


* 


1700 


30 


* 


1700 


30 


« 


1700 


30 


* 


1707 


30 


* 


1715 


46 




1745 


62 


* 


1750 


46 


♦ 


1750 


30 


* 


1750 


33 


* 


1750 


40 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



Tfr. 

Frederick MuUcr, Amsterdam (Cat. maps 
and atlases) * 

Valk, Leonhard (fl. 1700). 
See Valk, Gkrharo. 

Van Langren, Arnold Florentius (fl. 
1600). I, 204. 

See reference in text, I, 204 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, I, 205 .... * 

City Museum, Frankfurt * 

Royal Greog. Society, Amsterdam, I, 208 . * 

City Museum, Zutphen, I, 212 * 

University of Ghent, Ghent, I, 210 .... * 
Plantin-Moritus Museum, Antweip, I, 211 * 

National Library, Paris, I, 210 * 

Hiersemann, Karl, Leipzig * 

Van Lanoren, Jacob Florentius. 
See Van Langren, Arnold Florentius. 

Vaugondy, Giles Robert db (1668-1766), II, 
176. 

See reference in text, II, 176 * 

See reference in text, II, 177 * 

Palatin Library, Parma, II, 178 * 

Spinola Palace, Tassarolo, II, 178 * 

Quirini Pinacoteca, Venice, II, 178 

Patriarchal Observatory, Venice 

Royal Library, Caserta, II, 177 

Royal Library, Caserta, II, 177 * 

Governmental Library, Lucca, II, 177 ... 
Grovemmental Library, Lucca, II, 177 . . . * 

Veen, Adrian (fl. 1615). 
See HoNDius, Henricus. 

Vbldico, Willem (fl. 1510). 
See reference in text, I, 66 * 

Verbibst, Ferdinand (1623-1688), II, 131. 
Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 131 
Astronomical Observatory, Peking, II, 131 

Verrazano, Giovanni (fl. 1525), II, 98. 
See reference in text, II, 98 * 

VESPuca, Amerigo (1451-1512). 
See reference in text * 

VuNi, Matho di Venezia (fl. 1780), II, 188. 
See also Scaltaglia, Pietro. 

Roberti Tipografia, Bassano, II, 190 * 

Studio Sr. Bortognoni, Bologna, II, 190 . . * 

[ 272 ] 



CeL Arm, Date Diam, 



1750 24 



1580 32 

1585 33 

1594 29 

1612 53 

1612 53 

1616 53 

1625 53 

1625 53 

1630) 53 





1751 


48 




^ 


182 




1754 


23 




1754 


23 




1764 


48 




1764 


23 




1764 


23 




1773 


48 


* 


1764 


23 




1773 


48 



1507 



1674 
* 1674 


190 
300 


IW 


1 


» 


» 


1784 
1784 


20 
20 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ten 

Libiary Sr. Fcnaroli, Brescia, II, 190 ... . * 

Episcopal Seminary, Rimini, II, 190 * 

Astronomical Museum, Rome, II, 190 ... . * 

ViNa, Lbonardo da (1452-1519). 
Windsor Castle, I, 78 ♦ 

ViSBO, Cmdival (fl. 1545). 
See reference in text, I, 152 * 

VoLPAjA, GnoLAMO Camillo (fl. 1560), I, 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

I. W 

Museum of Ancient Instruments, Florence, 

I. 156 

VoLFi, Jos. Anionio (fl. 1660), II, 97. 

City Museum, Modena, II, 97 

VopEL, Caspar (1471-1561), I, 112. 

City Archives, Cologne, I, 1 13 

City Archives, Cologne, I, 1 13 

City Archives, Cologne, I, 1 13 * 

National Museum, Copenhagen, I, 1 14 ... 

Library of Congress, Washington, I, 115 . * 

National Museum, Washington, I, 113 .. 

Library Jodoco del Badia, Florence, I, 115 

City Museum, Salzburg, I, 116 

Library Sr. Frey, Bern, I, 116 

VuLPBs, Jos. Antonius (fl. 1685). 

Estense Library, Modena, II, 97 

Waldsumullbr, Martin (ca. 1470-ca. 1522), 
1,68. 

See reference in text, I, 70 ♦ 

Wbioel, Erhard (1625-1699), II, 75. 

See reference in text, II, 77, 78 ♦ 

Royal Museum, Cassel (silver) 

Royal Museum, Cassel (copper) 

WSLUNOIOK, LiBUTBNAMT. 

Royal Museum, Cassel * 

Wbltkugil. 

See reference in text, I, 72 * 

Wooden Globb. 

National Library, Paris, I, ill * 



Cei. Arm. Date Diam. 



1784 
1784 
1784 


20 
20 

30 


•514 


» 


iSSO 


89 



♦ ISS7 14 

* 1564 13 



1669 f 

1533 28 

1536 28 

154a 28 

1543 10 

1543 10 

1543 10 

1544 10 

1544 10 

1545 10 

1669 15 






1507 ? 

% % 

1699 36 

1699 36 

1710 7 

1509 1 

1535 » 



[ ^73 ] 



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Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 



TVr. CiL Arm, DatelDioM. 



[m] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Index of Globes and Globe Makers. 



Ttr. CeL Arm. Date Diam. 



[275] 



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General Index 

IT will be noted that a threefold index has been made for this 
work. The first part is the "Bibliographical List/' containing in 
alphabetical order the names of the authors cited, together with the 
titles of their respective works. The second part is the "List of Globes 
and Globe Makers/' which should be consulted especially for detailed 
biographical and descriptive references. In this third part, or "Gen- 
eral Index/' reference has been made to a very considerable number 
of special items more or less fully touched upon in the foregoing 
pages, with particular reference to the several libraries, museums, 
and private collections in which globes may be found, the same 
being given under the name of the locality, as Florence, London, 
Niimberg, Paris, Rome, with the name of the particular globe 
maker whose work is possessed given in brackets. 



Academy of Scxbkcbs, Berlin* II, 
-nLi83 
Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 

II. 183 
Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, II, 

180 
Acciaioli, Zenobio, notes that Bar- 

naba Canti possessed a globe, I, 

65 

Acton, Admiral M^lliam, obtains 
two early globes from Count 
Piloni, I, 79-81 

Africa, interior of, well represented 
on Coronelli globes, II, 103 

Albcrtus Magnus, belief in a spheri- 
cal earth, I, 43 

Alessandria, Municipal Library 
(Biblioteca Municipale), II, 168 
(Maria) 

Alfonso X (The Wise), orders the 
preparation of a great astronomi- 
cal work, I, 40; reference to globe 
making and to material for use in 
globe construction, 40, 41 



Alvares, Sebastian, refers to a Rey- 
nell globe, I, 82 

America, early names given to, I, 74 ; 
location of name on Jagcllonicus 
globe of 1510, 74, 75; the name on 
Schdner globe of 1515, 84, 85 ; ap- 
pears four times on Green globe 
of 1515, 77; its relation to Asia, 
88, 94-96; indicated as a sepa- 
rate continent on practically all 
maps of first quarter of sixteenth 
century, 95; an Asiatic connection 
indicated after 1525, 109, 110, 124; 
Mercator's representation and his 
influence, 126; summary of the 
views relative to Asiatic connec- 
tion, 172, 173 

Amsterdam, Royal Greographical 
Society (Kon. Nederl. Aardrijks- 
kundig Genootschap), I, 208 (Van 
Langren). Frederick MuUer, II, 
27 (Blaeu); 259 (Deur) ; 271 
(Valk). Private collection, II, 271 
(Valk) 



[276] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



General Index. 



Anaximander, called the first scien- 
tific caitogiaphcr, I, 3 

Ancona, Communal School (Scuole 
Comunale), II, 59 (Greutcr) ; 192 
(Cassini). Private Library, 61 
(Greuter) 

Anson, Geoigc, navigator, II, 169 

Antilia, laid down on Behaim globe. 
If SO 

Antipodes, belief in existence of, I, 
8, 13, n. 26 

Antoecians, referred to by Crates, I, 
8 

Antwerp, Plantin-Moritus Museum, 
I, 211 (Van Langren). Stein Mu- 
seum, II, 50 (Plancius) 

Aquila, Provincial Library (Biblio- 
teca provincial), II, 44 (Blaeu) 

Aquinas, Thomas, belief in a spheri- 
cal earth, I, 43 

Arabic astronomers, as globe makers, 
1,28 

Arabs, probably did not construct 
terrestrial globes, I, 26; con- 
structed celestial globes, 27; their 
interest in astronomy, 27; their 
names and figures of the constel- 
lations, 27 

Arattts, astronomical poem of, I, 15, 
23* n. 3; ideas followed by Lcon- 
tius, 22 

Archimedes, I, 15; his globe or 
instrument for representing the 
movement of heavenly bodies, 15, 
16, 17 

Argonauti, Accademia Cosmografo 
degli, first modem geographical 
society, founded by Coronelli, 
1680, II, 98 

Aristotle, his scientific basis for be- 
lief in a spherical earth, I, 6, 12, 
n. 21 

Armillary, earliest form, I, 18; its 
development and system of circles, 

19 
Arpino, Liceum, II, 192 (Cassini) 
Asimino or tausia, a style employed 

in metal globe making, I, 153 
Asti, Communal Library (Biblioteca 

Comunale), II, 53 (Habrecht) 
Astrolabe, earliest form, I, 18, II, 



197; its construction and use ac- 
cording to Ptolemy, I, 19 
Atlantic Islands, mythical, retained 
by Mercator, I, 210; by Blaeu, II, 

31 

Austral continent, on Green globe, 
1515, I, 76; on Mercator globe, 
and reasons for believing in its 
existence, 130; on Spano and 
Hondius globes, 204, II, 148; 
compare its representation on 
various globes 

Aversa, Episcopal Seminary (Serai- 
nario Vescovile), II, 114 (Coro- 
nelU) 

BABA, Andrea, secretary of the 
Argonauti, II, 102 

Bacon, Roger, belief in a spherical 
earth, I, 43 

Baldelli, Abbot Onofri, presented 
a Moroncelli globe to Academy of 
Cortona, II, 88 

Basel, Museum des Cordeliers, I, 
201 (Gessner) 

Bassano, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 60 (Greu- 
ter). Tipografia Roberto, II, 189 
(Scaltaglia) ; 190 (Viani) 

Bede, the Venerable, belief in a 
spherical earth, I, 37, 38 

Behaim, Martin, maker of oldest 
extant terrestrial globe, I, 47 ; cer- 
tain of his globe legends cited, 
49-51; encourages globe construc- 
tion in Numberg, 51; statement 
of expenses for the construction 
of his globe, 56, n. 8 

Belluno, Library Count Piloni, I, 
150 (De Mongenet); II, 59 
(Greuter) 

Benevento, Episcopal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Vescovile), II, 63 (Greu- 
ter) 

Benevento, Friar Marco da, refers 
to globes in his edition of Ptol- 
«ny, 1507, I, 64 

Bergamo, City Library (Biblioteca 
Civico), II, 111 (Coronelli); 124 
(Eimmart) 

Bering, Vitus, reference to his dis- 
covery by Desnos, II, 178 



[ 277 ] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



General Index. 



Bcm, Libiary Sr. Frey, I, ii6 

(Vopcl) 

Bernard, William, explorer, II, 38, 
40 

Bertius, Pctrus, noted geographer 
and friend of Hondius, II, 3 

Bion, Nicolas, reform in globe con- 
struction, II, 153 

Blaeu, Willem Jansz^ appointed 
official map maker, II, 21 ; varia- 
tions in his signature, 23; rela- 
tions with Tycho Brahe, 19-21; 
refers to the new star discorered 
in 1600, 30 

Bollert, Roland, patron of Francis- 
cus Monachus, I, 97 

Bologna, Astronomical Observatory 
(Osservatorio Astronomico), II, 
43 (Blaeu). Physics Museum 
(Museo di Fisica), II, 150 (Valk). 
University Library (Biblioteca 
Universitario), II, 180 (Rosini). 
Communal Library (Biblioteca 
Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter); 114 
(Coronelli). State Archives (Ar- 
chivo di Stato), II, 114 (Coro- 
nelli). Convent Osservanza (Con- 
vento deir Osservanza), II, 114 
(Coronelli). Malvezzi Library 
(Archivio Malvezzi), II, 153 
(Bion). Library General Gan- 
dolfi, II, ^9 (Greuter). Library 
Professor Liuzzi, II, 114 (Coro- 
nelli). Library Bottrigari, II, 189 
(Scaltaglia). Library Bortognoni, 
II, 190 (Viani) 

Boncompagni, Jocopo, member of 
famous Bolognese family, to him 
Grreuter dedicates his globe of 
1632, II, SS 

Borgonone, Francesco Mongonetto, 
referred to as publisher of a 
globe, I, 149 

Boscoreale, globe fresco, I, 21 

Brabant, Hondius dedicates a globe 
to Albert and Isabella of, II, 9 

Brahe, George, uncle and teacher of 
Tycho Brahe, I, 183 

Brahe, Tycho, astronomical observa- 
tions followed by Hondius, II, 7, 
9, 12, 21 ; by Blaeu, 25, 26, 29, 33, 



49; by Plancius, 49; by Greuter, 
58, 61, 64: by Moroncelli, 85, 93; 
reference to his remarkable star 
discovered in 1^2, 8, 18, 64, 67, 

89 

Brescia, Quirinal Library, II, 18 
(Hondius). Library Count Fenn* 
roli, II, 159 (NoUet) ; 190 (Viani). 
Atheneum, II, 60 (Greuter); 96 
(Alberti). Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 18^ 
(Scaltaglia) 

Brognoli, receives order for copies 
of Pope Julius IPs globes, I, 62 

Brussels, Royal Library, I, 127 
(Mercator) ; II, 1 14 (Coronelli) 

Bunau, Henricus, possessed a terres- 
trial globe, I, 67 

Bixrgi, Jost, globe and clock maker* 
said to have invented the pendu- 
lum clock, I, 197 

Burrow, Stephen, I, 193 

Button, Thomas, explorer, II, 17 

CABOT, JoHX, possessed a globe 
"showing where he landed," I* 

53 

Cabot, Sebastian, explorer, II, 39 

Cagli, Communal Library (Biblio- 
teca Comunale), II, 179 (Costa); 
189 (Scaltaglia) 

Calif al-Mansur, interested in as- 
tronomy, and celestial globes, I, 
27; many of his successors like- 
wise interested, 27 

California, represented as an island 
by Greuter, II, 62; by Coronelli, 
111; by Valk, 147, 148 

Camarino, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 59 (Greu- 
ter) 

Cambridge, Eng^ University li- 
brary, II, 94 (Castlemaine) 

Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univer- 
sity, I, 152 (Florianus); II, 170 
(Ferguson) 

Camerarius, refers to Mercator 
globes for sale at Frankfort, I» 
132 

Campano, Giovanni, a distinguished 
mediaeval writer on mathematics 
and on astronomical subjects, I, 



[278] 



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General Index. 



42; his 'Tractads de sphera 
solida,' 42 

Candish (Cavendish). Thomas, ex- 
plorer, II, 37 

Cano, Sebastian del, reference in his 
will to a globe, I, 82 

Canti, Bamaba, possessed a small 
globe, I, 65 

Carpi, Cardinal of, possessed a 
globe, I, 152. Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 59 
(Greuter) 

Caipini, I, 46 

Casale Monferrate, Technical In- 
stitute (Istituto Tecnico), II, 63 
(Greuter). Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 166 
(Maria) 

Caserta, Royal Library (Biblioteca 
Rcale), II, 177 (Vaugondy) 

Cassel, Royal Museum (Konig- 
liches Museum), I, 195 (Moly- 
neux-Sanderson) ; 196 (Burgi) ; 
H 30, 44 (Blaeu) ; 53 (Habrecht) ; 
126 (Moxon); 140 (Delisle) ; 150 
(Valk); 249 (Andrea); 250 
(Anonymous) ; 252 (Beyer) ; 268 
(Muth Brothers); 273 (Weigel) ; 
273 (Wellington) 

Cassini, Jean Dominique, reforms 
globe making, II, 141 ; his dis- 
coveries in the field oJF astronomy, 
141 

Catania, Physics Museum (Museo 
di Fisica), II, 60 (Greuter) 

Celtcs, Conrad, made use of globes 
in geographical and astronomical 
instruction, I, 54, 55 

Cesena, Maletesta Library (Biblio- 
teca Maletesta), II, 192 (Cassini) 

Cespedes, Grarcia de, reference to 
small globe, II, 53 

Chancellor, Richard, explorer, I, 193 

Chateau Marly, Coronelli's large 
globe constructed for Louis XIV 
placed in, II, 99 

Chieri, Convent of Mission Broth- 
ers (Frati della Missione), II, 184 
(Fortin) ; 258 (Delamarche) 

Chignolo, Cusani Palace, II, 163 
(Anonymous) 



Cicero, allusion to Archimedes' 
globe, I, 15, 16 

Claudio de la Baume, to him De 
Mongenet dedicates his terrestrial 
globe, I, 149 

Clement X, Pope, Benci dedicates 
to him his globe of 1671, II, 80 

Clermont, Count of, Nollet dedi- 
cates to him his celestial globe of 
1730, II, 158 

Cleveland, Western Reserve His- 
torical Society, II, 255 (Cary) 

Clocks, globes as a part of, I, 57, 
n. 14 

Cockrill, Thomas, II, 156 

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, proposes 
Cassini for the Chair of Astron- 
omy in College de France, II, 141 

College of Navarre, II, 157 

Cologne, City Archives, I, 113 
(Vopel) 

Colorado River, referred to by 
Adams as flowing directly west- 
ward into the Pacific, II, 186 

Columbus, Bartholomew, sketch 
maps showing Asiatic connection 
of the New World, I, 95 

Columbus, Christopher, his place in 
the history of terrestrial globes, I, 
S2; interested in globes if not a 
maker of them, 52, 53; said to 
have sent their Catholic Majesties 
a globe, 53 

Como, Communal Library (Biblio- 
teca Comunale), II, 44 (Blaeu) 

Compass, variations referred to, II, 

10, 17 . 

Constance, Liceum Library, I, 53 
(Stdffler) 

Constellations, antiquity of star 
grouping, I, i; Eudoxus' part in 
fixing names of, 15; Aratus' con- 
tribution, 15; Ptolemy's names of 
constellations, 24, n. 14; propos- 
als of Bede, Bayer, Schiller, 
Weigel, Moroncelli (see reference 
to each) ; those of the Antarctic, 

11, 108; 133. n. 9 

Cook, Captain, referred to by Viani, 

II, 189; by Cassini, 192 
Copenhagen, National Museum, I, 



I i79 ] 



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General Index. 



114 (Vopcl); II, 74 (Gottorp); 
75 (Theodoras) 

Corfu, Archbishop of, possessed a 
globe, I, 152 

Coronelli, Vinccnzo Maria, given 
title Cosmografo delta Serems^ 
sima Republican II, 98 

Corrcggio, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 184 (For^ 
tin) 

Cortcreal, Miguel and Graspar, ex- 
plorers, II, 39 

Cortona, Etrascan Academy (Ac* 
cademia Etrasca), II, 88 (Moron- 
celli) ; 92, 93 (Moroncelli) 

Cosimo de' Medici, interested in 
maps and globes, I, 1^9 

Cosmas Indicopleustes, opposed the 
doctrine of a spherical earth, I, 36 

Cracow, Jagellonicus Library, I, 74 
(Jagellonicus) 

Crates, reputed the first to con- 
stract a globe, I, 7; his idea con- 
cerning the earth's surface, 8; re- 
ferred to by Strabo, 8 

Cremona, Governmental Library 
(Biblioteca Goveraativo), I, 133 
(Mercator) 

Crevalcuore, Communal Library 
(Biblioteca Comunale), H, 192 
(Cassini) 

Cusani, Cardinal Agostino, 11, 163 

DALBERO, Bishop op WoaMS, re- 
ceives a globe from Johann 
Stoffler, I, 54 
Dante, belief in a spherical earth, I, 

43 

Danti, Ignazio, called by Duke 
Cosimo to Florence to decorate his 
palace, I, 158; his work described 
by Vasari, 159-162 

Dasypodius, Petras, father of Con- 
rad Dasypodius, I, 173 

Da Vinci, Leonardo, peculiarities of 
his globe gores, II, 205 

Davis, John, explorer, II, 38, 51* ^ 

Delisle, Claude, father of Guil- 
laume, II, 138 

Diaz, Bartholomew, turns the Cape 
of Grood Hope, I, 46 



Dicaearchus, introduces place orien- 
tation on the map, I, 4 

Dijon, College of Dijon, II, 266 
(Legrand) 

Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel, II, 
159-162; portraiu of famous ex- 
plorers, 161; marks the course of 
famous explorers, 162 

Drake, Francis, explorer, II, 37, 40 

Draper, Mrs. Henry, presents 
Nathan Hill gbbe to New York 
Public library, II, 188 

Dresden, Math. Phys. Salon (Math- 
ematisch-Physikalischer Salon), I, 
30 (Mohammed ben Muwajed el 
Ordhi) ; 156 (Heyden) ; 158 (Prae- 
torius) ; 181 (Roll and Reinhold) ; 
215 (B. F.); II, 44 (Blaeu); 111 
(Coronelli); 150 (Valk) ; 162 
(Doppelmayr); 162 (Puschner) 

Durer, Albrecht, on globe-gore con- 
struction, II, 202, 203 

ECUPnC MOUMTIKO, II, I45 
Edrisi, famous Arabic geog- 
rapher, I, 27; references to so- 
called globe of King Roger, 27; 
comments on the earth as a sphere, 
33,n.3 

Egedian Gymnasium, Nuraberg, II, 
159 

Equatorial mounting, II, 145 

Eratosthenes, represents curved sur- 
face of the earth on a plane, I, 5 ; 
his measurement of the earth. Si 
idea concerning a spherical earth, 
7 ; probably made use of an armil- 
lary sphere, 18 

Elscorial, possessed at one time an 
Apianus globe, I, 176 

Este Family of Ferrara, interest in 
geographical discovery, I, 61, 62 

Estrees, Cardinal d', induces Coro- 
nelli to constract a large globe for 
Louis XIV, II, 99 

Eudoxus, I, 14; made use of celes- 
tial globe, 15 

FABRIANO, AOABin MuSBUlC (Mu- 
seo Aipiibiti), II, 59 (Greutcr). 
Communal Library (Biblioteca 
Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter) 



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Facnza, Communal Libiaxy (Biblio- 

teca Comunalc), II, in (Coro- 

nelli) 
Faletti, Giacomo, purchases a globe 

from Cardinal Bembo, I, 120 
Fano, Communal Library (Biblio- 

teca Comunale), II, 27 (Blaeu); 

111 (CoroncUi) 
Fermo, Communal Library (Biblio- 

teca Comunalc), II, 86 (Moron- 

celli) 
Fcrrara, Communal Library (Biblio- 

tcca Comunale), II, 59 (Grcuter). 

Dukes of, their interest in geo- 
graphical discovery, I, 61, 62 
Ferrero, Cardinal Gian Stefano, 

presents a globe to Pope Julius 

11,1,63 
Hckler, his inventory including 

globes in library of Munich, I, 

177 

Finale, Episcopal Seminary (Semi- 
nario Vescovile), II, 118 (Coro- 
nelli) 

Fischer, Professor Joseph S. J., dis- 
covers copy of WaldseemfiUer 
map 1507, and publishes same in 
facsimile, I, 67, 69; cited, 199, 
200; co-editor with E. L. Steven- 
son of Jodocus Hondius world 
map of 1611, II, 67 

Flamsteed, John, English astrono- 
mer, II, 179 

Florence, Museum of Ancient In- 
struments (Museo di Strumenti 
Antichi), I, 28 (Ibrahim); 155 
(Volpaja); 162 (Danti) ; 168 
(Cartaro); 180 (Platus) ; 213 
(Santucci); II, 44 (Blaeu); 114 
(Coronelli); 140 (Delisle) ; 165 
(Torricelli). Library Jodoco del 
Badia, I, 115 (Vopel). Library 
Marquis Bargagli, II, 118 (Coro- 
nelli). Laurentian Library (Bib- 
lioteca Laurentiana), I, 166 
(Anonymous). Library Sr. Lessi, 
II, 14 (Hondius-Rossi) ; 45 (Lud. 
Sem.). Library Professor Giovanni 
Marinelli, I, 152 (Florianus). 
Marucellkn Library (Biblioteca 
Marucelliana), II, 118 (Coro- 



nelli). National Library (Biblio- 
teca Nazionale), I, 166 (Anony- 
mous) ; II, 118 (Coronelli). li- 
brary Santa Maria Nuova, II, 59 
(Grreuter). Astronomical Observa- 
tory (Osservatorio Astronomico), 
II, 41 (Blaeu). Technical Insti- 
tute (Istituto Tecnico), II, 44 
(Blaeu); 63 (Greuter) ; 153 
(Bion) 

Florianus, Antonius, peculiarities of 
his globe gores, II, 207 

Franciscus Monachus, his hemi- 
spheres, I, 96 

Frankfurt, City Historical Museum, 

I, 82 (Schoner); II, 140 (An- 
dreae); 265 (Klinger) ; 272 (Van 
Langren). Joseph Baer, II, 263 
(Greuter) 

Frederick II of Denmark, patron of 

Tycho Brahe, I, 184 
Frederick, Duke of Holstein, Got- 

torp globe constructed for, II, 73, 

74 

Frederick II of Sicily, directs the 
construction of a celestial globe 
of gold, I, 39; his astronomical 
tent, 40 

Frobisher (Forbisher), Martin, ex- 
plorer, II, 38, 39. ^ 

Fugger, Raymond, Augsburg patri- 
cian and patron, I, 110, 111 

GALLUS, C. SuLPiaus, describes a 
globe, I, 15, 16 

Gemma Frisius, his relations to 
Mercator, I, 103, 104, 105 

Geneva, Mus^e Ariana, I, 201 
(small globe) 

Genga, Library Sr. Luigi Belli, II, 
60 (Greuter) 

Genoa, Mission Brothers (Frati 
della Missione), II, 44 (Blaeu). 
City Museum (Museo Civico), II, 
114 (Coronelli). Franzoniana Li- 
brary (Biblioteca Franzontana), 

II, 118 (Coronelli). 
Geography oi the Ancients, works 

cited treating of, I, 11, n. 4 
Grerbert (Pope Sylvester II), made 
use of celestial globes and armil- 



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lary spheres, I, 38, 39; his pur- 
pose to construct a globe, 39 

Grennanus, Donnus Nicolas, his map 
projection, II, 201 

Germany as a center for the spread 
of information concerning the 
New World, I, 67 

Ghent, University Library, I, 210 
(Van Langren) ; II, 144 (Valk) 

Gimma, Abbot, reference to Core- 
nelli globes, II, 119 

Glareanus, Henricus, proposals for 
globe-gore construction, II, 204, 
205 

Globe-goblets, interest in their con- 
struction in second half of six- 
teenth century, I, 198; examples 
of, 199-201 

Globes, definition by Leontius, I, 
23; materials entering into the 
construction of, 15, 40, 41, 56, n. 8» 
S9f te» 133» 201 ; used for decora- 
tive purposes, 60, 61, 154, 199; im- 
portance of globe legends (see the 
many citations) ; globe clocks, 173- 
>75» I97f 216; globe gores, their 
use in globe construction, 60; 
praised by Ruscelli, 155, 204-207; 
globe making in sixteenth century, 
general sununary, 172, 173; used 
by navigators, II, 1, shifting of 
interest in, 1 ; striking tendencies 
in their construction in second half 
of seventeenth century, 72, 73 
(Gottorp), 77 (Coronelli), 99, 104, 
141 ; relative position of stars and 
constellations as represented on 
celestial globes, 209-211; uses and 
value as expressed by Joseph 
Moxon, 125; moon globes, 215-217 

Glockenthon, draughttman of map 
on Behaim's globe, I, 48 

Gnomon, its construction and use, 
I, 18 

Gonzaga, Curtio, constructs a large 
globe, I, 154 

Gottingen, Library Dr. Baumgftrt- 
ner, II, 26, 27 (Blaeu). Greographi- 
cal Institute, II, 162 (Doppel- 
mayr) ; 180 (Akerman). Univer- 
sity Library, II, 162 (Puschner) 

[282] 



Gottorp globe, striking pecnliaritica 

of, II, 73. 74 
Gran Casa del Frari, center of 

Coronelli's activities, II, 98 
G^eks, reduced map making to a 

real science, I, 3 ; survival of their 

ideas of a spherical earth daring 

middle ages, 35 
Greuter, Mattheus, copied much 

from Blaeu, II, 57 
Groland, Nikolaus, a patron of Be- 

haim in the construction of his 

globe, I, 48 
Grotta, Ferrata, Badia of Santa 

Maria, 11, 63 (Greuter) 
Gruniger, Johann, printer of Strasa- 

burg, I, 71, 72 
Guasulla, Maldotti Library, II, 159 

(Nollet) 
Gubbio, Communal Library (Biblio- 

teca Comunale), II, 59 (Greuter) 
Gustavus II, King of Sweden, Blaeu 

dedicated to him his globe of 1622, 

11,43 

HABRBCHT, Isaac and Josias, 
globe and clock makers of 

Schaffhausen, I, 174 
Hainzel, Johan and Paul, assisted 

Tycho Brahe in globe construc- 
tion, I, 184 
Hakluyt, allusion to a globe at 

Westminster, I, 98 
Hartford, Library Mrs. C. L. F. 

Robinson, II, 254 (Bonne) 
Hartmann, George, his the earliest 

example of engraved celestial 

globe gores, 1535, I, 117 
Hecataeus, I, 4 

Heebnstrech, Jacob, explorer, II, 40 
Henry the Navigator, his leadership 

in maritime enterprise, I, 46 
Hercules I, Duke of Ferrara, I, 62 
Heriot, Thomas, explorer, I, 210 
Herlin, Christian, friend and teacher 

of Conrad Dasypodius, I, 174; on 

the commission to restore the 

Strassburg dock, 174 
Herodotus, quoted, I, 4 
Hevelius» Johannes, star maps used 



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by E^mart. II, 124; lyy Valk« 145, 
149. 209 

Hipparchus, great astronomes, I, 5; 
improved the gnomon, 18; con- 
structed a celestial globe, 19 

Holzschuher, George, member of 
Numberg City Council, I, 47; 
supervises the construction of Be- 
haim globe, 48 

Homann, Johann Baptista, named 
Imperial Geographer, II, 155 

Homer, said to have considered the 
form of the earth as that of a 
circular disc, I, 4 

Hondius, Jodocus, refers to the 
superiority of his globes, I, 208 

Hondt (Hondius), Oliver de, father 
of Jodocus Hondius, II, 2 

Houtmann, Frederick, astronomical 
observations of, followed by Van 
Langren, I, 211; by Hondius, II, 
12; by Blaeu, 26, 29, 67; by 
Coronelli, 108 

Hudson, Henry, reference to his dis- 
coveries, II, 15, 17, 39, 40, fe 

Hulagu Khan, I, 28; his observa- 
tory at Maragha, 28 

Hunt, Richard, once owner of Lenox 
globe, I, 73 

Hveen, island given to Tycho Brahe, 
where he erected his observatory 
Uranienburg, I, 184 

IMOiA, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 63 (Greu- 
ter) ; 164 (Anonymous) 

Ionic school of philosophers, I, 14 

Isabel of Este, I, 62 

Italians, favorable to manuscript 
globes, II, 200 

Italy, its people increasingly inter- 
ested in maritime exploration in 
fourteenth and fifteenth century, 

1.46 

Ivrea, Episcopal Seminary (Semi- 
nario Vescovile), II, 164 (Anony- 
mous) ; 263 (Greuter) 

JAMES, Thomas, explorer, II, 17 
Jomard, E. F., obtains an Arabic 
globe in Egypt, I, 31 



Julius I (Pope), globe belonging to, 
1,62 

KAHiRA, Public Library, I, 28 
(Ptolemy) 
Kepler, Johann, reference to 

Apianus globe, I, 177 
Ko-Shun-King, Chinese astronomer 

and globe maker, II, 129 
Kublai Kaan, interested in globe 
making, II, 128 

Iaciantius, allusion to Archi- 
J medes' globe, I, 17 

Laon, City Library, I, 51 (Laon 
globe) 

Latitude and longitude, methods of 
determining, II, 141, 142, 171, n. 
12 

Lattre, map engraver, II, 182 

Leiden, University Library, II, 27 
(Blaeu) ; 66 (Janssonius). Bodel 
Nyenhuis, II, 252 (Belga) 

Leipzig, Karl Hiersemann, II, 254 
(Buhler); 257 (Coronelli); 258 
(Delamarche) ; 260 (Ferguson) ; 
265 (Klinger) ; 270 (Senex) 

Le Maire, Jacob, explorer, II, 31, 32, 
38* 46, 51. 63 

Leontius Mechanicus, I, 21 ; a maker 
of globes and writer on globe con- 
struction, 22, 23 

Leowitz, Cyprian, I, 184 

Libri, Francesco, globe maker, I, too 

Liechtenstein, Prince of, his globe 
gore maps, I, 71, 75 

Linschoten, John Hugo, explorer, 
II> 38> 39* 46 

Loano, Library Lorenzo Novella, 
II, 194 (Cary) 

London, British Museum, I, 150 
(De Mongenet) ; 150 (Florianus) ; 
II, 31, 44 (Blaeu) ; 114, 119 (Coro- 
nelli) ; 152 (Senex); 156 (Mor- 
den); 183 (Lane); 185 (Adams); 
177 (Hill); 194 (Cary); 250 
(Anonymous). Royal Asiatic Soci- 
ety, I, 29 (Mohammed ben Helal). 
Middle Temple, I, 190 (Moly- 
neux). Library S. J. Phillips, I, 
218 (Gressner). Library Sir A. W. 
Franks, II, 250 (Anonymous) 



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London Company, its territorial 
jurisdiction represented on Hon- 
dius world map, 1611, II, 41, 70, 

n. 44. 
Longitude, on efforts to determine 
referred to, II, 10, 36, 68, n. 9, 

139 

Longomontanus (Severin), pupil of 
Tycho Brahe, I, 184 

Louis XIV, Coronelli dedicates to 
him his great globe, II, 100, 101 

Loxodrome (Rhumb) lines, repre* 
sen ted by Mercator, I, 128; by 
Hondius, II, 7 ; by Blaeu, 28, 35 ; 
by Habrecht, 52; their purpose 
and their representation, 208, 209 

Lucca, Library Sr. Giannini, II, 8 
(Hondius). Governmental Library 
(Biblioteca Govemativo), II, 59 
(Greuter) ; 44 (Blaeu) ; 177 (Vau- 
gondy). Machiavellian Liccum, 
II, 184 (Messier) 

MACBKAZA, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 61 
(Greuter). Communal Library 
(Biblioteca Comunale), II, 156 
(Seutter). Library Vittorio Bian- 
chini, II, 194 (Cary) 

Madrid, Royal Library (Biblioteca 
Real), II, 152 (Senez) ; 119 (Coro- 
nelli) ; 141 (Delisle); 186 
(Adams) ; 253 (Blaeu) 

Magellan, Ferdinand, demonstrates 
his plan by use of a globe, I, 81 ; 
influence of his voyage on idea of 
American-Asiatic connection, 96, 
109, 110 

Maine, Duchesse of, NoUet dedicates 
to her his terrestrial globe of 
1728, II, 158 

Maiollo, Vesconte de, map of Ip7, 
I. 105 

Malcolm, Sir John, presents Arabic 
globe to Asiatic Society, I, 29 

Mandeville, Sir John, I, 193 

Manhattan, oldest dated map refer- 
ence to as an island on Blaeu 
globe, 1622, II, 41 

Mantua, Gonzaga Library, II, 59 
(Greuter); 111 (Coronelli) 



Map making, reform in, 11, 137, 138, 
139. 151. t7i. n. s 

Maps, early Egyptian, I, 2; early 
Babylonian, 3 

Marinus, introduces idea of inscrib- 
ing on a map lines of latitude and 
longitude, I, $ 

Matelica, Private Library, II, 262 
(Greuter) 

Maurice of Nassau, Prince of 
Orange, Hondius honors with a 
globe dedication, II, 5; Blaeu 
dedicates a globe to him, 25 

Maxwell, John, usued atlas with 
John Senex, II, 151 

Mela, Pomponius, geographer and 
map maker, I, 5 

Mellinus, Paulus, Rossi dedicates 
to him a globe, II, 14 

Mercator, Gerhard, his important 
maps of 1538, I, 125; of 1554, of 
1564, of 1569, 126; peculiarities of 
his globe gores, 128; reasons for 
his belief in an austral continent, 
130 

Meridian, Prime, its location and 
efforts to determine same, by 
Hondius, II, 11; by Blaeu, 36, 37 ; 
by Plandus, 48, $2; by Greuter, 
57; by Moroncelli, 89: by Coro- 
nelli, 110; Coronelli cites Eratos- 
thenes, Marinus, Ptolemy, Aboul- 
feda, Alfonso, Pigafetta, Herrera, 
Copernicus, Reinhold, Kepler, 
Longomontanus, Lansberg, Ric- 
ciola, Janssonius ; by Moxon, 127 ; 
by NoUet, 158 

Messina, University Library (Bib- 
lioteca Universitario), II, 59 
(Greuter) 

Middle Ages, lack of interest in 
fundamental principles of geo- 
graphical and astronomical sci- 
ence, I, 35; attitude toward the 
Bible as the true source of geo- 
graphical knowledge, 36; survival 
of Aristotelian doctrine of a 
spherical earth, 36; theories did 
not call for an interest in globes, 

36.37 
Milan, Ambrosiana libraiy (Biblio- 



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teca Ambrouana), I, 135 (Gia- 
nelli); II, 65 (Settila), 66 
(Anonymous). National Library 
(Biblioteca Nauonale), II, 59 
(Greater) ; 190 (Delamarche). 
Municipal Museum (Museo Mu- 
nicipale), II, 9 (Hondius). Astro- 
nomical Observatory (Osserva- 
torio Astronomico), II, 114 (Coro- 
nelli), 180 (Akerman). Library 
Prince Trivulzio, I, 150 (De 
Mongenet). 

Modena, City Museum (Museo 
Civico), II, 59 (Greuter), 97 
(Anonymous) ; 254 (Borsari). 
Royal Estense Library, II, 43 
(Blaeu). Library Sr. Remigio 
Salotti, II, 118 (Coronelli) 

Monachus, Franciscus, importance 
attaching to his hemispheres, I, 96, 

139. n. 8 

Monastic schools, geographical and 
astronomical instruction given 
therein, I, 38 

Mondovi, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 159 
(NoUet) 

Montanus, Petrus, noted geographer 
and friend of Hondius, II, 3 

Morono, Philip Antonio, constructed 
the mechanical parts of Moron- 
celli globe, II, 86 

Muelichs, Johann, said to tiave 
adorned the Apianus globe, I, 178 

Munich, Royal Bavarian Court and 
State Library (K. B. Hof- und 
Staats Bibliothek), II, 177 (Anony- 
mous) ; 178 (Apianus). Ludwig 
Rosenthal, II, 262 (Greuter) 

Myrica, Caspar, map engraver with 
Mercator, I, 103, 105 

NANCY, Lorraine Museum, I, 
102 (Nancy globe) 
Naples, National Museum (Museo 
Nazionale), I, 15 (Atlante Far- 
nesc) ; 29 (Caissar). Astronomical 
Observatory (Osservatorio Astro- 
nomico), I, 182 (Roll and Rein- 
hold) ; II, 186 (Adams). National 
Library (Biblioteca Nazionale), 



II, 44 (Blaeu); 114 (Coronelli). 
University Library (Biblioteca 
Universitario), II, 111 (Coro- 
nelli) 

New York, Library William R. 
Hearst, II, 92 (Anonymous). The 
Hispanic Society of America, II, 14 
(Hondius); 30, 44 (Blaeu); 50 
(Habrecht); SS* 62 (Greuter); 
US (Coronelli); 144 (Valk) ; 160 
(Doppelmayr) ; 169 (Ferguson) ; 
170 (Moll); 184 (Fortin); 192 
(Anonymous); 214, 216 (Otefw 
schaden). Library New York 
Historical Society, I, 117 (Ulpius). 
Library Henry E. Huntington, I, 
213 (Santucci ?), II, 4 (Hon- 
dius). Metropolitan Museum, I, 
179 (Emmoser); 201 (Anony- 
mous). Library J. P. Morgan, I, 
106 (Bailly); 201 (Spano). New 
York Public Library, I, 74 
(Lenox); 79 (Boulengier) ; 87 
(anonymous gores) ; 148 (De 
Mongenet) ; 152 (Florianus) ; 
II, 188 (Hill). Library Mr. Reed, 
I, 168 (Cartaro). Library Profes- 
sor David E. Smith, II, 2^0 
(Anonymous). Collection John 
Wanamaker, II, 251 (Cassini) 

Noort, Oliver van der, explorer, II, 
28,37 

Northeast passage, referred to, II, 
38.40 

Northwest passage, referred to, II, 
24, 38; important searches for the 
passage mentioned by Blaeu on 
globe, 1622, 39 

Notker Labeo, probably used globes 
in his monastic school of St. Gral- 
len, I, 38 

Novara, Charles Albert Liceum, II, 
190 (Delamarche) 

Novi, Dorian Liceum, II, 184 (For- 
tin) 

Numberg, German National Mu- 
seum (Germanisches Nationalmu- 
seum), I, 48 (Behaim) ; 53 (Stof- 
fler) ; 86 (Schdner) ; 148 (De Mon- 
genet); 133 (Mercator); 158 
(Praetorius) ; II, 4, ^ (Hondius) ; 



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27, 30, 44 (Blacu) ; 53 (Habrecht) ; 
118 (Coronelli); 150 (Valk) ; 160, 
162 (Doppelmayr) ; 251 (Anony- 
mouO; 254 (Bode); 255 (Cau- 
cigh) ; 259 (Faber) ; 264 (Hahn) ; 
264 (Homann) ; 265 (Jaillot). City 
Library, H, 43 (Blaeu) ; 184 (Mea- 
tier) 
Nutzcl, Grabriel, a patron of Behaim 
in the construction of his globe, 
I, 4B 

OBBROLOOAV, LlBRARY RsiCHSORAF 
Hans v. OppEHsooaF, II, 43 

(Blaeu) 
Oecumene, the, I, 8 
Osimo, Communal Library (Biblio- 

teca Comunale), II, 263 (Greu- 

ter) 

PADUA, AnIOKIAK LIBRARY (Bib- 
lioteca Antoniana), II, 114 
(Coronelli). Physics Museum 
(Museo di Fisica), II, 59 (Greu- 
ter). Episcopal Seminary (Semi- 
nario Vescovile), II, $9 (Greuter) ; 
186 (Adams). Astronomical Ob- 
servatory (Osservatorio Astro- 
nomica), II, 186 (Adams) 
Palermo, Archbishop of, receives a 
globe from Franciscus Monachus, 

1.97 

Palermo, National Library (Biblio- 
teca Nazionale), II, 114 (Coro- 
nelli). Communal Library (Biblio- 
teca Comunale), II, 42 (Blaeu) ; 
63 (Greuter); 171 (Ferguson). 
Astronomical Observatory (Osser- 
vatorio Astronomico), II, 182 (La- 
lande). Nautical Institute (Isti- 
tuto Nautico), II, 255 (Cassini) ; 
190 (Delamarche) 

Palestrina, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 263 (Greu- 
ter) 

Paliano, Duke of, possessed a globe, 

I, 152 

Pappus, defines mechanicians as 
those who understand globe mak- 
ing, I, 17 

Parias, Schoner's explanation of its 
location, I, 85, 88 



Paris, Astronomical Observatory, I, 
133 (Meicator). National Library 
(Bibliotheque Nationale), I, 31 
(Mohammed Diemat Eddin) ; 76 
(Green globe) ; 98 (Gilt globe) ; 
105 (Bailly); 106, 107 (Anony- 
mous); 108 (Schiepp); 111 
(Wooden globe); 150 (De Mon- 
genet); 210 (Van Langren) ; II, 
100 (Coronelli) ; 151 (Senex) ; 187 
(Hill) ; 188 (L'^uy) 

Parma, Palatin Library (Biblioteca 
Palatina), II, 59 (Greuter); 178 
(Vaugondy). Library Marquis 
Costerbosa, II, 179 (Desnos). Me- 
teorological Observatory (Osser- 
vatorio Meteorologico), II, 184 
(Messier) 

Passeriano, Library Count Manin, 
II, 111 (Messier) 

Pavia, Physics Museum (Museo 
Fisica), II, 162 (Doppelma3rr). 
University Library (Biblioteca 
Universiurio), II, 192 (Rosa). 
Foscolo Liceum, II, 192 (Rosa) 

Pescia, Cathedral Library (Biblio- 
teca Capitulare), II, 263 (Grea- 
ter) 

Peking, Astronomical Observatory, 
II, 129 (Anonymous) ; 129 (Ko- 
Shun-King); 131 (Verbiest) 

Pergamum, Crates exhibits his 
globe in, I, 8 

Perioecians, referred to by Crates, 
1,8 

Perrenot, NicoUs, suggests to Mer- 
cator the construction of a globe. 

I. 127, 129 

Perugia, Library Count Conestabile, 

II, 61 (Greuter). Communal Li- 
brary (Biblioteca Comunale), II, 
118 (Coronelli). Cathedral Library 
(Biblioteca Capitulare), II, 255 
(Cassini) 

Peter the Great, receives as present 

the Gottorp globe, II, 74 
Petri, Nicolas, issues a numual for 

the use of Van Langren globes, 

1,20^ 

Petrius, Cornelius, Blaeu dedicated 
to him his globe of 1606, II, 30 



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Petrognd, Imperial Library, I, 32 

(Ridhwan) 
Piaccnza, Library Alberoni College, 

11, 179 (Desnos) 
Picard, Jean, improyes map making, 

n. 138 

Piccolomini, Aletsandro, refers to 
globes and globe making, I, 152 

Piloni, Count, once possessed two 
globes of early sixteenth century, 

I. 79 

Pinzon, Vincente, Yafiez, I, 207 

Pisa, Certosa, II, 257 (Coronelli) 

Piticchio, Library Cav. Giampleri- 
Carletti, II, 61 (Greuter) 

Plancius, Peter, map and globe 
maker, II, 46; his large world 
map of 1^92, 46 

Pliny, reasons for believing the 
earth to be a sphere, I, 10 

"Plus Ultra," motto of the Atgo- 
nauti of Venice, II, 98 

Polo, Marco, I, 46, 206 

Pontanus, Isaac, refers to globe of 
Brahe, Danti, and Santucci, I, 163 

Porcelaga, Zurelio, sends a globe to 
Roscelli, I, 153 

Portogruaro, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 18 
(Hondius) 

Prato, Library Marquis Gherardi, 
I, 133 (Mercator) 

Precession of Equinoxes, II, 91, 141, 
172, n. 1 1 ; method of represent- 
ing by Cassini, 142 

Ptolemy, Claudius, foremost ancient 
map maker, I, Si niaps not popu- 
lar in middle ages, 5; demon- 
strates the utility of lines of lati- 
tude and longitude, 10; gives in- 
formation on construction and use 
of the astrolabe, 19; his ideas on 
globe construction, 19, 20, II, 198; 
his atlases, I, 12, n. 15; his forty- 
eight constellations, 24, n. 14 

Pythagoreans, their arguments sup- 
porting the spherical theory, I, 6 

RAD, CHUSTOPHn, constructed 
the globe of Christopher Tref- 
fler, II, 94 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, I, 194 



Ravenna, Classense Library (Biblio- 
teca Classense), II, 114 (Coro- 
nelli) ; 186 (Adams) 

Reggio, Cathedral Library (Biblio- 
teca Capitolare), II, 59 (Greu- 
ter) ; 114 (Coronelli). Spallan- 
zani Liceum, II, 178 (Desnos); 
96 (Maccari) 

Rene, Duke of Lorraine, patron of 
culture and learning, I, 68 

Reymer von Streytpcrg, Canon 
Church of Bamberg, I, 86; 
Schoner dedicates to him his 
globe of 1523, 86 

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, im- 
proves map making, II, 137 

Rimini, Gambalunga Library, II, 4a 
(Blaeu). Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 11 
(Hondius); 255 (Cassini): 190 
(Viani) 

Ringmann, Philesius, member of St. 
Die coterie, I, 68 

Roger of Sicily, said to have pos- 
sessed a silver globe, I, 27 

Romano, Giulio, said to have deco- 
rated globe of Pope Julius II, I» 

Romans, not especially interested in 
globe making, I, 20, 21 ; globes 
represented on Roman coins and 
medals, 21, 24, n. 17 

Rome, Astronomical Museum (Mu- 
seo Astronomico), I, 134 (Mer- 
cator); 150 (De Mongenet); 168 
(Cartaro); 205 (Van Langren); 
II, 48 (Plancius) ; 14 (Hondius) ; 
59 (Greuter); 65 (Heroldt) ; 118 
(Coronelli); 124 (Eimmart) ; 156 
(Seuttcr) ; 154 (Bion) ; 159 (Nol- 
let); 185 (Adams); 189 (Scaltag- 
lia); 190 (Viani); 179 (Costa); 
154 (Cartilia). Angelica Library 
(Biblioteca Angelica), U, 27 
(Blaeu). Alessandrina Library, II, 
84 (Moroncelli). Barberini Li- 
brary (Biblioteca Barberini), I, 
180 (Platus) ; II, 42 (Blaeu) ; 13 
(Hondius) ; 44 (Ferreri). Campi- 
doglio Observatory, II, 194 (Cary). 
Casanatense Library, II, 89 (Mo- 



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roncelli). Chigi Library, II* 44 
(Blaeu); 59 (Greuter). Victor 
Emanuel library, I, 1^1 (Floria- 
nus): II, 165 (Anonymous); 59 
(Greuter); 118 (Coronelli). Lan- 
cifiana Library, I, 16^ (Barocci) ; 
II, 120 (Giordani); 114 (Coro- 
nelli). Palace Prince Maitimo, II, 
80 (Benci). Vallicellian Library, 
II, 268 (M. P.). Library Count 
Vetpignani, II, 194 (Cary). Vati- 
can Observatory (Osscnratorio 
Vaticano), I, 62 (Julius II) 

Rosenthal, Ludwig, possessed as 
dealer certain old globes, I, 147 

Rosselli, Alexander, map and prob- 
ably globe gore printer, I, 64 

Rosselli, Francesco, map printer of 
Florence, I, 64 

Rossi, Josef de, II, 13; Giovanni 
Battista de, 61 ; Dominici de, ^ 

Rotterdam, Marine School, II, 66 
(Keulin) ; 263 (Greuter) 

Rovigo, Concordia Academy (Acca- 
demia Concordia), II, 30 (Blaeu) 

Rubniquis, I, 46 

Rudlingen, City Library, II, 30 
(Blaeu) 

Rudolphis, Mons. R., possessed a 
globe, I, 66 

RusccUi, Girolamo, direction for 
globe construction, I, 153; con- 
sidered globes preferable to maps, 
154 

SAdOBOSCO (John of Holywood), 
I* 43 : supported the theory of a 
spherical earth, 43 

St. Die, center of interest in geo- 
graphical discovery and general 
culture, I, 68 ; its press fint prints 
the name "America" 

St. Gall, globe made for, I, 198 

S. Maria a Monte, Palace Sr. Scan- 
mucci, II, 191 (Delamarche) 

St. Nicholas, City Archives, I, 133 
(Mercator) 

Salviati, Cardinal Giovanni, asked 
Vannelli to construct a globe for 
him, I, 66 

Salzburg, City Museum, I, 116 
(Vopel) 



Sandacourt, Jean Bassin de, member 

of St. Die coterie, I, 68 
Sanderson, William* patron of 

Molyneuz, I, 191 
Sanseverino, Communal Library 

(Biblioteca Comunale), II, 59 

(Greuter) 
Santa Cruz, Alonso de, location of 

copies of his* 'Yslario,' I, 121; 

peculiarities of his globe gores, II, 

207 
Santucci, Antonio, restores globe of 

Ignazio Danti, I, 162 
Sanuto, Giulio, Venetian map 

maker, I, 154 
Sanuto, livio, Venetian nobleman 

and map maker, I, 154 
Savignano, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), II, 63 (Greu- 
ter) ; 164 (Anonymous) 
Savona, Scuole Pie, II, 44 (Blaeu) 
Schimpfer, Bartholomeus, astrologer 

and teacher of Erhard Weigel* II, 

76 
Schoner, Johann, represents a strait 

south of South America on his 

globe of 1515, I, 85 
Schouten (Shouten), William van, 

explorer, II, 27, 3». 38, SU ft 
Scovus, John, the Dane, reference 

to his visit to Greenland in 1476, 

I. 190 
Senez, John, proposes a "New 

globular projection," II, 151 
Senigallia, Library Sr. Fronzi, II, 

179 (Costa) 
Serra S. Quirico, Communal Library 

(Biblioteca Comunale), II, 60 

(Greuter) 
Seylor (er), Johann, patron of Jo* 

hann Schdner, I, 83 
Siena, Communal Library (Biblio- 
teca Comunale), II, ift, 164 

(Anonymous) ; 184 (Messier) ; 

190 (Delamarche) 
Signoria, reference in its records to 

a globe placed in its orologia, I, 

65,66 
Smith, Buckingham, obtains Ulpius 

globe in Madrid, I, 117 



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Soncino, Raimondi dc, reference to 

Cabot's globe, I, 53 
Sondrio, Communal Library (Bib- 

lioteca Comunale), II, 53 (Hab- 

recht) 
Southwest passage, referred to, II, 

M 

Spilbergen, George, explorer, II, 37 

Stabius, Johannes, peculiarities of 
his map projection, II, 201 

Stams, Monastery Library, I, 133 
(Mercator) 

Stars, remarkable, referred to under 
"Tycho Brahe," II, 108, 109 

Stimmer, Tobias and Josias, assisted 
in constructing Strassburg dock, 
L 174 

Stockholm, Library Baron Norden- 
ski&ld, I, 77 (Nordenskiold gores) ; 
152 (Florianus). Royal Library, I, 
121 (Santa Cruz). National Mu- 
seum, II, 53 (Hauer) 

Strabo, his suggested proof of the 
earth's sphericity, I, 6; his idea as 
to the proper size of a globe to be 
useful, 8, 9; described the use 
and construction of the astrolabe 
and celestial sphere, 19, 20 

Strassburg clock, described, I, 176 

Sturm, Johann Christopher, teacher 
of Doppelmayr, II; 159 

Subiaco, Monastic Library (Monas- 
tero di S. Scolastica), II, 184 
(Messier) 

Sylvester II, Pope, proposed to con- 
struct a globe, I, 39 

Syracuse, Meteorological Obserra- 
tory, II, 171 (Ferguson) 

Syrians, belief in a circular earth 
and opposed to the spherical doc- 
trine, I, 36 

TAiSNBRO, referred to by Roscelli 
as a globe maker, I, J54 
Tassarolo, Spinola Palace, II, 178 

(Vaugondy) 
Thales, I, 5, 14 

Theodorus, Petrus, astronomical 
observations followed by Hondius, 
!!• 8, 9. 12 
Tiesbach, Gabriel, I, 148 

[289 



Tiraboschi, allusion to a globe be- 
longing to Cardinal Bembo, I, 
120 

Tolentino, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 255 
(Cassini) 

Torino, Sute Archives, I, 151 (Flo- 
rianus). Academy of Sciences 
(Accademia delle Scienze), II, 
114 (Coronelli). National Library 
(Biblioteca Nazionale), I, 163 
(Basso) 

Toscanella, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 2^ 
(Greuter). 

Toscanelli, Paolo, said to have made 
use of globes, I, 52 

Transit circle, first made by Wil- 
liam Cary, II, 194 

Treviso, City Library (Biblioteca 
Civico), I, 1^1 (Florianus) ; II, 13 
(Hondius). Library Canon Luigi 
Belli, II, 60 (Greuter) 

Trieste, City Museum, II, 118 
(Coronelli) 

Trip, John, J. U. D., globes dedi- 
cated to, II, 146 

Trithemius, Johannes, purchases a 
terrestrial globe, 1^07, I, 66 

Tsarskoe Selo Castle, II, 74 (Got- 
torp) 

URANiBNBVito (Uraniburg), name 
given to Tycho Brahe's observ- 
atory, I, 184, II, 19 

Urbania, Communal Library (Bib- 
lioteca Comunale), I, 134 (Merca- 
tor) 

Urbino, Cardinal of, possessed a 
globe, I, 152. University Library 
(Biblioteca Universitario), II, 156 
(Seutter) ; 179 (Costa) 

Usselinx, William, organizes the 
West India Company, II, 46 

Utrecht, Greographical Institute, II, 
254 (Blaeu) 

VALENCIA, Arabic globe con- 
structed in, I, 28 
Vannelli, Friar Giuliano, repairs 
clock and globe in Florentine Sig- 

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noria, I« 6$; makes globe for Car^ 
dinal Salviati, 66 

Van der Noort, Oliver^ reference to 
his voyage, II, 28 

Varthema, Ludoyico, referred to by 
Van Langren, I, 206 

Veen, Adrian, associated with Hon- 
dius in globe making, II, 11, 12, 13 

Venice, Marciana Library, I, 151 
(Florianus) ; II, 83 (Moroncelli) ; 
111 (Coronelli). City Museum 
(Museo Civico), II, 44 (Blaeu) ; 
114 (Coronelli). Marco Foscarini 
Liceum (Museo Marco Foscarini), 
II, 44 (Blaeu) ; 143 (Miot). Qui- 
rini Pinacoteca, II, 44 (Blaeu) ; 
178 (Vaugondy). State Archives, 
II, 60 (Greuter). Patriarchal 
(Seminario Patriarcale), II, 114 
(Coronelli). Patriarchal Observa- 
tory (Osservatorio Patriarcale), 
II, 272 (Vaugondy); 258 (Dela- 
marche). Library Prof. Maxim. 
Tono, II, 270 (Seutter) 

Verona, Cathedral Library (Biblio- 
teca Capitolare), II, 162 (Doppel- 
mayr) 

Verrazano, Hieronimus de, map of 
1529, I, 106 

Vesoul, birthplace of Francois De 
Mongenet, I, 147 

Vicenza, Library Count Francesco 
Franco, II, 44 (Blaeu). City Mu- 
seum (Museo Civico), II, 18 
(Hondius). Communal Library 
(Biblioteca Comunale), II, 114 
(Coronelli) 

Vienna, Library Prince Liechten- 
stein, I, 75 (Hauslab). Imperial 
Library, I, 133 (Mercator) ; II, 
181 (Roll and Reinhold) 

Vigevano, Episcopal Seminary 
(Seminario Vescovile), II, 194 
(Cassini) 

Vincent of Beauvais, belief in a 
spherical earth, I, 43 

Viseo, Cardinal, possessed a terres- 
trial globe, I, i|2 

Volckamer, Paul, a patron of Be- 
haim in the construction of his 
globe, I. 48 



Vosgian Gymnasium of St. Di^» I, 
68 

WALMBBMCixn, Martin, his 
world map of 1507, I, 69; al- 
lusion in his "Cosmographjae In* 
troductio" to his globe, 70 
Washington, National Museum, I, 
113 (Vopel). Library of Congress, 

I, 115 (Vopel); 152 (Florianus); 

II, 112 (Coronelli); 259 (Doppel- 
mayr) 

Weigel, Erhard, his proposed names 
for constellations, II, 77; pecu* 
liarities of his globes, 77, 78 

Weimar, Grand Ducal Library, I, 
84, 108 (Schdner): 133 (Merca- 
tor) 

Welser, patrician family of Augs- 
burg, I, 108 

Werner, Johann, his map projec- 
tion, I, 151 

William III, King of England, 
Coronelli dedicates to htm his 
globe of 1696, II, 115 

William, Landgraf of Cassel, patron 
of science and general culture, I, 

184 
Willoughby, Hugo, explorer, II, sjB, 

39 
Windsor Castle, I, 78 (Da Wnd 

gores) 
Wolf, John David, acquires Ulpius 

globe for New York Historical 

Society, I, 117 
Wolf, Peter, receives a globe from 

Johann Stoffler, I, 54 
Wolfegg Castle, I, 199 (Gessner) ; 

II, 270 (Schoner) 
Worcester, American Antiquarian 

Society, II, 186 (Adams) 
Wright, Edward, English geog- 
rapher, II, 3 

YONKBM, Library W. B. Thomp- 
son, II, 60 (Greuter) 

ZBiTUNO Avs PassiLuo Landi; as 
a source for Schoner's globe of 
1515, I, 85 
Zerbst, Francisceum Gymnasium, I, 



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i03f 105 (Frisiut); I» 140 (Plan- 
cius) 
Zumbach, Lothar, his icformf 
adopted 1>7 Valk« H. 146, 149 



Zurich, National Muftcum, I, 200 

(Grcssner) 
Zfitphcn, City Museum, I, a 12 (Van 

Langren) 



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